Uniqueness and numerical methods in inverse obstacle scattering
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kress, Rainer
2007-01-01
The inverse problem we consider in this tutorial is to determine the shape of an obstacle from the knowledge of the far field pattern for scattering of time-harmonic plane waves. In the first part we will concentrate on the issue of uniqueness, i.e., we will investigate under what conditions an obstacle and its boundary condition can be identified from a knowledge of its far field pattern for incident plane waves. We will review some classical and some recent results and draw attention to open problems. In the second part we will survey on numerical methods for solving inverse obstacle scattering problems. Roughly speaking, these methods can be classified into three groups. Iterative methods interpret the inverse obstacle scattering problem as a nonlinear ill-posed operator equation and apply iterative schemes such as regularized Newton methods, Landweber iterations or conjugate gradient methods for its solution. Decomposition methods, in principle, separate the inverse scattering problem into an ill-posed linear problem to reconstruct the scattered wave from its far field and the subsequent determination of the boundary of the scatterer from the boundary condition. Finally, the third group consists of the more recently developed sampling methods. These are based on the numerical evaluation of criteria in terms of indicator functions that decide whether a point lies inside or outside the scatterer. The tutorial will give a survey by describing one or two representatives of each group including a discussion on the various advantages and disadvantages
Mittag–Leffler's function, Vekua transform and an inverse obstacle scattering problem
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ikehata, Masaru
2010-01-01
This paper studies a prototype of inverse obstacle scattering problems whose governing equation is the Helmholtz equation in two dimensions. An explicit method to extract information about the location and shape of unknown obstacles from the far-field operator with a fixed wave number is given. The method is based on an explicit construction of a modification of Mittag–Leffler's function via the Vekua transform and the study of the asymptotic behaviour; an explicit density in the Herglotz wavefunction that approximates the modification of Mittag–Leffler's function in the bounded domain surrounding unknown obstacles; a system of inequalities derived from Kirsch's factorization formula of the far-field operator. Then an indicator function which can be calculated from the far-field operator acting on the density is introduced. It is shown that the asymptotic behaviour of the indicator function yields information about the visible part of the exterior of the obstacles
A domain derivative-based method for solving elastodynamic inverse obstacle scattering problems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Le Louër, Frédérique
2015-01-01
The present work is concerned with the shape reconstruction problem of isotropic elastic inclusions from far-field data obtained by the scattering of a finite number of time-harmonic incident plane waves. This paper aims at completing the theoretical framework which is necessary for the application of geometric optimization tools to the inverse transmission problem in elastodynamics. The forward problem is reduced to systems of boundary integral equations following the direct and indirect methods initially developed for solving acoustic transmission problems. We establish the Fréchet differentiability of the boundary to far-field operator and give a characterization of the first Fréchet derivative and its adjoint operator. Using these results we propose an inverse scattering algorithm based on the iteratively regularized Gauß–Newton method and show numerical experiments in the special case of star-shaped obstacles. (paper)
On uniqueness of an inverse problem in electromagnetic obstacle scattering for an impedance cylinder
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nakamura, Gen; Wang, Haibing; Sleeman, Brian D
2012-01-01
We consider an inverse problem for the scattering of an obliquely incident electromagnetic wave by an impedance cylinder. In previous work, we have shown that the direct scattering problem is governed by a pair of Helmholtz equations subject to coupled oblique boundary conditions, where the wave number depends on the frequency and the incident angle with respect to the axis of the cylinder. In this paper, we are concerned with the inverse problem of uniquely identifying the cross-section of an unknown cylinder and the impedance function from the far-field patterns at fixed frequency and a range of incident angles. A uniqueness result for such an inverse scattering problem is established. Our method is based on the analyticity of solution to the direct scattering problem, which is justified by using the Lax–Phillips method together with the perturbation theory of Fredholm operators. (paper)
Some results on inverse scattering
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ramm, A.G.
2008-01-01
A review of some of the author's results in the area of inverse scattering is given. The following topics are discussed: (1) Property C and applications, (2) Stable inversion of fixed-energy 3D scattering data and its error estimate, (3) Inverse scattering with 'incomplete' data, (4) Inverse scattering for inhomogeneous Schroedinger equation, (5) Krein's inverse scattering method, (6) Invertibility of the steps in Gel'fand-Levitan, Marchenko, and Krein inversion methods, (7) The Newton-Sabatier and Cox-Thompson procedures are not inversion methods, (8) Resonances: existence, location, perturbation theory, (9) Born inversion as an ill-posed problem, (10) Inverse obstacle scattering with fixed-frequency data, (11) Inverse scattering with data at a fixed energy and a fixed incident direction, (12) Creating materials with a desired refraction coefficient and wave-focusing properties. (author)
Scattering of electromagnetic waves by obstacles
Kristensson, Gerhard
2016-01-01
The main purpose of Scattering of Electromagnetic Waves by Obstacles is to give a theoretical treatment of the scattering phenomena, and to illustrate numerical computations of some canonical scattering problems for different geometries and materials.
Inversion assuming weak scattering
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Xenaki, Angeliki; Gerstoft, Peter; Mosegaard, Klaus
2013-01-01
due to the complex nature of the field. A method based on linear inversion is employed to infer information about the statistical properties of the scattering field from the obtained cross-spectral matrix. A synthetic example based on an active high-frequency sonar demonstrates that the proposed...
Introduction to Schroedinger inverse scattering
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Roberts, T.M.
1991-01-01
Schroedinger inverse scattering uses scattering coefficients and bound state data to compute underlying potentials. Inverse scattering has been studied extensively for isolated potentials q(x), which tend to zero as vertical strokexvertical stroke→∞. Inverse scattering for isolated impurities in backgrounds p(x) that are periodic, are Heaviside steps, are constant for x>0 and periodic for x<0, or that tend to zero as x→∞ and tend to ∞ as x→-∞, have also been studied. This paper identifies literature for the five inverse problems just mentioned, and for four other inverse problems. Heaviside-step backgrounds are discussed at length. (orig.)
Physical optics far field inverse scattering in the time domain
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bleistein, N.
1976-01-01
The physical optics far field inverse scattering (POFFIS) identity relates the phase and range normalized far field back scattering amplitude to the spatial Fourier transform of the characteristic function of the scattering obstacle. The characteristic function is equal to unity in the region occupied by the obstacle and zero elsewhere. The original identity was derived by Bojarski for impulsive point sources. The result is extended to sources of arbitrary time dependence. One obtains an alternative form of Bojarski's POFFIS identity. One also derives a POFFIS identity in the time domain. Numerically synthesized checks on the method are provided
Uniqueness in inverse elastic scattering with finitely many incident waves
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Elschner, Johannes; Yamamoto, Masahiro
2009-01-01
We consider the third and fourth exterior boundary value problems of linear isotropic elasticity and present uniqueness results for the corresponding inverse scattering problems with polyhedral-type obstacles and a finite number of incident plane elastic waves. Our approach is based on a reflection principle for the Navier equation. (orig.)
Lectures on the inverse scattering method
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zakharov, V.E.
1983-06-01
In a series of six lectures an elementary introduction to the theory of inverse scattering is given. The first four lectures contain a detailed theory of solitons in the framework of the KdV equation, together with the inverse scattering theory of the one-dimensional Schroedinger equation. In the fifth lecture the dressing method is described, while the sixth lecture gives a brief review of the equations soluble by the inverse scattering method. (author)
Applications of inverse and algebraic scattering theories
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Amos, K. [Qinghua Univ., Beijing, BJ (China). Dept. of Physics
1997-06-01
Inverse scattering theories, algebraic scattering theory and exactly solvable scattering potentials are diverse ways by which scattering potentials can be defined from S-functions specified by fits to fixed energy, quantal scattering data. Applications have been made in nuclear (heavy ion and nucleon-nucleus scattering), atomic and molecular (electron scattering from simple molecules) systems. Three inverse scattering approaches are considered in detail; the semiclassical WKB and fully quantal Lipperheide-Fiedeldey method, than algebraic scattering theory is applied to heavy ion scattering and finally the exactly solvable Ginocchio potentials. Some nuclear results are ambiguous but the atomic and molecular inversion potentials are in good agreement with postulated forms. 21 refs., 12 figs.
Inverse acoustic problem of N homogeneous scatterers
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Berntsen, Svend
2002-01-01
The three-dimensional inverse acoustic medium problem of N homogeneous objects with known geometry and location is considered. It is proven that one scattering experiment is sufficient for the unique determination of the complex wavenumbers of the objects. The mapping from the scattered fields...
Multiple scattering processes: inverse and direct
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kagiwada, H.H.; Kalaba, R.; Ueno, S.
1975-01-01
The purpose of the work is to formulate inverse problems in radiative transfer, to introduce the functions b and h as parameters of internal intensity in homogeneous slabs, and to derive initial value problems to replace the more traditional boundary value problems and integral equations of multiple scattering with high computational efficiency. The discussion covers multiple scattering processes in a one-dimensional medium; isotropic scattering in homogeneous slabs illuminated by parallel rays of radiation; the theory of functions b and h in homogeneous slabs illuminated by isotropic sources of radiation either at the top or at the bottom; inverse and direct problems of multiple scattering in slabs including internal sources; multiple scattering in inhomogeneous media, with particular reference to inverse problems for estimation of layers and total thickness of inhomogeneous slabs and to multiple scattering problems with Lambert's law and specular reflectors underlying slabs; and anisotropic scattering with reduction of the number of relevant arguments through axially symmetric fields and expansion in Legendre functions. Gaussian quadrature data for a seven point formula, a FORTRAN program for computing the functions b and h, and tables of these functions supplement the text
Direct and inverse scattering for viscoelastic media
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ammicht, E.; Corones, J.P.; Krueger, R.J.
