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Sample records for invertebrate muscles thin

  1. High-performance liquid chromatographic determination of the imino acids (opines) meso-alanopine and D-strombine in muscle extract of invertebrates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sandee, B.; Schipper, C.A.; Eertman, R.H.M.

    1996-01-01

    A sensitive HPLC method is presented for the determination of the imino acids alanopine and strombine, anaerobic metabolites that are formed in muscle tissue of several species of invertebrates. The separation of alanopine and strombine was achieved using the Alltech OA 2000 cation-exchange column.

  2. Thinness and muscularity internalization: Associations with disordered eating and muscle dysmorphia in men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klimek, Patrycja; Murray, Stuart B; Brown, Tiffany; Gonzales Iv, Manuel; Blashill, Aaron J

    2018-04-01

    The tripartite influence model of body image identifies internalization of societal body ideals as a risk factor for developing body dissatisfaction, and subsequent disordered eating behavior. In men, internalization of two dimensions of body image ideals, thinness and muscularity, is associated with body dissatisfaction and eating concerns. However, it is unknown how thinness and muscularity internalization interact in predicting muscle dysmorphia and disordered eating in men. Data were collected online from 180 undergraduate men, with ages ranging from 18 to 33 years (19.6, SD = 2.6). Regression models were used to test the interactive effects of thinness and muscularity internalization on (a) muscle dysmorphia symptoms and (b) disordered eating. Subsequent simple slope analyses probed effects at the mean, and ±1 standard deviation of thinness internalization. Muscularity and thinness internalization were independently positively related to muscle dysmorphia symptoms and disordered eating. Additionally, a significant interaction revealed that muscularity internalization was increasingly related to muscle dysmorphia symptoms as thinness internalization decreased. Men who internalized the muscular ideal had higher levels of muscle dysmorphia when they did not highly internalize the thin ideal. However, greater internalization of both the muscularity and thin ideal independently may be most relevant in the development of disordered eating in men. Future research is needed to explore variability in experiences of muscle dysmorphia compared with disordered eating in males. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Calpain-mediated proteolysis of tropomodulin isoforms leads to thin filament elongation in dystrophic skeletal muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gokhin, David S; Tierney, Matthew T; Sui, Zhenhua; Sacco, Alessandra; Fowler, Velia M

    2014-03-01

    Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) induces sarcolemmal mechanical instability and rupture, hyperactivity of intracellular calpains, and proteolytic breakdown of muscle structural proteins. Here we identify the two sarcomeric tropomodulin (Tmod) isoforms, Tmod1 and Tmod4, as novel proteolytic targets of m-calpain, with Tmod1 exhibiting ∼10-fold greater sensitivity to calpain-mediated cleavage than Tmod4 in situ. In mdx mice, increased m-calpain levels in dystrophic soleus muscle are associated with loss of Tmod1 from the thin filament pointed ends, resulting in ∼11% increase in thin filament lengths. In mdx/mTR mice, a more severe model of DMD, Tmod1 disappears from the thin filament pointed ends in both tibialis anterior (TA) and soleus muscles, whereas Tmod4 additionally disappears from soleus muscle, resulting in thin filament length increases of ∼10 and ∼12% in TA and soleus muscles, respectively. In both mdx and mdx/mTR mice, both TA and soleus muscles exhibit normal localization of α-actinin, the nebulin M1M2M3 domain, Tmod3, and cytoplasmic γ-actin, indicating that m-calpain does not cause wholesale proteolysis of other sarcomeric and actin cytoskeletal proteins in dystrophic skeletal muscle. These results implicate Tmod proteolysis and resultant thin filament length misspecification as novel mechanisms that may contribute to DMD pathology, affecting muscles in a use- and disease severity-dependent manner.

  4. Immunocytochemical electron microscopic study and western blot analysis of paramyosin in different invertebrate muscle cell types of the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster, the earthworm Eisenia foetida, and the snail Helix aspersa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Royuela, M; García-Anchuelo, R; Arenas, M I; Cervera, M; Fraile, B; Paniagua, R

    1996-04-01

    The presence and distribution pattern of paramyosin have been examined in different invertebrate muscle cell types by means of Western blot analysis and electron microscopy immunogold labelling. The muscles studied were: transversely striated muscle with continuous Z lines (flight muscle from Drosophila melanogaster), transversely striated muscle with discontinuous Z lines (heart muscle from the snail Helix aspersa), obliquely striated body wall muscle from the earthworm Eisenia foetida, and smooth muscles (retractor muscle from the snail and pseudoheart outer muscular layer from the earthworm). Paramyosin-like immunoreactivity was localized in thick filaments of all muscles studied. Immunogold particle density was similar along the whole thick filament length in insect flight muscle but it predominated in filament tips of fusiform thick filaments in both snail heart and earthworm body wall musculature when these filaments were observed in longitudinal sections. In obliquely sectioned thick filaments, immunolabelling was more abundant at the sites where filaments disappeared from the section. These results agree with the notion that paramyosin extended along the whole filament length, but that it can only be immunolabelled when it is not covered by myosin. In all muscles examined, immunolabelling density was lower in cross-sectioned myofilaments than in longitudinally sectioned myofilaments. This suggests that paramyosin does not form a continuous filament. The results of a semiquantitative analysis of paramyosin-like immunoreactivity indicated that it was more abundant in striated than in smooth muscles, and that, within striated muscles, transversely striated muscles contain more paramyosin than obliquely striated muscles.

  5. Invertebrate lamins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Melcer, Shai; Gruenbaum, Yosef; Krohne, Georg

    2007-01-01

    Lamins are the main component of the nuclear lamina and considered to be the ancestors of all intermediate filament proteins. They are localized mainly at the nuclear periphery where they form protein complexes with integral proteins of the nuclear inner membrane, transcriptional regulators, histones and chromatin modifiers. Studying lamins in invertebrate species has unique advantages including the smaller number of lamin genes in the invertebrate genomes and powerful genetic analyses in Caenorhabditis elegans and Drosophila melanogaster. These simpler nuclear lamina systems allow direct analyses of their structure and functions. Here we give an overview of recent advances in the field of invertebrate nuclear lamins with special emphasis on their evolution, assembly and functions

  6. Invertebrate biomechanics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patek, S N; Summers, A P

    2017-05-22

    Invertebrate biomechanics focuses on mechanical analyses of non-vertebrate animals, which at root is no different in aim and technique from vertebrate biomechanics, or for that matter the biomechanics of plants and fungi. But invertebrates are special - they are fabulously diverse in form, habitat, and ecology and manage this without the use of hard, internal skeletons. They are also numerous and, in many cases, tractable in an experimental and field setting. In this Primer, we will probe three axes of invertebrate diversity: worms (Phylum Annelida), spiders (Class Arachnida) and insects (Class Insecta); three habitats: subterranean, terrestrial and airborne; and three integrations with other fields: ecology, engineering and evolution. Our goal is to capture the field of invertebrate biomechanics, which has blossomed from having a primary focus on discoveries at the interface of physics and biology to being inextricably linked with integrative challenges that span biology, physics, mathematics and engineering. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Invertebrate neurophylogeny

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Richter, Stefan; Loesel, Rudi; Purschke, Günter

    2010-01-01

    Invertebrate nervous systems are highly disparate between different taxa. This is reflected in the terminology used to describe them, which is very rich and often confusing. Even very general terms such as 'brain', 'nerve', and 'eye' have been used in various ways in the different animal groups......, but no consensus on the exact meaning exists. This impedes our understanding of the architecture of the invertebrate nervous system in general and of evolutionary transformations of nervous system characters between different taxa....

  8. Zoology: Invertebrates that Parasitize Invertebrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giribet, Gonzalo

    2016-07-11

    The genome of an orthonectid, a group of highly modified parasitic invertebrates, is drastically reduced and compact, yet it shows the bilaterian gene toolkit. Phylogenetic analyses place the enigmatic orthonectids within Spiralia, although their exact placement remains uncertain. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Myosin binding protein-C activates thin filaments and inhibits thick filaments in heart muscle cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kampourakis, Thomas; Yan, Ziqian; Gautel, Mathias; Sun, Yin-Biao; Irving, Malcolm

    2014-12-30

    Myosin binding protein-C (MyBP-C) is a key regulatory protein in heart muscle, and mutations in the MYBPC3 gene are frequently associated with cardiomyopathy. However, the mechanism of action of MyBP-C remains poorly understood, and both activating and inhibitory effects of MyBP-C on contractility have been reported. To clarify the function of the regulatory N-terminal domains of MyBP-C, we determined their effects on the structure of thick (myosin-containing) and thin (actin-containing) filaments in intact sarcomeres of heart muscle. We used fluorescent probes on troponin C in the thin filaments and on myosin regulatory light chain in the thick filaments to monitor structural changes associated with activation of demembranated trabeculae from rat ventricle by the C1mC2 region of rat MyBP-C. C1mC2 induced larger structural changes in thin filaments than calcium activation, and these were still present when active force was blocked with blebbistatin, showing that C1mC2 directly activates the thin filaments. In contrast, structural changes in thick filaments induced by C1mC2 were smaller than those associated with calcium activation and were abolished or reversed by blebbistatin. Low concentrations of C1mC2 did not affect resting force but increased calcium sensitivity and reduced cooperativity of force and structural changes in both thin and thick filaments. These results show that the N-terminal region of MyBP-C stabilizes the ON state of thin filaments and the OFF state of thick filaments and lead to a novel hypothesis for the physiological role of MyBP-C in the regulation of cardiac contractility.

  10. Invertebrates in the Classroom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abramson, Charles I.

    1986-01-01

    Describes an inexpensive program using invertebrates as subjects in conditioning demonstrations and experiments. Provides a bibliography of reviews about invertebrate learning in addition to information on obtaining required apparatus and invertebrates.

  11. Thick-to-Thin Filament Surface Distance Modulates Cross-Bridge Kinetics in Drosophila Flight Muscle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanner, Bertrand C.W.; Farman, Gerrie P.; Irving, Thomas C.; Maughan, David W.; Palmer, Bradley M.; Miller, Mark S. (IIT); (Vermont); (BU)

    2012-09-19

    The demembranated (skinned) muscle fiber preparation is widely used to investigate muscle contraction because the intracellular ionic conditions can be precisely controlled. However, plasma membrane removal results in a loss of osmotic regulation, causing abnormal hydration of the myofilament lattice and its proteins. We investigated the structural and functional consequences of varied myofilament lattice spacing and protein hydration on cross-bridge rates of force development and detachment in Drosophila melanogaster indirect flight muscle, using x-ray diffraction to compare the lattice spacing of dissected, osmotically compressed skinned fibers to native muscle fibers in living flies. Osmolytes of different sizes and exclusion properties (Dextran T-500 and T-10) were used to differentially alter lattice spacing and protein hydration. At in vivo lattice spacing, cross-bridge attachment time (t{sub on}) increased with higher osmotic pressures, consistent with a reduced cross-bridge detachment rate as myofilament protein hydration decreased. In contrast, in the swollen lattice, t{sub on} decreased with higher osmotic pressures. These divergent responses were reconciled using a structural model that predicts t{sub on} varies inversely with thick-to-thin filament surface distance, suggesting that cross-bridge rates of force development and detachment are modulated more by myofilament lattice geometry than protein hydration. Generalizing these findings, our results suggest that cross-bridge cycling rates slow as thick-to-thin filament surface distance decreases with sarcomere lengthening, and likewise, cross-bridge cycling rates increase during sarcomere shortening. Together, these structural changes may provide a mechanism for altering cross-bridge performance throughout a contraction-relaxation cycle.

  12. Nanometer-thin TiO2 enhances skeletal muscle cell phenotype and behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ishizaki K

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Ken Ishizaki*, Yoshihiko Sugita*, Fuminori Iwasa, Hajime Minamikawa, Takeshi Ueno, Masahiro Yamada, Takeo Suzuki, Takahiro OgawaLaboratory for Bone and Implant Sciences, The Jane and Jerry Weintraub Center for Reconstructive Biotechnology, Division of Advanced Prosthodontics, Biomaterials and Hospital Dentistry, UCLA School of Dentistry, Los Angeles, CA, USA*Authors contributed equally to this workBackground: The independent role of the surface chemistry of titanium in determining its biological properties is yet to be determined. Although titanium implants are often in contact with muscle tissue, the interaction of muscle cells with titanium is largely unknown. This study tested the hypotheses that the surface chemistry of clinically established microroughened titanium surfaces could be controllably varied by coating with a minimally thin layer of TiO2 (ideally pico-to-nanometer in thickness without altering the existing topographical and roughness features, and that the change in superficial chemistry of titanium is effective in improving the biological properties of titanium.Methods and results: Acid-etched microroughened titanium surfaces were coated with TiO2 using slow-rate sputter deposition of molten TiO2 nanoparticles. A TiO2 coating of 300 pm to 6.3 nm increased the surface oxygen on the titanium substrates in a controllable manner, but did not alter the existing microscale architecture and roughness of the substrates. Cells derived from rat skeletal muscles showed increased attachment, spread, adhesion strength, proliferation, gene expression, and collagen production at the initial and early stage of culture on 6.3 nm thick TiO2-coated microroughened titanium surfaces compared with uncoated titanium surfaces.Conclusion: Using an exemplary slow-rate sputter deposition technique of molten TiO2 nanoparticles, this study demonstrated that titanium substrates, even with microscale roughness, can be sufficiently chemically modified to

  13. Accumulation of 210Po in Baltic invertebrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skwarzec, B.; Falkowski, L.

    1988-01-01

    This paper presents the results of an investigation of the 210 Po contents of Baltic marine invertebrates. The 210 Po concentrations fall within the range 11.3-78.9 Bq kg -1 (dry wt), the higher values relating to polychaeta, priapulida and malacostraca and the lower levels to bivalvia. It is demonstrated that 210 Po is non-uniformly distributed within the isopod Mesidotea entomon and the bivalve Mya arenaria. The 210 Po contents of the internal organs decreasing in the order-hepatopancreas > alimentary tract > gill > muscle. Moreover, the results indicate the dominant role of the digestive organs of these invertebrates in controlling absorption and elimination of 210 Po. (author)

  14. Immune memory in invertebrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milutinović, Barbara; Kurtz, Joachim

    2016-08-01

    Evidence for innate immune memory (or 'priming') in invertebrates has been accumulating over the last years. We here provide an in-depth review of the current state of evidence for immune memory in invertebrates, and in particular take a phylogenetic viewpoint. Invertebrates are a very heterogeneous group of animals and accordingly, evidence for the phenomenon of immune memory as well as the hypothesized molecular underpinnings differ largely for the diverse invertebrate taxa. The majority of research currently focuses on Arthropods, while evidence from many other groups of invertebrates is fragmentary or even lacking. We here concentrate on immune memory that is induced by pathogenic challenges, but also extent our view to a non-pathogenic context, i.e. allograft rejection, which can also show forms of memory and can inform us about general principles of specific self-nonself recognition. We discuss definitions of immune memory and a number of relevant aspects such as the type of antigens used, the route of exposure, and the kinetics of reactions following priming. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Forearm Flexor Muscles in Children with Cerebral Palsy Are Weak, Thin and Stiff

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Pontén

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Children with cerebral palsy (CP often develop reduced passive range of motion with age. The determining factor underlying this process is believed to be progressive development of contracture in skeletal muscle that likely changes the biomechanics of the joints. Consequently, to identify the underlying mechanisms, we modeled the mechanical characteristics of the forearm flexors acting across the wrist joint. We investigated skeletal muscle strength (Grippit® and passive stiffness and viscosity of the forearm flexors in 15 typically developing (TD children (10 boys/5 girls, mean age 12 years, range 8–18 yrs and nine children with CP Nine children (6 boys/3 girls, mean age 11 ± 3 years (yrs, range 7–15 yrs using the NeuroFlexor® apparatus. The muscle stiffness we estimate and report is the instantaneous mechanical response of the tissue that is independent of reflex activity. Furthermore, we assessed cross-sectional area of the flexor carpi radialis (FCR muscle using ultrasound. Age and body weight did not differ significantly between the two groups. Children with CP had a significantly weaker (−65%, p < 0.01 grip and had smaller cross-sectional area (−43%, p < 0.01 of the FCR muscle. Passive stiffness of the forearm muscles in children with CP was increased 2-fold (p < 0.05 whereas viscosity did not differ significantly between CP and TD children. FCR cross-sectional area correlated to age (R2 = 0.58, p < 0.01, body weight (R2 = 0.92, p < 0.0001 and grip strength (R2 = 0.82, p < 0.0001 in TD children but only to grip strength (R2 = 0.60, p < 0.05 in children with CP. We conclude that children with CP have weaker, thinner, and stiffer forearm flexors as compared to typically developing children.

  16. Antifouling Compounds from Marine Invertebrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Shu-Hua; Ma, Xuan

    2017-08-28

    In this review, a comprehensive overview about the antifouling compounds from marine invertebrates is described. In total, more than 198 antifouling compounds have been obtained from marine invertebrates, specifically, sponges, gorgonian and soft corals.

  17. Aquarium Culture of Freshwater Invertebrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Timothy S.

    1996-01-01

    Describes two methods for rearing small aquatic invertebrates using submerged surfaces in an unfiltered current of water where fish are present. Presents suggestions on how to use the invertebrate communities in the classroom. (JRH)

  18. Antifouling Compounds from Marine Invertebrates

    OpenAIRE

    Qi, Shu-Hua; Ma, Xuan

    2017-01-01

    In this review, a comprehensive overview about the antifouling compounds from marine invertebrates is described. In total, more than 198 antifouling compounds have been obtained from marine invertebrates, specifically, sponges, gorgonian and soft corals.

  19. Hawaii ESI: INVERTPT (Invertebrate Points)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for native stream invertebrates, anchialine pool invertebrates, and threatened/endangered terrestrial...

  20. Electronmicroscopical evaluation of short-term nerve regeneration through a thin-walled biodegradable poly(DLLA-epsilon-CL) nerve guide filled with modified denatured muscle tissue

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meek, MF; Robinson, PH; Stokroos, [No Value; Blaauw, EH; Kors, G; den Dunnen, WFA

    The aim of this study was to evaluate short-term peripheral nerve regeneration across a 15-mm gap in the sciatic nerve of the rat, using a thin-walled biodegradable poly(DL-lactide-epsilon -caprolactone) nerve guide filled with modified denatured muscle tissue (MDMT). The evaluation was performed

  1. Invertebrates and Plants :: NOAA Fisheries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Invertebrates & Plants Species of Concern Threatened & Endangered Health & Stranding Marine Mammals Chart Partnerships Fisheries Home » Protected Resources » Species Invertebrates and Plants White Marine Sanctuary Mollusks, corals, and brachiopods are three groups of marine invertebrates. To view ESA

  2. Invertebrates and Plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wendell R. Haag; Robert J. Distefano; Siobhan Fennessy; Brett D. Marshall

    2013-01-01

    Invertebrates and plants are among the most ubiquitous and abundant macroscopic organisms in aquatic ecosystems; they dominate most habitats in both diversity and biomass and play central roles in aquatic food webs. Plants regulate and create habitats for a wide array of organisms (Cooke et al. 2005). Snail grazing and bivalve filtering profoundly alter habitats and...

  3. Tube-dwelling invertebrates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hölker, Franz; Vanni, Michael J.; Kuiper, Jan J.; Meile, Christof; Grossart, Hans Peter; Stief, Peter; Adrian, Rita; Lorke, Andreas; Dellwig, Olaf; Brand, Andreas; Hupfer, Michael; Mooij, Wolf M.; Nützmann, Gunnar; Lewandowski, Jörg

    2015-01-01

    There is ample evidence that tube-dwelling invertebrates such as chironomids significantly alter multiple important ecosystem functions, particularly in shallow lakes. Chironomids pump large water volumes, and associated suspended and dissolved substances, through the sediment and thereby compete

  4. Invertebrates in managed waterfowl marshes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stafford, Joshua D.; Janke, Adam K.; Webb, Elisabeth B.; Chipps, Steven R.

    2016-01-01

    Invertebrates are an important food for breeding, migrating, and wintering waterfowl. Sparse study has been devoted to understanding the influence of waterfowl and wetland management on production of invertebrates for waterfowl foods; however, manipulation of hydrology and soils may change or enhance production. Fish can compete with waterfowl for invertebrate forage in wetlands and harm aquatic macrophytes; biomanipulation (e.g., stocking piscivores) may improve waterfowl habitat quality. Similarly, some terrestrial vertebrates (e.g., beaver (Castor canadensis)) may positively or negatively impact invertebrate communities in waterfowl habitats. Various challenges exist to wetland management for invertebrates for waterfowl, but the lack of data on factors influencing production may be the most limiting.

  5. Insects and other invertebrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    John R. Jones; Norbert V. DeByle; Diane M. Bowers

    1985-01-01

    Quaking aspen throughout its range appears to be host to several insect and other invertebrate pests (fig. 1). It is a short-lived species that is palatable to a large variety of animals. Furniss and Carolin (1977) listed 33 insect species that use aspen as a food source. Some are quite damaging and may kill otherwise healthy stands of aspen; others feed on weakened or...

  6. Isotonic force modulates force redevelopment rate of intact frog muscle fibres: evidence for cross-bridge induced thin filament activation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandenboom, Rene; Hannon, James D; Sieck, Gary C

    2002-01-01

    We tested the hypothesis that force-velocity history modulates thin filament activation, as assessed by the rate of force redevelopment after shortening (+dF/dtR). The influence of isotonic force on +dF/dtR was assessed by imposing uniform amplitude (2.55 to 2.15 μm sarcomere−1) but different speed releases to intact frog muscle fibres during fused tetani. Each release consisted of a contiguous ramp- and step-change in length. Ramp speed was changed from release to release to vary fibre shortening speed from 1.00 (2.76 ± 0.11 μm half-sarcomere−1 s−1) to 0.30 of maximum unloaded shortening velocity (Vu), thereby modulating isotonic force from 0 to 0.34 Fo, respectively. The step zeroed force and allowed the fibre to shorten unloaded for a brief period of time prior to force redevelopment. Although peak force redevelopment after different releases was similar, +dF/dtR increased by 81 ± 6% (P < 0.05) as fibre shortening speed was reduced from 1.00 Vu. The +dF/dtR after different releases was strongly correlated with the preceding isotonic force (r = 0.99, P < 0.001). Results from additional experiments showed that the slope of slack test plots produced by systematically increasing the step size that followed each ramp were similar. Thus, isotonic force did not influence Vu (mean: 2.84 ± 0.10 μm half-sarcomere−1 s−1, P < 0.05). We conclude that isotonic force modulates +dF/dtR independent of change in Vu, an outcome consistent with a cooperative influence of attached cross-bridges on thin filament activation that increases cross-bridge attachment rate without alteration to cross-bridge detachment rate. PMID:12205189

  7. Invertebrate welfare: an overlooked issue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelsey Horvath

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available While invertebrates make up the majority of animal species, their welfare is overlooked compared to the concern shown to vertebrates. This fact is highlighted by the near absence of regulations in animal research, with the exception of cephalopods in the European Union. This is often justified by assumptions that invertebrates do not experience pain and stress while lacking the capacity for higher order cognitive functions. Recent research suggests that invertebrates may be just as capable as vertebrates in experiencing pain and stress, and some species display comparable cognitive capacities. Another obstacle is the negative view of invertebrates by the public, which often regards them as pests with no individual personalities, gastronomic entities, or individuals for scientific experimentation without rules. Increasingly, studies have revealed that invertebrates possess individual profiles comparable to the personalities found in vertebrates. Given the large economic impact of invertebrates, developing certain attitude changes in invertebrate welfare may be beneficial for producers while providing higher welfare conditions for the animals. While the immense number and type of species makes it difficult to suggest that all invertebrates will benefit from increased welfare, in this review we provide evidence that the topic of invertebrate welfare should be revisited, more thoroughly investigated, and in cases where appropriate, formally instituted.

  8. CASA in invertebrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Horst, Gerhard; Bennett, Monique; Bishop, John D D

    2018-04-09

    Sperm movement has been described in several phyla of invertebrates. Yet, sperm motility has only been quantified using computer-aided sperm analysis (CASA-Mot) in externally fertilising species (broadcast spawners) of two phyla, molluscs and echinoderms. In the present study we quantified in detail the nature of the sperm tracks, percentage motility groupings and detailed kinematics of rapid-, medium- and slow-swimming spermatozoa in the oyster Crassostrea gigas and four species never previously studied by CASA-Mot, namely the molluscs Choromytilus meridionalis, Donax serra and Haliotis midae and the echinoderm Parechinus angulosus. A feature common to all these species are the helical tracks, the diameter of which seems to be species specific. Using CASA-Mot, the behaviour of spermatozoa was also studied over time and in the presence of egg water and Ca2+ modulators such as caffeine and procaine hydrochloride. For the first time, we show that hyperactivation can be induced in all species in the presence of egg water (sea water that was mixed with mature eggs and then centrifuged) and/or caffeine, and these hyperactivated sperm tracks were characterised using CASA-Mot. We relate the different patterns of sperm motility and behaviour to reproductive strategies such as broadcast spawning and spermcasting, and briefly review studies using CASA-Mot on other invertebrates.

  9. Seasonal changes in isoform composition of giant proteins of thick and thin filaments and titin (connectin) phosphorylation level in striated muscles of bears (Ursidae, Mammalia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salmov, N N; Vikhlyantsev, I M; Ulanova, A D; Gritsyna, Yu V; Bobylev, A G; Saveljev, A P; Makariushchenko, V V; Maksudov, G Yu; Podlubnaya, Z A

    2015-03-01

    Seasonal changes in the isoform composition of thick and thin filament proteins (titin, myosin heavy chains (MyHCs), nebulin), as well as in the phosphorylation level of titin in striated muscles of brown bear (Ursus arctos) and hibernating Himalayan black bear (Ursus thibetanus ussuricus) were studied. We found that the changes that lead to skeletal muscle atrophy in bears during hibernation are not accompanied by a decrease in the content of nebulin and intact titin-1 (T1) isoforms. However, a decrease (2.1-3.4-fold) in the content of T2 fragments of titin was observed in bear skeletal muscles (m. gastrocnemius, m. longissimus dorsi, m. biceps) during hibernation. The content of the stiffer N2B titin isoform was observed to increase relative to the content of its more compliant N2BA isoform in the left ventricles of hibernating bears. At the same time, in spite of the absence of decrease in the total content of T1 in the myocardium of hibernating brown bear, the content of T2 fragments decreased ~1.6-fold. The level of titin phosphorylation only slightly increased in the cardiac muscle of hibernating brown bear. In the skeletal muscles of brown bear, the level of titin phosphorylation did not vary between seasons. However, changes in the composition of MyHCs aimed at increasing the content of slow (I) and decreasing the content of fast (IIa) isoforms of this protein during hibernation of brown bear were detected. Content of MyHCs I and IIa in the skeletal muscles of hibernating Himalayan black bear corresponded to that in the skeletal muscles of hibernating brown bear.

  10. Invertebrate diversity in southern California

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This shapefile displays mean invertebrate diversity within 5 minute grid cells. The Shannon Index of diversity was calculated from Southern California Coastal Water...

  11. Louisiana ESI: INVERT (Invertebrate Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for marine and estuarine invertebrate species, and major concentration areas for harvested or potentially...

  12. Alabama ESI: INVERT (Invertebrate Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for marine and estuarine invertebrate species in Alabama. Vector polygons in this data set represent...

  13. Virginia ESI: INVERT (Invertebrate Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for marine, estuarine, and rare invertebrate species in Virginia. Vector polygons in this data set...

  14. Hawaii ESI: INVERT (Invertebrate Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for marine, estuarine, terrestrial, and native stream invertebrate species in coastal Hawaii. Vector...

  15. The invertebrate communities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    FloBner, D.; Kasprzak, P.; Mothes, G.; Ronneberger, D.; Schonborn, W.

    1985-01-01

    Studies of invertebrate communities have been carried out to a certain extent in the whole Lake Stechlin area, but especially with reference to Lake Stechlin. The chapter summarizes important results of detailed investigations over a long period, made by several researchers in the periods before and after the nuclear power plant came into operation. The following sections deal with the combination of species, frequency, types of life-form, structure and dynamics of the living community of zoobenthos and zooplankton. Not dealt with or only considered in passing are Amoebina, Heliozoa, Ciliata, Turbellaria (excl. Tricladida), Nematoda, Tardigrada, Gastrotricha, and partly Oligochaeta. The research into micro-and meiooobenthos are limited to the years 1959-1968. Data after the bringing into operation of the nuclear power plant refer only to macrozoobenthos. Before the operation of the nuclear power plant the planktonic Rotaroria and Crustacea were examined only qualitatively. The first quantitative analysis of the zooplankton-community was undertaken in 1968, and only from 1978 onwards has continuous and comprehensive research information about the zooplankton in Lake Stechlin been available

  16. RUNX in Invertebrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, S; Woollard, A

    2017-01-01

    Runx genes have been identified in all metazoans and considerable conservation of function observed across a wide range of phyla. Thus, insight gained from studying simple model organisms is invaluable in understanding RUNX biology in higher animals. Consequently, this chapter will focus on the Runx genes in the diploblasts, which includes sea anemones and sponges, as well as the lower triploblasts, including the sea urchin, nematode, planaria and insect. Due to the high degree of functional redundancy amongst vertebrate Runx genes, simpler model organisms with a solo Runx gene, like C. elegans, are invaluable systems in which to probe the molecular basis of RUNX function within a whole organism. Additionally, comparative analyses of Runx sequence and function allows for the development of novel evolutionary insights. Strikingly, recent data has emerged that reveals the presence of a Runx gene in a protist, demonstrating even more widespread occurrence of Runx genes than was previously thought. This review will summarize recent progress in using invertebrate organisms to investigate RUNX function during development and regeneration, highlighting emerging unifying themes.

  17. Associative Learning in Invertebrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawkins, Robert D.; Byrne, John H.

    2015-01-01

    This work reviews research on neural mechanisms of two types of associative learning in the marine mollusk Aplysia, classical conditioning of the gill- and siphon-withdrawal reflex and operant conditioning of feeding behavior. Basic classical conditioning is caused in part by activity-dependent facilitation at sensory neuron–motor neuron (SN–MN) synapses and involves a hybrid combination of activity-dependent presynaptic facilitation and Hebbian potentiation, which are coordinated by trans-synaptic signaling. Classical conditioning also shows several higher-order features, which might be explained by the known circuit connections in Aplysia. Operant conditioning is caused in part by a different type of mechanism, an intrinsic increase in excitability of an identified neuron in the central pattern generator (CPG) for feeding. However, for both classical and operant conditioning, adenylyl cyclase is a molecular site of convergence of the two signals that are associated. Learning in other invertebrate preparations also involves many of the same mechanisms, which may contribute to learning in vertebrates as well. PMID:25877219

  18. Structural changes of the regulatory proteins bound to the thin filaments in skeletal muscle contraction by X-ray fiber diffraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sugimoto, Yasunobu; Takezawa, Yasunori; Matsuo, Tatsuhito; Ueno, Yutaka; Minakata, Shiho; Tanaka, Hidehiro; Wakabayashi, Katsuzo

    2008-01-01

    In order to clarify the structural changes related to the regulation mechanism in skeletal muscle contraction, the intensity changes of thin filament-based reflections were investigated by X-ray fiber diffraction. The time course and extent of intensity changes of the first to third order troponin (TN)-associated meridional reflections with a basic repeat of 38.4 nm were different for each of these reflections. The intensity of the first and second thin filament layer lines changed in a reciprocal manner both during initial activation and during the force generation process. The axial spacings of the TN-meridional reflections decreased by ∼0.1% upon activation relative to the relaxing state and increased by ∼0.24% in the force generation state, in line with that of the 2.7-nm reflection. Ca 2+ -binding to TN triggered the shortening and a change in the helical symmetry of the thin filaments. Modeling of the structural changes using the intensities of the thin filament-based reflections suggested that the conformation of the globular core domain of TN altered upon activation, undergoing additional conformational changes at the tension plateau. The tail domain of TN moved together with tropomyosin during contraction. The results indicate that the structural changes of regulatory proteins bound to the actin filaments occur in two steps, the first in response to the Ca 2+ -binding and the second induced by actomyosin interaction

  19. Photon activation analysis of soft tissues of marine invertebrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fukushima, M.; Tamate, H.

    2001-01-01

    We have determined levels of elements in soft tissues of 23 species of marine invertebrates by photon activation analysis and atomic absorption spectrometry. Concentration levels of Mg and Rb were almost same for all samples determined. On the contrary, relatively high concentration of elements were observed for Ni in mid-gut gonads of ear shells, As in gills, hepatopancreas, and muscles of several species of Crustaceans. (author)

  20. Alternative adaptive immunity in invertebrates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kurtz, Joachim; Armitage, Sophie Alice Octavia

    2006-01-01

    Vertebrate adaptive immunity is characterized by challenge-specific long-term protection. This specific memory is achieved through the vast diversity of somatically rearranged immunological receptors such as antibodies. Whether or not invertebrates are capable of a comparable phenotypic plasticity...

  1. Antimycobacterial Metabolites from Marine Invertebrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daletos, Georgios; Ancheeva, Elena; Chaidir, Chaidir; Kalscheuer, Rainer; Proksch, Peter

    2016-10-01

    Marine organisms play an important role in natural product-based drug research due to accumulation of structurally unique and bioactive metabolites. The exploration of marine-derived compounds may significantly extend the scientific knowledge of potential scaffolds for antibiotic drug discovery. Development of novel antitubercular agents is especially significant as the emergence of drug-resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis strains remains threateningly high. Marine invertebrates (i.e., sponges, corals, gorgonians) as a source of new chemical entities are the center of research for several scientific groups, and the wide spectrum of biological activities of marine-derived compounds encourages scientists to carry out investigations in the field of antibiotic research, including tuberculosis treatment. The present review covers published data on antitubercular natural products from marine invertebrates grouped according to their biogenetic origin. Studies on the structure-activity relationships of these important leads are highlighted as well. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  2. Marine Invertebrates: Communities at Risk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer Mather

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Our definition of the word ‘animal’ centers on vertebrates, yet 99% of the animals on the planet are invertebrates, about which we know little. In addition, although the Census of Marine Life (COML.org has recently conducted an extensive audit of marine ecosystems, we still do not understand much about the animals of the seas. Surveys of the best-known ecosystems, in which invertebrate populations often play a key role, show that the invertebrate populations are affected by human impact. Coral animals are the foundation of coral reef systems, which are estimated to contain 30% of the species in the ocean. Physical impact and chemical changes on the water severely damage these reefs, and may lead to the removal of these important habitats. Tiny pteropod molluscs live in huge numbers in the polar seas, and their fragile shells are particularly vulnerable to ocean acidification. Their removal would mean that fishes on which we depend would have a hugely diminished food supply. In the North Sea, warming is leading to replacement of colder water copepods by warmer water species which contain less fat. This is having an effect on the birds which eat them, who enrich the otherwise poor land on which they nest. Conversely, the warming of the water and the loss of top predators such as whales and sharks has led to an explosion of the jumbo squid of the Pacific coast of North America. This is positive in the development of a squid fishery, yet negative because the squid eat fish that have been the mainstay of the fishery along that coast. These examples show how invertebrates are key in the oceans, and what might happen when global changes impact them.

  3. Marine invertebrates: communities at risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mather, Jennifer

    2013-06-10

    Our definition of the word 'animal' centers on vertebrates, yet 99% of the animals on the planet are invertebrates, about which we know little. In addition, although the Census of Marine Life (COML.org) has recently conducted an extensive audit of marine ecosystems, we still do not understand much about the animals of the seas. Surveys of the best-known ecosystems, in which invertebrate populations often play a key role, show that the invertebrate populations are affected by human impact. Coral animals are the foundation of coral reef systems, which are estimated to contain 30% of the species in the ocean. Physical impact and chemical changes on the water severely damage these reefs, and may lead to the removal of these important habitats. Tiny pteropod molluscs live in huge numbers in the polar seas, and their fragile shells are particularly vulnerable to ocean acidification. Their removal would mean that fishes on which we depend would have a hugely diminished food supply. In the North Sea, warming is leading to replacement of colder water copepods by warmer water species which contain less fat. This is having an effect on the birds which eat them, who enrich the otherwise poor land on which they nest. Conversely, the warming of the water and the loss of top predators such as whales and sharks has led to an explosion of the jumbo squid of the Pacific coast of North America. This is positive in the development of a squid fishery, yet negative because the squid eat fish that have been the mainstay of the fishery along that coast. These examples show how invertebrates are key in the oceans, and what might happen when global changes impact them.

  4. The Global Invertebrate Genomics Alliance (GIGA): Developing Community Resources to Study Diverse Invertebrate Genomes

    KAUST Repository

    Bracken-Grissom, Heather; Collins, Allen G.; Collins, Timothy; Crandall, Keith; Distel, Daniel; Dunn, Casey; Giribet, Gonzalo; Haddock, Steven; Knowlton, Nancy; Martindale, Mark; Medina, Monica; Messing, Charles; O'Brien, Stephen J.; Paulay, Gustav; Putnam, Nicolas; Ravasi, Timothy; Rouse, Greg W.; Ryan, Joseph F.; Schulze, Anja; Worheide, Gert; Adamska, Maja; Bailly, Xavier; Breinholt, Jesse; Browne, William E.; Diaz, M. Christina; Evans, Nathaniel; Flot, Jean-Francois; Fogarty, Nicole; Johnston, Matthew; Kamel, Bishoy; Kawahara, Akito Y.; Laberge, Tammy; Lavrov, Dennis; Michonneau, Francois; Moroz, Leonid L.; Oakley, Todd; Osborne, Karen; Pomponi, Shirley A.; Rhodes, Adelaide; Rodriguez-Lanetty, Mauricio; Santos, Scott R.; Satoh, Nori; Thacker, Robert W.; Van de Peer, Yves; Voolstra, Christian R.; Welch, David Mark; Winston, Judith; Zhou, Xin

    2013-01-01

    Over 95% of all metazoan (animal) species comprise the invertebrates, but very few genomes from these organisms have been sequenced. We have, therefore, formed a Global Invertebrate Genomics Alliance (GIGA). Our intent is to build a collaborative

  5. Molecular Basis for Ultraviolet Vision in Invertebrates

    OpenAIRE

    Salcedo, Ernesto; Zheng, Lijun; Phistry, Meridee; Bagg, Eve E.; Britt, Steven G.

    2003-01-01

    Invertebrates are sensitive to a broad spectrum of light that ranges from UV to red. Color sensitivity in the UV plays an important role in foraging, navigation, and mate selection in both flying and terrestrial invertebrate animals. Here, we show that a single amino acid polymorphism is responsible for invertebrate UV vision. This residue (UV: lysine vs blue:asparagine or glutamate) corresponds to amino acid position glycine 90 (G90) in bovine rhodopsin, a site affected in autosomal dominant...

  6. Toxicity of Engineered Nanoparticles to Aquatic Invertebrates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cupi, Denisa; Sørensen, Sara Nørgaard; Skjolding, Lars Michael

    2016-01-01

    This chapter provides a targeted description of some of the most important processes that influence toxicity and uptake of nanoparticles in aquatic invertebrates. It discusses silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs), on how aspects of dissolution and chemical species obtained from this process can influence...... ecotoxicity of aquatic invertebrates. The chapter focuses on how fullerenes affect the toxicity of other pollutants, but also reflect on the fate and behavior of C60 in the aquatic environment, as well as ecotoxicity to aquatic invertebrates. It presents the case of titanium dioxide nanoparticles (TiO2 NPs...... on bioaccumulation focusing on the effect of nanoparticle coating, uptake, and depuration in aquatic invertebrates....

  7. Non-Straub type actin from molluscan catch muscle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shelud' ko, Nikolay S., E-mail: sheludko@stl.ru; Girich, Ulyana V.; Lazarev, Stanislav S.; Vyatchin, Ilya G.

    2016-05-27

    We have developed a method of obtaining natural actin from smooth muscles of the bivalves on the example of the Crenomytilus grayanus catch muscle. The muscles were previously rigorized to prevent a loss of thin filaments during homogenization and washings. Thin filaments were isolated with a low ionic strength solution in the presence of ATP and sodium pyrophosphate. Surface proteins of thin filaments-tropomyosin, troponin, calponin and some minor actin-binding proteins-were dissociated from actin filaments by increasing the ionic strength to 0.6 M KCL. Natural fibrillar actin obtained in that way depolymerizes easily in low ionic strength solutions commonly used for the extraction of Straub-type actin from acetone powder. Purification of natural actin was carried out by the polymerization–depolymerization cycle. The content of inactivated actin remaining in the supernatant is much less than at a similar purification of Straub-type actin. A comparative investigation was performed between the natural mussel actin and the Straub-type rabbit skeletal actin in terms of the key properties of actin: polymerization, activation of Mg-ATPase activity of myosin, and the electron-microscopic structure of actin polymers. -- Highlights: •We developed method of repolymerizable invertebrate smooth muscle actin obtaining. •Our method does not involve use of denaturating agents, which could modify proteins. •Viscosity and polymerization rate of actin, gained that way, is similar to Straub one. •Electron microscopy showed that repolymerized mussel actin is similar to Straub one. •Repolymerized mussel actin has greater ATPase activating capacity, than Straub actin.

  8. Effects of Pollution on Freshwater Invertebrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buikema, A. L., Jr.; Herricks, E. E.

    1978-01-01

    Presents a literature review of the effects of pollution on freshwater invertebrates, covering publications of 1976-77. Some of the areas covered are: (1) toxicant effects on invertebrates; (2) microcosm and community effects, and (3) biological control of aquatic life. A list of 123 references is also presented. (HM)

  9. Invertebrates, ecosystem services and climate change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prather, Chelse M; Pelini, Shannon L; Laws, Angela; Rivest, Emily; Woltz, Megan; Bloch, Christopher P; Del Toro, Israel; Ho, Chuan-Kai; Kominoski, John; Newbold, T A Scott; Parsons, Sheena; Joern, A

    2013-05-01

    The sustainability of ecosystem services depends on a firm understanding of both how organisms provide these services to humans and how these organisms will be altered with a changing climate. Unquestionably a dominant feature of most ecosystems, invertebrates affect many ecosystem services and are also highly responsive to climate change. However, there is still a basic lack of understanding of the direct and indirect paths by which invertebrates influence ecosystem services, as well as how climate change will affect those ecosystem services by altering invertebrate populations. This indicates a lack of communication and collaboration among scientists researching ecosystem services and climate change effects on invertebrates, and land managers and researchers from other disciplines, which becomes obvious when systematically reviewing the literature relevant to invertebrates, ecosystem services, and climate change. To address this issue, we review how invertebrates respond to climate change. We then review how invertebrates both positively and negatively influence ecosystem services. Lastly, we provide some critical future directions for research needs, and suggest ways in which managers, scientists and other researchers may collaborate to tackle the complex issue of sustaining invertebrate-mediated services under a changing climate. © 2012 The Authors. Biological Reviews © 2012 Cambridge Philosophical Society.

  10. Wood decomposition as influenced by invertebrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael D. Ulyshen

    2014-01-01

    The diversity and habitat requirements of invertebrates associated with dead wood have been the subjects of hundreds of studies in recent years but we still know very little about the ecological or economic importance of these organisms. The purpose of this review is to examine whether, how and to what extent invertebrates affect wood decomposition in terrestrial...

  11. An invertebrate stomach's view on vertebrate ecology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Calvignac-Spencer, Sébastien; Leendertz, Fabian H.; Gilbert, Tom

    2013-01-01

    Recent studies suggest that vertebrate genetic material ingested by invertebrates (iDNA) can be used to investigate vertebrate ecology. Given the ubiquity of invertebrates that feed on vertebrates across the globe, iDNA might qualify as a very powerful tool for 21st century population...

  12. Community structure and diversity of macrobenthic invertebrates in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Macrobenthic invertebrates' community structure and diversity in relation to ... Analysis of variance (ANOVA) revealed that there were significant difference ... invertebrates' species distribution and some measured environmental variables.

  13. Viral diseases of marine invertebrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, P. T.

    1984-03-01

    Approximately 40 viruses are known from marine sponges; turbellarian and monogenetic flatworms; cephalopod, bivalve, and gastropod mollusks; nereid polychaetes; and isopod and decapod crustaceans. Most of the viruses can be tentatively assigned to the Herpesviridae, Baculoviridae, Iridoviridae, Adenoviridae, Papovaviridae, Reoviridae, “Birnaviridae”, Bunyaviridae, Rhabdoviridae, and Picornaviridae. Viruslike particles found in oysters might be representatives of the Togaviridae and Retroviridae. Enveloped single-stranded RNA viruses from crustaceans have developmental and morphological characteristics intermediate between families, and some show evidence of relationships to the Paramyxoviridae as well as the Bunyaviridae or Rhabdoviridae. Certain small viruses of shrimp cannot be assigned, even tentatively, to a particular family. Some viruses cause disease in wild and captive hosts, others are associated with disease states but may not be primary instigators, and many occur in apparently normal animals. The frequency of viral disease in natural populations of marine invertebrates is unknown. Several viruses that cause disease in captive animals, with or without experimental intervention, have also been found in diseased wild hosts, including herpeslike viruses of crabs and oysters, iridovirus of octopus, and reolike and bunyalike viruses of crabs. Iridolike viruses have been implicated in massive mortalities of cultured oysters. Baculoviruses, and IHHN virus, which is of uncertain affinities, cause economically damaging diseases in cultured penaeid shrimp. Double or multiple viral infection is common in crabs. For example, a reolike virus and associated rhabdolike virus act synergistically to cause paralytic and fatal disease in Callinectes sapidus. Information on host range, most susceptible stage, and viral latency is available only for viruses of shrimp. One baculovirus attacks five species of New World penaeid shrimp. IHHN virus infects three species of

  14. Columbia River ESI: INVERT (Invertebrate Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for clams, oysters, crabs, and other invertebrate species in Columbia River. Vector polygons in this data...

  15. Are invertebrates relevant models in ageing research?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Erdogan, Cihan Suleyman; Hansen, Benni Winding; Vang, Ole

    2016-01-01

    is an evolutionary conserved key protein kinase in the TOR pathway that regulates growth, proliferation and cell metabolism in response to nutrients, growth factors and stress. Comparing the ageing process in invertebrate model organisms with relatively short lifespan with mammals provides valuable information about...... the molecular mechanisms underlying the ageing process faster than mammal systems. Inhibition of the TOR pathway activity via either genetic manipulation or rapamycin increases lifespan profoundly in most invertebrate model organisms. This contribution will review the recent findings in invertebrates concerning...... the TOR pathway and effects of TOR inhibition by rapamycin on lifespan. Besides some contradictory results, the majority points out that rapamycin induces longevity. This suggests that administration of rapamycin in invertebrates is a promising tool for pursuing the scientific puzzle of lifespan...

  16. Immune Reactions Among Marine and Other Invertebrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bang, Frederik B.

    1973-01-01

    Discusses the defense mechanisms and immune reaction found in invertebrates, and examines the wealth of related biological problems that need study and many of the leads that have recently been developed. (JR)

  17. Uncoupling proteins of invertebrates: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slocinska, Malgorzata; Barylski, Jakub; Jarmuszkiewicz, Wieslawa

    2016-09-01

    Uncoupling proteins (UCPs) mediate inducible proton conductance in the mitochondrial inner membrane. Herein, we summarize our knowledge regarding UCPs in invertebrates. Since 2001, the presence of UCPs has been demonstrated in nematodes, mollusks, amphioxi, and insects. We discuss the following important issues concerning invertebrate UCPs: their evolutionary relationships, molecular and functional properties, and physiological impact. Evolutionary analysis indicates that the branch of vertebrate and invertebrate UCP4-5 diverged early in the evolutionary process prior to the divergence of the animal groups. Several proposed physiological roles of invertebrate UCPs are energy control, metabolic balance, and preventive action against oxidative stress. © 2016 IUBMB Life, 68(9):691-699, 2016. © 2016 International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology.

  18. Diversity of large DNA viruses of invertebrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Trevor; Bergoin, Max; van Oers, Monique M

    2017-07-01

    In this review we provide an overview of the diversity of large DNA viruses known to be pathogenic for invertebrates. We present their taxonomical classification and describe the evolutionary relationships among various groups of invertebrate-infecting viruses. We also indicate the relationships of the invertebrate viruses to viruses infecting mammals or other vertebrates. The shared characteristics of the viruses within the various families are described, including the structure of the virus particle, genome properties, and gene expression strategies. Finally, we explain the transmission and mode of infection of the most important viruses in these families and indicate, which orders of invertebrates are susceptible to these pathogens. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Brain and behavioural lateralization in invertebrates.

    OpenAIRE

    Elisa eFrasnelli

    2013-01-01

    Traditionally, only humans were thought to exhibit brain and behavioural asymmetries, but several studies have revealed that most vertebrates are also lateralized. Recently, evidence of left-right asymmetries in invertebrates has begun to emerge, suggesting that lateralization of the nervous system may be a feature of simpler brains as well as more complex ones. Here I present some examples in invertebrates of sensory and motor asymmetries, as well as asymmetries in the nervous system. I illu...

  20. Brain and behavioral lateralization in invertebrates

    OpenAIRE

    Frasnelli, Elisa

    2013-01-01

    Traditionally, only humans were thought to exhibit brain and behavioral asymmetries, but several studies have revealed that most vertebrates are also lateralized. Recently, evidence of left–right asymmetries in invertebrates has begun to emerge, suggesting that lateralization of the nervous system may be a feature of simpler brains as well as more complex ones. Here I present some examples in invertebrates of sensory and motor asymmetries, as well as asymmetries in the nervous system. I illus...

  1. Evolution of transgenerational immunity in invertebrates

    OpenAIRE

    Pigeault, R.; Garnier, R.; Rivero, A.; Gandon, S.

    2016-01-01

    Over a decade ago, the discovery of transgenerational immunity in invertebrates shifted existing paradigms on the lack of sophistication of their immune system. Nonetheless, the prevalence of this trait and the ecological factors driving its evolution in invertebrates remain poorly understood. Here, we develop a theoretical host–parasite model and predict that long lifespan and low dispersal should promote the evolution of transgenerational immunity. We also predict that in species that produ...

  2. Toll-like receptors of deuterostome invertebrates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Honoo eSatake

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Defensive systems against pathogens are responsible not only for survival or lifetime of an individual but also for the evolution of a species. Innate immunity is expected to be more important for invertebrates than mammals, given that adaptive immunity has not been acquired in the former. Toll-like receptors (TLRs have been shown to play a crucial role in host defense of pathogenic microbes in innate immunity of mammals. Recent genome-wide analyses have suggested that TLR or their related genes are conserved in invertebrates. In particular, numerous TLR-related gene candidates were detected in deuterostome invertebrates including a sea urchin (222 TLR-related gene candidates and amphioxus (72 TLR-related gene candidates. Molecular phylogenetic analysis verified that most of sea urchin or amphioxus TLR candidates are paralogous, suggesting that these organisms expanded TLR-related genes in a species-specific manner. In contrast, another deuterostome invertebrate, an ascidian, Ciona intestinalis, was found to possess only two TLR genes. Moreover, Ciona TLRs, Ci-TLR1 and -2, were shown to possess hybrid functionality of mammalian TLRs. Such functionality of Ci-TLRs could not be predicted by sequence comparison with vertebrate TLRs, indicating the confounding evolutionary lineages of deuterostome invertebrate TLRs or their candidates. In this review article, we present recent advances in studies of TLRs or their candidates of deuterostome invertebrates, and provide insight into an evolutionary process of TLRs.

  3. Wood decomposition as influenced by invertebrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulyshen, Michael D

    2016-02-01

    The diversity and habitat requirements of invertebrates associated with dead wood have been the subjects of hundreds of studies in recent years but we still know very little about the ecological or economic importance of these organisms. The purpose of this review is to examine whether, how and to what extent invertebrates affect wood decomposition in terrestrial ecosystems. Three broad conclusions can be reached from the available literature. First, wood decomposition is largely driven by microbial activity but invertebrates also play a significant role in both temperate and tropical environments. Primary mechanisms include enzymatic digestion (involving both endogenous enzymes and those produced by endo- and ectosymbionts), substrate alteration (tunnelling and fragmentation), biotic interactions and nitrogen fertilization (i.e. promoting nitrogen fixation by endosymbiotic and free-living bacteria). Second, the effects of individual invertebrate taxa or functional groups can be accelerative or inhibitory but the cumulative effect of the entire community is generally to accelerate wood decomposition, at least during the early stages of the process (most studies are limited to the first 2-3 years). Although methodological differences and design limitations preclude meta-analysis, studies aimed at quantifying the contributions of invertebrates to wood decomposition commonly attribute 10-20% of wood loss to these organisms. Finally, some taxa appear to be particularly influential with respect to promoting wood decomposition. These include large wood-boring beetles (Coleoptera) and termites (Termitoidae), especially fungus-farming macrotermitines. The presence or absence of these species may be more consequential than species richness and the influence of invertebrates is likely to vary biogeographically. Published 2014. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  4. Contribution to the study of the biodiversity of benthic invertebrates ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Contribution to the study of the biodiversity of benthic invertebrates and the biological quality of some rivers in the watershed boumerzoug (east of Algeria) ... benthic macro invertebrates, allows characterizing the biological quality of river water.

  5. HISTOLOGICAL PREPARATION OF INVERTEBRATES FOR EVALUATING CONTAMINANT EFFECTS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Although many studies in toxicologic pathology evaluate the effects of toxicants on fishes because of their similarities with other vertebrates, invertebrates can also provide insights into toxicant impacts on ecosystems. Invertebrates not only serve as food resources (e.g., ...

  6. 76 FR 61379 - Final Recovery Plan, Bexar County Karst Invertebrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-04

    ...] Final Recovery Plan, Bexar County Karst Invertebrates AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife Service, Interior... availability of our final recovery plan, for the nine Bexar County Karst Invertebrates under the Endangered... County karst invertebrates were listed as endangered species on December 26, 2000 (65 FR 81419): Rhadine...

  7. Lanthanides, thorium, iodine in terrestrail invertebrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhulidov, A.V.; Pokarzhevskij, A.D.; Katargin, N.V.; AN SSSR, Moscow

    1991-01-01

    It is shown that among examined terrestrial invertebrates the highest levels on lanthanide and thorium concentration are typical for animals, feeding on plant tissues - earthworms, molluscs, diploid. It is shown that there are no reasons to hope, that regularities of migration of transuranium elements and lanthanides in tropic chains are identical

  8. Roebuck Bay Invertebrate and bird Mapping 2006

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Piersma, Theunis; Pearson, Grant B.; Hickey, Robert; Dittmann, Sabine; Rogers, Danny I.; Folmer, Eelke; Honkoop, Pieter; Drent, Jan; Goeij, Petra de; Marsh, Loisette

    2006-01-01

    1. This is a report on a survey of the benthic ecology of the intertidal flats along the northern shores of Roebuck Bay in June 2006. In the period 11-20 June we mapped both the invertebrate macrobenthic animals (those retained by a 1 mm sieve) over the whole of the northern intertidal area of

  9. Evolution of transgenerational immunity in invertebrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pigeault, R; Garnier, R; Rivero, A; Gandon, S

    2016-09-28

    Over a decade ago, the discovery of transgenerational immunity in invertebrates shifted existing paradigms on the lack of sophistication of their immune system. Nonetheless, the prevalence of this trait and the ecological factors driving its evolution in invertebrates remain poorly understood. Here, we develop a theoretical host-parasite model and predict that long lifespan and low dispersal should promote the evolution of transgenerational immunity. We also predict that in species that produce both philopatric and dispersing individuals, it may pay to have a plastic allocation strategy with a higher transgenerational immunity investment in philopatric offspring because they are more likely to encounter locally adapted pathogens. We review all experimental studies published to date, comprising 21 invertebrate species in nine different orders, and we show that, as expected, longevity and dispersal correlate with the transfer of immunity to offspring. The validity of our prediction regarding the plasticity of investment in transgenerational immunity remains to be tested in invertebrates, but also in vertebrate species. We discuss the implications of our work for the study of the evolution of immunity, and we suggest further avenues of research to expand our knowledge of the impact of transgenerational immune protection in host-parasite interactions. © 2016 The Author(s).

  10. Bromeliads in Caatinga: an oasis for invertebrates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priscila Islair

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/2175-7925.2015v28n1p67 The Bromeliaceae family exhibits several adaptations that allow the occurrence of its members in different physiognomies, including the Caatinga. The arrangement of leaves in rosette forms a cistern or tank, in which nutrient-rich water accumulates. This provides a microhabitat for reproduction, feeding, and larval development of many invertebrates. The aim of this study was to survey the bromeliad-associated invertebrate fauna to test the hypothesis of seasonal changes in community composition. We conducted two surveys in the rainy (February, 2011 and dry (August, 2012 seasons in the Floresta Nacional (Flona of Contendas do Sincorá, municipality of Contendas do Sincorá, Bahia state, Brazil. We delimited fifteen 5 m x 5 m sampling plots along a 355 m trail. Two terrestrial bromeliads (Aechmea bromeliifolia were collected per plot. Invertebrate fauna were identified and richness, abundance and composition were analyzed. The richness of taxa did not differ between seasons and was considered high for Caatinga. Abundance and composition differed between the rainy and dry seasons. The present study demonstrates the importance of bromeliads as available water resources for the local invertebrate community. Our findings also provide a framework for more in-depth studies on animal-plant interactions, and for the conservation of Caatinga animals and plants.

  11. Bromeliads in Caatinga: an oasis for invertebrates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priscila Islair

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The Bromeliaceae family exhibits several adaptations that allow the occurrence of its members in different physiognomies, including the Caatinga. The arrangement of leaves in rosette forms a cistern or tank, in which nutrient-rich water accumulates. This provides a microhabitat for reproduction, feeding, and larval development of many invertebrates. The aim of this study was to survey the bromeliad-associated invertebrate fauna to test the hypothesis of seasonal changes in community composition. We conducted two surveys in the rainy (February, 2011 and dry (August, 2012 seasons in the Floresta Nacional (Flona of Contendas do Sincorá, municipality of Contendas do Sincorá, Bahia state, Brazil. We delimited fifteen 5 m x 5 m sampling plots along a 355 m trail. Two terrestrial bromeliads (Aechmea bromeliifolia were collected per plot. Invertebrate fauna were identified and richness, abundance and composition were analyzed. The richness of taxa did not differ between seasons and was considered high for Caatinga. Abundance and composition differed between the rainy and dry seasons. The present study demonstrates the importance of bromeliads as available water resources for the local invertebrate community. Our findings also provide a framework for more in-depth studies on animal-plant interactions, and for the conservation of Caatinga animal and plant.

  12. Invertebrates associated with ipomea aquatica in ogbe creek, logos, nigeria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saliu, J.K.; Fashola, Y.T.

    2006-01-01

    The association of invertebrates in Ogbe creek with Ipomea aquatica was investigated within the period from 7th September to 30th November, 2001, 167 invertebrates comprising of 19 species were harvested from 73 weeds. Corixa punctata (22.16%) was the most abundant invertebrate on Ipomea aquatica while Gyrinus notator larvae (0.60%) were the least abundant. The roots sheltered the highest number of invertebrates (113), comprising of 12 species recording a species diversity of 5.36 while the stem sheltered the lowest number of invertebrates (10) comprising of 3 species with a species diversity of 2.00. The ability of Ipomea aquaTica to harbour invertebrates was influenced by the morphological form of the plant. The root was the preferred site for the invertebrates because it was a suitable substrate for clinging and nutrient supply. (author)

  13. Enzyme Histochemistry for Functional Histology in Invertebrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cima, Francesca

    2017-01-01

    In invertebrates, enzyme histochemistry has recently found a renaissance regarding its applications in morphology and ecology. Many enzyme activities are useful for the morphofunctional characterization of cells, as biomarkers of biological and pathologic processes, and as markers of the response to environmental stressors. Here, the adjustments to classic techniques, including the most common enzymes used for digestion, absorption, transport, and oxidation, as well as techniques for azo-coupling, metal salt substitution and oxidative coupling polymerization, are presented in detail for various terrestrial and aquatic invertebrates. This chapter also provides strategies to solve the problems regarding anesthesia, small body size, the presence of an exo- or endoskeleton and the search for the best fixative in relation to the internal fluid osmolarity. These techniques have the aim of obtaining good results for both the pre- and post-embedding labeling of specimens, tissue blocks, sections, and hemolymph smears using both light and transmission electron microscopy.

