WorldWideScience

Sample records for invertebrate pathology resources

  1. Finfish and aquatic invertebrate pathology resources for now and the future✩

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spitsbergen, Jan M.; Blazer, Vicki S.; Bowser, Paul R.; Cheng, Keith C.; Cooper, Keith R.; Cooper, Timothy K.; Frasca, Salvatore; Groman, David B.; Harper, Claudia M.; (Mac) Law, Jerry M.; Marty, Gary D.; Smolowitz, Roxanna M.; Leger, Judy St.; Wolf, Douglas C.; Wolf, Jeffrey C.

    2009-01-01

    Utilization of finfish and aquatic invertebrates in biomedical research and as environmental sentinels has grown dramatically in recent decades. Likewise the aquaculture of finfish and invertebrates has expanded rapidly worldwide as populations of some aquatic food species and threatened or endangered aquatic species have plummeted due to overharvesting or habitat degradation. This increasing intensive culture and use of aquatic species has heightened the importance of maintaining a sophisticated understanding of pathology of various organ systems of these diverse species. Yet, except for selected species long cultivated in aquaculture, pathology databases and the workforce of highly trained pathologists lag behind those available for most laboratory animals and domestic mammalian and avian species. Several factors must change to maximize the use, understanding, and protection of important aquatic species: 1) improvements in databases of abnormalities across species; 2) standardization of diagnostic criteria for proliferative and nonproliferative lesions; and 3) more uniform and rigorous training in aquatic morphologic pathology. PMID:18948226

  2. NODC Standard Format Pathology Data Sets (1973-1980): Marine Invertebrate Pathology (F063) (NODC Accession 0014191)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Marine Invertebrate Pathology (F063) contains data from examinations of diseased marine invertebrates. Although these data maybe from field observations, they derive...

  3. Coastal Resources Atlas: Long Island: INVERT (Invertebrate Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for coastal, estuarine, and marine invertebrate species for Long Island, New York. Vector polygons in this...

  4. Noise affects resource assessment in an invertebrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Erin P; Arnott, Gareth; Kunc, Hansjoerg P

    2017-04-01

    Anthropogenic noise is a global pollutant, affecting animals across taxa. However, how noise pollution affects resource acquisition is unknown. Hermit crabs ( Pagurus bernhardus ) engage in detailed assessment and decision-making when selecting a critical resource, their shell; this is crucial as individuals in poor shells suffer lower reproductive success and higher mortality. We experimentally exposed hermit crabs to anthropogenic noise during shell selection. When exposed to noise, crabs approached the shell faster, spent less time investigating it, and entered it faster. Our results demonstrate that changes in the acoustic environment affect the behaviour of hermit crabs by modifying the selection process of a vital resource. This is all the more remarkable given that the known cues used in shell selection involve chemical, visual and tactile sensory channels. Thus, our study provides rare evidence for a cross-modal impact of noise pollution. © 2017 The Author(s).

  5. The Global Invertebrate Genomics Alliance (GIGA): Developing Community Resources to Study Diverse Invertebrate Genomes

    KAUST Repository

    Bracken-Grissom, Heather; Collins, Allen G.; Collins, Timothy; Crandall, Keith; Distel, Daniel; Dunn, Casey; Giribet, Gonzalo; Haddock, Steven; Knowlton, Nancy; Martindale, Mark; Medina, Monica; Messing, Charles; O'Brien, Stephen J.; Paulay, Gustav; Putnam, Nicolas; Ravasi, Timothy; Rouse, Greg W.; Ryan, Joseph F.; Schulze, Anja; Worheide, Gert; Adamska, Maja; Bailly, Xavier; Breinholt, Jesse; Browne, William E.; Diaz, M. Christina; Evans, Nathaniel; Flot, Jean-Francois; Fogarty, Nicole; Johnston, Matthew; Kamel, Bishoy; Kawahara, Akito Y.; Laberge, Tammy; Lavrov, Dennis; Michonneau, Francois; Moroz, Leonid L.; Oakley, Todd; Osborne, Karen; Pomponi, Shirley A.; Rhodes, Adelaide; Rodriguez-Lanetty, Mauricio; Santos, Scott R.; Satoh, Nori; Thacker, Robert W.; Van de Peer, Yves; Voolstra, Christian R.; Welch, David Mark; Winston, Judith; Zhou, Xin

    2013-01-01

    Over 95% of all metazoan (animal) species comprise the invertebrates, but very few genomes from these organisms have been sequenced. We have, therefore, formed a Global Invertebrate Genomics Alliance (GIGA). Our intent is to build a collaborative

  6. HISTOLOGICAL PREPARATION OF INVERTEBRATES FOR EVALUATING CONTAMINANT EFFECTS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Although many studies in toxicologic pathology evaluate the effects of toxicants on fishes because of their similarities with other vertebrates, invertebrates can also provide insights into toxicant impacts on ecosystems. Invertebrates not only serve as food resources (e.g., ...

  7. The Global Invertebrate Genomics Alliance (GIGA): Developing Community Resources to Study Diverse Invertebrate Genomes

    KAUST Repository

    Bracken-Grissom, Heather

    2013-12-12

    Over 95% of all metazoan (animal) species comprise the invertebrates, but very few genomes from these organisms have been sequenced. We have, therefore, formed a Global Invertebrate Genomics Alliance (GIGA). Our intent is to build a collaborative network of diverse scientists to tackle major challenges (e.g., species selection, sample collection and storage, sequence assembly, annotation, analytical tools) associated with genome/transcriptome sequencing across a large taxonomic spectrum. We aim to promote standards that will facilitate comparative approaches to invertebrate genomics and collaborations across the international scientific community. Candidate study taxa include species from Porifera, Ctenophora, Cnidaria, Placozoa, Mollusca, Arthropoda, Echinodermata, Annelida, Bryozoa, and Platyhelminthes, among others. GIGA will target 7000 noninsect/nonnematode species, with an emphasis on marine taxa because of the unrivaled phyletic diversity in the oceans. Priorities for selecting invertebrates for sequencing will include, but are not restricted to, their phylogenetic placement; relevance to organismal, ecological, and conservation research; and their importance to fisheries and human health. We highlight benefits of sequencing both whole genomes (DNA) and transcriptomes and also suggest policies for genomic-level data access and sharing based on transparency and inclusiveness. The GIGA Web site () has been launched to facilitate this collaborative venture.

  8. Perinatal pathology: practice suggestions for limited-resource settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Drucilla J

    2013-06-01

    The practice of perinatal pathology in much of the world suffers, as do all subspecialties of anatomic pathology, from inadequate resources (equipment, consumables, and both professional and technical personnel), from lack of education (not only of the pathologist but also of the clinicians responsible for sending the specimens, and the technicians processing the specimens), and from lack of appropriate government sector support. Perinatal pathology has significant public health-related utility and should be championing its service by providing maternal and fetal/infant mortality and morbidity data to governmental health ministries. It is with this pathologic data that informed decisions can be made on health-related courses of action and allocation of resources. These perinatal pathology data are needed to develop appropriate public health initiatives, specifically toward achieving the Millennium Developmental Goals as the best way to effectively decrease infant and maternal deaths and to determine causes of perinatal mortality and morbidity. The following overview will focus on the utility of perinatal pathology specifically as related to its public health function and will suggest methods to improve its service in resource-poor settings. This article is offered not as a critique of the current practice that most pathologists find themselves working in globally, but to provide suggestions for improving perinatal pathology services, which could be implemented with the limited available resources and manpower most pathology departments currently have. In addition, we offer suggestions for graded improvements ("ramping up") over time.

  9. Best practices for the use and exchange of invertebrate biological control genetic resources relevant for food and agriculture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mason, P.G.; Cock, M.J.W.; Barratt, B.I.P.; Klapwijk, J.N.; Lenteren, van J.C.; Brodeur, J.; Hoelmer, K.A.; Heimpel, G.E.

    2018-01-01

    The Nagoya Protocol is a supplementary agreement to the Convention on Biological Diversity that provides a framework for the effective implementation of the fair and equitable sharing of benefits arising out of the utilization of genetic resources, including invertebrate biological control agents.

  10. From water to land: How an invasive clam may function as a resource pulse to terrestrial invertebrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novais, Adriana; Souza, Allan T; Ilarri, Martina; Pascoal, Cláudia; Sousa, Ronaldo

    2015-12-15

    Resource pulses are episodes of low frequency, large magnitude and short duration that result in increased resource availability in space and time, with consequences for food web dynamics. Studies assessing the importance of resource pulses by invasive alien species in the interface between terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems are rare, especially those in the direction from water to land. This study assessed the importance of massive die-offs of the Asian clam Corbicula fluminea (Müller, 1774) as a resource pulse to the terrestrial invertebrate community after an extreme climatic event using a manipulative experiment. We used 5 levels of C. fluminea density (0, 100, 500, 1000 and 2000ind·m(-2)), with terrestrial invertebrates being censused 7, 30 and 90days after C. fluminea addition. We also assessed the possible effect of plots position, where plots that delimited the experiment were assigned as edge plots and the remaining as core plots. Clear differences were detected in abundance, biomass, richness and diversity of terrestrial invertebrates depending on the C. fluminea density, time and position. Interestingly, the highest abundance of adult Diptera was observed 7days after C. fluminea addition, whereas that of the other terrestrial invertebrates was on day 30, both with C. fluminea densities higher than 500ind·m(-2) located on the edge of the experimental design. This study highlights the importance of major resource pulses after massive die-offs of invasive bivalves, contributing with remarkable amounts of carrion for adjacent terrestrial systems. Part of this carrion can be consumed directly by a great number of invertebrate species while the remainder can enter the detrital food web. Given the high density and biomass attained by several invasive bivalves worldwide and the predicted increase in the number, intensity and magnitude of extreme climatic events, the ecological importance of this phenomenon should be further investigated. Copyright © 2015

  11. Resource stoichiometry and availability modulate species richness and biomass of tropical litter macro-invertebrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jochum, Malte; Barnes, Andrew D; Weigelt, Patrick; Ott, David; Rembold, Katja; Farajallah, Achmad; Brose, Ulrich

    2017-09-01

    High biodiversity and biomass of soil communities are crucial for litter decomposition in terrestrial ecosystems such as tropical forests. However, the leaf litter that these communities consume is of particularly poor quality as indicated by elemental stoichiometry. The impact of resource quantity, quality and other habitat parameters on species richness and biomass of consumer communities is often studied in isolation, although much can be learned from simultaneously studying both community characteristics. Using a dataset of 780 macro-invertebrate consumer species across 32 sites in tropical lowland rain forest and agricultural systems on Sumatra, Indonesia, we investigated the effects of basal resource stoichiometry (C:X ratios of N, P, K, Ca, Mg, Na, S in local leaf litter), litter mass (basal resource quantity and habitat space), plant species richness (surrogate for litter habitat heterogeneity), and soil pH (acidity) on consumer species richness and biomass across different consumer groups (i.e. 3 feeding guilds and 10 selected taxonomic groups). In order to distinguish the most important predictors of consumer species richness and biomass, we applied a standardised model averaging approach investigating the effects of basal resource stoichiometry, litter mass, plant species richness and soil pH on both consumer community characteristics. This standardised approach enabled us to identify differences and similarities in the magnitude and importance of such effects on consumer species richness and biomass. Across consumer groups, we found litter mass to be the most important predictor of both species richness and biomass. Resource stoichiometry had a more pronounced impact on consumer species richness than on their biomass. As expected, taxonomic groups differed in which resource and habitat parameters (basal resource stoichiometry, litter mass, plant species richness and pH) were most important for modulating their community characteristics. The importance

  12. Does reef architectural complexity influence resource availability for a large reef-dwelling invertebrate?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lozano-Álvarez, Enrique; Luviano-Aparicio, Nelia; Negrete-Soto, Fernando; Barradas-Ortiz, Cecilia; Aguíñiga-García, Sergio; Morillo-Velarde, Piedad S.; Álvarez-Filip, Lorenzo; Briones-Fourzán, Patricia

    2017-10-01

    In coral reefs, loss of architectural complexity and its associated habitat degradation is expected to affect reef specialists in particular due to changes in resource availability. We explored whether these features could potentially affect populations of a large invertebrate, the spotted spiny lobster Panulirus guttatus, which is an obligate Caribbean coral reef-dweller with a limited home range. We selected two separate large coral reef patches in Puerto Morelos (Mexico) that differed significantly in structural complexity and level of degradation, as assessed via the rugosity index, habitat assessment score, and percent cover of various benthic components. On each reef, we estimated density of P. guttatus and sampled lobsters to analyze their stomach contents, three different condition indices, and stable isotopes (δ15N and δ13C) in muscle. Lobster density did not vary with reef, suggesting that available crevices in the less complex patch still provided adequate refuge to these lobsters. Lobsters consumed many food types, dominated by mollusks and crustaceans, but proportionally more crustaceans (herbivore crabs) in the less complex patch, which had more calcareous macroalgae and algal turf. Lobsters from both reefs had a similar condition (all three indices) and mean δ15N, suggesting a similar quality of diet between reefs related to their opportunistic feeding, but differed in mean δ13C values, reflecting the different carbon sources between reefs and providing indirect evidence of individuals of P. guttatus foraging exclusively over their home reef. Overall, we found no apparent effects of architectural complexity, at least to the degree observed in our less complex patch, on density, condition, or trophic level of P. guttatus.

  13. Hawaii ESI: INVERTPT (Invertebrate Points)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for native stream invertebrates, anchialine pool invertebrates, and threatened/endangered terrestrial...

  14. Crayfish impact desert river ecosystem function and litter-dwelling invertebrate communities through association with novel detrital resources.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric K Moody

    Full Text Available Shifts in plant species distributions due to global change are increasing the availability of novel resources in a variety of ecosystems worldwide. In semiarid riparian areas, hydric pioneer tree species are being replaced by drought-tolerant plant species as water availability decreases. Additionally, introduced omnivorous crayfish, which feed upon primary producers, allochthonous detritus, and benthic invertebrates, can impact communities at multiple levels through both direct and indirect effects mediated by drought-tolerant plants. We tested the impact of both virile crayfish (Orconectes virilis and litter type on benthic invertebrates and the effect of crayfish on detrital resources across a gradient of riparian vegetation drought-tolerance using field cages with leaf litter bags in the San Pedro River in Southeastern Arizona. Virile crayfish increased breakdown rate of novel drought-tolerant saltcedar (Tamarix ramosissima, but did not impact breakdown of drought-tolerant seepwillow (Baccharis salicifolia or hydric Fremont cottonwood (Populus fremontii and Gooding's willow (Salix goodingii. Effects on invertebrate diversity were observed at the litter bag scale, but no effects were found at the cage scale. Crayfish decreased alpha diversity of colonizing macroinvertebrates, but did not affect beta diversity. In contrast, the drought-tolerant litter treatment decreased beta diversity relative to hydric litter. As drought-tolerant species become more abundant in riparian zones, their litter will become a larger component of the organic matter budget of desert streams which may serve to homogenize the litter-dwelling community and support elevated populations of virile crayfish. Through impacts at multiple trophic levels, crayfish have a significant effect on desert stream ecosystems.

  15. Invertebrates and Plants :: NOAA Fisheries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Invertebrates & Plants Species of Concern Threatened & Endangered Health & Stranding Marine Mammals Chart Partnerships Fisheries Home » Protected Resources » Species Invertebrates and Plants White Marine Sanctuary Mollusks, corals, and brachiopods are three groups of marine invertebrates. To view ESA

  16. Light, earthworms, and soil resources as predictors of diversity of 10 soil invertebrate groups across monocultures of 14 tree species

    OpenAIRE

    Mueller, KE; Eisenhauer, N; Reich, PB; Hobbie, SE; Chadwick, OA; Chorover, J; Dobies, T; Hale, CM; Jagodziński, AM; Kałucka, I; Kasprowicz, M; Kieliszewska-Rokicka, B; Modrzyński, J; Roz en, A; Skorupski, M

    2016-01-01

    © 2015. Management of biodiversity and ecosystem services requires a better understanding of the factors that influence soil biodiversity. We characterized the species (or genera) richness of 10 taxonomic groups of invertebrate soil animals in replicated monocultures of 14 temperate tree species. The focal invertebrate groups ranged from microfauna to macrofauna: Lumbricidae, Nematoda, Oribatida, Gamasida, Opilionida, Araneida, Collembola, Formicidae, Carabidae, and Staphylinidae. Measurement...

  17. Predators and resources influence phosphorus transfer along an invertebrate food web through changes in prey behaviour.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edoardo Calizza

    Full Text Available Predators play a fundamental role in prey trophic behaviour, with indirect consequences for species coexistence and ecosystem functioning. Resource quality and availability also influence prey trophic behaviour, with potential effects on predator-prey dynamics. Although many studies have addressed these topics, little attention has been paid to the combined effects of predators and resources on prey species coexistence and nutrient transfer along food chains, especially in detritus-based systems. To determine the influence of predators and resource quality on the movement and P uptake of detritivores, we carried out a field experiment on the River Kelvin (Scotland using (32P to test the hypothesis of reduced prey vagility among resource patches as a strategy to avoid predation. Thirty leaf sacks containing alder leaves and two detritivore prey populations (Asellus aquaticus and Lymnaea peregra were placed in cages, half of them with two predator species (Dendrocoelum lacteum and Erpobdella octoculata and the other half without predators. Five alder leaf bags, each individually inoculated with a different fungus strain to simulate a patchy habitat, were placed inside each leaf sack. One bag in each sack was labelled with (32P, in order to assess the proportion of detritivores using it as food and thus their movement among the five resource patches. Three replicates for each labelled fungus and each predation treatment (i.e. with and without predators were left on the riverbed for 7 days. The presence of predators had negligible effects on the number of detritivores in the leaf bags, but it did reduce the proportion of (32P-labelled detritivores and their P uptake. The most strongly affected species was A. aquaticus, whose vagility, trophic overlap with L. peregra and P uptake were all reduced. The results confirm the importance of bottom-up and top-down forces acting simultaneously to regulate nutrient transfer along food chains in patchy

  18. CTD, marine invertebrate pathology, benthic organisms, and marine toxic substances and pollutants data collected using CTD casts and other instruments from SEA TRANSPORTER and other platforms in Gulf of Mexico from 1978-05-20 to 1979-01-15 (NODC Accession 8000022)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — CTD, marine invertebrate pathology, benthic organisms, and marine toxic substances and pollutants data were collected using CTD, net casts, and other instruments...

  19. Invertebrate lamins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Melcer, Shai; Gruenbaum, Yosef; Krohne, Georg

    2007-01-01

    Lamins are the main component of the nuclear lamina and considered to be the ancestors of all intermediate filament proteins. They are localized mainly at the nuclear periphery where they form protein complexes with integral proteins of the nuclear inner membrane, transcriptional regulators, histones and chromatin modifiers. Studying lamins in invertebrate species has unique advantages including the smaller number of lamin genes in the invertebrate genomes and powerful genetic analyses in Caenorhabditis elegans and Drosophila melanogaster. These simpler nuclear lamina systems allow direct analyses of their structure and functions. Here we give an overview of recent advances in the field of invertebrate nuclear lamins with special emphasis on their evolution, assembly and functions

  20. Invertebrate biomechanics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patek, S N; Summers, A P

    2017-05-22

    Invertebrate biomechanics focuses on mechanical analyses of non-vertebrate animals, which at root is no different in aim and technique from vertebrate biomechanics, or for that matter the biomechanics of plants and fungi. But invertebrates are special - they are fabulously diverse in form, habitat, and ecology and manage this without the use of hard, internal skeletons. They are also numerous and, in many cases, tractable in an experimental and field setting. In this Primer, we will probe three axes of invertebrate diversity: worms (Phylum Annelida), spiders (Class Arachnida) and insects (Class Insecta); three habitats: subterranean, terrestrial and airborne; and three integrations with other fields: ecology, engineering and evolution. Our goal is to capture the field of invertebrate biomechanics, which has blossomed from having a primary focus on discoveries at the interface of physics and biology to being inextricably linked with integrative challenges that span biology, physics, mathematics and engineering. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Invertebrate neurophylogeny

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Richter, Stefan; Loesel, Rudi; Purschke, Günter

    2010-01-01

    Invertebrate nervous systems are highly disparate between different taxa. This is reflected in the terminology used to describe them, which is very rich and often confusing. Even very general terms such as 'brain', 'nerve', and 'eye' have been used in various ways in the different animal groups......, but no consensus on the exact meaning exists. This impedes our understanding of the architecture of the invertebrate nervous system in general and of evolutionary transformations of nervous system characters between different taxa....

  2. Louisiana ESI: INVERT (Invertebrate Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for marine and estuarine invertebrate species, and major concentration areas for harvested or potentially...

  3. Alabama ESI: INVERT (Invertebrate Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for marine and estuarine invertebrate species in Alabama. Vector polygons in this data set represent...

  4. Virginia ESI: INVERT (Invertebrate Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for marine, estuarine, and rare invertebrate species in Virginia. Vector polygons in this data set...

  5. Hawaii ESI: INVERT (Invertebrate Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for marine, estuarine, terrestrial, and native stream invertebrate species in coastal Hawaii. Vector...

  6. Zoology: Invertebrates that Parasitize Invertebrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giribet, Gonzalo

    2016-07-11

    The genome of an orthonectid, a group of highly modified parasitic invertebrates, is drastically reduced and compact, yet it shows the bilaterian gene toolkit. Phylogenetic analyses place the enigmatic orthonectids within Spiralia, although their exact placement remains uncertain. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Invertebrates in the Classroom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abramson, Charles I.

    1986-01-01

    Describes an inexpensive program using invertebrates as subjects in conditioning demonstrations and experiments. Provides a bibliography of reviews about invertebrate learning in addition to information on obtaining required apparatus and invertebrates.

  8. Positives and pathologies of natural resource management on private land-conservation areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clements, Hayley S; Cumming, Graeme S

    2017-06-01

    In managed natural resource systems, such as fisheries and rangelands, there is a recognized trade-off between managing for short-term benefits and managing for longer term resilience. Management actions that stabilize ecological attributes or processes can improve productivity in the supply of ecosystem goods and services in the short term but erode system resilience at longer time scales. For example, fire suppression in rangelands can increase grass biomass initially but ultimately result in an undesirable, shrub-dominated system. Analyses of this phenomenon have focused largely on how management actions influence slow-changing biophysical system attributes (such as vegetation composition). Data on the frequency of management actions that reduce natural ecological variation on 66 private land-conservation areas (PLCAs) in South Africa were used to investigate how management actions are influenced by manager decision-making approaches, a largely ignored part of the problem. The pathology of natural resource management was evident on some PLCAs: increased focus on revenue-generation in decision making resulted in an increased frequency of actions to stabilize short-term variation in large mammal populations, which led to increased revenues from ecotourism or hunting. On many PLCAs, these management actions corresponded with a reduced focus on ecological monitoring and an increase in overstocking of game (i.e., ungulate species) and stocking of extralimitals (i.e., game species outside their historical range). Positives in natural resource management also existed. Some managers monitored slower changing ecological attributes, which resulted in less-intensive management, fewer extralimital species, and lower stocking rates. Our unique, empirical investigation of monitoring-management relationships illustrates that management decisions informed by revenue monitoring versus ecological monitoring can have opposing consequences for natural resource productivity and

  9. Extension plant pathology: strengthening resources to continue serving the public interest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Everts, K L; Osborne, L; Gevens, A J; Vasquez, S J; Gugino, B K; Ivors, K; Harmon, C

    2012-07-01

    Extension plant pathologists deliver science-based information that protects the economic value of agricultural and horticultural crops in the United States by educating growers and the general public about plant diseases. Extension plant pathologists diagnose plant diseases and disorders, provide advice, and conduct applied research on local and regional plant disease problems. During the last century, extension plant pathology programs have adjusted to demographic shifts in the U.S. population and to changes in program funding. Extension programs are now more collaborative and more specialized in response to a highly educated clientele. Changes in federal and state budgets and policies have also reduced funding and shifted the source of funding of extension plant pathologists from formula funds towards specialized competitive grants. These competitive grants often favor national over local and regional plant disease issues and typically require a long lead time to secure funding. These changes coupled with a reduction in personnel pose a threat to extension plant pathology programs. Increasing demand for high-quality, unbiased information and the continued reduction in local, state, and federal funds is unsustainable and, if not abated, will lead to a delay in response to emerging diseases, reduce crop yields, increase economic losses, and place U.S. agriculture at a global competitive disadvantage. In this letter, we outline four recommendations to strengthen the role and resources of extension plant pathologists as they guide our nation's food, feed, fuel, fiber, and ornamental producers into an era of increasing technological complexity and global competitiveness.

  10. Columbia River ESI: INVERT (Invertebrate Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for clams, oysters, crabs, and other invertebrate species in Columbia River. Vector polygons in this data...

  11. Biotechnology in invertebrate pathology and cell culture

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Maramorosch, Karl

    1987-01-01

    ... , OR OR ANY A N Y INFORMATION I N F O R M T STORAGE S A G E AND A RETRIEVAL E V L SYSTEM. S Y S T E M , WITHOUT WITHOUT PERMISSION P E R M I S S I O N IN WRITING G FROM F R O M THE PUBLISHER. PUBLISHER A L ...

  12. Development and evolution of The Knowledge Hub for Pathology and related electronic resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardwick, David F; Sinard, John; Silva, Fred

    2011-06-01

    The Knowledge Hub for Pathology was created to provide authenticated and validated knowledge for United States and Canadian Academy of Pathology members and pathologists worldwide with access to the Web. Using the material presented at the annual meeting of the United States and Canadian Academy of Pathology with existing selection and review procedures ensured that these criteria were met without added costly procedures. Further submissions for courses and research papers are provided in electronic format and funded by universities and hospitals for their creation; thus, the principal costs borne by the United States and Canadian Academy of Pathology are Web site-posting costs. Use has escalated rapidly from 2 million hits in 2002 to 51 million in 2009 with use by 35,000 pathologists from now a total of 180 countries. This true "freemium" model is a successful process as are more traditional continuing professional development course structures such as Anatomic Pathology Electronic Case Series, a "premium" model for learning electronically also sponsored by the United States and Canadian Academy of Pathology. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Personal resources and satisfaction with life in Marfan syndrome patients with aortic pathology and in abdominal aortic aneurysm patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanišić, Michał-Goran; Rzepa, Teresa; Gawrońska, Alicja; Kubaszewski, Przemysław; Putowski, Maciej; Stefaniak, Sebastian; Perek, Bartłomiej

    2018-03-01

    Whether or not the source of aortic pathology is Marfan syndrome (MFS) or other processes leading to development of abdominal aorta aneurysms (AAA), the awareness of pathology may lead to an emotional upset and low assessment of satisfaction with life. To assess, in regard to MFS patients with aortic pathology and to abdominal aortic aneurysm patients: 1) whether or not self-efficacy (SE) and health locus of control (HLoC) affect the patients' satisfaction with life; 2) whether the two groups of patients differ in terms of mental dispositions. The study population consisted of 16 MFS patients with aortic pathology and 16 AAA patients, 9 men and 7 women in each group. The mean age of the MFS patients was 28.5 ±8.214, and of the AAA patients 64.25 ±7.019. The following scales were applied: Generalized Self-Efficacy Scale, Satisfaction With Life Scale, Multidimensional Health Locus of Control Scale. Abdominal aorta aneurysms patients compared to MFS patients gave a higher rating for SE ( MD = 33.94 and MD = 29.56), internal health locus of control ( MD = 25.00 and MD = 21.13), external personal HL o C ( MD = 24.50 and MD = 19.25), external impersonal HLoC ( MD = 23.06 and MD = 18.25), and satisfaction with life ( M = 22.06 and M = 20.13). Internal and external HL o C were significantly lower in MFS patients compared to AAA patients. In patients with aortic diseases, special attention must be paid to the state of personal resources (PR). Interactions made by medical professionals should focus on enhancing PR supporting the patients' self-knowledge on their SE. This will help to improve their satisfaction with life and form a positive attitude to the illness.

  14. Guam and the Northern Mariana Islands ESI: INVERT (Invertebrate Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for intertidal-, reef-, and mangrove-associated invertebrate species in Guam and the Northern Mariana...

  15. Variation in composition of macro-benthic invertebrates as an ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mo

    1 Makerere University Institute of Environment & Natural Resources, P.O. Box 7062 Kampala-Uganda ... benthic macro-invertebrates communities were evaluated using GIS techniques along an ...... Kendall Hunt Publishing Company, Iowa.

  16. Immune memory in invertebrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milutinović, Barbara; Kurtz, Joachim

    2016-08-01

    Evidence for innate immune memory (or 'priming') in invertebrates has been accumulating over the last years. We here provide an in-depth review of the current state of evidence for immune memory in invertebrates, and in particular take a phylogenetic viewpoint. Invertebrates are a very heterogeneous group of animals and accordingly, evidence for the phenomenon of immune memory as well as the hypothesized molecular underpinnings differ largely for the diverse invertebrate taxa. The majority of research currently focuses on Arthropods, while evidence from many other groups of invertebrates is fragmentary or even lacking. We here concentrate on immune memory that is induced by pathogenic challenges, but also extent our view to a non-pathogenic context, i.e. allograft rejection, which can also show forms of memory and can inform us about general principles of specific self-nonself recognition. We discuss definitions of immune memory and a number of relevant aspects such as the type of antigens used, the route of exposure, and the kinetics of reactions following priming. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Pathbase: A new reference resource and database for laboratory mouse pathology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schofield, P. N.; Bard, J. B. L.; Boniver, J.; Covelli, V.; Delvenne, P.; Ellender, M.; Engstrom, W.; Goessner, W.; Gruenberger, M.; Hoefler, H.; Hopewell, J. W.; Mancuso, M.; Mothersill, C.; Quintanilla-Martinez, L.; Rozell, B.; Sariola, H.; Sundberg, J. P.; Ward, A.

    2004-01-01

    Pathbase (http:/www.pathbase.net) is a web accessible database of histopathological images of laboratory mice, developed as a resource for the coding and archiving of data derived from the analysis of mutant or genetically engineered mice and their background strains. The metadata for the images, which allows retrieval and inter-operability with other databases, is derived from a series of orthogonal ontologies, and controlled vocabularies. One of these controlled vocabularies, MPATH, was developed by the Pathbase Consortium as a formal description of the content of mouse histopathological images. The database currently has over 1000 images on-line with 2000 more under curation and presents a paradigm for the development of future databases dedicated to aspects of experimental biology. (authors)

  18. Antifouling Compounds from Marine Invertebrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Shu-Hua; Ma, Xuan

    2017-08-28

    In this review, a comprehensive overview about the antifouling compounds from marine invertebrates is described. In total, more than 198 antifouling compounds have been obtained from marine invertebrates, specifically, sponges, gorgonian and soft corals.

  19. Aquarium Culture of Freshwater Invertebrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Timothy S.

    1996-01-01

    Describes two methods for rearing small aquatic invertebrates using submerged surfaces in an unfiltered current of water where fish are present. Presents suggestions on how to use the invertebrate communities in the classroom. (JRH)

  20. Antifouling Compounds from Marine Invertebrates

    OpenAIRE

    Qi, Shu-Hua; Ma, Xuan

    2017-01-01

    In this review, a comprehensive overview about the antifouling compounds from marine invertebrates is described. In total, more than 198 antifouling compounds have been obtained from marine invertebrates, specifically, sponges, gorgonian and soft corals.

  1. Invertebrates and Plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wendell R. Haag; Robert J. Distefano; Siobhan Fennessy; Brett D. Marshall

    2013-01-01

    Invertebrates and plants are among the most ubiquitous and abundant macroscopic organisms in aquatic ecosystems; they dominate most habitats in both diversity and biomass and play central roles in aquatic food webs. Plants regulate and create habitats for a wide array of organisms (Cooke et al. 2005). Snail grazing and bivalve filtering profoundly alter habitats and...

  2. Tube-dwelling invertebrates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hölker, Franz; Vanni, Michael J.; Kuiper, Jan J.; Meile, Christof; Grossart, Hans Peter; Stief, Peter; Adrian, Rita; Lorke, Andreas; Dellwig, Olaf; Brand, Andreas; Hupfer, Michael; Mooij, Wolf M.; Nützmann, Gunnar; Lewandowski, Jörg

    2015-01-01

    There is ample evidence that tube-dwelling invertebrates such as chironomids significantly alter multiple important ecosystem functions, particularly in shallow lakes. Chironomids pump large water volumes, and associated suspended and dissolved substances, through the sediment and thereby compete

  3. Enzyme Histochemistry for Functional Histology in Invertebrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cima, Francesca

    2017-01-01

    In invertebrates, enzyme histochemistry has recently found a renaissance regarding its applications in morphology and ecology. Many enzyme activities are useful for the morphofunctional characterization of cells, as biomarkers of biological and pathologic processes, and as markers of the response to environmental stressors. Here, the adjustments to classic techniques, including the most common enzymes used for digestion, absorption, transport, and oxidation, as well as techniques for azo-coupling, metal salt substitution and oxidative coupling polymerization, are presented in detail for various terrestrial and aquatic invertebrates. This chapter also provides strategies to solve the problems regarding anesthesia, small body size, the presence of an exo- or endoskeleton and the search for the best fixative in relation to the internal fluid osmolarity. These techniques have the aim of obtaining good results for both the pre- and post-embedding labeling of specimens, tissue blocks, sections, and hemolymph smears using both light and transmission electron microscopy.

  4. Invertebrates in managed waterfowl marshes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stafford, Joshua D.; Janke, Adam K.; Webb, Elisabeth B.; Chipps, Steven R.

    2016-01-01

    Invertebrates are an important food for breeding, migrating, and wintering waterfowl. Sparse study has been devoted to understanding the influence of waterfowl and wetland management on production of invertebrates for waterfowl foods; however, manipulation of hydrology and soils may change or enhance production. Fish can compete with waterfowl for invertebrate forage in wetlands and harm aquatic macrophytes; biomanipulation (e.g., stocking piscivores) may improve waterfowl habitat quality. Similarly, some terrestrial vertebrates (e.g., beaver (Castor canadensis)) may positively or negatively impact invertebrate communities in waterfowl habitats. Various challenges exist to wetland management for invertebrates for waterfowl, but the lack of data on factors influencing production may be the most limiting.

  5. Antimicrobial Compounds from Marine Invertebrates-Derived Microorganisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Juan; Jung, Jee H; Liu, Yonghong

    2016-01-01

    It is known that marine invertebrates, including sponges, tunicates, cnidaria or mollusks, host affluent and various communities of symbiotic microorganisms. The microorganisms associated with the invertebrates metabolized various biologically active compounds, which could be an important resource for the discovery and development of potentially novel drugs. In this review, the new compounds with antimicrobial activity isolated from marine invertebrate-derived microorganisms in the last decade (2004-2014) will be presented, with focus on the relevant antimicrobial activities, origin of isolation, and information of strain species. New compounds without antimicrobial activity were not revealed.

  6. Insects and other invertebrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    John R. Jones; Norbert V. DeByle; Diane M. Bowers

    1985-01-01

    Quaking aspen throughout its range appears to be host to several insect and other invertebrate pests (fig. 1). It is a short-lived species that is palatable to a large variety of animals. Furniss and Carolin (1977) listed 33 insect species that use aspen as a food source. Some are quite damaging and may kill otherwise healthy stands of aspen; others feed on weakened or...

  7. Bromeliads in Caatinga: an oasis for invertebrates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priscila Islair

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/2175-7925.2015v28n1p67 The Bromeliaceae family exhibits several adaptations that allow the occurrence of its members in different physiognomies, including the Caatinga. The arrangement of leaves in rosette forms a cistern or tank, in which nutrient-rich water accumulates. This provides a microhabitat for reproduction, feeding, and larval development of many invertebrates. The aim of this study was to survey the bromeliad-associated invertebrate fauna to test the hypothesis of seasonal changes in community composition. We conducted two surveys in the rainy (February, 2011 and dry (August, 2012 seasons in the Floresta Nacional (Flona of Contendas do Sincorá, municipality of Contendas do Sincorá, Bahia state, Brazil. We delimited fifteen 5 m x 5 m sampling plots along a 355 m trail. Two terrestrial bromeliads (Aechmea bromeliifolia were collected per plot. Invertebrate fauna were identified and richness, abundance and composition were analyzed. The richness of taxa did not differ between seasons and was considered high for Caatinga. Abundance and composition differed between the rainy and dry seasons. The present study demonstrates the importance of bromeliads as available water resources for the local invertebrate community. Our findings also provide a framework for more in-depth studies on animal-plant interactions, and for the conservation of Caatinga animals and plants.

  8. Bromeliads in Caatinga: an oasis for invertebrates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priscila Islair

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The Bromeliaceae family exhibits several adaptations that allow the occurrence of its members in different physiognomies, including the Caatinga. The arrangement of leaves in rosette forms a cistern or tank, in which nutrient-rich water accumulates. This provides a microhabitat for reproduction, feeding, and larval development of many invertebrates. The aim of this study was to survey the bromeliad-associated invertebrate fauna to test the hypothesis of seasonal changes in community composition. We conducted two surveys in the rainy (February, 2011 and dry (August, 2012 seasons in the Floresta Nacional (Flona of Contendas do Sincorá, municipality of Contendas do Sincorá, Bahia state, Brazil. We delimited fifteen 5 m x 5 m sampling plots along a 355 m trail. Two terrestrial bromeliads (Aechmea bromeliifolia were collected per plot. Invertebrate fauna were identified and richness, abundance and composition were analyzed. The richness of taxa did not differ between seasons and was considered high for Caatinga. Abundance and composition differed between the rainy and dry seasons. The present study demonstrates the importance of bromeliads as available water resources for the local invertebrate community. Our findings also provide a framework for more in-depth studies on animal-plant interactions, and for the conservation of Caatinga animal and plant.

  9. 78 FR 14503 - Amendment 4 to the Corals and Reef Associated Plants and Invertebrates Fishery Management Plan of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-06

    .... 120718255-3038-01] RIN 0648-BC38 Amendment 4 to the Corals and Reef Associated Plants and Invertebrates... Fishery Management Plan (FMP) for Corals and Reef Associated Plants and Invertebrates of Puerto Rico and... the coral reef resources FMU to include a vast array of plants and invertebrates that provide habitats...

  10. Invertebrate welfare: an overlooked issue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelsey Horvath

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available While invertebrates make up the majority of animal species, their welfare is overlooked compared to the concern shown to vertebrates. This fact is highlighted by the near absence of regulations in animal research, with the exception of cephalopods in the European Union. This is often justified by assumptions that invertebrates do not experience pain and stress while lacking the capacity for higher order cognitive functions. Recent research suggests that invertebrates may be just as capable as vertebrates in experiencing pain and stress, and some species display comparable cognitive capacities. Another obstacle is the negative view of invertebrates by the public, which often regards them as pests with no individual personalities, gastronomic entities, or individuals for scientific experimentation without rules. Increasingly, studies have revealed that invertebrates possess individual profiles comparable to the personalities found in vertebrates. Given the large economic impact of invertebrates, developing certain attitude changes in invertebrate welfare may be beneficial for producers while providing higher welfare conditions for the animals. While the immense number and type of species makes it difficult to suggest that all invertebrates will benefit from increased welfare, in this review we provide evidence that the topic of invertebrate welfare should be revisited, more thoroughly investigated, and in cases where appropriate, formally instituted.

  11. CASA in invertebrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Horst, Gerhard; Bennett, Monique; Bishop, John D D

    2018-04-09

    Sperm movement has been described in several phyla of invertebrates. Yet, sperm motility has only been quantified using computer-aided sperm analysis (CASA-Mot) in externally fertilising species (broadcast spawners) of two phyla, molluscs and echinoderms. In the present study we quantified in detail the nature of the sperm tracks, percentage motility groupings and detailed kinematics of rapid-, medium- and slow-swimming spermatozoa in the oyster Crassostrea gigas and four species never previously studied by CASA-Mot, namely the molluscs Choromytilus meridionalis, Donax serra and Haliotis midae and the echinoderm Parechinus angulosus. A feature common to all these species are the helical tracks, the diameter of which seems to be species specific. Using CASA-Mot, the behaviour of spermatozoa was also studied over time and in the presence of egg water and Ca2+ modulators such as caffeine and procaine hydrochloride. For the first time, we show that hyperactivation can be induced in all species in the presence of egg water (sea water that was mixed with mature eggs and then centrifuged) and/or caffeine, and these hyperactivated sperm tracks were characterised using CASA-Mot. We relate the different patterns of sperm motility and behaviour to reproductive strategies such as broadcast spawning and spermcasting, and briefly review studies using CASA-Mot on other invertebrates.

  12. Copper hazards to fish, wildlife and invertebrates: a synoptic review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisler, Ronald

    1998-01-01

    Selective review and synthesis of the technical literature on copper and copper salts in the environment and their effects primarily on fishes, birds, mammals, terrestrial and aquatic invertebrates, and other natural resources. The subtopics include copper sources and uses; chemical and biochemical properties; concentrations of copper in field collections of abiotic materials and living organisms; effects of copper deficiency; lethal and sublethal effects on terrestrial plants and invertebrates, aquatic organisms, birds and mammals, including effects on survival, growth, reproduction, behavior, metabolism, carcinogenicity, matagenicity, and teratogenicity; proposed criteria for the protection of human health and sensitive natural resources; and recommendations for additional research.

  13. Cellular and molecular modifier pathways in tauopathies: the big picture from screening invertebrate models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hannan, Shabab B; Dräger, Nina M; Rasse, Tobias M; Voigt, Aaron; Jahn, Thomas R

    2016-04-01

    Abnormal tau accumulations were observed and documented in post-mortem brains of patients affected by Alzheimer's disease (AD) long before the identification of mutations in the Microtubule-associated protein tau (MAPT) gene, encoding the tau protein, in a different neurodegenerative disease called Frontotemporal dementia and Parkinsonism linked to chromosome 17 (FTDP-17). The discovery of mutations in the MAPT gene associated with FTDP-17 highlighted that dysfunctions in tau alone are sufficient to cause neurodegeneration. Invertebrate models have been diligently utilized in investigating tauopathies, contributing to the understanding of cellular and molecular pathways involved in disease etiology. An important discovery came with the demonstration that over-expression of human tau in Drosophila leads to premature mortality and neuronal dysfunction including neurodegeneration, recapitulating some key neuropathological features of the human disease. The simplicity of handling invertebrate models combined with the availability of a diverse range of experimental resources make these models, in particular Drosophila a powerful invertebrate screening tool. Consequently, several large-scale screens have been performed using Drosophila, to identify modifiers of tau toxicity. The screens have revealed not only common cellular and molecular pathways, but in some instances the same modifier has been independently identified in two or more screens suggesting a possible role for these modifiers in regulating tau toxicity. The purpose of this review is to discuss the genetic modifier screens on tauopathies performed in Drosophila and C. elegans models, and to highlight the common cellular and molecular pathways that have emerged from these studies. Here, we summarize results of tau toxicity screens providing mechanistic insights into pathological alterations in tauopathies. Key pathways or modifiers that have been identified are associated with a broad range of processes

  14. Invertebrate diversity in southern California

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This shapefile displays mean invertebrate diversity within 5 minute grid cells. The Shannon Index of diversity was calculated from Southern California Coastal Water...

  15. The invertebrate communities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    FloBner, D.; Kasprzak, P.; Mothes, G.; Ronneberger, D.; Schonborn, W.

    1985-01-01

    Studies of invertebrate communities have been carried out to a certain extent in the whole Lake Stechlin area, but especially with reference to Lake Stechlin. The chapter summarizes important results of detailed investigations over a long period, made by several researchers in the periods before and after the nuclear power plant came into operation. The following sections deal with the combination of species, frequency, types of life-form, structure and dynamics of the living community of zoobenthos and zooplankton. Not dealt with or only considered in passing are Amoebina, Heliozoa, Ciliata, Turbellaria (excl. Tricladida), Nematoda, Tardigrada, Gastrotricha, and partly Oligochaeta. The research into micro-and meiooobenthos are limited to the years 1959-1968. Data after the bringing into operation of the nuclear power plant refer only to macrozoobenthos. Before the operation of the nuclear power plant the planktonic Rotaroria and Crustacea were examined only qualitatively. The first quantitative analysis of the zooplankton-community was undertaken in 1968, and only from 1978 onwards has continuous and comprehensive research information about the zooplankton in Lake Stechlin been available

  16. RUNX in Invertebrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, S; Woollard, A

    2017-01-01

    Runx genes have been identified in all metazoans and considerable conservation of function observed across a wide range of phyla. Thus, insight gained from studying simple model organisms is invaluable in understanding RUNX biology in higher animals. Consequently, this chapter will focus on the Runx genes in the diploblasts, which includes sea anemones and sponges, as well as the lower triploblasts, including the sea urchin, nematode, planaria and insect. Due to the high degree of functional redundancy amongst vertebrate Runx genes, simpler model organisms with a solo Runx gene, like C. elegans, are invaluable systems in which to probe the molecular basis of RUNX function within a whole organism. Additionally, comparative analyses of Runx sequence and function allows for the development of novel evolutionary insights. Strikingly, recent data has emerged that reveals the presence of a Runx gene in a protist, demonstrating even more widespread occurrence of Runx genes than was previously thought. This review will summarize recent progress in using invertebrate organisms to investigate RUNX function during development and regeneration, highlighting emerging unifying themes.

  17. Associative Learning in Invertebrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawkins, Robert D.; Byrne, John H.

    2015-01-01

    This work reviews research on neural mechanisms of two types of associative learning in the marine mollusk Aplysia, classical conditioning of the gill- and siphon-withdrawal reflex and operant conditioning of feeding behavior. Basic classical conditioning is caused in part by activity-dependent facilitation at sensory neuron–motor neuron (SN–MN) synapses and involves a hybrid combination of activity-dependent presynaptic facilitation and Hebbian potentiation, which are coordinated by trans-synaptic signaling. Classical conditioning also shows several higher-order features, which might be explained by the known circuit connections in Aplysia. Operant conditioning is caused in part by a different type of mechanism, an intrinsic increase in excitability of an identified neuron in the central pattern generator (CPG) for feeding. However, for both classical and operant conditioning, adenylyl cyclase is a molecular site of convergence of the two signals that are associated. Learning in other invertebrate preparations also involves many of the same mechanisms, which may contribute to learning in vertebrates as well. PMID:25877219

  18. Cancer Digital Slide Archive: an informatics resource to support integrated in silico analysis of TCGA pathology data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutman, David A; Cobb, Jake; Somanna, Dhananjaya; Park, Yuna; Wang, Fusheng; Kurc, Tahsin; Saltz, Joel H; Brat, Daniel J; Cooper, Lee A D

    2013-01-01

    Background The integration and visualization of multimodal datasets is a common challenge in biomedical informatics. Several recent studies of The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) data have illustrated important relationships between morphology observed in whole-slide images, outcome, and genetic events. The pairing of genomics and rich clinical descriptions with whole-slide imaging provided by TCGA presents a unique opportunity to perform these correlative studies. However, better tools are needed to integrate the vast and disparate data types. Objective To build an integrated web-based platform supporting whole-slide pathology image visualization and data integration. Materials and methods All images and genomic data were directly obtained from the TCGA and National Cancer Institute (NCI) websites. Results The Cancer Digital Slide Archive (CDSA) produced is accessible to the public (http://cancer.digitalslidearchive.net) and currently hosts more than 20 000 whole-slide images from 22 cancer types. Discussion The capabilities of CDSA are demonstrated using TCGA datasets to integrate pathology imaging with associated clinical, genomic and MRI measurements in glioblastomas and can be extended to other tumor types. CDSA also allows URL-based sharing of whole-slide images, and has preliminary support for directly sharing regions of interest and other annotations. Images can also be selected on the basis of other metadata, such as mutational profile, patient age, and other relevant characteristics. Conclusions With the increasing availability of whole-slide scanners, analysis of digitized pathology images will become increasingly important in linking morphologic observations with genomic and clinical endpoints. PMID:23893318

  19. Sensitivity of Coastal Environments and Wildlife to Spilled Oil: Hudson River: INVERT (Invertebrate Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for marine and estuarine invertebrate species for the Hudson River. Vector polygons in this data set...

  20. Sensitivity of Coastal Environments and Wildlife to Spilled Oil: Northwest Arctic, Alaska: INVERT (Invertebrate Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for marine and estuarine invertebrate species in Northwest Arctic, Alaska. Vector polygons in this data set...

  1. Sensitivity of Coastal Environments and Wildlife to Spilled Oil: Florida Panhandle: INVERTPT (Invertebrate Points)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for threatened/endangered invertebrate species for the Florida Panhandle. Vector points in this data set...

  2. Sensitivity of Coastal Environments and Wildlife to Spilled Oil: Mississippi: INVERT (Invertebrate Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for marine, estuarine, and brackish water invertebrate species in Mississippi. Vector polygons in this data...

  3. Rhode Island, Connecticut, New York, and New Jersey ESI: INVERT (Invertebrate Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for marine, estuarine, and terrestrial invertebrate species in coastal Rhode Island, Connecticut, New York,...

  4. Sensitivity of Coastal Environments and Wildlife to Spilled Oil: Central California: INVERT (Invertebrate Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for marine, intertidal/subtidal, and terrestrial invertebrate species in Central California. Vector...

  5. Rhode Island, Connecticut, New York, and New Jersey ESI: INVERTPT (Invertebrate Points)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for rare terrestrial invertebrates in coastal Rhode Island, Connecticut, New York, and New Jersey. Vector...

  6. Sensitivity of Coastal Environments and Wildlife to Spilled Oil: New Hampshire: INVERT (Invertebrate Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for marine, and estuarine invertebrate species in New Hampshire. Vector polygons in this data set represent...

  7. Sensitivity of Coastal Environments and Wildlife to Spilled Oil: Upper Coast of Texas: INVERT (Invertebrate Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for marine and estuarine invertebrate species for the Upper Coast of Texas. Vector polygons in this data...

  8. Sensitivity of Coastal Environments and Wildlife to Spilled Oil: South Florida: INVERT (Invertebrate Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for marine and estuarine invertebrate species in South Florida. Vector polygons in this data set represent...

  9. Sensitivity of Coastal Environments and Wildlife to Spilled Oil: Florida Panhandle: INVERT (Invertebrate Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for marine, estuarine, and freshwater (limited to threatened/endangered/rare) invertebrate species for the...

  10. Sensitivity of Coastal Environments and Wildlife to Spilled Oil: North Carolina: INVERT (Invertebrate Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for marine and estuarine invertebrate species in North Carolina. Vector polygons in this data set represent...

  11. Sensitivity of Coastal Environments and Wildlife to Spilled Oil: Northern California: INVERT (Invertebrate Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for marine, estuarine, freshwater, and terrestrial invertebrate species in Northern California. Vector...

  12. The overlooked biodiversity of flower-visiting invertebrates.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carl W Wardhaugh

    Full Text Available Estimates suggest that perhaps 40% of all invertebrate species are found in tropical rainforest canopies. Extrapolations of total diversity and food web analyses have been based almost exclusively on species inhabiting the foliage, under the assumption that foliage samples are representative of the entire canopy. We examined the validity of this assumption by comparing the density of invertebrates and the species richness of beetles across three canopy microhabitats (mature leaves, new leaves and flowers on a one hectare plot in an Australian tropical rainforest. Specifically, we tested two hypotheses: 1 canopy invertebrate density and species richness are directly proportional to the amount of resource available; and 2 canopy microhabitats represent discrete resources that are utilised by their own specialised invertebrate communities. We show that flowers in the canopy support invertebrate densities that are ten to ten thousand times greater than on the nearby foliage when expressed on a per-unit resource biomass basis. Furthermore, species-level analyses of the beetle fauna revealed that flowers support a unique and remarkably rich fauna compared to foliage, with very little species overlap between microhabitats. We reject the hypothesis that the insect fauna on mature foliage is representative of the greater canopy community even though mature foliage comprises a very large proportion of canopy plant biomass. Although the significance of the evolutionary relationship between flowers and insects is well known with respect to plant reproduction, less is known about the importance of flowers as resources for tropical insects. Consequently, we suggest that this constitutes a more important piece of the 'diversity jigsaw puzzle' than has been previously recognised and could alter our understanding of the evolution of plant-herbivore interactions and food web dynamics, and provide a better foundation for accurately estimating global species

  13. Pathologic conditions in pregnancy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beomonte Zobel, B.; Tella, S.; Innacoli, M.; D'Archivio, C.; Cardone, G.; Masciocchi, C.; Gallucci, M.; Passariello, R.; Cappa, F.

    1991-01-01

    Soma authors suggested that MR imaging could rapresent an effective diagnostic alternative in the study of pathologic conditions of mother and fetus during pregnancy. To verify the actual role of MR imaging, we examined 20 patients in the 2nd and 3rd trimester of gestation, after a preliminary US examination. Fifteen patients presented fetal or placental pathologies; in 4 patients the onset of the pathologic condition occurred during pregnancy; in 1 case of US diagnosis of fetal ascites, MR findings were nornal and the newborn was healty. As for placental pathologies, our series included a case of placental cyst, two hematomas between placenta and uterine wall, and two cases of partial placenta previa. As for fetal malformation, we evaluated a case of omphalocele, one of Prune-Belly syndrome, a case of femoral asimmetry, one of thanatophoric dwarfism, a case of thoracopagus twins with cardiovascular abnormalities, two fetal hydrocephali, and three cases of pyelo-ureteral stenosis. As for maternal pathologies during pregnancy, we observed a case of subserous uterine fibromyoma, one of of right hydronephrosis, one of protrusion of lumbar invertebral disk, and a large ovarian cyst. In our experience, MR imaging exhibited high sensitivity and a large field of view, which were both useful in the investigation of the different conditions occurring during pregnancy. In the evaluation of fetal and placental abnormalities, especially during the 3rd trimester, the diagnostic yieldof MR imaging suggested it as a complementary technique to US for the evaluation of fetal malformation and of intrauterine growth retardation

  14. Lost in Translation: Understanding Students' Use of Social Networking and Online Resources to Support Early Clinical Practices. A National Survey of Graduate Speech-Language Pathology Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boster, Jamie B.; McCarthy, John W.

    2018-01-01

    The Internet is a source of many resources for graduate speech-language pathology (SLP) students. It is important to understand the resources students are aware of, which they use, and why they are being chosen as sources of information for therapy activities. A national online survey of graduate SLP students was conducted to assess their…

  15. STUDY ON ORGANIZATIONAL PATHOLOGY AND IMPLICATIONS ON HUMAN RESOURCES JOB SATISFACTION, ALSO ON THE EMPLOYMENT OF THE LABOR MARKET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana-Elena, SERB

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available People need to face the demands resulting induced neurotic styles of their leaders. The result is lower morale, affect behavior, dissatisfaction at work. This paper aims to present the point of view of theoretical and practical implications of failures in the organization on job satisfaction of employees. The practical part of this article is the analysis of statistically labor employment level , and a marketing research field, a survey using questionnaire as the main instrument. The main objectives during the research aims: knowledge labor employment in Romania, identify employee satisfaction on labor relations between managers and subordinates, knowledge of the involvement of the manager in providing a suitable work environment, to determine the extent the problems arising in the workplace creates dissatisfaction which ultimately rebounds on return. The main results drawn as a result of research carried out show that existing pathology in an organization is felt on one side by the employee the aggression and persecution has implications for morale, and on the other hand these disturbances are felt at employment in that workplace, stress employees resign and this leads to higher unemployment.

  16. Alternative adaptive immunity in invertebrates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kurtz, Joachim; Armitage, Sophie Alice Octavia

    2006-01-01

    Vertebrate adaptive immunity is characterized by challenge-specific long-term protection. This specific memory is achieved through the vast diversity of somatically rearranged immunological receptors such as antibodies. Whether or not invertebrates are capable of a comparable phenotypic plasticity...

  17. Streamflow characteristics and benthic invertebrate assemblages in streams across the western United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brasher, Anne M.D.; Konrad, Chris P.; May, Jason T.; Edmiston, C. Scott; Close, Rebecca N.

    2010-01-01

    Hydrographic characteristics of streamflow, such as high-flow pulses, base flow (background discharge between floods), extreme low flows, and floods, significantly influence aquatic organisms. Streamflow can be described in terms of magnitude, timing, duration, frequency, and variation (hydrologic regime). These characteristics have broad effects on ecosystem productivity, habitat structure, and ultimately on resident fish, invertebrate, and algae communities. Increasing human use of limited water resources has modified hydrologic regimes worldwide. Identifying the most ecologically significant hydrographic characteristics would facilitate the development of water-management strategies.Benthic invertebrates include insects, mollusks (snails and clams), worms, and crustaceans (shrimp) that live on the streambed. Invertebrates play an important role in the food web, consuming other invertebrates and algae and being consumed by fish and birds. Hydrologic alteration associated with land and water use can change the natural hydrologic regime and may affect benthic invertebrate assemblage composition and structure through changes in density of invertebrates or taxa richness (number of different species).This study examined associations between the hydrologic regime and characteristics of benthic invertebrate assemblages across the western United States and developed tools to identify streamflow characteristics that are likely to affect benthic invertebrate assemblages.

  18. Antimycobacterial Metabolites from Marine Invertebrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daletos, Georgios; Ancheeva, Elena; Chaidir, Chaidir; Kalscheuer, Rainer; Proksch, Peter

    2016-10-01

    Marine organisms play an important role in natural product-based drug research due to accumulation of structurally unique and bioactive metabolites. The exploration of marine-derived compounds may significantly extend the scientific knowledge of potential scaffolds for antibiotic drug discovery. Development of novel antitubercular agents is especially significant as the emergence of drug-resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis strains remains threateningly high. Marine invertebrates (i.e., sponges, corals, gorgonians) as a source of new chemical entities are the center of research for several scientific groups, and the wide spectrum of biological activities of marine-derived compounds encourages scientists to carry out investigations in the field of antibiotic research, including tuberculosis treatment. The present review covers published data on antitubercular natural products from marine invertebrates grouped according to their biogenetic origin. Studies on the structure-activity relationships of these important leads are highlighted as well. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  19. Marine Invertebrates: Communities at Risk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer Mather

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Our definition of the word ‘animal’ centers on vertebrates, yet 99% of the animals on the planet are invertebrates, about which we know little. In addition, although the Census of Marine Life (COML.org has recently conducted an extensive audit of marine ecosystems, we still do not understand much about the animals of the seas. Surveys of the best-known ecosystems, in which invertebrate populations often play a key role, show that the invertebrate populations are affected by human impact. Coral animals are the foundation of coral reef systems, which are estimated to contain 30% of the species in the ocean. Physical impact and chemical changes on the water severely damage these reefs, and may lead to the removal of these important habitats. Tiny pteropod molluscs live in huge numbers in the polar seas, and their fragile shells are particularly vulnerable to ocean acidification. Their removal would mean that fishes on which we depend would have a hugely diminished food supply. In the North Sea, warming is leading to replacement of colder water copepods by warmer water species which contain less fat. This is having an effect on the birds which eat them, who enrich the otherwise poor land on which they nest. Conversely, the warming of the water and the loss of top predators such as whales and sharks has led to an explosion of the jumbo squid of the Pacific coast of North America. This is positive in the development of a squid fishery, yet negative because the squid eat fish that have been the mainstay of the fishery along that coast. These examples show how invertebrates are key in the oceans, and what might happen when global changes impact them.