1987-01-01
A time domain approach to direct and inverse scattering problems for one-dimensional viscoelastic media is presented. Such media can be characterized as having a constitutive relation between stress and strain which involves the past history of the strain through a memory function, the relaxation modulus. In the approach in this article, the relaxation modulus of a material is shown to be related to the reflection properties of the material. This relation provides a constructive algorithm for direct and inverse scattering problems. A numerical implementation of this algorithm is tested on several problems involving realistic relaxation moduli
Inverse scattering problems with multi-frequencies
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bao, Gang; Li, Peijun; Lin, Junshan; Triki, Faouzi
2015-01-01
This paper is concerned with computational approaches and mathematical analysis for solving inverse scattering problems in the frequency domain. The problems arise in a diverse set of scientific areas with significant industrial, medical, and military applications. In addition to nonlinearity, there are two common difficulties associated with the inverse problems: ill-posedness and limited resolution (diffraction limit). Due to the diffraction limit, for a given frequency, only a low spatial frequency part of the desired parameter can be observed from measurements in the far field. The main idea developed here is that if the reconstruction is restricted to only the observable part, then the inversion will become stable. The challenging task is how to design stable numerical methods for solving these inverse scattering problems inspired by the diffraction limit. Recently, novel recursive linearization based algorithms have been presented in an attempt to answer the above question. These methods require multi-frequency scattering data and proceed via a continuation procedure with respect to the frequency from low to high. The objective of this paper is to give a brief review of these methods, their error estimates, and the related mathematical analysis. More attention is paid to the inverse medium and inverse source problems. Numerical experiments are included to illustrate the effectiveness of these methods. (topical review)
Formal solutions of inverse scattering problems. III
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Prosser, R.T.
1980-01-01
The formal solutions of certain three-dimensional inverse scattering problems presented in papers I and II of this series [J. Math. Phys. 10, 1819 (1969); 17 1175 (1976)] are obtained here as fixed points of a certain nonlinear mapping acting on a suitable Banach space of integral kernels. When the scattering data are sufficiently restricted, this mapping is shown to be a contraction, thereby establishing the existence, uniqueness, and continuous dependence on the data of these formal solutions
Inverse Scattering in a Multipath Environment
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
A. Cuccaro
2016-09-01
Full Text Available In this contribution an inverse scattering problem is ad- dressed in a multipath environment. In particular, multipath is created by known ”extra” point-like scatterers (passive elements expressely deployed between the scene under in- vestigation and the source/measurement domains. Through a back-projection imaging scheme, the role of the passive elements on the achievable performance is shown and com- pared to the free-space case.
Support minimized inversion of acoustic and elastic wave scattering
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Safaeinili, A.
1994-01-01
This report discusses the following topics on support minimized inversion of acoustic and elastic wave scattering: Minimum support inversion; forward modelling of elastodynamic wave scattering; minimum support linearized acoustic inversion; support minimized nonlinear acoustic inversion without absolute phase; and support minimized nonlinear elastic inversion
Inverse scattering with supersymmetric quantum mechanics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Baye, Daniel; Sparenberg, Jean-Marc
2004-01-01
The application of supersymmetric quantum mechanics to the inverse scattering problem is reviewed. The main difference with standard treatments of the inverse problem lies in the simple and natural extension to potentials with singularities at the origin and with a Coulomb behaviour at infinity. The most general form of potentials which are phase-equivalent to a given potential is discussed. The use of singular potentials allows adding or removing states from the bound spectrum without contradicting the Levinson theorem. Physical applications of phase-equivalent potentials in nuclear reactions and in three-body systems are described. Derivation of a potential from the phase shift at fixed orbital momentum can also be performed with the supersymmetric inversion by using a Bargmann-type approximation of the scattering matrix or phase shift. A unique singular potential without bound states can be obtained from any phase shift. A limited number of bound states depending on the singularity can then be added. This inversion procedure is illustrated with nucleon-nucleon scattering
On quasiclassical approximation in the inverse scattering method
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Geogdzhaev, V.V.
1985-01-01
Using as an example quasiclassical limits of the Korteweg-de Vries equation and nonlinear Schroedinger equation, the quasiclassical limiting variant of the inverse scattering problem method is presented. In quasiclassical approximation the inverse scattering problem for the Schroedinger equation is reduced to the classical inverse scattering problem
A two-stage method for inverse medium scattering
Ito, Kazufumi; Jin, Bangti; Zou, Jun
2013-01-01
We present a novel numerical method to the time-harmonic inverse medium scattering problem of recovering the refractive index from noisy near-field scattered data. The approach consists of two stages, one pruning step of detecting the scatterer
A direct sampling method for inverse electromagnetic medium scattering
Ito, Kazufumi; Jin, Bangti; Zou, Jun
2013-01-01
In this paper, we study the inverse electromagnetic medium scattering problem of estimating the support and shape of medium scatterers from scattered electric/magnetic near-field data. We shall develop a novel direct sampling method based
Inverse scattering problem in turbulent magnetic fluctuations
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
R. A. Treumann
2016-08-01
Full Text Available We apply a particular form of the inverse scattering theory to turbulent magnetic fluctuations in a plasma. In the present note we develop the theory, formulate the magnetic fluctuation problem in terms of its electrodynamic turbulent response function, and reduce it to the solution of a special form of the famous Gelfand–Levitan–Marchenko equation of quantum mechanical scattering theory. The last of these applies to transmission and reflection in an active medium. The theory of turbulent magnetic fluctuations does not refer to such quantities. It requires a somewhat different formulation. We reduce the theory to the measurement of the low-frequency electromagnetic fluctuation spectrum, which is not the turbulent spectral energy density. The inverse theory in this form enables obtaining information about the turbulent response function of the medium. The dynamic causes of the electromagnetic fluctuations are implicit to it. Thus, it is of vital interest in low-frequency magnetic turbulence. The theory is developed until presentation of the equations in applicable form to observations of turbulent electromagnetic fluctuations as input from measurements. Solution of the final integral equation should be done by standard numerical methods based on iteration. We point to the possibility of treating power law fluctuation spectra as an example. Formulation of the problem to include observations of spectral power densities in turbulence is not attempted. This leads to severe mathematical problems and requires a reformulation of inverse scattering theory. One particular aspect of the present inverse theory of turbulent fluctuations is that its structure naturally leads to spatial information which is obtained from the temporal information that is inherent to the observation of time series. The Taylor assumption is not needed here. This is a consequence of Maxwell's equations, which couple space and time evolution. The inversion procedure takes
Inverse problems and inverse scattering of plane waves
Ghosh Roy, Dilip N
2001-01-01
The purpose of this text is to present the theory and mathematics of inverse scattering, in a simple way, to the many researchers and professionals who use it in their everyday research. While applications range across a broad spectrum of disciplines, examples in this text will focus primarly, but not exclusively, on acoustics. The text will be especially valuable for those applied workers who would like to delve more deeply into the fundamentally mathematical character of the subject matter.Practitioners in this field comprise applied physicists, engineers, and technologists, whereas the theory is almost entirely in the domain of abstract mathematics. This gulf between the two, if bridged, can only lead to improvement in the level of scholarship in this highly important discipline. This is the book''s primary focus.
Phaseless tomographic inverse scattering in Banach spaces
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Estatico, C.; Fedeli, A.; Pastorino, M.; Randazzo, A.; Tavanti, E.
2016-01-01
In conventional microwave imaging, a hidden dielectric object under test is illuminated by microwave incident waves and the field it scatters is measured in magnitude and phase in order to retrieve the dielectric properties by solving the related non-homogenous Helmholtz equation or its Lippmann-Schwinger integral formulation. Since the measurement of the phase of electromagnetic waves can be still considered expensive in real applications, in this paper only the magnitude of the scattering wave fields is measured in order to allow a reduction of the cost of the measurement apparatus. In this respect, we firstly analyse the properties of the phaseless scattering nonlinear forward modelling operator in its integral form and we provide an analytical expression for computing its Fréchet derivative. Then, we propose an inexact Newton method to solve the associated nonlinear inverse problems, where any linearized step is solved by a L p Banach space iterative regularization method which acts on the dual space L p* . Indeed, it is well known that regularization in special Banach spaces, such us L p with 1 < p < 2, allows to promote sparsity and to reduce Gibbs phenomena and over-smoothness. Preliminary results concerning numerically computed field data are shown. (paper)
The factorization method for inverse acoustic scattering in a layered medium
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bondarenko, Oleksandr; Kirsch, Andreas; Liu, Xiaodong
2013-01-01
In this paper, we consider a problem of inverse acoustic scattering by an impenetrable obstacle embedded in a layered medium. We will show that the factorization method can be applied to recover the embedded obstacle; that is, the equation F-tilde g =φ z is solvable if and only if the sampling point z is in the interior of the unknown obstacle. Here, F-tilde is a self-adjoint operator related to the far field operator and ϕ z is the far field pattern of the Green function with respect to the problem of scattering by the background medium for point z. The validity of the factorization method is proven with the help of a mixed reciprocity principle and an application of the scattering operator. Due to the established mixed reciprocity principle, knowledge of the Green function for the background medium is no longer required, which makes the method attractive from the computational point of view. The paper is only concerned with sound-soft obstacles, but the analysis can be easily extended for sound-hard obstacles, or obstacles with separated sound-soft and sound-hard parts. Finally, we provide an explicit example for a radially symmetric case and present some numerical examples. (paper)
On the quantum inverse scattering problem
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Maillet, J.M.; Terras, V.
