WorldWideScience

Sample records for invertebrates

  1. Invertebrate neurophylogeny

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Richter, Stefan; Loesel, Rudi; Purschke, Günter

    2010-01-01

    Invertebrate nervous systems are highly disparate between different taxa. This is reflected in the terminology used to describe them, which is very rich and often confusing. Even very general terms such as 'brain', 'nerve', and 'eye' have been used in various ways in the different animal groups......, but no consensus on the exact meaning exists. This impedes our understanding of the architecture of the invertebrate nervous system in general and of evolutionary transformations of nervous system characters between different taxa....

  2. Fossil Invertebrates

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Beginning with a very brief mention of ideas on the origin of life, and whether there are two kingdoms of organisms or five, this book soon gets down to its main task: to provide a con- cise systematic-cwn-morphological summary of invertebrate groups, with an idea of their geological and geographical oc- currence. Depth of ...

  3. Zoology: Invertebrates that Parasitize Invertebrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giribet, Gonzalo

    2016-07-11

    The genome of an orthonectid, a group of highly modified parasitic invertebrates, is drastically reduced and compact, yet it shows the bilaterian gene toolkit. Phylogenetic analyses place the enigmatic orthonectids within Spiralia, although their exact placement remains uncertain. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Invertebrates in the Classroom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abramson, Charles I.

    1986-01-01

    Describes an inexpensive program using invertebrates as subjects in conditioning demonstrations and experiments. Provides a bibliography of reviews about invertebrate learning in addition to information on obtaining required apparatus and invertebrates.

  5. Aeolian Transport of Invertebrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gill, T. E.; Walsh, E. J.; Wallace, R. L.; Rojo, L.; Rivas, J. A.

    2012-12-01

    Playas and other ephemeral desert wetlands are preferential terrestrial landforms for dust emission. These sites also are habitat for a diverse assemblage of minute invertebrates. When wetlands desiccate, these invertebrates survive as resting stages (propagules). Thus, playas serve as isolated, ephemeral, biogeographical islands for aquatic invertebrates, but it is unclear how propagules disperse across distances as far as hundreds of kilometers to colonize hydrologically disconnected basins. Aeolian transport (anemochory) may provide the mechanism, especially since many invertebrate propagules are long-lived, aerodynamically shaped, possess low-density, and their size (30-600 μm) falls within the same texture as aeolian dust and sand grains. We are collecting and culturing wind-transported sediment to document its ability to serve in the dispersal of aridland invertebrate propagules. Deposited aeolian sediment was collected from marble-type traps placed on the roof of the Biological Sciences Building at the University of Texas, El Paso, during 19 individual regional-scale Chihuahuan Desert blowing dust/sand events between April 2010 and May 2012. Known source areas for these dust events include playas and ephemeral streams ~40- 150 km upwind. The mean dry grain size of the deposited sediment for each event ranged from 66 to 141 μm. Clean-water rinses of material from each event or standard rehydrations for culturing invertebrates were monitored microscopically for the appearance of organisms. Invertebrates hatched from the sediment of 13 events. Ciliates were detected in each of those samples: gastrotrichs appeared in three samples, nematodes and bdelloid rotifers in two samples, and clam shrimp in one. We have also rehydrated aeolian sediments, collected in standard dust traps, from many dust-emitting playas in Southwest North America and hatched viable organisms including all those previously mentioned as well as branchiopods, fairy shrimp, copepods

  6. Immune memory in invertebrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milutinović, Barbara; Kurtz, Joachim

    2016-08-01

    Evidence for innate immune memory (or 'priming') in invertebrates has been accumulating over the last years. We here provide an in-depth review of the current state of evidence for immune memory in invertebrates, and in particular take a phylogenetic viewpoint. Invertebrates are a very heterogeneous group of animals and accordingly, evidence for the phenomenon of immune memory as well as the hypothesized molecular underpinnings differ largely for the diverse invertebrate taxa. The majority of research currently focuses on Arthropods, while evidence from many other groups of invertebrates is fragmentary or even lacking. We here concentrate on immune memory that is induced by pathogenic challenges, but also extent our view to a non-pathogenic context, i.e. allograft rejection, which can also show forms of memory and can inform us about general principles of specific self-nonself recognition. We discuss definitions of immune memory and a number of relevant aspects such as the type of antigens used, the route of exposure, and the kinetics of reactions following priming. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Hawaii ESI: INVERTPT (Invertebrate Points)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for native stream invertebrates, anchialine pool invertebrates, and threatened/endangered terrestrial...

  8. Aquarium Culture of Freshwater Invertebrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Timothy S.

    1996-01-01

    Describes two methods for rearing small aquatic invertebrates using submerged surfaces in an unfiltered current of water where fish are present. Presents suggestions on how to use the invertebrate communities in the classroom. (JRH)

  9. Invertebrates and Plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wendell R. Haag; Robert J. Distefano; Siobhan Fennessy; Brett D.. Marshall

    2013-01-01

    Invertebrates and plants are among the most ubiquitous and abundant macroscopic organisms in aquatic ecosystems; they dominate most habitats in both diversity and biomass and play central roles in aquatic food webs. Plants regulate and create habitats for a wide array of organisms (Cooke et al. 2005). Snail grazing and bivalve filtering profoundly alter habitats and...

  10. Tube-dwelling invertebrates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hölker, Franz; Vanni, Michael J.; Kuiper, Jan J.; Meile, Christof; Grossart, Hans Peter; Stief, Peter; Adrian, Rita; Lorke, Andreas; Dellwig, Olaf; Brand, Andreas; Hupfer, Michael; Mooij, Wolf M.; Nützmann, Gunnar; Lewandowski, Jörg

    2015-01-01

    There is ample evidence that tube-dwelling invertebrates such as chironomids significantly alter multiple important ecosystem functions, particularly in shallow lakes. Chironomids pump large water volumes, and associated suspended and dissolved substances, through the sediment and thereby compete

  11. Insects and other invertebrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    John R. Jones; Norbert V. DeByle; Diane M. Bowers

    1985-01-01

    Quaking aspen throughout its range appears to be host to several insect and other invertebrate pests (fig. 1). It is a short-lived species that is palatable to a large variety of animals. Furniss and Carolin (1977) listed 33 insect species that use aspen as a food source. Some are quite damaging and may kill otherwise healthy stands of aspen; others feed on weakened or...

  12. Invertebrate welfare: an overlooked issue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelsey Horvath

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available While invertebrates make up the majority of animal species, their welfare is overlooked compared to the concern shown to vertebrates. This fact is highlighted by the near absence of regulations in animal research, with the exception of cephalopods in the European Union. This is often justified by assumptions that invertebrates do not experience pain and stress while lacking the capacity for higher order cognitive functions. Recent research suggests that invertebrates may be just as capable as vertebrates in experiencing pain and stress, and some species display comparable cognitive capacities. Another obstacle is the negative view of invertebrates by the public, which often regards them as pests with no individual personalities, gastronomic entities, or individuals for scientific experimentation without rules. Increasingly, studies have revealed that invertebrates possess individual profiles comparable to the personalities found in vertebrates. Given the large economic impact of invertebrates, developing certain attitude changes in invertebrate welfare may be beneficial for producers while providing higher welfare conditions for the animals. While the immense number and type of species makes it difficult to suggest that all invertebrates will benefit from increased welfare, in this review we provide evidence that the topic of invertebrate welfare should be revisited, more thoroughly investigated, and in cases where appropriate, formally instituted.

  13. Aggression in invertebrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kravitz, Edward A; Huber, Robert

    2003-12-01

    Invertebrates are outstanding model systems for the study of aggression. Recent advances and promising new research approaches are bringing investigators closer to the goal of integrating behavioral findings with those from other disciplines of the neurosciences. The presence of highly structured, easily evoked behavioral systems offer unique opportunities to quantify the aggressive state of individuals, to explore the mechanisms underlying the formation and maintenance of dominance relationships, to investigate the dynamic properties of hierarchy formation, and to explore the significance of neural, neurochemical and genetic mechanisms in these behavioral phenomena.

  14. Virginia ESI: INVERT (Invertebrate Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for marine, estuarine, and rare invertebrate species in Virginia. Vector polygons in this data set...

  15. Hawaii ESI: INVERT (Invertebrate Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for marine, estuarine, terrestrial, and native stream invertebrate species in coastal Hawaii. Vector...

  16. Louisiana ESI: INVERT (Invertebrate Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for marine and estuarine invertebrate species, and major concentration areas for harvested or potentially...

  17. Alabama ESI: INVERT (Invertebrate Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for marine and estuarine invertebrate species in Alabama. Vector polygons in this data set represent...

  18. RUNX in Invertebrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, S; Woollard, A

    2017-01-01

    Runx genes have been identified in all metazoans and considerable conservation of function observed across a wide range of phyla. Thus, insight gained from studying simple model organisms is invaluable in understanding RUNX biology in higher animals. Consequently, this chapter will focus on the Runx genes in the diploblasts, which includes sea anemones and sponges, as well as the lower triploblasts, including the sea urchin, nematode, planaria and insect. Due to the high degree of functional redundancy amongst vertebrate Runx genes, simpler model organisms with a solo Runx gene, like C. elegans, are invaluable systems in which to probe the molecular basis of RUNX function within a whole organism. Additionally, comparative analyses of Runx sequence and function allows for the development of novel evolutionary insights. Strikingly, recent data has emerged that reveals the presence of a Runx gene in a protist, demonstrating even more widespread occurrence of Runx genes than was previously thought. This review will summarize recent progress in using invertebrate organisms to investigate RUNX function during development and regeneration, highlighting emerging unifying themes.

  19. The invertebrate communities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    FloBner, D.; Kasprzak, P.; Mothes, G.; Ronneberger, D.; Schonborn, W.

    1985-01-01

    Studies of invertebrate communities have been carried out to a certain extent in the whole Lake Stechlin area, but especially with reference to Lake Stechlin. The chapter summarizes important results of detailed investigations over a long period, made by several researchers in the periods before and after the nuclear power plant came into operation. The following sections deal with the combination of species, frequency, types of life-form, structure and dynamics of the living community of zoobenthos and zooplankton. Not dealt with or only considered in passing are Amoebina, Heliozoa, Ciliata, Turbellaria (excl. Tricladida), Nematoda, Tardigrada, Gastrotricha, and partly Oligochaeta. The research into micro-and meiooobenthos are limited to the years 1959-1968. Data after the bringing into operation of the nuclear power plant refer only to macrozoobenthos. Before the operation of the nuclear power plant the planktonic Rotaroria and Crustacea were examined only qualitatively. The first quantitative analysis of the zooplankton-community was undertaken in 1968, and only from 1978 onwards has continuous and comprehensive research information about the zooplankton in Lake Stechlin been available

  20. Alternative adaptive immunity in invertebrates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kurtz, Joachim; Armitage, Sophie Alice Octavia

    2006-01-01

    Vertebrate adaptive immunity is characterized by challenge-specific long-term protection. This specific memory is achieved through the vast diversity of somatically rearranged immunological receptors such as antibodies. Whether or not invertebrates are capable of a comparable phenotypic plasticity...

  1. Antimycobacterial Metabolites from Marine Invertebrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daletos, Georgios; Ancheeva, Elena; Chaidir, Chaidir; Kalscheuer, Rainer; Proksch, Peter

    2016-10-01

    Marine organisms play an important role in natural product-based drug research due to accumulation of structurally unique and bioactive metabolites. The exploration of marine-derived compounds may significantly extend the scientific knowledge of potential scaffolds for antibiotic drug discovery. Development of novel antitubercular agents is especially significant as the emergence of drug-resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis strains remains threateningly high. Marine invertebrates (i.e., sponges, corals, gorgonians) as a source of new chemical entities are the center of research for several scientific groups, and the wide spectrum of biological activities of marine-derived compounds encourages scientists to carry out investigations in the field of antibiotic research, including tuberculosis treatment. The present review covers published data on antitubercular natural products from marine invertebrates grouped according to their biogenetic origin. Studies on the structure-activity relationships of these important leads are highlighted as well. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  2. Marine Invertebrates: Communities at Risk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer Mather

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Our definition of the word ‘animal’ centers on vertebrates, yet 99% of the animals on the planet are invertebrates, about which we know little. In addition, although the Census of Marine Life (COML.org has recently conducted an extensive audit of marine ecosystems, we still do not understand much about the animals of the seas. Surveys of the best-known ecosystems, in which invertebrate populations often play a key role, show that the invertebrate populations are affected by human impact. Coral animals are the foundation of coral reef systems, which are estimated to contain 30% of the species in the ocean. Physical impact and chemical changes on the water severely damage these reefs, and may lead to the removal of these important habitats. Tiny pteropod molluscs live in huge numbers in the polar seas, and their fragile shells are particularly vulnerable to ocean acidification. Their removal would mean that fishes on which we depend would have a hugely diminished food supply. In the North Sea, warming is leading to replacement of colder water copepods by warmer water species which contain less fat. This is having an effect on the birds which eat them, who enrich the otherwise poor land on which they nest. Conversely, the warming of the water and the loss of top predators such as whales and sharks has led to an explosion of the jumbo squid of the Pacific coast of North America. This is positive in the development of a squid fishery, yet negative because the squid eat fish that have been the mainstay of the fishery along that coast. These examples show how invertebrates are key in the oceans, and what might happen when global changes impact them.

  3. Molecular Basis for Ultraviolet Vision in Invertebrates

    OpenAIRE

    Salcedo, Ernesto; Zheng, Lijun; Phistry, Meridee; Bagg, Eve E.; Britt, Steven G.

    2003-01-01

    Invertebrates are sensitive to a broad spectrum of light that ranges from UV to red. Color sensitivity in the UV plays an important role in foraging, navigation, and mate selection in both flying and terrestrial invertebrate animals. Here, we show that a single amino acid polymorphism is responsible for invertebrate UV vision. This residue (UV: lysine vs blue:asparagine or glutamate) corresponds to amino acid position glycine 90 (G90) in bovine rhodopsin, a site affected in autosomal dominant...

  4. An invertebrate stomach's view on vertebrate ecology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Calvignac-Spencer, Sébastien; Leendertz, Fabian H.; Gilbert, Tom

    2013-01-01

    Recent studies suggest that vertebrate genetic material ingested by invertebrates (iDNA) can be used to investigate vertebrate ecology. Given the ubiquity of invertebrates that feed on vertebrates across the globe, iDNA might qualify as a very powerful tool for 21st century population...

  5. Wood decomposition as influenced by invertebrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael D. Ulyshen

    2014-01-01

    The diversity and habitat requirements of invertebrates associated with dead wood have been the subjects of hundreds of studies in recent years but we still know very little about the ecological or economic importance of these organisms. The purpose of this review is to examine whether, how and to what extent invertebrates affect wood decomposition in terrestrial...

  6. Research Note Do mammalian herbivores influence invertebrate ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We investigated the indirect influence of mammalian herbivores on invertebrates, by utilising long-term mammalian herbivore exclosures in Kruger National Park. The exclosures span three distinct habitat types (crest, footslope and riparian) on a catena. By performing invertebrate collections in the exclosures and in a ...

  7. Effects of Pollution on Freshwater Invertebrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buikema, A. L., Jr.; Herricks, E. E.

    1978-01-01

    Presents a literature review of the effects of pollution on freshwater invertebrates, covering publications of 1976-77. Some of the areas covered are: (1) toxicant effects on invertebrates; (2) microcosm and community effects, and (3) biological control of aquatic life. A list of 123 references is also presented. (HM)

  8. Invertebrates, ecosystem services and climate change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prather, Chelse M; Pelini, Shannon L; Laws, Angela; Rivest, Emily; Woltz, Megan; Bloch, Christopher P; Del Toro, Israel; Ho, Chuan-Kai; Kominoski, John; Newbold, T A Scott; Parsons, Sheena; Joern, A

    2013-05-01

    The sustainability of ecosystem services depends on a firm understanding of both how organisms provide these services to humans and how these organisms will be altered with a changing climate. Unquestionably a dominant feature of most ecosystems, invertebrates affect many ecosystem services and are also highly responsive to climate change. However, there is still a basic lack of understanding of the direct and indirect paths by which invertebrates influence ecosystem services, as well as how climate change will affect those ecosystem services by altering invertebrate populations. This indicates a lack of communication and collaboration among scientists researching ecosystem services and climate change effects on invertebrates, and land managers and researchers from other disciplines, which becomes obvious when systematically reviewing the literature relevant to invertebrates, ecosystem services, and climate change. To address this issue, we review how invertebrates respond to climate change. We then review how invertebrates both positively and negatively influence ecosystem services. Lastly, we provide some critical future directions for research needs, and suggest ways in which managers, scientists and other researchers may collaborate to tackle the complex issue of sustaining invertebrate-mediated services under a changing climate. © 2012 The Authors. Biological Reviews © 2012 Cambridge Philosophical Society.

  9. Diversity of large DNA viruses of invertebrates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Williams, Trevor; Bergoin, Max; Oers, van Monique M.

    2017-01-01

    In this review we provide an overview of the diversity of large DNA viruses known to be pathogenic for invertebrates. We present their taxonomical classification and describe the evolutionary relationships among various groups of invertebrate-infecting viruses. We also indicate the relationships

  10. Columbia River ESI: INVERT (Invertebrate Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for clams, oysters, crabs, and other invertebrate species in Columbia River. Vector polygons in this data...

  11. Marine Invertebrate assemblages in southern California

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This is a point file of invertebrate site clusters calculated from benthic trawls completed by the Southern California Coastal Water Research Project (SCCWRP). Data...

  12. Uncoupling proteins of invertebrates: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slocinska, Malgorzata; Barylski, Jakub; Jarmuszkiewicz, Wieslawa

    2016-09-01

    Uncoupling proteins (UCPs) mediate inducible proton conductance in the mitochondrial inner membrane. Herein, we summarize our knowledge regarding UCPs in invertebrates. Since 2001, the presence of UCPs has been demonstrated in nematodes, mollusks, amphioxi, and insects. We discuss the following important issues concerning invertebrate UCPs: their evolutionary relationships, molecular and functional properties, and physiological impact. Evolutionary analysis indicates that the branch of vertebrate and invertebrate UCP4-5 diverged early in the evolutionary process prior to the divergence of the animal groups. Several proposed physiological roles of invertebrate UCPs are energy control, metabolic balance, and preventive action against oxidative stress. © 2016 IUBMB Life, 68(9):691-699, 2016. © 2016 International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology.

  13. Immune Reactions Among Marine and Other Invertebrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bang, Frederik B.

    1973-01-01

    Discusses the defense mechanisms and immune reaction found in invertebrates, and examines the wealth of related biological problems that need study and many of the leads that have recently been developed. (JR)

  14. Are invertebrates relevant models in ageing research?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Erdogan, Cihan Suleyman; Hansen, Benni Winding; Vang, Ole

    2016-01-01

    is an evolutionary conserved key protein kinase in the TOR pathway that regulates growth, proliferation and cell metabolism in response to nutrients, growth factors and stress. Comparing the ageing process in invertebrate model organisms with relatively short lifespan with mammals provides valuable information about...... the molecular mechanisms underlying the ageing process faster than mammal systems. Inhibition of the TOR pathway activity via either genetic manipulation or rapamycin increases lifespan profoundly in most invertebrate model organisms. This contribution will review the recent findings in invertebrates concerning...... the TOR pathway and effects of TOR inhibition by rapamycin on lifespan. Besides some contradictory results, the majority points out that rapamycin induces longevity. This suggests that administration of rapamycin in invertebrates is a promising tool for pursuing the scientific puzzle of lifespan...

  15. Western Alaska ESI: INVERT (Invertebrate Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for marine and estuarine invertebrate species in Western Alaska. Vector polygons in this data set represent...

  16. American Samoa ESI: INVERT (Invertebrate Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for estuarine, reef-associated, and terrestrial invertebrate species in American Samoa. Vector polygons in...

  17. Culturing larvae of marine invertebrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strathmann, Richard R

    2014-01-01

    Larvae of marine invertebrates cultured in the laboratory experience conditions that they do not encounter in nature, but development and survival to metamorphic competence can be obtained in such cultures. This protocol emphasizes simple methods suitable for a wide variety of larvae. Culturing larvae requires seawater of adequate quality and temperature within the tolerated range. Beyond that, feeding larvae require appropriate food, but a few kinds of algae and animals are sufficient as food for diverse larvae. Nontoxic materials include glass, many plastics, hot-melt glue, and some solvents, once evaporated. Cleaners that do not leave toxic residues after rinsing include dilute hydrochloric or acetic acid, sodium hypochlorite (commercial bleach), and ethanol. Materials that can leave toxic residues, such as formaldehyde, glutaraldehyde, detergents, and hand lotions, should be avoided, especially with batch cultures that lack continuously renewed water. Reverse filtration can be used to change water gently at varying frequencies, depending on temperature and the kinds of food that are provided. Bacterial growth can be limited by antibiotics, but antibiotics are often unnecessary. Survival and growth are increased by low concentrations of larvae and stirring of large or dense cultures. One method of stirring large numbers of containers is a rack of motor-driven paddles. Most of the methods and materials are inexpensive and portable. If necessary, a room within a few hours of the sea could be temporarily equipped for larval culture.

  18. Toll-like receptors of deuterostome invertebrates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Honoo eSatake

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Defensive systems against pathogens are responsible not only for survival or lifetime of an individual but also for the evolution of a species. Innate immunity is expected to be more important for invertebrates than mammals, given that adaptive immunity has not been acquired in the former. Toll-like receptors (TLRs have been shown to play a crucial role in host defense of pathogenic microbes in innate immunity of mammals. Recent genome-wide analyses have suggested that TLR or their related genes are conserved in invertebrates. In particular, numerous TLR-related gene candidates were detected in deuterostome invertebrates including a sea urchin (222 TLR-related gene candidates and amphioxus (72 TLR-related gene candidates. Molecular phylogenetic analysis verified that most of sea urchin or amphioxus TLR candidates are paralogous, suggesting that these organisms expanded TLR-related genes in a species-specific manner. In contrast, another deuterostome invertebrate, an ascidian, Ciona intestinalis, was found to possess only two TLR genes. Moreover, Ciona TLRs, Ci-TLR1 and -2, were shown to possess hybrid functionality of mammalian TLRs. Such functionality of Ci-TLRs could not be predicted by sequence comparison with vertebrate TLRs, indicating the confounding evolutionary lineages of deuterostome invertebrate TLRs or their candidates. In this review article, we present recent advances in studies of TLRs or their candidates of deuterostome invertebrates, and provide insight into an evolutionary process of TLRs.

  19. The Global Invertebrate Genomics Alliance (GIGA). 2014. Developing Community Resources to Study Diverse Invertebrate Genomes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pomponi, S.A.

    2014-01-01

    Over 95% of all metazoan (animal) species comprise the “invertebrates,” but very few genomes from these organisms have been sequenced. We have, therefore, formed a “Global Invertebrate Genomics Alliance” (GIGA). Our intent is to build a collaborative network of diverse scientists to tackle major

  20. Wood decomposition as influenced by invertebrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulyshen, Michael D

    2016-02-01

    The diversity and habitat requirements of invertebrates associated with dead wood have been the subjects of hundreds of studies in recent years but we still know very little about the ecological or economic importance of these organisms. The purpose of this review is to examine whether, how and to what extent invertebrates affect wood decomposition in terrestrial ecosystems. Three broad conclusions can be reached from the available literature. First, wood decomposition is largely driven by microbial activity but invertebrates also play a significant role in both temperate and tropical environments. Primary mechanisms include enzymatic digestion (involving both endogenous enzymes and those produced by endo- and ectosymbionts), substrate alteration (tunnelling and fragmentation), biotic interactions and nitrogen fertilization (i.e. promoting nitrogen fixation by endosymbiotic and free-living bacteria). Second, the effects of individual invertebrate taxa or functional groups can be accelerative or inhibitory but the cumulative effect of the entire community is generally to accelerate wood decomposition, at least during the early stages of the process (most studies are limited to the first 2-3 years). Although methodological differences and design limitations preclude meta-analysis, studies aimed at quantifying the contributions of invertebrates to wood decomposition commonly attribute 10-20% of wood loss to these organisms. Finally, some taxa appear to be particularly influential with respect to promoting wood decomposition. These include large wood-boring beetles (Coleoptera) and termites (Termitoidae), especially fungus-farming macrotermitines. The presence or absence of these species may be more consequential than species richness and the influence of invertebrates is likely to vary biogeographically. Published 2014. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  1. Invertebrate fauna associated with water hyacinth ( Eichhornia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The invertebrate fauna associated with water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes) in Benin River was studied between February and August, 1990. Water hyacinth along with water samples was collected for analysis. The range of water temperature was 26.0–32.2oC, dissolved oxygen (D.O) was 1.60–14.98 mgl-1 and salinity ...

  2. Roebuck Bay Invertebrate and bird Mapping 2006

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Piersma, Theunis; Pearson, Grant B.; Hickey, Robert; Dittmann, Sabine; Rogers, Danny I.; Folmer, Eelke; Honkoop, Pieter; Drent, Jan; Goeij, Petra de; Marsh, Loisette

    2006-01-01

    1. This is a report on a survey of the benthic ecology of the intertidal flats along the northern shores of Roebuck Bay in June 2006. In the period 11-20 June we mapped both the invertebrate macrobenthic animals (those retained by a 1 mm sieve) over the whole of the northern intertidal area of

  3. Toxicity of Engineered Nanoparticles to Aquatic Invertebrates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cupi, Denisa; Sørensen, Sara Nørgaard; Skjolding, Lars Michael

    2016-01-01

    This chapter provides a targeted description of some of the most important processes that influence toxicity and uptake of nanoparticles in aquatic invertebrates. It discusses silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs), on how aspects of dissolution and chemical species obtained from this process can influence...

  4. Bromeliads in Caatinga: an oasis for invertebrates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priscila Islair

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/2175-7925.2015v28n1p67 The Bromeliaceae family exhibits several adaptations that allow the occurrence of its members in different physiognomies, including the Caatinga. The arrangement of leaves in rosette forms a cistern or tank, in which nutrient-rich water accumulates. This provides a microhabitat for reproduction, feeding, and larval development of many invertebrates. The aim of this study was to survey the bromeliad-associated invertebrate fauna to test the hypothesis of seasonal changes in community composition. We conducted two surveys in the rainy (February, 2011 and dry (August, 2012 seasons in the Floresta Nacional (Flona of Contendas do Sincorá, municipality of Contendas do Sincorá, Bahia state, Brazil. We delimited fifteen 5 m x 5 m sampling plots along a 355 m trail. Two terrestrial bromeliads (Aechmea bromeliifolia were collected per plot. Invertebrate fauna were identified and richness, abundance and composition were analyzed. The richness of taxa did not differ between seasons and was considered high for Caatinga. Abundance and composition differed between the rainy and dry seasons. The present study demonstrates the importance of bromeliads as available water resources for the local invertebrate community. Our findings also provide a framework for more in-depth studies on animal-plant interactions, and for the conservation of Caatinga animals and plants.

  5. Bromeliads in Caatinga: an oasis for invertebrates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priscila Islair

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The Bromeliaceae family exhibits several adaptations that allow the occurrence of its members in different physiognomies, including the Caatinga. The arrangement of leaves in rosette forms a cistern or tank, in which nutrient-rich water accumulates. This provides a microhabitat for reproduction, feeding, and larval development of many invertebrates. The aim of this study was to survey the bromeliad-associated invertebrate fauna to test the hypothesis of seasonal changes in community composition. We conducted two surveys in the rainy (February, 2011 and dry (August, 2012 seasons in the Floresta Nacional (Flona of Contendas do Sincorá, municipality of Contendas do Sincorá, Bahia state, Brazil. We delimited fifteen 5 m x 5 m sampling plots along a 355 m trail. Two terrestrial bromeliads (Aechmea bromeliifolia were collected per plot. Invertebrate fauna were identified and richness, abundance and composition were analyzed. The richness of taxa did not differ between seasons and was considered high for Caatinga. Abundance and composition differed between the rainy and dry seasons. The present study demonstrates the importance of bromeliads as available water resources for the local invertebrate community. Our findings also provide a framework for more in-depth studies on animal-plant interactions, and for the conservation of Caatinga animal and plant.

  6. Invertebrate lysozymes: Diversity and distribution, molecular ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    This review describes the current knowledge on i-type lysozymes, outlining their distribution, molecular mechanism and in vivo function taking the representative from Venerupis philippinarum (formerly Tapes japonica) (Vp-ilys) as a model. In addition, invertebrate g-type and ch-type (chalaropsis) lysozymes, which have ...

  7. Evolution of paleozoic marine invertebrate communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bretsky, P W

    1968-03-15

    Communities of Paleozoic shelf invertebrates underwent varied rates of change in faunal composition. Notable changes took place during Late Devonian-Early Mississippian time and were most noticeable in ofishore brachiopod-dominated communities. Near-shore molluscan communities remained relatively stable throughout the Paleozoic.

  8. Physical, chemical and macrobenthic invertebrate fauna ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A comparative study conducted on three swampy water bodies draining through the University of Lagos into the Lagos Lagoon describes the physical, chemical and macrobenthic invertebrate characteristics of these water bodies at the study sites. Three stations, one at each water body were sampled fortnightly from June to ...

  9. Effects of invertebrates in lotic ecosystem processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    J.B. Wallace; J.J. Jr. Hutchens

    2000-01-01

    Freshwater invertebrates perform many roles in ecosystem processes (Palmer et al., 1997) and these roles are frequently associated with a diverse array of feeding habits which have been organized into functional feeding groups (FFGs). Wallace and Webster (1996) reviewed many roles ofFFGs in stream ecosystems. Streams differ markedly from most ecosystems in that the...

  10. An invertebrate model for CNS drug discovery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Al-Qadi, Sonia; Schiøtt, Morten; Hansen, Steen Honoré

    2015-01-01

    , high-throughput and predictive screening models are required. The grasshopper (locust) has been developed as an invertebrate in situ model for BBB permeability assessment, as it has shown similarities to vertebrate models. METHODS: Transcriptome profiling of ABC efflux transporters in the locust brain...

  11. 76 FR 61379 - Final Recovery Plan, Bexar County Karst Invertebrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-04

    ...] Final Recovery Plan, Bexar County Karst Invertebrates AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife Service, Interior... availability of our final recovery plan, for the nine Bexar County Karst Invertebrates under the Endangered... County karst invertebrates were listed as endangered species on December 26, 2000 (65 FR 81419): Rhadine...

  12. Enzyme Histochemistry for Functional Histology in Invertebrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cima, Francesca

    2017-01-01

    In invertebrates, enzyme histochemistry has recently found a renaissance regarding its applications in morphology and ecology. Many enzyme activities are useful for the morphofunctional characterization of cells, as biomarkers of biological and pathologic processes, and as markers of the response to environmental stressors. Here, the adjustments to classic techniques, including the most common enzymes used for digestion, absorption, transport, and oxidation, as well as techniques for azo-coupling, metal salt substitution and oxidative coupling polymerization, are presented in detail for various terrestrial and aquatic invertebrates. This chapter also provides strategies to solve the problems regarding anesthesia, small body size, the presence of an exo- or endoskeleton and the search for the best fixative in relation to the internal fluid osmolarity. These techniques have the aim of obtaining good results for both the pre- and post-embedding labeling of specimens, tissue blocks, sections, and hemolymph smears using both light and transmission electron microscopy.

  13. Ethics and invertebrates: a cephalopod perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mather, Jennifer A; Anderson, Roland C

    2007-05-04

    This paper first explores 3 philosophical bases for attitudes to invertebrates, Contractarian/Kantian, Utilitarian, and Rights-based, and what they lead us to conclude about how we use and care for these animals. We next discuss the problems of evaluating pain and suffering in invertebrates, pointing out that physiological responses to stress are widely similar across the animal kingdom and that most animals show behavioral responses to potentially painful stimuli. Since cephalopods are often used as a test group for consideration of pain, distress and proper conditions for captivity and handling, we evaluate their behavioral and cognitive capacities. Given these capacities, we then discuss practical issues: minimization of their pain and suffering during harvesting for food; ensuring that captive cephalopods are properly cared for, stimulated and allowed to live as full a life as possible; and, lastly, working for their conservation.

  14. Effects of nanomaterials on marine invertebrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canesi, Laura; Corsi, Ilaria

    2016-09-15

    The development of nanotechnology will inevitably lead to the release of consistent amounts of nanomaterials (NMs) and nanoparticles (NPs) into marine ecosystems. Ecotoxicological studies have been carried out to identify potential biological targets of NPs, and suitable models for predicting their impact on the health of the marine environment. Recent studies in invertebrates mainly focused on NP accumulation and sub-lethal effects, rather than acute toxicity. Among marine invertebrates, bivalves represent by large the most studied group, with polychaetes and echinoderms also emerging as significant targets of NPs. However, major scientific gaps still need to be filled. In this work, factors affecting the fate of NPs in the marine environment, and their consequent uptake/accumulation/toxicity in marine invertebrates will be summarized. The results show that in different model species, NP accumulation mainly occurs in digestive tract and gills. Data on sub-lethal effects and modes of action of different types of NPs (mainly metal oxides and metal based NPs) in marine invertebrates will be reviewed, in particular on immune function, oxidative stress and embryo development. Moreover, the possibility that such effects may be influenced by NP interactions with biomolecules in both external and internal environment will be introduced. In natural environmental media, NP interactions with polysaccharides, proteins and colloids may affect their agglomeration/aggregation and consequent bioavailability. Moreover, once within the organism, NPs are known to interact with plasma proteins, forming a protein corona that can affect particle uptake and toxicity in target cells in a physiological environment. These interactions, leading to the formation of eco-bio-coronas, may be crucial in determining particle behavior and effects also in marine biota. In order to classify NPs into groups and predict the implications of their release into the marine environment, information on

  15. Relationship between invertebrate fauna and bromeliad size

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VA. Araújo

    Full Text Available Several bromeliads species store water and organic substrates, allowing the establishment of phytotelmata and associated fauna on their leaves. In this study, we sampled 70 individuals of Vriesea sp. (Carrière (Bromeliaceae, in rupestrian fields in the Serra de Ouro Branco-MG, Brazil. The relationships between invertebrate species richness and abundance and size of bromeliads were tested using multiple regression. We found 19 species associated with bromeliads, mainly Diptera larvae. The abundance of the phytotelmate fauna increased principally in relation to the volume of water in the bromeliad reservoir. Phytotelmata richness was affected principally by diameter of the reservoir. There was a significant relationship between the abundance and richness of invertebrates associated with leaves with diameter and height of the plant. Invertebrate richness was better explained by abundance of individuals. These results suggest that the increase of richness was attended by higher numbers of microhabitats and more space for colonization of bigger bromeliads. Additionally, there was more chance of sampling different species in locales with greater abundance of individuals.

  16. Foreign DNA acquisition by invertebrate genomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drezen, J-M; Gauthier, J; Josse, T; Bézier, A; Herniou, E; Huguet, E

    2017-07-01

    Recent studies have highlighted that the accidental acquisition of DNA from other species by invertebrate genomes is much more common than originally thought. The transferred DNAs are of bacterial or eukaryote origin and in both cases the receiver species may end up utilising the transferred genes for its own benefit. Frequent contact with prokaryotic DNA from symbiotic endocellular bacteria may predispose invertebrates to incorporate this genetic material into their genomes. Increasing evidence also points to viruses as major players in transferring genes and mobile elements between the species they infect. Unexpectedly a gene flux between Hymenoptera and Lepidoptera mediated by endogenous viruses of parasitic wasps has been recently unravelled, suggesting we are probably just seeing the tip of the iceberg concerning horizontal gene transfers in invertebrates. In the context of insect for feed and food, if the new technology of insect genome editing (such as Crisper/Cas9) were used to modify the genome of reared insects it is important to take into account the risk that an introduced gene can be transferred. More generally, although insects are traditionally consumed in Asia and Africa, knowledge on insect viruses is still limited rendering it difficult to predict the impact they might have in the context of insect rearing at an industrial scale. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Asellus aquaticus and other invertebrates in drinking water distribution systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Sarah Christine

    and currently applied methods for removal of invertebrates from distribution systems are discussed and suggestions of control strategies are given, based on the results obtained in this study in order to obtain or maintain an acceptable level of invertebrates in drinking water systems....... hygiene. Whereas invertebrates in drinking water are known to host parasites in tropical countries they are largely regarded an aesthetical problem in temperate countries. Publications on invertebrate distribution in Danish systems have been completely absent and while reports from various countries have...... Campylobacter jejuni. Invertebrates enter drinking water systems through various routes e.g. through deficiencies in e.g. tanks, pipes, valves and fittings due to bursts or maintenance works. Some invertebrates pass treatment processes from ground water or surface water supplies while other routes may include...

  18. Investigations into the Settlement and Attachment of Biofouling Marine Invertebrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-17

    attachment of biofouling marine invertebrates 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER N00014-12-1 -0432 5b. GRANT NUMBER n/a 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER n/a 6...larval settlement in a variety of marine invertebrate species, including B. neritina. Light also inhibits B. neritina larval settlement, yet the...underlying mechanisms by which light and adrenergic compounds exert their effects on larvae are largely unknown. Octopamine is considered the invertebrate

  19. Invertebrate grazers affect metal/metalloid fixation during litter decomposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaller, Jörg; Brackhage, Carsten

    2015-01-01

    Plant litter and organic sediments are main sinks for metals and metalloids in aquatic ecosystems. The effect of invertebrates as key species in aquatic litter decomposition on metal/metalloid fixation by organic matter is described only for shredders, but for grazers as another important animal group less is known. Consequently, a laboratory batch experiment was conducted to examine the effect of invertebrate grazers (Lymnaea stagnalis L.) on metal/metalloid fixation/remobilization during aquatic litter decomposition. It could be shown that invertebrate grazers facilitate significantly the formation of smaller sizes of particulate organic matter (POM), as shown previously for invertebrate shredders. The metal/metalloid binding capacity of these smaller particles of POM is higher compared to leaf litter residuals. But element enrichment is not as high as shown previously for the effect by invertebrate shredders. Invertebrate grazers enhance also the mobilization of selected elements to the water, in the range also proven for invertebrate shredders but different for the different elements. Nonetheless invertebrate grazers activity during aquatic litter decomposition leads to a metal/metalloid fixation into leaf litter as part of sediment organic matter. Hence, the effect of invertebrate grazers on metal/metalloid fixation/remobilization contrasts partly with former assessments revealing the possibility of an enhanced metal/metalloid fixation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Invertebrates Collected on and around Carroll Island, Maryland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    INVERTEBRATES, *MARYLAND, *WATER POLLUTION, TEST FACILITIES, TEST FACILITIES, ECOLOGY, CHESAPEAKE BAY, WATER POLLUTION, AIR POLLUTION, ANNELIDA, MOLLUSCA, PROTOZOA, ARTHROPODA , CRUSTACEA, ARACHNIDA, PLANKTON, WORMS.

  1. Brain and behavioral lateralization in invertebrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frasnelli, Elisa

    2013-12-11

    Traditionally, only humans were thought to exhibit brain and behavioral asymmetries, but several studies have revealed that most vertebrates are also lateralized. Recently, evidence of left-right asymmetries in invertebrates has begun to emerge, suggesting that lateralization of the nervous system may be a feature of simpler brains as well as more complex ones. Here I present some examples in invertebrates of sensory and motor asymmetries, as well as asymmetries in the nervous system. I illustrate two cases where an asymmetric brain is crucial for the development of some cognitive abilities. The first case is the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans, which has asymmetric odor sensory neurons and taste perception neurons. In this worm left/right asymmetries are responsible for the sensing of a substantial number of salt ions, and lateralized responses to salt allow the worm to discriminate between distinct salt ions. The second case is the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster, where the presence of asymmetry in a particular structure of the brain is important in the formation or retrieval of long-term memory. Moreover, I distinguish two distinct patterns of lateralization that occur in both vertebrates and invertebrates: individual-level and population-level lateralization. Theoretical models on the evolution of lateralization suggest that the alignment of lateralization at the population level may have evolved as an evolutionary stable strategy in which individually asymmetrical organisms must coordinate their behavior with that of other asymmetrical organisms. This implies that lateralization at the population-level is more likely to have evolved in social rather than in solitary species. I evaluate this new hypothesis with a specific focus on insects showing different level of sociality. In particular, I present a series of studies on antennal asymmetries in honeybees and other related species of bees, showing how insects may be extremely useful to test the evolutionary

  2. Brain and behavioural lateralization in invertebrates.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisa eFrasnelli

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Traditionally, only humans were thought to exhibit brain and behavioural asymmetries, but several studies have revealed that most vertebrates are also lateralized. Recently, evidence of left-right asymmetries in invertebrates has begun to emerge, suggesting that lateralization of the nervous system may be a feature of simpler brains as well as more complex ones. Here I present some examples in invertebrates of sensory and motor asymmetries, as well as asymmetries in the nervous system. I illustrate two cases where an asymmetric brain is crucial for the development of some cognitive abilities. The first case is the nematode C. elegans, which has asymmetric odour sensory neurons and taste perception neurons. In this worm left/right asymmetries are responsible for the sensing of a substantial number of salt ions, and lateralized responses to salt allow the worm to discriminate between distinct salt ions. The second case is the fruit fly D. melanogaster, where the presence of asymmetry in a particular structure of the brain is important in the formation or retrieval of long-term memory. Moreover, I distinguish two distinct patterns of lateralization that occur in both vertebrates and invertebrates: individual-level and population-level lateralization. Theoretical models on the evolution of lateralization suggest that the alignment of lateralization at the population level may have evolved as an evolutionary stable strategy in which individually-asymmetrical organisms must coordinate their behaviour with that of other asymmetrical organisms. This implies that lateralization at the population-level is more likely to have evolved in social rather than in solitary species. I evaluate this new hypothesis with specific focus on insects showing different level of sociality. In particular, I present a series of studies on antennal asymmetries in honeybees and other related species of bees, showing how insects may be extremely useful to test evolutionary

  3. Natural invertebrate hosts of iridoviruses (Iridoviridae)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, Trevor [Instituto de Ecologia A.C., Veracruz (Mexico)]. E-mail: trevor.williams@inecol.edu.mx

    2008-11-15

    Invertebrate iridescent viruses (IIVs) are icosahedral DNA viruses that infect invertebrates, mainly insects and terrestrial isopods, in damp and aquatic habitats. Exhaustive searches of databases resulted in the identification of 79 articles reporting 108 invertebrate species naturally infected by confirmed or putative iridoviruses. Of these, 103 (95%) were arthropods and the remainder were molluscs, an annelid worm and a nematode. Nine species were from marine habitats. Of the 99 non-marine species, 49 were from terrestrial habitats and 50 were aquatic, especially the aquatic stages of Diptera (44 species). The abundance of records from species of Aedes, Ochlerotatus and Psorophora contrasts markedly with a paucity of records from species of Anopheles, Culex and Culiseta. Records from terrestrial isopods are numerous (19 species), although the diversity of IIVs that infect them is mostly unstudied. IIV infections have been reported from every continent, except Antarctica, but there are few records from Africa, southern Asia and Latin America. Most reports describe patent IIV infections as rare whereas inapparent (covert) infection may be common in certain species. The relationship between particle size and iridescent colour of the host is found to be consistent with optical theory in the great majority of cases. Only 24 reported IIVs from insect hosts have partial characterization data and only two have been subjected to complete genome sequencing. I show that the rate of publication on IIVs has slowed from 1990 to the present, and I draw a number of conclusions and suggestions from the host list and make recommendations for future research efforts. (author)

  4. The Global Invertebrate Genomics Alliance (GIGA): Developing Community Resources to Study Diverse Invertebrate Genomes

    KAUST Repository

    Bracken-Grissom, Heather

    2013-12-12

    Over 95% of all metazoan (animal) species comprise the invertebrates, but very few genomes from these organisms have been sequenced. We have, therefore, formed a Global Invertebrate Genomics Alliance (GIGA). Our intent is to build a collaborative network of diverse scientists to tackle major challenges (e.g., species selection, sample collection and storage, sequence assembly, annotation, analytical tools) associated with genome/transcriptome sequencing across a large taxonomic spectrum. We aim to promote standards that will facilitate comparative approaches to invertebrate genomics and collaborations across the international scientific community. Candidate study taxa include species from Porifera, Ctenophora, Cnidaria, Placozoa, Mollusca, Arthropoda, Echinodermata, Annelida, Bryozoa, and Platyhelminthes, among others. GIGA will target 7000 noninsect/nonnematode species, with an emphasis on marine taxa because of the unrivaled phyletic diversity in the oceans. Priorities for selecting invertebrates for sequencing will include, but are not restricted to, their phylogenetic placement; relevance to organismal, ecological, and conservation research; and their importance to fisheries and human health. We highlight benefits of sequencing both whole genomes (DNA) and transcriptomes and also suggest policies for genomic-level data access and sharing based on transparency and inclusiveness. The GIGA Web site () has been launched to facilitate this collaborative venture.

  5. Relapse to cocaine seeking in an invertebrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amaning-Kwarteng, Akua O; Asif-Malik, Aman; Pei, Yue; Canales, Juan J

    2017-06-01

    Addiction is characterised by cycles of compulsive drug taking, periods of abstinence and episodes of relapse. The extinction/reinstatement paradigm has been extensively used in rodents to model human relapse and explore underlying mechanisms and therapeutics. However, relapse to drug seeking behaviour has not been previously demonstrated in invertebrates. Here, we used a cocaine conditioned place preference (CPP) paradigm in the flatworm, planarian, followed by extinction and reinstatement of drug seeking. Once baseline preference was established for one of two distinctly textured environments (i.e. compartments with a coarse or smooth surface), planarian received pairings of cocaine (5μM) in the non-preferred, and vehicle in the most preferred, environment, and were tested for conditioning thereafter. Cocaine produced robust CPP, measured as a significant increase in the time spent in the cocaine-paired compartment. Subsequently, planarian underwent extinction training, reverting back to their original preference within three sessions. Brief exposure to cocaine (5μM) or methamphetamine (5μM) reinstated cocaine-seeking behaviour. By contrast, the high affinity dopamine transporter inhibitor, (N-(n-butyl)-3α-[bis (4-fluorophenyl) methoxy]-tropane) (JHW007), which in rodents exhibits a neurochemical and behavioural profile distinct from cocaine, was ineffective. The present findings demonstrate for the first time reinstatement of extinguished cocaine seeking in an invertebrate model and suggest that the long-term adaptations underlying drug conditioning and relapse are highly conserved through evolution. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Regulation of nitrous oxide emission associated with benthic invertebrates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stief, Peter; Schramm, Andreas

    2010-01-01

    1. A number of freshwater invertebrate species emit N2O, a greenhouse gas that is produced in their gut by denitrifying bacteria (direct N2O emission). Additionally, benthic invertebrate species may contribute to N2O emission from sediments by stimulating denitrification because of their bioirrig...

  7. 50 CFR 17.85 - Special rules-invertebrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Special rules-invertebrates. 17.85 Section 17.85 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR....85 Special rules—invertebrates. (a) Seventeen mollusks in the Tennessee River. The species in the...

  8. The terrestrial invertebrate fauna of a temporary stream in southern ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The terrestrial invertebrate fauna of an intermittent stream was examined in the absence of surface flows within the context of the flood pulse concept. Terrestrial invertebrates were collected from three sites on the Kruis River in theWestern Cape Province, South Africa, using pitfall traps within the dry stream bed over ...

  9. Invertebrates of the Columbia River basin assessment area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christine G. Niwa; Roger E. Sandquist; Rod Crawford; et al.

    2001-01-01

    A general background on functional groups of invertebrates in the Columbia River basin and how they affect sustainability and productivity of their ecological communities is presented. The functional groups include detritivores, predators, pollinators, and grassland and forest herbivores. Invertebrate biodiversity and species of conservation interest are discussed....

  10. Aquatic invertebrate fauna of wells in a tropical mountain climate ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The present study, conducted between May 2012 and September 2013, aimed to determine the distribution of groundwater invertebrates in the Bamoun tableland, Cameroon. A total of 216 samples taken from 30 wells in four localities – Foumban, Foumbot, Kouoptamo and Magba – contained 80 invertebrate taxa ...

  11. Freshwater invertebrates of sub-Antarctic Marion Island | Dartnall ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Antarctic Marion Island were examined for invertebrates. Sixty-eight species were found, including 45 new records for the Island. Of these 56 were bona fide aquatic invertebrates, the rest being terrestrial or brackish interlopers that had fallen or been ...

  12. Macro Invertebrate Fauna of Udu-Ughievwen Wetlands, Southern ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Macro invertebrate fauna of Udu-Ughievwen wetlands, Southern Nigeria with emphasis on the species composition, diversity and distribution is discussed. A total of 62 macro-invertebrate taxa distributed into 27 families were recorded. Coleoptera and Odonata made up 16.13% by species respectively, while Arachnida and ...

  13. [Starvation and chemoreception in Antarctic benthic invertebrates].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rakusa-Suszczewski, S; Janecki, T; Domanov, M M

    2010-01-01

    Sensitivity (chemoreception) to different amino acids was studied in six invertebrate species: Serolis polita, Glyptonotus antarcticus, Abyssochromene plebs, Waldeckia obesa, Odontaster validus, and Sterechinus neumayeri. The sensitivity was estimated by the changes in basic metabolism (respiration rate). Starvation increased the sensitivity in all the species. The metabolism rates increased in the presence of L-glutamic acid in G. antarcticus, A. plebs, O. validus, and S. neumayeri. The serine and arginine amino acids had a significant impact on the metabolism of the necrophagous species S. polita and W. obesa. The chemical information may be mediated by means of L-glutamic acid via glutamate receptors, which can be blocked by kynurenic acid, as occurs in the experiments with G. antarcticus and A. plebs.

  14. Rolling Stones: Studying Aquatic Invertebrates on Hard Rock Substrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Testa, S.; Cooper, C. M.

    2005-05-01

    Rock is an important habitat for aquatic insects and other invertebrates, but studying invertebrates on this substrate poses many potential problems to the ecologist. Rock is a common stream bed control material. Thus, land managers, for stream rehabilitation and erosion control/channel stability, are introducing rock to large numbers of streams, including many that previously did not contain this substrate. Two key impediments to study of rock-inhabiting invertebrates include accurate measurement of individual rock surface areas and calculating total available surface area for stream regions with overlapping layers of rock. We present an overview of concepts and methods used for study of rock-inhabiting invertebrates and provide information on new methods that enhance our ability to make easier realistic estimates. These new methods, especially one for calculating rock surface area based on weight or water displacement measurements of rocks, provide an accurate and efficient means for estimating invertebrate density. By combining recent methods to extrapolate invertebrate densities from individual rocks to estimates of total bottom densities of aquatic invertebrates for a reach or region of stream bottom area, we obtain much greater accuracy and precision in quantifying densities and estimating secondary production of rock-dwelling communities.

  15. Antimicrobial Compounds from Marine Invertebrates-Derived Microorganisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Juan; Jung, Jee H; Liu, Yonghong

    2016-01-01

    It is known that marine invertebrates, including sponges, tunicates, cnidaria or mollusks, host affluent and various communities of symbiotic microorganisms. The microorganisms associated with the invertebrates metabolized various biologically active compounds, which could be an important resource for the discovery and development of potentially novel drugs. In this review, the new compounds with antimicrobial activity isolated from marine invertebrate-derived microorganisms in the last decade (2004-2014) will be presented, with focus on the relevant antimicrobial activities, origin of isolation, and information of strain species. New compounds without antimicrobial activity were not revealed.

  16. RNA interference-mediated intrinsic antiviral immunity in invertebrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nayak, Arabinda; Tassetto, Michel; Kunitomi, Mark; Andino, Raul

    2013-01-01

    In invertebrates such as insects and nematodes, RNA interference (RNAi) provides RNA-based protection against viruses. This form of immunity restricts viral replication and dissemination from infected cells and viruses, in turn, have evolved evasion mechanisms or RNAi suppressors to counteract host defenses. Recent advances indicate that, in addition to RNAi, other related small RNA pathways contribute to antiviral functions in invertebrates. This has led to a deeper understanding of fundamental aspects of small RNA-based antiviral immunity in invertebrates and its contribution to viral spread and pathogenesis.

  17. Coastal Resources Atlas: Long Island: INVERT (Invertebrate Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for coastal, estuarine, and marine invertebrate species for Long Island, New York. Vector polygons in this...

  18. An investigation into the chemical composition of alternative invertebrate prey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oonincx, D.G.A.B.; Dierenfeld, E.S.

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the chemical composition of eight invertebrate species and evaluate their suitability as alternative prey. The species selected were rusty red cockroaches (Blatta lateralis), six-spotted cockroaches (Eublaberus distanti), Madagascar hissing cockroaches

  19. Book Review Guides to the Freshwater Invertebrates of Southern ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Book Review Guides to the Freshwater Invertebrates of Southern Africa. Volume 8: Insecta II. Hemiptera, Megaloptera, Neuroptera, Trichoptera and Lepidoptera By IJ de Moor, JA Day and FC de Moor (editors) 2003.

  20. Book Review Guides to the freshwater invertebrates of southern ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Book Review Guides to the freshwater invertebrates of southern Africa. Volume 2: Crustacea I. Notostraca, Anostraca, Conchostraca and Cladocera by JA Day, BA Stewart, IJ de Moor and AE Louw (Editors), December 1999.

  1. Logging cuts the functional importance of invertebrates in tropical rainforest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ewers, Robert M.; Boyle, Michael J. W.; Gleave, Rosalind A.; Plowman, Nichola S.; Benedick, Suzan; Bernard, Henry; Bishop, Tom R.; Bakhtiar, Effendi Y.; Chey, Vun Khen; Chung, Arthur Y. C.; Davies, Richard G.; Edwards, David P.; Eggleton, Paul; Fayle, Tom M.; Hardwick, Stephen R.; Homathevi, Rahman; Kitching, Roger L.; Khoo, Min Sheng; Luke, Sarah H.; March, Joshua J.; Nilus, Reuben; Pfeifer, Marion; Rao, Sri V.; Sharp, Adam C.; Snaddon, Jake L.; Stork, Nigel E.; Struebig, Matthew J.; Wearn, Oliver R.; Yusah, Kalsum M.; Turner, Edgar C.

    2015-01-01

    Invertebrates are dominant species in primary tropical rainforests, where their abundance and diversity contributes to the functioning and resilience of these globally important ecosystems. However, more than one-third of tropical forests have been logged, with dramatic impacts on rainforest biodiversity that may disrupt key ecosystem processes. We find that the contribution of invertebrates to three ecosystem processes operating at three trophic levels (litter decomposition, seed predation and removal, and invertebrate predation) is reduced by up to one-half following logging. These changes are associated with decreased abundance of key functional groups of termites, ants, beetles and earthworms, and an increase in the abundance of small mammals, amphibians and insectivorous birds in logged relative to primary forest. Our results suggest that ecosystem processes themselves have considerable resilience to logging, but the consistent decline of invertebrate functional importance is indicative of a human-induced shift in how these ecological processes operate in tropical rainforests. PMID:25865801

  2. Oxytocin mediated behavior in invertebrates: An evolutionary perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lockard, Meghan A; Ebert, Margaret S; Bargmann, Cornelia I

    2017-02-01

    The molecular and functional conservation of oxytocin-related neuropeptides in behavior is striking. In animals separated by at least 600 million years of evolution, from roundworms to humans, oxytocin homologs play critical roles in the modulation of reproductive behavior and other biological functions. Here, we review the roles of oxytocin in invertebrate behavior from an evolutionary perspective. We begin by tracing the evolution of oxytocin through the invertebrate animal lineages, and then describe common themes in invertebrate behaviors that are mediated by oxytocin-related peptides, including reproductive behavior, learning and memory, food arousal, and predator/prey relationships. Finally, we discuss interesting future directions that have recently become experimentally tractable. Studying oxytocin in invertebrates offers precise insights into the activity of neuropeptides on well-defined neural circuits; the principles that emerge may also be represented in the more complex vertebrate brain. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Develop Neurobiol 77: 128-142, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Various roles of beta-glucan in invertebrates

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Větvička, V.; Šíma, Petr

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 14, č. 1 (2017), s. 488-493 ISSN 1824-307X Institutional support: RVO:61388971 Keywords : invertebrates * glucan * receptors Subject RIV: EC - Immunology OBOR OECD: Immunology Impact factor: 0.824, year: 2016

  4. Variation in composition of macro-benthic invertebrates as an ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mo

    invertebrates have received in this region as bioindicators, measurements of change in their communities have been widely used in identifying and monitoring man-made impacts on surface water quality especially in nearshore areas of lakes and ...

  5. Bristol Bay, Alaska Subarea ESI: INVERT (Invertebrate Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for marine and estuarine invertebrate species in the Bristol Bay Subarea. The Subarea includes marine and...

  6. Guam and the Northern Mariana Islands ESI: INVERT (Invertebrate Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for intertidal-, reef-, and mangrove-associated invertebrate species in Guam and the Northern Mariana...

  7. Effects of neonicotinoids and fipronil on non-target invertebrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pisa, L W; Amaral-Rogers, V; Belzunces, L P; Bonmatin, J M; Downs, C A; Goulson, D; Kreutzweiser, D P; Krupke, C; Liess, M; McField, M; Morrissey, C A; Noome, D A; Settele, J; Simon-Delso, N; Stark, J D; Van der Sluijs, J P; Van Dyck, H; Wiemers, M

    2015-01-01

    We assessed the state of knowledge regarding the effects of large-scale pollution with neonicotinoid insecticides and fipronil on non-target invertebrate species of terrestrial, freshwater and marine environments. A large section of the assessment is dedicated to the state of knowledge on sublethal effects on honeybees (Apis mellifera) because this important pollinator is the most studied non-target invertebrate species. Lepidoptera (butterflies and moths), Lumbricidae (earthworms), Apoidae sensu lato (bumblebees, solitary bees) and the section "other invertebrates" review available studies on the other terrestrial species. The sections on freshwater and marine species are rather short as little is known so far about the impact of neonicotinoid insecticides and fipronil on the diverse invertebrate fauna of these widely exposed habitats. For terrestrial and aquatic invertebrate species, the known effects of neonicotinoid pesticides and fipronil are described ranging from organismal toxicology and behavioural effects to population-level effects. For earthworms, freshwater and marine species, the relation of findings to regulatory risk assessment is described. Neonicotinoid insecticides exhibit very high toxicity to a wide range of invertebrates, particularly insects, and field-realistic exposure is likely to result in both lethal and a broad range of important sublethal impacts. There is a major knowledge gap regarding impacts on the grand majority of invertebrates, many of which perform essential roles enabling healthy ecosystem functioning. The data on the few non-target species on which field tests have been performed are limited by major flaws in the outdated test protocols. Despite large knowledge gaps and uncertainties, enough knowledge exists to conclude that existing levels of pollution with neonicotinoids and fipronil resulting from presently authorized uses frequently exceed the lowest observed adverse effect concentrations and are thus likely to have large

  8. Common mechanisms of synaptic plasticity in vertebrates and invertebrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glanzman, David L.

    2016-01-01

    Until recently, the literature on learning-related synaptic plasticity in invertebrates has been dominated by models assuming plasticity is mediated by presynaptic changes, whereas the vertebrate literature has been dominated by models assuming it is mediated by postsynaptic changes. Here I will argue that this situation does not reflect a biological reality and that, in fact, invertebrate and vertebrate nervous systems share a common set of mechanisms of synaptic plasticity. PMID:20152143

  9. Chemical elements in invertebrate orders for environmental quality studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Magalhaes, Marcelo R.L.; Franca, Elvis J.; Paiva, Jose D.S.; Hazin, Clovis A., E-mail: marcelo_rlm@hotmail.com, E-mail: ejfranca@cnen.gov.br, E-mail: dan-paiva@hotmail.com, E-mail: chazin@cnen.gov.br [Centro Regional de Ciencias Nucleares do Nordeste (CRCN-NE/CNEN-PE), Recife, PE (Brazil); Fonseca, Felipe Y.; Fernandes, Elisabete A. de Nadai; Bacchi, Marcio A., E-mail: felipe-yamada@hotmail.com, E-mail: lis@cena.usp.br, E-mail: mabacchi@cena.usp.br [Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura (CENA/USP), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    Among the biomonitors of environmental quality, there is a lack of studies on using invertebrates to evaluate quantitatively chemical elements in ecosystems. This group of animals is quite numerous, widely distributed and adaptable to the most diverse environmental conditions. These features are very useful for the environmental quality assessment, as well as the several occurring insect-plant interactions performing essential functions in ecosystems. The objective of this work is to study the variability of chemical composition of invertebrate orders for using in environmental quality monitoring studies. Instrumental neutron activation analysis - INAA was applied to determine some nutrients and trace elements in invertebrate samples. Sampling by pitfall traps was carried out in riverine ecosystems from the urban area from the Piracicaba Municipality, State of Sao Paulo, Brazil. Invertebrate and reference material samples were irradiated in the nuclear research reactor IEA-R1, Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares - IPEN/CNEN. Fragments of a Ni-Cr alloy were irradiated for monitoring the thermal neutron flux. Hymenoptera order was considered the most representative according to the total number of sampled species (about 60%). Significant amounts of Ba, Br, Fe and Sc were found in invertebrates of the order Opiliones. Potassium, rubidium and zinc were highly accumulated in species from Blattodea order, indicating a consistent pattern of accumulation for this invertebrate order. Taking into account the abundance of Hymenoptera order, the chemical composition of its species was significant different at the 95% confidence level for Br and Na in the sampled locals. (author)

  10. Chemical elements in invertebrate orders for environmental quality studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Magalhaes, Marcelo R.L.; Franca, Elvis J.; Paiva, Jose D.S.; Hazin, Clovis A.; Fonseca, Felipe Y.; Fernandes, Elisabete A. de Nadai; Bacchi, Marcio A.

    2013-01-01

    Among the biomonitors of environmental quality, there is a lack of studies on using invertebrates to evaluate quantitatively chemical elements in ecosystems. This group of animals is quite numerous, widely distributed and adaptable to the most diverse environmental conditions. These features are very useful for the environmental quality assessment, as well as the several occurring insect-plant interactions performing essential functions in ecosystems. The objective of this work is to study the variability of chemical composition of invertebrate orders for using in environmental quality monitoring studies. Instrumental neutron activation analysis - INAA was applied to determine some nutrients and trace elements in invertebrate samples. Sampling by pitfall traps was carried out in riverine ecosystems from the urban area from the Piracicaba Municipality, State of Sao Paulo, Brazil. Invertebrate and reference material samples were irradiated in the nuclear research reactor IEA-R1, Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares - IPEN/CNEN. Fragments of a Ni-Cr alloy were irradiated for monitoring the thermal neutron flux. Hymenoptera order was considered the most representative according to the total number of sampled species (about 60%). Significant amounts of Ba, Br, Fe and Sc were found in invertebrates of the order Opiliones. Potassium, rubidium and zinc were highly accumulated in species from Blattodea order, indicating a consistent pattern of accumulation for this invertebrate order. Taking into account the abundance of Hymenoptera order, the chemical composition of its species was significant different at the 95% confidence level for Br and Na in the sampled locals. (author)

  11. Piscicides and invertebrates: after 70 years, does anyone really know?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinson, M.R.; Dinger, E.C.; Vinson, D.K.