  20. Marine invertebrates: communities at risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mather, Jennifer

    2013-06-10

    Our definition of the word 'animal' centers on vertebrates, yet 99% of the animals on the planet are invertebrates, about which we know little. In addition, although the Census of Marine Life (COML.org) has recently conducted an extensive audit of marine ecosystems, we still do not understand much about the animals of the seas. Surveys of the best-known ecosystems, in which invertebrate populations often play a key role, show that the invertebrate populations are affected by human impact. Coral animals are the foundation of coral reef systems, which are estimated to contain 30% of the species in the ocean. Physical impact and chemical changes on the water severely damage these reefs, and may lead to the removal of these important habitats. Tiny pteropod molluscs live in huge numbers in the polar seas, and their fragile shells are particularly vulnerable to ocean acidification. Their removal would mean that fishes on which we depend would have a hugely diminished food supply. In the North Sea, warming is leading to replacement of colder water copepods by warmer water species which contain less fat. This is having an effect on the birds which eat them, who enrich the otherwise poor land on which they nest. Conversely, the warming of the water and the loss of top predators such as whales and sharks has led to an explosion of the jumbo squid of the Pacific coast of North America. This is positive in the development of a squid fishery, yet negative because the squid eat fish that have been the mainstay of the fishery along that coast. These examples show how invertebrates are key in the oceans, and what might happen when global changes impact them.

  1. Computational Pathology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Louis, David N.; Feldman, Michael; Carter, Alexis B.; Dighe, Anand S.; Pfeifer, John D.; Bry, Lynn; Almeida, Jonas S.; Saltz, Joel; Braun, Jonathan; Tomaszewski, John E.; Gilbertson, John R.; Sinard, John H.; Gerber, Georg K.; Galli, Stephen J.; Golden, Jeffrey A.; Becich, Michael J.

    2016-01-01

    Context We define the scope and needs within the new discipline of computational pathology, a discipline critical to the future of both the practice of pathology and, more broadly, medical practice in general. Objective To define the scope and needs of computational pathology. Data Sources A meeting was convened in Boston, Massachusetts, in July 2014 prior to the annual Association of Pathology Chairs meeting, and it was attended by a variety of pathologists, including individuals highly invested in pathology informatics as well as chairs of pathology departments. Conclusions The meeting made recommendations to promote computational pathology, including clearly defining the field and articulating its value propositions; asserting that the value propositions for health care systems must include means to incorporate robust computational approaches to implement data-driven methods that aid in guiding individual and population health care; leveraging computational pathology as a center for data interpretation in modern health care systems; stating that realizing the value proposition will require working with institutional administrations, other departments, and pathology colleagues; declaring that a robust pipeline should be fostered that trains and develops future computational pathologists, for those with both pathology and non-pathology backgrounds; and deciding that computational pathology should serve as a hub for data-related research in health care systems. The dissemination of these recommendations to pathology and bioinformatics departments should help facilitate the development of computational pathology. PMID:26098131

  2. Molecular Basis for Ultraviolet Vision in Invertebrates

    OpenAIRE

    Salcedo, Ernesto; Zheng, Lijun; Phistry, Meridee; Bagg, Eve E.; Britt, Steven G.

    2003-01-01

    Invertebrates are sensitive to a broad spectrum of light that ranges from UV to red. Color sensitivity in the UV plays an important role in foraging, navigation, and mate selection in both flying and terrestrial invertebrate animals. Here, we show that a single amino acid polymorphism is responsible for invertebrate UV vision. This residue (UV: lysine vs blue:asparagine or glutamate) corresponds to amino acid position glycine 90 (G90) in bovine rhodopsin, a site affected in autosomal dominant...

  3. Invertebrate populations in miscanthus (Miscanthusxgiganteus) and reed canary-grass (Phalaris arundinacea) fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Semere, T.; Slater, F.M. [Llysdinam Field Centre, School of Biosciences, Cardiff University, Newbridge-on-Wye, Llandrindod Wells, Powys, LD1 6NB (United Kingdom)

    2007-01-15

    Monitoring of invertebrates at four field sites in Herefordshire, England, growing miscanthus and reed canary-grass was carried out in 2002, 2003 and 2004 to investigate the ecological impact of these crops on ground beetles, butterflies and arboreal invertebrates. Ground beetles were sampled by pitfall trapping; and arboreal invertebrates by sweep netting and stem beating. The Centre for Ecology and Hydrology's Butterflies Monitoring Scheme methodology was used to record butterflies. The effects of the biomass crops on invertebrates were indirect, through the use of weeds as food resources and habitat. The greater diversity of weed flora within miscanthus fields than within reed canary-grass fields had a greater positive effect on invertebrates. Ground beetles, butterflies and arboreal invertebrates were more abundant and diverse in the most floristically diverse miscanthus fields. The difference in crop architecture and development between miscanthus and reed canary-grass was reflected in their differences in crop height and ground cover early on in the season. However, most of the difference in arthropod abundance between the two crops was attributed to the difference in the agronomic practice of growing the crops such as plant density, and the effect of this on weed growth. Since perennial rhizomatous grasses require a single initial planting and related tillage, and also no major chemical inputs; and because the crops are harvested in the spring and the land is not disturbed by cultivation every year, the fields were used as over-wintering sites for invertebrates suggesting immediate benefits to biodiversity. (author)

  4. Toxicity of Engineered Nanoparticles to Aquatic Invertebrates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cupi, Denisa; Sørensen, Sara Nørgaard; Skjolding, Lars Michael

    2016-01-01

    This chapter provides a targeted description of some of the most important processes that influence toxicity and uptake of nanoparticles in aquatic invertebrates. It discusses silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs), on how aspects of dissolution and chemical species obtained from this process can influence...... ecotoxicity of aquatic invertebrates. The chapter focuses on how fullerenes affect the toxicity of other pollutants, but also reflect on the fate and behavior of C60 in the aquatic environment, as well as ecotoxicity to aquatic invertebrates. It presents the case of titanium dioxide nanoparticles (TiO2 NPs...... on bioaccumulation focusing on the effect of nanoparticle coating, uptake, and depuration in aquatic invertebrates....

  5. Effects of Pollution on Freshwater Invertebrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buikema, A. L., Jr.; Herricks, E. E.

    1978-01-01

    Presents a literature review of the effects of pollution on freshwater invertebrates, covering publications of 1976-77. Some of the areas covered are: (1) toxicant effects on invertebrates; (2) microcosm and community effects, and (3) biological control of aquatic life. A list of 123 references is also presented. (HM)

  6. Invertebrates, ecosystem services and climate change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prather, Chelse M; Pelini, Shannon L; Laws, Angela; Rivest, Emily; Woltz, Megan; Bloch, Christopher P; Del Toro, Israel; Ho, Chuan-Kai; Kominoski, John; Newbold, T A Scott; Parsons, Sheena; Joern, A

    2013-05-01

    The sustainability of ecosystem services depends on a firm understanding of both how organisms provide these services to humans and how these organisms will be altered with a changing climate. Unquestionably a dominant feature of most ecosystems, invertebrates affect many ecosystem services and are also highly responsive to climate change. However, there is still a basic lack of understanding of the direct and indirect paths by which invertebrates influence ecosystem services, as well as how climate change will affect those ecosystem services by altering invertebrate populations. This indicates a lack of communication and collaboration among scientists researching ecosystem services and climate change effects on invertebrates, and land managers and researchers from other disciplines, which becomes obvious when systematically reviewing the literature relevant to invertebrates, ecosystem services, and climate change. To address this issue, we review how invertebrates respond to climate change. We then review how invertebrates both positively and negatively influence ecosystem services. Lastly, we provide some critical future directions for research needs, and suggest ways in which managers, scientists and other researchers may collaborate to tackle the complex issue of sustaining invertebrate-mediated services under a changing climate. © 2012 The Authors. Biological Reviews © 2012 Cambridge Philosophical Society.

  7. Wood decomposition as influenced by invertebrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael D. Ulyshen

    2014-01-01

    The diversity and habitat requirements of invertebrates associated with dead wood have been the subjects of hundreds of studies in recent years but we still know very little about the ecological or economic importance of these organisms. The purpose of this review is to examine whether, how and to what extent invertebrates affect wood decomposition in terrestrial...

  8. An invertebrate stomach's view on vertebrate ecology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Calvignac-Spencer, Sébastien; Leendertz, Fabian H.; Gilbert, Tom

    2013-01-01

    Recent studies suggest that vertebrate genetic material ingested by invertebrates (iDNA) can be used to investigate vertebrate ecology. Given the ubiquity of invertebrates that feed on vertebrates across the globe, iDNA might qualify as a very powerful tool for 21st century population...

  9. Community structure and diversity of macrobenthic invertebrates in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Macrobenthic invertebrates' community structure and diversity in relation to ... Analysis of variance (ANOVA) revealed that there were significant difference ... invertebrates' species distribution and some measured environmental variables.

  10. A comparative gene expression database for invertebrates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ormestad Mattias

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background As whole genome and transcriptome sequencing gets cheaper and faster, a great number of 'exotic' animal models are emerging, rapidly adding valuable data to the ever-expanding Evo-Devo field. All these new organisms serve as a fantastic resource for the research community, but the sheer amount of data, some published, some not, makes detailed comparison of gene expression patterns very difficult to summarize - a problem sometimes even noticeable within a single lab. The need to merge existing data with new information in an organized manner that is publicly available to the research community is now more necessary than ever. Description In order to offer a homogenous way of storing and handling gene expression patterns from a variety of organisms, we have developed the first web-based comparative gene expression database for invertebrates that allows species-specific as well as cross-species gene expression comparisons. The database can be queried by gene name, developmental stage and/or expression domains. Conclusions This database provides a unique tool for the Evo-Devo research community that allows the retrieval, analysis and comparison of gene expression patterns within or among species. In addition, this database enables a quick identification of putative syn-expression groups that can be used to initiate, among other things, gene regulatory network (GRN projects.

  11. Concentrations of methylmercury in invertebrates from wetlands of the Prairie Pothole Region of North America

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bates, Lara M.; Hall, Britt D.

    2012-01-01

    Prairie wetlands may be important sites of mercury (Hg) methylation resulting in elevated methylmercury (MeHg) concentrations in water, sediments and biota. Invertebrates are an important food resource and may act as an indicator of MeHg exposure to higher organisms. In 2007–2008, invertebrates were collected from wetland ponds in central Saskatchewan, categorized into functional feeding groups (FFGs) and analyzed for total Hg (THg) and MeHg. Methylmercury and THg concentrations in four FFGs ranged from 0.2–393.5 ng·g −1 and 9.7–507.1 ng·g −1 , respectively. Methylmercury concentrations generally increased from gastropods with significantly lower average MeHg concentrations compared to other invertebrate taxa. Surrounding land use (agricultural, grassland and organic agricultural) may influence MeHg concentrations in invertebrates, with invertebrate MeHg concentrations being higher from organic ponds (457.5 ± 156.7 ng·g −1 ) compared to those from grassland ponds (74.8 ± 14.6 ng·g −1 ) and ponds on agricultural lands (32.8 ± 6.2 ng·g −1 ). - Highlights: ► MeHg concentrations ranged from 0.2 to 393.5 ng·g −1 and generally increased with trophic level. ► Gastropods had significantly lower average MeHg concentrations compared to other invertebrates. ► Surrounding land use may influence MeHg concentrations in invertebrates. ► MeHg concentrations were higher in organic ponds compared to grassland and agricultural ponds. - Methylmercury concentrations in aquatic invertebrates in wetlands of the Great Plains of North America may differ depending on the land use of adjacent farmland.

  12. Viral diseases of marine invertebrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, P. T.

    1984-03-01

    Approximately 40 viruses are known from marine sponges; turbellarian and monogenetic flatworms; cephalopod, bivalve, and gastropod mollusks; nereid polychaetes; and isopod and decapod crustaceans. Most of the viruses can be tentatively assigned to the Herpesviridae, Baculoviridae, Iridoviridae, Adenoviridae, Papovaviridae, Reoviridae, “Birnaviridae”, Bunyaviridae, Rhabdoviridae, and Picornaviridae. Viruslike particles found in oysters might be representatives of the Togaviridae and Retroviridae. Enveloped single-stranded RNA viruses from crustaceans have developmental and morphological characteristics intermediate between families, and some show evidence of relationships to the Paramyxoviridae as well as the Bunyaviridae or Rhabdoviridae. Certain small viruses of shrimp cannot be assigned, even tentatively, to a particular family. Some viruses cause disease in wild and captive hosts, others are associated with disease states but may not be primary instigators, and many occur in apparently normal animals. The frequency of viral disease in natural populations of marine invertebrates is unknown. Several viruses that cause disease in captive animals, with or without experimental intervention, have also been found in diseased wild hosts, including herpeslike viruses of crabs and oysters, iridovirus of octopus, and reolike and bunyalike viruses of crabs. Iridolike viruses have been implicated in massive mortalities of cultured oysters. Baculoviruses, and IHHN virus, which is of uncertain affinities, cause economically damaging diseases in cultured penaeid shrimp. Double or multiple viral infection is common in crabs. For example, a reolike virus and associated rhabdolike virus act synergistically to cause paralytic and fatal disease in Callinectes sapidus. Information on host range, most susceptible stage, and viral latency is available only for viruses of shrimp. One baculovirus attacks five species of New World penaeid shrimp. IHHN virus infects three species of

  13. Are invertebrates relevant models in ageing research?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Erdogan, Cihan Suleyman; Hansen, Benni Winding; Vang, Ole

    2016-01-01

    is an evolutionary conserved key protein kinase in the TOR pathway that regulates growth, proliferation and cell metabolism in response to nutrients, growth factors and stress. Comparing the ageing process in invertebrate model organisms with relatively short lifespan with mammals provides valuable information about...... the molecular mechanisms underlying the ageing process faster than mammal systems. Inhibition of the TOR pathway activity via either genetic manipulation or rapamycin increases lifespan profoundly in most invertebrate model organisms. This contribution will review the recent findings in invertebrates concerning...... the TOR pathway and effects of TOR inhibition by rapamycin on lifespan. Besides some contradictory results, the majority points out that rapamycin induces longevity. This suggests that administration of rapamycin in invertebrates is a promising tool for pursuing the scientific puzzle of lifespan...

  14. Immune Reactions Among Marine and Other Invertebrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bang, Frederik B.

    1973-01-01

    Discusses the defense mechanisms and immune reaction found in invertebrates, and examines the wealth of related biological problems that need study and many of the leads that have recently been developed. (JR)

  15. Uncoupling proteins of invertebrates: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slocinska, Malgorzata; Barylski, Jakub; Jarmuszkiewicz, Wieslawa

    2016-09-01

    Uncoupling proteins (UCPs) mediate inducible proton conductance in the mitochondrial inner membrane. Herein, we summarize our knowledge regarding UCPs in invertebrates. Since 2001, the presence of UCPs has been demonstrated in nematodes, mollusks, amphioxi, and insects. We discuss the following important issues concerning invertebrate UCPs: their evolutionary relationships, molecular and functional properties, and physiological impact. Evolutionary analysis indicates that the branch of vertebrate and invertebrate UCP4-5 diverged early in the evolutionary process prior to the divergence of the animal groups. Several proposed physiological roles of invertebrate UCPs are energy control, metabolic balance, and preventive action against oxidative stress. © 2016 IUBMB Life, 68(9):691-699, 2016. © 2016 International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology.

  16. Diversity of large DNA viruses of invertebrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Trevor; Bergoin, Max; van Oers, Monique M

    2017-07-01

    In this review we provide an overview of the diversity of large DNA viruses known to be pathogenic for invertebrates. We present their taxonomical classification and describe the evolutionary relationships among various groups of invertebrate-infecting viruses. We also indicate the relationships of the invertebrate viruses to viruses infecting mammals or other vertebrates. The shared characteristics of the viruses within the various families are described, including the structure of the virus particle, genome properties, and gene expression strategies. Finally, we explain the transmission and mode of infection of the most important viruses in these families and indicate, which orders of invertebrates are susceptible to these pathogens. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. The Early Shorebird Will Catch Fewer Invertebrates on Trampled Sandy Beaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlacher, Thomas A; Carracher, Lucy K; Porch, Nicholas; Connolly, Rod M; Olds, Andrew D; Gilby, Ben L; Ekanayake, Kasun B; Maslo, Brooke; Weston, Michael A

    2016-01-01

    Many species of birds breeding on ocean beaches and in coastal dunes are of global conservation concern. Most of these species rely on invertebrates (e.g. insects, small crustaceans) as an irreplaceable food source, foraging primarily around the strandline on the upper beach near the dunes. Sandy beaches are also prime sites for human recreation, which impacts these food resources via negative trampling effects. We quantified acute trampling impacts on assemblages of upper shore invertebrates in a controlled experiment over a range of foot traffic intensities (up to 56 steps per square metre) on a temperate beach in Victoria, Australia. Trampling significantly altered assemblage structure (species composition and density) and was correlated with significant declines in invertebrate abundance and species richness. Trampling effects were strongest for rare species. In heavily trafficked plots the abundance of sand hoppers (Amphipoda), a principal prey item of threatened Hooded Plovers breeding on this beach, was halved. In contrast to the consistently strong effects of trampling, natural habitat attributes (e.g. sediment grain size, compactness) were much less influential predictors. If acute suppression of invertebrates caused by trampling, as demonstrated here, is more widespread on beaches it may constitute a significant threat to endangered vertebrates reliant on these invertebrates. This calls for a re-thinking of conservation actions by considering active management of food resources, possibly through enhancement of wrack or direct augmentation of prey items to breeding territories.

  18. Brain and behavioural lateralization in invertebrates.

    OpenAIRE

    Elisa eFrasnelli

    2013-01-01

    Traditionally, only humans were thought to exhibit brain and behavioural asymmetries, but several studies have revealed that most vertebrates are also lateralized. Recently, evidence of left-right asymmetries in invertebrates has begun to emerge, suggesting that lateralization of the nervous system may be a feature of simpler brains as well as more complex ones. Here I present some examples in invertebrates of sensory and motor asymmetries, as well as asymmetries in the nervous system. I illu...

  19. Brain and behavioral lateralization in invertebrates

    OpenAIRE

    Frasnelli, Elisa

    2013-01-01

    Traditionally, only humans were thought to exhibit brain and behavioral asymmetries, but several studies have revealed that most vertebrates are also lateralized. Recently, evidence of left–right asymmetries in invertebrates has begun to emerge, suggesting that lateralization of the nervous system may be a feature of simpler brains as well as more complex ones. Here I present some examples in invertebrates of sensory and motor asymmetries, as well as asymmetries in the nervous system. I illus...

  20. Evolution of transgenerational immunity in invertebrates

    OpenAIRE

    Pigeault, R.; Garnier, R.; Rivero, A.; Gandon, S.

    2016-01-01

    Over a decade ago, the discovery of transgenerational immunity in invertebrates shifted existing paradigms on the lack of sophistication of their immune system. Nonetheless, the prevalence of this trait and the ecological factors driving its evolution in invertebrates remain poorly understood. Here, we develop a theoretical host–parasite model and predict that long lifespan and low dispersal should promote the evolution of transgenerational immunity. We also predict that in species that produ...

  1. Toll-like receptors of deuterostome invertebrates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Honoo eSatake

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Defensive systems against pathogens are responsible not only for survival or lifetime of an individual but also for the evolution of a species. Innate immunity is expected to be more important for invertebrates than mammals, given that adaptive immunity has not been acquired in the former. Toll-like receptors (TLRs have been shown to play a crucial role in host defense of pathogenic microbes in innate immunity of mammals. Recent genome-wide analyses have suggested that TLR or their related genes are conserved in invertebrates. In particular, numerous TLR-related gene candidates were detected in deuterostome invertebrates including a sea urchin (222 TLR-related gene candidates and amphioxus (72 TLR-related gene candidates. Molecular phylogenetic analysis verified that most of sea urchin or amphioxus TLR candidates are paralogous, suggesting that these organisms expanded TLR-related genes in a species-specific manner. In contrast, another deuterostome invertebrate, an ascidian, Ciona intestinalis, was found to possess only two TLR genes. Moreover, Ciona TLRs, Ci-TLR1 and -2, were shown to possess hybrid functionality of mammalian TLRs. Such functionality of Ci-TLRs could not be predicted by sequence comparison with vertebrate TLRs, indicating the confounding evolutionary lineages of deuterostome invertebrate TLRs or their candidates. In this review article, we present recent advances in studies of TLRs or their candidates of deuterostome invertebrates, and provide insight into an evolutionary process of TLRs.

  2. [Pathological gambling].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dembinsky, Yael; Iancu, Iulian; Dannon, Pinhas

    2007-10-01

    Gambling behaviour is well-known for many centuries and is growing in popularity and frequency. Its etiology is multi-factorial and in this paper we review new developments in the field of pathological gambling, both regarding etiology and treatment progress. The aim of this review is to increase the physicians' awareness towards this entity.

  3. Sensitivity of Coastal Environments and Wildlife to Spilled Oil: Puget Sound and Strait of Juan de Fuca, Washington: INVERT (Invertebrate Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for clams, oysters, crabs, and other invertebrate species in Puget Sound and Strait of Juan de Fuca,...

  4. Predicting invertebrate assemblage composition from harvesting pressure and environmental characteristics on tropical reef flats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jimenez, H.; Dumas, P.; Ponton, D.; Ferraris, J.

    2012-03-01

    Invertebrates represent an essential component of coral reef ecosystems; they are ecologically important and a major resource, but their assemblages remain largely unknown, particularly on Pacific islands. Understanding their distribution and building predictive models of community composition as a function of environmental variables therefore constitutes a key issue for resource management. The goal of this study was to define and classify the main environmental factors influencing tropical invertebrate distributions in New Caledonian reef flats and to test the resulting predictive model. Invertebrate assemblages were sampled by visual counting during 2 years and 2 seasons, then coupled to different environmental conditions (habitat composition, hydrodynamics and sediment characteristics) and harvesting status (MPA vs. non-MPA and islets vs. coastal flats). Environmental conditions were described by a principal component analysis (PCA), and contributing variables were selected. Permutational analysis of variance (PERMANOVA) was used to test the effects of different factors (status, flat, year and season) on the invertebrate assemblage composition. Multivariate regression trees (MRT) were then used to hierarchically classify the effects of environmental and harvesting variables. MRT model explained at least 60% of the variation in structure of invertebrate communities. Results highlighted the influence of status (MPA vs. non-MPA) and location (islet vs. coastal flat), followed by habitat composition, organic matter content, hydrodynamics and sampling year. Predicted assemblages defined by indicator families were very different for each environment-exploitation scenario and correctly matched a calibration data matrix. Predictions from MRT including both environmental variables and harvesting pressure can be useful for management of invertebrates in coral reef environments.

  5. [Dual pathology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rougier, A

    2008-05-01

    Dual pathology is defined as the association of two potentially epileptogenic lesions, hippocampal (sclerosis, neuronal loss) and extrahippocampal (temporal or extratemporal). Epileptic activity may be generated by either lesion and the relative importance of every lesion's epileptogenicity conditions the surgical strategy adopted. Most frequently associated with hippocampal sclerosis are cortical dysplasias. The common physiopathology of the two lesions is not clearly established. Extrahippocampal lesions may be undetectable on MRI (microdysgenesis, for example) and ictal discharge patterns may vary among dual pathology patients. The surgical strategy depends on the location of the extrahippocampal lesion and its relative role in seizure generation; however, reported surgical results suggest that simultaneous resection of mesial temporal structures along with the extrahippocampal lesion should be performed.

  6. Microglial pathology

    OpenAIRE

    Streit, Wolfgang J; Xue, Qing-Shan; Tischer, Jasmin; Bechmann, Ingo

    2014-01-01

    This paper summarizes pathological changes that affect microglial cells in the human brain during aging and in aging-related neurodegenerative diseases, primarily Alzheimer’s disease (AD). It also provides examples of microglial changes that have been observed in laboratory animals during aging and in some experimentally induced lesions and disease models. Dissimilarities and similarities between humans and rodents are discussed in an attempt to generate a current understanding of microglial ...

  7. Wood decomposition as influenced by invertebrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulyshen, Michael D

    2016-02-01

    The diversity and habitat requirements of invertebrates associated with dead wood have been the subjects of hundreds of studies in recent years but we still know very little about the ecological or economic importance of these organisms. The purpose of this review is to examine whether, how and to what extent invertebrates affect wood decomposition in terrestrial ecosystems. Three broad conclusions can be reached from the available literature. First, wood decomposition is largely driven by microbial activity but invertebrates also play a significant role in both temperate and tropical environments. Primary mechanisms include enzymatic digestion (involving both endogenous enzymes and those produced by endo- and ectosymbionts), substrate alteration (tunnelling and fragmentation), biotic interactions and nitrogen fertilization (i.e. promoting nitrogen fixation by endosymbiotic and free-living bacteria). Second, the effects of individual invertebrate taxa or functional groups can be accelerative or inhibitory but the cumulative effect of the entire community is generally to accelerate wood decomposition, at least during the early stages of the process (most studies are limited to the first 2-3 years). Although methodological differences and design limitations preclude meta-analysis, studies aimed at quantifying the contributions of invertebrates to wood decomposition commonly attribute 10-20% of wood loss to these organisms. Finally, some taxa appear to be particularly influential with respect to promoting wood decomposition. These include large wood-boring beetles (Coleoptera) and termites (Termitoidae), especially fungus-farming macrotermitines. The presence or absence of these species may be more consequential than species richness and the influence of invertebrates is likely to vary biogeographically. Published 2014. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  8. Accumulation of 210Po in Baltic invertebrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skwarzec, B.; Falkowski, L.

    1988-01-01

    This paper presents the results of an investigation of the 210 Po contents of Baltic marine invertebrates. The 210 Po concentrations fall within the range 11.3-78.9 Bq kg -1 (dry wt), the higher values relating to polychaeta, priapulida and malacostraca and the lower levels to bivalvia. It is demonstrated that 210 Po is non-uniformly distributed within the isopod Mesidotea entomon and the bivalve Mya arenaria. The 210 Po contents of the internal organs decreasing in the order-hepatopancreas > alimentary tract > gill > muscle. Moreover, the results indicate the dominant role of the digestive organs of these invertebrates in controlling absorption and elimination of 210 Po. (author)

  9. Contribution to the study of the biodiversity of benthic invertebrates ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Contribution to the study of the biodiversity of benthic invertebrates and the biological quality of some rivers in the watershed boumerzoug (east of Algeria) ... benthic macro invertebrates, allows characterizing the biological quality of river water.

  10. Soil invertebrate fauna enhances grassland succession and diversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Deyn, Gerlinde B; Raaijmakers, Ciska E; Zoomer, H Rik; Berg, Matty P; de Ruiter, Peter C; Verhoef, Herman A; Bezemer, T Martijn; van der Putten, Wim H

    2003-04-17

    One of the most important areas in ecology is to elucidate the factors that drive succession in ecosystems and thus influence the diversity of species in natural vegetation. Significant mechanisms in this process are known to be resource limitation and the effects of aboveground vertebrate herbivores. More recently, symbiotic and pathogenic soil microbes have been shown to exert a profound effect on the composition of vegetation and changes therein. However, the influence of invertebrate soil fauna on succession has so far received little attention. Here we report that invertebrate soil fauna might enhance both secondary succession and local plant species diversity. Soil fauna from a series of secondary grassland succession stages selectively suppress early successional dominant plant species, thereby enhancing the relative abundance of subordinate species and also that of species from later succession stages. Soil fauna from the mid-succession stage had the strongest effect. Our results clearly show that soil fauna strongly affects the composition of natural vegetation and we suggest that this knowledge might improve the restoration and conservation of plant species diversity.

  11. 76 FR 61379 - Final Recovery Plan, Bexar County Karst Invertebrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-04

    ...] Final Recovery Plan, Bexar County Karst Invertebrates AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife Service, Interior... availability of our final recovery plan, for the nine Bexar County Karst Invertebrates under the Endangered... County karst invertebrates were listed as endangered species on December 26, 2000 (65 FR 81419): Rhadine...

  12. Lanthanides, thorium, iodine in terrestrail invertebrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhulidov, A.V.; Pokarzhevskij, A.D.; Katargin, N.V.; AN SSSR, Moscow

    1991-01-01

    It is shown that among examined terrestrial invertebrates the highest levels on lanthanide and thorium concentration are typical for animals, feeding on plant tissues - earthworms, molluscs, diploid. It is shown that there are no reasons to hope, that regularities of migration of transuranium elements and lanthanides in tropic chains are identical

  13. Roebuck Bay Invertebrate and bird Mapping 2006

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Piersma, Theunis; Pearson, Grant B.; Hickey, Robert; Dittmann, Sabine; Rogers, Danny I.; Folmer, Eelke; Honkoop, Pieter; Drent, Jan; Goeij, Petra de; Marsh, Loisette

    2006-01-01

    1. This is a report on a survey of the benthic ecology of the intertidal flats along the northern shores of Roebuck Bay in June 2006. In the period 11-20 June we mapped both the invertebrate macrobenthic animals (those retained by a 1 mm sieve) over the whole of the northern intertidal area of

  14. Evolution of transgenerational immunity in invertebrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pigeault, R; Garnier, R; Rivero, A; Gandon, S

    2016-09-28

    Over a decade ago, the discovery of transgenerational immunity in invertebrates shifted existing paradigms on the lack of sophistication of their immune system. Nonetheless, the prevalence of this trait and the ecological factors driving its evolution in invertebrates remain poorly understood. Here, we develop a theoretical host-parasite model and predict that long lifespan and low dispersal should promote the evolution of transgenerational immunity. We also predict that in species that produce both philopatric and dispersing individuals, it may pay to have a plastic allocation strategy with a higher transgenerational immunity investment in philopatric offspring because they are more likely to encounter locally adapted pathogens. We review all experimental studies published to date, comprising 21 invertebrate species in nine different orders, and we show that, as expected, longevity and dispersal correlate with the transfer of immunity to offspring. The validity of our prediction regarding the plasticity of investment in transgenerational immunity remains to be tested in invertebrates, but also in vertebrate species. We discuss the implications of our work for the study of the evolution of immunity, and we suggest further avenues of research to expand our knowledge of the impact of transgenerational immune protection in host-parasite interactions. © 2016 The Author(s).

  15. Microglial pathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Streit, Wolfgang J; Xue, Qing-Shan; Tischer, Jasmin; Bechmann, Ingo

    2014-09-26

    This paper summarizes pathological changes that affect microglial cells in the human brain during aging and in aging-related neurodegenerative diseases, primarily Alzheimer's disease (AD). It also provides examples of microglial changes that have been observed in laboratory animals during aging and in some experimentally induced lesions and disease models. Dissimilarities and similarities between humans and rodents are discussed in an attempt to generate a current understanding of microglial pathology and its significance during aging and in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer dementia (AD). The identification of dystrophic (senescent) microglia has created an ostensible conflict with prior work claiming a role for activated microglia and neuroinflammation during normal aging and in AD, and this has raised a basic question: does the brain's immune system become hyperactive (inflamed) or does it become weakened (senescent) in elderly and demented people, and what is the impact on neuronal function and cognition? Here we strive to reconcile these seemingly contradictory notions by arguing that both low-grade neuroinflammation and microglial senescence are the result of aging-associated free radical injury. Both processes are damaging for microglia as they synergistically exhaust this essential cell population to the point where the brain's immune system is effete and unable to support neuronal function.

  16. [Pathologic gambling].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nespor, K

    1996-01-31

    The author presents a review on pathological gambling. Similarly as in other addictive diseases, early therapeutic intervention is important. The latter may include: 1: Evaluation of the problem 2. Recommendation that the subject should avoid places where the gambling is pursued. He should not have larger financial sums on him. 3. Recommendations pertaining to lifestyle and prevention of excessive stress. 4. Handling of printed material (the author mentions the text issued to his patients). In the paper therapeutic procedures are described, incl. the author's experience such as the foundation of the group of Gamblers anonymous. Prevention is also considered. It is important that gambling should be less readily available and the demand for it should be smaller.

  17. Interdependence of specialization and biodiversity in Phanerozoic marine invertebrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nürnberg, Sabine; Aberhan, Martin

    2015-03-17

    Studies of the dynamics of biodiversity often suggest that diversity has upper limits, but the complex interplay between ecological and evolutionary processes and the relative role of biotic and abiotic factors that set upper limits to diversity are poorly understood. Here we statistically assess the relationship between global biodiversity and the degree of habitat specialization of benthic marine invertebrates over the Phanerozoic eon. We show that variation in habitat specialization correlates positively with changes in global diversity, that is, times of high diversity coincide with more specialized faunas. We identify the diversity dynamics of specialists but not generalists, and origination rates but not extinction rates, as the main drivers of this ecological interdependence. Abiotic factors fail to show any significant relationship with specialization. Our findings suggest that the overall level of specialization and its fluctuations over evolutionary timescales are controlled by diversity-dependent processes--driven by interactions between organisms competing for finite resources.

  18. Invertebrates associated with ipomea aquatica in ogbe creek, logos, nigeria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saliu, J.K.; Fashola, Y.T.

    2006-01-01

    The association of invertebrates in Ogbe creek with Ipomea aquatica was investigated within the period from 7th September to 30th November, 2001, 167 invertebrates comprising of 19 species were harvested from 73 weeds. Corixa punctata (22.16%) was the most abundant invertebrate on Ipomea aquatica while Gyrinus notator larvae (0.60%) were the least abundant. The roots sheltered the highest number of invertebrates (113), comprising of 12 species recording a species diversity of 5.36 while the stem sheltered the lowest number of invertebrates (10) comprising of 3 species with a species diversity of 2.00. The ability of Ipomea aquaTica to harbour invertebrates was influenced by the morphological form of the plant. The root was the preferred site for the invertebrates because it was a suitable substrate for clinging and nutrient supply. (author)

  19. Ethics and invertebrates: a cephalopod perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mather, Jennifer A; Anderson, Roland C

    2007-05-04

    This paper first explores 3 philosophical bases for attitudes to invertebrates, Contractarian/Kantian, Utilitarian, and Rights-based, and what they lead us to conclude about how we use and care for these animals. We next discuss the problems of evaluating pain and suffering in invertebrates, pointing out that physiological responses to stress are widely similar across the animal kingdom and that most animals show behavioral responses to potentially painful stimuli. Since cephalopods are often used as a test group for consideration of pain, distress and proper conditions for captivity and handling, we evaluate their behavioral and cognitive capacities. Given these capacities, we then discuss practical issues: minimization of their pain and suffering during harvesting for food; ensuring that captive cephalopods are properly cared for, stimulated and allowed to live as full a life as possible; and, lastly, working for their conservation.

  20. Enhanced invertebrate prey production following estuarine restoration supports foraging for multiple species of juvenile salmonids (Oncorhynchus spp.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woo, Isa; Davis, Melanie; Ellings, Christopher S.; Nakai, Glynnis; Takekawa, John Y.; De La Cruz, Susan

    2018-01-01

    Estuaries provide crucial foraging resources and nursery habitat for threatened populations of anadromous salmon. As such, there has been a global undertaking to restore habitat and tidal processes in modified estuaries. The foraging capacity of these ecosystems to support various species of out-migrating juvenile salmon can be quantified by monitoring benthic, terrestrial, and pelagic invertebrate prey communities. Here, we present notable trends in the availability of invertebrate prey at several sites within a restoring large river delta in Puget Sound, Washington, U.S.A. Three years after the system was returned to tidal influence, we observed substantial additions to amphipod, copepod, and cumacean abundances in newly accessible marsh channels (from 0 to roughly 5,000–75,000 individuals/m2). In the restoration area, terrestrial invertebrate colonization was dependent upon vegetative cover, with dipteran and hymenopteran biomass increasing 3-fold between 1 and 3 years post-restoration. While the overall biodiversity within the restoration area was lower than in the reference marsh, estimated biomass was comparable to or greater than that found within the other study sites. This additional prey biomass likely provided foraging benefits for juvenile Chinook, chum, and coho salmon. Primary physical drivers differed for benthic, terrestrial, and pelagic invertebrates, and these invertebrate communities are expected to respond differentially depending on organic matter exchange and vegetative colonization. Restoring estuaries may take decades to meet certain success criteria, but our study demonstrates rapid enhancements in foraging resources understood to be used for estuary-dependent wildlife.

  1. Effects of nanomaterials on marine invertebrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canesi, Laura; Corsi, Ilaria

    2016-09-15

    The development of nanotechnology will inevitably lead to the release of consistent amounts of nanomaterials (NMs) and nanoparticles (NPs) into marine ecosystems. Ecotoxicological studies have been carried out to identify potential biological targets of NPs, and suitable models for predicting their impact on the health of the marine environment. Recent studies in invertebrates mainly focused on NP accumulation and sub-lethal effects, rather than acute toxicity. Among marine invertebrates, bivalves represent by large the most studied group, with polychaetes and echinoderms also emerging as significant targets of NPs. However, major scientific gaps still need to be filled. In this work, factors affecting the fate of NPs in the marine environment, and their consequent uptake/accumulation/toxicity in marine invertebrates will be summarized. The results show that in different model species, NP accumulation mainly occurs in digestive tract and gills. Data on sub-lethal effects and modes of action of different types of NPs (mainly metal oxides and metal based NPs) in marine invertebrates will be reviewed, in particular on immune function, oxidative stress and embryo development. Moreover, the possibility that such effects may be influenced by NP interactions with biomolecules in both external and internal environment will be introduced. In natural environmental media, NP interactions with polysaccharides, proteins and colloids may affect their agglomeration/aggregation and consequent bioavailability. Moreover, once within the organism, NPs are known to interact with plasma proteins, forming a protein corona that can affect particle uptake and toxicity in target cells in a physiological environment. These interactions, leading to the formation of eco-bio-coronas, may be crucial in determining particle behavior and effects also in marine biota. In order to classify NPs into groups and predict the implications of their release into the marine environment, information on

  2. Flow effects on benthic stream invertebrates and ecological processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koprivsek, Maja; Brilly, Mitja

    2010-05-01

    Flow is the main abiotic factor in the streams. Flow affects the organisms in many direct and indirect ways. The organisms are directly affected by various hydrodynamic forces and mass transfer processes like drag forces, drift, shear stress, food and gases supply and washing metabolites away. Indirect effects on the organisms are determining and distribution of the particle size and structure of the substrate and determining the morphology of riverbeds. Flow does not affect only on individual organism, but also on many ecological effects. To expose just the most important: dispersal of the organisms, habitat use, resource acquisition, competition and predator-prey interactions. Stream invertebrates are adapted to the various flow conditions in many kinds of way. Some of them are avoiding the high flow with living in a hyporeic zone, while the others are adapted to flow with physical adaptations (the way of feeding, respiration, osmoregulation and resistance to draught), morphological adaptations (dorsoventrally flattened shape of organism, streamlined shape of organism, heterogeneous suckers, silk, claws, swimming hair, bristles and ballast gravel) or with behaviour. As the flow characteristics in a particular stream vary over a broad range of space and time scales, it is necessary to measure accurately the velocity in places where the organisms are present to determine the actual impact of flow on aquatic organisms. By measuring the mean flow at individual vertical in a single cross-section, we cannot get any information about the velocity situation close to the bottom of the riverbed where the stream invertebrates are living. Just measuring the velocity near the bottom is a major problem, as technologies for measuring the velocity and flow of natural watercourses is not adapted to measure so close to the bottom. New researches in the last two decades has shown that the thickness of laminar border layer of stones in the stream is only a few 100 micrometers, what

  3. Functional characterization on invertebrate and vertebrate tissues of tachykinin peptides from octopus venoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruder, Tim; Ali, Syed Abid; Ormerod, Kiel; Brust, Andreas; Roymanchadi, Mary-Louise; Ventura, Sabatino; Undheim, Eivind A B; Jackson, Timothy N W; Mercier, A Joffre; King, Glenn F; Alewood, Paul F; Fry, Bryan G

    2013-09-01

    It has been previously shown that octopus venoms contain novel tachykinin peptides that despite being isolated from an invertebrate, contain the motifs characteristic of vertebrate tachykinin peptides rather than being more like conventional invertebrate tachykinin peptides. Therefore, in this study we examined the effect of three variants of octopus venom tachykinin peptides on invertebrate and vertebrate tissues. While there were differential potencies between the three peptides, their relative effects were uniquely consistent between invertebrate and vertebrae tissue assays. The most potent form (OCT-TK-III) was not only the most anionically charged but also was the most structurally stable. These results not only reveal that the interaction of tachykinin peptides is more complex than previous structure-function theories envisioned, but also reinforce the fundamental premise that animal venoms are rich resources of novel bioactive molecules, which are useful investigational ligands and some of which may be useful as lead compounds for drug design and development. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Ecoregion and land-use influence invertebrate and detritus transport from headwater streams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binckley, Christopher A.; Wipfli, Mark S.; Medhurst, R. Bruce; Polivka, Karl; Hessburg, Paul F.; Salter, R. Brion; Kill, Joshua Y.

    2010-01-01

    Summary 1. Habitats are often connected by fluxes of energy and nutrients across their boundaries. For example, headwater streams are linked to surrounding riparian vegetation through invertebrate and leaf litter inputs, and there is evidence that consumers in downstream habitats are subsidised by resources flowing from headwater systems. However, the strength of these linkages and the manner in which potential headwater subsidies vary along climatic and disturbance gradients are unknown.

  5. Plant pathogen culture collections: it takes a village to preserve these resources vital to the advancement of agricultural security and plant pathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Seogchan; Blair, Jaime E; Geiser, David M; Khang, Chang-Hyun; Park, Sook-Young; Gahegan, Mark; O'Donnell, Kerry; Luster, Douglas G; Kim, Seong H; Ivors, Kelly L; Lee, Yong-Hwan; Lee, Yin-Won; Grünwald, Niklaus J; Martin, Frank M; Coffey, Michael D; Veeraraghavan, Narayanan; Makalowska, Izabela

    2006-09-01

    ABSTRACT Plant pathogen culture collections are essential resources in our fight against plant disease and for connecting discoveries of the present with established knowledge of the past. However, available infrastructure in support of culture collections is in serious need of improvement, and we continually face the risk of losing many of these collections. As novel and reemerging plant pathogens threaten agriculture, their timely identification and monitoring depends on rapid access to cultures representing the known diversity of plant pathogens along with genotypic, phenotypic, and epidemiological data associated with them. Archiving such data in a format that can be easily accessed and searched is essential for rapid assessment of potential risk and can help track the change and movement of pathogens. The underexplored pathogen diversity in nature further underscores the importance of cataloguing pathogen cultures. Realizing the potential of pathogen genomics as a foundation for developing effective disease control also hinges on how effectively we use the sequenced isolate as a reference to understand the genetic and phenotypic diversity within a pathogen species. In this letter, we propose a number of measures for improving pathogen culture collections.

  6. Investigations into the Settlement and Attachment of Biofouling Marine Invertebrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-17

    attachment of biofouling marine invertebrates 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER N00014-12-1 -0432 5b. GRANT NUMBER n/a 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER n/a 6...larval settlement in a variety of marine invertebrate species, including B. neritina. Light also inhibits B. neritina larval settlement, yet the...underlying mechanisms by which light and adrenergic compounds exert their effects on larvae are largely unknown. Octopamine is considered the invertebrate

  7. Downstream changes in spring-fed stream invertebrate communities: the effect of increased temperature range?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Russell G. DEATH

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Reduced thermal amplitude has been highlighted as a limiting factor for aquatic invertebrate diversity in springs. Moving downstream water temperature range increases and invertebrate richness is expected to change accordingly. In the present study temperature patterns were investigated in seven spring-fed streams, between April 2001 and November 2002, and compared to five run-off-fed streams to assess the degree of crenic temperature constancy. Temperature and physico-chemical characteristics of the water, and food resource levels were measured, and the invertebrate fauna collected at 4 distances (0, 100, 500 m and 1 km from seven springs in the North and South Islands of New Zealand. Temperature variability was greater for run-off-fed streams than for springs, and increased in the spring-fed streams with distance from the source. Periphyton and physico-chemical characteristics of the water did not change markedly over the 1 km studied, with the exception of water velocity and organic matter biomass, which increased and decreased, respectively. The rate of increase in temperature amplitude differed greatly for the studied springs, probably being affected by flow, altitude, and the number and type of tributaries (i.e., spring- or run-off-fed joining the spring-fed stream channel. Longitudinal changes in the number and evenness of invertebrate taxa were positively correlated to thermal amplitude (rs = 0.8. Moving downstream, invertebrate communities progressively incorporated taxa with higher mobility and taxa more common in nearby run-off-fed streams. Chironomids and non-insect taxa were denser at the sources. Chironomid larvae also numerically dominated communities 100 and 500 m downstream from the sources, together with Pycnocentria spp. and Zelolessica spp., while taxa such as Hydora sp. and Hydraenidae beetles, the mayflies Deleatidium spp. and Coloburiscus humeralis, and the Trichoptera Pycnocentrodes spp., all had greater abundances 1 km

  8. Curriculum Guidelines for Pathology and Oral Pathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Journal of Dental Education, 1985

    1985-01-01

    Guidelines for dental school pathology courses describe the interrelationships of general, systemic, and oral pathology; primary educational goals; prerequisites; a core curriculum outline and behavioral objectives for each type of pathology. Notes on sequencing, faculty, facilities, and occupational hazards are included. (MSE)

  9. Natural invertebrate hosts of iridoviruses (Iridoviridae)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, Trevor [Instituto de Ecologia A.C., Veracruz (Mexico)]. E-mail: trevor.williams@inecol.edu.mx

    2008-11-15

    Invertebrate iridescent viruses (IIVs) are icosahedral DNA viruses that infect invertebrates, mainly insects and terrestrial isopods, in damp and aquatic habitats. Exhaustive searches of databases resulted in the identification of 79 articles reporting 108 invertebrate species naturally infected by confirmed or putative iridoviruses. Of these, 103 (95%) were arthropods and the remainder were molluscs, an annelid worm and a nematode. Nine species were from marine habitats. Of the 99 non-marine species, 49 were from terrestrial habitats and 50 were aquatic, especially the aquatic stages of Diptera (44 species). The abundance of records from species of Aedes, Ochlerotatus and Psorophora contrasts markedly with a paucity of records from species of Anopheles, Culex and Culiseta. Records from terrestrial isopods are numerous (19 species), although the diversity of IIVs that infect them is mostly unstudied. IIV infections have been reported from every continent, except Antarctica, but there are few records from Africa, southern Asia and Latin America. Most reports describe patent IIV infections as rare whereas inapparent (covert) infection may be common in certain species. The relationship between particle size and iridescent colour of the host is found to be consistent with optical theory in the great majority of cases. Only 24 reported IIVs from insect hosts have partial characterization data and only two have been subjected to complete genome sequencing. I show that the rate of publication on IIVs has slowed from 1990 to the present, and I draw a number of conclusions and suggestions from the host list and make recommendations for future research efforts. (author)

  10. Brain and behavioral lateralization in invertebrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frasnelli, Elisa

    2013-12-11

    Traditionally, only humans were thought to exhibit brain and behavioral asymmetries, but several studies have revealed that most vertebrates are also lateralized. Recently, evidence of left-right asymmetries in invertebrates has begun to emerge, suggesting that lateralization of the nervous system may be a feature of simpler brains as well as more complex ones. Here I present some examples in invertebrates of sensory and motor asymmetries, as well as asymmetries in the nervous system. I illustrate two cases where an asymmetric brain is crucial for the development of some cognitive abilities. The first case is the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans, which has asymmetric odor sensory neurons and taste perception neurons. In this worm left/right asymmetries are responsible for the sensing of a substantial number of salt ions, and lateralized responses to salt allow the worm to discriminate between distinct salt ions. The second case is the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster, where the presence of asymmetry in a particular structure of the brain is important in the formation or retrieval of long-term memory. Moreover, I distinguish two distinct patterns of lateralization that occur in both vertebrates and invertebrates: individual-level and population-level lateralization. Theoretical models on the evolution of lateralization suggest that the alignment of lateralization at the population level may have evolved as an evolutionary stable strategy in which individually asymmetrical organisms must coordinate their behavior with that of other asymmetrical organisms. This implies that lateralization at the population-level is more likely to have evolved in social rather than in solitary species. I evaluate this new hypothesis with a specific focus on insects showing different level of sociality. In particular, I present a series of studies on antennal asymmetries in honeybees and other related species of bees, showing how insects may be extremely useful to test the evolutionary

  11. Natural invertebrate hosts of iridoviruses (Iridoviridae)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, Trevor

    2008-01-01

    Invertebrate iridescent viruses (IIVs) are icosahedral DNA viruses that infect invertebrates, mainly insects and terrestrial isopods, in damp and aquatic habitats. Exhaustive searches of databases resulted in the identification of 79 articles reporting 108 invertebrate species naturally infected by confirmed or putative iridoviruses. Of these, 103 (95%) were arthropods and the remainder were molluscs, an annelid worm and a nematode. Nine species were from marine habitats. Of the 99 non-marine species, 49 were from terrestrial habitats and 50 were aquatic, especially the aquatic stages of Diptera (44 species). The abundance of records from species of Aedes, Ochlerotatus and Psorophora contrasts markedly with a paucity of records from species of Anopheles, Culex and Culiseta. Records from terrestrial isopods are numerous (19 species), although the diversity of IIVs that infect them is mostly unstudied. IIV infections have been reported from every continent, except Antarctica, but there are few records from Africa, southern Asia and Latin America. Most reports describe patent IIV infections as rare whereas inapparent (covert) infection may be common in certain species. The relationship between particle size and iridescent colour of the host is found to be consistent with optical theory in the great majority of cases. Only 24 reported IIVs from insect hosts have partial characterization data and only two have been subjected to complete genome sequencing. I show that the rate of publication on IIVs has slowed from 1990 to the present, and I draw a number of conclusions and suggestions from the host list and make recommendations for future research efforts. (author)

  12. Brain and behavioural lateralization in invertebrates.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisa eFrasnelli

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Traditionally, only humans were thought to exhibit brain and behavioural asymmetries, but several studies have revealed that most vertebrates are also lateralized. Recently, evidence of left-right asymmetries in invertebrates has begun to emerge, suggesting that lateralization of the nervous system may be a feature of simpler brains as well as more complex ones. Here I present some examples in invertebrates of sensory and motor asymmetries, as well as asymmetries in the nervous system. I illustrate two cases where an asymmetric brain is crucial for the development of some cognitive abilities. The first case is the nematode C. elegans, which has asymmetric odour sensory neurons and taste perception neurons. In this worm left/right asymmetries are responsible for the sensing of a substantial number of salt ions, and lateralized responses to salt allow the worm to discriminate between distinct salt ions. The second case is the fruit fly D. melanogaster, where the presence of asymmetry in a particular structure of the brain is important in the formation or retrieval of long-term memory. Moreover, I distinguish two distinct patterns of lateralization that occur in both vertebrates and invertebrates: individual-level and population-level lateralization. Theoretical models on the evolution of lateralization suggest that the alignment of lateralization at the population level may have evolved as an evolutionary stable strategy in which individually-asymmetrical organisms must coordinate their behaviour with that of other asymmetrical organisms. This implies that lateralization at the population-level is more likely to have evolved in social rather than in solitary species. I evaluate this new hypothesis with specific focus on insects showing different level of sociality. In particular, I present a series of studies on antennal asymmetries in honeybees and other related species of bees, showing how insects may be extremely useful to test evolutionary

  13. Ontogenetic body-mass scaling of nitrogen excretion relates to body surface area in diverse pelagic invertebrates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hirst, Andrew G.; Lilley, M.K.S.; Glazier, D.S.

    2017-01-01

    . Among diverse pelagic invertebrates that change shape during ontogeny, recent analysis has demonstrated a significant positive correlation between the body-mass allometry of respiration rates (measured as the ontogenetic body mass-scaling exponent bR) and the allometry of body surface area (b......A, as predicted from body-shape changes using a Euclidean model). As many pelagic invertebrates use a large portion of their external body surface for both resource uptake and waste excretion, we predicted that body-mass scaling exponents for rates of excretion of soluble N (bN) should also then relate...... to the degree of body-shape change during growth. We tested this hypothesis using literature data on bN for 39 species of pelagic invertebrates across five different phyla, and find strong support: bN is significantly positively correlated with predicted bA, whilst also co-varying with bR. Intraspecific...

  14. Soil invertebrate communities in stressed European ecosystems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Butovsky, R.O. [All-Russian Research Institute for Nature Protection, Sadki-Znamenskoje (Russian Federation)

    2003-07-01

    Intensive landuse in Europe results in continual physical and chemical changes to land and soil. Soil invertebrates can be used for development of single- and multi-species test-systems for soil quality assessment under anthropogenous stress. The research was performed in 18 terrestrial ecosystems stressed by common anthropogenous impacts: recreation pressure, motorway or industrial pollution in Central Russia, Belgium and the Netherlands in 1983-2001. All three types of human stresses (recreation, motorway and industrial) induced similar changes of macroartropod and microarthropod communities. In stressed macroarthropod communities the decrease of abundance of non-specialized predators, chewing phytophagans, saprophagans and increase of abundance of rhyzophagans, sucking phytophagans and specialized predators was observed. All types of stresses increased or stabilized species diversity in macro- (in carabid beetles communities mainly increase of Harpalus and Amara species number, in weevils - Sitona species number etc.) and microarthropod (e.g. Mesostigmata mites species) communities. In stressed ecosystems sucking phytophagans have selective advantage as compared to chewing phytophagans, endoparasitoids as compared to ectoparasitoids, specialized predators as compared to non-specialized predators etc., meaning that the feeding strategy play an important regulatory role in the community. Saprophagans and phytophagans, consuming chemicals, e.g. heavy metals in large quantities, are in general highly sensitive groups. The most sensitive groups belonged to first and second order consumers. In putative trophic chains in roadside ecosystems, non-specialized zoophagans (predators) contained less copper and zinc, than specialized zoophagans and parasitoids. When compared to the peculiarities of distribution of pesticides (e.g. DDT) and radionuclides (Sr90 and Cs137) it happens that in terrestrial ecosystems heavy metals were primarily accumulated (1) in soil

  15. Developmental biology in marine invertebrate symbioses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McFall-Ngai, M J; Ruby, E G

    2000-12-01

    Associations between marine invertebrates and their cooperative bacterial symbionts offer access to an understanding of the roots of host-microbe interaction; for example, several symbioses like the squid-vibrio light organ association serve as models for investigating how each partner affects the developmental biology of the other. Previous results have identified a program of specific developmental events that unfolds as the association is initiated. In the past year, published studies have focused primarily on describing the mechanisms underlying the signaling processes that occur between the juvenile squid and the luminous bacteria that colonize it.

  16. Relapse to cocaine seeking in an invertebrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amaning-Kwarteng, Akua O; Asif-Malik, Aman; Pei, Yue; Canales, Juan J

    2017-06-01

    Addiction is characterised by cycles of compulsive drug taking, periods of abstinence and episodes of relapse. The extinction/reinstatement paradigm has been extensively used in rodents to model human relapse and explore underlying mechanisms and therapeutics. However, relapse to drug seeking behaviour has not been previously demonstrated in invertebrates. Here, we used a cocaine conditioned place preference (CPP) paradigm in the flatworm, planarian, followed by extinction and reinstatement of drug seeking. Once baseline preference was established for one of two distinctly textured environments (i.e. compartments with a coarse or smooth surface), planarian received pairings of cocaine (5μM) in the non-preferred, and vehicle in the most preferred, environment, and were tested for conditioning thereafter. Cocaine produced robust CPP, measured as a significant increase in the time spent in the cocaine-paired compartment. Subsequently, planarian underwent extinction training, reverting back to their original preference within three sessions. Brief exposure to cocaine (5μM) or methamphetamine (5μM) reinstated cocaine-seeking behaviour. By contrast, the high affinity dopamine transporter inhibitor, (N-(n-butyl)-3α-[bis (4-fluorophenyl) methoxy]-tropane) (JHW007), which in rodents exhibits a neurochemical and behavioural profile distinct from cocaine, was ineffective. The present findings demonstrate for the first time reinstatement of extinguished cocaine seeking in an invertebrate model and suggest that the long-term adaptations underlying drug conditioning and relapse are highly conserved through evolution. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Management in a neotropical show cave: planning for invertebrates conservation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thais Giovannini Pellegrini

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Lapa Nova is a dolomitic cave about 4.5 km long located in northwestern Minas Gerais state, Brazil. The cave experiences intense tourism, concentrated over a single period of the year, during the Feast of Our Lady of Lapa. In order to evaluate the impacts felt by the invertebrate community from this tourism, a new methodology was proposed. Four types of areas (intense visitation area, outlying visitation areas, moderate visitation areas and no-visitation areas were sampled for invertebrates. There was one sampling prior and another on the last day of the 128th feast, to evaluate the effects of visitation on cave-dwelling invertebrates. Results show that invertebrate populations residing in more intensely visited areas of the cave undergo changes in distribution following the event. As a consequence of tourism, invertebrates shift to outlying locations from the visited area, which serve as refuges to the communities. Apparently, the fact that there are places inside Lapa Nova inaccessible to tourists reduces the impact suffered by the invertebrate community, as those sites serve as refuges for cave-dwelling organisms during the pilgrimage. A proper management plan was devised for the tourism/religious use of the cave. It consists basically of delimiting marked pathways for tourists, allowing invertebrates to seek shelter at locations outside visited areas and keeping no-visitation areas off-limits to tourism based on the results of the visitation effects on cave-dwelling invertebrates.

  18. 50 CFR 17.85 - Special rules-invertebrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Special rules-invertebrates. 17.85 Section 17.85 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR....85 Special rules—invertebrates. (a) Seventeen mollusks in the Tennessee River. The species in the...

  19. Invertebrates of the Columbia River basin assessment area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christine G. Niwa; Roger E. Sandquist; Rod Crawford; et al.

    2001-01-01

    A general background on functional groups of invertebrates in the Columbia River basin and how they affect sustainability and productivity of their ecological communities is presented. The functional groups include detritivores, predators, pollinators, and grassland and forest herbivores. Invertebrate biodiversity and species of conservation interest are discussed....

  20. The Danish Pathology Register

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerregaard, Beth; Larsen, Ole B

    2011-01-01

    The National Board of Health, Denmark in 1997 published guidelines for reporting of pathology data and the Danish Pathology Register (DPR) was established.......The National Board of Health, Denmark in 1997 published guidelines for reporting of pathology data and the Danish Pathology Register (DPR) was established....