2000-01-01
A general method for solving the so-called quantum inverse scattering problem (namely the reconstruction of local quantum (field) operators in term of the quantum monodromy matrix satisfying a Yang-Baxter quadratic algebra governed by an R-matrix) for a large class of lattice quantum integrable models is given. The principal requirement being the initial condition (R(0)=P, the permutation operator) for the quantum R-matrix solving the Yang-Baxter equation, it applies not only to most known integrable fundamental lattice models (such as Heisenberg spin chains) but also to lattice models with arbitrary number of impurities and to the so-called fused lattice models (including integrable higher spin generalizations of Heisenberg chains). Our method is then applied to several important examples like the sl n XXZ model, the XYZ spin-((1)/(2)) chain and also to the spin-s Heisenberg chains
Multi-scattering inversion for low model wavenumbers
Alkhalifah, Tariq Ali; Wu, Zedong
2015-01-01
modeled from the source and those corresponding to single and double scattering to update both the velocity model and the component of the velocity (perturbation) responsible for the single and double scattering. The combined inversion helps us access most
A direct sampling method to an inverse medium scattering problem
Ito, Kazufumi; Jin, Bangti; Zou, Jun
2012-01-01
In this work we present a novel sampling method for time harmonic inverse medium scattering problems. It provides a simple tool to directly estimate the shape of the unknown scatterers (inhomogeneous media), and it is applicable even when
Nonlinear problems in fluid dynamics and inverse scattering: Nonlinear waves and inverse scattering
Ablowitz, Mark J.
1994-12-01
Research investigations involving the fundamental understanding and applications of nonlinear wave motion and related studies of inverse scattering and numerical computation have been carried out and a number of significant results have been obtained. A class of nonlinear wave equations which can be solved by the inverse scattering transform (IST) have been studied, including the Kadaomtsev-Petviashvili (KP) equation, the Davey-Stewartson equation, and the 2+1 Toda system. The solutions obtained by IST correspond to the Cauchy initial value problem with decaying initial data. We have also solved two important systems via the IST method: a 'Volterra' system in 2+1 dimensions and a new one dimensional nonlinear equation which we refer to as the Toda differential-delay equation. Research in computational chaos in moderate to long time numerical simulations continues.
Point sources and multipoles in inverse scattering theory
Potthast, Roland
2001-01-01
Over the last twenty years, the growing availability of computing power has had an enormous impact on the classical fields of direct and inverse scattering. The study of inverse scattering, in particular, has developed rapidly with the ability to perform computational simulations of scattering processes and led to remarkable advances in a range of applications, from medical imaging and radar to remote sensing and seismic exploration. Point Sources and Multipoles in Inverse Scattering Theory provides a survey of recent developments in inverse acoustic and electromagnetic scattering theory. Focusing on methods developed over the last six years by Colton, Kirsch, and the author, this treatment uses point sources combined with several far-reaching techniques to obtain qualitative reconstruction methods. The author addresses questions of uniqueness, stability, and reconstructions for both two-and three-dimensional problems.With interest in extracting information about an object through scattered waves at an all-ti...
Constraint on Parameters of Inverse Compton Scattering Model for ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
B2319+60, two parameters of inverse Compton scattering model, the initial Lorentz factor and the factor of energy loss of relativistic particles are constrained. Key words. Pulsar—inverse Compton scattering—emission mechanism. 1. Introduction. Among various kinds of models for pulsar radio emission, the inverse ...
Scattering theory of walking droplets in the presence of obstacles
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dubertrand, Rémy; Hubert, Maxime; Schlagheck, Peter; Vandewalle, Nicolas; Bastin, Thierry; Martin, John
2016-01-01
We aim to describe a droplet bouncing on a vibrating bath using a simple and highly versatile model inspired from quantum mechanics. Close to the Faraday instability, a long-lived surface wave is created at each bounce, which serves as a pilot wave for the droplet. This leads to so called walking droplets or walkers. Since the seminal experiment by Couder et al (2006 Phys. Rev. Lett. 97 154101) there have been many attempts to accurately reproduce the experimental results.We propose to describe the trajectories of a walker using a Green function approach. The Green function is related to the Helmholtz equation with Neumann boundary conditions on the obstacle(s) and outgoing boundary conditions at infinity. For a single-slit geometry our model is exactly solvable and reproduces some general features observed experimentally. It stands for a promising candidate to account for the presence of arbitrary boundaries in the walker’s dynamics. (paper)
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Chin-Teng Lin
2010-01-01
Full Text Available In this paper, we develop a vision based obstacle detection system by utilizing our proposed fisheye lens inverse perspective mapping (FLIPM method. The new mapping equations are derived to transform the images captured by the fisheye lens camera into the undistorted remapped ones under practical circumstances. In the obstacle detection, we make use of the features of vertical edges on objects from remapped images to indicate the relative positions of obstacles. The static information of remapped images in the current frame is referred to determining the features of source images in the searching stage from either the profile or temporal IPM difference image. The profile image can be acquired by several processes such as sharpening, edge detection, morphological operation, and modified thinning algorithms on the remapped image. The temporal IPM difference image can be obtained by a spatial shift on the remapped image in the previous frame. Moreover, the polar histogram and its post-processing procedures will be used to indicate the position and length of feature vectors and to remove noises as well. Our obstacle detection can give drivers the warning signals within a limited distance from nearby vehicles while the detected obstacles are even with the quasi-vertical edges.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Wang, Kun, E-mail: wangkun@ipp.ac.cn [Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei (China); Lappeenranta University of Technology, Lappeenranta (Finland); University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei (China); Song, Yuntao [Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei (China); University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei (China); Wu, Huapeng [Lappeenranta University of Technology, Lappeenranta (Finland); Wei, Xiaoyang; Khan, Shahab Ud-Din; Cheng, Yong [Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei (China)
2017-06-15
Highlights: • An Obstacle Topology Partition Projection (OTPP) method of tokamak-like vessel for collision detection. • Median values preferentially of depth-first search algorithm for solving redundant inverse kinematics based on OTPP. • Application of RIK in grasping target objects. - Abstract: This paper proposed a new method for solving inverse kinematics (IK) of a redundant manipulator called EAST Articulated Maintenance Arm (EAMA), which is applied in the fusion reactor EAST (Experimental Advanced Superconducting Tokamak) and used to complete some maintenance tasks in the complex areas. However, it is difficult to realize remote control due to its redundancy, coupling structure and the complex operational environment. The IK research of the robot played a vital role to the manipulator’s motion control algorithm of remote handling (RH) technology. An Obstacle Topology Partition Projection (OTPP) approach integrated with Modified Inverse Depth First Search (MIDFS) method was presented. This is a kind of new geometric algorithm in order to solve the problem of IK for a high-redundancy manipulator. It can also be used to find a solution satisfying collision avoidance with optimal safety distance between the manipulator and obstacles. Simulations and experiments were conducted to demonstrate the efficiency and accuracy of the proposed method.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wang, Kun; Song, Yuntao; Wu, Huapeng; Wei, Xiaoyang; Khan, Shahab Ud-Din; Cheng, Yong
2017-01-01
Highlights: • An Obstacle Topology Partition Projection (OTPP) method of tokamak-like vessel for collision detection. • Median values preferentially of depth-first search algorithm for solving redundant inverse kinematics based on OTPP. • Application of RIK in grasping target objects. - Abstract: This paper proposed a new method for solving inverse kinematics (IK) of a redundant manipulator called EAST Articulated Maintenance Arm (EAMA), which is applied in the fusion reactor EAST (Experimental Advanced Superconducting Tokamak) and used to complete some maintenance tasks in the complex areas. However, it is difficult to realize remote control due to its redundancy, coupling structure and the complex operational environment. The IK research of the robot played a vital role to the manipulator’s motion control algorithm of remote handling (RH) technology. An Obstacle Topology Partition Projection (OTPP) approach integrated with Modified Inverse Depth First Search (MIDFS) method was presented. This is a kind of new geometric algorithm in order to solve the problem of IK for a high-redundancy manipulator. It can also be used to find a solution satisfying collision avoidance with optimal safety distance between the manipulator and obstacles. Simulations and experiments were conducted to demonstrate the efficiency and accuracy of the proposed method.