    2010-01-01

    The piscicides rotenone and antimycin have been used for more than 70 years to manage fish populations by eliminating undesirable fish species. The effects of piscicides on aquatic invertebrate assemblages are considered negligible by some and significant by others. This difference of opinion has created contentious situations and delayed native fish restoration projects. We review the scientific evidence and report that short-term ( 1 year) impacts are largely unknown. Recovery of invertebrate assemblages following treatments ranged from a few months for abundances of common taxa to several years for rarer taxa. Variation in reported effects was primarily due to natural variation among species and habitats and a lack of adequate pre- and post-treatment sampling which prevents determining the true impacts to invertebrate assemblages. The factors most likely to influence impacts and recovery of aquatic invertebrate assemblages following piscicide treatments are: (1) concentration, duration, and breadth of the piscicide treatment; (2) invertebrate morphology and life history characteristics, including surface area to volume ratios, type of respiration organs, generation time, and propensity to disperse; (3) refugia presence; and (4) distance from colonization sources.

  12. Conservation of estrogen receptor function in invertebrate reproduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Brande L; Walker, Chris; Azizi, Bahareh; Tolbert, Laren; Williams, Loren Dean; Snell, Terry W

    2017-03-04

    Rotifers are microscopic aquatic invertebrates that reproduce both sexually and asexually. Though rotifers are phylogenetically distant from humans, and have specialized reproductive physiology, this work identifies a surprising conservation in the control of reproduction between humans and rotifers through the estrogen receptor. Until recently, steroid signaling has been observed in only a few invertebrate taxa and its role in regulating invertebrate reproduction has not been clearly demonstrated. Insights into the evolution of sex signaling pathways can be gained by clarifying how receptors function in invertebrate reproduction. In this paper, we show that a ligand-activated estrogen-like receptor in rotifers binds human estradiol and regulates reproductive output in females. In other invertebrates characterized thus far, ER ligand binding domains have occluded ligand-binding sites and the ERs are not ligand activated. We have used a suite of computational, biochemical and biological techniques to determine that the rotifer ER binding site is not occluded and can bind human estradiol. Our results demonstrate that this mammalian hormone receptor plays a key role in reproduction of the ancient microinvertebrate Brachinous manjavacas. The presence and activity of the ER within the phylum Rotifera indicates that the ER structure and function is highly conserved throughout animal evolution.

  13. Invertebrates as model organisms for research on aging biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murthy, Mahadev; Ram, Jeffrey L

    2015-01-30

    Invertebrate model systems, such as nematodes and fruit flies, have provided valuable information about the genetics and cellular biology involved in aging. However, limitations of these simple, genetically tractable organisms suggest the need for other model systems, some of them invertebrate, to facilitate further advances in the understanding of mechanisms of aging and longevity in mammals, including humans. This paper introduces 10 review articles about the use of invertebrate model systems for the study of aging by authors who participated in an 'NIA-NIH symposium on aging in invertebrate model systems' at the 2013 International Congress for Invertebrate Reproduction and Development. In contrast to the highly derived characteristics of nematodes and fruit flies as members of the superphylum Ecdysozoa, cnidarians, such as Hydra, are more 'basal' organisms that have a greater number of genetic orthologs in common with humans. Moreover, some other new model systems, such as the urochordate Botryllus schlosseri , the tunicate Ciona , and the sea urchins (Echinodermata) are members of the Deuterostomia, the same superphylum that includes all vertebrates, and thus have mechanisms that are likely to be more closely related to those occurring in humans. Additional characteristics of these new model systems, such as the recent development of new molecular and genetic tools and a more similar pattern to humans of regeneration and stem cell function suggest that these new model systems may have unique advantages for the study of mechanisms of aging and longevity.

  14. Lysosomal enzymes and their receptors in invertebrates: an evolutionary perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Nadimpalli Siva; Bhamidimarri, Poorna M

    2015-01-01

    Lysosomal biogenesis is an important process in eukaryotic cells to maintain cellular homeostasis. The key components that are involved in the biogenesis such as the lysosomal enzymes, their modifications and the mannose 6-phosphate receptors have been well studied and their evolutionary conservation across mammalian and non-mammalian vertebrates is clearly established. Invertebrate lysosomal biogenesis pathway on the other hand is not well studied. Although, details on mannose 6-phosphate receptors and enzymes involved in lysosomal enzyme modifications were reported earlier, a clear cut pathway has not been established. Recent research on the invertebrate species involving biogenesis of lysosomal enzymes suggests a possible conserved pathway in invertebrates. This review presents certain observations based on these processes that include biochemical, immunological and functional studies. Major conclusions include conservation of MPR-dependent pathway in higher invertebrates and recent evidence suggests that MPR-independent pathway might have been more prominent among lower invertebrates. The possible components of MPR-independent pathway that may play a role in lysosomal enzyme targeting are also discussed here.

  15. A generalized model for estimating the energy density of invertebrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, Daniel A.; Csargo, Isak J.; Von Eschen, Aaron; Thul, Megan D.; Baker, James M.; Hayer, Cari-Ann; Howell, Jessica; Krause, Jacob; Letvin, Alex; Chipps, Steven R.

    2012-01-01

    Invertebrate energy density (ED) values are traditionally measured using bomb calorimetry. However, many researchers rely on a few published literature sources to obtain ED values because of time and sampling constraints on measuring ED with bomb calorimetry. Literature values often do not account for spatial or temporal variability associated with invertebrate ED. Thus, these values can be unreliable for use in models and other ecological applications. We evaluated the generality of the relationship between invertebrate ED and proportion of dry-to-wet mass (pDM). We then developed and tested a regression model to predict ED from pDM based on a taxonomically, spatially, and temporally diverse sample of invertebrates representing 28 orders in aquatic (freshwater, estuarine, and marine) and terrestrial (temperate and arid) habitats from 4 continents and 2 oceans. Samples included invertebrates collected in all seasons over the last 19 y. Evaluation of these data revealed a significant relationship between ED and pDM (r2  =  0.96, p cost savings compared to traditional bomb calorimetry approaches. This model should prove useful for a wide range of ecological studies because it is unaffected by taxonomic, seasonal, or spatial variability.

  16. Nitrous oxide production associated with coastal marine invertebrates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heisterkamp, Ines Maria; Schramm, Andreas; de Beer, Dirk

    2010-01-01

    Several freshwater and terrestrial invertebrate species emit the greenhouse gas nitrous oxide (N2O). The N2O production associated with these animals was ascribed to incomplete denitrification by ingested sediment or soil bacteria. The present study shows that many marine invertebrates also emit N2...... with an experimentally cleaned shell. Thus, the N2O production associated with marine invertebrates is apparently not due to gut denitrification in every species, but may also result from microbial activity on the external surfaces of animals. The high abundance and potential N2O emission rates of many marine......, excluding the aquacultured shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei, which showed the highest rate of N2O emission measured so far for any marine species (3.569 nmol ind.–1 h–1), probably due to very high nitrate concentrations in the rearing tanks. The N2O emitted by L. vannamei was almost exclusively produced in its...

  17. Pro-oxidant and antioxidant processes in aquatic invertebrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canesi, Laura

    2015-03-01

    Most aquatic organisms behave as conformers with respect to environmental variables, including changes in O2 availability. Aquatic species that show tolerance to hypoxia/anoxia or hyperoxia can be excellent models for investigating physiological and biochemical adaptations that deal with changing O2 and consequent changes in metabolic rate and production of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Here, I summarize selected data on ROS production and antioxidant defenses in a model marine invertebrate, the bivalve Mytilus, under different environmental and physiological conditions. An example of other bivalves adapted to particular environments (the Antarctic Sea) is also reported. These studies contributed to the knowledge on pro-oxidant and antioxidant processes in aquatic invertebrates from comparative and environmental perspectives. A common role for metallothioneins in antioxidant protection in mammals and aquatic invertebrates is underlined in different conditions, from human disease to responses to environmental exposure to heavy metals. © 2014 New York Academy of Sciences.

  18. Sequence diversity and evolution of antimicrobial peptides in invertebrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tassanakajon, Anchalee; Somboonwiwat, Kunlaya; Amparyup, Piti

    2015-02-01

    Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) are evolutionarily ancient molecules that act as the key components in the invertebrate innate immunity against invading pathogens. Several AMPs have been identified and characterized in invertebrates, and found to display considerable diversity in their amino acid sequence, structure and biological activity. AMP genes appear to have rapidly evolved, which might have arisen from the co-evolutionary arms race between host and pathogens, and enabled organisms to survive in different microbial environments. Here, the sequence diversity of invertebrate AMPs (defensins, cecropins, crustins and anti-lipopolysaccharide factors) are presented to provide a better understanding of the evolution pattern of these peptides that play a major role in host defense mechanisms. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Protozoa interaction with aquatic invertebrate: interest for watercourses biomonitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palos Ladeiro, M; Bigot, A; Aubert, D; Hohweyer, J; Favennec, L; Villena, I; Geffard, A

    2013-02-01

    Toxoplasma gondii, Cryptosporidium parvum, and Giardia duodenalis are human waterborne protozoa. These worldwide parasites had been detected in various watercourses as recreational, surface, drinking, river, and seawater. As of today, water protozoa detection was based on large water filtration and on sample concentration. Another tool like aquatic invertebrate parasitism could be used for sanitary and environmental biomonitoring. In fact, organisms like filter feeders could already filtrate and concentrate protozoa directly in their tissues in proportion to ambient concentration. So molluscan shellfish can be used as a bioindicator of protozoa contamination level in a site since they were sedentary. Nevertheless, only a few researches had focused on nonspecific parasitism like protozoa infection on aquatic invertebrates. Objectives of this review are twofold: Firstly, an overview of protozoa in worldwide water was presented. Secondly, current knowledge of protozoa parasitism on aquatic invertebrates was detailed and the lack of data of their biological impact was pointed out.

  20. Meroterpenes from Marine Invertebrates: Structures, Occurrence, and Ecological Implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Aiello

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Meroterpenes are widely distributed among marine organisms; they are particularly abundant within brown algae, but other important sources include microorganisms and invertebrates. In the present review the structures and bioactivities of meroterpenes from marine invertebrates, mainly sponges and tunicates, are summarized. More than 300 molecules, often complex and with unique skeletons originating from intra- and inter-molecular cyclizations, and/or rearrangements, are illustrated. The reported syntheses are mentioned. The issue of a potential microbial link to their biosynthesis is also shortly outlined.

  1. Meroterpenes from Marine Invertebrates: Structures, Occurrence, and Ecological Implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menna, Marialuisa; Imperatore, Concetta; D’Aniello, Filomena; Aiello, Anna

    2013-01-01

    Meroterpenes are widely distributed among marine organisms; they are particularly abundant within brown algae, but other important sources include microorganisms and invertebrates. In the present review the structures and bioactivities of meroterpenes from marine invertebrates, mainly sponges and tunicates, are summarized. More than 300 molecules, often complex and with unique skeletons originating from intra- and inter-molecular cyclizations, and/or rearrangements, are illustrated. The reported syntheses are mentioned. The issue of a potential microbial link to their biosynthesis is also shortly outlined. PMID:23685889

  2. Invertebrate footprints on detritus processing, bacterial community structure, and spatiotemporal redox profiles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hunting, E.R.; Whatley, M.H.; van der Geest, H.G.; Mulder, C.; Kraak, M.H.S.; Breure, A.M.; Admiraal, W.

    2012-01-01

    Detritus processing is driven by a complex interplay between macroinvertebrate and microbial activities. Bioturbation/feeding activities of invertebrates in sediments are known to influence decomposition rates. However, direct effects of invertebrates on bacterial communities and detritus processing

  3. Advancing Neuroscience Research in Africa: Invertebrate Species to the Rescue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balogun, Wasiu Gbolahan; Cobham, Ansa Emmanuel; Amin, Abdulbasit; Seeni, Azman

    2018-03-15

    Neuroscience research and training in many African countries are difficult due to funding and infrastructure deficit. This has resulted in few neuroscientists within Africa. However, invertebrates such as Drosophila and Caenorhabditis elegans could provide the perfect answer to these difficulties. These organisms are cheap, easy to handle and offer a comparable advantage over vertebrates in neuroscience research modeling because they have a simple nervous system and exhibit well-defined behaviors. Studies using invertebrates have helped to understand neurosciences and the complexes associated with it. If Africa wants to catch up with the rest of the world in neuroscience research, it needs to employ this innovative cost-effective approach in its research. To improve invertebrate neuroscience within the Africa continent, the authors advocated the establishment of invertebrate research centers either at regional or national level across Africa. Finally, there is also a need to provide public funding to consolidate the gains that have been made by not-for-profit international organizations over the years. Copyright © 2018 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Macro-invertebrate predatorsof freshwater pulmonate snails in Africa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A range of African and alien macro-invertebrates has been reported preying on freshwater pulmonate snails, including those that serve as intermediate hosts for bloodflukes of the genus Schistosoma. Predation by five molluscivorous taxa is reviewed here: indigenous leeches (Glossiphoniidae), marsh fly larvae ...

  5. Marine invertebrate diversity in Aristotle’s zoology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Voultsiadou, E.; Vafidis, D.

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to bring to light Aristotle’s knowledge of marine invertebrate diversity as this has been recorded in his works 25 centuries ago, and set it against current knowledge. The analysis of information derived from a thorough study of his zoological writings revealed 866 records

  6. Invertebrate Encrustations On The Mangrove Swamp Oyster And ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The mangrove swamp oyster Crassostrea tulipa demonstrates a symbiotic relationship with the barnacle. Balnus sp and other encrusting invertebrates. It is inferred that the latter militate against predatory drilling on the oyster by Thais califera as well as prevent algal infestation and the consequent bioerosion by herbivorous ...

  7. Contemporary climate change and terrestrial invertebrates : Evolutionary versus plastic changes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schilthuizen, Menno; Kellermann, Vanessa

    To forecast the responses of species to future climate change, an understanding of the ability of species to adapt to long-term shifts in temperature is crucial. We present a review on evolutionary adaptation and phenotypic plasticity of temperature-related traits in terrestrial invertebrates. The

  8. Trophic transfer of pyrene metabolites between aquatic invertebrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carrasco Navarro, V.; Leppänen, M.T.; Kukkonen, J.V.K.; Godoy Olmos, S.

    2013-01-01

    The trophic transfer of pyrene metabolites was studied using Gammarus setosus as a predator and the invertebrates Lumbriculus variegatus and Chironomus riparius as prey. The results obtained by liquid scintillation counting confirmed that the pyrene metabolites produced by the aquatic invertebrates L. variegatus and C. riparius were transferred to G. setosus through the diet. More detailed analyses by liquid chromatography discovered that two of the metabolites produced by C. riparius appeared in the chromatograms of G. setosus tissue extracts, proving their trophic transfer. These metabolites were not present in chromatograms of G. setosus exclusively exposed to pyrene. The present study supports the trophic transfer of PAH metabolites between benthic macroinvertebrates and common species of an arctic amphipod. As some PAH metabolites are more toxic than the parent compounds, the present study raises concerns about the consequences of their trophic transfer and the fate and effects of PAHs in natural environments. - Highlights: ► The trophic transfer of pyrene metabolites between invertebrates was evaluated. ► Biotransformation of pyrene by L. variegatus and C. riparius is different. ► Metabolites produced by L. variegatus and C. riparius are transferred to G. setosus. ► Specifically, two metabolites produced by C. riparius were transferred. - Some of the pyrene metabolites produced by the model invertebrates L. variegatus and C. riparius are transferred to G. setosus through the diet, proving their trophic transfer.

  9. Invertebrates: Revealing a Hidden World in the Year of Biodiversity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanders, Dawn

    2010-01-01

    Biodiversity means the variety of life in all its forms. It includes the variety of species and ecosystems in the world, and genetic variation. Invertebrates are one of the largest and most accessible groups of animals for primary children to study. In this article, the author explains why and how children should engage with the idea of…

  10. Genetics of anti-parasite resistance in invertebrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carton, Y; Nappi, A J; Poirie, M

    2005-01-01

    This review summarizes and compares available data on genetic and molecular aspects of resistance in four well-described invertebrate host-parasite systems: snail-schistosome, mosquito-malaria, mosquito-filarial worm, and Drosophila-wasp associations. It underlies that the major components of the immune reaction, such as hemocyte proliferation and/or activation, and production of cytotoxic radicals are common to invertebrate hosts. Identifying genes responsible for naturally occurring resistance will then be helpful to understand the mechanisms of invertebrate immune defenses and to determine how virulence factors are used by parasites to overcome host resistance. Based on these four well-studied models, invertebrate resistance appears as generally determined by one major locus or a few loci, displaying at least partial dominance. Interestingly, specificity of resistance is highly variable and would involve processes other than simple recognition mechanisms. Finally, resistance was shown to be generally costly but is nevertheless observed at high frequencies in many natural populations, suggesting a high potential for host parasite coevolution. Copyright 2004 Elsevier Ltd.

  11. Effect of burn area on invertebrate recolonization in grasslands in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Our study examined the short-term response of grassland invertebrate communities to fire in the South African Drakensberg, in relation to distance from the edge of a burn. We aimed to establish which species survive fire and the dynamics of the post-fire recolonization process, and thereby contribute to establishing the ...

  12. The association between invertebrates and macrophytes in a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Two hirudineans, Placobdella sp. and Haemopsis sp., and a turbellarian, Dugesia sp., were the most abundant taxa in the shoreline zone where Eichhornia crassipes was the most important macrophyte. The invertebrate community on other macrophytes was very different from that on Eichhornia, being dominated by ...

  13. Dynamics of Invertebrate Diversity in a Tropical Stream

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard G. Pearson

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Regional studies of biotic communities are important for characterising their normal spatial and temporal variation, but there are few such studies of tropical streams. This paper describes changes in invertebrate communities in Yuccabine Creek, a seasonal upland rainforest stream in tropical Australia, over three-year and decadal periods. Invertebrate abundance, richness and evenness were temporally stable, except after major drying or wet-season flows, from which they recovered quickly; however, three wet seasons contrasted in abundance patterns. Species’ responses to flood or drought varied depending on life-histories and habitat dynamics. Communities showed contrasts between wet, early-dry and late-dry seasons, with different characteristic species. Current velocity, leaf litter and substratum particle size were the main environmental correlates with species abundances and multivariate scores. Between-decade contrasts were due to antecedent rainfall and loss of canopy cover. Trophic composition varied seasonally, driven by abundances of predators and detritivores. Yuccabine Creek differs from comparable temperate streams in its high diversity of invertebrates, continual recruitment and spring-dominated continual leaf fall; and from some other tropical streams in its seasonal flow regime. Interpretation of invertebrate metrics in these streams needs to account for historical, antecedent and current conditions, but biannual samples would adequately characterise the fauna.

  14. An assessment of macrobenthic invertebrates of the Ossiomo river ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A study on macrobenthic invertebrates of the Ossiomo River was carried out in order to ascertain their composition, abundance, diversity and distribution in the river. This study which spanned a period of eight months (February to September, 2013) recorded a total of 65 species comprising 2,380 individuals shared among 3 ...

  15. Community structure and diversity of macrobenthic invertebrates in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Macrobenthic invertebrates' community structure and diversity in relation to some water quality parameters of Owan River; Edo State, was investigated from March 2011 to August, 2011. The study was aimed to determine the water-quality and their relationship with the community structure and diversity of ...

  16. Seasonal changes of invertebrate fauna associated with Cystoseira ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This research was carried out to determine the invertebrate fauna associated with Cystoseira barbata facies distributed in the upper-infralittoral zone of the Southeastern Black Sea coasts and their bioecological features. The investigations were seasonally performed at depths of 0 to 3 m in 5 different stations chosen in the ...

  17. Basin Scale Evaluation of Stream Invertebrate Community Functional Organization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cummins, K. W.; Matousek, J.; Shackelford, A. J.

    2005-05-01

    Invertebrate community functional organization was studied at the basin scale in the Freshwater Creek catchment in northern California in August and September, 2004. Timed, D-frame net samples were taken in six tributaries (study reaches 0.5 - 2.7 km) and two sections of the mainstem (3.4 and 4.5 km) of Freshwater Creek. The 317 samples from 106 sites were collected by habitat (cobble, 167; riparian litter, 82; fine sediments, 36; large woody debris, 32). The sample sites matched randomly selected locations within a sample frame of a concomitant juvenile salmonid survey. Juvenile salmonid stomach samples were also taken at each invertebrate survey site. Shredders and total collectors each dominated one tributary and one mainstem reach and scrapers dominated four tributaries. Using the invertebrate ecosystem surrogate method developed by Cummins and Merritt, half of the tributaries/mainstem reaches were characterized as heterotrophic, the other half as autotrophic. The invertebrate functional group community organization was strongly correlated with habitat type but, in general, the relationship with salmonid abundance was indirect. Initial analysis of juvenile salmonid stomachs from one stream (Cloney Gulch) indicated that food availability was good for drift-feeding fish.

  18. Detection of betanodaviruses in apparently healthy aquarium fishes and invertebrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez, Dennis Kaw; Lim, Dong Joo; Baeck, Gun Wook; Youn, Hee Jeong; Shin, Nam Shik; Youn, Hwa Young; Hwang, Cheol Yong; Park, Jun Hong; Park, Se Chang

    2006-12-01

    Betanodaviruses are the causative agents of viral nervous necrosis (VNN) in cultured marine fish. A total of 237 apparently healthy aquarium fish, marine (65 species) and freshwater (12 species) fishes and marine invertebrates (4 species), which were stocked in a commercial aquarium in Seoul, South Korea, were collected from November 2005 to February 2006. The brains of the fish and other tissues of the invertebrates were examined by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and nested PCR to detect betanodavirus. Positive nested PCR results were obtained from the brains of 8 marine fish species (shrimp fish Aeoliscus strigatus, milkfish Chanos chanos, three spot damsel Dascyllus trimaculatus, Japanese anchovy Engraulis japonicus, pinecone fish Monocentris japonica, blue ribbon eel Rhinomuraena quaesita, look down fish Selene vomer, yellow tang Zebrasoma flavesenes), 1 marine invertebrate species (spiny lobster Pamulirus versicolor), and 2 freshwater fish species (South American leaf fish Monocirrhus polyacanthus and red piranha Pygocentrus nattereri). The detection rate in nested PCR was 11/237 (4.64%). These subclinically infected aquarium fish and invertebrates may constitute an inoculum source of betanodaviruses for cultured fishes in the Korean Peninsula.

  19. Response of benthic invertebrate communities to a land use ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tropical land use farming (e.g., tea, maize, cabbage) have significant impacts on the benthic invertebrate assemblages of highland streams in Nigeria. However, not all crop and plantation streams had highly impacted communities because some have wider riparian buffer zones. This study further highlight the importance of ...

  20. Biodiversity and abundance of fish and macrobenthic invertebrates ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A study of the occurrence and distribution offish and macrobenthic invertebrates of Nguru Lake was conducted between May, 2006 and April, 2007. Thirteen families of fish consisting of 24 species where discovered. The fishes were dominate.d by the family Cichlidae (64.44%). An average of 540. 1 7kg of fish was caught ...

  1. Invertebrate neurophylogeny: suggested terms and definitions for a neuroanatomical glossary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Müller Carsten HG

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Invertebrate nervous systems are highly disparate between different taxa. This is reflected in the terminology used to describe them, which is very rich and often confusing. Even very general terms such as 'brain', 'nerve', and 'eye' have been used in various ways in the different animal groups, but no consensus on the exact meaning exists. This impedes our understanding of the architecture of the invertebrate nervous system in general and of evolutionary transformations of nervous system characters between different taxa. Results We provide a glossary of invertebrate neuroanatomical terms with a precise and consistent terminology, taxon-independent and free of homology assumptions. This terminology is intended to form a basis for new morphological descriptions. A total of 47 terms are defined. Each entry consists of a definition, discouraged terms, and a background/comment section. Conclusions The use of our revised neuroanatomical terminology in any new descriptions of the anatomy of invertebrate nervous systems will improve the comparability of this organ system and its substructures between the various taxa, and finally even lead to better and more robust homology hypotheses.

  2. The association between invertebrates and macrophytes in a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The invertebrate fauna associated with aquatic macrophytes in the littoral of Lake Kariba was studied over a three-month period in 2002. Animals from seven classes — Hirudinea, Oligochaeta, Turbellaria, Insecta, Crustacea, Bivalvia and Gastropoda — were collected. Two hirudineans, Placobdella sp. and Haemopsis sp., ...

  3. Survey of Zooplanktons and Macro-Invertebrates of Gbedikere Lake ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Zooplankton and macro-invertebrates samples were collected weekly from three sampling stations at the Gbedikere Lake, Bassa Local Government Area, Kogi state, Nigeria from July to September 2008. Prior to sampling, Temperature of surface water, Secchi disc transparency, pH and dissolved oxygen concentration were ...

  4. Invertebrate grazing during the regenerative phase affects the ultimate structure of macrophyte communities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elger, A.F.; Willby, N.; Cabello-Martinez, M.

    2009-01-01

    1. Although the biomass of freshwater macrophytes consumed by invertebrate herbivores (excluding crayfish) is usually low, there is growing evidence that invertebrates do exert a structuring effect on macrophyte communities. To explain this, we postulated that the effect of invertebrates may be

  5. The overlooked biodiversity of flower-visiting invertebrates.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carl W Wardhaugh

    Full Text Available Estimates suggest that perhaps 40% of all invertebrate species are found in tropical rainforest canopies. Extrapolations of total diversity and food web analyses have been based almost exclusively on species inhabiting the foliage, under the assumption that foliage samples are representative of the entire canopy. We examined the validity of this assumption by comparing the density of invertebrates and the species richness of beetles across three canopy microhabitats (mature leaves, new leaves and flowers on a one hectare plot in an Australian tropical rainforest. Specifically, we tested two hypotheses: 1 canopy invertebrate density and species richness are directly proportional to the amount of resource available; and 2 canopy microhabitats represent discrete resources that are utilised by their own specialised invertebrate communities. We show that flowers in the canopy support invertebrate densities that are ten to ten thousand times greater than on the nearby foliage when expressed on a per-unit resource biomass basis. Furthermore, species-level analyses of the beetle fauna revealed that flowers support a unique and remarkably rich fauna compared to foliage, with very little species overlap between microhabitats. We reject the hypothesis that the insect fauna on mature foliage is representative of the greater canopy community even though mature foliage comprises a very large proportion of canopy plant biomass. Although the significance of the evolutionary relationship between flowers and insects is well known with respect to plant reproduction, less is known about the importance of flowers as resources for tropical insects. Consequently, we suggest that this constitutes a more important piece of the 'diversity jigsaw puzzle' than has been previously recognised and could alter our understanding of the evolution of plant-herbivore interactions and food web dynamics, and provide a better foundation for accurately estimating global species

  6. Key factors for the emergence of collective decision in invertebrates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raphaël eJeanson

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available In many species of group-living invertebrates, in particular arthropods, collective decisions can emerge from the combined actions of individuals and the direct or indirect interactions between individuals. These decisions allow groups of individuals to respond quickly and accurately to changes that occur in their environment. Examples of such decisions are found in a variety of invertebrate taxa and in many different contexts, e.g. exploring a new territory, foraging for food, finding a suitable location where to aggregate or to establish a nest, defending oneself against predators, etc. In this paper we will review the collective decisions that have been documented in different invertebrate taxa where individuals are known to live temporarily or permanently in social or gregarious groups. We first present some simple examples of collective decisions involving the choice between two alternatives. We then define the fundamental rules required for these collective decisions to emerge throughout the invertebrate taxon, from simple organisms such as caterpillars, to animals endowed with highly developed perceptive and cognitive capacities such as ants and bees. The presentation of these rules gives us the opportunity to illustrate one of the pitfalls of the study of collective choice in animals by showing through computer simulations how a choice between two alternatives can be misinterpreted as the result of the action of self-organized mechanisms. In the second part, we discuss the peculiarities of collective decisions in invertebrates, their properties and characteristics. We conclude by discussing the issue of individual complexity in collective decision-making process.

  7. Crawling to collapse: ecologically unsound ornamental invertebrate fisheries.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Rhyne

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Fishery management has historically been an inexact and reactionary discipline, often taking action only after a critical stock suffers overfishing or collapse. The invertebrate ornamental fishery in the State of Florida, with increasing catches over a more diverse array of species, is poised for collapse. Current management is static and the lack of an adaptive strategy will not allow for adequate responses associated with managing this multi-species fishery. The last decade has seen aquarium hobbyists shift their display preference from fish-only tanks to miniature reef ecosystems that include many invertebrate species, creating increased demand without proper oversight. The once small ornamental fishery has become an invertebrate-dominated major industry supplying five continents. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Here, we analyzed the Florida Marine Life Fishery (FLML landing data from 1994 to 2007 for all invertebrate species. The data were organized to reflect both ecosystem purpose (in the wild and ecosystem services (commodities for each reported species to address the following question: Are ornamental invertebrates being exploited for their fundamental ecosystem services and economic value at the expense of reef resilience? We found that 9 million individuals were collected in 2007, 6 million of which were grazers. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The number of grazers now exceeds, by two-fold, the number of specimens collected for curio and ornamental purposes altogether, representing a major categorical shift. In general, landings have increased 10-fold since 1994, though the number of licenses has been dramatically reduced. Thus, despite current management strategies, the FLML Fishery appears to be crawling to collapse.

  8. Top-down control of invertebrates by Ninespine Stickleback in Arctic ponds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laske, Sarah M.; Rosenberger, Amanda E.; Kane, William J.; Wipfli, Mark S.; Zimmerman, Christian E.

    2017-01-01

    Despite their widespread presence in northern-latitude ecosystems, the ecological role of Ninespine Stickleback Pungitius pungitius is not well understood. Ninespine Stickleback can occupy both top and intermediate trophic levels in freshwater ecosystems, so their role in food webs as a predator on invertebrates and as a forage fish for upper level consumers probably is substantial. We introduced Ninespine Sticklebacks to fishless ponds to elucidate their potential effects as a predator on invertebrate communities in Arctic lentic freshwaters. We hypothesized that Ninespine Stickleback would affect freshwater invertebrate communities in a top-down manner. We predicted that the addition of Ninespine Sticklebacks to fishless ponds would: 1) reduce invertebrate taxonomic richness, 2) decrease overall invertebrate abundance, 3) reduce invertebrate biomass, and 4) decrease average invertebrate body size. We tested our hypothesis at 2 locations by adding Ninespine Stickleback to isolated ponds and compared invertebrate communities over time between fish-addition and fishless control ponds. Ninespine Sticklebacks exerted strong top-down pressure on invertebrate communities mainly by changing invertebrate taxonomic richness and biomass and, to a lesser extent, abundance and average invertebrate size. Our results supported the hypothesis that Ninespine Stickleback may help shape lentic food webs in the Arctic.

  9. The involvement of metallothionein in the development of aquatic invertebrate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mao Huan; Wang Dahui [Sperm Laboratory, College of Life Sciences, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310058 (China); Yang Wanxi, E-mail: wxyang@spermlab.org [Sperm Laboratory, College of Life Sciences, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310058 (China)

    2012-04-15

    The many documents on metallothioneins (MTs) in aquatic organisms focus especially on their use as biomarkers in environmental monitoring programs, but there are a few papers that summarize the physiological role of MTs in aquatic organisms especially in their development. The multifaceted role of MTs include involvement in homeostasis, protection against heavy metals and oxidant damage, metabolic regulation, sequestration and/or redox control. MTs could be induced by heavy metals which are able to hinder gametogenesis, suppress embryogenesis, and hamper development. Here we pay more attention on the non-essential metal cadmium, which is the most studied heavy metal regarding MTs, and its effects on the development of aquatic invertebrates. In this paper, we have collected published information on MTs in aquatic organisms - mollusks, crustaceans, etc., and summarize its functions in aquatic invertebrates, especially those related to their development.

  10. Lessons from Digestive-Tract Symbioses Between Bacteria and Invertebrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graf, Joerg

    2016-09-08

    In most animals, digestive tracts harbor the greatest number of bacteria in the animal that contribute to its health: by aiding in the digestion of nutrients, provisioning essential nutrients and protecting against colonization by pathogens. Invertebrates have been used to enhance our understanding of metabolic processes and microbe-host interactions owing to experimental advantages. This review describes how advances in DNA sequencing technologies have dramatically altered how researchers investigate microbe-host interactions, including 16S rRNA gene surveys, metagenome experiments, and metatranscriptome studies. Advantages and challenges of each of these approaches are described herein. Hypotheses generated through omics studies can be directly tested using site-directed mutagenesis, and findings from transposon studies and site-directed experiments are presented. Finally, unique structural aspects of invertebrate digestive tracts that contribute to symbiont specificity are presented. The combination of omics approaches with genetics and microscopy allows researchers to move beyond correlations to identify conserved mechanisms of microbe-host interactions.

  11. Vascular endothelial growth factors: A comparison between invertebrates and vertebrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kipryushina, Yulia O; Yakovlev, Konstantin V; Odintsova, Nelly A

    2015-12-01

    This review aims to summarize recent data concerning the structure and role of the members of the vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and vascular endothelial growth factor receptor (VEGFR) families in the context of early development, organogenesis and regeneration, with a particular emphasis on the role of these factors in the development of invertebrates. Homologs of VEGF and/or VEGFR have been found in all Eumetazoa, in both Radiata and Bilateria, where they are expressed in the descendants of different germ layers and play a pivotal role in the development of animals with and without a vascular system. VEGF is a well-known angiogenesis regulator, but this factor also control cell migration during neurogenesis and the development of branching organs (the trachea) in invertebrate and vertebrate species. A possible explanation for the origin of Vegf/Vegfr in the animal kingdom and a pathway of Vegf/Vegfr evolution are discussed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Enterococcus infection biology: lessons from invertebrate host models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuen, Grace J; Ausubel, Frederick M

    2014-03-01

    The enterococci are commensals of the gastrointestinal tract of many metazoans, from insects to humans. While they normally do not cause disease in the intestine, they can become pathogenic when they infect sites outside of the gut. Recently, the enterococci have become important nosocomial pathogens, with the majority of human enterococcal infections caused by two species, Enterococcus faecalis and Enterococcus faecium. Studies using invertebrate infection models have revealed insights into the biology of enterococcal infections, as well as general principles underlying host innate immune defense. This review highlights recent findings on Enterococcus infection biology from two invertebrate infection models, the greater wax moth Galleria mellonella and the free-living bacteriovorous nematode Caenorhabditis elegans.

  13. Invertebrates control metals and arsenic sequestration as ecosystem engineers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaller, Jörg; Weiske, Arndt; Mkandawire, Martin; Dudel, E Gert

    2010-03-01

    Organic sediments are known to be a significant sink of inorganic elements in polluted freshwater ecosystems. Hence, we investigated the role of invertebrate shredders (the freshwater shrimp Gammarus pulex L.) in metal and arsenic enrichment into organic partitions of sediments in a wetland stream at former uranium mining site. Metal and metalloid content in leaf litter increased significantly during decomposition, while at the same time the carbon content decreased. During decomposition, G. pulex as a ecosystem engineer facilitated significantly the enrichment of magnesium (250%), manganese (560%), cobalt (310%), copper (200%), zinc (43%), arsenic (670%), cadmium (100%) and lead (1340%) into small particle sizes. The enrichments occur under very high concentrations of dissolved organic carbon. Small particles have high surface area that results in high biofilm development. Further, the highest amounts of elements were observed in biofilms. Therefore, invertebrate shredder like G. pulex can enhance retention of large amounts of metal and arsenic in wetlands. 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Recent Advances in Drug Discovery from South African Marine Invertebrates

    OpenAIRE

    Davies-Coleman, Michael T.; Veale, Clinton G. L.

    2015-01-01

    Recent developments in marine drug discovery from three South African marine invertebrates, the tube worm Cephalodiscus gilchristi, the ascidian Lissoclinum sp. and the sponge Topsentia pachastrelloides, are presented. Recent reports of the bioactivity and synthesis of the anti-cancer secondary metabolites cephalostatin and mandelalides (from C. gilchristi and Lissoclinum sp., respectively) and various analogues are presented. The threat of drug-resistant pathogens, e.g., methicillin-resist...

  15. Surfeit locus gene homologs are widely distributed in invertebrate genomes.

    OpenAIRE

    Armes, N; Fried, M

    1996-01-01

    The mouse Surfeit locus contains six sequence-unrelated genes (Surf-1 to -6) arranged in the tightest gene cluster so far described for mammals. The organization and juxtaposition of five of the Surfeit genes (Surf-1 to -5) are conserved between mammals and birds, and this may reflect a functional or regulatory requirement for the gene clustering. We have undertaken an evolutionary study to determine whether the Surfeit genes are conserved and clustered in invertebrate genomes. Drosophila mel...

  16. Pesticide runoff from energy crops: A threat to aquatic invertebrates?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bunzel, Katja; Schäfer, Ralf B; Thrän, Daniela; Kattwinkel, Mira

    2015-12-15

    The European Union aims to reach a 10% share of biofuels in the transport sector by 2020. The major burden is most likely to fall on already established annual energy crops such as rapeseed and cereals for the production of biodiesel and bioethanol, respectively. Annual energy crops are typically cultivated in intensive agricultural production systems, which require the application of pesticides. Agricultural pesticides can have adverse effects on aquatic invertebrates in adjacent streams. We assessed the relative ecological risk to aquatic invertebrates associated with the chemical pest management from six energy crops (maize, potato, sugar beet, winter barley, winter rapeseed, and winter wheat) as well as from mixed cultivation scenarios. The pesticide exposure related to energy crops and cultivation scenarios was estimated as surface runoff for 253 small stream sites in Central Germany using a GIS-based runoff potential model. The ecological risk for aquatic invertebrates, an important organism group for the functioning of stream ecosystems, was assessed using acute toxicity data (48-h LC50 values) of the crustacean Daphnia magna. We calculated the Ecological Risk from potential Pesticide Runoff (ERPR) for all three main groups of pesticides (herbicides, fungicides, and insecticides). Our findings suggest that the crops potato, sugar beet, and rapeseed pose a higher ecological risk to aquatic invertebrates than maize, barley, and wheat. As maize had by far the lowest ERPR values, from the perspective of pesticide pollution, its cultivation as substrate for the production of the gaseous biofuel biomethane may be preferable compared to the production of, for example, biodiesel from rapeseed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Invertebrate faunal zonation on rocky shores around Mombasa, Kenya.

    OpenAIRE

    Ruwa, R K

    1984-01-01

    The zonation of 36 species of rocky shore invertebrates at Mkomani and Nyali cliffs, Mombasa, Kenya, is described. Studies of their positioning on the cliffs compared to those of other parts of the Western Indian Ocean showed that the species which abundantly appeared in the littoral fringe were Littorina kraussi, L. scabra, Nodolittorino natalensis, Nerita plicata and N. undata; in the upper eulittoral zone were Isognomon dentifier, Acmaea profunda, Crassostrea cucullata, Nerita textilis, Ac...

  18. Some Macrobenthic Invertebrates in the Qatari Waters, Arabian Gulf

    OpenAIRE

    AL Khayat, Jassim A. [جاسم عبد الله الخياط

    2005-01-01

    Macro-invertebrates from eleven stations along the Qatar Exclosive Economic Zone (EEZ), Arabian Gulf, were studied during December 1998. A total of 52 species were encountered from all stations. Crustaceans were the most diverse group with 19 species. Polychaetes were represented by 17 species, followed by echinodennes (13 species) and hydrozoans (3 species). The faunal diversity index using Shannon-Wiener method ranged from 1.88 to 3.129. Overall species diversity based on numbers of individ...

  19. Biometry of neotropical invertebrates inhabiting floodplain rivers: unraveling bionomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florencia Zilli

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Currently, it is widely recognized that invertebrates play key roles in neotropical floodplains and in many other environments worldwide. However, little information has been published concerning their biometry, in spite that it represents an essential tool for many different studies. Here, we provided length-mass and length-length relationships by fitting the linearized model (log10 Y = log10a + b log10 X and several mean biomass ratios ± SE for bivalves, gastropods, quironomids, ephemeropterans, oligochaetes and hirudineans. We measured, weighed, oven dried and incinerated to ashes specimens collected from 2005 to 2014 in the Paraná River, Argentina. The lineal equations had fit levels higher than 75% in most of the significant regressions. Hence, when slopes were compared, differences raised from ontogeny and phylogeny of taxa. Additionally, slopes resulted different from constants of other regions, types of environments and climates. In addition, organic matter ratios resulted significantly different among invertebrates according to their feeding types. The equations and ratios that we provided will facilitate future research on life history, productivity and energy transference in the food webs of invertebrates inhabiting floodplain wetlands and can be used as tools for planning management strategies and in restoration projects of aquatic environments.

  20. Toxicity of abamectin and doramectin to soil invertebrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kolar, Lucija; Kozuh Erzen, Nevenka; Hogerwerf, Lenny; Gestel, Cornelis A.M. van

    2008-01-01

    This study aimed at determining the toxicity of avermectins to soil invertebrates in soil and in faeces from recently treated sheep. Abamectin was more toxic than doramectin. In soil, earthworms (Eisenia andrei) were most affected with LC50s of 18 and 228 mg/kg dry soil, respectively, while LC50s were 67-111 and >300 mg/kg for springtails (Folsomia candida), isopods (Porcellio scaber) and enchytraeids (Enchytraeus crypticus). EC50s for the effect on reproduction of springtails and enchytraeids were 13 and 38 mg/kg, respectively for abamectin, and 42 and 170 mg/kg for doramectin. For earthworms, NOEC was 10 and 8.4 mg/kg for abamectin and doramectin effects on body weight. When exposed in faeces, springtails and enchytraeids gave LC50s and EC50s of 1.0-1.4 and 0.94-1.1 mg/kg dry faeces for abamectin and 2.2->2.4 mg/kg for doramectin. Earthworm reproduction was not affected. This study indicates a potential risk of avermectins for soil invertebrates colonizing faeces from recently treated sheep. - Avermectins may pose a risk to soil invertebrates colonizing faeces from recently treated sheep

  1. Lessons in modularity: the evolutionary ecology of colonial invertebrates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roger N. Hughes

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Benthic colonial invertebrates share with higher plants a modular construction and a sessile adult life. Both types of organism show parallel evolutionary responses to common selective forces, but in contrast to the long-established focus on plants, comparable study of colonial invertebrates has developed relatively recently, largely owing to the application of new techniques in image processing and molecular biology. Species whose life cycles are readily completed under laboratory conditions and whose colonies are easily propagated from cuttings provide powerful models for experimentally investigating fundamental evolutionary problems, including metabolic allometry, the manifestation of ageing and the origin of allorecognition systems. Free of the confounding influences of behavioural manipulation and costs of copulation, colonial invertebrates whose water-borne sperm fertilize retained eggs lend themselves well to the experimental study of cryptic female choice, sperm competition and sexual conflict. In these respects, it will be productive to adopt and extend theoretical frameworks developed for flowering plants to guide experimental investigation of modular animals. Since mate choice occurs at the cellular level in modular animals, reproductive isolation is uncorrelated with morphology and cryptic speciation is likely to be widespread.

  2. Mucin-Type O-Glycosylation in Invertebrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staudacher, Erika

    2015-06-09

    O-Glycosylation is one of the most important posttranslational modifications of proteins. It takes part in protein conformation, protein sorting, developmental processes and the modulation of enzymatic activities. In vertebrates, the basics of the biosynthetic pathway of O-glycans are already well understood. However, the regulation of the processes and the molecular aspects of defects, especially in correlation with cancer or developmental abnormalities, are still under investigation. The knowledge of the correlating invertebrate systems and evolutionary aspects of these highly conserved biosynthetic events may help improve the understanding of the regulatory factors of this pathway. Invertebrates display a broad spectrum of glycosylation varieties, providing an enormous potential for glycan modifications which may be used for the design of new pharmaceutically active substances. Here, overviews of the present knowledge of invertebrate mucin-type O-glycan structures and the currently identified enzymes responsible for the biosynthesis of these oligosaccharides are presented, and the few data dealing with functional aspects of O-glycans are summarised.

  3. Soil macrofauna (invertebrates of Kazakhstanian Stipa lessingiana dry steppe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bragina Tatyana М.

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Stipa lessingiana steppes used to be prevalent on the dry Trans-Ural denudation plains, particularly, on the Sub-Ural and the Turgay Plateau. But, most of them have been lost because they were plowed up during the Virgin Land campaign in the second part of 20th century. This paper presents a detailed study of the faunistic composition and the structure of soil-dwelling invertebrate communities (macrofauna of a temperate-dry bunch feather grass steppe in the Turgai Plateau (Northern-Turgai physical-geographical province of steppe Kazakhstan, Kostanay Oblast. The study site is located in the territory of the Naurzum State Nature Reserve, a part of the UNESCO World Heritage site “Saryarka Steppe and Lakes of Northern Kazakhstan”, where remnants of Virgin S. lessingiana steppes have been preserved to the present day. This region is the driest and most continental in climate of all the dry steppes of Kazakhstan. The total abundance and biomass of soil invertebrate communities in the investigated site were lower than in the northern and western steppe areas. Soil invertebrates are among the major components that determine the functioning of terrestrial natural ecosystems.

  4. The invertebrate ecology of the Chalk aquifer in England (UK)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maurice, L.; Robertson, A. R.; White, D.; Knight, L.; Johns, T.; Edwards, F.; Arietti, M.; Sorensen, J. P. R.; Weitowitz, D.; Marchant, B. P.; Bloomfield, J. P.

    2016-03-01

    The Chalk is an important water supply aquifer, yet ecosystems within it remain poorly understood. Boreholes (198) in seven areas of England (UK) were sampled to determine the importance of the Chalk aquifer as a habitat, and to improve understanding of how species are distributed. Stygobitic macro-invertebrates were remarkably common, and were recorded in 67 % of boreholes in unconcealed Chalk, although they were not recorded in Chalk that is concealed by low-permeability strata and thus likely to be confined. Most species were found in shallow boreholes (50 m) water tables, indicating that the habitat is vertically extensive. Stygobites were present in more boreholes in southern England than northern England (77 % compared to 38 %). Only two species were found in northern England compared to six in southern England, but overall seven of the eight stygobitic macro-invertebrate species found in England were detected in the Chalk. Two species are common in southern England, but absent from northern England despite the presence of a continuous habitat prior to the Devensian glaciation. This suggests that either they did not survive glaciations in the north where glaciers were more extensive, or dispersal rates are slow and they have never colonised northern England. Subsurface ecosystems comprising aquatic macro-invertebrates and meiofauna, as well as the microbial organisms they interact with, are likely to be widespread in the Chalk aquifer. They represent an important contribution to biodiversity, and may influence biogeochemical cycles and provide other ecosystem services.

  5. Mucin-Type O-Glycosylation in Invertebrates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erika Staudacher

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available O-Glycosylation is one of the most important posttranslational modifications of proteins. It takes part in protein conformation, protein sorting, developmental processes and the modulation of enzymatic activities. In vertebrates, the basics of the biosynthetic pathway of O-glycans are already well understood. However, the regulation of the processes and the molecular aspects of defects, especially in correlation with cancer or developmental abnormalities, are still under investigation. The knowledge of the correlating invertebrate systems and evolutionary aspects of these highly conserved biosynthetic events may help improve the understanding of the regulatory factors of this pathway. Invertebrates display a broad spectrum of glycosylation varieties, providing an enormous potential for glycan modifications which may be used for the design of new pharmaceutically active substances. Here, overviews of the present knowledge of invertebrate mucin-type O-glycan structures and the currently identified enzymes responsible for the biosynthesis of these oligosaccharides are presented, and the few data dealing with functional aspects of O-glycans are summarised.

  6. Endocrine Function in Aquatic Invertebrates and Evidence for Disruption by Environmental Pollutants

    OpenAIRE

    Pinder, L. C. V.; Pottinger, T. G.; Billinghurst, Z.; Depledge, M. H.

    1999-01-01

    EXECUTIVE SUMMARY Objectives 1. This report addresses five primary objectives:- (i) to summarize the key elements of invertebrate endocrine systems; (ii) to assess whether existing test systems are adequate for the detection of endocrine disruption in invertebrates, what new tests might be required, which species of invertebrates are most appropriate for such tests, what end-points should be measured and whether the same organisms can be used for both laboratory and environme...

  7. InverPep: A database of invertebrate antimicrobial peptides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez, Esteban A; Giraldo, Paula; Orduz, Sergio

    2017-03-01

    The aim of this work was to construct InverPep, a database specialised in experimentally validated antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) from invertebrates. AMP data contained in InverPep were manually curated from other databases and the scientific literature. MySQL was integrated with the development platform Laravel; this framework allows to integrate programming in PHP with HTML and was used to design the InverPep web page's interface. InverPep contains 18 separated fields, including InverPep code, phylum and species source, peptide name, sequence, peptide length, secondary structure, molar mass, charge, isoelectric point, hydrophobicity, Boman index, aliphatic index and percentage of hydrophobic amino acids. CALCAMPI, an algorithm to calculate the physicochemical properties of multiple peptides simultaneously, was programmed in PERL language. To date, InverPep contains 702 experimentally validated AMPs from invertebrate species. All of the peptides contain information associated with their source, physicochemical properties, secondary structure, biological activity and links to external literature. Most AMPs in InverPep have a length between 10 and 50 amino acids, a positive charge, a Boman index between 0 and 2 kcal/mol, and 30-50% hydrophobic amino acids. InverPep includes 33 AMPs not reported in other databases. Besides, CALCAMPI and statistical analysis of InverPep data is presented. The InverPep database is available in English and Spanish. InverPep is a useful database to study invertebrate AMPs and its information could be used for the design of new peptides. The user-friendly interface of InverPep and its information can be freely accessed via a web-based browser at http://ciencias.medellin.unal.edu.co/gruposdeinvestigacion/prospeccionydisenobiomoleculas/InverPep/public/home_en. Copyright © 2016 International Society for Chemotherapy of Infection and Cancer. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Macro-invertebrate decline in surface water polluted with imidacloprid.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tessa C Van Dijk

    Full Text Available Imidacloprid is one of the most widely used insecticides in the world. Its concentration in surface water exceeds the water quality norms in many parts of the Netherlands. Several studies have demonstrated harmful effects of this neonicotinoid to a wide range of non-target species. Therefore we expected that surface water pollution with imidacloprid would negatively impact aquatic ecosystems. Availability of extensive monitoring data on the abundance of aquatic macro-invertebrate species, and on imidacloprid concentrations in surface water in the Netherlands enabled us to test this hypothesis. Our regression analysis showed a significant negative relationship (P<0.001 between macro-invertebrate abundance and imidacloprid concentration for all species pooled. A significant negative relationship was also found for the orders Amphipoda, Basommatophora, Diptera, Ephemeroptera and Isopoda, and for several species separately. The order Odonata had a negative relationship very close to the significance threshold of 0.05 (P = 0.051. However, in accordance with previous research, a positive relationship was found for the order Actinedida. We used the monitoring field data to test whether the existing three water quality norms for imidacloprid in the Netherlands are protective in real conditions. Our data show that macrofauna abundance drops sharply between 13 and 67 ng l(-1. For aquatic ecosystem protection, two of the norms are not protective at all while the strictest norm of 13 ng l(-1 (MTR seems somewhat protective. In addition to the existing experimental evidence on the negative effects of imidacloprid on invertebrate life, our study, based on data from large-scale field monitoring during multiple years, shows that serious concern about the far-reaching consequences of the abundant use of imidacloprid for aquatic ecosystems is justified.

  9. A database of lotic invertebrate traits for North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieira, Nicole K.M.; Poff, N. LeRoy; Carlisle, Daren M.; Moulton, Stephen R.; Koski, Marci L.; Kondratieff, Boris C.

    2006-01-01

    The assessment and study of stream communities may be enhanced if functional characteristics such as life-history, habitat preference, and reproductive strategy were more widely available for specific taxa. Species traits can be used to develop these functional indicators because many traits directly link functional roles of organisms with controlling environmental factors (for example, flow, substratum, temperature). In addition, some functional traits may not be constrained by taxonomy and are thus applicable at multiple spatial scales. Unfortunately, a comprehensive summary of traits for North American invertebrate taxa does not exist. Consequently, the U.S. Geological Survey's National Water-Quality Assessment Program in cooperation with Colorado State University compiled a database of traits for North American invertebrates. A total of 14,127 records for over 2,200 species, 1,165 genera, and 249 families have been entered into the database from 967 publications, texts and reports. Quality-assurance procedures indicated error rates of less than 3 percent in the data entry process. Species trait information was most complete for insect taxa. Traits describing resource acquisition and habitat preferences were most frequently reported, whereas those describing physiological tolerances and reproductive biology were the least frequently reported in the literature. The database is not exhaustive of the literature for North American invertebrates and is biased towards aquatic insects, but it represents a first attempt to compile traits in a web-accessible database. This report describes the database and discusses important decisions necessary for identifying ecologically relevant, environmentally sensitive, non-redundant, and statistically tractable traits for use in bioassessment programs.

  10. Macro-Invertebrate Decline in Surface Water Polluted with Imidacloprid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Dijk, Tessa C.; Van Staalduinen, Marja A.; Van der Sluijs, Jeroen P.

    2013-01-01

    Imidacloprid is one of the most widely used insecticides in the world. Its concentration in surface water exceeds the water quality norms in many parts of the Netherlands. Several studies have demonstrated harmful effects of this neonicotinoid to a wide range of non-target species. Therefore we expected that surface water pollution with imidacloprid would negatively impact aquatic ecosystems. Availability of extensive monitoring data on the abundance of aquatic macro-invertebrate species, and on imidacloprid concentrations in surface water in the Netherlands enabled us to test this hypothesis. Our regression analysis showed a significant negative relationship (Pmacro-invertebrate abundance and imidacloprid concentration for all species pooled. A significant negative relationship was also found for the orders Amphipoda, Basommatophora, Diptera, Ephemeroptera and Isopoda, and for several species separately. The order Odonata had a negative relationship very close to the significance threshold of 0.05 (P = 0.051). However, in accordance with previous research, a positive relationship was found for the order Actinedida. We used the monitoring field data to test whether the existing three water quality norms for imidacloprid in the Netherlands are protective in real conditions. Our data show that macrofauna abundance drops sharply between 13 and 67 ng l−1. For aquatic ecosystem protection, two of the norms are not protective at all while the strictest norm of 13 ng l−1 (MTR) seems somewhat protective. In addition to the existing experimental evidence on the negative effects of imidacloprid on invertebrate life, our study, based on data from large-scale field monitoring during multiple years, shows that serious concern about the far-reaching consequences of the abundant use of imidacloprid for aquatic ecosystems is justified. PMID:23650513

  11. Transport distance of invertebrate environmental DNA in a natural river.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristy Deiner

    Full Text Available Environmental DNA (eDNA monitoring is a novel molecular technique to detect species in natural habitats. Many eDNA studies in aquatic systems have focused on lake or ponds, and/or on large vertebrate species, but applications to invertebrates in river systems are emerging. A challenge in applying eDNA monitoring in flowing waters is that a species' DNA can be transported downstream. Whether and how far eDNA can be detected due to downstream transport remains largely unknown. In this study we tested for downstream detection of eDNA for two invertebrate species, Daphnia longispina and Unio tumidus, which are lake dwelling species in our study area. The goal was to determine how far away from the source population in a lake their eDNA could be detected in an outflowing river. We sampled water from eleven river sites in regular intervals up to 12.3 km downstream of the lake, developed new eDNA probes for both species, and used a standard PCR and Sanger sequencing detection method to confirm presence of each species' eDNA in the river. We detected D. longispina at all locations and across two time points (July and October; whereas with U. tumidus, we observed a decreased detection rate and did not detect its eDNA after 9.1 km. We also observed a difference in detection for this species at different times of year. The observed movement of eDNA from the source amounting to nearly 10 km for these species indicates that the resolution of an eDNA sample can be large in river systems. Our results indicate that there may be species' specific transport distances for eDNA and demonstrate for the first time that invertebrate eDNA can persist over relatively large distances in a natural river system.

  12. Recent Advances in Drug Discovery from South African Marine Invertebrates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael T. Davies-Coleman

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Recent developments in marine drug discovery from three South African marine invertebrates, the tube worm Cephalodiscus gilchristi, the ascidian Lissoclinum sp. and the sponge Topsentia pachastrelloides, are presented. Recent reports of the bioactivity and synthesis of the anti-cancer secondary metabolites cephalostatin and mandelalides (from C. gilchristi and Lissoclinum sp., respectively and various analogues are presented. The threat of drug-resistant pathogens, e.g., methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA, is assuming greater global significance, and medicinal chemistry strategies to exploit the potent MRSA PK inhibition, first revealed by two marine secondary metabolites, cis-3,4-dihydrohamacanthin B and bromodeoxytopsentin from T. pachastrelloides, are compared.

  13. Recent Advances in Drug Discovery from South African Marine Invertebrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies-Coleman, Michael T; Veale, Clinton G L

    2015-10-14

    Recent developments in marine drug discovery from three South African marine invertebrates, the tube worm Cephalodiscus gilchristi, the ascidian Lissoclinum sp. and the sponge Topsentia pachastrelloides, are presented. Recent reports of the bioactivity and synthesis of the anti-cancer secondary metabolites cephalostatin and mandelalides (from C. gilchristi and Lissoclinum sp., respectively) and various analogues are presented. The threat of drug-resistant pathogens, e.g., methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), is assuming greater global significance, and medicinal chemistry strategies to exploit the potent MRSA PK inhibition, first revealed by two marine secondary metabolites, cis-3,4-dihydrohamacanthin B and bromodeoxytopsentin from T. pachastrelloides, are compared.

  14. Procedures for Radioecological Studies with Marine Benthic Invertebrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vilquin, A.; Fowler, S.W.; Renfro, W.C.

    1976-01-01

    Methods for the collection transportation, and pre-experimental handling are briefly described. In designing radioecological experiments on marine benthic invertebrates it is important to prevent overcrowding and to choose healthy, well-acclimated animals. Feeding of the animals and presence or absence of sediments in the aquaria are critical variables in many experiments. Length of time the experiment is run and interim growth of the experimental animals may result in significant variability in results. The physico-chemical form of the radiotracer is another important experimental variable. (author)

  15. Procedures for radioecological studies with marine benthic invertebrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vilquin, A.; Fowler, S.W.; Renfro, W.C.

    1975-01-01

    Methods for the collection, transportation, and pre-experimental handling are briefly described. In designing radioecological experiments on marine benthic invertebrates it is important to prevent overcrowding and to choose healthy, well-acclimated animals. Feeding of the animals and presence or absence of sediments in the aquaria are critical variables in many experiments. Length of time the experiment is run and interim growth of the experimental animals may result in significant variability in results. The physico-chemical form of the radiotracer is another important experimental variable. (author)

  16. Invertebrate macrofaune of the Teremkivsky-3 pond (Nivka river

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Liashenko

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The study the biodiversity and structural organization of invertebrate macrofauna of the Teremkivsky-3 pond of the river Nyvka, seasonal dynamics and of parameters and determination of pond ecological state and water pollution level based on the calculation of biotic indices. Methodology. The study of invertebrate macrofauna of the Teremkivsky-3 pond was performed during the vegetation season of 2005 (April, July, September. The study was carried out using standard hydroecological techniques with the use of main provisions of the Water Framework Directive of the European Community. In total, 34 quantitative and qualitative samples were collected, which were used for the determination of the structural characteristics of the macrofauna of phytophylous and periphyton invertebrates and following indices were calculated: Shannon diversity index, Woodiwiss index, the degree of the development of macrofauna communities and water saprobity based on indicator species . Findings. The pond Teremkivsky-3 is characterized by relatively high development of submerged aquatic vegetation, especially in summer and autumn, mainly in the coastal zone, a large sandy beach in the central part of the reservoir and a relatively shallow depth (in our studies up to 3 m. A moderate overgrowth of submerged aquatic vegetation stimulates the processes of self-purification of the lake, provides additional shelter for many species of aquatic invertebrates and thus contributes to their development. The worst structural characteristics were recorded for bottom macrofauna of the central part of the lake, where black silty soils with admixtures of detritus and residues were located. Species diversity indices of all three studied biotic communities (zoobenthos, zooperiphyton zoophythos were similar, quantitative parameters were characterized by relatively high biomass, mainly due to the development of gastropods. Based on the saprobity, water in the lake was characterized

  17. [Venomous and poisonous animals. V. Envenomations by venomous marine invertebrates].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bédry, R; de Haro, L

    2007-06-01

    Epidemiological information about marine envenomation is generally less extensive in Europe than in tropical countries where this type of injury is more severe and the need for medical attention is more frequent. For this reason use of the regional poison control centers in the areas where envenomation occurs must be encouraged. The purpose of this review is to describe envenomation by poisonous marine invertebrates (cephalopods, sea urchins, cone shells, jellyfish, anemones, star-fish, corals, and worms). Understanding of these envenomation syndromes is important not only in tropical areas but also in Europe where importation of dangerous species has increased in recent years.

  18. Lichen physiological traits and growth forms affect communities of associated invertebrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bokhorst, Stef; Asplund, Johan; Kardol, Paul; Wardle, David A

    2015-09-01

    While there has been much interest in the relationships between traits of primary producers and composition of associated invertebrate consumer communities, our knowledge is largely based on studies from vascular plants, while other types of functionally important producers, such as lichens, have rarely been considered. To address how physiological traits of lichens drive community composition of invertebrates, we collected thalli from 27 lichen species from southern Norway and quantified the communities of associated springtails, mites, and nematodes. For each lichen species, we measured key physiological thallus traits and determined whether invertebrate communities were correlated with these traits. We also explored whether invertebrate communities differed among lichen groups, categorized according to nitrogen-fixing ability, growth form, and substratum. Lichen traits explained up to 39% of the variation in abundances of major invertebrate groups. For many invertebrate groups, abundance was positively correlated with lichen N and P concentrations, N:P ratio, and the percentage of water content on saturation (WC), but had few relationships with concentrations of carbon-based secondary compounds. Diversity and taxonomic richness of invertebrate groups were sometimes also correlated with lichen N and N:P ratios. Nitrogen-fixing lichens showed higher abundance and diversity of some invertebrate groups than did non-N-fixing lichens. However, this emerged in part because most N-fixing lichens have a foliose growth form that benefits invertebrates, through, improving the microclimate, independently of N concentration. Furthermore, invertebrate communities associated with terricolous lichens were determined more by their close proximity to the soil invertebrate pool than by lichen traits. Overall, our results reveal that differences between lichen species have a large impact on the invertebrate communities that live among the thalli. Different invertebrate groups show

  19. Macro-invertebrate decline in surface water polluted with imidacloprid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Dijk, Tessa C; Van Staalduinen, Marja A; Van der Sluijs, Jeroen P

    2013-01-01

    Imidacloprid is one of the most widely used insecticides in the world. Its concentration in surface water exceeds the water quality norms in many parts of the Netherlands. Several studies have demonstrated harmful effects of this neonicotinoid to a wide range of non-target species. Therefore we expected that surface water pollution with imidacloprid would negatively impact aquatic ecosystems. Availability of extensive monitoring data on the abundance of aquatic macro-invertebrate species, and on imidacloprid concentrations in surface water in the Netherlands enabled us to test this hypothesis. Our regression analysis showed a significant negative relationship (Pwater quality norms for imidacloprid in the Netherlands are protective in real conditions. Our data show that macrofauna abundance drops sharply between 13 and 67 ng l(-1). For aquatic ecosystem protection, two of the norms are not protective at all while the strictest norm of 13 ng l(-1) (MTR) seems somewhat protective. In addition to the existing experimental evidence on the negative effects of imidacloprid on invertebrate life, our study, based on data from large-scale field monitoring during multiple years, shows that serious concern about the far-reaching consequences of the abundant use of imidacloprid for aquatic ecosystems is justified.