  1. Innovations in teaching plant pathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schumann, G L

    2003-01-01

    The teaching environment for plant pathology is changing in both positive and negative ways. Teaching expectations are increasing and resources are decreasing, but recent educational research and instructional technology offer new approaches to meet these challenges. Plant pathologists are teaching courses that may attract new students to the discipline or at least improve agricultural awareness. The Internet offers rapid access to information and images for both students and instructors. Instructional technology provides new tools for classroom presentations, communication with students, reaching new audiences, and distance learning, but using these new tools to enhance learning requires skilled and creative instructors. In the past, many plant pathology instructors worked in relative isolation, but new communication technologies and publishing opportunities for teaching scholarship should improve the sharing of instructional resources and methods.

  2. Biosynthesis of Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids in Marine Invertebrates: Recent Advances in Molecular Mechanisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monroig, Óscar; Tocher, Douglas R.; Navarro, Juan C.

    2013-01-01

    Virtually all polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) originate from primary producers but can be modified by bioconversions as they pass up the food chain in a process termed trophic upgrading. Therefore, although the main primary producers of PUFA in the marine environment are microalgae, higher trophic levels have metabolic pathways that can produce novel and unique PUFA. However, little is known about the pathways of PUFA biosynthesis and metabolism in the levels between primary producers and fish that are largely filled by invertebrates. It has become increasingly apparent that, in addition to trophic upgrading, de novo synthesis of PUFA is possible in some lower animals. The unequivocal identification of PUFA biosynthetic pathways in many invertebrates is complicated by the presence of other organisms within them. These organisms include bacteria and algae with PUFA biosynthesis pathways, and range from intestinal flora to symbiotic relationships that can involve PUFA translocation to host organisms. This emphasizes the importance of studying biosynthetic pathways at a molecular level, and the continual expansion of genomic resources and advances in molecular analysis is facilitating this. The present paper highlights recent research into the molecular and biochemical mechanisms of PUFA biosynthesis in marine invertebrates, particularly focusing on cephalopod molluscs. PMID:24152561

  3. Soil invertebrates as bioindicators of urban soil quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santorufo, Lucia; Van Gestel, Cornelis A.M.; Rocco, Annamaria; Maisto, Giulia

    2012-01-01

    This study aimed at relating the abundance and diversity of invertebrate communities of urban soils to chemical and physical soil characteristics and to identify the taxa most sensitive or tolerant to soil stressors. The invertebrate community of five urban soils in Naples, Italy, was sampled. To assess soil quality invertebrate community indices (Shannon, Simpson, Menhinick and Pielou indices), Acarina/Collembola ratios, and the soil biological quality index (QBS) were calculated. The chemical and physical characteristics of the soils strongly differed. Abundance rather than taxa richness of invertebrates were more affected by soil characteristics. The community was more abundant and diverse in the soils with high organic matter and water content and low metal (Cu, Pb, Zn) concentrations. The taxa more resistant to the urban environment included Acarina, Enchytraeids, Collembola and Nematoda. Collembolans appeared particularly sensitive to changing soil properties. Among the investigated indices, QBS seems most appropriate for soil quality assessment. - Highlights: ► The abundance and diversity of invertebrate communities was related to properties and metal contents of urban soils. ► Several (biodiversity) indices were calculated and compared to evaluate soil quality. ► Metal contamination affected invertebrate density and diversity. ► The taxa more tolerant to metal contamination were Acarina, Enchytraeids, Collembola and Nematoda. ► The soil biological quality index QBS index was most appropriate for soil quality assessment. - Soil metal contamination negatively affected soil invertebrate abundance and diversity.

  4. RNA interference-mediated intrinsic antiviral immunity in invertebrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nayak, Arabinda; Tassetto, Michel; Kunitomi, Mark; Andino, Raul

    2013-01-01

    In invertebrates such as insects and nematodes, RNA interference (RNAi) provides RNA-based protection against viruses. This form of immunity restricts viral replication and dissemination from infected cells and viruses, in turn, have evolved evasion mechanisms or RNAi suppressors to counteract host defenses. Recent advances indicate that, in addition to RNAi, other related small RNA pathways contribute to antiviral functions in invertebrates. This has led to a deeper understanding of fundamental aspects of small RNA-based antiviral immunity in invertebrates and its contribution to viral spread and pathogenesis.

  5. Pathology as the enabler of human research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crawford, James M; Tykocinski, Mark L

    2005-09-01

    Academic Pathology is a key player in human molecular science and in the powerful initiatives of the National Institutes of Health. Pathologists generate data crucial to virtually every molecular study of human tissue, and have the necessary skills and authority to oversee processing of human tissues for research analysis. We advocate that Academic Pathology is optimally positioned to drive the molecular revolution in study of human disease, through human tissue collection, analysis, and databasing. This can be achieved through playing a major role in human tissue procurement and management; establishing high-quality 'Pathology Resource Laboratories'; providing the scientific expertise for pathology data sharing; and recruiting and training physician scientists. Pathology should position itself to be the local institutional driver of technology implementation and development, by operating the resource laboratories, providing the expertise for technical and conceptual design of research projects, maintaining the databases that link molecular and morphological information on human tissues with the requisite clinical databases, providing education and mentorship of technology users, and nurturing new research through the development of preliminary data. We also consider that outstanding pathology journals are available for the publication of research emanating from such studies, to the benefit of the pathology profession as an academic enterprise. It is our earnest hope that Academic Pathology can play a leading role in the remarkable advances to be made as the 21st century unfolds.

  6. Logging cuts the functional importance of invertebrates in tropical rainforest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ewers, Robert M; Boyle, Michael J W; Gleave, Rosalind A; Plowman, Nichola S; Benedick, Suzan; Bernard, Henry; Bishop, Tom R; Bakhtiar, Effendi Y; Chey, Vun Khen; Chung, Arthur Y C; Davies, Richard G; Edwards, David P; Eggleton, Paul; Fayle, Tom M; Hardwick, Stephen R; Homathevi, Rahman; Kitching, Roger L; Khoo, Min Sheng; Luke, Sarah H; March, Joshua J; Nilus, Reuben; Pfeifer, Marion; Rao, Sri V; Sharp, Adam C; Snaddon, Jake L; Stork, Nigel E; Struebig, Matthew J; Wearn, Oliver R; Yusah, Kalsum M; Turner, Edgar C

    2015-04-13

    Invertebrates are dominant species in primary tropical rainforests, where their abundance and diversity contributes to the functioning and resilience of these globally important ecosystems. However, more than one-third of tropical forests have been logged, with dramatic impacts on rainforest biodiversity that may disrupt key ecosystem processes. We find that the contribution of invertebrates to three ecosystem processes operating at three trophic levels (litter decomposition, seed predation and removal, and invertebrate predation) is reduced by up to one-half following logging. These changes are associated with decreased abundance of key functional groups of termites, ants, beetles and earthworms, and an increase in the abundance of small mammals, amphibians and insectivorous birds in logged relative to primary forest. Our results suggest that ecosystem processes themselves have considerable resilience to logging, but the consistent decline of invertebrate functional importance is indicative of a human-induced shift in how these ecological processes operate in tropical rainforests.

  7. Logging cuts the functional importance of invertebrates in tropical rainforest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ewers, Robert M.; Boyle, Michael J. W.; Gleave, Rosalind A.; Plowman, Nichola S.; Benedick, Suzan; Bernard, Henry; Bishop, Tom R.; Bakhtiar, Effendi Y.; Chey, Vun Khen; Chung, Arthur Y. C.; Davies, Richard G.; Edwards, David P.; Eggleton, Paul; Fayle, Tom M.; Hardwick, Stephen R.; Homathevi, Rahman; Kitching, Roger L.; Khoo, Min Sheng; Luke, Sarah H.; March, Joshua J.; Nilus, Reuben; Pfeifer, Marion; Rao, Sri V.; Sharp, Adam C.; Snaddon, Jake L.; Stork, Nigel E.; Struebig, Matthew J.; Wearn, Oliver R.; Yusah, Kalsum M.; Turner, Edgar C.

    2015-01-01

    Invertebrates are dominant species in primary tropical rainforests, where their abundance and diversity contributes to the functioning and resilience of these globally important ecosystems. However, more than one-third of tropical forests have been logged, with dramatic impacts on rainforest biodiversity that may disrupt key ecosystem processes. We find that the contribution of invertebrates to three ecosystem processes operating at three trophic levels (litter decomposition, seed predation and removal, and invertebrate predation) is reduced by up to one-half following logging. These changes are associated with decreased abundance of key functional groups of termites, ants, beetles and earthworms, and an increase in the abundance of small mammals, amphibians and insectivorous birds in logged relative to primary forest. Our results suggest that ecosystem processes themselves have considerable resilience to logging, but the consistent decline of invertebrate functional importance is indicative of a human-induced shift in how these ecological processes operate in tropical rainforests. PMID:25865801

  8. Oxytocin mediated behavior in invertebrates: An evolutionary perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lockard, Meghan A; Ebert, Margaret S; Bargmann, Cornelia I

    2017-02-01

    The molecular and functional conservation of oxytocin-related neuropeptides in behavior is striking. In animals separated by at least 600 million years of evolution, from roundworms to humans, oxytocin homologs play critical roles in the modulation of reproductive behavior and other biological functions. Here, we review the roles of oxytocin in invertebrate behavior from an evolutionary perspective. We begin by tracing the evolution of oxytocin through the invertebrate animal lineages, and then describe common themes in invertebrate behaviors that are mediated by oxytocin-related peptides, including reproductive behavior, learning and memory, food arousal, and predator/prey relationships. Finally, we discuss interesting future directions that have recently become experimentally tractable. Studying oxytocin in invertebrates offers precise insights into the activity of neuropeptides on well-defined neural circuits; the principles that emerge may also be represented in the more complex vertebrate brain. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Develop Neurobiol 77: 128-142, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Asellus aquaticus and other invertebrates in drinking water distribution systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Sarah Christine

    hygiene. Whereas invertebrates in drinking water are known to host parasites in tropical countries they are largely regarded an aesthetical problem in temperate countries. Publications on invertebrate distribution in Danish systems have been completely absent and while reports from various countries have...... other crustaceans and nematodes protect bacteria from treatment processes. The influence of A. aquaticus has never previously been investigated. Investigations in this PhD project revealed that presence of A. aquaticus did not influence microbial water quality measurably in full scale distribution...... Campylobacter jejuni. Invertebrates enter drinking water systems through various routes e.g. through deficiencies in e.g. tanks, pipes, valves and fittings due to bursts or maintenance works. Some invertebrates pass treatment processes from ground water or surface water supplies while other routes may include...

  10. An investigation into the chemical composition of alternative invertebrate prey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oonincx, D.G.A.B.; Dierenfeld, E.S.

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the chemical composition of eight invertebrate species and evaluate their suitability as alternative prey. The species selected were rusty red cockroaches (Blatta lateralis), six-spotted cockroaches (Eublaberus distanti), Madagascar hissing cockroaches

  11. Various roles of beta-glucan in invertebrates

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Větvička, V.; Šíma, Petr

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 14, č. 1 (2017), s. 488-493 ISSN 1824-307X Institutional support: RVO:61388971 Keywords : invertebrates * glucan * receptors Subject RIV: EC - Immunology OBOR OECD: Immunology Impact factor: 0.824, year: 2016

  12. Effects of neonicotinoids and fipronil on non-target invertebrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pisa, L W; Amaral-Rogers, V; Belzunces, L P; Bonmatin, J M; Downs, C A; Goulson, D; Kreutzweiser, D P; Krupke, C; Liess, M; McField, M; Morrissey, C A; Noome, D A; Settele, J; Simon-Delso, N; Stark, J D; Van der Sluijs, J P; Van Dyck, H; Wiemers, M

    2015-01-01

    We assessed the state of knowledge regarding the effects of large-scale pollution with neonicotinoid insecticides and fipronil on non-target invertebrate species of terrestrial, freshwater and marine environments. A large section of the assessment is dedicated to the state of knowledge on sublethal effects on honeybees (Apis mellifera) because this important pollinator is the most studied non-target invertebrate species. Lepidoptera (butterflies and moths), Lumbricidae (earthworms), Apoidae sensu lato (bumblebees, solitary bees) and the section "other invertebrates" review available studies on the other terrestrial species. The sections on freshwater and marine species are rather short as little is known so far about the impact of neonicotinoid insecticides and fipronil on the diverse invertebrate fauna of these widely exposed habitats. For terrestrial and aquatic invertebrate species, the known effects of neonicotinoid pesticides and fipronil are described ranging from organismal toxicology and behavioural effects to population-level effects. For earthworms, freshwater and marine species, the relation of findings to regulatory risk assessment is described. Neonicotinoid insecticides exhibit very high toxicity to a wide range of invertebrates, particularly insects, and field-realistic exposure is likely to result in both lethal and a broad range of important sublethal impacts. There is a major knowledge gap regarding impacts on the grand majority of invertebrates, many of which perform essential roles enabling healthy ecosystem functioning. The data on the few non-target species on which field tests have been performed are limited by major flaws in the outdated test protocols. Despite large knowledge gaps and uncertainties, enough knowledge exists to conclude that existing levels of pollution with neonicotinoids and fipronil resulting from presently authorized uses frequently exceed the lowest observed adverse effect concentrations and are thus likely to have large

  13. Common mechanisms of synaptic plasticity in vertebrates and invertebrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glanzman, David L.

    2016-01-01

    Until recently, the literature on learning-related synaptic plasticity in invertebrates has been dominated by models assuming plasticity is mediated by presynaptic changes, whereas the vertebrate literature has been dominated by models assuming it is mediated by postsynaptic changes. Here I will argue that this situation does not reflect a biological reality and that, in fact, invertebrate and vertebrate nervous systems share a common set of mechanisms of synaptic plasticity. PMID:20152143

  14. Trophic Ecology of Benthic Marine Invertebrates with Bi-Phasic Life Cycles: What Are We Still Missing?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calado, Ricardo; Leal, Miguel Costa

    2015-01-01

    The study of trophic ecology of benthic marine invertebrates with bi-phasic life cycles is critical to understand the mechanisms shaping population dynamics. Moreover, global climate change is impacting the marine environment at an unprecedented level, which promotes trophic mismatches that affect the phenology of these species and, ultimately, act as drivers of ecological and evolutionary change. Assessing the trophic ecology of marine invertebrates is critical to understanding maternal investment, larval survival to metamorphosis, post-metamorphic performance, resource partitioning and trophic cascades. Tools already available to assess the trophic ecology of marine invertebrates, including visual observation, gut content analysis, food concentration, trophic markers, stable isotopes and molecular genetics, are reviewed and their main advantages and disadvantages for qualitative and quantitative approaches are discussed. The challenges to perform the partitioning of ingestion, digestion and assimilation are discussed together with different approaches to address each of these processes for short- and long-term fingerprinting. Future directions for research on the trophic ecology of benthic marine invertebrates with bi-phasic life cycles are discussed with emphasis on five guidelines that will allow for systematic study and comparative meta-analysis to address important unresolved questions. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Pathology Assistant (C - Gamechanger Of Pathology Diagnostic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asel Kudaybergenova

    2016-06-01

    When the competition ended, we received many favor- able reviews and we decided to start another project a little bit similar to the competition. Every month we show three interesting and difficult to diagnose cases provided by the leading Russian pathologists. The participants can look through the clinical data and digitized histological slides, and then discuss what they see among their professional society. There are 400  specialists  from  post  USSR countries.  Moreover, we get a few proposal of partnership to start a similar project in EU. And the last product in line is Pathology Assistant. It is a game changer. Pathology Assistant is a Digital Pathology©technology driven application for pathology diagnostics, tool to innovate pathology diagnostics in more simple, proven by analytical algo- rithm, automatically delivering anticipated support way. The service provides vast and structured database of validated cases, intuitive interface, fast and convenient system of analytical search. Pathology Assistant will streamline and simplify pathologist’s way to the right decision. Pathologists from Memorial Sloan Catering and biggest EU labs are working on preparing the con- tent for the project.  

  16. Chemical elements in invertebrate orders for environmental quality studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Magalhaes, Marcelo R.L.; Franca, Elvis J.; Paiva, Jose D.S.; Hazin, Clovis A.; Fonseca, Felipe Y.; Fernandes, Elisabete A. de Nadai; Bacchi, Marcio A.

    2013-01-01

    Among the biomonitors of environmental quality, there is a lack of studies on using invertebrates to evaluate quantitatively chemical elements in ecosystems. This group of animals is quite numerous, widely distributed and adaptable to the most diverse environmental conditions. These features are very useful for the environmental quality assessment, as well as the several occurring insect-plant interactions performing essential functions in ecosystems. The objective of this work is to study the variability of chemical composition of invertebrate orders for using in environmental quality monitoring studies. Instrumental neutron activation analysis - INAA was applied to determine some nutrients and trace elements in invertebrate samples. Sampling by pitfall traps was carried out in riverine ecosystems from the urban area from the Piracicaba Municipality, State of Sao Paulo, Brazil. Invertebrate and reference material samples were irradiated in the nuclear research reactor IEA-R1, Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares - IPEN/CNEN. Fragments of a Ni-Cr alloy were irradiated for monitoring the thermal neutron flux. Hymenoptera order was considered the most representative according to the total number of sampled species (about 60%). Significant amounts of Ba, Br, Fe and Sc were found in invertebrates of the order Opiliones. Potassium, rubidium and zinc were highly accumulated in species from Blattodea order, indicating a consistent pattern of accumulation for this invertebrate order. Taking into account the abundance of Hymenoptera order, the chemical composition of its species was significant different at the 95% confidence level for Br and Na in the sampled locals. (author)

  17. Regulation of nitrous oxide emission associated with benthic invertebrates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stief, Peter; Schramm, Andreas

    2010-01-01

    1. A number of freshwater invertebrate species emit N2O, a greenhouse gas that is produced in their gut by denitrifying bacteria (direct N2O emission). Additionally, benthic invertebrate species may contribute to N2O emission from sediments by stimulating denitrification because of their bioirrig......1. A number of freshwater invertebrate species emit N2O, a greenhouse gas that is produced in their gut by denitrifying bacteria (direct N2O emission). Additionally, benthic invertebrate species may contribute to N2O emission from sediments by stimulating denitrification because...... of their bioirrigation behaviour (indirect N2O emission). 2. Two benthic invertebrate species were studied to determine (i) the dependence of direct N2O emission on the preferred diet of the animals, (ii) the regulation of direct N2O emission by seasonally changing factors, such as body size, temperature and NO3...... emitted by benthic invertebrates can be partially consumed in the sediment (E. danica), non-emitting species can still indirectly contribute to total N2O emission from sediment (S. lutaria)....

  18. Chemical elements in invertebrate orders for environmental quality studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Magalhaes, Marcelo R.L.; Franca, Elvis J.; Paiva, Jose D.S.; Hazin, Clovis A., E-mail: marcelo_rlm@hotmail.com, E-mail: ejfranca@cnen.gov.br, E-mail: dan-paiva@hotmail.com, E-mail: chazin@cnen.gov.br [Centro Regional de Ciencias Nucleares do Nordeste (CRCN-NE/CNEN-PE), Recife, PE (Brazil); Fonseca, Felipe Y.; Fernandes, Elisabete A. de Nadai; Bacchi, Marcio A., E-mail: felipe-yamada@hotmail.com, E-mail: lis@cena.usp.br, E-mail: mabacchi@cena.usp.br [Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura (CENA/USP), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    Among the biomonitors of environmental quality, there is a lack of studies on using invertebrates to evaluate quantitatively chemical elements in ecosystems. This group of animals is quite numerous, widely distributed and adaptable to the most diverse environmental conditions. These features are very useful for the environmental quality assessment, as well as the several occurring insect-plant interactions performing essential functions in ecosystems. The objective of this work is to study the variability of chemical composition of invertebrate orders for using in environmental quality monitoring studies. Instrumental neutron activation analysis - INAA was applied to determine some nutrients and trace elements in invertebrate samples. Sampling by pitfall traps was carried out in riverine ecosystems from the urban area from the Piracicaba Municipality, State of Sao Paulo, Brazil. Invertebrate and reference material samples were irradiated in the nuclear research reactor IEA-R1, Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares - IPEN/CNEN. Fragments of a Ni-Cr alloy were irradiated for monitoring the thermal neutron flux. Hymenoptera order was considered the most representative according to the total number of sampled species (about 60%). Significant amounts of Ba, Br, Fe and Sc were found in invertebrates of the order Opiliones. Potassium, rubidium and zinc were highly accumulated in species from Blattodea order, indicating a consistent pattern of accumulation for this invertebrate order. Taking into account the abundance of Hymenoptera order, the chemical composition of its species was significant different at the 95% confidence level for Br and Na in the sampled locals. (author)

  19. Stream invertebrate productivity linked to forest subsidies: 37 stream-years of reference and experimental data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, J Bruce; Eggert, Susan L; Meyer, Judy L; Webster, Jackson R

    2015-05-01

    invertebrate production. Predator production and total production were tightly coupled in reference and treatment streams, indicating strong relationships between predators and their prey. Results from the artificial wood addition demonstrate that physical structure alone will not restore invertebrate productivity without detrital resources from the riparian forest. Our long-term studies conducted over three decades at the ecosystem scale unequivocally show the necessity of maintaining and restoring aquatic-terrestrial linkages in forested headwater streams.

  20. Evaluation of common methods for sampling invertebrate pollinator assemblages: net sampling out-perform pan traps.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tony J Popic

    Full Text Available Methods for sampling ecological assemblages strive to be efficient, repeatable, and representative. Unknowingly, common methods may be limited in terms of revealing species function and so of less value for comparative studies. The global decline in pollination services has stimulated surveys of flower-visiting invertebrates, using pan traps and net sampling. We explore the relative merits of these two methods in terms of species discovery, quantifying abundance, function, and composition, and responses of species to changing floral resources. Using a spatially-nested design we sampled across a 5000 km(2 area of arid grasslands, including 432 hours of net sampling and 1296 pan trap-days, between June 2010 and July 2011. Net sampling yielded 22% more species and 30% higher abundance than pan traps, and better reflected the spatio-temporal variation of floral resources. Species composition differed significantly between methods; from 436 total species, 25% were sampled by both methods, 50% only by nets, and the remaining 25% only by pans. Apart from being less comprehensive, if pan traps do not sample flower-visitors, the link to pollination is questionable. By contrast, net sampling functionally linked species to pollination through behavioural observations of flower-visitation interaction frequency. Netted specimens are also necessary for evidence of pollen transport. Benefits of net-based sampling outweighed minor differences in overall sampling effort. As pan traps and net sampling methods are not equivalent for sampling invertebrate-flower interactions, we recommend net sampling of invertebrate pollinator assemblages, especially if datasets are intended to document declines in pollination and guide measures to retain this important ecosystem service.

  1. Evaluation of common methods for sampling invertebrate pollinator assemblages: net sampling out-perform pan traps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popic, Tony J; Davila, Yvonne C; Wardle, Glenda M

    2013-01-01

    Methods for sampling ecological assemblages strive to be efficient, repeatable, and representative. Unknowingly, common methods may be limited in terms of revealing species function and so of less value for comparative studies. The global decline in pollination services has stimulated surveys of flower-visiting invertebrates, using pan traps and net sampling. We explore the relative merits of these two methods in terms of species discovery, quantifying abundance, function, and composition, and responses of species to changing floral resources. Using a spatially-nested design we sampled across a 5000 km(2) area of arid grasslands, including 432 hours of net sampling and 1296 pan trap-days, between June 2010 and July 2011. Net sampling yielded 22% more species and 30% higher abundance than pan traps, and better reflected the spatio-temporal variation of floral resources. Species composition differed significantly between methods; from 436 total species, 25% were sampled by both methods, 50% only by nets, and the remaining 25% only by pans. Apart from being less comprehensive, if pan traps do not sample flower-visitors, the link to pollination is questionable. By contrast, net sampling functionally linked species to pollination through behavioural observations of flower-visitation interaction frequency. Netted specimens are also necessary for evidence of pollen transport. Benefits of net-based sampling outweighed minor differences in overall sampling effort. As pan traps and net sampling methods are not equivalent for sampling invertebrate-flower interactions, we recommend net sampling of invertebrate pollinator assemblages, especially if datasets are intended to document declines in pollination and guide measures to retain this important ecosystem service.

  2. Environmental epigenetics: A promising venue for developing next-generation pollution biomonitoring tools in marine invertebrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suarez-Ulloa, Victoria; Gonzalez-Romero, Rodrigo; Eirin-Lopez, Jose M

    2015-09-15

    Environmental epigenetics investigates the cause-effect relationships between specific environmental factors and the subsequent epigenetic modifications triggering adaptive responses in the cell. Given the dynamic and potentially reversible nature of the different types of epigenetic marks, environmental epigenetics constitutes a promising venue for developing fast and sensible biomonitoring programs. Indeed, several epigenetic biomarkers have been successfully developed and applied in traditional model organisms (e.g., human and mouse). Nevertheless, the lack of epigenetic knowledge in other ecologically and environmentally relevant organisms has hampered the application of these tools in a broader range of ecosystems, most notably in the marine environment. Fortunately, that scenario is now changing thanks to the growing availability of complete reference genome sequences along with the development of high-throughput DNA sequencing and bioinformatic methods. Altogether, these resources make the epigenetic study of marine organisms (and more specifically marine invertebrates) a reality. By building on this knowledge, the present work provides a timely perspective highlighting the extraordinary potential of environmental epigenetic analyses as a promising source of rapid and sensible tools for pollution biomonitoring, using marine invertebrates as sentinel organisms. This strategy represents an innovative, groundbreaking approach, improving the conservation and management of natural resources in the oceans. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Pathology in Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakellariou, S; Patsouris, E

    2015-11-01

    Pathology is the field of medicine that studies diseases. Ancient Greece hosted some of the earliest societies that laid the structural foundations of pathology. Initially, knowledge was based on observations but later on the key elements of pathology were established based on the dissection of animals and the autopsy of human cadavers. Christianized Greece under Ottoman rule (1453-1821) was not conducive to the development of pathology. After liberation, however, a series of events took place that paved the way for the establishment and further development of the specialty. The appointment in 1849 of two Professors of Pathology at the Medical School of Athens for didactical purposes proved to be the most important step in fostering the field of pathology in modern Greece. Presently in Greece there are seven university departments and 74 pathology laboratories in public hospitals, employing 415 specialized pathologists and 90 residents. The First Department of Pathology at the Medical School of Athens University is the oldest (1849) and largest in Greece, encompassing most pathology subspecialties.

  4. A generalized model for estimating the energy density of invertebrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, Daniel A.; Csargo, Isak J.; Von Eschen, Aaron; Thul, Megan D.; Baker, James M.; Hayer, Cari-Ann; Howell, Jessica; Krause, Jacob; Letvin, Alex; Chipps, Steven R.

    2012-01-01

    Invertebrate energy density (ED) values are traditionally measured using bomb calorimetry. However, many researchers rely on a few published literature sources to obtain ED values because of time and sampling constraints on measuring ED with bomb calorimetry. Literature values often do not account for spatial or temporal variability associated with invertebrate ED. Thus, these values can be unreliable for use in models and other ecological applications. We evaluated the generality of the relationship between invertebrate ED and proportion of dry-to-wet mass (pDM). We then developed and tested a regression model to predict ED from pDM based on a taxonomically, spatially, and temporally diverse sample of invertebrates representing 28 orders in aquatic (freshwater, estuarine, and marine) and terrestrial (temperate and arid) habitats from 4 continents and 2 oceans. Samples included invertebrates collected in all seasons over the last 19 y. Evaluation of these data revealed a significant relationship between ED and pDM (r2  =  0.96, p cost savings compared to traditional bomb calorimetry approaches. This model should prove useful for a wide range of ecological studies because it is unaffected by taxonomic, seasonal, or spatial variability.

  5. Lysosomal enzymes and their receptors in invertebrates: an evolutionary perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Nadimpalli Siva; Bhamidimarri, Poorna M

    2015-01-01

    Lysosomal biogenesis is an important process in eukaryotic cells to maintain cellular homeostasis. The key components that are involved in the biogenesis such as the lysosomal enzymes, their modifications and the mannose 6-phosphate receptors have been well studied and their evolutionary conservation across mammalian and non-mammalian vertebrates is clearly established. Invertebrate lysosomal biogenesis pathway on the other hand is not well studied. Although, details on mannose 6-phosphate receptors and enzymes involved in lysosomal enzyme modifications were reported earlier, a clear cut pathway has not been established. Recent research on the invertebrate species involving biogenesis of lysosomal enzymes suggests a possible conserved pathway in invertebrates. This review presents certain observations based on these processes that include biochemical, immunological and functional studies. Major conclusions include conservation of MPR-dependent pathway in higher invertebrates and recent evidence suggests that MPR-independent pathway might have been more prominent among lower invertebrates. The possible components of MPR-independent pathway that may play a role in lysosomal enzyme targeting are also discussed here.

  6. Piscicides and invertebrates: after 70 years, does anyone really know?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinson, M.R.; Dinger, E.C.; Vinson, D.K.

    2010-01-01

    The piscicides rotenone and antimycin have been used for more than 70 years to manage fish populations by eliminating undesirable fish species. The effects of piscicides on aquatic invertebrate assemblages are considered negligible by some and significant by others. This difference of opinion has created contentious situations and delayed native fish restoration projects. We review the scientific evidence and report that short-term ( 1 year) impacts are largely unknown. Recovery of invertebrate assemblages following treatments ranged from a few months for abundances of common taxa to several years for rarer taxa. Variation in reported effects was primarily due to natural variation among species and habitats and a lack of adequate pre- and post-treatment sampling which prevents determining the true impacts to invertebrate assemblages. The factors most likely to influence impacts and recovery of aquatic invertebrate assemblages following piscicide treatments are: (1) concentration, duration, and breadth of the piscicide treatment; (2) invertebrate morphology and life history characteristics, including surface area to volume ratios, type of respiration organs, generation time, and propensity to disperse; (3) refugia presence; and (4) distance from colonization sources.

  7. Pathological gambling and criminality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Folino, Jorge Oscar; Abait, Patricia Estela

    2009-09-01

    To review research results on the relationship between pathological gambling and criminality, published in 2007 and 2008, in English and in Spanish. An important association between pathological gambling and criminality was confirmed in populations of anonymous gamblers, helpline callers and substance abusers. Helplines provide a timely service to gamblers who have not reached the maximum stages in the development of a pathological gambling pattern. Pathological gambling is associated with violence in couples and dysfunctional families. Inversely, violence is also an antecedent promoting vulnerability toward pathological gambling. Impulsiveness shows diverse relationships with pathological gambling and violence as well. A pathological gambler's involvement in crime is exceptionally considered without responsibility by justice, but it may be an indicator of the disorder severity and the need for special therapeutic tactics. While reviewing the present study, research work was published that contributed to a better understanding of the association between pathological gambling and criminality and went further into their complex relationship and the formulation of explanatory models related to impulsiveness.

  8. Radiographic pathology for technologists

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mace, J.D.; Kowalczyk, N.

    1988-01-01

    This book explains the fundamentals of disease mechanisms and relates this to the practice of radiologic science. Each chapter begins with a discussion of normal anatomy and physiology, then covers pathology and demonstrates how the pathology appears on film. Imaging modalities such as computed tomography, MRI, and ultrasound are also discussed. Clinical case studies are included

  9. Pathology annual. Part 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosen, P.P.

    1987-01-01

    This book contains 11 selections. Some of the titles are: Applications of in situ DNA hybridization technology to diagnostic surgical pathology; Neoplasms associated with immune deficiencies; Chronic gastritis: The pathologists's role; Necrosis in lymph nodes; Pathologic changes of osteochondrodysplasia in infancy: A review; and Immunoglobulin light chain nephropathies

  10. Sequence diversity and evolution of antimicrobial peptides in invertebrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tassanakajon, Anchalee; Somboonwiwat, Kunlaya; Amparyup, Piti

    2015-02-01

    Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) are evolutionarily ancient molecules that act as the key components in the invertebrate innate immunity against invading pathogens. Several AMPs have been identified and characterized in invertebrates, and found to display considerable diversity in their amino acid sequence, structure and biological activity. AMP genes appear to have rapidly evolved, which might have arisen from the co-evolutionary arms race between host and pathogens, and enabled organisms to survive in different microbial environments. Here, the sequence diversity of invertebrate AMPs (defensins, cecropins, crustins and anti-lipopolysaccharide factors) are presented to provide a better understanding of the evolution pattern of these peptides that play a major role in host defense mechanisms. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Isolation of key retinoid signalling and metabolic modules in invertebrates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana André

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Retinoids are a class of molecules related to vitamin A (Retinol that are required for regulation of critical chordate ndocrine-mediated process, such as embryonic development, reproduction, and vision. To maintain such physiological process, chordates have a complex mechanism to regulate the spatial and temporal distribution of retinoids that includes metabolic and signalling modules. Initially, retinoid modules were seen as a chordate novelty. However, emerging biochemical and genomic evidences have challenged this view, clearly pointing to a more basal ancestry than previously thought. However, for the majority of non-chordate invertebrate lineages a clearly characterization of the main enzymatic/molecular players is still missing. Despite limited, the available evidence supports the presence of biologically active retinoid pathways in invertebrates. In order to enhance our insights on retinoid biology, evolution, and its putative disruption by environmental chemicals, the isolation and functional characterization of key retinoid metabolic players in marine invertebrates has been carried out.

  12. Protozoa interaction with aquatic invertebrate: interest for watercourses biomonitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palos Ladeiro, M; Bigot, A; Aubert, D; Hohweyer, J; Favennec, L; Villena, I; Geffard, A

    2013-02-01

    Toxoplasma gondii, Cryptosporidium parvum, and Giardia duodenalis are human waterborne protozoa. These worldwide parasites had been detected in various watercourses as recreational, surface, drinking, river, and seawater. As of today, water protozoa detection was based on large water filtration and on sample concentration. Another tool like aquatic invertebrate parasitism could be used for sanitary and environmental biomonitoring. In fact, organisms like filter feeders could already filtrate and concentrate protozoa directly in their tissues in proportion to ambient concentration. So molluscan shellfish can be used as a bioindicator of protozoa contamination level in a site since they were sedentary. Nevertheless, only a few researches had focused on nonspecific parasitism like protozoa infection on aquatic invertebrates. Objectives of this review are twofold: Firstly, an overview of protozoa in worldwide water was presented. Secondly, current knowledge of protozoa parasitism on aquatic invertebrates was detailed and the lack of data of their biological impact was pointed out.

  13. Multistressor predictive models of invertebrate condition in the Corn Belt, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waite, Ian R.; Van Metre, Peter C.

    2017-01-01

    Understanding the complex relations between multiple environmental stressors and ecological conditions in streams can help guide resource-management decisions. During 14 weeks in spring/summer 2013, personnel from the US Geological Survey and the US Environmental Protection Agency sampled 98 wadeable streams across the Midwest Corn Belt region of the USA for water and sediment quality, physical and habitat characteristics, and ecological communities. We used these data to develop independent predictive disturbance models for 3 macroinvertebrate metrics and a multimetric index. We developed the models based on boosted regression trees (BRT) for 3 stressor categories, land use/land cover (geographic information system [GIS]), all in-stream stressors combined (nutrients, habitat, and contaminants), and for GIS plus in-stream stressors. The GIS plus in-stream stressor models had the best overall performance with an average cross-validation R2 across all models of 0.41. The models were generally consistent in the explanatory variables selected within each stressor group across the 4 invertebrate metrics modeled. Variables related to riparian condition, substrate size or embeddedness, velocity and channel shape, nutrients (primarily NH3), and contaminants (pyrethroid degradates) were important descriptors of the invertebrate metrics. Models based on all measured in-stream stressors performed comparably to models based on GIS landscape variables, suggesting that the in-stream stressor characterization reasonably represents the dominant factors affecting invertebrate communities and that GIS variables are acting as surrogates for in-stream stressors that directly affect in-stream biota.

  14. Environmental DNA (eDNA metabarcoding assays to detect invasive invertebrate species in the Great Lakes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katy E Klymus

    Full Text Available Describing and monitoring biodiversity comprise integral parts of ecosystem management. Recent research coupling metabarcoding and environmental DNA (eDNA demonstrate that these methods can serve as important tools for surveying biodiversity, while significantly decreasing the time, expense and resources spent on traditional survey methods. The literature emphasizes the importance of genetic marker development, as the markers dictate the applicability, sensitivity and resolution ability of an eDNA assay. The present study developed two metabarcoding eDNA assays using the mtDNA 16S RNA gene with Illumina MiSeq platform to detect invertebrate fauna in the Laurentian Great Lakes and surrounding waterways, with a focus for use on invasive bivalve and gastropod species monitoring. We employed careful primer design and in vitro testing with mock communities to assess ability of the markers to amplify and sequence targeted species DNA, while retaining rank abundance information. In our mock communities, read abundances reflected the initial input abundance, with regressions having significant slopes (p<0.05 and high coefficients of determination (R2 for all comparisons. Tests on field environmental samples revealed similar ability of our markers to measure relative abundance. Due to the limited reference sequence data available for these invertebrate species, care must be taken when analyzing results and identifying sequence reads to species level. These markers extend eDNA metabarcoding research for molluscs and appear relevant to other invertebrate taxa, such as rotifers and bryozoans. Furthermore, the sphaeriid mussel assay is group-specific, exclusively amplifying bivalves in the Sphaeridae family and providing species-level identification. Our assays provide useful tools for managers and conservation scientists, facilitating early detection of invasive species as well as improving resolution of mollusc diversity.

  15. Meroterpenes from Marine Invertebrates: Structures, Occurrence, and Ecological Implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menna, Marialuisa; Imperatore, Concetta; D’Aniello, Filomena; Aiello, Anna

    2013-01-01

    Meroterpenes are widely distributed among marine organisms; they are particularly abundant within brown algae, but other important sources include microorganisms and invertebrates. In the present review the structures and bioactivities of meroterpenes from marine invertebrates, mainly sponges and tunicates, are summarized. More than 300 molecules, often complex and with unique skeletons originating from intra- and inter-molecular cyclizations, and/or rearrangements, are illustrated. The reported syntheses are mentioned. The issue of a potential microbial link to their biosynthesis is also shortly outlined. PMID:23685889

  16. Distribution pattern of benthic invertebrates in Danish estuaries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Erik; Delefosse, Matthieu; Quintana, Cintia Organo

    2013-01-01

    distribution of 9 dominating benthic invertebrate species from two study areas, the estuaries Odense Fjord and Roskilde Fjord, Denmark. The slope (b) obtained fromthe power relationship of sample variance (s2) versusmean (μ) appears to be species-specific and independent of location and time. It ranges from...... factors such as behavior and intraspecific interactions. Thus, at the examined spatial scale, the more intense intraspecific interactions (e.g. territoriality) cause less aggregated distribution patterns among large- than small-bodied invertebrates. The species-specific interactions seem sufficiently...

  17. Speech-Language Pathology: Preparing Early Interventionists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prelock, Patricia A.; Deppe, Janet

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to explain the role of speech-language pathology in early intervention. The expected credentials of professionals in the field are described, and the current numbers of practitioners serving young children are identified. Several resource documents available from the American Speech-­Language Hearing Association are…

  18. Invertebrates outcompete vertebrate facultative scavengers in simulated lynx kills in the Bavarian Forest National Park, Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ray, R.–R.

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Understanding the role of scavengers in ecosystems is important for species conservation and wildlife management. We used road–killed animals, 15 in summer 2003 (June–August and nine in winter 2003/2004 (from November to January, to test the following hypotheses: (1 vertebrate scavengers such as raven (Corvus corax, red fox (Vulpes vulpes and wild boar (Sus scrofa consume a higher proportion of the carcasses than invertebrates; (2 the consumption rate is higher in winter than in summer due to the scarcity of other food resources; and (3 vertebrate scavengers are effective competitors of Eurasian lynx. We monitored 65 animals belonging to eight different mammal and bird species with camera traps. Surprisingly, Eurasian lynx (Lynx lynx was the most important vertebrate scavenger. However, in both seasons, the consumption of vertebrate scavengers was of minor impact. In summer, the carcasses were completely consumed within 10 days, mostly by invertebrates. In winter, only 5% of the carcasses were consumed within 10 days and 16% within 15 days. We conclude that vertebrates in the Bavarian Forest National Park are not strong competitors for lynx.

  19. A rapid assessment survey of invasive species of macrobenthic invertebrates in Korean waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Chul; Kim, Sung-Tae; Hong, Jae-Sang; Choi, Keun-Hyung

    2017-09-01

    Introduced species are a growing and imminent threat to living marine resources in parts of the world's oceans. The present study is a rapid assessment survey of invasive macrobenthic invertebrate species in Korean ports. We surveyed over 40 ports around Korea during the period of May 2010 March 2013. Among the sampling sites were concrete walls, docks and associated floats, bumpers, tires, and ropes which might harbor non-native species. We found 15 invasive species as follows: one Sponge, two Bryozoans, three Mollusks, one Polychaete, four Cirripedes, and four Ascidians. Three morphologically similar species, namely X. atrata, M. galloprovincialis, and X. securis were further examined for distinctions in their morphology. Although they could be reasonably distinguished based on shell shapes, significant overlap was noted so that additional analysis may be required to correctly distinguish them. Although many of the introduced species have already spread to all three coastal areas, newly arrived invasive species showed a relatively restricted range, with a serpulid polychaete Ficopomatus enigmaticus and a mytilid bivalve Xenostrobus securis found only at a few sites on the East Coast. An exception is for Balanus perforatus, which has rapidly colonized the East coast of Korea following its introduction into the region. Successful management of invasive macrobenthic invertebrates should be established in order to contain the spread of these newly arrived species.

  20. Notes on common macrobenthic reef invertebrates of Tubbataha Reefs Natural Park, Philippines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean Beth S. Jontila

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Macrobenthic reef invertebrates are important reef health indicators and fishery resources but are not very well documented in Tubbataha Reefs Natural Park. To provide notes on the species composition and the abundance and size of commonly encountered macrobenthic reef invertebrates, belt transects survey in intertidal, shallow, and deep subtidal reef habitats were conducted. In total, 18 species were recorded, six of which were echinoderms and 12 were mollusks, which include the rare giant clam Hippopusporcellanus. Only the giant clam Tridacna crocea and the top shell Trochus niloticus occurred in all seven permanent monitoring sites but the two species varied in densities across depths. There was also an outbreak of crown-of-thorns (COTs sea stars in some sites. The large variation in the density of each species across sites and depths suggests niche differences, overharvesting, or their recovery fromhaving been overly exploited. Separate monitoring areas for each commercially important species are suggested to determine how their populations respond to poaching and their implications on the park’s long term management.

  1. Influence of environmental factors on the benthic invertebrates community distribution in channels of a neotropical floodplain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danielle Katharine Petsch

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available One of the central themes in ecology is the relative importance of local and regional processes for determining the communities’ structure, since both processes may behave as filters in the composition of local communities. Thus, this study analyzed the influence of environmental factors on the benthic invertebrate community distribution in different channels of the Upper Paraná River floodplain, through quarterly samplings conducted from March to December 2010. Through the biotic and abiotic data, we performed a Canonical Correspondence Analysis, where it was possible to visualize the centers of Ivinhema and Paraná rivers and Ipoitã channel separate from other points by high values of depth and velocity and taxa typical of lotic environments, such as Harpacticoida, Haplotaxidae, and Narapidae, and the center of the Curutuba channel, with L. fortunei. One may conclude that flow velocity, granulometric texture, and sediment organic matter were structuring factors of the benthic community, determining the distribution of invertebrates both among the various channels and between the marginal and central regions in these environments, providing greater or lesser availability of resources and environmental heterogeneity.

  2. Responses of predatory invertebrates to seeding density and plant species richness in experimental tallgrass prairie restorations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nemec, Kristine T.; Allen, Craig R.; Danielson, Stephen D.; Helzer, Christopher J.

    2014-01-01

    In recent decades, agricultural producers and non-governmental organizations have restored thousands of hectares of former cropland in the central United States with native grasses and forbs. However, the ability of these grassland restorations to attract predatory invertebrates has not been well documented, even though predators provide an important ecosystem service to agricultural producers by naturally regulating herbivores. This study assessed the effects of plant richness and seeding density on the richness and abundance of surface-dwelling (ants, ground beetles, and spiders) and aboveground (ladybird beetles) predatory invertebrates. In the spring of 2006, twenty-four 55 m × 55 m-plots were planted to six replicates in each of four treatments: high richness (97 species typically planted by The Nature Conservancy), at low and high seeding densities, and low richness (15 species representing a typical Natural Resources Conservation Service Conservation Reserve Program mix, CP25), at low and high seeding densities. Ants, ground beetles, and spiders were sampled using pitfall traps and ladybird beetles were sampled using sweep netting in 2007–2009. The abundance of ants, ground beetles, and spiders showed no response to seed mix richness or seeding density but there was a significant positive effect of richness on ladybird beetle abundance. Seeding density had a significant positive effect on ground beetle and spider species richness and Shannon–Weaver diversity. These results may be related to differences in the plant species composition and relative amount of grass basal cover among the treatments rather than richness.

  3. Your Pathology Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Pathology Tests Breast Cancer News February 20, 2013 Star-gazing software helps fight breast cancer See More ... Phone: (855) 807-6386 email Facebook Twitter Instagram YouTube Contact Us Privacy Policy Site Credits Terms of ...

  4. Stem Cell Pathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Dah-Jiun; Miller, Andrew D; Southard, Teresa L; Flesken-Nikitin, Andrea; Ellenson, Lora H; Nikitin, Alexander Yu

    2018-01-24

    Rapid advances in stem cell biology and regenerative medicine have opened new opportunities for better understanding disease pathogenesis and the development of new diagnostic, prognostic, and treatment approaches. Many stem cell niches are well defined anatomically, thereby allowing their routine pathological evaluation during disease initiation and progression. Evaluation of the consequences of genetic manipulations in stem cells and investigation of the roles of stem cells in regenerative medicine and pathogenesis of various diseases such as cancer require significant expertise in pathology for accurate interpretation of novel findings. Therefore, there is an urgent need for developing stem cell pathology as a discipline to facilitate stem cell research and regenerative medicine. This review provides examples of anatomically defined niches suitable for evaluation by diagnostic pathologists, describes neoplastic lesions associated with them, and discusses further directions of stem cell pathology.

  5. Invertebrate neurophylogeny: suggested terms and definitions for a neuroanatomical glossary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Müller Carsten HG

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Invertebrate nervous systems are highly disparate between different taxa. This is reflected in the terminology used to describe them, which is very rich and often confusing. Even very general terms such as 'brain', 'nerve', and 'eye' have been used in various ways in the different animal groups, but no consensus on the exact meaning exists. This impedes our understanding of the architecture of the invertebrate nervous system in general and of evolutionary transformations of nervous system characters between different taxa. Results We provide a glossary of invertebrate neuroanatomical terms with a precise and consistent terminology, taxon-independent and free of homology assumptions. This terminology is intended to form a basis for new morphological descriptions. A total of 47 terms are defined. Each entry consists of a definition, discouraged terms, and a background/comment section. Conclusions The use of our revised neuroanatomical terminology in any new descriptions of the anatomy of invertebrate nervous systems will improve the comparability of this organ system and its substructures between the various taxa, and finally even lead to better and more robust homology hypotheses.

  6. Marine invertebrate diversity in Aristotle’s zoology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Voultsiadou, E.; Vafidis, D.

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to bring to light Aristotle’s knowledge of marine invertebrate diversity as this has been recorded in his works 25 centuries ago, and set it against current knowledge. The analysis of information derived from a thorough study of his zoological writings revealed 866 records

  7. Some unsolved problems concerning copepods associated with marine invertebrates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gotto, R.V.

    1990-01-01

    Three unsolved problems relating to symbiotic copepods of marine invertebrates are discussed: 1. The whereabouts of the unknown male of the gill parasite of lobsters, Nicothoe astaci. 2. The occurrence of very large and apparently post-reproductive females in the annelidicolous Cyclorhiza megalova.

  8. Trophic transfer of pyrene metabolites between aquatic invertebrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carrasco Navarro, V.; Leppänen, M.T.; Kukkonen, J.V.K.; Godoy Olmos, S.

    2013-01-01

    The trophic transfer of pyrene metabolites was studied using Gammarus setosus as a predator and the invertebrates Lumbriculus variegatus and Chironomus riparius as prey. The results obtained by liquid scintillation counting confirmed that the pyrene metabolites produced by the aquatic invertebrates L. variegatus and C. riparius were transferred to G. setosus through the diet. More detailed analyses by liquid chromatography discovered that two of the metabolites produced by C. riparius appeared in the chromatograms of G. setosus tissue extracts, proving their trophic transfer. These metabolites were not present in chromatograms of G. setosus exclusively exposed to pyrene. The present study supports the trophic transfer of PAH metabolites between benthic macroinvertebrates and common species of an arctic amphipod. As some PAH metabolites are more toxic than the parent compounds, the present study raises concerns about the consequences of their trophic transfer and the fate and effects of PAHs in natural environments. - Highlights: ► The trophic transfer of pyrene metabolites between invertebrates was evaluated. ► Biotransformation of pyrene by L. variegatus and C. riparius is different. ► Metabolites produced by L. variegatus and C. riparius are transferred to G. setosus. ► Specifically, two metabolites produced by C. riparius were transferred. - Some of the pyrene metabolites produced by the model invertebrates L. variegatus and C. riparius are transferred to G. setosus through the diet, proving their trophic transfer.

  9. Nitrous oxide production associated with coastal marine invertebrates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heisterkamp, Ines Maria; Schramm, Andreas; de Beer, Dirk

    2010-01-01

    Several freshwater and terrestrial invertebrate species emit the greenhouse gas nitrous oxide (N2O). The N2O production associated with these animals was ascribed to incomplete denitrification by ingested sediment or soil bacteria. The present study shows that many marine invertebrates also emit N2......O at substantial rates. A total of 19 invertebrate species collected in the German Wadden Sea and in Aarhus Bay, Denmark, and 1 aquacultured shrimp species were tested for N2O emission. Potential N2O emission rates ranged from 0 to 1.354 nmol ind.–1 h–1, with an average rate of 0.320 nmol ind.–1 h–1...... with an experimentally cleaned shell. Thus, the N2O production associated with marine invertebrates is apparently not due to gut denitrification in every species, but may also result from microbial activity on the external surfaces of animals. The high abundance and potential N2O emission rates of many marine...

  10. Bibliography of African inland water invertebrates (to 1980)

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Davies, BR

    1982-09-01

    Full Text Available This bibliography is a direct outcome of the SIL-UNEP Workshop on African Limnology held at the University of Nairobi, Kenya, between 16-23 December, 1979. Part 1 of the framework document for the A4 section of the Workshop - "Invertebrates...

  11. Invertebrates: Revealing a Hidden World in the Year of Biodiversity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanders, Dawn

    2010-01-01

    Biodiversity means the variety of life in all its forms. It includes the variety of species and ecosystems in the world, and genetic variation. Invertebrates are one of the largest and most accessible groups of animals for primary children to study. In this article, the author explains why and how children should engage with the idea of…

  12. Effects of environmental stressors on lipid metabolism in aquatic invertebrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Min-Chul; Park, Jun Chul; Lee, Jae-Seong

    2018-07-01

    Lipid metabolism is crucial for the survival and propagation of the species, since lipids are an essential cellular component across animal taxa for maintaining homeostasis in the presence of environmental stressors. This review aims to summarize information on the lipid metabolism under environmental stressors in aquatic invertebrates. Fatty acid synthesis from glucose via de novo lipogenesis (DNL) pathway is mostly well-conserved across animal taxa. The structure of free fatty acid (FFA) from both dietary and DNL pathway could be transformed by elongase and desaturase. In addition, FFA can be stored in lipid droplet as triacylglycerol, upon attachment to glycerol. However, due to the limited information on both gene and lipid composition, in-depth studies on the structural modification of FFA and their storage conformation are required. Despite previously validated evidences on the disturbance of the normal life cycle and lipid homeostasis by the environmental stressors (e.g., obesogens, salinity, temperature, pCO 2 , and nutrients) in the aquatic invertebrates, the mechanism behind these effects are still poorly understood. To overcome this limitation, omics approaches such as transcriptomic and proteomic analyses have been used, but there are still gaps in our knowledge on aquatic invertebrates as well as the lipidome. This paper provides a deeper understanding of lipid metabolism in aquatic invertebrates. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. The association between invertebrates and macrophytes in a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The invertebrate fauna associated with aquatic macrophytes in the littoral of Lake Kariba was studied over a three-month period in 2002. Animals from seven classes — Hirudinea, Oligochaeta, Turbellaria, Insecta, Crustacea, Bivalvia and Gastropoda — were collected. Two hirudineans, Placobdella sp. and Haemopsis sp., ...

  14. Advancing Neuroscience Research in Africa: Invertebrate Species to the Rescue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balogun, Wasiu Gbolahan; Cobham, Ansa Emmanuel; Amin, Abdulbasit; Seeni, Azman

    2018-03-15

    Neuroscience research and training in many African countries are difficult due to funding and infrastructure deficit. This has resulted in few neuroscientists within Africa. However, invertebrates such as Drosophila and Caenorhabditis elegans could provide the perfect answer to these difficulties. These organisms are cheap, easy to handle and offer a comparable advantage over vertebrates in neuroscience research modeling because they have a simple nervous system and exhibit well-defined behaviors. Studies using invertebrates have helped to understand neurosciences and the complexes associated with it. If Africa wants to catch up with the rest of the world in neuroscience research, it needs to employ this innovative cost-effective approach in its research. To improve invertebrate neuroscience within the Africa continent, the authors advocated the establishment of invertebrate research centers either at regional or national level across Africa. Finally, there is also a need to provide public funding to consolidate the gains that have been made by not-for-profit international organizations over the years. Copyright © 2018 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Freshwater invertebrates of sub-Antarctic Marion Island | Dartnall ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aquatic species include five platyhelminthes, a gastrotrich, three tardigrades, 28 rotifers, six nematodes, two annelids and 11 arthropods. Most are familiar species that have been recorded on other sub-Antarctic islands. The invertebrate faunas of the various freshwater habitats were basically similar in species ...

  16. Effect of burn area on invertebrate recolonization in grasslands in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Our study examined the short-term response of grassland invertebrate communities to fire in the South African Drakensberg, in relation to distance from the edge of a burn. We aimed to establish which species survive fire and the dynamics of the post-fire recolonization process, and thereby contribute to establishing the ...

  17. Seasonal species composition of invertebrates in several Oregon streams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pamela E. Porter; William R. Meehan

    1987-01-01

    The invertebrate communities ofeight Oregon streams were sampled seasonally from 1974 to 1976. Benthic, drift, and two types of aerial-trap samples were collected. Occurrence and percentage composition are summarized by sample type, season, and geographic area (coastal, Cascade, central, and eastern Oregon). Within 276 families, 426 taxa were identified; the 20...

  18. Biodiversity and abundance of fish and macrobenthic invertebrates ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A study of the occurrence and distribution offish and macrobenthic invertebrates of Nguru Lake was conducted between May, 2006 and April, 2007. Thirteen families of fish consisting of 24 species where discovered. The fishes were dominate.d by the family Cichlidae (64.44%). An average of 540. 1 7kg of fish was caught ...

  19. Pathology of pulmonary aspergillomas

    OpenAIRE

    Shah Rajeev; Vaideeswar Pradeep; Pandit Shobhana

    2008-01-01

    Aspergilloma refers to a fungal ball formed by saprophytic overgrowth of Aspergillus species and is seen secondary to cavitatory/cystic respiratory diseases. Paucity of clinical and pathological data of aspergilloma in India prompted us to analyze cases of aspergilloma over 15 years. The clinical features were recorded in all and correlated with detailed pathological examination. Aspergillomas were identified in 41 surgical excisions or at autopsy. There was male predominance; half the patien...

  20. [Concept of occupational pathology service development in Kazakhstan].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amanbekova, A U; Sakiev, K Z; Dzhakupbekova, G M; Ibrayeva, L K

    2015-01-01

    Improvement of occupational medical care management is aimed to preserve workers' health through better prevention, early diagnosis and rehabilitation of occupational diseases. Strategic directions of occupational pathology service development are improvement of legislation base on occupational diseases, modernization of occupational pathology service, development of personnel resources system, advancement of research activity in medical ecology, industrial hygiene and occupational pathology and increased efficiency of intra-sectoral and inter-agency interactions about workers' health preservation.

  1. Crawling to collapse: ecologically unsound ornamental invertebrate fisheries.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Rhyne

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Fishery management has historically been an inexact and reactionary discipline, often taking action only after a critical stock suffers overfishing or collapse. The invertebrate ornamental fishery in the State of Florida, with increasing catches over a more diverse array of species, is poised for collapse. Current management is static and the lack of an adaptive strategy will not allow for adequate responses associated with managing this multi-species fishery. The last decade has seen aquarium hobbyists shift their display preference from fish-only tanks to miniature reef ecosystems that include many invertebrate species, creating increased demand without proper oversight. The once small ornamental fishery has become an invertebrate-dominated major industry supplying five continents. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Here, we analyzed the Florida Marine Life Fishery (FLML landing data from 1994 to 2007 for all invertebrate species. The data were organized to reflect both ecosystem purpose (in the wild and ecosystem services (commodities for each reported species to address the following question: Are ornamental invertebrates being exploited for their fundamental ecosystem services and economic value at the expense of reef resilience? We found that 9 million individuals were collected in 2007, 6 million of which were grazers. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The number of grazers now exceeds, by two-fold, the number of specimens collected for curio and ornamental purposes altogether, representing a major categorical shift. In general, landings have increased 10-fold since 1994, though the number of licenses has been dramatically reduced. Thus, despite current management strategies, the FLML Fishery appears to be crawling to collapse.

  2. Consumer-resource stoichiometry in detritus-based streams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyatt F. Cross; Jonathan P. Benstead; Amy D. Rosemond; J. Bruce Wallace

    2003-01-01

    Stoichiometric relationships between consumers and resources in detritus-based ecosystems have received little attention, despite the importance of detritus in most food webs. We analysed carbon (C), nitrogen (N), and phosphorus (P) content of invertebrate consumers, and basal food resources in two forested headwater streams (one reference and the other nutrient-...

  3. Determining customer satisfaction in anatomic pathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarbo, Richard J

    2006-05-01

    Measurement of physicians' and patients' satisfaction with laboratory services has become a standard practice in the United States, prompted by national accreditation requirements. Unlike other surveys of hospital-, outpatient care-, or physician-related activities, no ongoing, comprehensive customer satisfaction survey of anatomic pathology services is available for subscription that would allow continual benchmarking against peer laboratories. Pathologists, therefore, must often design their own local assessment tools to determine physician satisfaction in anatomic pathology. To describe satisfaction survey design that would elicit specific information from physician customers about key elements of anatomic pathology services. The author shares his experience in biannually assessing customer satisfaction in anatomic pathology with survey tools designed at the Henry Ford Hospital, Detroit, Mich. Benchmarks for physician satisfaction, opportunities for improvement, and characteristics that correlated with a high level of physician satisfaction were identified nationally from a standardized survey tool used by 94 laboratories in the 2001 College of American Pathologists Q-Probes quality improvement program. In general, physicians are most satisfied with professional diagnostic services and least satisfied with pathology services related to poor communication. A well-designed and conducted customer satisfaction survey is an opportunity for pathologists to periodically educate physician customers about services offered, manage unrealistic expectations, and understand the evolving needs of the physician customer. Armed with current information from physician customers, the pathologist is better able to strategically plan for resources that facilitate performance improvements in anatomic pathology laboratory services that align with evolving clinical needs in health care delivery.