Multi-scattering inversion for low model wavenumbers
Alkhalifah, Tariq Ali
2015-08-19
A successful full wavenumber inversion (FWI) implementation updates the low wavenumber model components first for proper wavefield propagation description, and slowly adds the high-wavenumber potentially scattering parts of the model. The low-wavenumber components can be extracted from the transmission parts of the recorded data given by direct arrivals or the transmission parts of the single and double-scattering wave-fields developed from a predicted scatter field. We develop a combined inversion of data modeled from the source and those corresponding to single and double scattering to update both the velocity model and the component of the velocity (perturbation) responsible for the single and double scattering. The combined inversion helps us access most of the potential model wavenumber information that may be embedded in the data. A scattering angle filter is used to divide the gradient of the combined inversion so initially the high wavenumber (low scattering angle) components of the gradient is directed to the perturbation model and the low wavenumber (high scattering angle) components to the velocity model. As our background velocity matures, the scattering angle divide is slowly lowered to allow for more of the higher wavenumbers to contribute the velocity model.
A reciprocity formulation for the EM scattering by an obstacle within a large open cavity
Pathak, Prabhakar H.; Burkholder, Robert J.
1993-01-01
A formulation based on a generalized reciprocity theorem is developed for analyzing the external high frequency EM scattering by a complex obstacle inside a relatively arbitrary open-ended waveguide cavity when it is illuminated by an external source. This formulation is also extended to include EM fields whose time dependence may be nonperiodic. A significant advantage of this formulation is that it allows one to break up the analysis into two independent parts; one deals with the waveguide cavity shape alone and the other with the obstacle alone. The external scattered field produced by the obstacle (in the presence of the waveguide cavity structure) is given in terms of a generalized reciprocity integral over a surface S(T) corresponding to the interior waveguide cavity cross section located conveniently but sufficiently close to the obstacle. Furthermore, the fields coupled into the cavity from the source in the exterior region generally need to propagate only one-way via the open front end (which is directly illuminated) to the interior surface S(T) in this approach, and not back, in order to find the external field scattered by the obstacle.
Discrete inverse scattering theory and the continuum limit
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Berryman, J.G.; Greene, R.R.
1978-01-01
The class of satisfactory difference approximations for the Schroedinger equation in discrete inverse scattering theory is shown smaller than previously supposed. A fast algorithm (analogous to the Levinson algorithm for Toeplitz matrices) is found for solving the discrete inverse problem. (Auth.)
Remarks on the inverse scattering transform associated with toda equations
Ablowitz, Mark J.; Villorroel, J.
The Inverse Scattering Transforms used to solve both the 2+1 Toda equation and a novel reduction, the Toda differential-delay equations are outlined. There are a number of interesting features associated with these systems and the related scattering theory.
Inversion of electron-water elastic scattering data
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lun, A.; Chen, X.J.; Allen, L.J.; Amos, K.
1994-01-01
Fixed energy inverse scattering theory has been used to analyse the differential cross-sections for the elastic scattering of electrons from water molecules. Both semiclassical (WKB) and fully quantal inversion methods have been used with data taken in the energy range 100 to 1000 eV. Constrained to be real, the local inversion potentials are found to be energy dependent; a dependence that can be interpreted as the local equivalence of true nonlocality in the actual interaction. 14 refs., 4 tabs., 8 figs
Regularization method for solving the inverse scattering problem
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Denisov, A.M.; Krylov, A.S.
1985-01-01
The inverse scattering problem for the Schroedinger radial equation consisting in determining the potential according to the scattering phase is considered. The problem of potential restoration according to the phase specified with fixed error in a finite range is solved by the regularization method based on minimization of the Tikhonov's smoothing functional. The regularization method is used for solving the problem of neutron-proton potential restoration according to the scattering phases. The determined potentials are given in the table
Classical limit of the quantum inverse scattering problem
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bogdanov, I.V.
1986-01-01
This paper studies the passage to the limit of classical mechanics which is realized in the formalism of Marchenko's method for a spherically symmetric inverse problem of quantum scattering for fixed angular momentum. The limit is considered for the general case of partial waves with arbitrary values of the orbital number 1>0 in the lowest order of perturbation theory. It is shown how in the limit h→0 in the quantum inverse problem the integral Able transformation characteristic of classical inverse problems arises. The classical inversion formula with delay time is derived from the Marchenko equation
A direct sampling method for inverse electromagnetic medium scattering
Ito, Kazufumi
2013-09-01
In this paper, we study the inverse electromagnetic medium scattering problem of estimating the support and shape of medium scatterers from scattered electric/magnetic near-field data. We shall develop a novel direct sampling method based on an analysis of electromagnetic scattering and the behavior of the fundamental solution. It is applicable to a few incident fields and needs only to compute inner products of the measured scattered field with the fundamental solutions located at sampling points. Hence, it is strictly direct, computationally very efficient and highly robust to the presence of data noise. Two- and three-dimensional numerical experiments indicate that it can provide reliable support estimates for multiple scatterers in the case of both exact and highly noisy data. © 2013 IOP Publishing Ltd.
Off-shell T-matrices from inverse scattering
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Von Geramb, H.V.; Amos, K.A.
1989-01-01
Inverse scattering theory is used to determine local, energy independent, coordinate space nucleon-nucleon potentials. Inversions are made of phase shifts obtained by analyzes of data and from meson exchange theory, in particular the Paris and the Bonn parametrizations. Half off-shell T-matrices are generated to compare the exact meson theoretical results with those of inversion and it is found that phase equivalent interactions have essentially the same off-shell behaviour for any physically significant range of momenta. 8 refs., 8 figs
Connection between Dirac and matrix Schroedinger inverse-scattering transforms
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Jaulent, M.; Leon, J.J.P.
1978-01-01
The connection between two applications of the inverse scattering method for solving nonlinear equations is established. The inverse method associated with the massive Dirac system (D) : (iσ 3 d/dx - i q 3 σ 1 - q 1 σ 2 + mσ 2 )Y = epsilonY is rediscovered from the inverse method associated with the 2 x 2 matrix Schroedinger equation (S) : Ysub(xx) + (k 2 -Q)Y = 0. Here Q obeys a nonlinear constraint equivalent to a linear constraint on the reflection coefficient for (S). (author)
A direct sampling method to an inverse medium scattering problem
Ito, Kazufumi
2012-01-10
In this work we present a novel sampling method for time harmonic inverse medium scattering problems. It provides a simple tool to directly estimate the shape of the unknown scatterers (inhomogeneous media), and it is applicable even when the measured data are only available for one or two incident directions. A mathematical derivation is provided for its validation. Two- and three-dimensional numerical simulations are presented, which show that the method is accurate even with a few sets of scattered field data, computationally efficient, and very robust with respect to noises in the data. © 2012 IOP Publishing Ltd.
Angle-domain inverse scattering migration/inversion in isotropic media
Li, Wuqun; Mao, Weijian; Li, Xuelei; Ouyang, Wei; Liang, Quan
2018-07-01
The classical seismic asymptotic inversion can be transformed into a problem of inversion of generalized Radon transform (GRT). In such methods, the combined parameters are linearly attached to the scattered wave-field by Born approximation and recovered by applying an inverse GRT operator to the scattered wave-field data. Typical GRT-style true-amplitude inversion procedure contains an amplitude compensation process after the weighted migration via dividing an illumination associated matrix whose elements are integrals of scattering angles. It is intuitional to some extent that performs the generalized linear inversion and the inversion of GRT together by this process for direct inversion. However, it is imprecise to carry out such operation when the illumination at the image point is limited, which easily leads to the inaccuracy and instability of the matrix. This paper formulates the GRT true-amplitude inversion framework in an angle-domain version, which naturally degrades the external integral term related to the illumination in the conventional case. We solve the linearized integral equation for combined parameters of different fixed scattering angle values. With this step, we obtain high-quality angle-domain common-image gathers (CIGs) in the migration loop which provide correct amplitude-versus-angle (AVA) behavior and reasonable illumination range for subsurface image points. Then we deal with the over-determined problem to solve each parameter in the combination by a standard optimization operation. The angle-domain GRT inversion method keeps away from calculating the inaccurate and unstable illumination matrix. Compared with the conventional method, the angle-domain method can obtain more accurate amplitude information and wider amplitude-preserved range. Several model tests demonstrate the effectiveness and practicability.
A two-stage method for inverse medium scattering
Ito, Kazufumi
2013-03-01
We present a novel numerical method to the time-harmonic inverse medium scattering problem of recovering the refractive index from noisy near-field scattered data. The approach consists of two stages, one pruning step of detecting the scatterer support, and one resolution enhancing step with nonsmooth mixed regularization. The first step is strictly direct and of sampling type, and it faithfully detects the scatterer support. The second step is an innovative application of nonsmooth mixed regularization, and it accurately resolves the scatterer size as well as intensities. The nonsmooth model can be efficiently solved by a semi-smooth Newton-type method. Numerical results for two- and three-dimensional examples indicate that the new approach is accurate, computationally efficient, and robust with respect to data noise. © 2012 Elsevier Inc.