  20. Natural and human impacts on invertebrate communities in Brazilian caves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, R L; Horta, L C

    2001-02-01

    Species richness, abundance, distribution and similarity between cave invertebrate communities were compared among seven caves located in the Peruaçu River valley, north of Minas Gerais State, Brazil. Such comparisons aimed to determinate the degree of biological complexity in the sampled caves, calculated by the "Index of Biological Complexity in Caves", presented in this manuscript. The presence of potential or real impacts on the cave fauna was also investigated. A total of 1,468 individuals belonging to 57 families of: Acarina, Pseudoscorpionida, Araneida, Opilionida, Amblypygi, Isopoda, Geophilomorpha, Scutigeromorpha, Spirostreptida, Coleoptera, Collembola, Diptera, Dictyoptera, Ephemeroptera, Ensifera, Heteroptera, Hymenoptera, Lepidoptera, Plecoptera, Psocoptera, and Trichoptera was collected. Caves with higher resource availability (as those hidrologicaly actives) had a higher biological complexity than those with less resource. There are two types of impacts that occur in the area: the natural (geological) and the anthropic, as intense "stepping" and visitation or use of cave entrances as cattle shelters. There are caves with different preservation degrees in the area, with invertebrate communities in varied complexity states. The communities of these caves undoubtedly deserve care, since the area is extremely important in the Brazilian biospeleological context.

  1. Toxicity of carbon nanotubes to freshwater aquatic invertebrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mwangi, Joseph N.; Wang, Ning; Ingersoll, Christopher G.; Hardesty, Doug K.; Brunson, Eric L.; Li, Hao; Deng, Baolin

    2012-01-01

    Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are hydrophobic in nature and thus tend to accumulate in sediments if released into aquatic environments. As part of our overall effort to examine the toxicity of carbon-based nanomaterials to sediment-dwelling invertebrates, we have evaluated the toxicity of different types of CNTs in 14-d water-only exposures to an amphipod (Hyalella azteca), a midge (Chironomus dilutus), an oligochaete (Lumbriculus variegatus), and a mussel (Villosa iris) in advance of conducting whole-sediment toxicity tests with CNTs. The results of these toxicity tests conducted with CNTs added to water showed that 1.00g/L (dry wt) of commercial sources of CNTs significantly reduced the survival or growth of the invertebrates. Toxicity was influenced by the type and source of the CNTs, by whether the materials were precleaned by acid, by whether sonication was used to disperse the materials, and by species of the test organisms. Light and electron microscope imaging of the surviving test organisms showed the presence of CNTs in the gut as well as on the outer surface of the test organisms, although no evidence was observed to show penetration of CNTs through cell membranes. The present study demonstrated that both the metals solubilized from CNTs such as nickel and the "metal-free" CNTs contributed to the toxicity.

  2. Ciona intestinalis and Oxycomanthus japonicus, representatives of marine invertebrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasakura, Yasunori; Inaba, Kazuo; Satoh, Nori; Kondo, Mariko; Akasaka, Koji

    2009-10-01

    The study of marine invertebrates is useful in various biological research fields. However, genetic analyses of these animals are limited, mainly due to difficulties in culturing them, and the genetic resources of marine invertebrates have not been organized. Recently, advances have been made in the study of two deuterostomes, an ascidian Ciona intestinalis and a feather star Oxycomanthus japonicus. The draft genome sequence of Ciona intestinalis has been determined, and its compact genome, which has less redundancy of genes compared with vertebrates, provides us with a useful experimental system for analyzing the functions of genes during development. The life cycle of Ciona intestinalis is approximately 2-3 months, and the genetic techniques including a perfect inland culture system, germline transformation with a transposon Minos, enhancer detection and insertional mutagenesis, have been established. The feather star Oxycomanthus japonicus conserves the characteristics of the basic echinoderm body plan with a segmented mesoderm, which is a fascinating characteristic for understanding the evolution of echinoderms. Oxycomanthus japonicus shows strong regeneration ability and is a suitable subject for analysis of the mechanisms of regeneration. In consideration of these features, the National BioResource Project (NBRP) has started to support the supply of wild-types, transgenic lines and inbred lines of Ciona intestinalis and Oxycomanthus japonicus.

  3. Natural antifouling compounds: Effectiveness in preventing invertebrate settlement and adhesion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeida, Joana R; Vasconcelos, Vitor

    2015-01-01

    Biofouling represents a major economic issue regarding maritime industries and also raise important environmental concern. International legislation is restricting the use of biocidal-based antifouling (AF) coatings, and increasing efforts have been applied in the search for environmentally friendly AF agents. A wide diversity of natural AF compounds has been described for their ability to inhibit the settlement of macrofouling species. However poor information on the specific AF targets was available before the application of different molecular approaches both on invertebrate settlement strategies and bioadhesive characterization and also on the mechanistic effects of natural AF compounds. This review focuses on the relevant information about the main invertebrate macrofouler species settlement and bioadhesive mechanisms, which might help in the understanding of the reported effects, attributed to effective and non-toxic natural AF compounds towards this macrofouling species. It also aims to contribute to the elucidation of promising biotechnological strategies in the development of natural effective environmentally friendly AF paints. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Tropical seaweed beds are important habitats for mobile invertebrate epifauna

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tano, Stina; Eggertsen, M.; Wikström, S. A.; Berkström, C.; Buriyo, A. S.; Halling, C.

    2016-12-01

    Marine macrophyte habitats in temperate regions provide productive habitats for numerous organisms, with their abundant and diverse invertebrate epifaunal assemblages constituting important linkages between benthic primary production and higher trophic levels. While it is commonly also recognized that certain vegetated habitats in the tropics, such as seagrass meadows, can harbour diverse epifaunal assemblages and may constitute important feeding grounds to fish, little is known about the epifaunal assemblages associated with tropical seaweed beds. We investigated the abundance, biomass and taxon richness of the mobile epifaunal community (≥1 mm) of tropical East African seaweed beds, as well as the abundance of invertivorous fishes, and compared it with that of closely situated seagrass meadows, to establish the ecological role of seaweed beds as habitat for epifauna as well as potential feeding grounds for fish. The results showed that seaweed beds had a higher abundance of mobile epifauna (mean ± SD: 10,600 ± 6000 vs 3700 ± 2800 per m2) than seagrass meadows, as well as a higher invertebrate biomass (35.9 ± 46.8 vs 1.9 ± 2.1 g per m2) and taxon richness (32.7 ± 11.8 vs 19.1 ± 6.3 taxa per sample), despite having a lower macrophyte biomass. Additionally, the high abundance of invertivorous fishes found in seaweed beds indicates that they act as important feeding grounds to several fish species in the region.

  5. Matrotrophy and placentation in invertebrates: a new paradigm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostrovsky, Andrew N; Lidgard, Scott; Gordon, Dennis P; Schwaha, Thomas; Genikhovich, Grigory; Ereskovsky, Alexander V

    2016-08-01

    Matrotrophy, the continuous extra-vitelline supply of nutrients from the parent to the progeny during gestation, is one of the masterpieces of nature, contributing to offspring fitness and often correlated with evolutionary diversification. The most elaborate form of matrotrophy-placentotrophy-is well known for its broad occurrence among vertebrates, but the comparative distribution and structural diversity of matrotrophic expression among invertebrates is wanting. In the first comprehensive analysis of matrotrophy across the animal kingdom, we report that regardless of the degree of expression, it is established or inferred in at least 21 of 34 animal phyla, significantly exceeding previous accounts and changing the old paradigm that these phenomena are infrequent among invertebrates. In 10 phyla, matrotrophy is represented by only one or a few species, whereas in 11 it is either not uncommon or widespread and even pervasive. Among invertebrate phyla, Platyhelminthes, Arthropoda and Bryozoa dominate, with 162, 83 and 53 partly or wholly matrotrophic families, respectively. In comparison, Chordata has more than 220 families that include or consist entirely of matrotrophic species. We analysed the distribution of reproductive patterns among and within invertebrate phyla using recently published molecular phylogenies: matrotrophy has seemingly evolved at least 140 times in all major superclades: Parazoa and Eumetazoa, Radiata and Bilateria, Protostomia and Deuterostomia, Lophotrochozoa and Ecdysozoa. In Cycliophora and some Digenea, it may have evolved twice in the same life cycle. The provisioning of developing young is associated with almost all known types of incubation chambers, with matrotrophic viviparity more widespread (20 phyla) than brooding (10 phyla). In nine phyla, both matrotrophic incubation types are present. Matrotrophy is expressed in five nutritive modes, of which histotrophy and placentotrophy are most prevalent. Oophagy, embryophagy and

  6. Terms used in invertebrate pathology in five languages: English, French, German, Italian, Spanish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mauro E. Martignoni; Aloysius Krieg; Harold W. Rossmoore; Constantin. Vago

    1984-01-01

    The exchange of information among invertebrate pathologists of the major linguistic areas of Western Europe and North America has created a demand for a multilingual glossary. This list of specialized terms used in invertebrate pathology and related fields, such as microbial control, comprises over 2200 entries gathered by the four authors with the help of several...

  7. Aboveground vertebrate and invertebrate herbivore impacts on net N mineralization in subalpine grasslands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anita C. Risch; Martin Schutz; Martijn L. Vandegehuchte; Wim H. van der Putten; Henk Duyts; Ursina Raschein; Dariusz J. Gwiazdowicz; Matt D. Busse; Deborah S. Page-Dumroese; Stephan Zimmerman

    2015-01-01

    Aboveground herbivores have strong effects on grassland nitrogen (N) cycling. They can accelerate or slow down soil net N mineralization depending on ecosystem productivity and grazing intensity. Yet, most studies only consider either ungulates or invertebrate herbivores, but not the combined effect of several functionally different vertebrate and invertebrate...

  8. Slovakian and Turkish Students' Fear, Disgust and Perceived Danger of Invertebrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prokop, Pavol; Usak, Muhammet; Erdogan, Mehmet; Fancovicova, Jana; Bahar, Mehmet

    2011-01-01

    Human perceives invertebrates less positively than vertebrates because they are small and behaviourally and morphologically unfamiliar. This cross-cultural research focused on Slovakian (n=150) and Turkish (n=164) students' fear, disgust and perceived danger regarding 25 invertebrates [including 5 disease relevant adult insects, 5 ectoparasites, 5…

  9. Aquatic and terrestrial invertebrate drift in southern Appalachian Mountain streams: implications for trout food resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eric D. Romaniszyn; John J. Jr. Hutchens; J. Bruce Wallance

    2007-01-01

    We characterised aquatic and terrestrial invertebrate drift in six south-western North Carolina streams and their implications for trout production. Streams of this region typically have low standing stock and production of trout because of low benthic productivity. However, little is known about the contribution of terrestrial invertebrates entering drift, the factors...

  10. Assessment of the macro-invertebrate fauna of rivers in southern ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study evaluated the macro-invertebrate fauna in water bodies of southern Nigeria spanning the rainforest and derived savanna ecozones. The benthic macro-invertebrate fauna of Edo Ecozone comprises 55 taxa, belonging to 13 major groups. The abundance of major taxonomic groups varied considerably among the ...

  11. Pond and Stream Safari: A Guide to the Ecology of Aquatic Invertebrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edelstein, Karen

    This packet includes a leader's guide, a quick reference guide to aquatic invertebrates, a checklist of common aquatic invertebrates, and activity sheets. The leader's guide includes four sections on background information and seven activities. Background sections include: Understanding Aquatic Insects; Growing Up: Aquatic Insect Forms; Adapting…

  12. Great cormorants reveal overlooked secondary dispersal of plants and invertebrates by piscivorous waterbirds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Leeuwen, C.H.A.; Lovas-Kiss, A.; Ovegård, M.; Green, Andy J.

    2017-01-01

    In wetland ecosystems, birds and fish are important dispersal vectors for plants and invertebrates, but the consequences of their interactions as vectors are unknown. Darwin suggested that piscivorous birds carry out secondary dispersal of seeds and invertebrates via predation on fish. We tested

  13. Effect of sieve mesh size on the estimation of benthic invertebrate ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Characterisation of benthic invertebrate communities, taxonomic abundance and composition provides information that is used during river bioassessment. However, the mesh size of the sieves used during processing of invertebrate samples may affect the estimation of taxonomic abundance and composition. In the current ...

  14. Influence of antifouling paint on freshwater invertebrates (Mytilidae, Chironomidae and Naididae): density, richness and composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujita, D S; Takeda, A M; Coutinho, R; Fernandes, F C

    2015-11-01

    We conducted a study about invertebrates on artificial substrates with different antifouling paints in order to answer the following questions 1) is there lower accumulation of organic matter on substrates with antifouling paints, 2) is invertebrate colonization influenced by the release of biocides from antifouling paints, 3) is the colonization of aquatic invertebrates positively influenced by the material accumulated upon the substrate surface and 4) is the assemblage composition of invertebrates similar among the different antifouling paints? To answer these questions, four structures were installed in the Baía River in February 1st, 2007. Each structure was composed of 7 wood boards: 5 boards painted with each type of antifouling paints (T1, T2, T3, T4 and T5), one painted only with the primer (Pr) and the other without any paint (Cn). After 365 days, we observed a greater accumulation of organic matter in the substrates with T2 and T3 paint coatings. Limnoperna fortunei was recorded in all tested paints, with higher densities in the control, primer, T2 and T3. The colonization of Chironomidae and Naididae on the substrate was positively influenced by L. fortunei density. The non-metric multidimensional scaling (NMDS) of the invertebrate community provided evidence of the clear distinction of invertebrate assemblages among the paints. Paints T2 and T3 were the most similar to the control and primer. Our results suggest that antifouling paints applied on substrates hinder invertebrate colonization by decreasing the density and richness of invertebrates.

  15. The value of long-term stream invertebrate data collected by citizen scientists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patrick M. Edwards; Stefano. Goffredo

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to systematically examine the variability associated with temporally-oriented invertebrate data collected by citizen scientists and consider the value of such data for use in stream management. Variability in invertebrate data was estimated for three sources of variation: sampling, within-reach spatial and long-term temporal. Long-...

  16. An invertebrate stomach's view on vertebrate ecology: certain invertebrates could be used as "vertebrate samplers" and deliver DNA-based information on many aspects of vertebrate ecology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calvignac-Spencer, Sébastien; Leendertz, Fabian H; Gilbert, M Thomas P; Schubert, Grit

    2013-11-01

    Recent studies suggest that vertebrate genetic material ingested by invertebrates (iDNA) can be used to investigate vertebrate ecology. Given the ubiquity of invertebrates that feed on vertebrates across the globe, iDNA might qualify as a very powerful tool for 21st century population and conservation biologists. Here, we identify some invertebrate characteristics that will likely influence iDNA retrieval and elaborate on the potential uses of invertebrate-derived information. We hypothesize that beyond inventorying local faunal diversity, iDNA should allow for more profound insights into wildlife population density, size, mortality, and infectious agents. Based on the similarities of iDNA with other low-quality sources of DNA, a general technical framework for iDNA analyses is proposed. As it is likely that no such thing as a single ideal iDNA sampler exists, forthcoming research efforts should aim at cataloguing invertebrate properties relevant to iDNA retrieval so as to guide future usage of the invertebrate tool box. © 2013 WILEY Periodicals, Inc.

  17. NODC Standard Format Pathology Data Sets (1973-1980): Marine Invertebrate Pathology (F063) (NODC Accession 0014191)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Marine Invertebrate Pathology (F063) contains data from examinations of diseased marine invertebrates. Although these data maybe from field observations, they derive...

  18. A study of radionuclide transfer between invertebrates and their marine sedimentary environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amiard-Triquet, Claude.

    1975-11-01

    Exchanges between sediment and marine organisms were studied in some benthic marine invertebrates, especially Arenicola marina L. (an Annelid). Experiments were carried out on the transfer of 60 Co, 137 Cs and accessorily 59 Fe and 144 Ce. Water was the chief vector for benthic marine invertebrates. These invertebrates seemed to act mainly in sedimentary areas on the redistribution of adsorbed radionuclides within the sediment. Radioactive contamination of the invertebrates was affected by various physiological or ecological factors. Benthic marine invertebrates were then studied as links in food chains. The transfer of 60 Co was studied in three food chains or fractions of food chains. The procedure allowed interesting observations from the health protection point of view and more fundamental investigations on cobalt metabolism (regulation, excretion) in a mollusc, a crustacea and a teleost [fr

  19. Functional diversity and community assembly of river invertebrates show globally consistent responses to decreasing glacier cover.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Lee E; Khamis, Kieran; Wilkes, Martin; Blaen, Phillip; Brittain, John E; Carrivick, Jonathan L; Fell, Sarah; Friberg, Nikolai; Füreder, Leopold; Gislason, Gisli M; Hainie, Sarah; Hannah, David M; James, William H M; Lencioni, Valeria; Olafsson, Jon S; Robinson, Christopher T; Saltveit, Svein J; Thompson, Craig; Milner, Alexander M

    2018-02-01

    Global change threatens invertebrate biodiversity and its central role in numerous ecosystem functions and services. Functional trait analyses have been advocated to uncover global mechanisms behind biodiversity responses to environmental change, but the application of this approach for invertebrates is underdeveloped relative to other organism groups. From an evaluation of 363 records comprising >1.23 million invertebrates collected from rivers across nine biogeographic regions on three continents, consistent responses of community trait composition and diversity to replicated gradients of reduced glacier cover are demonstrated. After accounting for a systematic regional effect of latitude, the processes shaping river invertebrate functional diversity are globally consistent. Analyses nested within individual regions identified an increase in functional diversity as glacier cover decreases. Community assembly models demonstrated that dispersal limitation was the dominant process underlying these patterns, although environmental filtering was also evident in highly glacierized basins. These findings indicate that predictable mechanisms govern river invertebrate community responses to decreasing glacier cover globally.

  20. Functional traits of soil invertebrates as indicators for exposure to soil disturbance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hedde, Mickaël; van Oort, Folkert; Lamy, Isabelle

    2012-05-01

    We tested a trait-based approach to link a soil disturbance to changes in invertebrate communities. Soils and macro-invertebrates were sampled in sandy soils contaminated by long-term wastewater irrigation, adding notably organic matter and trace metals (TM). We hypothesized that functional traits of invertebrates depict ways of exposure and that exposure routes relate to specific TM pools. Geophages and soft-body invertebrates were chosen to inform on exposure by ingestion or contact, respectively. Trait-based indices depicted more accurately effects of pollution than community density and diversity did. Exposure by ingestion had more deleterious effects than by contact. Both types of exposed invertebrates were influenced by TM, but geophages mainly responded to changes in soil organic matter contents. The trait-based approach requires to be applied in various conditions to uncorrelate specific TM impacts from those of other environmental factors. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Ecotoxicity of engineered nanoparticles to aquatic invertebrates: a brief review and recommendations for future toxicity testing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baun, Anders; Hartmann, Nanna Isabella Bloch; Grieger, Khara Deanne

    2008-01-01

    Based on a literature review and an overview of toxic effects of engineered nanoparticles in aquatic invertebrates, this paper proposes a number of recommendations for the developing field of nanoecotoxicology by highlighting the importance of invertebrates as sensitive and relevant test organisms....... Results show that there is a pronounced lack of data in this field (less than 20 peer-reviewed papers are published so far), and the most frequently tested engineered nanoparticles in invertebrate tests are C-60, carbon nanotubes, and titanium dioxide. In addition, the majority of the studies have used...... through standardized short-term (lethality) tests with invertebrates as a basis for investigating behaviour and bioavailability of engineered nanoparticles in the aquatic environment. Based on this literature review, we further recommend that research is directed towards invertebrate tests employing long...

  2. Environmental hazards of aluminum to plants, invertebrates, fish, and wildlife

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sparling, D.W.; Lowe, T.P.

    1996-01-01

    Aluminum is extremely common throughout the world and is innocuous under circumneutral or alkaline conditions. However, in acidic environments, it can be a maJor limiting factor to many plants and aquatic organisms. The greatest concern for toxicity in North America occurs in areas that are affected by wet and dry acid deposition, such as eastern Canada and the northeastern U.S. Acid mine drainage, logging, and water treatment plant effluents containing alum can be other maJor sources of Al. In solution, the metal can combine with several different agents to affect toxicity. In general, Al hydroxides and monomeric Al are the most toxic forms. Dissolved organic carbons, F, PO(3)3- and SO(4)2- ameliorate toxicity by reducing bioavailability. Elevated metal levels in water and soil can cause serious problems for some plants. Algae tend to be both acid- and Al tolerant and, although some species may disappear with reduced pH, overall algae productivity and biomass are seldom affected if pH is above 3.0. Aluminum and acid toxicity tend to be additive to some algae when pH is less than 4.5. Because the metal binds with inorganic P, it may reduce P availability and reduce productivity. Forest die-backs in North America involving red spruce, Fraser fir, balsam fir, loblolly pine, slash pine, and sugar maples have been ascribed to Al toxicity, and extensive areas of European forests have died because of the combination of high soil Al and low pH. Extensive research on crops has produced Al-resistant cultivars and considerable knowledge about mechanisms of and defenses against toxicity. Very low Al levels may benefit some plants, although the metal is not recognized as an essential nutrient. Hyperaccumulator species of plants may concentrate Al to levels that are toxic to herbivores. Toxicity in aquatic invertebrates is also acid dependent. Taxa such as Ephemeroptera, Plecoptera, and Cladocera are sensitive and may perish when Al is less than 1 mg.L-1 whereas dipterans

  3. DMPD: Infectious non-self recognition in invertebrates: lessons from Drosophila andother insect models. [Dynamic Macrophage Pathway CSML Database

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 15476918 Infectious non-self recognition in invertebrates: lessons from Drosophila ...fectious non-self recognition in invertebrates: lessons from Drosophila andother insect models. PubmedID 154...76918 Title Infectious non-self recognition in invertebrates: lessons from Drosop

  4. Terrestrial cave invertebrates of the Vrachanska Planina Mountains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PETAR BERON

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The modern biospeleological research in Bulgaria started in 1921 in the Ledenika Cave. From 65 caves of “Vrachanski Balkan” Nature Park and its surroundings have been recorded a total of 218 species of terrestrial invertebrates, including 32 species of troglobionts, most of them endemic to Vrachanska Planina Mts. (including the caves near Lakatnik: Isopoda Oniscoidea – 4, Chilopoda – 1, Diplopoda – 5, Opiliones – 2, Pseudoscorpiones – 3, Araneae – 3, Collembola – 2, Diplura – 2, Coleoptera, Carabidae – 7, Coleoptera, Leiodidae – 3. Troglobites are known from 51 caves, the richest being the caves near Lakatnik (Temnata dupka - 10, Zidanka - 7, Razhishkata dupka - 5, Svinskata dupka - 6, Kozarskata peshtera - 5, near Vratsa (Ledenika - 11, Barkite 8 - 5, Belyar - 6, Toshova dupka near Glavatsi - 6 and others.

  5. Mechanisms for turn alternation in four invertebrate species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, R N

    1987-02-01

    Free-choice behavior following one or more forced turns was observed in representatives of four invertebrate classes (earthworms, woodlice, millipedes, earwigs). While all animals alternated, species differences occurred in free turn angle and the effects of varied angle and number of forced turns. Overall, woodlice and millipedes turned at sharper angles and responded more to the forced turn conditions than earthworms and earwigs. From behavior observed following three forced turns in one direction and then one in the opposite, it was concluded that, in earlier experiments, earthworms alternated via tactile cues, woodlice mainly used kinesthetic but could also use tactile cues, millipedes mainly used tactile but could also use kinesthetic cues and earwigs may have relied on kinesthetic cues alone. Since phyletic differences did not seem appropriate, the results were discussed in terms of other characteristics such as body shape and life style. Copyright © 1987. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  6. The structure and host entry of an invertebrate parvovirus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Geng; Zhang, Xinzheng; Plevka, Pavel; Yu, Qian; Tijssen, Peter; Rossmann, Michael G

    2013-12-01

    The 3.5-Å resolution X-ray crystal structure of mature cricket parvovirus (Acheta domesticus densovirus [AdDNV]) has been determined. Structural comparisons show that vertebrate and invertebrate parvoviruses have evolved independently, although there are common structural features among all parvovirus capsid proteins. It was shown that raising the temperature of the AdDNV particles caused a loss of their genomes. The structure of these emptied particles was determined by cryo-electron microscopy to 5.5-Å resolution, and the capsid structure was found to be the same as that for the full, mature virus except for the absence of the three ordered nucleotides observed in the crystal structure. The viral protein 1 (VP1) amino termini could be externalized without significant damage to the capsid. In vitro, this externalization of the VP1 amino termini is accompanied by the release of the viral genome.

  7. The physics of broadcast spawning in benthic invertebrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crimaldi, John P; Zimmer, Richard K

    2014-01-01

    Most benthic invertebrates broadcast their gametes into the sea, whereupon successful fertilization relies on the complex interaction between the physics of the surrounding fluid flow and the biological properties and behavior of eggs and sperm. We present a holistic overview of the impact of instantaneous flow processes on fertilization across a range of scales. At large scales, transport and stirring by the flow control the distribution of gametes. Although mean dilution of gametes by turbulence is deleterious to fertilization, a variety of instantaneous flow phenomena can aggregate gametes before dilution occurs. We argue that these instantaneous flow processes are key to fertilization efficiency. At small scales, sperm motility and taxis enhance contact rates between sperm and chemoattractant-releasing eggs. We argue that sperm motility is a biological adaptation that replaces molecular diffusion in conventional mixing processes and enables gametes to bridge the gap that remains after aggregation by the flow.

  8. Sensitivity ranking for freshwater invertebrates towards hydrocarbon contaminants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerner, Nadine V; Cailleaud, Kevin; Bassères, Anne; Liess, Matthias; Beketov, Mikhail A

    2017-11-01

    Hydrocarbons have an utmost economical importance but may also cause substantial ecological impacts due to accidents or inadequate transportation and use. Currently, freshwater biomonitoring methods lack an indicator that can unequivocally reflect the impacts caused by hydrocarbons while being independent from effects of other stressors. The aim of the present study was to develop a sensitivity ranking for freshwater invertebrates towards hydrocarbon contaminants, which can be used in hydrocarbon-specific bioindicators. We employed the Relative Sensitivity method and developed the sensitivity ranking S hydrocarbons based on literature ecotoxicological data supplemented with rapid and mesocosm test results. A first validation of the sensitivity ranking based on an earlier field study has been conducted and revealed the S hydrocarbons ranking to be promising for application in sensitivity based indicators. Thus, the first results indicate that the ranking can serve as the core component of future hydrocarbon-specific and sensitivity trait based bioindicators.

  9. The Structure and Host Entry of an Invertebrate Parvovirus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Geng; Zhang, Xinzheng; Plevka, Pavel; Yu, Qian; Tijssen, Peter

    2013-01-01

    The 3.5-Å resolution X-ray crystal structure of mature cricket parvovirus (Acheta domesticus densovirus [AdDNV]) has been determined. Structural comparisons show that vertebrate and invertebrate parvoviruses have evolved independently, although there are common structural features among all parvovirus capsid proteins. It was shown that raising the temperature of the AdDNV particles caused a loss of their genomes. The structure of these emptied particles was determined by cryo-electron microscopy to 5.5-Å resolution, and the capsid structure was found to be the same as that for the full, mature virus except for the absence of the three ordered nucleotides observed in the crystal structure. The viral protein 1 (VP1) amino termini could be externalized without significant damage to the capsid. In vitro, this externalization of the VP1 amino termini is accompanied by the release of the viral genome. PMID:24027306

  10. Point process analysis of noise in early invertebrate vision.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kris V Parag

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Noise is a prevalent and sometimes even dominant aspect of many biological processes. While many natural systems have adapted to attenuate or even usefully integrate noise, the variability it introduces often still delimits the achievable precision across biological functions. This is particularly so for visual phototransduction, the process responsible for converting photons of light into usable electrical signals (quantum bumps. Here, randomness of both the photon inputs (regarded as extrinsic noise and the conversion process (intrinsic noise are seen as two distinct, independent and significant limitations on visual reliability. Past research has attempted to quantify the relative effects of these noise sources by using approximate methods that do not fully account for the discrete, point process and time ordered nature of the problem. As a result the conclusions drawn from these different approaches have led to inconsistent expositions of phototransduction noise performance. This paper provides a fresh and complete analysis of the relative impact of intrinsic and extrinsic noise in invertebrate phototransduction using minimum mean squared error reconstruction techniques based on Bayesian point process (Snyder filters. An integrate-fire based algorithm is developed to reliably estimate photon times from quantum bumps and Snyder filters are then used to causally estimate random light intensities both at the front and back end of the phototransduction cascade. Comparison of these estimates reveals that the dominant noise source transitions from extrinsic to intrinsic as light intensity increases. By extending the filtering techniques to account for delays, it is further found that among the intrinsic noise components, which include bump latency (mean delay and jitter and shape (amplitude and width variance, it is the mean delay that is critical to noise performance. As the timeliness of visual information is important for real-time action, this

  11. Comparative ecotoxicity of chlorantraniliprole to non-target soil invertebrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavtižar, Vesna; Berggren, Kristina; Trebše, Polonca; Kraak, Michiel H S; Verweij, Rudo A; van Gestel, Cornelis A M

    2016-09-01

    The insecticide chlorantraniliprole (CAP) is gaining importance in agricultural practice, but data on its possible negative effects on non-target organisms is severely deficient. This study therefore determined CAP toxicity to non-target soil invertebrates playing a crucial role in ecosystem functioning, including springtails (Folsomia candida), isopods (Porcellio scaber), enchytraeids (Enchytraeus crypticus) and oribatid mites (Oppia nitens). In sublethal toxicity tests in Lufa 2.2 soil, chronic exposure to CAP concentrations up to 1000 mg/kgdw did not affect the survival and reproduction of E. crypticus and O. nitens nor the survival, body weight and consumption of P. scaber. In contrast, the survival and reproduction of F. candida was severely affected, with an EC50 for effects on reproduction of 0.14 mg CAP/kgdw. The toxicity of CAP to the reproduction of F. candida was tested in four different soils following OECD guideline 232, and additionally in an avoidance test according to ISO guideline 17512-2. A significantly lower toxicity in soils rich in organic matter was observed, compared to low organic soils. Observations in the avoidance test with F. candida suggest that CAP acted in a prompt way, by affecting collembolan locomotor abilities thus preventing them from escaping contaminated soil. This study shows that CAP may especially pose a risk to non-target soil arthropods closely related to insects, while other soil invertebrates seem rather insensitive. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Point process analysis of noise in early invertebrate vision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parag, Kris V; Vinnicombe, Glenn

    2017-10-01

    Noise is a prevalent and sometimes even dominant aspect of many biological processes. While many natural systems have adapted to attenuate or even usefully integrate noise, the variability it introduces often still delimits the achievable precision across biological functions. This is particularly so for visual phototransduction, the process responsible for converting photons of light into usable electrical signals (quantum bumps). Here, randomness of both the photon inputs (regarded as extrinsic noise) and the conversion process (intrinsic noise) are seen as two distinct, independent and significant limitations on visual reliability. Past research has attempted to quantify the relative effects of these noise sources by using approximate methods that do not fully account for the discrete, point process and time ordered nature of the problem. As a result the conclusions drawn from these different approaches have led to inconsistent expositions of phototransduction noise performance. This paper provides a fresh and complete analysis of the relative impact of intrinsic and extrinsic noise in invertebrate phototransduction using minimum mean squared error reconstruction techniques based on Bayesian point process (Snyder) filters. An integrate-fire based algorithm is developed to reliably estimate photon times from quantum bumps and Snyder filters are then used to causally estimate random light intensities both at the front and back end of the phototransduction cascade. Comparison of these estimates reveals that the dominant noise source transitions from extrinsic to intrinsic as light intensity increases. By extending the filtering techniques to account for delays, it is further found that among the intrinsic noise components, which include bump latency (mean delay and jitter) and shape (amplitude and width) variance, it is the mean delay that is critical to noise performance. As the timeliness of visual information is important for real-time action, this delay could

  13. Acute toxicity and inactivation tests of CO2 on invertebrates in drinking water treatment systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Wen-Chao; Zhang, Jin-Song; Liu, Li-Jun; Zhao, Jian-Shu; Li, Tuo

    2011-01-01

    In addition to the esthetic problem caused by invertebrates, researchers are recently starting to be more aware of their potential importance in terms of public health. However, the inactivation methods of invertebrates which could proliferate in drinking water treatment systems are not well developed. The objective of this study is to assess the acute toxicity and inactivation effects of CO2 on familiar invertebrates in water treatment processes. The results of this study revealed that CO2 has a definite toxicity to familiar invertebrates. The values of 24-h LC50 (median lethal concentration) were calculated for each test with six groups of invertebrates. The toxicity of CO2 was higher with increasing concentrations in solution but was lower with the increase in size of the invertebrates. Above the concentration of 1,000 mg/L for the CO2 solution, the 100% inactivation time of all the invertebrates was less than 5 s, and in 15 min, the inactivation ratio showed a gradient descent with a decline in concentration. As seen for Mesocyclops thermocyclopoides, by dosing with a sodium bicarbonate solution first and adding a dilute hydrochloric acid solution 5 min later, it is possible to obtain a satisfactory inactivation effect in the GAC (granular activated carbon) filters.

  14. Comparative biology of pain: What invertebrates can tell us about how nociception works.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burrell, Brian D

    2017-04-01

    The inability to adequately treat chronic pain is a worldwide health care crisis. Pain has both an emotional and a sensory component, and this latter component, nociception, refers specifically to the detection of damaging or potentially damaging stimuli. Nociception represents a critical interaction between an animal and its environment and exhibits considerable evolutionary conservation across species. Using comparative approaches to understand the basic biology of nociception could promote the development of novel therapeutic strategies to treat pain, and studies of nociception in invertebrates can provide especially useful insights toward this goal. Both vertebrates and invertebrates exhibit segregated sensory pathways for nociceptive and nonnociceptive information, injury-induced sensitization to nociceptive and nonnociceptive stimuli, and even similar antinociceptive modulatory processes. In a number of invertebrate species, the central nervous system is understood in considerable detail, and it is often possible to record from and/or manipulate single identifiable neurons through either molecular genetic or physiological approaches. Invertebrates also provide an opportunity to study nociception in an ethologically relevant context that can provide novel insights into the nature of how injury-inducing stimuli produce persistent changes in behavior. Despite these advantages, invertebrates have been underutilized in nociception research. In this review, findings from invertebrate nociception studies are summarized, and proposals for how research using invertebrates can address questions about the fundamental mechanisms of nociception are presented. Copyright © 2017 the American Physiological Society.

  15. Development of biotic ligand models for chronic manganese toxicity to fish, invertebrates, and algae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Adam; Lofts, Stephen; Merrington, Graham; Brown, Bruce; Stubblefield, William; Harlow, Keven

    2011-11-01

    Ecotoxicity tests were performed with fish, invertebrates, and algae to investigate the effect of water quality parameters on Mn toxicity. Models were developed to describe the effects of Mn as a function of water quality. Calcium (Ca) has a protective effect on Mn toxicity for both fish and invertebrates, and magnesium (Mg) also provides a protective effect for invertebrates. Protons have a protective effect on Mn toxicity to algae. The models derived are consistent with models of the toxicity of other metals to aquatic organisms in that divalent cations can act as competitors to Mn toxicity in fish and invertebrates, and protons act as competitors to Mn toxicity in algae. The selected models are able to predict Mn toxicity to the test organisms to within a factor of 2 in most cases. Under low-pH conditions invertebrates are the most sensitive taxa, and under high-pH conditions algae are most sensitive. The point at which algae become more sensitive than invertebrates depends on the Ca concentration and occurs at higher pH when Ca concentrations are low, because of the sensitivity of invertebrates under these conditions. Dissolved organic carbon concentrations have very little effect on the toxicity of Mn to aquatic organisms. Copyright © 2011 SETAC.

  16. Invertebrate populations in miscanthus (Miscanthusxgiganteus) and reed canary-grass (Phalaris arundinacea) fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Semere, T.; Slater, F.M. [Llysdinam Field Centre, School of Biosciences, Cardiff University, Newbridge-on-Wye, Llandrindod Wells, Powys, LD1 6NB (United Kingdom)

    2007-01-15

    Monitoring of invertebrates at four field sites in Herefordshire, England, growing miscanthus and reed canary-grass was carried out in 2002, 2003 and 2004 to investigate the ecological impact of these crops on ground beetles, butterflies and arboreal invertebrates. Ground beetles were sampled by pitfall trapping; and arboreal invertebrates by sweep netting and stem beating. The Centre for Ecology and Hydrology's Butterflies Monitoring Scheme methodology was used to record butterflies. The effects of the biomass crops on invertebrates were indirect, through the use of weeds as food resources and habitat. The greater diversity of weed flora within miscanthus fields than within reed canary-grass fields had a greater positive effect on invertebrates. Ground beetles, butterflies and arboreal invertebrates were more abundant and diverse in the most floristically diverse miscanthus fields. The difference in crop architecture and development between miscanthus and reed canary-grass was reflected in their differences in crop height and ground cover early on in the season. However, most of the difference in arthropod abundance between the two crops was attributed to the difference in the agronomic practice of growing the crops such as plant density, and the effect of this on weed growth. Since perennial rhizomatous grasses require a single initial planting and related tillage, and also no major chemical inputs; and because the crops are harvested in the spring and the land is not disturbed by cultivation every year, the fields were used as over-wintering sites for invertebrates suggesting immediate benefits to biodiversity. (author)

  17. Invertebrate communities of Arctic tundra ponds as related to proximity to drill site reserve pits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Byron, E.; Williams, N.; Hoffman, R.; Elder, B.

    1994-01-01

    Aquatic invertebrate communities were assessed for diversity and abundance in North Slope tundra ponds of Prudhoe Bay, Alaska during the summer of 1992 as part of an evaluation of potential effects of exposure to petroleum drill site reserve pits (previously used for storing drill site wastes). The invertebrate communities of these shallow, tundra ponds provide abundant food for migratory, aquatic birds that use this area during the summer breeding season. The study was designed to compare abundance and diversity estimates of invertebrates in ponds surrounding the drill sites that differed in distance (and presumed exposure) to drill site reserve pits. The pits, themselves, were not sampled as part of this study. Invertebrate abundance and diversity estimates, assessed as standard biological criteria, were evaluated relative to water chemistry of the ponds, distance to the gravel pads or reserve pits, and pond morphometry. The results indicated the importance of pond morphometry in determining the structure of the invertebrate community. Shallow, exposed ponds tended to be dominated by different invertebrate communities than deeper, narrow ponds at the margins of frost polygons. In contrast, pond chemistry and relative exposure to drill sites were not predictive of invertebrate abundance or diversity

  18. Functional traits of soil invertebrates as indicators for exposure to soil disturbance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hedde, Mickaël; Oort, Folkert van; Lamy, Isabelle

    2012-01-01

    We tested a trait-based approach to link a soil disturbance to changes in invertebrate communities. Soils and macro-invertebrates were sampled in sandy soils contaminated by long-term wastewater irrigation, adding notably organic matter and trace metals (TM). We hypothesized that functional traits of invertebrates depict ways of exposure and that exposure routes relate to specific TM pools. Geophages and soft-body invertebrates were chosen to inform on exposure by ingestion or contact, respectively. Trait-based indices depicted more accurately effects of pollution than community density and diversity did. Exposure by ingestion had more deleterious effects than by contact. Both types of exposed invertebrates were influenced by TM, but geophages mainly responded to changes in soil organic matter contents. The trait-based approach requires to be applied in various conditions to uncorrelate specific TM impacts from those of other environmental factors. - Highlights: ► We linked pollution, exposure routes and impacts on soil invertebrates. ► Proportions of exposed animals accurately depicted pollution effects. ► Exposure by ingestion had more deleterious effects than exposure by contact. ► Geophages decline reflected changes in soil organic matter. ► Soft-body proportions were mainly influenced by TM pools. - A trait-based approach hierarchized impacts of soil pollution on soil invertebrate communities following ways of exposure

  19. Molecular architecture and biomedical leads of terpenes from red sea marine invertebrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hegazy, Mohamed Elamir F; Mohamed, Tarik A; Alhammady, Montaser A; Shaheen, Alaa M; Reda, Eman H; Elshamy, Abdelsamed I; Aziz, Mina; Paré, Paul W

    2015-05-20

    Marine invertebrates including sponges, soft coral, tunicates, mollusks and bryozoan have proved to be a prolific source of bioactive natural products. Among marine-derived metabolites, terpenoids have provided a vast array of molecular architectures. These isoprenoid-derived metabolites also exhibit highly specialized biological activities ranging from nerve regeneration to blood-sugar regulation. As a result, intense research activity has been devoted to characterizing invertebrate terpenes from both a chemical and biological standpoint. This review focuses on the chemistry and biology of terpene metabolites isolated from the Red Sea ecosystem, a unique marine biome with one of the highest levels of biodiversity and specifically rich in invertebrate species.

  20. Molecular Architecture and Biomedical Leads of Terpenes from Red Sea Marine Invertebrates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Elamir F. Hegazy

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Marine invertebrates including sponges, soft coral, tunicates, mollusks and bryozoan have proved to be a prolific source of bioactive natural products. Among marine-derived metabolites, terpenoids have provided a vast array of molecular architectures. These isoprenoid-derived metabolites also exhibit highly specialized biological activities ranging from nerve regeneration to blood-sugar regulation. As a result, intense research activity has been devoted to characterizing invertebrate terpenes from both a chemical and biological standpoint. This review focuses on the chemistry and biology of terpene metabolites isolated from the Red Sea ecosystem, a unique marine biome with one of the highest levels of biodiversity and specifically rich in invertebrate species.

  1. The evolutionary ecology of offspring size in marine invertebrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, Dustin J; Keough, Michael J

    2007-01-01

    Intraspecific variation in offspring size is of fundamental ecological and evolutionary importance. The level of provisioning an organism receives from its mother can have far reaching consequences for subsequent survival and performance. In marine systems, the traditional focus was on the remarkable variation in offspring size among species but there is increasing focus on variation in offspring size within species. Here we review the incidence and consequences of intraspecific offspring-size variation for marine invertebrates. Offspring size is remarkably variable within and among marine invertebrate populations. We examined patterns of variation in offspring size within populations using a meta-analysis of the available data for 102 species across 7 phyla. The average coefficient of variation in offspring size within populations is 9%, while some groups (e.g., direct developers) showed much more variation (15%), reflecting a fourfold difference between the largest and smallest offspring in any population. Offspring-size variation can have for reaching consequences. Offspring size affects every stage of a marine invertebrate's life history, even in species in which maternal provisioning accounts for only a small proportion of larval nutrition (i.e., planktotrophs). In species with external fertilization, larger eggs are larger targets for sperm and as such, the sperm environment may select for different egg sizes although debate continues over the evolutionary importance of such effects. Offspring size affects the planktonic period in many species with planktotrophic and lecithotrophic development, but we found that this effect is not universal. Indeed, much of the evidence for the effects of offspring size on the planktonic period is limited to the echinoids and in this group and other taxa there is variable evidence, suggesting further work is necessary. Post-metamorphic effects of offspring size were strong in species with non-feeding larvae and direct

  2. Rhode Island, Connecticut, New York, and New Jersey ESI: INVERT (Invertebrate Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for marine, estuarine, and terrestrial invertebrate species in coastal Rhode Island, Connecticut, New York,...

  3. Invertebrate populations of the deciduous forest: fluctuations and relations to weather

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kendeigh, S. Charles

    1979-01-01

    The major objectives of the present study are to analyze (a) the composition and relative population sizes of the larger invertebrate fauna of relatively undisturbed, near-virgin, stands of deciduous forest, (b...

  4. Sensitivity of Coastal Environments and Wildlife to Spilled Oil: Florida Panhandle: INVERTPT (Invertebrate Points)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for threatened/endangered invertebrate species for the Florida Panhandle. Vector points in this data set...

  5. Sensitivity of Coastal Environments and Wildlife to Spilled Oil: Florida Panhandle: INVERT (Invertebrate Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for marine, estuarine, and freshwater (limited to threatened/endangered/rare) invertebrate species for the...

  6. Chemosynthetic symbionts of marine invertebrate animals are capable of nitrogen fixation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Petersen, J.M.; Kemper, A.; Gruber-Vodicka, H.R.; Cardini, U.; van der Geest, M.; Kleiner, M.; Bulgheresi, S.; Mußmann, M; Herbold, C.W.; Seah, B.K.B.; Antony, C.P.; Liu, D.; Belitz, A.; Weber, M.

    2016-01-01

    Chemosynthetic symbioses are partnerships between invertebrate animals and chemosynthetic bacteria. The latter are theprimary producers, providing most of the organic carbon needed for the animal host’s nutrition. We sequenced genomesof the chemosynthetic symbionts from the lucinid bivalve Loripes

  7. Marine Benthic Invertebrates in Mamala Bay, Oahu, Hawaii 1994 (NODC Accession 9900151)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Planktonic larval stages of many benthic marine invertebrates are especially susceptible to environmental stress, such as the presence of pollution. Recruitment of...

  8. Species List of Alaskan Birds, Mammals, Fish, Amphibians, Reptiles, and Invertebrates. Alaska Region Report Number 82.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Tamra Faris

    This publication contains a detailed list of the birds, mammals, fish, amphibians, reptiles, and invertebrates found in Alaska. Part I lists the species by geographical regions. Part II lists the species by the ecological regions of the state. (CO)

  9. Responses of invertebrates to temperature and water stress: A polar perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Everatt, Matthew J; Convey, Pete; Bale, Jeffrey S; Worland, M Roger; Hayward, Scott A L

    2015-12-01

    As small bodied poikilothermic ectotherms, invertebrates, more so than any other animal group, are susceptible to extremes of temperature and low water availability. In few places is this more apparent than in the Arctic and Antarctic, where low temperatures predominate and water is unusable during winter and unavailable for parts of summer. Polar terrestrial invertebrates express a suite of physiological, biochemical and genomic features in response to these stressors. However, the situation is not as simple as responding to each stressor in isolation, as they are often faced in combination. We consider how polar terrestrial invertebrates manage this scenario in light of their physiology and ecology. Climate change is also leading to warmer summers in parts of the polar regions, concomitantly increasing the potential for drought. The interaction between high temperature and low water availability, and the invertebrates' response to them, are therefore also explored. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. The importance of spatial variation of benthic invertebrates for the ecological assessment of European lakes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Solimini, Angelo G.; Sandin, Leif Leonard

    2012-01-01

    variability. However, littoral and profundal invertebrate communities are constrained by different drivers of change and may respond unevenly to distinct human disturbances. How human disturbances determined by different pressures interact in modifying the distribution of benthic invertebrate species......, funded by the European Union under the 7th Framework Programme), we collated several case studies with the aim to increase our understanding of basic sources of spatial variation of invertebrate assemblages. The set of papers includes a variety of different European lakes, habitat types and human...... pressures from the Nordic, Central, Atlantic, Alpine and Mediterranean regions. All papers have an obvious applied objective and suggest which factors need to be considered when designing invertebrate-based classification tools....

  11. Invertebrates Associated with Coarse Woody Debris in Streams, Upland Forests, and Wetlands: A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    A. Braccia; D.P. Batzer

    1999-01-01

    We reviewed literature on the inbvertebrate groups associated with coarse woody debris in forests, streams, and wetlands, and contrasted patterns of invertebrate community development and wood decomposition among ecosystems.

  12. Chemical compounds toxic to invertebrates isolated from marine cyanobacteria of potential relevance to the agricultural industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Essack, Magbubah; Alzubaidy, Hanin S; Bajic, Vladimir B; Archer, John A C

    2014-10-29

    In spite of advances in invertebrate pest management, the agricultural industry is suffering from impeded pest control exacerbated by global climate changes that have altered rain patterns to favour opportunistic breeding. Thus, novel naturally derived chemical compounds toxic to both terrestrial and aquatic invertebrates are of interest, as potential pesticides. In this regard, marine cyanobacterium-derived metabolites that are toxic to both terrestrial and aquatic invertebrates continue to be a promising, but neglected, source of potential pesticides. A PubMed query combined with hand-curation of the information from retrieved articles allowed for the identification of 36 cyanobacteria-derived chemical compounds experimentally confirmed as being toxic to invertebrates. These compounds are discussed in this review.

  13. Sensitivity of Coastal Environments and Wildlife to Spilled Oil: Hudson River: INVERT (Invertebrate Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for marine and estuarine invertebrate species for the Hudson River. Vector polygons in this data set...

  14. Tube-dwelling invertebrates: tiny ecosystem engineers have large effects in lake ecosystems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hölker, Franz; Vanni, Michael J.; Kuiper, Jan J.; Meile, Christof; Grossart, Hans-Peter; Stief, Peter; Adrian, Rita; Lorke, Andreas; Dellwig, Olaf; Brand, Andreas; Hupfer, Michael; Mooij, Wolf M.; Nützmann, Gunnar; Lewandowski, Jörg

    2015-01-01

    There is ample evidence that tube-dwelling invertebrates such as chironomids significantly alter multiple important ecosystem functions, particularly in shallow lakes. Chironomids pump large water volumes, and associated suspended and dissolved substances, through the sediment and thereby compete

  15. Chemical Compounds Toxic to Invertebrates Isolated from Marine Cyanobacteria of Potential Relevance to the Agricultural Industry

    KAUST Repository

    Essack, Magbubah

    2014-10-29

    In spite of advances in invertebrate pest management, the agricultural industry is suffering from impeded pest control exacerbated by global climate changes that have altered rain patterns to favour opportunistic breeding. Thus, novel naturally derived chemical compounds toxic to both terrestrial and aquatic invertebrates are of interest, as potential pesticides. In this regard, marine cyanobacterium-derived metabolites that are toxic to both terrestrial and aquatic invertebrates continue to be a promising, but neglected, source of potential pesticides. A PubMed query combined with hand-curation of the information from retrieved articles allowed for the identification of 36 cyanobacteria-derived chemical compounds experimentally confirmed as being toxic to invertebrates. These compounds are discussed in this review.

  16. Evidence for metabolic provisioning by a common invertebrate endosymbiont, Wolbachia pipientis, during periods of nutritional stress.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brownlie, J.C.; Cass, B.N.; Riegler, M.; Witsenburg, J.J.; Iturbe-Ormaetxe, I.; McGraw, E.A.; O'Neill, S.L.

    2009-01-01

    Wolbachia are ubiquitous inherited endosymbionts of invertebrates that invade host populations by modifying host reproductive systems. However, some strains lack the ability to impose reproductive modification and yet are still capable of successfully invading host populations. To explain this

  17. Sensitivity of Coastal Environments and Wildlife to Spilled Oil: Northwest Arctic, Alaska: INVERT (Invertebrate Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for marine and estuarine invertebrate species in Northwest Arctic, Alaska. Vector polygons in this data set...

  18. Sensitivity of Coastal Environments and Wildlife to Spilled Oil: New Hampshire: INVERT (Invertebrate Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for marine, and estuarine invertebrate species in New Hampshire. Vector polygons in this data set represent...

  19. Rhode Island, Connecticut, New York, and New Jersey ESI: INVERTPT (Invertebrate Points)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for rare terrestrial invertebrates in coastal Rhode Island, Connecticut, New York, and New Jersey. Vector...

  20. Chemical Compounds Toxic to Invertebrates Isolated from Marine Cyanobacteria of Potential Relevance to the Agricultural Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magbubah Essack

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available In spite of advances in invertebrate pest management, the agricultural industry is suffering from impeded pest control exacerbated by global climate changes that have altered rain patterns to favour opportunistic breeding. Thus, novel naturally derived chemical compounds toxic to both terrestrial and aquatic invertebrates are of interest, as potential pesticides. In this regard, marine cyanobacterium-derived metabolites that are toxic to both terrestrial and aquatic invertebrates continue to be a promising, but neglected, source of potential pesticides. A PubMed query combined with hand-curation of the information from retrieved articles allowed for the identification of 36 cyanobacteria-derived chemical compounds experimentally confirmed as being toxic to invertebrates. These compounds are discussed in this review.

  1. Assessment of the effect of nanomaterials on sediment-dwelling invertebrate Chironomustentans larvae

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Oberholster, Paul J

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available (Fe2O3), on sediment dwelling invertebrates Chironomus tentans under controlled laboratory conditions. Percentage survival, enzyme activities, growth development, and DNA fragmentation parameters were studied as acute, biochemical, and physiological...

  2. Sensitivity of Coastal Environments and Wildlife to Spilled Oil: South Florida: INVERT (Invertebrate Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for marine and estuarine invertebrate species in South Florida. Vector polygons in this data set represent...

  3. Sensitivity of Coastal Environments and Wildlife to Spilled Oil: Upper Coast of Texas: INVERT (Invertebrate Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for marine and estuarine invertebrate species for the Upper Coast of Texas. Vector polygons in this data...

  4. Sensitivity of Coastal Environments and Wildlife to Spilled Oil: Central California: INVERT (Invertebrate Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for marine, intertidal/subtidal, and terrestrial invertebrate species in Central California. Vector...

  5. Sensitivity of Coastal Environments and Wildlife to Spilled Oil: Mississippi: INVERT (Invertebrate Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for marine, estuarine, and brackish water invertebrate species in Mississippi. Vector polygons in this data...

  6. Sensitivity of Coastal Environments and Wildlife to Spilled Oil: North Carolina: INVERT (Invertebrate Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for marine and estuarine invertebrate species in North Carolina. Vector polygons in this data set represent...

  7. Sensitivity of Coastal Environments and Wildlife to Spilled Oil: Northern California: INVERT (Invertebrate Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for marine, estuarine, freshwater, and terrestrial invertebrate species in Northern California. Vector...

  8. Can invertebrates see the e-vector of polarization as a separate modality of light?

    OpenAIRE

    Labhart, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT The visual world is rich in linearly polarized light stimuli, which are hidden from the human eye. But many invertebrate species make use of polarized light as a source of valuable visual information. However, exploiting light polarization does not necessarily imply that the electric (e)-vector orientation of polarized light can be perceived as a separate modality of light. In this Review, I address the question of whether invertebrates can detect specific e-vector orientations in a ...

  9. Effects of Karenia brevis on clearance rates and bioaccumulation of brevetoxins in benthic suspension feeding invertebrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Echevarria, Michael; Naar, Jerome P; Tomas, Carmelo; Pawlik, Joseph R

    2012-01-15

    Blooms of the toxic alga Karenia brevis occur along coastlines where sessile suspension feeding invertebrates are common components of benthic communities. We studied the effects of K. brevis on four benthic suspension feeding invertebrates common to the coast of the SE United States: the sponge Haliclona tubifera, the bryozoan Bugula neritina, the bivalve Mercenaria mercenaria, and the tunicate Styela plicata. In controlled laboratory experiments, we determined the rate at which K. brevis was cleared from the seawater by these invertebrates, the effect of K. brevis on clearance rates of a non-toxic phytoplankton species, Rhodomonas sp., and the extent to which brevetoxins bioaccumulated in tissues of invertebrates using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). All four invertebrate species cleared significant quantities of K. brevis from seawater, with mean clearance rates ranging from 2.27 to 6.71 L g h⁻¹ for H. tubifera and S. plicata, respectively. In the presence of K. brevis, clearance rates of Rhodomonas sp. by B. neritina and S. plicata were depressed by 75% and 69%, respectively, while clearance rates by H. tubifera and M. mercenaria were unaffected. Negative effects of K. brevis were impermanent; after a recovery period of 13 h, B. neritina and S. plicata regained normal clearance rates. All four invertebrates accumulated high concentrations of brevetoxin after a 4h exposure to K. brevis, but when animals were transferred to filtered seawater for 15 h after exposure, brevetoxin concentrations in the tissues of H. tubifera and B. neritina decreased by ∼80%, while there was no change in toxin concentration in the tissues of S. plicata and M. mercenaria. High cell concentrations of K. brevis may cause a suppression of clearance rates in benthic suspension feeding invertebrates, resulting in a positive feedback for bloom formation. Also, high concentrations of toxin may accumulate in the tissues of benthic suspension feeding invertebrates that may

  10. Molecular genetics and genomics generate new insights into invertebrate pest invasions

    OpenAIRE

    Kirk, Heather; Dorn, Silvia; Mazzi, Dominique

    2013-01-01

    Invertebrate pest invasions and outbreaks are associated with high social, economic, and ecological costs, and their significance will intensify with an increasing pressure on agricultural productivity as a result of human population growth and climate change. New molecular genetic and genomic techniques are available and accessible, but have been grossly underutilized in studies of invertebrate pest invasions, despite that they are useful tools for applied pest management and for understandi...

  11. Evaluation of Euthanasia Techniques for an Invertebrate Species, Land Snails (Succinea putris)

    OpenAIRE

    Gilbertson, Cody R; Wyatt, Jeffrey D

    2016-01-01

    The euthanasia of invertebrates used in scientific investigations poses unanswered questions regarding the rapid induction of unconsciousness with minimal distress and pain. Relative to vertebrates, invertebrates? sensory experience of pain, nociception, and physiologic response to aversive stimuli are poorly characterized. The scientific communities in the European Union, Canada, United States, Australia, and New Zealand join in consensus regarding the need to address alleviation of pain and...

  12. From cornea to retinal image in invertebrate eyes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nilsson, D E

    1990-02-01

    The optical information processing that takes place in an eye involves a large variety of very different optical components that are put together to solve a task which, in its basic nature, does not differ much from one species to another. The principal task of an eye is to sort the incoming photons so that they excite specific sensory neurons depending on angle of incidence, wavelength and plane of polarization. Despite the apparent simplicity of the task, the solutions to it are often complex and the variation between species is enormous. The pinhole camera, the Keplerian and Galilean telescopes, the corner reflector, optical fibres, and interference filters, are all names of optical devices invented by man. It now appears that all of these devices, and many more, exist in various combinations in the optics of invertebrate eyes. The similarity between man's and nature's optical engineering has been useful in many ways. For the study of eyes, it has helped to understand biological design principles in unparalleled detail.

  13. Bagworm bags as portable armour against invertebrate predators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugiura, Shinji

    2016-01-01

    Some animals have evolved the use of environmental materials as "portable armour" against natural enemies. Portable bags that bagworm larvae (Lepidoptera: Psychidae) construct using their own silk and plant parts are generally believed to play an important role as a physical barrier against natural enemies. However, no experimental studies have tested the importance of bags as portable armour against predators. To clarify the defensive function, I studied the bagworm Eumeta minuscula and a potential predator Calosoma maximoviczi (Coleoptera: Carabidae). Under laboratory conditions, all bagworm larvae were attacked by carabid adults, but successfully defended themselves against the predators' mandibles using their own bags. The portable bags, which are composed mainly of host plant twigs, may function as a physical barrier against predator mandibles. To test this hypothesis, I removed the twig bags and replaced some with herb leaf bags; all bag-removed larvae were easily caught and predated by carabids, while all bag-replaced larvae could successfully defend themselves against carabid attacks. Therefore, various types of portable bags can protect bagworm larvae from carabid attacks. This is the first study to test the defensive function of bagworm portable bags against invertebrate predators.

  14. Bagworm bags as portable armour against invertebrate predators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shinji Sugiura

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Some animals have evolved the use of environmental materials as “portable armour” against natural enemies. Portable bags that bagworm larvae (Lepidoptera: Psychidae construct using their own silk and plant parts are generally believed to play an important role as a physical barrier against natural enemies. However, no experimental studies have tested the importance of bags as portable armour against predators. To clarify the defensive function, I studied the bagworm Eumeta minuscula and a potential predator Calosoma maximoviczi (Coleoptera: Carabidae. Under laboratory conditions, all bagworm larvae were attacked by carabid adults, but successfully defended themselves against the predators’ mandibles using their own bags. The portable bags, which are composed mainly of host plant twigs, may function as a physical barrier against predator mandibles. To test this hypothesis, I removed the twig bags and replaced some with herb leaf bags; all bag-removed larvae were easily caught and predated by carabids, while all bag-replaced larvae could successfully defend themselves against carabid attacks. Therefore, various types of portable bags can protect bagworm larvae from carabid attacks. This is the first study to test the defensive function of bagworm portable bags against invertebrate predators.

  15. Quo Vadis Venomics? A Roadmap to Neglected Venomous Invertebrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Reumont, Bjoern Marcus; Campbell, Lahcen I.; Jenner, Ronald A.

    2014-01-01

    Venomics research is being revolutionized by the increased use of sensitive -omics techniques to identify venom toxins and their transcripts in both well studied and neglected venomous taxa. The study of neglected venomous taxa is necessary both for understanding the full diversity of venom systems that have evolved in the animal kingdom, and to robustly answer fundamental questions about the biology and evolution of venoms without the distorting effect that can result from the current bias introduced by some heavily studied taxa. In this review we draw the outlines of a roadmap into the diversity of poorly studied and understood venomous and putatively venomous invertebrates, which together represent tens of thousands of unique venoms. The main groups we discuss are crustaceans, flies, centipedes, non-spider and non-scorpion arachnids, annelids, molluscs, platyhelminths, nemerteans, and echinoderms. We review what is known about the morphology of the venom systems in these groups, the composition of their venoms, and the bioactivities of the venoms to provide researchers with an entry into a large and scattered literature. We conclude with a short discussion of some important methodological aspects that have come to light with the recent use of new -omics techniques in the study of venoms. PMID:25533518

  16. Quo Vadis Venomics? A Roadmap to Neglected Venomous Invertebrates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bjoern Marcus von Reumont

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Venomics research is being revolutionized by the increased use of sensitive -omics techniques to identify venom toxins and their transcripts in both well studied and neglected venomous taxa. The study of neglected venomous taxa is necessary both for understanding the full diversity of venom systems that have evolved in the animal kingdom, and to robustly answer fundamental questions about the biology and evolution of venoms without the distorting effect that can result from the current bias introduced by some heavily studied taxa. In this review we draw the outlines of a roadmap into the diversity of poorly studied and understood venomous and putatively venomous invertebrates, which together represent tens of thousands of unique venoms. The main groups we discuss are crustaceans, flies, centipedes, non-spider and non-scorpion arachnids, annelids, molluscs, platyhelminths, nemerteans, and echinoderms. We review what is known about the morphology of the venom systems in these groups, the composition of their venoms, and the bioactivities of the venoms to provide researchers with an entry into a large and scattered literature. We conclude with a short discussion of some important methodological aspects that have come to light with the recent use of new -omics techniques in the study of venoms.

  17. Effects of traditional flood irrigation on invertebrates in lowland meadows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schirmel, Jens; Alt, Martin; Rudolph, Isabell; Entling, Martin H

    2014-01-01

    Lowland meadow irrigation used to be widespread in Central Europe, but has largely been abandoned during the 20th century. As a result of agri-environment schemes and nature conservation efforts, meadow irrigation is now being re-established in some European regions. In the absence of natural flood events, irrigation is expected to favour fauna typical of lowland wet meadows. We analysed the effects of traditional flood irrigation on diversity, densities and species composition of three invertebrate indicator taxa in lowland meadows in Germany. Unexpectedly, alpha diversity (species richness and Simpson diversity) and beta diversity (multivariate homogeneity of group dispersions) of orthopterans, carabids, and spiders were not significantly different between irrigated and non-irrigated meadows. However, spider densities were significantly higher in irrigated meadows. Furthermore, irrigation and elevated humidity affected species composition and shifted assemblages towards moisture-dependent species. The number of species of conservation concern, however, did not differ between irrigated and non-irrigated meadows. More variable and intensive (higher duration and/or frequency) flooding regimes might provide stronger conservation benefits, additional species and enhance habitat heterogeneity on a landscape scale.