  4. [Adolescent pathological gambling].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petit, A; Karila, L; Lejoyeux, M

    2015-05-01

    Although experts have long thought that the problems of gambling involved only adults, recent studies tend to show that teenagers are also affected. The objective of this paper is to show the characteristics of pathological gambling in adolescents. This review focuses on the clinical features, prevalence, psychopathology, prevention and treatment of this disorder. A review of the medical literature was conducted, using PubMed, using the following keywords alone or combined: pathological gambling, dependence, addiction and adolescents. We selected 12 English articles from 1997 to 2014. Recent work estimate that between 4 and 8% of adolescents suffer from problem gambling, and the prevalence of pathological gambling is 2-4 times higher in adolescents than in adults. The term adolescent pathological gambler starts early around the age of 10-12 years, with a quick change of status from casual to that of problem gambler and player. Complications appear quickly and comorbidities are common. There is no curative pharmacological treatment approved by health authorities. Pathological gambling among adolescents has grown significantly in recent years and should be promptly taken care of. Further studies must be performed to improve our understanding of this problem among adolescents. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  5. Top-down control of invertebrates by Ninespine Stickleback in Arctic ponds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laske, Sarah M.; Rosenberger, Amanda E.; Kane, William J.; Wipfli, Mark S.; Zimmerman, Christian E.

    2017-01-01

    Despite their widespread presence in northern-latitude ecosystems, the ecological role of Ninespine Stickleback Pungitius pungitius is not well understood. Ninespine Stickleback can occupy both top and intermediate trophic levels in freshwater ecosystems, so their role in food webs as a predator on invertebrates and as a forage fish for upper level consumers probably is substantial. We introduced Ninespine Sticklebacks to fishless ponds to elucidate their potential effects as a predator on invertebrate communities in Arctic lentic freshwaters. We hypothesized that Ninespine Stickleback would affect freshwater invertebrate communities in a top-down manner. We predicted that the addition of Ninespine Sticklebacks to fishless ponds would: 1) reduce invertebrate taxonomic richness, 2) decrease overall invertebrate abundance, 3) reduce invertebrate biomass, and 4) decrease average invertebrate body size. We tested our hypothesis at 2 locations by adding Ninespine Stickleback to isolated ponds and compared invertebrate communities over time between fish-addition and fishless control ponds. Ninespine Sticklebacks exerted strong top-down pressure on invertebrate communities mainly by changing invertebrate taxonomic richness and biomass and, to a lesser extent, abundance and average invertebrate size. Our results supported the hypothesis that Ninespine Stickleback may help shape lentic food webs in the Arctic.

  6. Audit in forensic pathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, M P; Opeskin, K

    2000-09-01

    Autopsy numbers in Australian hospitals have declined markedly during the past decade despite evidence of a relatively static rate of demonstrable clinical misdiagnosis during this time. The reason for this decrease in autopsy numbers is multifactorial and may include a general lack of clinical and pathologic interest in the autopsy with a possible decline in autopsy standard, a lack of clinicopathologic correlation after autopsies, and an increased emphasis on surgical biopsy reporting within hospital pathology departments. Although forensic autopsies are currently maintaining their numbers, it is incumbent on forensic pathologists to demonstrate the wealth of important information a carefully performed postmortem examination can reveal. To this end, the Pathology Division of the Victorian Institute of Forensic Medicine has instituted a program of minimum standards in varied types of coroner cases and commenced a system of internal and external audit. The minimum standard for a routine, sudden, presumed natural death is presented and the audit system is discussed.

  7. Dual Pathology of Mandible.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajurkar, Suday G; Deshpande, Mohan D; Kazi, Noaman; Jadhav, Dhanashree; Ranadive, Pallavi; Ingole, Snehal

    2017-01-01

    Aneurysmal Bone cyst (ABC)is a rare benign lesion of the bone which is infrequent in craniofacial region (12%). Rapid growth pattern causing bone expansion and facial asymmetry is a characteristic feature of ABC. Giant cell lesion is another distinct pathological entity. Here we present to you a rare case of dual pathology in an 11 year old female patient who presented with a large expansile lesion in the left hemimandible. All radiographic investigations were suggestive of ABC, aspiration of the lesion resulted in blood aspirate. However only after a histologic examination the dual nature of the lesion was revealed.

  8. Hip joint pathology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tijssen, M; van Cingel, R E H; de Visser, E

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this retrospective cohort study was to (a) describe the clinical presentation of femoroacetabular impingement (FAI) and hip labral pathology; (b) describe the accuracy of patient history and physical tests for FAI and labral pathology as confirmed by hip arthroscopy. Patients (18......-65 years) were included if they were referred to a physical therapist to gather pre-operative data and were then diagnosed during arthroscopy. Results of pre-operative patient history and physical tests were collected and compared to arthroscopy. Data of 77 active patients (mean age: 37 years) were...

  9. Otosclerosis: Temporal Bone Pathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quesnel, Alicia M; Ishai, Reuven; McKenna, Michael J

    2018-04-01

    Otosclerosis is pathologically characterized by abnormal bony remodeling, which includes bone resorption, new bone deposition, and vascular proliferation in the temporal bone. Sensorineural hearing loss in otosclerosis is associated with extension of otosclerosis to the cochlear endosteum and deposition of collagen throughout the spiral ligament. Persistent or recurrent conductive hearing loss after stapedectomy has been associated with incomplete footplate fenestration, poor incus-prosthesis connection, and incus resorption in temporal bone specimens. Human temporal bone pathology has helped to define the role of computed tomography imaging for otosclerosis, confirming that computed tomography is highly sensitive for diagnosis, yet limited in assessing cochlear endosteal involvement. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Vascular endothelial growth factors: A comparison between invertebrates and vertebrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kipryushina, Yulia O; Yakovlev, Konstantin V; Odintsova, Nelly A

    2015-12-01

    This review aims to summarize recent data concerning the structure and role of the members of the vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and vascular endothelial growth factor receptor (VEGFR) families in the context of early development, organogenesis and regeneration, with a particular emphasis on the role of these factors in the development of invertebrates. Homologs of VEGF and/or VEGFR have been found in all Eumetazoa, in both Radiata and Bilateria, where they are expressed in the descendants of different germ layers and play a pivotal role in the development of animals with and without a vascular system. VEGF is a well-known angiogenesis regulator, but this factor also control cell migration during neurogenesis and the development of branching organs (the trachea) in invertebrate and vertebrate species. A possible explanation for the origin of Vegf/Vegfr in the animal kingdom and a pathway of Vegf/Vegfr evolution are discussed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Lessons from Digestive-Tract Symbioses Between Bacteria and Invertebrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graf, Joerg

    2016-09-08

    In most animals, digestive tracts harbor the greatest number of bacteria in the animal that contribute to its health: by aiding in the digestion of nutrients, provisioning essential nutrients and protecting against colonization by pathogens. Invertebrates have been used to enhance our understanding of metabolic processes and microbe-host interactions owing to experimental advantages. This review describes how advances in DNA sequencing technologies have dramatically altered how researchers investigate microbe-host interactions, including 16S rRNA gene surveys, metagenome experiments, and metatranscriptome studies. Advantages and challenges of each of these approaches are described herein. Hypotheses generated through omics studies can be directly tested using site-directed mutagenesis, and findings from transposon studies and site-directed experiments are presented. Finally, unique structural aspects of invertebrate digestive tracts that contribute to symbiont specificity are presented. The combination of omics approaches with genetics and microscopy allows researchers to move beyond correlations to identify conserved mechanisms of microbe-host interactions.

  12. The involvement of metallothionein in the development of aquatic invertebrate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mao Huan; Wang Dahui; Yang Wanxi

    2012-01-01

    The many documents on metallothioneins (MTs) in aquatic organisms focus especially on their use as biomarkers in environmental monitoring programs, but there are a few papers that summarize the physiological role of MTs in aquatic organisms especially in their development. The multifaceted role of MTs include involvement in homeostasis, protection against heavy metals and oxidant damage, metabolic regulation, sequestration and/or redox control. MTs could be induced by heavy metals which are able to hinder gametogenesis, suppress embryogenesis, and hamper development. Here we pay more attention on the non-essential metal cadmium, which is the most studied heavy metal regarding MTs, and its effects on the development of aquatic invertebrates. In this paper, we have collected published information on MTs in aquatic organisms – mollusks, crustaceans, etc., and summarize its functions in aquatic invertebrates, especially those related to their development.

  13. Transuranic biokinetic parameters for marine invertebrates--a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, T P

    2002-04-01

    A catalogue of biokinetic parameters for the transuranic elements plutonium, americium, curium, neptunium, and californium in marine invertebrates is presented. The parameters considered are: the seawater-animal concentration factor (CF); the sediment-animal concentration ratio (CR); transuranic assimilation efficiency; transuranic tissue distribution and transuranic elimination rates. With respect to the seawater-animal CF, authors differ considerably on how they define this parameter and a seven-point reporting system is suggested. Transuranic uptake from sediment by animals is characterised by low CRs. The assimilation efficiencies of transuranic elements in marine invertebrates are high compared to vertebrates and mammals in general and the distribution of transuranics within the body tissue of an animal is dependent on the uptake path. The elimination of transuranics from most species examined conformed to a standard biphasic exponential model though some examples with three elimination phases were identified.

  14. Enterococcus infection biology: lessons from invertebrate host models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuen, Grace J; Ausubel, Frederick M

    2014-03-01

    The enterococci are commensals of the gastrointestinal tract of many metazoans, from insects to humans. While they normally do not cause disease in the intestine, they can become pathogenic when they infect sites outside of the gut. Recently, the enterococci have become important nosocomial pathogens, with the majority of human enterococcal infections caused by two species, Enterococcus faecalis and Enterococcus faecium. Studies using invertebrate infection models have revealed insights into the biology of enterococcal infections, as well as general principles underlying host innate immune defense. This review highlights recent findings on Enterococcus infection biology from two invertebrate infection models, the greater wax moth Galleria mellonella and the free-living bacteriovorous nematode Caenorhabditis elegans.

  15. A cognitive model of pathological worry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirsch, Colette R.; Mathews, Andrew

    2012-01-01

    We present an evidence-based model of pathological worry in which worry arises from an interaction between involuntary (bottom-up) processes, such as habitual biases in attention and interpretation favouring threat content, and voluntary (top-down) processes, such as attentional control. At a pre-conscious level, these processes influence the competition between mental representations when some correspond to the intended focus of attention and others to threat distracters. Processing biases influence the probability of threat representations initially intruding into awareness as negative thoughts. Worry in predominantly verbal form then develops, influenced by conscious processes such as attempts to resolve the perceived threat and the redirection of attentional control resources to worry content, as well as the continuing influence of habitual processing biases. After describing this model, we present evidence for each component process and for their causal role in pathological worry, together with implications for new directions in the treatment of pathological worry. PMID:22863541

  16. Potential impacts of the energy industry on invertebrates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DeMont, E. [Saint Francis Xavier Univ., Antigonish, NS (Canada). Dept. of Biology

    2006-07-01

    This presentation provided a literature review of seismic activity impacts on invertebrates. A summary of recent research on the effects of seismic noise on female snow crab (Chionoecetes opilio) was evaluated by comparison with a caging study conducted off western Cape Breton Island in 2003-2004 which examined mortality and external damages to crabs, as well as the conditions of appendices and organs. Details of a study examining the mobility of lobsters over pipelines were presented, as well as recent research conducted by the St. Francis Xavier Biomechanics Laboratory. It was noted that studies on the effects of marine noise on invertebrate species are limited and incomplete. However, the impacts of marine noise on invertebrates is a critical issue for major fisheries based on invertebrates. The snow crab study showed swelling of hepatopancreatic walls to crabs in areas of seismic activity. Abundance and distribution of the crabs fell from 30 per cent before seismic activity to 23 per cent after seismic exploration began. Evidence of immediate impacts on antennules, gill and statocysts which lasted less than 5 months was observed. The impacts of the abnormalities on the life cycle of the crabs is unknown. Exposure to seismic energy did not kill snow crab embryos. However, rates of development were slower in seismic than control embryos. Results suggested that further research on normal crab health and environmental conditions is needed. Current research at the St. Francis Xavier Biomechanics Laboratory included a fluid mechanics study paddle-assisted walking for lobsters; jet-assisted walking in lobsters; the effects of temperature on the activity of lobsters; and, the impact of mechanical vibrations on lobsters. Details of sponsors for the various studies were also provided. refs., tabs., figs.

  17. Pesticide runoff from energy crops: A threat to aquatic invertebrates?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bunzel, Katja; Schäfer, Ralf B; Thrän, Daniela; Kattwinkel, Mira

    2015-12-15

    The European Union aims to reach a 10% share of biofuels in the transport sector by 2020. The major burden is most likely to fall on already established annual energy crops such as rapeseed and cereals for the production of biodiesel and bioethanol, respectively. Annual energy crops are typically cultivated in intensive agricultural production systems, which require the application of pesticides. Agricultural pesticides can have adverse effects on aquatic invertebrates in adjacent streams. We assessed the relative ecological risk to aquatic invertebrates associated with the chemical pest management from six energy crops (maize, potato, sugar beet, winter barley, winter rapeseed, and winter wheat) as well as from mixed cultivation scenarios. The pesticide exposure related to energy crops and cultivation scenarios was estimated as surface runoff for 253 small stream sites in Central Germany using a GIS-based runoff potential model. The ecological risk for aquatic invertebrates, an important organism group for the functioning of stream ecosystems, was assessed using acute toxicity data (48-h LC50 values) of the crustacean Daphnia magna. We calculated the Ecological Risk from potential Pesticide Runoff (ERPR) for all three main groups of pesticides (herbicides, fungicides, and insecticides). Our findings suggest that the crops potato, sugar beet, and rapeseed pose a higher ecological risk to aquatic invertebrates than maize, barley, and wheat. As maize had by far the lowest ERPR values, from the perspective of pesticide pollution, its cultivation as substrate for the production of the gaseous biofuel biomethane may be preferable compared to the production of, for example, biodiesel from rapeseed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Photon activation analysis of soft tissues of marine invertebrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fukushima, M.; Tamate, H.

    2001-01-01

    We have determined levels of elements in soft tissues of 23 species of marine invertebrates by photon activation analysis and atomic absorption spectrometry. Concentration levels of Mg and Rb were almost same for all samples determined. On the contrary, relatively high concentration of elements were observed for Ni in mid-gut gonads of ear shells, As in gills, hepatopancreas, and muscles of several species of Crustaceans. (author)

  19. Impact of Invertebrate Herbivory on Native Aquatic Macrophytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-08-01

    this macroalga occupied the entire water column, it may have had a competitive advantage for light over V. americana, which grew closer to the...dry biomass of five macrophyte species between two treatments ; an insecticide treatment to remove invertebrate herbivores, and a control where the...Heitmeyer and Vohs 1984, Dibble et al. 1996), improve water clarity and quality, and reduce rates of shoreline erosion and sediment resuspension (Smart

  20. Pathological Gambling Subtypes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vachon, David D.; Bagby, R. Michael

    2009-01-01

    Although pathological gambling (PG) is regarded in the 4th edition of the "Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders" (American Psychiatric Association, 1994) as a unitary diagnostic construct, it is likely composed of distinct subtypes. In the current report, the authors used cluster analyses of personality traits with a…

  1. TC pathological Neck

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia Fontes, M.

    2012-01-01

    This presentation is about different imaging techniques such as ultrasound, CT, RNM, PET-CT. These techniques permit to detect head and neck tumors, breast and digestive pathologies as well as congenital diseases and glandular tumor in the thyroid, parathyroid, muscles, lymphatic, nerves and vessels

  2. Pathological fractures in children

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Mattos, C. B. R.; Binitie, O.; Dormans, J. P.

    2012-01-01

    Pathological fractures in children can occur as a result of a variety of conditions, ranging from metabolic diseases and infection to tumours. Fractures through benign and malignant bone tumours should be recognised and managed appropriately by the treating orthopaedic surgeon. The most common benign bone tumours that cause pathological fractures in children are unicameral bone cysts, aneurysmal bone cysts, non-ossifying fibromas and fibrous dysplasia. Although pathological fractures through a primary bone malignancy are rare, these should be recognised quickly in order to achieve better outcomes. A thorough history, physical examination and review of plain radiographs are crucial to determine the cause and guide treatment. In most benign cases the fracture will heal and the lesion can be addressed at the time of the fracture, or after the fracture is healed. A step-wise and multidisciplinary approach is necessary in caring for paediatric patients with malignancies. Pathological fractures do not have to be treated by amputation; these fractures can heal and limb salvage can be performed when indicated. PMID:23610658

  3. Next-Generation Pathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caie, Peter D; Harrison, David J

    2016-01-01

    The field of pathology is rapidly transforming from a semiquantitative and empirical science toward a big data discipline. Large data sets from across multiple omics fields may now be extracted from a patient's tissue sample. Tissue is, however, complex, heterogeneous, and prone to artifact. A reductionist view of tissue and disease progression, which does not take this complexity into account, may lead to single biomarkers failing in clinical trials. The integration of standardized multi-omics big data and the retention of valuable information on spatial heterogeneity are imperative to model complex disease mechanisms. Mathematical modeling through systems pathology approaches is the ideal medium to distill the significant information from these large, multi-parametric, and hierarchical data sets. Systems pathology may also predict the dynamical response of disease progression or response to therapy regimens from a static tissue sample. Next-generation pathology will incorporate big data with systems medicine in order to personalize clinical practice for both prognostic and predictive patient care.

  4. Forms of pathologization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brinkmann, Svend

    disorder, and similar figures are found for many other mental disorders. These figures are striking, but are hard to interpret. This presentation argues in favour of the pathologization thesis, which claims that it cannot be argued in a straightforward manner that we are simply more ill and disordered than...

  5. Soil macrofauna (invertebrates of Kazakhstanian Stipa lessingiana dry steppe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bragina Tatyana М.

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Stipa lessingiana steppes used to be prevalent on the dry Trans-Ural denudation plains, particularly, on the Sub-Ural and the Turgay Plateau. But, most of them have been lost because they were plowed up during the Virgin Land campaign in the second part of 20th century. This paper presents a detailed study of the faunistic composition and the structure of soil-dwelling invertebrate communities (macrofauna of a temperate-dry bunch feather grass steppe in the Turgai Plateau (Northern-Turgai physical-geographical province of steppe Kazakhstan, Kostanay Oblast. The study site is located in the territory of the Naurzum State Nature Reserve, a part of the UNESCO World Heritage site “Saryarka Steppe and Lakes of Northern Kazakhstan”, where remnants of Virgin S. lessingiana steppes have been preserved to the present day. This region is the driest and most continental in climate of all the dry steppes of Kazakhstan. The total abundance and biomass of soil invertebrate communities in the investigated site were lower than in the northern and western steppe areas. Soil invertebrates are among the major components that determine the functioning of terrestrial natural ecosystems.

  6. Toxicity of abamectin and doramectin to soil invertebrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kolar, Lucija; Kozuh Erzen, Nevenka; Hogerwerf, Lenny; Gestel, Cornelis A.M. van

    2008-01-01

    This study aimed at determining the toxicity of avermectins to soil invertebrates in soil and in faeces from recently treated sheep. Abamectin was more toxic than doramectin. In soil, earthworms (Eisenia andrei) were most affected with LC50s of 18 and 228 mg/kg dry soil, respectively, while LC50s were 67-111 and >300 mg/kg for springtails (Folsomia candida), isopods (Porcellio scaber) and enchytraeids (Enchytraeus crypticus). EC50s for the effect on reproduction of springtails and enchytraeids were 13 and 38 mg/kg, respectively for abamectin, and 42 and 170 mg/kg for doramectin. For earthworms, NOEC was 10 and 8.4 mg/kg for abamectin and doramectin effects on body weight. When exposed in faeces, springtails and enchytraeids gave LC50s and EC50s of 1.0-1.4 and 0.94-1.1 mg/kg dry faeces for abamectin and 2.2->2.4 mg/kg for doramectin. Earthworm reproduction was not affected. This study indicates a potential risk of avermectins for soil invertebrates colonizing faeces from recently treated sheep. - Avermectins may pose a risk to soil invertebrates colonizing faeces from recently treated sheep

  7. Biometry of neotropical invertebrates inhabiting floodplain rivers: unraveling bionomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florencia Zilli

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Currently, it is widely recognized that invertebrates play key roles in neotropical floodplains and in many other environments worldwide. However, little information has been published concerning their biometry, in spite that it represents an essential tool for many different studies. Here, we provided length-mass and length-length relationships by fitting the linearized model (log10 Y = log10a + b log10 X and several mean biomass ratios ± SE for bivalves, gastropods, quironomids, ephemeropterans, oligochaetes and hirudineans. We measured, weighed, oven dried and incinerated to ashes specimens collected from 2005 to 2014 in the Paraná River, Argentina. The lineal equations had fit levels higher than 75% in most of the significant regressions. Hence, when slopes were compared, differences raised from ontogeny and phylogeny of taxa. Additionally, slopes resulted different from constants of other regions, types of environments and climates. In addition, organic matter ratios resulted significantly different among invertebrates according to their feeding types. The equations and ratios that we provided will facilitate future research on life history, productivity and energy transference in the food webs of invertebrates inhabiting floodplain wetlands and can be used as tools for planning management strategies and in restoration projects of aquatic environments.

  8. Chemical defense of early life stages of benthic marine invertebrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindquist, Niels

    2002-10-01

    Accurate knowledge of factors affecting the survival of early life stages of marine invertebrates is critically important for understanding their population dynamics and the evolution of their diverse reproductive and life-history characteristics. Chemical defense is an important determinant of survival for adult stages of many sessile benthic invertebrates, yet relatively little consideration has been given to chemical defenses at the early life stages. This review examines the taxonomic breadth of early life-stage chemical defense in relation to various life-history and reproductive characteristics, as well as possible constraints on the expression of chemical defense at certain life stages. Data on the localization of defensive secondary metabolites in larvae and the fitness-related consequences of consuming even a small amount of toxic secondary metabolites underpin proposals regarding the potential for Müllerian and Batesian mimicry to occur among marine larvae. The involvement of microbial symbionts in the chemical defense of early life stages illustrates its complexity for some species. As our knowledge of chemical defenses in early life stages grows, we will be able to more rigorously examine connections among phylogeny, chemical defenses, and the evolution of reproductive and life-history characteristics among marine invertebrates.

  9. Toxicity of abamectin and doramectin to soil invertebrates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kolar, Lucija [Laboratory of Forensic Toxicology and Ecotoxicology, Veterinary Faculty, University of Ljubljana, Gerbiceva 60, SI-1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Institute of Ecological Science, Vrije Universiteit, De Boelelaan 1085, 1081 HV Amsterdam (Netherlands)], E-mail: lucija.kolar@vf.uni-lj.si; Kozuh Erzen, Nevenka [Laboratory of Forensic Toxicology and Ecotoxicology, Veterinary Faculty, University of Ljubljana, Gerbiceva 60, SI-1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia)], E-mail: nevenka.kozuh@vf.uni-lj.si; Hogerwerf, Lenny [Institute of Ecological Science, Vrije Universiteit, De Boelelaan 1085, 1081 HV Amsterdam (Netherlands)], E-mail: l.hogerwerf@students.uu.nl; Gestel, Cornelis A.M. van [Institute of Ecological Science, Vrije Universiteit, De Boelelaan 1085, 1081 HV Amsterdam (Netherlands)], E-mail: kees.van.gestel@ecology.falw.vu.nl

    2008-01-15

    This study aimed at determining the toxicity of avermectins to soil invertebrates in soil and in faeces from recently treated sheep. Abamectin was more toxic than doramectin. In soil, earthworms (Eisenia andrei) were most affected with LC50s of 18 and 228 mg/kg dry soil, respectively, while LC50s were 67-111 and >300 mg/kg for springtails (Folsomia candida), isopods (Porcellio scaber) and enchytraeids (Enchytraeus crypticus). EC50s for the effect on reproduction of springtails and enchytraeids were 13 and 38 mg/kg, respectively for abamectin, and 42 and 170 mg/kg for doramectin. For earthworms, NOEC was 10 and 8.4 mg/kg for abamectin and doramectin effects on body weight. When exposed in faeces, springtails and enchytraeids gave LC50s and EC50s of 1.0-1.4 and 0.94-1.1 mg/kg dry faeces for abamectin and 2.2->2.4 mg/kg for doramectin. Earthworm reproduction was not affected. This study indicates a potential risk of avermectins for soil invertebrates colonizing faeces from recently treated sheep. - Avermectins may pose a risk to soil invertebrates colonizing faeces from recently treated sheep.

  10. Lessons in modularity: the evolutionary ecology of colonial invertebrates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roger N. Hughes

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Benthic colonial invertebrates share with higher plants a modular construction and a sessile adult life. Both types of organism show parallel evolutionary responses to common selective forces, but in contrast to the long-established focus on plants, comparable study of colonial invertebrates has developed relatively recently, largely owing to the application of new techniques in image processing and molecular biology. Species whose life cycles are readily completed under laboratory conditions and whose colonies are easily propagated from cuttings provide powerful models for experimentally investigating fundamental evolutionary problems, including metabolic allometry, the manifestation of ageing and the origin of allorecognition systems. Free of the confounding influences of behavioural manipulation and costs of copulation, colonial invertebrates whose water-borne sperm fertilize retained eggs lend themselves well to the experimental study of cryptic female choice, sperm competition and sexual conflict. In these respects, it will be productive to adopt and extend theoretical frameworks developed for flowering plants to guide experimental investigation of modular animals. Since mate choice occurs at the cellular level in modular animals, reproductive isolation is uncorrelated with morphology and cryptic speciation is likely to be widespread.

  11. Mobile Technology for the Practice of Pathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartman, Douglas J

    2016-03-01

    Recently, several technological advances have been introduced to mobile phones leading some people to refer to them as "smartphones." These changes have led to widespread consumer adoption. A similar adoption has occurred within the medical field and this revolution is changing the practice of medicine, including pathology. Several mobile applications have been published for dermatology, orthopedics, ophthalmology, neurosurgery, and clinical pathology. The applications are wide ranging, including mobile technology to increase patient engagement, self-monitoring by patients, clinical algorithm calculation, facilitation between experts to resource-poor environments. These advances have been received with mixed reviews. For anatomic pathology, mobile technology applications can be broken into 4 broad categories: (a) educational uses, (b) microscope with mobile phone, (c) mobile phone as microscope/acquisition device, and (d) miscellaneous. Using a mobile phone as an acquisition device paired with a microscope seems to be the most interesting current application because of the need for expert consultation with resource-poor environments. However, several emerging uses for mobile technology may become more prominent as the technology matures including image analysis, alternative light sources, and increased opportunities for clinician and patient engagement. The flexibility represented by mobile technology represents a burgeoning field in pathology informatics.

  12. Pathology informatics fellowship training: Focus on molecular pathology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Mandelker

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Pathology informatics is both emerging as a distinct subspecialty and simultaneously becoming deeply integrated within the breadth of pathology practice. As specialists, pathology informaticians need a broad skill set, including aptitude with information fundamentals, information systems, workflow and process, and governance and management. Currently, many of those seeking training in pathology informatics additionally choose training in a second subspecialty. Combining pathology informatics training with molecular pathology is a natural extension, as molecular pathology is a subspecialty with high potential for application of modern biomedical informatics techniques. Methods and Results: Pathology informatics and molecular pathology fellows and faculty evaluated the current fellowship program′s core curriculum topics and subtopics for relevance to molecular pathology. By focusing on the overlap between the two disciplines, a structured curriculum consisting of didactics, operational rotations, and research projects was developed for those fellows interested in both pathology informatics and molecular pathology. Conclusions: The scope of molecular diagnostics is expanding dramatically as technology advances and our understanding of disease extends to the genetic level. Here, we highlight many of the informatics challenges facing molecular pathology today, and outline specific informatics principles necessary for the training of future molecular pathologists.

  13. Pathology informatics fellowship training: Focus on molecular pathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandelker, Diana; Lee, Roy E; Platt, Mia Y; Riedlinger, Gregory; Quinn, Andrew; Rao, Luigi K F; Klepeis, Veronica E; Mahowald, Michael; Lane, William J; Beckwith, Bruce A; Baron, Jason M; McClintock, David S; Kuo, Frank C; Lebo, Matthew S; Gilbertson, John R

    2014-01-01

    Pathology informatics is both emerging as a distinct subspecialty and simultaneously becoming deeply integrated within the breadth of pathology practice. As specialists, pathology informaticians need a broad skill set, including aptitude with information fundamentals, information systems, workflow and process, and governance and management. Currently, many of those seeking training in pathology informatics additionally choose training in a second subspecialty. Combining pathology informatics training with molecular pathology is a natural extension, as molecular pathology is a subspecialty with high potential for application of modern biomedical informatics techniques. Pathology informatics and molecular pathology fellows and faculty evaluated the current fellowship program's core curriculum topics and subtopics for relevance to molecular pathology. By focusing on the overlap between the two disciplines, a structured curriculum consisting of didactics, operational rotations, and research projects was developed for those fellows interested in both pathology informatics and molecular pathology. The scope of molecular diagnostics is expanding dramatically as technology advances and our understanding of disease extends to the genetic level. Here, we highlight many of the informatics challenges facing molecular pathology today, and outline specific informatics principles necessary for the training of future molecular pathologists.

  14. Residency choices by graduating medical students: why not pathology?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hung, Tawny; Jarvis-Selinger, Sandra; Ford, Jason C

    2011-06-01

    Pathology is an unpopular residency choice for medical students worldwide. In some countries, this has contributed to a crisis in pathologist human resources that has affected the quality of clinical laboratories. Several previous studies have used information from junior medical students and from residents to suggest ways of improving pathology recruitment. There are, however, no published studies of pathology residency choice that focus on the senior medical students who must be recruited. This study uses focus groups of senior medical students to explore both general and pathology-specific influences on residency choice. Several general influences are identified, including students' expectations for their future clinical practices, their own clinical rotation experiences, influences from other people including mentors, and their choice to reject certain fields. Several specific antipathology influences are also revealed, including negative stereotypes about pathologists, a perceived incompatibility of personality between most medical students (extroverted) and pathologists (introverted), and perceptions of pathologists as being in some ways nonmedical. The most important antipathology influence was that, from the students' perspective, pathology was utterly invisible in clinical practice. Most students did not consider and then reject a pathology residency: instead, pathology was completely ignored. Given the importance of clerkship electives in influencing medical student career choice, promoting clerkship experiences in pathology may improve recruitment. However, departments of pathology must first make pathology visible to students and teach them how pathologists contribute to clinical care. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Male breast pathology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Puebla, C.; Sainz, J.M.; Pujala, M.; Villavieja, J.L.

    1998-01-01

    To review the specific radiological signs of male breast pathology observed in our center over the past five years, as well as the pertinent medical literature. A retrospective study was carried out of the 47 mammographic studies performed in 41 men. Oblique mediolateral and craniocaudal views were employed. The distribution of different types of male breast pathology among our patients was as follows: gynecomastia was detected in 30 cases (73.1%), pseudogynectomastia in 4 (9.7%), carcinoma in 3(7.3%), abscess in 2 (4.9%), lipoma in 1 (2.5%) and epidermoid cyst in the remaining patient (2.5%). The results obtained agree with those reported in the literature reviewed. The most significant findings were the low incidence of carcinoma and the high rate of gynecomastia. (Author) 26 refs

  16. Pathology of pulmonary aspergillomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Rajeev; Vaideeswar, Pradeep; Pandit, Shobhana P

    2008-01-01

    Aspergilloma refers to a fungal ball formed by saprophytic overgrowth of Aspergillus species and is seen secondary to cavitatory/cystic respiratory diseases. Paucity of clinical and pathological data of aspergilloma in India prompted us to analyze cases of aspergilloma over 15 years. The clinical features were recorded in all and correlated with detailed pathological examination. Aspergillomas were identified in 41 surgical excisions or at autopsy. There was male predominance; half the patients were in their fourth decade. Episodic hemoptysis was the commonest mode of presentation (85.4%). Forty aspergillomas were complex, occurring in cavitatory lesions (82.9%) or in bronchiectasis (14.6%). Simple aspergilloma was seen as an incidental finding in only one. Tuberculosis was the etiological factor in 31 patients, producing cavitatory or bronchiectatic lesions; other causes were chronic lung abscess and bronchiectasis (unrelated to tuberculosis). Surgical resections are endorsed in view of high risk of unpredictable, life-threatening hemoptysis.

  17. Pathology of pulmonary aspergillomas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shah Rajeev

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Aspergilloma refers to a fungal ball formed by saprophytic overgrowth of Aspergillus species and is seen secondary to cavitatory/cystic respiratory diseases. Paucity of clinical and pathological data of aspergilloma in India prompted us to analyze cases of aspergilloma over 15 years. The clinical features were recorded in all and correlated with detailed pathological examination. Aspergillomas were identified in 41 surgical excisions or at autopsy. There was male predominance; half the patients were in their fourth decade. Episodic hemoptysis was the commonest mode of presentation (85.4%. Forty aspergillomas were complex, occurring in cavitatory lesions (82.9% or in bronchiectasis (14.6%. Simple aspergilloma was seen as an incidental finding in only one. Tuberculosis was the etiological factor in 31 patients, producing cavitatory or bronchiectatic lesions; other causes were chronic lung abscess and bronchiectasis (unrelated to tuberculosis. Surgical resections are endorsed in view of high risk of unpredictable, life-threatening hemoptysis.

  18. [Pathological gambling: risk factors].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouju, G; Grall-Bronnec, M; Landreat-Guillou, M; Venisse, J-L

    2011-09-01

    In France, consumption of gambling games increased by 148% between 1960 and 2005. In 2004, gamblers lost approximately 0.9% of household income, compared to 0.4% in 1960. This represents approximately 134 Euros per year and per head. In spite of this important increase, the level remains lower than the European average (1%). However, gambling practices may continue to escalate in France in the next few years, particularly with the recent announce of the legalisation of online games and sports betting. With the spread of legalised gambling, pathological gambling rates may increase in France in the next years, in response to more widely available and more attractive gambling opportunities. In this context, there is a need for better understanding of the risk factors that are implicated in the development and maintenance of pathological gambling. This paper briefly describes the major risk factors for pathological gambling by examining the recent published literature available during the first quarter of 2008. This documentary basis was collected by Inserm for the collective expert report procedure on Gambling (contexts and addictions). Seventy-two articles focusing on risk factors for pathological gambling were considered in this review. Only 47 of them were taken into account for analysis. The selection of these 47 publications was based on the guide on literature analysis established by the French National Agency for Accreditation and Assessment in Health (ANAES, 2000). Some publications from more recent literature have also been added, mostly about Internet gambling. We identify three major types of risk factors implicated in gambling problems: some of them are related to the subject (individual factors), others are related to the object of the addiction, here the gambling activity by itself (structural factors), and the last are related to environment (contextual or situational factors). Thus, the development and maintenance of pathological gambling seems to be

  19. Chapter 15. Plant pathology and managing wildland plant disease systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    David L. Nelson

    2004-01-01

    Obtaining specific, reliable knowledge on plant diseases is essential in wildland shrub resource management. However, plant disease is one of the most neglected areas of wildland resources experimental research. This section is a discussion of plant pathology and how to use it in managing plant disease systems.

  20. Activity-based differentiation of pathologists' workload in surgical pathology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meijer, G.A.; Oudejans, J.J.; Koevoets, J.J.M.; Meijer, C.J.L.M.

    2009-01-01

    Adequate budget control in pathology practice requires accurate allocation of resources. Any changes in types and numbers of specimens handled or protocols used will directly affect the pathologists' workload and consequently the allocation of resources. The aim of the present study was to develop a

  1. Endocrine Function in Aquatic Invertebrates and Evidence for Disruption by Environmental Pollutants

    OpenAIRE

    Pinder, L. C. V.; Pottinger, T. G.; Billinghurst, Z.; Depledge, M. H.

    1999-01-01

    EXECUTIVE SUMMARY Objectives 1. This report addresses five primary objectives:- (i) to summarize the key elements of invertebrate endocrine systems; (ii) to assess whether existing test systems are adequate for the detection of endocrine disruption in invertebrates, what new tests might be required, which species of invertebrates are most appropriate for such tests, what end-points should be measured and whether the same organisms can be used for both laboratory and environme...

  2. Pathology in Undergraduate Training Program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shiva Raj K.C.

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Pathology is a study of disease which deals with etiology, pathogenesis and morphological features and the associated clinical features. Pathology acts as a bridge that fills the gap between basic sciences and clinical medicine. With proper understanding of pathological processes, one can understand the disease process. In Nepal, since the beginning of medical school teaching, Pathology as a basic science discipline and is a component of the preclinical medical school curriculum.Pathology teaching in 19th century was vague, disorganized and very little, though precious. The lectures used to be conducted by surgeons. At Barts, surgeon Sir James Paget had taught surgical pathology. The real revolution in pathology teaching began in the early 1900s when, spurred on by increasing understanding of disease mechanisms, pathology began to be accepted as a specialty in its own right.During the early and mid of 20th century, pathology teaching was a part of clinical teaching with daily, autopsy demonstration. By the late 1980s, significant change had taken place. In many medical schools, debate started regarding relevance of vigorous preclinical teaching. Then system-based approach was incorporated and traditional preclinical course had been abandoned. With this pathology teaching also began to change with pathologists being involved in teaching histology, often alongside pathology to highlight its clinical relevance. In medical schools the pathology teaching time was cut. Autopsy demonstrations, which had been so popular with generations of medical students, were becoming irregular and less well attended.Though teaching of pathology in blocks to ‘avoid fragmentation’ has disappeared in western countries; it is still practice in Nepal. In western countries there was traditional practice of teaching general pathology in the first two years and systemic pathology in the clinical years. Now pathology teaching is integrated throughout the course. A

  3. Recovery of invertebrate and vertebrate populations in a coal ash stressed drainage system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cherry, D.S.

    1979-01-01

    The influence of coal-ash basin effluent on the densities of macrobenthic invertebrate and mosquitofish populations in a swamp drainage system was studied for 50 months. The density of the aquatic biota was periodically altered by heavy ash siltation, decreased pH due to fly ash, and by arsenic, copper, selenium and zinc associated with coal ash. Siltation was most influential in decreasing numbers of invertebrates, and lowered pH (from 7.2 to 5.5) more influential in decreasing mosquito fish and retarding recovery of invertebrates. An efficient primary-secondary retaining basin system enabled most invertebrate groups to recover their previous level of abundance.

  4. Significance of bacteria associated with invertebrates in drinking water distribution networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolmarans, E; du Preez, H H; de Wet, C M E; Venter, S N

    2005-01-01

    The implication of invertebrates found in drinking water distribution networks to public health is of concern to water utilities. Previous studies have shown that the bacteria associated with the invertebrates could be potentially pathogenic to humans. This study investigated the level and identity of bacteria commonly associated with invertebrates collected from the drinking water treatment systems as well as from the main pipelines leaving the treatment works. On all sampling occasions bacteria were isolated from the invertebrate samples collected. The highest bacterial counts were observed for the samples taken before filtration as was expected. There were, however, indications that optimal removal of invertebrates from water did not always occur. During the investigation, 116 colonies were sampled for further identification. The isolates represent several bacterial genera and species that are pathogenic or opportunistic pathogens of humans. Diarrhoea, meningitis, septicaemia and skin infections are among the diseases associated with these organisms. The estimated number of bacteria that could be associated with a single invertebrate (as based on average invertebrate numbers) could range from 10 to 4000 bacteria per organism. It can, therefore, be concluded that bacteria associated with invertebrates might under the worst case scenario pose a potential health risk to water users. In the light of the above findings it is clear that invertebrates in drinking water should be controlled at levels as low as technically and economically feasible.

  5. Cortical myoclonus and cerebellar pathology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tijssen, MAJ; Thom, M; Ellison, DW; Wilkins, P; Barnes, D; Thompson, PD; Brown, P

    2000-01-01

    Objective To study the electrophysiologic and pathologic findings in three patients with cortical myoclonus. In two patients the myoclonic ataxic syndrome was associated with proven celiac disease. Background: The pathologic findings in conditions associated with cortical myoclonus commonly involve

  6. Cortical myoclonus and cerebellar pathology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tijssen, M. A.; Thom, M.; Ellison, D. W.; Wilkins, P.; Barnes, D.; Thompson, P. D.; Brown, P.

    2000-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To study the electrophysiologic and pathologic findings in three patients with cortical myoclonus. In two patients the myoclonic ataxic syndrome was associated with proven celiac disease. BACKGROUND: The pathologic findings in conditions associated with cortical myoclonus commonly involve

  7. Pathology Gross Photography: The Beginning of Digital Pathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rampy, B Alan; Glassy, Eric F

    2015-06-01

    The underutilized practice of photographing anatomic pathology specimens from surgical pathology and autopsies is an invaluable benefit to patients, clinicians, pathologists, and students. Photographic documentation of clinical specimens is essential for the effective practice of pathology. When considering what specimens to photograph, all grossly evident pathology, absent yet expected pathologic features, and gross-only specimens should be thoroughly documented. Specimen preparation prior to photography includes proper lighting and background, wiping surfaces of blood, removing material such as tubes or bandages, orienting the specimen in a logical fashion, framing the specimen to fill the screen, positioning of probes, and using the right-sized scale. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. InverPep: A database of invertebrate antimicrobial peptides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez, Esteban A; Giraldo, Paula; Orduz, Sergio

    2017-03-01

    The aim of this work was to construct InverPep, a database specialised in experimentally validated antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) from invertebrates. AMP data contained in InverPep were manually curated from other databases and the scientific literature. MySQL was integrated with the development platform Laravel; this framework allows to integrate programming in PHP with HTML and was used to design the InverPep web page's interface. InverPep contains 18 separated fields, including InverPep code, phylum and species source, peptide name, sequence, peptide length, secondary structure, molar mass, charge, isoelectric point, hydrophobicity, Boman index, aliphatic index and percentage of hydrophobic amino acids. CALCAMPI, an algorithm to calculate the physicochemical properties of multiple peptides simultaneously, was programmed in PERL language. To date, InverPep contains 702 experimentally validated AMPs from invertebrate species. All of the peptides contain information associated with their source, physicochemical properties, secondary structure, biological activity and links to external literature. Most AMPs in InverPep have a length between 10 and 50 amino acids, a positive charge, a Boman index between 0 and 2 kcal/mol, and 30-50% hydrophobic amino acids. InverPep includes 33 AMPs not reported in other databases. Besides, CALCAMPI and statistical analysis of InverPep data is presented. The InverPep database is available in English and Spanish. InverPep is a useful database to study invertebrate AMPs and its information could be used for the design of new peptides. The user-friendly interface of InverPep and its information can be freely accessed via a web-based browser at http://ciencias.medellin.unal.edu.co/gruposdeinvestigacion/prospeccionydisenobiomoleculas/InverPep/public/home_en. Copyright © 2016 International Society for Chemotherapy of Infection and Cancer. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Macro-invertebrate decline in surface water polluted with imidacloprid.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tessa C Van Dijk

    Full Text Available Imidacloprid is one of the most widely used insecticides in the world. Its concentration in surface water exceeds the water quality norms in many parts of the Netherlands. Several studies have demonstrated harmful effects of this neonicotinoid to a wide range of non-target species. Therefore we expected that surface water pollution with imidacloprid would negatively impact aquatic ecosystems. Availability of extensive monitoring data on the abundance of aquatic macro-invertebrate species, and on imidacloprid concentrations in surface water in the Netherlands enabled us to test this hypothesis. Our regression analysis showed a significant negative relationship (P<0.001 between macro-invertebrate abundance and imidacloprid concentration for all species pooled. A significant negative relationship was also found for the orders Amphipoda, Basommatophora, Diptera, Ephemeroptera and Isopoda, and for several species separately. The order Odonata had a negative relationship very close to the significance threshold of 0.05 (P = 0.051. However, in accordance with previous research, a positive relationship was found for the order Actinedida. We used the monitoring field data to test whether the existing three water quality norms for imidacloprid in the Netherlands are protective in real conditions. Our data show that macrofauna abundance drops sharply between 13 and 67 ng l(-1. For aquatic ecosystem protection, two of the norms are not protective at all while the strictest norm of 13 ng l(-1 (MTR seems somewhat protective. In addition to the existing experimental evidence on the negative effects of imidacloprid on invertebrate life, our study, based on data from large-scale field monitoring during multiple years, shows that serious concern about the far-reaching consequences of the abundant use of imidacloprid for aquatic ecosystems is justified.

  10. Macro-Invertebrate Decline in Surface Water Polluted with Imidacloprid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Dijk, Tessa C.; Van Staalduinen, Marja A.; Van der Sluijs, Jeroen P.

    2013-01-01

    Imidacloprid is one of the most widely used insecticides in the world. Its concentration in surface water exceeds the water quality norms in many parts of the Netherlands. Several studies have demonstrated harmful effects of this neonicotinoid to a wide range of non-target species. Therefore we expected that surface water pollution with imidacloprid would negatively impact aquatic ecosystems. Availability of extensive monitoring data on the abundance of aquatic macro-invertebrate species, and on imidacloprid concentrations in surface water in the Netherlands enabled us to test this hypothesis. Our regression analysis showed a significant negative relationship (Pmacro-invertebrate abundance and imidacloprid concentration for all species pooled. A significant negative relationship was also found for the orders Amphipoda, Basommatophora, Diptera, Ephemeroptera and Isopoda, and for several species separately. The order Odonata had a negative relationship very close to the significance threshold of 0.05 (P = 0.051). However, in accordance with previous research, a positive relationship was found for the order Actinedida. We used the monitoring field data to test whether the existing three water quality norms for imidacloprid in the Netherlands are protective in real conditions. Our data show that macrofauna abundance drops sharply between 13 and 67 ng l−1. For aquatic ecosystem protection, two of the norms are not protective at all while the strictest norm of 13 ng l−1 (MTR) seems somewhat protective. In addition to the existing experimental evidence on the negative effects of imidacloprid on invertebrate life, our study, based on data from large-scale field monitoring during multiple years, shows that serious concern about the far-reaching consequences of the abundant use of imidacloprid for aquatic ecosystems is justified. PMID:23650513

  11. Procedures for radioecological studies with marine benthic invertebrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vilquin, A.; Fowler, S.W.; Renfro, W.C.

    1975-01-01

    Methods for the collection, transportation, and pre-experimental handling are briefly described. In designing radioecological experiments on marine benthic invertebrates it is important to prevent overcrowding and to choose healthy, well-acclimated animals. Feeding of the animals and presence or absence of sediments in the aquaria are critical variables in many experiments. Length of time the experiment is run and interim growth of the experimental animals may result in significant variability in results. The physico-chemical form of the radiotracer is another important experimental variable. (author)

  12. Diversity of marine invertebrates in a thermal effluent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Logan, D.T.; Maurer, D.

    1975-01-01

    Invertebrates were collected at four sites in the Indian River and Indian River Bay in Delaware to study the effects of thermal effluents from a steam-generating plant. A list of species of anemones, nemerteans, annelids, molluscs, and crustaceans is presented. Differences in species composition, an increase in relative numbers of a pollution indicator organism, and reduction in species number and in the total number of organisms in the effluent were noted. The period of highest diversity corresponded to that of the lowest numbers of species and individuals and highest effluent temperatures. (U.S.)

  13. Procedures for Radioecological Studies with Marine Benthic Invertebrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vilquin, A.; Fowler, S.W.; Renfro, W.C.

    1976-01-01

    Methods for the collection transportation, and pre-experimental handling are briefly described. In designing radioecological experiments on marine benthic invertebrates it is important to prevent overcrowding and to choose healthy, well-acclimated animals. Feeding of the animals and presence or absence of sediments in the aquaria are critical variables in many experiments. Length of time the experiment is run and interim growth of the experimental animals may result in significant variability in results. The physico-chemical form of the radiotracer is another important experimental variable. (author)

  14. Recent Advances in Drug Discovery from South African Marine Invertebrates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael T. Davies-Coleman

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Recent developments in marine drug discovery from three South African marine invertebrates, the tube worm Cephalodiscus gilchristi, the ascidian Lissoclinum sp. and the sponge Topsentia pachastrelloides, are presented. Recent reports of the bioactivity and synthesis of the anti-cancer secondary metabolites cephalostatin and mandelalides (from C. gilchristi and Lissoclinum sp., respectively and various analogues are presented. The threat of drug-resistant pathogens, e.g., methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA, is assuming greater global significance, and medicinal chemistry strategies to exploit the potent MRSA PK inhibition, first revealed by two marine secondary metabolites, cis-3,4-dihydrohamacanthin B and bromodeoxytopsentin from T. pachastrelloides, are compared.

  15. Pathological gambling: An overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shalini Singh

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Gambling activities are popular as a form of recreation and have been a source of income for many people worldwide. Although gambling has been common across continents and time, and a subset of individuals experience problems with gambling. This review attempts to provide an overview of problem gambling for clinicians who are likely to encounter such patients in their practice. The review discusses the relevance, nosology, and epidemiology of gambling. We also discuss the associated comorbidities and principles of management of pathological gambling.

  16. [Apoptosis and pathological process].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rami, Mukhammed Salim Iusef

    2007-01-01

    Apoptosis (programmed cell death) occurs normally for maitenance of tissue homeostasis and play an important role in morphogenesis, embriogenesis and tissue growth. On the other hand, apoptosis may be involved in different pathological processes such as malignancy, infectious diseases and autoimmune disorders. Apoptosis is regulated by various mediators. Caspases, death receptors, mitochondria, Bcl-2 protoncogenes and tumor supressor genes are considered to be the most important of them. Advance in apoptosis regulation research suggests enormouse facilities for therapy of wide range of human illnesses.

  17. Marketing the pathology practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berkowitz, E N

    1995-07-01

    Effective marketing of the pathology practice is essential in the face of an increasingly competitive market. Successful marketing begins with a market-driven planning process. As opposed to the traditional planning process used in health care organizations, a market-driven approach is externally driven. Implementing a market-driven plan also requires recognition of the definition of the service. Each market to which pathologists direct their service defines the service differently. Recognition of these different service definitions and creation of a product to meet these needs could lead to competitive advantages in the marketplace.

  18. Shape shifting predicts ontogenetic changes in metabolic scaling in diverse aquatic invertebrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glazier, Douglas S; Hirst, Andrew G; Atkinson, David

    2015-03-07

    Metabolism fuels all biological activities, and thus understanding its variation is fundamentally important. Much of this variation is related to body size, which is commonly believed to follow a 3/4-power scaling law. However, during ontogeny, many kinds of animals and plants show marked shifts in metabolic scaling that deviate from 3/4-power scaling predicted by general models. Here, we show that in diverse aquatic invertebrates, ontogenetic shifts in the scaling of routine metabolic rate from near isometry (bR = scaling exponent approx. 1) to negative allometry (bR < 1), or the reverse, are associated with significant changes in body shape (indexed by bL = the scaling exponent of the relationship between body mass and body length). The observed inverse correlations between bR and bL are predicted by metabolic scaling theory that emphasizes resource/waste fluxes across external body surfaces, but contradict theory that emphasizes resource transport through internal networks. Geometric estimates of the scaling of surface area (SA) with body mass (bA) further show that ontogenetic shifts in bR and bA are positively correlated. These results support new metabolic scaling theory based on SA influences that may be applied to ontogenetic shifts in bR shown by many kinds of animals and plants. © 2015 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.

  19. Reproductive biology, family conflict, and size of offspring in marine invertebrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamel, Stephanie J; Oyarzun, Fernanda X; Grosberg, Richard K

    2010-10-01

    All organisms face two fundamental trade-offs in the allocation of energetic resources: one between many small versus a few large offspring, and the second between present and future reproduction. Nowhere are these trade-offs more apparent than in the vast range of variation in the sizes of eggs and offspring exhibited among species of marine invertebrates. It has become increasingly clear that, in many taxa of marine organisms, there is also substantial intraspecific variation in the size of eggs and hatchings. This variation has largely been attributed to adaptive maternal effects. In theory, however, the inevitable conflicts of interest that arise in families of sexually reproducing organisms over the optimal distribution of parental resources among siblings could also account for much of this variation in egg and offspring size. Here, we explore the potential impacts of family conflict on offspring traits by comparing the life histories of two exemplar species of marine organisms, the polychaete Boccardia proboscidea and the gastropod Solenosteira macrospira, emphasizing how differences in modes of fertilization and parental care might influence the phenotype and, consequently, the fitness of offspring. © The Author 2010. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Integrative and Comparative Biology. All rights reserved.

  20. Lichen physiological traits and growth forms affect communities of associated invertebrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bokhorst, Stef; Asplund, Johan; Kardol, Paul; Wardle, David A

    2015-09-01

    While there has been much interest in the relationships between traits of primary producers and composition of associated invertebrate consumer communities, our knowledge is largely based on studies from vascular plants, while other types of functionally important producers, such as lichens, have rarely been considered. To address how physiological traits of lichens drive community composition of invertebrates, we collected thalli from 27 lichen species from southern Norway and quantified the communities of associated springtails, mites, and nematodes. For each lichen species, we measured key physiological thallus traits and determined whether invertebrate communities were correlated with these traits. We also explored whether invertebrate communities differed among lichen groups, categorized according to nitrogen-fixing ability, growth form, and substratum. Lichen traits explained up to 39% of the variation in abundances of major invertebrate groups. For many invertebrate groups, abundance was positively correlated with lichen N and P concentrations, N:P ratio, and the percentage of water content on saturation (WC), but had few relationships with concentrations of carbon-based secondary compounds. Diversity and taxonomic richness of invertebrate groups were sometimes also correlated with lichen N and N:P ratios. Nitrogen-fixing lichens showed higher abundance and diversity of some invertebrate groups than did non-N-fixing lichens. However, this emerged in part because most N-fixing lichens have a foliose growth form that benefits invertebrates, through, improving the microclimate, independently of N concentration. Furthermore, invertebrate communities associated with terricolous lichens were determined more by their close proximity to the soil invertebrate pool than by lichen traits. Overall, our results reveal that differences between lichen species have a large impact on the invertebrate communities that live among the thalli. Different invertebrate groups show

  1. Pathology of the vestibulocochlear nerve

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Foer, Bert [Department of Radiology, Sint-Augustinus Hospital, Oosterveldlaan 24, 2610 Wilrijk (Belgium)], E-mail: bert.defoer@GZA.be; Kenis, Christoph [Department of Radiology, Sint-Augustinus Hospital, Oosterveldlaan 24, 2610 Wilrijk (Belgium)], E-mail: christophkenis@hotmail.com; Van Melkebeke, Deborah [Department of Neurology, Sint-Augustinus Hospital, Oosterveldlaan 24, 2610 Wilrijk (Belgium)], E-mail: Deborah.vanmelkebeke@Ugent.be; Vercruysse, Jean-Philippe [University Department of ENT, Sint-Augustinus Hospital, Oosterveldlaan 24, 2610 Wilrijk (Belgium)], E-mail: jphver@yahoo.com; Somers, Thomas [University Department of ENT, Sint-Augustinus Hospital, Oosterveldlaan 24, 2610 Wilrijk (Belgium)], E-mail: Thomas.somers@GZA.be; Pouillon, Marc [Department of Radiology, Sint-Augustinus Hospital, Oosterveldlaan 24, 2610 Wilrijk (Belgium)], E-mail: marc.pouillon@GZA.be; Offeciers, Erwin [University Department of ENT, Sint-Augustinus Hospital, Oosterveldlaan 24, 2610 Wilrijk (Belgium)], E-mail: Erwin.offeciers@GZA.be; Casselman, Jan W. [Department of Radiology, AZ Sint-Jan AV Hospital, Ruddershove 10, Bruges (Belgium); Consultant Radiologist, Sint-Augustinus Hospital, Oosterveldlaan 24, 2610 Wilrijk (Belgium); Academic Consultent, University of Ghent (Belgium)], E-mail: jan.casselman@azbrugge.be

    2010-05-15

    There is a large scala of pathology affecting the vestibulocochlear nerve. Magnetic resonance imaging is the method of choice for the investigation of pathology of the vestibulocochlear nerve. Congenital pathology mainly consists of agenesis or hypoplasia of the vestibulocochlear nerve. Tumoral pathology affecting the vestibulocochlear nerve is most frequently located in the internal auditory canal or cerebellopontine angle. Schwannoma of the vestibulocochlear nerve is the most frequently found tumoral lesion followed by meningeoma, arachnoid cyst and epidermoid cyst. The most frequently encountered pathologies as well as some more rare entities are discussed in this chapter.

  2. Pathology of the vestibulocochlear nerve

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Foer, Bert; Kenis, Christoph; Van Melkebeke, Deborah; Vercruysse, Jean-Philippe; Somers, Thomas; Pouillon, Marc; Offeciers, Erwin; Casselman, Jan W.

    2010-01-01

    There is a large scala of pathology affecting the vestibulocochlear nerve. Magnetic resonance imaging is the method of choice for the investigation of pathology of the vestibulocochlear nerve. Congenital pathology mainly consists of agenesis or hypoplasia of the vestibulocochlear nerve. Tumoral pathology affecting the vestibulocochlear nerve is most frequently located in the internal auditory canal or cerebellopontine angle. Schwannoma of the vestibulocochlear nerve is the most frequently found tumoral lesion followed by meningeoma, arachnoid cyst and epidermoid cyst. The most frequently encountered pathologies as well as some more rare entities are discussed in this chapter.

  3. Bioinformatics Education in Pathology Training: Current Scope and Future Direction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael R Clay

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Training anatomic and clinical pathology residents in the principles of bioinformatics is a challenging endeavor. Most residents receive little to no formal exposure to bioinformatics during medical education, and most of the pathology training is spent interpreting histopathology slides using light microscopy or focused on laboratory regulation, management, and interpretation of discrete laboratory data. At a minimum, residents should be familiar with data structure, data pipelines, data manipulation, and data regulations within clinical laboratories. Fellowship-level training should incorporate advanced principles unique to each subspecialty. Barriers to bioinformatics education include the clinical apprenticeship training model, ill-defined educational milestones, inadequate faculty expertise, and limited exposure during medical training. Online educational resources, case-based learning, and incorporation into molecular genomics education could serve as effective educational strategies. Overall, pathology bioinformatics training can be incorporated into pathology resident curricula, provided there is motivation to incorporate, institutional support, educational resources, and adequate faculty expertise.