  14. Ethics and invertebrates: a cephalopod perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mather, Jennifer A; Anderson, Roland C

    2007-05-04

    This paper first explores 3 philosophical bases for attitudes to invertebrates, Contractarian/Kantian, Utilitarian, and Rights-based, and what they lead us to conclude about how we use and care for these animals. We next discuss the problems of evaluating pain and suffering in invertebrates, pointing out that physiological responses to stress are widely similar across the animal kingdom and that most animals show behavioral responses to potentially painful stimuli. Since cephalopods are often used as a test group for consideration of pain, distress and proper conditions for captivity and handling, we evaluate their behavioral and cognitive capacities. Given these capacities, we then discuss practical issues: minimization of their pain and suffering during harvesting for food; ensuring that captive cephalopods are properly cared for, stimulated and allowed to live as full a life as possible; and, lastly, working for their conservation.

  15. Effects of nanomaterials on marine invertebrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canesi, Laura; Corsi, Ilaria

    2016-09-15

    The development of nanotechnology will inevitably lead to the release of consistent amounts of nanomaterials (NMs) and nanoparticles (NPs) into marine ecosystems. Ecotoxicological studies have been carried out to identify potential biological targets of NPs, and suitable models for predicting their impact on the health of the marine environment. Recent studies in invertebrates mainly focused on NP accumulation and sub-lethal effects, rather than acute toxicity. Among marine invertebrates, bivalves represent by large the most studied group, with polychaetes and echinoderms also emerging as significant targets of NPs. However, major scientific gaps still need to be filled. In this work, factors affecting the fate of NPs in the marine environment, and their consequent uptake/accumulation/toxicity in marine invertebrates will be summarized. The results show that in different model species, NP accumulation mainly occurs in digestive tract and gills. Data on sub-lethal effects and modes of action of different types of NPs (mainly metal oxides and metal based NPs) in marine invertebrates will be reviewed, in particular on immune function, oxidative stress and embryo development. Moreover, the possibility that such effects may be influenced by NP interactions with biomolecules in both external and internal environment will be introduced. In natural environmental media, NP interactions with polysaccharides, proteins and colloids may affect their agglomeration/aggregation and consequent bioavailability. Moreover, once within the organism, NPs are known to interact with plasma proteins, forming a protein corona that can affect particle uptake and toxicity in target cells in a physiological environment. These interactions, leading to the formation of eco-bio-coronas, may be crucial in determining particle behavior and effects also in marine biota. In order to classify NPs into groups and predict the implications of their release into the marine environment, information on

  16. Investigations into the Settlement and Attachment of Biofouling Marine Invertebrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-17

    attachment of biofouling marine invertebrates 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER N00014-12-1 -0432 5b. GRANT NUMBER n/a 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER n/a 6...larval settlement in a variety of marine invertebrate species, including B. neritina. Light also inhibits B. neritina larval settlement, yet the...underlying mechanisms by which light and adrenergic compounds exert their effects on larvae are largely unknown. Octopamine is considered the invertebrate

  17. Natural invertebrate hosts of iridoviruses (Iridoviridae)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, Trevor [Instituto de Ecologia A.C., Veracruz (Mexico)]. E-mail: trevor.williams@inecol.edu.mx

    2008-11-15

    Invertebrate iridescent viruses (IIVs) are icosahedral DNA viruses that infect invertebrates, mainly insects and terrestrial isopods, in damp and aquatic habitats. Exhaustive searches of databases resulted in the identification of 79 articles reporting 108 invertebrate species naturally infected by confirmed or putative iridoviruses. Of these, 103 (95%) were arthropods and the remainder were molluscs, an annelid worm and a nematode. Nine species were from marine habitats. Of the 99 non-marine species, 49 were from terrestrial habitats and 50 were aquatic, especially the aquatic stages of Diptera (44 species). The abundance of records from species of Aedes, Ochlerotatus and Psorophora contrasts markedly with a paucity of records from species of Anopheles, Culex and Culiseta. Records from terrestrial isopods are numerous (19 species), although the diversity of IIVs that infect them is mostly unstudied. IIV infections have been reported from every continent, except Antarctica, but there are few records from Africa, southern Asia and Latin America. Most reports describe patent IIV infections as rare whereas inapparent (covert) infection may be common in certain species. The relationship between particle size and iridescent colour of the host is found to be consistent with optical theory in the great majority of cases. Only 24 reported IIVs from insect hosts have partial characterization data and only two have been subjected to complete genome sequencing. I show that the rate of publication on IIVs has slowed from 1990 to the present, and I draw a number of conclusions and suggestions from the host list and make recommendations for future research efforts. (author)

  18. Brain and behavioral lateralization in invertebrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frasnelli, Elisa

    2013-12-11

    Traditionally, only humans were thought to exhibit brain and behavioral asymmetries, but several studies have revealed that most vertebrates are also lateralized. Recently, evidence of left-right asymmetries in invertebrates has begun to emerge, suggesting that lateralization of the nervous system may be a feature of simpler brains as well as more complex ones. Here I present some examples in invertebrates of sensory and motor asymmetries, as well as asymmetries in the nervous system. I illustrate two cases where an asymmetric brain is crucial for the development of some cognitive abilities. The first case is the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans, which has asymmetric odor sensory neurons and taste perception neurons. In this worm left/right asymmetries are responsible for the sensing of a substantial number of salt ions, and lateralized responses to salt allow the worm to discriminate between distinct salt ions. The second case is the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster, where the presence of asymmetry in a particular structure of the brain is important in the formation or retrieval of long-term memory. Moreover, I distinguish two distinct patterns of lateralization that occur in both vertebrates and invertebrates: individual-level and population-level lateralization. Theoretical models on the evolution of lateralization suggest that the alignment of lateralization at the population level may have evolved as an evolutionary stable strategy in which individually asymmetrical organisms must coordinate their behavior with that of other asymmetrical organisms. This implies that lateralization at the population-level is more likely to have evolved in social rather than in solitary species. I evaluate this new hypothesis with a specific focus on insects showing different level of sociality. In particular, I present a series of studies on antennal asymmetries in honeybees and other related species of bees, showing how insects may be extremely useful to test the evolutionary

  19. Natural invertebrate hosts of iridoviruses (Iridoviridae)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, Trevor

    2008-01-01

    Invertebrate iridescent viruses (IIVs) are icosahedral DNA viruses that infect invertebrates, mainly insects and terrestrial isopods, in damp and aquatic habitats. Exhaustive searches of databases resulted in the identification of 79 articles reporting 108 invertebrate species naturally infected by confirmed or putative iridoviruses. Of these, 103 (95%) were arthropods and the remainder were molluscs, an annelid worm and a nematode. Nine species were from marine habitats. Of the 99 non-marine species, 49 were from terrestrial habitats and 50 were aquatic, especially the aquatic stages of Diptera (44 species). The abundance of records from species of Aedes, Ochlerotatus and Psorophora contrasts markedly with a paucity of records from species of Anopheles, Culex and Culiseta. Records from terrestrial isopods are numerous (19 species), although the diversity of IIVs that infect them is mostly unstudied. IIV infections have been reported from every continent, except Antarctica, but there are few records from Africa, southern Asia and Latin America. Most reports describe patent IIV infections as rare whereas inapparent (covert) infection may be common in certain species. The relationship between particle size and iridescent colour of the host is found to be consistent with optical theory in the great majority of cases. Only 24 reported IIVs from insect hosts have partial characterization data and only two have been subjected to complete genome sequencing. I show that the rate of publication on IIVs has slowed from 1990 to the present, and I draw a number of conclusions and suggestions from the host list and make recommendations for future research efforts. (author)

  20. Brain and behavioural lateralization in invertebrates.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisa eFrasnelli

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Traditionally, only humans were thought to exhibit brain and behavioural asymmetries, but several studies have revealed that most vertebrates are also lateralized. Recently, evidence of left-right asymmetries in invertebrates has begun to emerge, suggesting that lateralization of the nervous system may be a feature of simpler brains as well as more complex ones. Here I present some examples in invertebrates of sensory and motor asymmetries, as well as asymmetries in the nervous system. I illustrate two cases where an asymmetric brain is crucial for the development of some cognitive abilities. The first case is the nematode C. elegans, which has asymmetric odour sensory neurons and taste perception neurons. In this worm left/right asymmetries are responsible for the sensing of a substantial number of salt ions, and lateralized responses to salt allow the worm to discriminate between distinct salt ions. The second case is the fruit fly D. melanogaster, where the presence of asymmetry in a particular structure of the brain is important in the formation or retrieval of long-term memory. Moreover, I distinguish two distinct patterns of lateralization that occur in both vertebrates and invertebrates: individual-level and population-level lateralization. Theoretical models on the evolution of lateralization suggest that the alignment of lateralization at the population level may have evolved as an evolutionary stable strategy in which individually-asymmetrical organisms must coordinate their behaviour with that of other asymmetrical organisms. This implies that lateralization at the population-level is more likely to have evolved in social rather than in solitary species. I evaluate this new hypothesis with specific focus on insects showing different level of sociality. In particular, I present a series of studies on antennal asymmetries in honeybees and other related species of bees, showing how insects may be extremely useful to test evolutionary

  1. Water and Muscle Contraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrico Grazi

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available The interaction between water and the protein of the contractile machinery as well as the tendency of these proteins to form geometrically ordered structures provide a link between water and muscle contraction. Protein osmotic pressure is strictly related to the chemical potential of the contractile proteins, to the stiffness of muscle structures and to the viscosity of the sliding of the thin over the thick filaments. Muscle power output and the steady rate of contraction are linked by modulating a single parameter, a viscosity coefficient. Muscle operation is characterized by working strokes of much shorter length and much quicker than in the classical model. As a consequence the force delivered and the stiffness attained by attached cross-bridges is much larger than usually believed.

  2. The Global Invertebrate Genomics Alliance (GIGA): Developing Community Resources to Study Diverse Invertebrate Genomes

    KAUST Repository

    Bracken-Grissom, Heather

    2013-12-12

    Over 95% of all metazoan (animal) species comprise the invertebrates, but very few genomes from these organisms have been sequenced. We have, therefore, formed a Global Invertebrate Genomics Alliance (GIGA). Our intent is to build a collaborative network of diverse scientists to tackle major challenges (e.g., species selection, sample collection and storage, sequence assembly, annotation, analytical tools) associated with genome/transcriptome sequencing across a large taxonomic spectrum. We aim to promote standards that will facilitate comparative approaches to invertebrate genomics and collaborations across the international scientific community. Candidate study taxa include species from Porifera, Ctenophora, Cnidaria, Placozoa, Mollusca, Arthropoda, Echinodermata, Annelida, Bryozoa, and Platyhelminthes, among others. GIGA will target 7000 noninsect/nonnematode species, with an emphasis on marine taxa because of the unrivaled phyletic diversity in the oceans. Priorities for selecting invertebrates for sequencing will include, but are not restricted to, their phylogenetic placement; relevance to organismal, ecological, and conservation research; and their importance to fisheries and human health. We highlight benefits of sequencing both whole genomes (DNA) and transcriptomes and also suggest policies for genomic-level data access and sharing based on transparency and inclusiveness. The GIGA Web site () has been launched to facilitate this collaborative venture.

  3. Soil invertebrate communities in stressed European ecosystems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Butovsky, R.O. [All-Russian Research Institute for Nature Protection, Sadki-Znamenskoje (Russian Federation)

    2003-07-01

    Intensive landuse in Europe results in continual physical and chemical changes to land and soil. Soil invertebrates can be used for development of single- and multi-species test-systems for soil quality assessment under anthropogenous stress. The research was performed in 18 terrestrial ecosystems stressed by common anthropogenous impacts: recreation pressure, motorway or industrial pollution in Central Russia, Belgium and the Netherlands in 1983-2001. All three types of human stresses (recreation, motorway and industrial) induced similar changes of macroartropod and microarthropod communities. In stressed macroarthropod communities the decrease of abundance of non-specialized predators, chewing phytophagans, saprophagans and increase of abundance of rhyzophagans, sucking phytophagans and specialized predators was observed. All types of stresses increased or stabilized species diversity in macro- (in carabid beetles communities mainly increase of Harpalus and Amara species number, in weevils - Sitona species number etc.) and microarthropod (e.g. Mesostigmata mites species) communities. In stressed ecosystems sucking phytophagans have selective advantage as compared to chewing phytophagans, endoparasitoids as compared to ectoparasitoids, specialized predators as compared to non-specialized predators etc., meaning that the feeding strategy play an important regulatory role in the community. Saprophagans and phytophagans, consuming chemicals, e.g. heavy metals in large quantities, are in general highly sensitive groups. The most sensitive groups belonged to first and second order consumers. In putative trophic chains in roadside ecosystems, non-specialized zoophagans (predators) contained less copper and zinc, than specialized zoophagans and parasitoids. When compared to the peculiarities of distribution of pesticides (e.g. DDT) and radionuclides (Sr90 and Cs137) it happens that in terrestrial ecosystems heavy metals were primarily accumulated (1) in soil

  4. Developmental biology in marine invertebrate symbioses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McFall-Ngai, M J; Ruby, E G

    2000-12-01

    Associations between marine invertebrates and their cooperative bacterial symbionts offer access to an understanding of the roots of host-microbe interaction; for example, several symbioses like the squid-vibrio light organ association serve as models for investigating how each partner affects the developmental biology of the other. Previous results have identified a program of specific developmental events that unfolds as the association is initiated. In the past year, published studies have focused primarily on describing the mechanisms underlying the signaling processes that occur between the juvenile squid and the luminous bacteria that colonize it.

  5. Consequences for invertebrates of the use of forest fuel; Skogsbraensleanvaendningens konsekvenser foer ryggradsloesa djur

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weslien, J.

    1994-10-01

    This report describes the consequences of increased use of forest fuel for, primarily, red-listed (i.e. disappeared, threatened, vulnerable, rare or care demanding) invertebrates in Sweden. The report concentrates in invertebrate animals that largely live in parts of trees, trees or in tree biotopes that today are not utilised in conventional forestry but which to varying extents may be affected by increased removal of forest fuel. Certain environments should not in any way be utilised for removal of fuel, whereas others can be used provided that relevant consideration is taken to nature. Felling residues such as processor piles are of little value for red-listed species. Lying or standing trees left in the felling areas are of great importance for invertebrates in the category `care demanding` and should not be removed. Return of stabilised slowly available ashes have so far had little effect on the soil fauna studied, but there are no data on long-term effects. Fire-damaged trees are very valuable and should be saved. In the event of felling large burnt over areas, a selection of fire-damaged trees and groups of trees should be left. Forest edges, certain rocky outcrops in arable fields, and wooded meadows are frequently very species-rich environments and should usually not be used. In environments where overgrowing is a problem removal of fuel in the form of a careful thinning is positive for the invertebrate fauna. Old deciduous trees, both in the forest and in the cultivated countryside are valuable environments for many species and should be saved. If the interest in biofuels leads to deciduous trees being given extra space this will be positive for the fauna, provided that a continuity of old and dead deciduous trees is assured. Requirements for consideration to nature differ slightly in different parts of Sweden. 12 refs, 3 figs, 3 tabs

  6. Muscle Deoxygenation Causes Muscle Fatigue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murthy, G.; Hargens, A. R.; Lehman, S.; Rempel, D.

    1999-01-01

    Muscle fatigue is a common musculoskeletal disorder in the work place, and may be a harbinger for more disabling cumulative trauma disorders. Although the cause of fatigue is multifactorial, reduced blood flow and muscle oxygenation may be the primary factor in causing muscle fatigue during low intensity muscle exertion. Muscle fatigue is defined as a reduction in muscle force production, and also occurs among astronauts who are subjected to postural constraints while performing lengthy, repetitive tasks. The objectives of this research are to: 1) develop an objective tool to study the role of decreased muscle oxygenation on muscle force production, and 2) to evaluate muscle fatigue during prolonged glovebox work.

  7. Muscle Cramps

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Talk to your provider about the risks and benefits of medicines. How can I prevent muscle cramps? To prevent muscle cramps, you can Stretch your muscles, especially before exercising. If you often get leg cramps at night, ...

  8. A human protein interaction network shows conservation of aging processes between human and invertebrate species.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Russell Bell

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available We have mapped a protein interaction network of human homologs of proteins that modify longevity in invertebrate species. This network is derived from a proteome-scale human protein interaction Core Network generated through unbiased high-throughput yeast two-hybrid searches. The longevity network is composed of 175 human homologs of proteins known to confer increased longevity through loss of function in yeast, nematode, or fly, and 2,163 additional human proteins that interact with these homologs. Overall, the network consists of 3,271 binary interactions among 2,338 unique proteins. A comparison of the average node degree of the human longevity homologs with random sets of proteins in the Core Network indicates that human homologs of longevity proteins are highly connected hubs with a mean node degree of 18.8 partners. Shortest path length analysis shows that proteins in this network are significantly more connected than would be expected by chance. To examine the relationship of this network to human aging phenotypes, we compared the genes encoding longevity network proteins to genes known to be changed transcriptionally during aging in human muscle. In the case of both the longevity protein homologs and their interactors, we observed enrichments for differentially expressed genes in the network. To determine whether homologs of human longevity interacting proteins can modulate life span in invertebrates, homologs of 18 human FRAP1 interacting proteins showing significant changes in human aging muscle were tested for effects on nematode life span using RNAi. Of 18 genes tested, 33% extended life span when knocked-down in Caenorhabditis elegans. These observations indicate that a broad class of longevity genes identified in invertebrate models of aging have relevance to human aging. They also indicate that the longevity protein interaction network presented here is enriched for novel conserved longevity proteins.

  9. Relapse to cocaine seeking in an invertebrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amaning-Kwarteng, Akua O; Asif-Malik, Aman; Pei, Yue; Canales, Juan J

    2017-06-01

    Addiction is characterised by cycles of compulsive drug taking, periods of abstinence and episodes of relapse. The extinction/reinstatement paradigm has been extensively used in rodents to model human relapse and explore underlying mechanisms and therapeutics. However, relapse to drug seeking behaviour has not been previously demonstrated in invertebrates. Here, we used a cocaine conditioned place preference (CPP) paradigm in the flatworm, planarian, followed by extinction and reinstatement of drug seeking. Once baseline preference was established for one of two distinctly textured environments (i.e. compartments with a coarse or smooth surface), planarian received pairings of cocaine (5μM) in the non-preferred, and vehicle in the most preferred, environment, and were tested for conditioning thereafter. Cocaine produced robust CPP, measured as a significant increase in the time spent in the cocaine-paired compartment. Subsequently, planarian underwent extinction training, reverting back to their original preference within three sessions. Brief exposure to cocaine (5μM) or methamphetamine (5μM) reinstated cocaine-seeking behaviour. By contrast, the high affinity dopamine transporter inhibitor, (N-(n-butyl)-3α-[bis (4-fluorophenyl) methoxy]-tropane) (JHW007), which in rodents exhibits a neurochemical and behavioural profile distinct from cocaine, was ineffective. The present findings demonstrate for the first time reinstatement of extinguished cocaine seeking in an invertebrate model and suggest that the long-term adaptations underlying drug conditioning and relapse are highly conserved through evolution. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Management in a neotropical show cave: planning for invertebrates conservation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thais Giovannini Pellegrini

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Lapa Nova is a dolomitic cave about 4.5 km long located in northwestern Minas Gerais state, Brazil. The cave experiences intense tourism, concentrated over a single period of the year, during the Feast of Our Lady of Lapa. In order to evaluate the impacts felt by the invertebrate community from this tourism, a new methodology was proposed. Four types of areas (intense visitation area, outlying visitation areas, moderate visitation areas and no-visitation areas were sampled for invertebrates. There was one sampling prior and another on the last day of the 128th feast, to evaluate the effects of visitation on cave-dwelling invertebrates. Results show that invertebrate populations residing in more intensely visited areas of the cave undergo changes in distribution following the event. As a consequence of tourism, invertebrates shift to outlying locations from the visited area, which serve as refuges to the communities. Apparently, the fact that there are places inside Lapa Nova inaccessible to tourists reduces the impact suffered by the invertebrate community, as those sites serve as refuges for cave-dwelling organisms during the pilgrimage. A proper management plan was devised for the tourism/religious use of the cave. It consists basically of delimiting marked pathways for tourists, allowing invertebrates to seek shelter at locations outside visited areas and keeping no-visitation areas off-limits to tourism based on the results of the visitation effects on cave-dwelling invertebrates.

  11. 50 CFR 17.85 - Special rules-invertebrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Special rules-invertebrates. 17.85 Section 17.85 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR....85 Special rules—invertebrates. (a) Seventeen mollusks in the Tennessee River. The species in the...

  12. Invertebrates of the Columbia River basin assessment area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christine G. Niwa; Roger E. Sandquist; Rod Crawford; et al.

    2001-01-01

    A general background on functional groups of invertebrates in the Columbia River basin and how they affect sustainability and productivity of their ecological communities is presented. The functional groups include detritivores, predators, pollinators, and grassland and forest herbivores. Invertebrate biodiversity and species of conservation interest are discussed....

  13. Mutation-specific effects on thin filament length in thin filament myopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winter, Josine M de; Joureau, Barbara; Lee, Eun-Jeong; Kiss, Balázs; Yuen, Michaela; Gupta, Vandana A; Pappas, Christopher T; Gregorio, Carol C; Stienen, Ger J M; Edvardson, Simon; Wallgren-Pettersson, Carina; Lehtokari, Vilma-Lotta; Pelin, Katarina; Malfatti, Edoardo; Romero, Norma B; Engelen, Baziel G van; Voermans, Nicol C; Donkervoort, Sandra; Bönnemann, C G; Clarke, Nigel F; Beggs, Alan H; Granzier, Henk; Ottenheijm, Coen A C

    2016-06-01

    Thin filament myopathies are among the most common nondystrophic congenital muscular disorders, and are caused by mutations in genes encoding proteins that are associated with the skeletal muscle thin filament. Mechanisms underlying muscle weakness are poorly understood, but might involve the length of the thin filament, an important determinant of force generation. We investigated the sarcomere length-dependence of force, a functional assay that provides insights into the contractile strength of muscle fibers as well as the length of the thin filaments, in muscle fibers from 51 patients with thin filament myopathy caused by mutations in NEB, ACTA1, TPM2, TPM3, TNNT1, KBTBD13, KLHL40, and KLHL41. Lower force generation was observed in muscle fibers from patients of all genotypes. In a subset of patients who harbor mutations in NEB and ACTA1, the lower force was associated with downward shifted force-sarcomere length relations, indicative of shorter thin filaments. Confocal microscopy confirmed shorter thin filaments in muscle fibers of these patients. A conditional Neb knockout mouse model, which recapitulates thin filament myopathy, revealed a compensatory mechanism; the lower force generation that was associated with shorter thin filaments was compensated for by increasing the number of sarcomeres in series. This allowed muscle fibers to operate at a shorter sarcomere length and maintain optimal thin-thick filament overlap. These findings might provide a novel direction for the development of therapeutic strategies for thin filament myopathy patients with shortened thin filament lengths. Ann Neurol 2016;79:959-969. © 2016 American Neurological Association.

  14. Trophic transfer of toxic elements in the estuarine invertebrate and fish food web of Daliao River, Liaodong Bay, China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo, Bobo; Jiao, Deqi; Wang, Jing; Lei, Kai; Lin, Chunye

    2016-01-01

    In order to study element accumulation and trophic transfer in the food web, sixteen benthic invertebrate species and nine fish species were collected from the Daliao River estuary for analysis of toxic elements and nitrogen stable isotope in the muscle tissue. The concentrations ranged between 1.44–17.98, 0.01–9.30, 0.17–36.15, 0.7–145.4, 0.01–0.33, 0.14–14.88, 0.10–2.51, 0.02–0.14, and 19.3–221.1 mg kg −1 for As, Cd, Cu, Hg, Ni, Pb, Sb, and Zn, respectively. As, Cd, Cu, and Zn were significantly higher in the benthic invertebrates than in fish, whereas Hg and Sb were significantly lower. In addition, the benthic invertebrates were characterized by the highest bioaccumulation factor (BAF) for Cd, whereas the fish were characterized by the highest BAF for Hg. A significant decrease in Cd, Cr, Cu, and Ni levels, and a significant increase in Hg and Sb levels were observed with increasing trophic levels. - Highlights: • Toxic elements and trophic level were determined in biota from Daliao River estuary. • Benthic invertebrates had higher As, Cd, Cu, Zn and lower Hg and Sb levels than fish. • Benthic invertebrates accumulated high As levels, while fish accumulated high Hg levels. • Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni levels decreased, and Hg and Sb levels increased with trophic levels.

  15. Soil invertebrates as bioindicators of urban soil quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santorufo, Lucia; Van Gestel, Cornelis A.M.; Rocco, Annamaria; Maisto, Giulia

    2012-01-01

    This study aimed at relating the abundance and diversity of invertebrate communities of urban soils to chemical and physical soil characteristics and to identify the taxa most sensitive or tolerant to soil stressors. The invertebrate community of five urban soils in Naples, Italy, was sampled. To assess soil quality invertebrate community indices (Shannon, Simpson, Menhinick and Pielou indices), Acarina/Collembola ratios, and the soil biological quality index (QBS) were calculated. The chemical and physical characteristics of the soils strongly differed. Abundance rather than taxa richness of invertebrates were more affected by soil characteristics. The community was more abundant and diverse in the soils with high organic matter and water content and low metal (Cu, Pb, Zn) concentrations. The taxa more resistant to the urban environment included Acarina, Enchytraeids, Collembola and Nematoda. Collembolans appeared particularly sensitive to changing soil properties. Among the investigated indices, QBS seems most appropriate for soil quality assessment. - Highlights: ► The abundance and diversity of invertebrate communities was related to properties and metal contents of urban soils. ► Several (biodiversity) indices were calculated and compared to evaluate soil quality. ► Metal contamination affected invertebrate density and diversity. ► The taxa more tolerant to metal contamination were Acarina, Enchytraeids, Collembola and Nematoda. ► The soil biological quality index QBS index was most appropriate for soil quality assessment. - Soil metal contamination negatively affected soil invertebrate abundance and diversity.

  16. Antimicrobial Compounds from Marine Invertebrates-Derived Microorganisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Juan; Jung, Jee H; Liu, Yonghong

    2016-01-01

    It is known that marine invertebrates, including sponges, tunicates, cnidaria or mollusks, host affluent and various communities of symbiotic microorganisms. The microorganisms associated with the invertebrates metabolized various biologically active compounds, which could be an important resource for the discovery and development of potentially novel drugs. In this review, the new compounds with antimicrobial activity isolated from marine invertebrate-derived microorganisms in the last decade (2004-2014) will be presented, with focus on the relevant antimicrobial activities, origin of isolation, and information of strain species. New compounds without antimicrobial activity were not revealed.

  17. RNA interference-mediated intrinsic antiviral immunity in invertebrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nayak, Arabinda; Tassetto, Michel; Kunitomi, Mark; Andino, Raul

    2013-01-01

    In invertebrates such as insects and nematodes, RNA interference (RNAi) provides RNA-based protection against viruses. This form of immunity restricts viral replication and dissemination from infected cells and viruses, in turn, have evolved evasion mechanisms or RNAi suppressors to counteract host defenses. Recent advances indicate that, in addition to RNAi, other related small RNA pathways contribute to antiviral functions in invertebrates. This has led to a deeper understanding of fundamental aspects of small RNA-based antiviral immunity in invertebrates and its contribution to viral spread and pathogenesis.

  18. Logging cuts the functional importance of invertebrates in tropical rainforest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ewers, Robert M; Boyle, Michael J W; Gleave, Rosalind A; Plowman, Nichola S; Benedick, Suzan; Bernard, Henry; Bishop, Tom R; Bakhtiar, Effendi Y; Chey, Vun Khen; Chung, Arthur Y C; Davies, Richard G; Edwards, David P; Eggleton, Paul; Fayle, Tom M; Hardwick, Stephen R; Homathevi, Rahman; Kitching, Roger L; Khoo, Min Sheng; Luke, Sarah H; March, Joshua J; Nilus, Reuben; Pfeifer, Marion; Rao, Sri V; Sharp, Adam C; Snaddon, Jake L; Stork, Nigel E; Struebig, Matthew J; Wearn, Oliver R; Yusah, Kalsum M; Turner, Edgar C

    2015-04-13

    Invertebrates are dominant species in primary tropical rainforests, where their abundance and diversity contributes to the functioning and resilience of these globally important ecosystems. However, more than one-third of tropical forests have been logged, with dramatic impacts on rainforest biodiversity that may disrupt key ecosystem processes. We find that the contribution of invertebrates to three ecosystem processes operating at three trophic levels (litter decomposition, seed predation and removal, and invertebrate predation) is reduced by up to one-half following logging. These changes are associated with decreased abundance of key functional groups of termites, ants, beetles and earthworms, and an increase in the abundance of small mammals, amphibians and insectivorous birds in logged relative to primary forest. Our results suggest that ecosystem processes themselves have considerable resilience to logging, but the consistent decline of invertebrate functional importance is indicative of a human-induced shift in how these ecological processes operate in tropical rainforests.

  19. Logging cuts the functional importance of invertebrates in tropical rainforest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ewers, Robert M.; Boyle, Michael J. W.; Gleave, Rosalind A.; Plowman, Nichola S.; Benedick, Suzan; Bernard, Henry; Bishop, Tom R.; Bakhtiar, Effendi Y.; Chey, Vun Khen; Chung, Arthur Y. C.; Davies, Richard G.; Edwards, David P.; Eggleton, Paul; Fayle, Tom M.; Hardwick, Stephen R.; Homathevi, Rahman; Kitching, Roger L.; Khoo, Min Sheng; Luke, Sarah H.; March, Joshua J.; Nilus, Reuben; Pfeifer, Marion; Rao, Sri V.; Sharp, Adam C.; Snaddon, Jake L.; Stork, Nigel E.; Struebig, Matthew J.; Wearn, Oliver R.; Yusah, Kalsum M.; Turner, Edgar C.

    2015-01-01

    Invertebrates are dominant species in primary tropical rainforests, where their abundance and diversity contributes to the functioning and resilience of these globally important ecosystems. However, more than one-third of tropical forests have been logged, with dramatic impacts on rainforest biodiversity that may disrupt key ecosystem processes. We find that the contribution of invertebrates to three ecosystem processes operating at three trophic levels (litter decomposition, seed predation and removal, and invertebrate predation) is reduced by up to one-half following logging. These changes are associated with decreased abundance of key functional groups of termites, ants, beetles and earthworms, and an increase in the abundance of small mammals, amphibians and insectivorous birds in logged relative to primary forest. Our results suggest that ecosystem processes themselves have considerable resilience to logging, but the consistent decline of invertebrate functional importance is indicative of a human-induced shift in how these ecological processes operate in tropical rainforests. PMID:25865801

  20. Oxytocin mediated behavior in invertebrates: An evolutionary perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lockard, Meghan A; Ebert, Margaret S; Bargmann, Cornelia I

    2017-02-01

    The molecular and functional conservation of oxytocin-related neuropeptides in behavior is striking. In animals separated by at least 600 million years of evolution, from roundworms to humans, oxytocin homologs play critical roles in the modulation of reproductive behavior and other biological functions. Here, we review the roles of oxytocin in invertebrate behavior from an evolutionary perspective. We begin by tracing the evolution of oxytocin through the invertebrate animal lineages, and then describe common themes in invertebrate behaviors that are mediated by oxytocin-related peptides, including reproductive behavior, learning and memory, food arousal, and predator/prey relationships. Finally, we discuss interesting future directions that have recently become experimentally tractable. Studying oxytocin in invertebrates offers precise insights into the activity of neuropeptides on well-defined neural circuits; the principles that emerge may also be represented in the more complex vertebrate brain. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Develop Neurobiol 77: 128-142, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Asellus aquaticus and other invertebrates in drinking water distribution systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Sarah Christine

    hygiene. Whereas invertebrates in drinking water are known to host parasites in tropical countries they are largely regarded an aesthetical problem in temperate countries. Publications on invertebrate distribution in Danish systems have been completely absent and while reports from various countries have...... other crustaceans and nematodes protect bacteria from treatment processes. The influence of A. aquaticus has never previously been investigated. Investigations in this PhD project revealed that presence of A. aquaticus did not influence microbial water quality measurably in full scale distribution...... Campylobacter jejuni. Invertebrates enter drinking water systems through various routes e.g. through deficiencies in e.g. tanks, pipes, valves and fittings due to bursts or maintenance works. Some invertebrates pass treatment processes from ground water or surface water supplies while other routes may include...

  2. Guam and the Northern Mariana Islands ESI: INVERT (Invertebrate Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for intertidal-, reef-, and mangrove-associated invertebrate species in Guam and the Northern Mariana...

  3. Coastal Resources Atlas: Long Island: INVERT (Invertebrate Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for coastal, estuarine, and marine invertebrate species for Long Island, New York. Vector polygons in this...

  4. An investigation into the chemical composition of alternative invertebrate prey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oonincx, D.G.A.B.; Dierenfeld, E.S.

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the chemical composition of eight invertebrate species and evaluate their suitability as alternative prey. The species selected were rusty red cockroaches (Blatta lateralis), six-spotted cockroaches (Eublaberus distanti), Madagascar hissing cockroaches

  5. Variation in composition of macro-benthic invertebrates as an ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mo

    1 Makerere University Institute of Environment & Natural Resources, P.O. Box 7062 Kampala-Uganda ... benthic macro-invertebrates communities were evaluated using GIS techniques along an ...... Kendall Hunt Publishing Company, Iowa.

  6. Various roles of beta-glucan in invertebrates

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Větvička, V.; Šíma, Petr

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 14, č. 1 (2017), s. 488-493 ISSN 1824-307X Institutional support: RVO:61388971 Keywords : invertebrates * glucan * receptors Subject RIV: EC - Immunology OBOR OECD: Immunology Impact factor: 0.824, year: 2016

  7. Effects of neonicotinoids and fipronil on non-target invertebrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pisa, L W; Amaral-Rogers, V; Belzunces, L P; Bonmatin, J M; Downs, C A; Goulson, D; Kreutzweiser, D P; Krupke, C; Liess, M; McField, M; Morrissey, C A; Noome, D A; Settele, J; Simon-Delso, N; Stark, J D; Van der Sluijs, J P; Van Dyck, H; Wiemers, M

    2015-01-01

    We assessed the state of knowledge regarding the effects of large-scale pollution with neonicotinoid insecticides and fipronil on non-target invertebrate species of terrestrial, freshwater and marine environments. A large section of the assessment is dedicated to the state of knowledge on sublethal effects on honeybees (Apis mellifera) because this important pollinator is the most studied non-target invertebrate species. Lepidoptera (butterflies and moths), Lumbricidae (earthworms), Apoidae sensu lato (bumblebees, solitary bees) and the section "other invertebrates" review available studies on the other terrestrial species. The sections on freshwater and marine species are rather short as little is known so far about the impact of neonicotinoid insecticides and fipronil on the diverse invertebrate fauna of these widely exposed habitats. For terrestrial and aquatic invertebrate species, the known effects of neonicotinoid pesticides and fipronil are described ranging from organismal toxicology and behavioural effects to population-level effects. For earthworms, freshwater and marine species, the relation of findings to regulatory risk assessment is described. Neonicotinoid insecticides exhibit very high toxicity to a wide range of invertebrates, particularly insects, and field-realistic exposure is likely to result in both lethal and a broad range of important sublethal impacts. There is a major knowledge gap regarding impacts on the grand majority of invertebrates, many of which perform essential roles enabling healthy ecosystem functioning. The data on the few non-target species on which field tests have been performed are limited by major flaws in the outdated test protocols. Despite large knowledge gaps and uncertainties, enough knowledge exists to conclude that existing levels of pollution with neonicotinoids and fipronil resulting from presently authorized uses frequently exceed the lowest observed adverse effect concentrations and are thus likely to have large

  8. Common mechanisms of synaptic plasticity in vertebrates and invertebrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glanzman, David L.

    2016-01-01

    Until recently, the literature on learning-related synaptic plasticity in invertebrates has been dominated by models assuming plasticity is mediated by presynaptic changes, whereas the vertebrate literature has been dominated by models assuming it is mediated by postsynaptic changes. Here I will argue that this situation does not reflect a biological reality and that, in fact, invertebrate and vertebrate nervous systems share a common set of mechanisms of synaptic plasticity. PMID:20152143

  9. A comparative gene expression database for invertebrates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ormestad Mattias

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background As whole genome and transcriptome sequencing gets cheaper and faster, a great number of 'exotic' animal models are emerging, rapidly adding valuable data to the ever-expanding Evo-Devo field. All these new organisms serve as a fantastic resource for the research community, but the sheer amount of data, some published, some not, makes detailed comparison of gene expression patterns very difficult to summarize - a problem sometimes even noticeable within a single lab. The need to merge existing data with new information in an organized manner that is publicly available to the research community is now more necessary than ever. Description In order to offer a homogenous way of storing and handling gene expression patterns from a variety of organisms, we have developed the first web-based comparative gene expression database for invertebrates that allows species-specific as well as cross-species gene expression comparisons. The database can be queried by gene name, developmental stage and/or expression domains. Conclusions This database provides a unique tool for the Evo-Devo research community that allows the retrieval, analysis and comparison of gene expression patterns within or among species. In addition, this database enables a quick identification of putative syn-expression groups that can be used to initiate, among other things, gene regulatory network (GRN projects.

  10. Chemical elements in invertebrate orders for environmental quality studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Magalhaes, Marcelo R.L.; Franca, Elvis J.; Paiva, Jose D.S.; Hazin, Clovis A.; Fonseca, Felipe Y.; Fernandes, Elisabete A. de Nadai; Bacchi, Marcio A.

    2013-01-01

    Among the biomonitors of environmental quality, there is a lack of studies on using invertebrates to evaluate quantitatively chemical elements in ecosystems. This group of animals is quite numerous, widely distributed and adaptable to the most diverse environmental conditions. These features are very useful for the environmental quality assessment, as well as the several occurring insect-plant interactions performing essential functions in ecosystems. The objective of this work is to study the variability of chemical composition of invertebrate orders for using in environmental quality monitoring studies. Instrumental neutron activation analysis - INAA was applied to determine some nutrients and trace elements in invertebrate samples. Sampling by pitfall traps was carried out in riverine ecosystems from the urban area from the Piracicaba Municipality, State of Sao Paulo, Brazil. Invertebrate and reference material samples were irradiated in the nuclear research reactor IEA-R1, Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares - IPEN/CNEN. Fragments of a Ni-Cr alloy were irradiated for monitoring the thermal neutron flux. Hymenoptera order was considered the most representative according to the total number of sampled species (about 60%). Significant amounts of Ba, Br, Fe and Sc were found in invertebrates of the order Opiliones. Potassium, rubidium and zinc were highly accumulated in species from Blattodea order, indicating a consistent pattern of accumulation for this invertebrate order. Taking into account the abundance of Hymenoptera order, the chemical composition of its species was significant different at the 95% confidence level for Br and Na in the sampled locals. (author)

  11. Regulation of nitrous oxide emission associated with benthic invertebrates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stief, Peter; Schramm, Andreas

    2010-01-01

    1. A number of freshwater invertebrate species emit N2O, a greenhouse gas that is produced in their gut by denitrifying bacteria (direct N2O emission). Additionally, benthic invertebrate species may contribute to N2O emission from sediments by stimulating denitrification because of their bioirrig......1. A number of freshwater invertebrate species emit N2O, a greenhouse gas that is produced in their gut by denitrifying bacteria (direct N2O emission). Additionally, benthic invertebrate species may contribute to N2O emission from sediments by stimulating denitrification because...... of their bioirrigation behaviour (indirect N2O emission). 2. Two benthic invertebrate species were studied to determine (i) the dependence of direct N2O emission on the preferred diet of the animals, (ii) the regulation of direct N2O emission by seasonally changing factors, such as body size, temperature and NO3...... emitted by benthic invertebrates can be partially consumed in the sediment (E. danica), non-emitting species can still indirectly contribute to total N2O emission from sediment (S. lutaria)....

  12. Chemical elements in invertebrate orders for environmental quality studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Magalhaes, Marcelo R.L.; Franca, Elvis J.; Paiva, Jose D.S.; Hazin, Clovis A., E-mail: marcelo_rlm@hotmail.com, E-mail: ejfranca@cnen.gov.br, E-mail: dan-paiva@hotmail.com, E-mail: chazin@cnen.gov.br [Centro Regional de Ciencias Nucleares do Nordeste (CRCN-NE/CNEN-PE), Recife, PE (Brazil); Fonseca, Felipe Y.; Fernandes, Elisabete A. de Nadai; Bacchi, Marcio A., E-mail: felipe-yamada@hotmail.com, E-mail: lis@cena.usp.br, E-mail: mabacchi@cena.usp.br [Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura (CENA/USP), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    Among the biomonitors of environmental quality, there is a lack of studies on using invertebrates to evaluate quantitatively chemical elements in ecosystems. This group of animals is quite numerous, widely distributed and adaptable to the most diverse environmental conditions. These features are very useful for the environmental quality assessment, as well as the several occurring insect-plant interactions performing essential functions in ecosystems. The objective of this work is to study the variability of chemical composition of invertebrate orders for using in environmental quality monitoring studies. Instrumental neutron activation analysis - INAA was applied to determine some nutrients and trace elements in invertebrate samples. Sampling by pitfall traps was carried out in riverine ecosystems from the urban area from the Piracicaba Municipality, State of Sao Paulo, Brazil. Invertebrate and reference material samples were irradiated in the nuclear research reactor IEA-R1, Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares - IPEN/CNEN. Fragments of a Ni-Cr alloy were irradiated for monitoring the thermal neutron flux. Hymenoptera order was considered the most representative according to the total number of sampled species (about 60%). Significant amounts of Ba, Br, Fe and Sc were found in invertebrates of the order Opiliones. Potassium, rubidium and zinc were highly accumulated in species from Blattodea order, indicating a consistent pattern of accumulation for this invertebrate order. Taking into account the abundance of Hymenoptera order, the chemical composition of its species was significant different at the 95% confidence level for Br and Na in the sampled locals. (author)

  13. Biofilms and Marine Invertebrate Larvae: What Bacteria Produce That Larvae Use to Choose Settlement Sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadfield, Michael G.

    2011-01-01

    Communities of microorganisms form thin coats across solid surfaces in the sea. Larvae of many marine invertebrates use biofilm components as cues to appropriate settlement sites. Research on the tube-dwelling polychaete worm Hydroides elegans, a globally common member of biofouling communities, is described to exemplify approaches to understanding biofilm bacteria as a source of settlement cues and larvae as bearers of receptors for bacterial cues. The association of species of the bacterial genus Pseudoalteromonas with larval settlement in many phyla is described, and the question of whether cues are soluble or surface-bound is reviewed, concluding that most evidence points to surface-bound cues. Seemingly contradictory data for stimulation of barnacle settlement are discussed; possibly both explanations are true. Paleontological evidence reveals a relationship between metazoans and biofilms very early in metazoan evolution, and thus the receptors for bacterial cues of invertebrate larvae are very old and possibly unique. Finally, despite more than 60 years of intense investigation, we still know very little about either the bacterial ligands that stimulate larval settlement or the cellular basis of their detection by larvae.

  14. Muscle Contraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweeney, H Lee; Hammers, David W

    2018-02-01

    SUMMARYMuscle cells are designed to generate force and movement. There are three types of mammalian muscles-skeletal, cardiac, and smooth. Skeletal muscles are attached to bones and move them relative to each other. Cardiac muscle comprises the heart, which pumps blood through the vasculature. Skeletal and cardiac muscles are known as striated muscles, because the filaments of actin and myosin that power their contraction are organized into repeating arrays, called sarcomeres, that have a striated microscopic appearance. Smooth muscle does not contain sarcomeres but uses the contraction of filaments of actin and myosin to constrict blood vessels and move the contents of hollow organs in the body. Here, we review the principal molecular organization of the three types of muscle and their contractile regulation through signaling mechanisms and discuss their major structural and functional similarities that hint at the possible evolutionary relationships between the cell types. Copyright © 2018 Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press; all rights reserved.

  15. A generalized model for estimating the energy density of invertebrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, Daniel A.; Csargo, Isak J.; Von Eschen, Aaron; Thul, Megan D.; Baker, James M.; Hayer, Cari-Ann; Howell, Jessica; Krause, Jacob; Letvin, Alex; Chipps, Steven R.

    2012-01-01

    Invertebrate energy density (ED) values are traditionally measured using bomb calorimetry. However, many researchers rely on a few published literature sources to obtain ED values because of time and sampling constraints on measuring ED with bomb calorimetry. Literature values often do not account for spatial or temporal variability associated with invertebrate ED. Thus, these values can be unreliable for use in models and other ecological applications. We evaluated the generality of the relationship between invertebrate ED and proportion of dry-to-wet mass (pDM). We then developed and tested a regression model to predict ED from pDM based on a taxonomically, spatially, and temporally diverse sample of invertebrates representing 28 orders in aquatic (freshwater, estuarine, and marine) and terrestrial (temperate and arid) habitats from 4 continents and 2 oceans. Samples included invertebrates collected in all seasons over the last 19 y. Evaluation of these data revealed a significant relationship between ED and pDM (r2  =  0.96, p cost savings compared to traditional bomb calorimetry approaches. This model should prove useful for a wide range of ecological studies because it is unaffected by taxonomic, seasonal, or spatial variability.

  16. Lysosomal enzymes and their receptors in invertebrates: an evolutionary perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Nadimpalli Siva; Bhamidimarri, Poorna M

    2015-01-01

    Lysosomal biogenesis is an important process in eukaryotic cells to maintain cellular homeostasis. The key components that are involved in the biogenesis such as the lysosomal enzymes, their modifications and the mannose 6-phosphate receptors have been well studied and their evolutionary conservation across mammalian and non-mammalian vertebrates is clearly established. Invertebrate lysosomal biogenesis pathway on the other hand is not well studied. Although, details on mannose 6-phosphate receptors and enzymes involved in lysosomal enzyme modifications were reported earlier, a clear cut pathway has not been established. Recent research on the invertebrate species involving biogenesis of lysosomal enzymes suggests a possible conserved pathway in invertebrates. This review presents certain observations based on these processes that include biochemical, immunological and functional studies. Major conclusions include conservation of MPR-dependent pathway in higher invertebrates and recent evidence suggests that MPR-independent pathway might have been more prominent among lower invertebrates. The possible components of MPR-independent pathway that may play a role in lysosomal enzyme targeting are also discussed here.

  17. Piscicides and invertebrates: after 70 years, does anyone really know?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinson, M.R.; Dinger, E.C.; Vinson, D.K.

    2010-01-01

    The piscicides rotenone and antimycin have been used for more than 70 years to manage fish populations by eliminating undesirable fish species. The effects of piscicides on aquatic invertebrate assemblages are considered negligible by some and significant by others. This difference of opinion has created contentious situations and delayed native fish restoration projects. We review the scientific evidence and report that short-term ( 1 year) impacts are largely unknown. Recovery of invertebrate assemblages following treatments ranged from a few months for abundances of common taxa to several years for rarer taxa. Variation in reported effects was primarily due to natural variation among species and habitats and a lack of adequate pre- and post-treatment sampling which prevents determining the true impacts to invertebrate assemblages. The factors most likely to influence impacts and recovery of aquatic invertebrate assemblages following piscicide treatments are: (1) concentration, duration, and breadth of the piscicide treatment; (2) invertebrate morphology and life history characteristics, including surface area to volume ratios, type of respiration organs, generation time, and propensity to disperse; (3) refugia presence; and (4) distance from colonization sources.

  18. Sequence diversity and evolution of antimicrobial peptides in invertebrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tassanakajon, Anchalee; Somboonwiwat, Kunlaya; Amparyup, Piti

    2015-02-01

    Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) are evolutionarily ancient molecules that act as the key components in the invertebrate innate immunity against invading pathogens. Several AMPs have been identified and characterized in invertebrates, and found to display considerable diversity in their amino acid sequence, structure and biological activity. AMP genes appear to have rapidly evolved, which might have arisen from the co-evolutionary arms race between host and pathogens, and enabled organisms to survive in different microbial environments. Here, the sequence diversity of invertebrate AMPs (defensins, cecropins, crustins and anti-lipopolysaccharide factors) are presented to provide a better understanding of the evolution pattern of these peptides that play a major role in host defense mechanisms. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Isolation of key retinoid signalling and metabolic modules in invertebrates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana André

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Retinoids are a class of molecules related to vitamin A (Retinol that are required for regulation of critical chordate ndocrine-mediated process, such as embryonic development, reproduction, and vision. To maintain such physiological process, chordates have a complex mechanism to regulate the spatial and temporal distribution of retinoids that includes metabolic and signalling modules. Initially, retinoid modules were seen as a chordate novelty. However, emerging biochemical and genomic evidences have challenged this view, clearly pointing to a more basal ancestry than previously thought. However, for the majority of non-chordate invertebrate lineages a clearly characterization of the main enzymatic/molecular players is still missing. Despite limited, the available evidence supports the presence of biologically active retinoid pathways in invertebrates. In order to enhance our insights on retinoid biology, evolution, and its putative disruption by environmental chemicals, the isolation and functional characterization of key retinoid metabolic players in marine invertebrates has been carried out.

  20. Protozoa interaction with aquatic invertebrate: interest for watercourses biomonitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palos Ladeiro, M; Bigot, A; Aubert, D; Hohweyer, J; Favennec, L; Villena, I; Geffard, A

    2013-02-01

    Toxoplasma gondii, Cryptosporidium parvum, and Giardia duodenalis are human waterborne protozoa. These worldwide parasites had been detected in various watercourses as recreational, surface, drinking, river, and seawater. As of today, water protozoa detection was based on large water filtration and on sample concentration. Another tool like aquatic invertebrate parasitism could be used for sanitary and environmental biomonitoring. In fact, organisms like filter feeders could already filtrate and concentrate protozoa directly in their tissues in proportion to ambient concentration. So molluscan shellfish can be used as a bioindicator of protozoa contamination level in a site since they were sedentary. Nevertheless, only a few researches had focused on nonspecific parasitism like protozoa infection on aquatic invertebrates. Objectives of this review are twofold: Firstly, an overview of protozoa in worldwide water was presented. Secondly, current knowledge of protozoa parasitism on aquatic invertebrates was detailed and the lack of data of their biological impact was pointed out.

  1. Your Muscles

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and you need to throw up. The muscles push the food back out of the stomach so it comes up ... body the power it needs to lift and push things. Muscles in your neck and the top part of your back aren't as large, but they are capable ...

  2. thin films

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    microscopy (SEM) studies, respectively. The Fourier transform ... Thin films; chemical synthesis; hydrous tin oxide; FTIR; electrical properties. 1. Introduction ... dehydrogenation of organic compounds (Hattori et al 1987). .... SEM images of (a) bare stainless steel and (b) SnO2:H2O thin film on stainless steel substrate at a ...

  3. Meroterpenes from Marine Invertebrates: Structures, Occurrence, and Ecological Implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menna, Marialuisa; Imperatore, Concetta; D’Aniello, Filomena; Aiello, Anna

    2013-01-01

    Meroterpenes are widely distributed among marine organisms; they are particularly abundant within brown algae, but other important sources include microorganisms and invertebrates. In the present review the structures and bioactivities of meroterpenes from marine invertebrates, mainly sponges and tunicates, are summarized. More than 300 molecules, often complex and with unique skeletons originating from intra- and inter-molecular cyclizations, and/or rearrangements, are illustrated. The reported syntheses are mentioned. The issue of a potential microbial link to their biosynthesis is also shortly outlined. PMID:23685889

  4. Distribution pattern of benthic invertebrates in Danish estuaries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Erik; Delefosse, Matthieu; Quintana, Cintia Organo

    2013-01-01

    distribution of 9 dominating benthic invertebrate species from two study areas, the estuaries Odense Fjord and Roskilde Fjord, Denmark. The slope (b) obtained fromthe power relationship of sample variance (s2) versusmean (μ) appears to be species-specific and independent of location and time. It ranges from...... factors such as behavior and intraspecific interactions. Thus, at the examined spatial scale, the more intense intraspecific interactions (e.g. territoriality) cause less aggregated distribution patterns among large- than small-bodied invertebrates. The species-specific interactions seem sufficiently...

  5. Copper hazards to fish, wildlife and invertebrates: a synoptic review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisler, Ronald

    1998-01-01

    Selective review and synthesis of the technical literature on copper and copper salts in the environment and their effects primarily on fishes, birds, mammals, terrestrial and aquatic invertebrates, and other natural resources. The subtopics include copper sources and uses; chemical and biochemical properties; concentrations of copper in field collections of abiotic materials and living organisms; effects of copper deficiency; lethal and sublethal effects on terrestrial plants and invertebrates, aquatic organisms, birds and mammals, including effects on survival, growth, reproduction, behavior, metabolism, carcinogenicity, matagenicity, and teratogenicity; proposed criteria for the protection of human health and sensitive natural resources; and recommendations for additional research.

  6. Overview of the Muscle Cytoskeleton

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henderson, Christine A.; Gomez, Christopher G.; Novak, Stefanie M.; Mi-Mi, Lei; Gregorio, Carol C.

    2018-01-01

    Cardiac and skeletal striated muscles are intricately designed machines responsible for muscle contraction. Coordination of the basic contractile unit, the sarcomere, and the complex cytoskeletal networks are critical for contractile activity. The sarcomere is comprised of precisely organized individual filament systems that include thin (actin), thick (myosin), titin, and nebulin. Connecting the sarcomere to other organelles (e.g., mitochondria and nucleus) and serving as the scaffold to maintain cellular integrity are the intermediate filaments. The costamere, on the other hand, tethers the sarcomere to the cell membrane. Unique structures like the intercalated disc in cardiac muscle and the myotendinous junction in skeletal muscle help synchronize and transmit force. Intense investigation has been done on many of the proteins that make up these cytoskeletal assemblies. Yet the details of their function and how they interconnect have just started to be elucidated. A vast number of human myopathies are contributed to mutations in muscle proteins; thus understanding their basic function provides a mechanistic understanding of muscle disorders. In this review, we highlight the components of striated muscle with respect to their interactions, signaling pathways, functions, and connections to disease. PMID:28640448

  7. Markov process of muscle motors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kondratiev, Yu; Pechersky, E; Pirogov, S

    2008-01-01

    We study a Markov random process describing muscle molecular motor behaviour. Every motor is either bound up with a thin filament or unbound. In the bound state the motor creates a force proportional to its displacement from the neutral position. In both states the motor spends an exponential time depending on the state. The thin filament moves at a velocity proportional to the average of all displacements of all motors. We assume that the time which a motor stays in the bound state does not depend on its displacement. Then one can find an exact solution of a nonlinear equation appearing in the limit of an infinite number of motors

  8. Invertebrate neurophylogeny: suggested terms and definitions for a neuroanatomical glossary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Müller Carsten HG

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Invertebrate nervous systems are highly disparate between different taxa. This is reflected in the terminology used to describe them, which is very rich and often confusing. Even very general terms such as 'brain', 'nerve', and 'eye' have been used in various ways in the different animal groups, but no consensus on the exact meaning exists. This impedes our understanding of the architecture of the invertebrate nervous system in general and of evolutionary transformations of nervous system characters between different taxa. Results We provide a glossary of invertebrate neuroanatomical terms with a precise and consistent terminology, taxon-independent and free of homology assumptions. This terminology is intended to form a basis for new morphological descriptions. A total of 47 terms are defined. Each entry consists of a definition, discouraged terms, and a background/comment section. Conclusions The use of our revised neuroanatomical terminology in any new descriptions of the anatomy of invertebrate nervous systems will improve the comparability of this organ system and its substructures between the various taxa, and finally even lead to better and more robust homology hypotheses.

  9. Marine invertebrate diversity in Aristotle’s zoology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Voultsiadou, E.; Vafidis, D.

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to bring to light Aristotle’s knowledge of marine invertebrate diversity as this has been recorded in his works 25 centuries ago, and set it against current knowledge. The analysis of information derived from a thorough study of his zoological writings revealed 866 records

  10. Some unsolved problems concerning copepods associated with marine invertebrates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gotto, R.V.

    1990-01-01

    Three unsolved problems relating to symbiotic copepods of marine invertebrates are discussed: 1. The whereabouts of the unknown male of the gill parasite of lobsters, Nicothoe astaci. 2. The occurrence of very large and apparently post-reproductive females in the annelidicolous Cyclorhiza megalova.

  11. Trophic transfer of pyrene metabolites between aquatic invertebrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carrasco Navarro, V.; Leppänen, M.T.; Kukkonen, J.V.K.; Godoy Olmos, S.

    2013-01-01

    The trophic transfer of pyrene metabolites was studied using Gammarus setosus as a predator and the invertebrates Lumbriculus variegatus and Chironomus riparius as prey. The results obtained by liquid scintillation counting confirmed that the pyrene metabolites produced by the aquatic invertebrates L. variegatus and C. riparius were transferred to G. setosus through the diet. More detailed analyses by liquid chromatography discovered that two of the metabolites produced by C. riparius appeared in the chromatograms of G. setosus tissue extracts, proving their trophic transfer. These metabolites were not present in chromatograms of G. setosus exclusively exposed to pyrene. The present study supports the trophic transfer of PAH metabolites between benthic macroinvertebrates and common species of an arctic amphipod. As some PAH metabolites are more toxic than the parent compounds, the present study raises concerns about the consequences of their trophic transfer and the fate and effects of PAHs in natural environments. - Highlights: ► The trophic transfer of pyrene metabolites between invertebrates was evaluated. ► Biotransformation of pyrene by L. variegatus and C. riparius is different. ► Metabolites produced by L. variegatus and C. riparius are transferred to G. setosus. ► Specifically, two metabolites produced by C. riparius were transferred. - Some of the pyrene metabolites produced by the model invertebrates L. variegatus and C. riparius are transferred to G. setosus through the diet, proving their trophic transfer.

  12. Nitrous oxide production associated with coastal marine invertebrates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heisterkamp, Ines Maria; Schramm, Andreas; de Beer, Dirk

    2010-01-01

    Several freshwater and terrestrial invertebrate species emit the greenhouse gas nitrous oxide (N2O). The N2O production associated with these animals was ascribed to incomplete denitrification by ingested sediment or soil bacteria. The present study shows that many marine invertebrates also emit N2......O at substantial rates. A total of 19 invertebrate species collected in the German Wadden Sea and in Aarhus Bay, Denmark, and 1 aquacultured shrimp species were tested for N2O emission. Potential N2O emission rates ranged from 0 to 1.354 nmol ind.–1 h–1, with an average rate of 0.320 nmol ind.–1 h–1...... with an experimentally cleaned shell. Thus, the N2O production associated with marine invertebrates is apparently not due to gut denitrification in every species, but may also result from microbial activity on the external surfaces of animals. The high abundance and potential N2O emission rates of many marine...

  13. Bibliography of African inland water invertebrates (to 1980)

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Davies, BR

    1982-09-01

    Full Text Available This bibliography is a direct outcome of the SIL-UNEP Workshop on African Limnology held at the University of Nairobi, Kenya, between 16-23 December, 1979. Part 1 of the framework document for the A4 section of the Workshop - "Invertebrates...

  14. Invertebrates: Revealing a Hidden World in the Year of Biodiversity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanders, Dawn

    2010-01-01

    Biodiversity means the variety of life in all its forms. It includes the variety of species and ecosystems in the world, and genetic variation. Invertebrates are one of the largest and most accessible groups of animals for primary children to study. In this article, the author explains why and how children should engage with the idea of…

  15. Effects of environmental stressors on lipid metabolism in aquatic invertebrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Min-Chul; Park, Jun Chul; Lee, Jae-Seong

    2018-07-01

    Lipid metabolism is crucial for the survival and propagation of the species, since lipids are an essential cellular component across animal taxa for maintaining homeostasis in the presence of environmental stressors. This review aims to summarize information on the lipid metabolism under environmental stressors in aquatic invertebrates. Fatty acid synthesis from glucose via de novo lipogenesis (DNL) pathway is mostly well-conserved across animal taxa. The structure of free fatty acid (FFA) from both dietary and DNL pathway could be transformed by elongase and desaturase. In addition, FFA can be stored in lipid droplet as triacylglycerol, upon attachment to glycerol. However, due to the limited information on both gene and lipid composition, in-depth studies on the structural modification of FFA and their storage conformation are required. Despite previously validated evidences on the disturbance of the normal life cycle and lipid homeostasis by the environmental stressors (e.g., obesogens, salinity, temperature, pCO 2 , and nutrients) in the aquatic invertebrates, the mechanism behind these effects are still poorly understood. To overcome this limitation, omics approaches such as transcriptomic and proteomic analyses have been used, but there are still gaps in our knowledge on aquatic invertebrates as well as the lipidome. This paper provides a deeper understanding of lipid metabolism in aquatic invertebrates. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. The association between invertebrates and macrophytes in a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The invertebrate fauna associated with aquatic macrophytes in the littoral of Lake Kariba was studied over a three-month period in 2002. Animals from seven classes — Hirudinea, Oligochaeta, Turbellaria, Insecta, Crustacea, Bivalvia and Gastropoda — were collected. Two hirudineans, Placobdella sp. and Haemopsis sp., ...