Support Minimized Inversion of Acoustic and Elastic Wave Scattering
Safaeinili, Ali
Inversion of limited data is common in many areas of NDE such as X-ray Computed Tomography (CT), Ultrasonic and eddy current flaw characterization and imaging. In many applications, it is common to have a bias toward a solution with minimum (L^2)^2 norm without any physical justification. When it is a priori known that objects are compact as, say, with cracks and voids, by choosing "Minimum Support" functional instead of the minimum (L^2)^2 norm, an image can be obtained that is equally in agreement with the available data, while it is more consistent with what is most probably seen in the real world. We have utilized a minimum support functional to find a solution with the smallest volume. This inversion algorithm is most successful in reconstructing objects that are compact like voids and cracks. To verify this idea, we first performed a variational nonlinear inversion of acoustic backscatter data using minimum support objective function. A full nonlinear forward model was used to accurately study the effectiveness of the minimized support inversion without error due to the linear (Born) approximation. After successful inversions using a full nonlinear forward model, a linearized acoustic inversion was developed to increase speed and efficiency in imaging process. The results indicate that by using minimum support functional, we can accurately size and characterize voids and/or cracks which otherwise might be uncharacterizable. An extremely important feature of support minimized inversion is its ability to compensate for unknown absolute phase (zero-of-time). Zero-of-time ambiguity is a serious problem in the inversion of the pulse-echo data. The minimum support inversion was successfully used for the inversion of acoustic backscatter data due to compact scatterers without the knowledge of the zero-of-time. The main drawback to this type of inversion is its computer intensiveness. In order to make this type of constrained inversion available for common use, work
On the inverse problem of dissipative scattering theory. 3
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Neidhardt, H.
1988-01-01
Considering a scattering theory in the class of contractions on Hilbert spaces one solves the inverse problem in an operaor-theoretical manner. The solution is obtained underthe very general assumptions that the free evolutions are different for different time directions that not only the perturbed or full evolutions but also the free evolutions are given by contractions. It is shown that the class of contractive Hankel operators can be viewed as a set of scattering operators. This implies the possibility that the scattering operator can be compact. Moreover, the result is applied to the so-called Lax-Phillips scattering theory with losses restoring a result of B.S. Pavlov on the completion of this theory in a quite different manner. 15 refs
New rigorous asymptotic theorems for inverse scattering amplitudes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lomsadze, Sh.Yu.; Lomsadze, Yu.M.
1984-01-01
The rigorous asymptotic theorems both of integral and local types obtained earlier and establishing logarithmic and in some cases even power correlations aetdeen the real and imaginary parts of scattering amplitudes Fsub(+-) are extended to the inverse amplitudes 1/Fsub(+-). One also succeeds in establishing power correlations of a new type between the real and imaginary parts, both for the amplitudes themselves and for the inverse ones. All the obtained assertions are convenient to be tested in high energy experiments when the amplitudes show asymptotic behaviour
Scattering angle base filtering of the inversion gradients
Alkhalifah, Tariq Ali
2014-01-01
Full waveform inversion (FWI) requires a hierarchical approach based on the availability of low frequencies to maneuver the complex nonlinearity associated with the problem of velocity inversion. I develop a model gradient filter to help us access the parts of the gradient more suitable to combat this potential nonlinearity. The filter is based on representing the gradient in the time-lag normalized domain, in which low scattering angles of the gradient update are initially muted. The result are long-wavelength updates controlled by the ray component of the wavefield. In this case, even 10 Hz data can produce near zero wavelength updates suitable for a background correction of the model. Allowing smaller scattering angle to contribute provides higher resolution information to the model.
Relevance vector machine technique for the inverse scattering problem
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wang Fang-Fang; Zhang Ye-Rong
2012-01-01
A novel method based on the relevance vector machine (RVM) for the inverse scattering problem is presented in this paper. The nonlinearity and the ill-posedness inherent in this problem are simultaneously considered. The nonlinearity is embodied in the relation between the scattered field and the target property, which can be obtained through the RVM training process. Besides, rather than utilizing regularization, the ill-posed nature of the inversion is naturally accounted for because the RVM can produce a probabilistic output. Simulation results reveal that the proposed RVM-based approach can provide comparative performances in terms of accuracy, convergence, robustness, generalization, and improved performance in terms of sparse property in comparison with the support vector machine (SVM) based approach. (general)
The possibilities of linearized inversion of internally scattered seismic data
Aldawood, Ali; Alkhalifah, Tariq Ali; Hoteit, Ibrahim; Zuberi, Mohammad; Turkiyyah, George
2014-01-01
Least-square migration is an iterative linearized inversion scheme that tends to suppress the migration artifacts and enhance the spatial resolution of the migrated image. However, standard least-square migration, based on imaging single scattering energy, may not be able to enhance events that are mainly illuminated by internal multiples such as vertical and nearly vertical faults. To alleviate this problem, we propose a linearized inversion framework to migrate internally multiply scattered energy. We applied this least-square migration of internal multiples to image a vertical fault. Tests on synthetic data demonstrate the ability of the proposed method to resolve a vertical fault plane that is poorly resolved by least-square imaging using primaries only. We, also, demonstrate the robustness of the proposed scheme in the presence of white Gaussian random observational noise and in the case of imaging the fault plane using inaccurate migration velocities.
The possibilities of linearized inversion of internally scattered seismic data
Aldawood, Ali
2014-08-05
Least-square migration is an iterative linearized inversion scheme that tends to suppress the migration artifacts and enhance the spatial resolution of the migrated image. However, standard least-square migration, based on imaging single scattering energy, may not be able to enhance events that are mainly illuminated by internal multiples such as vertical and nearly vertical faults. To alleviate this problem, we propose a linearized inversion framework to migrate internally multiply scattered energy. We applied this least-square migration of internal multiples to image a vertical fault. Tests on synthetic data demonstrate the ability of the proposed method to resolve a vertical fault plane that is poorly resolved by least-square imaging using primaries only. We, also, demonstrate the robustness of the proposed scheme in the presence of white Gaussian random observational noise and in the case of imaging the fault plane using inaccurate migration velocities.
Inverse scattering scheme for the Dirac equation at fixed energy
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Leeb, H.; Lehninger, H.; Schilder, C.
2001-01-01
Full text: Based on the concept of generalized transformation operators a new hierarchy of Dirac equations with spherical symmetric scalar and fourth component vector potentials is presented. Within this hierarchy closed form expressions for the solutions, the potentials and the S-matrix can be given in terms of solutions of the original Dirac equation. Using these transformations an inverse scattering scheme has been constructed for the Dirac equation which is the analog to the rational scheme in the non-relativistic case. The given method provides for the first time an inversion scheme with closed form expressions for the S-matrix for non-relativistic scattering problems with central and spin-orbit potentials. (author)
Multi-frequency direct sampling method in inverse scattering problem
Kang, Sangwoo; Lambert, Marc; Park, Won-Kwang
2017-10-01
We consider the direct sampling method (DSM) for the two-dimensional inverse scattering problem. Although DSM is fast, stable, and effective, some phenomena remain unexplained by the existing results. We show that the imaging function of the direct sampling method can be expressed by a Bessel function of order zero. We also clarify the previously unexplained imaging phenomena and suggest multi-frequency DSM to overcome traditional DSM. Our method is evaluated in simulation studies using both single and multiple frequencies.
Introduction to ground penetrating radar inverse scattering and data processing
Persico, Raffaele
2014-01-01
This book presents a comprehensive treatment of ground penetrating radar using both forward and inverse scattering mathematical techniques. Use of field data instead of laboratory data enables readers to envision real-life underground imaging; a full color insert further clarifies understanding. Along with considering the practical problem of achieving interpretable underground images, this book also features significant coverage of the problem's mathematical background. This twofold approach provides a resource that will appeal both to application oriented geologists and testing specialists,
Quantum method of the inverse scattering problem. Pt. 1
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sklyamin, E.K.; Takhtadzhyan, L.A.; Faddeev, L.D.
1978-12-01
In this work the authors use a formulation for the method of the inverse scattering problem for quantum-mechanical models of the field theory, that can be found in a quantization of these fully integrable systems. As the most important example serves the system (sinγ) 2 with the movement equation: γtt -γxx + m 2 /β sinβγ = 0 that is known under the specification Sine-Gordon-equation. (orig.) [de
Extended resolvent and inverse scattering with an application to KPI
Boiti, M.; Pempinelli, F.; Pogrebkov, A. K.; Prinari, B.
2003-08-01
We present in detail an extended resolvent approach for investigating linear problems associated to 2+1 dimensional integrable equations. Our presentation is based as an example on the nonstationary Schrödinger equation with potential being a perturbation of the one-soliton potential by means of a decaying two-dimensional function. Modification of the inverse scattering theory as well as properties of the Jost solutions and spectral data as follows from the resolvent approach are given.
Extended resolvent and inverse scattering with an application to KPI
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Boiti, M.; Pempinelli, F.; Pogrebkov, A.K.; Prinari, B.