  4. Anesthesia and Tau Pathology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whittington, Robert A.; Bretteville, Alexis; Dickler, Maya F.; Planel, Emmanuel

    2013-01-01

    Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is the most common form of dementia and remains a growing worldwide health problem. As life expectancy continues to increase, the number of AD patients presenting for surgery and anesthesia will steadily rise. The etiology of sporadic AD is thought to be multifactorial, with environmental, biological and genetic factors interacting together to influence AD pathogenesis. Recent reports suggest that general anesthetics may be such a factor and may contribute to the development and exacerbation of this neurodegenerative disorder. Intra-neuronal neurofibrillary tangles (NFT), composed of hyperphosphorylated and aggregated tau protein are one of the main neuropathological hallmarks of AD. Tau pathology is important in AD as it correlates very well with cognitive dysfunction. Lately, several studies have begun to elucidate the mechanisms by which anesthetic exposure might affect the phosphorylation, aggregation and function of this microtubule-associated protein. Here, we specifically review the literature detailing the impact of anesthetic administration on aberrant tau hyperphosphorylation as well as the subsequent development of neurofibrillary pathology and degeneration. PMID:23535147

  5. Antimicrobial peptides in marine invertebrate health and disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Destoumieux-Garzón, Delphine; Rosa, Rafael Diego; Schmitt, Paulina; Barreto, Cairé; Vidal-Dupiol, Jeremie; Mitta, Guillaume; Gueguen, Yannick; Bachère, Evelyne

    2016-05-26

    Aquaculture contributes more than one-third of the animal protein from marine sources worldwide. A significant proportion of aquaculture products are derived from marine protostomes that are commonly referred to as 'marine invertebrates'. Among them, penaeid shrimp (Ecdysozosoa, Arthropoda) and bivalve molluscs (Lophotrochozoa, Mollusca) are economically important. Mass rearing of arthropods and molluscs causes problems with pathogens in aquatic ecosystems that are exploited by humans. Remarkably, species of corals (Cnidaria) living in non-exploited ecosystems also suffer from devastating infectious diseases that display intriguing similarities with those affecting farmed animals. Infectious diseases affecting wild and farmed animals that are present in marine environments are predicted to increase in the future. This paper summarizes the role of the main pathogens and their interaction with host immunity, with a specific focus on antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) and pathogen resistance against AMPs. We provide a detailed review of penaeid shrimp AMPs and their role at the interface between the host and its resident/pathogenic microbiota. We also briefly describe the relevance of marine invertebrate AMPs in an applied context.This article is part of the themed issue 'Evolutionary ecology of arthropod antimicrobial peptides'. © 2016 The Author(s).

  6. Toxicity of carbon nanotubes to freshwater aquatic invertebrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mwangi, Joseph N.; Wang, Ning; Ingersoll, Christopher G.; Hardesty, Doug K.; Brunson, Eric L.; Li, Hao; Deng, Baolin

    2012-01-01

    Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are hydrophobic in nature and thus tend to accumulate in sediments if released into aquatic environments. As part of our overall effort to examine the toxicity of carbon-based nanomaterials to sediment-dwelling invertebrates, we have evaluated the toxicity of different types of CNTs in 14-d water-only exposures to an amphipod (Hyalella azteca), a midge (Chironomus dilutus), an oligochaete (Lumbriculus variegatus), and a mussel (Villosa iris) in advance of conducting whole-sediment toxicity tests with CNTs. The results of these toxicity tests conducted with CNTs added to water showed that 1.00g/L (dry wt) of commercial sources of CNTs significantly reduced the survival or growth of the invertebrates. Toxicity was influenced by the type and source of the CNTs, by whether the materials were precleaned by acid, by whether sonication was used to disperse the materials, and by species of the test organisms. Light and electron microscope imaging of the surviving test organisms showed the presence of CNTs in the gut as well as on the outer surface of the test organisms, although no evidence was observed to show penetration of CNTs through cell membranes. The present study demonstrated that both the metals solubilized from CNTs such as nickel and the "metal-free" CNTs contributed to the toxicity.

  7. A comparative study on androgen metabolism in three invertebrate species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janer, G; LeBlanc, G A; Porte, C

    2005-09-15

    A comparative approach was taken in this study to evaluate androgen (androstenedione and testosterone) metabolism in three invertebrate species: the gastropod Marisa cornuarietis, the amphipod Hyalella azteca, and the echinoderm Paracentrotus lividus. The existence of 17beta/3beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (HSD) and 5alpha-reductase catalyzed reactions was demonstrated in all three species. Androstenedione was primarily converted to 5alpha-androstanedione in M. cornuarietis, while it was primarily metabolized to testosterone in P. lividus and H. azteca. In addition, and consistent with vertebrate findings, tissue specific pathways and sexual dimorphism in androgen metabolism were observed. Namely, testosterone was metabolized to dihydrotestosterone in P. lividus gonads (via 5alpha-reductase), and metabolized to 4-androstene-3beta,17beta-diol in the digestive tube (via 3beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase). Furthermore, the synthesis of 17beta-reduced metabolites of androstenedione (testosterone and dihydrotestosterone) was 3- to 4-fold higher in males of M. cornuarietis than in females. Organotin compounds, which have been shown to interfere with some aspects of androgen metabolism, had no major effect on testosterone metabolism in any of the three species. Fenarimol enhanced 5alpha-reductase-mediated catalysis in gonads of P. lividus. Overall, results demonstrate the ubiquity of some androgen biotransformation processes in invertebrates and reveals interphyla differences in androgen metabolic pathways, and different sensitivity of these pathways to some xenobiotics.

  8. Matrotrophy and placentation in invertebrates: a new paradigm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostrovsky, Andrew N; Lidgard, Scott; Gordon, Dennis P; Schwaha, Thomas; Genikhovich, Grigory; Ereskovsky, Alexander V

    2016-08-01

    Matrotrophy, the continuous extra-vitelline supply of nutrients from the parent to the progeny during gestation, is one of the masterpieces of nature, contributing to offspring fitness and often correlated with evolutionary diversification. The most elaborate form of matrotrophy-placentotrophy-is well known for its broad occurrence among vertebrates, but the comparative distribution and structural diversity of matrotrophic expression among invertebrates is wanting. In the first comprehensive analysis of matrotrophy across the animal kingdom, we report that regardless of the degree of expression, it is established or inferred in at least 21 of 34 animal phyla, significantly exceeding previous accounts and changing the old paradigm that these phenomena are infrequent among invertebrates. In 10 phyla, matrotrophy is represented by only one or a few species, whereas in 11 it is either not uncommon or widespread and even pervasive. Among invertebrate phyla, Platyhelminthes, Arthropoda and Bryozoa dominate, with 162, 83 and 53 partly or wholly matrotrophic families, respectively. In comparison, Chordata has more than 220 families that include or consist entirely of matrotrophic species. We analysed the distribution of reproductive patterns among and within invertebrate phyla using recently published molecular phylogenies: matrotrophy has seemingly evolved at least 140 times in all major superclades: Parazoa and Eumetazoa, Radiata and Bilateria, Protostomia and Deuterostomia, Lophotrochozoa and Ecdysozoa. In Cycliophora and some Digenea, it may have evolved twice in the same life cycle. The provisioning of developing young is associated with almost all known types of incubation chambers, with matrotrophic viviparity more widespread (20 phyla) than brooding (10 phyla). In nine phyla, both matrotrophic incubation types are present. Matrotrophy is expressed in five nutritive modes, of which histotrophy and placentotrophy are most prevalent. Oophagy, embryophagy and

  9. Personal and Social Disease Pathology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe TRIBUZIO

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available With the Ottawa Charter definition of the concept health is integrated and expanded, aiming at enhancing not only the "state" of health, but the "process" that leads to it, taking into account health That is considered a resource through which, the individual becomes an active player in the community. Therefore it considers very important the community aspect and the social existence of the person, it must be that within an active protagonist. Each person, therefore, should feel responsible for their own condition and must be fire "exercise opinions more control over health and over their own their environments, and to make choices conducive to health." To achieve this it is essential to enable people to learn throughout life, to prepare themselves for all of its stages and to be fire cope with injuries and chronic diseases. This should be made possible at school, at home, in the workplace and in all community settings. The purpose of the “Ottawa Charter” are really ambitious if one takes into account that not all western industrialized countries, starting from the USA, put into practice social policies that can raise standards of health, requiring structural reforms of the welfare state. The disease is the tip of the iceberg of a social pathology, which causes discomfort and influence individual, not finding answers in the institutions, become chronic changing for the worse the quality of life.

  10. Influence of antifouling paint on freshwater invertebrates (Mytilidae, Chironomidae and Naididae): density, richness and composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujita, D S; Takeda, A M; Coutinho, R; Fernandes, F C

    2015-11-01

    We conducted a study about invertebrates on artificial substrates with different antifouling paints in order to answer the following questions 1) is there lower accumulation of organic matter on substrates with antifouling paints, 2) is invertebrate colonization influenced by the release of biocides from antifouling paints, 3) is the colonization of aquatic invertebrates positively influenced by the material accumulated upon the substrate surface and 4) is the assemblage composition of invertebrates similar among the different antifouling paints? To answer these questions, four structures were installed in the Baía River in February 1st, 2007. Each structure was composed of 7 wood boards: 5 boards painted with each type of antifouling paints (T1, T2, T3, T4 and T5), one painted only with the primer (Pr) and the other without any paint (Cn). After 365 days, we observed a greater accumulation of organic matter in the substrates with T2 and T3 paint coatings. Limnoperna fortunei was recorded in all tested paints, with higher densities in the control, primer, T2 and T3. The colonization of Chironomidae and Naididae on the substrate was positively influenced by L. fortunei density. The non-metric multidimensional scaling (NMDS) of the invertebrate community provided evidence of the clear distinction of invertebrate assemblages among the paints. Paints T2 and T3 were the most similar to the control and primer. Our results suggest that antifouling paints applied on substrates hinder invertebrate colonization by decreasing the density and richness of invertebrates.

  11. Slovakian and Turkish Students' Fear, Disgust and Perceived Danger of Invertebrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prokop, Pavol; Usak, Muhammet; Erdogan, Mehmet; Fancovicova, Jana; Bahar, Mehmet

    2011-01-01

    Human perceives invertebrates less positively than vertebrates because they are small and behaviourally and morphologically unfamiliar. This cross-cultural research focused on Slovakian (n=150) and Turkish (n=164) students' fear, disgust and perceived danger regarding 25 invertebrates [including 5 disease relevant adult insects, 5 ectoparasites, 5…

  12. Pond and Stream Safari: A Guide to the Ecology of Aquatic Invertebrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edelstein, Karen

    This packet includes a leader's guide, a quick reference guide to aquatic invertebrates, a checklist of common aquatic invertebrates, and activity sheets. The leader's guide includes four sections on background information and seven activities. Background sections include: Understanding Aquatic Insects; Growing Up: Aquatic Insect Forms; Adapting…

  13. Great cormorants reveal overlooked secondary dispersal of plants and invertebrates by piscivorous waterbirds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Leeuwen, C.H.A.; Lovas-Kiss, A.; Ovegård, M.; Green, Andy J.

    2017-01-01

    In wetland ecosystems, birds and fish are important dispersal vectors for plants and invertebrates, but the consequences of their interactions as vectors are unknown. Darwin suggested that piscivorous birds carry out secondary dispersal of seeds and invertebrates via predation on fish. We tested

  14. Aboveground vertebrate and invertebrate herbivore impacts on net N mineralization in subalpine grasslands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anita C. Risch; Martin Schutz; Martijn L. Vandegehuchte; Wim H. van der Putten; Henk Duyts; Ursina Raschein; Dariusz J. Gwiazdowicz; Matt D. Busse; Deborah S. Page-Dumroese; Stephan Zimmerman

    2015-01-01

    Aboveground herbivores have strong effects on grassland nitrogen (N) cycling. They can accelerate or slow down soil net N mineralization depending on ecosystem productivity and grazing intensity. Yet, most studies only consider either ungulates or invertebrate herbivores, but not the combined effect of several functionally different vertebrate and invertebrate...

  15. Virtual microscopy and digital pathology in training and education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, Peter W; Wang, Yinhai; McCullough, Stephen J

    2012-04-01

    Traditionally, education and training in pathology has been delivered using textbooks, glass slides and conventional microscopy. Over the last two decades, the number of web-based pathology resources has expanded dramatically with centralized pathological resources being delivered to many students simultaneously. Recently, whole slide imaging technology allows glass slides to be scanned and viewed on a computer screen via dedicated software. This technology is referred to as virtual microscopy and has created enormous opportunities in pathological training and education. Students are able to learn key histopathological skills, e.g. to identify areas of diagnostic relevance from an entire slide, via a web-based computer environment. Students no longer need to be in the same room as the slides. New human-computer interfaces are also being developed using more natural touch technology to enhance the manipulation of digitized slides. Several major initiatives are also underway introducing online competency and diagnostic decision analysis using virtual microscopy and have important future roles in accreditation and recertification. Finally, researchers are investigating how pathological decision-making is achieved using virtual microscopy and modern eye-tracking devices. Virtual microscopy and digital pathology will continue to improve how pathology training and education is delivered. © 2012 The Authors APMIS © 2012 APMIS.

  16. Coronarography in pathologic morphology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rozenberg, V.D.; Nepomnyashchikh, L.M.; Borodin, Yu.I.

    1987-01-01

    Of many years experience of the authors and data in world literature on post mortal coronarography during the most important general pathological processes in heart have been generalized in the monograph. Problems of radioanatomy of coronary artery were considered and data on use of postmortal coronarography in terms of correlation together with selective in-life coronarography are given. Much place takes the description of main coronarography semiotics of obstructive atherosclerosis injuries of the heart coronal system, compensation and decompensation processes of broken coronary circulation. Results of coronarography investigations in geronitogenesis as well as in sudden death are presented. Electrocardiographic-coronarographic and pathomorphologic parallels, clinical-anatomical diagnostical symptomocomplex - syndrom of menocoronary ''robbing'' are elucidated in detail. Technology of different techniques of postmortal coronarography in order to investigate macro-, microhemocirculation heart bed are described in detail as well as techniques of coronarogramm analysis which permits to use the monograph as a manual

  17. In situ effects of simulated overfishing and eutrophication on settlement of benthic coral reef invertebrates in the Central Red Sea.

    KAUST Repository

    Jessen, Christian; Voolstra, Christian R.; Wild, Christian

    2014-01-01

    overfishing through predator/grazer exclusion and simulated eutrophication through fertilizer addition on settlement of reef associated invertebrates on light-exposed and -shaded tiles over 4 months. At the end of the study period invertebrates had almost

  18. Pathological responses to terrorism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yehuda, Rachel; Bryant, Richard; Marmar, Charles; Zohar, Joseph

    2005-10-01

    Many important gains have been made in understanding PTSD and other responses to trauma as a result of neuroscience-based observations. Yet there are many gaps in our knowledge that currently impede our ability to predict those who will develop pathologic responses. Such knowledge is essential for developing appropriate strategies for mounting a mental health response in the aftermath of terrorism and for facilitating the recovery of individuals and society. This paper reviews clinical and biological studies that have led to an identification of pathologic responses following psychological trauma, including terrorism, and highlights areas of future-research. It is important to not only determine risk factors for the development of short- and long-term mental health responses to terrorism, but also apply these risk factors to the prediction of such responses on an individual level. It is also critical to consider the full spectrum of responses to terrorism, as well as the interplay between biological and psychological variables that contribute to these responses. Finally, it is essential to remove the barriers to collecting data in the aftermath of trauma by creating a culture of education in which the academic community can communicate to the public what is and is not known so that survivors of trauma and terrorism will understand the value of their participation in research to the generation of useful knowledge, and by maintaining the acquisition of knowledge as a priority for the government and those involved in the immediate delivery of services in the aftermath of large-scale disaster or trauma.

  19. An invertebrate stomach's view on vertebrate ecology: certain invertebrates could be used as "vertebrate samplers" and deliver DNA-based information on many aspects of vertebrate ecology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calvignac-Spencer, Sébastien; Leendertz, Fabian H; Gilbert, M Thomas P; Schubert, Grit

    2013-11-01

    Recent studies suggest that vertebrate genetic material ingested by invertebrates (iDNA) can be used to investigate vertebrate ecology. Given the ubiquity of invertebrates that feed on vertebrates across the globe, iDNA might qualify as a very powerful tool for 21st century population and conservation biologists. Here, we identify some invertebrate characteristics that will likely influence iDNA retrieval and elaborate on the potential uses of invertebrate-derived information. We hypothesize that beyond inventorying local faunal diversity, iDNA should allow for more profound insights into wildlife population density, size, mortality, and infectious agents. Based on the similarities of iDNA with other low-quality sources of DNA, a general technical framework for iDNA analyses is proposed. As it is likely that no such thing as a single ideal iDNA sampler exists, forthcoming research efforts should aim at cataloguing invertebrate properties relevant to iDNA retrieval so as to guide future usage of the invertebrate tool box. © 2013 WILEY Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Functional traits of soil invertebrates as indicators for exposure to soil disturbance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hedde, Mickaël; van Oort, Folkert; Lamy, Isabelle

    2012-05-01

    We tested a trait-based approach to link a soil disturbance to changes in invertebrate communities. Soils and macro-invertebrates were sampled in sandy soils contaminated by long-term wastewater irrigation, adding notably organic matter and trace metals (TM). We hypothesized that functional traits of invertebrates depict ways of exposure and that exposure routes relate to specific TM pools. Geophages and soft-body invertebrates were chosen to inform on exposure by ingestion or contact, respectively. Trait-based indices depicted more accurately effects of pollution than community density and diversity did. Exposure by ingestion had more deleterious effects than by contact. Both types of exposed invertebrates were influenced by TM, but geophages mainly responded to changes in soil organic matter contents. The trait-based approach requires to be applied in various conditions to uncorrelate specific TM impacts from those of other environmental factors. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Ecotoxicity of engineered nanoparticles to aquatic invertebrates: a brief review and recommendations for future toxicity testing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baun, Anders; Hartmann, Nanna Isabella Bloch; Grieger, Khara Deanne

    2008-01-01

    Based on a literature review and an overview of toxic effects of engineered nanoparticles in aquatic invertebrates, this paper proposes a number of recommendations for the developing field of nanoecotoxicology by highlighting the importance of invertebrates as sensitive and relevant test organisms...... through standardized short-term (lethality) tests with invertebrates as a basis for investigating behaviour and bioavailability of engineered nanoparticles in the aquatic environment. Based on this literature review, we further recommend that research is directed towards invertebrate tests employing long....... Results show that there is a pronounced lack of data in this field (less than 20 peer-reviewed papers are published so far), and the most frequently tested engineered nanoparticles in invertebrate tests are C-60, carbon nanotubes, and titanium dioxide. In addition, the majority of the studies have used...

  2. A study of radionuclide transfer between invertebrates and their marine sedimentary environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amiard-Triquet, Claude.

    1975-11-01

    Exchanges between sediment and marine organisms were studied in some benthic marine invertebrates, especially Arenicola marina L. (an Annelid). Experiments were carried out on the transfer of 60 Co, 137 Cs and accessorily 59 Fe and 144 Ce. Water was the chief vector for benthic marine invertebrates. These invertebrates seemed to act mainly in sedimentary areas on the redistribution of adsorbed radionuclides within the sediment. Radioactive contamination of the invertebrates was affected by various physiological or ecological factors. Benthic marine invertebrates were then studied as links in food chains. The transfer of 60 Co was studied in three food chains or fractions of food chains. The procedure allowed interesting observations from the health protection point of view and more fundamental investigations on cobalt metabolism (regulation, excretion) in a mollusc, a crustacea and a teleost [fr

  3. Online Resources

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Genetics; Online Resources. Journal of Genetics. Online Resources. Volume 97. 2018 | Online resources. Volume 96. 2017 | Online resources. Volume 95. 2016 | Online resources. Volume 94. 2015 | Online resources. Volume 93. 2014 | Online resources. Volume 92. 2013 | Online resources ...

  4. Evolutionary Transition of Promoter and Gene Body DNA Methylation across Invertebrate-Vertebrate Boundary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, Thomas E; Han, Priscilla; Yi, Soojin V

    2016-04-01

    Genomes of invertebrates and vertebrates exhibit highly divergent patterns of DNA methylation. Invertebrate genomes tend to be sparsely methylated, and DNA methylation is mostly targeted to a subset of transcription units (gene bodies). In a drastic contrast, vertebrate genomes are generally globally and heavily methylated, punctuated by the limited local hypo-methylation of putative regulatory regions such as promoters. These genomic differences also translate into functional differences in DNA methylation and gene regulation. Although promoter DNA methylation is an important regulatory component of vertebrate gene expression, its role in invertebrate gene regulation has been little explored. Instead, gene body DNA methylation is associated with expression of invertebrate genes. However, the evolutionary steps leading to the differentiation of invertebrate and vertebrate genomic DNA methylation remain unresolved. Here we analyzed experimentally determined DNA methylation maps of several species across the invertebrate-vertebrate boundary, to elucidate how vertebrate gene methylation has evolved. We show that, in contrast to the prevailing idea, a substantial number of promoters in an invertebrate basal chordate Ciona intestinalis are methylated. Moreover, gene expression data indicate significant, epigenomic context-dependent associations between promoter methylation and expression in C. intestinalis. However, there is no evidence that promoter methylation in invertebrate chordate has been evolutionarily maintained across the invertebrate-vertebrate boundary. Rather, body-methylated invertebrate genes preferentially obtain hypo-methylated promoters among vertebrates. Conversely, promoter methylation is preferentially found in lineage- and tissue-specific vertebrate genes. These results provide important insights into the evolutionary origin of epigenetic regulation of vertebrate gene expression. © The Author(s) 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf

  5. Environmental hazards of aluminum to plants, invertebrates, fish, and wildlife

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sparling, D.W.; Lowe, T.P.

    1996-01-01

    Aluminum is extremely common throughout the world and is innocuous under circumneutral or alkaline conditions. However, in acidic environments, it can be a maJor limiting factor to many plants and aquatic organisms. The greatest concern for toxicity in North America occurs in areas that are affected by wet and dry acid deposition, such as eastern Canada and the northeastern U.S. Acid mine drainage, logging, and water treatment plant effluents containing alum can be other maJor sources of Al. In solution, the metal can combine with several different agents to affect toxicity. In general, Al hydroxides and monomeric Al are the most toxic forms. Dissolved organic carbons, F, PO(3)3- and SO(4)2- ameliorate toxicity by reducing bioavailability. Elevated metal levels in water and soil can cause serious problems for some plants. Algae tend to be both acid- and Al tolerant and, although some species may disappear with reduced pH, overall algae productivity and biomass are seldom affected if pH is above 3.0. Aluminum and acid toxicity tend to be additive to some algae when pH is less than 4.5. Because the metal binds with inorganic P, it may reduce P availability and reduce productivity. Forest die-backs in North America involving red spruce, Fraser fir, balsam fir, loblolly pine, slash pine, and sugar maples have been ascribed to Al toxicity, and extensive areas of European forests have died because of the combination of high soil Al and low pH. Extensive research on crops has produced Al-resistant cultivars and considerable knowledge about mechanisms of and defenses against toxicity. Very low Al levels may benefit some plants, although the metal is not recognized as an essential nutrient. Hyperaccumulator species of plants may concentrate Al to levels that are toxic to herbivores. Toxicity in aquatic invertebrates is also acid dependent. Taxa such as Ephemeroptera, Plecoptera, and Cladocera are sensitive and may perish when Al is less than 1 mg.L-1 whereas dipterans

  6. DMPD: Infectious non-self recognition in invertebrates: lessons from Drosophila andother insect models. [Dynamic Macrophage Pathway CSML Database

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 15476918 Infectious non-self recognition in invertebrates: lessons from Drosophila ...fectious non-self recognition in invertebrates: lessons from Drosophila andother insect models. PubmedID 154...76918 Title Infectious non-self recognition in invertebrates: lessons from Drosop

  7. Social cost of pathological gambling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ladouceur, R; Boisvert, J M; Pépin, M; Loranger, M; Sylvain, C

    1994-12-01

    Pathological gambling creates enormous problems for the afflicted individuals, their families, employers, and society, and has numerous disastrous financial consequences. The present study evaluates the financial burdens of pathological gambling by questioning pathological gamblers in treatment in Gamblers Anonymous (n=60; 56 males, 4 females; mean age = 40 years old) about personal debts, loss of productivity at work, illegal activities, medical costs and the presence of other dependencies. Results show that important debts, loss of productivity at work and legal problems are associated with pathological gambling. Discussion is formulated in terms of the social cost of adopting a liberal attitude toward the legalization of various gambling activities.

  8. Sensitivity ranking for freshwater invertebrates towards hydrocarbon contaminants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerner, Nadine V; Cailleaud, Kevin; Bassères, Anne; Liess, Matthias; Beketov, Mikhail A

    2017-11-01

    Hydrocarbons have an utmost economical importance but may also cause substantial ecological impacts due to accidents or inadequate transportation and use. Currently, freshwater biomonitoring methods lack an indicator that can unequivocally reflect the impacts caused by hydrocarbons while being independent from effects of other stressors. The aim of the present study was to develop a sensitivity ranking for freshwater invertebrates towards hydrocarbon contaminants, which can be used in hydrocarbon-specific bioindicators. We employed the Relative Sensitivity method and developed the sensitivity ranking S hydrocarbons based on literature ecotoxicological data supplemented with rapid and mesocosm test results. A first validation of the sensitivity ranking based on an earlier field study has been conducted and revealed the S hydrocarbons ranking to be promising for application in sensitivity based indicators. Thus, the first results indicate that the ranking can serve as the core component of future hydrocarbon-specific and sensitivity trait based bioindicators.

  9. The structure and host entry of an invertebrate parvovirus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Geng; Zhang, Xinzheng; Plevka, Pavel; Yu, Qian; Tijssen, Peter; Rossmann, Michael G

    2013-12-01

    The 3.5-Å resolution X-ray crystal structure of mature cricket parvovirus (Acheta domesticus densovirus [AdDNV]) has been determined. Structural comparisons show that vertebrate and invertebrate parvoviruses have evolved independently, although there are common structural features among all parvovirus capsid proteins. It was shown that raising the temperature of the AdDNV particles caused a loss of their genomes. The structure of these emptied particles was determined by cryo-electron microscopy to 5.5-Å resolution, and the capsid structure was found to be the same as that for the full, mature virus except for the absence of the three ordered nucleotides observed in the crystal structure. The viral protein 1 (VP1) amino termini could be externalized without significant damage to the capsid. In vitro, this externalization of the VP1 amino termini is accompanied by the release of the viral genome.

  10. Impact Theory of Mass Extinctions and the Invertebrate Fossil Record

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez, Walter; Kauffman, Erle G.; Surlyk, Finn; Alvarez, Luis W.; Asaro, Frank; Michel, Helen V.

    1984-03-01

    There is much evidence that the Cretaceous-Tertiary boundary was marked by a massive meteorite impact. Theoretical consideration of the consequences of such an impact predicts sharp extinctions in many groups of animals precisely at the boundary. Paleontological data clearly show gradual declines in diversity over the last 1 to 10 million years in various invertebrate groups. Reexamination of data from careful studies of the best sections shows that, in addition to undergoing the decline, four groups (ammonites, cheilostomate bryozoans, brachiopods, and bivalves) were affected by sudden truncations precisely at the iridium anomaly that marks the boundary. The paleontological record thus bears witness to terminal-Cretaceous extinctions on two time scales: a slow decline unrelated to the impact and a sharp truncation synchronous with and probably caused by the impact.

  11. Uptake and depuration of pharmaceuticals in aquatic invertebrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meredith-Williams, Melanie; Carter, Laura J.; Fussell, Richard; Raffaelli, David; Ashauer, Roman; Boxall, Alistair B.A.

    2012-01-01

    The uptake and depuration of a range of pharmaceuticals in the freshwater shrimp (Gammarus pulex) and the water boatman (Notonecta glauca) was studied. For one compound, studies were also done using the freshwater snail Planobarius corneus. In G. pulex, bioconcentration factors (BCFs) ranged from 4.6 to 185,900 and increased in the order moclobemide < 5-fluoruracil < carbamazepine < diazepam < carvedilol < fluoxetine. In N. glauca BCFs ranged from 0.1 to 1.6 and increased in the order 5-fluorouracil < carbamazepine < moclobemide < diazepam < fluoxetine < carvedilol. For P. corneus, the BCF for carvedilol was 57.3. The differences in degree of uptake across the three organisms may be due to differences in mode of respiration, behaviour and the pH of the test system. BCFs of the pharmaceuticals for each organism were correlated to the pH-corrected liposome–water partition coefficient of the pharmaceuticals. - Highlights: ► One of the first studies exploring the uptake of pharmaceuticals into aquatic invertebrates. ► Data presented on uptake, depuration rates and bioconcentration for a range of pharmaceuticals. ► Uptake is correlated with the pH-corrected liposome–water partition coefficient. ► Findings can be used to better predict impacts of pharmaceuticals on the aquatic environment. - The factors affecting the degree of uptake of pharmaceuticals into aquatic invertebrates were studied. The results indicate that species traits such as respiration and behaviour of the organisms and pH-corrected liposome–water partition coefficients are important factors in determining pharmaceutical uptake.

  12. Comparative ecotoxicity of chlorantraniliprole to non-target soil invertebrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavtižar, Vesna; Berggren, Kristina; Trebše, Polonca; Kraak, Michiel H S; Verweij, Rudo A; van Gestel, Cornelis A M

    2016-09-01

    The insecticide chlorantraniliprole (CAP) is gaining importance in agricultural practice, but data on its possible negative effects on non-target organisms is severely deficient. This study therefore determined CAP toxicity to non-target soil invertebrates playing a crucial role in ecosystem functioning, including springtails (Folsomia candida), isopods (Porcellio scaber), enchytraeids (Enchytraeus crypticus) and oribatid mites (Oppia nitens). In sublethal toxicity tests in Lufa 2.2 soil, chronic exposure to CAP concentrations up to 1000 mg/kgdw did not affect the survival and reproduction of E. crypticus and O. nitens nor the survival, body weight and consumption of P. scaber. In contrast, the survival and reproduction of F. candida was severely affected, with an EC50 for effects on reproduction of 0.14 mg CAP/kgdw. The toxicity of CAP to the reproduction of F. candida was tested in four different soils following OECD guideline 232, and additionally in an avoidance test according to ISO guideline 17512-2. A significantly lower toxicity in soils rich in organic matter was observed, compared to low organic soils. Observations in the avoidance test with F. candida suggest that CAP acted in a prompt way, by affecting collembolan locomotor abilities thus preventing them from escaping contaminated soil. This study shows that CAP may especially pose a risk to non-target soil arthropods closely related to insects, while other soil invertebrates seem rather insensitive. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Bugs, bees and spiders : green roof design for rare invertebrates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gedge, D. [Livingroofs.org, London (United Kingdom); Kadas, G. [Royal Holloway Univ. of London, London (United Kingdom)

    2004-07-01

    The use of green roofs as mitigation technique for biodiversity is particularly relevant for the objectives of the London Biodiversity Partnership, particularly since London is undergoing large-scale regeneration and many of the new developments will be targeted on brownfield land. In 2002 two research projects were undertaken to create a baseline of data on how invertebrates were using the current green roofs in London. The London Biodiversity Partnership's Black Redstart Action Plan conducts research into green roofs to demonstrate how they can be maximized for biodiversity. The Black Redstart Project ensures that green roofs are used in new developments in London where such developments threaten this species. It is one of the country's rarest breeding birds, and is unique in that it is predominantly found in cities, on brownfield sites and post-industrial sites. Three green roof laboratories were established at 2 sites in London to investigate how substrates, substrate depths and planting affects the fauna associated with brownfields and green roofs in London. Although conservationists in London have urged many developers to provide green roofs to help the Black Redstart, there is concern that many of these roofs do no provide the proper support for the species. In some cases roofs are constructed of commercially driven products such as sedum mats that do provide habitat for some rare invertebrates but are not as supportive of a greater diversity of species as they could be due to the design process and a lack of knowledge of green roof technology. It was suggested that there is a need for cooperation between ecologists and Architects in order to achieve the habitat. 18 refs., 6 figs.

  14. Forest pathology in Hawaii

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner, D.E.

    2003-01-01

    Native Hawaiian forests are characterised by a high degree of endemism, including pathogens as well as their hosts. With the exceptions of koa (Acacia koa Gray), possibly maile (Alyxia oliviformis Gaud.), and, in the past, sandalwood (Santalum spp.), forest species are of little commercial value. On the other hand, these forests are immensely important from a cultural, ecological, and evolutionary standpoint. Forest disease research was lacking during the mid-twentieth century, but increased markedly with the recognition of ohia (Metrosideros polymorpha Gaud.) decline in the 1970s. Because many pathogens are themselves endemic, or are assumed to be, having evolved with their hosts, research emphasis in natural areas is on understanding host-parasite interactions and evolutionary influences, rather than disease control. Aside from management of native forests, attempts at establishing a commercial forest industry have included importation of several species of pine, Araucaria, and Eucalyptus as timber crops, and of numerous ornamentals. Diseases of these species have been introduced with their hosts. The attacking of native species by introduced pathogens is problematic - for example, Armillaria mellea (Vahl ex Fr.) Que??l. on koa and mamane (Sophora chrysophylla (Salisb.) Seem.). Much work remains to be done in both native and commercial aspects of Hawaiian forest pathology.

  15. Rotator cuff pathology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pigeau, I.; Doursounian, L.; Maigne, J.Y.; Guinet, C.; Meary, E.; Buy, J.N.; Touzard, R.C.; Vadrot, D.; Laval-Jeantet, M.

    1989-01-01

    Fifteen volunteers and 73 patients with suspected rotator cuff lesions were examined at 0.5 T with T2 * -weighted gradient-echo (GE) MR imaging (700/33/30 degrees) (oblique coronal and sagittal 3 mm thick, surface coil). Results were compared with those of arthrography (all cases), T1-weighted GE imaging (400/20/90 degrees) (35 cases), surgery (28 cases), and T2-weighted spin-echo (SE) images (2,000/60-120) (17 cases). GE images demonstrated all tears (complete, 32, partial, 12) and was superior to arthrography in determining site and size and in displaying muscles (critical point in surgical planning). In 20 cases without tears on arthrography, GE imaging demonstrated five cases of tendinitis, five cases of bursitis, and six probable intratendinous or superficial partial tears. T2 * -weighted GE imaging was superior to T2-weighted SE and T1-weighted GE imaging, with higher fluid contrast and a low fat signal. Therefore, it might replace arthrography in the diagnosis and surgical approach to this pathology

  16. Action potential energy efficiency varies among neuron types in vertebrates and invertebrates.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Biswa Sengupta

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available The initiation and propagation of action potentials (APs places high demands on the energetic resources of neural tissue. Each AP forces ATP-driven ion pumps to work harder to restore the ionic concentration gradients, thus consuming more energy. Here, we ask whether the ionic currents underlying the AP can be predicted theoretically from the principle of minimum energy consumption. A long-held supposition that APs are energetically wasteful, based on theoretical analysis of the squid giant axon AP, has recently been overturned by studies that measured the currents contributing to the AP in several mammalian neurons. In the single compartment models studied here, AP energy consumption varies greatly among vertebrate and invertebrate neurons, with several mammalian neuron models using close to the capacitive minimum of energy needed. Strikingly, energy consumption can increase by more than ten-fold simply by changing the overlap of the Na(+ and K(+ currents during the AP without changing the APs shape. As a consequence, the height and width of the AP are poor predictors of energy consumption. In the Hodgkin-Huxley model of the squid axon, optimizing the kinetics or number of Na(+ and K(+ channels can whittle down the number of ATP molecules needed for each AP by a factor of four. In contrast to the squid AP, the temporal profile of the currents underlying APs of some mammalian neurons are nearly perfectly matched to the optimized properties of ionic conductances so as to minimize the ATP cost.

  17. Action Potential Energy Efficiency Varies Among Neuron Types in Vertebrates and Invertebrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sengupta, Biswa; Stemmler, Martin; Laughlin, Simon B.; Niven, Jeremy E.

    2010-01-01

    The initiation and propagation of action potentials (APs) places high demands on the energetic resources of neural tissue. Each AP forces ATP-driven ion pumps to work harder to restore the ionic concentration gradients, thus consuming more energy. Here, we ask whether the ionic currents underlying the AP can be predicted theoretically from the principle of minimum energy consumption. A long-held supposition that APs are energetically wasteful, based on theoretical analysis of the squid giant axon AP, has recently been overturned by studies that measured the currents contributing to the AP in several mammalian neurons. In the single compartment models studied here, AP energy consumption varies greatly among vertebrate and invertebrate neurons, with several mammalian neuron models using close to the capacitive minimum of energy needed. Strikingly, energy consumption can increase by more than ten-fold simply by changing the overlap of the Na+ and K+ currents during the AP without changing the APs shape. As a consequence, the height and width of the AP are poor predictors of energy consumption. In the Hodgkin–Huxley model of the squid axon, optimizing the kinetics or number of Na+ and K+ channels can whittle down the number of ATP molecules needed for each AP by a factor of four. In contrast to the squid AP, the temporal profile of the currents underlying APs of some mammalian neurons are nearly perfectly matched to the optimized properties of ionic conductances so as to minimize the ATP cost. PMID:20617202

  18. Invertebrate communities of Arctic tundra ponds as related to proximity to drill site reserve pits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Byron, E.; Williams, N.; Hoffman, R.; Elder, B.

    1994-01-01

    Aquatic invertebrate communities were assessed for diversity and abundance in North Slope tundra ponds of Prudhoe Bay, Alaska during the summer of 1992 as part of an evaluation of potential effects of exposure to petroleum drill site reserve pits (previously used for storing drill site wastes). The invertebrate communities of these shallow, tundra ponds provide abundant food for migratory, aquatic birds that use this area during the summer breeding season. The study was designed to compare abundance and diversity estimates of invertebrates in ponds surrounding the drill sites that differed in distance (and presumed exposure) to drill site reserve pits. The pits, themselves, were not sampled as part of this study. Invertebrate abundance and diversity estimates, assessed as standard biological criteria, were evaluated relative to water chemistry of the ponds, distance to the gravel pads or reserve pits, and pond morphometry. The results indicated the importance of pond morphometry in determining the structure of the invertebrate community. Shallow, exposed ponds tended to be dominated by different invertebrate communities than deeper, narrow ponds at the margins of frost polygons. In contrast, pond chemistry and relative exposure to drill sites were not predictive of invertebrate abundance or diversity

  19. Acute toxicity and inactivation tests of CO2 on invertebrates in drinking water treatment systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Wen-Chao; Zhang, Jin-Song; Liu, Li-Jun; Zhao, Jian-Shu; Li, Tuo

    2011-01-01

    In addition to the esthetic problem caused by invertebrates, researchers are recently starting to be more aware of their potential importance in terms of public health. However, the inactivation methods of invertebrates which could proliferate in drinking water treatment systems are not well developed. The objective of this study is to assess the acute toxicity and inactivation effects of CO2 on familiar invertebrates in water treatment processes. The results of this study revealed that CO2 has a definite toxicity to familiar invertebrates. The values of 24-h LC50 (median lethal concentration) were calculated for each test with six groups of invertebrates. The toxicity of CO2 was higher with increasing concentrations in solution but was lower with the increase in size of the invertebrates. Above the concentration of 1,000 mg/L for the CO2 solution, the 100% inactivation time of all the invertebrates was less than 5 s, and in 15 min, the inactivation ratio showed a gradient descent with a decline in concentration. As seen for Mesocyclops thermocyclopoides, by dosing with a sodium bicarbonate solution first and adding a dilute hydrochloric acid solution 5 min later, it is possible to obtain a satisfactory inactivation effect in the GAC (granular activated carbon) filters.

  20. Comparative biology of pain: What invertebrates can tell us about how nociception works.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burrell, Brian D

    2017-04-01

    The inability to adequately treat chronic pain is a worldwide health care crisis. Pain has both an emotional and a sensory component, and this latter component, nociception, refers specifically to the detection of damaging or potentially damaging stimuli. Nociception represents a critical interaction between an animal and its environment and exhibits considerable evolutionary conservation across species. Using comparative approaches to understand the basic biology of nociception could promote the development of novel therapeutic strategies to treat pain, and studies of nociception in invertebrates can provide especially useful insights toward this goal. Both vertebrates and invertebrates exhibit segregated sensory pathways for nociceptive and nonnociceptive information, injury-induced sensitization to nociceptive and nonnociceptive stimuli, and even similar antinociceptive modulatory processes. In a number of invertebrate species, the central nervous system is understood in considerable detail, and it is often possible to record from and/or manipulate single identifiable neurons through either molecular genetic or physiological approaches. Invertebrates also provide an opportunity to study nociception in an ethologically relevant context that can provide novel insights into the nature of how injury-inducing stimuli produce persistent changes in behavior. Despite these advantages, invertebrates have been underutilized in nociception research. In this review, findings from invertebrate nociception studies are summarized, and proposals for how research using invertebrates can address questions about the fundamental mechanisms of nociception are presented. Copyright © 2017 the American Physiological Society.

  1. Phylogenetically diverse macrophyte community promotes species diversity of mobile epi-benthic invertebrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamoto, Kenta; Hayakawa, Jun; Kawamura, Tomohiko; Kodama, Masafumi; Yamada, Hideaki; Kitagawa, Takashi; Watanabe, Yoshiro

    2018-07-01

    Various aspects of plant diversity such as species diversity and phylogenetic diversity enhance the species diversity of associated animals in terrestrial systems. In marine systems, however, the effects of macrophyte diversity on the species diversity of associated animals have received little attention. Here, we sampled in a subtropical seagrass-seaweed mixed bed to elucidate the effect of the macrophyte phylogenetic diversity based on the taxonomic relatedness as well as the macrophyte species diversity on species diversity of mobile epi-benthic invertebrates. Using regression analyses for each macrophyte parameter as well as multiple regression analyses, we found that the macrophyte phylogenetic diversity (taxonomic diversity index: Delta) positively influenced the invertebrate species richness and diversity index (H‧). Although the macrophyte species richness and H‧ also positively influenced the invertebrate species richness, the best fit model for invertebrate species richness did not include them, suggesting that the macrophyte species diversity indirectly influenced invertebrate species diversity. Possible explanations of the effects of macrophyte Delta on the invertebrate species diversity were the niche complementarity effect and the selection effect. This is the first study which demonstrates that macrophyte phylogenetic diversity has a strong effect on the species diversity of mobile epi-benthic invertebrates.

  2. Functional traits of soil invertebrates as indicators for exposure to soil disturbance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hedde, Mickaël; Oort, Folkert van; Lamy, Isabelle

    2012-01-01

    We tested a trait-based approach to link a soil disturbance to changes in invertebrate communities. Soils and macro-invertebrates were sampled in sandy soils contaminated by long-term wastewater irrigation, adding notably organic matter and trace metals (TM). We hypothesized that functional traits of invertebrates depict ways of exposure and that exposure routes relate to specific TM pools. Geophages and soft-body invertebrates were chosen to inform on exposure by ingestion or contact, respectively. Trait-based indices depicted more accurately effects of pollution than community density and diversity did. Exposure by ingestion had more deleterious effects than by contact. Both types of exposed invertebrates were influenced by TM, but geophages mainly responded to changes in soil organic matter contents. The trait-based approach requires to be applied in various conditions to uncorrelate specific TM impacts from those of other environmental factors. - Highlights: ► We linked pollution, exposure routes and impacts on soil invertebrates. ► Proportions of exposed animals accurately depicted pollution effects. ► Exposure by ingestion had more deleterious effects than exposure by contact. ► Geophages decline reflected changes in soil organic matter. ► Soft-body proportions were mainly influenced by TM pools. - A trait-based approach hierarchized impacts of soil pollution on soil invertebrate communities following ways of exposure

  3. Response of stream invertebrates to short-term salinization: A mesocosm approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cañedo-Argüelles, Miguel; Grantham, Theodore E.; Perrée, Isabelle; Rieradevall, Maria; Céspedes-Sánchez, Raquel; Prat, Narcís

    2012-01-01

    Salinization is a major and growing threat to freshwater ecosystems, yet its effects on aquatic invertebrates have been poorly described at a community-level. Here we use a controlled experimental setting to evaluate short-term stream community responses to salinization, under conditions designed to replicate the duration (72 h) and intensity (up to 5 mS cm −1 ) of salinity pulses common to Mediterranean rivers subjected to mining pollution during runoff events. There was a significant overall effect, but differences between individual treatments and the control were only significant for the highest salinity treatment. The community response to salinization was characterized by a decline in total invertebrate density, taxon richness and diversity, an increase in invertebrate drift and loss of the most sensitive taxa. The findings indicate that short-term salinity increases have a significant impact on the stream invertebrate community, but concentrations of 5 mS cm −1 are needed to produce a significant ecological response. - Highlights: ► Short-term salinization has a significant impact on the aquatic invertebrates. ► A significant short-term ecological response is registered at 5 mS cm −1 . ► Salinization causes a decline in invertebrate density, richness and diversity. ► Biotic quality indices decline with increasing salinity and exposure time. - Short-term salinization in a stream mesocosm caused a significant response in the aquatic invertebrate community and led to declines in biological quality indices.

  4. Development of biotic ligand models for chronic manganese toxicity to fish, invertebrates, and algae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Adam; Lofts, Stephen; Merrington, Graham; Brown, Bruce; Stubblefield, William; Harlow, Keven

    2011-11-01

    Ecotoxicity tests were performed with fish, invertebrates, and algae to investigate the effect of water quality parameters on Mn toxicity. Models were developed to describe the effects of Mn as a function of water quality. Calcium (Ca) has a protective effect on Mn toxicity for both fish and invertebrates, and magnesium (Mg) also provides a protective effect for invertebrates. Protons have a protective effect on Mn toxicity to algae. The models derived are consistent with models of the toxicity of other metals to aquatic organisms in that divalent cations can act as competitors to Mn toxicity in fish and invertebrates, and protons act as competitors to Mn toxicity in algae. The selected models are able to predict Mn toxicity to the test organisms to within a factor of 2 in most cases. Under low-pH conditions invertebrates are the most sensitive taxa, and under high-pH conditions algae are most sensitive. The point at which algae become more sensitive than invertebrates depends on the Ca concentration and occurs at higher pH when Ca concentrations are low, because of the sensitivity of invertebrates under these conditions. Dissolved organic carbon concentrations have very little effect on the toxicity of Mn to aquatic organisms. Copyright © 2011 SETAC.

  5. FROM PHYSIOLOGICAL TO PATHOLOGICAL METEOSENSITIVITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. I. Yabluchanskiy

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper is dedicated to the problem of physiological and pathological meteosensitivity (meteodependency or meteopathy.We introduce and discuss the definition for individual meteodependency, define factors, mechanisms, clinical signs, diagnosis, and approaches to prophylaxy and treatment of individual pathological meteosensitivity.

  6. NMR imaging of osteoarticular pathology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frocrain, L.; Duvauferrier, R.; Gagey, N.

    1987-01-01

    NMR imaging is assuming an increasingly important role in the diagnosis of osteo-articular disorders. Semiological descriptions of the mean pathological disorders of the locomotor system are presented. Some investigation strategies are proposed to compare NMR imaging with other imaging techniques in various pathological states [fr

  7. Herpes - resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genital herpes - resources; Resources - genital herpes ... following organizations are good resources for information on genital herpes : March of Dimes -- www.marchofdimes.org/complications/sexually- ...

  8. Podocyte Pathology and Nephropathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra eMerscher

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Sphingolipids are components of the lipid rafts in plasma membranes, which are important for proper function of podocytes, a key element of the glomerular filtration barrier. Research revealed an essential role of sphingolipids and sphingolipid metabolites in glomerular disorders of genetic and non-genetic origin. The discovery that glucocerebrosides accumulate in Gaucher disease in glomerular cells and are associated with clinical proteinuria initiated intensive research into the function of other sphingolipids in glomerular disorders. The accumulation of sphingolipids in other genetic diseases including Tay-Sachs, Sandhoff, Fabry, hereditary inclusion body myopathy 2, Niemann-Pick and nephrotic syndrome of the Finnish type and its implications with respect to glomerular pathology will be discussed. Similarily, sphingolipid accumulation occurs in glomerular diseases of non-genetic origin including diabetic kidney disease (DKD, HIV-associated nephropathy, focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS and lupus nephritis. Sphingomyelin metabolites, such as ceramide, sphingosine and sphingosine-1-phosphate have also gained tremendous interest. We recently described that sphingomyelin phosphodiesterase acid-like 3b (SMPDL3b is expressed in podocytes where it modulates acid sphingomyelinase (ASMase activity and acts as a master modulator of danger signaling. Decreased SMPDL3b expression in post-reperfusion kidney biopsies from transplant recipients with idiopathic FSGS correlates with the recurrence of proteinuria in patients and in experimental models of xenotransplantation. Increased SMPDL3b expression is associated with DKD. The consequences of differential SMPDL3b expression in podocytes in these diseases with respect to their pathogenesis will be discussed. Finally, the role of sphingolipids in the formation of lipid rafts in podocytes and their contribution to the maintenance of a functional slit diaphragm in the glomerulus will be discussed.

  9. Developing biosafety risk hypotheses for invertebrates exposed to GM plants using conceptual food webs: a case study with elevated triacylglyceride levels in ryegrass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barratt, Barbara I P; Todd, Jacqui H; Burgess, Elisabeth P J; Malone, Louise A

    2010-01-01

    Regulators are acutely aware of the need for meaningful risk assessments to support decisions on the safety of GM crops to non-target invertebrates in determining their suitability for field release. We describe a process for developing appropriate, testable risk hypotheses for invertebrates in agroecosystems that might be exposed to plants developed by GM and future novel technologies. An existing model (PRONTI) generates a ranked list of invertebrate species for biosafety testing by accessing a database of biological, ecological and food web information about species which occur in cropping environments and their potential interactions with a particular stressor (Eco Invertebase). Our objective in this contribution is to explore and further utilise these resources to assist in the process of problem formulation by identifying potentially significant effects of the stressor on the invertebrate community and the ecosystem services they provide. We propose that for high ranking species, a conceptual food web using information in Eco Invertebase is constructed, and using an accepted regulatory risk analysis framework, the likelihood of risk, and magnitude of impact for each link in the food web is evaluated. Using as filters only those risks evaluated as likely to extremely likely, and the magnitude of an effect being considered as moderate to massive, the most significant potential effects can be identified. A stepwise approach is suggested to develop a sequence of appropriate tests. The GM ryegrass plant used as the "stressor" in this study has been modified to increase triacylglyceride levels in foliage by 100% to increase the metabolisable energy content of forage for grazing animals. The high-ranking "test" species chosen to illustrate the concept are New Zealand native species Wiseana cervinata (Walker) (Lepidoptera: Hepialidae), Persectania aversa (Walker) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), and the self-introduced grey field slug, Deroceras reticulatum (Müller).

  10. The use of invertebrates as indicators of environmental change in alpine rivers and lakes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khamis, K.; Hannah, D.M.; Brown, L.E.; Tiberti, R.; Milner, A.M.

    2014-01-01

    In alpine regions climatic change will alter the balance between water sources (rainfall, ice-melt, snowmelt, and groundwater) for aquatic systems, particularly modifying the relative contributions of meltwater, groundwater and rain to both rivers and lakes. While these changes are expected to have implications for alpine aquatic ecosystems, little is known about potential ecological tipping points and associated indicator taxa. We examined changes in biotic communities along a gradient of glacier influence for two study systems: (1) a stream network in the French Pyrénées; and (2) a network of lakes in the Italian Alps, with the aim of identifying potential indicator taxa (macroinvertebrates and zooplankton) of glacier retreat in these environments. To assess parallels in biotic responses across streams and lakes, both primary data and findings from other publications were synthesised. Using TITAN (Threshold Indicator Taxa ANalysis) changes in community composition of river taxa were identified at thresholds of < 5.1% glacier cover and < 66.6% meltwater contribution. Below these thresholds the loss of cold stenothermic benthic invertebrate taxa, Diamesa spp. and the Pyrenean endemic Rhyacophila angelieri was apparent. Some generalist taxa including Protonemura sp., Perla grandis, Baetis alpinus, Rhithrogena loyolaea and Microspectra sp. increased when glacier cover was < 2.7% and < 52% meltwater. Patterns were not as distinct for the alpine lakes, due to fewer sampling sites; however, Daphnia longispina grp. and the benthic invertebrate groups Plectopera and Planaria were identified as potential indicator taxa. While further work is required to assess potential indicator taxa for alpine lake systems, findings from alpine river systems were consistent between methods for assessing glacier influence (meltwater contribution/glacier cover). Hence, it is clear that TITAN could become a useful management tool, enabling: (i) the identification of taxa particularly

  11. The use of invertebrates as indicators of environmental change in alpine rivers and lakes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khamis, K.; Hannah, D.M. [School of Geography Earth and Environmental Science, University of Birmingham, Birmingham B15 2TT (United Kingdom); Brown, L.E. [School of Geography/water@leeds, University of Leeds, Woodhouse Lane, Leeds LS2 9JT (United Kingdom); Tiberti, R. [DSTA, Dipartimento di Scienze della Terra e dell' Ambiente, University of Pavia, Via Ferrata 9, 27100 Pavia (Italy); Alpine Wildlife Research Centre, Gran Paradiso National Park, Degioz 11, I-1101 Valsavarenche, Aosta (Italy); Milner, A.M., E-mail: a.m.milner@bham.ac.uk [School of Geography Earth and Environmental Science, University of Birmingham, Birmingham B15 2TT (United Kingdom); Institute of Arctic Biology, University of Alaska, Fairbanks, AK 99775 (United States)

    2014-09-15

    In alpine regions climatic change will alter the balance between water sources (rainfall, ice-melt, snowmelt, and groundwater) for aquatic systems, particularly modifying the relative contributions of meltwater, groundwater and rain to both rivers and lakes. While these changes are expected to have implications for alpine aquatic ecosystems, little is known about potential ecological tipping points and associated indicator taxa. We examined changes in biotic communities along a gradient of glacier influence for two study systems: (1) a stream network in the French Pyrénées; and (2) a network of lakes in the Italian Alps, with the aim of identifying potential indicator taxa (macroinvertebrates and zooplankton) of glacier retreat in these environments. To assess parallels in biotic responses across streams and lakes, both primary data and findings from other publications were synthesised. Using TITAN (Threshold Indicator Taxa ANalysis) changes in community composition of river taxa were identified at thresholds of < 5.1% glacier cover and < 66.6% meltwater contribution. Below these thresholds the loss of cold stenothermic benthic invertebrate taxa, Diamesa spp. and the Pyrenean endemic Rhyacophila angelieri was apparent. Some generalist taxa including Protonemura sp., Perla grandis, Baetis alpinus, Rhithrogena loyolaea and Microspectra sp. increased when glacier cover was < 2.7% and < 52% meltwater. Patterns were not as distinct for the alpine lakes, due to fewer sampling sites; however, Daphnia longispina grp. and the benthic invertebrate groups Plectopera and Planaria were identified as potential indicator taxa. While further work is required to assess potential indicator taxa for alpine lake systems, findings from alpine river systems were consistent between methods for assessing glacier influence (meltwater contribution/glacier cover). Hence, it is clear that TITAN could become a useful management tool, enabling: (i) the identification of taxa particularly

  12. Molecular Architecture and Biomedical Leads of Terpenes from Red Sea Marine Invertebrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hegazy, Mohamed Elamir F.; Mohamed, Tarik A.; Alhammady, Montaser A.; Shaheen, Alaa M.; Reda, Eman H.; Elshamy, Abdelsamed I.; Aziz, Mina; Paré, Paul W.

    2015-01-01

    Marine invertebrates including sponges, soft coral, tunicates, mollusks and bryozoan have proved to be a prolific source of bioactive natural products. Among marine-derived metabolites, terpenoids have provided a vast array of molecular architectures. These isoprenoid-derived metabolites also exhibit highly specialized biological activities ranging from nerve regeneration to blood-sugar regulation. As a result, intense research activity has been devoted to characterizing invertebrate terpenes from both a chemical and biological standpoint. This review focuses on the chemistry and biology of terpene metabolites isolated from the Red Sea ecosystem, a unique marine biome with one of the highest levels of biodiversity and specifically rich in invertebrate species. PMID:26006713

  13. Recovery of invertebrate and vertebrate populations in a coal ash stressed drainage system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cherry, D.S.; Larrick, S.R.; Guthrie, R.K.; Davis, E.M.; Sherberger, F.F.

    1979-09-01

    The influence of coal ash effluent on the densities of macrobenthic invertebrate and mosquitofish populations in a swamp drainage system was studied. Samples were collected during a period of 50 mo. Three perturbations in the swamp systemash siltation, low pH, and toxic elementscaused changes in population densities. Siltation from inefficient effluent management caused the greatest drop in invertebrate populations, and pH declines from flyash addition caused the greatest mosquitofish population reductions. Dipterans and odonates were most tolerant to coal ash stress. Invertebrate population recovery was observed on completion of an efficient ash retaining basin. (13 graphs, 28 references, 3 tables)

  14. Arsenic in terrestrial invertebrates from riparian areas of the Piracicaba River Basin, Sao Paulo State, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Franca, E.J.; Magalhaes, M.R.L.; Santos, M.L.O.; Nadai Fernandes, E.A. de; Fonseca, F.Y.

    2017-01-01

    There is no information on arsenic distribution in terrestrial invertebrates from riparian forests of urban and rural areas in Brazil. The objective of this study was to evaluate the As levels in invertebrates from riverine forests of the Piracicaba River Basin, Sao Paulo, Brazil, using the instrumental neutron activation analysis, k 0 -comparator method. After correction of mass fractions, values higher than 0.10 mg kg -1 were quantified in invertebrates from both urban and agricultural areas. An unexpected As mass fraction of 13 mg kg -1 obtained in the Coleopteran pest Macrodactylus pumilio indicated resistance to As-containing-pesticides. (author)

  15. Molecular Architecture and Biomedical Leads of Terpenes from Red Sea Marine Invertebrates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Elamir F. Hegazy

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Marine invertebrates including sponges, soft coral, tunicates, mollusks and bryozoan have proved to be a prolific source of bioactive natural products. Among marine-derived metabolites, terpenoids have provided a vast array of molecular architectures. These isoprenoid-derived metabolites also exhibit highly specialized biological activities ranging from nerve regeneration to blood-sugar regulation. As a result, intense research activity has been devoted to characterizing invertebrate terpenes from both a chemical and biological standpoint. This review focuses on the chemistry and biology of terpene metabolites isolated from the Red Sea ecosystem, a unique marine biome with one of the highest levels of biodiversity and specifically rich in invertebrate species.

  16. Standing crops and ecology of aquatic invertebrates in agricultural drainwater ponds in California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Euliss, N.H.; Jarvis, R.L.; Gilmer, D.S.

    1991-01-01

    We examined standing crops and ecology of aquatic invertebrates in agricultural drainwater evaporation ponds in California from October 1982 to March 1983 and September 1983 to March 1984. Evaporation ponds supported low diversities but high standing crops of aquatic invertebrates. A water boatman (Trichocorixa reticulata) and a midge (Tanypus grodhausi) were the most abundant invertebrates, constituting 44.9% and 51.4% of total macroinvertebrate biomass. Regression models indicated that of 6 environmental variables measured, only electrical conductivity (EC) and Julian date affected biomass and density of water boatmen. EC was the only significant correlate of midge biomass in evaporation ponds.