  17. Advancing Neuroscience Research in Africa: Invertebrate Species to the Rescue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balogun, Wasiu Gbolahan; Cobham, Ansa Emmanuel; Amin, Abdulbasit; Seeni, Azman

    2018-03-15

    Neuroscience research and training in many African countries are difficult due to funding and infrastructure deficit. This has resulted in few neuroscientists within Africa. However, invertebrates such as Drosophila and Caenorhabditis elegans could provide the perfect answer to these difficulties. These organisms are cheap, easy to handle and offer a comparable advantage over vertebrates in neuroscience research modeling because they have a simple nervous system and exhibit well-defined behaviors. Studies using invertebrates have helped to understand neurosciences and the complexes associated with it. If Africa wants to catch up with the rest of the world in neuroscience research, it needs to employ this innovative cost-effective approach in its research. To improve invertebrate neuroscience within the Africa continent, the authors advocated the establishment of invertebrate research centers either at regional or national level across Africa. Finally, there is also a need to provide public funding to consolidate the gains that have been made by not-for-profit international organizations over the years. Copyright © 2018 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Freshwater invertebrates of sub-Antarctic Marion Island | Dartnall ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aquatic species include five platyhelminthes, a gastrotrich, three tardigrades, 28 rotifers, six nematodes, two annelids and 11 arthropods. Most are familiar species that have been recorded on other sub-Antarctic islands. The invertebrate faunas of the various freshwater habitats were basically similar in species ...

  19. Effect of burn area on invertebrate recolonization in grasslands in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Our study examined the short-term response of grassland invertebrate communities to fire in the South African Drakensberg, in relation to distance from the edge of a burn. We aimed to establish which species survive fire and the dynamics of the post-fire recolonization process, and thereby contribute to establishing the ...

  20. Seasonal species composition of invertebrates in several Oregon streams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pamela E. Porter; William R. Meehan

    1987-01-01

    The invertebrate communities ofeight Oregon streams were sampled seasonally from 1974 to 1976. Benthic, drift, and two types of aerial-trap samples were collected. Occurrence and percentage composition are summarized by sample type, season, and geographic area (coastal, Cascade, central, and eastern Oregon). Within 276 families, 426 taxa were identified; the 20...

  1. Biodiversity and abundance of fish and macrobenthic invertebrates ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A study of the occurrence and distribution offish and macrobenthic invertebrates of Nguru Lake was conducted between May, 2006 and April, 2007. Thirteen families of fish consisting of 24 species where discovered. The fishes were dominate.d by the family Cichlidae (64.44%). An average of 540. 1 7kg of fish was caught ...

  2. Muscle cramps

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the lower leg/calf Back of the thigh (hamstrings) Front of the thigh (quadriceps) Cramps in the ... Names Cramps - muscle Images Chest stretch Groin stretch Hamstring stretch Hip stretch Thigh stretch Triceps stretch References ...

  3. Muscle atrophy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... People who cannot actively move one or more joints can do exercises using braces or splints . When ... A.M. Editorial team. Muscle Disorders Read more Neuromuscular Disorders Read more NIH MedlinePlus Magazine Read more ...

  4. Crawling to collapse: ecologically unsound ornamental invertebrate fisheries.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Rhyne

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Fishery management has historically been an inexact and reactionary discipline, often taking action only after a critical stock suffers overfishing or collapse. The invertebrate ornamental fishery in the State of Florida, with increasing catches over a more diverse array of species, is poised for collapse. Current management is static and the lack of an adaptive strategy will not allow for adequate responses associated with managing this multi-species fishery. The last decade has seen aquarium hobbyists shift their display preference from fish-only tanks to miniature reef ecosystems that include many invertebrate species, creating increased demand without proper oversight. The once small ornamental fishery has become an invertebrate-dominated major industry supplying five continents. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Here, we analyzed the Florida Marine Life Fishery (FLML landing data from 1994 to 2007 for all invertebrate species. The data were organized to reflect both ecosystem purpose (in the wild and ecosystem services (commodities for each reported species to address the following question: Are ornamental invertebrates being exploited for their fundamental ecosystem services and economic value at the expense of reef resilience? We found that 9 million individuals were collected in 2007, 6 million of which were grazers. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The number of grazers now exceeds, by two-fold, the number of specimens collected for curio and ornamental purposes altogether, representing a major categorical shift. In general, landings have increased 10-fold since 1994, though the number of licenses has been dramatically reduced. Thus, despite current management strategies, the FLML Fishery appears to be crawling to collapse.

  5. The overlooked biodiversity of flower-visiting invertebrates.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carl W Wardhaugh

    Full Text Available Estimates suggest that perhaps 40% of all invertebrate species are found in tropical rainforest canopies. Extrapolations of total diversity and food web analyses have been based almost exclusively on species inhabiting the foliage, under the assumption that foliage samples are representative of the entire canopy. We examined the validity of this assumption by comparing the density of invertebrates and the species richness of beetles across three canopy microhabitats (mature leaves, new leaves and flowers on a one hectare plot in an Australian tropical rainforest. Specifically, we tested two hypotheses: 1 canopy invertebrate density and species richness are directly proportional to the amount of resource available; and 2 canopy microhabitats represent discrete resources that are utilised by their own specialised invertebrate communities. We show that flowers in the canopy support invertebrate densities that are ten to ten thousand times greater than on the nearby foliage when expressed on a per-unit resource biomass basis. Furthermore, species-level analyses of the beetle fauna revealed that flowers support a unique and remarkably rich fauna compared to foliage, with very little species overlap between microhabitats. We reject the hypothesis that the insect fauna on mature foliage is representative of the greater canopy community even though mature foliage comprises a very large proportion of canopy plant biomass. Although the significance of the evolutionary relationship between flowers and insects is well known with respect to plant reproduction, less is known about the importance of flowers as resources for tropical insects. Consequently, we suggest that this constitutes a more important piece of the 'diversity jigsaw puzzle' than has been previously recognised and could alter our understanding of the evolution of plant-herbivore interactions and food web dynamics, and provide a better foundation for accurately estimating global species

  6. Top-down control of invertebrates by Ninespine Stickleback in Arctic ponds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laske, Sarah M.; Rosenberger, Amanda E.; Kane, William J.; Wipfli, Mark S.; Zimmerman, Christian E.

    2017-01-01

    Despite their widespread presence in northern-latitude ecosystems, the ecological role of Ninespine Stickleback Pungitius pungitius is not well understood. Ninespine Stickleback can occupy both top and intermediate trophic levels in freshwater ecosystems, so their role in food webs as a predator on invertebrates and as a forage fish for upper level consumers probably is substantial. We introduced Ninespine Sticklebacks to fishless ponds to elucidate their potential effects as a predator on invertebrate communities in Arctic lentic freshwaters. We hypothesized that Ninespine Stickleback would affect freshwater invertebrate communities in a top-down manner. We predicted that the addition of Ninespine Sticklebacks to fishless ponds would: 1) reduce invertebrate taxonomic richness, 2) decrease overall invertebrate abundance, 3) reduce invertebrate biomass, and 4) decrease average invertebrate body size. We tested our hypothesis at 2 locations by adding Ninespine Stickleback to isolated ponds and compared invertebrate communities over time between fish-addition and fishless control ponds. Ninespine Sticklebacks exerted strong top-down pressure on invertebrate communities mainly by changing invertebrate taxonomic richness and biomass and, to a lesser extent, abundance and average invertebrate size. Our results supported the hypothesis that Ninespine Stickleback may help shape lentic food webs in the Arctic.

  7. Vascular endothelial growth factors: A comparison between invertebrates and vertebrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kipryushina, Yulia O; Yakovlev, Konstantin V; Odintsova, Nelly A

    2015-12-01

    This review aims to summarize recent data concerning the structure and role of the members of the vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and vascular endothelial growth factor receptor (VEGFR) families in the context of early development, organogenesis and regeneration, with a particular emphasis on the role of these factors in the development of invertebrates. Homologs of VEGF and/or VEGFR have been found in all Eumetazoa, in both Radiata and Bilateria, where they are expressed in the descendants of different germ layers and play a pivotal role in the development of animals with and without a vascular system. VEGF is a well-known angiogenesis regulator, but this factor also control cell migration during neurogenesis and the development of branching organs (the trachea) in invertebrate and vertebrate species. A possible explanation for the origin of Vegf/Vegfr in the animal kingdom and a pathway of Vegf/Vegfr evolution are discussed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Lessons from Digestive-Tract Symbioses Between Bacteria and Invertebrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graf, Joerg

    2016-09-08

    In most animals, digestive tracts harbor the greatest number of bacteria in the animal that contribute to its health: by aiding in the digestion of nutrients, provisioning essential nutrients and protecting against colonization by pathogens. Invertebrates have been used to enhance our understanding of metabolic processes and microbe-host interactions owing to experimental advantages. This review describes how advances in DNA sequencing technologies have dramatically altered how researchers investigate microbe-host interactions, including 16S rRNA gene surveys, metagenome experiments, and metatranscriptome studies. Advantages and challenges of each of these approaches are described herein. Hypotheses generated through omics studies can be directly tested using site-directed mutagenesis, and findings from transposon studies and site-directed experiments are presented. Finally, unique structural aspects of invertebrate digestive tracts that contribute to symbiont specificity are presented. The combination of omics approaches with genetics and microscopy allows researchers to move beyond correlations to identify conserved mechanisms of microbe-host interactions.

  9. The involvement of metallothionein in the development of aquatic invertebrate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mao Huan; Wang Dahui; Yang Wanxi

    2012-01-01

    The many documents on metallothioneins (MTs) in aquatic organisms focus especially on their use as biomarkers in environmental monitoring programs, but there are a few papers that summarize the physiological role of MTs in aquatic organisms especially in their development. The multifaceted role of MTs include involvement in homeostasis, protection against heavy metals and oxidant damage, metabolic regulation, sequestration and/or redox control. MTs could be induced by heavy metals which are able to hinder gametogenesis, suppress embryogenesis, and hamper development. Here we pay more attention on the non-essential metal cadmium, which is the most studied heavy metal regarding MTs, and its effects on the development of aquatic invertebrates. In this paper, we have collected published information on MTs in aquatic organisms – mollusks, crustaceans, etc., and summarize its functions in aquatic invertebrates, especially those related to their development.

  10. Transuranic biokinetic parameters for marine invertebrates--a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, T P

    2002-04-01

    A catalogue of biokinetic parameters for the transuranic elements plutonium, americium, curium, neptunium, and californium in marine invertebrates is presented. The parameters considered are: the seawater-animal concentration factor (CF); the sediment-animal concentration ratio (CR); transuranic assimilation efficiency; transuranic tissue distribution and transuranic elimination rates. With respect to the seawater-animal CF, authors differ considerably on how they define this parameter and a seven-point reporting system is suggested. Transuranic uptake from sediment by animals is characterised by low CRs. The assimilation efficiencies of transuranic elements in marine invertebrates are high compared to vertebrates and mammals in general and the distribution of transuranics within the body tissue of an animal is dependent on the uptake path. The elimination of transuranics from most species examined conformed to a standard biphasic exponential model though some examples with three elimination phases were identified.

  11. Enterococcus infection biology: lessons from invertebrate host models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuen, Grace J; Ausubel, Frederick M

    2014-03-01

    The enterococci are commensals of the gastrointestinal tract of many metazoans, from insects to humans. While they normally do not cause disease in the intestine, they can become pathogenic when they infect sites outside of the gut. Recently, the enterococci have become important nosocomial pathogens, with the majority of human enterococcal infections caused by two species, Enterococcus faecalis and Enterococcus faecium. Studies using invertebrate infection models have revealed insights into the biology of enterococcal infections, as well as general principles underlying host innate immune defense. This review highlights recent findings on Enterococcus infection biology from two invertebrate infection models, the greater wax moth Galleria mellonella and the free-living bacteriovorous nematode Caenorhabditis elegans.

  12. Thin Places

    OpenAIRE

    Lockwood, Sandra Elizabeth

    2013-01-01

    This inquiry into the three great quests of the twentieth century–the South Pole, Mount Everest, and the Moon–examines our motivations to venture into these sublime, yet life-taking places. The Thin Place was once the destination of the religious pilgrim seeking transcendence in an extreme environment. In our age, the Thin Place quest has morphed into a challenge to evolve beyond the confines of our own physiology; through human ingenuity and invention, we reach places not meant to accommod...

  13. Potential impacts of the energy industry on invertebrates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DeMont, E. [Saint Francis Xavier Univ., Antigonish, NS (Canada). Dept. of Biology

    2006-07-01

    This presentation provided a literature review of seismic activity impacts on invertebrates. A summary of recent research on the effects of seismic noise on female snow crab (Chionoecetes opilio) was evaluated by comparison with a caging study conducted off western Cape Breton Island in 2003-2004 which examined mortality and external damages to crabs, as well as the conditions of appendices and organs. Details of a study examining the mobility of lobsters over pipelines were presented, as well as recent research conducted by the St. Francis Xavier Biomechanics Laboratory. It was noted that studies on the effects of marine noise on invertebrate species are limited and incomplete. However, the impacts of marine noise on invertebrates is a critical issue for major fisheries based on invertebrates. The snow crab study showed swelling of hepatopancreatic walls to crabs in areas of seismic activity. Abundance and distribution of the crabs fell from 30 per cent before seismic activity to 23 per cent after seismic exploration began. Evidence of immediate impacts on antennules, gill and statocysts which lasted less than 5 months was observed. The impacts of the abnormalities on the life cycle of the crabs is unknown. Exposure to seismic energy did not kill snow crab embryos. However, rates of development were slower in seismic than control embryos. Results suggested that further research on normal crab health and environmental conditions is needed. Current research at the St. Francis Xavier Biomechanics Laboratory included a fluid mechanics study paddle-assisted walking for lobsters; jet-assisted walking in lobsters; the effects of temperature on the activity of lobsters; and, the impact of mechanical vibrations on lobsters. Details of sponsors for the various studies were also provided. refs., tabs., figs.

  14. Pesticide runoff from energy crops: A threat to aquatic invertebrates?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bunzel, Katja; Schäfer, Ralf B; Thrän, Daniela; Kattwinkel, Mira

    2015-12-15

    The European Union aims to reach a 10% share of biofuels in the transport sector by 2020. The major burden is most likely to fall on already established annual energy crops such as rapeseed and cereals for the production of biodiesel and bioethanol, respectively. Annual energy crops are typically cultivated in intensive agricultural production systems, which require the application of pesticides. Agricultural pesticides can have adverse effects on aquatic invertebrates in adjacent streams. We assessed the relative ecological risk to aquatic invertebrates associated with the chemical pest management from six energy crops (maize, potato, sugar beet, winter barley, winter rapeseed, and winter wheat) as well as from mixed cultivation scenarios. The pesticide exposure related to energy crops and cultivation scenarios was estimated as surface runoff for 253 small stream sites in Central Germany using a GIS-based runoff potential model. The ecological risk for aquatic invertebrates, an important organism group for the functioning of stream ecosystems, was assessed using acute toxicity data (48-h LC50 values) of the crustacean Daphnia magna. We calculated the Ecological Risk from potential Pesticide Runoff (ERPR) for all three main groups of pesticides (herbicides, fungicides, and insecticides). Our findings suggest that the crops potato, sugar beet, and rapeseed pose a higher ecological risk to aquatic invertebrates than maize, barley, and wheat. As maize had by far the lowest ERPR values, from the perspective of pesticide pollution, its cultivation as substrate for the production of the gaseous biofuel biomethane may be preferable compared to the production of, for example, biodiesel from rapeseed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Impact of Invertebrate Herbivory on Native Aquatic Macrophytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-08-01

    this macroalga occupied the entire water column, it may have had a competitive advantage for light over V. americana, which grew closer to the...dry biomass of five macrophyte species between two treatments ; an insecticide treatment to remove invertebrate herbivores, and a control where the...Heitmeyer and Vohs 1984, Dibble et al. 1996), improve water clarity and quality, and reduce rates of shoreline erosion and sediment resuspension (Smart

  16. Soil macrofauna (invertebrates of Kazakhstanian Stipa lessingiana dry steppe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bragina Tatyana М.

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Stipa lessingiana steppes used to be prevalent on the dry Trans-Ural denudation plains, particularly, on the Sub-Ural and the Turgay Plateau. But, most of them have been lost because they were plowed up during the Virgin Land campaign in the second part of 20th century. This paper presents a detailed study of the faunistic composition and the structure of soil-dwelling invertebrate communities (macrofauna of a temperate-dry bunch feather grass steppe in the Turgai Plateau (Northern-Turgai physical-geographical province of steppe Kazakhstan, Kostanay Oblast. The study site is located in the territory of the Naurzum State Nature Reserve, a part of the UNESCO World Heritage site “Saryarka Steppe and Lakes of Northern Kazakhstan”, where remnants of Virgin S. lessingiana steppes have been preserved to the present day. This region is the driest and most continental in climate of all the dry steppes of Kazakhstan. The total abundance and biomass of soil invertebrate communities in the investigated site were lower than in the northern and western steppe areas. Soil invertebrates are among the major components that determine the functioning of terrestrial natural ecosystems.

  17. Toxicity of abamectin and doramectin to soil invertebrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kolar, Lucija; Kozuh Erzen, Nevenka; Hogerwerf, Lenny; Gestel, Cornelis A.M. van

    2008-01-01

    This study aimed at determining the toxicity of avermectins to soil invertebrates in soil and in faeces from recently treated sheep. Abamectin was more toxic than doramectin. In soil, earthworms (Eisenia andrei) were most affected with LC50s of 18 and 228 mg/kg dry soil, respectively, while LC50s were 67-111 and >300 mg/kg for springtails (Folsomia candida), isopods (Porcellio scaber) and enchytraeids (Enchytraeus crypticus). EC50s for the effect on reproduction of springtails and enchytraeids were 13 and 38 mg/kg, respectively for abamectin, and 42 and 170 mg/kg for doramectin. For earthworms, NOEC was 10 and 8.4 mg/kg for abamectin and doramectin effects on body weight. When exposed in faeces, springtails and enchytraeids gave LC50s and EC50s of 1.0-1.4 and 0.94-1.1 mg/kg dry faeces for abamectin and 2.2->2.4 mg/kg for doramectin. Earthworm reproduction was not affected. This study indicates a potential risk of avermectins for soil invertebrates colonizing faeces from recently treated sheep. - Avermectins may pose a risk to soil invertebrates colonizing faeces from recently treated sheep

  18. Biometry of neotropical invertebrates inhabiting floodplain rivers: unraveling bionomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florencia Zilli

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Currently, it is widely recognized that invertebrates play key roles in neotropical floodplains and in many other environments worldwide. However, little information has been published concerning their biometry, in spite that it represents an essential tool for many different studies. Here, we provided length-mass and length-length relationships by fitting the linearized model (log10 Y = log10a + b log10 X and several mean biomass ratios ± SE for bivalves, gastropods, quironomids, ephemeropterans, oligochaetes and hirudineans. We measured, weighed, oven dried and incinerated to ashes specimens collected from 2005 to 2014 in the Paraná River, Argentina. The lineal equations had fit levels higher than 75% in most of the significant regressions. Hence, when slopes were compared, differences raised from ontogeny and phylogeny of taxa. Additionally, slopes resulted different from constants of other regions, types of environments and climates. In addition, organic matter ratios resulted significantly different among invertebrates according to their feeding types. The equations and ratios that we provided will facilitate future research on life history, productivity and energy transference in the food webs of invertebrates inhabiting floodplain wetlands and can be used as tools for planning management strategies and in restoration projects of aquatic environments.

  19. Chemical defense of early life stages of benthic marine invertebrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindquist, Niels

    2002-10-01

    Accurate knowledge of factors affecting the survival of early life stages of marine invertebrates is critically important for understanding their population dynamics and the evolution of their diverse reproductive and life-history characteristics. Chemical defense is an important determinant of survival for adult stages of many sessile benthic invertebrates, yet relatively little consideration has been given to chemical defenses at the early life stages. This review examines the taxonomic breadth of early life-stage chemical defense in relation to various life-history and reproductive characteristics, as well as possible constraints on the expression of chemical defense at certain life stages. Data on the localization of defensive secondary metabolites in larvae and the fitness-related consequences of consuming even a small amount of toxic secondary metabolites underpin proposals regarding the potential for Müllerian and Batesian mimicry to occur among marine larvae. The involvement of microbial symbionts in the chemical defense of early life stages illustrates its complexity for some species. As our knowledge of chemical defenses in early life stages grows, we will be able to more rigorously examine connections among phylogeny, chemical defenses, and the evolution of reproductive and life-history characteristics among marine invertebrates.

  20. Toxicity of abamectin and doramectin to soil invertebrates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kolar, Lucija [Laboratory of Forensic Toxicology and Ecotoxicology, Veterinary Faculty, University of Ljubljana, Gerbiceva 60, SI-1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Institute of Ecological Science, Vrije Universiteit, De Boelelaan 1085, 1081 HV Amsterdam (Netherlands)], E-mail: lucija.kolar@vf.uni-lj.si; Kozuh Erzen, Nevenka [Laboratory of Forensic Toxicology and Ecotoxicology, Veterinary Faculty, University of Ljubljana, Gerbiceva 60, SI-1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia)], E-mail: nevenka.kozuh@vf.uni-lj.si; Hogerwerf, Lenny [Institute of Ecological Science, Vrije Universiteit, De Boelelaan 1085, 1081 HV Amsterdam (Netherlands)], E-mail: l.hogerwerf@students.uu.nl; Gestel, Cornelis A.M. van [Institute of Ecological Science, Vrije Universiteit, De Boelelaan 1085, 1081 HV Amsterdam (Netherlands)], E-mail: kees.van.gestel@ecology.falw.vu.nl

    2008-01-15

    This study aimed at determining the toxicity of avermectins to soil invertebrates in soil and in faeces from recently treated sheep. Abamectin was more toxic than doramectin. In soil, earthworms (Eisenia andrei) were most affected with LC50s of 18 and 228 mg/kg dry soil, respectively, while LC50s were 67-111 and >300 mg/kg for springtails (Folsomia candida), isopods (Porcellio scaber) and enchytraeids (Enchytraeus crypticus). EC50s for the effect on reproduction of springtails and enchytraeids were 13 and 38 mg/kg, respectively for abamectin, and 42 and 170 mg/kg for doramectin. For earthworms, NOEC was 10 and 8.4 mg/kg for abamectin and doramectin effects on body weight. When exposed in faeces, springtails and enchytraeids gave LC50s and EC50s of 1.0-1.4 and 0.94-1.1 mg/kg dry faeces for abamectin and 2.2->2.4 mg/kg for doramectin. Earthworm reproduction was not affected. This study indicates a potential risk of avermectins for soil invertebrates colonizing faeces from recently treated sheep. - Avermectins may pose a risk to soil invertebrates colonizing faeces from recently treated sheep.

  1. Lessons in modularity: the evolutionary ecology of colonial invertebrates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roger N. Hughes

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Benthic colonial invertebrates share with higher plants a modular construction and a sessile adult life. Both types of organism show parallel evolutionary responses to common selective forces, but in contrast to the long-established focus on plants, comparable study of colonial invertebrates has developed relatively recently, largely owing to the application of new techniques in image processing and molecular biology. Species whose life cycles are readily completed under laboratory conditions and whose colonies are easily propagated from cuttings provide powerful models for experimentally investigating fundamental evolutionary problems, including metabolic allometry, the manifestation of ageing and the origin of allorecognition systems. Free of the confounding influences of behavioural manipulation and costs of copulation, colonial invertebrates whose water-borne sperm fertilize retained eggs lend themselves well to the experimental study of cryptic female choice, sperm competition and sexual conflict. In these respects, it will be productive to adopt and extend theoretical frameworks developed for flowering plants to guide experimental investigation of modular animals. Since mate choice occurs at the cellular level in modular animals, reproductive isolation is uncorrelated with morphology and cryptic speciation is likely to be widespread.

  2. Molecular Determinants of Cephalopod Muscles and Their Implication in Muscle Regeneration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Letizia Zullo

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The ability to regenerate whole-body structures has been studied for many decades and is of particular interest for stem cell research due to its therapeutic potential. Several vertebrate and invertebrate species have been used as model systems to study pathways involved in regeneration in the past. Among invertebrates, cephalopods are considered as highly evolved organisms, which exhibit elaborate behavioral characteristics when compared to other mollusks including active predation, extraordinary manipulation, and learning abilities. These are enabled by a complex nervous system and a number of adaptations of their body plan, which were acquired over evolutionary time. Some of these novel features show similarities to structures present in vertebrates and seem to have evolved through a convergent evolutionary process. Octopus vulgaris (the common octopus is a representative of modern cephalopods and is characterized by a sophisticated motor and sensory system as well as highly developed cognitive capabilities. Due to its phylogenetic position and its high regenerative power the octopus has become of increasing interest for studies on regenerative processes. In this paper we provide an overview over the current knowledge of cephalopod muscle types and structures and present a possible link between these characteristics and their high regenerative potential. This may help identify conserved molecular pathways underlying regeneration in invertebrate and vertebrate animal species as well as discover new leads for targeted tissue treatments in humans.

  3. Thin book

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    En lille bog om teater og organisationer, med bidrag fra 19 teoretikere og praktikere, der deltog i en "Thin Book Summit" i Danmark i 2005. Bogen bidrager med en state-of-the-art antologi om forskellige former for samarbejde imellem teater og organisationer. Bogen fokuserer både på muligheder og...

  4. Evolutionary study of vertebrate and invertebrate members of the dystrophin and utrophin gene family

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roberts, R.G.; Nicholson, L.; Bobrow, M. [Paediatric Research Unit, London (United Kingdom)] [and others

    1994-09-01

    Vertebrates express two members of the dystrophin gene family. The prototype, dystrophin, is expressed in muscle and neural tissue, and is defective in the human disorders Duchenne and Becker muscular dystrophy (DMD, BMD). The dystrophin homologue utrophin is more generally expressed but has not yet been associated with a genetic disorder. The function of neither protein is clear. A comparison of human utrophin with the known dystrophins (human, mouse, chicken, Torpedo) suggests that dystrophin and utrophin diverged before the vertebrate radiation. We have used reverse-transcript PCR (RT-PCR) directed by degenerate primers to characterize dystrophin and utrophin transcripts from a range of vertebrate and invertebrate animals. Our results suggest that the duplication leading to distinct dystrophin and utrophin genes occurred close to the point of divergence of urochordates from the cephalochordate-vertebrate lineage. This divergence may have occurred to fulfill a novel role which arose at this point, or may reflect a need for separate regulation of the neuromuscular and other functions of the ancient dystrophin. Our data include sequences of the first non-human utrophins to be characterized, and show these to be substantially more divergent than their cognate dystrophins. In addition, our results provide a large body of information regarding the tolerance of amino acid positions in the cysteine-rich and C-terminal domains to substitution. This will aid the interpretations of DMD and BMD missense mutations in these regions.

  5. Endocrine Function in Aquatic Invertebrates and Evidence for Disruption by Environmental Pollutants

    OpenAIRE

    Pinder, L. C. V.; Pottinger, T. G.; Billinghurst, Z.; Depledge, M. H.

    1999-01-01

    EXECUTIVE SUMMARY Objectives 1. This report addresses five primary objectives:- (i) to summarize the key elements of invertebrate endocrine systems; (ii) to assess whether existing test systems are adequate for the detection of endocrine disruption in invertebrates, what new tests might be required, which species of invertebrates are most appropriate for such tests, what end-points should be measured and whether the same organisms can be used for both laboratory and environme...

  6. Recovery of invertebrate and vertebrate populations in a coal ash stressed drainage system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cherry, D.S.

    1979-01-01

    The influence of coal-ash basin effluent on the densities of macrobenthic invertebrate and mosquitofish populations in a swamp drainage system was studied for 50 months. The density of the aquatic biota was periodically altered by heavy ash siltation, decreased pH due to fly ash, and by arsenic, copper, selenium and zinc associated with coal ash. Siltation was most influential in decreasing numbers of invertebrates, and lowered pH (from 7.2 to 5.5) more influential in decreasing mosquito fish and retarding recovery of invertebrates. An efficient primary-secondary retaining basin system enabled most invertebrate groups to recover their previous level of abundance.

  7. Significance of bacteria associated with invertebrates in drinking water distribution networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolmarans, E; du Preez, H H; de Wet, C M E; Venter, S N

    2005-01-01

    The implication of invertebrates found in drinking water distribution networks to public health is of concern to water utilities. Previous studies have shown that the bacteria associated with the invertebrates could be potentially pathogenic to humans. This study investigated the level and identity of bacteria commonly associated with invertebrates collected from the drinking water treatment systems as well as from the main pipelines leaving the treatment works. On all sampling occasions bacteria were isolated from the invertebrate samples collected. The highest bacterial counts were observed for the samples taken before filtration as was expected. There were, however, indications that optimal removal of invertebrates from water did not always occur. During the investigation, 116 colonies were sampled for further identification. The isolates represent several bacterial genera and species that are pathogenic or opportunistic pathogens of humans. Diarrhoea, meningitis, septicaemia and skin infections are among the diseases associated with these organisms. The estimated number of bacteria that could be associated with a single invertebrate (as based on average invertebrate numbers) could range from 10 to 4000 bacteria per organism. It can, therefore, be concluded that bacteria associated with invertebrates might under the worst case scenario pose a potential health risk to water users. In the light of the above findings it is clear that invertebrates in drinking water should be controlled at levels as low as technically and economically feasible.

  8. InverPep: A database of invertebrate antimicrobial peptides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez, Esteban A; Giraldo, Paula; Orduz, Sergio

    2017-03-01

    The aim of this work was to construct InverPep, a database specialised in experimentally validated antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) from invertebrates. AMP data contained in InverPep were manually curated from other databases and the scientific literature. MySQL was integrated with the development platform Laravel; this framework allows to integrate programming in PHP with HTML and was used to design the InverPep web page's interface. InverPep contains 18 separated fields, including InverPep code, phylum and species source, peptide name, sequence, peptide length, secondary structure, molar mass, charge, isoelectric point, hydrophobicity, Boman index, aliphatic index and percentage of hydrophobic amino acids. CALCAMPI, an algorithm to calculate the physicochemical properties of multiple peptides simultaneously, was programmed in PERL language. To date, InverPep contains 702 experimentally validated AMPs from invertebrate species. All of the peptides contain information associated with their source, physicochemical properties, secondary structure, biological activity and links to external literature. Most AMPs in InverPep have a length between 10 and 50 amino acids, a positive charge, a Boman index between 0 and 2 kcal/mol, and 30-50% hydrophobic amino acids. InverPep includes 33 AMPs not reported in other databases. Besides, CALCAMPI and statistical analysis of InverPep data is presented. The InverPep database is available in English and Spanish. InverPep is a useful database to study invertebrate AMPs and its information could be used for the design of new peptides. The user-friendly interface of InverPep and its information can be freely accessed via a web-based browser at http://ciencias.medellin.unal.edu.co/gruposdeinvestigacion/prospeccionydisenobiomoleculas/InverPep/public/home_en. Copyright © 2016 International Society for Chemotherapy of Infection and Cancer. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Macro-invertebrate decline in surface water polluted with imidacloprid.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tessa C Van Dijk

    Full Text Available Imidacloprid is one of the most widely used insecticides in the world. Its concentration in surface water exceeds the water quality norms in many parts of the Netherlands. Several studies have demonstrated harmful effects of this neonicotinoid to a wide range of non-target species. Therefore we expected that surface water pollution with imidacloprid would negatively impact aquatic ecosystems. Availability of extensive monitoring data on the abundance of aquatic macro-invertebrate species, and on imidacloprid concentrations in surface water in the Netherlands enabled us to test this hypothesis. Our regression analysis showed a significant negative relationship (P<0.001 between macro-invertebrate abundance and imidacloprid concentration for all species pooled. A significant negative relationship was also found for the orders Amphipoda, Basommatophora, Diptera, Ephemeroptera and Isopoda, and for several species separately. The order Odonata had a negative relationship very close to the significance threshold of 0.05 (P = 0.051. However, in accordance with previous research, a positive relationship was found for the order Actinedida. We used the monitoring field data to test whether the existing three water quality norms for imidacloprid in the Netherlands are protective in real conditions. Our data show that macrofauna abundance drops sharply between 13 and 67 ng l(-1. For aquatic ecosystem protection, two of the norms are not protective at all while the strictest norm of 13 ng l(-1 (MTR seems somewhat protective. In addition to the existing experimental evidence on the negative effects of imidacloprid on invertebrate life, our study, based on data from large-scale field monitoring during multiple years, shows that serious concern about the far-reaching consequences of the abundant use of imidacloprid for aquatic ecosystems is justified.

  10. Macro-Invertebrate Decline in Surface Water Polluted with Imidacloprid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Dijk, Tessa C.; Van Staalduinen, Marja A.; Van der Sluijs, Jeroen P.

    2013-01-01

    Imidacloprid is one of the most widely used insecticides in the world. Its concentration in surface water exceeds the water quality norms in many parts of the Netherlands. Several studies have demonstrated harmful effects of this neonicotinoid to a wide range of non-target species. Therefore we expected that surface water pollution with imidacloprid would negatively impact aquatic ecosystems. Availability of extensive monitoring data on the abundance of aquatic macro-invertebrate species, and on imidacloprid concentrations in surface water in the Netherlands enabled us to test this hypothesis. Our regression analysis showed a significant negative relationship (Pmacro-invertebrate abundance and imidacloprid concentration for all species pooled. A significant negative relationship was also found for the orders Amphipoda, Basommatophora, Diptera, Ephemeroptera and Isopoda, and for several species separately. The order Odonata had a negative relationship very close to the significance threshold of 0.05 (P = 0.051). However, in accordance with previous research, a positive relationship was found for the order Actinedida. We used the monitoring field data to test whether the existing three water quality norms for imidacloprid in the Netherlands are protective in real conditions. Our data show that macrofauna abundance drops sharply between 13 and 67 ng l−1. For aquatic ecosystem protection, two of the norms are not protective at all while the strictest norm of 13 ng l−1 (MTR) seems somewhat protective. In addition to the existing experimental evidence on the negative effects of imidacloprid on invertebrate life, our study, based on data from large-scale field monitoring during multiple years, shows that serious concern about the far-reaching consequences of the abundant use of imidacloprid for aquatic ecosystems is justified. PMID:23650513

  11. Presence of Tube isoforms in Litopenaeus vannamei suggests various regulatory patterns of signal transduction in invertebrate NF-κB pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chaozheng; Chen, Yixiao; Weng, Shaoping; Li, Sedong; Zuo, Hongliang; Yu, Xiaoqiang; Li, Haoyang; He, Jianguo; Xu, Xiaopeng

    2014-02-01

    The toll-like receptor (TLR)/NF-κB signaling pathways play critical roles in the innate immune system. The intracellular signal transduction of most TLR pathways in invertebrate cells is triggered by formation of a heterotrimeric complex composed of MyD88, Tube and Pelle. In this study, we identified a Litopenaeus vannamei Pelle (LvPelle) and an isoform of L. vannamei Tube (LvTube) designated as LvTube-1. The interactions among LvPelle, LvTube/LvTube-1 and LvMyD88/LvMyD88-1 were elucidated and their functions during pathogen infections were investigated. Knockdowns of LvPelle and LvTube/LvTube-1 using RNAi strategy led to higher mortalities of shrimps during Vibrio parahemolyticus infection, and could reduce the genome copy number of white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) in the infected muscle tissue but did not affect the mortality caused by WSSV infection. The effects of LvPelle and LvTube/LvTube-1 on promoters containing NF-κB binding motifs were analyzed by dual-luciferase reporter assays and the results demonstrated that LvTube-1 could activate the NF-κB activity to significantly higher level than LvTube did. Moreover, tissue distributions of LvTube and LvTube-1 mRNAs and their expression profiles during pathogen and immune stimulant challenges were different, indicating that they could play different roles in immune responses. This is the first report of Tube isoforms in invertebrates. Together with our previous study on LvMyD88 isoforms, our results suggest that various isoforms of adaptor components may be involved in various regulatory patterns of signal transduction in invertebrate TLR/NF-κB pathway and this could be a strategy adopted by invertebrates to modulate immune responses. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Procedures for radioecological studies with marine benthic invertebrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vilquin, A.; Fowler, S.W.; Renfro, W.C.

    1975-01-01

    Methods for the collection, transportation, and pre-experimental handling are briefly described. In designing radioecological experiments on marine benthic invertebrates it is important to prevent overcrowding and to choose healthy, well-acclimated animals. Feeding of the animals and presence or absence of sediments in the aquaria are critical variables in many experiments. Length of time the experiment is run and interim growth of the experimental animals may result in significant variability in results. The physico-chemical form of the radiotracer is another important experimental variable. (author)

  13. Diversity of marine invertebrates in a thermal effluent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Logan, D.T.; Maurer, D.

    1975-01-01

    Invertebrates were collected at four sites in the Indian River and Indian River Bay in Delaware to study the effects of thermal effluents from a steam-generating plant. A list of species of anemones, nemerteans, annelids, molluscs, and crustaceans is presented. Differences in species composition, an increase in relative numbers of a pollution indicator organism, and reduction in species number and in the total number of organisms in the effluent were noted. The period of highest diversity corresponded to that of the lowest numbers of species and individuals and highest effluent temperatures. (U.S.)

  14. Procedures for Radioecological Studies with Marine Benthic Invertebrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vilquin, A.; Fowler, S.W.; Renfro, W.C.

    1976-01-01

    Methods for the collection transportation, and pre-experimental handling are briefly described. In designing radioecological experiments on marine benthic invertebrates it is important to prevent overcrowding and to choose healthy, well-acclimated animals. Feeding of the animals and presence or absence of sediments in the aquaria are critical variables in many experiments. Length of time the experiment is run and interim growth of the experimental animals may result in significant variability in results. The physico-chemical form of the radiotracer is another important experimental variable. (author)

  15. Recent Advances in Drug Discovery from South African Marine Invertebrates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael T. Davies-Coleman

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Recent developments in marine drug discovery from three South African marine invertebrates, the tube worm Cephalodiscus gilchristi, the ascidian Lissoclinum sp. and the sponge Topsentia pachastrelloides, are presented. Recent reports of the bioactivity and synthesis of the anti-cancer secondary metabolites cephalostatin and mandelalides (from C. gilchristi and Lissoclinum sp., respectively and various analogues are presented. The threat of drug-resistant pathogens, e.g., methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA, is assuming greater global significance, and medicinal chemistry strategies to exploit the potent MRSA PK inhibition, first revealed by two marine secondary metabolites, cis-3,4-dihydrohamacanthin B and bromodeoxytopsentin from T. pachastrelloides, are compared.

  16. A rare variation of the digastric muscle

    Science.gov (United States)

    KALNIEV, MANOL; KRASTEV, DIMO; KRASTEV, NIKOLAY; VIDINOV, KALIN; VELTCHEV, LUDMIL; APOSTOLOV, ALEXANDER; MILEVA, MILKA

    2013-01-01

    The digastric muscle is composed by two muscle bellies: an anterior and a posterior, joined by an intermediate tendon. This muscle is situated in the anterior region of the neck. The region between the hyoid bone and the mandible is divided by an anterior belly into two triangles: the submandibular situated laterally and the submental triangle which is located medially. We found that the anatomical variations described in the literature relate mainly to the anterior belly and consist of differences in shape and attachment of the muscle. During routine dissection in February 2013 in the section hall of the Department of Anatomy and Histology in Medical University – Sofia we came across a very interesting variation of the digastric muscle. The digastric muscles that presented anatomical variations were photographed using a Sony Cyber-shot DSC-T1 camera, with a Carl Zeiss Vario-Tessar lens. We found out bilateral variation of the digastric muscle in one cadaver. The anterior bellies were very thin and insert to the hyoid bone. Two anterior bellies connect each other and thus they formed a loop. The anatomical variations observed of our study related only to the anterior belly, as previously described by other authors. It is very important to consider the occurrence of the above mentioned variations in the digastric muscle when surgical procedures are performed on the anterior region of the neck. PMID:26527971

  17. Lichen physiological traits and growth forms affect communities of associated invertebrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bokhorst, Stef; Asplund, Johan; Kardol, Paul; Wardle, David A

    2015-09-01

    While there has been much interest in the relationships between traits of primary producers and composition of associated invertebrate consumer communities, our knowledge is largely based on studies from vascular plants, while other types of functionally important producers, such as lichens, have rarely been considered. To address how physiological traits of lichens drive community composition of invertebrates, we collected thalli from 27 lichen species from southern Norway and quantified the communities of associated springtails, mites, and nematodes. For each lichen species, we measured key physiological thallus traits and determined whether invertebrate communities were correlated with these traits. We also explored whether invertebrate communities differed among lichen groups, categorized according to nitrogen-fixing ability, growth form, and substratum. Lichen traits explained up to 39% of the variation in abundances of major invertebrate groups. For many invertebrate groups, abundance was positively correlated with lichen N and P concentrations, N:P ratio, and the percentage of water content on saturation (WC), but had few relationships with concentrations of carbon-based secondary compounds. Diversity and taxonomic richness of invertebrate groups were sometimes also correlated with lichen N and N:P ratios. Nitrogen-fixing lichens showed higher abundance and diversity of some invertebrate groups than did non-N-fixing lichens. However, this emerged in part because most N-fixing lichens have a foliose growth form that benefits invertebrates, through, improving the microclimate, independently of N concentration. Furthermore, invertebrate communities associated with terricolous lichens were determined more by their close proximity to the soil invertebrate pool than by lichen traits. Overall, our results reveal that differences between lichen species have a large impact on the invertebrate communities that live among the thalli. Different invertebrate groups show

  18. Antimicrobial peptides in marine invertebrate health and disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Destoumieux-Garzón, Delphine; Rosa, Rafael Diego; Schmitt, Paulina; Barreto, Cairé; Vidal-Dupiol, Jeremie; Mitta, Guillaume; Gueguen, Yannick; Bachère, Evelyne

    2016-05-26

    Aquaculture contributes more than one-third of the animal protein from marine sources worldwide. A significant proportion of aquaculture products are derived from marine protostomes that are commonly referred to as 'marine invertebrates'. Among them, penaeid shrimp (Ecdysozosoa, Arthropoda) and bivalve molluscs (Lophotrochozoa, Mollusca) are economically important. Mass rearing of arthropods and molluscs causes problems with pathogens in aquatic ecosystems that are exploited by humans. Remarkably, species of corals (Cnidaria) living in non-exploited ecosystems also suffer from devastating infectious diseases that display intriguing similarities with those affecting farmed animals. Infectious diseases affecting wild and farmed animals that are present in marine environments are predicted to increase in the future. This paper summarizes the role of the main pathogens and their interaction with host immunity, with a specific focus on antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) and pathogen resistance against AMPs. We provide a detailed review of penaeid shrimp AMPs and their role at the interface between the host and its resident/pathogenic microbiota. We also briefly describe the relevance of marine invertebrate AMPs in an applied context.This article is part of the themed issue 'Evolutionary ecology of arthropod antimicrobial peptides'. © 2016 The Author(s).

  19. Soil invertebrate fauna enhances grassland succession and diversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Deyn, Gerlinde B; Raaijmakers, Ciska E; Zoomer, H Rik; Berg, Matty P; de Ruiter, Peter C; Verhoef, Herman A; Bezemer, T Martijn; van der Putten, Wim H

    2003-04-17

    One of the most important areas in ecology is to elucidate the factors that drive succession in ecosystems and thus influence the diversity of species in natural vegetation. Significant mechanisms in this process are known to be resource limitation and the effects of aboveground vertebrate herbivores. More recently, symbiotic and pathogenic soil microbes have been shown to exert a profound effect on the composition of vegetation and changes therein. However, the influence of invertebrate soil fauna on succession has so far received little attention. Here we report that invertebrate soil fauna might enhance both secondary succession and local plant species diversity. Soil fauna from a series of secondary grassland succession stages selectively suppress early successional dominant plant species, thereby enhancing the relative abundance of subordinate species and also that of species from later succession stages. Soil fauna from the mid-succession stage had the strongest effect. Our results clearly show that soil fauna strongly affects the composition of natural vegetation and we suggest that this knowledge might improve the restoration and conservation of plant species diversity.

  20. Toxicity of carbon nanotubes to freshwater aquatic invertebrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mwangi, Joseph N.; Wang, Ning; Ingersoll, Christopher G.; Hardesty, Doug K.; Brunson, Eric L.; Li, Hao; Deng, Baolin

    2012-01-01

    Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are hydrophobic in nature and thus tend to accumulate in sediments if released into aquatic environments. As part of our overall effort to examine the toxicity of carbon-based nanomaterials to sediment-dwelling invertebrates, we have evaluated the toxicity of different types of CNTs in 14-d water-only exposures to an amphipod (Hyalella azteca), a midge (Chironomus dilutus), an oligochaete (Lumbriculus variegatus), and a mussel (Villosa iris) in advance of conducting whole-sediment toxicity tests with CNTs. The results of these toxicity tests conducted with CNTs added to water showed that 1.00g/L (dry wt) of commercial sources of CNTs significantly reduced the survival or growth of the invertebrates. Toxicity was influenced by the type and source of the CNTs, by whether the materials were precleaned by acid, by whether sonication was used to disperse the materials, and by species of the test organisms. Light and electron microscope imaging of the surviving test organisms showed the presence of CNTs in the gut as well as on the outer surface of the test organisms, although no evidence was observed to show penetration of CNTs through cell membranes. The present study demonstrated that both the metals solubilized from CNTs such as nickel and the "metal-free" CNTs contributed to the toxicity.

  1. A comparative study on androgen metabolism in three invertebrate species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janer, G; LeBlanc, G A; Porte, C

    2005-09-15

    A comparative approach was taken in this study to evaluate androgen (androstenedione and testosterone) metabolism in three invertebrate species: the gastropod Marisa cornuarietis, the amphipod Hyalella azteca, and the echinoderm Paracentrotus lividus. The existence of 17beta/3beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (HSD) and 5alpha-reductase catalyzed reactions was demonstrated in all three species. Androstenedione was primarily converted to 5alpha-androstanedione in M. cornuarietis, while it was primarily metabolized to testosterone in P. lividus and H. azteca. In addition, and consistent with vertebrate findings, tissue specific pathways and sexual dimorphism in androgen metabolism were observed. Namely, testosterone was metabolized to dihydrotestosterone in P. lividus gonads (via 5alpha-reductase), and metabolized to 4-androstene-3beta,17beta-diol in the digestive tube (via 3beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase). Furthermore, the synthesis of 17beta-reduced metabolites of androstenedione (testosterone and dihydrotestosterone) was 3- to 4-fold higher in males of M. cornuarietis than in females. Organotin compounds, which have been shown to interfere with some aspects of androgen metabolism, had no major effect on testosterone metabolism in any of the three species. Fenarimol enhanced 5alpha-reductase-mediated catalysis in gonads of P. lividus. Overall, results demonstrate the ubiquity of some androgen biotransformation processes in invertebrates and reveals interphyla differences in androgen metabolic pathways, and different sensitivity of these pathways to some xenobiotics.

  2. Matrotrophy and placentation in invertebrates: a new paradigm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostrovsky, Andrew N; Lidgard, Scott; Gordon, Dennis P; Schwaha, Thomas; Genikhovich, Grigory; Ereskovsky, Alexander V

    2016-08-01

    Matrotrophy, the continuous extra-vitelline supply of nutrients from the parent to the progeny during gestation, is one of the masterpieces of nature, contributing to offspring fitness and often correlated with evolutionary diversification. The most elaborate form of matrotrophy-placentotrophy-is well known for its broad occurrence among vertebrates, but the comparative distribution and structural diversity of matrotrophic expression among invertebrates is wanting. In the first comprehensive analysis of matrotrophy across the animal kingdom, we report that regardless of the degree of expression, it is established or inferred in at least 21 of 34 animal phyla, significantly exceeding previous accounts and changing the old paradigm that these phenomena are infrequent among invertebrates. In 10 phyla, matrotrophy is represented by only one or a few species, whereas in 11 it is either not uncommon or widespread and even pervasive. Among invertebrate phyla, Platyhelminthes, Arthropoda and Bryozoa dominate, with 162, 83 and 53 partly or wholly matrotrophic families, respectively. In comparison, Chordata has more than 220 families that include or consist entirely of matrotrophic species. We analysed the distribution of reproductive patterns among and within invertebrate phyla using recently published molecular phylogenies: matrotrophy has seemingly evolved at least 140 times in all major superclades: Parazoa and Eumetazoa, Radiata and Bilateria, Protostomia and Deuterostomia, Lophotrochozoa and Ecdysozoa. In Cycliophora and some Digenea, it may have evolved twice in the same life cycle. The provisioning of developing young is associated with almost all known types of incubation chambers, with matrotrophic viviparity more widespread (20 phyla) than brooding (10 phyla). In nine phyla, both matrotrophic incubation types are present. Matrotrophy is expressed in five nutritive modes, of which histotrophy and placentotrophy are most prevalent. Oophagy, embryophagy and

  3. Flow effects on benthic stream invertebrates and ecological processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koprivsek, Maja; Brilly, Mitja

    2010-05-01

    Flow is the main abiotic factor in the streams. Flow affects the organisms in many direct and indirect ways. The organisms are directly affected by various hydrodynamic forces and mass transfer processes like drag forces, drift, shear stress, food and gases supply and washing metabolites away. Indirect effects on the organisms are determining and distribution of the particle size and structure of the substrate and determining the morphology of riverbeds. Flow does not affect only on individual organism, but also on many ecological effects. To expose just the most important: dispersal of the organisms, habitat use, resource acquisition, competition and predator-prey interactions. Stream invertebrates are adapted to the various flow conditions in many kinds of way. Some of them are avoiding the high flow with living in a hyporeic zone, while the others are adapted to flow with physical adaptations (the way of feeding, respiration, osmoregulation and resistance to draught), morphological adaptations (dorsoventrally flattened shape of organism, streamlined shape of organism, heterogeneous suckers, silk, claws, swimming hair, bristles and ballast gravel) or with behaviour. As the flow characteristics in a particular stream vary over a broad range of space and time scales, it is necessary to measure accurately the velocity in places where the organisms are present to determine the actual impact of flow on aquatic organisms. By measuring the mean flow at individual vertical in a single cross-section, we cannot get any information about the velocity situation close to the bottom of the riverbed where the stream invertebrates are living. Just measuring the velocity near the bottom is a major problem, as technologies for measuring the velocity and flow of natural watercourses is not adapted to measure so close to the bottom. New researches in the last two decades has shown that the thickness of laminar border layer of stones in the stream is only a few 100 micrometers, what

  4. Influence of antifouling paint on freshwater invertebrates (Mytilidae, Chironomidae and Naididae): density, richness and composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujita, D S; Takeda, A M; Coutinho, R; Fernandes, F C

    2015-11-01

    We conducted a study about invertebrates on artificial substrates with different antifouling paints in order to answer the following questions 1) is there lower accumulation of organic matter on substrates with antifouling paints, 2) is invertebrate colonization influenced by the release of biocides from antifouling paints, 3) is the colonization of aquatic invertebrates positively influenced by the material accumulated upon the substrate surface and 4) is the assemblage composition of invertebrates similar among the different antifouling paints? To answer these questions, four structures were installed in the Baía River in February 1st, 2007. Each structure was composed of 7 wood boards: 5 boards painted with each type of antifouling paints (T1, T2, T3, T4 and T5), one painted only with the primer (Pr) and the other without any paint (Cn). After 365 days, we observed a greater accumulation of organic matter in the substrates with T2 and T3 paint coatings. Limnoperna fortunei was recorded in all tested paints, with higher densities in the control, primer, T2 and T3. The colonization of Chironomidae and Naididae on the substrate was positively influenced by L. fortunei density. The non-metric multidimensional scaling (NMDS) of the invertebrate community provided evidence of the clear distinction of invertebrate assemblages among the paints. Paints T2 and T3 were the most similar to the control and primer. Our results suggest that antifouling paints applied on substrates hinder invertebrate colonization by decreasing the density and richness of invertebrates.

  5. Slovakian and Turkish Students' Fear, Disgust and Perceived Danger of Invertebrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prokop, Pavol; Usak, Muhammet; Erdogan, Mehmet; Fancovicova, Jana; Bahar, Mehmet

    2011-01-01

    Human perceives invertebrates less positively than vertebrates because they are small and behaviourally and morphologically unfamiliar. This cross-cultural research focused on Slovakian (n=150) and Turkish (n=164) students' fear, disgust and perceived danger regarding 25 invertebrates [including 5 disease relevant adult insects, 5 ectoparasites, 5…

  6. Pond and Stream Safari: A Guide to the Ecology of Aquatic Invertebrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edelstein, Karen

    This packet includes a leader's guide, a quick reference guide to aquatic invertebrates, a checklist of common aquatic invertebrates, and activity sheets. The leader's guide includes four sections on background information and seven activities. Background sections include: Understanding Aquatic Insects; Growing Up: Aquatic Insect Forms; Adapting…

  7. Great cormorants reveal overlooked secondary dispersal of plants and invertebrates by piscivorous waterbirds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Leeuwen, C.H.A.; Lovas-Kiss, A.; Ovegård, M.; Green, Andy J.

    2017-01-01

    In wetland ecosystems, birds and fish are important dispersal vectors for plants and invertebrates, but the consequences of their interactions as vectors are unknown. Darwin suggested that piscivorous birds carry out secondary dispersal of seeds and invertebrates via predation on fish. We tested

  8. Aboveground vertebrate and invertebrate herbivore impacts on net N mineralization in subalpine grasslands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anita C. Risch; Martin Schutz; Martijn L. Vandegehuchte; Wim H. van der Putten; Henk Duyts; Ursina Raschein; Dariusz J. Gwiazdowicz; Matt D. Busse; Deborah S. Page-Dumroese; Stephan Zimmerman

    2015-01-01

    Aboveground herbivores have strong effects on grassland nitrogen (N) cycling. They can accelerate or slow down soil net N mineralization depending on ecosystem productivity and grazing intensity. Yet, most studies only consider either ungulates or invertebrate herbivores, but not the combined effect of several functionally different vertebrate and invertebrate...

  9. Streamflow characteristics and benthic invertebrate assemblages in streams across the western United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brasher, Anne M.D.; Konrad, Chris P.; May, Jason T.; Edmiston, C. Scott; Close, Rebecca N.

    2010-01-01

    Hydrographic characteristics of streamflow, such as high-flow pulses, base flow (background discharge between floods), extreme low flows, and floods, significantly influence aquatic organisms. Streamflow can be described in terms of magnitude, timing, duration, frequency, and variation (hydrologic regime). These characteristics have broad effects on ecosystem productivity, habitat structure, and ultimately on resident fish, invertebrate, and algae communities. Increasing human use of limited water resources has modified hydrologic regimes worldwide. Identifying the most ecologically significant hydrographic characteristics would facilitate the development of water-management strategies.Benthic invertebrates include insects, mollusks (snails and clams), worms, and crustaceans (shrimp) that live on the streambed. Invertebrates play an important role in the food web, consuming other invertebrates and algae and being consumed by fish and birds. Hydrologic alteration associated with land and water use can change the natural hydrologic regime and may affect benthic invertebrate assemblage composition and structure through changes in density of invertebrates or taxa richness (number of different species).This study examined associations between the hydrologic regime and characteristics of benthic invertebrate assemblages across the western United States and developed tools to identify streamflow characteristics that are likely to affect benthic invertebrate assemblages.

  10. In situ effects of simulated overfishing and eutrophication on settlement of benthic coral reef invertebrates in the Central Red Sea.

    KAUST Repository

    Jessen, Christian; Voolstra, Christian R.; Wild, Christian

    2014-01-01

    overfishing through predator/grazer exclusion and simulated eutrophication through fertilizer addition on settlement of reef associated invertebrates on light-exposed and -shaded tiles over 4 months. At the end of the study period invertebrates had almost

  11. NODC Standard Format Pathology Data Sets (1973-1980): Marine Invertebrate Pathology (F063) (NODC Accession 0014191)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Marine Invertebrate Pathology (F063) contains data from examinations of diseased marine invertebrates. Although these data maybe from field observations, they derive...

  12. An invertebrate stomach's view on vertebrate ecology: certain invertebrates could be used as "vertebrate samplers" and deliver DNA-based information on many aspects of vertebrate ecology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calvignac-Spencer, Sébastien; Leendertz, Fabian H; Gilbert, M Thomas P; Schubert, Grit

    2013-11-01

    Recent studies suggest that vertebrate genetic material ingested by invertebrates (iDNA) can be used to investigate vertebrate ecology. Given the ubiquity of invertebrates that feed on vertebrates across the globe, iDNA might qualify as a very powerful tool for 21st century population and conservation biologists. Here, we identify some invertebrate characteristics that will likely influence iDNA retrieval and elaborate on the potential uses of invertebrate-derived information. We hypothesize that beyond inventorying local faunal diversity, iDNA should allow for more profound insights into wildlife population density, size, mortality, and infectious agents. Based on the similarities of iDNA with other low-quality sources of DNA, a general technical framework for iDNA analyses is proposed. As it is likely that no such thing as a single ideal iDNA sampler exists, forthcoming research efforts should aim at cataloguing invertebrate properties relevant to iDNA retrieval so as to guide future usage of the invertebrate tool box. © 2013 WILEY Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Functional traits of soil invertebrates as indicators for exposure to soil disturbance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hedde, Mickaël; van Oort, Folkert; Lamy, Isabelle

    2012-05-01

    We tested a trait-based approach to link a soil disturbance to changes in invertebrate communities. Soils and macro-invertebrates were sampled in sandy soils contaminated by long-term wastewater irrigation, adding notably organic matter and trace metals (TM). We hypothesized that functional traits of invertebrates depict ways of exposure and that exposure routes relate to specific TM pools. Geophages and soft-body invertebrates were chosen to inform on exposure by ingestion or contact, respectively. Trait-based indices depicted more accurately effects of pollution than community density and diversity did. Exposure by ingestion had more deleterious effects than by contact. Both types of exposed invertebrates were influenced by TM, but geophages mainly responded to changes in soil organic matter contents. The trait-based approach requires to be applied in various conditions to uncorrelate specific TM impacts from those of other environmental factors. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Ecotoxicity of engineered nanoparticles to aquatic invertebrates: a brief review and recommendations for future toxicity testing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baun, Anders; Hartmann, Nanna Isabella Bloch; Grieger, Khara Deanne

    2008-01-01

    Based on a literature review and an overview of toxic effects of engineered nanoparticles in aquatic invertebrates, this paper proposes a number of recommendations for the developing field of nanoecotoxicology by highlighting the importance of invertebrates as sensitive and relevant test organisms...... through standardized short-term (lethality) tests with invertebrates as a basis for investigating behaviour and bioavailability of engineered nanoparticles in the aquatic environment. Based on this literature review, we further recommend that research is directed towards invertebrate tests employing long....... Results show that there is a pronounced lack of data in this field (less than 20 peer-reviewed papers are published so far), and the most frequently tested engineered nanoparticles in invertebrate tests are C-60, carbon nanotubes, and titanium dioxide. In addition, the majority of the studies have used...

  15. A study of radionuclide transfer between invertebrates and their marine sedimentary environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amiard-Triquet, Claude.

    1975-11-01

    Exchanges between sediment and marine organisms were studied in some benthic marine invertebrates, especially Arenicola marina L. (an Annelid). Experiments were carried out on the transfer of 60 Co, 137 Cs and accessorily 59 Fe and 144 Ce. Water was the chief vector for benthic marine invertebrates. These invertebrates seemed to act mainly in sedimentary areas on the redistribution of adsorbed radionuclides within the sediment. Radioactive contamination of the invertebrates was affected by various physiological or ecological factors. Benthic marine invertebrates were then studied as links in food chains. The transfer of 60 Co was studied in three food chains or fractions of food chains. The procedure allowed interesting observations from the health protection point of view and more fundamental investigations on cobalt metabolism (regulation, excretion) in a mollusc, a crustacea and a teleost [fr

  16. Extraocular muscle function testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003397.htm Extraocular muscle function testing To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Extraocular muscle function testing examines the function of the eye muscles. ...