2003-01-01
We present in detail an extended resolvent approach for investigating linear problems associated to 2+1 dimensional integrable equations. Our presentation is based as an example on the nonstationary Schroedinger equation with potential being a perturbation of the one-soliton potential by means of a decaying two-dimensional function. Modification of the inverse scattering theory as well as properties of the Jost solutions and spectral data as follows from the resolvent approach are given
Scattering-angle based filtering of the waveform inversion gradients
Alkhalifah, Tariq Ali
2014-01-01
Full waveform inversion (FWI) requires a hierarchical approach to maneuver the complex non-linearity associated with the problem of velocity update. In anisotropic media, the non-linearity becomes far more complex with the potential trade-off between the multiparameter description of the model. A gradient filter helps us in accessing the parts of the gradient that are suitable to combat the potential non-linearity and parameter trade-off. The filter is based on representing the gradient in the time-lag normalized domain, in which the low scattering angle of the gradient update is initially muted out in the FWI implementation, in what we may refer to as a scattering angle continuation process. The result is a low wavelength update dominated by the transmission part of the update gradient. In this case, even 10 Hz data can produce vertically near-zero wavenumber updates suitable for a background correction of the model. Relaxing the filtering at a later stage in the FWI implementation allows for smaller scattering angles to contribute higher-resolution information to the model. The benefits of the extended domain based filtering of the gradient is not only it's ability in providing low wavenumber gradients guided by the scattering angle, but also in its potential to provide gradients free of unphysical energy that may correspond to unrealistic scattering angles.
Scattering-angle based filtering of the waveform inversion gradients
Alkhalifah, Tariq Ali
2014-11-22
Full waveform inversion (FWI) requires a hierarchical approach to maneuver the complex non-linearity associated with the problem of velocity update. In anisotropic media, the non-linearity becomes far more complex with the potential trade-off between the multiparameter description of the model. A gradient filter helps us in accessing the parts of the gradient that are suitable to combat the potential non-linearity and parameter trade-off. The filter is based on representing the gradient in the time-lag normalized domain, in which the low scattering angle of the gradient update is initially muted out in the FWI implementation, in what we may refer to as a scattering angle continuation process. The result is a low wavelength update dominated by the transmission part of the update gradient. In this case, even 10 Hz data can produce vertically near-zero wavenumber updates suitable for a background correction of the model. Relaxing the filtering at a later stage in the FWI implementation allows for smaller scattering angles to contribute higher-resolution information to the model. The benefits of the extended domain based filtering of the gradient is not only it\\'s ability in providing low wavenumber gradients guided by the scattering angle, but also in its potential to provide gradients free of unphysical energy that may correspond to unrealistic scattering angles.
Rayleigh scattering and nonlinear inversion of elastic waves
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Gritto, Roland [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)
1995-12-01
Rayleigh scattering of elastic waves by an inclusion is investigated and the limitations determined. In the near field of the inhomogeneity, the scattered waves are up to a factor of 300 stronger than in the far field, excluding the application of the far field Rayleigh approximation for this range. The investigation of the relative error as a function of parameter perturbation shows a range of applicability broader than previously assumed, with errors of 37% and 17% for perturbations of -100% and +100%, respectively. The validity range for the Rayleigh limit is controlled by large inequalities, and therefore, the exact limit is determined as a function of various parameter configurations, resulting in surprisingly high values of up to k_{p}R = 0.9. The nonlinear scattering problem can be solved by inverting for equivalent source terms (moments) of the scatterer, before the elastic parameters are determined. The nonlinear dependence between the moments and the elastic parameters reveals a strong asymmetry around the origin, which will produce different results for weak scattering approximations depending on the sign of the anomaly. Numerical modeling of cross hole situations shows that near field terms are important to yield correct estimates of the inhomogeneities in the vicinity of the receivers, while a few well positioned sources and receivers considerably increase the angular coverage, and thus the model resolution of the inversion parameters. The pattern of scattered energy by an inhomogeneity is complicated and varies depending on the object, the wavelength of the incident wave, and the elastic parameters involved. Therefore, it is necessary to investigate the direction of scattered amplitudes to determine the best survey geometry.
Efficient scattering angle filtering for Full waveform inversion
Alkhalifah, Tariq Ali
2015-01-01
Controlling the scattering angles between the state and the adjoint variables for the energy admitted into an inversion gradient or an image can help improve these functions for objectives in full waveform inversion (FWI) or seismic imaging. However, the access of the scattering angle information usually requires an axis extension that could be costly, especially in 3D. For the purpose of a scattering angle filter, I develop techniques that utilize the mapping nature (no domain extension) of the filter for constant-velocity background models to interpolate between such filtered gradients using the actual velocity. The concept has well known roots in the application of phase-shift-plus-interpolation utilized commonly in the downward continuation process. If the difference between the minimum and maximum velocity of the background medium is large, we obtain filtered gradients corresponding to more constant velocity backgrounds and use linear interpolation between such velocities. The accuracy of this approximation for the Marmousi model gradient demonstrates the e ectiveness of the approach.
Efficient scattering angle filtering for Full waveform inversion
Alkhalifah, Tariq Ali
2015-08-19
Controlling the scattering angles between the state and the adjoint variables for the energy admitted into an inversion gradient or an image can help improve these functions for objectives in full waveform inversion (FWI) or seismic imaging. However, the access of the scattering angle information usually requires an axis extension that could be costly, especially in 3D. For the purpose of a scattering angle filter, I develop techniques that utilize the mapping nature (no domain extension) of the filter for constant-velocity background models to interpolate between such filtered gradients using the actual velocity. The concept has well known roots in the application of phase-shift-plus-interpolation utilized commonly in the downward continuation process. If the difference between the minimum and maximum velocity of the background medium is large, we obtain filtered gradients corresponding to more constant velocity backgrounds and use linear interpolation between such velocities. The accuracy of this approximation for the Marmousi model gradient demonstrates the e ectiveness of the approach.
Inverse scattering theory foundations of tomography with diffracting wavefields
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Devaney, A.J.
1987-01-01
The underlying mathematical models employed in reflection and transmission computed tomography using diffracting wavefields (called diffraction tomography) are reviewed and shown to have a rigorous basis in inverse scattering theory. In transmission diffraction tomography the underlying wave model is shown to be the Rytov approximation to the complex phase of the wavefield transmitted by the object being probed while in reflection diffraction tomography the underlying wave model is shown to be the Born approximation to the backscattered wavefield from the object. In both cases the goal of the reconstruction process is the determination of the objects's complex index of refraction as a function of position r/sup →/ and, possibly, the frequency ω of the probing wavefield. By use of these approximations the reconstruction problem for both transmission and reflection diffraction tomography can be cast into the simple and elegant form of linearized inverse scattering theory. Linearized inverse scattering theory is shown to lead directly to generalized projection-slice theorems for both reflection and transmission diffraction tomography that provide a simple mathematical relationship between the object's complex index of refraction (the unknown) and the data (the complex phase of the transmitted wave or the complex amplitude of the reflected wave). The conventional projection-slice theorem of X-ray CT is shown to result from the generalized projection-slice theorem for transmission diffraction tomography in the limit of vanishing wavelength (in the absence of wave effects). Fourier based and back-projection type reconstruction algorithms are shown to be directly derivable from the generalized projection-slice theorems
Inverse scattering solution of the Chew-Low equation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nakano, K.
1985-01-01
Techniques for solving the inverse scattering problem are applied to the Chew-Low equation to obtain the nucleon form factor directly from the experimental phase shifts. A new dispersion relation is derived for the P 11 wave because of its sign-changing phase shift. A self-consistent solution for each channel is obtained, but the universality of form factor is not confirmed. Also, an iterative procedure based on Omnes' method is developed in order to solve coupled-channel, singular integral equations. (orig.)
On reciprocal Baecklund transformations of inverse scattering schemes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Rogers, C.; Wong, P.
1984-01-01
The notion of reciprocally related inverse scattering schemes is introduced and is shown to be a key component in the link between the AKNS and WKI schemes. Reciprocal auto-Baecklund transformations are represented both for a generalised Harry-Dym equation and an equation descriptive of nonlinear oscillation of elastic beams. Further, the N-loop soliton solution of the KIW equation is generated in a convenient parametric form via reciprocal Baecklund transformations. Finally, an important reduction to canonical spectral form is shown to be a reciprocal transformation. (Auth.)
One-dimensional scattering problem for inverse square potential
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mineev, V.S.
1990-01-01
Analytical continuation of the solution for the Schroedinger equation of inverse square potential, together with the modified method for variation of constants makes it possible to construct admittable self-adjoint extensions and to completely analyze the respective scattering problem along the entire line. In this case, the current density conservation and the wave function continuity when passing through the singular point x=0 require, that a 8-shaped induced potential should be introduced in the Schroedinger equation. The relevant calculations have shown that the potential x -2 can be either absolutely penetrable or absolutely impenetrable. 16 refs
Energy-dependent inversion of p+16O scattering data
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Cooper, S.G.
1997-01-01
A fast iterative procedure is developed to determine potentials by inversion from elastic cross section, analysing powers and reaction cross-section measurements covering a wide energy range. The procedure incorporates both energy and parity dependence. The method is applied to extensive p+ 16 O scattering data for an energy range from 27.3 to 46.1 MeV, giving a solution which simultaneously reproduces the data at all energies. The wide angle data is well reproduced by including parity dependence and a linear energy dependence is established for the real potential, including the parity-dependent component. The real terms agree qualitatively with potentials derived from the single channel RGM, but the central and spin-orbit imaginary components have distinct features strongly suggestive of further non-local contributions, possibly arising from channel coupling. The large data set is found essential to reduce the potential ambiguities present when fitting scattering data. (orig.)
Inverse electronic scattering by Green's functions and singular values decomposition
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mayer, A.; Vigneron, J.-P.