  18. Effects of traditional flood irrigation on invertebrates in lowland meadows.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jens Schirmel

    Full Text Available Lowland meadow irrigation used to be widespread in Central Europe, but has largely been abandoned during the 20th century. As a result of agri-environment schemes and nature conservation efforts, meadow irrigation is now being re-established in some European regions. In the absence of natural flood events, irrigation is expected to favour fauna typical of lowland wet meadows. We analysed the effects of traditional flood irrigation on diversity, densities and species composition of three invertebrate indicator taxa in lowland meadows in Germany. Unexpectedly, alpha diversity (species richness and Simpson diversity and beta diversity (multivariate homogeneity of group dispersions of orthopterans, carabids, and spiders were not significantly different between irrigated and non-irrigated meadows. However, spider densities were significantly higher in irrigated meadows. Furthermore, irrigation and elevated humidity affected species composition and shifted assemblages towards moisture-dependent species. The number of species of conservation concern, however, did not differ between irrigated and non-irrigated meadows. More variable and intensive (higher duration and/or frequency flooding regimes might provide stronger conservation benefits, additional species and enhance habitat heterogeneity on a landscape scale.

  19. Diseases in marine invertebrates associated with mariculture and commercial fisheries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweet, Michael J.; Bateman, Kelly S.

    2015-10-01

    Diseases in marine invertebrates are increasing in both frequency and intensity around the globe. Diseases in individuals which offer some commercial value are often well documented and subsequently well studied in comparison to those wild groups offering little commercial gain. This is particularly the case with those associated with mariculture or the commercial fisheries. Specifically, these include many Holothuroidea, and numerous crustacea and mollusca species. Pathogens/parasites consisting of both prokaryotes and eukaryotes from all groups have been associated with diseases from such organisms, including bacteria, viruses, fungi and protozoa. Viral pathogens in particular, appear to be an increasingly important group and research into this group will likely highlight a larger number of diseases and pathogens being described in the near future. Interestingly, although there are countless examples of the spread of disease usually associated with transportation of specific infected hosts for development of aquaculture practices, this process appears to be continuing with no real sign of effective management and mitigation strategies being implicated. Notably, even in well developed countries such as the UK and the US, even though live animal trade may be well managed, the transport of frozen food appears to be less well so and as evidence suggests, even these to have the potential to transmit pathogens when used as a food source for example.

  20. Paraquat Hazards to Fish, Wildlife, and Invertebrates: A Synoptic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisler, R.

    1990-01-01

    Paraquat (1,1`dimethyl4,4`bipyridinium) are broad-spectrum contact plant killers and herbage desiccants that were introduced commercially during the past 25 years. Today, they rank among the most widely used herbicides globally and are frequently used in combination with other herbicides. The recommended paraquat field application rates for terrestrial weed control usually range between 0.28 and 1.12 kg/ha (0.25 and 1.0 lb/acre), and for aquatic weed control the range is 0.12.0 mg/l. Paraquat in surface soils generally photodecomposes in several weeks, but paraquat in subsurface soils and sediments may remain bound and biologically unavailablefor many years without significant degradation. Paraquat is not significantly accumulated by earthworms and other species of soil invertebrates and is usually excreted rapidly by higher animals; however, delayed toxic effects including death of birds and mammals are common. At concentrations below the recommended application rate, paraquat is embryotoxic to developing eggs of migratory waterfowl and adversely affects sensitive species of freshwater algae and macrophytes, larvae of crustaceans and frog tadpoles and carp. Sensitive species of birds are negatively affected at daily dose rates of 10 mg/kg body weight or when fed diets containing 20 mg/kg ration or drinking water containing 40 mg/l.

  1. Study of the heartbeat of an invertebrate during long periods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritto, P. A.; Vera, D.; Contreras, J. G.; Alvarado-Gil, J. J.

    2001-10-01

    An alternative methodology to monitor the heartbeat is presented. The new technique is based on a low power laser beam focused reflected off by a living heart and detected with a linear response photodiode that serves to plot cardiac movements. In order to prove the laser technique an invertebrate, an oyster, was chosen. Three sets of measurements of the heartbeat were done with five oysters changing ambiental salinity, time of data acquisition, and sampling frequency. In all the experiments the temperature was (23±1) °C. Typical "laser-cardiograms" clearly show cardiac signals superposed to the motions of other organs like the gills and the valves. Analysis of the data is done using two methods: Traditional Fast Fourier Transformation to find the principal frequencies of motion and Detrended Fluctuation Analysis to study the nonlinear fluctuation of the interbeat. This algorithm developed handles very well the nonstationarities of biological signals and predicts the level of time scale invariance of the interbeat heartbeat. Preliminar results indicate that heartbeats of oysters measured with the laser-cardiogram technique do not present fractality but rather a long range power law correlation.

  2. Impact of Flaveria bidentis Litter on Communities of Invertebrates in Soil in Different Habitats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    YAN Jing

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available An investigation was conducted to explore the impacts of Flaveria bidentis litter on the communities of invertebrates in soil in three different habitats including forestland, wasteland, and ditches. A total of 54315 individuals were captured in three habitats on October 23rd by cutting ring(diameter is 20 cm, height is 10 cm, which is divided into three sampling layers in this study. All of the individuals belong to 2 phyla 10 classes 17 orders, among which Arachnoidea and Collembola were the dominant orders in three habitats, and the relative abundance of other species were smaller. F. bidentis litter could provide the better habitats and food sources for invertebrates in soil, such as Arachnoidea, Collembola, Psocoptera and so on, thereby affecting their structure and diversity of community of invertebrates in soil which mainly related to growth conditions of F. bidentis community, which is characterized by its weaker growth conditions in forestland but stronger growth in wasteland land and ditches. In summary, F. bidentis plants and their litter provided habitat and concealment for the dominant species, and significantly changed content of nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium and organic matter in surface humus soil after the invasion of F. bidentis in three habitats, which cause the increasing of diversity of invertebrates in soil and also it trends to increase for the diversity of invertebrates in liter from top to bottom. Thus it laid a foundation for the influence of decomposition rate in F. bidentis litter on the diversity of invertebrate communities in soil.

  3. Storm-event-transport of urban-use pesticides to streams likely impairs invertebrate assemblages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpenter, Kurt; Kuivila, Kathryn; Hladik, Michelle; Haluska, Tana L.; Michael B. Cole,

    2016-01-01

    Insecticide use in urban areas results in the detection of these compounds in streams following stormwater runoff at concentrations likely to cause toxicity for stream invertebrates. In this 2013 study, stormwater runoff and streambed sediments were analyzed for 91 pesticides dissolved in water and 118 pesticides on sediment. Detections included 33 pesticides, including insecticides, fungicides, herbicides, degradates, and a synergist. Patterns in pesticide occurrence reveal transport of dissolved and sediment-bound pesticides, including pyrethroids, from upland areas through stormwater outfalls to receiving streams. Nearly all streams contained at least one insecticide at levels exceeding an aquatic-life benchmark, most often for bifenthrin and (or) fipronil. Multiple U.S. EPA benchmark or criterion exceedances occurred in 40 % of urban streams sampled. Bed sediment concentrations of bifenthrin were highly correlated (p < 0.001) with benthic invertebrate assemblages. Non-insects and tolerant invertebrates such as amphipods, flatworms, nematodes, and oligochaetes dominated streams with relatively high concentrations of bifenthrin in bed sediments, whereas insects, sensitive invertebrates, and mayflies were much more abundant at sites with no or low bifenthrin concentrations. The abundance of sensitive invertebrates, % EPT, and select mayfly taxa were strongly negatively correlated with organic-carbon normalized bifenthrin concentrations in streambed sediments. Our findings from western Clackamas County, Oregon (USA), expand upon previous research demonstrating the transport of pesticides from urban landscapes and linking impaired benthic invertebrate assemblages in urban streams with exposure to pyrethroid insecticides.

  4. Macrophytes, epipelic biofilm, and invertebrates as biotic indicators of physical habitat degradation of lowland streams (Argentina).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortelezzi, Agustina; Sierra, María Victoria; Gómez, Nora; Marinelli, Claudia; Rodrigues Capítulo, Alberto

    2013-07-01

    Our objective was to assess the effect of the physical habitat degradation in three lowland streams of Argentina that are subject to different land uses. To address this matter, we looked into some physical habitat alterations, mainly the water quality and channel changes, the impact on macrophytes' community, and the structural and functional descriptors of the epipelic biofilm and invertebrate assemblages. As a consequence of physical and chemical perturbations, we differentiated sampling sites with different degradation levels. The low degraded sites were affected mainly for the suburban land use, the moderately degraded sites for the rural land use, and the highly degraded sites for the urban land use. The data shows that the biotic descriptors that best reflected the environmental degradation were vegetation cover and macrophytes richness, the dominance of tolerant species (epipelic biofilm and invertebrates), algal biomass, O2 consumption by the epipelic biofilm, and invertebrates' richness and diversity. Furthermore, the results obtained highlight the importance of the macrophytes in the lowland streams, where there is a poor diversification of abiotic substrates and where the macrophytes not only provide shelter but also a food source for invertebrates and other trophic levels such as fish. We also noted that both in benthic communities, invertebrates and epipelic biofilm supplied different information: the habitat's physical structure provided by the macrophytes influenced mainly the invertebrate descriptors; meanwhile, the water quality mainly influenced most of the epipelic biofilm descriptors.

  5. The buzz on caffeine in invertebrates: effects on behavior and molecular mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mustard, Julie A

    2014-04-01

    A number of recent studies from as diverse fields as plant-pollinator interactions, analyses of caffeine as an environmental pollutant, and the ability of caffeine to provide protection against neurodegenerative diseases have generated interest in understanding the actions of caffeine in invertebrates. This review summarizes what is currently known about the effects of caffeine on behavior and its molecular mechanisms in invertebrates. Caffeine appears to have similar effects on locomotion and sleep in both invertebrates and mammals. Furthermore, as in mammals, caffeine appears to have complex effects on learning and memory. However, the underlying mechanisms for these effects may differ between invertebrates and vertebrates. While caffeine's ability to cause release of intracellular calcium stores via ryanodine receptors and its actions as a phosphodiesterase inhibitor have been clearly established in invertebrates, its ability to interact with invertebrate adenosine receptors remains an important open question. Initial studies in insects and mollusks suggest an interaction between caffeine and the dopamine signaling pathway; more work needs to be done to understand the mechanisms by which caffeine influences signaling via biogenic amines. As of yet, little is known about whether other actions of caffeine in vertebrates, such as its effects on GABAA and glycine receptors, are conserved. Furthermore, the pharmacokinetics of caffeine remains to be elucidated. Overall behavioral responses to caffeine appear to be conserved amongst organisms; however, we are just beginning to understand the mechanisms underlying its effects across animal phyla.

  6. Medicinal benefits of marine invertebrates: sources for discovering natural drug candidates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Zoysa, Mahanama

    2012-01-01

    Marine invertebrates are one of the major groups of organisms, which could be diversified under the major taxonomic groups of Porifera, Cnidaria, Mollusca, Arthropoda, Echinodermata, and many other minor phyla. To date, range of medicinal benefits and a significant number of marine natural products (MNPs) have been discovered from marine invertebrates. Seafood diet from edible marine invertebrates such as mollusks and crustaceans has been linked with various medicinal benefits to improve human health. Among marine invertebrates, spongers from phylum Porifera is the most dominant group responsible for discovering large number of MNPs, which have been used as template to develop therapeutic drugs. MNPs isolated from invertebrates have shown wide range of therapeutic properties including antimicrobial, antioxidant, antihypertensive, anticoagulant, anticancer, anti-inflammatory, wound healing and immune modulator, and other medicinal effects. Therefore, marine invertebrates are rich sources of chemical diversity and health benefits for developing drug candidates, cosmetics, nutritional supplements, and molecular probes that can be supported to increase the healthy life span of human. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. The buzz on caffeine in invertebrates: effects on behavior and molecular mechanisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mustard, Julie A.

    2014-01-01

    A number of recent studies from as diverse fields as plant-pollinator interactions, analyses of caffeine as an environmental pollutant, and the ability of caffeine to provide protection against neurodegenerative diseases have generated interest in understanding the actions of caffeine in invertebrates. This review summarizes what is currently known about the effects of caffeine on behavior and its molecular mechanisms in invertebrates. Caffeine appears to have similar effects on locomotion and sleep in both invertebrates and mammals. Furthermore, as in mammals, caffeine appears to have complex effects on learning and memory. However, the underlying mechanisms for these effects may differ between invertebrates and vertebrates. While caffeine’s ability to cause release of intracellular calcium stores via ryanodine receptors and its actions as a phosphodiesterase inhibitor have been clearly established in invertebrates, its ability to interact with invertebrate adenosine receptors remains an important open question. Initial studies in insects and mollusks suggest an interaction between caffeine and the dopamine signaling pathway; more work needs to be done to understand the mechanisms by which caffeine influences signaling via biogenic amines. As of yet, little is known about whether other actions of caffeine in vertebrates, such as its effects on GABAA and glycine receptors, are conserved. Furthermore, the pharmacokinetics of caffeine remains to be elucidated. Overall behavioral responses to caffeine appear to be conserved amongst organisms; however, we are just beginning to understand the mechanisms underlying its effects across animal phyla. PMID:24162934

  8. [Invertebrate biodiversity in litter layers of natural forest and Eucalyptus plantation in eastern Guangdong, China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jun; Liao, Qing-sheng; Ding, Wei-min; Tong, Xiao-li

    2008-01-01

    A comparative study was made on the community structure of invertebrates and the species diversity of thrips in the litter layers of natural forest and Eucalyptus urophylla plantation in eastern Guangdong of China. The results showed that in natural forest, Acarina, Collembola, Dipteran larvae, Hymenoptera, Thysanoptera, and Coleoptera were the most abundant invertebrates, accounting for 96.5% of the total individuals collected; while in Eucalyptus plantation, Acarina, Collembola, Dipteran larvae, and Lepidopteran larvae were the dominant invertebrate groups, which accounted for 96.3% of the total. The diversity of invertebrate assemblages was much higher in natural forest than in Eucalyptus plantation, based on the comparsions of Shannon-Wiener diversity index (H'), Pielou eveness index (J), Density-group index (DG), and Simpson dominance index (D). The individuals and species of fungus-feeding thrips were also more abundant in natural forest than in Eucalyptus plantation. However, there was no significant difference in the average density of invertebrates between natural forest and Eucalyptus plantation, because the individuals of Acarina were predominant, constituting 77.6% of the total. All of the results suggested that it is important to remain the understory and litter to improve the litter invertebrate diversity in fast-growing Eucalyptus plantation.

  9. The Effects of Exurbanization on Bird and Macro invertebrate Communities in Deciduous Forests on the Cumberland Plateau, Tennessee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Casey, J.M.; Wilson, M.E.; Haskell, D.G.; Hollingshead, N.

    2009-01-01

    To investigate the potential causes of changes to bird communities in exurban areas, we examined the relationship between bird and macro invertebrate communities in exurbanized forest. We randomly located sampling points across a gradient of exurbanization. We used point counts to quantify bird communities and sweep netting, soil cores, pitfalls, and frass collectors to quantify macro invertebrates. Bird communities had higher richness and abundance in exurban areas compared to undeveloped forests, and lost some species of conservation concern but gained others. The macro invertebrate community was slightly more abundant in exurban areas, with a slight shift in taxonomic composition. The abundance of macro invertebrates in soil cores (but not pitfalls) predicted the abundance of ground-foraging birds. The abundance of macro invertebrates in sweep nets was not associated with the abundance of aerial insectivore birds. Exurbanization therefore appears to change bird and macro invertebrate communities, but to a lesser extent than agricultural forest fragmentation or intensive urbanization.

  10. Field trials to evaluate effects of continuously planted transgenic insect-resistant cottons on soil invertebrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiaogang; Liu, Biao; Wang, Xingxiang; Han, Zhengmin; Cui, Jinjie; Luo, Junyu

    2012-03-01

    Impacts on soil invertebrates are an important aspect of environmental risk assessment and post-release monitoring of transgenic insect-resistant plants. The purpose of this study was to research and survey the effects of transgenic insect-resistant cottons that had been planted over 10 years on the abundance and community structure of soil invertebrates under field conditions. During 3 consecutive years (2006-2008), eight common taxa (orders) of soil invertebrates belonging to the phylum Arthropoda were investigated in two different transgenic cotton fields and one non-transgenic cotton field (control). Each year, soil samples were taken at four different growth stages of cotton (seedling, budding, boll forming and boll opening). Animals were extracted from the samples using the improved Tullgren method, counted and determined to the order level. The diversity of the soil fauna communities in the different fields was compared using the Simpson's, Shannon's diversity indices and evenness index. The results showed a significant sampling time variation in the abundance of soil invertebrates monitored in the different fields. However, no difference in soil invertebrate abundance was found between the transgenic cotton fields and the control field. Both sampling time and cotton treatment had a significant effect on the Simpson's, Shannon's diversity indices and evenness index. They were higher in the transgenic fields than the control field at the growth stages of cotton. Long-term cultivation of transgenic insect-resistant cottons had no significant effect on the abundance of soil invertebrates. Collembola, Acarina and Araneae could act as the indicators of soil invertebrate in this region to monitor the environmental impacts of transgenic plants in the future. This journal is © The Royal Society of Chemistry 2012

  11. Salmon-derived nitrogen in terrestrial invertebrates from coniferous forests of the Pacific Northwest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reimchen Thomas E

    2002-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Bi-directional flow of nutrients between marine and terrestrial ecosystems can provide essential resources that structure communities in transitional habitats. On the Pacific coast of North America, anadromous salmon (Oncorhynchus spp. constitute a dominant nutrient subsidy to aquatic habitats and riparian vegetation, although the contribution to terrestrial habitats is not well established. We use a dual isotope approach of δ15N and δ13C to test for the contribution of salmon nutrients to multiple trophic levels of litter-based terrestrial invertebrates below and above waterfalls that act as a barrier to salmon migration on two watersheds in coastal British Columbia. Results Invertebrates varied predictably in δ15N with enrichment of 3–8‰ below the falls compared with above the falls in all trophic groups on both watersheds. We observed increasing δ15N levels in our invertebrate groups with increasing consumption of dietary protein. Invertebrates varied in δ13C but did not always vary predictably with trophic level or habitat. From 19.4 to 71.5% of invertebrate total nitrogen was originally derived from salmon depending on taxa, watershed, and degree of fractionation from the source. Conclusions Enrichment of δ15N in the invertebrate community below the falls in conjunction with the absence of δ13C enrichment suggests that enrichment in δ15N occurs primarily through salmon-derived nitrogen subsidies to litter, soil and vegetation N pools rather than from direct consumption of salmon tissue or salmon tissue consumers. Salmon nutrient subsidies to terrestrial habitats may result in shifts in invertebrate community structure, with subsequent implications for higher vertebrate consumers, particularly the passerines.

  12. Assessing streamflow characteristics as limiting factors on benthic invertebrate assemblages in streams across the western United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konrad, C.P.; Brasher, A.M.D.; May, J.T.

    2008-01-01

    1. Human use of land and water resources modifies many streamflow characteristics, which can have significant ecological consequences. Streamflow and invertebrate data collected at 111 sites in the western U.S.A. were analysed to identify streamflow characteristics (magnitude, frequency, duration, timing and variation) that are probably to limit characteristics of benthic invertebrate assemblages (abundance, richness, diversity and evenness, functional feeding groups and individual taxa) and, thus, would be important for freshwater conservation and restoration. Our analysis investigated multiple metrics for each biological and hydrological characteristic, but focuses on 14 invertebrate metrics and 13 streamflow metrics representing the key associations between streamflow and invertebrates.

  13. Secondary metabolites from the South China Sea invertebrates: chemistry and biological activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wen; Guo, Yue-Wei; Gu, Yucheng

    2006-01-01

    The increasing demand for new lead compounds in the pharmaceutical and agrochemical industries has driven scientists to search for new sources of bioactive natural products. Marine invertebrates are a rich source of novel, bioactive secondary metabolites and they have attracted a great deal of attention from scientists in the fields of chemistry, pharmacology, ecology, and molecular biology. During the past 25 years, many complex and structurally unique secondary metabolites have been isolated from the invertebrates inhabiting the South China Sea. These metabolites are responsible for various bioactivities such as anti-tumor, anti-inflammation and antioxidant activities, and/or they act on the cardiovascular system. This review will focus on the marine natural product chemistry of invertebrates from the South China Sea, aiming to give the reader a brief view of the compounds isolated from these invertebrates, as well as their biological activities. The article covers the literature published during the period from the beginning of 1980 to the end of 2005, with 340 citations and 811 compounds from invertebrates from the South China Sea, including sponges, coelenterates, molluscs and echinoderms.

  14. Spatial and temporal variations of mercury levels in Okefenokee invertebrates: Southeast Georgia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    George, Bagie M.; Batzer, Darold

    2008-01-01

    Accumulation of mercury in wetland ecosystems has raised concerns about impacts on wetland food webs. This study measured concentrations of mercury in invertebrates of the Okefenokee Swamp in Georgia, focusing on levels in amphipods, odonates, and crayfish. We collected and analyzed total mercury levels in these invertebrates from 32 sampling stations across commonly occurring sub-habitats. Sampling was conducted in December, May, and August over a two-year period. The highest levels of mercury were detected in amphipods, with total mercury levels often in excess of 20 ppm. Bioaccumulation pathways of mercury in invertebrates of the Okefenokee are probably complex; despite being larger and higher in the food chain, levels in odonates and crayfish were much lower than in amphipods. Mercury levels in invertebrates varied temporally with the highest levels detected in May. There was a lack of spatial variation in mercury levels which is consistent with aerial deposition of mercury. - This study measured mercury levels in invertebrates and found the highest levels in amphipods

  15. The invertebrate fauna of anthropogenic soils in the High-Arctic settlement of Barentsburg, Svalbard

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Torstein Solhøy

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The terrestrial environment of the High Arctic consists of a mosaic of habitat types. In addition to the natural habitat diversity, various human-influenced types may occur. For the resident invertebrate fauna, these anthropogenic habitats may be either unusually favourable or detrimental. In the town of Barentsburg, Svalbard, soils were imported for the greenhouses from southern Russia. These soils were subsequently discarded outside the greenhouses and have become augmented with manure from the cowsheds. Both the greenhouse and the cowsheds are now derelict. This site represents an unusually nutrient-rich location with considerable development of organic soils, in stark contrast to the naturally forming organic soils in Svalbard, which are typically thin and nutrient poor. Few previous studies have examined the soil invertebrate communities of human-disturbed or -created habitats in the Arctic. In an often nutrient-poor terrestrial environment, it is unclear how the invertebrate fauna will react to such nutrient enhancement. In these soils, 46 species of invertebrates were determined. Eleven species have not been recorded from other habitats in Svalbard and are hence likely to have been introduced. The native species assemblage in the anthropogenic soils was not atypical for many natural sites in Svalbard. Despite the enriched organic soils and highly ameliorated winter temperature conditions, the soil invertebrate fauna biodiversity does not appear to be enhanced beyond the presence of certain probably introduced species.

  16. The Primary Role of Fibrinogen-Related Proteins in Invertebrates Is Defense, Not Coagulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanington, Patrick C.; Zhang, Si-Ming

    2010-01-01

    In vertebrates, the conversion of fibrinogen into fibrin is an essential process that underlies the establishment of the supporting protein framework required for coagulation. In invertebrates, fibrinogen-domain-containing proteins play a role in the defense response generated against pathogens; however, they do not function in coagulation, suggesting that this role has been recently acquired. Molecules containing fibrinogen motifs have been identified in numerous invertebrate organisms, and most of these molecules known to date have been linked to defense. Moreover, recent genome projects of invertebrate animals have revealed surprisingly high numbers of fibrinogen-like loci in their genomes, suggesting important and perhaps diverse functions of fibrinogen-like proteins in invertebrates. The ancestral role of molecules containing fibrinogen-related domains (FReDs) with immunity is the focus of this review, with emphasis on specific FReDs called fibrinogen-related proteins (FREPs) identified from the schistosome-transmitting mollusc Biomphalaria glabrata. Herein, we outline the range of invertebrate organisms FREPs can be found in, and detail the roles these molecules play in defense and protection against infection. PMID:21063081

  17. The role of transposable elements in the evolution of non-mammalian vertebrates and invertebrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Background Transposable elements (TEs) have played an important role in the diversification and enrichment of mammalian transcriptomes through various mechanisms such as exonization and intronization (the birth of new exons/introns from previously intronic/exonic sequences, respectively), and insertion into first and last exons. However, no extensive analysis has compared the effects of TEs on the transcriptomes of mammals, non-mammalian vertebrates and invertebrates. Results We analyzed the influence of TEs on the transcriptomes of five species, three invertebrates and two non-mammalian vertebrates. Compared to previously analyzed mammals, there were lower levels of TE introduction into introns, significantly lower numbers of exonizations originating from TEs and a lower percentage of TE insertion within the first and last exons. Although the transcriptomes of vertebrates exhibit significant levels of exonization of TEs, only anecdotal cases were found in invertebrates. In vertebrates, as in mammals, the exonized TEs are mostly alternatively spliced, indicating that selective pressure maintains the original mRNA product generated from such genes. Conclusions Exonization of TEs is widespread in mammals, less so in non-mammalian vertebrates, and very low in invertebrates. We assume that the exonization process depends on the length of introns. Vertebrates, unlike invertebrates, are characterized by long introns and short internal exons. Our results suggest that there is a direct link between the length of introns and exonization of TEs and that this process became more prevalent following the appearance of mammals. PMID:20525173

  18. Influences of extreme weather, climate and pesticide use on invertebrates in cereal fields over 42 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ewald, Julie A; Wheatley, Christopher J; Aebischer, Nicholas J; Moreby, Stephen J; Duffield, Simon J; Crick, Humphrey Q P; Morecroft, Michael B

    2015-11-01

    Cereal fields are central to balancing food production and environmental health in the face of climate change. Within them, invertebrates provide key ecosystem services. Using 42 years of monitoring data collected in southern England, we investigated the sensitivity and resilience of invertebrates in cereal fields to extreme weather events and examined the effect of long-term changes in temperature, rainfall and pesticide use on invertebrate abundance. Of the 26 invertebrate groups examined, eleven proved sensitive to extreme weather events. Average abundance increased in hot/dry years and decreased in cold/wet years for Araneae, Cicadellidae, adult Heteroptera, Thysanoptera, Braconidae, Enicmus and Lathridiidae. The average abundance of Delphacidae, Cryptophagidae and Mycetophilidae increased in both hot/dry and cold/wet years relative to other years. The abundance of all 10 groups usually returned to their long-term trend within a year after the extreme event. For five of them, sensitivity to cold/wet events was lowest (translating into higher abundances) at locations with a westerly aspect. Some long-term trends in invertebrate abundance correlated with temperature and rainfall, indicating that climate change may affect them. However, pesticide use was more important in explaining the trends, suggesting that reduced pesticide use would mitigate the effects of climate change. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Enzyme-Assisted Discovery of Antioxidant Peptides from Edible Marine Invertebrates: A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chai, Tsun-Thai; Law, Yew-Chye; Wong, Fai-Chu; Kim, Se-Kwon

    2017-02-16

    Marine invertebrates, such as oysters, mussels, clams, scallop, jellyfishes, squids, prawns, sea cucumbers and sea squirts, are consumed as foods. These edible marine invertebrates are sources of potent bioactive peptides. The last two decades have seen a surge of interest in the discovery of antioxidant peptides from edible marine invertebrates. Enzymatic hydrolysis is an efficient strategy commonly used for releasing antioxidant peptides from food proteins. A growing number of antioxidant peptide sequences have been identified from the enzymatic hydrolysates of edible marine invertebrates. Antioxidant peptides have potential applications in food, pharmaceuticals and cosmetics. In this review, we first give a brief overview of the current state of progress of antioxidant peptide research, with special attention to marine antioxidant peptides. We then focus on 22 investigations which identified 32 antioxidant peptides from enzymatic hydrolysates of edible marine invertebrates. Strategies adopted by various research groups in the purification and identification of the antioxidant peptides will be summarized. Structural characteristic of the peptide sequences in relation to their antioxidant activities will be reviewed. Potential applications of the peptide sequences and future research prospects will also be discussed.

  20. The Early Shorebird Will Catch Fewer Invertebrates on Trampled Sandy Beaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlacher, Thomas A; Carracher, Lucy K; Porch, Nicholas; Connolly, Rod M; Olds, Andrew D; Gilby, Ben L; Ekanayake, Kasun B; Maslo, Brooke; Weston, Michael A

    2016-01-01

    Many species of birds breeding on ocean beaches and in coastal dunes are of global conservation concern. Most of these species rely on invertebrates (e.g. insects, small crustaceans) as an irreplaceable food source, foraging primarily around the strandline on the upper beach near the dunes. Sandy beaches are also prime sites for human recreation, which impacts these food resources via negative trampling effects. We quantified acute trampling impacts on assemblages of upper shore invertebrates in a controlled experiment over a range of foot traffic intensities (up to 56 steps per square metre) on a temperate beach in Victoria, Australia. Trampling significantly altered assemblage structure (species composition and density) and was correlated with significant declines in invertebrate abundance and species richness. Trampling effects were strongest for rare species. In heavily trafficked plots the abundance of sand hoppers (Amphipoda), a principal prey item of threatened Hooded Plovers breeding on this beach, was halved. In contrast to the consistently strong effects of trampling, natural habitat attributes (e.g. sediment grain size, compactness) were much less influential predictors. If acute suppression of invertebrates caused by trampling, as demonstrated here, is more widespread on beaches it may constitute a significant threat to endangered vertebrates reliant on these invertebrates. This calls for a re-thinking of conservation actions by considering active management of food resources, possibly through enhancement of wrack or direct augmentation of prey items to breeding territories.

  1. The importance of invertebrates when considering the impacts of anthropogenic noise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morley, Erica L; Jones, Gareth; Radford, Andrew N

    2014-02-07

    Anthropogenic noise is now recognized as a major global pollutant. Rapidly burgeoning research has identified impacts on individual behaviour and physiology through to community disruption. To date, however, there has been an almost exclusive focus on vertebrates. Not only does their central role in food webs and in fulfilling ecosystem services make imperative our understanding of how invertebrates are impacted by all aspects of environmental change, but also many of their inherent characteristics provide opportunities to overcome common issues with the current anthropogenic noise literature. Here, we begin by explaining why invertebrates are likely to be affected by anthropogenic noise, briefly reviewing their capacity for hearing and providing evidence that they are capable of evolutionary adaptation and behavioural plasticity in response to natural noise sources. We then discuss the importance of quantifying accurately and fully both auditory ability and noise content, emphasizing considerations of direct relevance to how invertebrates detect sounds. We showcase how studying invertebrates can help with the behavioural bias in the literature, the difficulties in drawing strong, ecologically valid conclusions and the need for studies on fitness impacts. Finally, we suggest avenues of future research using invertebrates that would advance our understanding of the impact of anthropogenic noise.

  2. Molecular genetics and genomics generate new insights into invertebrate pest invasions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirk, Heather; Dorn, Silvia; Mazzi, Dominique

    2013-07-01

    Invertebrate pest invasions and outbreaks are associated with high social, economic, and ecological costs, and their significance will intensify with an increasing pressure on agricultural productivity as a result of human population growth and climate change. New molecular genetic and genomic techniques are available and accessible, but have been grossly underutilized in studies of invertebrate pest invasions, despite that they are useful tools for applied pest management and for understanding fundamental features of pest invasions including pest population demographics and adaptation of pests to novel and/or changing environments. Here, we review current applications of molecular genetics and genomics in the study of invertebrate pest invasions and outbreaks, and we highlight shortcomings from the current body of research. We then discuss recent conceptual and methodological advances in the areas of molecular genetics/genomics and data analysis, and we highlight how these advances will further our understanding of the demographic, ecological, and evolutionary features of invertebrate pest invasions. We are now well equipped to use molecular data to understand invertebrate dispersal and adaptation, and this knowledge has valuable applications in agriculture at a time when these are critically required.

  3. Does Botanical Diversity in Sewage Treatment Reed-Bed Sites Enhance Invertebrate Biodiversity?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alan Feest

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available (1 This study examines the effect of increasing botanical diversity, through reed-bed planting and maintenance regimes, on sewage treatment reed-bed invertebrate biodiversity and the possible enrichment of overall catchment biodiversity. (2 Reed-bed invertebrates were identified as a good indicator group of overall site biodiversity quality and were sampled at a range of sewage treatment reed-bed sites in the same geographical area between May and August 2006 (plus one natural reed-bed control site. Standardised water trapping and pitfall trapping techniques were employed throughout this sampling period. (3 Statistical analysis of the sampling results revealed that the number of plant species recorded was inversely related to terrestrial invertebrate species richness, species conservation value index and biomass within the study sites. For example, the natural reed-bed sampled had the highest botanical diversity but the lowest terrestrial invertebrate species richness. (4 This study has demonstrated that sewage treatment reed-beds support a diverse range of invertebrate species, some of them being of national conservation value. This suggests that sewage treatment reed-beds may be at least as biodiverse as naturally occurring reed-beds and will add to the overall biodiversity and ecohydrology of a catchment whilst saving energy.

  4. Rapid global expansion of invertebrate fisheries: trends, drivers, and ecosystem effects.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sean C Anderson

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Worldwide, finfish fisheries are receiving increasing assessment and regulation, slowly leading to more sustainable exploitation and rebuilding. In their wake, invertebrate fisheries are rapidly expanding with little scientific scrutiny despite increasing socio-economic importance. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We provide the first global evaluation of the trends, drivers, and population and ecosystem consequences of invertebrate fisheries based on a global catch database in combination with taxa-specific reviews. We also develop new methodologies to quantify temporal and spatial trends in resource status and fishery development. Since 1950, global invertebrate catches have increased 6-fold with 1.5 times more countries fishing and double the taxa reported. By 2004, 34% of invertebrate fisheries were over-exploited, collapsed, or closed. New fisheries have developed increasingly rapidly, with a decrease of 6 years (3 years in time to peak from the 1950s to 1990s. Moreover, some fisheries have expanded further and further away from their driving market, encompassing a global fishery by the 1990s. 71% of taxa (53% of catches are harvested with habitat-destructive gear, and many provide important ecosystem functions including habitat, filtration, and grazing. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggest that invertebrate species, which form an important component of the basis of marine food webs, are increasingly exploited with limited stock and ecosystem-impact assessments, and enhanced management attention is needed to avoid negative consequences for ocean ecosystems and human well-being.

  5. Rapid global expansion of invertebrate fisheries: trends, drivers, and ecosystem effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Sean C; Flemming, Joanna Mills; Watson, Reg; Lotze, Heike K

    2011-03-08

    Worldwide, finfish fisheries are receiving increasing assessment and regulation, slowly leading to more sustainable exploitation and rebuilding. In their wake, invertebrate fisheries are rapidly expanding with little scientific scrutiny despite increasing socio-economic importance. We provide the first global evaluation of the trends, drivers, and population and ecosystem consequences of invertebrate fisheries based on a global catch database in combination with taxa-specific reviews. We also develop new methodologies to quantify temporal and spatial trends in resource status and fishery development. Since 1950, global invertebrate catches have increased 6-fold with 1.5 times more countries fishing and double the taxa reported. By 2004, 34% of invertebrate fisheries were over-exploited, collapsed, or closed. New fisheries have developed increasingly rapidly, with a decrease of 6 years (3 years) in time to peak from the 1950s to 1990s. Moreover, some fisheries have expanded further and further away from their driving market, encompassing a global fishery by the 1990s. 71% of taxa (53% of catches) are harvested with habitat-destructive gear, and many provide important ecosystem functions including habitat, filtration, and grazing. Our findings suggest that invertebrate species, which form an important component of the basis of marine food webs, are increasingly exploited with limited stock and ecosystem-impact assessments, and enhanced management attention is needed to avoid negative consequences for ocean ecosystems and human well-being.

  6. Phenotypic plasticity and morphological integration in a marine modular invertebrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manrique Nelson

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Colonial invertebrates such as corals exhibit nested levels of modularity, imposing a challenge to the depiction of their morphological evolution. Comparisons among diverse Caribbean gorgonian corals suggest decoupling of evolution at the polyp vs. branch/internode levels. Thus, evolutionary change in polyp form or size (the colonial module sensu stricto does not imply a change in colony form (constructed of modular branches and other emergent features. This study examined the patterns of morphological integration at the intraspecific level. Pseudopterogorgia bipinnata (Verrill (Octocorallia: Gorgoniidae is a Caribbean shallow water gorgonian that can colonize most reef habitats (shallow/exposed vs. deep/protected; 1–45 m and shows great morphological variation. Results To characterize the genotype/environment relationship and phenotypic plasticity in P. bipinnata, two microsatellite loci, mitochondrial (MSH1 and nuclear (ITS DNA sequences, and (ITS2 DGGE banding patterns were initially compared among the populations present in the coral reefs of Belize (Carrie Bow Cay, Panama (Bocas del Toro, Colombia (Cartagena and the Bahamas (San Salvador. Despite the large and discrete differentiation of morphotypes, there was no concordant genetic variation (DGGE banding patterns in the ITS2 genotypes from Belize, Panama and Colombia. ITS1–5.8S-ITS2 phylogenetic analysis afforded evidence for considering the species P. kallos (Bielschowsky as the shallow-most morphotype of P. bipinnata from exposed environments. The population from Carrie Bow Cay, Belize (1–45 m was examined to determine the phenotypic integration of modular features such as branch thickness, polyp aperture, inter-polyp distance, internode length and branch length. Third-order partial correlation coefficients suggested significant integration between polypar and colonial traits. Some features did not change at all despite 10-fold differences in other integrated

  7. Terrestrial invertebrate population studies in the Chernobyl exclusion zone, Ukraine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jackson, D.; Stone, D.M.; Copplestone, D.; Gilhen, M.C.

    2004-01-01

    The Chernobyl reactor accident in April 1986 caused the release to atmosphere of substantial amounts of radioactivity. Precise estimates of the release vary. The USSR State Committee presented information to a meeting of the International Atomic Energy Agency in August 1986 indicating a release of some 2.9x10 5 TBq 137 Cs and 2x10 5 TBq 90 Sr, with a total fission/activation product release of 1.7x10 6 TBq. Other commentators suggest that up to double this amount may have been released. Estimates of deposition likewise vary, although it is probable that about half the released activity was deposited within 20 km of the release point, predominantly following two plume trajectories to the north and west. This resulted in the death of pine trees over 400 ha, the abandonment of 100,000 to 150,000 ha of agricultural land and the establishment of an exclusion zone extending to 30 km from the site. High levels of radionuclide contamination continue to prevail within the exclusion zone. Nonetheless, over the past fifteen years, re-colonisation has been widespread. Mixed deciduous woodlands, with a high proportion of birch (Betula spp.) and willow (Salix spp.), have become established in the forest areas, while agricultural land has succeeded to tall grassland and scrub. Field sites established in this study exhibited external gamma dose rates varying from 0.1 μSv h -1 to 140 μSv h -1 . Corresponding mean concentrations of 137 Cs in the top 20 cm of soil varied from about 6.10 2 to 3.10 6 Bq kg -1 dw. This study summarises observations over the period 2001 to 2004. Sub-surface activity, as measured by bait lamina penetration, appears to be inversely correlated with concentrations of 137 Cs and 90 Sr in soil. Likewise, at the very highest levels of contamination, there is some loss of invertebrate diversity; although little associated change in overall biomass. Between years, population densities and species dominance vary significantly. This does not appear to correlate

  8. Bioactivities of six sterols isolated from marine invertebrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Xuefeng; Sun, Jianfan; Ma, Wanlei; Fang, Wei; Chen, Zhefan; Yang, Bin; Liu, Yonghong

    2014-02-01

    Epidioxy sterols and sterols with special side chains, such as hydroperoxyl sterols, usually obtained from marine natural products, are attractive for bioactivities. To isolate and screen bioactive and special sterols from China Sea invertebrates. Two hydroperoxyl sterols (1 and 2) from the sponge Xestospongia testudinaria Lamarck (Petrosiidae), three epidioxy sterols (3-5) from the sea urchin Glyptocidaris crenularis A. Agassiz (Glyptocidaridae), sponge Mycale sp. (Mycalidae) and gorgonian Dichotella gemmacea Milne Edwards and Haime (Ellisellidae) and an unusual sterol with 25-acetoxy-19-oate (6) also from D. gemmacea were obtained and identified. Using high-throughput screening, their bioactivities were tested toward Forkhead box O 3a (Foxo3a), 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl CoA reductase gene fluorescent protein (HMGCR-GFP), nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) luciferase, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ co-activator 1α (PGC-1α), protein-tyrosine phosphatase 1B (PTP1B), mitochondrial membrane permeabilization (MMP) and adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase. Their structures were determined by comparing their nuclear magnetic resonance data with those reported in the literature. Three epidioxy sterols (3-5) showed inhibitory activities toward Foxo3a, HMGCR-GFP and NF-κB-luciferase with the IC50 values 4.9-6.8 μg/mL. The hydroperoxyl sterol 29-hydroperoxystigmasta-5,24(28)-dien-3-ol (2) had diverse inhibitory activities against Foxo3a, HMGCR-GFP, NF-κB-luciferase, PGC-1α, PTP1B and MMP, with IC50 values of 3.8-19.1 μg/mL. The bioactivities of 3-5 showed that 5α,8α-epidioxy is the active group. Otherwise, the most plausible biosynthesis pathway for 1 and 2 in sponge involves the abstraction of an allylic proton by an activated oxygen, such as O2, along with migration of carbon-carbon double bond. Therefore, the bioactive and unstable steroid should be biosynthesized in sponge under a special ecological environment to act as a defensive

  9. Invertebrate neuroscience and CephsInAction at the Mediterranean Society for Neuroscience Meeting Cagliari 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holden-Dye, Lindy; Fiorito, Graziano; Ponte, Giovanna

    2015-12-01

    Invertebrate neuroscience, and in particular cephalopod research, is well represented in the Mediterranean region. Therefore, the recent meeting of the Mediterranean Society for Neuroscience in Santa Margherita di Pula, Sardinia (12-15 June 2015) provided an excellent opportunity for invertebrate contributions. Furthermore, the Chair of an EU COST Action for cephalopod research (FA1301; www.cephsinaction.org ), Giovanna Ponte, together with Graziano Fiorito from the Stazione Zoologica, Naples, aligned a meeting of research groups working in the field of cephalopod neurophysiology from across Europe to coincide with the neuroscience meeting. This provided an exciting forum for exchange of ideas. Here we provide brief highlights of both events and an explanation of the activities of the COST Action for the broader invertebrate neuroscience community.

  10. Marine Invertebrate Natural Products for Anti-Inflammatory and Chronic Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kalimuthu Senthilkumar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The marine environment represents a relatively available source of functional ingredients that can be applied to various aspects of food processing, storage, and fortification. Moreover, numerous marine invertebrates based compounds have biological activities and also interfere with the pathogenesis of diseases. Isolated compounds from marine invertebrates have been shown to pharmacological activities and are helpful for the invention and discovery of bioactive compounds, primarily for deadly diseases like cancer, acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS, osteoporosis, and so forth. Extensive research within the last decade has revealed that most chronic illnesses such as cancer, neurological diseases, diabetes, and autoimmune diseases exhibit dysregulation of multiple cell signaling pathways that have been linked to inflammation. On the basis of their bioactive properties, this review focuses on the potential use of marine invertebrate derived compounds on anti-inflammatory and some chronic diseases such as cardiovascular disease, osteoporosis, diabetes, HIV, and cancer.

  11. Non-indigenous invertebrates, fish and macrophytes in Lake Garda (Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina CAPPELLETTI

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available As observed in many countries, lakes are involved in an important process of colonization by non-indigenous species (NIS. Since 1725, 37 species of non-indigenous fish, invertebrates and macrophytes have been recorded in Lake Garda, the largest Italian lake. This phenomenon is particularly important for invertebrates and macrophytes, as their pathways of introduction are accidental. Recently among the 100 Worst Invasive Alien Species in Europe, the invertebrates Corbicula fluminea, Dikerogammarus villosus and Procambarus clarkii, and the macrophytes Lagarosiphon major, Elodea nuttallii and Elodea canadensis have been recorded in Lake Garda. In order to define the present status of non-indigenous species in Lake Garda, published and unpublished data were reviewed.

  12. Resilience vs. decline: Precipitation and atmospheric change drive contrasting responses in invertebrate communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Facey, Sarah L.

    Invertebrates form the foundation of terrestrial ecosystems, far outnumbering their vertebrate counterparts in terms of abundance, biomass and diversity. As such, arthropod communities play vitally important roles in ecosystem processes ranging from pollination to soil fertility. Given the importance of invertebrates in ecosystems, predicting their responses - and those of the communities they form - to global change is one of the great challenges facing contemporary ecology. Our climate is changing as a result of the anthropogenic release of greenhouse gases, including carbon dioxide (CO2), produced from burning fossil fuels and land use change. The concentration of CO2 in the atmosphere now exceeds the range the Earth has seen in the last 800,000 years. Through the effect of such gases on radiative forcing, sustained greenhouse gas emissions will continue to drive increases in global average temperatures. Additionally, precipitation patterns are likely to change across the world, with increases in the occurrence of extreme weather events, such as droughts, as well as alterations in the magnitude and frequency of rainfall events. Climate change is already causing measurable changes in the Earth's biotic environment. Past work has been heavily focused on the responses of plants to various climate change parameters, with most studies including invertebrates limited to highly controlled studies of pair-wise interactions between one arthropod species and its host plant. Relatively little work to date, however, has looked at the potential impacts of climatic and atmospheric change for invertebrate communities as a whole. The overarching goal of this project was to help remedy this research gap, specifically by investigating the effects of precipitation and atmospheric change on invertebrate communities in grassland and woodland habitat, respectively. Chapters 2 and 4 synthesised recent work on climate change-driven alterations in precipitation and atmospheric change

  13. A Risk Assessment Example for Soil Invertebrates Using Spatially Explicit Agent-Based Models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reed, Melissa; Alvarez, Tania; Chelinho, Sonia

    2016-01-01

    Current risk assessment methods for measuring the toxicity of plant protection products (PPPs) on soil invertebrates use standardized laboratory conditions to determine acute effects on mortality and sublethal effects on reproduction. If an unacceptable risk is identified at the lower tier...... population models for ubiquitous soil invertebrates (collembolans and earthworms) as refinement options in current risk assessment. Both are spatially explicit agent-based models (ABMs), incorporating individual and landscape variability. The models were used to provide refined risk assessments for different...... application scenarios of a hypothetical pesticide applied to potato crops (full-field spray onto the soil surface [termed “overall”], in-furrow, and soil-incorporated pesticide applications). In the refined risk assessment, the population models suggest that soil invertebrate populations would likely recover...

  14. Catecholaminergic System of Invertebrates: Comparative and Evolutionary Aspects in Comparison With the Octopaminergic System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallo, Valentina P; Accordi, Fiorenza; Chimenti, Claudio; Civinini, Annalena; Crivellato, Enrico

    2016-01-01

    In this review we examined the catecholaminergic system of invertebrates, starting from protists and getting to chordates. Different techniques used by numerous researchers revealed, in most examined phyla, the presence of catecholamines dopamine, noradrenaline, and adrenaline or of the enzymes involved in their synthesis. The catecholamines are generally linked to the nervous system and they can act as neurotransmitters, neuromodulators, and hormones; moreover they play a very important role as regards the response to a large number of stress situations. Nevertheless, in some invertebrate phyla belonging to Protostoma, the monoamine octopamine is the main biogenic amine. The presence of catecholamines in some protists suggests a role as intracellular or interorganismal signaling molecules and an ancient origin of their synthetic pathways. The catecholamines appear also involved in the regulation of bioluminescence and in the control of larval development and metamorphosis in some marine invertebrate phyla. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Chemoreception of the Seagrass Posidonia Oceanica by Benthic Invertebrates is Altered by Seawater Acidification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zupo, Valerio; Maibam, Chingoileima; Buia, Maria Cristina; Gambi, Maria Cristina; Patti, Francesco Paolo; Scipione, Maria Beatrice; Lorenti, Maurizio; Fink, Patrick

    2015-08-01

    Several plants and invertebrates interact and communicate by means of volatile organic compounds (VOCs). These compounds may play the role of infochemicals, being able to carry complex information to selected species, thus mediating inter- or intra-specific communications. Volatile organic compounds derived from the wounding of marine diatoms, for example, carry information for several benthic and planktonic invertebrates. Although the ecological importance of VOCs has been demonstrated, both in terrestrial plants and in marine microalgae, their role as infochemicals has not been demonstrated in seagrasses. In addition, benthic communities, even the most complex and resilient, as those associated to seagrass meadows, are affected by ocean acidification at various levels. Therefore, the acidification of oceans could produce interference in the way seagrass-associated invertebrates recognize and choose their specific environments. We simulated the wounding of Posidonia oceanica leaves collected at two sites (a control site at normal pH, and a naturally acidified site) off the Island of Ischia (Gulf of Naples, Italy). We extracted the VOCs and tested a set of 13 species of associated invertebrates for their specific chemotactic responses in order to determine if: a) seagrasses produce VOCs playing the role of infochemicals, and b) their effects can be altered by seawater pH. Our results indicate that several invertebrates recognize the odor of wounded P. oceanica leaves, especially those strictly associated to the leaf stratum of the seagrass. Their chemotactic reactions may be modulated by the seawater pH, thus impairing the chemical communications in seagrass-associated communities in acidified conditions. In fact, 54% of the tested species exhibited a changed behavioral response in acidified waters (pH 7.7). Furthermore, the differences observed in the abundance of invertebrates, in natural vs. acidified field conditions, are in agreement with these behavioral

  16. Biogeochemistry drives diversity in the prokaryotes, fungi, and invertebrates of a Panama forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaspari, Michael; Bujan, Jelena; Weiser, Michael D; Ning, Daliang; Michaletz, Sean T; Zhili, He; Enquist, Brian J; Waide, Robert B; Zhou, Jizhong; Turner, Benjamin L; Wright, S Joseph

    2017-08-01

    Humans are both fertilizing the world and depleting its soils, decreasing the diversity of aquatic ecosystems and terrestrial plants in the process. We know less about how nutrients shape the abundance and diversity of the prokaryotes, fungi, and invertebrates of Earth's soils. Here we explore this question in the soils of a Panama forest subject to a 13-yr fertilization with factorial combinations of nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P), and potassium (K) and a separate micronutrient cocktail. We contrast three hypotheses linking biogeochemistry to abundance and diversity. Consistent with the Stress Hypothesis, adding N suppressed the abundance of invertebrates and the richness of all three groups of organisms by ca. 1 SD or more below controls. Nitrogen addition plots were 0.8 pH units more acidic with 18% more exchangeable aluminum, which is toxic to both prokaryotes and eukaryotes. These stress effects were frequently reversed, however, when N was added with P (for prokaryotes and invertebrates) and with added K (for fungi). Consistent with the Abundance Hypothesis, adding P generally increased prokaryote and invertebrate diversity, and adding K enhanced invertebrate diversity. Also consistent with the Abundance Hypothesis, increases in invertebrate abundance generated increases in richness. We found little evidence for the Competition Hypothesis: that single nutrients suppressed diversity by favoring a subset of high nutrient specialists, and that nutrient combinations suppressed diversity even more. Instead, combinations of nutrients, and especially the cation/micronutrient treatment, yielded the largest increases in richness in the two eukaryote groups. In sum, changes in soil biogeochemistry revealed a diversity of responses among the three dominant soil groups, positive synergies among nutrients, and-in contrast with terrestrial plants-the frequent enhancement of soil biodiversity. © 2017 by the Ecological Society of America.

  17. Shear Stress Drives Local Variation in Invertebrate Drift in a Large River

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muehlbauer, J. D.; Kennedy, T.; Yackulic, C. B.

    2013-12-01

    Recent advances in physical stream flow measurements using acoustic Doppler current profilers (ADCPs) have yielded important insights in hydrology and geomorphology related to discharge and processes such as bed sediment incipient motion. These measurements also have underappreciated potential for use in ecological studies. For example, invertebrate drift, or the downstream transport of benthic-derived invertebrates, is a fundamental process in streams and rivers: it is both critical to the maintenance of benthic invertebrate populations and provides a key mechanism of resource delivery to drift-feeding fishes. However, there is substantial uncertainty regarding the factors that drive spatial variation in invertebrate drift, particularly in large rivers. While laboratory studies in flumes have demonstrated the importance of shear stress in initiating invertebrate drift (similar to studies of bed sediment critical shear stress in fluvial geomorphology), field-based evaluations of the relationship between shear stress and drift would be beneficial. Such field studies, however, are rare. Here, we evaluate the relationship between localized shear stress (N/m2) and invertebrate drift concentrations (#/m3) for the Colorado River downstream of Glen Canyon Dam (steady discharge of 228 m3/s during study). Invertebrate drift was quantified at 25 stations throughout the 25 km long Glen Canyon tailwater segment. We link these drift measurements to empirical measurements of water column shear stress derived from ADCP data, taken at the location of each drift sample and 250 m upstream of each drift sampling location (50 total profiles). Invertebrate drift concentrations varied strongly throughout the 25 km reach, and much of this variation can be explained by localized differences in shear stress. Species composition in the drift also varied with shear stress, suggesting that shear stress exerts a differential control on drift initiation for individual taxa. These results

  18. Contribution to the Understanding of Particle Motion Perception in Marine Invertebrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    André, Michel; Kaifu, Kenzo; Solé, Marta; van der Schaar, Mike; Akamatsu, Tomonari; Balastegui, Andreu; Sánchez, Antonio M; Castell, Joan V

    2016-01-01

    Marine invertebrates potentially represent a group of species whose ecology may be influenced by artificial noise. Exposure to anthropogenic sound sources could have a direct consequence on the functionality and sensitivity of their sensory organs, the statocysts, which are responsible for their equilibrium and movements in the water column. The availability of novel laser Doppler vibrometer techniques has recently opened the possibility of measuring whole body (distance, velocity, and acceleration) vibration as a direct stimulus eliciting statocyst response, offering the scientific community a new level of understanding of the marine invertebrate hearing mechanism.

  19. Nutrient Dynamics of Estuarine Invertebrates Are Shaped by Feeding Guild Rather than Seasonal River Flow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortega-Cisneros, Kelly; Scharler, Ursula M

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to determine the variability of carbon and nitrogen elemental content, stoichiometry and diet proportions of invertebrates in two sub-tropical estuaries in South Africa experiencing seasonal changes in rainfall and river inflow. The elemental ratios and stable isotopes of abiotic sources, zooplankton and macrozoobenthos taxa were analyzed over a dry/wet seasonal cycle. Nutrient content (C, N) and stoichiometry of suspended particulate matter exhibited significant spatio-temporal variations in both estuaries, which were explained by the variability in river inflow. Sediment particulate matter (%C, %N and C:N) was also influenced by the variability in river flow but to a lesser extent. The nutrient content and ratios of the analyzed invertebrates did not significantly vary among seasons with the exception of the copepod Pseudodiaptomus spp. (C:N) and the tanaid Apseudes digitalis (%N, C:N). These changes did not track the seasonal variations of the suspended or sediment particulate matter. Our results suggest that invertebrates managed to maintain their stoichiometry independent of the seasonality in river flow. A significant variability in nitrogen content among estuarine invertebrates was recorded, with highest % N recorded from predators and lowest %N from detritivores. Due to the otherwise general lack of seasonal differences in elemental content and stoichiometry, feeding guild was a major factor shaping the nutrient dynamics of the estuarine invertebrates. The nutrient richer suspended particulate matter was the preferred food source over sediment particulate matter for most invertebrate consumers in many, but not all seasons. The most distinct preference for suspended POM as a food source was apparent from the temporarily open/closed system after the estuary had breached, highlighting the importance of river flow as a driver of invertebrate nutrient dynamics under extreme events conditions. Moreover, our data showed that estuarine

  20. COMPARATIVE STUDY OF TUMORIGENESIS AND TUMOR IMMUNITY IN INVERTEBRATES AND NONMAMMALIAN VERTEBRATES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert, Jacques

    2010-01-01

    Despite intense study in mammals, the different roles played by the immune system in detecting (immunosurveillance), controlling and remodeling (immunoediting) neoplasia, and perhaps in metastasis are not fully understood. In this review, I will present evidence of neoplasia and invasive malignancy, as well as tumor immunity in invertebrates and nonmammalian vertebrates. I will also present a comparative and evolutionary view of the complex interactions between neoplasia and the host immune system. Overall, I wish to go beyond the too simplistic dichotomy between invertebrates with innate immunity that are only affected with benign neoplasia and vertebrates with adaptive immunity that are affected by metastatic malignancies or cancer. PMID:20553753

  1. Alkaloids from Marine Invertebrates as Important Leads for Anticancer Drugs Discovery and Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Concetta Imperatore

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The present review describes research on novel natural antitumor alkaloids isolated from marine invertebrates. The structure, origin, and confirmed cytotoxic activity of more than 130 novel alkaloids belonging to several structural families (indoles, pyrroles, pyrazines, quinolines, and pyridoacridines, together with some of their synthetic analogs, are illustrated. Recent discoveries concerning the current state of the potential and/or development of some of them as new drugs, as well as the current knowledge regarding their modes of action, are also summarized. A special emphasis is given to the role of marine invertebrate alkaloids as an important source of leads for anticancer drug discovery.

  2. Taxonomic and biogeographic structure of intertidal invertebrates in Kandalaksha and Onega Bay of the White Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shklyarevich Galina

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a comparative analysis of the taxonomic composition of the littoral macrozoobenthosis population in two bays of the White Sea . It is shown that in the investigated region the pecularities of chorologic placement of intertidal invertebrates correspond to the specificity of local environmental conditions, primarily the hydrological regime of water masses which defines the edaphic conditions and temperature-salt regime of shallows. Communities of intertidal invertebrates form independent biochorological faunistic complexes in Kandalaksha and Onega Bay of the White Sea.

  3. Comparative chronic toxicity of homo- and heterocyclic aromatic compounds to benthic and terrestrial invertebrates: Generalizations and exceptions.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leon Paumen, M.; de Voogt, P.; van Gestel, C.A.M.; Kraak, M.H.S.

    2009-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to elucidate consistent patterns in chronic polycyclic aromatic compound (PAC) toxicity to soil and sediment inhabiting invertebrates. Therefore we examined our experimental dataset, consisting of twenty-one chronic effect concentrations for two soil invertebrates

  4. Comparative chronic toxicity of homo- and heterocyclic aromatic compounds to benthic and terrestrial invertebrates: Generalizations and exceptions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    León Paumen, M.; de Voogt, P.; van Gestel, C.A.M.; Kraak, M.H.S.

    2009-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to elucidate consistent patterns in chronic polycyclic aromatic compound (PAC) toxicity to soil and sediment inhabiting invertebrates. Therefore we examined our experimental dataset, consisting of twenty-one chronic effect concentrations for two soil invertebrates

  5. Diversity and network structure of invertebrate communities associated to Heliconia species in natural and human disturbed tropical rain forests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julieta Benítez-Malvido

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available We analyzed the influence of natural and anthropogenic habitat disturbance on the structure of invertebrate communities living on two species of Heliconia herbs. We compared the invertebrate community structure associated to both species growing in natural forest gaps, on road edges for H. latispatha, and in riparian vegetation for H. collinsiana. We assessed the topological structure of individual-based Heliconia–invertebrate networks. Species richness was greater in H. collinsiana inhabiting riparian vegetation but no differences were found in the diversity of invertebrates for any Heliconia species and habitat. Invertebrate abundance was greater in gaps for H. latispatha and in riparian vegetation for H. collinsiana showing a species turnover in human disturbed habitats. The invertebrate community was not randomly assembled but highly nested, revealing a structured pattern for all habitat conditions. Heliconia–invertebrate network properties appear to be maintained in human disturbed habitats, despite differences in species richness, abundance and composition and host number and quality. Our study contributes to the understanding of the structure of ecological interactions in contrasting habitats. Because they provide food and habitat for the associated fauna and several microhabitats for colonization, heliconias could be used as habitat elements for invertebrate conservation in human impacted landscapes.

  6. Family richness and biomass of understory invertebrates in early and late successional habitats of northern New Hampshire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthew K. Wilson; Winsor H. Lowe; Keith Nislow

    2014-01-01

    In the northeastern United States, many vertebrate species rely on early successional forest habitats (ESHs). ESHs may also support higher invertebrate diversity and abundance than late successional habitats (LSHs). We assessed the differences in family-level richness and biomass of understory terrestrial invertebrates during the summer season in paired ESH (3-7 years...

  7. The trophic role of a forest salamander: impacts on invertebrates, leaf litter retention, and the humification process

    Science.gov (United States)

    M. L. Best; H. H. Welsh

    2014-01-01

    Woodland (Plethodontid) salamanders are the most abundant vertebrates in North American forests, functioning as predators on invertebrates and prey for higher trophic levels. We investigated the role of Ensatina (Ensatina eschscholtzii) in regulating invertebrate numbers and leaf litter retention in a northern California forest. Our objective was...

  8. Abundance of invertebrates and foraging success of Black-tailed Godwit Limosa limosa chicks in relation to agricultural grassland management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schekkerman, Hans; Beintema, Albert J.

    2007-01-01

    Effects of agricultural intensification on availability of grassland invertebrates as food for chicks of the declining Black-tailed Godwit Limosu limosa were studied in The Netherlands. Invertebrates were sampled with photo-eclectors in wet grasslands used for intensive dairy farming (high

  9. Abundance of invertebrates and foraging success of black-tailed godwit Limosa limosa chicks in relation to agricultural grassland management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schekkerman, H.; Beintema, A.J.

    2007-01-01

    Effects of agricultural intensification on availability of grassland invertebrates as food for chicks of the declining Black-tailed Godwit Limosa limosa were studied in The Netherlands. Invertebrates were sampled with photo-eclectors in wet grasslands used for intensive dairy farming (high

  10. Stream invertebrate productivity linked to forest subsidies: 37 stream-years of reference and experimental data

    Science.gov (United States)

    J. Bruce Wallace; Susan L Eggert; Judy L. Meyer; Jackson R. Webster

    2015-01-01

    Riparian habitats provide detrital subsidies of varying quantities and qualities to recipient ecosystems. We used long-term data from three reference streams (covering 24 stream-years) and 13-year whole-stream organic matter manipulations to investigate the influence of terrestrial detrital quantity and quality on benthic invertebrate community structure, abundance,...

  11. Methane release from millipedes and other soil invertebrates in Central Europe

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šustr, Vladimír; Šimek, Miloslav

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 41, č. 8 (2009), s. 1684-1688 ISSN 0038-0717 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60660521 Keywords : invertebrates * diplopoda * methane production Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 2.978, year: 2009

  12. Neonicotinoids thiamethoxam and clothianidin adversely affect the colonisation of invertebrate populations in aquatic microcosms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basley, Kate; Goulson, Dave

    2018-04-01

    Surface waters are sometimes contaminated with neonicotinoids: a widespread, persistent, systemic class of insecticide with leaching potential. Previous ecotoxicological investigations of this chemical class in aquatic ecosystems have largely focused on the impacts of the neonicotinoid imidacloprid; few empirical, manipulative studies have investigated the effect on invertebrate abundances of two other neonicotinoids which are now more widely used: clothianidin and thiamethoxam. In this study, we employ a simple microcosm semi-field design, incorporating a one-off contamination event, to investigate the effect of these pesticides at field-realistic levels (ranging from 0 to 15 ppb) on invertebrate colonisation and survival in small ephemeral ponds. In line with previous research on neonicotinoid impacts on aquatic invertebrates, significant negative effects of both neonicotinoids were found. There were clear differences between the two chemicals, with thiamethoxam generally producing stronger negative effects than clothianidin. Populations of Chironomids (Diptera) and Ostracoda were negatively affected by both chemicals, while Culicidae appeared to be unaffected by clothianidin at the doses used. Our data demonstrate that field-realistic concentrations of neonicotinoids are likely to reduce populations of invertebrates found in ephemeral ponds, which may have knock on effects up the food chain. We highlight the importance of developing pesticide monitoring schemes for European surface waters.