  17. Evolutionary Transition of Promoter and Gene Body DNA Methylation across Invertebrate-Vertebrate Boundary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, Thomas E; Han, Priscilla; Yi, Soojin V

    2016-04-01

    Genomes of invertebrates and vertebrates exhibit highly divergent patterns of DNA methylation. Invertebrate genomes tend to be sparsely methylated, and DNA methylation is mostly targeted to a subset of transcription units (gene bodies). In a drastic contrast, vertebrate genomes are generally globally and heavily methylated, punctuated by the limited local hypo-methylation of putative regulatory regions such as promoters. These genomic differences also translate into functional differences in DNA methylation and gene regulation. Although promoter DNA methylation is an important regulatory component of vertebrate gene expression, its role in invertebrate gene regulation has been little explored. Instead, gene body DNA methylation is associated with expression of invertebrate genes. However, the evolutionary steps leading to the differentiation of invertebrate and vertebrate genomic DNA methylation remain unresolved. Here we analyzed experimentally determined DNA methylation maps of several species across the invertebrate-vertebrate boundary, to elucidate how vertebrate gene methylation has evolved. We show that, in contrast to the prevailing idea, a substantial number of promoters in an invertebrate basal chordate Ciona intestinalis are methylated. Moreover, gene expression data indicate significant, epigenomic context-dependent associations between promoter methylation and expression in C. intestinalis. However, there is no evidence that promoter methylation in invertebrate chordate has been evolutionarily maintained across the invertebrate-vertebrate boundary. Rather, body-methylated invertebrate genes preferentially obtain hypo-methylated promoters among vertebrates. Conversely, promoter methylation is preferentially found in lineage- and tissue-specific vertebrate genes. These results provide important insights into the evolutionary origin of epigenetic regulation of vertebrate gene expression. © The Author(s) 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf

  18. Environmental hazards of aluminum to plants, invertebrates, fish, and wildlife

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sparling, D.W.; Lowe, T.P.

    1996-01-01

    Aluminum is extremely common throughout the world and is innocuous under circumneutral or alkaline conditions. However, in acidic environments, it can be a maJor limiting factor to many plants and aquatic organisms. The greatest concern for toxicity in North America occurs in areas that are affected by wet and dry acid deposition, such as eastern Canada and the northeastern U.S. Acid mine drainage, logging, and water treatment plant effluents containing alum can be other maJor sources of Al. In solution, the metal can combine with several different agents to affect toxicity. In general, Al hydroxides and monomeric Al are the most toxic forms. Dissolved organic carbons, F, PO(3)3- and SO(4)2- ameliorate toxicity by reducing bioavailability. Elevated metal levels in water and soil can cause serious problems for some plants. Algae tend to be both acid- and Al tolerant and, although some species may disappear with reduced pH, overall algae productivity and biomass are seldom affected if pH is above 3.0. Aluminum and acid toxicity tend to be additive to some algae when pH is less than 4.5. Because the metal binds with inorganic P, it may reduce P availability and reduce productivity. Forest die-backs in North America involving red spruce, Fraser fir, balsam fir, loblolly pine, slash pine, and sugar maples have been ascribed to Al toxicity, and extensive areas of European forests have died because of the combination of high soil Al and low pH. Extensive research on crops has produced Al-resistant cultivars and considerable knowledge about mechanisms of and defenses against toxicity. Very low Al levels may benefit some plants, although the metal is not recognized as an essential nutrient. Hyperaccumulator species of plants may concentrate Al to levels that are toxic to herbivores. Toxicity in aquatic invertebrates is also acid dependent. Taxa such as Ephemeroptera, Plecoptera, and Cladocera are sensitive and may perish when Al is less than 1 mg.L-1 whereas dipterans

  19. DMPD: Infectious non-self recognition in invertebrates: lessons from Drosophila andother insect models. [Dynamic Macrophage Pathway CSML Database

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 15476918 Infectious non-self recognition in invertebrates: lessons from Drosophila ...fectious non-self recognition in invertebrates: lessons from Drosophila andother insect models. PubmedID 154...76918 Title Infectious non-self recognition in invertebrates: lessons from Drosop

  20. 78 FR 14503 - Amendment 4 to the Corals and Reef Associated Plants and Invertebrates Fishery Management Plan of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-06

    .... 120718255-3038-01] RIN 0648-BC38 Amendment 4 to the Corals and Reef Associated Plants and Invertebrates... Fishery Management Plan (FMP) for Corals and Reef Associated Plants and Invertebrates of Puerto Rico and... the coral reef resources FMU to include a vast array of plants and invertebrates that provide habitats...

  1. Sensitivity ranking for freshwater invertebrates towards hydrocarbon contaminants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerner, Nadine V; Cailleaud, Kevin; Bassères, Anne; Liess, Matthias; Beketov, Mikhail A

    2017-11-01

    Hydrocarbons have an utmost economical importance but may also cause substantial ecological impacts due to accidents or inadequate transportation and use. Currently, freshwater biomonitoring methods lack an indicator that can unequivocally reflect the impacts caused by hydrocarbons while being independent from effects of other stressors. The aim of the present study was to develop a sensitivity ranking for freshwater invertebrates towards hydrocarbon contaminants, which can be used in hydrocarbon-specific bioindicators. We employed the Relative Sensitivity method and developed the sensitivity ranking S hydrocarbons based on literature ecotoxicological data supplemented with rapid and mesocosm test results. A first validation of the sensitivity ranking based on an earlier field study has been conducted and revealed the S hydrocarbons ranking to be promising for application in sensitivity based indicators. Thus, the first results indicate that the ranking can serve as the core component of future hydrocarbon-specific and sensitivity trait based bioindicators.

  2. The structure and host entry of an invertebrate parvovirus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Geng; Zhang, Xinzheng; Plevka, Pavel; Yu, Qian; Tijssen, Peter; Rossmann, Michael G

    2013-12-01

    The 3.5-Å resolution X-ray crystal structure of mature cricket parvovirus (Acheta domesticus densovirus [AdDNV]) has been determined. Structural comparisons show that vertebrate and invertebrate parvoviruses have evolved independently, although there are common structural features among all parvovirus capsid proteins. It was shown that raising the temperature of the AdDNV particles caused a loss of their genomes. The structure of these emptied particles was determined by cryo-electron microscopy to 5.5-Å resolution, and the capsid structure was found to be the same as that for the full, mature virus except for the absence of the three ordered nucleotides observed in the crystal structure. The viral protein 1 (VP1) amino termini could be externalized without significant damage to the capsid. In vitro, this externalization of the VP1 amino termini is accompanied by the release of the viral genome.

  3. Interdependence of specialization and biodiversity in Phanerozoic marine invertebrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nürnberg, Sabine; Aberhan, Martin

    2015-03-17

    Studies of the dynamics of biodiversity often suggest that diversity has upper limits, but the complex interplay between ecological and evolutionary processes and the relative role of biotic and abiotic factors that set upper limits to diversity are poorly understood. Here we statistically assess the relationship between global biodiversity and the degree of habitat specialization of benthic marine invertebrates over the Phanerozoic eon. We show that variation in habitat specialization correlates positively with changes in global diversity, that is, times of high diversity coincide with more specialized faunas. We identify the diversity dynamics of specialists but not generalists, and origination rates but not extinction rates, as the main drivers of this ecological interdependence. Abiotic factors fail to show any significant relationship with specialization. Our findings suggest that the overall level of specialization and its fluctuations over evolutionary timescales are controlled by diversity-dependent processes--driven by interactions between organisms competing for finite resources.

  4. Impact Theory of Mass Extinctions and the Invertebrate Fossil Record

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez, Walter; Kauffman, Erle G.; Surlyk, Finn; Alvarez, Luis W.; Asaro, Frank; Michel, Helen V.

    1984-03-01

    There is much evidence that the Cretaceous-Tertiary boundary was marked by a massive meteorite impact. Theoretical consideration of the consequences of such an impact predicts sharp extinctions in many groups of animals precisely at the boundary. Paleontological data clearly show gradual declines in diversity over the last 1 to 10 million years in various invertebrate groups. Reexamination of data from careful studies of the best sections shows that, in addition to undergoing the decline, four groups (ammonites, cheilostomate bryozoans, brachiopods, and bivalves) were affected by sudden truncations precisely at the iridium anomaly that marks the boundary. The paleontological record thus bears witness to terminal-Cretaceous extinctions on two time scales: a slow decline unrelated to the impact and a sharp truncation synchronous with and probably caused by the impact.

  5. Uptake and depuration of pharmaceuticals in aquatic invertebrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meredith-Williams, Melanie; Carter, Laura J.; Fussell, Richard; Raffaelli, David; Ashauer, Roman; Boxall, Alistair B.A.

    2012-01-01

    The uptake and depuration of a range of pharmaceuticals in the freshwater shrimp (Gammarus pulex) and the water boatman (Notonecta glauca) was studied. For one compound, studies were also done using the freshwater snail Planobarius corneus. In G. pulex, bioconcentration factors (BCFs) ranged from 4.6 to 185,900 and increased in the order moclobemide < 5-fluoruracil < carbamazepine < diazepam < carvedilol < fluoxetine. In N. glauca BCFs ranged from 0.1 to 1.6 and increased in the order 5-fluorouracil < carbamazepine < moclobemide < diazepam < fluoxetine < carvedilol. For P. corneus, the BCF for carvedilol was 57.3. The differences in degree of uptake across the three organisms may be due to differences in mode of respiration, behaviour and the pH of the test system. BCFs of the pharmaceuticals for each organism were correlated to the pH-corrected liposome–water partition coefficient of the pharmaceuticals. - Highlights: ► One of the first studies exploring the uptake of pharmaceuticals into aquatic invertebrates. ► Data presented on uptake, depuration rates and bioconcentration for a range of pharmaceuticals. ► Uptake is correlated with the pH-corrected liposome–water partition coefficient. ► Findings can be used to better predict impacts of pharmaceuticals on the aquatic environment. - The factors affecting the degree of uptake of pharmaceuticals into aquatic invertebrates were studied. The results indicate that species traits such as respiration and behaviour of the organisms and pH-corrected liposome–water partition coefficients are important factors in determining pharmaceutical uptake.

  6. Comparative ecotoxicity of chlorantraniliprole to non-target soil invertebrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavtižar, Vesna; Berggren, Kristina; Trebše, Polonca; Kraak, Michiel H S; Verweij, Rudo A; van Gestel, Cornelis A M

    2016-09-01

    The insecticide chlorantraniliprole (CAP) is gaining importance in agricultural practice, but data on its possible negative effects on non-target organisms is severely deficient. This study therefore determined CAP toxicity to non-target soil invertebrates playing a crucial role in ecosystem functioning, including springtails (Folsomia candida), isopods (Porcellio scaber), enchytraeids (Enchytraeus crypticus) and oribatid mites (Oppia nitens). In sublethal toxicity tests in Lufa 2.2 soil, chronic exposure to CAP concentrations up to 1000 mg/kgdw did not affect the survival and reproduction of E. crypticus and O. nitens nor the survival, body weight and consumption of P. scaber. In contrast, the survival and reproduction of F. candida was severely affected, with an EC50 for effects on reproduction of 0.14 mg CAP/kgdw. The toxicity of CAP to the reproduction of F. candida was tested in four different soils following OECD guideline 232, and additionally in an avoidance test according to ISO guideline 17512-2. A significantly lower toxicity in soils rich in organic matter was observed, compared to low organic soils. Observations in the avoidance test with F. candida suggest that CAP acted in a prompt way, by affecting collembolan locomotor abilities thus preventing them from escaping contaminated soil. This study shows that CAP may especially pose a risk to non-target soil arthropods closely related to insects, while other soil invertebrates seem rather insensitive. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Bugs, bees and spiders : green roof design for rare invertebrates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gedge, D. [Livingroofs.org, London (United Kingdom); Kadas, G. [Royal Holloway Univ. of London, London (United Kingdom)

    2004-07-01

    The use of green roofs as mitigation technique for biodiversity is particularly relevant for the objectives of the London Biodiversity Partnership, particularly since London is undergoing large-scale regeneration and many of the new developments will be targeted on brownfield land. In 2002 two research projects were undertaken to create a baseline of data on how invertebrates were using the current green roofs in London. The London Biodiversity Partnership's Black Redstart Action Plan conducts research into green roofs to demonstrate how they can be maximized for biodiversity. The Black Redstart Project ensures that green roofs are used in new developments in London where such developments threaten this species. It is one of the country's rarest breeding birds, and is unique in that it is predominantly found in cities, on brownfield sites and post-industrial sites. Three green roof laboratories were established at 2 sites in London to investigate how substrates, substrate depths and planting affects the fauna associated with brownfields and green roofs in London. Although conservationists in London have urged many developers to provide green roofs to help the Black Redstart, there is concern that many of these roofs do no provide the proper support for the species. In some cases roofs are constructed of commercially driven products such as sedum mats that do provide habitat for some rare invertebrates but are not as supportive of a greater diversity of species as they could be due to the design process and a lack of knowledge of green roof technology. It was suggested that there is a need for cooperation between ecologists and Architects in order to achieve the habitat. 18 refs., 6 figs.

  8. Does reef architectural complexity influence resource availability for a large reef-dwelling invertebrate?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lozano-Álvarez, Enrique; Luviano-Aparicio, Nelia; Negrete-Soto, Fernando; Barradas-Ortiz, Cecilia; Aguíñiga-García, Sergio; Morillo-Velarde, Piedad S.; Álvarez-Filip, Lorenzo; Briones-Fourzán, Patricia

    2017-10-01

    In coral reefs, loss of architectural complexity and its associated habitat degradation is expected to affect reef specialists in particular due to changes in resource availability. We explored whether these features could potentially affect populations of a large invertebrate, the spotted spiny lobster Panulirus guttatus, which is an obligate Caribbean coral reef-dweller with a limited home range. We selected two separate large coral reef patches in Puerto Morelos (Mexico) that differed significantly in structural complexity and level of degradation, as assessed via the rugosity index, habitat assessment score, and percent cover of various benthic components. On each reef, we estimated density of P. guttatus and sampled lobsters to analyze their stomach contents, three different condition indices, and stable isotopes (δ15N and δ13C) in muscle. Lobster density did not vary with reef, suggesting that available crevices in the less complex patch still provided adequate refuge to these lobsters. Lobsters consumed many food types, dominated by mollusks and crustaceans, but proportionally more crustaceans (herbivore crabs) in the less complex patch, which had more calcareous macroalgae and algal turf. Lobsters from both reefs had a similar condition (all three indices) and mean δ15N, suggesting a similar quality of diet between reefs related to their opportunistic feeding, but differed in mean δ13C values, reflecting the different carbon sources between reefs and providing indirect evidence of individuals of P. guttatus foraging exclusively over their home reef. Overall, we found no apparent effects of architectural complexity, at least to the degree observed in our less complex patch, on density, condition, or trophic level of P. guttatus.

  9. Invertebrate communities of Arctic tundra ponds as related to proximity to drill site reserve pits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Byron, E.; Williams, N.; Hoffman, R.; Elder, B.

    1994-01-01

    Aquatic invertebrate communities were assessed for diversity and abundance in North Slope tundra ponds of Prudhoe Bay, Alaska during the summer of 1992 as part of an evaluation of potential effects of exposure to petroleum drill site reserve pits (previously used for storing drill site wastes). The invertebrate communities of these shallow, tundra ponds provide abundant food for migratory, aquatic birds that use this area during the summer breeding season. The study was designed to compare abundance and diversity estimates of invertebrates in ponds surrounding the drill sites that differed in distance (and presumed exposure) to drill site reserve pits. The pits, themselves, were not sampled as part of this study. Invertebrate abundance and diversity estimates, assessed as standard biological criteria, were evaluated relative to water chemistry of the ponds, distance to the gravel pads or reserve pits, and pond morphometry. The results indicated the importance of pond morphometry in determining the structure of the invertebrate community. Shallow, exposed ponds tended to be dominated by different invertebrate communities than deeper, narrow ponds at the margins of frost polygons. In contrast, pond chemistry and relative exposure to drill sites were not predictive of invertebrate abundance or diversity

  10. Acute toxicity and inactivation tests of CO2 on invertebrates in drinking water treatment systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Wen-Chao; Zhang, Jin-Song; Liu, Li-Jun; Zhao, Jian-Shu; Li, Tuo

    2011-01-01

    In addition to the esthetic problem caused by invertebrates, researchers are recently starting to be more aware of their potential importance in terms of public health. However, the inactivation methods of invertebrates which could proliferate in drinking water treatment systems are not well developed. The objective of this study is to assess the acute toxicity and inactivation effects of CO2 on familiar invertebrates in water treatment processes. The results of this study revealed that CO2 has a definite toxicity to familiar invertebrates. The values of 24-h LC50 (median lethal concentration) were calculated for each test with six groups of invertebrates. The toxicity of CO2 was higher with increasing concentrations in solution but was lower with the increase in size of the invertebrates. Above the concentration of 1,000 mg/L for the CO2 solution, the 100% inactivation time of all the invertebrates was less than 5 s, and in 15 min, the inactivation ratio showed a gradient descent with a decline in concentration. As seen for Mesocyclops thermocyclopoides, by dosing with a sodium bicarbonate solution first and adding a dilute hydrochloric acid solution 5 min later, it is possible to obtain a satisfactory inactivation effect in the GAC (granular activated carbon) filters.

  11. Comparative biology of pain: What invertebrates can tell us about how nociception works.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burrell, Brian D

    2017-04-01

    The inability to adequately treat chronic pain is a worldwide health care crisis. Pain has both an emotional and a sensory component, and this latter component, nociception, refers specifically to the detection of damaging or potentially damaging stimuli. Nociception represents a critical interaction between an animal and its environment and exhibits considerable evolutionary conservation across species. Using comparative approaches to understand the basic biology of nociception could promote the development of novel therapeutic strategies to treat pain, and studies of nociception in invertebrates can provide especially useful insights toward this goal. Both vertebrates and invertebrates exhibit segregated sensory pathways for nociceptive and nonnociceptive information, injury-induced sensitization to nociceptive and nonnociceptive stimuli, and even similar antinociceptive modulatory processes. In a number of invertebrate species, the central nervous system is understood in considerable detail, and it is often possible to record from and/or manipulate single identifiable neurons through either molecular genetic or physiological approaches. Invertebrates also provide an opportunity to study nociception in an ethologically relevant context that can provide novel insights into the nature of how injury-inducing stimuli produce persistent changes in behavior. Despite these advantages, invertebrates have been underutilized in nociception research. In this review, findings from invertebrate nociception studies are summarized, and proposals for how research using invertebrates can address questions about the fundamental mechanisms of nociception are presented. Copyright © 2017 the American Physiological Society.

  12. Phylogenetically diverse macrophyte community promotes species diversity of mobile epi-benthic invertebrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamoto, Kenta; Hayakawa, Jun; Kawamura, Tomohiko; Kodama, Masafumi; Yamada, Hideaki; Kitagawa, Takashi; Watanabe, Yoshiro

    2018-07-01

    Various aspects of plant diversity such as species diversity and phylogenetic diversity enhance the species diversity of associated animals in terrestrial systems. In marine systems, however, the effects of macrophyte diversity on the species diversity of associated animals have received little attention. Here, we sampled in a subtropical seagrass-seaweed mixed bed to elucidate the effect of the macrophyte phylogenetic diversity based on the taxonomic relatedness as well as the macrophyte species diversity on species diversity of mobile epi-benthic invertebrates. Using regression analyses for each macrophyte parameter as well as multiple regression analyses, we found that the macrophyte phylogenetic diversity (taxonomic diversity index: Delta) positively influenced the invertebrate species richness and diversity index (H‧). Although the macrophyte species richness and H‧ also positively influenced the invertebrate species richness, the best fit model for invertebrate species richness did not include them, suggesting that the macrophyte species diversity indirectly influenced invertebrate species diversity. Possible explanations of the effects of macrophyte Delta on the invertebrate species diversity were the niche complementarity effect and the selection effect. This is the first study which demonstrates that macrophyte phylogenetic diversity has a strong effect on the species diversity of mobile epi-benthic invertebrates.

  13. Functional traits of soil invertebrates as indicators for exposure to soil disturbance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hedde, Mickaël; Oort, Folkert van; Lamy, Isabelle

    2012-01-01

    We tested a trait-based approach to link a soil disturbance to changes in invertebrate communities. Soils and macro-invertebrates were sampled in sandy soils contaminated by long-term wastewater irrigation, adding notably organic matter and trace metals (TM). We hypothesized that functional traits of invertebrates depict ways of exposure and that exposure routes relate to specific TM pools. Geophages and soft-body invertebrates were chosen to inform on exposure by ingestion or contact, respectively. Trait-based indices depicted more accurately effects of pollution than community density and diversity did. Exposure by ingestion had more deleterious effects than by contact. Both types of exposed invertebrates were influenced by TM, but geophages mainly responded to changes in soil organic matter contents. The trait-based approach requires to be applied in various conditions to uncorrelate specific TM impacts from those of other environmental factors. - Highlights: ► We linked pollution, exposure routes and impacts on soil invertebrates. ► Proportions of exposed animals accurately depicted pollution effects. ► Exposure by ingestion had more deleterious effects than exposure by contact. ► Geophages decline reflected changes in soil organic matter. ► Soft-body proportions were mainly influenced by TM pools. - A trait-based approach hierarchized impacts of soil pollution on soil invertebrate communities following ways of exposure

  14. Response of stream invertebrates to short-term salinization: A mesocosm approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cañedo-Argüelles, Miguel; Grantham, Theodore E.; Perrée, Isabelle; Rieradevall, Maria; Céspedes-Sánchez, Raquel; Prat, Narcís

    2012-01-01

    Salinization is a major and growing threat to freshwater ecosystems, yet its effects on aquatic invertebrates have been poorly described at a community-level. Here we use a controlled experimental setting to evaluate short-term stream community responses to salinization, under conditions designed to replicate the duration (72 h) and intensity (up to 5 mS cm −1 ) of salinity pulses common to Mediterranean rivers subjected to mining pollution during runoff events. There was a significant overall effect, but differences between individual treatments and the control were only significant for the highest salinity treatment. The community response to salinization was characterized by a decline in total invertebrate density, taxon richness and diversity, an increase in invertebrate drift and loss of the most sensitive taxa. The findings indicate that short-term salinity increases have a significant impact on the stream invertebrate community, but concentrations of 5 mS cm −1 are needed to produce a significant ecological response. - Highlights: ► Short-term salinization has a significant impact on the aquatic invertebrates. ► A significant short-term ecological response is registered at 5 mS cm −1 . ► Salinization causes a decline in invertebrate density, richness and diversity. ► Biotic quality indices decline with increasing salinity and exposure time. - Short-term salinization in a stream mesocosm caused a significant response in the aquatic invertebrate community and led to declines in biological quality indices.

  15. Development of biotic ligand models for chronic manganese toxicity to fish, invertebrates, and algae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Adam; Lofts, Stephen; Merrington, Graham; Brown, Bruce; Stubblefield, William; Harlow, Keven

    2011-11-01

    Ecotoxicity tests were performed with fish, invertebrates, and algae to investigate the effect of water quality parameters on Mn toxicity. Models were developed to describe the effects of Mn as a function of water quality. Calcium (Ca) has a protective effect on Mn toxicity for both fish and invertebrates, and magnesium (Mg) also provides a protective effect for invertebrates. Protons have a protective effect on Mn toxicity to algae. The models derived are consistent with models of the toxicity of other metals to aquatic organisms in that divalent cations can act as competitors to Mn toxicity in fish and invertebrates, and protons act as competitors to Mn toxicity in algae. The selected models are able to predict Mn toxicity to the test organisms to within a factor of 2 in most cases. Under low-pH conditions invertebrates are the most sensitive taxa, and under high-pH conditions algae are most sensitive. The point at which algae become more sensitive than invertebrates depends on the Ca concentration and occurs at higher pH when Ca concentrations are low, because of the sensitivity of invertebrates under these conditions. Dissolved organic carbon concentrations have very little effect on the toxicity of Mn to aquatic organisms. Copyright © 2011 SETAC.

  16. Invertebrate populations in miscanthus (Miscanthusxgiganteus) and reed canary-grass (Phalaris arundinacea) fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Semere, T.; Slater, F.M. [Llysdinam Field Centre, School of Biosciences, Cardiff University, Newbridge-on-Wye, Llandrindod Wells, Powys, LD1 6NB (United Kingdom)

    2007-01-15

    Monitoring of invertebrates at four field sites in Herefordshire, England, growing miscanthus and reed canary-grass was carried out in 2002, 2003 and 2004 to investigate the ecological impact of these crops on ground beetles, butterflies and arboreal invertebrates. Ground beetles were sampled by pitfall trapping; and arboreal invertebrates by sweep netting and stem beating. The Centre for Ecology and Hydrology's Butterflies Monitoring Scheme methodology was used to record butterflies. The effects of the biomass crops on invertebrates were indirect, through the use of weeds as food resources and habitat. The greater diversity of weed flora within miscanthus fields than within reed canary-grass fields had a greater positive effect on invertebrates. Ground beetles, butterflies and arboreal invertebrates were more abundant and diverse in the most floristically diverse miscanthus fields. The difference in crop architecture and development between miscanthus and reed canary-grass was reflected in their differences in crop height and ground cover early on in the season. However, most of the difference in arthropod abundance between the two crops was attributed to the difference in the agronomic practice of growing the crops such as plant density, and the effect of this on weed growth. Since perennial rhizomatous grasses require a single initial planting and related tillage, and also no major chemical inputs; and because the crops are harvested in the spring and the land is not disturbed by cultivation every year, the fields were used as over-wintering sites for invertebrates suggesting immediate benefits to biodiversity. (author)

  17. THE CAPILLARY PATTERN IN HUMAN MASSETER MUSCLE DURING AGEING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erika Cvetko

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The effect of ageing on the capillary network in skeletal muscles has produced conflicting results in both, human and animals studies. Some of the inconsistencies are due to non-comparable and biased methods that were applied on thin transversal sections, especially in muscles with complicated morphological structures, such as in human masseter muscle. We present a new immunohistochemical method for staining capillaries and muscle fibres in 100 µm thick sections as well as novel approach to 3D visualization of capillaries and muscle fibres. Applying confocal microscopy and virtual 3D stereological grids, or tracing capillaries in virtual reality, length of capillaries within a muscle volume or length of capillaries adjacent to muscle fibre per fibre length, fibre surface or fibre volume were evaluated in masseter muscle of young and old subjects by an unbiased approach. Our findings show that anatomic capillarity is well maintained in masseter muscle in old subjects; however, vascular remodelling occurs with age, which could be a response to changed muscle function and age-related muscle fibre type transformations.

  18. Molecular Architecture and Biomedical Leads of Terpenes from Red Sea Marine Invertebrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hegazy, Mohamed Elamir F.; Mohamed, Tarik A.; Alhammady, Montaser A.; Shaheen, Alaa M.; Reda, Eman H.; Elshamy, Abdelsamed I.; Aziz, Mina; Paré, Paul W.

    2015-01-01

    Marine invertebrates including sponges, soft coral, tunicates, mollusks and bryozoan have proved to be a prolific source of bioactive natural products. Among marine-derived metabolites, terpenoids have provided a vast array of molecular architectures. These isoprenoid-derived metabolites also exhibit highly specialized biological activities ranging from nerve regeneration to blood-sugar regulation. As a result, intense research activity has been devoted to characterizing invertebrate terpenes from both a chemical and biological standpoint. This review focuses on the chemistry and biology of terpene metabolites isolated from the Red Sea ecosystem, a unique marine biome with one of the highest levels of biodiversity and specifically rich in invertebrate species. PMID:26006713

  19. Recovery of invertebrate and vertebrate populations in a coal ash stressed drainage system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cherry, D.S.; Larrick, S.R.; Guthrie, R.K.; Davis, E.M.; Sherberger, F.F.

    1979-09-01

    The influence of coal ash effluent on the densities of macrobenthic invertebrate and mosquitofish populations in a swamp drainage system was studied. Samples were collected during a period of 50 mo. Three perturbations in the swamp systemash siltation, low pH, and toxic elementscaused changes in population densities. Siltation from inefficient effluent management caused the greatest drop in invertebrate populations, and pH declines from flyash addition caused the greatest mosquitofish population reductions. Dipterans and odonates were most tolerant to coal ash stress. Invertebrate population recovery was observed on completion of an efficient ash retaining basin. (13 graphs, 28 references, 3 tables)

  20. Arsenic in terrestrial invertebrates from riparian areas of the Piracicaba River Basin, Sao Paulo State, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Franca, E.J.; Magalhaes, M.R.L.; Santos, M.L.O.; Nadai Fernandes, E.A. de; Fonseca, F.Y.

    2017-01-01

    There is no information on arsenic distribution in terrestrial invertebrates from riparian forests of urban and rural areas in Brazil. The objective of this study was to evaluate the As levels in invertebrates from riverine forests of the Piracicaba River Basin, Sao Paulo, Brazil, using the instrumental neutron activation analysis, k 0 -comparator method. After correction of mass fractions, values higher than 0.10 mg kg -1 were quantified in invertebrates from both urban and agricultural areas. An unexpected As mass fraction of 13 mg kg -1 obtained in the Coleopteran pest Macrodactylus pumilio indicated resistance to As-containing-pesticides. (author)

  1. Molecular Architecture and Biomedical Leads of Terpenes from Red Sea Marine Invertebrates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Elamir F. Hegazy

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Marine invertebrates including sponges, soft coral, tunicates, mollusks and bryozoan have proved to be a prolific source of bioactive natural products. Among marine-derived metabolites, terpenoids have provided a vast array of molecular architectures. These isoprenoid-derived metabolites also exhibit highly specialized biological activities ranging from nerve regeneration to blood-sugar regulation. As a result, intense research activity has been devoted to characterizing invertebrate terpenes from both a chemical and biological standpoint. This review focuses on the chemistry and biology of terpene metabolites isolated from the Red Sea ecosystem, a unique marine biome with one of the highest levels of biodiversity and specifically rich in invertebrate species.

  2. Standing crops and ecology of aquatic invertebrates in agricultural drainwater ponds in California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Euliss, N.H.; Jarvis, R.L.; Gilmer, D.S.

    1991-01-01

    We examined standing crops and ecology of aquatic invertebrates in agricultural drainwater evaporation ponds in California from October 1982 to March 1983 and September 1983 to March 1984. Evaporation ponds supported low diversities but high standing crops of aquatic invertebrates. A water boatman (Trichocorixa reticulata) and a midge (Tanypus grodhausi) were the most abundant invertebrates, constituting 44.9% and 51.4% of total macroinvertebrate biomass. Regression models indicated that of 6 environmental variables measured, only electrical conductivity (EC) and Julian date affected biomass and density of water boatmen. EC was the only significant correlate of midge biomass in evaporation ponds.

  3. Radionuclide concentrations in fish and invertebrates from Bikini Atoll

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noshkin, V.E.; Wong, K.M.; Eagle, R.J.; Jokela, T.A.; Brunk, J.A.

    1988-01-01

    As in other global studies, 137 Cs was found in the highest concentrations in edible flesh of all species of fish and in the lowest concentrations in the bone or liver. The mean concentration of 137 Cs in muscle of reef fish from the southern part of the atoll is comparable to the global-fallout concentration measured in market samples of fish collected from Chicago, IL, USA, in 1982. Strontium-90 is associated generally with non-edible parts of fish, such as bone or viscera. Twenty-five to fifty percent of the total body burden of 60 Co is accumulated in the muscle tissue; the remainder is distributed among the liver, skin, and viscera. The mean concentration of 60 Co in fish has been decreasing at a rate faster than radiological decay alone. Most striking is the range of 207 Bi concentrations among different species of fish collected at the same time and place. Highest concentrations of 207 Bi were consistently detected in the muscle and other tissues of goatfish and some of the pelagic lagoon fish. In other reef fish, such as mullet, surgeonfish, and parrotfish, 207 Bi was usually below detection limits by gamma spectrometry. Over 70% of the whole-body activity of 207 Bi in goatfish is associated with the muscle tissue, whereas less than 5% is found in the muscle of mullet and surgeonfish. Neither 239+240 Pu nor 241 Am is accumulated significantly in the muscle tissue of any species of fish. Apparently, 238 Pu is in a more readily available form for accumulation by fishes than 239+240 Pu. Based on a daily ingestion rate of 200 g of fish flesh, dose rates to individuals through the fish-food ingestion pathway are well below current Federal guidelines. 24 refs., 1 fig., 27 tabs

  4. Evaluation of radionuclide induced damage in marine invertebrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hagger, Josephine Anne

    2002-01-01

    Limited studies have been carried out to assess the potential effects of ionising radiation on marine organisms. Therefore the general aims of this thesis were, (a) to assess the cytotoxic, genotoxic and developmental effects of ionising radiation on the embryo-larvae of two ecologically relevant marine invertebrates Mytilus edulis and Platynereis dumerilii, (2) to assess the effects of an environmentally relevant cocktail of radionuclides (3) to monitor the potential impact of radiation in the natural environment and finally (4) attempt to predict the potential effects of radiation at a population level. Following validation of developmental stages and mammalian based cytotoxic and genotoxic assays, chromosomal aberrations (Cabs), sister chromatid exchanges (SCEs) and proliferation rate index (PRI), on the embryo-larvae of M. edulis and P. dumerilii, the embryo-larvae stages were exposed to a reference radionuclide, tritium, (0.37,3.7,37 and 370 kBq/ml). Low doses of radiation delivered by tritium were shown to be detrimental to the development of embryo-larvae with an increase in abnormality for P. dumerilii and an increase in mortality for M. edulis. Tritium increased the induction of chromosomal aberrations and sister chromatid exchanges, in exposed embryo-larvae, indicating that tritium is potentially genotoxic. Cytotoxic effects (reduction in the cell proliferation rate) were also observed following exposure of embryo-larvae to tritium. In collaboration with the Royal Devonport Dockyard (DML) investigations on the cytotoxic, genotoxic and developmental effects of a cocktail of radionuclides (radioactive liquid waste diluted to 1.8,3.2, 5.6, 18%) were carried out. All embryo-larvae exposed to 18% radioactive waste were dead within 24h. Both species exhibited increased abnormality, SCEs and Cabs and a reduction in PRI in dilutions 1.8-5.6%. In general M. edulis appeared to be more sensitive to ionising radiation than P. dumerilii embryo-larvae. Following

  5. A cross-continental comparison of the effects of flow intermittence on benthic invertebrate assemblages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Although temporary rivers are widespread freshwater systems, they have been poorly studied by ecologists and are largely ignored in water management plans, practices and policies. If the effects of dry events on benthic invertebrates have been reported individually from different...

  6. The estimation of sample size required in chemical limnology and autecology of shelled invertebrates

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Delorme, L. D; El-Shaarawi, A. H

    1978-01-01

    .... The confidence coefficient is 1 - 2alpha. In the field of chemical limnology and autecology of shelled invertebrates, most chemical parameters must be transformed to obtain a normal distribution...

  7. Invertebrate populations of the deciduous forest: fluctuations and relations to weather

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kendeigh, S. Charles

    1979-01-01

    The major objectives of the present study are to analyze (a) the composition and relative population sizes of the larger invertebrate fauna of relatively undisturbed, near-virgin, stands of deciduous forest, (b...

  8. Chemosynthetic symbionts of marine invertebrate animals are capable of nitrogen fixation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Petersen, J.M.; Kemper, A.; Gruber-Vodicka, H.R.; Cardini, U.; van der Geest, M.; Kleiner, M.; Bulgheresi, S.; Mußmann, M; Herbold, C.W.; Seah, B.K.B.; Antony, C.P.; Liu, D.; Belitz, A.; Weber, M.

    2016-01-01

    Chemosynthetic symbioses are partnerships between invertebrate animals and chemosynthetic bacteria. The latter are theprimary producers, providing most of the organic carbon needed for the animal host’s nutrition. We sequenced genomesof the chemosynthetic symbionts from the lucinid bivalve Loripes

  9. Marine Invertebrate Larvae Associated with Symbiodinium: A Mutualism from the Start?

    KAUST Repository

    Mies, Miguel; Sumida, Paulo Y. G.; Radecker, Nils; Voolstra, Christian R.

    2017-01-01

    Symbiodinium are dinoflagellate photosynthetic algae that associate with a diverse array of marine invertebrates, and these relationships are comprehensively documented for adult animal hosts. Conversely, comparatively little is known about

  10. Estimating escapement of fish and invertebrates in a Danish anchor seine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Noack, Thomas; Madsen, Niels; Mieske, Bernd

    2017-01-01

    The codend is generally presumed to be the place where the main selectivity of fish occurs in towed fishing gears, but other parts of the net have been found to contribute to the selectivity process of several invertebrate species. This means that conventional selectivity or survival studies may......) invertebrates from the forward parts of the seine net. For seven species of demersal fish, most fish escaped through the lower panel close to the codend. All invertebrate species were found in higher numbers in the collecting bags than in the codend where many organisms escaped in the lower panel of the wings...... or the belly. Mean levels of visible damage ranged from 1.00 to 3.25 for collected invertebrates and were similar for all gear parts. Common starfish (Asterias rubens), however, showed highest damage in the extension part of the net....

  11. Invertebrates Associated with Coarse Woody Debris in Streams, Upland Forests, and Wetlands: A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    A. Braccia; D.P. Batzer

    1999-01-01

    We reviewed literature on the inbvertebrate groups associated with coarse woody debris in forests, streams, and wetlands, and contrasted patterns of invertebrate community development and wood decomposition among ecosystems.

  12. Species List of Alaskan Birds, Mammals, Fish, Amphibians, Reptiles, and Invertebrates. Alaska Region Report Number 82.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Tamra Faris

    This publication contains a detailed list of the birds, mammals, fish, amphibians, reptiles, and invertebrates found in Alaska. Part I lists the species by geographical regions. Part II lists the species by the ecological regions of the state. (CO)

  13. Responses of invertebrates to temperature and water stress: A polar perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Everatt, Matthew J; Convey, Pete; Bale, Jeffrey S; Worland, M Roger; Hayward, Scott A L

    2015-12-01

    As small bodied poikilothermic ectotherms, invertebrates, more so than any other animal group, are susceptible to extremes of temperature and low water availability. In few places is this more apparent than in the Arctic and Antarctic, where low temperatures predominate and water is unusable during winter and unavailable for parts of summer. Polar terrestrial invertebrates express a suite of physiological, biochemical and genomic features in response to these stressors. However, the situation is not as simple as responding to each stressor in isolation, as they are often faced in combination. We consider how polar terrestrial invertebrates manage this scenario in light of their physiology and ecology. Climate change is also leading to warmer summers in parts of the polar regions, concomitantly increasing the potential for drought. The interaction between high temperature and low water availability, and the invertebrates' response to them, are therefore also explored. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. The importance of spatial variation of benthic invertebrates for the ecological assessment of European lakes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Solimini, Angelo G.; Sandin, Leif Leonard

    2012-01-01

    variability. However, littoral and profundal invertebrate communities are constrained by different drivers of change and may respond unevenly to distinct human disturbances. How human disturbances determined by different pressures interact in modifying the distribution of benthic invertebrate species......, funded by the European Union under the 7th Framework Programme), we collated several case studies with the aim to increase our understanding of basic sources of spatial variation of invertebrate assemblages. The set of papers includes a variety of different European lakes, habitat types and human...... pressures from the Nordic, Central, Atlantic, Alpine and Mediterranean regions. All papers have an obvious applied objective and suggest which factors need to be considered when designing invertebrate-based classification tools....

  15. Diversity and abundance of invertebrate epifaunal assemblages associated with gorgonians are driven by colony attributes

    KAUST Repository

    Curdia, Joao; Carvalho, Susana; Pereira, Fá bio R.; Guerra-Garcí a, José Manuel; Santos, Miguel Neves Dos; Cunha, Marina R.

    2015-01-01

    The present study aimed to explicitly quantify the link between the attributes of shallow-water gorgonian colonies (Octocorallia: Alcyonacea) and the ecological patterns of associated non-colonial epifaunal invertebrates. Based on multiple

  16. Chemical Compounds Toxic to Invertebrates Isolated from Marine Cyanobacteria of Potential Relevance to the Agricultural Industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Essack, Magbubah; Alzubaidy, Hanin S.; Bajic, Vladimir B.; Archer, John A. C.

    2014-01-01

    In spite of advances in invertebrate pest management, the agricultural industry is suffering from impeded pest control exacerbated by global climate changes that have altered rain patterns to favour opportunistic breeding. Thus, novel naturally derived chemical compounds toxic to both terrestrial and aquatic invertebrates are of interest, as potential pesticides. In this regard, marine cyanobacterium-derived metabolites that are toxic to both terrestrial and aquatic invertebrates continue to be a promising, but neglected, source of potential pesticides. A PubMed query combined with hand-curation of the information from retrieved articles allowed for the identification of 36 cyanobacteria-derived chemical compounds experimentally confirmed as being toxic to invertebrates. These compounds are discussed in this review. PMID:25356733

  17. Six decades of change in pollution and benthic invertebrate biodiversity in a southern New England estuary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollution has led to a decline of benthic invertebrate biodiversity of Narragansett Bay, raising questions about effects on ecosystem functions and services including shellfish production, energy flow to fishes, and biogeochemical cycles. Changes in community composition and taxo...

  18. Tube-dwelling invertebrates: tiny ecosystem engineers have large effects in lake ecosystems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hölker, Franz; Vanni, Michael J.; Kuiper, Jan J.; Meile, Christof; Grossart, Hans-Peter; Stief, Peter; Adrian, Rita; Lorke, Andreas; Dellwig, Olaf; Brand, Andreas; Hupfer, Michael; Mooij, Wolf M.; Nützmann, Gunnar; Lewandowski, Jörg

    2015-01-01

    There is ample evidence that tube-dwelling invertebrates such as chironomids significantly alter multiple important ecosystem functions, particularly in shallow lakes. Chironomids pump large water volumes, and associated suspended and dissolved substances, through the sediment and thereby compete

  19. Sensitivity of Coastal Environments and Wildlife to Spilled Oil: Hudson River: INVERT (Invertebrate Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for marine and estuarine invertebrate species for the Hudson River. Vector polygons in this data set...

  20. Efficacy Testing of Pesticides used for Invertebrate Pests and Fire Ants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Event page for the upcoming Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act (FIFRA) Scientific Advisory Panel (SAP) meeting on Efficacy Testing of Pesticides used for Invertebrate Pests and Fire Ants

  1. Soft sediment dwelling macro-invertebrates of Rajapur Bay, central west coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Harkantra, S.N.; Parulekar, A.H.

    Thirtyfour species of soft sediment dwelling macro-invertebrates were recorded in Rajapur Bay at the proposed effluent discharge location of nuclear power plant. The fauna mainly composed of polychaetes (42.52%), molluscs (39.03%), crustaceans (7...

  2. Characterization and classification of invertebrates as indicators of flow permanence in headwater streams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Headwater streams represent a large proportion of river networks and many have temporary flow. Litigation has questioned whether these streams are jurisdictional under the Clean Water Act. Our goal was to identify indicators of flow permanence by comparing invertebrate assemblage...

  3. Chemical Compounds Toxic to Invertebrates Isolated from Marine Cyanobacteria of Potential Relevance to the Agricultural Industry

    KAUST Repository

    Essack, Magbubah

    2014-10-29

    In spite of advances in invertebrate pest management, the agricultural industry is suffering from impeded pest control exacerbated by global climate changes that have altered rain patterns to favour opportunistic breeding. Thus, novel naturally derived chemical compounds toxic to both terrestrial and aquatic invertebrates are of interest, as potential pesticides. In this regard, marine cyanobacterium-derived metabolites that are toxic to both terrestrial and aquatic invertebrates continue to be a promising, but neglected, source of potential pesticides. A PubMed query combined with hand-curation of the information from retrieved articles allowed for the identification of 36 cyanobacteria-derived chemical compounds experimentally confirmed as being toxic to invertebrates. These compounds are discussed in this review.

  4. Marine Benthic Invertebrates in Mamala Bay, Oahu, Hawaii 1994 (NODC Accession 9900151)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Planktonic larval stages of many benthic marine invertebrates are especially susceptible to environmental stress, such as the presence of pollution. Recruitment of...

  5. Sensitivity of Coastal Environments and Wildlife to Spilled Oil: Northwest Arctic, Alaska: INVERT (Invertebrate Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for marine and estuarine invertebrate species in Northwest Arctic, Alaska. Vector polygons in this data set...

  6. Sensitivity of Coastal Environments and Wildlife to Spilled Oil: Florida Panhandle: INVERTPT (Invertebrate Points)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for threatened/endangered invertebrate species for the Florida Panhandle. Vector points in this data set...

  7. Sensitivity of Coastal Environments and Wildlife to Spilled Oil: Mississippi: INVERT (Invertebrate Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for marine, estuarine, and brackish water invertebrate species in Mississippi. Vector polygons in this data...

  8. Rhode Island, Connecticut, New York, and New Jersey ESI: INVERT (Invertebrate Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for marine, estuarine, and terrestrial invertebrate species in coastal Rhode Island, Connecticut, New York,...

  9. Sensitivity of Coastal Environments and Wildlife to Spilled Oil: Central California: INVERT (Invertebrate Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for marine, intertidal/subtidal, and terrestrial invertebrate species in Central California. Vector...

  10. Rhode Island, Connecticut, New York, and New Jersey ESI: INVERTPT (Invertebrate Points)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for rare terrestrial invertebrates in coastal Rhode Island, Connecticut, New York, and New Jersey. Vector...

  11. Chemical Compounds Toxic to Invertebrates Isolated from Marine Cyanobacteria of Potential Relevance to the Agricultural Industry

    KAUST Repository

    Essack, Magbubah; Alzubaidy, Hanin S.; Bajic, Vladimir B.; Archer, John A.C.

    2014-01-01

    In spite of advances in invertebrate pest management, the agricultural industry is suffering from impeded pest control exacerbated by global climate changes that have altered rain patterns to favour opportunistic breeding. Thus, novel naturally derived chemical compounds toxic to both terrestrial and aquatic invertebrates are of interest, as potential pesticides. In this regard, marine cyanobacterium-derived metabolites that are toxic to both terrestrial and aquatic invertebrates continue to be a promising, but neglected, source of potential pesticides. A PubMed query combined with hand-curation of the information from retrieved articles allowed for the identification of 36 cyanobacteria-derived chemical compounds experimentally confirmed as being toxic to invertebrates. These compounds are discussed in this review.

  12. Sensitivity of Coastal Environments and Wildlife to Spilled Oil: New Hampshire: INVERT (Invertebrate Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for marine, and estuarine invertebrate species in New Hampshire. Vector polygons in this data set represent...

  13. Sensitivity of Coastal Environments and Wildlife to Spilled Oil: Upper Coast of Texas: INVERT (Invertebrate Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for marine and estuarine invertebrate species for the Upper Coast of Texas. Vector polygons in this data...

  14. Sensitivity of Coastal Environments and Wildlife to Spilled Oil: South Florida: INVERT (Invertebrate Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for marine and estuarine invertebrate species in South Florida. Vector polygons in this data set represent...

  15. Sensitivity of Coastal Environments and Wildlife to Spilled Oil: Florida Panhandle: INVERT (Invertebrate Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for marine, estuarine, and freshwater (limited to threatened/endangered/rare) invertebrate species for the...

  16. Sensitivity of Coastal Environments and Wildlife to Spilled Oil: North Carolina: INVERT (Invertebrate Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for marine and estuarine invertebrate species in North Carolina. Vector polygons in this data set represent...

  17. Sensitivity of Coastal Environments and Wildlife to Spilled Oil: Northern California: INVERT (Invertebrate Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for marine, estuarine, freshwater, and terrestrial invertebrate species in Northern California. Vector...

  18. Head-head interactions of resting myosin crossbridges in intact frog skeletal muscles, revealed by synchrotron x-ray fiber diffraction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kanji Oshima

    Full Text Available The intensities of the myosin-based layer lines in the x-ray diffraction patterns from live resting frog skeletal muscles with full thick-thin filament overlap from which partial lattice sampling effects had been removed were analyzed to elucidate the configurations of myosin crossbridges around the thick filament backbone to nanometer resolution. The repeat of myosin binding protein C (C-protein molecules on the thick filaments was determined to be 45.33 nm, slightly longer than that of myosin crossbridges. With the inclusion of structural information for C-proteins and a pre-powerstroke head shape, modeling in terms of a mixed population of regular and perturbed regions of myosin crown repeats along the filament revealed that the myosin filament had azimuthal perturbations of crossbridges in addition to axial perturbations in the perturbed region, producing pseudo-six-fold rotational symmetry in the structure projected down the filament axis. Myosin crossbridges had a different organization about the filament axis in each of the regular and perturbed regions. In the regular region that lacks C-proteins, there were inter-molecular interactions between the myosin heads in axially adjacent crown levels. In the perturbed region that contains C-proteins, in addition to inter-molecular interactions between the myosin heads in the closest adjacent crown levels, there were also intra-molecular interactions between the paired heads on the same crown level. Common features of the interactions in both regions were interactions between a portion of the 50-kDa-domain and part of the converter domain of the myosin heads, similar to those found in the phosphorylation-regulated invertebrate myosin. These interactions are primarily electrostatic and the converter domain is responsible for the head-head interactions. Thus multiple head-head interactions of myosin crossbridges also characterize the switched-off state and have an important role in the regulation

  19. Hyporheic invertebrates as bioindicators of ecological health in temporary rivers: a meta-analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Leigh, C; Stubbington, R; Sheldon, F; Boulton, AJ

    2013-01-01

    Worldwide, many rivers cease flow and dry either naturally or owing to human activities such as water extraction. However, even when surface water is absent, diverse assemblages of aquatic invertebrates inhabit the saturated sediments below the river bed (hyporheic zone). In the absence of surface water or flow, biota of this zone may be sampled as an alternative to surface water-based ecological assessments. The potential of hyporheic invertebrates as ecological indicators of river health, h...

  20. Effects of Karenia brevis on clearance rates and bioaccumulation of brevetoxins in benthic suspension feeding invertebrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Echevarria, Michael; Naar, Jerome P; Tomas, Carmelo; Pawlik, Joseph R

    2012-01-15

    Blooms of the toxic alga Karenia brevis occur along coastlines where sessile suspension feeding invertebrates are common components of benthic communities. We studied the effects of K. brevis on four benthic suspension feeding invertebrates common to the coast of the SE United States: the sponge Haliclona tubifera, the bryozoan Bugula neritina, the bivalve Mercenaria mercenaria, and the tunicate Styela plicata. In controlled laboratory experiments, we determined the rate at which K. brevis was cleared from the seawater by these invertebrates, the effect of K. brevis on clearance rates of a non-toxic phytoplankton species, Rhodomonas sp., and the extent to which brevetoxins bioaccumulated in tissues of invertebrates using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). All four invertebrate species cleared significant quantities of K. brevis from seawater, with mean clearance rates ranging from 2.27 to 6.71 L g h⁻¹ for H. tubifera and S. plicata, respectively. In the presence of K. brevis, clearance rates of Rhodomonas sp. by B. neritina and S. plicata were depressed by 75% and 69%, respectively, while clearance rates by H. tubifera and M. mercenaria were unaffected. Negative effects of K. brevis were impermanent; after a recovery period of 13 h, B. neritina and S. plicata regained normal clearance rates. All four invertebrates accumulated high concentrations of brevetoxin after a 4h exposure to K. brevis, but when animals were transferred to filtered seawater for 15 h after exposure, brevetoxin concentrations in the tissues of H. tubifera and B. neritina decreased by ∼80%, while there was no change in toxin concentration in the tissues of S. plicata and M. mercenaria. High cell concentrations of K. brevis may cause a suppression of clearance rates in benthic suspension feeding invertebrates, resulting in a positive feedback for bloom formation. Also, high concentrations of toxin may accumulate in the tissues of benthic suspension feeding invertebrates that may

  1. Concentrations of methylmercury in invertebrates from wetlands of the Prairie Pothole Region of North America

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bates, Lara M.; Hall, Britt D.

    2012-01-01

    Prairie wetlands may be important sites of mercury (Hg) methylation resulting in elevated methylmercury (MeHg) concentrations in water, sediments and biota. Invertebrates are an important food resource and may act as an indicator of MeHg exposure to higher organisms. In 2007–2008, invertebrates were collected from wetland ponds in central Saskatchewan, categorized into functional feeding groups (FFGs) and analyzed for total Hg (THg) and MeHg. Methylmercury and THg concentrations in four FFGs ranged from 0.2–393.5 ng·g −1 and 9.7–507.1 ng·g −1 , respectively. Methylmercury concentrations generally increased from gastropods with significantly lower average MeHg concentrations compared to other invertebrate taxa. Surrounding land use (agricultural, grassland and organic agricultural) may influence MeHg concentrations in invertebrates, with invertebrate MeHg concentrations being higher from organic ponds (457.5 ± 156.7 ng·g −1 ) compared to those from grassland ponds (74.8 ± 14.6 ng·g −1 ) and ponds on agricultural lands (32.8 ± 6.2 ng·g −1 ). - Highlights: ► MeHg concentrations ranged from 0.2 to 393.5 ng·g −1 and generally increased with trophic level. ► Gastropods had significantly lower average MeHg concentrations compared to other invertebrates. ► Surrounding land use may influence MeHg concentrations in invertebrates. ► MeHg concentrations were higher in organic ponds compared to grassland and agricultural ponds. - Methylmercury concentrations in aquatic invertebrates in wetlands of the Great Plains of North America may differ depending on the land use of adjacent farmland.

  2. Concentration of 137Cs by certain species of fresh water invertebrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nilov, V.I.

    1983-01-01

    Results of experimental studies on 137 Cs accumulation by fresh-water invertebrates of various taxonomic groups are given. The invertebrate 137 Cs accumulative ability depends on the species belonging, age and sex of the animal. Radionuclide deposition by Cladocera depends on water temperature. Mollusc embryons need different quantities of cerium for their development. An appreciable role in 137 Cs extraction from fresh water is attributed to fry, adult Gammarus and Daphnia

  3. Can invertebrates see the e-vector of polarization as a separate modality of light?

    OpenAIRE

    Labhart, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT The visual world is rich in linearly polarized light stimuli, which are hidden from the human eye. But many invertebrate species make use of polarized light as a source of valuable visual information. However, exploiting light polarization does not necessarily imply that the electric (e)-vector orientation of polarized light can be perceived as a separate modality of light. In this Review, I address the question of whether invertebrates can detect specific e-vector orientations in a ...

  4. An evaluation of invertebrate dynamics in a drinking water distribution system: a South African perspective

    OpenAIRE

    2008-01-01

    M.Sc. The occurrence of invertebrates in drinking water supplies is a common consumer complaint with studies showing that very few drinking water distribution networks are totally free of organisms. A detailed investigation of different types of metazoan animals in the drinking water supply networks of South Africa has not been undertaken. In limited worldwide studies, invertebrates (mainly Amphipoda, Chironomidae, Cladocera, Copepoda and Ostracoda) have been detected in produced drinking ...

  5. The buzz on caffeine in invertebrates: effects on behavior and molecular mechanisms

    OpenAIRE

    Mustard, Julie A.

    2013-01-01

    A number of recent studies from as diverse fields as plant-pollinator interactions, analyses of caffeine as an environmental pollutant, and the ability of caffeine to provide protection against neurodegenerative diseases have generated interest in understanding the actions of caffeine in invertebrates. This review summarizes what is currently known about the effects of caffeine on behavior and its molecular mechanisms in invertebrates. Caffeine appears to have similar effects on locomotion an...

  6. DNA barcoding commercially important aquatic invertebrates of Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keskin, Emre; Atar, Hasan Hüseyin

    2013-08-01

    DNA barcoding was used in order to identify aquatic invertebrates sampled from fisheries bycatch and discards. A total of 440 unique cytochrome c oxidase sub unit I (COI) barcodes were generated for 22 species from three important phyla (Arthropoda, Cnidaria, and Mollusca). All the species were sequenced and submitted to GenBank and Barcode of Life Database (BOLD) databases using 654 bp-long fragment of mitochondrial COI gene. Two of them (Pontastacus leptodactylus and Rapana bezoar) were first records of the species for the BOLD database and six of them (Carcinus aestuarii, Loligo vulgaris, Melicertus kerathurus, Nephrops norvegicus, Scyllarides latus, and Scyllarus arctus) were first standard (>648 bp) COI barcode records for the GenBank database. COI barcodes were analyzed for nucleotide composition, nucleotide pair frequencies, and Kimura's two-parameter genetic distance. Mean genetic distance among species was found increasing at higher taxonomic levels. Neighbor-joining trees generated were congruent with morphometric-based taxonomic classification. Findings of this study clearly demonstrate that DNA barcodes could be used as an efficient molecular tool in identification of not only target species from fisheries but also bycatch and discard species, and so it could provide us leverage for a better understanding in monitoring and management of fisheries and biodiversity.

  7. Human-mediated dispersal of aquatic invertebrates with waterproof footwear.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valls, Luis; Castillo-Escrivà, Andreu; Mesquita-Joanes, Francesc; Armengol, Xavier

    2016-02-01

    Human-mediated dispersal has rarely been considered in wetland conservation strategies at regional scales, yet high concern exists about this aspect for (inter-)national management considering invasive species in other aquatic systems. In this context, we aim at understanding the role of human-mediated dispersal by footwear in protected wetlands with high conservation value. Zooplankton and zoobenthos were sampled in 13 shallow lakes in central Spain and, at the same time, mud attached to waders was collected and later cultured in deionized water under laboratory conditions for 4 weeks. Two-hundred and four individuals belonging to 19 invertebrate taxa were recovered after hatching; Ostracoda (84 %), Cladocera (53 %), Copepoda (30 %), Anostraca (30 %), and Notostraca (7 %) were the most frequent groups among the hatched crustaceans. NMDS and PERMANOVA analyses showed significant differences between the dispersed (via footwear) and the source active metacommunity, suggesting different dispersal abilities among the species found. Human vectors facilitate dispersal among protected lakes, which could eventuality lead to biotic homogenization and faster spread of non-indigenous species. Preservation strategies and education campaigns associated to target humans in close contact with water bodies should be imperative in conservation management of protected lakes.

  8. Experimental studies on californium bioavailability to marine benthic invertebrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fowler, S.W.; Carvalho, F.P.; Aston, S.R.

    1986-01-01

    252 Cf is readily taken up by benthic invertebrates from sea water, reaching whole-body concentration factors of 763 in the polychaete Hermione hystrix, 220 in the shrimp Lysmata seticaudata, 665 in the crab Pilumnus hirtellus and 78 in the bivalve mollusc Venerupis decussata after 3 weeks exposure. Surface sorption plays a predominant role in the uptake process. Depuration in clean sea water was a relatively slow process. The shrimp Lysmata eliminated 252 Cf very rapidly due to moulting. Absorption coefficients for ingested 252 Cf were high, approx. 23% in crabs and approx. 97% in brittlestars. The absorbed fraction was excreted twice as fast from crabs as brittlestars. Exposure of organisms to labelled sediment resulted in low transfer factors that were species dependent. There is some evidence to suggest that uptake from sediments is primarily due to 252 Cf transfer from the pore water. Comparison of these results with published experimental data on other transuranic nuclides in the same or similar species suggests that californium bioavailability is roughly equivalent to that of plutonium and americium. (author)

  9. Trophic structure and feeding rates of forest soil invertebrate populations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McBrayer, J F; Reichle, D E

    1971-01-01

    Trophic level relationships of a soil invertebrate community were determined using the transient behavior of cesium-137 in experimental soil microcosms. Feeding rates were estimated from radionuclide mass balance equations using radiocesium uptake coefficients, equilibrium concentrations of /sup 137/Cs in consumers, and /sup 137/Cs composition of food bases. The fungivore trophic level included Scatopsidae larvae (Diptera), Enchytraeida (Annelida), Entomobryidae and Onychiuridae (Collembola), Rhodacaridae (Mesostigmata), and Oribatulidae, Camasiidae, Carabodidae, and Cymbaeremaeidae (Oribatei). Approximately 60% of the total faunal biomass occurred in the fungivore trophic level. Fungivores averaged 7.0 +/- 2.4% dry body weight ingested per day. Cecidomyiidae larvae (Diptera), Diplopoda, Isotomidae (Collembola), Uropodina, and Phthiracaridae (Oribatei) were determined to be surface-feeding saprophages. Subsurface-feeding saprophages included Symphyla, Cillibidae (Uropidina), and Palaeacaridae and Epilohmannidae (Oribatei). Surface-feeding saprophages averaged 1.0 +/- 0.4% dry body weight ingested per day. Feeding rates were not calculated for saprophages feeding within the mineral soil horizon. Predators included Dolichopodidae larvae (Diptera), gamasine mites, and the Scutacaridae and other prostigmatid mites. Predators averaged 2.5 +/- 1.0% dry body weight ingested per day. 15 references, 3 figures, 3 tables.