  17. Molecular Plant Pathology: Develop tools and resources for crop protection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Currently, rice blast disease and sheath blight disease are the two major destructive fungal diseases worldwide. Both diseases are controlled by precise deployment of major and minor genes integrated with effective cultural practices worldwide. Continued evolution and adaptation of the pathogen hav...

  18. Teaching forensic pathology to undergraduates at Zhongshan School of Medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Nan; Wu, Qiu-Ping; Su, Terry; Zhao, Qian-Hao; Yin, Kun; Zheng, Da; Zheng, Jing-Jing; Huang, Lei; Cheng, Jian-Ding

    2018-04-01

    Producing qualified forensic pathological practitioners is a common difficulty around the world. In China, forensic pathology is one of the required major subspecialties for undergraduates majoring in forensic medicine, in contrast to forensic education in Western countries where forensic pathology is often optional. The enduring predicament is that the professional qualities and abilities of forensic students from different institutions vary due to the lack of an efficient forensic pedagogical model. The purpose of this article is to describe the new pedagogical model of forensic pathology at Zhongshan School of Medicine, Sun Yat-sen University, which is characterised by: (a) imparting a broad view of forensic pathology and basic knowledge of duties and tasks in future careers to students; (b) educating students in primary skills on legal and medical issues, as well as advanced forensic pathological techniques; (c) providing students with resources to broaden their professional minds, and opportunities to improve their professional qualities and abilities; and (d) mentoring students on occupational preparation and further forensic education. In the past few years, this model has resulted in numerous notable forensic students accomplishing achievements in forensic practice and forensic scientific research. We therefore expect this pedagogical model to establish the foundation for forensic pathological education and other subspecialties of forensic medicine in China and abroad.

  19. Pathology Competencies for Medical Education and Educational Cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara E. C. Knollmann-Ritschel MD

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Current medical school curricula predominantly facilitate early integration of basic science principles into clinical practice to strengthen diagnostic skills and the ability to make treatment decisions. In addition, they promote life-long learning and understanding of the principles of medical practice. The Pathology Competencies for Medical Education (PCME were developed in response to a call to action by pathology course directors nationwide to teach medical students pathology principles necessary for the practice of medicine. The PCME are divided into three competencies: 1 Disease Mechanisms and Processes, 2 Organ System Pathology, and 3 Diagnostic Medicine and Therapeutic Pathology. Each of these competencies is broad and contains multiple learning goals with more specific learning objectives. The original competencies were designed to be a living document, meaning that they will be revised and updated periodically, and have undergone their first revision with this publication. The development of teaching cases, which have a classic case-based design, for the learning objectives is the next step in providing educational content that is peer-reviewed and readily accessible for pathology course directors, medical educators, and medical students. Application of the PCME and cases promotes a minimum standard of exposure of the undifferentiated medical student to pathophysiologic principles. The publication of the PCME and the educational cases will create a current educational resource and repository published through Academic Pathology .

  20. Evaluation of radionuclide induced damage in marine invertebrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hagger, Josephine Anne

    2002-01-01

    Limited studies have been carried out to assess the potential effects of ionising radiation on marine organisms. Therefore the general aims of this thesis were, (a) to assess the cytotoxic, genotoxic and developmental effects of ionising radiation on the embryo-larvae of two ecologically relevant marine invertebrates Mytilus edulis and Platynereis dumerilii, (2) to assess the effects of an environmentally relevant cocktail of radionuclides (3) to monitor the potential impact of radiation in the natural environment and finally (4) attempt to predict the potential effects of radiation at a population level. Following validation of developmental stages and mammalian based cytotoxic and genotoxic assays, chromosomal aberrations (Cabs), sister chromatid exchanges (SCEs) and proliferation rate index (PRI), on the embryo-larvae of M. edulis and P. dumerilii, the embryo-larvae stages were exposed to a reference radionuclide, tritium, (0.37,3.7,37 and 370 kBq/ml). Low doses of radiation delivered by tritium were shown to be detrimental to the development of embryo-larvae with an increase in abnormality for P. dumerilii and an increase in mortality for M. edulis. Tritium increased the induction of chromosomal aberrations and sister chromatid exchanges, in exposed embryo-larvae, indicating that tritium is potentially genotoxic. Cytotoxic effects (reduction in the cell proliferation rate) were also observed following exposure of embryo-larvae to tritium. In collaboration with the Royal Devonport Dockyard (DML) investigations on the cytotoxic, genotoxic and developmental effects of a cocktail of radionuclides (radioactive liquid waste diluted to 1.8,3.2, 5.6, 18%) were carried out. All embryo-larvae exposed to 18% radioactive waste were dead within 24h. Both species exhibited increased abnormality, SCEs and Cabs and a reduction in PRI in dilutions 1.8-5.6%. In general M. edulis appeared to be more sensitive to ionising radiation than P. dumerilii embryo-larvae. Following

  1. Utilization management in anatomic pathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewandrowski, Kent; Black-Schaffer, Steven

    2014-01-01

    There is relatively little published literature concerning utilization management in anatomic pathology. Nonetheless there are many utilization management opportunities that currently exist and are well recognized. Some of these impact only the cost structure within the pathology department itself whereas others reduce charges for third party payers. Utilization management may result in medical legal liabilities for breaching the standard of care. For this reason it will be important for pathology professional societies to develop national utilization guidelines to assist individual practices in implementing a medically sound approach to utilization management. © 2013.

  2. Brain venous pathologies: MRI findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salvatico, Rosana; Gonzalez, Alejandro; Yanez, Paulina; Romero, Carlos; Trejo, Mariano; Lambre, Hector

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: To describe MRI findings of the different brain venous pathologies. Material and Methods: Between January 2002 and March 2004, 18 patients were studied 10 males and 8 females between 6 and 63 years old; with different brain venous pathologies. In all cases brain MRI were performed including morphological sequences with and without gadolinium injection and angiographic venous sequences. Results: 10 venous occlusions were found, 6 venous angiomas, and 2 presented varices secondary to arteriovenous dural fistula. Conclusion: Brain venous pathologies can appear in many different clinical contexts, with different prognosis and treatment. In all the cases brain MRI was the best imaging study to disclose typical morphologic abnormalities. (author) [es

  3. A cross-continental comparison of the effects of flow intermittence on benthic invertebrate assemblages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Although temporary rivers are widespread freshwater systems, they have been poorly studied by ecologists and are largely ignored in water management plans, practices and policies. If the effects of dry events on benthic invertebrates have been reported individually from different...

  4. The estimation of sample size required in chemical limnology and autecology of shelled invertebrates

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Delorme, L. D; El-Shaarawi, A. H

    1978-01-01

    .... The confidence coefficient is 1 - 2alpha. In the field of chemical limnology and autecology of shelled invertebrates, most chemical parameters must be transformed to obtain a normal distribution...

  5. Invertebrate populations of the deciduous forest: fluctuations and relations to weather

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kendeigh, S. Charles

    1979-01-01

    The major objectives of the present study are to analyze (a) the composition and relative population sizes of the larger invertebrate fauna of relatively undisturbed, near-virgin, stands of deciduous forest, (b...

  6. Chemosynthetic symbionts of marine invertebrate animals are capable of nitrogen fixation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Petersen, J.M.; Kemper, A.; Gruber-Vodicka, H.R.; Cardini, U.; van der Geest, M.; Kleiner, M.; Bulgheresi, S.; Mußmann, M; Herbold, C.W.; Seah, B.K.B.; Antony, C.P.; Liu, D.; Belitz, A.; Weber, M.

    2016-01-01

    Chemosynthetic symbioses are partnerships between invertebrate animals and chemosynthetic bacteria. The latter are theprimary producers, providing most of the organic carbon needed for the animal host’s nutrition. We sequenced genomesof the chemosynthetic symbionts from the lucinid bivalve Loripes

  7. Marine Invertebrate Larvae Associated with Symbiodinium: A Mutualism from the Start?

    KAUST Repository

    Mies, Miguel; Sumida, Paulo Y. G.; Radecker, Nils; Voolstra, Christian R.

    2017-01-01

    Symbiodinium are dinoflagellate photosynthetic algae that associate with a diverse array of marine invertebrates, and these relationships are comprehensively documented for adult animal hosts. Conversely, comparatively little is known about

  8. Estimating escapement of fish and invertebrates in a Danish anchor seine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Noack, Thomas; Madsen, Niels; Mieske, Bernd

    2017-01-01

    The codend is generally presumed to be the place where the main selectivity of fish occurs in towed fishing gears, but other parts of the net have been found to contribute to the selectivity process of several invertebrate species. This means that conventional selectivity or survival studies may......) invertebrates from the forward parts of the seine net. For seven species of demersal fish, most fish escaped through the lower panel close to the codend. All invertebrate species were found in higher numbers in the collecting bags than in the codend where many organisms escaped in the lower panel of the wings...... or the belly. Mean levels of visible damage ranged from 1.00 to 3.25 for collected invertebrates and were similar for all gear parts. Common starfish (Asterias rubens), however, showed highest damage in the extension part of the net....

  9. Invertebrates Associated with Coarse Woody Debris in Streams, Upland Forests, and Wetlands: A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    A. Braccia; D.P. Batzer

    1999-01-01

    We reviewed literature on the inbvertebrate groups associated with coarse woody debris in forests, streams, and wetlands, and contrasted patterns of invertebrate community development and wood decomposition among ecosystems.

  10. Species List of Alaskan Birds, Mammals, Fish, Amphibians, Reptiles, and Invertebrates. Alaska Region Report Number 82.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Tamra Faris

    This publication contains a detailed list of the birds, mammals, fish, amphibians, reptiles, and invertebrates found in Alaska. Part I lists the species by geographical regions. Part II lists the species by the ecological regions of the state. (CO)

  11. Responses of invertebrates to temperature and water stress: A polar perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Everatt, Matthew J; Convey, Pete; Bale, Jeffrey S; Worland, M Roger; Hayward, Scott A L

    2015-12-01

    As small bodied poikilothermic ectotherms, invertebrates, more so than any other animal group, are susceptible to extremes of temperature and low water availability. In few places is this more apparent than in the Arctic and Antarctic, where low temperatures predominate and water is unusable during winter and unavailable for parts of summer. Polar terrestrial invertebrates express a suite of physiological, biochemical and genomic features in response to these stressors. However, the situation is not as simple as responding to each stressor in isolation, as they are often faced in combination. We consider how polar terrestrial invertebrates manage this scenario in light of their physiology and ecology. Climate change is also leading to warmer summers in parts of the polar regions, concomitantly increasing the potential for drought. The interaction between high temperature and low water availability, and the invertebrates' response to them, are therefore also explored. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. The importance of spatial variation of benthic invertebrates for the ecological assessment of European lakes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Solimini, Angelo G.; Sandin, Leif Leonard

    2012-01-01

    variability. However, littoral and profundal invertebrate communities are constrained by different drivers of change and may respond unevenly to distinct human disturbances. How human disturbances determined by different pressures interact in modifying the distribution of benthic invertebrate species......, funded by the European Union under the 7th Framework Programme), we collated several case studies with the aim to increase our understanding of basic sources of spatial variation of invertebrate assemblages. The set of papers includes a variety of different European lakes, habitat types and human...... pressures from the Nordic, Central, Atlantic, Alpine and Mediterranean regions. All papers have an obvious applied objective and suggest which factors need to be considered when designing invertebrate-based classification tools....

  13. Diversity and abundance of invertebrate epifaunal assemblages associated with gorgonians are driven by colony attributes

    KAUST Repository

    Curdia, Joao; Carvalho, Susana; Pereira, Fá bio R.; Guerra-Garcí a, José Manuel; Santos, Miguel Neves Dos; Cunha, Marina R.

    2015-01-01

    The present study aimed to explicitly quantify the link between the attributes of shallow-water gorgonian colonies (Octocorallia: Alcyonacea) and the ecological patterns of associated non-colonial epifaunal invertebrates. Based on multiple

  14. Chemical Compounds Toxic to Invertebrates Isolated from Marine Cyanobacteria of Potential Relevance to the Agricultural Industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Essack, Magbubah; Alzubaidy, Hanin S.; Bajic, Vladimir B.; Archer, John A. C.

    2014-01-01

    In spite of advances in invertebrate pest management, the agricultural industry is suffering from impeded pest control exacerbated by global climate changes that have altered rain patterns to favour opportunistic breeding. Thus, novel naturally derived chemical compounds toxic to both terrestrial and aquatic invertebrates are of interest, as potential pesticides. In this regard, marine cyanobacterium-derived metabolites that are toxic to both terrestrial and aquatic invertebrates continue to be a promising, but neglected, source of potential pesticides. A PubMed query combined with hand-curation of the information from retrieved articles allowed for the identification of 36 cyanobacteria-derived chemical compounds experimentally confirmed as being toxic to invertebrates. These compounds are discussed in this review. PMID:25356733

  15. Six decades of change in pollution and benthic invertebrate biodiversity in a southern New England estuary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollution has led to a decline of benthic invertebrate biodiversity of Narragansett Bay, raising questions about effects on ecosystem functions and services including shellfish production, energy flow to fishes, and biogeochemical cycles. Changes in community composition and taxo...

  16. Tube-dwelling invertebrates: tiny ecosystem engineers have large effects in lake ecosystems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hölker, Franz; Vanni, Michael J.; Kuiper, Jan J.; Meile, Christof; Grossart, Hans-Peter; Stief, Peter; Adrian, Rita; Lorke, Andreas; Dellwig, Olaf; Brand, Andreas; Hupfer, Michael; Mooij, Wolf M.; Nützmann, Gunnar; Lewandowski, Jörg

    2015-01-01

    There is ample evidence that tube-dwelling invertebrates such as chironomids significantly alter multiple important ecosystem functions, particularly in shallow lakes. Chironomids pump large water volumes, and associated suspended and dissolved substances, through the sediment and thereby compete

  17. Efficacy Testing of Pesticides used for Invertebrate Pests and Fire Ants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Event page for the upcoming Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act (FIFRA) Scientific Advisory Panel (SAP) meeting on Efficacy Testing of Pesticides used for Invertebrate Pests and Fire Ants

  18. Soft sediment dwelling macro-invertebrates of Rajapur Bay, central west coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Harkantra, S.N.; Parulekar, A.H.

    Thirtyfour species of soft sediment dwelling macro-invertebrates were recorded in Rajapur Bay at the proposed effluent discharge location of nuclear power plant. The fauna mainly composed of polychaetes (42.52%), molluscs (39.03%), crustaceans (7...

  19. Characterization and classification of invertebrates as indicators of flow permanence in headwater streams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Headwater streams represent a large proportion of river networks and many have temporary flow. Litigation has questioned whether these streams are jurisdictional under the Clean Water Act. Our goal was to identify indicators of flow permanence by comparing invertebrate assemblage...

  20. Chemical Compounds Toxic to Invertebrates Isolated from Marine Cyanobacteria of Potential Relevance to the Agricultural Industry

    KAUST Repository

    Essack, Magbubah

    2014-10-29

    In spite of advances in invertebrate pest management, the agricultural industry is suffering from impeded pest control exacerbated by global climate changes that have altered rain patterns to favour opportunistic breeding. Thus, novel naturally derived chemical compounds toxic to both terrestrial and aquatic invertebrates are of interest, as potential pesticides. In this regard, marine cyanobacterium-derived metabolites that are toxic to both terrestrial and aquatic invertebrates continue to be a promising, but neglected, source of potential pesticides. A PubMed query combined with hand-curation of the information from retrieved articles allowed for the identification of 36 cyanobacteria-derived chemical compounds experimentally confirmed as being toxic to invertebrates. These compounds are discussed in this review.

  1. Marine Benthic Invertebrates in Mamala Bay, Oahu, Hawaii 1994 (NODC Accession 9900151)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Planktonic larval stages of many benthic marine invertebrates are especially susceptible to environmental stress, such as the presence of pollution. Recruitment of...

  2. Chemical Compounds Toxic to Invertebrates Isolated from Marine Cyanobacteria of Potential Relevance to the Agricultural Industry

    KAUST Repository

    Essack, Magbubah; Alzubaidy, Hanin S.; Bajic, Vladimir B.; Archer, John A.C.

    2014-01-01

    In spite of advances in invertebrate pest management, the agricultural industry is suffering from impeded pest control exacerbated by global climate changes that have altered rain patterns to favour opportunistic breeding. Thus, novel naturally derived chemical compounds toxic to both terrestrial and aquatic invertebrates are of interest, as potential pesticides. In this regard, marine cyanobacterium-derived metabolites that are toxic to both terrestrial and aquatic invertebrates continue to be a promising, but neglected, source of potential pesticides. A PubMed query combined with hand-curation of the information from retrieved articles allowed for the identification of 36 cyanobacteria-derived chemical compounds experimentally confirmed as being toxic to invertebrates. These compounds are discussed in this review.

  3. Slot Machine Response Frequency Predicts Pathological Gambling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Linnet, Jakob; Rømer Thomsen, Kristine; Møller, Arne

    2013-01-01

    . This study tested the hypothesis that response frequency is associated with symptom severity in pathological gambling. We tested response frequency among twenty-two pathological gambling sufferers and twenty-one non-problem gamblers on a commercially available slot machine, and screened for pathological...... in individuals with exacerbated pathological gambling symptoms. These findings may have important implications for detecting behaviors underlying pathological gambling....

  4. Hyporheic invertebrates as bioindicators of ecological health in temporary rivers: a meta-analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Leigh, C; Stubbington, R; Sheldon, F; Boulton, AJ

    2013-01-01

    Worldwide, many rivers cease flow and dry either naturally or owing to human activities such as water extraction. However, even when surface water is absent, diverse assemblages of aquatic invertebrates inhabit the saturated sediments below the river bed (hyporheic zone). In the absence of surface water or flow, biota of this zone may be sampled as an alternative to surface water-based ecological assessments. The potential of hyporheic invertebrates as ecological indicators of river health, h...

  5. Effects of Karenia brevis on clearance rates and bioaccumulation of brevetoxins in benthic suspension feeding invertebrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Echevarria, Michael; Naar, Jerome P; Tomas, Carmelo; Pawlik, Joseph R

    2012-01-15

    Blooms of the toxic alga Karenia brevis occur along coastlines where sessile suspension feeding invertebrates are common components of benthic communities. We studied the effects of K. brevis on four benthic suspension feeding invertebrates common to the coast of the SE United States: the sponge Haliclona tubifera, the bryozoan Bugula neritina, the bivalve Mercenaria mercenaria, and the tunicate Styela plicata. In controlled laboratory experiments, we determined the rate at which K. brevis was cleared from the seawater by these invertebrates, the effect of K. brevis on clearance rates of a non-toxic phytoplankton species, Rhodomonas sp., and the extent to which brevetoxins bioaccumulated in tissues of invertebrates using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). All four invertebrate species cleared significant quantities of K. brevis from seawater, with mean clearance rates ranging from 2.27 to 6.71 L g h⁻¹ for H. tubifera and S. plicata, respectively. In the presence of K. brevis, clearance rates of Rhodomonas sp. by B. neritina and S. plicata were depressed by 75% and 69%, respectively, while clearance rates by H. tubifera and M. mercenaria were unaffected. Negative effects of K. brevis were impermanent; after a recovery period of 13 h, B. neritina and S. plicata regained normal clearance rates. All four invertebrates accumulated high concentrations of brevetoxin after a 4h exposure to K. brevis, but when animals were transferred to filtered seawater for 15 h after exposure, brevetoxin concentrations in the tissues of H. tubifera and B. neritina decreased by ∼80%, while there was no change in toxin concentration in the tissues of S. plicata and M. mercenaria. High cell concentrations of K. brevis may cause a suppression of clearance rates in benthic suspension feeding invertebrates, resulting in a positive feedback for bloom formation. Also, high concentrations of toxin may accumulate in the tissues of benthic suspension feeding invertebrates that may

  6. Concentration of 137Cs by certain species of fresh water invertebrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nilov, V.I.

    1983-01-01

    Results of experimental studies on 137 Cs accumulation by fresh-water invertebrates of various taxonomic groups are given. The invertebrate 137 Cs accumulative ability depends on the species belonging, age and sex of the animal. Radionuclide deposition by Cladocera depends on water temperature. Mollusc embryons need different quantities of cerium for their development. An appreciable role in 137 Cs extraction from fresh water is attributed to fry, adult Gammarus and Daphnia

  7. Can invertebrates see the e-vector of polarization as a separate modality of light?

    OpenAIRE

    Labhart, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT The visual world is rich in linearly polarized light stimuli, which are hidden from the human eye. But many invertebrate species make use of polarized light as a source of valuable visual information. However, exploiting light polarization does not necessarily imply that the electric (e)-vector orientation of polarized light can be perceived as a separate modality of light. In this Review, I address the question of whether invertebrates can detect specific e-vector orientations in a ...

  8. An evaluation of invertebrate dynamics in a drinking water distribution system: a South African perspective

    OpenAIRE

    2008-01-01

    M.Sc. The occurrence of invertebrates in drinking water supplies is a common consumer complaint with studies showing that very few drinking water distribution networks are totally free of organisms. A detailed investigation of different types of metazoan animals in the drinking water supply networks of South Africa has not been undertaken. In limited worldwide studies, invertebrates (mainly Amphipoda, Chironomidae, Cladocera, Copepoda and Ostracoda) have been detected in produced drinking ...

  9. The buzz on caffeine in invertebrates: effects on behavior and molecular mechanisms

    OpenAIRE

    Mustard, Julie A.

    2013-01-01

    A number of recent studies from as diverse fields as plant-pollinator interactions, analyses of caffeine as an environmental pollutant, and the ability of caffeine to provide protection against neurodegenerative diseases have generated interest in understanding the actions of caffeine in invertebrates. This review summarizes what is currently known about the effects of caffeine on behavior and its molecular mechanisms in invertebrates. Caffeine appears to have similar effects on locomotion an...

  10. CASPIAN BIOLOGICAL RESOURCES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. K. Guseynov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. We present the data on the biological resources of the Caspian Sea, based on the analysis of numerous scientific sources published between years of 1965 and 2011. Due to changes in various biotic and abiotic factors we find it important to discuss the state of the major groups of aquatic biocenosis including algae, crayfish, shrimp, pontogammarus, fish and Caspian seal. Methods. Long-term data has been analyzed on the biology and ecology of the main commercial fish stocks and their projected catches for qualitative and quantitative composition, abundance and biomass of aquatic organisms that make up the food base for fish. Results and discussion. It has been found that the widespread commercial invertebrates in the Caspian Sea are still poorly studied; their stocks are not identified and not used commercially. There is a great concern about the current state of the main commercial fish stocks of the Caspian Sea. A critical challenge is to preserve the pool of biological resources and the restoration of commercial stocks of Caspian fish. For more information about the state of the marine ecosystem in modern conditions, expedition on Caspian Sea should be carried out to study the hydrochemical regime and fish stocks, assessment of sturgeon stocks, as well as the need to conduct sonar survey for sprat stocks. Conclusions. The main condition for preserving the ecosystem of the Caspian Sea and its unique biological resources is to develop and apply environmentally-friendly methods of oil, issuing concerted common fisheries rules in various regions of theCaspian Sea, strengthening of control for sturgeon by all Caspian littoral states. The basic principle of the protection of biological resources is their rational use, based on the preservation of optimal conditions of their natural or artificial reproduction. 

  11. Systems pathology: a critical review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Jose

    2012-02-01

    The technological advances of the last twenty years together with the dramatic increase in computational power have injected new life into systems-level thinking in Medicine. This review emphasizes the close relationship of Systems Pathology to Systems Biology and delineates the differences between Systems Pathology and Clinical Systems Pathology. It also suggests an algorithm to support the application of systems-level thinking to clinical research, proposes applying systems-level thinking to the health care systems and forecasts an acceleration of preventive medicine as a result of the coupling of personal genomics with systems pathology. Copyright © 2011 Federation of European Biochemical Societies. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Oral Pathology in Forensic Investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shamim, Thorakkal

    2018-01-01

    Forensic odontology is the subdiscipline of dentistry which analyses dental evidence in the interest of justice. Oral pathology is the subdiscipline of dentistry that deals with the pathology affecting the oral and maxillofacial regions. This subdiscipline is utilized for identification through oral and maxillofacial pathologies with associated syndromes, enamel rod patterns, sex determination using exfoliative cytology, identification from occlusal morphology of teeth, and deoxyribonucleic acid profiling from teeth. This subdiscipline is also utilized for age estimation studies which include Gustafson's method, incremental lines of Retzius, perikymata, natal line formation in teeth, neonatal line, racemization of collagen in dentin, cemental incremental lines, thickness of the cementum, and translucency of dentin. Even though the expertise of an oral pathologist is not taken in forensic investigations, this paper aims to discuss the role of oral pathology in forensic investigation.

  13. DNA barcoding commercially important aquatic invertebrates of Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keskin, Emre; Atar, Hasan Hüseyin

    2013-08-01

    DNA barcoding was used in order to identify aquatic invertebrates sampled from fisheries bycatch and discards. A total of 440 unique cytochrome c oxidase sub unit I (COI) barcodes were generated for 22 species from three important phyla (Arthropoda, Cnidaria, and Mollusca). All the species were sequenced and submitted to GenBank and Barcode of Life Database (BOLD) databases using 654 bp-long fragment of mitochondrial COI gene. Two of them (Pontastacus leptodactylus and Rapana bezoar) were first records of the species for the BOLD database and six of them (Carcinus aestuarii, Loligo vulgaris, Melicertus kerathurus, Nephrops norvegicus, Scyllarides latus, and Scyllarus arctus) were first standard (>648 bp) COI barcode records for the GenBank database. COI barcodes were analyzed for nucleotide composition, nucleotide pair frequencies, and Kimura's two-parameter genetic distance. Mean genetic distance among species was found increasing at higher taxonomic levels. Neighbor-joining trees generated were congruent with morphometric-based taxonomic classification. Findings of this study clearly demonstrate that DNA barcodes could be used as an efficient molecular tool in identification of not only target species from fisheries but also bycatch and discard species, and so it could provide us leverage for a better understanding in monitoring and management of fisheries and biodiversity.

  14. Human-mediated dispersal of aquatic invertebrates with waterproof footwear.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valls, Luis; Castillo-Escrivà, Andreu; Mesquita-Joanes, Francesc; Armengol, Xavier

    2016-02-01

    Human-mediated dispersal has rarely been considered in wetland conservation strategies at regional scales, yet high concern exists about this aspect for (inter-)national management considering invasive species in other aquatic systems. In this context, we aim at understanding the role of human-mediated dispersal by footwear in protected wetlands with high conservation value. Zooplankton and zoobenthos were sampled in 13 shallow lakes in central Spain and, at the same time, mud attached to waders was collected and later cultured in deionized water under laboratory conditions for 4 weeks. Two-hundred and four individuals belonging to 19 invertebrate taxa were recovered after hatching; Ostracoda (84 %), Cladocera (53 %), Copepoda (30 %), Anostraca (30 %), and Notostraca (7 %) were the most frequent groups among the hatched crustaceans. NMDS and PERMANOVA analyses showed significant differences between the dispersed (via footwear) and the source active metacommunity, suggesting different dispersal abilities among the species found. Human vectors facilitate dispersal among protected lakes, which could eventuality lead to biotic homogenization and faster spread of non-indigenous species. Preservation strategies and education campaigns associated to target humans in close contact with water bodies should be imperative in conservation management of protected lakes.

  15. Experimental studies on californium bioavailability to marine benthic invertebrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fowler, S.W.; Carvalho, F.P.; Aston, S.R.

    1986-01-01

    252 Cf is readily taken up by benthic invertebrates from sea water, reaching whole-body concentration factors of 763 in the polychaete Hermione hystrix, 220 in the shrimp Lysmata seticaudata, 665 in the crab Pilumnus hirtellus and 78 in the bivalve mollusc Venerupis decussata after 3 weeks exposure. Surface sorption plays a predominant role in the uptake process. Depuration in clean sea water was a relatively slow process. The shrimp Lysmata eliminated 252 Cf very rapidly due to moulting. Absorption coefficients for ingested 252 Cf were high, approx. 23% in crabs and approx. 97% in brittlestars. The absorbed fraction was excreted twice as fast from crabs as brittlestars. Exposure of organisms to labelled sediment resulted in low transfer factors that were species dependent. There is some evidence to suggest that uptake from sediments is primarily due to 252 Cf transfer from the pore water. Comparison of these results with published experimental data on other transuranic nuclides in the same or similar species suggests that californium bioavailability is roughly equivalent to that of plutonium and americium. (author)

  16. Trophic structure and feeding rates of forest soil invertebrate populations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McBrayer, J F; Reichle, D E

    1971-01-01

    Trophic level relationships of a soil invertebrate community were determined using the transient behavior of cesium-137 in experimental soil microcosms. Feeding rates were estimated from radionuclide mass balance equations using radiocesium uptake coefficients, equilibrium concentrations of /sup 137/Cs in consumers, and /sup 137/Cs composition of food bases. The fungivore trophic level included Scatopsidae larvae (Diptera), Enchytraeida (Annelida), Entomobryidae and Onychiuridae (Collembola), Rhodacaridae (Mesostigmata), and Oribatulidae, Camasiidae, Carabodidae, and Cymbaeremaeidae (Oribatei). Approximately 60% of the total faunal biomass occurred in the fungivore trophic level. Fungivores averaged 7.0 +/- 2.4% dry body weight ingested per day. Cecidomyiidae larvae (Diptera), Diplopoda, Isotomidae (Collembola), Uropodina, and Phthiracaridae (Oribatei) were determined to be surface-feeding saprophages. Subsurface-feeding saprophages included Symphyla, Cillibidae (Uropidina), and Palaeacaridae and Epilohmannidae (Oribatei). Surface-feeding saprophages averaged 1.0 +/- 0.4% dry body weight ingested per day. Feeding rates were not calculated for saprophages feeding within the mineral soil horizon. Predators included Dolichopodidae larvae (Diptera), gamasine mites, and the Scutacaridae and other prostigmatid mites. Predators averaged 2.5 +/- 1.0% dry body weight ingested per day. 15 references, 3 figures, 3 tables.

  17. Quo Vadis Venomics? A Roadmap to Neglected Venomous Invertebrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Reumont, Bjoern Marcus; Campbell, Lahcen I.; Jenner, Ronald A.

    2014-01-01

    Venomics research is being revolutionized by the increased use of sensitive -omics techniques to identify venom toxins and their transcripts in both well studied and neglected venomous taxa. The study of neglected venomous taxa is necessary both for understanding the full diversity of venom systems that have evolved in the animal kingdom, and to robustly answer fundamental questions about the biology and evolution of venoms without the distorting effect that can result from the current bias introduced by some heavily studied taxa. In this review we draw the outlines of a roadmap into the diversity of poorly studied and understood venomous and putatively venomous invertebrates, which together represent tens of thousands of unique venoms. The main groups we discuss are crustaceans, flies, centipedes, non-spider and non-scorpion arachnids, annelids, molluscs, platyhelminths, nemerteans, and echinoderms. We review what is known about the morphology of the venom systems in these groups, the composition of their venoms, and the bioactivities of the venoms to provide researchers with an entry into a large and scattered literature. We conclude with a short discussion of some important methodological aspects that have come to light with the recent use of new -omics techniques in the study of venoms. PMID:25533518

  18. Bagworm bags as portable armour against invertebrate predators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shinji Sugiura

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Some animals have evolved the use of environmental materials as “portable armour” against natural enemies. Portable bags that bagworm larvae (Lepidoptera: Psychidae construct using their own silk and plant parts are generally believed to play an important role as a physical barrier against natural enemies. However, no experimental studies have tested the importance of bags as portable armour against predators. To clarify the defensive function, I studied the bagworm Eumeta minuscula and a potential predator Calosoma maximoviczi (Coleoptera: Carabidae. Under laboratory conditions, all bagworm larvae were attacked by carabid adults, but successfully defended themselves against the predators’ mandibles using their own bags. The portable bags, which are composed mainly of host plant twigs, may function as a physical barrier against predator mandibles. To test this hypothesis, I removed the twig bags and replaced some with herb leaf bags; all bag-removed larvae were easily caught and predated by carabids, while all bag-replaced larvae could successfully defend themselves against carabid attacks. Therefore, various types of portable bags can protect bagworm larvae from carabid attacks. This is the first study to test the defensive function of bagworm portable bags against invertebrate predators.

  19. Phototoxicity of petroleum products to marine invertebrate larvae and niles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pelletier, M.C.; Burgess, R.; Ho, K.; Kuhn, A.; McKinney, R.; Ryba, S.

    1995-01-01

    Ultraviolet light can activate certain polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), inducing the production of free radicals. In biological organisms these free radicals destroy tissues, causing up to a 4,000 fold increase in toxicity. This dramatic response is a potential marker for PAH contamination in environmental samples. Ultraviolet enhancement of toxicity has ecological relevance as well. An oil spill can release large amounts of PAHs into the marine environment. Oil spill assessments to date have not included observations of any phototoxic effect on pelagic larvae or juveniles of benthic or epibenthic invertebrates. In this study, larvae and juveniles of the bivalve, Mulinia lateralis and juveniles of the mysid shrimp, Mysidopsis bahia were exposed to individual PAHs, as well as the water accommodated fractions of several petroleum products to verify the ability of this method to detect PAHs in environmental samples, and to determine if phototoxicity is a concern during and after an oil spill. Significant phototoxicity was seen in both single chemical and petroleum product exposures. Swartz's EPAH model was not applicable to the authors' results. They hoped to show causality but were not fully successful due to the need to further develop the model with their species and expand the number of PAH analyzed

  20. Pesticides from wastewater treatment plant effluents affect invertebrate communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Münze, Ronald; Hannemann, Christin; Orlinskiy, Polina; Gunold, Roman; Paschke, Albrecht; Foit, Kaarina; Becker, Jeremias; Kaske, Oliver; Paulsson, Elin; Peterson, Märit; Jernstedt, Henrik; Kreuger, Jenny; Schüürmann, Gerrit; Liess, Matthias

    2017-12-01

    We quantified pesticide contamination and its ecological impact up- and downstream of seven wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) in rural and suburban areas of central Germany. During two sampling campaigns, time-weighted average pesticide concentrations (c TWA ) were obtained using Chemcatcher® passive samplers; pesticide peak concentrations were quantified with event-driven samplers. At downstream sites, receiving waters were additionally grab sampled for five selected pharmaceuticals. Ecological effects on macroinvertebrate structure and ecosystem function were assessed using the biological indicator system SPEAR pesticides (SPEcies At Risk) and leaf litter breakdown rates, respectively. WWTP effluents substantially increased insecticide and fungicide concentrations in receiving waters; in many cases, treated wastewater was the exclusive source for the neonicotinoid insecticides acetamiprid and imidacloprid in the investigated streams. During the ten weeks of the investigation, five out of the seven WWTPs increased in-stream pesticide toxicity by a factor of three. As a consequence, at downstream sites, SPEAR values and leaf litter degradation rates were reduced by 40% and 53%, respectively. The reduced leaf litter breakdown was related to changes in the macroinvertebrate communities described by SPEAR pesticides and not to altered microbial activity. Neonicotinoids showed the highest ecological relevance for the composition of invertebrate communities, occasionally exceeding the Regulatory Acceptable Concentrations (RACs). In general, considerable ecological effects of insecticides were observed above and below regulatory thresholds. Fungicides, herbicides and pharmaceuticals contributed only marginally to acute toxicity. We conclude that pesticide retention of WWTPs needs to be improved. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Bioavailability of contaminants estimated from uptake rates into soil invertebrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Straalen, N.M. van; Donker, M.H.; Vijver, M.G.; Gestel, C.A.M. van

    2005-01-01

    It is often argued that the concentration of a pollutant inside an organism is a good indicator of its bioavailability, however, we show that the rate of uptake, not the concentration itself, is the superior predictor. In a study on zinc accumulation and toxicity to isopods (Porcellio scaber) the dietary EC 50 for the effect on body growth was rather constant and reproducible, while the internal EC 50 varied depending on the accumulation history of the animals. From the data a critical value for zinc accumulation in P. scaber was estimated as 53 μg/g/wk. We review toxicokinetic models applicable to time-series measurements of concentrations in invertebrates. The initial slope of the uptake curve is proposed as an indicator of bioavailability. To apply the dynamic concept of bioavailability in risk assessment, a set of representative organisms should be chosen and standardized protocols developed for exposure assays by which suspect soils can be evaluated. - Sublethal toxicity of zinc to isopods suggests that bioavailability of soil contaminants is best measured by uptake rates, not by body burdens

  2. Bagworm bags as portable armour against invertebrate predators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugiura, Shinji

    2016-01-01

    Some animals have evolved the use of environmental materials as "portable armour" against natural enemies. Portable bags that bagworm larvae (Lepidoptera: Psychidae) construct using their own silk and plant parts are generally believed to play an important role as a physical barrier against natural enemies. However, no experimental studies have tested the importance of bags as portable armour against predators. To clarify the defensive function, I studied the bagworm Eumeta minuscula and a potential predator Calosoma maximoviczi (Coleoptera: Carabidae). Under laboratory conditions, all bagworm larvae were attacked by carabid adults, but successfully defended themselves against the predators' mandibles using their own bags. The portable bags, which are composed mainly of host plant twigs, may function as a physical barrier against predator mandibles. To test this hypothesis, I removed the twig bags and replaced some with herb leaf bags; all bag-removed larvae were easily caught and predated by carabids, while all bag-replaced larvae could successfully defend themselves against carabid attacks. Therefore, various types of portable bags can protect bagworm larvae from carabid attacks. This is the first study to test the defensive function of bagworm portable bags against invertebrate predators.

  3. Quo Vadis Venomics? A Roadmap to Neglected Venomous Invertebrates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bjoern Marcus von Reumont

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Venomics research is being revolutionized by the increased use of sensitive -omics techniques to identify venom toxins and their transcripts in both well studied and neglected venomous taxa. The study of neglected venomous taxa is necessary both for understanding the full diversity of venom systems that have evolved in the animal kingdom, and to robustly answer fundamental questions about the biology and evolution of venoms without the distorting effect that can result from the current bias introduced by some heavily studied taxa. In this review we draw the outlines of a roadmap into the diversity of poorly studied and understood venomous and putatively venomous invertebrates, which together represent tens of thousands of unique venoms. The main groups we discuss are crustaceans, flies, centipedes, non-spider and non-scorpion arachnids, annelids, molluscs, platyhelminths, nemerteans, and echinoderms. We review what is known about the morphology of the venom systems in these groups, the composition of their venoms, and the bioactivities of the venoms to provide researchers with an entry into a large and scattered literature. We conclude with a short discussion of some important methodological aspects that have come to light with the recent use of new -omics techniques in the study of venoms.

  4. The buzz on caffeine in invertebrates: effects on behavior and molecular mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mustard, Julie A

    2014-04-01

    A number of recent studies from as diverse fields as plant-pollinator interactions, analyses of caffeine as an environmental pollutant, and the ability of caffeine to provide protection against neurodegenerative diseases have generated interest in understanding the actions of caffeine in invertebrates. This review summarizes what is currently known about the effects of caffeine on behavior and its molecular mechanisms in invertebrates. Caffeine appears to have similar effects on locomotion and sleep in both invertebrates and mammals. Furthermore, as in mammals, caffeine appears to have complex effects on learning and memory. However, the underlying mechanisms for these effects may differ between invertebrates and vertebrates. While caffeine's ability to cause release of intracellular calcium stores via ryanodine receptors and its actions as a phosphodiesterase inhibitor have been clearly established in invertebrates, its ability to interact with invertebrate adenosine receptors remains an important open question. Initial studies in insects and mollusks suggest an interaction between caffeine and the dopamine signaling pathway; more work needs to be done to understand the mechanisms by which caffeine influences signaling via biogenic amines. As of yet, little is known about whether other actions of caffeine in vertebrates, such as its effects on GABAA and glycine receptors, are conserved. Furthermore, the pharmacokinetics of caffeine remains to be elucidated. Overall behavioral responses to caffeine appear to be conserved amongst organisms; however, we are just beginning to understand the mechanisms underlying its effects across animal phyla.

  5. Macrophytes, epipelic biofilm, and invertebrates as biotic indicators of physical habitat degradation of lowland streams (Argentina).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortelezzi, Agustina; Sierra, María Victoria; Gómez, Nora; Marinelli, Claudia; Rodrigues Capítulo, Alberto

    2013-07-01

    Our objective was to assess the effect of the physical habitat degradation in three lowland streams of Argentina that are subject to different land uses. To address this matter, we looked into some physical habitat alterations, mainly the water quality and channel changes, the impact on macrophytes' community, and the structural and functional descriptors of the epipelic biofilm and invertebrate assemblages. As a consequence of physical and chemical perturbations, we differentiated sampling sites with different degradation levels. The low degraded sites were affected mainly for the suburban land use, the moderately degraded sites for the rural land use, and the highly degraded sites for the urban land use. The data shows that the biotic descriptors that best reflected the environmental degradation were vegetation cover and macrophytes richness, the dominance of tolerant species (epipelic biofilm and invertebrates), algal biomass, O2 consumption by the epipelic biofilm, and invertebrates' richness and diversity. Furthermore, the results obtained highlight the importance of the macrophytes in the lowland streams, where there is a poor diversification of abiotic substrates and where the macrophytes not only provide shelter but also a food source for invertebrates and other trophic levels such as fish. We also noted that both in benthic communities, invertebrates and epipelic biofilm supplied different information: the habitat's physical structure provided by the macrophytes influenced mainly the invertebrate descriptors; meanwhile, the water quality mainly influenced most of the epipelic biofilm descriptors.

  6. Medicinal benefits of marine invertebrates: sources for discovering natural drug candidates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Zoysa, Mahanama

    2012-01-01

    Marine invertebrates are one of the major groups of organisms, which could be diversified under the major taxonomic groups of Porifera, Cnidaria, Mollusca, Arthropoda, Echinodermata, and many other minor phyla. To date, range of medicinal benefits and a significant number of marine natural products (MNPs) have been discovered from marine invertebrates. Seafood diet from edible marine invertebrates such as mollusks and crustaceans has been linked with various medicinal benefits to improve human health. Among marine invertebrates, spongers from phylum Porifera is the most dominant group responsible for discovering large number of MNPs, which have been used as template to develop therapeutic drugs. MNPs isolated from invertebrates have shown wide range of therapeutic properties including antimicrobial, antioxidant, antihypertensive, anticoagulant, anticancer, anti-inflammatory, wound healing and immune modulator, and other medicinal effects. Therefore, marine invertebrates are rich sources of chemical diversity and health benefits for developing drug candidates, cosmetics, nutritional supplements, and molecular probes that can be supported to increase the healthy life span of human. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Stroop performance in pathological gamblers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kertzman, Semion; Lowengrub, Katherine; Aizer, Anat; Nahum, Zeev Ben; Kotler, Moshe; Dannon, Pinhas N

    2006-05-30

    Pathological gambling is a relatively prevalent psychiatric disorder that typically leads to severe family, social, legal, and occupational problems and is associated with a high rate of suicide attempts. Understanding the neurobiological basis of pathological gambling is a current focus of research, and emerging data have demonstrated that pathological gamblers may have impaired decision-making because of an inability to inhibit irrelevant information. In this study, we examined pathological gamblers by using the Stroop Color-Word Test, a neurocognitive task used to assess interference control. The "reverse" variant of the Stroop Color-Word Test was administered to a cohort of medication-free pathological gamblers (n=62) and a cohort of age-matched controls (n=83). In the reverse variant of the Stroop task, subjects are asked to read the meaning of the word rather than name the ink color. The reverse Stroop task was chosen because it highly discriminates ability to inhibit interference in a population of psychiatric patients. In our study, performance on the reverse Stroop task in the pathological gamblers was significantly slower and less accurate than in the healthy subjects. A new finding in our study was that for pathological gamblers, the average reaction time in the neutral condition (where the color names are displayed in black letters) was slower than the average reaction time in the incongruent condition (where the meaning of the color name and the color of the printed letters are different). This controlled study extends previous findings by showing that performance on the Stroop task is impaired in a sample of medication-free pathological gamblers.

  8. Profile of the pathological gambler.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Custer, R L

    1984-12-01

    Pathological (compulsive) gambling is a serious emotional and social problem that has existed for centuries but has only recently been recognized as a distinct diagnostic entity that can be effectively treated. The development and progression of pathological gambling are outlined. The progression of the disorder through three identifiable phases leads to predictable complications. The treatment of the gambler within the framework of Gamblers Anonymous and/or by mental health professionals is described.

  9. Late radiation pathology of mammals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alexandrov, S N

    1982-01-01

    The comprehensive monograph on delayed radiation effects in mammals including man comprises 3 main chapters dealing with non-neoplastic as well as neoplastic manifestations of late radiation pathology, with the prophylaxis of delayed radiation effects, and with the therapy of radiation injuries. Alterations induced by whole-body irradiation and delayed radiation effects caused by partial body irradiation are described in detail. The developmental mechanisms and pathogenesis of non-neoplastic pathological changes and of radiation-induced neoplasms are elaborated.

  10. Predictive models of benthic invertebrate methylmercury in Ontario and Quebec lakes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rennie, M.D.; Collins, N.C.; Purchase, C.F. [Toronto Univ., ON (Canada). Dept. of Biology; Tremblay, A. [Hydro-Quebec, Montreal, PQ (Canada)

    2005-12-01

    In both North America and Europe, high levels of mercury have been reported in lakes that do not receive obvious point-source mercury inputs. Concern over high contaminant levels in waterfowl and fish have prompted several government-issued advisories on safe levels of fish and wildlife intake for humans. Although the primary source of mercury in pristine lakes is directly through atmospheric deposition or indirectly via terrestrial runoff, there can be large variations in mercury concentrations in organisms in neighbouring lakes. Therefore, factors other than atmospheric deposition must influence bioavailability and accumulation of mercury in aquatic organisms. For that reason, multivariate analyses on benthic invertebrate methylmercury concentrations and water chemistry from 12 Quebec water bodies were used to construct simple, predictive models of benthic invertebrate methylmercury in 23 lakes in Ontario and Quebec. The study showed that the primary means of mercury accumulation for organisms in higher trophic positions is dietary through the assimilation of organic forms of mercury, principally methylmercury. The data from 12 Quebec water bodies, revealed that benthic invertebrates in reservoirs have higher methylmercury than those in natural lakes, and methylmercury is generally higher in predatory invertebrates. Reservoir age was found to correlate with fish, benthic invertebrate methylmercury, and also with lake chemistry parameters such as pH and dissolved organic carbon (DOC). The objective of the study was to determine the appropriate level of taxonomic or functional resolution for generating benthic invertebrate methylmercury models, and to identify which environmental variables correlate most with benthic invertebrate methylmercury. Empirical models using these correlations were constructed and their predicted efficiency was tested by cross-validation. In addition, the effect of exposure to fish digestive enzymes on invertebrate methylmercury was

  11. The history of pathology informatics: A global perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Seung; Parwani, Anil V.; Aller, Raymond D.; Banach, Lech; Becich, Michael J.; Borkenfeld, Stephan; Carter, Alexis B.; Friedman, Bruce A.; Rojo, Marcial Garcia; Georgiou, Andrew; Kayser, Gian; Kayser, Klaus; Legg, Michael; Naugler, Christopher; Sawai, Takashi; Weiner, Hal; Winsten, Dennis; Pantanowitz, Liron

    2013-01-01

    Pathology informatics has evolved to varying levels around the world. The history of pathology informatics in different countries is a tale with many dimensions. At first glance, it is the familiar story of individuals solving problems that arise in their clinical practice to enhance efficiency, better manage (e.g., digitize) laboratory information, as well as exploit emerging information technologies. Under the surface, however, lie powerful resource, regulatory, and societal forces that helped shape our discipline into what it is today. In this monograph, for the first time in the history of our discipline, we collectively perform a global review of the field of pathology informatics. In doing so, we illustrate how general far-reaching trends such as the advent of computers, the Internet and digital imaging have affected pathology informatics in the world at large. Major drivers in the field included the need for pathologists to comply with national standards for health information technology and telepathology applications to meet the scarcity of pathology services and trained people in certain countries. Following trials by a multitude of investigators, not all of them successful, it is apparent that innovation alone did not assure the success of many informatics tools and solutions. Common, ongoing barriers to the widespread adoption of informatics devices include poor information technology infrastructure in undeveloped areas, the cost of technology, and regulatory issues. This review offers a deeper understanding of how pathology informatics historically developed and provides insights into what the promising future might hold. PMID:23869286

  12. The Effects of Exurbanization on Bird and Macro invertebrate Communities in Deciduous Forests on the Cumberland Plateau, Tennessee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Casey, J.M.; Wilson, M.E.; Haskell, D.G.; Hollingshead, N.

    2009-01-01

    To investigate the potential causes of changes to bird communities in exurban areas, we examined the relationship between bird and macro invertebrate communities in exurbanized forest. We randomly located sampling points across a gradient of exurbanization. We used point counts to quantify bird communities and sweep netting, soil cores, pitfalls, and frass collectors to quantify macro invertebrates. Bird communities had higher richness and abundance in exurban areas compared to undeveloped forests, and lost some species of conservation concern but gained others. The macro invertebrate community was slightly more abundant in exurban areas, with a slight shift in taxonomic composition. The abundance of macro invertebrates in soil cores (but not pitfalls) predicted the abundance of ground-foraging birds. The abundance of macro invertebrates in sweep nets was not associated with the abundance of aerial insectivore birds. Exurbanization therefore appears to change bird and macro invertebrate communities, but to a lesser extent than agricultural forest fragmentation or intensive urbanization.

  13. Soil invertebrate fauna affect N2 O emissions from soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuiper, Imke; de Deyn, Gerlinde B; Thakur, Madhav P; van Groenigen, Jan Willem

    2013-09-01

    Nitrous oxide (N2 O) emissions from soils contribute significantly to global warming. Mitigation of N2 O emissions is severely hampered by a lack of understanding of its main controls. Fluxes can only partly be predicted from soil abiotic factors and microbial analyses - a possible role for soil fauna has until now largely been overlooked. We studied the effect of six groups of soil invertebrate fauna and tested the hypothesis that all of them increase N2 O emissions, although to different extents. We conducted three microcosm experiments with sandy soil and hay residue. Faunal groups included in our experiments were as follows: fungal-feeding nematodes, mites, springtails, potworms, earthworms and isopods. In experiment I, involving all six faunal groups, N2 O emissions declined with earthworms and potworms from 78.4 (control) to 37.0 (earthworms) or 53.5 (potworms) mg N2 O-N m(-2) . In experiment II, with a higher soil-to-hay ratio and mites, springtails and potworms as faunal treatments, N2 O emissions increased with potworms from 51.9 (control) to 123.5 mg N2 O-N m(-2) . Experiment III studied the effect of potworm density; we found that higher densities of potworms accelerated the peak of the N2 O emissions by 5 days (P soil aeration by the soil fauna reduced N2 O emissions in experiment I, whereas in experiment II N2 O emissions were driven by increased nitrogen and carbon availability. In experiment III, higher densities of potworms accelerated nitrogen and carbon availability and N2 O emissions, but did not increase them. Overall, our data show that soil fauna can suppress, increase, delay or accelerate N2 O emissions from soil and should therefore be an integral part of future N2 O studies. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Communication skills in diagnostic pathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehr, Hans-Anton; Bosman, Fred T

    2016-01-01

    Communication is an essential element of good medical practice also in pathology. In contrast to technical or diagnostic skills, communication skills are not easy to define, teach, or assess. Rules almost do not exist. In this paper, which has a rather personal character and cannot be taken as a set of guidelines, important aspects of communication in pathology are explored. This includes what should be communicated to the pathologist on the pathology request form, communication between pathologists during internal (interpathologist) consultation, communication around frozen section diagnoses, modalities of communication of a final diagnosis, with whom and how critical and unexpected findings should be communicated, (in-)adequate routes of communication for pathology diagnoses, who will (or might) receive pathology reports, and what should be communicated and how in case of an error or a technical problem. An earlier more formal description of what the responsibilities are of a pathologist as communicator and as collaborator in a medical team is added in separate tables. The intention of the paper is to stimulate reflection and discussion rather than to formulate strict rules.

  15. Pathological gambling: a general overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashley, Larry L; Boehlke, Karmen K

    2012-01-01

    Throughout the course of history, gambling has been a popular activity across most cultures. In the United States, gambling has transitioned from early acceptance to prohibition to widespread proliferation. For most, gambling is a relaxing and recreational activity; however, for some individuals gambling becomes more than harmless fun. The most severe form of gambling, pathological gambling, is recognized as a mental health disorder. Pathological gambling is currently classified as an impulse control disorder in the DSM-IV-TR, but it shares many important features with substance use disorders, especially in terms of diagnostic criteria, clinical course, and treatment. Consequently, the DSM-V Task Force has suggested that pathological gambling be reclassified and included in a new category entitled "Addiction and Related Disorders." The category would include both substance-related and non-substance/behavioral addictions. This article provides a general overview of some of the available literature regarding pathological gambling and includes the presentation of a number of relevant topics including etiology, risk factors, comorbidity, prevention, and treatment. However, as with most complex, multifaceted, and multidimensional phenomena, more research is needed in order to improve both prevention and treatment efforts for pathological gambling.

  16. Interactions among zebra mussel shells, invertebrate prey, and Eurasian ruffe or yellow perch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolar, C.S.; Fullerton, A.H.; Martin, K.M.; Lamberti, G.A.

    2002-01-01

    The exotic zebra mussel, Dreissena polymorpha, is established in all of the Laurentian Great Lakes and may affect benthivorous fishes by increasing the complexity of benthic substrates and changing energy flow patterns within the food web. Native yellow perch, Perca flavescens, and the nonindigenous Eurasian ruffe, Gymnocephalus cernuus, are benthivores that may compete for limited food resources. As ruffe spread to areas with more dense zebra mussel populations, the zone of interaction among zebra mussels, yellow perch, and ruffe will increase and intensify. In the laboratory, the effect of zebra mussel shells on the ability of these fishes to forage on amphipods (Gammarus pseudolimnaeus) and chironomids (Chironomus plumosus) was examined in light and darkness. In 12 h, ruffe consumed more amphipods than did similar-sized yellow perch, particularly in darkness on bare cobble, and in light within zebra mussels. Amphipods decreased activity more in the presence of ruffe than yellow perch. More amphipods were found in zebra mussel shells than in bare cobble, whether or not fish were present. In darkness, when ruffe consumed more amphipods on bare cobble, amphipods became more associated with zebra mussel shells. Although ruffe consumed more amphipods than yellow perch, perch consumed more chironomids than ruffe on bare cobble. The presence of zebra mussel shells altered the relative consumption of invertebrates in some substrate-light combinations. Experiments such as these help to improve understanding of the direct and indirect effects of predation between and among native and nonindigenous species that may exert structuring forces on the nearshore communities of the Great Lakes currently or in the future.

  17. Field trials to evaluate effects of continuously planted transgenic insect-resistant cottons on soil invertebrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiaogang; Liu, Biao; Wang, Xingxiang; Han, Zhengmin; Cui, Jinjie; Luo, Junyu

    2012-03-01

    Impacts on soil invertebrates are an important aspect of environmental risk assessment and post-release monitoring of transgenic insect-resistant plants. The purpose of this study was to research and survey the effects of transgenic insect-resistant cottons that had been planted over 10 years on the abundance and community structure of soil invertebrates under field conditions. During 3 consecutive years (2006-2008), eight common taxa (orders) of soil invertebrates belonging to the phylum Arthropoda were investigated in two different transgenic cotton fields and one non-transgenic cotton field (control). Each year, soil samples were taken at four different growth stages of cotton (seedling, budding, boll forming and boll opening). Animals were extracted from the samples using the improved Tullgren method, counted and determined to the order level. The diversity of the soil fauna communities in the different fields was compared using the Simpson's, Shannon's diversity indices and evenness index. The results showed a significant sampling time variation in the abundance of soil invertebrates monitored in the different fields. However, no difference in soil invertebrate abundance was found between the transgenic cotton fields and the control field. Both sampling time and cotton treatment had a significant effect on the Simpson's, Shannon's diversity indices and evenness index. They were higher in the transgenic fields than the control field at the growth stages of cotton. Long-term cultivation of transgenic insect-resistant cottons had no significant effect on the abundance of soil invertebrates. Collembola, Acarina and Araneae could act as the indicators of soil invertebrate in this region to monitor the environmental impacts of transgenic plants in the future. This journal is © The Royal Society of Chemistry 2012

  18. Petroleum Hydrocarbon Mixture Toxicity and a Trait Based Approach to Soil Invertebrate Species for Site Specific Risk Assessments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gainer, Amy; Cousins, Mark; Hogan, Natacha; Siciliano, Steven D

    2018-05-05

    Although petroleum hydrocarbons (PHCs) released to the environment typically occur as mixtures, PHC remediation guidelines often reflect individual substance toxicity. It is well documented that groups of aliphatic PHCs act via the same mechanism of action, nonpolar narcosis and, theoretically, concentration addition mixture toxicity principles apply. To assess this theory, ten standardized acute and chronic soil invertebrate toxicity tests on a range of organisms (Eisenia fetida, Lumbricus terrestris, Enchytraeus crypticus, Folsomia candida, Oppia nitens and Hypoaspis aculeifer) were conducted with a refined PHC binary mixture. Reference models for concentration addition and independent action were applied to the mixture toxicity data with consideration of synergism, antagonism and dose level toxicity. Both concentration addition and independent action, without further interactions, provided the best fit with observed response to the mixture. Individual fraction effective concentration values were predicted from optimized, fitted reference models. Concentration addition provided a better estimate than independent action of individual fraction effective concentrations based on comparison with available literature and species trends observed in toxic responses to the mixture. Interspecies differences in standardized laboratory soil invertebrate species responses to PHC contaminated soil was reflected in unique traits. Diets that included soil, large body size, permeable cuticle, low lipid content, lack of ability to molt and no maternal transfer were traits linked to a sensitive survival response to PHC contaminated soil in laboratory tests. Traits linked to sensitive reproduction response in organisms tested were long life spans with small clutch sizes. By deriving single fraction toxicity endpoints considerate of mixtures, we reduce resources and time required in conducting site specific risk assessments for the protection of soil organism's exposure pathway. This

  19. The pathology informatics curriculum wiki: Harnessing the power of user-generated content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ji Yeon; Gudewicz, Thomas M; Dighe, Anand S; Gilbertson, John R

    2010-07-13

    The need for informatics training as part of pathology training has never been so critical, but pathology informatics is a wide and complex field and very few programs currently have the resources to provide comprehensive educational pathology informatics experiences to their residents. In this article, we present the "pathology informatics curriculum wiki", an open, on-line wiki that indexes the pathology informatics content in a larger public wiki, Wikipedia, (and other online content) and organizes it into educational modules based on the 2003 standard curriculum approved by the Association for Pathology Informatics (API). In addition to implementing the curriculum wiki at http://pathinformatics.wikispaces.com, we have evaluated pathology informatics content in Wikipedia. Of the 199 non-duplicate terms in the API curriculum, 90% have at least one associated Wikipedia article. Furthermore, evaluation of articles on a five-point Likert scale showed high scores for comprehensiveness (4.05), quality (4.08), currency (4.18), and utility for the beginner (3.85) and advanced (3.93) learners. These results are compelling and support the thesis that Wikipedia articles can be used as the foundation for a basic curriculum in pathology informatics. The pathology informatics community now has the infrastructure needed to collaboratively and openly create, maintain and distribute the pathology informatics content worldwide (Wikipedia) and also the environment (the curriculum wiki) to draw upon its own resources to index and organize this content as a sustainable basic pathology informatics educational resource. The remaining challenges are numerous, but largest by far will be to convince the pathologists to take the time and effort required to build pathology informatics content in Wikipedia and to index and organize this content for education in the curriculum wiki.