  13. Marine Invertebrate Metabolites with Anticancer Activities: Solutions to the “Supply Problem”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelson G. M. Gomes

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Marine invertebrates provide a rich source of metabolites with anticancer activities and several marine-derived agents have been approved for the treatment of cancer. However, the limited supply of promising anticancer metabolites from their natural sources is a major hurdle to their preclinical and clinical development. Thus, the lack of a sustainable large-scale supply has been an important challenge facing chemists and biologists involved in marine-based drug discovery. In the current review we describe the main strategies aimed to overcome the supply problem. These include: marine invertebrate aquaculture, invertebrate and symbiont cell culture, culture-independent strategies, total chemical synthesis, semi-synthesis, and a number of hybrid strategies. We provide examples illustrating the application of these strategies for the supply of marine invertebrate-derived anticancer agents. Finally, we encourage the scientific community to develop scalable methods to obtain selected metabolites, which in the authors’ opinion should be pursued due to their most promising anticancer activities.

  14. Marine & Other Invertebrates. Animal Life in Action[TM]. Schlessinger Science Library. [Videotape].

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000

    This 23-minute videotape for grades 5-8, presents the myriad of animal life that exists on the planet. Students can view and perform experiments and investigations that help explain animal traits and habits. Invertebrate animals include a vast array of spineless creatures. In this video, students discover marine lifeforms such as jellyfish,…

  15. The fossil record, function, and possible origins of shell color patterns in Paleozoic marine invertebrates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kobluk, D.R. (Univ. of Toronto, Ontario (Canada)); Mapes, R.H. (Ohio Univ., Athens (USA))

    1989-02-01

    Fossil invertebrate shells and carapaces displaying preserved original color patterns are among the rarest fossils. The fossil record of color patterns extends into the Middle Cambrian where the trilobite Anomocare displays a fan-like array of stripes on the pygidium. About 180 Paleozic genera are known with patterns, including trilobites, cephalopods, gastropods, brachiopods, bivalves, crinoids, and crustaceans. Based upon an analysis of these taxa, it appears that patterns and pigments in middle and late Paleozoic invertebrates may have served several functions such as warning displays, light screening, camouflage, or waste disposal. However, the presence of color patterns in fossil invertebrates in the early Paleozoic may have developed prior to the evolution of vision sufficiently sophisticated to see them. This suggests that camouflage and warning displays were not the original functions of color patterns, and that in the earliest Paleozoic they may not have been functional. The authors propose a hypothesis that involves three developmental phases in the evolution of invertebrate color patterns: (1) the incorporation of metabolic by-products, perhaps some pigmented and some not pigmented, into shells and carapaces as a means of disposal of dietary or metabolic wastes, (2) use of these pigments and patterns as an environmental adaptation, such as light screening, and (3) display during and following the evolution of vision in predators sufficiently sophisticated to see the patterns.

  16. Evidence of lead biomagnification in invertebrate predators from laboratory and field experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rubio-Franchini, Isidoro [Departamento de Quimica, Centro de Ciencias Basicas, Universidad Autonoma de Aguascalientes, Avenida Universidad 940, CP 20131 Aguascalientes (Mexico); Rico-Martinez, Roberto, E-mail: rrico@correo.uaa.mx [Departamento de Quimica, Centro de Ciencias Basicas, Universidad Autonoma de Aguascalientes, Avenida Universidad 940, CP 20131 Aguascalientes (Mexico)

    2011-07-15

    This report includes atomic absorption data from water column, elutriates and zooplankton that demonstrate that lead biomagnifies at El Niagara reservoir, Mexico. Results include field data (bioaccumulation factors) (BAFs) and laboratory data (bioconcentration factors) (BCFs). Two findings: high BAFs for invertebrate predator like Acanthocyclops robustus, Asplanchna brightwellii, Culex sp. larvae, and Hyalella azteca, compared to grazer species Moina micrura and Simocephalus vetulus; low BCF's found for some predators, suggested that lead biomagnifications were taking place. The presence of Moina micrura in the gut of Asplanchna allowed us to design experiments where A. brightwellii was fed lead-exposed M. micrura neonates. The BAF of Asplanchna was 123,684, BCF was 490. Asplanchna individuals fed exposed Moina had 13.31 times more lead than Asplanchna individuals just exposed 48-h to lead, confirming that lead biomagnification occurs. Results of two fish species showed no lead biomagnification, suggesting that lead biomagnification might be restricted to invertebrate predators. - Highlights: > Study shows lead biomagnification evidence in reservoirs where top predators are invertebrates. > Study discusses why in previous studies lead biomagnifications were not detected. > Evidence of biomagnification comes from field and laboratory studies. - This study shows evidence (from field and laboratory experiments) of lead biomagnification in a freshwater reservoir where the main predators are invertebrates.

  17. Age-related environmental gradients influence invertebrate distribution in the Prince Charles Mountains, East Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Duanne; Clarke, Laurence; McKay, Alan; Cooper, Alan; Stevens, Mark I.

    2016-01-01

    The potential impact of environmental change on terrestrial Antarctic ecosystems can be explored by inspecting biodiversity patterns across large-scale gradients. Unfortunately, morphology-based surveys of Antarctic invertebrates are time-consuming and limited by the cryptic nature of many taxa. We used biodiversity information derived from high-throughput sequencing (HTS) to elucidate the relationship between soil properties and invertebrate biodiversity in the Prince Charles Mountains, East Antarctica. Across 136 analysed soil samples collected from Mount Menzies, Mawson Escarpment and Lake Terrasovoje, we found invertebrate distribution in the Prince Charles Mountains significantly influenced by soil salinity and/or sulfur content. Phyla Tardigrada and Arachnida occurred predominantly in low-salinity substrates with abundant nutrients, whereas Bdelloidea (Rotifera) and Chromadorea (Nematoda) were more common in highly saline substrates. A significant correlation between invertebrate occurrence, soil salinity and time since deglaciation indicates that terrain age indirectly influences Antarctic terrestrial biodiversity, with more recently deglaciated areas supporting greater diversity. Our study demonstrates the value of HTS metabarcoding to investigate environmental constraints on inconspicuous soil biodiversity across large spatial scales. PMID:28083092

  18. An introductory study of subterranean communities of invertebrates in forested talus habitats in southern Slovakia

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Mock, A.; Šašková, T.; Raschmanová, N.; Jászay, T.; Luptáčik, P.; Rendoš, M.; Tajovský, Karel; Jászayová, A.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 79, č. 3 (2015), s. 243-256 ISSN 1211-376X R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) 7AMB12SK189 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : invertebrates * forested talus * vertical distribution * Cerová vrchovina Mts * Revúcka vrchovina Mts Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour

  19. Critical Analysis of Soil Invertebrate Biomarkers: A Field Case Study in Avonmouth, UK

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weeks, J.M.; Spurgeon, D.J.; Svendsen, C.; Hankard, P.K.; Kammenga, J.E.; Dallinger, R.; Köhler, H.R.; Simonsen, V.; Scott-Fordsmand, J.

    2004-01-01

    During the period 1996–1999 a joint field research programme (BIOPRINT-II) funded by the European Union was undertaken. The main objective of this project was the deployment of biochemical fingerprint techniques of soil invertebrate biomarkers for assessing the exposure and effect of toxicants on

  20. Toxicity of aluminium on five aquatic invertebrates; Aluminiums toksisitet paa 5 akvatiske invertebrater

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moe, J. [Oslo Univ. (Norway)

    1996-01-01

    The conference paper deals with the experiments done by investigating the effects from the toxicity of aluminium on aquatic invertebrates. The aim of the experiments was to compare the toxicity of unstable aluminium compounds with stable forms of aluminium. 8 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs.

  1. Shedding light on detritus: Interactions between invertebrates, bacteria and substrates in benthic habitats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hunting, E.R.

    2013-01-01

    The processing of dead organic matter, also known as detritus, is a central ecosystem process driven by detritus feeding organisms that are mostly located at the bottom of water bodies where dead organic matter (OM) accumulates. Detritivorous organisms form communities composed of invertebrates,

  2. The effect of long-term fire treatments on invertebrates: results from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study examined the impacts of different burning regimes (fire frequency and season) and fire history (time since last burn) on invertebrate morphospecies richness and abundance. The study was carried out in the Brotherton experimental plots at Cathedral Peak in the KwaZulu-Natal Drakensberg. Pitfall traps targeting ...

  3. Will Invertebrates Require Increasingly Carbon-Rich Food in a Warming World?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Thomas R; Hessen, Dag O; Boersma, Maarten; Urabe, Jotaro; Mayor, Daniel J

    2017-12-01

    Elevated temperature causes metabolism and respiration to increase in poikilothermic organisms. We hypothesized that invertebrate consumers will therefore require increasingly carbon-rich diets in a warming environment because the increased energetic demands are primarily met using compounds rich in carbon, that is, carbohydrates and lipids. Here, we test this hypothesis using a new stoichiometric model that has carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) as currencies. Model predictions did not support the hypothesis, indicating instead that the nutritional requirements of invertebrates, at least in terms of food quality expressed as C∶N ratio, may change little, if at all, at elevated temperature. Two factors contribute to this conclusion. First, invertebrates facing limitation by nutrient elements such as N have, by default, excess C in their food that can be used to meet the increased demand for energy in a warming environment, without recourse to extra dietary C. Second, increased feeding at elevated temperature compensates for the extra demands of metabolism to the extent that, when metabolism and intake scale equally with temperature (have the same Q 10 ), the relative requirement for dietary C and N remains unaltered. Our analysis demonstrates that future climate-driven increases in the C∶N ratios of autotroph biomass will likely exacerbate the stoichiometric mismatch between nutrient-limited invertebrate grazers and their food, with important consequences for C sequestration and nutrient cycling in ecosystems.

  4. Diastereoisomer- and species-specific distribution of hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD) in fish and marine invertebrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Son, Min-Hui; Kim, Jongchul; Shin, Eun-Su; Seo, Sung-hee; Chang, Yoon-Seok

    2015-12-30

    The levels and distributional characteristics of hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD) diastereoisomers have been largely reported for various fish and select shellfish. In this study, we reclassified a number and variety of marine invertebrates, including shellfish, to further contribute to the comprehensive understanding of the effects and assessment of human exposure to HBCD. Overall, 30 marine invertebrate species (n=188) were investigated and the following order of ∑2HBCD (α- and γ-HBCD) was observed: fish>chordata>cephalopoda>echinodermata>bivalve>crustacea. The marine invertebrates that were reclassified into nektonic and benthic organisms showed similar concentration of ∑2HBCD. The feeding habits and modes of the marine organisms were considered to compare the degree of bioaccumulation and diastereoisomer-specific distribution of HBCD due to the effects of the environment in and around pollution sources, as well as the organisms' metabolic capacities. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study to examine the species-specific distribution patterns of HBCD for both fish and marine invertebrates. We expect to significantly expand the understanding of the environmental fate of HBCD for marine organisms. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Larval settlement: the role of surface topography for sessile coral reef invertebrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whalan, Steve; Wahab, Muhammad A Abdul; Sprungala, Susanne; Poole, Andrew J; de Nys, Rocky

    2015-01-01

    For sessile marine invertebrates with complex life cycles, habitat choice is directed by the larval phase. Defining which habitat-linked cues are implicated in sessile invertebrate larval settlement has largely concentrated on chemical cues which are thought to signal optimal habitat. There has been less effort establishing physical settlement cues, including the role of surface microtopography. This laboratory based study tested whether surface microtopography alone (without chemical cues) plays an important contributing role in the settlement of larvae of coral reef sessile invertebrates. We measured settlement to tiles, engineered with surface microtopography (holes) that closely matched the sizes (width) of larvae of a range of corals and sponges, in addition to surfaces with holes that were markedly larger than larvae. Larvae from two species of scleractinian corals (Acropora millepora and Ctenactis crassa) and three species of coral reef sponges (Luffariella variabilis, Carteriospongia foliascens and Ircinia sp.,) were used in experiments. L. variabilis, A. millepora and C. crassa showed markedly higher settlement to surface microtopography that closely matched their larval width. C. foliascens and Ircinia sp., showed no specificity to surface microtopography, settling just as often to microtopography as to flat surfaces. The findings of this study question the sole reliance on chemical based larval settlement cues, previously established for some coral and sponge species, and demonstrate that specific physical cues (surface complexity) can also play an important role in larval settlement of coral reef sessile invertebrates.

  6. Accumulation and effects of sediment-associated silver nanoparticles to sediment-dwelling invertebrates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ramskov, Tina; Forbes, Valery E; Gilliland, Douglas

    2015-01-01

    are in high demand. Here, we examine the effects of exposure to sediment mixed with either aqueous Ag (administered as AgNO3) or Ag NPs (13 nm, citrate-capped) at a nominal exposure concentration of 100 μg Ag/g dry weight sediment on four benthic invertebrates: two clones of the gastropod Potamopyrgus...

  7. Spiders in Motion: Demonstrating Adaptation, Structure-Function Relationships, and Trade-Offs in Invertebrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowlin, Melissa S.; McLeer, Dorothy F.; Danielson-Francois, Anne M.

    2014-01-01

    Evolutionary history and structural considerations constrain all aspects of animal physiology. Constraints on invertebrate locomotion are especially straightforward for students to observe and understand. In this exercise, students use spiders to investigate the concepts of adaptation, structure-function relationships, and trade-offs. Students…

  8. Nearshore marine benthic invertebrates moving north along the U.S. Atlantic coast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Numerous species have shifted their ranges north in response to global warming. We examined 21 years (1990-2010) of marine benthic invertebrate data from the National Coastal Assessment’s monitoring of nearshore waters along the US Atlantic coast. Data came from three bioge...

  9. Uptake and elimination kinetics of metals in soil invertebrates: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ardestani, Masoud M; van Straalen, Nico M; van Gestel, Cornelis A M

    2014-10-01

    Uptake and elimination kinetics of metals in soil invertebrates are a function of both soil and organism properties. This study critically reviewed metal toxicokinetics in soil invertebrates and its potential use for assessing bioavailability. Uptake and elimination rate constants of different metals are summarized. Invertebrates have different strategies for essential and non-essential metals. As a consequence, different types of models must be applied to describe metal uptake and elimination kinetics. We discuss model parameters for each metal separately and show how they are influenced by exposure concentrations and by physiological properties of the organisms. Soil pH, cation exchange capacity, clay and organic matter content significantly affect uptake rates of non-essential metals in soil invertebrates. For essential metals, kinetics is hardly influenced by soil properties, but rather prone to physiological regulation mechanisms of the organisms. Our analysis illustrates that toxicokinetics can be a valuable measurement to assess bioavailability of soil-bound metals. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Invertebrates of Meadow Creek, Union County, Oregon, and their use as food by trout.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carl E. McLemore; William R. Meehan

    1988-01-01

    From 1976 to 1980, invertebrates were collected three times each year from several reaches of Meadow Creek in eastern Oregon. Five sampling methods were used: benthos, drift, sticky traps, water traps, and fish stomachs. A total of 372 taxa were identified, of which 239 were used as food by rainbow trout (steelhead; Salmo gairdneri Richardson). Of...

  11. Environmental Quality and Aquatic Invertebrate Metrics Relationships at Patagonian Wetlands Subjected to Livestock Grazing Pressures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epele, Luis Beltrán; Miserendino, María Laura

    2015-01-01

    Livestock grazing can compromise the biotic integrity and health of wetlands, especially in remotes areas like Patagonia, which provide habitat for several endemic terrestrial and aquatic species. Understanding the effects of these land use practices on invertebrate communities can help prevent the deterioration of wetlands and provide insights for restoration. In this contribution, we assessed the responses of 36 metrics based on the structural and functional attributes of invertebrates (130 taxa) at 30 Patagonian wetlands that were subject to different levels of livestock grazing intensity. These levels were categorized as low, medium and high based on eight features (livestock stock densities plus seven wetland measurements). Significant changes in environmental features were detected across the gradient of wetlands, mainly related to pH, conductivity, and nutrient values. Regardless of rainfall gradient, symptoms of eutrophication were remarkable at some highly disturbed sites. Seven invertebrate metrics consistently and accurately responded to livestock grazing on wetlands. All of them were negatively related to increased levels of grazing disturbance, with the number of insect families appearing as the most robust measure. A multivariate approach (RDA) revealed that invertebrate metrics were significantly affected by environmental variables related to water quality: in particular, pH, conductivity, dissolved oxygen, nutrient concentrations, and the richness and coverage of aquatic plants. Our results suggest that the seven aforementioned metrics could be used to assess ecological quality in the arid and semi-arid wetlands of Patagonia, helping to ensure the creation of protected areas and their associated ecological services.

  12. Transcriptional profiling of the soil invertebrate Folsomia candida in pentachlorophenol-contaminated soil

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Min, Qiao; Wang, Guang-Peng; Zhang, Cai; Roelofs, D.; van Straalen, N.M.; Zhu, Yong-Guan

    2015-01-01

    Pentachlorophenol (PCP), a widely used pesticide, is considered to be an endocrine disruptor. The molecular effects of chemicals with endocrine-disrupting potential on soil invertebrates are largely unknown. In the present study, the authors explored the transcriptional expression changes of

  13. Spatial and temporal variation in invertebrate consumer diets in forested and herbaceous wetlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alani N. Taylor; Darold P. Batzer

    2010-01-01

    Macroinvertebrates have important functional roles in wetland ecosystems, but these roles are not always well understood. This study assessed which foods invertebrate consumers assimilate within a set of wetland habitats. During 2006 and 2007, non-Tanypodinae chironomid larvae and select crustaceans (Crangonyx amphipods, Caecidotea isopods, Simocephalus cladocerans)...

  14. Functional characterization on invertebrate and vertebrate tissues of tachykinin peptides from octopus venoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruder, Tim; Ali, Syed Abid; Ormerod, Kiel; Brust, Andreas; Roymanchadi, Mary-Louise; Ventura, Sabatino; Undheim, Eivind A B; Jackson, Timothy N W; Mercier, A Joffre; King, Glenn F; Alewood, Paul F; Fry, Bryan G

    2013-09-01

    It has been previously shown that octopus venoms contain novel tachykinin peptides that despite being isolated from an invertebrate, contain the motifs characteristic of vertebrate tachykinin peptides rather than being more like conventional invertebrate tachykinin peptides. Therefore, in this study we examined the effect of three variants of octopus venom tachykinin peptides on invertebrate and vertebrate tissues. While there were differential potencies between the three peptides, their relative effects were uniquely consistent between invertebrate and vertebrae tissue assays. The most potent form (OCT-TK-III) was not only the most anionically charged but also was the most structurally stable. These results not only reveal that the interaction of tachykinin peptides is more complex than previous structure-function theories envisioned, but also reinforce the fundamental premise that animal venoms are rich resources of novel bioactive molecules, which are useful investigational ligands and some of which may be useful as lead compounds for drug design and development. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Are invertebrates relevant models in ageing research? Focus on the effects of rapamycin on TOR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erdogan, Cihan Suleyman; Hansen, Benni Winding; Vang, Ole

    2016-01-01

    Ageing is the organisms increased susceptibility to death, which is linked to accumulated damage in the cells and tissues. Ageing is a complex process regulated by crosstalk of various pathways in the cells. Ageing is highly regulated by the Target of Rapamycin (TOR) pathway activity. TOR is an evolutionary conserved key protein kinase in the TOR pathway that regulates growth, proliferation and cell metabolism in response to nutrients, growth factors and stress. Comparing the ageing process in invertebrate model organisms with relatively short lifespan with mammals provides valuable information about the molecular mechanisms underlying the ageing process faster than mammal systems. Inhibition of the TOR pathway activity via either genetic manipulation or rapamycin increases lifespan profoundly in most invertebrate model organisms. This contribution will review the recent findings in invertebrates concerning the TOR pathway and effects of TOR inhibition by rapamycin on lifespan. Besides some contradictory results, the majority points out that rapamycin induces longevity. This suggests that administration of rapamycin in invertebrates is a promising tool for pursuing the scientific puzzle of lifespan prolongation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Aboveground vertebrate and invertebrate herbivore impact on net N mineralization in subalpine grasslands : Ecology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Risch, Anita C.; Schütz, Martin; Vandegehuchte, Martijn L.; van der Putten, Wim H.; Duyts, Henk; Raschein, Ursina; Gwiazdowicz, Dariusz J.; Busse, Matt D.; Page-Dumroese, Deborah S.; Zimmermann, Stephan

    2015-01-01

    Aboveground herbivores have strong effects on grassland nitrogen (N) cycling. They can accelerate or slow down soil net N mineralization depending on ecosystem productivity and grazing intensity. Yet, most studies only consider either ungulates or invertebrate herbivores, but not the combined effect

  17. Aboveground vertebrate and invertebrate herbivore impact on net N mineralization in subalpine grasslands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Risch, A.C.; Schütz, Martin; Vandegehuchte, Martijn L.; Putten, Van Der W.H.; Duyts, Henk; Raschein, Ursina; Gwiazdowicz, D.J.; Busse, M.D.; Page-Dumroese, D.S.; Zimmermann, Stephan

    2015-01-01

    Aboveground herbivores have strong effects on grassland nitrogen (N) cycling. They can accelerate or slow down soil net N mineralization depending on ecosystem productivity and grazing intensity. Yet, most studies only consider either ungulates or invertebrate herbivores, but not the combined

  18. Occurrence of invertebrate-pathogenic fungi in a Cerrado ecosystem in Central Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biological diversity of microorganisms in natural environments is threatened worldwide by human activities. In a protected area of Cerrado, Goiás State, Brazil, naturally occurring invertebrate-pathogenic fungi were isolated from soils, slurries and water samples collected during the dry season in 2...

  19. Invertebrate fossils from cave sediments: A new proxy for pre-Quaternary paleoenvironments

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Moldovan, O.T.; Mihevc, A.; Miko, L.; Constantin, S.; Meleg, I. N.; Petculescu, A.; Bosák, Pavel

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 8, č. 7 (2011), s. 1825-1837 ISSN 1726-4170 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA300130701 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30130516 Keywords : fossil invertebrates * Oribatida * Pliocene/Pleistocene * caves * caves (Slovenia) Subject RIV: DB - Geology ; Mineralogy Impact factor: 3.859, year: 2011

  20. Relative importance of vertebrates and invertebrates in epigeaic weed seed predation in organic cereal fields

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Westerman, P.R.; Hofman, A.; Vet, L.E.M.; Van der Werf, W.

    2003-01-01

    Exclosure trials were conducted in four organic cereal fields in The Netherlands in 1999 and 2000 to determine the relative importance of vertebrates and invertebrates in weed seed predation. The trials showed that seed predation by vertebrates was rather consistent and predictable, occurring on all

  1. Evolution of invertebrate nervous systems: the Chaetognatha as a case study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harzsch, S.; Wanninger, Andreas Wilhelm Georg

    2010-01-01

    Harzsch, S. and Wanninger, A. 2010. Evolution of invertebrate nervous systems: the Chaetognatha as a case study. —Acta Zoologica (Stockholm) 91: 35–43 Although recent molecular studies indicate that Chaetognatha may be one of the earliest Bilaterian offshoots, the phylogenetic position...

  2. Headwater riparian forest-floor invertebrate communities associated with alternative forest management practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    J.J. Rykken; A.R. Moldenke; D.H. Olson

    2007-01-01

    Invertebrate communities were characterized in unmanaged headwaters, and the effects of clearcutting without buffers and with buffers of approximately 30 m was examined. A near-stream community was distinct and largely retained by the buffers. Elevation, location, and microclimate were predictors of community structure.

  3. Left-right asymmetries of behaviour and nervous system in invertebrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frasnelli, Elisa; Vallortigara, Giorgio; Rogers, Lesley J

    2012-04-01

    Evidence of left-right asymmetries in invertebrates has begun to emerge, suggesting that lateralization of the nervous system may be a feature of simpler brains as well as more complex ones. A variety of studies have revealed sensory and motor asymmetries in behaviour, as well as asymmetries in the nervous system, in invertebrates. Asymmetries in behaviour are apparent in olfaction (antennal asymmetries) and in vision (preferential use of the left or right visual hemifield during activities such as foraging or escape from predators) in animals as different as bees, fruitflies, cockroaches, octopuses, locusts, ants, spiders, crabs, snails, water bugs and cuttlefish. Asymmetries of the nervous system include lateralized position of specific brain structures (e.g., in fruitflies and snails) and of specific neurons (e.g., in nematodes). As in vertebrates, lateralization can occur both at the individual and at the population-level in invertebrates. Theoretical models have been developed supporting the hypothesis that the alignment of the direction of behavioural and brain asymmetries at the population-level could have arisen as a result of social selective pressures, when individually asymmetrical organisms had to coordinate with each other. The evidence reviewed suggests that lateralization at the population-level may be more likely to occur in social species among invertebrates, as well as vertebrates. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Aboveground herbivory shapes the biomass distribution and flux of soil invertebrates.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Mulder

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Living soil invertebrates provide a universal currency for quality that integrates physical and chemical variables with biogeography as the invertebrates reflect their habitat and most ecological changes occurring therein. The specific goal was the identification of "reference" states for soil sustainability and ecosystem functioning in grazed vs. ungrazed sites. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Bacterial cells were counted by fluorescent staining and combined direct microscopy and automatic image analysis; invertebrates (nematodes, mites, insects, oligochaetes were sampled and their body size measured individually to allow allometric scaling. Numerical allometry analyses food webs by a direct comparison of weight averages of components and thus might characterize the detrital soil food webs of our 135 sites regardless of taxonomy. Sharp differences in the frequency distributions are shown. Overall higher biomasses of invertebrates occur in grasslands, and all larger soil organisms differed remarkably. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Strong statistical evidence supports a hypothesis explaining from an allometric perspective how the faunal biomass distribution and the energetic flux are affected by livestock, nutrient availability and land use. Our aim is to propose faunal biomass flux and biomass distribution as quantitative descriptors of soil community composition and function, and to illustrate the application of these allometric indicators to soil systems.

  5. Ecoregion and land-use influence invertebrate and detritus transport from headwater streams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christopher A. Binckley; Mark S. Wipfli; R. Bruce Medhurst; Karl Polivka; Paul Hessburg; R. Brion Salter; Joshua Y. Kill

    2010-01-01

    We quantified the downstream transport of invertebrates, organic matter and inorganic sediment from 60 fishless headwater streams in the Wenatchee River Basin located on the eastern slope of the Cascade Range in Washington, U.S.A. Streams were classified into four groups (each n = 15) based on their position within two ecological subregions (wet and dry) and the extent...

  6. Avoiding being dragged away: finding egg cases of Schroederichthys bivius (Chondrichthyes: Scyliorhinidae) associated with benthic invertebrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vazquez, D M; Belleggia, M; Schejter, L; Mabragaña, E

    2018-01-01

    Egg cases of the narrowmouthed catshark Schroederichthys bivius were recorded entangled with sponges, corals and tubeworms at different sites in the south-west Atlantic Ocean. This work sheds light on the importance of benthic invertebrates in the life cycle of oviparous chondrichthyan species. © 2017 The Fisheries Society of the British Isles.

  7. Evaluation of Euthanasia Techniques for an Invertebrate Species, Land Snails (Succinea putris).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbertson, Cody R; Wyatt, Jeffrey D

    2016-01-01

    The euthanasia of invertebrates used in scientific investigations poses unanswered questions regarding the rapid induction of unconsciousness with minimal distress and pain. Relative to vertebrates, invertebrates' sensory experience of pain, nociception, and physiologic response to aversive stimuli are poorly characterized. The scientific communities in the European Union, Canada, United States, Australia, and New Zealand join in consensus regarding the need to address alleviation of pain and distress in cephalopods (octopus, squid, and so forth), which have the best-characterized nervous system among invertebrates. In the current study, we evaluated various euthanasia techniques in a terrestrial gastropod species, with priority on animal wellbeing, scientific variability, feasibility in both field and laboratory settings, and acceptability by personnel. In addition, we demonstrated that the 2-step method of euthanasia described in the AVMA Guidelines as acceptable for aquatic invertebrates is effective for terrestrial snails and meets all welfare and scientific requirements. This 2-step method first induces anesthesia by immersion in 5% ethanol (laboratory-grade ethanol or beer) followed by immersion in a euthanizing and tissue-preserving solution of 70% to 95% ethanol or 10% neutral buffered formalin. Furthermore, alternative methods of euthanasia for terrestrial snails commonly used in field research, such as live immersion in concentrated ethanol or formalin, were shown to be unacceptable.

  8. Effects of neonicotinoids and fipronil on non-target invertebrates : Environmental Science and Pollution Research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pisa, L.W.; Amaral-Rogers, V.; Belzunces, L.P.; Bonmatin, J.M.; Downs, C.A.; Goulson, D.; Kreutzweiser, D.P.; Krupke, C.; Liess, M.; McField, M.; Morrissey, C.A.; Noome, D.A.; Settele, J.; Simon-Delso, N.; Stark, J.D.; Van der Sluijs, J.P.; Van Dyck, H.; Wiemers, M.

    2015-01-01

    We assessed the state of knowledge regarding the effects of large-scale pollution with neonicotinoid insecticides and fipronil on non-target invertebrate species of terrestrial, freshwater and marine environments. A large section of the assessment is dedicated to the state of knowledge on sublethal

  9. EFFECTS OF ON-BOTTOM OYSTER MARICULTURE ON SMALL, SEDIMENT-DWELLING INVERTEBRATES

    Science.gov (United States)

    As part of a programmatic effort to determine estuarine habitat values for ecological risk assessments, quantitative field studies of small ( 0.5 mm), sediment-dwelling invertebrates were conducted in Willapa Bay, WA in July 1998 and Tillamook Bay, OR in July 1999. The six habit...

  10. OYSTER GROUNDS, A SUPERIOR HABITAT FOR SMALL, SEDIMENT-DWELLING INVERTEBRATES

    Science.gov (United States)

    As part of a programmatic effort to determine estuarine habitat values for ecological risk assessments, quantitative field studies of small, sediment-dwelling invertebrates were conducted in Willapa Bay, WA in July 1998 and Tillamook Bay, OR in July 1999. The six habitats includ...

  11. A newly developed dispersal metric indicates the succession of benthic invertebrates in restored rivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Fengqing; Sundermann, Andrea; Stoll, Stefan; Haase, Peter

    2016-11-01

    Dispersal capacity plays a fundamental role in the riverine benthic invertebrate colonization of new habitats that emerges following flash floods or restoration. However, an appropriate measure of dispersal capacity for benthic invertebrates is still lacking. The dispersal of benthic invertebrates occurs mainly during the aquatic (larval) and aerial (adult) life stages, and the dispersal of each stage can be further subdivided into active and passive modes. Based on these four possible dispersal modes, we first developed a metric (which is very similar to the well-known and widely used saprobic index) to estimate the dispersal capacity for 802 benthic invertebrate taxa by incorporating a weight for each mode. Second, we tested this metric using benthic invertebrate community data from a) 23 large restored river sites with substantial improvements of river bottom habitats dating back 1 to 10years, b) 23 unrestored sites very close to the restored sites, and c) 298 adjacent surrounding sites (mean±standard deviation: 13.0±9.5 per site) within a distance of up to 5km for each restored site in the low mountain and lowland areas of Germany. We hypothesize that our metric will reflect the temporal succession process of benthic invertebrate communities colonizing the restored sites, whereas no temporal changes are expected in the unrestored and surrounding sites. By applying our metric to these three river treatment categories, we found that the average dispersal capacity of benthic invertebrate communities in the restored sites significantly decreased in the early years following restoration, whereas there were no changes in either the unrestored or the surrounding sites. After all taxa had been divided into quartiles representing weak to strong dispersers, this pattern became even more obvious; strong dispersers colonized the restored sites during the first year after restoration and then significantly decreased over time, whereas weak dispersers continued to increase

  12. Downstream changes in spring-fed stream invertebrate communities: the effect of increased temperature range?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Russell G. DEATH

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Reduced thermal amplitude has been highlighted as a limiting factor for aquatic invertebrate diversity in springs. Moving downstream water temperature range increases and invertebrate richness is expected to change accordingly. In the present study temperature patterns were investigated in seven spring-fed streams, between April 2001 and November 2002, and compared to five run-off-fed streams to assess the degree of crenic temperature constancy. Temperature and physico-chemical characteristics of the water, and food resource levels were measured, and the invertebrate fauna collected at 4 distances (0, 100, 500 m and 1 km from seven springs in the North and South Islands of New Zealand. Temperature variability was greater for run-off-fed streams than for springs, and increased in the spring-fed streams with distance from the source. Periphyton and physico-chemical characteristics of the water did not change markedly over the 1 km studied, with the exception of water velocity and organic matter biomass, which increased and decreased, respectively. The rate of increase in temperature amplitude differed greatly for the studied springs, probably being affected by flow, altitude, and the number and type of tributaries (i.e., spring- or run-off-fed joining the spring-fed stream channel. Longitudinal changes in the number and evenness of invertebrate taxa were positively correlated to thermal amplitude (rs = 0.8. Moving downstream, invertebrate communities progressively incorporated taxa with higher mobility and taxa more common in nearby run-off-fed streams. Chironomids and non-insect taxa were denser at the sources. Chironomid larvae also numerically dominated communities 100 and 500 m downstream from the sources, together with Pycnocentria spp. and Zelolessica spp., while taxa such as Hydora sp. and Hydraenidae beetles, the mayflies Deleatidium spp. and Coloburiscus humeralis, and the Trichoptera Pycnocentrodes spp., all had greater abundances 1 km

  13. Global patterns in post-dispersal seed removal by invertebrates and vertebrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peco, Begoña; Laffan, Shawn W; Moles, Angela T

    2014-01-01

    It is commonly accepted that species interactions such as granivory are more intense in the tropics. However, this has rarely been tested. A global dataset of post-dispersal seed removal by invertebrates and vertebrates for 79 native plant species from semi-natural and natural terrestrial habitats ranging from 55° N to 45° S, was compiled from the global literature to test the hypothesis that post-dispersal seed removal by invertebrates and vertebrates is more intense at lower latitudes. We also quantified the relationship between post-dispersal seed removal by vertebrates and by invertebrates to global climatic features including temperature, actual evapotranspiration (AET) and rainfall seasonality. Linear mixed effect models were applied to describe the relationships between seed removal and latitude, hemisphere and climatic variables controlling for the effect of seed mass. Post-dispersal seed removal by invertebrates was negatively related to latitude. In contrast, post-dispersal seed removal by vertebrates was positively but weakly related to latitude. Mean annual temperature and actual evapotranspiration were positively related to post-dispersal seed removal by invertebrates, but not to post-dispersal seed removal by vertebrates, which was only marginally negatively related to rainfall seasonality. The inclusion of seed mass improved the fit of all models, but the term for seed mass was not significant in any model. Although a good climatic model for predicting post-dispersal seed predation by vertebrates at the global level was not found, our results suggest different and opposite latitudinal patterns of post-dispersal seed removal by invertebrates vs vertebrates. This is the first time that a negative relationship between post-dispersal seed removal by invertebrates and latitude, and a positive relationship with temperature and AET have been documented at a global-scale. These results have important implications for understanding global patterns in plant

  14. Overview of the chemical ecology of benthic marine invertebrates along the western Antarctic peninsula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClintock, James B; Amsler, Charles D; Baker, Bill J

    2010-12-01

    Thirteen years ago in a review that appeared in the American Zoologist, we presented the first survey of the chemical and ecological bioactivity of Antarctic shallow-water marine invertebrates. In essence, we reported that despite theoretical predictions to the contrary the incidence of chemical defenses among sessile and sluggish Antarctic marine invertebrates was widespread. Since that time we and others have significantly expanded upon the base of knowledge of Antarctic marine invertebrates' chemical ecology, both from the perspective of examining marine invertebrates in new, distinct geographic provinces, as well as broadening the evaluation of the ecological significance of secondary metabolites. Importantly, many of these studies have been framed within established theoretical constructs, particularly the Optimal Defense Theory. In the present article, we review the current knowledge of chemical ecology of benthic marine invertebrates comprising communities along the Western Antarctic Peninsula (WAP), a region of Antarctica that is both physically and biologically distinct from the rest of the continent. Our overview indicates that, similar to other regions of Antarctica, anti-predator chemical defenses are widespread among species occurring along the WAP. In some groups, such as the sponges, the incidence of chemical defenses against predation is comparable to, or even slightly higher than, that found in tropical marine systems. While there is substantial knowledge of the chemical defenses of benthic marine invertebrates against predators, much less is known about chemical anti-foulants. The sole survey conducted to date suggests that secondary metabolites in benthic sponges are likely to be important in the prevention of fouling by benthic diatoms, yet generally lack activity against marine bacteria. Our understanding of the sensory ecology of Antarctic benthic marine invertebrates, despite its great potential, remains in its infancy. For example, along the

  15. Towards improved management of tropical invertebrate fisheries: including time series and gender.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Fröcklin

    Full Text Available Invertebrate harvesting is an important livelihood in tropical settings providing income and food for numerous populations throughout the world. However, the lack of research, policy and management directed towards this livelihood hinders the analysis of time trends to evaluate invertebrate resources status. Another missing aspect is the consideration of gender analysis, i.e., the different roles and interests of men and women engaged in this activity. Based on interviews, catch assessments and inventories this multi-disciplinary study from Chwaka Bay (Zanzibar, Tanzania shows how unregulated harvesting of invertebrates may result in sharp declines in animal abundance over a relatively short period of time (2005 to 2010, threatening the sustainability of the fishery. Specifically, the results show that catches in general, and prime target species of gastropods and bivalves in particular, had been significantly reduced in number and size. Interviews revealed gender disparities; female harvesters experienced less access to good fishing/collecting grounds and species of high value, which subsequently resulted in lower individual income. This is tightly linked to women's reproductive roles, which not only leads to limited mobility but also lessen their chances to accumulate livelihood assets (natural, physical, financial, social and human capital thus impacting livelihood strategies. To protect invertebrate resources from overexploitation, and assure a constant flow of income and food for future generations, this case study illustrates the need for formal monitoring to assess changes in invertebrate resources, and possible ecological consequences, over time. Managers and policy-makers must also address gender to evaluate the contribution of all resource users, their capacity to cope with changing conditions, as well as specific interests.

  16. Aquarium Trade Supply-Chain Losses of Marine Invertebrates Originating from Papua New Guinea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Militz, Thane A; Kinch, Jeff; Southgate, Paul C

    2018-04-01

    A major difficulty in managing live organism wildlife trade is often the reliance on trade data to monitor exploitation of wild populations. Harvested organisms that die or are discarded before a point of sale are regularly not reported. For the global marine aquarium trade, identifying supply-chain losses is necessary to more accurately assess exploitation from trade data. We examined quality control rejections and mortality of marine invertebrates (Asteroidea, Gastropoda, Malacostraca, Ophiuroidea) moving through the Papua New Guinea marine aquarium supply-chain, from fisher to importer. Utilizing catch invoices and exporter mortality records we determined that, over a 160 day period, 38.6% of the total invertebrate catch (n = 13,299 individuals) was lost before export. Supply-chain losses were divided among invertebrates rejected in the quality control process (11.5%) and mortality of the accepted catch in transit to, and during holding at, an export facility (30.6%). A further 0.3% died during international transit to importers. We quantified supply-chain losses for the ten most fished species which accounted for 96.4% of the catch. Quality control rejections (n = 1533) were primarily explained by rejections of oversized invertebrates (83.2% of rejections). We suggest that enforceable size limits on species prone to size-based rejections and elimination of village-based holding of invertebrates would reduce losses along the Papua New Guinea supply-chain. This case study underscores that low mortality during international transit may mask large losses along supply-chains prior to export and exemplifies the limitations of trade data to accurately monitor exploitation.

  17. Towards improved management of tropical invertebrate fisheries: including time series and gender.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fröcklin, Sara; de la Torre-Castro, Maricela; Håkansson, Elin; Carlsson, Anna; Magnusson, Madeleine; Jiddawi, Narriman S

    2014-01-01

    Invertebrate harvesting is an important livelihood in tropical settings providing income and food for numerous populations throughout the world. However, the lack of research, policy and management directed towards this livelihood hinders the analysis of time trends to evaluate invertebrate resources status. Another missing aspect is the consideration of gender analysis, i.e., the different roles and interests of men and women engaged in this activity. Based on interviews, catch assessments and inventories this multi-disciplinary study from Chwaka Bay (Zanzibar, Tanzania) shows how unregulated harvesting of invertebrates may result in sharp declines in animal abundance over a relatively short period of time (2005 to 2010), threatening the sustainability of the fishery. Specifically, the results show that catches in general, and prime target species of gastropods and bivalves in particular, had been significantly reduced in number and size. Interviews revealed gender disparities; female harvesters experienced less access to good fishing/collecting grounds and species of high value, which subsequently resulted in lower individual income. This is tightly linked to women's reproductive roles, which not only leads to limited mobility but also lessen their chances to accumulate livelihood assets (natural, physical, financial, social and human capital) thus impacting livelihood strategies. To protect invertebrate resources from overexploitation, and assure a constant flow of income and food for future generations, this case study illustrates the need for formal monitoring to assess changes in invertebrate resources, and possible ecological consequences, over time. Managers and policy-makers must also address gender to evaluate the contribution of all resource users, their capacity to cope with changing conditions, as well as specific interests.

  18. Towards Improved Management of Tropical Invertebrate Fisheries: Including Time Series and Gender

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fröcklin, Sara; de la Torre-Castro, Maricela; Håkansson, Elin; Carlsson, Anna; Magnusson, Madeleine; Jiddawi, Narriman S.

    2014-01-01

    Invertebrate harvesting is an important livelihood in tropical settings providing income and food for numerous populations throughout the world. However, the lack of research, policy and management directed towards this livelihood hinders the analysis of time trends to evaluate invertebrate resources status. Another missing aspect is the consideration of gender analysis, i.e., the different roles and interests of men and women engaged in this activity. Based on interviews, catch assessments and inventories this multi-disciplinary study from Chwaka Bay (Zanzibar, Tanzania) shows how unregulated harvesting of invertebrates may result in sharp declines in animal abundance over a relatively short period of time (2005 to 2010), threatening the sustainability of the fishery. Specifically, the results show that catches in general, and prime target species of gastropods and bivalves in particular, had been significantly reduced in number and size. Interviews revealed gender disparities; female harvesters experienced less access to good fishing/collecting grounds and species of high value, which subsequently resulted in lower individual income. This is tightly linked to women's reproductive roles, which not only leads to limited mobility but also lessen their chances to accumulate livelihood assets (natural, physical, financial, social and human capital) thus impacting livelihood strategies. To protect invertebrate resources from overexploitation, and assure a constant flow of income and food for future generations, this case study illustrates the need for formal monitoring to assess changes in invertebrate resources, and possible ecological consequences, over time. Managers and policy-makers must also address gender to evaluate the contribution of all resource users, their capacity to cope with changing conditions, as well as specific interests. PMID:24614075

  19. Contents and risk assessment of heavy metals in marine invertebrates from Korean coastal fish markets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mok, Jong Soo; Kwon, Ji Young; Son, Kwang Tae; Choi, Woo Seok; Kang, Sung Rim; Ha, Na Young; Jo, Mi Ra; Kim, Ji Hoe

    2014-06-01

    The concentrations of the heavy metals cadmium (Cd), mercury (Hg), lead (Pb), chromium, silver, nickel, copper, and zinc in the edible portions of 105 marine invertebrates representing 16 mollusk and crustacean species were accurately determined to evaluate their hazard for human consumption. The samples were collected in 2011 from major fish markets on the coast of Korea and analyzed for Hg using a direct Hg analyzer and for other metals using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Estimated dietary exposure (EDE) was determined, and a risk assessment was made of the heavy metals to provide information concerning consumer safety. The Cd concentrations, which were the highest for the three hazardous metals (Cd, Hg, and Pb), were significantly higher (P metals in all samples were within the regulatory limits set by Korea and other countries. The EDE was compared with the provisional tolerable daily intake (PTDI) adopted by the Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives or the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. The EDE of Cd, Hg, and Pb for each class of marine invertebrate were 0.07 to 2.64, 0.01 to 0.43, and 0.001 to 0.16% of the PTDI, respectively. The total EDE of Cd, Hg, and Pb for marine invertebrates accounted for 4.03, 0.96, and 0.21%, respectively, of the PTDI. The EDE of other metals in each class of marine invertebrate was less than 2% of the PTDI. The hazard index is a reasonable parameter for assessing the risk of heavy metal consumption associated with contaminated food. In the present study, the hazard index for all of the species was less than 1.0, which indicates that the intake of heavy metals from consumption of these marine invertebrates does not represent an appreciable hazard to humans.

  20. Aquarium Trade Supply-Chain Losses of Marine Invertebrates Originating from Papua New Guinea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Militz, Thane A.; Kinch, Jeff; Southgate, Paul C.

    2018-04-01

    A major difficulty in managing live organism wildlife trade is often the reliance on trade data to monitor exploitation of wild populations. Harvested organisms that die or are discarded before a point of sale are regularly not reported. For the global marine aquarium trade, identifying supply-chain losses is necessary to more accurately assess exploitation from trade data. We examined quality control rejections and mortality of marine invertebrates (Asteroidea, Gastropoda, Malacostraca, Ophiuroidea) moving through the Papua New Guinea marine aquarium supply-chain, from fisher to importer. Utilizing catch invoices and exporter mortality records we determined that, over a 160 day period, 38.6% of the total invertebrate catch ( n = 13,299 individuals) was lost before export. Supply-chain losses were divided among invertebrates rejected in the quality control process (11.5%) and mortality of the accepted catch in transit to, and during holding at, an export facility (30.6%). A further 0.3% died during international transit to importers. We quantified supply-chain losses for the ten most fished species which accounted for 96.4% of the catch. Quality control rejections ( n = 1533) were primarily explained by rejections of oversized invertebrates (83.2% of rejections). We suggest that enforceable size limits on species prone to size-based rejections and elimination of village-based holding of invertebrates would reduce losses along the Papua New Guinea supply-chain. This case study underscores that low mortality during international transit may mask large losses along supply-chains prior to export and exemplifies the limitations of trade data to accurately monitor exploitation.

  1. EDXRF applied to the chemical element determination of small invertebrate samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Magalhaes, Marcelo L.R.; Santos, Mariana L.O.; Cantinha, Rebeca S.; Souza, Thomas Marques de; Franca, Elvis J. de, E-mail: marcelo_rlm@hotmail.com, E-mail: marianasantos_ufpe@hotmail.com, E-mail: rebecanuclear@gmail.com, E-mail: thomasmarques@live.com.pt, E-mail: ejfranca@cnen.gov.br [Centro Regional de Ciencias Nucleares do Nordeste (CRCN-NE/CNEN-PE), Recife, PE (Brazil)

    2015-07-01

    Energy Dispersion X-Ray Fluorescence - EDXRF is a fast analytical technique of easy operation, however demanding reliable analytical curves due to the intrinsic matrix dependence and interference during the analysis. By using biological materials of diverse matrices, multielemental analytical protocols can be implemented and a group of chemical elements could be determined in diverse biological matrices depending on the chemical element concentration. Particularly for invertebrates, EDXRF presents some advantages associated to the possibility of the analysis of small size samples, in which a collimator can be used that directing the incidence of X-rays to a small surface of the analyzed samples. In this work, EDXRF was applied to determine Cl, Fe, P, S and Zn in invertebrate samples using the collimator of 3 mm and 10 mm. For the assessment of the analytical protocol, the SRM 2976 Trace Elements in Mollusk produced and SRM 8415 Whole Egg Powder by the National Institute of Standards and Technology - NIST were also analyzed. After sampling by using pitfall traps, invertebrate were lyophilized, milled and transferred to polyethylene vials covered by XRF polyethylene. Analyses were performed at atmosphere lower than 30 Pa, varying voltage and electric current according to the chemical element to be analyzed. For comparison, Zn in the invertebrate material was also quantified by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry after acid treatment (mixture of nitric acid and hydrogen peroxide) of samples have. Compared to the collimator of 10 mm, the SRM 2976 and SRM 8415 results obtained by the 3 mm collimator agreed well at the 95% confidence level since the E{sub n} Number were in the range of -1 and 1. Results from GFAAS were in accordance to the EDXRF values for composite samples. Therefore, determination of some chemical elements by EDXRF can be recommended for very small invertebrate samples (lower than 100 mg) with advantage of preserving the samples. (author)

  2. Global warming and mass mortalities of benthic invertebrates in the Mediterranean Sea.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irene Rivetti

    Full Text Available Satellite data show a steady increase, in the last decades, of the surface temperature (upper few millimetres of the water surface of the Mediterranean Sea. Reports of mass mortalities of benthic marine invertebrates increased in the same period. Some local studies interpreted the two phenomena in a cause-effect fashion. However, a basin-wide picture of temperature changes combined with a systematic assessment on invertebrate mass mortalities was still lacking. Both the thermal structure of the water column in the Mediterranean Sea over the period 1945-2011 and all documented invertebrate mass mortality events in the basin are analysed to ascertain if: 1- documented mass mortalities occurred under conditions of positive temperature trends at basin scale, and 2- atypical thermal conditions were registered at the smaller spatial and temporal scale of mass mortality events. The thermal structure of the shallow water column over the last 67 years was reconstructed using data from three public sources: MEDAR-MEDATLAS, World Ocean Database, MFS-VOS programme. A review of the mass mortality events of benthic invertebrates at Mediterranean scale was also carried out. The analysis of in situ temperature profiles shows that the Mediterranean Sea changed in a non-homogeneous fashion. The frequency of mass mortalities is increasing. The areas subjected to these events correspond to positive thermal anomalies. Statistically significant temperature trends in the upper layers of the Mediterranean Sea show an increase of up to 0.07°C/yr for a large fraction of the basin. Mass mortalities are consistent with both the temperature increase at basin scale and the thermal changes at local scale, up to 5.2°C. Our research supports the existence of a causal link between positive thermal anomalies and observed invertebrate mass mortalities in the Mediterranean Sea, invoking focused mitigation initiatives in sensitive areas.

  3. Global Warming and Mass Mortalities of Benthic Invertebrates in the Mediterranean Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivetti, Irene; Fraschetti, Simonetta; Lionello, Piero; Zambianchi, Enrico; Boero, Ferdinando

    2014-01-01

    Satellite data show a steady increase, in the last decades, of the surface temperature (upper few millimetres of the water surface) of the Mediterranean Sea. Reports of mass mortalities of benthic marine invertebrates increased in the same period. Some local studies interpreted the two phenomena in a cause-effect fashion. However, a basin-wide picture of temperature changes combined with a systematic assessment on invertebrate mass mortalities was still lacking. Both the thermal structure of the water column in the Mediterranean Sea over the period 1945–2011 and all documented invertebrate mass mortality events in the basin are analysed to ascertain if: 1- documented mass mortalities occurred under conditions of positive temperature trends at basin scale, and 2- atypical thermal conditions were registered at the smaller spatial and temporal scale of mass mortality events. The thermal structure of the shallow water column over the last 67 years was reconstructed using data from three public sources: MEDAR-MEDATLAS, World Ocean Database, MFS-VOS programme. A review of the mass mortality events of benthic invertebrates at Mediterranean scale was also carried out. The analysis of in situ temperature profiles shows that the Mediterranean Sea changed in a non-homogeneous fashion. The frequency of mass mortalities is increasing. The areas subjected to these events correspond to positive thermal anomalies. Statistically significant temperature trends in the upper layers of the Mediterranean Sea show an increase of up to 0.07°C/yr for a large fraction of the basin. Mass mortalities are consistent with both the temperature increase at basin scale and the thermal changes at local scale, up to 5.2°C. Our research supports the existence of a causal link between positive thermal anomalies and observed invertebrate mass mortalities in the Mediterranean Sea, invoking focused mitigation initiatives in sensitive areas. PMID:25535973

  4. Enhancing the diversity of breeding invertebrates within field margins of intensively managed grassland: Effects of alternative management practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fritch, Rochelle A; Sheridan, Helen; Finn, John A; McCormack, Stephen; Ó hUallacháin, Daire

    2017-11-01

    Severe declines in biodiversity have been well documented for many taxonomic groups due to intensification of agricultural practices. Establishment and appropriate management of arable field margins can improve the diversity and abundance of invertebrate groups; however, there is much less research on field margins within grassland systems. Three grassland field margin treatments (fencing off the existing vegetation "fenced"; fencing with rotavation and natural regeneration "rotavated" and; fencing with rotavation and seeding "seeded") were compared to a grazed control in the adjacent intensively managed pasture. Invertebrates were sampled using emergence traps to investigate species breeding and overwintering within the margins. Using a manipulation experiment, we tested whether the removal of grazing pressure and nutrient inputs would increase the abundance and richness of breeding invertebrates within grassland field margins. We also tested whether field margin establishment treatments, with their different vegetation communities, would change the abundance and richness of breeding invertebrates in the field margins. Exclusion of grazing and nutrient inputs led to increased abundance and richness in nearly all invertebrate groups that we sampled. However, there were more complex effects of field margin establishment treatment on the abundance and richness of invertebrate taxa. Each of the three establishment treatments supported a distinct invertebrate community. The removal of grazing from grassland field margins provided a greater range of overwintering/breeding habitat for invertebrates. We demonstrate the capacity of field margin establishment to increase the abundance and richness in nearly all invertebrate groups in study plots that were located on previously more depauperate areas of intensively managed grassland. These results from grassland field margins provide evidence to support practical actions that can inform Greening (Pillar 1) and agri

  5. Invertebrate Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone-Related Peptides and Their Receptors: An Update

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsubasa Sakai

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Gonadotropin-releasing hormones (GnRHs play pivotal roles in reproductive functions via the hypothalamus, pituitary, and gonad axis, namely, HPG axis in vertebrates. GnRHs and their receptors (GnRHRs are likely to be conserved in invertebrate deuterostomes and lophotrochozoans. All vertebrate and urochordate GnRHs are composed of 10 amino acids, whereas protostome, echinoderm, and amphioxus GnRH-like peptides are 11- or 12-residue peptide containing two amino acids after an N-terminal pyro-Glu. In urochordates, Halocynthia roretzi GnRH gene encodes two GnRH peptide sequences, whereas two GnRH genes encode three different GnRH peptides in Ciona intestinalis. These findings indicate the species-specific diversification of GnRHs. Intriguingly, the major signaling pathway for GnRHRs is intracellular Ca2+ mobilization in chordates, echinoderms, and protostomes, whereas Ciona GnRHRs (Ci-GnRHRs are endowed with multiple GnRHergic cAMP production pathways in a ligand-selective manner. Moreover, the ligand-specific modulation of signal transduction via heterodimerization among Ci-GnRHR paralogs suggests the species-specific development of fine-tuning of gonadal functions in ascidians. Echinoderm GnRH-like peptides show high sequence differences compared to those of protostome counterparts, leading to the difficulty in classification of peptides and receptors. These findings also show both the diversity and conservation of GnRH signaling systems in invertebrates. The lack of the HPG axis in invertebrates indicates that biological functions of GnRHs are not release of gonadotropins in current invertebrates and common ancestors of vertebrates and invertebrates. To date, authentic or putative GnRHRs have been characterized from various echinoderms and protostomes as well as chordates and the mRNAs have been found to be distributed not only reproductive organs but also other tissues. Collectively, these findings further support the notion that invertebrate Gn

  6. Characterization of deepwater invertebrates at Isla del Coco National Park and Las Gemelas Seamount, Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard M. Starr

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The deepwater faunas of oceanic islands and seamounts of the Eastern Tropical Pacific are poorly known. From 11-22 September 2009, we conducted an exploration of the deepwater areas around Isla del Coco National Park and Las Gemelas Seamount, located about 50km southwest of Isla del Coco, Costa Rica using a manned submersible to survey the seafloor habitats. The goal of the exploration was to characterize the habitats and biota, and conduct quantitative surveys of the deepwater portions of Isla del Coco National Park and Las Gemelas. We completed a total of 22 successful submersible dives, spanning more than 80hr underwater, and collected a total of 36hr of video. With respect to invertebrates, our objectives were to gather quantitative information on species composition, density, distribution and habitat associations as well as to compare the invertebrate communities between the two sites. A total of 7 172 invertebrates were counted from analysis of the video collected on this project. Larger organisms were counted and placed into 27 taxonomic groups to characterize the deepwater invertebrate fauna of Las Gemelas Seamount and Isla del Coco National Park. The Shannon-Weiner Index for biodiversity (H’ was calculated to be 0.14 ± 0.02 for Isla del Coco and 0.07 ± 0.03 for Las Gemelas surveys. Although richness was fairly equal between the two sites, evenness was greater at Isla del Coco (J = 0.04 ± 0.006 when compared to Las Gemelas (J = 0.02 ± 0.01. This lower level of evenness in the community at Las Gemelas was a result of high densities of a few dominant species groups, specifically sea urchins and black corals. We also evaluated invertebrate percent cover at both Isla del Coco and Las Gemelas Seamount with respect to habitat type, slope and rugosity. Results indicated that highly rugose habitats contained the highest frequencies of all invertebrates at both sites, with the exception of glass sponges and polychaetes at Isla del Coco

  7. Vessel biofouling as an inadvertent vector of benthic invertebrates occurring in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrapeira, Cristiane Maria Rocha; Tenório, Deusinete de Oliveira; Amaral, Fernanda Duarte do

    2011-04-01

    This article reviews the literature involving benthic invertebrates that are cited in association with hull fouling, reporting the species that occur on the Brazilian coast and evaluating the importance of this vector for the introduction of nonindigenous and cryptogenic invertebrates in Brazil. It discusses some of the strategies that were used by the species that allowed for their overseas transport and made it easier to cross natural barriers that otherwise would have been obstacles to their dispersion. The compiled data list 343 species (65% nonindigenous and 35% cryptogenic), mainly from the northwestern Atlantic Ocean. The traveling fauna, composed mostly of cosmopolitan species (70.3%), is primarily euryhaline and marine stenohaline, with sessile and sedentary habits. After delineating the shipborne species' ecological profiles and traveling strategies and evaluating their overlapping vectors, we concluded that hull vessels were the main vector of introduction to the Brazilian coast for 89.8% of the compiled species. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. 1-hydroxypyrene as a biomarker of PAH exposure in the marine invertebrates N. diversicolor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tairova, Zhanna; Giessing, Anders; Hansen, Rikke

    , bioavailability and biotransformation. Measurement of pyrene metabolites, primarily 1-hydroxypyrene, in excretory products has gained considerable attention as a potential biomarker and is widely used to study PAH exposure in humans and animals. Reports on 1-hydroxypyrene as a biomarker for PAH exposure in marine......Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are ubiquitous, persistent and toxic contaminants in the marine environment. Uptake of PAHs by marine deposit-feeding invertebrates can be determined by screening for PAH-derived metabolites. Methods for detection and quantification of PAH metabolites may...... invertebrates is on the other hand practically non-existing. The present study investigated formation of pyrene metabolites in the marine polychaete Nereis diversicolor, with special attention given to the detection of 1-hydroxypyrene. 1-hydroxypyrene was identified in tissues of Nereis diversicolor exposed...

  9. Survival of rapidly fluctuating natural low winter temperatures by High Arctic soil invertebrates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Convey, Peter; Abbandonato, Holly; Bergan, Frode

    2015-01-01

    The extreme polar environment creates challenges for its resident invertebrate communities and the stress tolerance of some of these animals has been examined over many years. However, although it is well appreciated that standard air temperature records often fail to describe accurately conditions...... experienced at microhabitat level, few studies have explicitly set out to link field conditions experienced by natural multispecies communities with the more detailed laboratory ecophysiological studies of a small number of 'representative' species. This is particularly the case during winter, when snow cover...... microhabitats. To assess survival of natural High Arctic soil invertebrate communities contained in soil and vegetation cores to natural winter temperature variations, the overwintering temperatures they experienced were manipulated by deploying cores in locations with varying snow accumulation: No Snow...

  10. Invertebrate composition and abundance associated with Didymosphenia geminata in a montane stream

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, Daniel A.; Ranney, Steven H.; Chipps, Steven R.; Spindler, Bryan D.

    2010-01-01

    Didymosphenia geminata, a relatively new aquatic nuisance species that can form extensive, mucilaginous mats on stream substrates, was reported from Rapid Creek, South Dakota in 2002. To examine the association between D. geminata and the invertebrate community in Rapid Creek, macroinvertebrates were quantified using three gear types in the fall of 2006. D. geminata was present at two of four sites sampled (range = 5.53 to 809.68 g m−2 dry mass). At each site, invertebrates were collected using dip nets, Surber samplers, and drift nets. The combined percentage of Ephemeroptera, Plecoptera, and Trichoptera in areas with D. geminata was lower (41%) than in areas without D. geminata (76%). Diptera abundance was higher at sites with D. geminata than in sites where D. geminata was absent.

  11. A study on the biodiversity of benthic invertebrates in the waters of Seogwipo, Jeju Island, Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    In-Young Cho

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The biodiversity of benthic invertebrates in the intertidal and subtidal regions of Gapado, Beomseom, and Munseom islets was surveyed twice in May and September 2013 to study the state of biodiversity in Seogwipo, Jeju Island. As a result, a total of 77 species, 46 families, 25 orders, 14 classes, and nine phyla of benthic invertebrates were found. The species which were found, by taxon, consisted of the following: 26 species of Cnidaria (34%, 24 species of Mollusca (31%, seven species of Chordata (9%, six species of Arthropoda (8%, six species of Porifera (8%, five species of Echinodermata (7%, one species of Bryozoa (1%, one species of Annelida (1%, and one species of Ctenophora (1%.

  12. Finfish and aquatic invertebrate pathology resources for now and the future✩

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spitsbergen, Jan M.; Blazer, Vicki S.; Bowser, Paul R.; Cheng, Keith C.; Cooper, Keith R.; Cooper, Timothy K.; Frasca, Salvatore; Groman, David B.; Harper, Claudia M.; (Mac) Law, Jerry M.; Marty, Gary D.; Smolowitz, Roxanna M.; Leger, Judy St.; Wolf, Douglas C.; Wolf, Jeffrey C.

    2009-01-01

    Utilization of finfish and aquatic invertebrates in biomedical research and as environmental sentinels has grown dramatically in recent decades. Likewise the aquaculture of finfish and invertebrates has expanded rapidly worldwide as populations of some aquatic food species and threatened or endangered aquatic species have plummeted due to overharvesting or habitat degradation. This increasing intensive culture and use of aquatic species has heightened the importance of maintaining a sophisticated understanding of pathology of various organ systems of these diverse species. Yet, except for selected species long cultivated in aquaculture, pathology databases and the workforce of highly trained pathologists lag behind those available for most laboratory animals and domestic mammalian and avian species. Several factors must change to maximize the use, understanding, and protection of important aquatic species: 1) improvements in databases of abnormalities across species; 2) standardization of diagnostic criteria for proliferative and nonproliferative lesions; and 3) more uniform and rigorous training in aquatic morphologic pathology. PMID:18948226

  13. Stem cells and fluid flow drive cyst formation in an invertebrate excretory organ.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thi-Kim Vu, Hanh; Rink, Jochen C; McKinney, Sean A; McClain, Melainia; Lakshmanaperumal, Naharajan; Alexander, Richard; Sánchez Alvarado, Alejandro

    2015-06-09

    Cystic kidney diseases (CKDs) affect millions of people worldwide. The defining pathological features are fluid-filled cysts developing from nephric tubules due to defective flow sensing, cell proliferation and differentiation. The underlying molecular mechanisms, however, remain poorly understood, and the derived excretory systems of established invertebrate models (Caenorhabditis elegans and Drosophila melanogaster) are unsuitable to model CKDs. Systematic structure/function comparisons revealed that the combination of ultrafiltration and flow-associated filtrate modification that is central to CKD etiology is remarkably conserved between the planarian excretory system and the vertebrate nephron. Consistently, both RNA-mediated genetic interference (RNAi) of planarian orthologues of human CKD genes and inhibition of tubule flow led to tubular cystogenesis that share many features with vertebrate CKDs, suggesting deep mechanistic conservation. Our results demonstrate a common evolutionary origin of animal excretory systems and establish planarians as a novel and experimentally accessible invertebrate model for the study of human kidney pathologies.