  10. Quo Vadis Venomics? A Roadmap to Neglected Venomous Invertebrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Reumont, Bjoern Marcus; Campbell, Lahcen I.; Jenner, Ronald A.

    2014-01-01

    Venomics research is being revolutionized by the increased use of sensitive -omics techniques to identify venom toxins and their transcripts in both well studied and neglected venomous taxa. The study of neglected venomous taxa is necessary both for understanding the full diversity of venom systems that have evolved in the animal kingdom, and to robustly answer fundamental questions about the biology and evolution of venoms without the distorting effect that can result from the current bias introduced by some heavily studied taxa. In this review we draw the outlines of a roadmap into the diversity of poorly studied and understood venomous and putatively venomous invertebrates, which together represent tens of thousands of unique venoms. The main groups we discuss are crustaceans, flies, centipedes, non-spider and non-scorpion arachnids, annelids, molluscs, platyhelminths, nemerteans, and echinoderms. We review what is known about the morphology of the venom systems in these groups, the composition of their venoms, and the bioactivities of the venoms to provide researchers with an entry into a large and scattered literature. We conclude with a short discussion of some important methodological aspects that have come to light with the recent use of new -omics techniques in the study of venoms. PMID:25533518

  11. Bagworm bags as portable armour against invertebrate predators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shinji Sugiura

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Some animals have evolved the use of environmental materials as “portable armour” against natural enemies. Portable bags that bagworm larvae (Lepidoptera: Psychidae construct using their own silk and plant parts are generally believed to play an important role as a physical barrier against natural enemies. However, no experimental studies have tested the importance of bags as portable armour against predators. To clarify the defensive function, I studied the bagworm Eumeta minuscula and a potential predator Calosoma maximoviczi (Coleoptera: Carabidae. Under laboratory conditions, all bagworm larvae were attacked by carabid adults, but successfully defended themselves against the predators’ mandibles using their own bags. The portable bags, which are composed mainly of host plant twigs, may function as a physical barrier against predator mandibles. To test this hypothesis, I removed the twig bags and replaced some with herb leaf bags; all bag-removed larvae were easily caught and predated by carabids, while all bag-replaced larvae could successfully defend themselves against carabid attacks. Therefore, various types of portable bags can protect bagworm larvae from carabid attacks. This is the first study to test the defensive function of bagworm portable bags against invertebrate predators.

  12. Phototoxicity of petroleum products to marine invertebrate larvae and niles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pelletier, M.C.; Burgess, R.; Ho, K.; Kuhn, A.; McKinney, R.; Ryba, S.

    1995-01-01

    Ultraviolet light can activate certain polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), inducing the production of free radicals. In biological organisms these free radicals destroy tissues, causing up to a 4,000 fold increase in toxicity. This dramatic response is a potential marker for PAH contamination in environmental samples. Ultraviolet enhancement of toxicity has ecological relevance as well. An oil spill can release large amounts of PAHs into the marine environment. Oil spill assessments to date have not included observations of any phototoxic effect on pelagic larvae or juveniles of benthic or epibenthic invertebrates. In this study, larvae and juveniles of the bivalve, Mulinia lateralis and juveniles of the mysid shrimp, Mysidopsis bahia were exposed to individual PAHs, as well as the water accommodated fractions of several petroleum products to verify the ability of this method to detect PAHs in environmental samples, and to determine if phototoxicity is a concern during and after an oil spill. Significant phototoxicity was seen in both single chemical and petroleum product exposures. Swartz's EPAH model was not applicable to the authors' results. They hoped to show causality but were not fully successful due to the need to further develop the model with their species and expand the number of PAH analyzed

  13. Pesticides from wastewater treatment plant effluents affect invertebrate communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Münze, Ronald; Hannemann, Christin; Orlinskiy, Polina; Gunold, Roman; Paschke, Albrecht; Foit, Kaarina; Becker, Jeremias; Kaske, Oliver; Paulsson, Elin; Peterson, Märit; Jernstedt, Henrik; Kreuger, Jenny; Schüürmann, Gerrit; Liess, Matthias

    2017-12-01

    We quantified pesticide contamination and its ecological impact up- and downstream of seven wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) in rural and suburban areas of central Germany. During two sampling campaigns, time-weighted average pesticide concentrations (c TWA ) were obtained using Chemcatcher® passive samplers; pesticide peak concentrations were quantified with event-driven samplers. At downstream sites, receiving waters were additionally grab sampled for five selected pharmaceuticals. Ecological effects on macroinvertebrate structure and ecosystem function were assessed using the biological indicator system SPEAR pesticides (SPEcies At Risk) and leaf litter breakdown rates, respectively. WWTP effluents substantially increased insecticide and fungicide concentrations in receiving waters; in many cases, treated wastewater was the exclusive source for the neonicotinoid insecticides acetamiprid and imidacloprid in the investigated streams. During the ten weeks of the investigation, five out of the seven WWTPs increased in-stream pesticide toxicity by a factor of three. As a consequence, at downstream sites, SPEAR values and leaf litter degradation rates were reduced by 40% and 53%, respectively. The reduced leaf litter breakdown was related to changes in the macroinvertebrate communities described by SPEAR pesticides and not to altered microbial activity. Neonicotinoids showed the highest ecological relevance for the composition of invertebrate communities, occasionally exceeding the Regulatory Acceptable Concentrations (RACs). In general, considerable ecological effects of insecticides were observed above and below regulatory thresholds. Fungicides, herbicides and pharmaceuticals contributed only marginally to acute toxicity. We conclude that pesticide retention of WWTPs needs to be improved. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Bioavailability of contaminants estimated from uptake rates into soil invertebrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Straalen, N.M. van; Donker, M.H.; Vijver, M.G.; Gestel, C.A.M. van

    2005-01-01

    It is often argued that the concentration of a pollutant inside an organism is a good indicator of its bioavailability, however, we show that the rate of uptake, not the concentration itself, is the superior predictor. In a study on zinc accumulation and toxicity to isopods (Porcellio scaber) the dietary EC 50 for the effect on body growth was rather constant and reproducible, while the internal EC 50 varied depending on the accumulation history of the animals. From the data a critical value for zinc accumulation in P. scaber was estimated as 53 μg/g/wk. We review toxicokinetic models applicable to time-series measurements of concentrations in invertebrates. The initial slope of the uptake curve is proposed as an indicator of bioavailability. To apply the dynamic concept of bioavailability in risk assessment, a set of representative organisms should be chosen and standardized protocols developed for exposure assays by which suspect soils can be evaluated. - Sublethal toxicity of zinc to isopods suggests that bioavailability of soil contaminants is best measured by uptake rates, not by body burdens

  15. Bagworm bags as portable armour against invertebrate predators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugiura, Shinji

    2016-01-01

    Some animals have evolved the use of environmental materials as "portable armour" against natural enemies. Portable bags that bagworm larvae (Lepidoptera: Psychidae) construct using their own silk and plant parts are generally believed to play an important role as a physical barrier against natural enemies. However, no experimental studies have tested the importance of bags as portable armour against predators. To clarify the defensive function, I studied the bagworm Eumeta minuscula and a potential predator Calosoma maximoviczi (Coleoptera: Carabidae). Under laboratory conditions, all bagworm larvae were attacked by carabid adults, but successfully defended themselves against the predators' mandibles using their own bags. The portable bags, which are composed mainly of host plant twigs, may function as a physical barrier against predator mandibles. To test this hypothesis, I removed the twig bags and replaced some with herb leaf bags; all bag-removed larvae were easily caught and predated by carabids, while all bag-replaced larvae could successfully defend themselves against carabid attacks. Therefore, various types of portable bags can protect bagworm larvae from carabid attacks. This is the first study to test the defensive function of bagworm portable bags against invertebrate predators.

  16. Quo Vadis Venomics? A Roadmap to Neglected Venomous Invertebrates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bjoern Marcus von Reumont

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Venomics research is being revolutionized by the increased use of sensitive -omics techniques to identify venom toxins and their transcripts in both well studied and neglected venomous taxa. The study of neglected venomous taxa is necessary both for understanding the full diversity of venom systems that have evolved in the animal kingdom, and to robustly answer fundamental questions about the biology and evolution of venoms without the distorting effect that can result from the current bias introduced by some heavily studied taxa. In this review we draw the outlines of a roadmap into the diversity of poorly studied and understood venomous and putatively venomous invertebrates, which together represent tens of thousands of unique venoms. The main groups we discuss are crustaceans, flies, centipedes, non-spider and non-scorpion arachnids, annelids, molluscs, platyhelminths, nemerteans, and echinoderms. We review what is known about the morphology of the venom systems in these groups, the composition of their venoms, and the bioactivities of the venoms to provide researchers with an entry into a large and scattered literature. We conclude with a short discussion of some important methodological aspects that have come to light with the recent use of new -omics techniques in the study of venoms.

  17. The buzz on caffeine in invertebrates: effects on behavior and molecular mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mustard, Julie A

    2014-04-01

    A number of recent studies from as diverse fields as plant-pollinator interactions, analyses of caffeine as an environmental pollutant, and the ability of caffeine to provide protection against neurodegenerative diseases have generated interest in understanding the actions of caffeine in invertebrates. This review summarizes what is currently known about the effects of caffeine on behavior and its molecular mechanisms in invertebrates. Caffeine appears to have similar effects on locomotion and sleep in both invertebrates and mammals. Furthermore, as in mammals, caffeine appears to have complex effects on learning and memory. However, the underlying mechanisms for these effects may differ between invertebrates and vertebrates. While caffeine's ability to cause release of intracellular calcium stores via ryanodine receptors and its actions as a phosphodiesterase inhibitor have been clearly established in invertebrates, its ability to interact with invertebrate adenosine receptors remains an important open question. Initial studies in insects and mollusks suggest an interaction between caffeine and the dopamine signaling pathway; more work needs to be done to understand the mechanisms by which caffeine influences signaling via biogenic amines. As of yet, little is known about whether other actions of caffeine in vertebrates, such as its effects on GABAA and glycine receptors, are conserved. Furthermore, the pharmacokinetics of caffeine remains to be elucidated. Overall behavioral responses to caffeine appear to be conserved amongst organisms; however, we are just beginning to understand the mechanisms underlying its effects across animal phyla.

  18. Macrophytes, epipelic biofilm, and invertebrates as biotic indicators of physical habitat degradation of lowland streams (Argentina).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortelezzi, Agustina; Sierra, María Victoria; Gómez, Nora; Marinelli, Claudia; Rodrigues Capítulo, Alberto

    2013-07-01

    Our objective was to assess the effect of the physical habitat degradation in three lowland streams of Argentina that are subject to different land uses. To address this matter, we looked into some physical habitat alterations, mainly the water quality and channel changes, the impact on macrophytes' community, and the structural and functional descriptors of the epipelic biofilm and invertebrate assemblages. As a consequence of physical and chemical perturbations, we differentiated sampling sites with different degradation levels. The low degraded sites were affected mainly for the suburban land use, the moderately degraded sites for the rural land use, and the highly degraded sites for the urban land use. The data shows that the biotic descriptors that best reflected the environmental degradation were vegetation cover and macrophytes richness, the dominance of tolerant species (epipelic biofilm and invertebrates), algal biomass, O2 consumption by the epipelic biofilm, and invertebrates' richness and diversity. Furthermore, the results obtained highlight the importance of the macrophytes in the lowland streams, where there is a poor diversification of abiotic substrates and where the macrophytes not only provide shelter but also a food source for invertebrates and other trophic levels such as fish. We also noted that both in benthic communities, invertebrates and epipelic biofilm supplied different information: the habitat's physical structure provided by the macrophytes influenced mainly the invertebrate descriptors; meanwhile, the water quality mainly influenced most of the epipelic biofilm descriptors.

  19. Medicinal benefits of marine invertebrates: sources for discovering natural drug candidates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Zoysa, Mahanama

    2012-01-01

    Marine invertebrates are one of the major groups of organisms, which could be diversified under the major taxonomic groups of Porifera, Cnidaria, Mollusca, Arthropoda, Echinodermata, and many other minor phyla. To date, range of medicinal benefits and a significant number of marine natural products (MNPs) have been discovered from marine invertebrates. Seafood diet from edible marine invertebrates such as mollusks and crustaceans has been linked with various medicinal benefits to improve human health. Among marine invertebrates, spongers from phylum Porifera is the most dominant group responsible for discovering large number of MNPs, which have been used as template to develop therapeutic drugs. MNPs isolated from invertebrates have shown wide range of therapeutic properties including antimicrobial, antioxidant, antihypertensive, anticoagulant, anticancer, anti-inflammatory, wound healing and immune modulator, and other medicinal effects. Therefore, marine invertebrates are rich sources of chemical diversity and health benefits for developing drug candidates, cosmetics, nutritional supplements, and molecular probes that can be supported to increase the healthy life span of human. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Uptake, metabolism and sub-lethal effects of BDE-47 in two estuarine invertebrates with different trophic positions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Díaz-Jaramillo, M.; Miglioranza, K.S.B.; Gonzalez, M.; Barón, E.; Monserrat, J.M.; Eljarrat, E.; Barceló, D.

    2016-01-01

    Two microcosm types -sediment-biota and biota-biota- were constructed to simulate different pathways of BDE-47 uptake, metabolism and oxidative stress effects in two key estuarine invertebrates (polychaete Laeonereis acuta and crab Cyrtograpsus angulatus). In the sediment-biota experiment, both species were exposed to spiked sediments; an environmentally reported and a high concentration of BDE-47 for 2 weeks. In the biota-biota experiment, crabs were fed with polychaetes pre-exposed to BDE-47 in the sediment-biota experiment. The sediment-biota experiment first revealed that polychaetes significantly accumulated BDE-47 (biota-sediment accumulation factor >2; p < 0.05) to a much greater extent than the crab organs (muscle, hepatopancreas, gills) at both sediment concentrations. For oxidative stress responses, polychaete and crab tissues exposed to spiked sediment showed a significant increase (p < 0.05) of only glutathione S-transferase (GST) activity with respect to controls in both BDE-47 concentrations. No lipid peroxidation (TBARS) or total antioxidant capacity (ACAP) changes were evident in the species or organs exposed to either BDE-47 sediment concentration. The biota-biota experiment showed that feeding crabs with pre-exposed polychaetes caused BDE-47 accumulation in organs as well as significant amounts of BDE-47 eliminated through feces (p < 0.05). Unlike the sediment-biota exposure, crabs fed with pre-exposed BDE-47 polychaetes showed the most conspicuous oxidative stress responses. Significant changes in GST and ACAP in both hepatopancreas and gills, in addition to enhanced TBARS levels in the hepatopancreas with respect to controls (p < 0.05), revealed that BDE-47 assimilated by invertebrates represents a potential source of toxicity to their predators. No methoxylated metabolites (MeO-PBDEs) were detected during BDE-47 metabolism in the invertebrates in either of the two different exposure types. In contrast, hydroxylated metabolites (OH

  1. Accumulation of Methylmercury in Invertebrates and Masked Shrews (Sorex cinereus) at an Upland Forest-Peatland Interface in Northern Minnesota, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavshunsky, Ilana; Eggert, Susan L; Mitchell, Carl P J

    2017-12-01

    Mercury (Hg) methylation is often elevated at the terrestrial-peatland interface, but methylmercury (MeHg) production at this "hot spot" has not been linked with in situ biotic accumulation. We examined total Hg and MeHg levels in peat, invertebrates and tissues of the insectivore Sorex cinereus (masked shrew), inhabiting a terrestrial-peatland ecotone in northern Minnesota, USA. Mean MeHg concentrations in S. cinereus (71 ng g -1 ) fell between concentrations measured in spiders (mean 70-140 ng g -1 ), and ground beetles and millipedes (mean 29-42 ng g -1 ). Methylmercury concentrations in S. cinereus increased with age and differed among tissues, with highest concentrations in kidneys and muscle, followed by liver and brain. Nearly all Hg in S. cinereus was in the methylated form. Overall, the high proportional accumulation of MeHg in peat at the site (3.5% total Hg as MeHg) did not lead to particularly elevated concentrations in invertebrates or shrews, which are below values considered a toxicological risk.

  2. Healthy Muscles Matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... or lying down, and faster when you’re running or playing sports and your skeletal muscles need more blood to help them do their work. What can go wrong? Injuries Almost everyone has had sore muscles after exercising ...

  3. Predictive models of benthic invertebrate methylmercury in Ontario and Quebec lakes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rennie, M.D.; Collins, N.C.; Purchase, C.F. [Toronto Univ., ON (Canada). Dept. of Biology; Tremblay, A. [Hydro-Quebec, Montreal, PQ (Canada)

    2005-12-01

    In both North America and Europe, high levels of mercury have been reported in lakes that do not receive obvious point-source mercury inputs. Concern over high contaminant levels in waterfowl and fish have prompted several government-issued advisories on safe levels of fish and wildlife intake for humans. Although the primary source of mercury in pristine lakes is directly through atmospheric deposition or indirectly via terrestrial runoff, there can be large variations in mercury concentrations in organisms in neighbouring lakes. Therefore, factors other than atmospheric deposition must influence bioavailability and accumulation of mercury in aquatic organisms. For that reason, multivariate analyses on benthic invertebrate methylmercury concentrations and water chemistry from 12 Quebec water bodies were used to construct simple, predictive models of benthic invertebrate methylmercury in 23 lakes in Ontario and Quebec. The study showed that the primary means of mercury accumulation for organisms in higher trophic positions is dietary through the assimilation of organic forms of mercury, principally methylmercury. The data from 12 Quebec water bodies, revealed that benthic invertebrates in reservoirs have higher methylmercury than those in natural lakes, and methylmercury is generally higher in predatory invertebrates. Reservoir age was found to correlate with fish, benthic invertebrate methylmercury, and also with lake chemistry parameters such as pH and dissolved organic carbon (DOC). The objective of the study was to determine the appropriate level of taxonomic or functional resolution for generating benthic invertebrate methylmercury models, and to identify which environmental variables correlate most with benthic invertebrate methylmercury. Empirical models using these correlations were constructed and their predicted efficiency was tested by cross-validation. In addition, the effect of exposure to fish digestive enzymes on invertebrate methylmercury was

  4. Oxidative metabolism in muscle.

    OpenAIRE

    Ferrari, M; Binzoni, T; Quaresima, V

    1997-01-01

    Oxidative metabolism is the dominant source of energy for skeletal muscle. Near-infrared spectroscopy allows the non-invasive measurement of local oxygenation, blood flow and oxygen consumption. Although several muscle studies have been made using various near-infrared optical techniques, it is still difficult to interpret the local muscle metabolism properly. The main findings of near-infrared spectroscopy muscle studies in human physiology and clinical medicine are summarized. The advantage...

  5. The Effects of Exurbanization on Bird and Macro invertebrate Communities in Deciduous Forests on the Cumberland Plateau, Tennessee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Casey, J.M.; Wilson, M.E.; Haskell, D.G.; Hollingshead, N.

    2009-01-01

    To investigate the potential causes of changes to bird communities in exurban areas, we examined the relationship between bird and macro invertebrate communities in exurbanized forest. We randomly located sampling points across a gradient of exurbanization. We used point counts to quantify bird communities and sweep netting, soil cores, pitfalls, and frass collectors to quantify macro invertebrates. Bird communities had higher richness and abundance in exurban areas compared to undeveloped forests, and lost some species of conservation concern but gained others. The macro invertebrate community was slightly more abundant in exurban areas, with a slight shift in taxonomic composition. The abundance of macro invertebrates in soil cores (but not pitfalls) predicted the abundance of ground-foraging birds. The abundance of macro invertebrates in sweep nets was not associated with the abundance of aerial insectivore birds. Exurbanization therefore appears to change bird and macro invertebrate communities, but to a lesser extent than agricultural forest fragmentation or intensive urbanization.

  6. Soil invertebrate fauna affect N2 O emissions from soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuiper, Imke; de Deyn, Gerlinde B; Thakur, Madhav P; van Groenigen, Jan Willem

    2013-09-01

    Nitrous oxide (N2 O) emissions from soils contribute significantly to global warming. Mitigation of N2 O emissions is severely hampered by a lack of understanding of its main controls. Fluxes can only partly be predicted from soil abiotic factors and microbial analyses - a possible role for soil fauna has until now largely been overlooked. We studied the effect of six groups of soil invertebrate fauna and tested the hypothesis that all of them increase N2 O emissions, although to different extents. We conducted three microcosm experiments with sandy soil and hay residue. Faunal groups included in our experiments were as follows: fungal-feeding nematodes, mites, springtails, potworms, earthworms and isopods. In experiment I, involving all six faunal groups, N2 O emissions declined with earthworms and potworms from 78.4 (control) to 37.0 (earthworms) or 53.5 (potworms) mg N2 O-N m(-2) . In experiment II, with a higher soil-to-hay ratio and mites, springtails and potworms as faunal treatments, N2 O emissions increased with potworms from 51.9 (control) to 123.5 mg N2 O-N m(-2) . Experiment III studied the effect of potworm density; we found that higher densities of potworms accelerated the peak of the N2 O emissions by 5 days (P soil aeration by the soil fauna reduced N2 O emissions in experiment I, whereas in experiment II N2 O emissions were driven by increased nitrogen and carbon availability. In experiment III, higher densities of potworms accelerated nitrogen and carbon availability and N2 O emissions, but did not increase them. Overall, our data show that soil fauna can suppress, increase, delay or accelerate N2 O emissions from soil and should therefore be an integral part of future N2 O studies. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Involvement of microbial mats in early fossilization by decay delay and formation of impressions and replicas of vertebrates and invertebrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iniesto, Miguel; Buscalioni, Ángela D.; Carmen Guerrero, M.; Benzerara, Karim; Moreira, David; López-Archilla, Ana I.

    2016-05-01

    Microbial mats have been hypothesized to improve the persistence and the preservation of organic remains during fossilization processes. We test this hypothesis with long-term experiments (up to 5.5 years) using invertebrate and vertebrate corpses. Once placed on mats, the microbial community coats the corpses and forms a three-dimensional sarcophagus composed of microbial cells and exopolymeric substances (EPS). This coverage provides a template for i) moulding superficial features, resulting in negative impressions, and ii) generating replicas. The impressions of fly setulae, fish scales and frog skin verrucae are shaped mainly by small cells in an EPS matrix. Microbes also replicate delicate structures such as the three successive layers that compose a fish eye. The sarcophagus protects the body integrity, allowing the persistence of inner organs such as the ovaries and digestive apparatus in flies, the swim bladder and muscles in fish, and the bone marrow in frog legs. This study brings strong experimental evidence to the idea that mats favour metazoan fossilization by moulding, replicating and delaying decay. Rapid burial has classically been invoked as a mechanism to explain exceptional preservation. However, mats may play a similar role during early fossilization as they can preserve complex features for a long time.

  8. Coordinated development of muscles and tendon-like structures: early interactions in the Drosophila leg

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    cedric esoler

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The formation of the musculoskeletal system is a remarkable example of tissue assembly. In both vertebrates and invertebrates, precise connectivity between muscles and skeleton (or exoskeleton via tendons or equivalent structures is fundamental for movement and stability of the body. The molecular and cellular processes underpinning muscle formation are well established and significant advances have been made in understanding tendon development. However, the mechanisms contributing to proper connection between these two tissues have received less attention. Observations of coordinated development of tendons and muscles suggest these tissues may interact during the different steps in their development. There is growing evidence that, depending on animal model and muscle type, these interactions can take place from progenitor induction to the final step of the formation of the musculoskeletal system. Here we briefly review and compare the mechanisms behind muscle and tendon interaction throughout the development of vertebrates and Drosophila before going on to discuss our recent findings on the coordinated development of muscles and tendon-like structures in Drosophila leg. By altering apodeme formation (the functional Drosophila equivalent of tendons in vertebrates during the early steps of leg development, we affect the spatial localisation of subsequent myoblasts. These findings provide the first evidence of the developmental impact of early interactions between muscle and tendon-like precursors, and confirm the appendicular Drosophila muscle system as a valuable model for studying these processes.

  9. Field trials to evaluate effects of continuously planted transgenic insect-resistant cottons on soil invertebrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiaogang; Liu, Biao; Wang, Xingxiang; Han, Zhengmin; Cui, Jinjie; Luo, Junyu

    2012-03-01

    Impacts on soil invertebrates are an important aspect of environmental risk assessment and post-release monitoring of transgenic insect-resistant plants. The purpose of this study was to research and survey the effects of transgenic insect-resistant cottons that had been planted over 10 years on the abundance and community structure of soil invertebrates under field conditions. During 3 consecutive years (2006-2008), eight common taxa (orders) of soil invertebrates belonging to the phylum Arthropoda were investigated in two different transgenic cotton fields and one non-transgenic cotton field (control). Each year, soil samples were taken at four different growth stages of cotton (seedling, budding, boll forming and boll opening). Animals were extracted from the samples using the improved Tullgren method, counted and determined to the order level. The diversity of the soil fauna communities in the different fields was compared using the Simpson's, Shannon's diversity indices and evenness index. The results showed a significant sampling time variation in the abundance of soil invertebrates monitored in the different fields. However, no difference in soil invertebrate abundance was found between the transgenic cotton fields and the control field. Both sampling time and cotton treatment had a significant effect on the Simpson's, Shannon's diversity indices and evenness index. They were higher in the transgenic fields than the control field at the growth stages of cotton. Long-term cultivation of transgenic insect-resistant cottons had no significant effect on the abundance of soil invertebrates. Collembola, Acarina and Araneae could act as the indicators of soil invertebrate in this region to monitor the environmental impacts of transgenic plants in the future. This journal is © The Royal Society of Chemistry 2012

  10. Studying emotion in invertebrates: what has been done, what can be measured and what they can provide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, Clint J; Baciadonna, Luigi

    2017-11-01

    Until recently, whether invertebrates might exhibit emotions was unknown. This possibility has traditionally been dismissed by many as emotions are frequently defined with reference to human subjective experience, and invertebrates are often not considered to have the neural requirements for such sophisticated abilities. However, emotions are understood in humans and other vertebrates to be multifaceted brain states, comprising dissociable subjective, cognitive, behavioural and physiological components. In addition, accumulating literature is providing evidence of the impressive cognitive capacities and behavioural flexibility of invertebrates. Alongside these, within the past few years, a number of studies have adapted methods for assessing emotions in humans and other animals, to invertebrates, with intriguing results. Sea slugs, bees, crayfish, snails, crabs, flies and ants have all been shown to display various cognitive, behavioural and/or physiological phenomena that indicate internal states reminiscent of what we consider to be emotions. Given the limited neural architecture of many invertebrates, and the powerful tools available within invertebrate research, these results provide new opportunities for unveiling the neural mechanisms behind emotions and open new avenues towards the pharmacological manipulation of emotion and its genetic dissection, with advantages for disease research and therapeutic drug discovery. Here, we review the increasing evidence that invertebrates display some form of emotion, discuss the various methods used for assessing emotions in invertebrates and consider what can be garnered from further emotion research on invertebrates in terms of the evolution and underlying neural basis of emotion in a comparative context. © 2017. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  11. Thin film processes II

    CERN Document Server

    Kern, Werner

    1991-01-01

    This sequel to the 1978 classic, Thin Film Processes, gives a clear, practical exposition of important thin film deposition and etching processes that have not yet been adequately reviewed. It discusses selected processes in tutorial overviews with implementation guide lines and an introduction to the literature. Though edited to stand alone, when taken together, Thin Film Processes II and its predecessor present a thorough grounding in modern thin film techniques.Key Features* Provides an all-new sequel to the 1978 classic, Thin Film Processes* Introduces new topics, and sever

  12. Pyrolyzed thin film carbon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tai, Yu-Chong (Inventor); Liger, Matthieu (Inventor); Harder, Theodore (Inventor); Konishi, Satoshi (Inventor); Miserendino, Scott (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    A method of making carbon thin films comprises depositing a catalyst on a substrate, depositing a hydrocarbon in contact with the catalyst and pyrolyzing the hydrocarbon. A method of controlling a carbon thin film density comprises etching a cavity into a substrate, depositing a hydrocarbon into the cavity, and pyrolyzing the hydrocarbon while in the cavity to form a carbon thin film. Controlling a carbon thin film density is achieved by changing the volume of the cavity. Methods of making carbon containing patterned structures are also provided. Carbon thin films and carbon containing patterned structures can be used in NEMS, MEMS, liquid chromatography, and sensor devices.

  13. Identification of telocytes in skeletal muscle interstitium: implication for muscle regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popescu, L M; Manole, Emilia; Serboiu, Crenguţa S; Manole, C G; Suciu, Laura C; Gherghiceanu, Mihaela; Popescu, B O

    2011-06-01

    Skeletal muscle interstitium is crucial for regulation of blood flow, passage of substances from capillaries to myocytes and muscle regeneration. We show here, probably, for the first time, the presence of telocytes (TCs), a peculiar type of interstitial (stromal) cells, in rat, mouse and human skeletal muscle. TC features include (as already described in other tissues) a small cell body and very long and thin cell prolongations-telopodes (Tps) with moniliform appearance, dichotomous branching and 3D-network distribution. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) revealed close vicinity of Tps with nerve endings, capillaries, satellite cells and myocytes, suggesting a TC role in intercellular signalling (via shed vesicles or exosomes). In situ immunolabelling showed that skeletal muscle TCs express c-kit, caveolin-1 and secrete VEGF. The same phenotypic profile was demonstrated in cell cultures. These markers and TEM data differentiate TCs from both satellite cells (e.g. TCs are Pax7 negative) and fibroblasts (which are c-kit negative). We also described non-satellite (resident) progenitor cell niche. In culture, TCs (but not satellite cells) emerge from muscle explants and form networks suggesting a key role in muscle regeneration and repair, at least after trauma. © 2011 The Authors Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine © 2011 Foundation for Cellular and Molecular Medicine/Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  14. The importance of invertebrates when considering the impacts of anthropogenic noise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morley, Erica L; Jones, Gareth; Radford, Andrew N

    2014-02-07

    Anthropogenic noise is now recognized as a major global pollutant. Rapidly burgeoning research has identified impacts on individual behaviour and physiology through to community disruption. To date, however, there has been an almost exclusive focus on vertebrates. Not only does their central role in food webs and in fulfilling ecosystem services make imperative our understanding of how invertebrates are impacted by all aspects of environmental change, but also many of their inherent characteristics provide opportunities to overcome common issues with the current anthropogenic noise literature. Here, we begin by explaining why invertebrates are likely to be affected by anthropogenic noise, briefly reviewing their capacity for hearing and providing evidence that they are capable of evolutionary adaptation and behavioural plasticity in response to natural noise sources. We then discuss the importance of quantifying accurately and fully both auditory ability and noise content, emphasizing considerations of direct relevance to how invertebrates detect sounds. We showcase how studying invertebrates can help with the behavioural bias in the literature, the difficulties in drawing strong, ecologically valid conclusions and the need for studies on fitness impacts. Finally, we suggest avenues of future research using invertebrates that would advance our understanding of the impact of anthropogenic noise.

  15. Spatial and temporal variations of mercury levels in Okefenokee invertebrates: Southeast Georgia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    George, Bagie M.; Batzer, Darold

    2008-01-01

    Accumulation of mercury in wetland ecosystems has raised concerns about impacts on wetland food webs. This study measured concentrations of mercury in invertebrates of the Okefenokee Swamp in Georgia, focusing on levels in amphipods, odonates, and crayfish. We collected and analyzed total mercury levels in these invertebrates from 32 sampling stations across commonly occurring sub-habitats. Sampling was conducted in December, May, and August over a two-year period. The highest levels of mercury were detected in amphipods, with total mercury levels often in excess of 20 ppm. Bioaccumulation pathways of mercury in invertebrates of the Okefenokee are probably complex; despite being larger and higher in the food chain, levels in odonates and crayfish were much lower than in amphipods. Mercury levels in invertebrates varied temporally with the highest levels detected in May. There was a lack of spatial variation in mercury levels which is consistent with aerial deposition of mercury. - This study measured mercury levels in invertebrates and found the highest levels in amphipods

  16. Enzyme-Assisted Discovery of Antioxidant Peptides from Edible Marine Invertebrates: A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chai, Tsun-Thai; Law, Yew-Chye; Wong, Fai-Chu; Kim, Se-Kwon

    2017-02-16

    Marine invertebrates, such as oysters, mussels, clams, scallop, jellyfishes, squids, prawns, sea cucumbers and sea squirts, are consumed as foods. These edible marine invertebrates are sources of potent bioactive peptides. The last two decades have seen a surge of interest in the discovery of antioxidant peptides from edible marine invertebrates. Enzymatic hydrolysis is an efficient strategy commonly used for releasing antioxidant peptides from food proteins. A growing number of antioxidant peptide sequences have been identified from the enzymatic hydrolysates of edible marine invertebrates. Antioxidant peptides have potential applications in food, pharmaceuticals and cosmetics. In this review, we first give a brief overview of the current state of progress of antioxidant peptide research, with special attention to marine antioxidant peptides. We then focus on 22 investigations which identified 32 antioxidant peptides from enzymatic hydrolysates of edible marine invertebrates. Strategies adopted by various research groups in the purification and identification of the antioxidant peptides will be summarized. Structural characteristic of the peptide sequences in relation to their antioxidant activities will be reviewed. Potential applications of the peptide sequences and future research prospects will also be discussed.

  17. The Primary Role of Fibrinogen-Related Proteins in Invertebrates Is Defense, Not Coagulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanington, Patrick C.; Zhang, Si-Ming

    2010-01-01

    In vertebrates, the conversion of fibrinogen into fibrin is an essential process that underlies the establishment of the supporting protein framework required for coagulation. In invertebrates, fibrinogen-domain-containing proteins play a role in the defense response generated against pathogens; however, they do not function in coagulation, suggesting that this role has been recently acquired. Molecules containing fibrinogen motifs have been identified in numerous invertebrate organisms, and most of these molecules known to date have been linked to defense. Moreover, recent genome projects of invertebrate animals have revealed surprisingly high numbers of fibrinogen-like loci in their genomes, suggesting important and perhaps diverse functions of fibrinogen-like proteins in invertebrates. The ancestral role of molecules containing fibrinogen-related domains (FReDs) with immunity is the focus of this review, with emphasis on specific FReDs called fibrinogen-related proteins (FREPs) identified from the schistosome-transmitting mollusc Biomphalaria glabrata. Herein, we outline the range of invertebrate organisms FREPs can be found in, and detail the roles these molecules play in defense and protection against infection. PMID:21063081

  18. The Early Shorebird Will Catch Fewer Invertebrates on Trampled Sandy Beaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlacher, Thomas A; Carracher, Lucy K; Porch, Nicholas; Connolly, Rod M; Olds, Andrew D; Gilby, Ben L; Ekanayake, Kasun B; Maslo, Brooke; Weston, Michael A

    2016-01-01

    Many species of birds breeding on ocean beaches and in coastal dunes are of global conservation concern. Most of these species rely on invertebrates (e.g. insects, small crustaceans) as an irreplaceable food source, foraging primarily around the strandline on the upper beach near the dunes. Sandy beaches are also prime sites for human recreation, which impacts these food resources via negative trampling effects. We quantified acute trampling impacts on assemblages of upper shore invertebrates in a controlled experiment over a range of foot traffic intensities (up to 56 steps per square metre) on a temperate beach in Victoria, Australia. Trampling significantly altered assemblage structure (species composition and density) and was correlated with significant declines in invertebrate abundance and species richness. Trampling effects were strongest for rare species. In heavily trafficked plots the abundance of sand hoppers (Amphipoda), a principal prey item of threatened Hooded Plovers breeding on this beach, was halved. In contrast to the consistently strong effects of trampling, natural habitat attributes (e.g. sediment grain size, compactness) were much less influential predictors. If acute suppression of invertebrates caused by trampling, as demonstrated here, is more widespread on beaches it may constitute a significant threat to endangered vertebrates reliant on these invertebrates. This calls for a re-thinking of conservation actions by considering active management of food resources, possibly through enhancement of wrack or direct augmentation of prey items to breeding territories.

  19. The role of transposable elements in the evolution of non-mammalian vertebrates and invertebrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Background Transposable elements (TEs) have played an important role in the diversification and enrichment of mammalian transcriptomes through various mechanisms such as exonization and intronization (the birth of new exons/introns from previously intronic/exonic sequences, respectively), and insertion into first and last exons. However, no extensive analysis has compared the effects of TEs on the transcriptomes of mammals, non-mammalian vertebrates and invertebrates. Results We analyzed the influence of TEs on the transcriptomes of five species, three invertebrates and two non-mammalian vertebrates. Compared to previously analyzed mammals, there were lower levels of TE introduction into introns, significantly lower numbers of exonizations originating from TEs and a lower percentage of TE insertion within the first and last exons. Although the transcriptomes of vertebrates exhibit significant levels of exonization of TEs, only anecdotal cases were found in invertebrates. In vertebrates, as in mammals, the exonized TEs are mostly alternatively spliced, indicating that selective pressure maintains the original mRNA product generated from such genes. Conclusions Exonization of TEs is widespread in mammals, less so in non-mammalian vertebrates, and very low in invertebrates. We assume that the exonization process depends on the length of introns. Vertebrates, unlike invertebrates, are characterized by long introns and short internal exons. Our results suggest that there is a direct link between the length of introns and exonization of TEs and that this process became more prevalent following the appearance of mammals. PMID:20525173

  20. Impact of heavy metals on macro-invertebrate fauna of the thaddo stream

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nazneen, S.; Begum, F.; Sharmeen, R.; Ahmed, Z.

    2003-01-01

    Impact of some heavy metals like zinc, lead, copper, chromium and cadmium were studied at four spots on the macro-invertebrate fauna of the Thaddo stream, a tributary of Malir River. This was in correlation with an earlier study on the physico-chemical aspects of water which showed a severe pollution in this stream. Present data for the qualitative and quantitative analyses of macro-invertebrates and the ranges of heavy metals (Zn 0.5-3.5, Pb 0.90-1.42, Cu 0.35-0.93, Cr 0.0-0.08 and Cd 0.003-0.01 ppm) in the water samples also indicate high level of pollution in the stream. Macro-invertebrate fauna comprises only of aquatic insects which include larvae of Chironomus spp., adults of the Notonectus sp., and nymphs of Gomphus sp. (dragon fly) belonging to the order Diptera , Hemiptera and Odonata, respectively. Quantitatively Notonectus sp. predominated and followed by Chironomus larvae. The maximum concentrations of all heavy metals were recorded at spot 3. A general trend of increase was observed from up stream to down stream regions particularly in the level of zinc. However, a reverse trend was observed in the abundance of macro-invertebrates with a great reduction at spot 4. The statistical analysis of the data generally indicates a negative correlation between the values of the studied heavy metals and the abundance of macro-invertebrates throughout this study. (author)

  1. Influences of extreme weather, climate and pesticide use on invertebrates in cereal fields over 42 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ewald, Julie A; Wheatley, Christopher J; Aebischer, Nicholas J; Moreby, Stephen J; Duffield, Simon J; Crick, Humphrey Q P; Morecroft, Michael B

    2015-11-01

    Cereal fields are central to balancing food production and environmental health in the face of climate change. Within them, invertebrates provide key ecosystem services. Using 42 years of monitoring data collected in southern England, we investigated the sensitivity and resilience of invertebrates in cereal fields to extreme weather events and examined the effect of long-term changes in temperature, rainfall and pesticide use on invertebrate abundance. Of the 26 invertebrate groups examined, eleven proved sensitive to extreme weather events. Average abundance increased in hot/dry years and decreased in cold/wet years for Araneae, Cicadellidae, adult Heteroptera, Thysanoptera, Braconidae, Enicmus and Lathridiidae. The average abundance of Delphacidae, Cryptophagidae and Mycetophilidae increased in both hot/dry and cold/wet years relative to other years. The abundance of all 10 groups usually returned to their long-term trend within a year after the extreme event. For five of them, sensitivity to cold/wet events was lowest (translating into higher abundances) at locations with a westerly aspect. Some long-term trends in invertebrate abundance correlated with temperature and rainfall, indicating that climate change may affect them. However, pesticide use was more important in explaining the trends, suggesting that reduced pesticide use would mitigate the effects of climate change. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Molecular genetics and genomics generate new insights into invertebrate pest invasions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirk, Heather; Dorn, Silvia; Mazzi, Dominique

    2013-07-01

    Invertebrate pest invasions and outbreaks are associated with high social, economic, and ecological costs, and their significance will intensify with an increasing pressure on agricultural productivity as a result of human population growth and climate change. New molecular genetic and genomic techniques are available and accessible, but have been grossly underutilized in studies of invertebrate pest invasions, despite that they are useful tools for applied pest management and for understanding fundamental features of pest invasions including pest population demographics and adaptation of pests to novel and/or changing environments. Here, we review current applications of molecular genetics and genomics in the study of invertebrate pest invasions and outbreaks, and we highlight shortcomings from the current body of research. We then discuss recent conceptual and methodological advances in the areas of molecular genetics/genomics and data analysis, and we highlight how these advances will further our understanding of the demographic, ecological, and evolutionary features of invertebrate pest invasions. We are now well equipped to use molecular data to understand invertebrate dispersal and adaptation, and this knowledge has valuable applications in agriculture at a time when these are critically required.

  3. Bioprospecting of Marine Invertebrates for New Natural Products — A Chemical and Zoogeographical Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Calado

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Bioprospecting for new marine natural products (NPs has increased significantly over the last decades, leading to an unprecedented discovery of new molecules. Marine invertebrates have been the most important source of these NPs, with researchers commonly targeting particular taxonomic groups, marine regions and/or molecules from specific chemical groups. The present review focuses on new NPs identified from marine invertebrates between 2000 and 2009, and performs a detailed analysis on: (1 the chemical groups of these NPs; (2 the association of particular chemical groups to specific marine invertebrate taxa; and (3 the yielding of molecules from the same chemical group from organisms occurring in a particular geographic region. Our survey revealed an increasing number of new terpenoids being discovered between 2000 and 2009, contrasting with the decreasing trend in the discovery of new alkaloids and aliphatic molecules. Overall, no particular association was identified between marine invertebrate taxa and chemical groups of new NPs. Nonetheless, it is worth noting that most NPs recorded from cnidarians and mollusks were terpenoids, while most NPs identified in echinoderms were aliphatic compounds or carbohydrates. The geographical trends observed in our study do not support the idea of particular chemical groups of new NPs being associated with marine invertebrates from any specific geographical region, as NPs from different chemical groups were commonly distributed worldwide.

  4. Functional morphology of the radialis muscle in shark tails.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flammang, Brooke E

    2010-03-01

    The functional morphology of intrinsic caudal musculature in sharks has not been studied previously, though the kinematics and function of body musculature have been the focus of a great deal of research. In the tail, ventral to the axial myomeres, there is a thin strip of red muscle with fibers angled dorsoposteriorly, known as the radialis. This research gives the first anatomical description of the radialis muscle in sharks, and addresses the hypothesis that the radialis muscle provides postural stiffening in the tail of live swimming sharks. The radialis muscle fibers insert onto the deepest layers of the stratum compactum, the more superior layers of which are orthogonally arrayed and connect to the epidermis. The two deepest layers of the stratum compactum insert onto the proximal ends of the ceratotrichia of the caudal fin. This anatomical arrangement exists in sharks and is modified in rays, but was not found in skates or chimaeras. Electromyography of the caudal muscles of dogfish swimming steadily at 0.25 and 0.5 body lengths per second (Ls(-1)) exhibited a pattern of anterior to posterior activation of the radialis muscle, followed by activation of red axial muscle in the more anteriorly located ipsilateral myomeres of the caudal peduncle; at 0.75 L s(-1), only the anterior portion of the radialis and white axial muscle of the contralateral peduncular myomeres were active. Activity of the radialis muscle occurred during periods of the greatest drag incurred by the tail during the tail beat and preceded the activity of more anteriorly located axial myomeres. This nonconformity to the typical anterior to posterior wave of muscle activation in fish swimming, in combination with anatomical positioning of the radialis muscles and stratum compactum, suggests that radialis activity may have a postural function to stiffen the fin, and does not function as a typical myotomal muscle.

  5. A muscle stem cell for every muscle: variability of satellite cell biology among different muscle groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randolph, Matthew E.; Pavlath, Grace K.

    2015-01-01

    The human body contains approximately 640 individual skeletal muscles. Despite the fact that all of these muscles are composed of striated muscle tissue, the biology of these muscles and their associated muscle stem cell populations are quite diverse. Skeletal muscles are affected differentially by various muscular dystrophies (MDs), such that certain genetic mutations specifically alter muscle function in only a subset of muscles. Additionally, defective muscle stem cells have been implicated in the pathology of some MDs. The biology of muscle stem cells varies depending on the muscles with which they are associated. Here we review the biology of skeletal muscle stem cell populations of eight different muscle groups. Understanding the biological variation of skeletal muscles and their resident stem cells could provide valuable insight into mechanisms underlying the susceptibility of certain muscles to myopathic disease. PMID:26500547

  6. Phenotypic plasticity and morphological integration in a marine modular invertebrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manrique Nelson

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Colonial invertebrates such as corals exhibit nested levels of modularity, imposing a challenge to the depiction of their morphological evolution. Comparisons among diverse Caribbean gorgonian corals suggest decoupling of evolution at the polyp vs. branch/internode levels. Thus, evolutionary change in polyp form or size (the colonial module sensu stricto does not imply a change in colony form (constructed of modular branches and other emergent features. This study examined the patterns of morphological integration at the intraspecific level. Pseudopterogorgia bipinnata (Verrill (Octocorallia: Gorgoniidae is a Caribbean shallow water gorgonian that can colonize most reef habitats (shallow/exposed vs. deep/protected; 1–45 m and shows great morphological variation. Results To characterize the genotype/environment relationship and phenotypic plasticity in P. bipinnata, two microsatellite loci, mitochondrial (MSH1 and nuclear (ITS DNA sequences, and (ITS2 DGGE banding patterns were initially compared among the populations present in the coral reefs of Belize (Carrie Bow Cay, Panama (Bocas del Toro, Colombia (Cartagena and the Bahamas (San Salvador. Despite the large and discrete differentiation of morphotypes, there was no concordant genetic variation (DGGE banding patterns in the ITS2 genotypes from Belize, Panama and Colombia. ITS1–5.8S-ITS2 phylogenetic analysis afforded evidence for considering the species P. kallos (Bielschowsky as the shallow-most morphotype of P. bipinnata from exposed environments. The population from Carrie Bow Cay, Belize (1–45 m was examined to determine the phenotypic integration of modular features such as branch thickness, polyp aperture, inter-polyp distance, internode length and branch length. Third-order partial correlation coefficients suggested significant integration between polypar and colonial traits. Some features did not change at all despite 10-fold differences in other integrated

  7. Terrestrial invertebrate population studies in the Chernobyl exclusion zone, Ukraine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jackson, D.; Stone, D.M.; Copplestone, D.; Gilhen, M.C.

    2004-01-01

    The Chernobyl reactor accident in April 1986 caused the release to atmosphere of substantial amounts of radioactivity. Precise estimates of the release vary. The USSR State Committee presented information to a meeting of the International Atomic Energy Agency in August 1986 indicating a release of some 2.9x10 5 TBq 137 Cs and 2x10 5 TBq 90 Sr, with a total fission/activation product release of 1.7x10 6 TBq. Other commentators suggest that up to double this amount may have been released. Estimates of deposition likewise vary, although it is probable that about half the released activity was deposited within 20 km of the release point, predominantly following two plume trajectories to the north and west. This resulted in the death of pine trees over 400 ha, the abandonment of 100,000 to 150,000 ha of agricultural land and the establishment of an exclusion zone extending to 30 km from the site. High levels of radionuclide contamination continue to prevail within the exclusion zone. Nonetheless, over the past fifteen years, re-colonisation has been widespread. Mixed deciduous woodlands, with a high proportion of birch (Betula spp.) and willow (Salix spp.), have become established in the forest areas, while agricultural land has succeeded to tall grassland and scrub. Field sites established in this study exhibited external gamma dose rates varying from 0.1 μSv h -1 to 140 μSv h -1 . Corresponding mean concentrations of 137 Cs in the top 20 cm of soil varied from about 6.10 2 to 3.10 6 Bq kg -1 dw. This study summarises observations over the period 2001 to 2004. Sub-surface activity, as measured by bait lamina penetration, appears to be inversely correlated with concentrations of 137 Cs and 90 Sr in soil. Likewise, at the very highest levels of contamination, there is some loss of invertebrate diversity; although little associated change in overall biomass. Between years, population densities and species dominance vary significantly. This does not appear to correlate

  8. Development of the Muscle Dysmorphia Inventory (MDI).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhea, D J; Lantz, C D; Cornelius, A E

    2004-12-01

    The development of the 6-factor, 27-item Muscle Dysmorphia Inventory (MDI) was based on Lantz et al. proposed model of characteristics associated with Muscle Dysmorphia. quantitative procedures including item-to-total correlations, exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses, and structure equation modeling confirmed the construct validity of the scale. Convergent validity was also tested. bodybuilding and powerlifting competition venues, weight training facilities, and university athletic venues. the 1(st) study consisted of 77 experienced male free weight lifters. The 2(nd) study consisted of 156 male non-competitive bodybuilders and weight lifters and 168 elite level powerlifters and bodybuilders. The 3(rd) study consisted of 151 male and female bodybuilders and weight lifters. each participant completed demographic information, the MDI, Drive for Thinness subscale of the Eating Disorder Inventory, and the Training Dependency subscale of the Bodybuilding Dependence Scale. Reliability estimates (Cronbach's a) ranged from 0.72 to 0.94. Factor loadings in all 3 studies supported the 6-factor structure (size/symmetry, supplement use, exercise dependence, pharmacological use, dietary behavior, and physique protection). Much of the scale validation was focused on construct validity, however, correlations with the MDI's subscales and the Training Dependency subscale of the Bodybuilding Dependence Scale and the Drive for Thinness subscale of the Eating Disorder Inventory provided evidence of convergent validity also. From these preliminary results, the MDI appears to contribute to the identification of a newly formed disorder by offering a multi-dimensional measure of factors related to Muscle Dysmorphia.

  9. Regulation and functions of the lms homeobox gene during development of embryonic lateral transverse muscles and direct flight muscles in Drosophila.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dominik Müller

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Patterning and differentiation of developing musculatures require elaborate networks of transcriptional regulation. In Drosophila, significant progress has been made into identifying the regulators of muscle development and defining their interactive networks. One major family of transcription factors involved in these processes consists of homeodomain proteins. In flies, several members of this family serve as muscle identity genes to specify the fates of individual muscles, or groups thereof, during embryonic and/or adult muscle development. Herein, we report on the expression and function of a new Drosophila homeobox gene during both embryonic and adult muscle development. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The newly described homeobox gene, termed lateral muscles scarcer (lms, which has yet uncharacterized orthologs in other invertebrates and primitive chordates but not in vertebrates, is expressed exclusively in subsets of developing muscle tissues. In embryos, lms is expressed specifically in the four lateral transverse (LT muscles and their founder cells in each hemisegment, whereas in larval wing imaginal discs, it is expressed in myoblasts that develop into direct flight muscles (DFMs, which are important for proper wing positioning. We have analyzed the regulatory inputs of various other muscle identity genes with overlapping or complementary expression patterns towards the cell type specific regulation of lms expression. Further we demonstrate that lms null mutants exhibit reduced numbers of embryonic LT muscles, and null mutant adults feature held-out-wing phenotypes. We provide a detailed description of the pattern and morphology of the direct flight muscles in the wild type and lms mutant flies by using the recently-developed ultramicroscopy and show that, in the mutants, all DFMs are present and present normal morphologies. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: We have identified the homeobox gene lms as a new muscle identity gene

  10. The lumbrical muscle: a novel in situ system to evaluate adult skeletal muscle proteolysis and anticatabolic drugs for therapeutic purposes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergantin, Leandro Bueno; Figueiredo, Leonardo Bruno; Godinho, Rosely Oliveira

    2011-12-01

    The molecular regulation of skeletal muscle proteolysis and the pharmacological screening of anticatabolic drugs have been addressed by measuring tyrosine release from prepubertal rat skeletal muscles, which are thin enough to allow adequate in vitro diffusion of oxygen and substrates. However, the use of muscle at accelerated prepubertal growth has limited the analysis of adult muscle proteolysis or that associated with aging and neurodegenerative diseases. Here we established the adult rat lumbrical muscle (4/hindpaw; 8/rat) as a new in situ experimental model for dynamic measurement of skeletal muscle proteolysis. By incubating lumbrical muscles attached to their individual metatarsal bones in Tyrode solution, we showed that the muscle proteolysis rate of adult and aged rats (3-4 to 24 mo old) is 45-25% of that in prepubertal animals (1 mo old), which makes questionable the usual extrapolation of proteolysis from prepubertal to adult/senile muscles. While acute mechanical injury or 1- to 7-day denervation increased tyrosine release from adult lumbrical muscle by up to 60%, it was reduced by 20-28% after 2-h incubation with β-adrenoceptor agonists, forskolin or phosphodiesterase inhibitor IBMX. Using inhibitors of 26S-proteasome (MG132), lysosome (methylamine), or calpain (E64/leupeptin) systems, we showed that ubiquitin-proteasome is accountable for 40-50% of total lumbrical proteolysis of adult, middle-aged, and aged rats. In conclusion, the lumbrical model allows the analysis of muscle proteolysis rate from prepubertal to senile rats. By permitting eight simultaneous matched measurements per rat, the new model improves similar protocols performed in paired extensor digitorum longus (EDL) muscles from prepubertal rats, optimizing the pharmacological screening of drugs for anticatabolic purposes.

  11. 1-hydroxypyrene as a biomarker of PAH exposure in the marine invertebrates N. diversicolor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tairova, Zhanna; Giessing, Anders; Hansen, Rikke

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are ubiquitous, persistent and toxic contaminants in the marine environment. Uptake of PAHs by marine deposit-feeding invertebrates can be determined by screening for PAH-derived metabolites. Methods for detection and quantification of PAH metabolites may...... invertebrates is on the other hand practically non-existing. The present study investigated formation of pyrene metabolites in the marine polychaete Nereis diversicolor, with special attention given to the detection of 1-hydroxypyrene. 1-hydroxypyrene was identified in tissues of Nereis diversicolor exposed...... this context the usefulness of SFS for identification and quantification was explored. Considering the complex composition of environmental PAH pollution, before the 1-hydoxypyrene in tissues of exposed marine invertebrates can be regarded as a suitable biomarker for assessing total PAH exposure...

  12. Catecholaminergic System of Invertebrates: Comparative and Evolutionary Aspects in Comparison With the Octopaminergic System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallo, Valentina P; Accordi, Fiorenza; Chimenti, Claudio; Civinini, Annalena; Crivellato, Enrico

    2016-01-01

    In this review we examined the catecholaminergic system of invertebrates, starting from protists and getting to chordates. Different techniques used by numerous researchers revealed, in most examined phyla, the presence of catecholamines dopamine, noradrenaline, and adrenaline or of the enzymes involved in their synthesis. The catecholamines are generally linked to the nervous system and they can act as neurotransmitters, neuromodulators, and hormones; moreover they play a very important role as regards the response to a large number of stress situations. Nevertheless, in some invertebrate phyla belonging to Protostoma, the monoamine octopamine is the main biogenic amine. The presence of catecholamines in some protists suggests a role as intracellular or interorganismal signaling molecules and an ancient origin of their synthetic pathways. The catecholamines appear also involved in the regulation of bioluminescence and in the control of larval development and metamorphosis in some marine invertebrate phyla. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Survival of rapidly fluctuating natural low winter temperatures by High Arctic soil invertebrates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Convey, Peter; Abbandonato, Holly; Bergan, Frode

    2015-01-01

    The extreme polar environment creates challenges for its resident invertebrate communities and the stress tolerance of some of these animals has been examined over many years. However, although it is well appreciated that standard air temperature records often fail to describe accurately conditions...... microhabitats. To assess survival of natural High Arctic soil invertebrate communities contained in soil and vegetation cores to natural winter temperature variations, the overwintering temperatures they experienced were manipulated by deploying cores in locations with varying snow accumulation: No Snow...... and did not decrease below -12. °C. Those under deep snow were even more stable and did not decline below -2. °C. Despite these striking differences in winter thermal regimes, there were no clear differences in survival of the invertebrate fauna between treatments, including oribatid, prostigmatid...

  14. A Risk Assessment Example for Soil Invertebrates Using Spatially Explicit Agent-Based Models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reed, Melissa; Alvarez, Tania; Chelinho, Sonia

    2016-01-01

    Current risk assessment methods for measuring the toxicity of plant protection products (PPPs) on soil invertebrates use standardized laboratory conditions to determine acute effects on mortality and sublethal effects on reproduction. If an unacceptable risk is identified at the lower tier...... population models for ubiquitous soil invertebrates (collembolans and earthworms) as refinement options in current risk assessment. Both are spatially explicit agent-based models (ABMs), incorporating individual and landscape variability. The models were used to provide refined risk assessments for different...... application scenarios of a hypothetical pesticide applied to potato crops (full-field spray onto the soil surface [termed “overall”], in-furrow, and soil-incorporated pesticide applications). In the refined risk assessment, the population models suggest that soil invertebrate populations would likely recover...

  15. Phylogenetic study of the oxytocin-like immunoreactive system in invertebrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizuno, J; Takeda, N

    1988-01-01

    1. A phylogenetic study of oxytocin (OXT)-like immunoreactive cells was performed by the PAP method in the central nervous system of invertebrates. 2. The immunoreactivity was detected in the nerve cells of Hydra magnipapillata of the Coelenterata; Neanthes japonica and Pheretima communissima of the Annelida; Oncidium verrucosum, Limax marginatus and Meretrix lamarckii of the Mollusca; and Baratha brassica of the Arthropoda. 3. No immunoreactive cells were found in Bipalium sp. of the Platyhelminthes; Pomacea canaliculata, Aplysia kurodai, Bradybaena similaris and Achatina fulica of the Mollusca; and Gnorimosphaeroma rayi, Procambarus clarkii, Hemigrapsus sanguineus, Helice tridens and Gryllus bimaculatus of the Arthropoda; Asterina pectinifera of the Echinodermata; and Halocynthia roretzi of the Protochordata. 4. These results demonstrate that an OXT-immunoreactive substance is widely present not only in vertebrates but also in invertebrates. 5. OXT seems to have been introduced into these invertebrates at an early stage of their phylogenetic history.

  16. Phylogenetic study of the arginine-vasotocin/arginine-vasopressin-like immunoreactive system in invertebrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizuno, J; Takeda, N

    1988-01-01

    1. A phylogenetic study of arg-vasotocin (AVT)/arg-vasopressin (AVP)-like immunoreactive cells was performed by the PAP method in the central nervous system of invertebrates. 2. The immunoreactivity was detected in the nerve cells of Hydra magnipapillata of the Coelenterata; Neanthes japonica and Pheretima communissima of the Annelida; Pomacea canaliculata, Aplysia kurodai, Oncidium verrucosum, Bradybaena similaris, Achatina fulica, Limax marginatus and Meretrix lamarckii of the Mollusca; Gnorimosphaeroma rayi, Hemigrapsus sanguineus, Gryllus bimaculatus and Baratha brassicae of the Arthropoda; Asterina pectinifera of the Echinodermata; and Halocynthia roretzi of the Protochordata. 3. No immunoreactivity was detected in Bipalium sp. of the Platyhelminthes, or in Procambarus clarkii and Helice tridens of the Arthropoda. 4. From these results, it appears that AVT/AVP is a phylogenetically ancient peptide which is present in a wide variety of invertebrates. 5. The actions of AVT/AVP and its presence in invertebrates are discussed.