2000-01-01
An inverse scattering technique is developed to enable a sample reconstruction from the diffraction figures obtained by electronic projection microscopy. In its Green's functions formulation, this technique takes account of all orders of diffraction by performing an iterative reconstruction of the wave function on the observation screen. This scattered wave function is then backpropagated to the sample to determine the potential-energy distribution, which is assumed real valued. The method relies on the use of singular values decomposition techniques, thus providing the best least-squares solutions and enabling a reduction of noise. The technique is applied to the analysis of a two-dimensional nanometric sample that is observed in Fresnel conditions with an electronic energy of 25 eV. The algorithm turns out to provide results with a mean relative error of the order of 5% and to be very stable against random noise
Pulsar high energy emission due to inverse Compton scattering
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Lyutikov, Maxim
2013-06-15
We discuss growing evidence that pulsar high energy is emission is generated via Inverse Compton mechanism. We reproduce the broadband spectrum of Crab pulsar, from UV to very high energy gamma-rays - nearly ten decades in energy, within the framework of the cyclotron-self-Compton model. Emission is produced by two counter-streaming beams within the outer gaps, at distances above ∼ 20 NS radii. The outward moving beam produces UV-X-ray photons via Doppler-booster cyclotron emission, and GeV photons by Compton scattering the cyclotron photons produced by the inward going beam. The scattering occurs in the deep Klein-Nishina regime, whereby the IC component provides a direct measurement of particle distribution within the magnetosphere. The required plasma multiplicity is high, ∼10{sup 6} – 10{sup 7}, but is consistent with the average particle flux injected into the pulsar wind nebula.
Obtaining the crystal potential by inversion from electron scattering intensities
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Allen, L.T.; Josefsson, T.W.; Leeb, H.
1998-01-01
A method to obtain the crystal potential from the intensities of the diffracted beams in high energy electron diffraction is proposed. It is based on a series of measurements for specific well determined orientations of the incident beam which determine the moduli of all elements of the scattering matrix. Using unitarity and the specific form of the scattering matrix (including symmetries) an overdetermined set of non-linear equations is obtained from these data. Solution of these equations yields the required phase information and allows the determination of a (projected) crystal potential by inversion which is unique up to an arbitrary shift of the origin. The reconstruction of potentials from intensities is illustrated for two realistic examples, a [111] systematic row case in ZnS and a [110] zone axis orientation in GaAs (both noncentrosymmetric crystals)
Direct sampling methods for inverse elastic scattering problems
Ji, Xia; Liu, Xiaodong; Xi, Yingxia
2018-03-01
We consider the inverse elastic scattering of incident plane compressional and shear waves from the knowledge of the far field patterns. Specifically, three direct sampling methods for location and shape reconstruction are proposed using the different component of the far field patterns. Only inner products are involved in the computation, thus the novel sampling methods are very simple and fast to be implemented. With the help of the factorization of the far field operator, we give a lower bound of the proposed indicator functionals for sampling points inside the scatterers. While for the sampling points outside the scatterers, we show that the indicator functionals decay like the Bessel functions as the sampling point goes away from the boundary of the scatterers. We also show that the proposed indicator functionals continuously dependent on the far field patterns, which further implies that the novel sampling methods are extremely stable with respect to data error. For the case when the observation directions are restricted into the limited aperture, we firstly introduce some data retrieval techniques to obtain those data that can not be measured directly and then use the proposed direct sampling methods for location and shape reconstructions. Finally, some numerical simulations in two dimensions are conducted with noisy data, and the results further verify the effectiveness and robustness of the proposed sampling methods, even for multiple multiscale cases and limited-aperture problems.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Aleksenko, A I; Cruz, J P; Lakshtanov, E L [Department of Mathematics, Aveiro University, Aveiro 3810 (Portugal)], E-mail: lakshtanov@rambler.ru
2008-06-27
The scalar scattering of a plane wave by a strictly convex obstacle with impedance boundary conditions is considered. A uniform bound of the total cross section for all values of the frequency is presented. The high-frequency limit of the transport cross section is calculated and presented as a classical functional of the variational calculus.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Aleksenko, A I; Cruz, J P; Lakshtanov, E L
2008-01-01
The scalar scattering of a plane wave by a strictly convex obstacle with impedance boundary conditions is considered. A uniform bound of the total cross section for all values of the frequency is presented. The high-frequency limit of the transport cross section is calculated and presented as a classical functional of the variational calculus
Inverse Scattering Method and Soliton Solution Family for String Effective Action
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ya-Jun, Gao
2009-01-01
A modified Hauser–Ernst-type linear system is established and used to develop an inverse scattering method for solving the motion equations of the string effective action describing the coupled gravity, dilaton and Kalb–Ramond fields. The reduction procedures in this inverse scattering method are found to be fairly simple, which makes the proposed inverse scattering method applied fine and effective. As an application, a concrete family of soliton solutions for the considered theory is obtained
Reconstruction formula for a 3-d phaseless inverse scattering problem for the Schrodinger equation
Klibanov, Michael V.; Romanov, Vladimir G.
2014-01-01
The inverse scattering problem of the reconstruction of the unknown potential with compact support in the 3-d Schr\\"odinger equation is considered. Only the modulus of the scattering complex valued wave field is known, whereas the phase is unknown. It is shown that the unknown potential can be reconstructed via the inverse Radon transform. Therefore, a long standing problem posed in 1977 by K. Chadan and P.C. Sabatier in their book "Inverse Problems in Quantum Scattering Theory" is solved.
Rational reflection coefficient and inverse scattering on the line
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sabatier, P.C.
1983-01-01
Inverse scattering for the Schroedinger equation on the line is studied for reflection and transmission coefficients that satisfy the usual regularity conditions and are rational functions of k. The origin is still a particular point, but the potentials do not need to be cut at this point like in previous studies. Giving up this restriction corresponds to the existence of poles for both reflection coefficients in both upper and lower half k-planes. It is shown that the problem reduces to solving a linear algebraic system. A different algorithm, made of a sequence of Darboux-Backlund transforms, gives also the solution in closed form and enables to study separately modifications of both sides of the potential due to the introduction of poles. Thus it paves the way for approximation studies. Generalizations and particular problems will be studied in forthcoming papers
Using mixed data in the inverse scattering problem
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lassaut, M.; Larsen, S.Y.; Sofianos, S.A.; Wallet, J.C.
2008-01-01
Consider the fixed-l inverse scattering problem. We show that the zeros of the regular solution of the Schroedinger equation, τ n (E), which are monotonic functions of the energy, determine a unique potential when the domain of the energy is such that the τ n (E) range from zero to infinity. This suggest that the use of the mixed data of phase-shifts (δ(l 0 , k),k ≥ k 0 ) set-theoretic union (δ(l,k 0 ),l ≥ l 0 ), for which the zeros of the regular solution are monotonic in both domains, and range from zero to infinity, offers the possibility of determining the potential in a unique way. (author)
Inelastic Proton Scattering on 21Na in Inverse Kinematics
Austin, Roby
2009-10-01
R.A.E. Austin, R. Kanungo, S. Reeve, Saint Mary's University; D.G. Jenkins, C.Aa.Diget, A. Robinson, A.G. Tuff, O. Roberts, University of York, UK; P.J. Woods, T. Davinson, G. J. Lotay, University of Edinburgh; C.-Y. Wu, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory; H. Al Falou, G.C. Ball, M. Djongolov, A. Garnsworthy, G. Hackman, J.N. Orce, C.J. Pearson, S. Triambak, S.J. Williams, TRIUMF; C. Andreiou, D.S. Cross, N. Galinski, R. Kshetri, Simon Fraser University; C. Sumithrarachchi, M.A. Schumaker, University of Guelph; M.P. Jones, S.V. Rigby, University of Liverpool; D. Cline, A. Hayes, University of Rochester; T.E. Drake, University of Toronto; We describe an experiment and associated technique [1] to measure resonances of interest in astrophysical reactions. At the TRIUMF ISAC-II radioactive beam accelerator facility in Canada, particles inelastically scattered in inverse kinematics are detected with Bambino, a δE-E silicon telescope spanning 15-40 degrees in the lab. We use the TIGRESS to detect gamma rays in coincidence with the charged particles to cleanly select inelastic scattering events. We measured resonances above the alpha threshold in ^22Mg of relevance to the rate of break-out from the hot-CNO cycle via the reaction ^ 18Ne(α,p)^21Na. [1] PJ Woods et al. Rex-ISOLDE proposal 424 Cern (2003).
Detection of inverse Compton scattering in plasma wakefield experiments
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bohlen, Simon
2016-12-15
Inverse Compton scattering (ICS) is the process of scattering of photons and electrons, where the photons gain a part of the electrons energy. In combination with plasma wakefield acceleration (PWA), ICS offers a compact MeV γ-ray source. A numerical study of ICS radiation produced in PWA experiments at FLASHForward was performed, using an ICS simulation code and the results from particle-in-cell modelling. The possibility of determining electron beam properties from measurements of the γ-ray source was explored for a wide range of experimental conditions. It was found that information about the electron divergence, the electron spectrum and longitudinal information can be obtained from measurements of the ICS beams for some cases. For the measurement of the ICS profile at FLASHForward, a CsI(Tl) scintillator array was chosen, similar to scintillators used in other ICS experiments. To find a suitable detector for spectrum measurements, an experimental test of a Compton spectrometer at the RAL was conducted. This test showed that a similar spectrometer could also be used at FLASHForward. However, changes to the spectrometer could be needed in order to use the pair production effect. In addition, further studies using Geant4 could lead to a better reconstruction of the obtained data. The studies presented here show that ICS is a promising method to analyse electron parameters from PWA experiments in further detail.