  14. EU guidelines for the care and welfare of an "exceptional invertebrate class" in scientific research. Commentary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berry, Alessandra; Vitale, Augusto; Carere, Claudio; Alleva, Enrico

    2015-01-01

    Cephalopods have been defined as "advanced invertebrates" due to the complexity of their nervous system and to their sophisticated behavioural repertoire. However, until recently, the protection and welfare of this class of invertebrates has been mostly disregarded by EU regulations on the use of laboratory animals. The inclusion of "live cephalopods" in the Directive 2010/63/EU has been prompted by new scientific knowledge on the "sentience" of animals used for experimental or other scientific purposes, a fundamental criterion to which animal species are included or not under the protective umbrella of the Directive. In this scenario, the imminent publication of the Guidelines for the care and welfare of cephalopods in research as an initiative by the CephRes-FELASA-Boyd Group is a sign of ethical progress in the consideration of animals in research, and is likely to have a significant impact on both scientific and practical aspects of research conducted with these animals.

  15. EU guidelines for the care and welfare of an "exceptional invertebrate class" in scientific research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandra Berry

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Cephalopods have been defined as "advanced invertebrates" due to the complexity of their nervous system and to their sophisticated behavioural repertoire. However, until recently, the protection and welfare of this class of invertebrates has been mostly disregarded by EU regulations on the use of laboratory animals. The inclusion of "live cephalopods" in the Directive 2010/63/EU has been prompted by new scientific knowledge on the "sentience" of animals used for experimental or other scientific purposes, a fundamental criterion to which animal species are included or not under the protective umbrella of the Directive. In this scenario, the imminent publication of the Guidelines for the care and welfare of cephalopods in research as an initiative by the CephRes-FELASA-Boyd Group is a sign of ethical progress in the consideration of animals in research, and is likely to have a significant impact on both scientific and practical aspects of research conducted with these animals.

  16. Effects of time-variable exposure regimes of the insecticide chlorpyrifos on freshwater invertebrate communities in microcosms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zafar, M.I.; Wijngaarden, van R.; Roessink, I.; Brink, van den P.J.

    2011-01-01

    The present study compared the effects of different time-variable exposure regimes having the same time-weighted average (TWA) concentration of the organophosphate insecticide chlorpyrifos on freshwater invertebrate communities to enable extrapolation of effects across exposure regimes. The

  17. Marine Microorganism-Invertebrate Assemblages: Perspectives to Solve the “Supply Problem” in the Initial Steps of Drug Discovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leal, Miguel Costa; Sheridan, Christopher; Osinga, Ronald; Dionísio, Gisela; Rocha, Rui Jorge Miranda; Silva, Bruna; Rosa, Rui; Calado, Ricardo

    2014-01-01

    The chemical diversity associated with marine natural products (MNP) is unanimously acknowledged as the “blue gold” in the urgent quest for new drugs. Consequently, a significant increase in the discovery of MNP published in the literature has been observed in the past decades, particularly from marine invertebrates. However, it remains unclear whether target metabolites originate from the marine invertebrates themselves or from their microbial symbionts. This issue underlines critical challenges associated with the lack of biomass required to supply the early stages of the drug discovery pipeline. The present review discusses potential solutions for such challenges, with particular emphasis on innovative approaches to culture invertebrate holobionts (microorganism-invertebrate assemblages) through in toto aquaculture, together with methods for the discovery and initial production of bioactive compounds from these microbial symbionts. PMID:24983638

  18. DECOTAB: a multipurpose standard substrate to assess effects of litter quality on microbial decomposition and invertebrate consumption

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kampfraath, A.A.; Hunting, E.R.; Mulder, C.; Breure, A.M.; Gessner, M.O.; Kraak, M.H.S.; Admiraal, W.

    2012-01-01

    Currently available tools for studying plant litter decomposition and invertebrate consumption in aquatic ecosystems have at least 2 major limitations: 1) the difficulty of manipulating litter chemical composition to provide mechanistic insights into attributes of litter quality controlling

  19. Influence of different types of sessile epibionts on the community structure of mobile invertebrates in an eelgrass bed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyosuke Momota

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Eelgrass (Zostera marina beds are known to have high ecological and economical values within coastal ecosystems of the temperate northern hemisphere although their biodiversity and functions varied greatly from sites to sites. The variation in the biomass, abundance and diversity of mobile invertebrates in eelgrass beds has been examined in relation to various abiotic and biotic factors, such as water temperature, salinity, eelgrass biomass and epiphytic microalgae presence. However, the importance of sessile epibionts, such as macroalgae and calcific spirorbid polychaetes attached to eelgrass blades, has not been the focus of previous studies. In the present study, we examined the effects of three different sessile epibionts, namely, branched red algae, filamentous green algae, and calcific spirorbid polychaetes, on the biomass and diversity of mobile invertebrates in the eelgrass beds of Akkeshi in northeastern Japan. The relationships between seven abiotic and biotic variables including three types of epibionts, and biomass of 11 dominant mobile invertebrate species as well as three community-level variables (the total biomass of mobile invertebrates, species richness and the Shannon-Wiener species diversity index were analyzed using a linear mixed model. Our results show that branched red algae are correlated with Pontogeneia rostrata, Lacuna spp., Nereis sp., Syllis sp. and the total biomass of mobile invertebrates, filamentous green algae with P. rostrata, Ansola angustata and the species diversity of mobile invertebrates, and spirorbid polychaetes with A. angustata, Lacuna spp., Siphonacmea oblongata, Syllis sp., the species richness and diversity of mobile invertebrates. The effect size of the epibionts was similar or even higher than that of abiotic and eelgrass factors on the total biomass of mobile invertebrates, species richness, species diversity and most of dominant invertebrate populations across the taxonomic groups. Consequently

  20. Mammal-induced trophic cascades in invertebrate food webs are modulated by grazing intensity in subalpine grassland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandegehuchte, Martijn L; Schütz, Martin; de Schaetzen, Frederic; Risch, Anita C

    2017-10-01

    Even though mammalian herbivores can exert strong indirect effects on other animals by altering the vegetation, the study of trophic cascades retains a focus on apex predators and their top-down forces. Bottom-up trophic interaction chains induced by mammalian herbivores, particularly in invertebrate food webs, remain largely unexplored. We tested whether effects of mammalian herbivores on the vegetation ricochet back up several trophic levels of the invertebrate food web. We further tested two alternative hypotheses: the strength of herbivore-induced indirect interactions either increases with plant productivity because of a concurrent higher grazing intensity, or it decreases because of a higher plant tolerance to grazing. We progressively excluded large, medium and small herbivorous mammals from replicated plots of 6 m 2 in productive, intensively grazed short-grass vegetation and less productive, less intensively grazed tall-grass vegetation of subalpine grasslands. We measured vegetation quantity, quality, structure and composition, and determined the abundance of invertebrate herbivores, detritivores, omnivores and predators. We used structural equation modelling to test vegetation-mediated cascading effects of the different mammalian herbivores across different trophic groups of invertebrates. In the short-grass vegetation, mammals caused changes in vegetation quantity and thickness. These changes directly affected detritivorous and predatory invertebrate abundance, yet indirectly affected predatory and omnivorous invertebrates through a bottom-up trophic cascade via changes in herbivorous invertebrate abundance. In the tall-grass vegetation, mammal-induced changes in vegetation quality and composition affected detritivorous invertebrates and in turn omnivorous invertebrates, but these cascading effects were weaker than those in the short-grass vegetation. Smaller mammals were at least as important as large mammals in structuring the invertebrate food web

  1. Developing a monitoring program for invertebrates: guidelines and a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohr, Jason R; Mahan, Carolyn G; Kim, Ke Chung

    2007-04-01

    Invertebrates provide the majority of ecosystem services; thus, it is important that they be inventoried, monitored, and protected. Nevertheless, inventories, monitoring, and management generally focus on vertebrates and flowering plants. Consequently, there are few guidelines or case studies for invertebrates. We present a procedure for developing a monitoring program for species-rich invertebrates that entails (1) characterizing the community; (2) identifying surrogates for biodiversity; and (3) establishing efficient methods to monitor surrogates and any ecologically important or sensitive taxa. We used these procedures, biodiversity-based statistical advances, and a survey of arthropods to develop a monitoring plan for the forests of Shenandoah National Park, Virginia (U.S.A.). Our case study revealed that mixed hardwood and hemlock forests had significantly different compositions of arthropods in their soil and understory strata. Of the 10 orders tested Coleoptera and Hymenoptera were the only two to pass most of the five surrogate tests, and their combination improved predictions of overall arthropod diversity. Because arthropods represent the majority of macroscopic species in most ecosystems, the ability of this assemblage to predict overall arthropod diversity makes it a powerful surrogate. Of the 11 collecting methods used, the beat-sheet method was the most efficient for monitoring this surrogate assemblage. To complement this coarse-filter approach to monitoring at-risk, invasive, or other important taxa (fine filter), we used ordination analyses to match 66 taxa with the methods that most effectively sampled them. Our methods serve as a model for developing an invertebrate monitoring plan and should facilitate linking such monitoring with ecosystem functions and management.

  2. Apparatus for investigating the reactions of soft-bodied invertebrates to controlled humidity gradients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, Joshua; Pierce-Shimomura, Jonathan T

    2014-11-30

    While many studies have assayed behavioral responses of animals to chemical, temperature and light gradients, fewer studies have assayed how animals respond to humidity gradients. Our novel humidity chamber has allowed us to study the neuromolecular basis of humidity sensation in the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans (Russell et al., 2014). We describe an easy-to-construct, low-cost humidity chamber to assay the behavior of small animals, including soft-bodied invertebrates, in controlled humidity gradients. We show that our humidity-chamber design is amenable to soft-bodied invertebrates and can produce reliable gradients ranging 0.3-8% RH/cm across a 9-cm long × 7.5-cm wide gel-covered arena. Previous humidity chambers relied on circulating dry and moist air to produce a steep humidity gradient in a small arena (e.g. Sayeed and Benzer, 1996). To remove the confound of moving air that may elicit mechanical responses independent of humidity responses, our chamber controlled the humidity gradient using reservoirs of hygroscopic materials. Additionally, to better observe the behavioral mechanisms for humidity responses, our chamber provided a larger arena. Although similar chambers have been described previously, these approaches were not suitable for soft-bodied invertebrates or for easy imaging of behavior because they required that animals move across wire or fabric mesh. The general applicability of our humidity chamber overcomes limitations of previous designs and opens the door to observe the behavioral responses of soft-bodied invertebrates, including genetically powerful C. elegans and Drosophila larvae. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. The value of algae as a substrate for intertidal invertebrates in the White Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chovgan O. V.

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper is devoted to researching zoobenthos communities of the intertidal zone, where the role of the substrate is represented by littoral phytobenthos. Macrophytes are subject to changes in time and are part of the trophic structure of marine communities as comparing with an inert ground substrate. The comprehensive study of littoral biocenoses allows reveal interrelation of benthic organisms with the vegetable substrate where they inhabit. The aim of the work is the investigation of structure and distribution features of epibenthic communities on the littoral macrophytes of the Chupa inlet (the White Sea. The investigations were conducted at The White Sea Biological Station "Kartesh" (WSBS during the summer period of three years (2012–2015. The material was being collected on the intertidal zone of the Levaya bay, Kruglaya bay, and Sel'dyanaya bay of the Chupa inlet by the method of vertical transects using the accounting frame (0.25 m2 in the three-fold repetition. In the processing of samples, the abundance of algae and epibionts has been defined; the biomass and number of macrophytes and invertebrates have been measured. In the course of the work, it has been revealed that Fucus algae create a favorable habitat for epibenthos including moving animals. A variety of seaweed substrates contributes to increase of invertebrates' biomass. The only exceptions are parts of the bays, where seaweed Ascophyllum nodosum and Pelvetia caniculata are abundant. These algae are not favourable substrate for most of epibenthic organisms and serve as habitat mainly of sedentary invertebrates due to the morphology of the thallus. Mussels Mytilus edulis are dominant invertebrates in the communities, where Fucus is the substrate. Filamentous algae contribute to active development of Hydrobia ulvae communities.

  4. Nearshore energy subsidies support Lake Michigan fishes and invertebrates following major changes in food web structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turschak, Benjamin A; Bunnell, David B.; Czesny, Sergiusz J.; Höök, Tomas O.; Janssen, John; Warner, David M.; Bootsma, Harvey A

    2014-01-01

    Aquatic food webs that incorporate multiple energy channels (e.g. nearshore benthic or pelagic) with varying productivity and turnover rates convey stability to biological communities by providing multiple independent energy sources. Within the Lake Michigan food web, invasive dreissenid mussels have caused rapid changes to food web structure and potentially altered the channels through which consumers acquire energy. We used stable C and N isotopes to determine how Lake Michigan food web structure has changed in the past decade, coincident with the expansion of dreissenid mussels, decreased pelagic phytoplankton production and increased nearshore benthic algal production. Fish and invertebrate samples collected from sites around Lake Michigan were analyzed to determine taxa-specific 13C:12C (delta 13C) and 15N:14N (delta 15N) ratios. Sampling took place during two distinct periods, 2002-2003 and 2010-2012, that spanned the period of dreissenid expansion, and included nearshore, pelagic and profundal fish and invertebrate taxa. Magnitude and direction of the 13C shift indicated significantly greater reliance upon nearshore benthic energy sources among nearly all fish taxa as well as profundal invertebrates. Although the mechanisms underlying this 13C shift likely varied among species, possible causes include the transport of benthic algal production to offshore waters and an increased reliance on nearshore prey items. Delta 15N shifts were more variable and of smaller magnitude across taxa although declines in delta 15N among some pelagic fishes may indicate a shift to alternative prey resources. Lake Michigan fishes and invertebrates appear to have responded to dreissenid induced changes in nutrient and energy pathways by switching from pelagic to alternative nearshore energy subsidies. Although large shifts in energy allocation (i.e. pelagic to nearshore benthic) resulting from invasive species appear to have affected total production at upper trophic

  5. Algal subsidies enhance invertebrate prey for threatened shorebirds: A novel conservation tool on ocean beaches?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlacher, Thomas A.; Hutton, Briony M.; Gilby, Ben L.; Porch, Nicholaus; Maguire, Grainne S.; Maslo, Brooke; Connolly, Rod M.; Olds, Andrew D.; Weston, Michael A.

    2017-05-01

    Birds breeding on ocean beaches are threatened globally, often requiring significant investments in species conservation and habitat management. Conservation actions typically encompass spatial and temporal threat reductions and protection of eggs and broods. Still, populations decline or recover only slowly, calling for fresh approaches in beach-bird conservation. Because energetic demands are critically high during the nesting and chick rearing phases, and chick survival is particularly low, supplementing prey to breeding birds and their offspring is theoretically attractive as a means to complement more traditional conservation measures. Prey for plovers and similar species on ocean beaches consists of invertebrates (e.g. small crustaceans, insects) many of which feed on stranded masses of plant material (e.g. kelp and seagrass) and use this 'wrack' as habitat. We added wrack to the upper beach where plovers nest and their chicks forage to test whether algal subsidies promote the abundance and diversity of their invertebrate prey. Adding wrack to the upper beach significantly increased the abundance and diversity of invertebrate prey items. At wrack subsidies greater than 50% of surface cover invertebrate assemblages became highly distinct compared with those that received smaller additions of wrack. Substantial (2-4 fold) increases in the abundance amphipods and isopods that are principal prey items for plovers drove these shifts. This proof-of-concept study demonstrates the feasibility of food provisioning for birds on ocean shores. Whilst novel, it is practicable, inexpensive and does not introduce further restrictions or man-made structures. Thus, it can meaningfully add to the broader arsenal of conservation tools for threatened species that are wholly reliant on sandy beaches as breeding and foraging habitats.

  6. Oil spills and their impacts on sand beach invertebrate communities: A literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bejarano, Adriana C; Michel, Jacqueline

    2016-11-01

    Sand beaches are highly dynamic habitats that can experience considerable impacts from oil spills. This review provides a synthesis of the scientific literature on major oil spills and their impacts on sand beaches, with emphasis on studies documenting effects and recoveries of intertidal invertebrate communities. One of the key observations arising from this review is that more attention has generally been given to studying the impacts of oil spills on invertebrates (mostly macrobenthos), and not to documenting their biological recovery. Biological recovery of sand beach invertebrates is highly dynamic, depending on several factors including site-specific physical properties and processes (e.g., sand grain size, beach exposure), the degree of oiling, depth of oil burial, and biological factors (e.g., species-specific life-history traits). Recovery of affected communities ranges from several weeks to several years, with longer recoveries generally associated with physical factors that facilitate oil persistence, or when cleanup activities are absent on heavily oiled beaches. There are considerable challenges in quantifying impacts from spills on sand beach invertebrates because of insufficient baseline information (e.g., distribution, abundance and composition), knowledge gaps in their natural variability (spatial and temporal), and inadequate sampling and replication during and after oil spills. Thus, environment assessments of impacts and recovery require a rigorous experimental design that controls for confounding sources of variability. General recommendations on sampling strategies and toxicity testing, and a preliminary framework for incorporating species-specific life history traits into future assessments are also provided. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Insight into tachykinin-related peptides, their receptors, and invertebrate tachykinins: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satake, Honoo; Kawada, Tsuyoshi; Nomoto, Kyosuke; Minakata, Hiroyuki

    2003-05-01

    Tachykinins (TKs) constitute the largest vertebrate neuropeptide family with multifunctions in central and peripheral tissues. In several invertebrate species, two types of structurally related peptides, 'tachykinin-related peptides (TKRPs)' and 'invertebrate tachykinins (inv-TKs)' have been identified. TKRPs, isolated from the nerve and/or gut tissues, contain the common C-terminal sequence -Phe-X-Gly-Y-Arg-NH(2) (X and Y are variable) analogous to the vertebrate TK consensus -Phe-X-Gly-Leu-Met-NH(2), and exhibit vertebrate TK-like contractile activity on invertebrate gut tissues. Inv-TKs have been shown to be present exclusively in the salivary gland of several species, to share vertebrate TK consensus motif, and to possess TK-like potencies on vertebrate, not invertebrate tissues. However, the functional and evolutionary relevance of TKRPs and inv-TKs to vertebrate TKs remains to be understood. Recent studies have revealed that TKRP precursors dramatically differ from vertebrate preprotachykinins in structural organization and that TKRP receptors share structural and functional properties with vertebrate TK receptors. Moreover, the C-terminal arginine in TKRPs has been shown to play an essential role in discriminating their receptors from vertebrate TK receptors. Such recent marked progress is expected to enhance further investigation of biological roles of TKRPs. This review provides an overview of the basic findings obtained previously and a buildup of new knowledge regarding TKRPs and inv-TKs. We also compare TKRPs and inv-TKs to vertebrate TKs with regard to evolutionary relationships in structure and function among these structurally related peptides.

  8. Venus Kinase Receptors: prospects in signalling and biological functions of these invertebrate receptors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Colette eDissous

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Venus Kinase Receptors (VKRs form a family of invertebrate receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs initially discovered in the parasitic platyhelminth Schistosoma mansoni. VKRs are single transmembrane receptors which contain an extracellular Venus Flytrap (VFT structure similar to the ligand binding domain of G Protein Coupled Receptors of class C, and an intracellular Tyrosine Kinase domain close to that of Insulin Receptors. VKRs are found in a large variety of invertebrates from cnidarians to echinoderms, and are highly expressed in larval stages and in gonads, suggesting a role of these proteins in embryonic and larval development as well as in reproduction. Vkr gene silencing could demonstrate the function of these receptors in oogenesis as well as in spermatogenesis in Schistosoma .mansoni. VKRs are activated by amino-acids, and highly responsive to arginine. As many other RTKs, they form dimers when activated by ligands and induce intracellular pathways involved in protein synthesis and cellular growth, such as MAPK and PI3K/Akt/S6K pathways. VKRs are not present in vertebrates, nor in some invertebrate species. Questions remain open about the origin of this little-known RTK family in evolution and its role in emergence and specialization of Metazoa. What is the meaning of maintenance or loss of VKR in some phyla or species in terms of development and physiological functions? The presence of VKRs in invertebrates of economical and medical importance, such as pests, vectors of pathogens and platyhelminth parasites, and the implication of these RTKs in gametogenesis and reproduction processes are valuable reasons to consider VKRs as interesting targets in new programs for eradication/ control of pests and infectious diseases, with the main advantage in the case of parasite targeting that VKR counterparts are absent from the vertebrate host kinase panel.

  9. Consequences for invertebrates of the use of forest fuel; Skogsbraensleanvaendningens konsekvenser foer ryggradsloesa djur

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weslien, J.

    1994-10-01

    This report describes the consequences of increased use of forest fuel for, primarily, red-listed (i.e. disappeared, threatened, vulnerable, rare or care demanding) invertebrates in Sweden. The report concentrates in invertebrate animals that largely live in parts of trees, trees or in tree biotopes that today are not utilised in conventional forestry but which to varying extents may be affected by increased removal of forest fuel. Certain environments should not in any way be utilised for removal of fuel, whereas others can be used provided that relevant consideration is taken to nature. Felling residues such as processor piles are of little value for red-listed species. Lying or standing trees left in the felling areas are of great importance for invertebrates in the category `care demanding` and should not be removed. Return of stabilised slowly available ashes have so far had little effect on the soil fauna studied, but there are no data on long-term effects. Fire-damaged trees are very valuable and should be saved. In the event of felling large burnt over areas, a selection of fire-damaged trees and groups of trees should be left. Forest edges, certain rocky outcrops in arable fields, and wooded meadows are frequently very species-rich environments and should usually not be used. In environments where overgrowing is a problem removal of fuel in the form of a careful thinning is positive for the invertebrate fauna. Old deciduous trees, both in the forest and in the cultivated countryside are valuable environments for many species and should be saved. If the interest in biofuels leads to deciduous trees being given extra space this will be positive for the fauna, provided that a continuity of old and dead deciduous trees is assured. Requirements for consideration to nature differ slightly in different parts of Sweden. 12 refs, 3 figs, 3 tabs

  10. Temperature tracking by North Sea benthic invertebrates in response to climate change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiddink, Jan G; Burrows, Michael T; García Molinos, Jorge

    2015-01-01

    Climate change is a major threat to biodiversity and distributions shifts are one of the most significant threats to global warming, but the extent to which these shifts keep pace with a changing climate is yet uncertain. Understanding the factors governing range shifts is crucial for conservation management to anticipate patterns of biodiversity distribution under future anthropogenic climate change. Soft-sediment invertebrates are a key faunal group because of their role in marine biogeochemistry and as a food source for commercial fish species. However, little information exists on their response to climate change. Here, we evaluate changes in the distribution of 65 North Sea benthic invertebrate species between 1986 and 2000 by examining their geographic, bathymetric and thermal niche shifts and test whether species are tracking their thermal niche as defined by minimum, mean or maximum sea bottom (SBT) and surface (SST) temperatures. Temperatures increased in the whole North Sea with many benthic invertebrates showing north-westerly range shifts (leading/trailing edges as well as distribution centroids) and deepening. Nevertheless, distribution shifts for most species (3.8-7.3 km yr(-1) interquantile range) lagged behind shifts in both SBT and SST (mean 8.1 km yr(-1)), resulting in many species experiencing increasing temperatures. The velocity of climate change (VoCC) of mean SST accurately predicted both the direction and magnitude of distribution centroid shifts, while maximum SST did the same for contraction of the trailing edge. The VoCC of SBT was not a good predictor of range shifts. No good predictor of expansions of the leading edge was found. Our results show that invertebrates need to shift at different rates and directions to track the climate velocities of different temperature measures, and are therefore lagging behind most temperature measures. If these species cannot withstand a change in thermal habitat, this could ultimately lead to a drop in

  11. Functional diversity of soil invertebrates: a potential tool to explain N2O emission?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lubbers, Ingrid; De Deyn, Gerlinde; Drake, Harold; Hunger, Sindy; Oppermann, Timo; van Groenigen, Jan Willem

    2017-04-01

    Soil biota play a crucial role in the mineralization of nutrients from organic material. However, they can thereby increase emissions of the potent greenhouse gas nitrous oxide (N2O). Our current lack of understanding of the factors controlling N2O production and emission is impeding the development of effective mitigation strategies. It is the challenge to control N2O emissions from production systems without reducing crop yield, and diversity of soil fauna may play a key role. A high functional diversity of soil invertebrates is known to stimulate nitrogen mineralization and thereby plant growth, however, it is unknown whether a high functional diversity of soil invertebrates can concurrently diminish N2O emissions. We hypothesized that increased functional diversity of soil invertebrates reduces faunal-induced N2O emissions by facilitating more complete denitrification through (i) stimulating the activity of denitrifying microbes, and (ii) affecting the distribution of micro and macro pores, creating more anaerobic reaction sites. Using state-of-the-art X-ray tomography and next-generation sequencing, we studied effects of functional diversity on soil structural properties and the diversity of the microbial community (16S rRNA genes and 16S rRNA), and linked these to soil N2O emissions. In a 120-day study we found that the functional composition of the soil invertebrate community determined N2O emissions: earthworm activity was key to faunal-induced N2O emissions (a 32-fold increase after 120 days, P<0.001). No proof was found to explain faunal-induced N2O emissions through differences in stimulated microbial activity. On the other hand, soil structural properties (mean pore size, pore size distribution) were found to be radically altered by earthworm activity. We conclude that the presence of a few functional groups (ecosystem engineers) is more important than overall increased functional diversity in explaining faunal-affected N2O emissions.

  12. What can an ecophysiological approach tell us about the physiological responses of marine invertebrates to hypoxia?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spicer, John I

    2014-01-01

    Hypoxia (low O2) is a common and natural feature of many marine environments. However, human-induced hypoxia has been on the rise over the past half century and is now recognised as a major problem in the world's seas and oceans. Whilst we have information on how marine invertebrates respond physiologically to hypoxia in the laboratory, we still lack understanding of how they respond to such stress in the wild (now and in the future). Consequently, here the question 'what can an ecophysiological approach tell us about physiological responses of marine invertebrates to hypoxia' is addressed. How marine invertebrates work in the wild when challenged with hypoxia is explored using four case studies centred on different hypoxic environments. The recent integration of the various -omics into ecophysiology is discussed, and a number of advantages of, and challenges to, successful integration are suggested. The case studies and -omic/physiology integration data are used to inform the concluding part of the review, where it is suggested that physiological responses to hypoxia in the wild are not always the same as those predicted from laboratory experiments. This is due to behaviour in the wild modifying responses, and therefore more than one type of 'experimental' approach is essential to reliably determine the actual response. It is also suggested that assuming it is known what a measured response is 'for' can be misleading and that taking parodies of ecophysiology seriously may impede research progress. This review finishes with the suggestion that an -omics approach is, and is becoming, a powerful method of understanding the response of marine invertebrates to environmental hypoxia and may be an ideal way of studying hypoxic responses in the wild. Despite centring on physiological responses to hypoxia, the review hopefully serves as a contribution to the discussion of what (animal) ecophysiology looks like (or should look like) in the 21st century.

  13. Feeding type and development drive the ingestion of microplastics by freshwater invertebrates

    OpenAIRE

    Scherer, Christian; Brennholt, Nicole; Reifferscheid, Georg; Wagner, Martin

    2017-01-01

    Microscopic plastic items (microplastics) are ubiquitously present in aquatic ecosystems. With decreasing size their availability and potential to accumulate throughout food webs increase. However, little is known on the uptake of microplastics by freshwater invertebrates. To address this, we exposed species with different feeding strategies to 1, 10 and 90 µm fluorescent polystyrene spheres (3–3 000 particles mL−1). Additionally, we investigated how developmental stages and a co-exposure to ...

  14. Ecoregion and land-use influence invertebrate and detritus transport from headwater streams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binckley, Christopher A.; Wipfli, Mark S.; Medhurst, R. Bruce; Polivka, Karl; Hessburg, Paul F.; Salter, R. Brion; Kill, Joshua Y.

    2010-01-01

    Summary 1. Habitats are often connected by fluxes of energy and nutrients across their boundaries. For example, headwater streams are linked to surrounding riparian vegetation through invertebrate and leaf litter inputs, and there is evidence that consumers in downstream habitats are subsidised by resources flowing from headwater systems. However, the strength of these linkages and the manner in which potential headwater subsidies vary along climatic and disturbance gradients are unknown.

  15. Patchy bed disturbance and fish predation independently influence the distribution of stream invertebrates and algae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Effenberger, Michael; Diehl, Sebastian; Gerth, Maximilian; Matthaei, Christoph D

    2011-05-01

    1. The identification of factors determining the patchy distribution of organisms in space and time is a central concern of ecology. Predation and abiotic disturbance are both well-known drivers of this patchiness, but their interplay is still poorly understood, especially for communities dominated by mobile organisms in frequently disturbed ecosystems. 2. We investigated the separate and interactive influences of bed disturbance by floods and predation by fish on the benthic community in a flood-prone stream. Electric fields excluded fish predators from half of 48 stream bed patches (area 0·49 m(2) ) with contrasting disturbance treatments. Three types of bed disturbance were created by either scouring or filling patches to a depth of 15-20 cm or by leaving the patches undisturbed, thus mimicking the mosaic of scour and fill caused by a moderate flood. Benthic invertebrates and algae were sampled repeatedly until 57 days after the disturbance. 3. Disturbance influenced all ten investigated biological response variables, whereas predation affected four variables. Averaged across time, invertebrate taxon richness and total abundance were highest in stable patches. Algal biomass and densities of five of the seven most common invertebrate taxa (most of which were highly mobile) were higher in fill than in scour patches, whereas two taxa were more abundant in scour and stable than in fill patches. Furthermore, two common invertebrate grazers were more abundant and algal biomass tended to be reduced in fish exclusion patches, suggesting a patch-scale trophic cascade from fish to algae. 4. Our results highlight the importance of patchy physical disturbance for the microdistribution of mobile stream organisms and indicate a notable, but less prevalent, influence of fish predation at the patch scale in this frequently disturbed environment. Disturbance and predation treatments interacted only once, suggesting that the observed predation effects were largely independent of

  16. Therapeutic properties and uses of marine invertebrates in the ancient Greek world and early Byzantium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voultsiadou, Eleni

    2010-07-20

    Marine organisms are currently investigated for the therapeutic potential of their natural products with very promising results. The human interest for their use in healing practices in the Eastern Mediterranean goes back to the antiquity. An attempt is made in the present work to investigate the therapeutic properties of marine invertebrates and the ways they were used in the medical practice during the dawn of the western medicine. The classical Greek texts of the Ancient Greek (Classical, Hellenistic and Roman) and early Byzantine period were studied and the data collected were analysed in order to extract detailed information on the parts of animal bodies and the ways they were used for healing purposes. Thirty-eight marine invertebrates were recorded for their therapeutic properties and uses in 40 works of 20 classical authors, covering a time period of 11 centuries (5th c. BC to 7th c. AD). The identified taxa were classified into 7 phyla and 11 classes of the animal kingdom, while molluscs were the dominant group. Marine invertebrates were more frequently used for their properties relevant to digestive, genitourinary and skin disorders. Flesh, broth, skeleton, or other special body parts of the animals were prepared as drinks, collyria, suppositories, cataplasms, compresses, etc. Marine invertebrates were well known for their therapeutic properties and had a prominent role in the medical practice during the Ancient Greek and the early Byzantine period. The diversity of animal species and their medicinal uses reflect the maritime nature of the Greek civilization, which flourished on the coasts and islands of the Aegean Sea. Most of them were common species exploited by humans for food or other everyday uses. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Quantifying invertebrate resistance to floods: a global-scale meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMullen, Laura E; Lytle, David A

    2012-12-01

    Floods are a key component of the ecology and management of riverine ecosystems around the globe, but it is not clear whether floods have predictable effects on organisms that can allow us to generalize across regions and continents. To address this, we conducted a global-scale meta-analysis to investigate effects of natural and managed floods on invertebrate resistance, the ability of invertebrates to survive flood events. We considered 994 studies for inclusion in the analysis, and after evaluation based on a priori criteria, narrowed our analysis to 41 studies spanning six of the seven continents. We used the natural-log-ratio of invertebrate abundance before and within 10 days after flood events because this measure of effect size can be directly converted to estimates of percent survival. We conducted categorical and continuous analyses that examined the contribution of environmental and study design variables to effect size heterogeneity, and examined differences in effect size among taxonomic groups. We found that invertebrate abundance was lowered by at least one-half after flood events. While natural vs. managed floods were similar in their effect, effect size differed among habitat and substrate types, with pools, sand, and boulders experiencing the strongest effect. Although sample sizes were not sufficient to examine all taxonomic groups, floods had a significant, negative effect on densities of Coleoptera, Eumalacostraca, Annelida, Ephemeroptera, Diptera, Plecoptera, and Trichoptera. Results from this study provide guidance for river flow regime prescriptions that will be applicable across continents and climate types, as well as baseline expectations for future empirical studies of freshwater disturbance.

  18. Possibilities of usage of aboveground invertebrates for indication of gradations of edaphotope moistening in forest ecosystems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. V. Brygadyrenko

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available By using the variance analysis the absence of a correlation between the different gradations of soil humidity and the number of dominant taxons of litter invertebrates, the ground beetles (Coleoptera, Carabidae, separate life-forms of the ground beetles and the indices of species diversity is demonstrated. The most sensitive indicator of soil humidity gradations in forest ecosystems is the mixophytophages part in the ground beetles’ complex.

  19. Bioactive substances with anti-neoplastic efficacy from marine invertebrates: Bryozoa, Mollusca, Echinodermata and Urochordata

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sima, Peter; Vetvicka, Vaclav

    2011-01-01

    The marine environment provides a rich source of natural products with potential therapeutic application. This has resulted in an increased rate of pharmaceutical agents being discovered in marine animals, particularly invertebrates. Our objective is to summarize the most promising compounds which have the best potential and may lead to use in clinical practice, show their biological activities and highlight the compounds currently being tested in clinical trials. In this paper, we focused on Bryozoa, Mollusca, Echinodermata and Urochordata. PMID:22087434

  20. Systematic review of biological effects of exposure to static electric fields. Part II: Invertebrates and plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmiedchen, Kristina; Petri, Anne-Kathrin; Driessen, Sarah; Bailey, William H

    2018-01-01

    The construction of high-voltage direct current (HVDC) lines for the long-distance transport of energy is becoming increasingly popular. This has raised public concern about potential environmental impacts of the static electric fields (EF) produced under and near HVDC power lines. As the second part of a comprehensive literature analysis, the aim of this systematic review was to assess the effects of static EF exposure on biological functions in invertebrates and plants and to provide the basis for an environmental impact assessment of such exposures. The Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) was used to guide the methodological conduct and reporting. Thirty-three studies - 14 invertebrate and 19 plant studies - met the eligibility criteria and were included in this review. The reported behavioral responses of insects and planarians upon exposure strongly suggest that invertebrates are able to perceive the presence of a static EF. Many other studies reported effects on physiological functions that were expressed as, for example, altered metabolic activity or delayed reproductive and developmental stages in invertebrates. In plants, leaf damage, alterations in germination rates, growth and yield, or variations in the concentration of essential elements, for example, have been reported. However, these physiological responses and changes in plant morphology appear to be secondary to surface stimulation by the static EF or caused by concomitant parameters of the electrostatic environment. Furthermore, all of the included studies suffered from methodological flaws, which lowered credibility in the results. At field levels encountered from natural sources or HVDC lines ( 35kV/m), adverse effects on physiology and morphology, presumably caused by corona-action, appear to be more likely. Higher quality studies are needed to unravel the role of air ions, ozone, nitric oxide and corona current on alterations in physiological functions

  1. Identification and cloning of an invertebrate-type lysozyme from Eisenia andrei

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Josková, Radka; Šilerová, Marcela; Procházková, Petra; Bilej, Martin

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 33, č. 8 (2009), s. 932-938 ISSN 0145-305X R&D Projects: GA ČR GA206/07/0378; GA ČR GD310/08/H077; GA AV ČR IAA600200704; GA AV ČR KJB500200613 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50200510 Keywords : Annelids * Invertebrates * Antimicrobial protein Subject RIV: EC - Immunology Impact factor: 3.290, year: 2009

  2. Invertebrate diversity classification using self-organizing map neural network: with some special topological functions

    OpenAIRE

    WenJun Zhang; QuHuan Li

    2014-01-01

    In present study we used self-organizing map (SOM) neural network to conduct the non-supervisory clustering of invertebrate orders in rice field. Four topological functions, i.e., cossintopf, sincostopf, acossintopf, and expsintopf, established on the template in toolbox of Matlab, were used in SOM neural network learning. Results showed that clusters were different when using different topological functions because different topological functions will generate different spatial structure of ...

  3. An invertebrate TNF functional analogue activates macrophages via lectin-saccharide interaction with ion channels

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bilej, Martin; Josková, Radka; Van den Bergh, R.; Kohlerová, Petra; Šilerová, Marcela; Ameloot, P.; De Baetselier, P.; Beschin, A.

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 18, č. 12 (2006), s. 1663-1670 ISSN 0953-8178 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA310/02/1437; GA ČR GA310/04/0806; GA ČR GD310/03/H147 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50200510 Keywords : invertebrate cytokine * membrane depolarization * pattern-recognition protein Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 4.015, year: 2006

  4. Invertebrate succession on open coast coal post mining sites in response to the type of restoration

    OpenAIRE

    Hromádková, Šárka

    2014-01-01

    This review deals with development of invertebrates on sites after brown coal mining in response to the type of restoration. When the soil properties are improved, it is then necessary to mitigate negative threats such as landslides and erosion or low pH. The following is an overlap of fertile soil. Soil characteristics can be locally modified by diversifying of plantations of fast and slow growing wood species. After a succession of plants and the subsequent increase in litter layer, the dev...

  5. A predictive framework to assess response of invasive invertebrates to climate change: pest mite species of Australian grains

    OpenAIRE

    Hill, Matt

    2014-01-01

    Climate change is set to place enormous pressure on both biodiversity and agricultural production. Important vectors of agricultural damage, such as pest invertebrates, are likely to respond to climate change in different ways. Differing pest invertebrate responses in grain crops will translate to shifts in outbreak frequency and persistence of pests, changes to pest species assemblages, and alter biocontrol by natural enemies. Successful management will thus require predictions of how climat...

  6. Climate change links fate of glaciers and an endemic alpine invertebrate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muhlfeld, Clint C.; Giersch, J. Joseph; Hauer, F. Richard; Pederson, Gregory T.; Luikart, Gordon; Peterson, Douglas P.; Downs, Christopher C.; Fagre, Daniel B.

    2011-01-01

    Climate warming in the mid- to high-latitudes and high-elevation mountainous regions is occurring more rapidly than anywhere else on Earth, causing extensive loss of glaciers and snowpack. However, little is known about the effects of climate change on alpine stream biota, especially invertebrates. Here, we show a strong linkage between regional climate change and the fundamental niche of a rare aquatic invertebrate—themeltwater stonefly Lednia tumana—endemic toWaterton- Glacier International Peace Park, Canada and USA. L. tumana has been petitioned for listing under the U.S. Endangered Species Act due to climate-change-induced glacier loss, yet little is known on specifically how climate impacts may threaten this rare species and many other enigmatic alpine aquatic species worldwide. During 14 years of research, we documented that L. tumana inhabits a narrow distribution, restricted to short sections (∼500 m) of cold, alpine streams directly below glaciers, permanent snowfields, and springs. Our simulation models suggest that climate change threatens the potential future distribution of these sensitive habitats and persistence of L. tumana through the loss of glaciers and snowfields. Mountaintop aquatic invertebrates are ideal early warning indicators of climate warming in mountain ecosystems. Research on alpine invertebrates is urgently needed to avoid extinctions and ecosystem change.

  7. Effect of soil invertebrates on the formation of humic substances under laboratory conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frouz, J.; Li, X.; Brune, A.; Pizl, V.; Abakumov, E. V.

    2011-08-01

    The complete polymerization of phenols and proteins (one of the processes involved in the formation of humic substances) was explained. It was shown that fly ( Bibio marci) larvae and earthworms ( Aporrectodea caliginosa) participate in the complete polymerization of phenols and proteins. In a laboratory experiment, invertebrates participated in the degradation of organic matter and the synthesis of humic substances, which was proved in experiments with 14C-labeled phenols and proteins. The same organic substances (phenols and proteins) without the impact of invertebrates were used as the control substances. The distributions of the 14C isotope in alkaline extracts separated by solubility in acids (humic and fulvic acids) was compared to those of the control substances. The portion of the 14C isotope in the humic acids in the excrements of Bibio marci was higher than that in the control substances. The content of 14C-labeled humic substances in the excrements of the earthworm Aporrectodea caliginosa exceeded the control values only in the experiment with proteins. When clay material was added to the organic substances, the portion of the 14C isotope in the humic acids increased in both experiments with phenols and proteins. When these substrates passed through the digestive tracts of the invertebrates, the polymerization of organic substances and the inclusion of proteins and phenols into humic acids occurred.

  8. Tachykinin-related peptides and their receptors in invertebrates: a current view.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Loy, Tom; Vandersmissen, Hans Peter; Poels, Jeroen; Van Hiel, Matthias B; Verlinden, Heleen; Vanden Broeck, Jozef

    2010-03-01

    Members of the tachykinin peptide family have been well conserved during evolution and are mainly expressed in the central nervous system and in the intestine of both vertebrates and invertebrates. In these animals, they act as multifunctional messengers that exert their biological effects by specifically interacting with a subfamily of structurally related G protein-coupled receptors. Despite the identification of multiple tachykinin-related peptides (TKRPs) in species belonging to the insects, crustaceans, mollusks and echiuroid worms, only five invertebrate receptors harboring profound sequence similarities to mammalian receptors for tachykinins have been functionally characterized to date. Three of these have been cloned from dipteran insect species, i.e. NKD (neurokinin receptor from Drosophila), DTKR (Drosophila tachykinin receptor) and STKR (tachykinin-related peptide receptor from the stable fly, Stomoxys calcitrans). In addition, two receptors from non-insect species, present in echiuroid worms and mollusks, respectively have been identified as well. In this brief review, we will survey some recent findings and insights into the signaling properties of invertebrate tachykinin-related peptides via their respective receptors. In this context, we will also point out the necessity to take into account differences in signaling mechanisms induced by distinct TKRP isoforms in insects. (c) 2009 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Tropical CO2 seeps reveal the impact of ocean acidification on coral reef invertebrate recruitment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Ro; Foggo, Andrew; Fabricius, Katharina; Balistreri, Annalisa; Hall-Spencer, Jason M

    2017-11-30

    Rising atmospheric CO 2 concentrations are causing ocean acidification by reducing seawater pH and carbonate saturation levels. Laboratory studies have demonstrated that many larval and juvenile marine invertebrates are vulnerable to these changes in surface ocean chemistry, but challenges remain in predicting effects at community and ecosystem levels. We investigated the effect of ocean acidification on invertebrate recruitment at two coral reef CO 2 seeps in Papua New Guinea. Invertebrate communities differed significantly between 'reference' (median pH7.97, 8.00), 'high CO 2 ' (median pH7.77, 7.79), and 'extreme CO 2 ' (median pH7.32, 7.68) conditions at each reef. There were also significant reductions in calcifying taxa, copepods and amphipods as CO 2 levels increased. The observed shifts in recruitment were comparable to those previously described in the Mediterranean, revealing an ecological mechanism by which shallow coastal systems are affected by near-future levels of ocean acidification. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Invertebrate fossils from cave sediments: a new proxy for pre-Quaternary paleoenvironments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moldovan, O. T.; Mihevc, A.; Miko, L.; Constantin, S.; Meleg, I. N.; Petculescu, A.; Bosák, P.

    2011-07-01

    Five samples of clastic sediments from interior cave facies taken in three Slovenian relic caves (Trhlovca, Rači\\vska pečina, and a cave in Črnotiče Quarry, Classical Karst, SW Slovenia) provided invertebrate fossil remains. Most of them belong to Oribatida but sparse individuals of Cladocera and insects were also identified. They represent the first pre-Quaternary invertebrate fossils found in sediments of continental temperate climate. The Pliocene/Pleistocene age of the sediments was determined by paleomagnetic dating chronologically calibrated by micromammal biostratigraphy. Invertebrate fossils could be validated as new proxy for the study of cave sediments due to their suitability for ecological and paleogeographic correlations in caves and outside the caves. They also bring additional information about cave formation and karst hydraulic regime in the area. Although the number of remains was very low, it is evidence that climatic conditions in caves allow a better preservation of fossil remains of some groups as compared to most of the surface habitats. This may open a new direction in the study of cave sediments.

  11. A critical review of the potential impacts of marine seismic surveys on fish & invertebrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carroll, A G; Przeslawski, R; Duncan, A; Gunning, M; Bruce, B

    2017-01-15

    Marine seismic surveys produce high intensity, low-frequency impulsive sounds at regular intervals, with most sound produced between 10 and 300Hz. Offshore seismic surveys have long been considered to be disruptive to fisheries, but there are few ecological studies that target commercially important species, particularly invertebrates. This review aims to summarise scientific studies investigating the impacts of low-frequency sound on marine fish and invertebrates, as well as to critically evaluate how such studies may apply to field populations exposed to seismic operations. We focus on marine seismic surveys due to their associated unique sound properties (i.e. acute, low-frequency, mobile source locations), as well as fish and invertebrates due to the commercial value of many species in these groups. The main challenges of seismic impact research are the translation of laboratory results to field populations over a range of sound exposure scenarios and the lack of sound exposure standardisation which hinders the identification of response thresholds. An integrated multidisciplinary approach to manipulative and in situ studies is the most effective way to establish impact thresholds in the context of realistic exposure levels, but if that is not practical the limitations of each approach must be carefully considered. Crown Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Nucleic acid-induced antiviral immunity in invertebrates: an evolutionary perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Pei-Hui; Weng, Shao-Ping; He, Jian-Guo

    2015-02-01

    Nucleic acids derived from viral pathogens are typical pathogen associated molecular patterns (PAMPs). In mammals, the recognition of viral nucleic acids by pattern recognition receptors (PRRs), which include Toll-like receptors (TLRs) and retinoic acid-inducible gene (RIG)-I-like receptors (RLRs), induces the release of inflammatory cytokines and type I interferons (IFNs) through the activation of nuclear factor κB (NF-κB) and interferon regulatory factor (IRF) 3/7 pathways, triggering the host antiviral state. However, whether nucleic acids can induce similar antiviral immunity in invertebrates remains ambiguous. Several studies have reported that nucleic acid mimics, especially dsRNA mimic poly(I:C), can strongly induce non-specific antiviral immune responses in insects, shrimp, and oyster. This behavior shows multiple similarities to the hallmarks of mammalian IFN responses. In this review, we highlight the current understanding of nucleic acid-induced antiviral immunity in invertebrates. We also discuss the potential recognition and regulatory mechanisms that confer non-specific antiviral immunity on invertebrate hosts. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Antifouling activity in some benthic Antarctic invertebrates by "in situ" experiments at Deception Island, Antarctica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angulo-Preckler, Carlos; Cid, Cristina; Oliva, Francesc; Avila, Conxita

    2015-04-01

    Competition for space is a remarkable ecological force, comparable to predation, producing a strong selective pressure on benthic invertebrates. Some invertebrates, thus, possess antimicrobial compounds to reduce surface bacterial growth. Antimicrobial inhibition is the first step in avoiding being overgrown by other organisms, which may have a negative impact in feeding, respiration, reproduction … The in situ inhibition of bacterial biofilm was used here as an indicator of antifouling activity by testing hydrophilic extracts of twelve Antarctic invertebrates. Using two different approaches (genetics and confocal techniques) different levels of activity were found in the tested organisms. In fact, differences within body parts of the studied organisms were determined, in agreement with the Optimal Defense Theory. Eight out of 15 extracts tested had negative effects on fouling after 28 days submerged in Antarctic waters. Thus, although chemical defenses may be quite species-specific in their ecological roles, these results suggest that different chemical strategies exist to deal with space competition. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Experimental manipulation of leaf litter colonization by aquatic invertebrates in a third order tropical stream.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uieda, V S; Carvalho, E M

    2015-05-01

    Through a manipulative experiment, the colonization of leaf litter by invertebrates was investigated in two sections of a tropical stream (spatial scale) that differed in function of the canopy cover, one with the presence (closed area) and another without riparian vegetation (open area), during one month of the dry and one of the wet season (temporal scale). The work aimed to verify differences related to four variables: season, canopy cover, leaf type and leaf condition. Litter bags containing arboreal and herbaceous leaves (leaf type variable), non-conditioned and preconditioned (leaf condition variable) were placed at the bottom of the stream in each area (canopy cover variable) and season (dry and wet), and removed after 13-day colonization. The analysis of the remaining litter dry mass per leaf bag emphasizes differences related mainly to seasonality, canopy cover and leaf type, although leaf condition was also important when combined with those three factors. Comparing the abundance of invertebrates per treatment, there was a tendency of high predominance of Chironomidae during the dry season and greater taxa diversity and evenness during the wet season, when the water flow increase could alter the availability of microhabitats for local fauna. Even though canopy cover alone was not a significant source of variation in the abundance of invertebrates, the results showed a tendency of a combined effect of canopy cover with seasonality and leaf condition.

  15. ATP-binding cassette (ABC) proteins in aquatic invertebrates: Evolutionary significance and application in marine ecotoxicology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Chang-Bum; Kim, Hui-Su; Kang, Hye-Min; Lee, Jae-Seong

    2017-04-01

    The ATP-binding cassette (ABC) protein superfamily is known to play a fundamental role in biological processes and is highly conserved across animal taxa. The ABC proteins function as active transporters for multiple substrates across the cellular membrane by ATP hydrolysis. As this superfamily is derived from a common ancestor, ABC genes have evolved via lineage-specific duplications through the process of adaptation. In this review, we summarized information about the ABC gene families in aquatic invertebrates, considering their evolution and putative functions in defense mechanisms. Phylogenetic analysis was conducted to examine the evolutionary significance of ABC gene families in aquatic invertebrates. Particularly, a massive expansion of multixenobiotic resistance (MXR)-mediated efflux transporters was identified in the absence of the ABCG2 (BCRP) gene in Ecdysozoa and Platyzoa, suggesting that a loss of Abcg2 gene occurred sporadically in these species during divergence of Protostome to Lophotrochozoa. Furthermore, in aquatic invertebrates, the ecotoxicological significance of MXR is discussed while considering the role of MXR-mediated efflux transporters in response to various environmental pollutants. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Eukaryotic tRNAs fingerprint invertebrates vis-à-vis vertebrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitra, Sanga; Das, Pijush; Samadder, Arpa; Das, Smarajit; Betai, Rupal; Chakrabarti, Jayprokas

    2015-01-01

    During translation, aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases recognize the identities of the tRNAs to charge them with their respective amino acids. The conserved identities of 58,244 eukaryotic tRNAs of 24 invertebrates and 45 vertebrates in genomic tRNA database were analyzed and their novel features extracted. The internal promoter sequences, namely, A-Box and B-Box, were investigated and evidence gathered that the intervention of optional nucleotides at 17a and 17b correlated with the optimal length of the A-Box. The presence of canonical transcription terminator sequences at the immediate vicinity of tRNA genes was ventured. Even though non-canonical introns had been reported in red alga, green alga, and nucleomorph so far, fairly motivating evidence of their existence emerged in tRNA genes of other eukaryotes. Non-canonical introns were seen to interfere with the internal promoters in two cases, questioning their transcription fidelity. In a first of its kind, phylogenetic constructs based on tRNA molecules delineated and built the trees of the vast and diverse invertebrates and vertebrates. Finally, two tRNA models representing the invertebrates and the vertebrates were drawn, by isolating the dominant consensus in the positional fluctuations of nucleotide compositions.

  17. Multifractal analyis of soil invertebrates along a transect under different land uses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machado Siqueira, Glécio; Alves Silva, Raimunda; Vidal-Vázquez, Eva; Paz-González, Antonio

    2017-04-01

    Soil fauna play a central role in many essential ecosystem processes. Land use and management can have a dramatic effect upon soil invertebrate community. Indices based on soil invertebrates abundance and diversity are fundamental for soil quality assessment. Many soil properties and attributes have been shown to exhibit spatial variabilityThe aim of this study was to analyze the scaling heterogeneity of the soil invertebrate community sampled using pitfall traps across a transect. The field study was conducted at Mata Roma municipality, Maranhão State, Brazil. Transects were marked under seven different agricultural/forestry land uses (millet, soybean, maize, eucalyptus, pasture, secondary savannah and native savannah). Native vegetation was considered as a reference, whereas the agricultural fields showed a range of soil use intensities. Along these transects 130 pitfall per land use were installed. First, differences in community assemblages and composition under different land use systems were evaluated using classical indices. Then, the spatial distribution of soil fauna trapped by pitfall techniques, characterized through generalized dimension, Dq, and singularity spectra, f(α) - α, showed a well-defined multifractal structure. Differences in scaling heterogeneity and other multifractal characteristics were examined in relation to land use intensification.

  18. Biosynthesis of Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids in Marine Invertebrates: Recent Advances in Molecular Mechanisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monroig, Óscar; Tocher, Douglas R.; Navarro, Juan C.

    2013-01-01

    Virtually all polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) originate from primary producers but can be modified by bioconversions as they pass up the food chain in a process termed trophic upgrading. Therefore, although the main primary producers of PUFA in the marine environment are microalgae, higher trophic levels have metabolic pathways that can produce novel and unique PUFA. However, little is known about the pathways of PUFA biosynthesis and metabolism in the levels between primary producers and fish that are largely filled by invertebrates. It has become increasingly apparent that, in addition to trophic upgrading, de novo synthesis of PUFA is possible in some lower animals. The unequivocal identification of PUFA biosynthetic pathways in many invertebrates is complicated by the presence of other organisms within them. These organisms include bacteria and algae with PUFA biosynthesis pathways, and range from intestinal flora to symbiotic relationships that can involve PUFA translocation to host organisms. This emphasizes the importance of studying biosynthetic pathways at a molecular level, and the continual expansion of genomic resources and advances in molecular analysis is facilitating this. The present paper highlights recent research into the molecular and biochemical mechanisms of PUFA biosynthesis in marine invertebrates, particularly focusing on cephalopod molluscs. PMID:24152561

  19. Experimental manipulation of leaf litter colonization by aquatic invertebrates in a third order tropical stream

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VS. Uieda

    Full Text Available Through a manipulative experiment, the colonization of leaf litter by invertebrates was investigated in two sections of a tropical stream (spatial scale that differed in function of the canopy cover, one with the presence (closed area and another without riparian vegetation (open area, during one month of the dry and one of the wet season (temporal scale. The work aimed to verify differences related to four variables: season, canopy cover, leaf type and leaf condition. Litter bags containing arboreal and herbaceous leaves (leaf type variable, non-conditioned and preconditioned (leaf condition variable were placed at the bottom of the stream in each area (canopy cover variable and season (dry and wet, and removed after 13-day colonization. The analysis of the remaining litter dry mass per leaf bag emphasizes differences related mainly to seasonality, canopy cover and leaf type, although leaf condition was also important when combined with those three factors. Comparing the abundance of invertebrates per treatment, there was a tendency of high predominance of Chironomidae during the dry season and greater taxa diversity and evenness during the wet season, when the water flow increase could alter the availability of microhabitats for local fauna. Even though canopy cover alone was not a significant source of variation in the abundance of invertebrates, the results showed a tendency of a combined effect of canopy cover with seasonality and leaf condition.

  20. Epigenetic features in the oyster Crassostrea gigas suggestive of functionally relevant promoter DNA methylation in invertebrates.

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    Guillaume eRiviere

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available DNA methylation is evolutionarily conserved. Vertebrates exhibit high, widespread DNA methylation whereas invertebrate genomes are less methylated, predominantly within gene bodies. DNA methylation in invertebrates is associated with transcription level, alternative splicing and genome evolution, but functional outcomes of DNA methylation remain poorly described in lophotrochozoans. Recent genome-wide approaches improve understanding in distant taxa such as molluscs, where the phylogenetic position and life traits of Crassostrea gigas make this bivalve an ideal model to study the physiological and evolutionary implications of DNA methylation. We review the literature about DNA methylation in invertebrates and focus on DNA methylation features in the oyster. Indeed, though our MeDIP-seq results confirm predominant intragenic methylation, the profiles depend on the oyster’s developmental and reproductive stage. We discuss the perspective that oyster DNA methylation could be biased toward the 5’-end of some genes, depending on physiological status, suggesting important functional outcomes of putative promoter methylation from cell differentiation during early development to sustained adaptation of the species to the environment.

  1. Epigenetic features in the oyster Crassostrea gigas suggestive of functionally relevant promoter DNA methylation in invertebrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivière, Guillaume

    2014-01-01

    DNA methylation is evolutionarily conserved. Vertebrates exhibit high, widespread DNA methylation whereas invertebrate genomes are less methylated, predominantly within gene bodies. DNA methylation in invertebrates is associated with transcription level, alternative splicing, and genome evolution, but functional outcomes of DNA methylation remain poorly described in lophotrochozoans. Recent genome-wide approaches improve understanding in distant taxa such as molluscs, where the phylogenetic position, and life traits of Crassostrea gigas make this bivalve an ideal model to study the physiological and evolutionary implications of DNA methylation. We review the literature about DNA methylation in invertebrates and focus on DNA methylation features in the oyster. Indeed, though our MeDIP-seq results confirm predominant intragenic methylation, the profiles depend on the oyster's developmental and reproductive stage. We discuss the perspective that oyster DNA methylation could be biased toward the 5′-end of some genes, depending on physiological status, suggesting important functional outcomes of putative promoter methylation from cell differentiation during early development to sustained adaptation of the species to the environment. PMID:24778620

  2. The little things that run: a general scaling of invertebrate exploratory speed with body mass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirt, Myriam R; Lauermann, Tobias; Brose, Ulrich; Noldus, Lucas P J J; Dell, Anthony I

    2017-11-01

    Speed is a key trait of animal movement, and while much is already known about vertebrate speed and how it scales with body mass, studies on invertebrates are sparse, especially across diverse taxonomic groups. Here, we used automated image-based tracking to characterize the exploratory (voluntary) speed of 173 invertebrates comprising 57 species across six taxonomic groups (Arachnida, Chilopoda, Diplopoda, Entognatha, Insecta, Malacostraca) and four feeding types (carnivore, detritivore, herbivore, omnivore). Across all individuals, exploratory speed (mm/s) scaled with body mass (g) following a power-law relationship with a scaling exponent of 0.19 ± 0.04 (mean ± SE) and an intercept of 14.33 ± 1.2. These parameters varied substantially with taxonomic group and feeding type. For the first time, we provide general empirically derived allometric scaling relationships of exploratory speed across broad taxonomic groups of invertebrates. As exploratory speed drives key components of species interactions, such as encounter and attack rates, or competition, our study contributes to a deeper understanding of the role of individual movement in population and community level processes. © 2017 by the Ecological Society of America.

  3. Bright lights, big city: influences of ecological light pollution on reciprocal stream-riparian invertebrate fluxes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Lars A; Sullivan, S Mazeika P

    2013-09-01

    Cities produce considerable ecological light pollution (ELP), yet the effects of artificial night lighting on biological communities and ecosystem function have not been fully explored. From June 2010 to June 2011, we surveyed aquatic emergent insects, riparian arthropods entering the water, and riparian spiders of the family Tetragnathidae at nine stream reaches representing common ambient ELP levels of Columbus, Ohio, USA, streams (low, 0.1-0.5 lux; moderate, 0.6-2.0 lux; high, 2.1-4.0 lux). In August 2011, we experimentally increased light levels at the low- and moderate-treatment reaches to 10-12 lux to represent urban streams exposed to extremely high levels of ELP. Although season exerted the dominant influence on invertebrate fluxes over the course of the year, when analyzed by season, we found that light strongly influenced multiple invertebrate responses. The experimental light addition resulted in a 44% decrease in tetragnathid spider density (P = 0.035), decreases of 16% in family richness (P = 0.040) and 76% in mean body size (P = 0.022) of aquatic emergent insects, and a 309% increase in mean body size of terrestrial arthropods (P = 0.015). Our results provide evidence that artificial light sources can alter community structure and ecosystem function in streams via changes in reciprocal aquatic-terrestrial fluxes of invertebrates.

  4. Do lake littoral benthic invertebrates respond differently to eutrophication, hydromorphological alteration, land use and fish stocking?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Šiling Rebeka

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to provide adequate guidelines in freshwater management, managers need reliable bioindicators that can respond differently to varied stressors. Managers also have to consider hierarchical structure of environmental factors. Thus, our research aims to test the independence of taxa responses along environmental gradients and to examine in what order natural and anthropogenic factors constrain the structure of littoral benthic assemblages. The rank of explained variance of littoral benthic assemblage's variable group hierarchy was: land use > landscape characteristics > eutrophication > fish stocking > hydromorphological alteration. We determined nine gradients (two natural and seven stressor gradients, separated into five groups based on statistically significant differences in responsiveness of taxa. Apart from responsiveness to natural factors, littoral benthic invertebrates could be used as bioindicators for stressors reflecting urbanization, eutrophication, hydromorphological alteration and fish stocking. The taxonomical composition of littoral benthic invertebrates, especially when taxa with preference for certain relatively narrow environmental conditions along gradients are present, can be used to identify effects of key stressors. Our findings have profound implications for ecological assessment and management of lakes, as they indicate that benthic invertebrates can be used when the effects of multiple stressors need to be disentangled.

  5. Field data reveal low critical chemical concentrations for river benthic invertebrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, Elisabeth; Haase, Peter; Oetken, Matthias; Sundermann, Andrea

    2016-02-15

    River ecosystems are of immense ecological and social importance. Despite the introduction of wastewater treatment plants and advanced chemical authorization procedures in Europe, chemical pollution is still a major threat to freshwater ecosystems. Here, large-scale monitoring data was exploited to identify taxon-specific chemical concentrations beyond which benthic invertebrate taxa are unlikely to occur using Threshold Indicator Taxa Analysis (TITAN). 365 invertebrate taxa and 25 organic chemicals including pesticides, pharmaceuticals, plasticisers, flame retardants, complexing agents, a surfactant and poly- and monocyclic aromatic hydrocarbons from a total of 399 sites were analysed. The number of taxa that responded to each of these chemicals varied between 0% and 21%. These sensitive taxa belonged predominantly to the groups Plecoptera, Coleoptera, Trichoptera, Ephemeroptera, Turbellaria, Megaloptera, Crustacea, and Diptera. Strong effects were observed in response to wastewater-associated compounds, confirming that wastewater is an important cause of biological degradation. The majority of change points identified for each compound were well below predicted no-effect concentrations derived from laboratory toxicity studies. Thus, the results show that chemicals are likely to induce effects in the environment at concentrations much lower than expected based on laboratory experiments. Overall, it is confirmed that chemical pollution is still an important factor shaping the distribution of invertebrate taxa, suggesting the need for continued efforts to reduce chemical loads in rivers. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Joint use of laboratory bioassays and field-collected invertebrates to evaluate toxicity and contaminant bioaccumulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Long, S.P.; Byron, E.R.; Ohlendorf, H.M.