  17. Non-indigenous invertebrates, fish and macrophytes in Lake Garda (Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina CAPPELLETTI

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available As observed in many countries, lakes are involved in an important process of colonization by non-indigenous species (NIS. Since 1725, 37 species of non-indigenous fish, invertebrates and macrophytes have been recorded in Lake Garda, the largest Italian lake. This phenomenon is particularly important for invertebrates and macrophytes, as their pathways of introduction are accidental. Recently among the 100 Worst Invasive Alien Species in Europe, the invertebrates Corbicula fluminea, Dikerogammarus villosus and Procambarus clarkii, and the macrophytes Lagarosiphon major, Elodea nuttallii and Elodea canadensis have been recorded in Lake Garda. In order to define the present status of non-indigenous species in Lake Garda, published and unpublished data were reviewed.

  18. Invertebrate neuroscience and CephsInAction at the Mediterranean Society for Neuroscience Meeting Cagliari 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holden-Dye, Lindy; Fiorito, Graziano; Ponte, Giovanna

    2015-12-01

    Invertebrate neuroscience, and in particular cephalopod research, is well represented in the Mediterranean region. Therefore, the recent meeting of the Mediterranean Society for Neuroscience in Santa Margherita di Pula, Sardinia (12-15 June 2015) provided an excellent opportunity for invertebrate contributions. Furthermore, the Chair of an EU COST Action for cephalopod research (FA1301; www.cephsinaction.org ), Giovanna Ponte, together with Graziano Fiorito from the Stazione Zoologica, Naples, aligned a meeting of research groups working in the field of cephalopod neurophysiology from across Europe to coincide with the neuroscience meeting. This provided an exciting forum for exchange of ideas. Here we provide brief highlights of both events and an explanation of the activities of the COST Action for the broader invertebrate neuroscience community.

  19. Acute and chronic toxicity testing of bisphenol A with aquatic invertebrates and plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mihaich, Ellen M; Friederich, Urs; Caspers, Norbert; Hall, A Tilghman; Klecka, Gary M; Dimond, Stephen S; Staples, Charles A; Ortego, Lisa S; Hentges, Steven G

    2009-07-01

    Bisphenol A (BPA, 4,4'-isopropylidine diphenol) is a commercially important chemical used primarily as an intermediate in the production of polycarbonate plastic and epoxy resins. Extensive effect data are currently available, including long-term studies with BPA on fish, amphibians, crustaceans, and mollusks. The aim of this study was to perform additional tests with a number of aquatic invertebrates and an aquatic plant. These studies include acute tests with the midge (Chironomus tentans) and the snail (Marisa cornuarietis), and chronic studies with rotifers (Brachionus calyciflorus), amphipods (Hyalella azteca), and plants (Lemna gibba). The effect data on different aquatic invertebrate and plant species presented in this paper correspond well with the effect and no-effect concentrations (NOECs) available from invertebrate studies in the published literature and are within the range found for other aquatic species tested with BPA.

  20. Marine Invertebrate Natural Products for Anti-Inflammatory and Chronic Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kalimuthu Senthilkumar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The marine environment represents a relatively available source of functional ingredients that can be applied to various aspects of food processing, storage, and fortification. Moreover, numerous marine invertebrates based compounds have biological activities and also interfere with the pathogenesis of diseases. Isolated compounds from marine invertebrates have been shown to pharmacological activities and are helpful for the invention and discovery of bioactive compounds, primarily for deadly diseases like cancer, acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS, osteoporosis, and so forth. Extensive research within the last decade has revealed that most chronic illnesses such as cancer, neurological diseases, diabetes, and autoimmune diseases exhibit dysregulation of multiple cell signaling pathways that have been linked to inflammation. On the basis of their bioactive properties, this review focuses on the potential use of marine invertebrate derived compounds on anti-inflammatory and some chronic diseases such as cardiovascular disease, osteoporosis, diabetes, HIV, and cancer.

  1. Predicting invertebrate assemblage composition from harvesting pressure and environmental characteristics on tropical reef flats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jimenez, H.; Dumas, P.; Ponton, D.; Ferraris, J.

    2012-03-01

    Invertebrates represent an essential component of coral reef ecosystems; they are ecologically important and a major resource, but their assemblages remain largely unknown, particularly on Pacific islands. Understanding their distribution and building predictive models of community composition as a function of environmental variables therefore constitutes a key issue for resource management. The goal of this study was to define and classify the main environmental factors influencing tropical invertebrate distributions in New Caledonian reef flats and to test the resulting predictive model. Invertebrate assemblages were sampled by visual counting during 2 years and 2 seasons, then coupled to different environmental conditions (habitat composition, hydrodynamics and sediment characteristics) and harvesting status (MPA vs. non-MPA and islets vs. coastal flats). Environmental conditions were described by a principal component analysis (PCA), and contributing variables were selected. Permutational analysis of variance (PERMANOVA) was used to test the effects of different factors (status, flat, year and season) on the invertebrate assemblage composition. Multivariate regression trees (MRT) were then used to hierarchically classify the effects of environmental and harvesting variables. MRT model explained at least 60% of the variation in structure of invertebrate communities. Results highlighted the influence of status (MPA vs. non-MPA) and location (islet vs. coastal flat), followed by habitat composition, organic matter content, hydrodynamics and sampling year. Predicted assemblages defined by indicator families were very different for each environment-exploitation scenario and correctly matched a calibration data matrix. Predictions from MRT including both environmental variables and harvesting pressure can be useful for management of invertebrates in coral reef environments.

  2. Chemoreception of the Seagrass Posidonia Oceanica by Benthic Invertebrates is Altered by Seawater Acidification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zupo, Valerio; Maibam, Chingoileima; Buia, Maria Cristina; Gambi, Maria Cristina; Patti, Francesco Paolo; Scipione, Maria Beatrice; Lorenti, Maurizio; Fink, Patrick

    2015-08-01

    Several plants and invertebrates interact and communicate by means of volatile organic compounds (VOCs). These compounds may play the role of infochemicals, being able to carry complex information to selected species, thus mediating inter- or intra-specific communications. Volatile organic compounds derived from the wounding of marine diatoms, for example, carry information for several benthic and planktonic invertebrates. Although the ecological importance of VOCs has been demonstrated, both in terrestrial plants and in marine microalgae, their role as infochemicals has not been demonstrated in seagrasses. In addition, benthic communities, even the most complex and resilient, as those associated to seagrass meadows, are affected by ocean acidification at various levels. Therefore, the acidification of oceans could produce interference in the way seagrass-associated invertebrates recognize and choose their specific environments. We simulated the wounding of Posidonia oceanica leaves collected at two sites (a control site at normal pH, and a naturally acidified site) off the Island of Ischia (Gulf of Naples, Italy). We extracted the VOCs and tested a set of 13 species of associated invertebrates for their specific chemotactic responses in order to determine if: a) seagrasses produce VOCs playing the role of infochemicals, and b) their effects can be altered by seawater pH. Our results indicate that several invertebrates recognize the odor of wounded P. oceanica leaves, especially those strictly associated to the leaf stratum of the seagrass. Their chemotactic reactions may be modulated by the seawater pH, thus impairing the chemical communications in seagrass-associated communities in acidified conditions. In fact, 54% of the tested species exhibited a changed behavioral response in acidified waters (pH 7.7). Furthermore, the differences observed in the abundance of invertebrates, in natural vs. acidified field conditions, are in agreement with these behavioral

  3. Proteomics of Skeletal Muscle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Deshmukh, Atul

    2016-01-01

    , of altered protein expressions profiles and/or their posttranslational modifications (PTMs). Mass spectrometry (MS)-based proteomics offer enormous promise for investigating the molecular mechanisms underlying skeletal muscle insulin resistance and exercise-induced adaptation; however, skeletal muscle......Skeletal muscle is the largest tissue in the human body and plays an important role in locomotion and whole body metabolism. It accounts for ~80% of insulin stimulated glucose disposal. Skeletal muscle insulin resistance, a primary feature of Type 2 diabetes, is caused by a decreased ability...... of muscle to respond to circulating insulin. Physical exercise improves insulin sensitivity and whole body metabolism and remains one of the most promising interventions for the prevention of Type 2 diabetes. Insulin resistance and exercise adaptations in skeletal muscle might be a cause, or consequence...

  4. Muscles, exercise and obesity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Bente K; Febbraio, Mark A

    2012-01-01

    During the past decade, skeletal muscle has been identified as a secretory organ. Accordingly, we have suggested that cytokines and other peptides that are produced, expressed and released by muscle fibres and exert either autocrine, paracrine or endocrine effects should be classified as myokines....... The finding that the muscle secretome consists of several hundred secreted peptides provides a conceptual basis and a whole new paradigm for understanding how muscles communicate with other organs, such as adipose tissue, liver, pancreas, bones and brain. However, some myokines exert their effects within...... the muscle itself. Thus, myostatin, LIF, IL-6 and IL-7 are involved in muscle hypertrophy and myogenesis, whereas BDNF and IL-6 are involved in AMPK-mediated fat oxidation. IL-6 also appears to have systemic effects on the liver, adipose tissue and the immune system, and mediates crosstalk between intestinal...

  5. Nutrient Dynamics of Estuarine Invertebrates Are Shaped by Feeding Guild Rather than Seasonal River Flow.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelly Ortega-Cisneros

    Full Text Available This study aimed to determine the variability of carbon and nitrogen elemental content, stoichiometry and diet proportions of invertebrates in two sub-tropical estuaries in South Africa experiencing seasonal changes in rainfall and river inflow. The elemental ratios and stable isotopes of abiotic sources, zooplankton and macrozoobenthos taxa were analyzed over a dry/wet seasonal cycle. Nutrient content (C, N and stoichiometry of suspended particulate matter exhibited significant spatio-temporal variations in both estuaries, which were explained by the variability in river inflow. Sediment particulate matter (%C, %N and C:N was also influenced by the variability in river flow but to a lesser extent. The nutrient content and ratios of the analyzed invertebrates did not significantly vary among seasons with the exception of the copepod Pseudodiaptomus spp. (C:N and the tanaid Apseudes digitalis (%N, C:N. These changes did not track the seasonal variations of the suspended or sediment particulate matter. Our results suggest that invertebrates managed to maintain their stoichiometry independent of the seasonality in river flow. A significant variability in nitrogen content among estuarine invertebrates was recorded, with highest % N recorded from predators and lowest %N from detritivores. Due to the otherwise general lack of seasonal differences in elemental content and stoichiometry, feeding guild was a major factor shaping the nutrient dynamics of the estuarine invertebrates. The nutrient richer suspended particulate matter was the preferred food source over sediment particulate matter for most invertebrate consumers in many, but not all seasons. The most distinct preference for suspended POM as a food source was apparent from the temporarily open/closed system after the estuary had breached, highlighting the importance of river flow as a driver of invertebrate nutrient dynamics under extreme events conditions. Moreover, our data showed that

  6. Nutrient Dynamics of Estuarine Invertebrates Are Shaped by Feeding Guild Rather than Seasonal River Flow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortega-Cisneros, Kelly; Scharler, Ursula M

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to determine the variability of carbon and nitrogen elemental content, stoichiometry and diet proportions of invertebrates in two sub-tropical estuaries in South Africa experiencing seasonal changes in rainfall and river inflow. The elemental ratios and stable isotopes of abiotic sources, zooplankton and macrozoobenthos taxa were analyzed over a dry/wet seasonal cycle. Nutrient content (C, N) and stoichiometry of suspended particulate matter exhibited significant spatio-temporal variations in both estuaries, which were explained by the variability in river inflow. Sediment particulate matter (%C, %N and C:N) was also influenced by the variability in river flow but to a lesser extent. The nutrient content and ratios of the analyzed invertebrates did not significantly vary among seasons with the exception of the copepod Pseudodiaptomus spp. (C:N) and the tanaid Apseudes digitalis (%N, C:N). These changes did not track the seasonal variations of the suspended or sediment particulate matter. Our results suggest that invertebrates managed to maintain their stoichiometry independent of the seasonality in river flow. A significant variability in nitrogen content among estuarine invertebrates was recorded, with highest % N recorded from predators and lowest %N from detritivores. Due to the otherwise general lack of seasonal differences in elemental content and stoichiometry, feeding guild was a major factor shaping the nutrient dynamics of the estuarine invertebrates. The nutrient richer suspended particulate matter was the preferred food source over sediment particulate matter for most invertebrate consumers in many, but not all seasons. The most distinct preference for suspended POM as a food source was apparent from the temporarily open/closed system after the estuary had breached, highlighting the importance of river flow as a driver of invertebrate nutrient dynamics under extreme events conditions. Moreover, our data showed that estuarine

  7. Contribution to the Understanding of Particle Motion Perception in Marine Invertebrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    André, Michel; Kaifu, Kenzo; Solé, Marta; van der Schaar, Mike; Akamatsu, Tomonari; Balastegui, Andreu; Sánchez, Antonio M; Castell, Joan V

    2016-01-01

    Marine invertebrates potentially represent a group of species whose ecology may be influenced by artificial noise. Exposure to anthropogenic sound sources could have a direct consequence on the functionality and sensitivity of their sensory organs, the statocysts, which are responsible for their equilibrium and movements in the water column. The availability of novel laser Doppler vibrometer techniques has recently opened the possibility of measuring whole body (distance, velocity, and acceleration) vibration as a direct stimulus eliciting statocyst response, offering the scientific community a new level of understanding of the marine invertebrate hearing mechanism.

  8. Activation analysis of several species of marine invertebrates as indicators of environmental conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fukushima, M.; Tamate, H.; Nakano, Y.

    2000-01-01

    Marine invertebrates are well known to accumulate trace metals from seawater, plankton, sea plants, and sediments. To test the usefulness of such organisms as a bio-indicator of environmental conditions, we have determined levels of trace elements in tissue of twelve species of marine invertebrates by photon and neutron activation analysis. Relatively higher concentration of elements were observed for Ni and Sn in mid-gut gland, for Cu and Zn in oyster tissues, for Se in swimming crabs, for Cu, Fe, and Se in gills of swimming crabs. Our results indicate that mid-gut gland of ear-shell will be useful as the indicator of environmental conditions. (author)

  9. COMPARATIVE STUDY OF TUMORIGENESIS AND TUMOR IMMUNITY IN INVERTEBRATES AND NONMAMMALIAN VERTEBRATES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert, Jacques

    2010-01-01

    Despite intense study in mammals, the different roles played by the immune system in detecting (immunosurveillance), controlling and remodeling (immunoediting) neoplasia, and perhaps in metastasis are not fully understood. In this review, I will present evidence of neoplasia and invasive malignancy, as well as tumor immunity in invertebrates and nonmammalian vertebrates. I will also present a comparative and evolutionary view of the complex interactions between neoplasia and the host immune system. Overall, I wish to go beyond the too simplistic dichotomy between invertebrates with innate immunity that are only affected with benign neoplasia and vertebrates with adaptive immunity that are affected by metastatic malignancies or cancer. PMID:20553753

  10. Family richness and biomass of understory invertebrates in early and late successional habitats of northern New Hampshire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthew K. Wilson; Winsor H. Lowe; Keith Nislow

    2014-01-01

    In the northeastern United States, many vertebrate species rely on early successional forest habitats (ESHs). ESHs may also support higher invertebrate diversity and abundance than late successional habitats (LSHs). We assessed the differences in family-level richness and biomass of understory terrestrial invertebrates during the summer season in paired ESH (3-7 years...

  11. The trophic role of a forest salamander: impacts on invertebrates, leaf litter retention, and the humification process

    Science.gov (United States)

    M. L. Best; H. H. Welsh

    2014-01-01

    Woodland (Plethodontid) salamanders are the most abundant vertebrates in North American forests, functioning as predators on invertebrates and prey for higher trophic levels. We investigated the role of Ensatina (Ensatina eschscholtzii) in regulating invertebrate numbers and leaf litter retention in a northern California forest. Our objective was...

  12. 78 FR 33255 - Amendment 4 to the Corals and Reef Associated Plants and Invertebrates Fishery Management Plan of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-04

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration 50 CFR Part 622 [Docket No. 120718255-3500-02] RIN 0648-BC38 Amendment 4 to the Corals and Reef Associated Plants and Invertebrates... Associated Plants and Invertebrates Fishery Management Plan (FMP) of Puerto Rico and the U.S. Virgin Islands...

  13. Evaluating Aquatic invertebrate vulnerability to insecticides based on intrinsic sensitivuty, biological traits, and toxic mode of action

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rico, A.; Brink, van den P.J.

    2015-01-01

    In the present study, the authors evaluated the vulnerability of aquatic invertebrates to insecticides based on their intrinsic sensitivity and their population-level recovery potential. The relative sensitivity of invertebrates to 5 different classes of insecticides was calculated at the genus,

  14. Light, earthworms, and soil resources as predictors of diversity of 10 soil invertebrate groups across monocultures of 14 tree species

    OpenAIRE

    Mueller, KE; Eisenhauer, N; Reich, PB; Hobbie, SE; Chadwick, OA; Chorover, J; Dobies, T; Hale, CM; Jagodziński, AM; Kałucka, I; Kasprowicz, M; Kieliszewska-Rokicka, B; Modrzyński, J; Roz en, A; Skorupski, M

    2016-01-01

    © 2015. Management of biodiversity and ecosystem services requires a better understanding of the factors that influence soil biodiversity. We characterized the species (or genera) richness of 10 taxonomic groups of invertebrate soil animals in replicated monocultures of 14 temperate tree species. The focal invertebrate groups ranged from microfauna to macrofauna: Lumbricidae, Nematoda, Oribatida, Gamasida, Opilionida, Araneida, Collembola, Formicidae, Carabidae, and Staphylinidae. Measurement...

  15. Comparative chronic toxicity of homo- and heterocyclic aromatic compounds to benthic and terrestrial invertebrates: Generalizations and exceptions.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leon Paumen, M.; de Voogt, P.; van Gestel, C.A.M.; Kraak, M.H.S.

    2009-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to elucidate consistent patterns in chronic polycyclic aromatic compound (PAC) toxicity to soil and sediment inhabiting invertebrates. Therefore we examined our experimental dataset, consisting of twenty-one chronic effect concentrations for two soil invertebrates

  16. Comparative chronic toxicity of homo- and heterocyclic aromatic compounds to benthic and terrestrial invertebrates: Generalizations and exceptions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    León Paumen, M.; de Voogt, P.; van Gestel, C.A.M.; Kraak, M.H.S.

    2009-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to elucidate consistent patterns in chronic polycyclic aromatic compound (PAC) toxicity to soil and sediment inhabiting invertebrates. Therefore we examined our experimental dataset, consisting of twenty-one chronic effect concentrations for two soil invertebrates

  17. Accessory piriformis muscle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sedat Develi

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Piriformis muscle originates from facies pelvica of sacrum and inserts on the trochanter major. It is one of the lateral rotator muscles of the hip and a landmark point in the gluteal region since n. ischiadicus descends to the thigh by passing close to the muscle. This contiguity may be associated with the irritation of the nerve which is known as piriformis syndrome. A rare anatomic variation of the muscle which observed on 74 years old male cadaver is discussed in this case report. [Cukurova Med J 2017; 42(1.000: 182-183

  18. The relation between Acid Volatile Sulfides (AVS) and metal accumulation in aquatic invertebrates: implications of feeding behavior and ecology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Jonge, Maarten; Blust, Ronny; Bervoets, Lieven

    2010-05-01

    The present study evaluates the relationship between Acid Volatile Sulfides (AVS) and metal accumulation in invertebrates with different feeding behavior and ecological preferences. Natural sediments, pore water and surface water, together with benthic and epibenthic invertebrates were sampled at 28 Flemish lowland rivers. Different metals as well as metal binding sediment characteristics including AVS were measured and multiple regression was used to study their relationship with accumulated metals in the invertebrates taxa. Bioaccumulation in the benthic taxa was primarily influenced by total metal concentrations in the sediment. Regarding the epibenthic taxa metal accumulation was mostly explained by the more bioavailable metal fractions in both the sediment and the water. AVS concentrations were generally better correlated with metal accumulation in the epibenthic invertebrates, rather than with the benthic taxa. Our results indicated that the relation between AVS and metal accumulation in aquatic invertebrates is highly dependent on feeding behavior and ecology. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Muscle dysmorphia: a critical review of the proposed criteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, B

    2001-01-01

    While body-image related disorders such as anorexia nervosa have focused on thinness, only recently have clinical criteria for a disorder that centers around muscularity--muscle dysmorphia--been proposed. An individual affected by muscle dysmorphia is overly concerned with his or her degree of muscularity. This preoccupation is manifested in the individual's behavior (excessive weight lifting, excessive attention to diet, social impairment). This article examines the historical aspects and proposed criteria for muscle dysmorphia and contrasts them with those of anorexia nervosa. While the authors of the proposed criteria have suggested that muscle dysmorphia be classified as a subcategory of body dysmorphic disorder, both the historical and clinical aspects of this syndrome are more consistent with its classification as an obsessive-compulsive disorder.

  20. Muscle phosphorylase kinase deficiency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Preisler, N; Orngreen, M C; Echaniz-Laguna, A

    2012-01-01

    To examine metabolism during exercise in 2 patients with muscle phosphorylase kinase (PHK) deficiency and to further define the phenotype of this rare glycogen storage disease (GSD).......To examine metabolism during exercise in 2 patients with muscle phosphorylase kinase (PHK) deficiency and to further define the phenotype of this rare glycogen storage disease (GSD)....

  1. the sternalis muscle

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2009-08-17

    Aug 17, 2009 ... CASE REPORT. CASE. 72. SA JOURNAL OF RADIOLOGY • August 2009. CASE R. Introduction ... tion is being given to imaging the medial breast, and the sternalis muscle will be revealed with increasing ... The origin of this muscle is uncertain, with pectoralis major, rectus abdominus and sternomastoid ...

  2. The hamstring muscle complex

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Made, A. D.; Wieldraaijer, T.; Kerkhoffs, G. M.; Kleipool, R. P.; Engebretsen, L.; van Dijk, C. N.; Golanó, P.

    2015-01-01

    The anatomical appearance of the hamstring muscle complex was studied to provide hypotheses for the hamstring injury pattern and to provide reference values of origin dimensions, muscle length, tendon length, musculotendinous junction (MTJ) length as well as width and length of a tendinous

  3. Endozoochory of seeds and invertebrates by migratory waterbirds in Oklahoma, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Andy J.; Frisch, Dagmar; Michot, Thomas C.; Allain, Larry K.; Barrow, Wylie C.

    2013-01-01

    Given their abundance and migratory behavior, waterbirds have major potential for dispersing plants and invertebrates within North America, yet their role as vectors remains poorly understood. We investigated the numbers and types of invertebrates and seeds within freshly collected faecal samples (n = 22) of migratory dabbling ducks and shorebirds in November 2008 in two parts of Lake Texoma in southern Oklahoma. Killdeer Charadrius vociferus were transporting a higher number and diversity of both plants and invertebrates than the green-winged teal Anas carolinensis. Ten plant taxa and six invertebrate taxa were identified to at least genus level, although viability was not confirmed for most of these taxa. Bryozoan statoblasts (from four species not previously recorded from Oklahoma) were especially abundant in killdeer faeces, while the ostracod Candona simpsoni was detected as a live adult in torpor in the teal faeces. Cyperaceae and Juncaceae were the most abundant plant families represented and Cyperus strigosus seeds germinated after extraction from killdeer faeces. This snapshot study underlines the importance of waterbirds as vectors of passive dispersal of many organisms and the need for more research in this discipline.

  4. Invertebrates of Meadow Creek, Union County, Oregon, and their use as food by trout.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carl E. McLemore; William R. Meehan

    1988-01-01

    From 1976 to 1980, invertebrates were collected three times each year from several reaches of Meadow Creek in eastern Oregon. Five sampling methods were used: benthos, drift, sticky traps, water traps, and fish stomachs. A total of 372 taxa were identified, of which 239 were used as food by rainbow trout (steelhead; Salmo gairdneri Richardson). Of...

  5. Influence of acidification and aluminium on the density and biomass of lotic benthic invertebrates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allard, M.; Moreau, G.

    1986-10-01

    Experiments were carried out in plasticized wooden channels fed by a small creek in the Reserve des Laurentides, 80 km north of Quebec city. Channels were naturally colonized by invertebrates for 65 d before treatment. Treated channels were acidified in August with dilute H/sub 2/SO/sub 4/ only, or with acid plus a solution of Al sulfate (final concentration of 0.19 mg L/sup -1/). The control channel received creek water only (pH 6.3 to 6.9). The addition of Al had no effect on invertebrate density and biomass. After 73 d of acidification, invertebrate densities were only one third the number found in the control channel. Invertebrate biomass was not different within channels, although biomass was generally higher in the two acidified channels. Difference in densities between acidified and non-acidified channels was attributed to lack of colonization and not to an increase in drift. Microtendipes, a large and resistant larva of Chironomidae constituted a large fraction of the biomass, largely outweighing numerous very small larvae. Effects on the density were attributed to the direct effect of low pH and not to indirect action through food limitations. 22 refs.

  6. Shape shifting predicts ontogenetic changes in metabolic scaling in diverse aquatic invertebrates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Glazier, Douglas S.; Hirst, Andrew G.; Atkinson, D.

    2016-01-01

    in metabolic scaling that deviate from 3/4-power scaling predicted by general models. Here, we show that in diverse aquatic invertebrates, ontogenetic shifts in the scaling of routine metabolic rate from near isometry (bR = scaling exponent approx. 1) to negative allometry (bR

  7. Diastereoisomer- and species-specific distribution of hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD) in fish and marine invertebrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Son, Min-Hui; Kim, Jongchul; Shin, Eun-Su; Seo, Sung-Hee; Chang, Yoon-Seok

    2015-12-30

    The levels and distributional characteristics of hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD) diastereoisomers have been largely reported for various fish and select shellfish. In this study, we reclassified a number and variety of marine invertebrates, including shellfish, to further contribute to the comprehensive understanding of the effects and assessment of human exposure to HBCD. Overall, 30 marine invertebrate species (n=188) were investigated and the following order of ∑2HBCD (α- and γ-HBCD) was observed: fish>chordata>cephalopoda>echinodermata>bivalve>crustacea. The marine invertebrates that were reclassified into nektonic and benthic organisms showed similar concentration of ∑2HBCD. The feeding habits and modes of the marine organisms were considered to compare the degree of bioaccumulation and diastereoisomer-specific distribution of HBCD due to the effects of the environment in and around pollution sources, as well as the organisms' metabolic capacities. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study to examine the species-specific distribution patterns of HBCD for both fish and marine invertebrates. We expect to significantly expand the understanding of the environmental fate of HBCD for marine organisms. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Larval settlement: the role of surface topography for sessile coral reef invertebrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whalan, Steve; Wahab, Muhammad A Abdul; Sprungala, Susanne; Poole, Andrew J; de Nys, Rocky

    2015-01-01

    For sessile marine invertebrates with complex life cycles, habitat choice is directed by the larval phase. Defining which habitat-linked cues are implicated in sessile invertebrate larval settlement has largely concentrated on chemical cues which are thought to signal optimal habitat. There has been less effort establishing physical settlement cues, including the role of surface microtopography. This laboratory based study tested whether surface microtopography alone (without chemical cues) plays an important contributing role in the settlement of larvae of coral reef sessile invertebrates. We measured settlement to tiles, engineered with surface microtopography (holes) that closely matched the sizes (width) of larvae of a range of corals and sponges, in addition to surfaces with holes that were markedly larger than larvae. Larvae from two species of scleractinian corals (Acropora millepora and Ctenactis crassa) and three species of coral reef sponges (Luffariella variabilis, Carteriospongia foliascens and Ircinia sp.,) were used in experiments. L. variabilis, A. millepora and C. crassa showed markedly higher settlement to surface microtopography that closely matched their larval width. C. foliascens and Ircinia sp., showed no specificity to surface microtopography, settling just as often to microtopography as to flat surfaces. The findings of this study question the sole reliance on chemical based larval settlement cues, previously established for some coral and sponge species, and demonstrate that specific physical cues (surface complexity) can also play an important role in larval settlement of coral reef sessile invertebrates.

  9. Spiders in Motion: Demonstrating Adaptation, Structure-Function Relationships, and Trade-Offs in Invertebrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowlin, Melissa S.; McLeer, Dorothy F.; Danielson-Francois, Anne M.

    2014-01-01

    Evolutionary history and structural considerations constrain all aspects of animal physiology. Constraints on invertebrate locomotion are especially straightforward for students to observe and understand. In this exercise, students use spiders to investigate the concepts of adaptation, structure-function relationships, and trade-offs. Students…

  10. Will Invertebrates Require Increasingly Carbon-Rich Food in a Warming World?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Thomas R; Hessen, Dag O; Boersma, Maarten; Urabe, Jotaro; Mayor, Daniel J

    2017-12-01

    Elevated temperature causes metabolism and respiration to increase in poikilothermic organisms. We hypothesized that invertebrate consumers will therefore require increasingly carbon-rich diets in a warming environment because the increased energetic demands are primarily met using compounds rich in carbon, that is, carbohydrates and lipids. Here, we test this hypothesis using a new stoichiometric model that has carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) as currencies. Model predictions did not support the hypothesis, indicating instead that the nutritional requirements of invertebrates, at least in terms of food quality expressed as C∶N ratio, may change little, if at all, at elevated temperature. Two factors contribute to this conclusion. First, invertebrates facing limitation by nutrient elements such as N have, by default, excess C in their food that can be used to meet the increased demand for energy in a warming environment, without recourse to extra dietary C. Second, increased feeding at elevated temperature compensates for the extra demands of metabolism to the extent that, when metabolism and intake scale equally with temperature (have the same Q 10 ), the relative requirement for dietary C and N remains unaltered. Our analysis demonstrates that future climate-driven increases in the C∶N ratios of autotroph biomass will likely exacerbate the stoichiometric mismatch between nutrient-limited invertebrate grazers and their food, with important consequences for C sequestration and nutrient cycling in ecosystems.

  11. Evidence of lead biomagnification in invertebrate predators from laboratory and field experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rubio-Franchini, Isidoro; Rico-Martinez, Roberto

    2011-01-01

    This report includes atomic absorption data from water column, elutriates and zooplankton that demonstrate that lead biomagnifies at El Niagara reservoir, Mexico. Results include field data (bioaccumulation factors) (BAFs) and laboratory data (bioconcentration factors) (BCFs). Two findings: high BAFs for invertebrate predator like Acanthocyclops robustus, Asplanchna brightwellii, Culex sp. larvae, and Hyalella azteca, compared to grazer species Moina micrura and Simocephalus vetulus; low BCF's found for some predators, suggested that lead biomagnifications were taking place. The presence of Moina micrura in the gut of Asplanchna allowed us to design experiments where A. brightwellii was fed lead-exposed M. micrura neonates. The BAF of Asplanchna was 123,684, BCF was 490. Asplanchna individuals fed exposed Moina had 13.31 times more lead than Asplanchna individuals just exposed 48-h to lead, confirming that lead biomagnification occurs. Results of two fish species showed no lead biomagnification, suggesting that lead biomagnification might be restricted to invertebrate predators. - Highlights: → Study shows lead biomagnification evidence in reservoirs where top predators are invertebrates. → Study discusses why in previous studies lead biomagnifications were not detected. → Evidence of biomagnification comes from field and laboratory studies. - This study shows evidence (from field and laboratory experiments) of lead biomagnification in a freshwater reservoir where the main predators are invertebrates.

  12. Accumulation and effects of sediment-associated silver nanoparticles to sediment-dwelling invertebrates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ramskov, Tina; Forbes, Valery E; Gilliland, Douglas

    2015-01-01

    are in high demand. Here, we examine the effects of exposure to sediment mixed with either aqueous Ag (administered as AgNO3) or Ag NPs (13 nm, citrate-capped) at a nominal exposure concentration of 100 μg Ag/g dry weight sediment on four benthic invertebrates: two clones of the gastropod Potamopyrgus...

  13. Diversity and community structure of epibenthic invertebrates and fish in the North Sea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Callaway, R.; Alsväg, J.; de Boois, I.

    2002-01-01

    The structure of North Sea benthic invertebrate and fish communities is an important indicator of anthropogenic and environmental impacts. Although North Sea fish stocks are monitored regularly, benthic fauna are not. Here, we report the results of a survey carried out in 2000, in which five...

  14. Uptake and elimination kinetics of metals in soil invertebrates: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ardestani, Masoud M; van Straalen, Nico M; van Gestel, Cornelis A M

    2014-10-01

    Uptake and elimination kinetics of metals in soil invertebrates are a function of both soil and organism properties. This study critically reviewed metal toxicokinetics in soil invertebrates and its potential use for assessing bioavailability. Uptake and elimination rate constants of different metals are summarized. Invertebrates have different strategies for essential and non-essential metals. As a consequence, different types of models must be applied to describe metal uptake and elimination kinetics. We discuss model parameters for each metal separately and show how they are influenced by exposure concentrations and by physiological properties of the organisms. Soil pH, cation exchange capacity, clay and organic matter content significantly affect uptake rates of non-essential metals in soil invertebrates. For essential metals, kinetics is hardly influenced by soil properties, but rather prone to physiological regulation mechanisms of the organisms. Our analysis illustrates that toxicokinetics can be a valuable measurement to assess bioavailability of soil-bound metals. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Nearshore marine benthic invertebrates moving north along the U.S. Atlantic coast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Numerous species have shifted their ranges north in response to global warming. We examined 21 years (1990-2010) of marine benthic invertebrate data from the National Coastal Assessment’s monitoring of nearshore waters along the US Atlantic coast. Data came from three bioge...

  16. Shedding light on detritus: Interactions between invertebrates, bacteria and substrates in benthic habitats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hunting, E.R.

    2013-01-01

    The processing of dead organic matter, also known as detritus, is a central ecosystem process driven by detritus feeding organisms that are mostly located at the bottom of water bodies where dead organic matter (OM) accumulates. Detritivorous organisms form communities composed of invertebrates,

  17. Responsible genetic approach to stock restoration, sea ranching and stock enhancement of marine fishes and invertebrates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grant, W. Stewart; Jasper, James; Bekkevold, Dorte

    2017-01-01

    of marine fishes and invertebrates have been implemented with various outcomes. A review of the literature indicates that considerable effort has been directed toward culture technologies to maximize production, but scant attention has been given to genetic risks to wild populations. Genetic risks from...

  18. Methylmercury in water, sediment, and invertebrates in created wetlands of Rouge Park, Toronto, Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sinclair, Kathleen A.; Xie Qun; Mitchell, Carl P.J.

    2012-01-01

    Thousands of hectares of wetlands are created annually because wetlands provide beneficial ecosystem services. Wetlands are also key sites for production of the bioaccumulative neurotoxin methylmercury (MeHg), but little is known about MeHg production in created systems. Here, we studied methylmercury in sediment, water, and invertebrates in created wetlands of various ages. Sediment MeHg reached 8 ng g −1 in the newest wetland, which was significantly greater than in natural, control wetlands. This trend was mirrored in several invertebrate taxa, whose concentrations reached as high as 1.6 μg g −1 in the newest wetland, above levels thought to affect reproduction in birds. The MeHg concentrations in created wetland invertebrate taxa generally decreased with increasing wetland age, possibly due to a combination of deeper anoxia and less organic matter accumulation in younger wetlands. A short-term management intervention and/or improved engineering design may be necessary to reduce the mercury-associated risk in newly created wetlands. - Highlights: ► Investigated methylmercury accumulation in created wetland ecosystems. ► Concentrations and bioaccumulation significantly elevated in new created wetlands. ► Short-term effect may be due to deeper anoxia, less organic matter in new wetlands. ► Intervention or improved design required to reduce short-term ecological risk. - Sediment methylmercury concentrations and bioaccumulation in many invertebrate taxa are significantly elevated in newly created wetlands.

  19. Relative importance of vertebrates and invertebrates in epigeaic weed seed predation in organic cereal fields

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Westerman, P.R.; Hofman, A.; Vet, L.E.M.; Van der Werf, W.

    2003-01-01

    Exclosure trials were conducted in four organic cereal fields in The Netherlands in 1999 and 2000 to determine the relative importance of vertebrates and invertebrates in weed seed predation. The trials showed that seed predation by vertebrates was rather consistent and predictable, occurring on all

  20. Marine & Other Invertebrates. Animal Life in Action[TM]. Schlessinger Science Library. [Videotape].

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000

    This 23-minute videotape for grades 5-8, presents the myriad of animal life that exists on the planet. Students can view and perform experiments and investigations that help explain animal traits and habits. Invertebrate animals include a vast array of spineless creatures. In this video, students discover marine lifeforms such as jellyfish,…

  1. Spatial and temporal variation in invertebrate consumer diets in forested and herbaceous wetlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alani N. Taylor; Darold P. Batzer

    2010-01-01

    Macroinvertebrates have important functional roles in wetland ecosystems, but these roles are not always well understood. This study assessed which foods invertebrate consumers assimilate within a set of wetland habitats. During 2006 and 2007, non-Tanypodinae chironomid larvae and select crustaceans (Crangonyx amphipods, Caecidotea isopods, Simocephalus cladocerans)...

  2. Left-right asymmetries of behaviour and nervous system in invertebrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frasnelli, Elisa; Vallortigara, Giorgio; Rogers, Lesley J

    2012-04-01

    Evidence of left-right asymmetries in invertebrates has begun to emerge, suggesting that lateralization of the nervous system may be a feature of simpler brains as well as more complex ones. A variety of studies have revealed sensory and motor asymmetries in behaviour, as well as asymmetries in the nervous system, in invertebrates. Asymmetries in behaviour are apparent in olfaction (antennal asymmetries) and in vision (preferential use of the left or right visual hemifield during activities such as foraging or escape from predators) in animals as different as bees, fruitflies, cockroaches, octopuses, locusts, ants, spiders, crabs, snails, water bugs and cuttlefish. Asymmetries of the nervous system include lateralized position of specific brain structures (e.g., in fruitflies and snails) and of specific neurons (e.g., in nematodes). As in vertebrates, lateralization can occur both at the individual and at the population-level in invertebrates. Theoretical models have been developed supporting the hypothesis that the alignment of the direction of behavioural and brain asymmetries at the population-level could have arisen as a result of social selective pressures, when individually asymmetrical organisms had to coordinate with each other. The evidence reviewed suggests that lateralization at the population-level may be more likely to occur in social species among invertebrates, as well as vertebrates. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Neonicotinoids thiamethoxam and clothianidin adversely affect the colonisation of invertebrate populations in aquatic microcosms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basley, Kate; Goulson, Dave

    2018-04-01

    Surface waters are sometimes contaminated with neonicotinoids: a widespread, persistent, systemic class of insecticide with leaching potential. Previous ecotoxicological investigations of this chemical class in aquatic ecosystems have largely focused on the impacts of the neonicotinoid imidacloprid; few empirical, manipulative studies have investigated the effect on invertebrate abundances of two other neonicotinoids which are now more widely used: clothianidin and thiamethoxam. In this study, we employ a simple microcosm semi-field design, incorporating a one-off contamination event, to investigate the effect of these pesticides at field-realistic levels (ranging from 0 to 15 ppb) on invertebrate colonisation and survival in small ephemeral ponds. In line with previous research on neonicotinoid impacts on aquatic invertebrates, significant negative effects of both neonicotinoids were found. There were clear differences between the two chemicals, with thiamethoxam generally producing stronger negative effects than clothianidin. Populations of Chironomids (Diptera) and Ostracoda were negatively affected by both chemicals, while Culicidae appeared to be unaffected by clothianidin at the doses used. Our data demonstrate that field-realistic concentrations of neonicotinoids are likely to reduce populations of invertebrates found in ephemeral ponds, which may have knock on effects up the food chain. We highlight the importance of developing pesticide monitoring schemes for European surface waters.

  4. Toxicity of aluminium on five aquatic invertebrates; Aluminiums toksisitet paa 5 akvatiske invertebrater

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moe, J [Oslo Univ. (Norway)

    1996-01-01

    The conference paper deals with the experiments done by investigating the effects from the toxicity of aluminium on aquatic invertebrates. The aim of the experiments was to compare the toxicity of unstable aluminium compounds with stable forms of aluminium. 8 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs.

  5. The fossil record, function, and possible origins of shell color patterns in Paleozoic marine invertebrates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kobluk, D.R. (Univ. of Toronto, Ontario (Canada)); Mapes, R.H. (Ohio Univ., Athens (USA))

    1989-02-01

    Fossil invertebrate shells and carapaces displaying preserved original color patterns are among the rarest fossils. The fossil record of color patterns extends into the Middle Cambrian where the trilobite Anomocare displays a fan-like array of stripes on the pygidium. About 180 Paleozic genera are known with patterns, including trilobites, cephalopods, gastropods, brachiopods, bivalves, crinoids, and crustaceans. Based upon an analysis of these taxa, it appears that patterns and pigments in middle and late Paleozoic invertebrates may have served several functions such as warning displays, light screening, camouflage, or waste disposal. However, the presence of color patterns in fossil invertebrates in the early Paleozoic may have developed prior to the evolution of vision sufficiently sophisticated to see them. This suggests that camouflage and warning displays were not the original functions of color patterns, and that in the earliest Paleozoic they may not have been functional. The authors propose a hypothesis that involves three developmental phases in the evolution of invertebrate color patterns: (1) the incorporation of metabolic by-products, perhaps some pigmented and some not pigmented, into shells and carapaces as a means of disposal of dietary or metabolic wastes, (2) use of these pigments and patterns as an environmental adaptation, such as light screening, and (3) display during and following the evolution of vision in predators sufficiently sophisticated to see the patterns.

  6. Age-related environmental gradients influence invertebrate distribution in the Prince Charles Mountains, East Antarctica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czechowski, Paul; White, Duanne; Clarke, Laurence; McKay, Alan; Cooper, Alan; Stevens, Mark I

    2016-12-01

    The potential impact of environmental change on terrestrial Antarctic ecosystems can be explored by inspecting biodiversity patterns across large-scale gradients. Unfortunately, morphology-based surveys of Antarctic invertebrates are time-consuming and limited by the cryptic nature of many taxa. We used biodiversity information derived from high-throughput sequencing (HTS) to elucidate the relationship between soil properties and invertebrate biodiversity in the Prince Charles Mountains, East Antarctica. Across 136 analysed soil samples collected from Mount Menzies, Mawson Escarpment and Lake Terrasovoje, we found invertebrate distribution in the Prince Charles Mountains significantly influenced by soil salinity and/or sulfur content. Phyla Tardigrada and Arachnida occurred predominantly in low-salinity substrates with abundant nutrients, whereas Bdelloidea (Rotifera) and Chromadorea (Nematoda) were more common in highly saline substrates. A significant correlation between invertebrate occurrence, soil salinity and time since deglaciation indicates that terrain age indirectly influences Antarctic terrestrial biodiversity, with more recently deglaciated areas supporting greater diversity. Our study demonstrates the value of HTS metabarcoding to investigate environmental constraints on inconspicuous soil biodiversity across large spatial scales.

  7. Effects of offshore oil drilling on benthic invertebrate communities on the Grand Banks (North Atlantic)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DeBlois, E. [Jacques Whitford Ltd., St. John' s, NL (Canada); Wight, F. [Husky Oil Operations Ltd., St. John' s, NL (Canada); Taylor, D. [DG Taylor Inc., Conception Bay South, NL (Canada); Paine, M. [Paine, Ledge and Associates, North Vancouver, BC (Canada)

    2007-07-01

    Drilling occurs at three different drill centres of the White Rose (WR) oil platform that lies 350 km offshore from St. John's Newfoundland. An extensive environmental effects monitoring (EEM) program conducted by Husky Energy is underway at the WR site. The sediment component of the program involves the measurement of physical and chemical characteristics, an assessment of toxicity in laboratory tests, and an assessment of in situ benthic invertebrate communities. Baseline sampling occurred in 2000, followed by post-drilling sampling in 2004 to 2006. The sediment is 95 per cent sand, with polychaetes and bivalves dominating the invertebrate communities. A comparative evaluation was performed for regressions between community variables and distances from drill centres before and after drilling. Concentration-response relationships between community variables and concentrations of major constituents in drilling muds (C10-C21 HCs) were also compared among years. It was shown that the biological effects on invertebrate communities were highly restricted to reductions in the amount of Paraonidae and Amphipoda near drill centres and at higher C10-C21 HC concentrations. The study revealed that the two most abundant invertebrate communities were not influenced by drilling in terms of standing crop, richness, diversity and evenness.

  8. Utilization of organic matter by invertebrates along an estuarine gradient in an intermittently open estuary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lautenschlager, Agnes D.; Matthews, Ty G.; Quinn, Gerry P.

    2014-08-01

    In intermittently open estuaries, the sources of organic matter sustaining benthic invertebrates are likely to vary seasonally, particularly between periods of connection and disconnection with the ocean and higher and lower freshwater flows. This study investigated the contribution of allochthonous and autochthonous primary production to the diet of representative invertebrate species using stable isotope analysis (SIA) during the austral summer and winter (2008, 2009) in an intermittently open estuary on the south-eastern coast of Australia. As the study was conducted towards the end of a prolonged period of drought, a reduced influence of freshwater/terrestrial organic matter was expected. Sampling was conducted along an estuarine gradient, including upper, middle and lower reaches and showed that the majority of assimilated organic matter was derived from autochthonous estuarine food sources. Additionally, there was an input of allochthonous organic matter, which varied along the length of the estuary, indicated by distinct longitudinal trends in carbon and nitrogen stable isotope signatures along the estuarine gradient. Marine seaweed contributed to invertebrate diets in the lower reaches of the estuary, while freshwater/terrestrial organic matter had increased influence in the upper reaches. Suspension-feeding invertebrates derived large parts of their diet from freshwater/terrestrial material, despite flows being greatly reduced in comparison with non-drought years.

  9. Macro-Invertebrate Decline in Surface Water Polluted with Imidacloprid : A Rebuttal and Some New Analyses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vijver, M.G.; Brink, van den P.J.

    2014-01-01

    Imidacloprid, the largest selling insecticide in the world, has received particular attention from scientists, policymakers and industries due to its potential toxicity to bees and aquatic organisms. The decline of aquatic macro-invertebrates due to imidacloprid concentrations in the Dutch surface

  10. Macro-Invertebrate Decline in surface water polluted with Imidacloprid: A rebuttal and soome new analyses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vijver, M.G.; Brink, van den P.J.

    2014-01-01

    Imidacloprid, the largest selling insecticide in the world, has received particular attention from scientists, policymakers and industries due to its potential toxicity to bees and aquatic organisms. The decline of aquatic macro-invertebrates due to imidacloprid concentrations in the Dutch surface

  11. Methane release from millipedes and other soil invertebrates in Central Europe

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šustr, Vladimír; Šimek, Miloslav

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 41, č. 8 (2009), s. 1684-1688 ISSN 0038-0717 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60660521 Keywords : invertebrates * diplopoda * methane production Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 2.978, year: 2009

  12. Functional characterization on invertebrate and vertebrate tissues of tachykinin peptides from octopus venoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruder, Tim; Ali, Syed Abid; Ormerod, Kiel; Brust, Andreas; Roymanchadi, Mary-Louise; Ventura, Sabatino; Undheim, Eivind A B; Jackson, Timothy N W; Mercier, A Joffre; King, Glenn F; Alewood, Paul F; Fry, Bryan G

    2013-09-01

    It has been previously shown that octopus venoms contain novel tachykinin peptides that despite being isolated from an invertebrate, contain the motifs characteristic of vertebrate tachykinin peptides rather than being more like conventional invertebrate tachykinin peptides. Therefore, in this study we examined the effect of three variants of octopus venom tachykinin peptides on invertebrate and vertebrate tissues. While there were differential potencies between the three peptides, their relative effects were uniquely consistent between invertebrate and vertebrae tissue assays. The most potent form (OCT-TK-III) was not only the most anionically charged but also was the most structurally stable. These results not only reveal that the interaction of tachykinin peptides is more complex than previous structure-function theories envisioned, but also reinforce the fundamental premise that animal venoms are rich resources of novel bioactive molecules, which are useful investigational ligands and some of which may be useful as lead compounds for drug design and development. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Acoustic study of fish and invertebrate behavior in a tropical reservoir

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Prchalová, M.; Drastík, V.; Kubeka, J.; Sricharoendham, B.; Schiemer, F.; Vijverberg, J.

    2003-01-01

    The fish and invertebrate behavior of the Ubol Ratana Reservoir, Thailand, were monitored using up- and downlooking split beam sonar located at a fixed location. In the same area and period, ichthyoplankton nets and multimesh gillnets were used. The bulk of targets, recorded by acoustics and direct

  14. Effects of timber harvests on invertebrate biomass and avian nest success

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeffrey P. Duguay; Petra Bohall Wood; Gary W. Miller

    2000-01-01

    Concerns over declining songbird populations have led to investigations of effects of various timber management practices on breeding songbirds. We assessed the influence of 2 types of practices, two-age and clearcutting, on invertebrate biomass and avian daily nest survival in the Monongahela National Forest of West Virginia during summers of 1995 and 1996. We also...

  15. An introductory study of subterranean communities of invertebrates in forested talus habitats in southern Slovakia

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Mock, A.; Šašková, T.; Raschmanová, N.; Jászay, T.; Luptáčik, P.; Rendoš, M.; Tajovský, Karel; Jászayová, A.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 79, č. 3 (2015), s. 243-256 ISSN 1211-376X R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) 7AMB12SK189 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : invertebrates * forested talus * vertical distribution * Cerová vrchovina Mts * Revúcka vrchovina Mts Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour

  16. Stream invertebrate productivity linked to forest subsidies: 37 stream-years of reference and experimental data

    Science.gov (United States)

    J. Bruce Wallace; Susan L Eggert; Judy L. Meyer; Jackson R. Webster

    2015-01-01

    Riparian habitats provide detrital subsidies of varying quantities and qualities to recipient ecosystems. We used long-term data from three reference streams (covering 24 stream-years) and 13-year whole-stream organic matter manipulations to investigate the influence of terrestrial detrital quantity and quality on benthic invertebrate community structure, abundance,...

  17. Are invertebrates relevant models in ageing research? Focus on the effects of rapamycin on TOR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erdogan, Cihan Suleyman; Hansen, Benni Winding; Vang, Ole

    2016-01-01

    Ageing is the organisms increased susceptibility to death, which is linked to accumulated damage in the cells and tissues. Ageing is a complex process regulated by crosstalk of various pathways in the cells. Ageing is highly regulated by the Target of Rapamycin (TOR) pathway activity. TOR is an evolutionary conserved key protein kinase in the TOR pathway that regulates growth, proliferation and cell metabolism in response to nutrients, growth factors and stress. Comparing the ageing process in invertebrate model organisms with relatively short lifespan with mammals provides valuable information about the molecular mechanisms underlying the ageing process faster than mammal systems. Inhibition of the TOR pathway activity via either genetic manipulation or rapamycin increases lifespan profoundly in most invertebrate model organisms. This contribution will review the recent findings in invertebrates concerning the TOR pathway and effects of TOR inhibition by rapamycin on lifespan. Besides some contradictory results, the majority points out that rapamycin induces longevity. This suggests that administration of rapamycin in invertebrates is a promising tool for pursuing the scientific puzzle of lifespan prolongation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Invertebrate fossils from cave sediments: A new proxy for pre-Quaternary paleoenvironments

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Moldovan, O.T.; Mihevc, A.; Miko, L.; Constantin, S.; Meleg, I. N.; Petculescu, A.; Bosák, Pavel

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 8, č. 7 (2011), s. 1825-1837 ISSN 1726-4170 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA300130701 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30130516 Keywords : fossil invertebrates * Oribatida * Pliocene/Pleistocene * caves * caves (Slovenia) Subject RIV: DB - Geology ; Mineralogy Impact factor: 3.859, year: 2011

  19. Effects of neonicotinoids and fipronil on non-target invertebrates : Environmental Science and Pollution Research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pisa, L.W.; Amaral-Rogers, V.; Belzunces, L.P.; Bonmatin, J.M.; Downs, C.A.; Goulson, D.; Kreutzweiser, D.P.; Krupke, C.; Liess, M.; McField, M.; Morrissey, C.A.; Noome, D.A.; Settele, J.; Simon-Delso, N.; Stark, J.D.; Van der Sluijs, J.P.; Van Dyck, H.; Wiemers, M.

    2015-01-01

    We assessed the state of knowledge regarding the effects of large-scale pollution with neonicotinoid insecticides and fipronil on non-target invertebrate species of terrestrial, freshwater and marine environments. A large section of the assessment is dedicated to the state of knowledge on sublethal

  20. EFFECTS OF ON-BOTTOM OYSTER MARICULTURE ON SMALL, SEDIMENT-DWELLING INVERTEBRATES

    Science.gov (United States)

    As part of a programmatic effort to determine estuarine habitat values for ecological risk assessments, quantitative field studies of small ( 0.5 mm), sediment-dwelling invertebrates were conducted in Willapa Bay, WA in July 1998 and Tillamook Bay, OR in July 1999. The six habit...

  1. OYSTER GROUNDS, A SUPERIOR HABITAT FOR SMALL, SEDIMENT-DWELLING INVERTEBRATES

    Science.gov (United States)

    As part of a programmatic effort to determine estuarine habitat values for ecological risk assessments, quantitative field studies of small, sediment-dwelling invertebrates were conducted in Willapa Bay, WA in July 1998 and Tillamook Bay, OR in July 1999. The six habitats includ...

  2. Muscle as a secretory organ

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Bente K

    2013-01-01

    Skeletal muscle is the largest organ in the body. Skeletal muscles are primarily characterized by their mechanical activity required for posture, movement, and breathing, which depends on muscle fiber contractions. However, skeletal muscle is not just a component in our locomotor system. Recent e...... proteins produced by skeletal muscle are dependent upon contraction. Therefore, it is likely that myokines may contribute in the mediation of the health benefits of exercise.......Skeletal muscle is the largest organ in the body. Skeletal muscles are primarily characterized by their mechanical activity required for posture, movement, and breathing, which depends on muscle fiber contractions. However, skeletal muscle is not just a component in our locomotor system. Recent...... evidence has identified skeletal muscle as a secretory organ. We have suggested that cytokines and other peptides that are produced, expressed, and released by muscle fibers and exert either autocrine, paracrine, or endocrine effects should be classified as "myokines." The muscle secretome consists...

  3. Downstream changes in spring-fed stream invertebrate communities: the effect of increased temperature range?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Russell G. DEATH

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Reduced thermal amplitude has been highlighted as a limiting factor for aquatic invertebrate diversity in springs. Moving downstream water temperature range increases and invertebrate richness is expected to change accordingly. In the present study temperature patterns were investigated in seven spring-fed streams, between April 2001 and November 2002, and compared to five run-off-fed streams to assess the degree of crenic temperature constancy. Temperature and physico-chemical characteristics of the water, and food resource levels were measured, and the invertebrate fauna collected at 4 distances (0, 100, 500 m and 1 km from seven springs in the North and South Islands of New Zealand. Temperature variability was greater for run-off-fed streams than for springs, and increased in the spring-fed streams with distance from the source. Periphyton and physico-chemical characteristics of the water did not change markedly over the 1 km studied, with the exception of water velocity and organic matter biomass, which increased and decreased, respectively. The rate of increase in temperature amplitude differed greatly for the studied springs, probably being affected by flow, altitude, and the number and type of tributaries (i.e., spring- or run-off-fed joining the spring-fed stream channel. Longitudinal changes in the number and evenness of invertebrate taxa were positively correlated to thermal amplitude (rs = 0.8. Moving downstream, invertebrate communities progressively incorporated taxa with higher mobility and taxa more common in nearby run-off-fed streams. Chironomids and non-insect taxa were denser at the sources. Chironomid larvae also numerically dominated communities 100 and 500 m downstream from the sources, together with Pycnocentria spp. and Zelolessica spp., while taxa such as Hydora sp. and Hydraenidae beetles, the mayflies Deleatidium spp. and Coloburiscus humeralis, and the Trichoptera Pycnocentrodes spp., all had greater abundances 1 km

  4. A newly developed dispersal metric indicates the succession of benthic invertebrates in restored rivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Fengqing; Sundermann, Andrea; Stoll, Stefan; Haase, Peter

    2016-11-01

    Dispersal capacity plays a fundamental role in the riverine benthic invertebrate colonization of new habitats that emerges following flash floods or restoration. However, an appropriate measure of dispersal capacity for benthic invertebrates is still lacking. The dispersal of benthic invertebrates occurs mainly during the aquatic (larval) and aerial (adult) life stages, and the dispersal of each stage can be further subdivided into active and passive modes. Based on these four possible dispersal modes, we first developed a metric (which is very similar to the well-known and widely used saprobic index) to estimate the dispersal capacity for 802 benthic invertebrate taxa by incorporating a weight for each mode. Second, we tested this metric using benthic invertebrate community data from a) 23 large restored river sites with substantial improvements of river bottom habitats dating back 1 to 10years, b) 23 unrestored sites very close to the restored sites, and c) 298 adjacent surrounding sites (mean±standard deviation: 13.0±9.5 per site) within a distance of up to 5km for each restored site in the low mountain and lowland areas of Germany. We hypothesize that our metric will reflect the temporal succession process of benthic invertebrate communities colonizing the restored sites, whereas no temporal changes are expected in the unrestored and surrounding sites. By applying our metric to these three river treatment categories, we found that the average dispersal capacity of benthic invertebrate communities in the restored sites significantly decreased in the early years following restoration, whereas there were no changes in either the unrestored or the surrounding sites. After all taxa had been divided into quartiles representing weak to strong dispersers, this pattern became even more obvious; strong dispersers colonized the restored sites during the first year after restoration and then significantly decreased over time, whereas weak dispersers continued to increase

  5. Global patterns in post-dispersal seed removal by invertebrates and vertebrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peco, Begoña; Laffan, Shawn W; Moles, Angela T

    2014-01-01

    It is commonly accepted that species interactions such as granivory are more intense in the tropics. However, this has rarely been tested. A global dataset of post-dispersal seed removal by invertebrates and vertebrates for 79 native plant species from semi-natural and natural terrestrial habitats ranging from 55° N to 45° S, was compiled from the global literature to test the hypothesis that post-dispersal seed removal by invertebrates and vertebrates is more intense at lower latitudes. We also quantified the relationship between post-dispersal seed removal by vertebrates and by invertebrates to global climatic features including temperature, actual evapotranspiration (AET) and rainfall seasonality. Linear mixed effect models were applied to describe the relationships between seed removal and latitude, hemisphere and climatic variables controlling for the effect of seed mass. Post-dispersal seed removal by invertebrates was negatively related to latitude. In contrast, post-dispersal seed removal by vertebrates was positively but weakly related to latitude. Mean annual temperature and actual evapotranspiration were positively related to post-dispersal seed removal by invertebrates, but not to post-dispersal seed removal by vertebrates, which was only marginally negatively related to rainfall seasonality. The inclusion of seed mass improved the fit of all models, but the term for seed mass was not significant in any model. Although a good climatic model for predicting post-dispersal seed predation by vertebrates at the global level was not found, our results suggest different and opposite latitudinal patterns of post-dispersal seed removal by invertebrates vs vertebrates. This is the first time that a negative relationship between post-dispersal seed removal by invertebrates and latitude, and a positive relationship with temperature and AET have been documented at a global-scale. These results have important implications for understanding global patterns in plant

  6. Anatomical Research of the Three-dimensional Route of the Thoracodorsal Nerve, Artery, and Veins in Latissimus Dorsi Muscle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nagahiro Takahashi, MD

    2013-05-01

    Conclusions: The thoracodorsal nerves ran in a shallower layer, and the depth to the nerve in the muscle flap in actual facial reanimation surgery is safe enough to avoid damage to the nerves. The LD muscle may be thinned to half its original thickness safely.

  7. Global warming and mass mortalities of benthic invertebrates in the Mediterranean Sea.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irene Rivetti

    Full Text Available Satellite data show a steady increase, in the last decades, of the surface temperature (upper few millimetres of the water surface of the Mediterranean Sea. Reports of mass mortalities of benthic marine invertebrates increased in the same period. Some local studies interpreted the two phenomena in a cause-effect fashion. However, a basin-wide picture of temperature changes combined with a systematic assessment on invertebrate mass mortalities was still lacking. Both the thermal structure of the water column in the Mediterranean Sea over the period 1945-2011 and all documented invertebrate mass mortality events in the basin are analysed to ascertain if: 1- documented mass mortalities occurred under conditions of positive temperature trends at basin scale, and 2- atypical thermal conditions were registered at the smaller spatial and temporal scale of mass mortality events. The thermal structure of the shallow water column over the last 67 years was reconstructed using data from three public sources: MEDAR-MEDATLAS, World Ocean Database, MFS-VOS programme. A review of the mass mortality events of benthic invertebrates at Mediterranean scale was also carried out. The analysis of in situ temperature profiles shows that the Mediterranean Sea changed in a non-homogeneous fashion. The frequency of mass mortalities is increasing. The areas subjected to these events correspond to positive thermal anomalies. Statistically significant temperature trends in the upper layers of the Mediterranean Sea show an increase of up to 0.07°C/yr for a large fraction of the basin. Mass mortalities are consistent with both the temperature increase at basin scale and the thermal changes at local scale, up to 5.2°C. Our research supports the existence of a causal link between positive thermal anomalies and observed invertebrate mass mortalities in the Mediterranean Sea, invoking focused mitigation initiatives in sensitive areas.