  20. Studying emotion in invertebrates: what has been done, what can be measured and what they can provide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, Clint J; Baciadonna, Luigi

    2017-11-01

    Until recently, whether invertebrates might exhibit emotions was unknown. This possibility has traditionally been dismissed by many as emotions are frequently defined with reference to human subjective experience, and invertebrates are often not considered to have the neural requirements for such sophisticated abilities. However, emotions are understood in humans and other vertebrates to be multifaceted brain states, comprising dissociable subjective, cognitive, behavioural and physiological components. In addition, accumulating literature is providing evidence of the impressive cognitive capacities and behavioural flexibility of invertebrates. Alongside these, within the past few years, a number of studies have adapted methods for assessing emotions in humans and other animals, to invertebrates, with intriguing results. Sea slugs, bees, crayfish, snails, crabs, flies and ants have all been shown to display various cognitive, behavioural and/or physiological phenomena that indicate internal states reminiscent of what we consider to be emotions. Given the limited neural architecture of many invertebrates, and the powerful tools available within invertebrate research, these results provide new opportunities for unveiling the neural mechanisms behind emotions and open new avenues towards the pharmacological manipulation of emotion and its genetic dissection, with advantages for disease research and therapeutic drug discovery. Here, we review the increasing evidence that invertebrates display some form of emotion, discuss the various methods used for assessing emotions in invertebrates and consider what can be garnered from further emotion research on invertebrates in terms of the evolution and underlying neural basis of emotion in a comparative context. © 2017. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  1. Digital pathology in nephrology clinical trials, research, and pathology practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barisoni, Laura; Hodgin, Jeffrey B

    2017-11-01

    In this review, we will discuss (i) how the recent advancements in digital technology and computational engineering are currently applied to nephropathology in the setting of clinical research, trials, and practice; (ii) the benefits of the new digital environment; (iii) how recognizing its challenges provides opportunities for transformation; and (iv) nephropathology in the upcoming era of kidney precision and predictive medicine. Recent studies highlighted how new standardized protocols facilitate the harmonization of digital pathology database infrastructure and morphologic, morphometric, and computer-aided quantitative analyses. Digital pathology enables robust protocols for clinical trials and research, with the potential to identify previously underused or unrecognized clinically useful parameters. The integration of digital pathology with molecular signatures is leading the way to establishing clinically relevant morpho-omic taxonomies of renal diseases. The introduction of digital pathology in clinical research and trials, and the progressive implementation of the modern software ecosystem, opens opportunities for the development of new predictive diagnostic paradigms and computer-aided algorithms, transforming the practice of renal disease into a modern computational science.

  2. Pathological Gambling in Parkinson's Disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Callesen, Mette Buhl; Linnet, Jakob; Thomsen, Kristine Rømer

    Pathological Gambling in Parkinson’s Disease Mette Buhl Callesen, Jakob Linnet, Kristine Rømer Thomsen, Albert Gjedde, Arne Møller PET Center, Aarhus University Hospital and Center of Functionally Integrative Neuroscience, Aarhus University.   The neurotransmitter dopamine is central to many...... aspects of human functioning, e.g., reward, learning, and addiction, including Pathological Gambling (PG), and its loss is key to Parkinson’s Disease (PD). PD is a neurodegenrative disorder caused by progressive loss of dopamine-producing cells in the midbrain [1]. One type of treatment of PD symptoms...

  3. Cook Inlet and Kenai Peninsula, Alaska ESI: INVERT (Invertebrate Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains biological resource data for razor clams in Cook Inlet and Kenai Peninsula, Alaska. Vector polygons in this data set represent locations of...

  4. The importance of invertebrates when considering the impacts of anthropogenic noise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morley, Erica L; Jones, Gareth; Radford, Andrew N

    2014-02-07

    Anthropogenic noise is now recognized as a major global pollutant. Rapidly burgeoning research has identified impacts on individual behaviour and physiology through to community disruption. To date, however, there has been an almost exclusive focus on vertebrates. Not only does their central role in food webs and in fulfilling ecosystem services make imperative our understanding of how invertebrates are impacted by all aspects of environmental change, but also many of their inherent characteristics provide opportunities to overcome common issues with the current anthropogenic noise literature. Here, we begin by explaining why invertebrates are likely to be affected by anthropogenic noise, briefly reviewing their capacity for hearing and providing evidence that they are capable of evolutionary adaptation and behavioural plasticity in response to natural noise sources. We then discuss the importance of quantifying accurately and fully both auditory ability and noise content, emphasizing considerations of direct relevance to how invertebrates detect sounds. We showcase how studying invertebrates can help with the behavioural bias in the literature, the difficulties in drawing strong, ecologically valid conclusions and the need for studies on fitness impacts. Finally, we suggest avenues of future research using invertebrates that would advance our understanding of the impact of anthropogenic noise.

  5. Spatial and temporal variations of mercury levels in Okefenokee invertebrates: Southeast Georgia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    George, Bagie M.; Batzer, Darold

    2008-01-01

    Accumulation of mercury in wetland ecosystems has raised concerns about impacts on wetland food webs. This study measured concentrations of mercury in invertebrates of the Okefenokee Swamp in Georgia, focusing on levels in amphipods, odonates, and crayfish. We collected and analyzed total mercury levels in these invertebrates from 32 sampling stations across commonly occurring sub-habitats. Sampling was conducted in December, May, and August over a two-year period. The highest levels of mercury were detected in amphipods, with total mercury levels often in excess of 20 ppm. Bioaccumulation pathways of mercury in invertebrates of the Okefenokee are probably complex; despite being larger and higher in the food chain, levels in odonates and crayfish were much lower than in amphipods. Mercury levels in invertebrates varied temporally with the highest levels detected in May. There was a lack of spatial variation in mercury levels which is consistent with aerial deposition of mercury. - This study measured mercury levels in invertebrates and found the highest levels in amphipods

  6. Enzyme-Assisted Discovery of Antioxidant Peptides from Edible Marine Invertebrates: A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chai, Tsun-Thai; Law, Yew-Chye; Wong, Fai-Chu; Kim, Se-Kwon

    2017-02-16

    Marine invertebrates, such as oysters, mussels, clams, scallop, jellyfishes, squids, prawns, sea cucumbers and sea squirts, are consumed as foods. These edible marine invertebrates are sources of potent bioactive peptides. The last two decades have seen a surge of interest in the discovery of antioxidant peptides from edible marine invertebrates. Enzymatic hydrolysis is an efficient strategy commonly used for releasing antioxidant peptides from food proteins. A growing number of antioxidant peptide sequences have been identified from the enzymatic hydrolysates of edible marine invertebrates. Antioxidant peptides have potential applications in food, pharmaceuticals and cosmetics. In this review, we first give a brief overview of the current state of progress of antioxidant peptide research, with special attention to marine antioxidant peptides. We then focus on 22 investigations which identified 32 antioxidant peptides from enzymatic hydrolysates of edible marine invertebrates. Strategies adopted by various research groups in the purification and identification of the antioxidant peptides will be summarized. Structural characteristic of the peptide sequences in relation to their antioxidant activities will be reviewed. Potential applications of the peptide sequences and future research prospects will also be discussed.

  7. The Primary Role of Fibrinogen-Related Proteins in Invertebrates Is Defense, Not Coagulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanington, Patrick C.; Zhang, Si-Ming

    2010-01-01

    In vertebrates, the conversion of fibrinogen into fibrin is an essential process that underlies the establishment of the supporting protein framework required for coagulation. In invertebrates, fibrinogen-domain-containing proteins play a role in the defense response generated against pathogens; however, they do not function in coagulation, suggesting that this role has been recently acquired. Molecules containing fibrinogen motifs have been identified in numerous invertebrate organisms, and most of these molecules known to date have been linked to defense. Moreover, recent genome projects of invertebrate animals have revealed surprisingly high numbers of fibrinogen-like loci in their genomes, suggesting important and perhaps diverse functions of fibrinogen-like proteins in invertebrates. The ancestral role of molecules containing fibrinogen-related domains (FReDs) with immunity is the focus of this review, with emphasis on specific FReDs called fibrinogen-related proteins (FREPs) identified from the schistosome-transmitting mollusc Biomphalaria glabrata. Herein, we outline the range of invertebrate organisms FREPs can be found in, and detail the roles these molecules play in defense and protection against infection. PMID:21063081

  8. The role of transposable elements in the evolution of non-mammalian vertebrates and invertebrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Background Transposable elements (TEs) have played an important role in the diversification and enrichment of mammalian transcriptomes through various mechanisms such as exonization and intronization (the birth of new exons/introns from previously intronic/exonic sequences, respectively), and insertion into first and last exons. However, no extensive analysis has compared the effects of TEs on the transcriptomes of mammals, non-mammalian vertebrates and invertebrates. Results We analyzed the influence of TEs on the transcriptomes of five species, three invertebrates and two non-mammalian vertebrates. Compared to previously analyzed mammals, there were lower levels of TE introduction into introns, significantly lower numbers of exonizations originating from TEs and a lower percentage of TE insertion within the first and last exons. Although the transcriptomes of vertebrates exhibit significant levels of exonization of TEs, only anecdotal cases were found in invertebrates. In vertebrates, as in mammals, the exonized TEs are mostly alternatively spliced, indicating that selective pressure maintains the original mRNA product generated from such genes. Conclusions Exonization of TEs is widespread in mammals, less so in non-mammalian vertebrates, and very low in invertebrates. We assume that the exonization process depends on the length of introns. Vertebrates, unlike invertebrates, are characterized by long introns and short internal exons. Our results suggest that there is a direct link between the length of introns and exonization of TEs and that this process became more prevalent following the appearance of mammals. PMID:20525173

  9. Impact of heavy metals on macro-invertebrate fauna of the thaddo stream

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nazneen, S.; Begum, F.; Sharmeen, R.; Ahmed, Z.

    2003-01-01

    Impact of some heavy metals like zinc, lead, copper, chromium and cadmium were studied at four spots on the macro-invertebrate fauna of the Thaddo stream, a tributary of Malir River. This was in correlation with an earlier study on the physico-chemical aspects of water which showed a severe pollution in this stream. Present data for the qualitative and quantitative analyses of macro-invertebrates and the ranges of heavy metals (Zn 0.5-3.5, Pb 0.90-1.42, Cu 0.35-0.93, Cr 0.0-0.08 and Cd 0.003-0.01 ppm) in the water samples also indicate high level of pollution in the stream. Macro-invertebrate fauna comprises only of aquatic insects which include larvae of Chironomus spp., adults of the Notonectus sp., and nymphs of Gomphus sp. (dragon fly) belonging to the order Diptera , Hemiptera and Odonata, respectively. Quantitatively Notonectus sp. predominated and followed by Chironomus larvae. The maximum concentrations of all heavy metals were recorded at spot 3. A general trend of increase was observed from up stream to down stream regions particularly in the level of zinc. However, a reverse trend was observed in the abundance of macro-invertebrates with a great reduction at spot 4. The statistical analysis of the data generally indicates a negative correlation between the values of the studied heavy metals and the abundance of macro-invertebrates throughout this study. (author)

  10. Influences of extreme weather, climate and pesticide use on invertebrates in cereal fields over 42 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ewald, Julie A; Wheatley, Christopher J; Aebischer, Nicholas J; Moreby, Stephen J; Duffield, Simon J; Crick, Humphrey Q P; Morecroft, Michael B

    2015-11-01

    Cereal fields are central to balancing food production and environmental health in the face of climate change. Within them, invertebrates provide key ecosystem services. Using 42 years of monitoring data collected in southern England, we investigated the sensitivity and resilience of invertebrates in cereal fields to extreme weather events and examined the effect of long-term changes in temperature, rainfall and pesticide use on invertebrate abundance. Of the 26 invertebrate groups examined, eleven proved sensitive to extreme weather events. Average abundance increased in hot/dry years and decreased in cold/wet years for Araneae, Cicadellidae, adult Heteroptera, Thysanoptera, Braconidae, Enicmus and Lathridiidae. The average abundance of Delphacidae, Cryptophagidae and Mycetophilidae increased in both hot/dry and cold/wet years relative to other years. The abundance of all 10 groups usually returned to their long-term trend within a year after the extreme event. For five of them, sensitivity to cold/wet events was lowest (translating into higher abundances) at locations with a westerly aspect. Some long-term trends in invertebrate abundance correlated with temperature and rainfall, indicating that climate change may affect them. However, pesticide use was more important in explaining the trends, suggesting that reduced pesticide use would mitigate the effects of climate change. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Molecular genetics and genomics generate new insights into invertebrate pest invasions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirk, Heather; Dorn, Silvia; Mazzi, Dominique

    2013-07-01

    Invertebrate pest invasions and outbreaks are associated with high social, economic, and ecological costs, and their significance will intensify with an increasing pressure on agricultural productivity as a result of human population growth and climate change. New molecular genetic and genomic techniques are available and accessible, but have been grossly underutilized in studies of invertebrate pest invasions, despite that they are useful tools for applied pest management and for understanding fundamental features of pest invasions including pest population demographics and adaptation of pests to novel and/or changing environments. Here, we review current applications of molecular genetics and genomics in the study of invertebrate pest invasions and outbreaks, and we highlight shortcomings from the current body of research. We then discuss recent conceptual and methodological advances in the areas of molecular genetics/genomics and data analysis, and we highlight how these advances will further our understanding of the demographic, ecological, and evolutionary features of invertebrate pest invasions. We are now well equipped to use molecular data to understand invertebrate dispersal and adaptation, and this knowledge has valuable applications in agriculture at a time when these are critically required.

  12. Bioprospecting of Marine Invertebrates for New Natural Products — A Chemical and Zoogeographical Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Calado

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Bioprospecting for new marine natural products (NPs has increased significantly over the last decades, leading to an unprecedented discovery of new molecules. Marine invertebrates have been the most important source of these NPs, with researchers commonly targeting particular taxonomic groups, marine regions and/or molecules from specific chemical groups. The present review focuses on new NPs identified from marine invertebrates between 2000 and 2009, and performs a detailed analysis on: (1 the chemical groups of these NPs; (2 the association of particular chemical groups to specific marine invertebrate taxa; and (3 the yielding of molecules from the same chemical group from organisms occurring in a particular geographic region. Our survey revealed an increasing number of new terpenoids being discovered between 2000 and 2009, contrasting with the decreasing trend in the discovery of new alkaloids and aliphatic molecules. Overall, no particular association was identified between marine invertebrate taxa and chemical groups of new NPs. Nonetheless, it is worth noting that most NPs recorded from cnidarians and mollusks were terpenoids, while most NPs identified in echinoderms were aliphatic compounds or carbohydrates. The geographical trends observed in our study do not support the idea of particular chemical groups of new NPs being associated with marine invertebrates from any specific geographical region, as NPs from different chemical groups were commonly distributed worldwide.

  13. Phenotypic plasticity and morphological integration in a marine modular invertebrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manrique Nelson

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Colonial invertebrates such as corals exhibit nested levels of modularity, imposing a challenge to the depiction of their morphological evolution. Comparisons among diverse Caribbean gorgonian corals suggest decoupling of evolution at the polyp vs. branch/internode levels. Thus, evolutionary change in polyp form or size (the colonial module sensu stricto does not imply a change in colony form (constructed of modular branches and other emergent features. This study examined the patterns of morphological integration at the intraspecific level. Pseudopterogorgia bipinnata (Verrill (Octocorallia: Gorgoniidae is a Caribbean shallow water gorgonian that can colonize most reef habitats (shallow/exposed vs. deep/protected; 1–45 m and shows great morphological variation. Results To characterize the genotype/environment relationship and phenotypic plasticity in P. bipinnata, two microsatellite loci, mitochondrial (MSH1 and nuclear (ITS DNA sequences, and (ITS2 DGGE banding patterns were initially compared among the populations present in the coral reefs of Belize (Carrie Bow Cay, Panama (Bocas del Toro, Colombia (Cartagena and the Bahamas (San Salvador. Despite the large and discrete differentiation of morphotypes, there was no concordant genetic variation (DGGE banding patterns in the ITS2 genotypes from Belize, Panama and Colombia. ITS1–5.8S-ITS2 phylogenetic analysis afforded evidence for considering the species P. kallos (Bielschowsky as the shallow-most morphotype of P. bipinnata from exposed environments. The population from Carrie Bow Cay, Belize (1–45 m was examined to determine the phenotypic integration of modular features such as branch thickness, polyp aperture, inter-polyp distance, internode length and branch length. Third-order partial correlation coefficients suggested significant integration between polypar and colonial traits. Some features did not change at all despite 10-fold differences in other integrated

  14. Terrestrial invertebrate population studies in the Chernobyl exclusion zone, Ukraine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jackson, D.; Stone, D.M.; Copplestone, D.; Gilhen, M.C.

    2004-01-01

    The Chernobyl reactor accident in April 1986 caused the release to atmosphere of substantial amounts of radioactivity. Precise estimates of the release vary. The USSR State Committee presented information to a meeting of the International Atomic Energy Agency in August 1986 indicating a release of some 2.9x10 5 TBq 137 Cs and 2x10 5 TBq 90 Sr, with a total fission/activation product release of 1.7x10 6 TBq. Other commentators suggest that up to double this amount may have been released. Estimates of deposition likewise vary, although it is probable that about half the released activity was deposited within 20 km of the release point, predominantly following two plume trajectories to the north and west. This resulted in the death of pine trees over 400 ha, the abandonment of 100,000 to 150,000 ha of agricultural land and the establishment of an exclusion zone extending to 30 km from the site. High levels of radionuclide contamination continue to prevail within the exclusion zone. Nonetheless, over the past fifteen years, re-colonisation has been widespread. Mixed deciduous woodlands, with a high proportion of birch (Betula spp.) and willow (Salix spp.), have become established in the forest areas, while agricultural land has succeeded to tall grassland and scrub. Field sites established in this study exhibited external gamma dose rates varying from 0.1 μSv h -1 to 140 μSv h -1 . Corresponding mean concentrations of 137 Cs in the top 20 cm of soil varied from about 6.10 2 to 3.10 6 Bq kg -1 dw. This study summarises observations over the period 2001 to 2004. Sub-surface activity, as measured by bait lamina penetration, appears to be inversely correlated with concentrations of 137 Cs and 90 Sr in soil. Likewise, at the very highest levels of contamination, there is some loss of invertebrate diversity; although little associated change in overall biomass. Between years, population densities and species dominance vary significantly. This does not appear to correlate

  15. Learning Biology with Plant Pathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carroll, Juliet E.

    This monograph contains 10 plant pathology experiments that were written to correspond to portions of a biology curriculum. Each experiment is suitable to a biology topic and designed to encourage exploration of those biological concepts being taught. Experiments include: (1) The Symptoms and Signs of Disease; (2) Koch's Postulates; (3)…

  16. CT features of jejunal pathology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hyland, R.; Chalmers, A.

    2007-01-01

    The imaging of duodenal and ileal diseases is well documented in radiological literature but the jejunum has been relatively neglected. The aim of this review is to outline the current methods of investigation of the jejunum, and provide a comprehensive review of common pathologies affecting the jejunum, with particular emphasis on investigation by computed tomography

  17. Surgical pathology of urologic diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Javadpour, N.; Barsky, S.H.

    1987-01-01

    This text details recent advances in methods for detecting, diagnosing, and managing genitourinary diseases. Included are chapters on imaging techniques (including magnetic resonance imaging, computed tomography, and ultrasound; tumor markers (such as alphafetoprotein, human chorionic gonadotropin, prostatic specific antigen, and T-antigens); immunocytochemistry; pediatric urologic pathology; and other key topics

  18. 1-hydroxypyrene as a biomarker of PAH exposure in the marine invertebrates N. diversicolor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tairova, Zhanna; Giessing, Anders; Hansen, Rikke

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are ubiquitous, persistent and toxic contaminants in the marine environment. Uptake of PAHs by marine deposit-feeding invertebrates can be determined by screening for PAH-derived metabolites. Methods for detection and quantification of PAH metabolites may...... invertebrates is on the other hand practically non-existing. The present study investigated formation of pyrene metabolites in the marine polychaete Nereis diversicolor, with special attention given to the detection of 1-hydroxypyrene. 1-hydroxypyrene was identified in tissues of Nereis diversicolor exposed...... this context the usefulness of SFS for identification and quantification was explored. Considering the complex composition of environmental PAH pollution, before the 1-hydoxypyrene in tissues of exposed marine invertebrates can be regarded as a suitable biomarker for assessing total PAH exposure...

  19. Catecholaminergic System of Invertebrates: Comparative and Evolutionary Aspects in Comparison With the Octopaminergic System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallo, Valentina P; Accordi, Fiorenza; Chimenti, Claudio; Civinini, Annalena; Crivellato, Enrico

    2016-01-01

    In this review we examined the catecholaminergic system of invertebrates, starting from protists and getting to chordates. Different techniques used by numerous researchers revealed, in most examined phyla, the presence of catecholamines dopamine, noradrenaline, and adrenaline or of the enzymes involved in their synthesis. The catecholamines are generally linked to the nervous system and they can act as neurotransmitters, neuromodulators, and hormones; moreover they play a very important role as regards the response to a large number of stress situations. Nevertheless, in some invertebrate phyla belonging to Protostoma, the monoamine octopamine is the main biogenic amine. The presence of catecholamines in some protists suggests a role as intracellular or interorganismal signaling molecules and an ancient origin of their synthetic pathways. The catecholamines appear also involved in the regulation of bioluminescence and in the control of larval development and metamorphosis in some marine invertebrate phyla. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Survival of rapidly fluctuating natural low winter temperatures by High Arctic soil invertebrates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Convey, Peter; Abbandonato, Holly; Bergan, Frode

    2015-01-01

    The extreme polar environment creates challenges for its resident invertebrate communities and the stress tolerance of some of these animals has been examined over many years. However, although it is well appreciated that standard air temperature records often fail to describe accurately conditions...... microhabitats. To assess survival of natural High Arctic soil invertebrate communities contained in soil and vegetation cores to natural winter temperature variations, the overwintering temperatures they experienced were manipulated by deploying cores in locations with varying snow accumulation: No Snow...... and did not decrease below -12. °C. Those under deep snow were even more stable and did not decline below -2. °C. Despite these striking differences in winter thermal regimes, there were no clear differences in survival of the invertebrate fauna between treatments, including oribatid, prostigmatid...

  1. A Risk Assessment Example for Soil Invertebrates Using Spatially Explicit Agent-Based Models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reed, Melissa; Alvarez, Tania; Chelinho, Sonia

    2016-01-01

    Current risk assessment methods for measuring the toxicity of plant protection products (PPPs) on soil invertebrates use standardized laboratory conditions to determine acute effects on mortality and sublethal effects on reproduction. If an unacceptable risk is identified at the lower tier...... population models for ubiquitous soil invertebrates (collembolans and earthworms) as refinement options in current risk assessment. Both are spatially explicit agent-based models (ABMs), incorporating individual and landscape variability. The models were used to provide refined risk assessments for different...... application scenarios of a hypothetical pesticide applied to potato crops (full-field spray onto the soil surface [termed “overall”], in-furrow, and soil-incorporated pesticide applications). In the refined risk assessment, the population models suggest that soil invertebrate populations would likely recover...

  2. Phylogenetic study of the oxytocin-like immunoreactive system in invertebrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizuno, J; Takeda, N

    1988-01-01

    1. A phylogenetic study of oxytocin (OXT)-like immunoreactive cells was performed by the PAP method in the central nervous system of invertebrates. 2. The immunoreactivity was detected in the nerve cells of Hydra magnipapillata of the Coelenterata; Neanthes japonica and Pheretima communissima of the Annelida; Oncidium verrucosum, Limax marginatus and Meretrix lamarckii of the Mollusca; and Baratha brassica of the Arthropoda. 3. No immunoreactive cells were found in Bipalium sp. of the Platyhelminthes; Pomacea canaliculata, Aplysia kurodai, Bradybaena similaris and Achatina fulica of the Mollusca; and Gnorimosphaeroma rayi, Procambarus clarkii, Hemigrapsus sanguineus, Helice tridens and Gryllus bimaculatus of the Arthropoda; Asterina pectinifera of the Echinodermata; and Halocynthia roretzi of the Protochordata. 4. These results demonstrate that an OXT-immunoreactive substance is widely present not only in vertebrates but also in invertebrates. 5. OXT seems to have been introduced into these invertebrates at an early stage of their phylogenetic history.

  3. Phylogenetic study of the arginine-vasotocin/arginine-vasopressin-like immunoreactive system in invertebrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizuno, J; Takeda, N

    1988-01-01

    1. A phylogenetic study of arg-vasotocin (AVT)/arg-vasopressin (AVP)-like immunoreactive cells was performed by the PAP method in the central nervous system of invertebrates. 2. The immunoreactivity was detected in the nerve cells of Hydra magnipapillata of the Coelenterata; Neanthes japonica and Pheretima communissima of the Annelida; Pomacea canaliculata, Aplysia kurodai, Oncidium verrucosum, Bradybaena similaris, Achatina fulica, Limax marginatus and Meretrix lamarckii of the Mollusca; Gnorimosphaeroma rayi, Hemigrapsus sanguineus, Gryllus bimaculatus and Baratha brassicae of the Arthropoda; Asterina pectinifera of the Echinodermata; and Halocynthia roretzi of the Protochordata. 3. No immunoreactivity was detected in Bipalium sp. of the Platyhelminthes, or in Procambarus clarkii and Helice tridens of the Arthropoda. 4. From these results, it appears that AVT/AVP is a phylogenetically ancient peptide which is present in a wide variety of invertebrates. 5. The actions of AVT/AVP and its presence in invertebrates are discussed.

  4. Non-indigenous invertebrates, fish and macrophytes in Lake Garda (Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina CAPPELLETTI

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available As observed in many countries, lakes are involved in an important process of colonization by non-indigenous species (NIS. Since 1725, 37 species of non-indigenous fish, invertebrates and macrophytes have been recorded in Lake Garda, the largest Italian lake. This phenomenon is particularly important for invertebrates and macrophytes, as their pathways of introduction are accidental. Recently among the 100 Worst Invasive Alien Species in Europe, the invertebrates Corbicula fluminea, Dikerogammarus villosus and Procambarus clarkii, and the macrophytes Lagarosiphon major, Elodea nuttallii and Elodea canadensis have been recorded in Lake Garda. In order to define the present status of non-indigenous species in Lake Garda, published and unpublished data were reviewed.

  5. Invertebrate neuroscience and CephsInAction at the Mediterranean Society for Neuroscience Meeting Cagliari 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holden-Dye, Lindy; Fiorito, Graziano; Ponte, Giovanna

    2015-12-01

    Invertebrate neuroscience, and in particular cephalopod research, is well represented in the Mediterranean region. Therefore, the recent meeting of the Mediterranean Society for Neuroscience in Santa Margherita di Pula, Sardinia (12-15 June 2015) provided an excellent opportunity for invertebrate contributions. Furthermore, the Chair of an EU COST Action for cephalopod research (FA1301; www.cephsinaction.org ), Giovanna Ponte, together with Graziano Fiorito from the Stazione Zoologica, Naples, aligned a meeting of research groups working in the field of cephalopod neurophysiology from across Europe to coincide with the neuroscience meeting. This provided an exciting forum for exchange of ideas. Here we provide brief highlights of both events and an explanation of the activities of the COST Action for the broader invertebrate neuroscience community.

  6. Acute and chronic toxicity testing of bisphenol A with aquatic invertebrates and plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mihaich, Ellen M; Friederich, Urs; Caspers, Norbert; Hall, A Tilghman; Klecka, Gary M; Dimond, Stephen S; Staples, Charles A; Ortego, Lisa S; Hentges, Steven G

    2009-07-01

    Bisphenol A (BPA, 4,4'-isopropylidine diphenol) is a commercially important chemical used primarily as an intermediate in the production of polycarbonate plastic and epoxy resins. Extensive effect data are currently available, including long-term studies with BPA on fish, amphibians, crustaceans, and mollusks. The aim of this study was to perform additional tests with a number of aquatic invertebrates and an aquatic plant. These studies include acute tests with the midge (Chironomus tentans) and the snail (Marisa cornuarietis), and chronic studies with rotifers (Brachionus calyciflorus), amphipods (Hyalella azteca), and plants (Lemna gibba). The effect data on different aquatic invertebrate and plant species presented in this paper correspond well with the effect and no-effect concentrations (NOECs) available from invertebrate studies in the published literature and are within the range found for other aquatic species tested with BPA.

  7. Marine Invertebrate Natural Products for Anti-Inflammatory and Chronic Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kalimuthu Senthilkumar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The marine environment represents a relatively available source of functional ingredients that can be applied to various aspects of food processing, storage, and fortification. Moreover, numerous marine invertebrates based compounds have biological activities and also interfere with the pathogenesis of diseases. Isolated compounds from marine invertebrates have been shown to pharmacological activities and are helpful for the invention and discovery of bioactive compounds, primarily for deadly diseases like cancer, acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS, osteoporosis, and so forth. Extensive research within the last decade has revealed that most chronic illnesses such as cancer, neurological diseases, diabetes, and autoimmune diseases exhibit dysregulation of multiple cell signaling pathways that have been linked to inflammation. On the basis of their bioactive properties, this review focuses on the potential use of marine invertebrate derived compounds on anti-inflammatory and some chronic diseases such as cardiovascular disease, osteoporosis, diabetes, HIV, and cancer.

  8. Chemoreception of the Seagrass Posidonia Oceanica by Benthic Invertebrates is Altered by Seawater Acidification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zupo, Valerio; Maibam, Chingoileima; Buia, Maria Cristina; Gambi, Maria Cristina; Patti, Francesco Paolo; Scipione, Maria Beatrice; Lorenti, Maurizio; Fink, Patrick

    2015-08-01

    Several plants and invertebrates interact and communicate by means of volatile organic compounds (VOCs). These compounds may play the role of infochemicals, being able to carry complex information to selected species, thus mediating inter- or intra-specific communications. Volatile organic compounds derived from the wounding of marine diatoms, for example, carry information for several benthic and planktonic invertebrates. Although the ecological importance of VOCs has been demonstrated, both in terrestrial plants and in marine microalgae, their role as infochemicals has not been demonstrated in seagrasses. In addition, benthic communities, even the most complex and resilient, as those associated to seagrass meadows, are affected by ocean acidification at various levels. Therefore, the acidification of oceans could produce interference in the way seagrass-associated invertebrates recognize and choose their specific environments. We simulated the wounding of Posidonia oceanica leaves collected at two sites (a control site at normal pH, and a naturally acidified site) off the Island of Ischia (Gulf of Naples, Italy). We extracted the VOCs and tested a set of 13 species of associated invertebrates for their specific chemotactic responses in order to determine if: a) seagrasses produce VOCs playing the role of infochemicals, and b) their effects can be altered by seawater pH. Our results indicate that several invertebrates recognize the odor of wounded P. oceanica leaves, especially those strictly associated to the leaf stratum of the seagrass. Their chemotactic reactions may be modulated by the seawater pH, thus impairing the chemical communications in seagrass-associated communities in acidified conditions. In fact, 54% of the tested species exhibited a changed behavioral response in acidified waters (pH 7.7). Furthermore, the differences observed in the abundance of invertebrates, in natural vs. acidified field conditions, are in agreement with these behavioral

  9. Nutrient Dynamics of Estuarine Invertebrates Are Shaped by Feeding Guild Rather than Seasonal River Flow.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelly Ortega-Cisneros

    Full Text Available This study aimed to determine the variability of carbon and nitrogen elemental content, stoichiometry and diet proportions of invertebrates in two sub-tropical estuaries in South Africa experiencing seasonal changes in rainfall and river inflow. The elemental ratios and stable isotopes of abiotic sources, zooplankton and macrozoobenthos taxa were analyzed over a dry/wet seasonal cycle. Nutrient content (C, N and stoichiometry of suspended particulate matter exhibited significant spatio-temporal variations in both estuaries, which were explained by the variability in river inflow. Sediment particulate matter (%C, %N and C:N was also influenced by the variability in river flow but to a lesser extent. The nutrient content and ratios of the analyzed invertebrates did not significantly vary among seasons with the exception of the copepod Pseudodiaptomus spp. (C:N and the tanaid Apseudes digitalis (%N, C:N. These changes did not track the seasonal variations of the suspended or sediment particulate matter. Our results suggest that invertebrates managed to maintain their stoichiometry independent of the seasonality in river flow. A significant variability in nitrogen content among estuarine invertebrates was recorded, with highest % N recorded from predators and lowest %N from detritivores. Due to the otherwise general lack of seasonal differences in elemental content and stoichiometry, feeding guild was a major factor shaping the nutrient dynamics of the estuarine invertebrates. The nutrient richer suspended particulate matter was the preferred food source over sediment particulate matter for most invertebrate consumers in many, but not all seasons. The most distinct preference for suspended POM as a food source was apparent from the temporarily open/closed system after the estuary had breached, highlighting the importance of river flow as a driver of invertebrate nutrient dynamics under extreme events conditions. Moreover, our data showed that

  10. Nutrient Dynamics of Estuarine Invertebrates Are Shaped by Feeding Guild Rather than Seasonal River Flow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortega-Cisneros, Kelly; Scharler, Ursula M

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to determine the variability of carbon and nitrogen elemental content, stoichiometry and diet proportions of invertebrates in two sub-tropical estuaries in South Africa experiencing seasonal changes in rainfall and river inflow. The elemental ratios and stable isotopes of abiotic sources, zooplankton and macrozoobenthos taxa were analyzed over a dry/wet seasonal cycle. Nutrient content (C, N) and stoichiometry of suspended particulate matter exhibited significant spatio-temporal variations in both estuaries, which were explained by the variability in river inflow. Sediment particulate matter (%C, %N and C:N) was also influenced by the variability in river flow but to a lesser extent. The nutrient content and ratios of the analyzed invertebrates did not significantly vary among seasons with the exception of the copepod Pseudodiaptomus spp. (C:N) and the tanaid Apseudes digitalis (%N, C:N). These changes did not track the seasonal variations of the suspended or sediment particulate matter. Our results suggest that invertebrates managed to maintain their stoichiometry independent of the seasonality in river flow. A significant variability in nitrogen content among estuarine invertebrates was recorded, with highest % N recorded from predators and lowest %N from detritivores. Due to the otherwise general lack of seasonal differences in elemental content and stoichiometry, feeding guild was a major factor shaping the nutrient dynamics of the estuarine invertebrates. The nutrient richer suspended particulate matter was the preferred food source over sediment particulate matter for most invertebrate consumers in many, but not all seasons. The most distinct preference for suspended POM as a food source was apparent from the temporarily open/closed system after the estuary had breached, highlighting the importance of river flow as a driver of invertebrate nutrient dynamics under extreme events conditions. Moreover, our data showed that estuarine

  11. Contribution to the Understanding of Particle Motion Perception in Marine Invertebrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    André, Michel; Kaifu, Kenzo; Solé, Marta; van der Schaar, Mike; Akamatsu, Tomonari; Balastegui, Andreu; Sánchez, Antonio M; Castell, Joan V

    2016-01-01

    Marine invertebrates potentially represent a group of species whose ecology may be influenced by artificial noise. Exposure to anthropogenic sound sources could have a direct consequence on the functionality and sensitivity of their sensory organs, the statocysts, which are responsible for their equilibrium and movements in the water column. The availability of novel laser Doppler vibrometer techniques has recently opened the possibility of measuring whole body (distance, velocity, and acceleration) vibration as a direct stimulus eliciting statocyst response, offering the scientific community a new level of understanding of the marine invertebrate hearing mechanism.

  12. Activation analysis of several species of marine invertebrates as indicators of environmental conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fukushima, M.; Tamate, H.; Nakano, Y.

    2000-01-01

    Marine invertebrates are well known to accumulate trace metals from seawater, plankton, sea plants, and sediments. To test the usefulness of such organisms as a bio-indicator of environmental conditions, we have determined levels of trace elements in tissue of twelve species of marine invertebrates by photon and neutron activation analysis. Relatively higher concentration of elements were observed for Ni and Sn in mid-gut gland, for Cu and Zn in oyster tissues, for Se in swimming crabs, for Cu, Fe, and Se in gills of swimming crabs. Our results indicate that mid-gut gland of ear-shell will be useful as the indicator of environmental conditions. (author)

  13. COMPARATIVE STUDY OF TUMORIGENESIS AND TUMOR IMMUNITY IN INVERTEBRATES AND NONMAMMALIAN VERTEBRATES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert, Jacques

    2010-01-01

    Despite intense study in mammals, the different roles played by the immune system in detecting (immunosurveillance), controlling and remodeling (immunoediting) neoplasia, and perhaps in metastasis are not fully understood. In this review, I will present evidence of neoplasia and invasive malignancy, as well as tumor immunity in invertebrates and nonmammalian vertebrates. I will also present a comparative and evolutionary view of the complex interactions between neoplasia and the host immune system. Overall, I wish to go beyond the too simplistic dichotomy between invertebrates with innate immunity that are only affected with benign neoplasia and vertebrates with adaptive immunity that are affected by metastatic malignancies or cancer. PMID:20553753

  14. Soil invertebrate fauna enhances grassland succession and diversity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Deyn, de G.B.; Raaijmakers, C.E.; Zoomer, H.R.; Berg, M.P.; Ruiter, de P.C.; Verhoef, H.A.; Bezemer, T.M.; Putten, van der W.H.

    2003-01-01

    One of the most important areas in ecology is to elucidate the factors that drive succession in ecosystems and thus influence the diversity of species in natural vegetation. Significant mechanisms in this process are known to be resource limitation(1-3) and the effects of aboveground vertebrate

  15. Family richness and biomass of understory invertebrates in early and late successional habitats of northern New Hampshire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthew K. Wilson; Winsor H. Lowe; Keith Nislow

    2014-01-01

    In the northeastern United States, many vertebrate species rely on early successional forest habitats (ESHs). ESHs may also support higher invertebrate diversity and abundance than late successional habitats (LSHs). We assessed the differences in family-level richness and biomass of understory terrestrial invertebrates during the summer season in paired ESH (3-7 years...

  16. The trophic role of a forest salamander: impacts on invertebrates, leaf litter retention, and the humification process

    Science.gov (United States)

    M. L. Best; H. H. Welsh

    2014-01-01

    Woodland (Plethodontid) salamanders are the most abundant vertebrates in North American forests, functioning as predators on invertebrates and prey for higher trophic levels. We investigated the role of Ensatina (Ensatina eschscholtzii) in regulating invertebrate numbers and leaf litter retention in a northern California forest. Our objective was...

  17. 78 FR 33255 - Amendment 4 to the Corals and Reef Associated Plants and Invertebrates Fishery Management Plan of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-04

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration 50 CFR Part 622 [Docket No. 120718255-3500-02] RIN 0648-BC38 Amendment 4 to the Corals and Reef Associated Plants and Invertebrates... Associated Plants and Invertebrates Fishery Management Plan (FMP) of Puerto Rico and the U.S. Virgin Islands...

  18. Evaluating Aquatic invertebrate vulnerability to insecticides based on intrinsic sensitivuty, biological traits, and toxic mode of action

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rico, A.; Brink, van den P.J.

    2015-01-01

    In the present study, the authors evaluated the vulnerability of aquatic invertebrates to insecticides based on their intrinsic sensitivity and their population-level recovery potential. The relative sensitivity of invertebrates to 5 different classes of insecticides was calculated at the genus,

  19. Comparative chronic toxicity of homo- and heterocyclic aromatic compounds to benthic and terrestrial invertebrates: Generalizations and exceptions.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leon Paumen, M.; de Voogt, P.; van Gestel, C.A.M.; Kraak, M.H.S.

    2009-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to elucidate consistent patterns in chronic polycyclic aromatic compound (PAC) toxicity to soil and sediment inhabiting invertebrates. Therefore we examined our experimental dataset, consisting of twenty-one chronic effect concentrations for two soil invertebrates

  20. Comparative chronic toxicity of homo- and heterocyclic aromatic compounds to benthic and terrestrial invertebrates: Generalizations and exceptions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    León Paumen, M.; de Voogt, P.; van Gestel, C.A.M.; Kraak, M.H.S.

    2009-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to elucidate consistent patterns in chronic polycyclic aromatic compound (PAC) toxicity to soil and sediment inhabiting invertebrates. Therefore we examined our experimental dataset, consisting of twenty-one chronic effect concentrations for two soil invertebrates

  1. Radioisotope studies under pathologic conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DeRossi; Salvatori, M.; Valenza, V.

    1987-01-01

    This article presents a general discussion on salivary pathology, before dealing with the various salivary gland diseases which can draw real advantage from radioisotope studies. Clinical problems related to the salivary glands first concern diffuse or focal glandular swelling. Focal swelling includes inflammatory or metastatic deposits in preauricular or submandibular lymph nodes, cysts, abscesses, foci of inflammation, benign and malignant neoplasms of the salivary glands themselves or of surrounding blood or lymph vessels, nerves, connective tissue, and oral mucosa. Primary tumors of the salivary glands are rare and usually benign. The combination of a systemic disease with dry mouth and dry eyes due to inflamed conjunctiva and cornea because of decreased fluid production, forms Sjogren syndrome. It may also cause diffuse glandular swelling. Chronic alcoholism, cirrhosis, diabetes mellitus, hyperlipoproteinemia, and malnutrition are other pathologic conditions sometimes associated with diffuse salivary gland swelling

  2. Quality in pathology laboratory practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinstein, S

    1995-06-01

    Quality refers not only to analytical quality control, a traditional area of laboratory excellence, but to the entire science of quality management. As measures of quality, structural indicators refer to staffing and physical facilities, process indicators to the institutions operations and, perhaps most importantly, outcome indicators address the ultimate patient care uses that pathology information is put to. Comparison of performance to peer laboratories, external quality control, is a practical, if limited, yardstick of performance. Customer satisfaction and turn-around-time of tests are receiving more recent attention as quality measures. Blood banking, because of its inherently complex cycle from donor phlebotomy to product infusion, requires special considerations with regard to quality management. Reporting of anatomical pathology, where the only gold standard is a consensus of experts, also does not lend itself to classical numerical quality assessment.

  3. Interleukin-22: immunobiology and pathology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dudakov, Jarrod A.; Hanash, Alan M.; van den Brink, Marcel R.M.

    2015-01-01

    Interleukin-22 (IL-22) is a recently described IL-10 family cytokine that is produced by T-helper (Th)-17 cells, γδ T cells, NKT cells and newly described innate lymphoid cells (ILCs). Knowledge of IL-22 biology has rapidly evolved since its discovery in 2000, and a role for IL-22 has been identified in numerous tissues including the intestines, lung, liver, kidney, thymus, pancreas and skin. IL-22 primarily targets non-hematopoietic epithelial and stromal cells where it can promote proliferation and play a role in tissue regeneration. In addition, IL-22 regulates host defense at barrier surfaces. However, IL-22 has also been linked to several conditions involving inflammatory tissue pathology. In this review, we will assess the current understanding of this cytokine, including its physiologic and pathologic effects on epithelial cell function. PMID:25706098

  4. Pharmacological Treatments in Pathological Gambling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grant, Jon E; Odlaug, Brian Lawrence; Schreiber, Liana R N

    2012-01-01

    AIMS: Pathological gambling (PG) is a relatively common and often disabling psychiatric condition characterized by intrusive urges to engage in deleterious gambling behavior. Although common and financially devastating to individuals and families, there currently exist no formally approved...... pharmacotherapeutic interventions for this disorder. This review seeks to examine the history of medication treatments for PG. METHODS: A systematic review of the 18 double-blind, placebo-controlled pharmacotherapy studies conducted for the treatment of pathological gambling was conducted. Study outcome and the mean...... demonstrated mixed results in controlled clinical trials. Although limited information is available, opioid antagonists and glutamatergic agents have demonstrated efficacious outcomes, especially for individuals with PG suffering from intense urges to engage in the behavior. CONCLUSIONS: Given that several...

  5. The normal and pathological language

    OpenAIRE

    Espejo, Luis D.

    2014-01-01

    The extraordinary development of normal and pathological psychology has achieved in recent decades, thanks to the dual method of objective observation and oral survey enabled the researcher spirit of neuro-psychiatrist penetrate the intimate mechanism of the nervous system whose supreme manifestation is thought. It is normal psychology explaining the complicated game of perceptions: their methods of transmission, their centers of projection, its transformations and its synthesis to construct ...

  6. Informational pathologies and interest bubbles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hendricks, Vincent Fella; Wiewiura, Joachim Schmidt

    2017-01-01

    This article contends that certain configurations of information networks facilitate specific cognitive states that are instrumental for decision and action on social media. Group-related knowledge and belief states—in particular common knowledge and pluralistic ignorance—may enable strong public...... signals. Indeed, some network configurations and attitude states foster informational pathologies that may fuel interest bubbles affecting agenda-setting and the generation of narratives in public spheres....

  7. Pathological features of glutaminase toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baskerville, A.; Hambleton, P.; Benbough, J. E.

    1980-01-01

    In an investigation of the toxicity of the anti-tumour enzyme glutaminase Rhesus monkeys, marmosets, rabbits and mice were given various doses of chemically modified glutaminase parenterally. The enzyme induced diarrhoea and dysentery and at all but the lowest doses caused illness which was fatal within 10 days. Pathological lesions produced were hepatic lipidosis and glycogen accumulation, and, in the primates, acute necrotizing colitis. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 PMID:6775661

  8. Insulin dysfunction and Tau pathology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noura eEl Khoury

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The neuropathological hallmarks of Alzheimer's disease (AD include senile plaques of β-amyloid (Aβ peptides (a cleavage product of the Amyloid Precursor Protein, or APP and neurofibrillary tangles (NFT of hyperphosphorylated Tau protein assembled in paired helical filaments (PHF. NFT pathology is important since it correlates with the degree of cognitive impairment in AD.Only a small proportion of AD is due to genetic variants, whereas the large majority of cases (~99% is late onset and sporadic in origin. The cause of sporadic AD is likely to be multifactorial, with external factors interacting with biological or genetic susceptibilities to accelerate the manifestation of the disease.Insulin dysfunction, manifested by diabetes mellitus (DM might be such factor, as there is extensive data from epidemiological studies suggesting that DM is associated with an increased relative risk for AD. Type 1 diabetes (T1DM and type 2 diabetes (T2DM are known to affect multiple cognitive functions in patients. In this context, understanding the effects of diabetes on Tau pathogenesis is important since tau pathology show a strong relationship to dementia in AD, and to memory loss in normal aging and mild cognitive impairment.Here, we reviewed preclinical studies that link insulin dysfunction to Tau protein pathogenesis, one of the major pathological hallmarks of AD. We found more than 30 studies reporting on Tau phosphorylation in a mouse or rat model of insulin dysfunction. We also payed attention to potential sources of artifacts, such as hypothermia and anesthesia, that were demonstrated to results in Tau hyperphosphorylation and could major confounding experimental factors. We found that very few studies reported the temperature of the animals, and only a handful did not use anesthesia. Overall, most published studies showed that insulin dysfunction can promote Tau hyperphosphorylation and pathology, both directly and indirectly, through hypothermia.

  9. The relation between Acid Volatile Sulfides (AVS) and metal accumulation in aquatic invertebrates: implications of feeding behavior and ecology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Jonge, Maarten; Blust, Ronny; Bervoets, Lieven

    2010-05-01

    The present study evaluates the relationship between Acid Volatile Sulfides (AVS) and metal accumulation in invertebrates with different feeding behavior and ecological preferences. Natural sediments, pore water and surface water, together with benthic and epibenthic invertebrates were sampled at 28 Flemish lowland rivers. Different metals as well as metal binding sediment characteristics including AVS were measured and multiple regression was used to study their relationship with accumulated metals in the invertebrates taxa. Bioaccumulation in the benthic taxa was primarily influenced by total metal concentrations in the sediment. Regarding the epibenthic taxa metal accumulation was mostly explained by the more bioavailable metal fractions in both the sediment and the water. AVS concentrations were generally better correlated with metal accumulation in the epibenthic invertebrates, rather than with the benthic taxa. Our results indicated that the relation between AVS and metal accumulation in aquatic invertebrates is highly dependent on feeding behavior and ecology. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Pathological Jealousy: An Interactive Condition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seeman, Mary V

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this review is to describe the psychopathology, antecedents, and current management of pathological jealousy from an interpersonal perspective. The Google Scholar database was searched with the following terms: delusional jealousy; morbid jealousy; paranoid jealousy; pathological jealousy; Othello syndrome; delusional disorder-jealous type; conjugal paranoia. From a total of 600 articles, 40 were selected based on their currency and pertinence to the interpersonal aspects of jealousy. Findings were that delusional jealousy is equally prevalent among men and women, with a greater prevalence in the elderly. Antecedents to this condition can be neurologic, drug related, and/or psychological, most often preceded by low self-esteem and excessive dependence on a romantic partner. Pathological jealousy can be triggered by the behavior of the partner and maintained by reasoning biases and by the psychological benefits that it initially bestows on the relationship. In the long run, however, it poses dangerous risks to the patient, the partner, and the imagined rival so that involuntary hospitalization is sometimes required. Treatment recommendations include couple therapy, a strong cognitive focus, antipsychotic medication, and interventions which enhance self-esteem of both partners and which address the solidarity of the existing relationship. Treatment effectiveness does not yet have a firm evidence base.

  11. Organization and operation of the marine ornamental fish and invertebrate export fishery in Puerto Rico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard S LeGore

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available This fishery was examined utilizing public records,stakeholder interviews,and operational site visits to describe the fishery for the Puerto Rico Coral Reef Advisory Committee as a first step toward development of policies for the effective management of these natural resources.The fishery is not large,including fewer than 20 licensed fishers operating primarily on the west end of the island.Only three operators export product,with the remaining fishers providing specimens to the exporters based upon customer orders.Most collection of coral reef species occurs over hard rubble zones mixed with relic reef structures and rock,or on the sides and frontal areas of active reefs.Other species are collected from among mangrove prop root zones,tidal flats,and seagrass beds.Collections are made using simple barrier and dip nets for fish and motile invertebrates such as shrimp. Invertebrates such as crabs,starfish,and sea cucumbers are commonly collected by overturning small rocks, gathering the specimens,and then replacing the rocks in their original positions.Specimens are carried to the boat and transferred to individual cup holders to maximize survival.Although statements concerning former use of chemicals to assist capture were noted,no evidence of current chemical use was observed.Specimens are held in re-circulating seawater systems onshore until collections are aggregated and shipped.The fishery strives to operate with mortality of 3%are described as unacceptable to customers.More than 100 fish species are collected in this fishery,but the top ten species account for >70%of the total numbers and >60% of the total value of the fishery,with a single species,Gramma loreto (Royal Gramma,comprising >40%of the numbers. More than 100 species of invertebrates are collected,but this fishery is also dominated by a handful of species,including anemones,hermit crabs,turbo snails,serpent starfish,and feather duster polychaetes.Se estudió la pesquería de

  12. Pathology Informatics Essentials for Residents: A flexible informatics curriculum linked to Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education milestones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henricks, Walter H; Karcher, Donald S; Harrison, James H; Sinard, John H; Riben, Michael W; Boyer, Philip J; Plath, Sue; Thompson, Arlene; Pantanowitz, Liron

    2016-01-01

    Context: Recognition of the importance of informatics to the practice of pathology has surged. Training residents in pathology informatics have been a daunting task for most residency programs in the United States because faculty often lacks experience and training resources. Nevertheless, developing resident competence in informatics is essential for the future of pathology as a specialty. Objective: The objective of the study is to develop and deliver a pathology informatics curriculum and instructional framework that guides pathology residency programs in training residents in critical pathology informatics knowledge and skills and meets Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education Informatics Milestones. Design: The College of American Pathologists, Association of Pathology Chairs, and Association for Pathology Informatics formed a partnership and expert work group to identify critical pathology informatics training outcomes and to create a highly adaptable curriculum and instructional approach, supported by a multiyear change management strategy. Results: Pathology Informatics Essentials for Residents (PIER) is a rigorous approach for educating all pathology residents in important pathology informatics knowledge and skills. PIER includes an instructional resource guide and toolkit for incorporating informatics training into residency programs that vary in needs, size, settings, and resources. PIER is available at http://www.apcprods.org/PIER (accessed April 6, 2016). Conclusions: PIER is an important contribution to informatics training in pathology residency programs. PIER introduces pathology trainees to broadly useful informatics concepts and tools that are relevant to practice. PIER provides residency program directors with a means to implement a standardized informatics training curriculum, to adapt the approach to local program needs, and to evaluate resident performance and progress over time. PMID:27563486

  13. Strategies for teaching pathology to graduate students and allied health professionals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fenderson, Bruce A

    2005-02-01

    Pathology is an essential course for many students in the biomedical sciences and allied health professions. These students learn the language of pathology and medicine, develop an appreciation for mechanisms of disease, and understand the close relationship between basic research and clinical medicine. We have developed 3 pathology courses to meet the needs of our undergraduates, graduate students, and allied health professionals. Through experience, we have settled on an approach to teaching pathology that takes into account the diverse educational backgrounds of these students. Educational resources such as assigned reading, online homework, lectures, and review sessions are carefully balanced to adjust course difficulty. Common features of our pathology curricula include a web-based computer laboratory and review sessions on the basis of selected pathology images and open-ended study questions. Lectures, computer-guided homework, and review sessions provide the core educational content for undergraduates. Graduate students, using the same computer program and review material, rely more heavily on assigned reading for core educational content. Our experience adapting a pathology curriculum to the needs of divergent groups of students suggests a general strategy for monitoring course difficulty. We hypothesize that course difficulty is proportional to the information density of specific learning resources (eg, lecture or textbook) multiplied by the weight of those learning resources placed on examinations. This formula allows educators to match the difficulty of a course with the educational needs of students, and provides a useful tool for longitudinal studies of curriculum reform.

  14. Invertebrate herbivory on floating-leaf macrophytes at the northeast of Argentina: should the damage be taken into account in estimations of plant biomass?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez, Fedra S; Franceschini, Celeste

    2018-01-01

    We assessed the damage produced by invertebrate herbivores per leaf lamina and per m2 of populations floating-leaf macrophytes of Neotropical wetlands in the growth and decay periods, and assessed if the damage produced by the herbivores should be taken into account in the estimations of plant biomass of these macrophytes or not. The biomass removed per lamina and per m2 was higher during the growth period than in decay period in Nymphoides indica and Hydrocleys nymphoides, while Nymphaea prolifera had low values of herbivory in growth period. During decay period this plant is only present as vegetative propagules. According to the values of biomass removed per m2 of N. indica, underestimation up to 17.69% should be produced in cases that herbivory do not should be taking account to evaluate these plant parameters on this macrophyte. Therefore, for the study of biomass and productivity in the study area, we suggest the use of corrected lamina biomass after estimating the biomass removed by herbivores on N. indica. The values of damage in N. indica emphasize the importance of this macrophyte as a food resource for invertebrate herbivores in the trophic networks of the Neotropical wetlands.

  15. Isotopic signatures (13C/12C; 15N/14N) of blue penguin burrow soil invertebrates : carbon sources and trophic relationships

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hawke, D.J.; Clark, J.M.

    2010-01-01

    Seabird burrows provide a soil environment for processing discards such as feathers and guano, hence constituting a primary interface between the sea and the land. This study involved collection and culturing of soil invertebrates from three blue penguin (Eudyptula minor) burrows, and examined their 13 C/ 12 C and 15 N/ 14 N isotopic composition in relation to potential burrow resources (terrestrial plant litter, burrow soil, guano, blue penguin feathers). Two taxa (cerylonid beetles and small tineid moth larvae) had a depleted 13 C/ 12 C indicative of a level of dependence on C from terrestrial soil. Tineid moth larvae (Monopis crocicapitella and (or) M. ethelella) substantially increased their 13 C/ 12 C enrichment during development, implying increasing dependence on marine C. Remaining taxa, both decomposers and predators, had 13 C/ 12 C intermediate between guano and feathers. Larval and emergent fleas had the most enriched 13 C/ 12 C , indicative of a greater dependence on feather C and the likelihood of co-processing with guano. Pseudoscorpions and histerid beetles had overlapping isotopic enrichments implying competition for prey, but were spatially separated in burrow soil. With their highly enriched 15 N/ 14 N and marine 13 C/ 12 C, larvae and protonymphs of the histiostomatid mite Myianoetus antipodus stood alone. Blue penguin burrows therefore support a diverse invertebrate fauna that incorporates terrestrial soil as well as varying proportions of the various blue penguin discards. (author). 45 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.

  16. Endozoochory of seeds and invertebrates by migratory waterbirds in Oklahoma, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Andy J.; Frisch, Dagmar; Michot, Thomas C.; Allain, Larry K.; Barrow, Wylie C.

    2013-01-01

    Given their abundance and migratory behavior, waterbirds have major potential for dispersing plants and invertebrates within North America, yet their role as vectors remains poorly understood. We investigated the numbers and types of invertebrates and seeds within freshly collected faecal samples (n = 22) of migratory dabbling ducks and shorebirds in November 2008 in two parts of Lake Texoma in southern Oklahoma. Killdeer Charadrius vociferus were transporting a higher number and diversity of both plants and invertebrates than the green-winged teal Anas carolinensis. Ten plant taxa and six invertebrate taxa were identified to at least genus level, although viability was not confirmed for most of these taxa. Bryozoan statoblasts (from four species not previously recorded from Oklahoma) were especially abundant in killdeer faeces, while the ostracod Candona simpsoni was detected as a live adult in torpor in the teal faeces. Cyperaceae and Juncaceae were the most abundant plant families represented and Cyperus strigosus seeds germinated after extraction from killdeer faeces. This snapshot study underlines the importance of waterbirds as vectors of passive dispersal of many organisms and the need for more research in this discipline.

  17. Invertebrates of Meadow Creek, Union County, Oregon, and their use as food by trout.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carl E. McLemore; William R. Meehan

    1988-01-01

    From 1976 to 1980, invertebrates were collected three times each year from several reaches of Meadow Creek in eastern Oregon. Five sampling methods were used: benthos, drift, sticky traps, water traps, and fish stomachs. A total of 372 taxa were identified, of which 239 were used as food by rainbow trout (steelhead; Salmo gairdneri Richardson). Of...