    1995-01-01

    Soil toxicity tests using earthworms (Eisenia andrei) were conducted using soil samples collected as part of ecological risk assessments for several sites at two facilities in California. At some sites, earthworms or other terrestrial invertebrates were collected in the field for chemical analysis. Ecological concerns focused on exposures to soil invertebrates and their secondary consumers, such as birds and small mammals. The toxicity tests were used to assess potential exposures to a variety of site-specific contaminants including organochlorine pesticides, PCBs, PAHs, petroleum hydrocarbons, heavy metals, and other inorganic substances. Site soils were combined with clean control soils to produce toxicity test soil dilutions containing 100%, 75%, 50%, 25%, and 0% site soils. Earthworm mortality and other observations were made at day 0, 7, 14, 21 and 28. Toxicity test results were combined with soil chemical analytical results and physical characteristics to establish NOAELs and LOAELs. Bioaccumulation in the laboratory earthworms and field-collected invertebrates was evaluated by comparing whole-body contaminant to soil contaminant concentrations. Allometric equations and sublethal toxicity data were used to predict potential effects on birds and small mammals. Earthworm toxicity tests indicated a wide range of sensitivity to on-site contaminants and showed the importance of considering potential confounding influences due to soil parameters other than contaminant concentration

  7. A systematic review of the effectiveness of liming to mitigate impacts of river acidification on fish and macro-invertebrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mant, Rebecca C.; Jones, David L.; Reynolds, Brian; Ormerod, Steve J.; Pullin, Andrew S.

    2013-01-01

    The addition of calcium carbonate to catchments or watercourses – liming – has been used widely to mitigate freshwater acidification but the abatement of acidifying emissions has led to questions about its effectiveness and necessity. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of the impact of liming streams and rivers on two key groups of river organisms: fish and invertebrates. On average, liming increased the abundance and richness of acid-sensitive invertebrates and increased overall fish abundance, but benefits were variable and not guaranteed in all rivers. Where B-A-C-I designs (before-after-control-impact) were used to reduce bias, there was evidence that liming decreased overall invertebrate abundance. This systematic review indicates that liming has the potential to mitigate the symptoms of acidification in some instances, but effects are mixed. Future studies should use robust designs to isolate recovery due to liming from decreasing acid deposition, and assess factors affecting liming outcomes. -- Highlights: •In a systematic review and meta-analysis, we asked how river liming affected fish and invertebrates. •On average, liming increased fish abundance. •Liming also increased average abundance and richness of acid-sensitive invertebrates. •However, benefits were variable and not guaranteed in all acidified rivers. -- A systematic review showed lime application to acidified rivers increased average fish abundance, and abundance and richness in acid-sensitive invertebrates, but not always

  8. Stream invertebrate productivity linked to forest subsidies: 37 stream-years of reference and experimental data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, J Bruce; Eggert, Susan L; Meyer, Judy L; Webster, Jackson R

    2015-05-01

    Riparian habitats provide detrital subsidies of varying quantities and qualities to recipient ecosystems. We used long-term data from three reference streams (covering 24 stream-years) and 13-year whole-stream organic matter manipulations to investigate the influence of terrestrial detrital quantity and quality on benthic invertebrate community structure, abundance, biomass, and secondary production in rockface (RF) and mixed substrates (MS) of forested headwater streams. Using a mesh canopy covering the entire treatment stream, we examined effects of litter ex'clusion, small- and large-wood removal, and addition of artificial wood (PVC) and leaves of varying quality on organic matter standing crops and invertebrate community structure and function. We assessed differences in functional feeding group distribution between substrate types as influenced by organic matter manipulations and long-term patterns of predator and prey production in manipulated vs. reference years. Particulate organic matter standing crops in MS of the treatment stream declined drastically with each successive year of litter exclusion, approaching zero after three years. Monthly invertebrate biomass and annual secondary production was positively related to benthic organic matter in the MS habitats. Rockface habitats exhibited fewer changes than MS habitats across all organic matter manipulations. With leaf addition, the patterns of functional group distribution among MS and RF habitats returned to patterns seen in reference streams. Secondary production per unit organic matter standing crop was greatest for the leaf addition period, followed by the reference streams, and significantly less for the litter exclusion and wood removal periods. These data indicate that the limited organic matter remaining in the stream following litter exclusion and wood removal was more refractory than that in the reference streams, whereas the added leaf material was more labile and readily converted into

  9. Radionuclide behaviour and transport in a coniferous woodland ecosystem. Vegetation, invertebrates and wood mice, Apodemus sylvaticus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Copplestone, D.; Johnson, M.S.; Toal, M.E. [Industrial Ecology Research Centre, School of Biological Sciences, University of Liverpool, Liverpool (United Kingdom); Jones, S.R.; Jackson, D. [Westlakes Scientific Consulting, Princess Royal Building, Westlakes Science and Technology Park, Moor Row, Cumbria (United Kingdom)

    1999-10-01

    Activity concentrations of radionuclides (134Cs, 137Cs, 238Pu, 239+240Pu and 241Am) were measured in vegetation, invertebrates and wood mice, Apodemus sylvaticus, collected in Lady Wood, a coniferous woodland in the vicinity of the British Nuclear Fuels reprocessing plant at Sellafield, Cumbria, UK. Vegetation was of low diversity and biomass with activity concentrations ranging from 1 to 5 Bq kg{sup -1} (134Cs), 0.3-0.5 Bq kg{sup -1} (238Pu), 0.8-8 Bq kg{sup -1} (239+240Pu), and 0.6-16 Bq kg{sup -1} (241Am), dry wt. Caesium-137 activity concentrations were high compared to the reference site in Cheshire, varying between 65 and 280 Bq kg{sup -1}. Marked inter-specific and temporal differences in radionuclide activity concentrations were recorded for invertebrate populations. Caesium-137, 238Pu, 239+240Pu and 241Am activity concentrations in detritivorous invertebrates were consistently higher than in all other invertebrate groups reflecting contamination of the leaf litter. The activity concentrations in detritivores increased during the autumn and winter, reflecting changes in diet as food sources varied throughout the year. Activity concentrations in invertebrates caught in Lady Wood were generally an order of magnitude higher than for the reference site. Activity concentrations in wood mice varied between 7 and 150 Bq kg{sup -1} (137Cs), 0.1-0.3 Bq kg{sup -1} (238Pu), 0.1-0.6 Bq kg{sup -1} (239+240Pu) and 0.2-0.4 Bq kg{sup -1} (241Am). There were clear differences in the activity concentration of 137Cs (P<0.01), 239+240Pu (P<0.05) and 241Am (P<0.05) in animals caught in Lady Wood compared to the reference site. However, the activity concentrations for 238Pu were similar at both sites, reflecting a low gastrointestinal transfer. Seasonal variation in activity concentrations was observed for 137Cs, 238Pu and 241Am. This variation is attributed to changes in the age structure of the population and diet throughout the year.

  10. Aboveground vertebrate and invertebrate herbivore impact on net N mineralization in subalpine grasslands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Risch, Anita C; Schotz, Martin; Vandegehuchte, Martijn L; Van Der Putten, Wim H; Duyts, Henk; Raschein, Ursina; Gwiazdowicz, Dariusz J; Busse, Matt D; Page-dumroese, Deborah S; Zimmermann, Stephan

    2015-12-01

    Aboveground herbivores have strong effects on grassland nitrogen (N) cycling. They can accelerate or slow down soil net N mineralization depending on ecosystem productivity and grazing intensity. Yet, most studies only consider either ungulates or invertebrate herbivores, but not the combined effect of several functionally different vertebrate and invertebrate herbivore species or guilds. We assessed how a diverse herbivore community affects net N mineralization in subalpine grasslands. By using size-selective fences, we progressively excluded large, medium, and small mammals, as well as invertebrates from two vegetation types, and assessed how the exclosure types (ET) affected net N mineralization. The two vegetation types differed in long-term management (centuries), forage quality, and grazing history and intensity. To gain a more mechanistic understanding of how herbivores affect net N mineralization, we linked mineralization to soil abiotic (temperature; moisture; NO3-, NH4+, and total inorganic N concentrations/pools; C, N, P concentrations; pH; bulk density), soil biotic (microbial biomass; abundance of collembolans, mites, and nematodes) and plant (shoot and root biomass; consumption; plant C, N, and fiber content; plant N pool) properties. Net N mineralization differed between ET, but not between vegetation types. Thus, short-term changes in herbivore community composition and, therefore, in grazing intensity had a stronger effect on net N mineralization than long-term management and grazing history. We found highest N mineralization values when only invertebrates were present, suggesting that mammals had a negative effect on net N mineralization. Of the variables included in our analyses, only mite abundance and aboveground plant biomass explained variation in net N mineralization among ET. Abundances of both mites and leaf-sucking invertebrates were positively correlated with aboveground plant biomass, and biomass increased with progressive exclusion

  11. Neonicotinoid contamination of global surface waters and associated risk to aquatic invertebrates: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrissey, Christy A; Mineau, Pierre; Devries, James H; Sanchez-Bayo, Francisco; Liess, Matthias; Cavallaro, Michael C; Liber, Karsten

    2015-01-01

    Neonicotinoids, broad-spectrum systemic insecticides, are the fastest growing class of insecticides worldwide and are now registered for use on hundreds of field crops in over 120 different countries. The environmental profile of this class of pesticides indicate that they are persistent, have high leaching and runoff potential, and are highly toxic to a wide range of invertebrates. Therefore, neonicotinoids represent a significant risk to surface waters and the diverse aquatic and terrestrial fauna that these ecosystems support. This review synthesizes the current state of knowledge on the reported concentrations of neonicotinoids in surface waters from 29 studies in 9 countries world-wide in tandem with published data on their acute and chronic toxicity to 49 species of aquatic insects and crustaceans spanning 12 invertebrate orders. Strong evidence exists that water-borne neonicotinoid exposures are frequent, long-term and at levels (geometric means=0.13μg/L (averages) and 0.63μg/L (maxima)) which commonly exceed several existing water quality guidelines. Imidacloprid is by far the most widely studied neonicotinoid (66% of the 214 toxicity tests reviewed) with differences in sensitivity among aquatic invertebrate species ranging several orders of magnitude; other neonicotinoids display analogous modes of action and similar toxicities, although comparative data are limited. Of the species evaluated, insects belonging to the orders Ephemeroptera, Trichoptera and Diptera appear to be the most sensitive, while those of Crustacea (although not universally so) are less sensitive. In particular, the standard test species Daphnia magna appears to be very tolerant, with 24-96hour LC50 values exceeding 100,000μg/L (geometric mean>44,000μg/L), which is at least 2-3 orders of magnitude higher than the geometric mean of all other invertebrate species tested. Overall, neonicotinoids can exert adverse effects on survival, growth, emergence, mobility, and behavior of many

  12. Leachability of protein and metals incorporated into aquatic invertebrates: are species and metals-exposure history important?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, J.S.; Suedkamp, M.J.; Morris, J.M.; Farag, A.M.

    2005-01-01

    To partially simulate conditions in fish intestinal tracts, we leached six groups of metals-contaminated invertebrates at pH 2 and pH 7, and analyzed the concentrations of four metals (Cd, Cu, Pb, and Zn) and total protein in the leachates. Four of the groups of invertebrates were benthic macroinvertebrates collected from metals-contaminated rivers (the Clark Fork River in Montana and the Coeur d’Alene River in Idaho, USA); the other two groups of invertebrates (one of which was exposed to metals in the laboratory) were laboratory-reared brine shrimp (Artemia sp.). Additionally, we fractionated the pH 2 leachates using size-exclusion chromatography (SEC). Protein content was 1.3 to 1.4× higher in Artemia than in the benthic macroinvertebrates, and leachability of metals and protein differed considerably among several of the groups of invertebrates. In SEC fractions of the pH 2 leachates from both groups of Artemia, Cu and protein co-eluted; however, Cu and protein did not co-elute in SEC fractions of the leachates from any of the benthic macroinvertebrate groups. Although none of the other three metals co-eluted with protein in any of the pH 2 leachates, one or more of the metals co-eluted with lower-molecular-weight molecules in the leachates from all of the groups of invertebrates. These results suggest fundamental differences in metal-binding properties and protein leachability among some invertebrates. Thus, different invertebrates and different histories of metals exposure might lead to different availability of metals and protein to predators.

  13. Chemical, Physical, and Biological Factors Shape Littoral Invertebrate Community Structure in Coal-Mining End-Pit Lakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luek, Andreas; Rasmussen, Joseph B.

    2017-04-01

    Aquatic invertebrates form the base of the consumer food web in lakes. In coal-mining end-pit lakes, invertebrates are exposed to an environment with potentially challenging physical and chemical features. We hypothesized that the physical and chemical features of end-pit lakes reduce critical littoral habitat and thus reduce invertebrate diversity, thereby limiting the potential for these lakes to be naturalized. We used a multivariate approach using principle component analysis and redundancy analysis to study relationships between invertebrate community structure, habitat features, and water quality in five end-pit lakes and five natural lakes in the Rocky Mountain foothills of west-central Alberta, Canada. Results show a significantly different invertebrate community structure was present in end-pit lakes as compared with reference lakes in the same region, which could be accounted for by water hardness, conductivity, slope of the littoral zone, and phosphorus concentrations. Habitat diversity in end-pit lakes was also limited, cover provided by macrophytes was scarce, and basin slopes were significantly steeper in pit lakes. Although water chemistry is currently the strongest influencing factor on the invertebrate community, physical challenges of habitat homogeneity and steep slopes in the littoral zones were identified as major drivers of invertebrate community structure. The addition of floating wetlands to the littoral zone of existing pit lakes can add habitat complexity without the need for large-scale alterations to basing morphology, while impermeable capping of waste-rock and the inclusion of littoral habitat in the planning process of new pit lakes can improve the success of integrating new pit lakes into the landscape.

  14. Multiple Approaches for Testing Novel Coatings in the Laboratory and in Pearl Harbor, Hawaii with Emphasis on the Global, Problem-Fouling Invertebrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-25

    Multiple Approaches for Testing Novel Coatings in the Laboratory and in Pearl Harbor, Hawaii with Emphasis on the Global, Problem-Fouling Invertebrates 5a...on the Global, Problem-Fouling Invertebrates ONR AWARD NUMBER: N00014-11-1-0167 PRINCIPLE INVESTIGATOR: Michael G. Hadfield, Ph.D...luteoviolacea a phage tail-like component that is capable of inducing the metamorphosis of a marine invertebrate . However, our continued studies in the

  15. Quantifying seasonal fallback on invertebrates, pith, and bromeliad leaves by white-faced capuchin monkeys (Cebus capucinus) in a tropical dry forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosdossy, Krisztina N; Melin, Amanda D; Fedigan, Linda M

    2015-09-01

    Fallback foods (FBFs) are hypothesized to shape the ecology, morphology, and behavior of primates, including hominins. Identifying FBFs is therefore critical for revealing past and present foraging adaptations. Recent research suggests invertebrates act as seasonal FBFs for many primate species and human populations. Yet, studies measuring the consumption of invertebrates relative to ecological variation are widely lacking. We address this gap by examining food abundance and entomophagy by primates in a seasonal forest. We study foraging behavior of white-faced capuchins (Cebus capucinus)-a species renowned for its intelligence and propensity for extractive foraging-along with the abundance of invertebrates, dietary ripe fruits, pith, and bromeliads. Consumption events and processing time are recorded during focal animal samples. We determine abundance of vegetative foods through phenological and density records. Invertebrates are collected in malaise, pan, and terrestrial traps; caterpillar abundance is inferred from frass traps. Invertebrates are abundant throughout the year and capuchins consume invertebrates-including caterpillars-frequently when fruit is abundant. However, capuchins spend significantly more time processing protected invertebrates when fruit and caterpillars are low in abundance. Invertebrate foraging patterns are not uniform. Caterpillar consumption is consistent with a preferred strategy, whereas capuchins appear to fallback on invertebrates requiring high handling time. Capuchins are convergent with hominins in possessing large brains and high levels of sensorimotor intelligence, thus our research has broad implications for primate evolution, including factors shaping cognitive innovations, brain size, and the role of entomophagy in the human diet. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Multistressor predictive models of invertebrate condition in the Corn Belt, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waite, Ian R.; Van Metre, Peter C.

    2017-01-01

    Understanding the complex relations between multiple environmental stressors and ecological conditions in streams can help guide resource-management decisions. During 14 weeks in spring/summer 2013, personnel from the US Geological Survey and the US Environmental Protection Agency sampled 98 wadeable streams across the Midwest Corn Belt region of the USA for water and sediment quality, physical and habitat characteristics, and ecological communities. We used these data to develop independent predictive disturbance models for 3 macroinvertebrate metrics and a multimetric index. We developed the models based on boosted regression trees (BRT) for 3 stressor categories, land use/land cover (geographic information system [GIS]), all in-stream stressors combined (nutrients, habitat, and contaminants), and for GIS plus in-stream stressors. The GIS plus in-stream stressor models had the best overall performance with an average cross-validation R2 across all models of 0.41. The models were generally consistent in the explanatory variables selected within each stressor group across the 4 invertebrate metrics modeled. Variables related to riparian condition, substrate size or embeddedness, velocity and channel shape, nutrients (primarily NH3), and contaminants (pyrethroid degradates) were important descriptors of the invertebrate metrics. Models based on all measured in-stream stressors performed comparably to models based on GIS landscape variables, suggesting that the in-stream stressor characterization reasonably represents the dominant factors affecting invertebrate communities and that GIS variables are acting as surrogates for in-stream stressors that directly affect in-stream biota.

  17. Functional roles of an engineer species for coastal benthic invertebrates and demersal fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaalali, Aurélie; Brind'Amour, Anik; Dubois, Stanislas F; Le Bris, Hervé

    2017-08-01

    Through their tissues or activities, engineer species create, modify, or maintain habitats and alter the distribution and abundance of many plants and animals. This study investigates key ecological functions performed by an engineer species that colonizes coastal ecosystems. The gregarious tubiculous amphipod Haploops nirae is used as a biological model. According to previous studies, the habitat engineered by H. nirae (i.e., Haploops habitat) could provide food and natural shelter for several benthic species such as benthic diatoms belonging to the gender Navicula , the micrograzer Geitodoris planata, or the bivalve Polititapes virgineus . Using data from scientific surveys conducted in two bays, this study explored whether (1) the Haploops sandy-mud community modifies invertebrate and ichthyologic community structure (diversity and biomass); (2) H. nirae creates a preferential feeding ground; and (3) this habitat serves as a refuge for juvenile fish. Available Benthic Energy Coefficients, coupled with more traditional diversity indices, indicated higher energy available in Haploops habitat than in two nearby habitats (i.e., Sternaspis scutata and Amphiura filiformis/Owenia fusiformis habitats). The use of isotopic functional indices (IFIs) indicated (1) a higher functional richness in the Haploops habitat, related to greater diversity in food sources and longer food chains; and (2) a higher functional divergence, associated with greater consumption of a secondary food source. At the invertebrate-prey level, IFIs indicated little specialization and little trophic redundancy in the engineered habitat, as expected for homogenous habitats. Our results partly support empirical knowledge about engineered versus nonengineered habitats and also add new perspectives on habitat use by fish and invertebrate species. Our analyses validated the refuge-area hypothesis for a few fish species. Although unique benthic prey assemblages are associated with Haploops habitat, the

  18. Invertebrate Trehalose-6-Phosphate Synthase Gene: Genetic Architecture, Biochemistry, Physiological Function, and Potential Applications

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    Bin Tang

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The non-reducing disaccharide trehalose is widely distributed among various organisms. It plays a crucial role as an instant source of energy, being the major blood sugar in insects. In addition, it helps countering abiotic stresses. Trehalose synthesis in insects and other invertebrates is thought to occur via the trehalose-6-phosphate synthase (TPS and trehalose-6-phosphate phosphatase (TPP pathways. In many insects, the TPP gene has not been identified, whereas multiple TPS genes that encode proteins harboring TPS/OtsA and TPP/OtsB conserved domains have been found and cloned in the same species. The function of the TPS gene in insects and other invertebrates has not been reviewed in depth, and the available information is quite fragmented. The present review discusses the current understanding of the trehalose synthesis pathway, TPS genetic architecture, biochemistry, physiological function, and potential sensitivity to insecticides. We note the variability in the number of TPS genes in different invertebrate species, consider whether trehalose synthesis may rely only on the TPS gene, and discuss the results of in vitro TPS overexpression experiment. Tissue expression profile and developmental characteristics of the TPS gene indicate that it is important in energy production, growth and development, metamorphosis, stress recovery, chitin synthesis, insect flight, and other biological processes. We highlight the molecular and biochemical properties of insect TPS that make it a suitable target of potential pest control inhibitors. The application of trehalose synthesis inhibitors is a promising direction in insect pest control because vertebrates do not synthesize trehalose; therefore, TPS inhibitors would be relatively safe for humans and higher animals, making them ideal insecticidal agents without off-target effects.

  19. Invertebrate-Based Water Quality Impairments and Associated Stressors Identified through the US Clean Water Act

    Science.gov (United States)

    Govenor, Heather; Krometis, Leigh Anne H.; Hession, W. Cully

    2017-10-01

    Macroinvertebrate community assessment is used in most US states to evaluate stream health under the Clean Water Act. While water quality assessment and impairment determinations are reported to the US Environmental Protection Agency, there is no national summary of biological assessment findings. The objective of this work was to determine the national extent of invertebrate-based impairments and to identify pollutants primarily responsible for those impairments. Evaluation of state data in the US Environmental Protection Agency's Assessment and Total Maximum Daily Load Tracking and Implementation System database revealed considerable differences in reporting approaches and terminologies including differences in if and how states report specific biological assessment findings. Only 15% of waters impaired for aquatic life could be identified as having impairments determined by biological assessments (e.g., invertebrates, fish, periphyton); approximately one-third of these were associated with macroinvertebrate bioassessment. Nearly 650 invertebrate-impaired waters were identified nationwide, and sediment was the most common pollutant in bedded (63%) and suspended (9%) forms. This finding is not unexpected, given previous work on the negative impacts of sediment on aquatic life, and highlights the need to more specifically identify the mechanisms driving sediment impairments in order to design effective remediation plans. It also reinforces the importance of efforts to derive sediment-specific biological indices and numerical sediment quality guidelines. Standardization of state reporting approaches and terminology would significantly increase the potential application of water quality assessment data, reveal national trends, and encourage sharing of best practices to facilitate the attainment of water quality goals.

  20. Evolutionary concepts in ecotoxicology: tracing the genetic background of differential cadmium sensitivities in invertebrate lineages.

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    Dallinger, Reinhard; Höckner, Martina

    2013-07-01

    In many toxicological and ecotoxicological studies and experimental setups, the investigator is mainly interested in traditional parameters such as toxicity data and effects of toxicants on molecular, cellular or physiological functions of individuals, species or statistical populations. It is clear, however, that such approaches focus on the phenotype level of animal species, whilst the genetic and evolutionary background of reactions to environmental toxicants may remain untold. In ecotoxicological risk assessment, moreover, species sensitivities towards pollutants are often regarded as random variables in a statistical approach. Beyond statistics, however, toxicant sensitivity of every species assumes a biological significance, especially if we consider that sensitivity traits have developed in lineages of species with common evolutionary roots. In this article, the genetic and evolutionary background of differential Cd sensitivities among invertebrate populations and species and their potential of adaptation to environmental Cd exposure will be highlighted. Important evolutionary and population genetic concepts such as genome structure and their importance for evolutionary adaptation, population structure of affected individuals, as well as micro and macroevolutionary mechanisms of Cd resistance in invertebrate lineages will be stressed by discussing examples of work from our own laboratory along with a review of relevant literature data and a brief discussion of open questions along with some perspectives for further research. Both, differences and similarities in Cd sensitivity traits of related invertebrate species can only be understood if we consider the underlying evolutionary processes and genetic (or epigenetic) mechanisms. Keeping in mind this perception can help us to better understand and interpret more precisely why the sensitivity of some species or species groups towards a certain toxicant (or metal) may be ranked in the lower or higher range of

  1. Can invertebrates see the e-vector of polarization as a separate modality of light?

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    Labhart, Thomas

    2016-12-15

    The visual world is rich in linearly polarized light stimuli, which are hidden from the human eye. But many invertebrate species make use of polarized light as a source of valuable visual information. However, exploiting light polarization does not necessarily imply that the electric (e)-vector orientation of polarized light can be perceived as a separate modality of light. In this Review, I address the question of whether invertebrates can detect specific e-vector orientations in a manner similar to that of humans perceiving spectral stimuli as specific hues. To analyze e-vector orientation, the signals of at least three polarization-sensitive sensors (analyzer channels) with different e-vector tuning axes must be compared. The object-based, imaging polarization vision systems of cephalopods and crustaceans, as well as the water-surface detectors of flying backswimmers, use just two analyzer channels. Although this excludes the perception of specific e-vector orientations, a two-channel system does provide a coarse, categoric analysis of polarized light stimuli, comparable to the limited color sense of dichromatic, 'color-blind' humans. The celestial compass of insects employs three or more analyzer channels. However, that compass is multimodal, i.e. e-vector information merges with directional information from other celestial cues, such as the solar azimuth and the spectral gradient in the sky, masking e-vector information. It seems that invertebrate organisms take no interest in the polarization details of visual stimuli, but polarization vision grants more practical benefits, such as improved object detection and visual communication for cephalopods and crustaceans, compass readings to traveling insects, or the alert 'water below!' to water-seeking bugs. © 2016. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  2. Evaluation of common methods for sampling invertebrate pollinator assemblages: net sampling out-perform pan traps.

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    Popic, Tony J; Davila, Yvonne C; Wardle, Glenda M

    2013-01-01

    Methods for sampling ecological assemblages strive to be efficient, repeatable, and representative. Unknowingly, common methods may be limited in terms of revealing species function and so of less value for comparative studies. The global decline in pollination services has stimulated surveys of flower-visiting invertebrates, using pan traps and net sampling. We explore the relative merits of these two methods in terms of species discovery, quantifying abundance, function, and composition, and responses of species to changing floral resources. Using a spatially-nested design we sampled across a 5000 km(2) area of arid grasslands, including 432 hours of net sampling and 1296 pan trap-days, between June 2010 and July 2011. Net sampling yielded 22% more species and 30% higher abundance than pan traps, and better reflected the spatio-temporal variation of floral resources. Species composition differed significantly between methods; from 436 total species, 25% were sampled by both methods, 50% only by nets, and the remaining 25% only by pans. Apart from being less comprehensive, if pan traps do not sample flower-visitors, the link to pollination is questionable. By contrast, net sampling functionally linked species to pollination through behavioural observations of flower-visitation interaction frequency. Netted specimens are also necessary for evidence of pollen transport. Benefits of net-based sampling outweighed minor differences in overall sampling effort. As pan traps and net sampling methods are not equivalent for sampling invertebrate-flower interactions, we recommend net sampling of invertebrate pollinator assemblages, especially if datasets are intended to document declines in pollination and guide measures to retain this important ecosystem service.

  3. Evaluation of common methods for sampling invertebrate pollinator assemblages: net sampling out-perform pan traps.

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    Tony J Popic

    Full Text Available Methods for sampling ecological assemblages strive to be efficient, repeatable, and representative. Unknowingly, common methods may be limited in terms of revealing species function and so of less value for comparative studies. The global decline in pollination services has stimulated surveys of flower-visiting invertebrates, using pan traps and net sampling. We explore the relative merits of these two methods in terms of species discovery, quantifying abundance, function, and composition, and responses of species to changing floral resources. Using a spatially-nested design we sampled across a 5000 km(2 area of arid grasslands, including 432 hours of net sampling and 1296 pan trap-days, between June 2010 and July 2011. Net sampling yielded 22% more species and 30% higher abundance than pan traps, and better reflected the spatio-temporal variation of floral resources. Species composition differed significantly between methods; from 436 total species, 25% were sampled by both methods, 50% only by nets, and the remaining 25% only by pans. Apart from being less comprehensive, if pan traps do not sample flower-visitors, the link to pollination is questionable. By contrast, net sampling functionally linked species to pollination through behavioural observations of flower-visitation interaction frequency. Netted specimens are also necessary for evidence of pollen transport. Benefits of net-based sampling outweighed minor differences in overall sampling effort. As pan traps and net sampling methods are not equivalent for sampling invertebrate-flower interactions, we recommend net sampling of invertebrate pollinator assemblages, especially if datasets are intended to document declines in pollination and guide measures to retain this important ecosystem service.

  4. Maristem—Stem Cells of Marine/Aquatic Invertebrates: From Basic Research to Innovative Applications

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    Loriano Ballarin

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The “stem cells” discipline represents one of the most dynamic areas in biomedicine. While adult marine/aquatic invertebrate stem cell (MISC biology is of prime research and medical interest, studies on stem cells from organisms outside the classical vertebrate (e.g., human, mouse, and zebrafish and invertebrate (e.g., Drosophila, Caenorhabditis models have not been pursued vigorously. Marine/aquatic invertebrates constitute the largest biodiversity and the widest phylogenetic radiation on Earth, from morphologically simple organisms (e.g., sponges, cnidarians, to the more complex mollusks, crustaceans, echinoderms, and protochordates. These organisms contain a kaleidoscope of MISC-types that allow the production of a large number of novel bioactive-molecules, many of which are of significant potential interest for human health. MISCs further participate in aging and regeneration phenomena, including whole-body regeneration. For years, the European MISC-community has been highly fragmented and has established scarce ties with biomedical industries in an attempt to harness MISCs for human welfare. Thus, it is important to (i consolidate the European community of researchers working on MISCs; (ii promote and coordinate European research on MISC biology; (iii stimulate young researchers to embark on research in MISC-biology; (iv develop, validate, and share novel MISC tools and methodologies; (v establish the MISC discipline as a forefront interest of biomedical disciplines, including nanobiomedicine; and (vi establish collaborations with industries to exploit MISCs as sources of bioactive molecules. In order to fill the recognized gaps, the EC-COST Action 16203 “MARISTEM” has recently been launched. At its initial stage, the consortium unites 26 scientists from EC countries, Cooperating countries, and Near Neighbor Countries.

  5. Environmental DNA (eDNA metabarcoding assays to detect invasive invertebrate species in the Great Lakes.

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    Katy E Klymus

    Full Text Available Describing and monitoring biodiversity comprise integral parts of ecosystem management. Recent research coupling metabarcoding and environmental DNA (eDNA demonstrate that these methods can serve as important tools for surveying biodiversity, while significantly decreasing the time, expense and resources spent on traditional survey methods. The literature emphasizes the importance of genetic marker development, as the markers dictate the applicability, sensitivity and resolution ability of an eDNA assay. The present study developed two metabarcoding eDNA assays using the mtDNA 16S RNA gene with Illumina MiSeq platform to detect invertebrate fauna in the Laurentian Great Lakes and surrounding waterways, with a focus for use on invasive bivalve and gastropod species monitoring. We employed careful primer design and in vitro testing with mock communities to assess ability of the markers to amplify and sequence targeted species DNA, while retaining rank abundance information. In our mock communities, read abundances reflected the initial input abundance, with regressions having significant slopes (p<0.05 and high coefficients of determination (R2 for all comparisons. Tests on field environmental samples revealed similar ability of our markers to measure relative abundance. Due to the limited reference sequence data available for these invertebrate species, care must be taken when analyzing results and identifying sequence reads to species level. These markers extend eDNA metabarcoding research for molluscs and appear relevant to other invertebrate taxa, such as rotifers and bryozoans. Furthermore, the sphaeriid mussel assay is group-specific, exclusively amplifying bivalves in the Sphaeridae family and providing species-level identification. Our assays provide useful tools for managers and conservation scientists, facilitating early detection of invasive species as well as improving resolution of mollusc diversity.

  6. Effects of elevated CO2 on litter chemistry and subsequent invertebrate detritivore feeding responses.

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    Matthew W Dray

    Full Text Available Elevated atmospheric CO2 can change foliar tissue chemistry. This alters leaf litter palatability to macroinvertebrate detritivores with consequences for decomposition, nutrient turnover, and food-web structure. Currently there is no consensus on the link between CO2 enrichment, litter chemistry, and macroinvertebrate-mediated leaf decomposition. To identify any unifying mechanisms, we presented eight invertebrate species from aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems with litter from Alnus glutinosa (common alder or Betula pendula (silver birch trees propagated under ambient (380 ppm or elevated (ambient +200 ppm CO2 concentrations. Alder litter was largely unaffected by CO2 enrichment, but birch litter from leaves grown under elevated CO2 had reduced nitrogen concentrations and greater C/N ratios. Invertebrates were provided individually with either (i two litter discs, one of each CO2 treatment ('choice', or (ii one litter disc of each CO2 treatment alone ('no-choice'. Consumption was recorded. Only Odontocerum albicorne showed a feeding preference in the choice test, consuming more ambient- than elevated-CO2 birch litter. Species' responses to alder were highly idiosyncratic in the no-choice test: Gammarus pulex and O. albicorne consumed more elevated-CO2 than ambient-CO2 litter, indicating compensatory feeding, while Oniscus asellus consumed more of the ambient-CO2 litter. No species responded to CO2 treatment when fed birch litter. Overall, these results show how elevated atmospheric CO2 can alter litter chemistry, affecting invertebrate feeding behaviour in species-specific ways. The data highlight the need for greater species-level information when predicting changes to detrital processing-a key ecosystem function-under atmospheric change.

  7. PACAP has anti-apoptotic effect in the salivary gland of an invertebrate species, Helix pomatia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pirger, Zsolt; Nemeth, Jozsef; Hiripi, Laszlo; Toth, Gabor; Kiss, Peter; Lubics, Andrea; Tamas, Andrea; Hernadi, Laszlo; Kiss, Tibor; Reglodi, Dora

    2008-11-01

    Pituitary adenylate cyclase activating polypeptide (PACAP) shows a remarkable sequence similarity among species and several studies provide evidence that the functions of PACAP have also been conserved among vertebrate species. Relatively little is known about its presence and functions in invertebrates. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether the well-known anti-apoptotic effect of PACAP can also be demonstrated in invertebrates. This effect was studied in the salivary gland of a molluscan species, Helix pomatia. In this work, we first showed the presence of PACAP-like immunoreactivity in the Helix salivary gland by means of immunohistochemistry. Radioimmunoassay measurements showed that PACAP38-like immunoreactivity dominated in the salivary gland of both active and inactive snails and its concentration was higher in active than in inactive animals in contrast to PACAP27-like immunoreactivity, which did not show activity-dependent changes. PACAP induced a significant elevation of cAMP level in salivary gland extracts. Application of apoptosis-inducing agents, dopamine and colchicine, led to a marked increase in the number of terminal uridine deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL)-positive apoptotic cells in the salivary gland, which was significantly attenuated by PACAP treatment. In a similar manner, the number of caspase-positive cells was reduced after co-application of dopamine and PACAP. Taken together, the data indicate that PACAP activates cAMP in a molluscan species and we show, for the first time, that PACAP is anti-apoptotic in the invertebrate Helix pomatia.

  8. Comparative toxicity of imidacloprid and thiacloprid to different species of soil invertebrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Lima E Silva, Cláudia; Brennan, Nicola; Brouwer, Jitske M; Commandeur, Daniël; Verweij, Rudo A; van Gestel, Cornelis A M

    2017-05-01

    Neonicotinoid insecticides have come under increasing scrutiny for their impact on non-target organisms, especially pollinators. The current scientific literature is mainly focused on the impact of these insecticides on pollinators and some aquatic insects, leaving a knowledge gap concerning soil invertebrates. This study aimed at filling this gap, by determining the toxicity of imidacloprid and thiacloprid to five species of soil invertebrates: earthworms (Eisenia andrei), enchytraeids (Enchytraeus crypticus), Collembola (Folsomia candida), oribatid mites (Oppia nitens) and isopods (Porcellio scaber). Tests focused on survival and reproduction or growth, after 3-5 weeks exposure in natural LUFA 2.2 standard soil. Imidacloprid was more toxic than thiacloprid for all species tested. F. candida and E. andrei were the most sensitive species, with LC 50 s of 0.20-0.62 and 0.77 mg/kg dry soil for imidacloprid and 2.7-3.9 and 7.1 mg/kg dry soil for thiacloprid. EC 50 s for effects on the reproduction of F. candida and E. andrei were 0.097-0.30 and 0.39 mg/kg dry soil for imidacloprid and 1.7-2.4 and 0.44 mg/kg dry soil for thiacloprid. The least sensitive species were O. nitens and P. scaber. Enchytraeids were a factor of 5-40 less sensitive than the taxonomically related earthworm, depending on the endpoint considered. Although not all the species showed high sensitivity to the neonicotinoids tested, these results raise awareness about the effects these insecticides can have on non-target soil invertebrates.

  9. Response of invertebrates from the hyporheic zone of chalk rivers to eutrophication and land use.

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    Pacioglu, Octavian; Moldovan, Oana Teodora

    2016-03-01

    Whereas the response of lotic benthic macroinvertebrates to different environmental stressors is a widespread practice nowadays in assessing the water and habitat quality, the use of hyporheic zone invertebrates is still in its infancy. In this study, classification and regression trees analysis were employed in order to assess the ecological requirements and the potential as bioindicators for the hyporheic zone invertebrates inhabiting four lowland chalk rivers (south England) with contrasting eutrophication levels (based on surface nitrate concentrations) and magnitude of land use (based on percentage of fine sediments load and median interstitial space). Samples of fauna, water and sediment were sampled twice, during low (summer) and high (winter) groundwater level, at depths of 20 and 35 cm. Certain groups of invertebrates (Glossosomatidae and Psychomyiidae caddisflies, and riffle beetles) proved to be good indicators of rural catchments, moderately eutrophic and with high fine sediment load. A diverse community dominated by microcrustaceans (copepods and ostracods) were found as good indicators of highly eutrophic urban streams, with moderate-high fine sediment load. However, the use of other taxonomic groups (e.g. chironomids, oligochaetes, nematodes, water mites and the amphipod Gammarus pulex), very widespread in the hyporheic zone of all sampled rivers, is of limited use because of their high tolerance to the analysed stressors. We recommend the use of certain taxonomic groups (comprising both meiofauna and macroinvertebrates) dwelling in the chalk hyporheic zone as indicators of eutrophication and colmation and, along with routine benthic sampling protocols, for a more comprehensive water and habitat quality assessment of chalk rivers.

  10. Invertebrate Trehalose-6-Phosphate Synthase Gene: Genetic Architecture, Biochemistry, Physiological Function, and Potential Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Bin; Wang, Su; Wang, Shi-Gui; Wang, Hui-Juan; Zhang, Jia-Yong; Cui, Shuai-Ying

    2018-01-01

    The non-reducing disaccharide trehalose is widely distributed among various organisms. It plays a crucial role as an instant source of energy, being the major blood sugar in insects. In addition, it helps countering abiotic stresses. Trehalose synthesis in insects and other invertebrates is thought to occur via the trehalose-6-phosphate synthase (TPS) and trehalose-6-phosphate phosphatase (TPP) pathways. In many insects, the TPP gene has not been identified, whereas multiple TPS genes that encode proteins harboring TPS/OtsA and TPP/OtsB conserved domains have been found and cloned in the same species. The function of the TPS gene in insects and other invertebrates has not been reviewed in depth, and the available information is quite fragmented. The present review discusses the current understanding of the trehalose synthesis pathway, TPS genetic architecture, biochemistry, physiological function, and potential sensitivity to insecticides. We note the variability in the number of TPS genes in different invertebrate species, consider whether trehalose synthesis may rely only on the TPS gene, and discuss the results of in vitro TPS overexpression experiment. Tissue expression profile and developmental characteristics of the TPS gene indicate that it is important in energy production, growth and development, metamorphosis, stress recovery, chitin synthesis, insect flight, and other biological processes. We highlight the molecular and biochemical properties of insect TPS that make it a suitable target of potential pest control inhibitors. The application of trehalose synthesis inhibitors is a promising direction in insect pest control because vertebrates do not synthesize trehalose; therefore, TPS inhibitors would be relatively safe for humans and higher animals, making them ideal insecticidal agents without off-target effects. PMID:29445344

  11. A human protein interaction network shows conservation of aging processes between human and invertebrate species.

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    Russell Bell

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available We have mapped a protein interaction network of human homologs of proteins that modify longevity in invertebrate species. This network is derived from a proteome-scale human protein interaction Core Network generated through unbiased high-throughput yeast two-hybrid searches. The longevity network is composed of 175 human homologs of proteins known to confer increased longevity through loss of function in yeast, nematode, or fly, and 2,163 additional human proteins that interact with these homologs. Overall, the network consists of 3,271 binary interactions among 2,338 unique proteins. A comparison of the average node degree of the human longevity homologs with random sets of proteins in the Core Network indicates that human homologs of longevity proteins are highly connected hubs with a mean node degree of 18.8 partners. Shortest path length analysis shows that proteins in this network are significantly more connected than would be expected by chance. To examine the relationship of this network to human aging phenotypes, we compared the genes encoding longevity network proteins to genes known to be changed transcriptionally during aging in human muscle. In the case of both the longevity protein homologs and their interactors, we observed enrichments for differentially expressed genes in the network. To determine whether homologs of human longevity interacting proteins can modulate life span in invertebrates, homologs of 18 human FRAP1 interacting proteins showing significant changes in human aging muscle were tested for effects on nematode life span using RNAi. Of 18 genes tested, 33% extended life span when knocked-down in Caenorhabditis elegans. These observations indicate that a broad class of longevity genes identified in invertebrate models of aging have relevance to human aging. They also indicate that the longevity protein interaction network presented here is enriched for novel conserved longevity proteins.

  12. Do Riparian Buffers Protect Stream Invertebrate Communities in South American Atlantic Forest Agricultural Areas?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, L.; Marrochi, N.; Bonetto, C.; Liess, M.; Buss, D. F.; Vieira da Silva, C.; Chiu, M.-C.; Resh, V. H.

    2017-12-01

    We investigated the influence and relative importance of insecticides and other agricultural stressors in determining variability in invertebrate communities in small streams in intensive soy-production regions of Brazil and Paraguay. In Paraguay we sampled 17 sites on tributaries of the Pirapó River in the state of Itapúa and in Brazil we sampled 18 sites on tributaries of the San Francisco River in the state of Paraná. The riparian buffer zones generally contained native Atlantic forest remnants and/or introduced tree species at various stages of growth. In Brazil the stream buffer width was negatively correlated with sediment insecticide concentrations and buffer width was found to have moderate importance in mitigating effects on some sensitive taxa such as mayflies. However, in both regions insecticides had low relative importance in explaining variability in invertebrate communities, while various habitat parameters were more important. In Brazil, the percent coverage of soft depositional sediment in streams was the most important agriculture-related explanatory variable, and the overall stream-habitat score was the most important variable in Paraguay streams. Paraguay and Brazil both have laws requiring forested riparian buffers. The ample forested riparian buffer zones typical of streams in these regions are likely to have mitigated the effects of pesticides on stream invertebrate communities. This study provides evidence that riparian buffer regulations in the Atlantic Forest region are protecting stream ecosystems from pesticides and other agricultural stressors. Further studies are needed to determine the minimum buffer widths necessary to achieve optimal protection.

  13. Colonisation of leaf litter by aquatic invertebrates in an Atlantic Forest stream

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    VC. Oliveira

    Full Text Available Riparian vegetation along streams in the Atlantic Forest in Brazil contributes to the formation of a highly heterogeneous leaf litter in streambeds. To investigate the structure and composition of the aquatic invertebrate community during the process of leaf decomposition of two plant species present along the banks of the stream studied, 21 plastic mesh bags containing 2.5g (dry weight of leaf matter from each species (Alchornea glandulosa (Vell and Cabralea canjerana End. and Poeppig, for a total of 5.0g, were placed in the streambed. Three bags were removed after 3, 6, 9, 12, 24, 48 and 96 days. The taxonomic density was negatively correlated with the remaining weight. The high density of collector organisms, such as Chironomidae, Oligochaeta and Amphipoda, on the last day of incubation, probably occurred due to the increased amount of fine organic matter in the more advanced decomposition stages. The highest α diversity (Shannon-Wiener values were observed for the 3rd and 96th days of the experiment, while the β diversity values showed that these days presented the highest variation in the taxonomic composition, thus presenting a different faunistic composition. This study showed that the trophic structure and composition of aquatic invertebrates changes during the decomposition of leaf litter. The faunistic abundance and diversity observed in this study indicate that the entrance of material from plants growing along streams provides favorable conditions for the colonisation and establishment of invertebrates in lower-order streams, and thus points to the need to preserve riparian vegetation.

  14. Aluminium impact on freshwater invertebrates at low pH: A review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrmann, Jan

    The state of knowledge on aluminium (Al) impact on freshwater invertebrates at low pH is reviewed. Mainly inorganic ions seem to be biologically harmful. Published effect/mechanism descriptions may seem somewhat contradictory, but this can be due to the heterogeneity of "the invertebrate group", as well as the multitude and complexity of occurring Al species, thereby also Al analysis problems. Addition of Al to streams has in some cases increased drift and death of mainly some "surface-dependent" species (chironomids, mayflies, dance flies, dixid midges), but also some strictly benthic animals (isopods, stoneflies), while other studies on a variety of animals do not record any change in neither drift, mortality nor biomass. In laboratory exposures Al has been shown to cause raised mortality for some daphnids and blackfly larvae at pH around 5; in the latter animals the effect was however mitigated by humus. A variety of other freshwater invertebrates were not affected. Moreover, at pH 4, Al has even been shown to improve the survival of mayfly nymphs and daphnids, otherwise impaired by the low pH in itself. The reason for this is not clear. Proofs for "food chain accumulation" of Al are still weak. Very high additions of Al have caused a decreased respiration rate in a dragonfly nymph, while a more field-relevant exposure level increased respiration in mayfly nymphs. This suggests a stress situation, probably due to impaired osmoregulation, indicating chemical or mechanical Al impact. The lowered oxygen uptake is then compensated for by improved respiration rate. A model for this is presented. Studies on crayfish, daphnids, mayflies and waterbugs indicate that Al can lower osmoregulatory efficiency and thereby affect the ion balance maintaining mechanisms of the animals. Such sublethal effects are important and should be studied further. The review also critically discusses the concepts mortality and bioavailability.

  15. At what scale and extent environmental gradients and climatic changes influence stream invertebrate communities?

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    Van Looy, Kris; Piffady, Jérémy; Floury, Mathieu

    2017-02-15

    In a context of increasing landscape modifications and climatic changes, scale hierarchy becomes an ever more crucial issue to integrate in the analysis of drivers and stressors of biological communities, especially in river networks. To cope with this issue, we developed (i) spatial hierarchical models of functional diversity of stream invertebrate communities to assess the relative influence of local- vs. regional-scale factors in structuring community assembly, and (ii) analysis of metacommunity elements to determine the ecological processes behind the structuring. The spatial structuring of benthic invertebrate communities was investigated over 568 sites in South-eastern France. Community structure was mainly driven by the altitudinal gradient and spring flow variation at broad scales, with functional diversity gradually decreasing with elevation and being maximized at intermediate levels of flow variability. According to the 'elements of metacommunity structure' analysis, the prevailing influence of the altitudinal gradient was also supported by a Clementsian structuration of invertebrate communities. Conversely, the influence of observed climatic changes in temperature and rainfall was weak and observed only at fine scales. As a result, natural environmental filters were stronger drivers of the functional diversity of communities than human-induced stressors (e.g. water pollution and hydromorphological alterations). More broadly, our results suggest that management needs to embrace the possibilities of gathering high spatial and taxonomical resolution data when analysing and predicting flow variation and climate change effects in order to preserve and restore functionally diverse communities. Moreover, to develop environmental flow schemes or restoration and climate change adaptation strategies for freshwater communities, local and regional processes need to be addressed simultaneously; equally responsible as drivers of community diversity. Copyright © 2016

  16. Structure and cellular physiology of Ca2+ stores in invertebrate photoreceptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walz, B; Baumann, O

    1995-10-01

    Invertebrate microvillar photoreceptors contain an extensive, morphologically continuous endoplasmic reticulum (ER) that comprises several distinct subregions. Most prominent is the smooth submicrovillar ER, a sponge-like cisternal network underneath the photoreceptive microvillar membrane. The submicrovillar ER spatially separates the microvilli and a narrow space of submicrovillar cytoplasm from the remaining cell body, and, thus, defines a transduction compartment. In bee and locust photoreceptors, the shape and position of these submicrovillar ER cisternae is maintained by interaction with actin filaments. The structural layout of the ER is either rather static, or, in some invertebrate species, the ER undergoes dramatic rearrangements during illumination. The submicrovillar ER has a high Ca content in dark-adapted cells (47.5 mmol/kg dry weight in bee photoreceptors), and acts as a source and sink for Ca2+ mobilized by illumination. About 50% of the Ca content is released by a 3 s, non-saturating light stimulus, and an almost equimolar amount of Mg is taken up to maintain electroneutrality within the ER. Ca2+ release is initiated by Ins(1,4,5)P3. In addition, the submicrovillar ER contains a heparin-insensitive, caffeine- and ryanodine-sensitive Ca2+ release pathway in bee photoreceptors. Both the Ins(1,4,5)P3-dependent and the ryanodine-sensitive Ca2+ release mechanism are modulated by cytosolic Ca2+, but at different Ca2+ concentrations. The presence of two release pathways with different Ca2+ sensitivities may be a prerequisite for highly localized, exceptionally fast and large Ca2+ elevations during the illumination of invertebrate photoreceptors.

  17. A conservation assessment of the terrestrial invertebrate fauna of Mkambati Nature Reserve in the Pondoland Centre of Endemism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle L. Hamer

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Mkambati Nature Reserve (NR falls within the Pondoland Centre of Endemism, which is part of the Maputaland-Pondoland-Albany global biodiversity hotspot. The biodiversity status of this area is based largely on its flora, and the invertebrates are poorly known. The area is under threat from various proposed developments. We surveyed 14 orders in three invertebrate phyla at 26 sites with two main objectives: (1 to assess the fauna in terms of conservation value, and, (2 to identify habitats and sites of conservation concern. From the survey, 3231 samples were sent for identification and 425 species were identified. A minimum of 18 new species were confirmed. Mkambati NR shows exceptional diversity for molluscs (Gastropoda, 51 species, bees (Apoidea, 48 species and true bugs (Heteroptera, 65 species. At least 43 species collected from the Reserve are South African endemics, 31 have a restricted distribution within South Africa and 18 are only known from the Reserve itself. Conservation implications: The authors provide the first assessment of the invertebrate fauna of the Mkambati NR, which indicates that it is a rich and important fauna. The results highlight the need to consider invertebrates in other biodiversity assessments in the Pondoland region. In terms of habitats, for both forest and grassland there was a large difference in the invertebrate communities at different sites, even over relatively short distances in grassland; shared habitat attributes clustered sites with more similar communities, for example, rocky ledges or the sea shore. All forest patches are a priority for protection.

  18. Benthic invertebrate density, biomass, and instantaneous secondary production along a fifth-order human-impacted tropical river.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguiar, Anna Carolina Fornero; Gücker, Björn; Brauns, Mario; Hille, Sandra; Boëchat, Iola Gonçalves

    2015-07-01

    The aim of this study was to assess land use effects on the density, biomass, and instantaneous secondary production (IP) of benthic invertebrates in a fifth-order tropical river. Invertebrates were sampled at 11 stations along the Rio das Mortes (upper Rio Grande, Southeast Brazil) in the dry and the rainy season 2010/2011. Invertebrates were counted, determined, and measured to estimate their density, biomass, and IP. Water chemical characteristics, sediment heterogeneity, and habitat structural integrity were assessed in parallel. Total invertebrate density, biomass, and IP were higher in the dry season than those in the rainy season, but did not differ significantly among sampling stations along the river. However, taxon-specific density, biomass, and IP differed similarly among sampling stations along the river and between seasons, suggesting that these metrics had the same bioindication potential. Variability in density, biomass, and IP was mainly explained by seasonality and the percentage of sandy sediment in the riverbed, and not directly by urban or agricultural land use. Our results suggest that the consistently high degradation status of the river, observed from its headwaters to mouth, weakened the response of the invertebrate community to specific land use impacts, so that only local habitat characteristics and seasonality exerted effects.

  19. Animal-habitat relationships in the Knysna Forest, South Africa: discrimination between forest types by birds and invertebrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koen, J H; Crowe, T M

    1987-06-01

    Effects of forest plant species composition and physiognomy on bird and invertebrate communities were investigated in three discrete, relatively undisturbed forest types along a dry-wet soil moisture gradient. Using discriminant function analysis, a 100% floristic and a 78% vegetation structural discrimination were obtained between the three forest types. However, the bird communities of these different forest types were very similar in species composition, and had much lower densities than those normally encountered in other, superficially similar forests. Although an 81% discrimination between forest types was attained through analysis of ground surface invertebrates, measures of litter and aerial invertebrate abundance were also of limited use as discriminators. Historical and biogeographic factors, as well as the low nutritional levels in the soil and vegetation may be the causes of low bird and invertebrate density and diversity. It is concluded that floristics and vegetation structure have, at best, a minor influence on bird community structure, and possibly also on invertebrate community structure in the Knysna Forest.

  20. Cyanobacteria-derived nitrogen uptake by benthic invertebrates in Lake Taihu: a mesocosm study using 15N labeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu J.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Eutrophication of lakes can lead to dominance by cyanobacteria, which are hardly used by zooplankton due to their low nutrition value. However, sedimented cyanobacterial detritus may be a useful source for benthic invertebrates. We studied the Microcystis-derived nitrogen incorporation in benthic invertebrates in Lake Taihu using stable isotopic nitrogen (15N as a tracer. The δ15N of all organisms increased significantly with time after addition of the labeled Microcystis detritus. δ15N values of POM and periphyton peaked earlier than for benthic invertebrates, and the maximum levels were also higher than bivalves, snails and worms (Limnodrilus spp.. Among benthic invertebrates, Radix swinhoei peaked later than other invertebrates, but the maximum level and the excess 15N of the last sampling day were higher. At the end of the experiment, approximately 70% of the added 15N was retained in the benthic food web, while only a small fraction (less than 1% of the added detritus 15N occurred in the pelagic food web. Our results suggest that nitrogen from cyanobacteria can be incorporated more in benthic than pelagic food webs and cyanobacterial blooms may contribute to the development of benthic animals.

  1. Global occurrence of pyrethroid insecticides in sediment and the associated toxicological effects on benthic invertebrates: An overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Huizhen; Cheng, Fei; Wei, Yanli; Lydy, Michael J; You, Jing

    2017-02-15

    Pyrethroids are the third most applied group of insecticides worldwide and are extensively used in agricultural and non-agricultural applications. Pyrethroids exhibit low toxicity to mammals, but have extremely high toxicity to fish and non-target invertebrates. Their high hydrophobicity, along with pseudo-persistence due to continuous input, indicates that pyrethroids will accumulate in sediment, pose long-term exposure concerns to benthic invertebrates and ultimately cause significant risk to benthic communities and aquatic ecosystems. The current review synthesizes the reported sediment concentrations of pyrethroids and associated toxicity to benthic invertebrates on a global scale. Geographically, the most studied area was North America, followed by Asia, Europe, Australia and Africa. Pyrethroids were frequently detected in both agricultural and urban sediments, and bifenthrin and cypermethrin were identified as the main contributors to toxicity in benthic invertebrates. Simulated hazard quotients (HQ) for sediment-associated pyrethroids to benthic organisms ranged from 10.5±31.1 (bifenthrin) to 41.7±204 (cypermethrin), suggesting significant risk. The current study has provided evidence that pyrethroids are not only commonly detected in the aquatic environment, but also can cause toxic effects to benthic invertebrates, and calls for better development of accurate sediment quality criteria and effective ecological risk assessment methods for this emerging class of insecticides. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Enhanced invertebrate prey production following estuarine restoration supports foraging for multiple species of juvenile salmonids (Oncorhynchus spp.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woo, Isa; Davis, Melanie; Ellings, Christopher S.; Nakai, Glynnis; Takekawa, John Y.; De La Cruz, Susan

    2018-01-01

    Estuaries provide crucial foraging resources and nursery habitat for threatened populations of anadromous salmon. As such, there has been a global undertaking to restore habitat and tidal processes in modified estuaries. The foraging capacity of these ecosystems to support various species of out-migrating juvenile salmon can be quantified by monitoring benthic, terrestrial, and pelagic invertebrate prey communities. Here, we present notable trends in the availability of invertebrate prey at several sites within a restoring large river delta in Puget Sound, Washington, U.S.A. Three years after the system was returned to tidal influence, we observed substantial additions to amphipod, copepod, and cumacean abundances in newly accessible marsh channels (from 0 to roughly 5,000–75,000 individuals/m2). In the restoration area, terrestrial invertebrate colonization was dependent upon vegetative cover, with dipteran and hymenopteran biomass increasing 3-fold between 1 and 3 years post-restoration. While the overall biodiversity within the restoration area was lower than in the reference marsh, estimated biomass was comparable to or greater than that found within the other study sites. This additional prey biomass likely provided foraging benefits for juvenile Chinook, chum, and coho salmon. Primary physical drivers differed for benthic, terrestrial, and pelagic invertebrates, and these invertebrate communities are expected to respond differentially depending on organic matter exchange and vegetative colonization. Restoring estuaries may take decades to meet certain success criteria, but our study demonstrates rapid enhancements in foraging resources understood to be used for estuary-dependent wildlife.

  3. Invertebrate diversity classification using self-organizing map neural network: with some special topological functions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    WenJun Zhang

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In present study we used self-organizing map (SOM neural network to conduct the non-supervisory clustering of invertebrate orders in rice field. Four topological functions, i.e., cossintopf, sincostopf, acossintopf, and expsintopf, established on the template in toolbox of Matlab, were used in SOM neural network learning. Results showed that clusters were different when using different topological functions because different topological functions will generate different spatial structure of neurons in neural network. We may chose these functions and results based on comparison with the practical situation.

  4. Conventional and Unconventional Antimicrobials from Fish, Marine Invertebrates and Micro-algae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valerie J. Smith

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available All eukaryotic organisms, single-celled or multi-cellular, produce a diverse array of natural anti-infective agents that, in addition to conventional antimicrobial peptides, also include proteins and other molecules often not regarded as part of the innate defences. Examples range from histones, fatty acids, and other structural components of cells to pigments and regulatory proteins. These probably represent very ancient defence factors that have been re-used in new ways during evolution. This review discusses the nature, biological role in host protection and potential biotechnological uses of some of these compounds, focusing on those from fish, marine invertebrates and marine micro-algae.

  5. Survival of rapidly fluctuating natural low winter temperatures by High Arctic soil invertebrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Convey, Peter; Abbandonato, Holly; Bergan, Frode; Beumer, Larissa Teresa; Biersma, Elisabeth Machteld; Bråthen, Vegard Sandøy; D'Imperio, Ludovica; Jensen, Christina Kjellerup; Nilsen, Solveig; Paquin, Karolina; Stenkewitz, Ute; Svoen, Mildrid Elvik; Winkler, Judith; Müller, Eike; Coulson, Stephen James

    2015-12-01

    The extreme polar environment creates challenges for its resident invertebrate communities and the stress tolerance of some of these animals has been examined over many years. However, although it is well appreciated that standard air temperature records often fail to describe accurately conditions experienced at microhabitat level, few studies have explicitly set out to link field conditions experienced by natural multispecies communities with the more detailed laboratory ecophysiological studies of a small number of 'representative' species. This is particularly the case during winter, when snow cover may insulate terrestrial habitats from extreme air temperature fluctuations. Further, climate projections suggest large changes in precipitation will occur in the polar regions, with the greatest changes expected during the winter period and, hence, implications for the insulation of overwintering microhabitats. To assess survival of natural High Arctic soil invertebrate communities contained in soil and vegetation cores to natural winter temperature variations, the overwintering temperatures they experienced were manipulated by deploying cores in locations with varying snow accumulation: No Snow, Shallow Snow (30 cm) and Deep Snow (120 cm). Air temperatures during the winter period fluctuated frequently between +3 and -24 °C, and the No Snow soil temperatures reflected this variation closely, with the extreme minimum being slightly lower. Under 30 cm of snow, soil temperatures varied less and did not decrease below -12 °C. Those under deep snow were even more stable and did not decline below -2 °C. Despite these striking differences in winter thermal regimes, there were no clear differences in survival of the invertebrate fauna between treatments, including oribatid, prostigmatid and mesostigmatid mites, Araneae, Collembola, Nematocera larvae or Coleoptera. This indicates widespread tolerance, previously undocumented for the Araneae, Nematocera or Coleoptera, of

  6. Estimating escapement of fish and invertebrates in a Danish anchor seine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Noack, Thomas; Madsen, Niels; Mieske, Bernd

    2017-01-01

    The codend is generally presumed to be the place where the main selectivity of fish occurs in towed fishing gears, but other parts of the net have been found to contribute to the selectivity process of several invertebrate species. This means that conventional selectivity or survival studies may...... ignore the selectivity of net parts other than the codend for certain species. By attaching 12 small meshed collecting bags to different parts of a Danish anchor seine net and conducting normal commercial fishing activities, this study showed that there is a substantial escapement of fish and (especially...

  7. Invertebrate fauna (Coleoptera, Collembola, Diplopoda, Isopoda collected in the karst areas of the Aninei - Locvei Mountains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrei Giurginca

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The authors identified 132 species of invertebrates (14 Oniscidea, 25 Diplopoda,31 Collembola and 62 Coleoptera recently sampled (2001–2006 from the soil and subterranean (MSS and caves environments from the Banat Mountains. Some new,rare and endemic species are discussed. The seasonal changes of the species diversity in the superficial subterranean environments at 0.5 to 1 m in depth are for the first time presented for the Reşiţa – Moldova Nouă synclinorium. The characteristic and preferential species for the mesovoid shallow substratum (MSS, belonging to the analyzed taxa, are identified.

  8. Influence of benthic macro-invertebrate bioturbation on the biogeochemical behaviour of uranium within freshwater sediments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lagauzere, S.

    2008-06-01

    In freshwater ecosystems, sediments act as an accumulation compartment for metallic pollutants as uranium. Secondary, there can also represent endogenous sources of contamination by resuspension (e.g. flood, bioturbation) or changes of metal speciation that acts upon their bioavailability. Indeed, metallic compounds can be transformed in more or less toxic or inert compounds through physico-chemical (e.g. pH, redox conditions, ionic force) and microbiological variations. These conditions are themselves under the effects of benthic macro-invertebrate activities via bioturbation processes. The main objective of this PhD was to determinate the influence of two benthic macro-invertebrate species (Chironomus riparius and Tubifex tubifex) on the distribution and the transfers of uranium within freshwater sediments. To reach this goal, laboratory experiments were performed in order to (i) assess the effects of uranium on benthic macro-invertebrates, more particularly on their bioturbation activity, (ii) determine the influence of these organisms on uranium behaviour through high resolution physico-chemical measurements (e.g. oxygen optodes, DET gel probes), and (iii) estimate the consequences of these interactions on pelagic organisms via genotoxicity measurements (micronuclei assay and molecular bio-markers analysis on Xenopus laevis). The results demonstrate that bioturbation intensity of macro-invertebrates can be affected in uranium-contaminated sediments, but the two species studied in this work show a relative tolerance. For high uranium concentrations (>100 times the geochemical background level), corresponding however to realistic concentrations in highly contaminated sites, T. tubifex worms are able to maintain a sufficient bioturbation activity that induces a high remobilization of uranium initially associated with sediments to the overlying water (factor 2 to 10). That represents therefore a potential risk for the remaining aquatic biocenose. However, by

  9. Ivermectin binding sites in human and invertebrate Cys-loop receptors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lynagh, Timothy Peter; Lynch, Joseph W

    2012-01-01

    modelling now explain how ivermectin binds to these receptors and reveal why it is selective for invertebrate members of the Cys-loop receptor family. Combining this with emerging genomic information, we are now in a position to predict species sensitivity to ivermectin and better understand the molecular...... basis of ivermectin resistance. An understanding of the molecular structure of the ivermectin binding site, which is formed at the interface of two adjacent subunits in the transmembrane domain of the receptor, should also aid the development of new lead compounds both as anthelmintics and as therapies...