  8. Global Warming and Mass Mortalities of Benthic Invertebrates in the Mediterranean Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivetti, Irene; Fraschetti, Simonetta; Lionello, Piero; Zambianchi, Enrico; Boero, Ferdinando

    2014-01-01

    Satellite data show a steady increase, in the last decades, of the surface temperature (upper few millimetres of the water surface) of the Mediterranean Sea. Reports of mass mortalities of benthic marine invertebrates increased in the same period. Some local studies interpreted the two phenomena in a cause-effect fashion. However, a basin-wide picture of temperature changes combined with a systematic assessment on invertebrate mass mortalities was still lacking. Both the thermal structure of the water column in the Mediterranean Sea over the period 1945–2011 and all documented invertebrate mass mortality events in the basin are analysed to ascertain if: 1- documented mass mortalities occurred under conditions of positive temperature trends at basin scale, and 2- atypical thermal conditions were registered at the smaller spatial and temporal scale of mass mortality events. The thermal structure of the shallow water column over the last 67 years was reconstructed using data from three public sources: MEDAR-MEDATLAS, World Ocean Database, MFS-VOS programme. A review of the mass mortality events of benthic invertebrates at Mediterranean scale was also carried out. The analysis of in situ temperature profiles shows that the Mediterranean Sea changed in a non-homogeneous fashion. The frequency of mass mortalities is increasing. The areas subjected to these events correspond to positive thermal anomalies. Statistically significant temperature trends in the upper layers of the Mediterranean Sea show an increase of up to 0.07°C/yr for a large fraction of the basin. Mass mortalities are consistent with both the temperature increase at basin scale and the thermal changes at local scale, up to 5.2°C. Our research supports the existence of a causal link between positive thermal anomalies and observed invertebrate mass mortalities in the Mediterranean Sea, invoking focused mitigation initiatives in sensitive areas. PMID:25535973

  9. Aquarium Trade Supply-Chain Losses of Marine Invertebrates Originating from Papua New Guinea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Militz, Thane A.; Kinch, Jeff; Southgate, Paul C.

    2018-04-01

    A major difficulty in managing live organism wildlife trade is often the reliance on trade data to monitor exploitation of wild populations. Harvested organisms that die or are discarded before a point of sale are regularly not reported. For the global marine aquarium trade, identifying supply-chain losses is necessary to more accurately assess exploitation from trade data. We examined quality control rejections and mortality of marine invertebrates (Asteroidea, Gastropoda, Malacostraca, Ophiuroidea) moving through the Papua New Guinea marine aquarium supply-chain, from fisher to importer. Utilizing catch invoices and exporter mortality records we determined that, over a 160 day period, 38.6% of the total invertebrate catch ( n = 13,299 individuals) was lost before export. Supply-chain losses were divided among invertebrates rejected in the quality control process (11.5%) and mortality of the accepted catch in transit to, and during holding at, an export facility (30.6%). A further 0.3% died during international transit to importers. We quantified supply-chain losses for the ten most fished species which accounted for 96.4% of the catch. Quality control rejections ( n = 1533) were primarily explained by rejections of oversized invertebrates (83.2% of rejections). We suggest that enforceable size limits on species prone to size-based rejections and elimination of village-based holding of invertebrates would reduce losses along the Papua New Guinea supply-chain. This case study underscores that low mortality during international transit may mask large losses along supply-chains prior to export and exemplifies the limitations of trade data to accurately monitor exploitation.

  10. EDXRF applied to the chemical element determination of small invertebrate samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Magalhaes, Marcelo L.R.; Santos, Mariana L.O.; Cantinha, Rebeca S.; Souza, Thomas Marques de; Franca, Elvis J. de

    2015-01-01

    Energy Dispersion X-Ray Fluorescence - EDXRF is a fast analytical technique of easy operation, however demanding reliable analytical curves due to the intrinsic matrix dependence and interference during the analysis. By using biological materials of diverse matrices, multielemental analytical protocols can be implemented and a group of chemical elements could be determined in diverse biological matrices depending on the chemical element concentration. Particularly for invertebrates, EDXRF presents some advantages associated to the possibility of the analysis of small size samples, in which a collimator can be used that directing the incidence of X-rays to a small surface of the analyzed samples. In this work, EDXRF was applied to determine Cl, Fe, P, S and Zn in invertebrate samples using the collimator of 3 mm and 10 mm. For the assessment of the analytical protocol, the SRM 2976 Trace Elements in Mollusk produced and SRM 8415 Whole Egg Powder by the National Institute of Standards and Technology - NIST were also analyzed. After sampling by using pitfall traps, invertebrate were lyophilized, milled and transferred to polyethylene vials covered by XRF polyethylene. Analyses were performed at atmosphere lower than 30 Pa, varying voltage and electric current according to the chemical element to be analyzed. For comparison, Zn in the invertebrate material was also quantified by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry after acid treatment (mixture of nitric acid and hydrogen peroxide) of samples have. Compared to the collimator of 10 mm, the SRM 2976 and SRM 8415 results obtained by the 3 mm collimator agreed well at the 95% confidence level since the E n Number were in the range of -1 and 1. Results from GFAAS were in accordance to the EDXRF values for composite samples. Therefore, determination of some chemical elements by EDXRF can be recommended for very small invertebrate samples (lower than 100 mg) with advantage of preserving the samples. (author)

  11. Metal toxicity affects predatory stream invertebrates less than other functional feeding groups

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liess, Matthias; Gerner, Nadine V.; Kefford, Ben J.

    2017-01-01

    Ecosystem effects of heavy metals need to be identified for a retrospective risk assessment, and potential impacts need to be predicted for a prospective risk assessment. In this study, we established a strong correlation between the toxic pressure of dissolved metals and invertebrate species. We compiled available data from a wide geographical range of Australian streams that were contaminated with heavy metals [mainly copper (Cu) and zinc (Zn)] and the corresponding invertebrate communities. Heavy metal toxicity is positively related to the proportion of predators within the invertebrate community, represented by the predator ratio , with an effect threshold range of 2.6 μg/L - 26 μg/L for Cu and 62 μg/L - 617 μg/L for Zn. These effect concentrations are in the ranges of the concentrations identified in model ecosystems and other field investigations and are just above the existing guideline limits. Heavy metals also affects the taxa richness negatively. Other community measures, such as the evenness, number of EPT (Ephemeroptera, Plecoptera, and Trichoptera) taxa, SPEcies At Risk (SPEAR) pesticides or SPEAR salinity were relatively poorly correlated with heavy metal toxicity in the streams. Therefore, we suggest applying the predator ratio within the community as a starting point for an indicator of the dissolved metal toxicity, the SPEAR metals . - Highlights: • Data on dissolved metals and invertebrates were compiled for a wide geographical range. • Heavy metal toxicity was strongly related to the predator ratio. • Ecologically relevant thresholds identified for Cu and Zn were above the guideline limits. - Increasing metal toxicity for Cu and Zn in streams could be related to an increasing predator ratio within the invertebrate community.

  12. Biological responses to acidification reversal in Cumbrian streamwaters - invertebrates and bacteria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tipping, E.; Bass, J.A.B.; Blackburn, J.H.; Hardie, D.J.; Mallinson, H.E.H.; Simon, B.M.

    2000-07-01

    The stream waters of the upper Duddon catchment, situated in the south-west of the English Lake District, have been acidified as a result of acid deposition. However, there is now strong chemical evidence for recovery, as the acidity of deposition decreases. The present study was carried out in order to investigate possible improvements in biological response. This report describes the results of sampling and analysis, carried out to obtain biological data in 1999 for comparison with data obtained in the 1960s and early 1970s for invertebrates and in the 1980s for bacteria. Macro-invertebrate studies were carried out in five streams which had records from the 1960s and 1970s, and which covered a range of pH (ca. 5 to ca. 7). Significantly more macro-invertebrate taxa were found in all the streams in 1999. The macro-invertebrate diversity was greater in 1999, as judged by the Margalef diversity index. There have been significant increases in the values of a macro-invertebrate based acidification index between the 1960s/1970s and the present, consistent with a decrease in stream water acidity. Species of the bacterium Cytophaga, which participates in the decomposition of plant litter, are absent from streams of low pH. Cytophaga was detected in a stream from which it had previously absent, which is consistent with an increase in pH. Taking the results of the present study together with those of previous ones showing that stream and lake acidity in Cumbria have decreased over the last 20-30 years, it can be concluded that decreases in acid deposition (of S) have led to improvements in water quality, and thereby to positive biological responses. (author)

  13. Contents and risk assessment of heavy metals in marine invertebrates from Korean coastal fish markets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mok, Jong Soo; Kwon, Ji Young; Son, Kwang Tae; Choi, Woo Seok; Kang, Sung Rim; Ha, Na Young; Jo, Mi Ra; Kim, Ji Hoe

    2014-06-01

    The concentrations of the heavy metals cadmium (Cd), mercury (Hg), lead (Pb), chromium, silver, nickel, copper, and zinc in the edible portions of 105 marine invertebrates representing 16 mollusk and crustacean species were accurately determined to evaluate their hazard for human consumption. The samples were collected in 2011 from major fish markets on the coast of Korea and analyzed for Hg using a direct Hg analyzer and for other metals using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Estimated dietary exposure (EDE) was determined, and a risk assessment was made of the heavy metals to provide information concerning consumer safety. The Cd concentrations, which were the highest for the three hazardous metals (Cd, Hg, and Pb), were significantly higher (P Food Additives or the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. The EDE of Cd, Hg, and Pb for each class of marine invertebrate were 0.07 to 2.64, 0.01 to 0.43, and 0.001 to 0.16% of the PTDI, respectively. The total EDE of Cd, Hg, and Pb for marine invertebrates accounted for 4.03, 0.96, and 0.21%, respectively, of the PTDI. The EDE of other metals in each class of marine invertebrate was less than 2% of the PTDI. The hazard index is a reasonable parameter for assessing the risk of heavy metal consumption associated with contaminated food. In the present study, the hazard index for all of the species was less than 1.0, which indicates that the intake of heavy metals from consumption of these marine invertebrates does not represent an appreciable hazard to humans.

  14. EDXRF applied to the chemical element determination of small invertebrate samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Magalhaes, Marcelo L.R.; Santos, Mariana L.O.; Cantinha, Rebeca S.; Souza, Thomas Marques de; Franca, Elvis J. de, E-mail: marcelo_rlm@hotmail.com, E-mail: marianasantos_ufpe@hotmail.com, E-mail: rebecanuclear@gmail.com, E-mail: thomasmarques@live.com.pt, E-mail: ejfranca@cnen.gov.br [Centro Regional de Ciencias Nucleares do Nordeste (CRCN-NE/CNEN-PE), Recife, PE (Brazil)

    2015-07-01

    Energy Dispersion X-Ray Fluorescence - EDXRF is a fast analytical technique of easy operation, however demanding reliable analytical curves due to the intrinsic matrix dependence and interference during the analysis. By using biological materials of diverse matrices, multielemental analytical protocols can be implemented and a group of chemical elements could be determined in diverse biological matrices depending on the chemical element concentration. Particularly for invertebrates, EDXRF presents some advantages associated to the possibility of the analysis of small size samples, in which a collimator can be used that directing the incidence of X-rays to a small surface of the analyzed samples. In this work, EDXRF was applied to determine Cl, Fe, P, S and Zn in invertebrate samples using the collimator of 3 mm and 10 mm. For the assessment of the analytical protocol, the SRM 2976 Trace Elements in Mollusk produced and SRM 8415 Whole Egg Powder by the National Institute of Standards and Technology - NIST were also analyzed. After sampling by using pitfall traps, invertebrate were lyophilized, milled and transferred to polyethylene vials covered by XRF polyethylene. Analyses were performed at atmosphere lower than 30 Pa, varying voltage and electric current according to the chemical element to be analyzed. For comparison, Zn in the invertebrate material was also quantified by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry after acid treatment (mixture of nitric acid and hydrogen peroxide) of samples have. Compared to the collimator of 10 mm, the SRM 2976 and SRM 8415 results obtained by the 3 mm collimator agreed well at the 95% confidence level since the E{sub n} Number were in the range of -1 and 1. Results from GFAAS were in accordance to the EDXRF values for composite samples. Therefore, determination of some chemical elements by EDXRF can be recommended for very small invertebrate samples (lower than 100 mg) with advantage of preserving the samples. (author)

  15. Aquarium Trade Supply-Chain Losses of Marine Invertebrates Originating from Papua New Guinea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Militz, Thane A; Kinch, Jeff; Southgate, Paul C

    2018-04-01

    A major difficulty in managing live organism wildlife trade is often the reliance on trade data to monitor exploitation of wild populations. Harvested organisms that die or are discarded before a point of sale are regularly not reported. For the global marine aquarium trade, identifying supply-chain losses is necessary to more accurately assess exploitation from trade data. We examined quality control rejections and mortality of marine invertebrates (Asteroidea, Gastropoda, Malacostraca, Ophiuroidea) moving through the Papua New Guinea marine aquarium supply-chain, from fisher to importer. Utilizing catch invoices and exporter mortality records we determined that, over a 160 day period, 38.6% of the total invertebrate catch (n = 13,299 individuals) was lost before export. Supply-chain losses were divided among invertebrates rejected in the quality control process (11.5%) and mortality of the accepted catch in transit to, and during holding at, an export facility (30.6%). A further 0.3% died during international transit to importers. We quantified supply-chain losses for the ten most fished species which accounted for 96.4% of the catch. Quality control rejections (n = 1533) were primarily explained by rejections of oversized invertebrates (83.2% of rejections). We suggest that enforceable size limits on species prone to size-based rejections and elimination of village-based holding of invertebrates would reduce losses along the Papua New Guinea supply-chain. This case study underscores that low mortality during international transit may mask large losses along supply-chains prior to export and exemplifies the limitations of trade data to accurately monitor exploitation.

  16. A muscle model for hybrid muscle activation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klauer Christian

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available To develop model-based control strategies for Functional Electrical Stimulation (FES in order to support weak voluntary muscle contractions, a hybrid model for describing joint motions induced by concurrent voluntary-and FES induced muscle activation is proposed. It is based on a Hammerstein model – as commonly used in feedback controlled FES – and exemplarily applied to describe the shoulder abduction joint angle. Main component of a Hammerstein muscle model is usually a static input nonlinearity depending on the stimulation intensity. To additionally incorporate voluntary contributions, we extended the static non-linearity by a second input describing the intensity of the voluntary contribution that is estimated by electromyography (EMG measurements – even during active FES. An Artificial Neural Network (ANN is used to describe the static input non-linearity. The output of the ANN drives a second-order linear dynamical system that describes the combined muscle activation and joint angle dynamics. The tunable parameters are adapted to the individual subject by a system identification approach using previously recorded I/O-data. The model has been validated in two healthy subjects yielding RMS values for the joint angle error of 3.56° and 3.44°, respectively.

  17. Modeling the dispersion effects of contractile fibers in smooth muscles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murtada, Sae-Il; Kroon, Martin; Holzapfel, Gerhard A.

    2010-12-01

    Micro-structurally based models for smooth muscle contraction are crucial for a better understanding of pathological conditions such as atherosclerosis, incontinence and asthma. It is meaningful that models consider the underlying mechanical structure and the biochemical activation. Hence, a simple mechanochemical model is proposed that includes the dispersion of the orientation of smooth muscle myofilaments and that is capable to capture available experimental data on smooth muscle contraction. This allows a refined study of the effects of myofilament dispersion on the smooth muscle contraction. A classical biochemical model is used to describe the cross-bridge interactions with the thin filament in smooth muscles in which calcium-dependent myosin phosphorylation is the only regulatory mechanism. A novel mechanical model considers the dispersion of the contractile fiber orientations in smooth muscle cells by means of a strain-energy function in terms of one dispersion parameter. All model parameters have a biophysical meaning and may be estimated through comparisons with experimental data. The contraction of the middle layer of a carotid artery is studied numerically. Using a tube the relationships between the internal pressure and the stretches are investigated as functions of the dispersion parameter, which implies a strong influence of the orientation of smooth muscle myofilaments on the contraction response. It is straightforward to implement this model in a finite element code to better analyze more complex boundary-value problems.

  18. A comprehensive comparison of four species of Onchidiidae provides insights on the morphological and molecular adaptations of invertebrates from shallow seas to wetlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Dongfeng; Li, Jie; Liu, Xin; Wu, Xin

    2018-01-01

    The Onchidiidae family is ideal for studying the evolution of marine invertebrate species from sea to wetland environments. However, comparative studies of Onchidiidae species are rare. A total of 40 samples were collected from four species (10 specimens per onchidiid), and their histological and molecular differences were systematically evaluated to elucidate the morphological foundations underlying the adaptations of these species. A histological analysis was performed to compare the structures of respiratory organs (gill, lung sac, dorsal skin) among onchidiids, and transcriptome sequencing of four representative onchidiids was performed to investigate the molecular mechanisms associated with their respective habitats. Twenty-six SNP markers of Onchidium reevesii revealed some DNA polymorphisms determining visible traits. Non-muscle myosin heavy chain II (NMHC II) and myosin heavy chain (MyHC), which play essential roles in amphibian developmental processes, were found to be differentially expressed in different onchidiids and tissues. The species with higher terrestrial ability and increased integrated expression of Os-MHC (NMHC II gene) and the MyHC gene, illustrating that the expression levels of these genes were associated with the evolutionary degree. This study provides a comprehensive analysis of the adaptions of a diverse and widespread group of invertebrates, the Onchidiidae. Some onchidiids can breathe well through gills and skin when under seawater, and some can breathe well through lung sacs and skin when in wetlands. A histological comparison of respiratory organs and the relative expression levels of two genes provided insights into the adaptions of onchidiids that allowed their transition from shallow seas to wetlands. This work provides a valuable reference and might encourage further study. PMID:29698429

  19. Thin Film & Deposition Systems (Windows)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Coating Lab: Contains chambers for growing thin film window coatings. Plasma Applications Coating Lab: Contains chambers for growing thin film window coatings. Solar...

  20. In situ bioavailability of DDT and Hg in sediments of the Toce River (Lake Maggiore basin, Northern Italy): accumulation in benthic invertebrates and passive samplers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pisanello, Francesca; Marziali, Laura; Rosignoli, Federica; Poma, Giulia; Roscioli, Claudio; Pozzoni, Fiorenzo; Guzzella, Licia

    2016-06-01

    DDT and mercury (Hg) contamination in the Toce River (Northern Italy) was caused by a factory producing technical DDT and using a mercury-cell chlor-alkali plant. In this study, DDT and Hg contamination and bioavailability were assessed by using different approaches: (1) direct evaluation of sediment contamination, (2) assessment of bioaccumulation in native benthic invertebrates belonging to different taxonomic/functional groups, and (3) evaluation of the in situ bioavailability of DDT and Hg using passive samplers. Sampling sites were selected upstream and downstream the industrial plant along the river axis. Benthic invertebrates (Gammaridae, Heptageniidae, and Diptera) and sediments were collected in three seasons and analyzed for DDT and Hg content and the results were used to calculate the biota sediment accumulation factor (BSAF). Polyethylene passive samplers (PEs) for DDT and diffusive gradients in thin films (DGTs) for Hg were deployed in sediments to estimate the concentration of the toxicants in pore water. Analysis for (DDx) were performed using GC-MS. Accuracy was within ±30 % of the certified values and precision was >20 % relative standard deviation (RSD). Total mercury concentrations were determined using an automated Hg mercury analyzer. Precision was >5 % and accuracy was within ±10 % of certified values. The results of all the approaches (analysis of sediment, biota, and passive samplers) showed an increasing contamination from upstream to downstream sites. BSAF values revealed the bioavailability of both contaminants in the study sites, with values up to 49 for DDx and up to 3.1 for Hg. No correlation was found between values in sediments and the organisms. Concentrations calculated using passive samplers were correlated with values in benthic invertebrates, while no correlation was found with concentrations in sediments. Thus, direct analysis of toxicant in sediments does not provide a measurement of bioavailability. On the contrary

  1. Muscles and their myokines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedersen, Bente Klarlund

    2011-01-15

    In the past, the role of physical activity as a life-style modulating factor has been considered as that of a tool to balance energy intake. Although it is important to avoid obesity, physical inactivity should be discussed in a much broader context. There is accumulating epidemiological evidence that a physically active life plays an independent role in the protection against type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, cancer, dementia and even depression. For most of the last century, researchers sought a link between muscle contraction and humoral changes in the form of an 'exercise factor', which could be released from skeletal muscle during contraction and mediate some of the exercise-induced metabolic changes in other organs such as the liver and the adipose tissue. We have suggested that cytokines or other peptides that are produced, expressed and released by muscle fibres and exert autocrine, paracrine or endocrine effects should be classified as 'myokines'. Given that skeletal muscle is the largest organ in the human body, our discovery that contracting skeletal muscle secretes proteins sets a novel paradigm: skeletal muscle is an endocrine organ producing and releasing myokines, which work in a hormone-like fashion, exerting specific endocrine effects on other organs. Other myokines work via paracrine mechanisms, exerting local effects on signalling pathways involved in muscle metabolism. It has been suggested that myokines may contribute to exercise-induced protection against several chronic diseases.

  2. All-solution-processed flexible thin film piezoelectric nanogenerator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chung, Sung Yun; Kim, Sunyoung; Kim, Kyongjun [Program in Nano Science and Technology, Graduate School of Convergence Science and Technology, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-744 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Ju-Hyuck; Kim, Sang-Woo [SKKU Advanced Institute of Nanotechnology, School of Advanced Materials Science and Engineering, Sungkyunkwan University (SKKU), Suwon 440-746 (Korea, Republic of); Kang, Chong-Yun; Yoon, Seok-Jin [Electronic Materials Center, Korea Institute of Science and Technology, Seoul 136-791 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Youn Sang [Program in Nano Science and Technology, Graduate School of Convergence Science and Technology, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-744 (Korea, Republic of); Advanced Institutes of Convergence Technology, 864-1 Iui-dong, Yeongtong-gu, Suwon-si, Gyeonggi-do 443-270 (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-11-27

    An all-solution-processed flexible thin film piezoelectric nanogenerator is demonstrated using reactive zinc hydroxo-condensation and a screen-printing method. The highly elastic thin film allows the piezoelectric energy to be generated through the mechanical rolling and muscle stretching of the piezoelectric unit. This flexible all solution-processed nanogenerator is promising for use in future energy harvesters such as wearable human patches and mobile electronics. (Copyright copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  3. Enhancing the diversity of breeding invertebrates within field margins of intensively managed grassland: Effects of alternative management practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fritch, Rochelle A; Sheridan, Helen; Finn, John A; McCormack, Stephen; Ó hUallacháin, Daire

    2017-11-01

    Severe declines in biodiversity have been well documented for many taxonomic groups due to intensification of agricultural practices. Establishment and appropriate management of arable field margins can improve the diversity and abundance of invertebrate groups; however, there is much less research on field margins within grassland systems. Three grassland field margin treatments (fencing off the existing vegetation "fenced"; fencing with rotavation and natural regeneration "rotavated" and; fencing with rotavation and seeding "seeded") were compared to a grazed control in the adjacent intensively managed pasture. Invertebrates were sampled using emergence traps to investigate species breeding and overwintering within the margins. Using a manipulation experiment, we tested whether the removal of grazing pressure and nutrient inputs would increase the abundance and richness of breeding invertebrates within grassland field margins. We also tested whether field margin establishment treatments, with their different vegetation communities, would change the abundance and richness of breeding invertebrates in the field margins. Exclusion of grazing and nutrient inputs led to increased abundance and richness in nearly all invertebrate groups that we sampled. However, there were more complex effects of field margin establishment treatment on the abundance and richness of invertebrate taxa. Each of the three establishment treatments supported a distinct invertebrate community. The removal of grazing from grassland field margins provided a greater range of overwintering/breeding habitat for invertebrates. We demonstrate the capacity of field margin establishment to increase the abundance and richness in nearly all invertebrate groups in study plots that were located on previously more depauperate areas of intensively managed grassland. These results from grassland field margins provide evidence to support practical actions that can inform Greening (Pillar 1) and agri

  4. Muscle Bioenergetic Considerations for Intrinsic Laryngeal Skeletal Muscle Physiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandage, Mary J.; Smith, Audrey G.

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: Intrinsic laryngeal skeletal muscle bioenergetics, the means by which muscles produce fuel for muscle metabolism, is an understudied aspect of laryngeal physiology with direct implications for voice habilitation and rehabilitation. The purpose of this review is to describe bioenergetic pathways identified in limb skeletal muscle and…

  5. Muscle contraction and force

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brüggemann, Dagmar Adeline; Risbo, Jens; Pierzynowski, Stefan G.

    2008-01-01

    Muscle contraction studies often focus solely on myofibres and the proteins known to be involved in the processes of sarcomere shortening and cross-bridge cycling, but skeletal muscle also comprises a very elaborate ancillary network of capillaries, which not only play a vital role in terms...... of nutrient delivery and waste product removal, but are also tethered to surrounding fibres by collagen "wires". This paper therefore addresses aspects of the ancillary network of skeletal muscle at both a microscopic and functional level in order to better understand its role holistically as a considerable...

  6. Biomimetic thin film synthesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Graff, G.L.; Campbell, A.A.; Gordon, N.R.

    1995-05-01

    The purpose of this program is to develop a new process for forming thin film coatings and to demonstrate that the biomimetic thin film technology developed at PNL is useful for industrial applications. In the biomimetic process, mineral deposition from aqueous solution is controlled by organic functional groups attached to the underlying substrate surface. The coatings process is simple, benign, inexpensive, energy efficient, and particularly suited for temperature sensitive substrate materials (such as polymers). In addition, biomimetic thin films can be deposited uniformly on complex shaped and porous substrates providing a unique capability over more traditional line-of-sight methods.

  7. Painful unilateral temporalis muscle enlargement: reactive masticatory muscle hypertrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katsetos, Christos D; Bianchi, Michael A; Jaffery, Fizza; Koutzaki, Sirma; Zarella, Mark; Slater, Robert

    2014-06-01

    An instance of isolated unilateral temporalis muscle hypertrophy (reactive masticatory muscle hypertrophy with fiber type 1 predominance) confirmed by muscle biopsy with histochemical fiber typing and image analysis in a 62 year-old man is reported. The patient presented with bruxism and a painful swelling of the temple. Absence of asymmetry or other abnormalities of the craniofacial skeleton was confirmed by magnetic resonance imaging and cephalometric analyses. The patient achieved symptomatic improvement only after undergoing botulinum toxin injections. Muscle biopsy is key in the diagnosis of reactive masticatory muscle hypertrophy and its distinction from masticatory muscle myopathy (hypertrophic branchial myopathy) and other non-reactive causes of painful asymmetric temporalis muscle enlargement.

  8. Gap-Junctional communication between developing Drosophila muscles is essential for their normal development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todman, M G; Baines, R A; Stebbings, L A; Davies, J A; Bacon, J P

    1999-01-01

    Recent experiments have demonstrated that a family of proteins, known as the innexins, are structural components of invertebrate gap junctions. The shaking-B (shak-B) locus of Drosophila encodes two members of this emerging family, Shak-B(lethal) and Shak-B(neural). This study focuses on the role of Shak-B gap junctions in the development of embryonic and larval muscle. During embryogenesis, shak-B transcripts are expressed in a subset of the somatic muscles; expression is strong in ventral oblique muscles (VO4-6) but only weak in ventral longitudinals (VL3 and 4). Carboxyfluorescein injected into VO4 of wild-type early stage 16 embryos spreads, via gap junctions, to label adjacent muscles, including VL3 and 4. In shak-B2 embryos (in which the shak-B(neural) function is disrupted), dye injected into VO4 fails to spread into other muscles. In the first instar larva, when dye coupling between muscles is no longer present, another effect of the shak-B2 mutation is revealed by whole-cell voltage clamp. In a calcium-free saline, only two voltage-activated potassium currents are present in wild-type muscles; a fast IA and a slow IK current. In shak-B2 larvae, these two currents are significantly reduced in magnitude in VO4 and 5, but remain normal in VL3. Expression of shak-B(neural) in a shak-B2 background fully rescues both dye coupling in embryonic muscle and whole-cell currents in first instar VO4 and 5. Our observations show that Shak-B(neural) is one of a set of embryonic gap-junction proteins, and that it is required for the normal temporal development of potassium currents in some larval muscles.

  9. Comprehensive analysis of tropomyosin isoforms in skeletal muscles by top-down proteomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Yutong; Peng, Ying; Lin, Ziqing; Chen, Yi-Chen; Wei, Liming; Hacker, Timothy A; Larsson, Lars; Ge, Ying

    2016-04-01

    Mammalian skeletal muscles are heterogeneous in nature and are capable of performing various functions. Tropomyosin (Tpm) is a major component of the thin filament in skeletal muscles and plays an important role in controlling muscle contraction and relaxation. Tpm is known to consist of multiple isoforms resulting from different encoding genes and alternative splicing, along with post-translational modifications. However, a systematic characterization of Tpm isoforms in skeletal muscles is still lacking. Therefore, we employed top-down mass spectrometry (MS) to identify and characterize Tpm isoforms present in different skeletal muscles from multiple species, including swine, rat, and human. Our study revealed that Tpm1.1 and Tpm2.2 are the two major Tpm isoforms in swine and rat skeletal muscles, whereas Tpm1.1, Tpm2.2, and Tpm3.12 are present in human skeletal muscles. Tandem MS was utilized to identify the sequences of the major Tpm isoforms. Furthermore, quantitative analysis revealed muscle-type specific differences in the abundance of un-modified and modified Tpm isoforms in rat and human skeletal muscles. This study represents the first systematic investigation of Tpm isoforms in skeletal muscles, which not only demonstrates the capabilities of top-down MS for the comprehensive characterization of skeletal myofilament proteins but also provides the basis for further studies on these Tpm isoforms in muscle-related diseases.

  10. Rapid small-angle X-ray diffraction of a tonically contracting molluscan smooth muscle recorded with imaging plates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tajima, Y.; Okada, K.; Yoshida, O.; Seto, T.; Amemiya, Y.

    1989-01-01

    Small-angle X-ray diffraction patterns from the anterior byssus retractor muscles of Mytilus edulis contracting tonically in response to stimulation with acetylcholine were recorded in a 30 s exposure with synchrotron radiation and a high-sensitivity X-ray area detector called an imaging plate. The 190 A layer line from the thin filaments increased in intensity with increase in tonic tension up to 6x10 4 kg m -2 . Above this value, the layer-line intensity remained almost constant and comparable to that for a contracting skeletal muscle, indicating that the same structural changes of the thin filaments occur in both muscles. (orig.)

  11. Characterization of deepwater invertebrates at Isla del Coco National Park and Las Gemelas Seamount, Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard M. Starr

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The deepwater faunas of oceanic islands and seamounts of the Eastern Tropical Pacific are poorly known. From 11-22 September 2009, we conducted an exploration of the deepwater areas around Isla del Coco National Park and Las Gemelas Seamount, located about 50km southwest of Isla del Coco, Costa Rica using a manned submersible to survey the seafloor habitats. The goal of the exploration was to characterize the habitats and biota, and conduct quantitative surveys of the deepwater portions of Isla del Coco National Park and Las Gemelas. We completed a total of 22 successful submersible dives, spanning more than 80hr underwater, and collected a total of 36hr of video. With respect to invertebrates, our objectives were to gather quantitative information on species composition, density, distribution and habitat associations as well as to compare the invertebrate communities between the two sites. A total of 7 172 invertebrates were counted from analysis of the video collected on this project. Larger organisms were counted and placed into 27 taxonomic groups to characterize the deepwater invertebrate fauna of Las Gemelas Seamount and Isla del Coco National Park. The Shannon-Weiner Index for biodiversity (H’ was calculated to be 0.14 ± 0.02 for Isla del Coco and 0.07 ± 0.03 for Las Gemelas surveys. Although richness was fairly equal between the two sites, evenness was greater at Isla del Coco (J = 0.04 ± 0.006 when compared to Las Gemelas (J = 0.02 ± 0.01. This lower level of evenness in the community at Las Gemelas was a result of high densities of a few dominant species groups, specifically sea urchins and black corals. We also evaluated invertebrate percent cover at both Isla del Coco and Las Gemelas Seamount with respect to habitat type, slope and rugosity. Results indicated that highly rugose habitats contained the highest frequencies of all invertebrates at both sites, with the exception of glass sponges and polychaetes at Isla del Coco

  12. Muscles and their myokines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Bente Klarlund

    2011-01-01

    In the past, the role of physical activity as a life-style modulating factor has been considered as that of a tool to balance energy intake. Although it is important to avoid obesity, physical inactivity should be discussed in a much broader context. There is accumulating epidemiological evidence...... or endocrine effects should be classified as 'myokines'. Given that skeletal muscle is the largest organ in the human body, our discovery that contracting skeletal muscle secretes proteins sets a novel paradigm: skeletal muscle is an endocrine organ producing and releasing myokines, which work in a hormone......-like fashion, exerting specific endocrine effects on other organs. Other myokines work via paracrine mechanisms, exerting local effects on signalling pathways involved in muscle metabolism. It has been suggested that myokines may contribute to exercise-induced protection against several chronic diseases....

  13. Pneumatic Muscle Actuator Control

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lilly, John

    2000-01-01

    This research is relevant to the Air Fore mission because pneumatic muscle actuation devices arc advantageous for certain types of robotics as well as for strength and/or mobility assistance for humans...

  14. Brain–muscle interface

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2011-05-16

    May 16, 2011 ... Clipboard: Brain–muscle interface: The next-generation BMI. Radhika Rajan Neeraj Jain ... Keywords. Assistive devices; brain–machine interface; motor cortex; paralysis; spinal cord injury ... Journal of Biosciences | News ...

  15. Muscle glycogenolysis during exercise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Richter, Erik; Ruderman, N B; Gavras, H

    1982-01-01

    glycogenolysis during exercise: contractions principally stimulate glycogenolysis early in exercise, and a direct effect of epinephrine on muscle is needed for continued glycogenolysis. In addition, epinephrine increased oxygen consumption and glucose uptake in both resting and electrically stimulated...

  16. Muscle function loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... or head are damaged, you may have difficulty chewing and swallowing or closing your eyes. In these ... Medical Professional Muscle paralysis always requires immediate medical attention. If you notice gradual weakening or problems with ...

  17. Thin Solid Oxide Cell

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2010-01-01

    The present invention relates to a thin and in principle unsupported solid oxide cell, comprising at least a porous anode layer, an electrolyte layer and a porous cathode layer, wherein the anode layer and the cathode layer comprise an electrolyte material, at least one metal and a catalyst...... material, and wherein the overall thickness of the thin reversible cell is about 150 [mu]m or less, and to a method for producing same. The present invention also relates to a thin and in principle unsupported solid oxide cell, comprising at least a porous anode layer, an electrolyte layer and a porous...... cathode layer, wherein the anode layer and the cathode layer comprise an electrolyte material and a catalyst material, wherein the electrolyte material is doper zirconia, and wherein the overall thickness of the thin reversible cell is about 150 [mu]m or less, and to a method for producing same...

  18. Thin film device applications

    CERN Document Server

    Kaur, Inderjeet

    1983-01-01

    Two-dimensional materials created ab initio by the process of condensation of atoms, molecules, or ions, called thin films, have unique properties significantly different from the corresponding bulk materials as a result of their physical dimensions, geometry, nonequilibrium microstructure, and metallurgy. Further, these characteristic features of thin films can be drasti­ cally modified and tailored to obtain the desired and required physical characteristics. These features form the basis of development of a host of extraordinary active and passive thin film device applications in the last two decades. On the one extreme, these applications are in the submicron dimensions in such areas as very large scale integration (VLSI), Josephson junction quantum interference devices, magnetic bubbles, and integrated optics. On the other extreme, large-area thin films are being used as selective coatings for solar thermal conversion, solar cells for photovoltaic conver­ sion, and protection and passivating layers. Ind...

  19. Ceramic Composite Thin Films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruoff, Rodney S. (Inventor); Stankovich, Sasha (Inventor); Dikin, Dmitriy A. (Inventor); Nguyen, SonBinh T. (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    A ceramic composite thin film or layer includes individual graphene oxide and/or electrically conductive graphene sheets dispersed in a ceramic (e.g. silica) matrix. The thin film or layer can be electrically conductive film or layer depending the amount of graphene sheets present. The composite films or layers are transparent, chemically inert and compatible with both glass and hydrophilic SiOx/silicon substrates. The composite film or layer can be produced by making a suspension of graphene oxide sheet fragments, introducing a silica-precursor or silica to the suspension to form a sol, depositing the sol on a substrate as thin film or layer, at least partially reducing the graphene oxide sheets to conductive graphene sheets, and thermally consolidating the thin film or layer to form a silica matrix in which the graphene oxide and/or graphene sheets are dispersed.

  20. Thin epitaxial silicon detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stab, L.

    1989-01-01

    Manufacturing procedures of thin epitaxial surface barriers will be given. Some improvements have been obtained: larger areas, lower leakage currents and better resolutions. New planar epitaxial dE/dX detectors, made in a collaboration work with ENERTEC-INTERTECHNIQUE, and a new application of these thin planar diodes to EXAFS measurements, made in a collaboration work with LURE (CNRS,CEA,MEN) will also be reported

  1. Thin film tritium dosimetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moran, Paul R.

    1976-01-01

    The present invention provides a method for tritium dosimetry. A dosimeter comprising a thin film of a material having relatively sensitive RITAC-RITAP dosimetry properties is exposed to radiation from tritium, and after the dosimeter has been removed from the source of the radiation, the low energy electron dose deposited in the thin film is determined by radiation-induced, thermally-activated polarization dosimetry techniques.

  2. Thinning 'Elstar' apple with benzyladenine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maas, F.M.

    2006-01-01

    ‘Elstar’, the main apple cultivar grown in the Netherlands, requires adequate thinning to reach marketable fruit sizes and to achieve regular yields by preventing alternate bearing. At the moment, chemical thinning of ‘Elstar’ is the only economically feasible way of thinning. Thinning by hand is

  3. Thick filament mechano-sensing is a calcium-independent regulatory mechanism in skeletal muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fusi, L; Brunello, E; Yan, Z; Irving, M

    2016-10-31

    Recent X-ray diffraction studies on actively contracting fibres from skeletal muscle showed that the number of myosin motors available to interact with actin-containing thin filaments is controlled by the stress in the myosin-containing thick filaments. Those results suggested that thick filament mechano-sensing might constitute a novel regulatory mechanism in striated muscles that acts independently of the well-known thin filament-mediated calcium signalling pathway. Here we test that hypothesis using probes attached to the myosin regulatory light chain in demembranated muscle fibres. We show that both the extent and kinetics of thick filament activation depend on thick filament stress but are independent of intracellular calcium concentration in the physiological range. These results establish direct control of myosin motors by thick filament mechano-sensing as a general regulatory mechanism in skeletal muscle that is independent of the canonical calcium signalling pathway.

  4. Broad-scale patterns of invertebrate richness and community composition in temporary rivers: effects of flow intermittence

    Science.gov (United States)

    A central goal in ecology is to identify general relationships between environmental drivers and community patterns. In this study, we investigated the relationships between aquatic invertebrate communities and river flow intermittence across multiple continents. Particularly, we...

  5. Effects of time-variable exposure regimes of the insecticide chlorpyrifos on freshwater invertebrate communities in microcosms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zafar, M.I.; Wijngaarden, van R.; Roessink, I.; Brink, van den P.J.

    2011-01-01

    The present study compared the effects of different time-variable exposure regimes having the same time-weighted average (TWA) concentration of the organophosphate insecticide chlorpyrifos on freshwater invertebrate communities to enable extrapolation of effects across exposure regimes. The

  6. Contrasting invertebrate immune defense behaviors caused by a single gene, the Caenorhabditis elegans neuropeptide receptor gene npr-1

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nakad, Rania; Snoek, Basten; Yang, Wentao; Ellendt, S.; Schneider, Franziska; Mohr, T.G.; Rösingh, Lone; Masche, Anna C.; Rosenstiel, P.C.; Dierking, K.; Kammenga, Jan E.; Schulenburg, Hinrich

    2016-01-01

    Background: The invertebrate immune system comprises physiological mechanisms, physical barriers and also behavioral responses. It is generally related to the vertebrate innate immune system and widely believed to provide
    nonspecific defense against pathogens, whereby the response to different

  7. Contrasting invertebrate immune defense behaviors caused by a single gene, the Caenorhabditis elegans neuropeptide receptor gene npr-1

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nakad, Rania; Snoek, L.B.; Yang, Wentao; Ellendt, S.; Schneider, Franziska; Mohr, T.G.; Rösingh, Lone; Masche, Anna C.; Rosenstiel, P.C.; Dierking, K.; Kammenga, J.E.; Schulenburg, Hinrich

    2016-01-01

    Background The invertebrate immune system comprises physiological mechanisms, physical barriers and also behavioral responses. It is generally related to the vertebrate innate immune system and widely believed to provide nonspecific defense against pathogens, whereby the response to different

  8. Contrasting invertebrate immune defense behaviors caused by a single gene, the Caenorhabditis elegans neuropeptide receptor gene npr-1

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nakad, Rania; Snoek, L Basten; Yang, Wentao; Ellendt, Sunna; Schneider, Franziska; Mohr, Timm G; Rösingh, Lone; Masche, Anna C; Rosenstiel, Philip C; Dierking, Katja; Kammenga, Jan E; Schulenburg, Hinrich

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The invertebrate immune system comprises physiological mechanisms, physical barriers and also behavioral responses. It is generally related to the vertebrate innate immune system and widely believed to provide nonspecific defense against pathogens, whereby the response to different

  9. Molecular Techniques Revealed Highly Diverse Microbial Communities in Natural Marine Biofilms on Polystyrene Dishes for Invertebrate Larval Settlement

    KAUST Repository

    Lee, On On; Chung, Hong Chun; Yang, Jiangke; Wang, Yong; Dash, Swagatika; Wang, Hao; Qian, Pei-Yuan

    2014-01-01

    Biofilm microbial communities play an important role in the larval settlement response of marine invertebrates. However, the underlying mechanism has yet to be resolved, mainly because of the uncertainties in characterizing members

  10. Antifouling phenyl ethers and other compounds from the invertebrates and their symbiotic fungi collected from the South China Sea

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Chao-Yi; Wang, Kai-Ling; Ghosheh, Yanal; Xu, Ying; Chen, Min; Zheng, Juan-Juan; Liu, Min; Shao, Chang-Lun; Wang, Chang-Yun

    2016-01-01

    for their antifouling activities and security. These compounds include 44 natural products isolated from marine invertebrates and their symbiotic microorganisms collected from the South China Sea and 11 structural modified products derived from the isolated compounds

  11. DECOTAB: a multipurpose standard substrate to assess effects of litter quality on microbial decomposition and invertebrate consumption

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kampfraath, A.A.; Hunting, E.R.; Mulder, C.; Breure, A.M.; Gessner, M.O.; Kraak, M.H.S.; Admiraal, W.

    2012-01-01

    Currently available tools for studying plant litter decomposition and invertebrate consumption in aquatic ecosystems have at least 2 major limitations: 1) the difficulty of manipulating litter chemical composition to provide mechanistic insights into attributes of litter quality controlling

  12. Comparative Glycoproteome Analysis: Dynamics of Protein Glycosylation during Metamorphic Transition from Pelagic to Benthic Life Stages in Three Invertebrates

    KAUST Repository

    Chandramouli, Kondethimmanahalli; Zhang, Yu; Wong, Yue Him; Qian, Pei Yuan

    2012-01-01

    The life cycle of most benthic marine invertebrates has two distinct stages: the pelagic larval stage and the sessile juvenile stage. The transition between the larval stage and the juvenile stage is often abrupt and may be triggered by post

  13. Marine Microorganism-Invertebrate Assemblages: Perspectives to Solve the “Supply Problem” in the Initial Steps of Drug Discovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leal, Miguel Costa; Sheridan, Christopher; Osinga, Ronald; Dionísio, Gisela; Rocha, Rui Jorge Miranda; Silva, Bruna; Rosa, Rui; Calado, Ricardo

    2014-01-01

    The chemical diversity associated with marine natural products (MNP) is unanimously acknowledged as the “blue gold” in the urgent quest for new drugs. Consequently, a significant increase in the discovery of MNP published in the literature has been observed in the past decades, particularly from marine invertebrates. However, it remains unclear whether target metabolites originate from the marine invertebrates themselves or from their microbial symbionts. This issue underlines critical challenges associated with the lack of biomass required to supply the early stages of the drug discovery pipeline. The present review discusses potential solutions for such challenges, with particular emphasis on innovative approaches to culture invertebrate holobionts (microorganism-invertebrate assemblages) through in toto aquaculture, together with methods for the discovery and initial production of bioactive compounds from these microbial symbionts. PMID:24983638

  14. Marine Microorganism-Invertebrate Assemblages: Perspectives to Solve the “Supply Problem” in the Initial Steps of Drug Discovery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Costa Leal

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The chemical diversity associated with marine natural products (MNP is unanimously acknowledged as the “blue gold” in the urgent quest for new drugs. Consequently, a significant increase in the discovery of MNP published in the literature has been observed in the past decades, particularly from marine invertebrates. However, it remains unclear whether target metabolites originate from the marine invertebrates themselves or from their microbial symbionts. This issue underlines critical challenges associated with the lack of biomass required to supply the early stages of the drug discovery pipeline. The present review discusses potential solutions for such challenges, with particular emphasis on innovative approaches to culture invertebrate holobionts (microorganism-invertebrate assemblages through in toto aquaculture, together with methods for the discovery and initial production of bioactive compounds from these microbial symbionts.

  15. Linking hydro-morphology with invertebrate ecology in diverse morphological units of a large river-floodplain system

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Blettler, MCM

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available study were 1) to determine changes in invertebrate community due to hydrological stages, 2) to link local physical features [flow configuration, sediment composition and morphological feature) with the ecological structure between and within dissimilar...

  16. Bioaccumulation of sediment-bound Cr-51, Ni-63 and C-14 by benthic invertebrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumblad, L.; Bradshaw, C.; Giled, M.

    2004-01-01

    Sediments in many areas of the Baltic Sea are highly contaminated with particle-reactive trace metals and/or radionuclides. These may be re-mobilised into aquatic food chains by bioaccumulation into benthic organisms. In this study, we examined and compared assimilation efficiencies and bioaccumulation kinetics (rates of uptake and elimination) of sediment-associated Cr-51, Ni-63 and organic-associated C- 14 in three common benthic invertebrates from the Baltic Sea (the bivalve Macoma balthica, the amphipod Monoporeia affinis and the priapulid worm Halicryptus spinulosus). There were differences between animals and radionuclides in both the rate of uptake and elimination and the maximum amount accumulated. Understanding how and to what degree different deposit-feeding benthic invertebrates are exposed to and bio-accumulate sediment-associated metals are important for both ecological risk assessment and management decisions in coastal ecosystems. (author)

  17. Effects of urbanisation on macroalgae and sessile invertebrates in southeast Australian estuaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fowles, Amelia E.; Stuart-Smith, Rick D.; Stuart-Smith, Jemina F.; Hill, Nicole A.; Kirkpatrick, Jamie B.; Edgar, Graham J.

    2018-05-01

    The influence of anthropogenic and environmental factors on the composition, cover and dominance of macroalgae and sessile invertebrates was assessed in three capital city estuaries in south-eastern Australia. Heavy metals and proximity to ports showed the strongest relationships to the distribution of sessile reef biota after accounting for natural environmental gradients. The densities of laminarian, fucoid, brown and red foliose algae were negatively correlated with heavy metals, both in Port Phillip Bay (Melbourne) and the Derwent (Hobart), while turf, filamentous algae and some invertebrates were favoured. Sydney Harbour possessed a different pattern, with the laminarian kelp Ecklonia radiata most abundant near the main shipping port, probably because of biotic interactions involving urchin grazing in the lower estuary. Identifying drivers of benthic community pattern represents a key challenge for effective conservation management, particularly for estuaries affected by multiple anthropogenic impacts.

  18. Invertebrate composition and abundance associated with Didymosphenia geminata in a montane stream

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, Daniel A.; Ranney, Steven H.; Chipps, Steven R.; Spindler, Bryan D.

    2010-01-01

    Didymosphenia geminata, a relatively new aquatic nuisance species that can form extensive, mucilaginous mats on stream substrates, was reported from Rapid Creek, South Dakota in 2002. To examine the association between D. geminata and the invertebrate community in Rapid Creek, macroinvertebrates were quantified using three gear types in the fall of 2006. D. geminata was present at two of four sites sampled (range = 5.53 to 809.68 g m−2 dry mass). At each site, invertebrates were collected using dip nets, Surber samplers, and drift nets. The combined percentage of Ephemeroptera, Plecoptera, and Trichoptera in areas with D. geminata was lower (41%) than in areas without D. geminata (76%). Diptera abundance was higher at sites with D. geminata than in sites where D. geminata was absent.

  19. Finfish and aquatic invertebrate pathology resources for now and the future✩

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spitsbergen, Jan M.; Blazer, Vicki S.; Bowser, Paul R.; Cheng, Keith C.; Cooper, Keith R.; Cooper, Timothy K.; Frasca, Salvatore; Groman, David B.; Harper, Claudia M.; (Mac) Law, Jerry M.; Marty, Gary D.; Smolowitz, Roxanna M.; Leger, Judy St.; Wolf, Douglas C.; Wolf, Jeffrey C.

    2009-01-01

    Utilization of finfish and aquatic invertebrates in biomedical research and as environmental sentinels has grown dramatically in recent decades. Likewise the aquaculture of finfish and invertebrates has expanded rapidly worldwide as populations of some aquatic food species and threatened or endangered aquatic species have plummeted due to overharvesting or habitat degradation. This increasing intensive culture and use of aquatic species has heightened the importance of maintaining a sophisticated understanding of pathology of various organ systems of these diverse species. Yet, except for selected species long cultivated in aquaculture, pathology databases and the workforce of highly trained pathologists lag behind those available for most laboratory animals and domestic mammalian and avian species. Several factors must change to maximize the use, understanding, and protection of important aquatic species: 1) improvements in databases of abnormalities across species; 2) standardization of diagnostic criteria for proliferative and nonproliferative lesions; and 3) more uniform and rigorous training in aquatic morphologic pathology. PMID:18948226

  20. Effects on water chemistry, benthic invertebrates and brown trout following forest fertilization in central Sweden

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goethe, L.; Soederberg, H.; Sjoelander, E.

    1993-01-01

    Two coniferous forest drainage areas in central Sweden were partially fertilized with ammonium nitrate and calcium ammonium nitrate respectively, both at a dose of 150 kg N per ha. During the following years observations were made on stream water chemistry, invertebrates and brown trout (Salmo trutta L.). Upstream stations were used as controls. Very high concentrations of inorganic N (up to 45 mg l -1 ) were recorded immediately after the fertilization. Thereafter, concentration decreased rapidly but remained elevated during the whole study period. Acidity conditions (pH, alkalinity, aluminium) were unaffected by both treatments. The only registered effect on the benthic fauna was a three- to five-fold increase of drifting invertebrates during the first four-five days after the treatment. However, this did not reduce the population density at the treated stations. No effects on population of trout were recorded. (22 refs., 6 figs., 3 tabs.)

  1. Quantification of sulphur amino acids by ultra-high performance liquid chromatography in aquatic invertebrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thera, Jennifer C; Kidd, Karen A; Dodge-Lynch, M Elaine; Bertolo, Robert F

    2017-12-15

    We examined the performance of an ultra-high performance liquid chromatography method to quantify protein-bound sulphur amino acids in zooplankton. Both cysteic acid and methionine sulfone were linear from 5 to 250 pmol (r 2  = 0.99), with a method detection limit of 13 pmol and 9 pmol, respectively. Although there was no matrix effect on linearity, adjacent peaks and co-eluting noise from the invertebrate proteins increased the detection limits when compared to common standards. Overall, performance characteristics were reproducible and accurate, and provide a means for quantifying sulphur amino acids in aquatic invertebrates, an understudied group. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Vessel biofouling as an inadvertent vector of benthic invertebrates occurring in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrapeira, Cristiane Maria Rocha; Tenório, Deusinete de Oliveira; Amaral, Fernanda Duarte do

    2011-04-01

    This article reviews the literature involving benthic invertebrates that are cited in association with hull fouling, reporting the species that occur on the Brazilian coast and evaluating the importance of this vector for the introduction of nonindigenous and cryptogenic invertebrates in Brazil. It discusses some of the strategies that were used by the species that allowed for their overseas transport and made it easier to cross natural barriers that otherwise would have been obstacles to their dispersion. The compiled data list 343 species (65% nonindigenous and 35% cryptogenic), mainly from the northwestern Atlantic Ocean. The traveling fauna, composed mostly of cosmopolitan species (70.3%), is primarily euryhaline and marine stenohaline, with sessile and sedentary habits. After delineating the shipborne species' ecological profiles and traveling strategies and evaluating their overlapping vectors, we concluded that hull vessels were the main vector of introduction to the Brazilian coast for 89.8% of the compiled species. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. The role of ultrasonography in the diagnosis of gluteal muscle contracture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qiu; Lingyan, Zhang; Yan, Luo; Yulan, Peng

    2011-02-01

    To evaluate the use of ultrasonography (US) in the diagnosis of gluteal muscle contracture (GMC) by analysis of its imaging characteristics. Thirty-nine patients suspected of having GMC due to abnormal gait underwent pre-operative US. The diagnosis of GMC was confirmed by surgery in 27 patients. Six patients were diagnosed with congenital hip dysplasia, and the remaining six patients were diagnosed with sciatic nerve damage, post-poliomyelitis sequelae, and myasthenia gravis. For the patients with GMC, US showed muscle thinning and hyperechoic strips (specific for muscular contracture) in the muscles involved. In three patients with GMC, the strips were integrated into muscle bundles, demonstrating both strong and weak sonographic echoes. The sensitivity and specificity of the diagnosis of GMC using the presence of strips were 88.9% and 83.3%, respectively, and using muscle thinning, the sensitivity and specificity were 92.6% and 50%, respectively. The contracture strips, as measured by US, were significantly smaller than the actual measurements at the time of surgery, but there was a significant correlation between the two measurements (r = 0.814, P muscle (91.8%), and the lowest rate was found in the piriformis muscle (52.9%). Ultrasonography is a valuable tool for the diagnosis of GMC, especially for the detection of specific contracture strips in involved muscles. Its role in the pre-operative diagnosis of GMC also provides surgical planning that can guide subsequent treatment.

  4. Effect of mesohabitats on responses of invertebrate community structure in streams under different land uses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Marcos Vinícius Dias; Rosa, Beatriz F J V; Alves, Roberto G

    2015-11-01

    Riparian vegetation is one of the most important abiotic components determining the water flow pattern in lotic ecosystems, influencing the composition, richness, and diversity of invertebrates. We have identified whether differences in the structure of the assemblages of invertebrates between riffles and pools may influence the responses of fauna to the effects of land use. In addition, we investigated which fauna metrics are responsible for the differentiation between riffles and pools in streams subject to different land uses. During the dry season of 2012, the main substrates of riffles and pools were sampled (Surber collector) from nine streams within forest, pasture, and urban areas. Principal component analysis (PCA) and Permanova showed differences in the set of environmental variables between streams and mesohabitats. The first PCA axis distinguished the forest and pasture streams from the urban area streams and was related to variables indicative of nutrient enrichment and land use, while the second axis was formed by velocity flow and by the quantities of ultrafine and coarse sand, which distinguished the riffles and pools of the streams. The faunal composition distinguished the streams in pasture and forest areas from the urban streams. Riffles and pools were not concordant in the representation of the invertebrate fauna, indicating the importance of sampling both mesohabitats in the types of streams investigated. The richness, taxonomic composition, and relative abundance of families of Ephemeroptera, Plecoptera, and Trichoptera showed robust responses in riffles to the effects of environmental changes, while in pools, only the richness showed a significant response. It was possibly concluded that riffles were more sensitive in detecting the effects of land use. The information from this study help to understand how the community of invertebrates and the types of habitats in streams may be affected by anthropogenic impacts.

  5. Quantifying invertebrate resistance to floods: a global-scale meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMullen, Laura E; Lytle, David A

    2012-12-01

    Floods are a key component of the ecology and management of riverine ecosystems around the globe, but it is not clear whether floods have predictable effects on organisms that can allow us to generalize across regions and continents. To address this, we conducted a global-scale meta-analysis to investigate effects of natural and managed floods on invertebrate resistance, the ability of invertebrates to survive flood events. We considered 994 studies for inclusion in the analysis, and after evaluation based on a priori criteria, narrowed our analysis to 41 studies spanning six of the seven continents. We used the natural-log-ratio of invertebrate abundance before and within 10 days after flood events because this measure of effect size can be directly converted to estimates of percent survival. We conducted categorical and continuous analyses that examined the contribution of environmental and study design variables to effect size heterogeneity, and examined differences in effect size among taxonomic groups. We found that invertebrate abundance was lowered by at least one-half after flood events. While natural vs. managed floods were similar in their effect, effect size differed among habitat and substrate types, with pools, sand, and boulders experiencing the strongest effect. Although sample sizes were not sufficient to examine all taxonomic groups, floods had a significant, negative effect on densities of Coleoptera, Eumalacostraca, Annelida, Ephemeroptera, Diptera, Plecoptera, and Trichoptera. Results from this study provide guidance for river flow regime prescriptions that will be applicable across continents and climate types, as well as baseline expectations for future empirical studies of freshwater disturbance.

  6. Therapeutic properties and uses of marine invertebrates in the ancient Greek world and early Byzantium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voultsiadou, Eleni

    2010-07-20

    Marine organisms are currently investigated for the therapeutic potential of their natural products with very promising results. The human interest for their use in healing practices in the Eastern Mediterranean goes back to the antiquity. An attempt is made in the present work to investigate the therapeutic properties of marine invertebrates and the ways they were used in the medical practice during the dawn of the western medicine. The classical Greek texts of the Ancient Greek (Classical, Hellenistic and Roman) and early Byzantine period were studied and the data collected were analysed in order to extract detailed information on the parts of animal bodies and the ways they were used for healing purposes. Thirty-eight marine invertebrates were recorded for their therapeutic properties and uses in 40 works of 20 classical authors, covering a time period of 11 centuries (5th c. BC to 7th c. AD). The identified taxa were classified into 7 phyla and 11 classes of the animal kingdom, while molluscs were the dominant group. Marine invertebrates were more frequently used for their properties relevant to digestive, genitourinary and skin disorders. Flesh, broth, skeleton, or other special body parts of the animals were prepared as drinks, collyria, suppositories, cataplasms, compresses, etc. Marine invertebrates were well known for their therapeutic properties and had a prominent role in the medical practice during the Ancient Greek and the early Byzantine period. The diversity of animal species and their medicinal uses reflect the maritime nature of the Greek civilization, which flourished on the coasts and islands of the Aegean Sea. Most of them were common species exploited by humans for food or other everyday uses. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. What can an ecophysiological approach tell us about the physiological responses of marine invertebrates to hypoxia?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spicer, John I

    2014-01-01

    Hypoxia (low O2) is a common and natural feature of many marine environments. However, human-induced hypoxia has been on the rise over the past half century and is now recognised as a major problem in the world's seas and oceans. Whilst we have information on how marine invertebrates respond physiologically to hypoxia in the laboratory, we still lack understanding of how they respond to such stress in the wild (now and in the future). Consequently, here the question 'what can an ecophysiological approach tell us about physiological responses of marine invertebrates to hypoxia' is addressed. How marine invertebrates work in the wild when challenged with hypoxia is explored using four case studies centred on different hypoxic environments. The recent integration of the various -omics into ecophysiology is discussed, and a number of advantages of, and challenges to, successful integration are suggested. The case studies and -omic/physiology integration data are used to inform the concluding part of the review, where it is suggested that physiological responses to hypoxia in the wild are not always the same as those predicted from laboratory experiments. This is due to behaviour in the wild modifying responses, and therefore more than one type of 'experimental' approach is essential to reliably determine the actual response. It is also suggested that assuming it is known what a measured response is 'for' can be misleading and that taking parodies of ecophysiology seriously may impede research progress. This review finishes with the suggestion that an -omics approach is, and is becoming, a powerful method of understanding the response of marine invertebrates to environmental hypoxia and may be an ideal way of studying hypoxic responses in the wild. Despite centring on physiological responses to hypoxia, the review hopefully serves as a contribution to the discussion of what (animal) ecophysiology looks like (or should look like) in the 21st century.