  18. Influence of acidification and aluminium on the density and biomass of lotic benthic invertebrates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allard, M.; Moreau, G.

    1986-10-01

    Experiments were carried out in plasticized wooden channels fed by a small creek in the Reserve des Laurentides, 80 km north of Quebec city. Channels were naturally colonized by invertebrates for 65 d before treatment. Treated channels were acidified in August with dilute H/sub 2/SO/sub 4/ only, or with acid plus a solution of Al sulfate (final concentration of 0.19 mg L/sup -1/). The control channel received creek water only (pH 6.3 to 6.9). The addition of Al had no effect on invertebrate density and biomass. After 73 d of acidification, invertebrate densities were only one third the number found in the control channel. Invertebrate biomass was not different within channels, although biomass was generally higher in the two acidified channels. Difference in densities between acidified and non-acidified channels was attributed to lack of colonization and not to an increase in drift. Microtendipes, a large and resistant larva of Chironomidae constituted a large fraction of the biomass, largely outweighing numerous very small larvae. Effects on the density were attributed to the direct effect of low pH and not to indirect action through food limitations. 22 refs.

  19. Shape shifting predicts ontogenetic changes in metabolic scaling in diverse aquatic invertebrates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Glazier, Douglas S.; Hirst, Andrew G.; Atkinson, D.

    2016-01-01

    in metabolic scaling that deviate from 3/4-power scaling predicted by general models. Here, we show that in diverse aquatic invertebrates, ontogenetic shifts in the scaling of routine metabolic rate from near isometry (bR = scaling exponent approx. 1) to negative allometry (bR

  20. Diastereoisomer- and species-specific distribution of hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD) in fish and marine invertebrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Son, Min-Hui; Kim, Jongchul; Shin, Eun-Su; Seo, Sung-Hee; Chang, Yoon-Seok

    2015-12-30

    The levels and distributional characteristics of hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD) diastereoisomers have been largely reported for various fish and select shellfish. In this study, we reclassified a number and variety of marine invertebrates, including shellfish, to further contribute to the comprehensive understanding of the effects and assessment of human exposure to HBCD. Overall, 30 marine invertebrate species (n=188) were investigated and the following order of ∑2HBCD (α- and γ-HBCD) was observed: fish>chordata>cephalopoda>echinodermata>bivalve>crustacea. The marine invertebrates that were reclassified into nektonic and benthic organisms showed similar concentration of ∑2HBCD. The feeding habits and modes of the marine organisms were considered to compare the degree of bioaccumulation and diastereoisomer-specific distribution of HBCD due to the effects of the environment in and around pollution sources, as well as the organisms' metabolic capacities. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study to examine the species-specific distribution patterns of HBCD for both fish and marine invertebrates. We expect to significantly expand the understanding of the environmental fate of HBCD for marine organisms. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Larval settlement: the role of surface topography for sessile coral reef invertebrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whalan, Steve; Wahab, Muhammad A Abdul; Sprungala, Susanne; Poole, Andrew J; de Nys, Rocky

    2015-01-01

    For sessile marine invertebrates with complex life cycles, habitat choice is directed by the larval phase. Defining which habitat-linked cues are implicated in sessile invertebrate larval settlement has largely concentrated on chemical cues which are thought to signal optimal habitat. There has been less effort establishing physical settlement cues, including the role of surface microtopography. This laboratory based study tested whether surface microtopography alone (without chemical cues) plays an important contributing role in the settlement of larvae of coral reef sessile invertebrates. We measured settlement to tiles, engineered with surface microtopography (holes) that closely matched the sizes (width) of larvae of a range of corals and sponges, in addition to surfaces with holes that were markedly larger than larvae. Larvae from two species of scleractinian corals (Acropora millepora and Ctenactis crassa) and three species of coral reef sponges (Luffariella variabilis, Carteriospongia foliascens and Ircinia sp.,) were used in experiments. L. variabilis, A. millepora and C. crassa showed markedly higher settlement to surface microtopography that closely matched their larval width. C. foliascens and Ircinia sp., showed no specificity to surface microtopography, settling just as often to microtopography as to flat surfaces. The findings of this study question the sole reliance on chemical based larval settlement cues, previously established for some coral and sponge species, and demonstrate that specific physical cues (surface complexity) can also play an important role in larval settlement of coral reef sessile invertebrates.

  2. Spiders in Motion: Demonstrating Adaptation, Structure-Function Relationships, and Trade-Offs in Invertebrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowlin, Melissa S.; McLeer, Dorothy F.; Danielson-Francois, Anne M.

    2014-01-01

    Evolutionary history and structural considerations constrain all aspects of animal physiology. Constraints on invertebrate locomotion are especially straightforward for students to observe and understand. In this exercise, students use spiders to investigate the concepts of adaptation, structure-function relationships, and trade-offs. Students…

  3. Will Invertebrates Require Increasingly Carbon-Rich Food in a Warming World?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Thomas R; Hessen, Dag O; Boersma, Maarten; Urabe, Jotaro; Mayor, Daniel J

    2017-12-01

    Elevated temperature causes metabolism and respiration to increase in poikilothermic organisms. We hypothesized that invertebrate consumers will therefore require increasingly carbon-rich diets in a warming environment because the increased energetic demands are primarily met using compounds rich in carbon, that is, carbohydrates and lipids. Here, we test this hypothesis using a new stoichiometric model that has carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) as currencies. Model predictions did not support the hypothesis, indicating instead that the nutritional requirements of invertebrates, at least in terms of food quality expressed as C∶N ratio, may change little, if at all, at elevated temperature. Two factors contribute to this conclusion. First, invertebrates facing limitation by nutrient elements such as N have, by default, excess C in their food that can be used to meet the increased demand for energy in a warming environment, without recourse to extra dietary C. Second, increased feeding at elevated temperature compensates for the extra demands of metabolism to the extent that, when metabolism and intake scale equally with temperature (have the same Q 10 ), the relative requirement for dietary C and N remains unaltered. Our analysis demonstrates that future climate-driven increases in the C∶N ratios of autotroph biomass will likely exacerbate the stoichiometric mismatch between nutrient-limited invertebrate grazers and their food, with important consequences for C sequestration and nutrient cycling in ecosystems.

  4. Evidence of lead biomagnification in invertebrate predators from laboratory and field experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rubio-Franchini, Isidoro; Rico-Martinez, Roberto

    2011-01-01

    This report includes atomic absorption data from water column, elutriates and zooplankton that demonstrate that lead biomagnifies at El Niagara reservoir, Mexico. Results include field data (bioaccumulation factors) (BAFs) and laboratory data (bioconcentration factors) (BCFs). Two findings: high BAFs for invertebrate predator like Acanthocyclops robustus, Asplanchna brightwellii, Culex sp. larvae, and Hyalella azteca, compared to grazer species Moina micrura and Simocephalus vetulus; low BCF's found for some predators, suggested that lead biomagnifications were taking place. The presence of Moina micrura in the gut of Asplanchna allowed us to design experiments where A. brightwellii was fed lead-exposed M. micrura neonates. The BAF of Asplanchna was 123,684, BCF was 490. Asplanchna individuals fed exposed Moina had 13.31 times more lead than Asplanchna individuals just exposed 48-h to lead, confirming that lead biomagnification occurs. Results of two fish species showed no lead biomagnification, suggesting that lead biomagnification might be restricted to invertebrate predators. - Highlights: → Study shows lead biomagnification evidence in reservoirs where top predators are invertebrates. → Study discusses why in previous studies lead biomagnifications were not detected. → Evidence of biomagnification comes from field and laboratory studies. - This study shows evidence (from field and laboratory experiments) of lead biomagnification in a freshwater reservoir where the main predators are invertebrates.

  5. Accumulation and effects of sediment-associated silver nanoparticles to sediment-dwelling invertebrates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ramskov, Tina; Forbes, Valery E; Gilliland, Douglas

    2015-01-01

    are in high demand. Here, we examine the effects of exposure to sediment mixed with either aqueous Ag (administered as AgNO3) or Ag NPs (13 nm, citrate-capped) at a nominal exposure concentration of 100 μg Ag/g dry weight sediment on four benthic invertebrates: two clones of the gastropod Potamopyrgus...

  6. Diversity and community structure of epibenthic invertebrates and fish in the North Sea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Callaway, R.; Alsväg, J.; de Boois, I.

    2002-01-01

    The structure of North Sea benthic invertebrate and fish communities is an important indicator of anthropogenic and environmental impacts. Although North Sea fish stocks are monitored regularly, benthic fauna are not. Here, we report the results of a survey carried out in 2000, in which five...

  7. Uptake and elimination kinetics of metals in soil invertebrates: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ardestani, Masoud M; van Straalen, Nico M; van Gestel, Cornelis A M

    2014-10-01

    Uptake and elimination kinetics of metals in soil invertebrates are a function of both soil and organism properties. This study critically reviewed metal toxicokinetics in soil invertebrates and its potential use for assessing bioavailability. Uptake and elimination rate constants of different metals are summarized. Invertebrates have different strategies for essential and non-essential metals. As a consequence, different types of models must be applied to describe metal uptake and elimination kinetics. We discuss model parameters for each metal separately and show how they are influenced by exposure concentrations and by physiological properties of the organisms. Soil pH, cation exchange capacity, clay and organic matter content significantly affect uptake rates of non-essential metals in soil invertebrates. For essential metals, kinetics is hardly influenced by soil properties, but rather prone to physiological regulation mechanisms of the organisms. Our analysis illustrates that toxicokinetics can be a valuable measurement to assess bioavailability of soil-bound metals. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Nearshore marine benthic invertebrates moving north along the U.S. Atlantic coast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Numerous species have shifted their ranges north in response to global warming. We examined 21 years (1990-2010) of marine benthic invertebrate data from the National Coastal Assessment’s monitoring of nearshore waters along the US Atlantic coast. Data came from three bioge...

  9. Shedding light on detritus: Interactions between invertebrates, bacteria and substrates in benthic habitats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hunting, E.R.

    2013-01-01

    The processing of dead organic matter, also known as detritus, is a central ecosystem process driven by detritus feeding organisms that are mostly located at the bottom of water bodies where dead organic matter (OM) accumulates. Detritivorous organisms form communities composed of invertebrates,

  10. Responsible genetic approach to stock restoration, sea ranching and stock enhancement of marine fishes and invertebrates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grant, W. Stewart; Jasper, James; Bekkevold, Dorte

    2017-01-01

    of marine fishes and invertebrates have been implemented with various outcomes. A review of the literature indicates that considerable effort has been directed toward culture technologies to maximize production, but scant attention has been given to genetic risks to wild populations. Genetic risks from...

  11. Methylmercury in water, sediment, and invertebrates in created wetlands of Rouge Park, Toronto, Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sinclair, Kathleen A.; Xie Qun; Mitchell, Carl P.J.

    2012-01-01

    Thousands of hectares of wetlands are created annually because wetlands provide beneficial ecosystem services. Wetlands are also key sites for production of the bioaccumulative neurotoxin methylmercury (MeHg), but little is known about MeHg production in created systems. Here, we studied methylmercury in sediment, water, and invertebrates in created wetlands of various ages. Sediment MeHg reached 8 ng g −1 in the newest wetland, which was significantly greater than in natural, control wetlands. This trend was mirrored in several invertebrate taxa, whose concentrations reached as high as 1.6 μg g −1 in the newest wetland, above levels thought to affect reproduction in birds. The MeHg concentrations in created wetland invertebrate taxa generally decreased with increasing wetland age, possibly due to a combination of deeper anoxia and less organic matter accumulation in younger wetlands. A short-term management intervention and/or improved engineering design may be necessary to reduce the mercury-associated risk in newly created wetlands. - Highlights: ► Investigated methylmercury accumulation in created wetland ecosystems. ► Concentrations and bioaccumulation significantly elevated in new created wetlands. ► Short-term effect may be due to deeper anoxia, less organic matter in new wetlands. ► Intervention or improved design required to reduce short-term ecological risk. - Sediment methylmercury concentrations and bioaccumulation in many invertebrate taxa are significantly elevated in newly created wetlands.

  12. Relative importance of vertebrates and invertebrates in epigeaic weed seed predation in organic cereal fields

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Westerman, P.R.; Hofman, A.; Vet, L.E.M.; Van der Werf, W.

    2003-01-01

    Exclosure trials were conducted in four organic cereal fields in The Netherlands in 1999 and 2000 to determine the relative importance of vertebrates and invertebrates in weed seed predation. The trials showed that seed predation by vertebrates was rather consistent and predictable, occurring on all

  13. Marine & Other Invertebrates. Animal Life in Action[TM]. Schlessinger Science Library. [Videotape].

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000

    This 23-minute videotape for grades 5-8, presents the myriad of animal life that exists on the planet. Students can view and perform experiments and investigations that help explain animal traits and habits. Invertebrate animals include a vast array of spineless creatures. In this video, students discover marine lifeforms such as jellyfish,…

  14. Spatial and temporal variation in invertebrate consumer diets in forested and herbaceous wetlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alani N. Taylor; Darold P. Batzer

    2010-01-01

    Macroinvertebrates have important functional roles in wetland ecosystems, but these roles are not always well understood. This study assessed which foods invertebrate consumers assimilate within a set of wetland habitats. During 2006 and 2007, non-Tanypodinae chironomid larvae and select crustaceans (Crangonyx amphipods, Caecidotea isopods, Simocephalus cladocerans)...

  15. Left-right asymmetries of behaviour and nervous system in invertebrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frasnelli, Elisa; Vallortigara, Giorgio; Rogers, Lesley J

    2012-04-01

    Evidence of left-right asymmetries in invertebrates has begun to emerge, suggesting that lateralization of the nervous system may be a feature of simpler brains as well as more complex ones. A variety of studies have revealed sensory and motor asymmetries in behaviour, as well as asymmetries in the nervous system, in invertebrates. Asymmetries in behaviour are apparent in olfaction (antennal asymmetries) and in vision (preferential use of the left or right visual hemifield during activities such as foraging or escape from predators) in animals as different as bees, fruitflies, cockroaches, octopuses, locusts, ants, spiders, crabs, snails, water bugs and cuttlefish. Asymmetries of the nervous system include lateralized position of specific brain structures (e.g., in fruitflies and snails) and of specific neurons (e.g., in nematodes). As in vertebrates, lateralization can occur both at the individual and at the population-level in invertebrates. Theoretical models have been developed supporting the hypothesis that the alignment of the direction of behavioural and brain asymmetries at the population-level could have arisen as a result of social selective pressures, when individually asymmetrical organisms had to coordinate with each other. The evidence reviewed suggests that lateralization at the population-level may be more likely to occur in social species among invertebrates, as well as vertebrates. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Neonicotinoids thiamethoxam and clothianidin adversely affect the colonisation of invertebrate populations in aquatic microcosms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basley, Kate; Goulson, Dave

    2018-04-01

    Surface waters are sometimes contaminated with neonicotinoids: a widespread, persistent, systemic class of insecticide with leaching potential. Previous ecotoxicological investigations of this chemical class in aquatic ecosystems have largely focused on the impacts of the neonicotinoid imidacloprid; few empirical, manipulative studies have investigated the effect on invertebrate abundances of two other neonicotinoids which are now more widely used: clothianidin and thiamethoxam. In this study, we employ a simple microcosm semi-field design, incorporating a one-off contamination event, to investigate the effect of these pesticides at field-realistic levels (ranging from 0 to 15 ppb) on invertebrate colonisation and survival in small ephemeral ponds. In line with previous research on neonicotinoid impacts on aquatic invertebrates, significant negative effects of both neonicotinoids were found. There were clear differences between the two chemicals, with thiamethoxam generally producing stronger negative effects than clothianidin. Populations of Chironomids (Diptera) and Ostracoda were negatively affected by both chemicals, while Culicidae appeared to be unaffected by clothianidin at the doses used. Our data demonstrate that field-realistic concentrations of neonicotinoids are likely to reduce populations of invertebrates found in ephemeral ponds, which may have knock on effects up the food chain. We highlight the importance of developing pesticide monitoring schemes for European surface waters.

  17. Toxicity of aluminium on five aquatic invertebrates; Aluminiums toksisitet paa 5 akvatiske invertebrater

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moe, J [Oslo Univ. (Norway)

    1996-01-01

    The conference paper deals with the experiments done by investigating the effects from the toxicity of aluminium on aquatic invertebrates. The aim of the experiments was to compare the toxicity of unstable aluminium compounds with stable forms of aluminium. 8 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs.

  18. The fossil record, function, and possible origins of shell color patterns in Paleozoic marine invertebrates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kobluk, D.R. (Univ. of Toronto, Ontario (Canada)); Mapes, R.H. (Ohio Univ., Athens (USA))

    1989-02-01

    Fossil invertebrate shells and carapaces displaying preserved original color patterns are among the rarest fossils. The fossil record of color patterns extends into the Middle Cambrian where the trilobite Anomocare displays a fan-like array of stripes on the pygidium. About 180 Paleozic genera are known with patterns, including trilobites, cephalopods, gastropods, brachiopods, bivalves, crinoids, and crustaceans. Based upon an analysis of these taxa, it appears that patterns and pigments in middle and late Paleozoic invertebrates may have served several functions such as warning displays, light screening, camouflage, or waste disposal. However, the presence of color patterns in fossil invertebrates in the early Paleozoic may have developed prior to the evolution of vision sufficiently sophisticated to see them. This suggests that camouflage and warning displays were not the original functions of color patterns, and that in the earliest Paleozoic they may not have been functional. The authors propose a hypothesis that involves three developmental phases in the evolution of invertebrate color patterns: (1) the incorporation of metabolic by-products, perhaps some pigmented and some not pigmented, into shells and carapaces as a means of disposal of dietary or metabolic wastes, (2) use of these pigments and patterns as an environmental adaptation, such as light screening, and (3) display during and following the evolution of vision in predators sufficiently sophisticated to see the patterns.

  19. Age-related environmental gradients influence invertebrate distribution in the Prince Charles Mountains, East Antarctica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czechowski, Paul; White, Duanne; Clarke, Laurence; McKay, Alan; Cooper, Alan; Stevens, Mark I

    2016-12-01

    The potential impact of environmental change on terrestrial Antarctic ecosystems can be explored by inspecting biodiversity patterns across large-scale gradients. Unfortunately, morphology-based surveys of Antarctic invertebrates are time-consuming and limited by the cryptic nature of many taxa. We used biodiversity information derived from high-throughput sequencing (HTS) to elucidate the relationship between soil properties and invertebrate biodiversity in the Prince Charles Mountains, East Antarctica. Across 136 analysed soil samples collected from Mount Menzies, Mawson Escarpment and Lake Terrasovoje, we found invertebrate distribution in the Prince Charles Mountains significantly influenced by soil salinity and/or sulfur content. Phyla Tardigrada and Arachnida occurred predominantly in low-salinity substrates with abundant nutrients, whereas Bdelloidea (Rotifera) and Chromadorea (Nematoda) were more common in highly saline substrates. A significant correlation between invertebrate occurrence, soil salinity and time since deglaciation indicates that terrain age indirectly influences Antarctic terrestrial biodiversity, with more recently deglaciated areas supporting greater diversity. Our study demonstrates the value of HTS metabarcoding to investigate environmental constraints on inconspicuous soil biodiversity across large spatial scales.

  20. Effects of offshore oil drilling on benthic invertebrate communities on the Grand Banks (North Atlantic)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DeBlois, E. [Jacques Whitford Ltd., St. John' s, NL (Canada); Wight, F. [Husky Oil Operations Ltd., St. John' s, NL (Canada); Taylor, D. [DG Taylor Inc., Conception Bay South, NL (Canada); Paine, M. [Paine, Ledge and Associates, North Vancouver, BC (Canada)

    2007-07-01

    Drilling occurs at three different drill centres of the White Rose (WR) oil platform that lies 350 km offshore from St. John's Newfoundland. An extensive environmental effects monitoring (EEM) program conducted by Husky Energy is underway at the WR site. The sediment component of the program involves the measurement of physical and chemical characteristics, an assessment of toxicity in laboratory tests, and an assessment of in situ benthic invertebrate communities. Baseline sampling occurred in 2000, followed by post-drilling sampling in 2004 to 2006. The sediment is 95 per cent sand, with polychaetes and bivalves dominating the invertebrate communities. A comparative evaluation was performed for regressions between community variables and distances from drill centres before and after drilling. Concentration-response relationships between community variables and concentrations of major constituents in drilling muds (C10-C21 HCs) were also compared among years. It was shown that the biological effects on invertebrate communities were highly restricted to reductions in the amount of Paraonidae and Amphipoda near drill centres and at higher C10-C21 HC concentrations. The study revealed that the two most abundant invertebrate communities were not influenced by drilling in terms of standing crop, richness, diversity and evenness.

  1. Utilization of organic matter by invertebrates along an estuarine gradient in an intermittently open estuary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lautenschlager, Agnes D.; Matthews, Ty G.; Quinn, Gerry P.

    2014-08-01

    In intermittently open estuaries, the sources of organic matter sustaining benthic invertebrates are likely to vary seasonally, particularly between periods of connection and disconnection with the ocean and higher and lower freshwater flows. This study investigated the contribution of allochthonous and autochthonous primary production to the diet of representative invertebrate species using stable isotope analysis (SIA) during the austral summer and winter (2008, 2009) in an intermittently open estuary on the south-eastern coast of Australia. As the study was conducted towards the end of a prolonged period of drought, a reduced influence of freshwater/terrestrial organic matter was expected. Sampling was conducted along an estuarine gradient, including upper, middle and lower reaches and showed that the majority of assimilated organic matter was derived from autochthonous estuarine food sources. Additionally, there was an input of allochthonous organic matter, which varied along the length of the estuary, indicated by distinct longitudinal trends in carbon and nitrogen stable isotope signatures along the estuarine gradient. Marine seaweed contributed to invertebrate diets in the lower reaches of the estuary, while freshwater/terrestrial organic matter had increased influence in the upper reaches. Suspension-feeding invertebrates derived large parts of their diet from freshwater/terrestrial material, despite flows being greatly reduced in comparison with non-drought years.

  2. Macro-Invertebrate Decline in Surface Water Polluted with Imidacloprid : A Rebuttal and Some New Analyses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vijver, M.G.; Brink, van den P.J.

    2014-01-01

    Imidacloprid, the largest selling insecticide in the world, has received particular attention from scientists, policymakers and industries due to its potential toxicity to bees and aquatic organisms. The decline of aquatic macro-invertebrates due to imidacloprid concentrations in the Dutch surface

  3. Macro-Invertebrate Decline in surface water polluted with Imidacloprid: A rebuttal and soome new analyses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vijver, M.G.; Brink, van den P.J.

    2014-01-01

    Imidacloprid, the largest selling insecticide in the world, has received particular attention from scientists, policymakers and industries due to its potential toxicity to bees and aquatic organisms. The decline of aquatic macro-invertebrates due to imidacloprid concentrations in the Dutch surface

  4. Methane release from millipedes and other soil invertebrates in Central Europe

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šustr, Vladimír; Šimek, Miloslav

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 41, č. 8 (2009), s. 1684-1688 ISSN 0038-0717 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60660521 Keywords : invertebrates * diplopoda * methane production Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 2.978, year: 2009

  5. Acoustic study of fish and invertebrate behavior in a tropical reservoir

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Prchalová, M.; Drastík, V.; Kubeka, J.; Sricharoendham, B.; Schiemer, F.; Vijverberg, J.

    2003-01-01

    The fish and invertebrate behavior of the Ubol Ratana Reservoir, Thailand, were monitored using up- and downlooking split beam sonar located at a fixed location. In the same area and period, ichthyoplankton nets and multimesh gillnets were used. The bulk of targets, recorded by acoustics and direct

  6. Effects of timber harvests on invertebrate biomass and avian nest success

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeffrey P. Duguay; Petra Bohall Wood; Gary W. Miller

    2000-01-01

    Concerns over declining songbird populations have led to investigations of effects of various timber management practices on breeding songbirds. We assessed the influence of 2 types of practices, two-age and clearcutting, on invertebrate biomass and avian daily nest survival in the Monongahela National Forest of West Virginia during summers of 1995 and 1996. We also...

  7. An introductory study of subterranean communities of invertebrates in forested talus habitats in southern Slovakia

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Mock, A.; Šašková, T.; Raschmanová, N.; Jászay, T.; Luptáčik, P.; Rendoš, M.; Tajovský, Karel; Jászayová, A.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 79, č. 3 (2015), s. 243-256 ISSN 1211-376X R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) 7AMB12SK189 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : invertebrates * forested talus * vertical distribution * Cerová vrchovina Mts * Revúcka vrchovina Mts Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour

  8. Stream invertebrate productivity linked to forest subsidies: 37 stream-years of reference and experimental data

    Science.gov (United States)

    J. Bruce Wallace; Susan L Eggert; Judy L. Meyer; Jackson R. Webster

    2015-01-01

    Riparian habitats provide detrital subsidies of varying quantities and qualities to recipient ecosystems. We used long-term data from three reference streams (covering 24 stream-years) and 13-year whole-stream organic matter manipulations to investigate the influence of terrestrial detrital quantity and quality on benthic invertebrate community structure, abundance,...

  9. Are invertebrates relevant models in ageing research? Focus on the effects of rapamycin on TOR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erdogan, Cihan Suleyman; Hansen, Benni Winding; Vang, Ole

    2016-01-01

    Ageing is the organisms increased susceptibility to death, which is linked to accumulated damage in the cells and tissues. Ageing is a complex process regulated by crosstalk of various pathways in the cells. Ageing is highly regulated by the Target of Rapamycin (TOR) pathway activity. TOR is an evolutionary conserved key protein kinase in the TOR pathway that regulates growth, proliferation and cell metabolism in response to nutrients, growth factors and stress. Comparing the ageing process in invertebrate model organisms with relatively short lifespan with mammals provides valuable information about the molecular mechanisms underlying the ageing process faster than mammal systems. Inhibition of the TOR pathway activity via either genetic manipulation or rapamycin increases lifespan profoundly in most invertebrate model organisms. This contribution will review the recent findings in invertebrates concerning the TOR pathway and effects of TOR inhibition by rapamycin on lifespan. Besides some contradictory results, the majority points out that rapamycin induces longevity. This suggests that administration of rapamycin in invertebrates is a promising tool for pursuing the scientific puzzle of lifespan prolongation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Invertebrate fossils from cave sediments: A new proxy for pre-Quaternary paleoenvironments

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Moldovan, O.T.; Mihevc, A.; Miko, L.; Constantin, S.; Meleg, I. N.; Petculescu, A.; Bosák, Pavel

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 8, č. 7 (2011), s. 1825-1837 ISSN 1726-4170 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA300130701 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30130516 Keywords : fossil invertebrates * Oribatida * Pliocene/Pleistocene * caves * caves (Slovenia) Subject RIV: DB - Geology ; Mineralogy Impact factor: 3.859, year: 2011

  11. Effects of neonicotinoids and fipronil on non-target invertebrates : Environmental Science and Pollution Research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pisa, L.W.; Amaral-Rogers, V.; Belzunces, L.P.; Bonmatin, J.M.; Downs, C.A.; Goulson, D.; Kreutzweiser, D.P.; Krupke, C.; Liess, M.; McField, M.; Morrissey, C.A.; Noome, D.A.; Settele, J.; Simon-Delso, N.; Stark, J.D.; Van der Sluijs, J.P.; Van Dyck, H.; Wiemers, M.

    2015-01-01

    We assessed the state of knowledge regarding the effects of large-scale pollution with neonicotinoid insecticides and fipronil on non-target invertebrate species of terrestrial, freshwater and marine environments. A large section of the assessment is dedicated to the state of knowledge on sublethal

  12. EFFECTS OF ON-BOTTOM OYSTER MARICULTURE ON SMALL, SEDIMENT-DWELLING INVERTEBRATES

    Science.gov (United States)

    As part of a programmatic effort to determine estuarine habitat values for ecological risk assessments, quantitative field studies of small ( 0.5 mm), sediment-dwelling invertebrates were conducted in Willapa Bay, WA in July 1998 and Tillamook Bay, OR in July 1999. The six habit...

  13. OYSTER GROUNDS, A SUPERIOR HABITAT FOR SMALL, SEDIMENT-DWELLING INVERTEBRATES

    Science.gov (United States)

    As part of a programmatic effort to determine estuarine habitat values for ecological risk assessments, quantitative field studies of small, sediment-dwelling invertebrates were conducted in Willapa Bay, WA in July 1998 and Tillamook Bay, OR in July 1999. The six habitats includ...

  14. Extensive renovation the pathology of heritage building

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Torben Valdbjørn

    2015-01-01

    The pathology of heritage buildings is often related to renovation initiatives typically initiated by implementing energy savings measures.......The pathology of heritage buildings is often related to renovation initiatives typically initiated by implementing energy savings measures....

  15. Extensive renovation the pathology of heritage buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Torben Valdbjørn

    2015-01-01

    The pathology of heritage buildings is often related to renovation initiatives typically initiated by implementing energy savings measures.......The pathology of heritage buildings is often related to renovation initiatives typically initiated by implementing energy savings measures....

  16. Personality dimensions and disorders in pathological gambling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Odlaug, Brian Lawrence; Schreiber, Liana R N; Grant, Jon E

    2013-01-01

    This review presents the most current research in personality dimensions and disorders with respect to pathological gambling.......This review presents the most current research in personality dimensions and disorders with respect to pathological gambling....

  17. Congruence Couple Therapy for Pathological Gambling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Bonnie K.

    2009-01-01

    Couple therapy models for pathological gambling are limited. Congruence Couple Therapy is an integrative, humanistic, systems model that addresses intrapsychic, interpersonal, intergenerational, and universal-spiritual disconnections of pathological gamblers and their spouses to shift towards congruence. Specifically, CCT's theoretical…

  18. A newly developed dispersal metric indicates the succession of benthic invertebrates in restored rivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Fengqing; Sundermann, Andrea; Stoll, Stefan; Haase, Peter

    2016-11-01

    Dispersal capacity plays a fundamental role in the riverine benthic invertebrate colonization of new habitats that emerges following flash floods or restoration. However, an appropriate measure of dispersal capacity for benthic invertebrates is still lacking. The dispersal of benthic invertebrates occurs mainly during the aquatic (larval) and aerial (adult) life stages, and the dispersal of each stage can be further subdivided into active and passive modes. Based on these four possible dispersal modes, we first developed a metric (which is very similar to the well-known and widely used saprobic index) to estimate the dispersal capacity for 802 benthic invertebrate taxa by incorporating a weight for each mode. Second, we tested this metric using benthic invertebrate community data from a) 23 large restored river sites with substantial improvements of river bottom habitats dating back 1 to 10years, b) 23 unrestored sites very close to the restored sites, and c) 298 adjacent surrounding sites (mean±standard deviation: 13.0±9.5 per site) within a distance of up to 5km for each restored site in the low mountain and lowland areas of Germany. We hypothesize that our metric will reflect the temporal succession process of benthic invertebrate communities colonizing the restored sites, whereas no temporal changes are expected in the unrestored and surrounding sites. By applying our metric to these three river treatment categories, we found that the average dispersal capacity of benthic invertebrate communities in the restored sites significantly decreased in the early years following restoration, whereas there were no changes in either the unrestored or the surrounding sites. After all taxa had been divided into quartiles representing weak to strong dispersers, this pattern became even more obvious; strong dispersers colonized the restored sites during the first year after restoration and then significantly decreased over time, whereas weak dispersers continued to increase

  19. Global patterns in post-dispersal seed removal by invertebrates and vertebrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peco, Begoña; Laffan, Shawn W; Moles, Angela T

    2014-01-01

    It is commonly accepted that species interactions such as granivory are more intense in the tropics. However, this has rarely been tested. A global dataset of post-dispersal seed removal by invertebrates and vertebrates for 79 native plant species from semi-natural and natural terrestrial habitats ranging from 55° N to 45° S, was compiled from the global literature to test the hypothesis that post-dispersal seed removal by invertebrates and vertebrates is more intense at lower latitudes. We also quantified the relationship between post-dispersal seed removal by vertebrates and by invertebrates to global climatic features including temperature, actual evapotranspiration (AET) and rainfall seasonality. Linear mixed effect models were applied to describe the relationships between seed removal and latitude, hemisphere and climatic variables controlling for the effect of seed mass. Post-dispersal seed removal by invertebrates was negatively related to latitude. In contrast, post-dispersal seed removal by vertebrates was positively but weakly related to latitude. Mean annual temperature and actual evapotranspiration were positively related to post-dispersal seed removal by invertebrates, but not to post-dispersal seed removal by vertebrates, which was only marginally negatively related to rainfall seasonality. The inclusion of seed mass improved the fit of all models, but the term for seed mass was not significant in any model. Although a good climatic model for predicting post-dispersal seed predation by vertebrates at the global level was not found, our results suggest different and opposite latitudinal patterns of post-dispersal seed removal by invertebrates vs vertebrates. This is the first time that a negative relationship between post-dispersal seed removal by invertebrates and latitude, and a positive relationship with temperature and AET have been documented at a global-scale. These results have important implications for understanding global patterns in plant

  20. Spiritual Pathology: The Case of Adolf Hitler

    OpenAIRE

    W. George Scarlett

    2012-01-01

    Hitler had a noble purpose (to save the world) and a strong faith in the laws of Nature as he understood Nature. He was, then, a spiritual person, though his spirituality was pathological and destructive. Here, the example of Hitler, his faith, and his spiritual pathology is given to both understand spiritual pathology in general and, through contrast, to understand positive spiritual development.

  1. 42 CFR 493.853 - Condition: Pathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Condition: Pathology. 493.853 Section 493.853 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... These Tests § 493.853 Condition: Pathology. The specialty of pathology includes, for purposes of...

  2. Global warming and mass mortalities of benthic invertebrates in the Mediterranean Sea.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irene Rivetti

    Full Text Available Satellite data show a steady increase, in the last decades, of the surface temperature (upper few millimetres of the water surface of the Mediterranean Sea. Reports of mass mortalities of benthic marine invertebrates increased in the same period. Some local studies interpreted the two phenomena in a cause-effect fashion. However, a basin-wide picture of temperature changes combined with a systematic assessment on invertebrate mass mortalities was still lacking. Both the thermal structure of the water column in the Mediterranean Sea over the period 1945-2011 and all documented invertebrate mass mortality events in the basin are analysed to ascertain if: 1- documented mass mortalities occurred under conditions of positive temperature trends at basin scale, and 2- atypical thermal conditions were registered at the smaller spatial and temporal scale of mass mortality events. The thermal structure of the shallow water column over the last 67 years was reconstructed using data from three public sources: MEDAR-MEDATLAS, World Ocean Database, MFS-VOS programme. A review of the mass mortality events of benthic invertebrates at Mediterranean scale was also carried out. The analysis of in situ temperature profiles shows that the Mediterranean Sea changed in a non-homogeneous fashion. The frequency of mass mortalities is increasing. The areas subjected to these events correspond to positive thermal anomalies. Statistically significant temperature trends in the upper layers of the Mediterranean Sea show an increase of up to 0.07°C/yr for a large fraction of the basin. Mass mortalities are consistent with both the temperature increase at basin scale and the thermal changes at local scale, up to 5.2°C. Our research supports the existence of a causal link between positive thermal anomalies and observed invertebrate mass mortalities in the Mediterranean Sea, invoking focused mitigation initiatives in sensitive areas.

  3. Global Warming and Mass Mortalities of Benthic Invertebrates in the Mediterranean Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivetti, Irene; Fraschetti, Simonetta; Lionello, Piero; Zambianchi, Enrico; Boero, Ferdinando

    2014-01-01

    Satellite data show a steady increase, in the last decades, of the surface temperature (upper few millimetres of the water surface) of the Mediterranean Sea. Reports of mass mortalities of benthic marine invertebrates increased in the same period. Some local studies interpreted the two phenomena in a cause-effect fashion. However, a basin-wide picture of temperature changes combined with a systematic assessment on invertebrate mass mortalities was still lacking. Both the thermal structure of the water column in the Mediterranean Sea over the period 1945–2011 and all documented invertebrate mass mortality events in the basin are analysed to ascertain if: 1- documented mass mortalities occurred under conditions of positive temperature trends at basin scale, and 2- atypical thermal conditions were registered at the smaller spatial and temporal scale of mass mortality events. The thermal structure of the shallow water column over the last 67 years was reconstructed using data from three public sources: MEDAR-MEDATLAS, World Ocean Database, MFS-VOS programme. A review of the mass mortality events of benthic invertebrates at Mediterranean scale was also carried out. The analysis of in situ temperature profiles shows that the Mediterranean Sea changed in a non-homogeneous fashion. The frequency of mass mortalities is increasing. The areas subjected to these events correspond to positive thermal anomalies. Statistically significant temperature trends in the upper layers of the Mediterranean Sea show an increase of up to 0.07°C/yr for a large fraction of the basin. Mass mortalities are consistent with both the temperature increase at basin scale and the thermal changes at local scale, up to 5.2°C. Our research supports the existence of a causal link between positive thermal anomalies and observed invertebrate mass mortalities in the Mediterranean Sea, invoking focused mitigation initiatives in sensitive areas. PMID:25535973

  4. Aquarium Trade Supply-Chain Losses of Marine Invertebrates Originating from Papua New Guinea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Militz, Thane A.; Kinch, Jeff; Southgate, Paul C.

    2018-04-01

    A major difficulty in managing live organism wildlife trade is often the reliance on trade data to monitor exploitation of wild populations. Harvested organisms that die or are discarded before a point of sale are regularly not reported. For the global marine aquarium trade, identifying supply-chain losses is necessary to more accurately assess exploitation from trade data. We examined quality control rejections and mortality of marine invertebrates (Asteroidea, Gastropoda, Malacostraca, Ophiuroidea) moving through the Papua New Guinea marine aquarium supply-chain, from fisher to importer. Utilizing catch invoices and exporter mortality records we determined that, over a 160 day period, 38.6% of the total invertebrate catch ( n = 13,299 individuals) was lost before export. Supply-chain losses were divided among invertebrates rejected in the quality control process (11.5%) and mortality of the accepted catch in transit to, and during holding at, an export facility (30.6%). A further 0.3% died during international transit to importers. We quantified supply-chain losses for the ten most fished species which accounted for 96.4% of the catch. Quality control rejections ( n = 1533) were primarily explained by rejections of oversized invertebrates (83.2% of rejections). We suggest that enforceable size limits on species prone to size-based rejections and elimination of village-based holding of invertebrates would reduce losses along the Papua New Guinea supply-chain. This case study underscores that low mortality during international transit may mask large losses along supply-chains prior to export and exemplifies the limitations of trade data to accurately monitor exploitation.

  5. EDXRF applied to the chemical element determination of small invertebrate samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Magalhaes, Marcelo L.R.; Santos, Mariana L.O.; Cantinha, Rebeca S.; Souza, Thomas Marques de; Franca, Elvis J. de

    2015-01-01

    Energy Dispersion X-Ray Fluorescence - EDXRF is a fast analytical technique of easy operation, however demanding reliable analytical curves due to the intrinsic matrix dependence and interference during the analysis. By using biological materials of diverse matrices, multielemental analytical protocols can be implemented and a group of chemical elements could be determined in diverse biological matrices depending on the chemical element concentration. Particularly for invertebrates, EDXRF presents some advantages associated to the possibility of the analysis of small size samples, in which a collimator can be used that directing the incidence of X-rays to a small surface of the analyzed samples. In this work, EDXRF was applied to determine Cl, Fe, P, S and Zn in invertebrate samples using the collimator of 3 mm and 10 mm. For the assessment of the analytical protocol, the SRM 2976 Trace Elements in Mollusk produced and SRM 8415 Whole Egg Powder by the National Institute of Standards and Technology - NIST were also analyzed. After sampling by using pitfall traps, invertebrate were lyophilized, milled and transferred to polyethylene vials covered by XRF polyethylene. Analyses were performed at atmosphere lower than 30 Pa, varying voltage and electric current according to the chemical element to be analyzed. For comparison, Zn in the invertebrate material was also quantified by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry after acid treatment (mixture of nitric acid and hydrogen peroxide) of samples have. Compared to the collimator of 10 mm, the SRM 2976 and SRM 8415 results obtained by the 3 mm collimator agreed well at the 95% confidence level since the E n Number were in the range of -1 and 1. Results from GFAAS were in accordance to the EDXRF values for composite samples. Therefore, determination of some chemical elements by EDXRF can be recommended for very small invertebrate samples (lower than 100 mg) with advantage of preserving the samples. (author)

  6. Metal toxicity affects predatory stream invertebrates less than other functional feeding groups

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liess, Matthias; Gerner, Nadine V.; Kefford, Ben J.

    2017-01-01

    Ecosystem effects of heavy metals need to be identified for a retrospective risk assessment, and potential impacts need to be predicted for a prospective risk assessment. In this study, we established a strong correlation between the toxic pressure of dissolved metals and invertebrate species. We compiled available data from a wide geographical range of Australian streams that were contaminated with heavy metals [mainly copper (Cu) and zinc (Zn)] and the corresponding invertebrate communities. Heavy metal toxicity is positively related to the proportion of predators within the invertebrate community, represented by the predator ratio , with an effect threshold range of 2.6 μg/L - 26 μg/L for Cu and 62 μg/L - 617 μg/L for Zn. These effect concentrations are in the ranges of the concentrations identified in model ecosystems and other field investigations and are just above the existing guideline limits. Heavy metals also affects the taxa richness negatively. Other community measures, such as the evenness, number of EPT (Ephemeroptera, Plecoptera, and Trichoptera) taxa, SPEcies At Risk (SPEAR) pesticides or SPEAR salinity were relatively poorly correlated with heavy metal toxicity in the streams. Therefore, we suggest applying the predator ratio within the community as a starting point for an indicator of the dissolved metal toxicity, the SPEAR metals . - Highlights: • Data on dissolved metals and invertebrates were compiled for a wide geographical range. • Heavy metal toxicity was strongly related to the predator ratio. • Ecologically relevant thresholds identified for Cu and Zn were above the guideline limits. - Increasing metal toxicity for Cu and Zn in streams could be related to an increasing predator ratio within the invertebrate community.

  7. Biological responses to acidification reversal in Cumbrian streamwaters - invertebrates and bacteria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tipping, E.; Bass, J.A.B.; Blackburn, J.H.; Hardie, D.J.; Mallinson, H.E.H.; Simon, B.M.

    2000-07-01

    The stream waters of the upper Duddon catchment, situated in the south-west of the English Lake District, have been acidified as a result of acid deposition. However, there is now strong chemical evidence for recovery, as the acidity of deposition decreases. The present study was carried out in order to investigate possible improvements in biological response. This report describes the results of sampling and analysis, carried out to obtain biological data in 1999 for comparison with data obtained in the 1960s and early 1970s for invertebrates and in the 1980s for bacteria. Macro-invertebrate studies were carried out in five streams which had records from the 1960s and 1970s, and which covered a range of pH (ca. 5 to ca. 7). Significantly more macro-invertebrate taxa were found in all the streams in 1999. The macro-invertebrate diversity was greater in 1999, as judged by the Margalef diversity index. There have been significant increases in the values of a macro-invertebrate based acidification index between the 1960s/1970s and the present, consistent with a decrease in stream water acidity. Species of the bacterium Cytophaga, which participates in the decomposition of plant litter, are absent from streams of low pH. Cytophaga was detected in a stream from which it had previously absent, which is consistent with an increase in pH. Taking the results of the present study together with those of previous ones showing that stream and lake acidity in Cumbria have decreased over the last 20-30 years, it can be concluded that decreases in acid deposition (of S) have led to improvements in water quality, and thereby to positive biological responses. (author)

  8. Contents and risk assessment of heavy metals in marine invertebrates from Korean coastal fish markets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mok, Jong Soo; Kwon, Ji Young; Son, Kwang Tae; Choi, Woo Seok; Kang, Sung Rim; Ha, Na Young; Jo, Mi Ra; Kim, Ji Hoe

    2014-06-01

    The concentrations of the heavy metals cadmium (Cd), mercury (Hg), lead (Pb), chromium, silver, nickel, copper, and zinc in the edible portions of 105 marine invertebrates representing 16 mollusk and crustacean species were accurately determined to evaluate their hazard for human consumption. The samples were collected in 2011 from major fish markets on the coast of Korea and analyzed for Hg using a direct Hg analyzer and for other metals using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Estimated dietary exposure (EDE) was determined, and a risk assessment was made of the heavy metals to provide information concerning consumer safety. The Cd concentrations, which were the highest for the three hazardous metals (Cd, Hg, and Pb), were significantly higher (P Food Additives or the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. The EDE of Cd, Hg, and Pb for each class of marine invertebrate were 0.07 to 2.64, 0.01 to 0.43, and 0.001 to 0.16% of the PTDI, respectively. The total EDE of Cd, Hg, and Pb for marine invertebrates accounted for 4.03, 0.96, and 0.21%, respectively, of the PTDI. The EDE of other metals in each class of marine invertebrate was less than 2% of the PTDI. The hazard index is a reasonable parameter for assessing the risk of heavy metal consumption associated with contaminated food. In the present study, the hazard index for all of the species was less than 1.0, which indicates that the intake of heavy metals from consumption of these marine invertebrates does not represent an appreciable hazard to humans.

  9. EDXRF applied to the chemical element determination of small invertebrate samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Magalhaes, Marcelo L.R.; Santos, Mariana L.O.; Cantinha, Rebeca S.; Souza, Thomas Marques de; Franca, Elvis J. de, E-mail: marcelo_rlm@hotmail.com, E-mail: marianasantos_ufpe@hotmail.com, E-mail: rebecanuclear@gmail.com, E-mail: thomasmarques@live.com.pt, E-mail: ejfranca@cnen.gov.br [Centro Regional de Ciencias Nucleares do Nordeste (CRCN-NE/CNEN-PE), Recife, PE (Brazil)

    2015-07-01

    Energy Dispersion X-Ray Fluorescence - EDXRF is a fast analytical technique of easy operation, however demanding reliable analytical curves due to the intrinsic matrix dependence and interference during the analysis. By using biological materials of diverse matrices, multielemental analytical protocols can be implemented and a group of chemical elements could be determined in diverse biological matrices depending on the chemical element concentration. Particularly for invertebrates, EDXRF presents some advantages associated to the possibility of the analysis of small size samples, in which a collimator can be used that directing the incidence of X-rays to a small surface of the analyzed samples. In this work, EDXRF was applied to determine Cl, Fe, P, S and Zn in invertebrate samples using the collimator of 3 mm and 10 mm. For the assessment of the analytical protocol, the SRM 2976 Trace Elements in Mollusk produced and SRM 8415 Whole Egg Powder by the National Institute of Standards and Technology - NIST were also analyzed. After sampling by using pitfall traps, invertebrate were lyophilized, milled and transferred to polyethylene vials covered by XRF polyethylene. Analyses were performed at atmosphere lower than 30 Pa, varying voltage and electric current according to the chemical element to be analyzed. For comparison, Zn in the invertebrate material was also quantified by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry after acid treatment (mixture of nitric acid and hydrogen peroxide) of samples have. Compared to the collimator of 10 mm, the SRM 2976 and SRM 8415 results obtained by the 3 mm collimator agreed well at the 95% confidence level since the E{sub n} Number were in the range of -1 and 1. Results from GFAAS were in accordance to the EDXRF values for composite samples. Therefore, determination of some chemical elements by EDXRF can be recommended for very small invertebrate samples (lower than 100 mg) with advantage of preserving the samples. (author)

  10. Aquarium Trade Supply-Chain Losses of Marine Invertebrates Originating from Papua New Guinea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Militz, Thane A; Kinch, Jeff; Southgate, Paul C

    2018-04-01

    A major difficulty in managing live organism wildlife trade is often the reliance on trade data to monitor exploitation of wild populations. Harvested organisms that die or are discarded before a point of sale are regularly not reported. For the global marine aquarium trade, identifying supply-chain losses is necessary to more accurately assess exploitation from trade data. We examined quality control rejections and mortality of marine invertebrates (Asteroidea, Gastropoda, Malacostraca, Ophiuroidea) moving through the Papua New Guinea marine aquarium supply-chain, from fisher to importer. Utilizing catch invoices and exporter mortality records we determined that, over a 160 day period, 38.6% of the total invertebrate catch (n = 13,299 individuals) was lost before export. Supply-chain losses were divided among invertebrates rejected in the quality control process (11.5%) and mortality of the accepted catch in transit to, and during holding at, an export facility (30.6%). A further 0.3% died during international transit to importers. We quantified supply-chain losses for the ten most fished species which accounted for 96.4% of the catch. Quality control rejections (n = 1533) were primarily explained by rejections of oversized invertebrates (83.2% of rejections). We suggest that enforceable size limits on species prone to size-based rejections and elimination of village-based holding of invertebrates would reduce losses along the Papua New Guinea supply-chain. This case study underscores that low mortality during international transit may mask large losses along supply-chains prior to export and exemplifies the limitations of trade data to accurately monitor exploitation.

  11. Ethics and Professionalism in Pathology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Baral

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Pathologists spend most of their professional lives beyond direct view of the public, mostly inside the four walls of the lab. It is the clinicians who face the wrath of the public when something goes wrong. However, with the growing awareness of the public into the decisive role played by the Pathologists in the definitive diagnosis of the disease, the pathologists will soon be the target of the aggrieved patients and relatives.1 The issue of ethics can be dealt when professionalism comes before profession. "Professionalism in medicine requires that physician serve the interests of the patient above his or her own selfinterest." Professionalism aspires to philanthropy, answerability, excellence, duty, service and respect for others. "Professionalism in Pathology is based on the same tenets, but has additional dimensions."The qualities of professionalism for pathologists include 1. Communication with the patients and the clinicians. A small phone call with the clinician will solve most of the clinical mysteries not written in the lab requisition forms; 2. Empathy and Compassion towards patients', colleagues', and laboratory personnel's culture, age, gender, and disabilities; 3. Demonstration of passion, respect and understanding towards the patients; 4. Adherence to guidelines and regulations of the regulatory and accrediting bodies; and 5.Profeciency and knowledge in one's work is valued by the patients more than the credentials, which also enables one to identify deficiencies in peer performance. The basic competencies of professionalism are vital to every pathology report, which in turn is the mirror of the ethics practiced by the pathologist. Evaluating oneself is perhaps the most important tool in maintaining professionalism in the practice of pathology. One colleague recently defined professionalism as “all the things one does when no one is watching,” thus placing personal integrity at the top of the list.

  12. Microprobe analysis in human pathology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baker, D.; Kupke, K.G.; Ingram, P.; Roggli, V.L.; Shelburne, J.D.

    1985-01-01

    This tutorial paper reviews the literature on the application of microprobe analysis to practical problems in diagnostic human pathology. The goal is to allow the reader ready access to the literature on specific clinical problems. Specimen preparation and commonly encountered artifacts are also considered. It is concluded that energy dispersive x-ray microanalysis and back-scattered electron imaging are at present the most generally useful microprobe techniques for clinical work, and are no longer solely research tools. The findings often have diagnostic, therapeutic, and/or legal implications. 332 references

  13. Pathological buying and partnership status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Astrid; de Zwaan, Martina; Mitchell, James E; Zimmermann, Tanja

    2016-05-30

    This pilot study investigated the partnership status and the level of pathological buying (PB) in 157 female patients with PB and 1153 women from a German population-based sample. Slightly more than half of both samples were currently living with a partner. The results suggest a protective effect of being in a couple relationship in the representative sample. In contrast, having a partner was not related to the severity of PB among patients. Future studies should address the question of whether the characteristics and quality of partnership have an impact on the severity and course of PB, and vice versa. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. The Cellosaurus, a Cell-Line Knowledge Resource

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bairoch, Amos

    2018-01-01

    The Cellosaurus is a knowledge resource on cell lines. It aims to describe all cell lines used in biomedical research. Its scope encompasses both vertebrates and invertebrates. Currently, information for >100,000 cell lines is provided. For each cell line, it provides a wealth of information, cross-references, and literature citations. The Cellosaurus is available on the ExPASy server (https://web.expasy.org/cellosaurus/) and can be downloaded in a variety of formats. Among its many uses, the Cellosaurus is a key resource to help researchers identify potentially contaminated/misidentified cell lines, thus contributing to improving the quality of research in the life sciences. PMID:29805321

  15. Water Resources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abira, M.A.

    1997-01-01

    Water is essential for life and ecological sustenance; its availability is essential component of national welfare and productivity.The country's socio-economic activities are largely dependent on the natural endowment of water resources. Kenya's water resources comprises of surface waters (rivers, lakes and wetlands) and ground water. Surface water forms 86% of total water resources while the rest is ground water Geological, topographical and climatic factors influence the natural availability and distribution of water with the rainfall distribution having the major influence. Water resources in Kenya are continuously under threat of depletion and quality degradation owing to rising population, industrialization, changing land use and settlement activities as well as natural changes. However, the anticipated climate change is likely to exacerbate the situation resulting in increased conflict over water use rights in particular, and, natural resource utilisation in general. The impacts of climate change on the water resources would lead to other impacts on environmental and socio-economic systems

  16. Effects of heated discharge on fish and invertebrates of White River at Petersburg, Indiana. Report of investigation No. 6

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whitaker, J.O. Jr.; Schlueter, R.A.; Proffitt, M.A.

    1973-12-01

    This report is based upon data gathered from June, 1971 through October, 1972, as part of continuing studies initiated to determine the effects of heated water on aquatic resources of the White River at Petersburg, Indiana. The heated effluent is discharged into the river by an electric generating station. Emphasis was placed on the distribution and abundance of smaller fish and invertebrates. A primary concern was to determine if the heated water affected the food habits, external parasites, or reproduction of the fishes. Sampling was continued through the winter to determine effects of heated discharge during the colder parts of the year. Results showed that differences can be found between heated and unheated water. However, the differences are rather minor and it is not always clear that they relate to temperature. Some may relate to other habitat factors. Other than in the effluent canal itself, where populations of organisms are much depressed, no evidence of major harmful effects caused by heated water were found

  17. Magnetic resonance imaging of popliteal artery pathologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holden, Andrew; Merrilees, Stephen; Mitchell, Nicola; Hill, Andrew

    2008-01-01

    This paper illustrates examples of popliteal artery pathologies imaged with contrast enhanced magnetic resonance angiography (CE-MRA) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) at a single tertiary referral centre. Popliteal artery pathologies were identified in 1710 patients referred over a 6-year period with symptoms suggesting lower limb arterial occlusive disease. Common pathologies such as atherosclerotic occlusive disease, thromboemboli and aneurysm disease are discussed as well as unusual pathologies such as cystic adventitial disease, mycotic aneurysm and arterial entrapment. The combination of CE-MRA and the excellent soft tissue resolution of MRI allow detailed evaluation of arterial and peri-arterial pathologies, and facilitate appropriate management decisions

  18. Magnetic resonance imaging of popliteal artery pathologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holden, Andrew [Department of Radiology, Auckland City Hospital, Park Road, Grafton, Auckland 9 (New Zealand)], E-mail: andrewh@adhb.govt.nz; Merrilees, Stephen [Department of Radiology, Auckland City Hospital, Park Road, Grafton, Auckland 9 (New Zealand)], E-mail: smerrilees@adhb.govt.nz; Mitchell, Nicola [Department of Radiology, Auckland City Hospital, Park Road, Grafton, Auckland 9 (New Zealand)], E-mail: nmit010@ec.auckland.ac.nz; Hill, Andrew [Department of Vascular Surgery, Auckland City Hospital, Park Road, Grafton, Auckland 9 (New Zealand)], E-mail: ahill@adhb.govt.nz

    2008-07-15

    This paper illustrates examples of popliteal artery pathologies imaged with contrast enhanced magnetic resonance angiography (CE-MRA) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) at a single tertiary referral centre. Popliteal artery pathologies were identified in 1710 patients referred over a 6-year period with symptoms suggesting lower limb arterial occlusive disease. Common pathologies such as atherosclerotic occlusive disease, thromboemboli and aneurysm disease are discussed as well as unusual pathologies such as cystic adventitial disease, mycotic aneurysm and arterial entrapment. The combination of CE-MRA and the excellent soft tissue resolution of MRI allow detailed evaluation of arterial and peri-arterial pathologies, and facilitate appropriate management decisions.

  19. Dopamine Agonists and Pathologic Behaviors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brendan J. Kelley

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The dopamine agonists ropinirole and pramipexole exhibit highly specific affinity for the cerebral dopamine D3 receptor. Use of these medications in Parkinson’s disease has been complicated by the emergence of pathologic behavioral patterns such as hypersexuality, pathologic gambling, excessive hobbying, and other circumscribed obsessive-compulsive disorders of impulse control in people having no history of such disorders. These behavioral changes typically remit following discontinuation of the medication, further demonstrating a causal relationship. Expression of the D3 receptor is particularly rich within the limbic system, where it plays an important role in modulating the physiologic and emotional experience of novelty, reward, and risk assessment. Converging neuroanatomical, physiological, and behavioral science data suggest the high D3 affinity of these medications as the basis for these behavioral changes. These observations suggest the D3 receptor as a therapeutic target for obsessive-compulsive disorder and substance abuse, and improved understanding of D3 receptor function may aid drug design of future atypical antipsychotics.

  20. Fibroadenomas: Sonographic-pathologic correlation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Mi Sung; Choi, Hye Young; Kim, Eun Ah; Lee, Sun Wha; Sung, Soon Hee

    1999-01-01

    To correlate sonographic appearance and histopathologic findings of fibroadenomas. Forty-one biopsy-proven fibroadenomas were retrospectively evaluate for sonographic-pathologic correlation. The fibroadenomas were histologically classified into sclerotic, myxoid, glandular and mixed type. The stromal cellularity and fibrosis were also classified into mild and severe. The internal echotexture and posterior acoustic enhancement of mass in ultrasonogram were correlated with histopathologic findings. The pathologic types of fibroadenomas were sclerotic in sixteen, myxoid in thirteen, and glandular or mixed in each of six cases. Most of the sclerotic type showed hypoechoic internal echotexture (68.8%) and myxoid and glandular types showed isoechoic internal echotexture (84.6%, 83.3% respectively). The hypoechoic masses showed 12 cases of mild (75.0%) and 4 cases of severe (25.0%) in cellularity and 3 cases of mild (18.7%) and 13 cases (81.3%) of sever degree in fibrosis. Most of the myxoid type (77%) showed posterior enhancement, and most of the sclerotic type (87.5%) did not show posterior enhancement on ultrasonogram. Posterior enhancement was absent in 22 cases, in which 4 cases (18.2%) showed mild and 18 cases (81.2%) showed severe degree of fibrosis. Sclerotic type with mild cellularity and severe fibrosis on histopathology showed hypoechogenicity on ultrasonogram; whereas myxoid and glandular types were predominantly isoechoic. Most of the myxoid type showed posterior enhancement. Sclerotic type with mild cellularity and severe fibrosis did not show posterior enhancement.