  10. The geological, isotopic, botanical, invertebrate, and lower vertebrate contexts for aripithecus ramidus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woldegabriel, Giday [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Ambrose, Stanley H [UNIV OF ILLINOIS; Barboni, Doris [CEREGE, FRANCE; Bonneffille, Raymond [CEREGE, FRANCE; Bremond, Laurent [MONTPELLIER, FRANCE; Currie, Brian [MIAMI UNIV, OXFORD, OHIO; Degusta, David [STANFORD UNIV.; Hart, William K [MIAMI UNIV, OXFORD, OHIO; Murray, Alison M [UNIV OF ALBERTA; Renne, Paul R [UC/BERKELEY; Jolly - Saad, M C [NANTERRE, FRANCE; Stewart, Kathlyn M [CANADA; White, Tim D [UC/BERKELEY

    2009-01-01

    Sediments containing Ardipithecus ramidus were deposited 4.4 million years ago on an alluvial floodplain in Ethiopia's western Afar rift. The Lower Aramis Member hominid-bearing unit, now exposed across a >9-kilometer structural arc, is sandwiched between two volcanic tuffs that have nearly identical {sup 40}Ar/{sup 39}Ar ages. Geological data presented here, along with floral, invertebrate, and vertebrate paleontological and taphonomic evidence associated with the hominids, suggest that they occupied a wooded biotope over the western three-fourths of the paleotransect. Phytoliths and oxygen and carbon stable isotopes of pedogenic carbonates provide evidence of humid cool woodlands with a grassy substrate.

  11. Conventional and Unconventional Antimicrobials from Fish, Marine Invertebrates and Micro-algae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Valerie J.; Desbois, Andrew P.; Dyrynda, Elisabeth A.

    2010-01-01

    All eukaryotic organisms, single-celled or multi-cellular, produce a diverse array of natural anti-infective agents that, in addition to conventional antimicrobial peptides, also include proteins and other molecules often not regarded as part of the innate defences. Examples range from histones, fatty acids, and other structural components of cells to pigments and regulatory proteins. These probably represent very ancient defence factors that have been re-used in new ways during evolution. This review discusses the nature, biological role in host protection and potential biotechnological uses of some of these compounds, focusing on those from fish, marine invertebrates and marine micro-algae. PMID:20479976

  12. Responsible genetic approach to stock restoration, sea ranching and stock enhancement of marine fishes and invertebrates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grant, W. Stewart; Jasper, James; Bekkevold, Dorte

    2017-01-01

    The origins of agriculture date to about 9000 years, but commercial culture and supplementation of marine populations reach back only a few centuries. Hence, wild populations still play a major role in seafood production. Closed culture, stock restorations, sea ranching and stock enhancements...... of marine fishes and invertebrates have been implemented with various outcomes. A review of the literature indicates that considerable effort has been directed toward culture technologies to maximize production, but scant attention has been given to genetic risks to wild populations. Genetic risks from...

  13. Seasonal Variation, Export Dynamics and Consumption of Freshwater Invertebrates in an Estuarine Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, D. D.; Williams, N. E.

    1998-03-01

    In the Aber Estuary, North Wales, significant numbers of freshwater benthic invertebrates occurred in the tidal freshwater area. Distinct seasonal patterns were observed in their longitudinal zonation which appeared to be unrelated to variations in tidal inundation. The December extension downstream of freshwater taxa is hypothesized to be in response to decreasing water temperatures. In April, larvae/nymphs of the Trichoptera (caddisflies), Ephemeroptera (mayflies) and Plecoptera (stoneflies) ranged as far as a site inundated by 80·9% of all high tides, and larval Elmidae and Chironomidae (midges) occurred at the most marine site (inundated twice daily by all high tides). In July, with the exception of the Chironomidae, the range of most aquatic insects had contracted to the upper estuary. Although, in general, densities of aquatic insects decreased towards the lower estuary, significant densities persisted there. For example, maxima of 3514 chironomid larvae and 48 caddisfly larvae m -2were recorded at the 80·9% inundation site. An estimated 31×10 6freshwater invertebrates (weighing 62·6 kg), per annum, passed from fresh water into salt water across any given transect along the estuary. In comparison, the annual influx of invertebrates carried upstream by incoming tides was estimated to be 1·9×10 6(6·2%; weighing 2·5 kg). Predominant in the downstream drift were the larvae/nymphs and/or pupae of chironomids, mayflies, stoneflies and caddisflies. The ' reverse ' drift comprised mainly copepods, ostracods, amphipods and oligochaetes. Mites and the brackishwater amphipod Gammarus zaddachicommonly moved in both directions. Highest drift densities occurred in July, whereas the lowest densities occurred in late autumn and winter. Multiple regression analysis showed no relationship between total drift or ' reverse ' drift densities and any of the measured environmental variables. Many of the freshwater invertebrates appeared not to die upon passing into tidal

  14. An overview of stygobiontic invertebrates of Poland based on published data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elzbieta Dumnicka

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Based on published literature, at least eighty species of stygobiontic invertebrates are confirmed in Poland. The highest number of these species is found in interstitial waters and wells, while a lower number was discovered in caves and springs. Hydrachnidia is represented by 45 species living mainly in interstitial waters, Crustacea by 24, Annelida by eleven species, while Turbellaria and Gastropoda are each represented by one species. As many as 14 endemic species were described from Poland but the taxonomical status of some of them is unclear. The highest number of stygobionts was stated in southern part of Poland, an area onto which most of the studies were focused on.

  15. Aquatic invertebrates of the Ribnica and Lepenica Rivers: Composition of the community and water quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jović Aleksandra

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Results of investigating the community of aquatic invertebrates in the Ribnica and Lepenica Rivers (Kolubara River drainage area are given in the present work. Forty-three taxa are recorded. In relation to other studied streams in Serbia, the investigated rivers are characterized by high diversity of macroinvertebrates. Cluster analysis indicates that the locality on the Lepenica stands apart from those on the Ribnica, which is a consequence of the difference of habitats found at them. Results of saprobiological analysis of the macrozoobenthos in the given rivers indicate that their waters belong to quality classes I and II.

  16. Invertebrate medicine

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lewbart, G.A

    2012-01-01

    .... Coverage includes sponges, jellyfish, anemones, corals, mollusks, starfish, sea urchins, crabs, crayfish, lobsters, shrimp, hermit crabs, spiders, scorpions, and many more, with chapters organized by taxonomy...

  17. Associations of aquatic invertebrates and water quality in the ecology of an emerging tropical disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benbow, M.; Merritt, R. W.; Kimbirauskas, R.; Kolar, R.

    2005-05-01

    Mycobacterium ulcerans Infection is commonly called Buruli ulcer, a rapidly emerging skin disease that is often disfiguring and causes severe and lasting morbidity in developing nations of the tropics and sub-tropics. Outbreaks of BU are nearly always associated with slow-flowing aquatic habitats affected by human-mediated landscape changes, and biting aquatic insects are thought to play a role in transmission. As a part of a World Health Organization initiative, we are determining landscape factors that determine water quality conditions conducive for enhanced M. ulcerans growth and abundance in the aquatic environment. In June 2004 we collected water quality and invertebrate data from 12 water bodies near Accra, Ghana, Africa. Preliminary analyses found predator-dominated communities (from 47% - 64%) with Hemiptera (e.g., Belostomatidae and Naucoridae) most often collected. Using exploratory canonical correspondence analysis, sites separated out by functional feeding groups and water quality variables. Higher water hardness and total suspended solids was most associated with scrapers (i.e., snails) and shrimp, respectively. PCR evidence suggests that M. ulcerans is found among snails, fish and invertebrates. Future studies are proposed that take a multi-scale, multidisciplinary approach for identifying disturbance metrics that can be used to predict human Buruli ulcer incidence near monitored water bodies.

  18. Cross-talk among immune and neuroendocrine systems in molluscs and other invertebrate models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malagoli, Davide; Ottaviani, Enzo

    2017-02-01

    The comparison between immune and neuroendocrine systems in vertebrates and invertebrates suggest an ancient origin and a high degree of conservation for the mechanisms underlying the integration between immune and stress responses. This suggests that in both vertebrates and invertebrates the stress response involves the integrated network of soluble mediators (e.g., neurotransmitters, hormones and cytokines) and cell functions (e.g., chemotaxis and phagocytosis), that interact with a common objective, i.e., the maintenance of body homeostasis. During evolution, several changes observed in the stress response of more complex taxa could be the result of new roles of ancestral molecules, such as ancient immune mediators may have been recruited as neurotransmitters and hormones, or vice versa. We review older and recent evidence suggesting that immune and neuro-endocrine functions during the stress response were deeply intertwined already at the dawn of multicellular organisms. These observations found relevant reflections in the demonstration that immune cells can transdifferentiate in olfactory neurons in crayfish and the recently re-proposed neural transdifferentiation in humans. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  19. Patterns of Mass Mortality among Rocky Shore Invertebrates across 100 km of Northeastern Pacific Coastline.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura J Jurgens

    Full Text Available Mass mortalities in natural populations, particularly those that leave few survivors over large spatial areas, may cause long-term ecological perturbations. Yet mass mortalities may remain undocumented or poorly described due to challenges in responding rapidly to unforeseen events, scarcity of baseline data, and difficulties in quantifying rare or patchily distributed species, especially in remote or marine systems. Better chronicling the geographic pattern and intensity of mass mortalities is especially critical in the face of global changes predicted to alter regional disturbance regimes. Here, we couple replicated post-mortality surveys with preceding long-term surveys and historical data to describe a rapid and severe mass mortality of rocky shore invertebrates along the north-central California coast of the northeastern Pacific Ocean. In late August 2011, formerly abundant intertidal populations of the purple sea urchin (Strongylocentrotus purpuratus, a well-known ecosystem engineer, and the predatory six-armed sea star (Leptasterias sp. were functionally extirpated from ~100 km of coastline. Other invertebrates, including the gumboot chiton (Cryptochiton stelleri the ochre sea star (Pisaster ochraceus, and subtidal populations of purple sea urchins also exhibited elevated mortality. The pattern and extent of mortality suggest the potential for long-term population, community, and ecosystem consequences, recovery from which may depend on the different dispersal abilities of the affected species.

  20. Convergent Evolution of Mechanically Optimal Locomotion in Aquatic Invertebrates and Vertebrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bale, Rahul; Neveln, Izaak D.; Bhalla, Amneet Pal Singh

    2015-01-01

    Examples of animals evolving similar traits despite the absence of that trait in the last common ancestor, such as the wing and camera-type lens eye in vertebrates and invertebrates, are called cases of convergent evolution. Instances of convergent evolution of locomotory patterns that quantitatively agree with the mechanically optimal solution are very rare. Here, we show that, with respect to a very diverse group of aquatic animals, a mechanically optimal method of swimming with elongated fins has evolved independently at least eight times in both vertebrate and invertebrate swimmers across three different phyla. Specifically, if we take the length of an undulation along an animal’s fin during swimming and divide it by the mean amplitude of undulations along the fin length, the result is consistently around twenty. We call this value the optimal specific wavelength (OSW). We show that the OSW maximizes the force generated by the body, which also maximizes swimming speed. We hypothesize a mechanical basis for this optimality and suggest reasons for its repeated emergence through evolution. PMID:25919026

  1. Effects of polystyrene microplastics on early stages of two marine invertebrates with different feeding strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Messinetti, Silvia; Mercurio, Silvia; Parolini, Marco; Sugni, Michela; Pennati, Roberta

    2017-11-13

    Nowadays, microplastics represent one of the main threats to marine ecosystems, being able to affect organisms at different stages of their life cycle and at different levels of the food web. Although the presence of plastic debris has been reported in different habitats and the ability to ingest it has been confirmed for different taxa, few studies have been performed to elucidate the effects on survival and development of marine animals. Thus, we explored the effects of different environmental concentrations of polystyrene microbeads on the early stages of two invertebrate species widespread in the Mediterranean shallow waters: the pelagic planktotrophic pluteus larvae of the sea urchin Paracentrotus lividus and the filter-feeding sessile juveniles of the ascidian Ciona robusta. We evaluated the effects on larvae and juvenile development and determined the efficiency of bead ingestion. The feeding stages of both species proved to be extremely efficient in ingesting microplastics. In the presence of microbeads, the metamorphosis of ascidian juveniles was slowed down and development of plutei altered. These results prompted the necessity to monitor the populations of coastal invertebrates since microplastics affect sensitive stages of life cycle and may have consequences on generation recruitment. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  2. Biofilms and Marine Invertebrate Larvae: What Bacteria Produce That Larvae Use to Choose Settlement Sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadfield, Michael G.

    2011-01-01

    Communities of microorganisms form thin coats across solid surfaces in the sea. Larvae of many marine invertebrates use biofilm components as cues to appropriate settlement sites. Research on the tube-dwelling polychaete worm Hydroides elegans, a globally common member of biofouling communities, is described to exemplify approaches to understanding biofilm bacteria as a source of settlement cues and larvae as bearers of receptors for bacterial cues. The association of species of the bacterial genus Pseudoalteromonas with larval settlement in many phyla is described, and the question of whether cues are soluble or surface-bound is reviewed, concluding that most evidence points to surface-bound cues. Seemingly contradictory data for stimulation of barnacle settlement are discussed; possibly both explanations are true. Paleontological evidence reveals a relationship between metazoans and biofilms very early in metazoan evolution, and thus the receptors for bacterial cues of invertebrate larvae are very old and possibly unique. Finally, despite more than 60 years of intense investigation, we still know very little about either the bacterial ligands that stimulate larval settlement or the cellular basis of their detection by larvae.

  3. Test of the acute lethal toxicity of pollutants to marine fish and invertebrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-01-01

    This reference method describes the measurement of the acute lethal toxicity of pollutants to marine animals (fish and invertebrates) by a static (non-continuous flow) method. Procedures are given for the determination of the toxicity curve (survival time-concentration relationship) and for the estimation of median lethal concentrations (LC50). The method is suitable for use with fish and macro-invertebrate species. It is not suitable for planktonic organisms nor for determining the toxicity of oil, oil dispersants or other petroleum products. Those methods are described in Reference Methods Nos. 44 and 45, respectively. The test animals are exposed, in groups of approximately ten, to each of several concentrations of the pollutant. The animals are observed, at intervals, for several days, the test solutions being renewed regularly. A record is maintained of the survival times of individual animals exposed to each concentration of pollutant. The medial survival time of each group of animals is determined from a graphical plot of the raw data after a log-probability transformation. Median survival times and their confidence limits are plotted against concentrations of test substance to give a toxicity curve. Additionally, the same experimental data can be used to estimate the median lethal concentration (LC50) of the test substance to the animals after different periods of exposure. 3 refs, 5 figs, 3 tabs

  4. Biosynthesis of Silver Nanoparticles by Marine Invertebrate (Polychaete and Assessment of Its Efficacy against Human Pathogens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reena Singh

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Synthesis of metallic nanoparticles by chemical and physical method makes the process often cumbersome due the usage of toxic and expensive chemicals. The present study reports the biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles using marine invertebrate (polychaete extract at room temperature. The ultraviolet-visible (UV-Vis spectroscopy revealed the formation of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs by exhibiting the typical surface plasmon absorption maximum at 418–420 nm. Structure and composition of AgNPs were analyzed by atomic force microscopy (AFM. Average particle size of AgNPs ranged from 40 to 90 nm, confirmed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM analysis. The energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX of the nanoparticles dispersion confirmed the presence of elemental silver signal, whereas X-ray diffraction (XRD substantiated the crystalline nature of synthesized nanoparticle. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR spectral analysis showed the presence of amides phenols, ethers, and fatty acids as major biomolecules responsible for the reduction of silver ions. The possible mechanism responsible for the synthesis of AgNPs by these biomolecules was also illustrated by chemical reactions. The synthesized AgNPs showed comparatively good antibacterial activity against the tested human pathogens. This study advocates that not only plants and microbes but also marine invertebrates do have potential for synthesizing nanoparticles by a cost-effective and eco-friendly approach.

  5. Invertebrates outcompete vertebrate facultative scavengers in simulated lynx kills in the Bavarian Forest National Park, Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ray, R.–R.

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Understanding the role of scavengers in ecosystems is important for species conservation and wildlife management. We used road–killed animals, 15 in summer 2003 (June–August and nine in winter 2003/2004 (from November to January, to test the following hypotheses: (1 vertebrate scavengers such as raven (Corvus corax, red fox (Vulpes vulpes and wild boar (Sus scrofa consume a higher proportion of the carcasses than invertebrates; (2 the consumption rate is higher in winter than in summer due to the scarcity of other food resources; and (3 vertebrate scavengers are effective competitors of Eurasian lynx. We monitored 65 animals belonging to eight different mammal and bird species with camera traps. Surprisingly, Eurasian lynx (Lynx lynx was the most important vertebrate scavenger. However, in both seasons, the consumption of vertebrate scavengers was of minor impact. In summer, the carcasses were completely consumed within 10 days, mostly by invertebrates. In winter, only 5% of the carcasses were consumed within 10 days and 16% within 15 days. We conclude that vertebrates in the Bavarian Forest National Park are not strong competitors for lynx.

  6. Radiocesium in aquatic invertebrates from Dovrefjell, Norway, 1986 to 1989, after the Chernobyl fall-out

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Solem, J.O.

    1992-01-01

    Following the fall-out in 1986 from Chernobyl, the activity of 137 Cs was measured in invertebrates sampled in streams and temporary pools at 930 m above sea level at Dovrefjell, Norway. Species with different feeding habits were selected, predators (e.g. Trichoptera, gen. Rhyacophila), shredders (e.g. Trichoptera, gen. Halesus), collectors/filterers (e.g. Trichoptera, gen. Polycentropus) and plankton feeders (e.g. Cladocera, gen. Daphnia and Anostraca, gen. Branchinecta). Samples were preserved in 96% ethanol and were weighed to be between 0.05 and 2g. A sample thus consisted of many individuals. The 1986 radiocesium values vary considerably between and within species, and may reflect a patchy fall-out. The 1987, 1988 and 1989 data are much more consistent and are significantly lower than the 1986 values. The invertebrate predators have low radiocesium values and these showed a rapid decrease, whereas species eating dead or living plant material have measurable amounts of radiocesium in all the years. The data from 1987 and 1988 are fairly similar, but the 1989 data deviate from the previous two years. This difference may be caused by changes in deposition or transport of radiocesium in plants and soil. (author)

  7. Evolution of innate immunity: clues from invertebrates via fish to mammals

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    Kurt eBuchmann

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Host responses against invading pathogens are basic physiological reactions of all living organisms. Since appearance of the first eukaryotic cells a series of defence mechanisms have evolved in order to secure cellular integrity, homeostasis and survival of the host. Invertebrates, ranging from protozoans to metazoans, possess cellular receptors which bind to foreign elements and differentiate self from non-self. This ability is in multicellular animals associated with presence of phagocytes, bearing different names (amoebocytes, haemocytes, coelomocytes in various groups including animal sponges, worms, cnidarians, molluscs, crustaceans, chelicerates, insects and echinoderms (sea stars and urchins. Basically these cells have a macrophage like appearance and function and the repair and/or fight functions associated with these cells are prominent even at the earliest evolutionary stage. The cells possess Pathogen Recognition Receptors (PRRs recognizing Pathogen Associated Molecular Patterns (PAMPS which are well conserved molecular structures expressed by various pathogens (virus, bacteria, fungi, protozoans, helminths. Scavenger receptors, Toll-like receptors (TLRs and Nod-like receptors (NLRs are prominent representatives within this group of host receptors. Following receptor-ligand binding signal transduction initiates a complex cascade of cellular reactions which lead to production of one or more of a wide array of effector molecules. Cytokines take part in this orchestration of responses even in lower invertebrates which eventually may result in elimination or inactivation of the intruder. The evolutionary processes associated with these reactions are discussed.

  8. Notes on common macrobenthic reef invertebrates of Tubbataha Reefs Natural Park, Philippines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean Beth S. Jontila

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Macrobenthic reef invertebrates are important reef health indicators and fishery resources but are not very well documented in Tubbataha Reefs Natural Park. To provide notes on the species composition and the abundance and size of commonly encountered macrobenthic reef invertebrates, belt transects survey in intertidal, shallow, and deep subtidal reef habitats were conducted. In total, 18 species were recorded, six of which were echinoderms and 12 were mollusks, which include the rare giant clam Hippopusporcellanus. Only the giant clam Tridacna crocea and the top shell Trochus niloticus occurred in all seven permanent monitoring sites but the two species varied in densities across depths. There was also an outbreak of crown-of-thorns (COTs sea stars in some sites. The large variation in the density of each species across sites and depths suggests niche differences, overharvesting, or their recovery fromhaving been overly exploited. Separate monitoring areas for each commercially important species are suggested to determine how their populations respond to poaching and their implications on the park’s long term management.

  9. Effects of coal mining, forestry, and road construction on southern Appalachian stream invertebrates and habitats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gangloff, Michael M; Perkins, Michael; Blum, Peter W; Walker, Craig

    2015-03-01

    Coal has been extracted via surface and sub-surface mining for decades throughout the Appalachian Mountains. New interest in ridge-top mining has raised concerns about possible waterway impacts. We examined effects of forestry, mining, and road construction-based disturbance on physico-chemistry and macroinvertebrate communities in east-central Tennessee headwater streams. Although 11 of 30 sites failed Tennessee's biocriteria scoring system, invertebrate richness was moderately high and we did not find significant differences in any water chemistry or habitat parameters between sites with passing and failing scores. However, conductivity and dissolved solid concentrations appeared elevated in the majority of study streams. Principal components (PCs) analysis indicated that six PCs accounted for ~77 % of among-site habitat variability. One PC associated with dissolved oxygen and specific conductance explained the second highest proportion of among-site variability after catchment area. Specific conductance was not correlated with catchment area but was strongly correlated with mining activity. Composition and success of multivariate models using habitat PCs to predict macroinvertebrate metrics was highly variable. PC scores associated with water chemistry and substrate composition were most frequently included in significant models. These results suggest that impacts of historical and current coal mining remain a source of water quality and macroinvertebrate community impairment in this region, but effects are subtle. Our results suggest that surface mining may have chronic and system-wide effects on habitat conditions and invertebrate communities in Cumberland Plateau streams.

  10. Storm effects on intertidal invertebrates: increased beta diversity of few individuals and species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guilherme N. Corte

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Climate change is predicted to lead to more extreme weather events, including changes to storm frequency, intensity and location. Yet the ecological responses to storms are incompletely understood for sandy shorelines, the globe’s longest land-ocean interface. Here we document how storms of different magnitude impacted the invertebrate assemblages on a tidal flat in Brazil. We specifically tested the relationships between wave energy and spatial heterogeneity, both for habitat properties (habitat heterogeneity and fauna (β-diversity, predicting that larger storms redistribute sediments and hence lead to spatially less variable faunal assemblages. The sediment matrix tended to become less heterogeneous across the flat after high-energy wave events, whereas β-diversity increased after storms. This higher β-diversity was primarily driven by species losses. Significantly fewer species at a significantly lower density occurred within days to weeks after storms. Negative density and biomass responses to storm events were most prominent in crustaceans. Invertebrate assemblages appeared to recover within a short time (weeks to months after storms, highlighting that most species typical of sedimentary shorelines are, to some degree, resilient to short-term changes in wave energy. Given that storm frequency and intensity are predicted to change in the coming decades, identifying properties that determine resilience and recovery of ecosystems constitute a research priority for sedimentary shorelines and beyond.

  11. Defensive Metabolites from Antarctic Invertebrates: Does Energetic Content Interfere with Feeding Repellence?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Núñez-Pons, Laura; Avila, Conxita

    2014-01-01

    Many bioactive products from benthic invertebrates mediating ecological interactions have proved to reduce predation, but their mechanisms of action, and their molecular identities, are usually unknown. It was suggested, yet scarcely investigated, that nutritional quality interferes with defensive metabolites. This means that antifeedants would be less effective when combined with energetically rich prey, and that higher amounts of defensive compounds would be needed for predator avoidance. We evaluated the effects of five types of repellents obtained from Antarctic invertebrates, in combination with diets of different energetic values. The compounds came from soft corals, ascidians and hexactinellid sponges; they included wax esters, alkaloids, a meroterpenoid, a steroid, and the recently described organic acid, glassponsine. Feeding repellency was tested through preference assays by preparing diets (alginate pearls) combining different energetic content and inorganic material. Experimental diets contained various concentrations of each repellent product, and were offered along with control compound-free pearls, to the Antarctic omnivore amphipod Cheirimedon femoratus. Meridianin alkaloids were the most active repellents, and wax esters were the least active when combined with foods of distinct energetic content. Our data show that levels of repellency vary for each compound, and that they perform differently when mixed with distinct assay foods. The natural products that interacted the most with energetic content were those occurring in nature at higher concentrations. The bioactivity of the remaining metabolites tested was found to depend on a threshold concentration, enough to elicit feeding repellence, independently from nutritional quality. PMID:24962273

  12. Untangling the relationships among regional occupancy, species traits, and niche characteristics in stream invertebrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heino, Jani; Grönroos, Mira

    2014-01-01

    The regional occupancy and local abundance of species are affected by various species traits, but their relative effects are poorly understood. We studied the relationships between species traits and occupancy (i.e., proportion of sites occupied) or abundance (i.e., mean local abundance at occupied sites) of stream invertebrates using small-grained data (i.e., local stream sites) across a large spatial extent (i.e., three drainage basins). We found a significant, yet rather weak, linear relationship between occupancy and abundance. However, occupancy was strongly related to niche position (NP), but it showed a weaker relationship with niche breadth (NB). Abundance was at best weakly related to these explanatory niche-based variables. Biological traits, including feeding modes, habit traits, dispersal modes and body size classes, were generally less important in accounting for variation in occupancy and abundance. Our findings showed that the regional occupancy of stream invertebrate species is mostly related to niche characteristics, in particular, NP. However, the effects of NB on occupancy were affected by the measure itself. We conclude that niche characteristics determine the regional occupancy of species at relatively large spatial extents, suggesting that species distributions are determined by environmental variation among sites. PMID:24963387

  13. Shared effects of organic microcontaminants and environmental stressors on biofilms and invertebrates in impaired rivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabater, S; Barceló, D; De Castro-Català, N; Ginebreda, A; Kuzmanovic, M; Petrovic, M; Picó, Y; Ponsatí, L; Tornés, E; Muñoz, I

    2016-03-01

    Land use type, physical and chemical stressors, and organic microcontaminants were investigated for their effects on the biological communities (biofilms and invertebrates) in several Mediterranean rivers. The diversity of invertebrates, and the scores of the first principal component of a PCA performed with the diatom communities were the best descriptors of the distribution patterns of the biological communities against the river stressors. These two metrics decreased according to the progressive site impairment (associated to higher area of agricultural and urban-industrial, high water conductivity, higher dissolved organic carbon and dissolved inorganic nitrogen concentrations, and higher concentration of organic microcontaminants, particularly pharmaceutical and industrial compounds). The variance partition analyses (RDAs) attributed the major share (10%) of the biological communities' response to the environmental stressors (nutrients, altered discharge, dissolved organic matter), followed by the land use occupation (6%) and of the organic microcontaminants (2%). However, the variance shared by the three groups of descriptors was very high (41%), indicating that their simultaneous occurrence determined most of the variation in the biological communities. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  14. Functional diversity of the macro‑invertebrate community in the port area of Kerkennah Islands (Tunisia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. ALOUI‑BEJAOUI

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The harbour area of Sidi Youssef in Kerkennah islands is characterized by specific anthropogenic pressures linked to fishing activities. To study the functional diversity of benthic macro invertebrates, 10 stations located around the port and along the ship canal were sampled by SCUBA diving. Collected invertebrates were identified, counted and preserved. For the functional organization of the community, the most common biodiversity indices and functional groups were assessed at each station, and main physical and chemical parameters were measured. Results showed that the main apparent anthropogenic stress, that could lead to negative impacts on the studied area, was related to dredging/harbour activities. Suspension feeders, consisting essentially of polychaetes, which may be disturbed by water turbidity, dominated the stations farthest from the port, where the intensity of harbour activities is obviously reduced. On the contrary, carnivores dominated inside the port, possibly benefiting from fish scraps discarded at the area, while stations close to the port appeared to be more balanced trophically. The applied biotic indices showed that the area is in good ecological status, except of the navigation channel and the port entrance, which were slightly degraded.

  15. Possibilities of using alternative biotest tests on invertebrates in radiobiology - review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spalkova, M.; Benova, K.

    2017-01-01

    The effects of high doses of ionizing radiation have been described by many authors as on vertebrates, as well as on invertebrates. On the other hand, low doses of radiation can have positive effects (so-called radiation hormone). This process involves the activation of many processes, such as seed germination and growth of many plant species, enhancement of enzyme activity, stimulation of bacterial and isolated cell division, prolongation of life of plankton, drosophila, mice and rats exposed to long-term extremely low dose radiation, high doses (so-called adaptive response) and reduced mortality in human oncology patients. The rapid development of leading disciplines such as pharmacology, toxicology, immunology, virology, genetics and others brings a steep rise in animal consumption and legislation and legislation to protect them, with focus on reducing consumption and gradually replacing them with other methods. Within the framework of the European Convention on the protection of vertebrate animals for experimental and other scientific purposes, one of the main requirements is to limit the number of animal experiments to a minimum, whereas all live vertebrates, other than humans, are considered to be animals within the meaning of the 1986 Council of Europe Directive wild and breeding capable larvae, but not fruits or embryos. For this reason, alternative bioassays on invertebrates, plants, but also cell, tissue and organ cultures are increasingly being used. (authors)

  16. The evolutionary dynamics of within-generation immune priming in invertebrate hosts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Best, Alex; Tidbury, Hannah; White, Andy; Boots, Mike

    2013-03-06

    While invertebrates lack the machinery necessary for 'acquired immunity', there is increasing empirical evidence that exposure to low levels of disease may 'prime' an invertebrate's immune response, increasing its defence to subsequent exposure. Despite this increasing empirical data, there has been little theoretical attention paid to immune priming. Here, we investigate the evolution of immune priming, focusing on the role of the unique feedbacks generated by a newly developed susceptible-primed-infected epidemiological model. Contrasting our results with previous models on the evolution of acquired immunity, we highlight that there are important implications to the evolution of immunity through priming owing to these different epidemiological feedbacks. In particular, we find that in contrast to acquired immunity, priming is strongly selected for at high as well as intermediate pathogen virulence. We also find that priming may be greatest at either intermediate or high host lifespans depending on the severity of disease. Furthermore, hosts faced with more severe pathogens are more likely to evolve diversity in priming. Finally, we show when the evolution of priming leads to the exclusion of the pathogens or hosts experiencing population cycles. Overall the model acts as a baseline for understanding the evolution of priming in host-pathogen systems.

  17. [Effects of benthic macro-invertebrate on decomposition of Acer buergerianum leaf litter in streams].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Li-Hong; Wang, Bei-Xin; Chen, Ai-Qing; Lan, Ce-Jie

    2009-05-01

    By using composite mesh bag method, the effects of benthic macro-invertebrate in an undisturbed stream and an ecologically restored stream on the decomposition process of Acer buergerianum leaf litter from the Purple Mountain of Nanjing in winter were studied. After 112 days of decomposition, the remaining rate of A. buergerianum leaf litter based on ash-free dry mass was 31-62%, and the decomposition rate followed a declined exponential equation (P leaf litter was 0.0064 d(-1) and 0.0030 d(-1); while in the still water of the streams, it was 0.0016 d(-1) and 0. 0018 d(-1), respectively. The abundance and biomass of benthic macro-invertebrate were significantly higher in the flowing water of undisturbed stream than in that of ecologically restored stream (P Shredders (mainly Asellus sp.) had the highest abundance (70.4%) in the flowing water of undisturbed stream, while filterers (mainly Tanytarsus sp.) were dominant (37.8%) in the flowing water of ecologically restored stream. The decomposition rate of the leaf litter was significantly correlated with the richness and abundance of shredder species in flowing water (P shredders, suggesting that the decomposition of A. buergerianum leaf litter in streams in winter was more dependent on the richness and abundance of shredders.

  18. Feeding type and development drive the ingestion of microplastics by freshwater invertebrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scherer, Christian; Brennholt, Nicole; Reifferscheid, Georg; Wagner, Martin

    2017-12-05

    Microscopic plastic items (microplastics) are ubiquitously present in aquatic ecosystems. With decreasing size their availability and potential to accumulate throughout food webs increase. However, little is known on the uptake of microplastics by freshwater invertebrates. To address this, we exposed species with different feeding strategies to 1, 10 and 90 µm fluorescent polystyrene spheres (3-3 000 particles mL -1 ). Additionally, we investigated how developmental stages and a co-exposure to natural particles (e.g., food) modulate microplastic ingestion. All species ingested microplastics in a concentration-dependent manner with Daphnia magna consuming up to 6 180 particles h -1 , followed by Chironomus riparius (226 particles h -1 ), Physella acuta (118 particles h -1 ), Gammarus pulex (10 particles h -1 ) and Lumbriculus variegatus (8 particles h -1 ). D. magna did not ingest 90 µm microplastics whereas the other species preferred larger microplastics over 1 µm in size. In C. riparius and D. magna, size preference depended on the life stage with larger specimens ingesting more and larger microplastics. The presence of natural particles generally reduced the microplastics uptake. Our results demonstrate that freshwater invertebrates have the capacity to ingest microplastics. However, the quantity of uptake depends on their feeding type and morphology as well as on the availability of microplastics.

  19. Evaluation of stream ecological integrity using litter decomposition and benthic invertebrates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castela, Jose [Departamento de Zoologia and IMAR-CIC, Universidade de Coimbra, Largo Marques de Pombal, 3004-517 Coimbra (Portugal)], E-mail: jcccastela@gmail.com; Ferreira, Veronica [Departamento de Zoologia and IMAR-CIC, Universidade de Coimbra, Largo Marques de Pombal, 3004-517 Coimbra (Portugal)], E-mail: veronica@ci.uc.pt; Graca, Manuel A.S. [Departamento de Zoologia and IMAR-CIC, Universidade de Coimbra, Largo Marques de Pombal, 3004-517 Coimbra (Portugal)], E-mail: mgraca@ci.uc.pt

    2008-05-15

    Biomonitoring programs to access the ecological integrity of freshwaters tend to rely exclusively on structural parameters. Here we evaluated stream ecological integrity using (a) benthic macroinvertebrate derived metrics and a biotic index as measures of structural integrity and (b) oak litter decomposition and associated fungal sporulation rates as measures of functional integrity. The study was done at four sites (S1, S2, S3 and S4) along a downstream increasing phosphorus and habitat degradation gradient in a small stream. The biotic index, invertebrate metrics, invertebrate and fungal communities' structure and sporulation rates discriminated upstream and downstream sites. Decomposition rates classified sites S4 and S2 as having a compromised ecosystem functioning. Although both functional and structural approaches gave the same results for the most impacted site (S4), they were complementary for moderately impacted sites (S2 and S3), and we therefore support the need for incorporating functional measures in evaluations of stream ecological integrity. - This study supports the need for incorporating functional measures in evaluations of stream ecological integrity.

  20. Leaf litter processing and invertebrate assemblages along a pollution gradient in a Maine (USA) headwater stream

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woodcock, Thomas S. [Department of Biological Sciences, 202 Deering Hall, University of Maine, Orono, ME 04469-5722 (United States)]. E-mail: woodcot@plattsburgh.edu; Huryn, Alexander D. [Department of Biological Sciences, 202 Deering Hall, University of Maine, Orono, ME 04469-5722 (United States)

    2005-04-01

    During the autumn of 1997 and 1998, leaf litter processing rates and leaf pack invertebrate assemblages were examined at eight stations along a pollution gradient in Goosefare Brook, a first-order coastal plain stream in southern Maine (USA). There was no significant effect on litter softening rate in 1997, and only the most polluted station showed a decrease in 1998. However, litter loss rates showed decreases in both years. The structure of invertebrate assemblages changed in response to the stresses, showing a decline in EPT richness and an increase in the proportion of collecting taxa. However, total shredder biomass was only weakly affected. Shredder biomass at all stations was dominated by Tipula, and biomass of other shredder taxa showed a serial replacement along the gradient of stress related to their pollution tolerance. Rather than the expected relationship with shredder biomass, litter processing rates were directly related to water and sediment quality. Goosefare Brook demonstrates how variable pollution tolerance of community members enables stress resistance and a consequent preservation of ecosystem function. - Variable pollution tolerance of community members provides stress resistance at the ecosystem level in streams.

  1. Antimicrobial histones and DNA traps in invertebrate immunity: evidences in Crassostrea gigas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poirier, Aurore C; Schmitt, Paulina; Rosa, Rafael D; Vanhove, Audrey S; Kieffer-Jaquinod, Sylvie; Rubio, Tristan P; Charrière, Guillaume M; Destoumieux-Garzón, Delphine

    2014-09-05

    Although antimicrobial histones have been isolated from multiple metazoan species, their role in host defense has long remained unanswered. We found here that the hemocytes of the oyster Crassostrea gigas release antimicrobial H1-like and H5-like histones in response to tissue damage and infection. These antimicrobial histones were shown to be associated with extracellular DNA networks released by hemocytes, the circulating immune cells of invertebrates, in response to immune challenge. The hemocyte-released DNA was found to surround and entangle vibrios. This defense mechanism is reminiscent of the neutrophil extracellular traps (ETs) recently described in vertebrates. Importantly, oyster ETs were evidenced in vivo in hemocyte-infiltrated interstitial tissues surrounding wounds, whereas they were absent from tissues of unchallenged oysters. Consistently, antimicrobial histones were found to accumulate in oyster tissues following injury or infection with vibrios. Finally, oyster ET formation was highly dependent on the production of reactive oxygen species by hemocytes. This shows that ET formation relies on common cellular and molecular mechanisms from vertebrates to invertebrates. Altogether, our data reveal that ET formation is a defense mechanism triggered by infection and tissue damage, which is shared by relatively distant species suggesting either evolutionary conservation or convergent evolution within Bilateria. © 2014 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  2. Convergent evolution of mechanically optimal locomotion in aquatic invertebrates and vertebrates.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahul Bale

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Examples of animals evolving similar traits despite the absence of that trait in the last common ancestor, such as the wing and camera-type lens eye in vertebrates and invertebrates, are called cases of convergent evolution. Instances of convergent evolution of locomotory patterns that quantitatively agree with the mechanically optimal solution are very rare. Here, we show that, with respect to a very diverse group of aquatic animals, a mechanically optimal method of swimming with elongated fins has evolved independently at least eight times in both vertebrate and invertebrate swimmers across three different phyla. Specifically, if we take the length of an undulation along an animal's fin during swimming and divide it by the mean amplitude of undulations along the fin length, the result is consistently around twenty. We call this value the optimal specific wavelength (OSW. We show that the OSW maximizes the force generated by the body, which also maximizes swimming speed. We hypothesize a mechanical basis for this optimality and suggest reasons for its repeated emergence through evolution.

  3. Responses of predatory invertebrates to seeding density and plant species richness in experimental tallgrass prairie restorations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nemec, Kristine T.; Allen, Craig R.; Danielson, Stephen D.; Helzer, Christopher J.

    2014-01-01

    In recent decades, agricultural producers and non-governmental organizations have restored thousands of hectares of former cropland in the central United States with native grasses and forbs. However, the ability of these grassland restorations to attract predatory invertebrates has not been well documented, even though predators provide an important ecosystem service to agricultural producers by naturally regulating herbivores. This study assessed the effects of plant richness and seeding density on the richness and abundance of surface-dwelling (ants, ground beetles, and spiders) and aboveground (ladybird beetles) predatory invertebrates. In the spring of 2006, twenty-four 55 m × 55 m-plots were planted to six replicates in each of four treatments: high richness (97 species typically planted by The Nature Conservancy), at low and high seeding densities, and low richness (15 species representing a typical Natural Resources Conservation Service Conservation Reserve Program mix, CP25), at low and high seeding densities. Ants, ground beetles, and spiders were sampled using pitfall traps and ladybird beetles were sampled using sweep netting in 2007–2009. The abundance of ants, ground beetles, and spiders showed no response to seed mix richness or seeding density but there was a significant positive effect of richness on ladybird beetle abundance. Seeding density had a significant positive effect on ground beetle and spider species richness and Shannon–Weaver diversity. These results may be related to differences in the plant species composition and relative amount of grass basal cover among the treatments rather than richness.

  4. A rapid assessment survey of invasive species of macrobenthic invertebrates in Korean waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Chul; Kim, Sung-Tae; Hong, Jae-Sang; Choi, Keun-Hyung

    2017-09-01

    Introduced species are a growing and imminent threat to living marine resources in parts of the world's oceans. The present study is a rapid assessment survey of invasive macrobenthic invertebrate species in Korean ports. We surveyed over 40 ports around Korea during the period of May 2010 March 2013. Among the sampling sites were concrete walls, docks and associated floats, bumpers, tires, and ropes which might harbor non-native species. We found 15 invasive species as follows: one Sponge, two Bryozoans, three Mollusks, one Polychaete, four Cirripedes, and four Ascidians. Three morphologically similar species, namely X. atrata, M. galloprovincialis, and X. securis were further examined for distinctions in their morphology. Although they could be reasonably distinguished based on shell shapes, significant overlap was noted so that additional analysis may be required to correctly distinguish them. Although many of the introduced species have already spread to all three coastal areas, newly arrived invasive species showed a relatively restricted range, with a serpulid polychaete Ficopomatus enigmaticus and a mytilid bivalve Xenostrobus securis found only at a few sites on the East Coast. An exception is for Balanus perforatus, which has rapidly colonized the East coast of Korea following its introduction into the region. Successful management of invasive macrobenthic invertebrates should be established in order to contain the spread of these newly arrived species.

  5. Leaf litter processing and invertebrate assemblages along a pollution gradient in a Maine (USA) headwater stream.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodcock, Thomas S; Huryn, Alexander D

    2005-04-01

    During the autumn of 1997 and 1998, leaf litter processing rates and leaf pack invertebrate assemblages were examined at eight stations along a pollution gradient in Goosefare Brook, a first-order coastal plain stream in southern Maine (USA). There was no significant effect on litter softening rate in 1997, and only the most polluted station showed a decrease in 1998. However, litter loss rates showed decreases in both years. The structure of invertebrate assemblages changed in response to the stresses, showing a decline in EPT richness and an increase in the proportion of collecting taxa. However, total shredder biomass was only weakly affected. Shredder biomass at all stations was dominated by Tipula, and biomass of other shredder taxa showed a serial replacement along the gradient of stress related to their pollution tolerance. Rather than the expected relationship with shredder biomass, litter processing rates were directly related to water and sediment quality. Goosefare Brook demonstrates how variable pollution tolerance of community members enables stress resistance and a consequent preservation of ecosystem function.

  6. Proteomics insights: proteins related to larval attachment and metamorphosis of marine invertebrates

    KAUST Repository

    Chandramouli, Kondethimmanahalli

    2014-10-31

    The transition in an animal from a pelagic larval stage to a sessile benthic juvenile typically requires major morphological and behavioral changes. Larval competency, attachment and initiation of metamorphosis are thought to be regulated by intrinsic chemical signals and specific sets of proteins. However, the molecular mechanisms that regulate larval attachment and metamorphosis in marine invertebrates have yet to be fully elucidated. Despite the many challenges associated with analysis of the larvae proteome, recent proteomic technologies have been used to address specific questions in larval developmental biology. These and other molecular studies have generated substantial amount of information of the proteins and molecular pathways involved in larval attachment and metamorphosis. Furthermore, the results of these studies have shown that systematic changes in protein expression patterns and post-translational modifications (PTMs) are crucial for the transition from larva to juvenile. The degeneration of larval tissues is mediated by protein degradation, while the development of juvenile organs may require PTM. In terms of application, the identified proteins may serve as targets for antifouling compounds, and biomarkers for environmental stressors. In this review we highlight the strengths and limitations of proteomic tools in the context of the study of marine invertebrate larval biology.

  7. Bridging the gap between theoretical ecology and real ecosystems: modeling invertebrate community composition in streams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuwirth, Nele; Reichert, Peter

    2013-02-01

    For the first time, we combine concepts of theoretical food web modeling, the metabolic theory of ecology, and ecological stoichiometry with the use of functional trait databases to predict the coexistence of invertebrate taxa in streams. We developed a mechanistic model that describes growth, death, and respiration of different taxa dependent on various environmental influence factors to estimate survival or extinction. Parameter and input uncertainty is propagated to model results. Such a model is needed to test our current quantitative understanding of ecosystem structure and function and to predict effects of anthropogenic impacts and restoration efforts. The model was tested using macroinvertebrate monitoring data from a catchment of the Swiss Plateau. Even without fitting model parameters, the model is able to represent key patterns of the coexistence structure of invertebrates at sites varying in external conditions (litter input, shading, water quality). This confirms the suitability of the model concept. More comprehensive testing and resulting model adaptations will further increase the predictive accuracy of the model.

  8. A possible role for the immune system in adult neurogenesis: new insights from an invertebrate model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harzsch, Steffen; von Bohlen Und Halbach, Oliver

    2016-04-01

    Persistent neurogenesis in the adult brain of both vertebrates and invertebrates was previously considered to be driven by self-renewing neuronal stem cells of ectodermal origin. Recent findings in an invertebrate model challenge this view and instead provide evidence for a recruitment of neuronal precursors from a non-neuronal source. In the brain of adult crayfish, a neurogenic niche was identified that contributes progeny to the adult central olfactory pathway. The niche may function in attracting cells from the hemolymph and transforming them into cells with a neuronal fate. This finding implies that the first-generation neuronal precursors located in the crayfish neurogenic niche are not self-renewing. Evidence is summarized in support of a critical re-evaluation of long-term self-renewal of mammalian neuronal stem cells. Latest findings suggest that a tight link between the immune system and the system driving adult neurogenesis may not only exist in the crayfish but also in mammals. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  9. Environmental epigenetics: A promising venue for developing next-generation pollution biomonitoring tools in marine invertebrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suarez-Ulloa, Victoria; Gonzalez-Romero, Rodrigo; Eirin-Lopez, Jose M

    2015-09-15

    Environmental epigenetics investigates the cause-effect relationships between specific environmental factors and the subsequent epigenetic modifications triggering adaptive responses in the cell. Given the dynamic and potentially reversible nature of the different types of epigenetic marks, environmental epigenetics constitutes a promising venue for developing fast and sensible biomonitoring programs. Indeed, several epigenetic biomarkers have been successfully developed and applied in traditional model organisms (e.g., human and mouse). Nevertheless, the lack of epigenetic knowledge in other ecologically and environmentally relevant organisms has hampered the application of these tools in a broader range of ecosystems, most notably in the marine environment. Fortunately, that scenario is now changing thanks to the growing availability of complete reference genome sequences along with the development of high-throughput DNA sequencing and bioinformatic methods. Altogether, these resources make the epigenetic study of marine organisms (and more specifically marine invertebrates) a reality. By building on this knowledge, the present work provides a timely perspective highlighting the extraordinary potential of environmental epigenetic analyses as a promising source of rapid and sensible tools for pollution biomonitoring, using marine invertebrates as sentinel organisms. This strategy represents an innovative, groundbreaking approach, improving the conservation and management of natural resources in the oceans. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Soil temperature effects on the structure and diversity of plant and invertebrate communities in a natural warming experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Sinikka I; McLaughlin, Órla B; Marteinsdóttir, Bryndís; O'Gorman, Eoin J

    2018-01-25

    Global warming is predicted to significantly alter species physiology, biotic interactions and thus ecosystem functioning, as a consequence of coexisting species exhibiting a wide range of thermal sensitivities. There is, however, a dearth of research examining warming impacts on natural communities. Here, we used a natural warming experiment in Iceland to investigate the changes in above-ground terrestrial plant and invertebrate communities along a soil temperature gradient (10°C-30°C). The α-diversity of plants and invertebrates decreased with increasing soil temperature, driven by decreasing plant species richness and increasing dominance of certain invertebrate species in warmer habitats. There was also greater species turnover in both plant and invertebrate communities with increasing pairwise temperature difference between sites. There was no effect of temperature on percentage cover of vegetation at the community level, driven by contrasting effects at the population level. There was a reduction in the mean body mass and an increase in the total abundance of the invertebrate community, resulting in no overall change in community biomass. There were contrasting effects of temperature on the population abundance of various invertebrate species, which could be explained by differential thermal tolerances and metabolic requirements, or may have been mediated by changes in plant community composition. Our study provides an important baseline from which the effect of changing environmental conditions on terrestrial communities can be tracked. It also contributes to our understanding of why community-level studies of warming impacts are imperative if we are to disentangle the contrasting thermal responses of individual populations. © 2018 The Authors. Journal of Animal Ecology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of British Ecological Society.

  11. Development of invertebrate community indexes of stream quality for the islands of Maui and Oahu, Hawaii

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolff, Reuben H.

    2012-01-01

    In 2009-10 the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) collected physical habitat information and benthic macroinvertebrates at 40 wadeable sites on 25 perennial streams on the Island of Maui, Hawaiʻi, to evaluate the relations between the macroinvertebrate assemblages and environmental characteristics and to develop a multimetric invertebrate community index (ICI) that could be used as an indicator of stream quality. The macroinvertebrate community data were used to identify metrics that could best differentiate among sites according to disturbance gradients such as embeddedness, percent fines (silt and sand areal coverage), or percent agricultural land in the contributing basin area. Environmental assessments were conducted using land-use/land-cover data and reach-level physical habitat data. The Maui data were first evaluated using the previously developed Preliminary-Hawaiian Benthic Index of Biotic Integrity (P-HBIBI) to determine if existing metrics would successfully differentiate stream quality among the sites. Secondly, a number of candidate invertebrate metrics were screened and tested and the individual metrics that proved the best at discerning among the sites along one or more disturbance gradients were combined into a multimetric invertebrate community index (ICI) of stream quality. These metrics were: total invertebrate abundance, Class Insecta relative abundance, the ratio of Trichoptera abundance to nonnative Diptera abundance, native snail (hihiwai) presence or absence, native mountain shrimp (′δpae) presence or absence, native torrent midge (Telmatogeton spp.) presence or absence, and native Megalagrion damselfly presence or absence. The Maui ICI classified 15 of the 40 sites (37.5 percent) as having "good" quality communities, 17 of the sites (42.5 percent) as having "fair" quality communities, and 8 sites (20 percent) as having "poor" quality communities, a classification that may be used to initiate further investigation into the causes of the poor

  12. Evolution of Innate Immunity: Clues from Invertebrates via Fish to Mammals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchmann, Kurt

    2014-01-01

    Host responses against invading pathogens are basic physiological reactions of all living organisms. Since the appearance of the first eukaryotic cells, a series of defense mechanisms have evolved in order to secure cellular integrity, homeostasis, and survival of the host. Invertebrates, ranging from protozoans to metazoans, possess cellular receptors, which bind to foreign elements and differentiate self from non-self. This ability is in multicellular animals associated with presence of phagocytes, bearing different names (amebocytes, hemocytes, coelomocytes) in various groups including animal sponges, worms, cnidarians, mollusks, crustaceans, chelicerates, insects, and echinoderms (sea stars and urchins). Basically, these cells have a macrophage-like appearance and function and the repair and/or fight functions associated with these cells are prominent even at the earliest evolutionary stage. The cells possess pathogen recognition receptors recognizing pathogen-associated molecular patterns, which are well-conserved molecular structures expressed by various pathogens (virus, bacteria, fungi, protozoans, helminths). Scavenger receptors, Toll-like receptors, and Nod-like receptors (NLRs) are prominent representatives within this group of host receptors. Following receptor–ligand binding, signal transduction initiates a complex cascade of cellular reactions, which lead to production of one or more of a wide array of effector molecules. Cytokines take part in this orchestration of responses even in lower invertebrates, which eventually may result in elimination or inactivation of the intruder. Important innate effector molecules are oxygen and nitrogen species, antimicrobial peptides, lectins, fibrinogen-related peptides, leucine rich repeats (LRRs), pentraxins, and complement-related proteins. Echinoderms represent the most developed invertebrates and the bridge leading to the primitive chordates, cephalochordates, and urochordates, in which many autologous genes

  13. Effects of sediment load on emergence of aquatic invertebrates and plants from wetland soil egg and seed banks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gleason, R.A.; Euliss, N.H.; Hubbard, D.E.; Duffy, W.G.

    2003-01-01

    Intensive agricultural activities near prairie wetlands may result in excessive sediment loads, which may bury seed and invertebrate egg banks that are important for maintenance and cycling of biotic communities during wet/dry cycles. Sediment-load experiments indicated that burial depths of 0.5 cm caused a 91.7% reduction in total seedling emergence and a 99.7% reduction in total invertebrate emergence. These results suggest sediment entering wetlands from agricultural erosion may hamper successional changes throughout interannual climate cycles.

  14. A comparative analysis of restoration measures and their effects on hydromorphology and benthic invertebrates in 26 central and southern European rivers.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jähnig, S.C.; Brabec, K.; Buffagni, A.; Erba, S.; Lorenz, A.; Ofenböck, T.; Verdonschot, P.F.M.; Hering, D.

    2010-01-01

    1. Hydromorphological river restoration usually leads to habitat diversification, but the effects on benthic invertebrates, which are frequently used to assess river ecological status, are minor. We compared the effects of river restoration on morphology and benthic invertebrates by investigating 26

  15. Comparison of ongoing compound field potentials in the brains of invertebrates and vertebrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bullock, T H; Basar, E

    1988-01-01

    (1) Ongoing compound field potential fluctuations of higher brain centers (the micro-EEG of some authors) are considered as a biological phenomenon, a sign of the activity in the organized assemblage of cells. Such activity has been compared in several taxa with quite different brain structure to look for possible evolution in the form of the field potentials and for possible explanations of differences and similarities. (2) Recordings were made with semimicroelectrodes in the neuropile of the cerebral ganglion of the mollusc, Aplysia, with comparative observations on Helix, and the arthropods Limulus, Melanoplus, and Cambarus, and in or on the cerebral cortex and optic tectum of rays, cats and rabbits, with comparative observations on sharks, bony fish, turtles and geckos in unstimulated resting or generalized arousal states. Manipulations of state did not alter the main findings. (3) Power spectra in the cerebral ganglia of various higher invertebrates are similar; activity is fast and spikey (with the exception of Octopus). Integrated energy above 50 Hz exceeds that from 2-50 Hz and falls slowly with frequency; in Aplysia the power spectrum falls less than 10 dB between 10 and 300 Hz. In vertebrates from fish to mammals activity is similar in being mainly slow (less than 40 Hz); it commonly falls greater than 20 dB between 10 and 50 Hz. (4) Amplitude is low in invertebrates and lower vertebrates. RMS voltage in Aplysia (3-300 Hz, reference electrode remote) is typically less than 10 microV; in the ray optic tectum less than 25 microV (2-50 Hz); in the dorsal cortex of the gecko less than 30 microV, in the cat cortex greater than 85 microV. In the vertebrates amplitude does not change greatly with small shifts in electrode position, as it does in invertebrates. (5) Coherence decline with distance, measured tangentially at different electrode separations in the millimeter range, is used as an estimator of synchrony. Averaged coherence between loci 1 mm apart is

  16. The changes in the ecology and physiology of soil invertebrates under influences of radioactive contamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maksimova, S.

    2006-01-01

    The soil biota is important in building and maintaining soil structure and fertility. Invertebrates are ideal as potential bio indicators of the environmental impact of radioactive contamination: they are widely distributed, often abundant and generally thought of as having low dispersive capacity. They can use as test organisms to detect the side-effects of radioactive contamination. The long-term analysis of ecological and physiological after-effects and biodiversity changes had been studied in the zone of radioactive contamination. Material was collected in the Gomel Region (Belarus), 30 km away from the CNPP in 1986-2004 applying usual pedobiological techniques (soil samples and Barber's pitfall traps) at reference points subjected to radioactive contamination. Soil samples were collected at 0 to 25 cm depth. Samples were taken in locations, which had received considerable radionuclide contaminations. These sites differed in contamination by the composition of fall-out, the forms of radionuclide content in soils, their intake into trophic chains and accumulation in animal and plant organisms. The impacts have been investigated at the: 1) organism and population levels , in terms of individual life histories (birth rate, growth, mortality) or species selection; 2) at the community level: to species diversity and to effects on trophic structure. The invertebrates were determined to species or genera, including juvenile stages. Radioactive contamination caused a distinct decrease in species number; the dominance structure of the community changed. The saprophagous are especially sensitive to environmental disturbances. An initial sharp reduction of animal biodiversity and simplification of the community structure of soil fauna were observed, followed by a long-term process of returning to the initial parameters. Changes in hemolymph, necroses of epithelium and cell structure in connective tissue were registered. The most drastic after-effects were manifested in

  17. Settling distances of benthic invertebrates in a sediment mobilization simulation in semi-natural flumes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Cristina Bruno

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Drift time and distance depend on the ability of the drifting invertebrates to alter their body posture or by swimming, and these behaviors may change according to the local hydraulic environment, resulting in different distances travelled before exiting the drift. Such drift and settlement mediated invertebrate movement determine dispersal processes and ultimately generates distribution patterns within streams. We conducted an experiment in an open-air, artificial flume system directly fed by an Alpine stream, where we disturbed the sediment in the flumes, inducing catastrophic drift in the benthic community, and then assessed the settlement distances of benthic invertebrates. For each flume, we collected drift samples by disturbing the substrate at 1.5 m intervals, at increasing distance from the downstream end, for a total of 7 disturbances and a maximum settling distance of 10 m in each flume, with five replicates (i.e., five flumes for each disturbance. The disturbances induced a massive catastrophic drift in Ephemeroptera, Plecoptera and Trichoptera, always higher than the behaviorally-occurring basedrift. The Settling Index calculated over the total drift collected at each distance increased with increasing distance, and after 10 m, 90% of the drifting animals had settled. Evenness and taxa richness progressively decrease with increasing settling distance. All drifting taxa were represented mainly by young instars. We used the drift collected at 1 m from the disturbance to standardize the remaining samples, based on the assumption that 1 m is not a distance long enough to allow animals to settle at that water velocity. We calculated the percentage of possible drifters which settled by computing a Settling Index for each taxon. The drifting taxa listed by decreasing Settling Index scores were Epeorus sp., Rhithrogena semicolorata, Isoperla spp., Sericostoma spp., Ecdyonurus spp., Nemoura spp., Leuctra spp., Baetis spp., Hydropsyche spp

  18. Comparative Genomics of Bacillus thuringiensis Reveals a Path to Specialized Exploitation of Multiple Invertebrate Hosts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Jinshui; Gao, Qiuling; Liu, Linlin; Liu, Hualin; Wang, Yueying; Peng, Donghai; Ruan, Lifang; Raymond, Ben; Sun, Ming

    2017-08-08

    Understanding the genetic basis of host shifts is a key genomic question for pathogen and parasite biology. The Bacillus cereus group, which encompasses Bacillus thuringiensis and Bacillus anthracis , contains pathogens that can infect insects, nematodes, and vertebrates. Since the target range of the essential virulence factors (Cry toxins) and many isolates is well known, this group presents a powerful system for investigating how pathogens can diversify and adapt to phylogenetically distant hosts. Specialization to exploit insects occurs at the level of the major clade and is associated with substantial changes in the core genome, and host switching between insect orders has occurred repeatedly within subclades. The transfer of plasmids with linked cry genes may account for much of the adaptation to particular insect orders, and network analysis implies that host specialization has produced strong associations between key toxin genes with similar targets. Analysis of the distribution of plasmid minireplicons shows that plasmids with orf156 and orf157 , which carry genes encoding toxins against Lepidoptera or Diptera, were contained only by B. thuringiensis in the specialized insect clade (clade 2), indicating that tight genome/plasmid associations have been important in adaptation to invertebrate hosts. Moreover, the accumulation of multiple virulence factors on transposable elements suggests that cotransfer of diverse virulence factors is advantageous in terms of expanding the insecticidal spectrum, overcoming insect resistance, or through gains in pathogenicity via synergistic interactions between toxins. IMPORTANCE Population genomics have provided many new insights into the formation, evolution, and dynamics of bacterial pathogens of humans and other higher animals, but these pathogens usually have very narrow host ranges. As a pathogen of insects and nematodes, Bacillus thuringiensis , which produces toxins showing toxicity to many orders of insects and

  19. Multistressor impacts of warming and acidification of the ocean on marine invertebrates' life histories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrne, Maria; Przeslawski, Rachel

    2013-10-01

    Benthic marine invertebrates live in a multistressor world where stressor levels are, and will continue to be, exacerbated by global warming and increased atmospheric carbon dioxide. These changes are causing the oceans to warm, decrease in pH, become hypercapnic, and to become less saturated in carbonate minerals. These stressors have strong impacts on biological processes, but little is known about their combined effects on the development of marine invertebrates. Increasing temperature has a stimulatory effect on development, whereas hypercapnia can depress developmental processes. The pH, pCO2, and CaCO3 of seawater change simultaneously with temperature, challenging our ability to predict future outcomes for marine biota. The need to consider both warming and acidification is reflected in the recent increase in cross-factorial studies of the effects of these stressors on development of marine invertebrates. The outcomes and trends in these studies are synthesized here. Based on this compilation, significant additive or antagonistic effects of warming and acidification of the ocean are common (16 of 20 species studied), and synergistic negative effects also are reported. Fertilization can be robust to near-future warming and acidification, depending on the male-female mating pair. Although larvae and juveniles of some species tolerate near-future levels of warming and acidification (+2°C/pH 7.8), projected far-future conditions (ca. ≥4°C/ ≤pH 7.6) are widely deleterious, with a reduction in the size and survival of larvae. It appears that larvae that calcify are sensitive both to warming and acidification, whereas those that do not calcify are more sensitive to warming. Different sensitivities of life-history stages and species have implications for persistence and community function in a changing ocean. Some species are more resilient than others and may be potential "winners" in the climate-change stakes. As the ocean will change more gradually over

  20. Genetic variation in a tropical tree species influences the associated epiphytic plant and invertebrate communities in a complex forest ecosystem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zytynska, Sharon E.; Fay, Michael F.; Penney, David; Preziosi, Richard F.

    2011-01-01

    Genetic differences among tree species, their hybrids and within tree species are known to influence associated ecological communities and ecosystem processes in areas of limited species diversity. The extent to which this same phenomenon occurs based on genetic variation within a single tree species, in a diverse complex ecosystem such as a tropical forest, is unknown. The level of biodiversity and complexity of the ecosystem may reduce the impact of a single tree species on associated communities. We assessed the influence of within-species genetic variation in the tree Brosimum alicastrum (Moraceae) on associated epiphytic and invertebrate communities in a neotropical rainforest. We found a significant positive association between genetic distance of trees and community difference of the epiphytic plants growing on the tree, the invertebrates living among the leaf litter around the base of the tree, and the invertebrates found on the tree trunk. This means that the more genetically similar trees are host to more similar epiphyte and invertebrate communities. Our work has implications for whole ecosystem conservation management, since maintaining sufficient genetic diversity at the primary producer level will enhance species diversity of other plants and animals. PMID:21444307