  8. The mobile macro-invertebrate fauna of the Oosterschelde and the Westerschelde (SW Netherlands)

    OpenAIRE

    Hostens, K.; Mees, J.; Hummel, H.

    2003-01-01

    Abstract Both in the marine bay the Oosterschelde and in the Westerschelde estuary, the mobile macro- invertebrate fauna from sub tidal soft substrates was sampled with a three-metre beam trawl during 10 quarterly surveys between August 1999 and November 2001. A total of 35 species was recorded. In the Oosterschelde 33 species were found: 9 caridean prawns, 9 brachyuran crabs, 6 echinoderms, 3 caridean shrimps, 3 cephalopods, 2 anomuran crabs and 1 lobster. The dominating species in the Ooste...

  9. Ecoregion and land-use influence invertebrate and detritus transport from headwater streams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binckley, Christopher A.; Wipfli, Mark S.; Medhurst, R. Bruce; Polivka, Karl; Hessburg, Paul F.; Salter, R. Brion; Kill, Joshua Y.

    2010-01-01

    Summary 1. Habitats are often connected by fluxes of energy and nutrients across their boundaries. For example, headwater streams are linked to surrounding riparian vegetation through invertebrate and leaf litter inputs, and there is evidence that consumers in downstream habitats are subsidised by resources flowing from headwater systems. However, the strength of these linkages and the manner in which potential headwater subsidies vary along climatic and disturbance gradients are unknown.

  10. Seasonal fish and invertebrate communities in three northern California estuaries

    OpenAIRE

    Osborn, Katherine

    2017-01-01

    The majority of Northern California estuaries are small, flooded, river valleys that are largely unstudied due to their small sizes and remote locations. Yet these estuaries serve as important nursery areas for many marine fish species including rockfish, flatfish, smelt, and herring, and they are vital to anadromous species such as Chinook Salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) and Steelhead (O. mykiss). I sampled the summer and winter fish and invertebrate communities of the Big, Mad, and Ten Mi...

  11. Temperature tracking by North Sea benthic invertebrates in response to climate change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiddink, Jan G; Burrows, Michael T; García Molinos, Jorge

    2015-01-01

    Climate change is a major threat to biodiversity and distributions shifts are one of the most significant threats to global warming, but the extent to which these shifts keep pace with a changing climate is yet uncertain. Understanding the factors governing range shifts is crucial for conservation management to anticipate patterns of biodiversity distribution under future anthropogenic climate change. Soft-sediment invertebrates are a key faunal group because of their role in marine biogeochemistry and as a food source for commercial fish species. However, little information exists on their response to climate change. Here, we evaluate changes in the distribution of 65 North Sea benthic invertebrate species between 1986 and 2000 by examining their geographic, bathymetric and thermal niche shifts and test whether species are tracking their thermal niche as defined by minimum, mean or maximum sea bottom (SBT) and surface (SST) temperatures. Temperatures increased in the whole North Sea with many benthic invertebrates showing north-westerly range shifts (leading/trailing edges as well as distribution centroids) and deepening. Nevertheless, distribution shifts for most species (3.8-7.3 km yr(-1) interquantile range) lagged behind shifts in both SBT and SST (mean 8.1 km yr(-1)), resulting in many species experiencing increasing temperatures. The velocity of climate change (VoCC) of mean SST accurately predicted both the direction and magnitude of distribution centroid shifts, while maximum SST did the same for contraction of the trailing edge. The VoCC of SBT was not a good predictor of range shifts. No good predictor of expansions of the leading edge was found. Our results show that invertebrates need to shift at different rates and directions to track the climate velocities of different temperature measures, and are therefore lagging behind most temperature measures. If these species cannot withstand a change in thermal habitat, this could ultimately lead to a drop in

  12. The function of alginic acid on the radioactive contamination of some marine invertebrates deposite-feeders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amiard-Triquet, C.

    1975-01-01

    The contamination of invertebrates by radionuclides in a sedimentary environment is a function of the mobility of radioactive ions and especially of the mode of sorption of the radionuclides on the sediment and the ion retention by the algines. Since the enzymatic system of species feeding on the sediment includes little or no alginase, there occurs no desorption of the radionuclides during the passage of the algines along the digestive tract [fr

  13. Apparatus for investigating the reactions of soft-bodied invertebrates to controlled humidity gradients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, Joshua; Pierce-Shimomura, Jonathan T

    2014-11-30

    While many studies have assayed behavioral responses of animals to chemical, temperature and light gradients, fewer studies have assayed how animals respond to humidity gradients. Our novel humidity chamber has allowed us to study the neuromolecular basis of humidity sensation in the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans (Russell et al., 2014). We describe an easy-to-construct, low-cost humidity chamber to assay the behavior of small animals, including soft-bodied invertebrates, in controlled humidity gradients. We show that our humidity-chamber design is amenable to soft-bodied invertebrates and can produce reliable gradients ranging 0.3-8% RH/cm across a 9-cm long × 7.5-cm wide gel-covered arena. Previous humidity chambers relied on circulating dry and moist air to produce a steep humidity gradient in a small arena (e.g. Sayeed and Benzer, 1996). To remove the confound of moving air that may elicit mechanical responses independent of humidity responses, our chamber controlled the humidity gradient using reservoirs of hygroscopic materials. Additionally, to better observe the behavioral mechanisms for humidity responses, our chamber provided a larger arena. Although similar chambers have been described previously, these approaches were not suitable for soft-bodied invertebrates or for easy imaging of behavior because they required that animals move across wire or fabric mesh. The general applicability of our humidity chamber overcomes limitations of previous designs and opens the door to observe the behavioral responses of soft-bodied invertebrates, including genetically powerful C. elegans and Drosophila larvae. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Algal subsidies enhance invertebrate prey for threatened shorebirds: A novel conservation tool on ocean beaches?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlacher, Thomas A.; Hutton, Briony M.; Gilby, Ben L.; Porch, Nicholaus; Maguire, Grainne S.; Maslo, Brooke; Connolly, Rod M.; Olds, Andrew D.; Weston, Michael A.

    2017-05-01

    Birds breeding on ocean beaches are threatened globally, often requiring significant investments in species conservation and habitat management. Conservation actions typically encompass spatial and temporal threat reductions and protection of eggs and broods. Still, populations decline or recover only slowly, calling for fresh approaches in beach-bird conservation. Because energetic demands are critically high during the nesting and chick rearing phases, and chick survival is particularly low, supplementing prey to breeding birds and their offspring is theoretically attractive as a means to complement more traditional conservation measures. Prey for plovers and similar species on ocean beaches consists of invertebrates (e.g. small crustaceans, insects) many of which feed on stranded masses of plant material (e.g. kelp and seagrass) and use this 'wrack' as habitat. We added wrack to the upper beach where plovers nest and their chicks forage to test whether algal subsidies promote the abundance and diversity of their invertebrate prey. Adding wrack to the upper beach significantly increased the abundance and diversity of invertebrate prey items. At wrack subsidies greater than 50% of surface cover invertebrate assemblages became highly distinct compared with those that received smaller additions of wrack. Substantial (2-4 fold) increases in the abundance amphipods and isopods that are principal prey items for plovers drove these shifts. This proof-of-concept study demonstrates the feasibility of food provisioning for birds on ocean shores. Whilst novel, it is practicable, inexpensive and does not introduce further restrictions or man-made structures. Thus, it can meaningfully add to the broader arsenal of conservation tools for threatened species that are wholly reliant on sandy beaches as breeding and foraging habitats.

  15. Functional diversity of soil invertebrates: a potential tool to explain N2O emission?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lubbers, Ingrid; De Deyn, Gerlinde; Drake, Harold; Hunger, Sindy; Oppermann, Timo; van Groenigen, Jan Willem

    2017-04-01

    Soil biota play a crucial role in the mineralization of nutrients from organic material. However, they can thereby increase emissions of the potent greenhouse gas nitrous oxide (N2O). Our current lack of understanding of the factors controlling N2O production and emission is impeding the development of effective mitigation strategies. It is the challenge to control N2O emissions from production systems without reducing crop yield, and diversity of soil fauna may play a key role. A high functional diversity of soil invertebrates is known to stimulate nitrogen mineralization and thereby plant growth, however, it is unknown whether a high functional diversity of soil invertebrates can concurrently diminish N2O emissions. We hypothesized that increased functional diversity of soil invertebrates reduces faunal-induced N2O emissions by facilitating more complete denitrification through (i) stimulating the activity of denitrifying microbes, and (ii) affecting the distribution of micro and macro pores, creating more anaerobic reaction sites. Using state-of-the-art X-ray tomography and next-generation sequencing, we studied effects of functional diversity on soil structural properties and the diversity of the microbial community (16S rRNA genes and 16S rRNA), and linked these to soil N2O emissions. In a 120-day study we found that the functional composition of the soil invertebrate community determined N2O emissions: earthworm activity was key to faunal-induced N2O emissions (a 32-fold increase after 120 days, Pstructural properties (mean pore size, pore size distribution) were found to be radically altered by earthworm activity. We conclude that the presence of a few functional groups (ecosystem engineers) is more important than overall increased functional diversity in explaining faunal-affected N2O emissions.

  16. Causes and Extent of Declines among Native North American Invertebrate Pollinators: Detection, Evidence, and Consequences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James H. Cane

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available Ecosystem health and agricultural wealth in North America depend on a particular invertebrate fauna to deliver pollination services. Extensive losses in pollinator guilds and communities can disrupt ecosystem integrity, a circumstance that today forces most farmers to rely on honey bees for much fruit and seed production. Are North America's invertebrate pollinator faunas already widely diminished or currently threatened by human activities? How would we know, what are the spatiotemporal scales for detection, and which anthropogenic factors are responsible? Answers to these questions were considered by participants in a workshop sponsored by the National Center for Ecological Analysis and Synthesis in October of 1999, and these questions form the nucleus for the papers in this special issue. Several contributors critically interpret the evidence for declines of bee and fly pollinators, the pollination deficits that should ensue, and their economic costs. Spatiotemporal unruliness in pollinator numbers, particularly bees, is shown to hinder our current insights, highlighting the need for refined survey and sampling designs. At the same time, two remarkable studies clearly show the long-term persistence of members of complex bee communities. Other authors offer new perspectives on habitat fragmentation and global warming as drivers of pollinator declines. Bees and lepidopterans are contrasted in terms of their natural genetic variation and their consequent resilience in the face of population declines. Overall, many ecologists and conservation biologists have not fully appreciated the daunting challenges that accompany sampling designs, taxonomy, and the natural history of bees, flies, and other invertebrate pollinators, a circumstance that must be remedied if we are to reliably monitor invertebrate pollinator populations and respond to their declines with effective conservation measures.

  17. Ecdysozoan Mitogenomics: Evidence for a Common Origin of the Legged Invertebrates, the Panarthropoda

    OpenAIRE

    Rota-Stabelli, Omar; Kayal, Ehsan; Gleeson, Dianne; Daub, Jennifer; Boore, Jeffrey L.; Telford, Maximilian J.; Pisani, Davide; Blaxter, Mark; Lavrov, Dennis V.

    2010-01-01

    Ecdysozoa is the recently recognized clade of molting animals that comprises the vast majority of extant animal species and the most important invertebrate model organisms--the fruit fly and the nematode worm. Evolutionary relationships within the ecdysozoans remain, however, unresolved, impairing the correct interpretation of comparative genomic studies. In particular, the affinities of the three Panarthropoda phyla (Arthropoda, Onychophora, and Tardigrada) and the position of Myriapoda with...

  18. Systematic review of biological effects of exposure to static electric fields. Part II: Invertebrates and plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmiedchen, Kristina; Petri, Anne-Kathrin; Driessen, Sarah; Bailey, William H

    2018-01-01

    The construction of high-voltage direct current (HVDC) lines for the long-distance transport of energy is becoming increasingly popular. This has raised public concern about potential environmental impacts of the static electric fields (EF) produced under and near HVDC power lines. As the second part of a comprehensive literature analysis, the aim of this systematic review was to assess the effects of static EF exposure on biological functions in invertebrates and plants and to provide the basis for an environmental impact assessment of such exposures. The Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) was used to guide the methodological conduct and reporting. Thirty-three studies - 14 invertebrate and 19 plant studies - met the eligibility criteria and were included in this review. The reported behavioral responses of insects and planarians upon exposure strongly suggest that invertebrates are able to perceive the presence of a static EF. Many other studies reported effects on physiological functions that were expressed as, for example, altered metabolic activity or delayed reproductive and developmental stages in invertebrates. In plants, leaf damage, alterations in germination rates, growth and yield, or variations in the concentration of essential elements, for example, have been reported. However, these physiological responses and changes in plant morphology appear to be secondary to surface stimulation by the static EF or caused by concomitant parameters of the electrostatic environment. Furthermore, all of the included studies suffered from methodological flaws, which lowered credibility in the results. At field levels encountered from natural sources or HVDC lines (plants. At far higher field levels (> 35kV/m), adverse effects on physiology and morphology, presumably caused by corona-action, appear to be more likely. Higher quality studies are needed to unravel the role of air ions, ozone, nitric oxide and corona current on

  19. Possibilities of usage of aboveground invertebrates for indication of gradations of edaphotope moistening in forest ecosystems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. V. Brygadyrenko

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available By using the variance analysis the absence of a correlation between the different gradations of soil humidity and the number of dominant taxons of litter invertebrates, the ground beetles (Coleoptera, Carabidae, separate life-forms of the ground beetles and the indices of species diversity is demonstrated. The most sensitive indicator of soil humidity gradations in forest ecosystems is the mixophytophages part in the ground beetles’ complex.

  20. Some regularities in invertebrate succession in different microhabitats on pine stumps

    OpenAIRE

    Franch, Joan

    1989-01-01

    Sixty eight pine stumps felled on known dates from one to sixteen years before the moment of sampling have been studied in the San Juan de la Peña woodland (province of Huesca). Four microhabitats were distinguished: bark, subcortical space, sapwood and heartwood. The object of the study is to compare the invertebrate macrofauna succession of the different microhabitats in order to find regularities among them. The biocenosis has not been completely studied: ipidae, diptera and annelidae are ...

  1. An invertebrate TNF functional analogue activates macrophages via lectin-saccharide interaction with ion channels

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bilej, Martin; Josková, Radka; Van den Bergh, R.; Kohlerová, Petra; Šilerová, Marcela; Ameloot, P.; De Baetselier, P.; Beschin, A.

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 18, č. 12 (2006), s. 1663-1670 ISSN 0953-8178 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA310/02/1437; GA ČR GA310/04/0806; GA ČR GD310/03/H147 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50200510 Keywords : invertebrate cytokine * membrane depolarization * pattern-recognition protein Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 4.015, year: 2006

  2. Invertebrate succession on open coast coal post mining sites in response to the type of restoration

    OpenAIRE

    Hromádková, Šárka

    2014-01-01

    This review deals with development of invertebrates on sites after brown coal mining in response to the type of restoration. When the soil properties are improved, it is then necessary to mitigate negative threats such as landslides and erosion or low pH. The following is an overlap of fertile soil. Soil characteristics can be locally modified by diversifying of plantations of fast and slow growing wood species. After a succession of plants and the subsequent increase in litter layer, the dev...

  3. The alien terrestrial invertebrate fauna of the High Arctic archipelago of Svalbard: potential implications for the native flora and fauna

    OpenAIRE

    Stephen J. Coulson

    2015-01-01

    Experience from the Antarctic indicates that the establishment of alien species may have significant negative effects on native flora and fauna in polar regions and is considered to be amongst the greatest threats to biodiversity. But, there have been few similar studies from the Arctic. Although the terrestrial invertebrate inventory of the Svalbard Archipelago is amongst the most complete for any region of the Arctic, no consideration has yet been made of alien terrestrial invertebrate spec...

  4. Altered cross-bridge properties in skeletal muscle dystrophies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aziz eGuellich

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Force and motion generated by skeletal muscle ultimately depends on the cyclical interaction of actin with myosin. This mechanical process is regulated by intracellular Ca2+ through the thin filament-associated regulatory proteins i.e.; troponins and tropomyosin. Muscular dystrophies are a group of heterogeneous genetic affections characterized by progressive degeneration and weakness of the skeletal muscle as a consequence of loss of muscle tissue which directly reduces the number of potential myosin cross-bridges involved in force production. Mutations in genes responsible for skeletal muscle dystrophies have been shown to modify the function of contractile proteins and cross-bridge interactions. Altered gene expression or RNA splicing or post-translational modifications of contractile proteins such as those related to oxidative stress, may affect cross-bridge function by modifying key proteins of the excitation-contraction coupling. Micro-architectural change in myofilament is another mechanism of altered cross-bridge performance. In this review, we provide an overview about changes in cross-bridge performance in skeletal muscle dystrophies and discuss their ultimate impacts on striated muscle function.

  5. Effect of soil invertebrates on the formation of humic substances under laboratory conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frouz, J.; Li, X.; Brune, A.; Pizl, V.; Abakumov, E. V.

    2011-08-01

    The complete polymerization of phenols and proteins (one of the processes involved in the formation of humic substances) was explained. It was shown that fly ( Bibio marci) larvae and earthworms ( Aporrectodea caliginosa) participate in the complete polymerization of phenols and proteins. In a laboratory experiment, invertebrates participated in the degradation of organic matter and the synthesis of humic substances, which was proved in experiments with 14C-labeled phenols and proteins. The same organic substances (phenols and proteins) without the impact of invertebrates were used as the control substances. The distributions of the 14C isotope in alkaline extracts separated by solubility in acids (humic and fulvic acids) was compared to those of the control substances. The portion of the 14C isotope in the humic acids in the excrements of Bibio marci was higher than that in the control substances. The content of 14C-labeled humic substances in the excrements of the earthworm Aporrectodea caliginosa exceeded the control values only in the experiment with proteins. When clay material was added to the organic substances, the portion of the 14C isotope in the humic acids increased in both experiments with phenols and proteins. When these substrates passed through the digestive tracts of the invertebrates, the polymerization of organic substances and the inclusion of proteins and phenols into humic acids occurred.

  6. Antifouling activity in some benthic Antarctic invertebrates by "in situ" experiments at Deception Island, Antarctica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angulo-Preckler, Carlos; Cid, Cristina; Oliva, Francesc; Avila, Conxita

    2015-04-01

    Competition for space is a remarkable ecological force, comparable to predation, producing a strong selective pressure on benthic invertebrates. Some invertebrates, thus, possess antimicrobial compounds to reduce surface bacterial growth. Antimicrobial inhibition is the first step in avoiding being overgrown by other organisms, which may have a negative impact in feeding, respiration, reproduction … The in situ inhibition of bacterial biofilm was used here as an indicator of antifouling activity by testing hydrophilic extracts of twelve Antarctic invertebrates. Using two different approaches (genetics and confocal techniques) different levels of activity were found in the tested organisms. In fact, differences within body parts of the studied organisms were determined, in agreement with the Optimal Defense Theory. Eight out of 15 extracts tested had negative effects on fouling after 28 days submerged in Antarctic waters. Thus, although chemical defenses may be quite species-specific in their ecological roles, these results suggest that different chemical strategies exist to deal with space competition. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Experimental manipulation of leaf litter colonization by aquatic invertebrates in a third order tropical stream.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uieda, V S; Carvalho, E M

    2015-05-01

    Through a manipulative experiment, the colonization of leaf litter by invertebrates was investigated in two sections of a tropical stream (spatial scale) that differed in function of the canopy cover, one with the presence (closed area) and another without riparian vegetation (open area), during one month of the dry and one of the wet season (temporal scale). The work aimed to verify differences related to four variables: season, canopy cover, leaf type and leaf condition. Litter bags containing arboreal and herbaceous leaves (leaf type variable), non-conditioned and preconditioned (leaf condition variable) were placed at the bottom of the stream in each area (canopy cover variable) and season (dry and wet), and removed after 13-day colonization. The analysis of the remaining litter dry mass per leaf bag emphasizes differences related mainly to seasonality, canopy cover and leaf type, although leaf condition was also important when combined with those three factors. Comparing the abundance of invertebrates per treatment, there was a tendency of high predominance of Chironomidae during the dry season and greater taxa diversity and evenness during the wet season, when the water flow increase could alter the availability of microhabitats for local fauna. Even though canopy cover alone was not a significant source of variation in the abundance of invertebrates, the results showed a tendency of a combined effect of canopy cover with seasonality and leaf condition.

  8. Joint use of laboratory bioassays and field-collected invertebrates to evaluate toxicity and contaminant bioaccumulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Long, S.P.; Byron, E.R.; Ohlendorf, H.M.

    1995-01-01

    Soil toxicity tests using earthworms (Eisenia andrei) were conducted using soil samples collected as part of ecological risk assessments for several sites at two facilities in California. At some sites, earthworms or other terrestrial invertebrates were collected in the field for chemical analysis. Ecological concerns focused on exposures to soil invertebrates and their secondary consumers, such as birds and small mammals. The toxicity tests were used to assess potential exposures to a variety of site-specific contaminants including organochlorine pesticides, PCBs, PAHs, petroleum hydrocarbons, heavy metals, and other inorganic substances. Site soils were combined with clean control soils to produce toxicity test soil dilutions containing 100%, 75%, 50%, 25%, and 0% site soils. Earthworm mortality and other observations were made at day 0, 7, 14, 21 and 28. Toxicity test results were combined with soil chemical analytical results and physical characteristics to establish NOAELs and LOAELs. Bioaccumulation in the laboratory earthworms and field-collected invertebrates was evaluated by comparing whole-body contaminant to soil contaminant concentrations. Allometric equations and sublethal toxicity data were used to predict potential effects on birds and small mammals. Earthworm toxicity tests indicated a wide range of sensitivity to on-site contaminants and showed the importance of considering potential confounding influences due to soil parameters other than contaminant concentration

  9. Factors affecting methylmercury biomagnification by a widespread aquatic invertebrate predator, the phantom midge larvae Chaoborus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Le Jeune, Anne-Hélène; Bourdiol, Floriane; Aldamman, Lama; Perron, Tania; Amyot, Marc; Pinel-Alloul, Bernadette

    2012-01-01

    MeHg biomagnification by the phantom midge Chaoborus in relation to MeHg concentrations in their prey and its migratory behavior was investigated in two Canadian Precambrian Shield lakes. Three Chaoborus species with contrasted migratory behavior were collected in a fishless and a fish-inhabited lake. All species accumulated MeHg through their ontogenic development. In the lake inhabited by fish, all instars of Chaoborus punctipennis displayed a marked migratory behavior and were unable to biomagnify MeHg, whereas in the fishless lake, Chaoborus americanus and Chaoborus trivittatus biomagnified MeHg. Reduced biomagnification capacity of C. trivittatus, the coexisting species living with C. americanus, was also ascribed to a progressive vertical segregation with age. Growth dilution, amount and type of prey items or trophic position could not explain the different patterns of biomagnification. Our findings demonstrate that the most common invertebrate predator of temperate planktonic food webs can biomagnify mercury, contrarily to previous reports. - Highlights: ► Chaoborids are key invertebrate predators of temperate freshwater food webs. ► We sampled three Chaoborus species with contrasted migratory behavior. ► All species accumulated MeHg through their development. ► We found that some species could biomagnify mercury. ► The best biomagnifiers were those who migrated the least. - Chaoborids, the most common invertebrate predator of temperate planktonic food webs, can biomagnify mercury, contrarily to previous reports.

  10. Lesions of Copper Toxicosis in Captive Marine Invertebrates With Comparisons to Normal Histology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaDouceur, E E B; Wynne, J; Garner, M M; Nyaoke, A; Keel, M K

    2016-05-01

    Despite increasing concern for coral reef ecosystem health within the last decade, there is scant literature concerning the histopathology of diseases affecting the major constituents of coral reef ecosystems, particularly marine invertebrates. This study describes histologic findings in 6 species of marine invertebrates (California sea hare [Aplysia californica], purple sea urchin [Strongylocentrotus purpuratus], sunburst anemone [Anthopleura sola], knobby star [Pisaster giganteus], bat star [Asterina miniata], and brittle star [Ophiopteris papillosa]) with spontaneous copper toxicosis, 4 purple sea urchins with experimentally induced copper toxicosis, and 1 unexposed control of each species listed. The primary lesions in the California sea hare with copper toxicosis were branchial and nephridial necrosis. Affected echinoderms shared several histologic lesions, including epidermal necrosis and ulceration and increased numbers of coelomocytes within the water-vascular system. The sunburst anemone with copper toxicosis had necrosis of both epidermis and gastrodermis, as well as expulsion of zooxanthellae from the gastrodermis. In addition to the lesions attributed to copper toxicosis, our results describe normal microscopic features of these animals that may be useful for histopathologic assessment of marine invertebrates. © The Author(s) 2015.

  11. A critical review of the potential impacts of marine seismic surveys on fish & invertebrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carroll, A G; Przeslawski, R; Duncan, A; Gunning, M; Bruce, B

    2017-01-15

    Marine seismic surveys produce high intensity, low-frequency impulsive sounds at regular intervals, with most sound produced between 10 and 300Hz. Offshore seismic surveys have long been considered to be disruptive to fisheries, but there are few ecological studies that target commercially important species, particularly invertebrates. This review aims to summarise scientific studies investigating the impacts of low-frequency sound on marine fish and invertebrates, as well as to critically evaluate how such studies may apply to field populations exposed to seismic operations. We focus on marine seismic surveys due to their associated unique sound properties (i.e. acute, low-frequency, mobile source locations), as well as fish and invertebrates due to the commercial value of many species in these groups. The main challenges of seismic impact research are the translation of laboratory results to field populations over a range of sound exposure scenarios and the lack of sound exposure standardisation which hinders the identification of response thresholds. An integrated multidisciplinary approach to manipulative and in situ studies is the most effective way to establish impact thresholds in the context of realistic exposure levels, but if that is not practical the limitations of each approach must be carefully considered. Crown Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Eukaryotic tRNAs fingerprint invertebrates vis-à-vis vertebrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitra, Sanga; Das, Pijush; Samadder, Arpa; Das, Smarajit; Betai, Rupal; Chakrabarti, Jayprokas

    2015-01-01

    During translation, aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases recognize the identities of the tRNAs to charge them with their respective amino acids. The conserved identities of 58,244 eukaryotic tRNAs of 24 invertebrates and 45 vertebrates in genomic tRNA database were analyzed and their novel features extracted. The internal promoter sequences, namely, A-Box and B-Box, were investigated and evidence gathered that the intervention of optional nucleotides at 17a and 17b correlated with the optimal length of the A-Box. The presence of canonical transcription terminator sequences at the immediate vicinity of tRNA genes was ventured. Even though non-canonical introns had been reported in red alga, green alga, and nucleomorph so far, fairly motivating evidence of their existence emerged in tRNA genes of other eukaryotes. Non-canonical introns were seen to interfere with the internal promoters in two cases, questioning their transcription fidelity. In a first of its kind, phylogenetic constructs based on tRNA molecules delineated and built the trees of the vast and diverse invertebrates and vertebrates. Finally, two tRNA models representing the invertebrates and the vertebrates were drawn, by isolating the dominant consensus in the positional fluctuations of nucleotide compositions.

  13. Nucleic acid-induced antiviral immunity in invertebrates: an evolutionary perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Pei-Hui; Weng, Shao-Ping; He, Jian-Guo

    2015-02-01

    Nucleic acids derived from viral pathogens are typical pathogen associated molecular patterns (PAMPs). In mammals, the recognition of viral nucleic acids by pattern recognition receptors (PRRs), which include Toll-like receptors (TLRs) and retinoic acid-inducible gene (RIG)-I-like receptors (RLRs), induces the release of inflammatory cytokines and type I interferons (IFNs) through the activation of nuclear factor κB (NF-κB) and interferon regulatory factor (IRF) 3/7 pathways, triggering the host antiviral state. However, whether nucleic acids can induce similar antiviral immunity in invertebrates remains ambiguous. Several studies have reported that nucleic acid mimics, especially dsRNA mimic poly(I:C), can strongly induce non-specific antiviral immune responses in insects, shrimp, and oyster. This behavior shows multiple similarities to the hallmarks of mammalian IFN responses. In this review, we highlight the current understanding of nucleic acid-induced antiviral immunity in invertebrates. We also discuss the potential recognition and regulatory mechanisms that confer non-specific antiviral immunity on invertebrate hosts. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Biosynthesis of Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids in Marine Invertebrates: Recent Advances in Molecular Mechanisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monroig, Óscar; Tocher, Douglas R.; Navarro, Juan C.

    2013-01-01

    Virtually all polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) originate from primary producers but can be modified by bioconversions as they pass up the food chain in a process termed trophic upgrading. Therefore, although the main primary producers of PUFA in the marine environment are microalgae, higher trophic levels have metabolic pathways that can produce novel and unique PUFA. However, little is known about the pathways of PUFA biosynthesis and metabolism in the levels between primary producers and fish that are largely filled by invertebrates. It has become increasingly apparent that, in addition to trophic upgrading, de novo synthesis of PUFA is possible in some lower animals. The unequivocal identification of PUFA biosynthetic pathways in many invertebrates is complicated by the presence of other organisms within them. These organisms include bacteria and algae with PUFA biosynthesis pathways, and range from intestinal flora to symbiotic relationships that can involve PUFA translocation to host organisms. This emphasizes the importance of studying biosynthetic pathways at a molecular level, and the continual expansion of genomic resources and advances in molecular analysis is facilitating this. The present paper highlights recent research into the molecular and biochemical mechanisms of PUFA biosynthesis in marine invertebrates, particularly focusing on cephalopod molluscs. PMID:24152561

  15. Do lake littoral benthic invertebrates respond differently to eutrophication, hydromorphological alteration, land use and fish stocking?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Šiling Rebeka

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to provide adequate guidelines in freshwater management, managers need reliable bioindicators that can respond differently to varied stressors. Managers also have to consider hierarchical structure of environmental factors. Thus, our research aims to test the independence of taxa responses along environmental gradients and to examine in what order natural and anthropogenic factors constrain the structure of littoral benthic assemblages. The rank of explained variance of littoral benthic assemblage's variable group hierarchy was: land use > landscape characteristics > eutrophication > fish stocking > hydromorphological alteration. We determined nine gradients (two natural and seven stressor gradients, separated into five groups based on statistically significant differences in responsiveness of taxa. Apart from responsiveness to natural factors, littoral benthic invertebrates could be used as bioindicators for stressors reflecting urbanization, eutrophication, hydromorphological alteration and fish stocking. The taxonomical composition of littoral benthic invertebrates, especially when taxa with preference for certain relatively narrow environmental conditions along gradients are present, can be used to identify effects of key stressors. Our findings have profound implications for ecological assessment and management of lakes, as they indicate that benthic invertebrates can be used when the effects of multiple stressors need to be disentangled.

  16. Diversity of helminth parasites in aquatic invertebrate hosts in Latin America: how much do we know?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguirre-Macedo, M L; May-Tec, A L; Martínez-Aquino, A; Cremonte, F; Martorelli, S R

    2017-03-01

    Helminths in aquatic invertebrate hosts have been overlooked in comparison with vertebrate hosts. Therefore, the known diversity, ecology and distribution of these host-parasite systems are very limited in terms of their taxonomic diversity, habitat and geographic regions. In this study we examined the published literature on helminth parasites of aquatic invertebrates from Latin America and the Caribbean (LAC) to identify the state of the knowledge in the region and to identify patterns of helminth diversity. Results showed that 67% of the literature is from Argentina, Mexico and Brazil. We found records for 772 host-parasite associations. Most records relate to medically or economically important hosts. Molluscs were the most studied host group with 377 helminth records (80% trematodes). The lymnaeids and planorbids were the most studied molluscs across LAC. Arthropods were the second most studied host group with 78 helminth records (trematodes 38%, cestodes 24% and nematodes 20%), with shrimps and crabs being the most studied hosts. Host species with the largest number of helminth taxa were those with a larger sampling effort through time, usually in a small country region. No large geographical-scale studies were identified. In general, the knowledge is still too scarce to allow any zoogeographical or helminth diversity generalization, as most hosts have been studied locally and the studies on invertebrate hosts in LAC are substantially uneven among countries.

  17. Climate change links fate of glaciers and an endemic alpine invertebrate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muhlfeld, Clint C.; Giersch, J. Joseph; Hauer, F. Richard; Pederson, Gregory T.; Luikart, Gordon; Peterson, Douglas P.; Downs, Christopher C.; Fagre, Daniel B.

    2011-01-01

    Climate warming in the mid- to high-latitudes and high-elevation mountainous regions is occurring more rapidly than anywhere else on Earth, causing extensive loss of glaciers and snowpack. However, little is known about the effects of climate change on alpine stream biota, especially invertebrates. Here, we show a strong linkage between regional climate change and the fundamental niche of a rare aquatic invertebrate—themeltwater stonefly Lednia tumana—endemic toWaterton- Glacier International Peace Park, Canada and USA. L. tumana has been petitioned for listing under the U.S. Endangered Species Act due to climate-change-induced glacier loss, yet little is known on specifically how climate impacts may threaten this rare species and many other enigmatic alpine aquatic species worldwide. During 14 years of research, we documented that L. tumana inhabits a narrow distribution, restricted to short sections (∼500 m) of cold, alpine streams directly below glaciers, permanent snowfields, and springs. Our simulation models suggest that climate change threatens the potential future distribution of these sensitive habitats and persistence of L. tumana through the loss of glaciers and snowfields. Mountaintop aquatic invertebrates are ideal early warning indicators of climate warming in mountain ecosystems. Research on alpine invertebrates is urgently needed to avoid extinctions and ecosystem change.

  18. Using latent effects to determine the ecological importance of dissolved organic matter to marine invertebrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wendt, Dean E; Johnson, Collin H

    2006-10-01

    The uptake and utilization of dissolved organic matter (DOM) by marine invertebrates is a field that has received significant attention over the past 100 years. Although it is well established that DOM is taken up by marine invertebrates, the extent to which it contributes to an animal's survival, growth, and reproduction (that is, the ecological benefits) remains largely unknown. Previous work seeking to demonstrate the putative ecological benefits of DOM uptake have examined them within a single life stage of an animal. Moreover, most of the benefits are demonstrated through indirect approaches by examining (1) mass balance, or (2) making comparisons of oxyenthalpic conversions of transport rates to metabolic rate as judged by oxygen consumption. We suggest that directly examining delayed metamorphosis or the latent effects associated with nutritional stress of larvae is a better model for investigating the ecological importance of DOM to marine invertebrates. We also provide direct evidence that availability of DOM enhances survival and growth of the bryozoan Bugula neritina. That DOM offsets latent effects in B. neritina suggests that the underlying mechanisms are at least in part energetic.

  19. A mesocosm approach for detecting stream invertebrate community responses to treated wastewater effluent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grantham, Theodore E.; Cañedo-Argüelles, Miguel; Perrée, Isabelle; Rieradevall, Maria; Prat, Narcís

    2012-01-01

    The discharge of wastewater from sewage treatment plants is one of the most common forms of pollution to river ecosystems, yet the effects on aquatic invertebrate assemblages have not been investigated in a controlled experimental setting. Here, we use a mesocosm approach to evaluate community responses to exposure to different concentrations of treated wastewater effluents over a two week period. Multivariate analysis using Principal Response Curves indicated a clear, dose-effect response to the treatments, with significant changes in macroinvertebrate assemblages after one week when exposed to 30% effluent, and after two weeks in the 15% and 30% effluent treatments. Treatments were associated with an increase in nutrient concentrations (ammonium, sulfate, and phosphate) and reduction of dissolved oxygen. These findings indicate that exposure to wastewater effluent cause significant changes in abundance and composition of macroinvertebrate taxa and that effluent concentration as low as 5% can have detectable ecological effects. - Highlights: ► Stream invertebrate communities are altered by exposure to wastewater effluent. ► Principal Response Curves indicate a dose-effect response to effluent treatment. ► Biotic quality indices decline with increasing effluent concentration and exposure time. ► Effluent concentrations as low as 5% have detectable ecological effects. - Exposure to treated effluent in a stream mesocosm caused a dose-dependent response in the aquatic invertebrate community and led to declines in biological quality indices.

  20. Glycosaminoglycans analogues from marine invertebrates: structure, biological effects and potential as new therapeutics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauro Sergio Pavao

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available In this review, several glycosaminoglycan analogs obtained from different marine invertebrate are reported. The structure, biological activity and mechanism of action of these unique molecules are detailed reviewed and exemplified by experiments in vitro and in vivo. Among the glycans studied are low-sulfated heparin-like polymers from ascidians, containing significant anticoagulant activity and no bleeding effect; dermatan sulfates with significant neurite outgrowth promoting activity and anti-P-selectin from ascidians, and a unique fucosylated chondroitin sulfate from sea cucumbers, possessing anticoagulant activity after oral administration and high anti P- and L-selectin activities. The therapeutic value and safety of these invertebrate glycans have been extensively proved by several experimental animal models of diseases, including thrombosis, inflammation and metastasis. These invertebrate glycans can be obtained in high concentrations from marine organisms that have been used as a food source for decades, and usually obtained from marine farms in sufficient quantities to be used as starting material for new therapeutics.

  1. Tropical CO2 seeps reveal the impact of ocean acidification on coral reef invertebrate recruitment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Ro; Foggo, Andrew; Fabricius, Katharina; Balistreri, Annalisa; Hall-Spencer, Jason M

    2017-11-30

    Rising atmospheric CO 2 concentrations are causing ocean acidification by reducing seawater pH and carbonate saturation levels. Laboratory studies have demonstrated that many larval and juvenile marine invertebrates are vulnerable to these changes in surface ocean chemistry, but challenges remain in predicting effects at community and ecosystem levels. We investigated the effect of ocean acidification on invertebrate recruitment at two coral reef CO 2 seeps in Papua New Guinea. Invertebrate communities differed significantly between 'reference' (median pH7.97, 8.00), 'high CO 2 ' (median pH7.77, 7.79), and 'extreme CO 2 ' (median pH7.32, 7.68) conditions at each reef. There were also significant reductions in calcifying taxa, copepods and amphipods as CO 2 levels increased. The observed shifts in recruitment were comparable to those previously described in the Mediterranean, revealing an ecological mechanism by which shallow coastal systems are affected by near-future levels of ocean acidification. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Multifractal analyis of soil invertebrates along a transect under different land uses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machado Siqueira, Glécio; Alves Silva, Raimunda; Vidal-Vázquez, Eva; Paz-González, Antonio

    2017-04-01

    Soil fauna play a central role in many essential ecosystem processes. Land use and management can have a dramatic effect upon soil invertebrate community. Indices based on soil invertebrates abundance and diversity are fundamental for soil quality assessment. Many soil properties and attributes have been shown to exhibit spatial variabilityThe aim of this study was to analyze the scaling heterogeneity of the soil invertebrate community sampled using pitfall traps across a transect. The field study was conducted at Mata Roma municipality, Maranhão State, Brazil. Transects were marked under seven different agricultural/forestry land uses (millet, soybean, maize, eucalyptus, pasture, secondary savannah and native savannah). Native vegetation was considered as a reference, whereas the agricultural fields showed a range of soil use intensities. Along these transects 130 pitfall per land use were installed. First, differences in community assemblages and composition under different land use systems were evaluated using classical indices. Then, the spatial distribution of soil fauna trapped by pitfall techniques, characterized through generalized dimension, Dq, and singularity spectra, f(α) - α, showed a well-defined multifractal structure. Differences in scaling heterogeneity and other multifractal characteristics were examined in relation to land use intensification.

  3. Bright lights, big city: influences of ecological light pollution on reciprocal stream-riparian invertebrate fluxes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Lars A; Sullivan, S Mazeika P

    2013-09-01

    Cities produce considerable ecological light pollution (ELP), yet the effects of artificial night lighting on biological communities and ecosystem function have not been fully explored. From June 2010 to June 2011, we surveyed aquatic emergent insects, riparian arthropods entering the water, and riparian spiders of the family Tetragnathidae at nine stream reaches representing common ambient ELP levels of Columbus, Ohio, USA, streams (low, 0.1-0.5 lux; moderate, 0.6-2.0 lux; high, 2.1-4.0 lux). In August 2011, we experimentally increased light levels at the low- and moderate-treatment reaches to 10-12 lux to represent urban streams exposed to extremely high levels of ELP. Although season exerted the dominant influence on invertebrate fluxes over the course of the year, when analyzed by season, we found that light strongly influenced multiple invertebrate responses. The experimental light addition resulted in a 44% decrease in tetragnathid spider density (P = 0.035), decreases of 16% in family richness (P = 0.040) and 76% in mean body size (P = 0.022) of aquatic emergent insects, and a 309% increase in mean body size of terrestrial arthropods (P = 0.015). Our results provide evidence that artificial light sources can alter community structure and ecosystem function in streams via changes in reciprocal aquatic-terrestrial fluxes of invertebrates.

  4. A systematic review of the effectiveness of liming to mitigate impacts of river acidification on fish and macro-invertebrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mant, Rebecca C.; Jones, David L.; Reynolds, Brian; Ormerod, Steve J.; Pullin, Andrew S.

    2013-01-01

    The addition of calcium carbonate to catchments or watercourses – liming – has been used widely to mitigate freshwater acidification but the abatement of acidifying emissions has led to questions about its effectiveness and necessity. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of the impact of liming streams and rivers on two key groups of river organisms: fish and invertebrates. On average, liming increased the abundance and richness of acid-sensitive invertebrates and increased overall fish abundance, but benefits were variable and not guaranteed in all rivers. Where B-A-C-I designs (before-after-control-impact) were used to reduce bias, there was evidence that liming decreased overall invertebrate abundance. This systematic review indicates that liming has the potential to mitigate the symptoms of acidification in some instances, but effects are mixed. Future studies should use robust designs to isolate recovery due to liming from decreasing acid deposition, and assess factors affecting liming outcomes. -- Highlights: •In a systematic review and meta-analysis, we asked how river liming affected fish and invertebrates. •On average, liming increased fish abundance. •Liming also increased average abundance and richness of acid-sensitive invertebrates. •However, benefits were variable and not guaranteed in all acidified rivers. -- A systematic review showed lime application to acidified rivers increased average fish abundance, and abundance and richness in acid-sensitive invertebrates, but not always

  5. The relation between Acid Volatile Sulfides (AVS) and metal accumulation in aquatic invertebrates: Implications of feeding behavior and ecology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Jonge, Maarten; Blust, Ronny; Bervoets, Lieven

    2010-01-01

    The present study evaluates the relationship between Acid Volatile Sulfides (AVS) and metal accumulation in invertebrates with different feeding behavior and ecological preferences. Natural sediments, pore water and surface water, together with benthic and epibenthic invertebrates were sampled at 28 Flemish lowland rivers. Different metals as well as metal binding sediment characteristics including AVS were measured and multiple regression was used to study their relationship with accumulated metals in the invertebrates taxa. Bioaccumulation in the benthic taxa was primarily influenced by total metal concentrations in the sediment. Regarding the epibenthic taxa metal accumulation was mostly explained by the more bioavailable metal fractions in both the sediment and the water. AVS concentrations were generally better correlated with metal accumulation in the epibenthic invertebrates, rather than with the benthic taxa. Our results indicated that the relation between AVS and metal accumulation in aquatic invertebrates is highly dependent on feeding behavior and ecology. - The relation between AVS and metal accumulation in aquatic invertebrates is highly dependent on feeding behavior and ecology.

  6. The effect of palytoxin on neuromuscular junctions in the anococcygeus muscle of the rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amir, I; Harris, J B; Zar, M A

    1997-06-01

    Palytoxin, a highly toxic natural product isolated from zoanthids of the genus Palythoa, is accumulated by a wide range of fishes and marine invertebrates used as food in the Indo-Pacific. It is responsible for many incidents of human morbidity and mortality. The toxin is a potent smooth muscle spasmogen. The cause of the contraction of smooth muscle is unclear, but recent work strongly suggests that it is primarily initiated by the release of neurotransmitters from the motor innervation of the smooth muscle. We show here that palytoxin caused the swelling of the muscle cells and some internal organelles of the anococcygeus muscle of the rat, but no substantial structural damage to the tissue. Axons and Schwann cells were also swollen but the most dramatic feature was the depletion of synaptic vesicles from putative release sites in the axons. Some axons were physically damaged following exposure to the toxin, but this was relatively uncommon (< 10% of all axons studied). In the majority of axons there was no damage to nerve terminal membranes, but there was damage to mitochondria. The depletion of vesicles involved all types-clear, dense-cored, large and small. Our observations and pharmacological data gathered elsewhere, provide a neuropathological basis for the spasmogenic activity of palytoxin.

  7. Radionuclide behaviour and transport in a coniferous woodland ecosystem. Vegetation, invertebrates and wood mice, Apodemus sylvaticus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Copplestone, D.; Johnson, M.S.; Toal, M.E.; Jones, S.R.; Jackson, D.

    1999-01-01

    Activity concentrations of radionuclides (134Cs, 137Cs, 238Pu, 239+240Pu and 241Am) were measured in vegetation, invertebrates and wood mice, Apodemus sylvaticus, collected in Lady Wood, a coniferous woodland in the vicinity of the British Nuclear Fuels reprocessing plant at Sellafield, Cumbria, UK. Vegetation was of low diversity and biomass with activity concentrations ranging from 1 to 5 Bq kg -1 (134Cs), 0.3-0.5 Bq kg -1 (238Pu), 0.8-8 Bq kg -1 (239+240Pu), and 0.6-16 Bq kg -1 (241Am), dry wt. Caesium-137 activity concentrations were high compared to the reference site in Cheshire, varying between 65 and 280 Bq kg -1 . Marked inter-specific and temporal differences in radionuclide activity concentrations were recorded for invertebrate populations. Caesium-137, 238Pu, 239+240Pu and 241Am activity concentrations in detritivorous invertebrates were consistently higher than in all other invertebrate groups reflecting contamination of the leaf litter. The activity concentrations in detritivores increased during the autumn and winter, reflecting changes in diet as food sources varied throughout the year. Activity concentrations in invertebrates caught in Lady Wood were generally an order of magnitude higher than for the reference site. Activity concentrations in wood mice varied between 7 and 150 Bq kg -1 (137Cs), 0.1-0.3 Bq kg -1 (238Pu), 0.1-0.6 Bq kg -1 (239+240Pu) and 0.2-0.4 Bq kg -1 (241Am). There were clear differences in the activity concentration of 137Cs (P<0.01), 239+240Pu (P<0.05) and 241Am (P<0.05) in animals caught in Lady Wood compared to the reference site. However, the activity concentrations for 238Pu were similar at both sites, reflecting a low gastrointestinal transfer. Seasonal variation in activity concentrations was observed for 137Cs, 238Pu and 241Am. This variation is attributed to changes in the age structure of the population and diet throughout the year

  8. Stream invertebrate productivity linked to forest subsidies: 37 stream-years of reference and experimental data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, J Bruce; Eggert, Susan L; Meyer, Judy L; Webster, Jackson R

    2015-05-01

    Riparian habitats provide detrital subsidies of varying quantities and qualities to recipient ecosystems. We used long-term data from three reference streams (covering 24 stream-years) and 13-year whole-stream organic matter manipulations to investigate the influence of terrestrial detrital quantity and quality on benthic invertebrate community structure, abundance, biomass, and secondary production in rockface (RF) and mixed substrates (MS) of forested headwater streams. Using a mesh canopy covering the entire treatment stream, we examined effects of litter ex'clusion, small- and large-wood removal, and addition of artificial wood (PVC) and leaves of varying quality on organic matter standing crops and invertebrate community structure and function. We assessed differences in functional feeding group distribution between substrate types as influenced by organic matter manipulations and long-term patterns of predator and prey production in manipulated vs. reference years. Particulate organic matter standing crops in MS of the treatment stream declined drastically with each successive year of litter exclusion, approaching zero after three years. Monthly invertebrate biomass and annual secondary production was positively related to benthic organic matter in the MS habitats. Rockface habitats exhibited fewer changes than MS habitats across all organic matter manipulations. With leaf addition, the patterns of functional group distribution among MS and RF habitats returned to patterns seen in reference streams. Secondary production per unit organic matter standing crop was greatest for the leaf addition period, followed by the reference streams, and significantly less for the litter exclusion and wood removal periods. These data indicate that the limited organic matter remaining in the stream following litter exclusion and wood removal was more refractory than that in the reference streams, whereas the added leaf material was more labile and readily converted into

  9. Cellular and molecular modifier pathways in tauopathies: the big picture from screening invertebrate models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hannan, Shabab B; Dräger, Nina M; Rasse, Tobias M; Voigt, Aaron; Jahn, Thomas R

    2016-04-01

    Abnormal tau accumulations were observed and documented in post-mortem brains of patients affected by Alzheimer's disease (AD) long before the identification of mutations in the Microtubule-associated protein tau (MAPT) gene, encoding the tau protein, in a different neurodegenerative disease called Frontotemporal dementia and Parkinsonism linked to chromosome 17 (FTDP-17). The discovery of mutations in the MAPT gene associated with FTDP-17 highlighted that dysfunctions in tau alone are sufficient to cause neurodegeneration. Invertebrate models have been diligently utilized in investigating tauopathies, contributing to the understanding of cellular and molecular pathways involved in disease etiology. An important discovery came with the demonstration that over-expression of human tau in Drosophila leads to premature mortality and neuronal dysfunction including neurodegeneration, recapitulating some key neuropathological features of the human disease. The simplicity of handling invertebrate models combined with the availability of a diverse range of experimental resources make these models, in particular Drosophila a powerful invertebrate screening tool. Consequently, several large-scale screens have been performed using Drosophila, to identify modifiers of tau toxicity. The screens have revealed not only common cellular and molecular pathways, but in some instances the same modifier has been independently identified in two or more screens suggesting a possible role for these modifiers in regulating tau toxicity. The purpose of this review is to discuss the genetic modifier screens on tauopathies performed in Drosophila and C. elegans models, and to highlight the common cellular and molecular pathways that have emerged from these studies. Here, we summarize results of tau toxicity screens providing mechanistic insights into pathological alterations in tauopathies. Key pathways or modifiers that have been identified are associated with a broad range of processes

  10. Aboveground vertebrate and invertebrate herbivore impact on net N mineralization in subalpine grasslands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Risch, Anita C; Schotz, Martin; Vandegehuchte, Martijn L; Van Der Putten, Wim H; Duyts, Henk; Raschein, Ursina; Gwiazdowicz, Dariusz J; Busse, Matt D; Page-dumroese, Deborah S; Zimmermann, Stephan

    2015-12-01

    Aboveground herbivores have strong effects on grassland nitrogen (N) cycling. They can accelerate or slow down soil net N mineralization depending on ecosystem productivity and grazing intensity. Yet, most studies only consider either ungulates or invertebrate herbivores, but not the combined effect of several functionally different vertebrate and invertebrate herbivore species or guilds. We assessed how a diverse herbivore community affects net N mineralization in subalpine grasslands. By using size-selective fences, we progressively excluded large, medium, and small mammals, as well as invertebrates from two vegetation types, and assessed how the exclosure types (ET) affected net N mineralization. The two vegetation types differed in long-term management (centuries), forage quality, and grazing history and intensity. To gain a more mechanistic understanding of how herbivores affect net N mineralization, we linked mineralization to soil abiotic (temperature; moisture; NO3-, NH4+, and total inorganic N concentrations/pools; C, N, P concentrations; pH; bulk density), soil biotic (microbial biomass; abundance of collembolans, mites, and nematodes) and plant (shoot and root biomass; consumption; plant C, N, and fiber content; plant N pool) properties. Net N mineralization differed between ET, but not between vegetation types. Thus, short-term changes in herbivore community composition and, therefore, in grazing intensity had a stronger effect on net N mineralization than long-term management and grazing history. We found highest N mineralization values when only invertebrates were present, suggesting that mammals had a negative effect on net N mineralization. Of the variables included in our analyses, only mite abundance and aboveground plant biomass explained variation in net N mineralization among ET. Abundances of both mites and leaf-sucking invertebrates were positively correlated with aboveground plant biomass, and biomass increased with progressive exclusion

  11. in Skeletal Muscle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Espen E. Spangenburg

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Triglyceride storage is altered across various chronic health conditions necessitating various techniques to visualize and quantify lipid droplets (LDs. Here, we describe the utilization of the BODIPY (493/503 dye in skeletal muscle as a means to analyze LDs. We found that the dye was a convenient and simple approach to visualize LDs in both sectioned skeletal muscle and cultured adult single fibers. Furthermore, the dye was effective in both fixed and nonfixed cells, and the staining seemed unaffected by permeabilization. We believe that the use of the BODIPY (493/503 dye is an acceptable alternative and, under certain conditions, a simpler method for visualizing LDs stored within skeletal muscle.

  12. Hydraulically actuated artificial muscles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meller, M. A.; Tiwari, R.; Wajcs, K. B.; Moses, C.; Reveles, I.; Garcia, E.

    2012-04-01

    Hydraulic Artificial Muscles (HAMs) consisting of a polymer tube constrained by a nylon mesh are presented in this paper. Despite the actuation mechanism being similar to its popular counterpart, which are pneumatically actuated (PAM), HAMs have not been studied in depth. HAMs offer the advantage of compliance, large force to weight ratio, low maintenance, and low cost over traditional hydraulic cylinders. Muscle characterization for isometric and isobaric tests are discussed and compared to PAMs. A model incorporating the effect of mesh angle and friction have also been developed. In addition, differential swelling of the muscle on actuation has also been included in the model. An application of lab fabricated HAMs for a meso-scale robotic system is also presented.

  13. Foot muscles strengthener

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boris T. Glavač

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Previous experience in the correction of flat feet consisted of the use of insoles for shoes and exercises with toys, balls, rollers, inclined planes, etc. A device for strengthening foot muscles is designed for the correction of flat feet in children and, as its name suggests, for strengthening foot muscles in adults. The device is made of wood and metal, with a mechanism and technical solutions, enabling the implementation of specific exercises to activate muscles responsible for the formation of the foot arch. It is suitable for home use with controlled load quantities since it has calibrated springs. The device is patented with the Intellectual Property Office, Republic of Serbia, as a petty patent.

  14. Rectus abdominis muscle endometriosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goker, A.

    2014-01-01

    Endometriosis is characterized by an abnormal existence of functional endometrial tissue outside the uterine cavity, typically occuring within the pelvis of women in reproductive age. We report two cases with endometriosis of the abdominal wall; the first one in the rectus abdominis muscle and the second one in the surgical scar of previous caesarean incision along with the rectus abdominis muscle. Pre-operative evaluation included magnetic resonance imaging. The masses were dissected free from the surrounding tissue and excised with clear margins. Diagnosis of the excised lesions were verified by histopathology. (author)

  15. Skeletal muscle connective tissue

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brüggemann, Dagmar Adeline

    in the structure of fibrous collagen and myofibers at high-resolution. The results demonstrate that the collagen composition in the extra cellular matrix of Gadus morhua fish muscle is much more complex than previously anticipated, as it contains type III, IV, V  and VI collagen in addition to type I. The vascular....... Consequently, functional structures, ensuring "tissue maintenance" must form a major role of connective tissue, in addition that is to the force transmitting structures one typically finds in muscle. Vascular structures have also been shown to change their mechanical properties with age and it has been shown...

  16. Optical thin film deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Macleod, H.A.

    1979-01-01

    The potential usefulness in the production of optical thin-film coatings of some of the processes for thin film deposition which can be classified under the heading of ion-assisted techniques is examined. Thermal evaporation is the process which is virtually universally used for this purpose and which has been developed to a stage where performance is in almost all respects high. Areas where further improvements would be of value, and the possibility that ion-assisted deposition might lead to such improvements, are discussed. (author)

  17. Thin Film Photovoltaics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zweibel, K.

    1998-11-19

    The motivation to develop thin film technologies dates back to the inception of photovoltaics. It is an idea based on achieving truly low-cost photovoltaics appropriate for mass production and energy significant markets. The key to the idea is the use of pennies worth of active materials. Since sunlight carries relatively little energy in comparison with combustion-based energy sources, photovoltaic (PV) modules must be cheap to produce energy that can be competitive. Thin films are presumed to be the answer to that low-cost requirement. But how cheap do they have to be? The following is an oversimplified analysis that allows some insight into this question.

  18. Thin films and nanomaterials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jayakumar, S.; Kannan, M.D.; Prasanna, S.

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this book is to disseminate the most recent research in Thin Films, Nanomaterials, Corrosion and Metallurgy presented at the International Conference on Advanced Materials (ICAM 2011) held in PSG College of Technology, Coimbatore, India during 12-16 December 2011. The book is a compilation of 113 chapters written by active researchers providing information and critical insights into the recent advancements that have taken place. Important new applications are possible today in the fields of microelectronics, opto-electronics, metallurgy and energy by the application of thin films on solid surfaces. Recent progress in high vacuum technology and new materials has a remarkable effect in thin film quality and cost. This has led to the development of new single or multi-layered thin film devices with diverse applications in a multitude of production areas, such as optics, thermal barrier coatings and wear protections, enhancing service life of tools and to protect materials against thermal and atmospheric influence. On the other hand, thin film process techniques and research are strongly related to the basic research activities in nano technology, an increasingly important field with countless opportunities for applications due to the emergence of new properties at the nanoscale level. Materials and structures that are designed and fabricated at the nano scale level, offer the potential to produce new devices and processes that may enhance efficiencies and reduce costs in many areas, as photovoltaic systems, hydrogen storage, fuel cells and solar thermal systems. In the book, the contributed papers are classified under two sections i) thin films and ii) nanomaterials. The thin film section includes single or multi layer conducting, insulating or semiconducting films synthesized by a wide variety of physical or chemical techniques and characterized or analyzed for different applications. The nanomaterials section deals with novel or exciting materials

  19. Thin film ceramic thermocouples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregory, Otto (Inventor); Fralick, Gustave (Inventor); Wrbanek, John (Inventor); You, Tao (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    A thin film ceramic thermocouple (10) having two ceramic thermocouple (12, 14) that are in contact with each other in at least on point to form a junction, and wherein each element was prepared in a different oxygen/nitrogen/argon plasma. Since each element is prepared under different plasma conditions, they have different electrical conductivity and different charge carrier concentration. The thin film thermocouple (10) can be transparent. A versatile ceramic sensor system having an RTD heat flux sensor can be combined with a thermocouple and a strain sensor to yield a multifunctional ceramic sensor array. The transparent ceramic temperature sensor that could ultimately be used for calibration of optical sensors.

  20. Muscle force depends on the amount of transversal muscle loading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siebert, Tobias; Till, Olaf; Stutzig, Norman; Günther, Michael; Blickhan, Reinhard

    2014-06-03

    Skeletal muscles are embedded in an environment of other muscles, connective tissue, and bones, which may transfer transversal forces to the muscle tissue, thereby compressing it. In a recent study we demonstrated that transversal loading of a muscle with 1.3Ncm(-2) reduces maximum isometric force (Fim) and rate of force development by approximately 5% and 25%, respectively. The aim of the present study was to examine the influence of increasing transversal muscle loading on contraction dynamics. Therefore, we performed isometric experiments on rat M. gastrocnemius medialis (n=9) without and with five different transversal loads corresponding to increasing pressures of 1.3Ncm(-2) to 5.3Ncm(-2) at the contact area between muscle and load. Muscle loading was induced by a custom-made plunger which was able to move in transversal direction. Increasing transversal muscle loading resulted in an almost linear decrease in muscle force from 4.8±1.8% to 12.8±2% Fim. Compared to an unloaded isometric contraction, rate of force development decreased from 20.2±4.0% at 1.3Ncm(-2) muscle loading to 34.6±5.7% at 5.3Ncm(-2). Experimental observation of the impact of transversal muscle loading on contraction dynamics may help to better understand muscle tissue properties. Moreover, applying transversal loads to muscles opens a window to analyze three-dimensional muscle force generation. Data presented in this study may be important to develop and validate muscle models which enable simulation of muscle contractions under compression and enlighten the mechanisms behind. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.