Inverse Scattering, the Coupling Constant Spectrum, and the Riemann Hypothesis
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Khuri, N. N.
2002-01-01
It is well known that the s-wave Jost function for a potential, λV, is an entire function of λ with an infinite number of zeros extending to infinity. For a repulsive V, and at zero energy, these zeros of the 'coupling constant', λ, will all be real and negative, λ n (0) n n =1/2+iγ n . Thus, finding a repulsive V whose coupling constant spectrum coincides with the Riemann zeros will establish the Riemann hypothesis, but this will be a very difficult and unguided search.In this paper we make a significant enlargement of the class of potentials needed for a generalization of the above idea. We also make this new class amenable to construction via inverse scattering methods. We show that all one needs is a one parameter class of potentials, U(s;x), which are analytic in the strip, 0≤Res≤1, Ims>T 0 , and in addition have an asymptotic expansion in powers of [s(s-1)] -1 , i.e. U(s;x)=V 0 (x)+gV 1 (x)+g 2 V 2 (x)+...+O(g N ), with g=[s(s-1)] -1 . The potentials V n (x) are real and summable. Under suitable conditions on the V n 's and the O(g N ) term we show that the condition, ∫ 0 ∞ vertical bar f 0 (x) vertical bar 2 V 1 (x) dx≠0, where f 0 is the zero energy and g=0 Jost function for U, is sufficient to guarantee that the zeros g n are real and, hence, s n =1/2+iγ n , for γ n ≥T 0 .Starting with a judiciously chosen Jost function, M(s,k), which is constructed such that M(s,0) is Riemann's ξ(s) function, we have used inverse scattering methods to actually construct a U(s;x) with the above properties. By necessity, we had to generalize inverse methods to deal with complex potentials and a nonunitary S-matrix. This we have done at least for the special cases under consideration.For our specific example, ∫ 0 ∞ vertical bar f 0 (x) vertical bar 2 V 1 (x) dx=0 and, hence, we get no restriction on Img n or Res n . The reasons for the vanishing of the above integral are given, and they give us hints on what one needs to proceed further. The problem
Resonant Inverse Compton Scattering Spectra from Highly Magnetized Neutron Stars
Wadiasingh, Zorawar; Baring, Matthew G.; Gonthier, Peter L.; Harding, Alice K.
2018-02-01
Hard, nonthermal, persistent pulsed X-ray emission extending between 10 and ∼150 keV has been observed in nearly 10 magnetars. For inner-magnetospheric models of such emission, resonant inverse Compton scattering of soft thermal photons by ultrarelativistic charges is the most efficient production mechanism. We present angle-dependent upscattering spectra and pulsed intensity maps for uncooled, relativistic electrons injected in inner regions of magnetar magnetospheres, calculated using collisional integrals over field loops. Our computations employ a new formulation of the QED Compton scattering cross section in strong magnetic fields that is physically correct for treating important spin-dependent effects in the cyclotron resonance, thereby producing correct photon spectra. The spectral cutoff energies are sensitive to the choices of observer viewing geometry, electron Lorentz factor, and scattering kinematics. We find that electrons with energies ≲15 MeV will emit most of their radiation below 250 keV, consistent with inferred turnovers for magnetar hard X-ray tails. More energetic electrons still emit mostly below 1 MeV, except for viewing perspectives sampling field-line tangents. Pulse profiles may be singly or doubly peaked dependent on viewing geometry, emission locale, and observed energy band. Magnetic pair production and photon splitting will attenuate spectra to hard X-ray energies, suppressing signals in the Fermi-LAT band. The resonant Compton spectra are strongly polarized, suggesting that hard X-ray polarimetry instruments such as X-Calibur, or a future Compton telescope, can prove central to constraining model geometry and physics.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Xin, Zhou [Wisconsin Univ., Madison (USA). Dept. of Mathematics
1990-03-01
For the direct-inverse scattering transform of the time dependent Schroedinger equation, rigorous results are obtained based on an operator-triangular-factorization approach. By viewing the equation as a first order operator equation, similar results as for the first order n x n matrix system are obtained. The nonlocal Riemann-Hilbert problem for inverse scattering is shown to have solution. (orig.).
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zhou Xin
1990-01-01
For the direct-inverse scattering transform of the time dependent Schroedinger equation, rigorous results are obtained based on an operator-triangular-factorization approach. By viewing the equation as a first order operator equation, similar results as for the first order n x n matrix system are obtained. The nonlocal Riemann-Hilbert problem for inverse scattering is shown to have solution. (orig.)
Simulation of inverse Compton scattering and its implications on the scattered linewidth
Ranjan, N.; Terzić, B.; Krafft, G. A.; Petrillo, V.; Drebot, I.; Serafini, L.
2018-03-01
Rising interest in inverse Compton sources has increased the need for efficient models that properly quantify the behavior of scattered radiation given a set of interaction parameters. The current state-of-the-art simulations rely on Monte Carlo-based methods, which, while properly expressing scattering behavior in high-probability regions of the produced spectra, may not correctly simulate such behavior in low-probability regions (e.g. tails of spectra). Moreover, sampling may take an inordinate amount of time for the desired accuracy to be achieved. In this paper, we present an analytic derivation of the expression describing the scattered radiation linewidth and propose a model to describe the effects of horizontal and vertical emittance on the properties of the scattered radiation. We also present an improved version of the code initially reported in Krafft et al. [Phys. Rev. Accel. Beams 19, 121302 (2016), 10.1103/PhysRevAccelBeams.19.121302], that can perform the same simulations as those present in cain and give accurate results in low-probability regions by integrating over the emissions of the electrons. Finally, we use these codes to carry out simulations that closely verify the behavior predicted by the analytically derived scaling law.
Inverse scattering and GPR data processing: an Introduction
Persico, Raffaele
2014-05-01
Inverse scattering and GPR data processing: an Introduction Raffaele Persico This abstract is meant to propose a brief overview of the book "Introduction to Ground Penetrating Radar: Inverse scattering and data processing", edited by Wiley Press (ISBN 9781118305003). The reason why I propose this contribution is the fact that, in spite of the large relevant literature, to the best of my knowledge it is not very common to find a text entirely devoted to the physical-mathematical aspects (a part of them, of course) of GPR data processing. Also due to this, probably a sort of gap between the GPR practice and the underlying theory has been created, and indeed we can meet practitioners convinced that the quality of the achieved results is indefinitely improvable by making narrower the spatial step of the data, or that it is desirable to have extremely directive antennas because this would improve the resolution. In order to provide a work hopefully able to address these and other aspects and hopefully able to give a contribution to the correction of these imprecise beliefs, a dealing from the beginning has been proposed, i.e. a sequential, relatively plane, and as much as possible self consistent, dealing starting from the Maxwell's equations and reaching the most commonly exploited migration formulas and linear inversion algorithms, both within a 2D and a 3D framework. This follows the didactic aim to provide to the reader an insight about what can be reasonably achieved and what should be reasonably done in the field and during the processing phase in order to achieve satisfying results. In particular, the reader will be hopefully made aware not only of the mathematical passages, but also of the involved approximations, the needed assumptions and the physical limits of the final algorithms. The results have been also back-upped with numerical exercises and with some experimental tests, all of which conceived on purpose for this text, and some questions with the
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kılıç, Emre; Eibert, Thomas F.
2015-01-01
An approach combining boundary integral and finite element methods is introduced for the solution of three-dimensional inverse electromagnetic medium scattering problems. Based on the equivalence principle, unknown equivalent electric and magnetic surface current densities on a closed surface are utilized to decompose the inverse medium problem into two parts: a linear radiation problem and a nonlinear cavity problem. The first problem is formulated by a boundary integral equation, the computational burden of which is reduced by employing the multilevel fast multipole method (MLFMM). Reconstructed Cauchy data on the surface allows the utilization of the Lorentz reciprocity and the Poynting's theorems. Exploiting these theorems, the noise level and an initial guess are estimated for the cavity problem. Moreover, it is possible to determine whether the material is lossy or not. In the second problem, the estimated surface currents form inhomogeneous boundary conditions of the cavity problem. The cavity problem is formulated by the finite element technique and solved iteratively by the Gauss–Newton method to reconstruct the properties of the object. Regularization for both the first and the second problems is achieved by a Krylov subspace method. The proposed method is tested against both synthetic and experimental data and promising reconstruction results are obtained
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kılıç, Emre, E-mail: emre.kilic@tum.de; Eibert, Thomas F.
2015-05-01
An approach combining boundary integral and finite element methods is introduced for the solution of three-dimensional inverse electromagnetic medium scattering problems. Based on the equivalence principle, unknown equivalent electric and magnetic surface current densities on a closed surface are utilized to decompose the inverse medium problem into two parts: a linear radiation problem and a nonlinear cavity problem. The first problem is formulated by a boundary integral equation, the computational burden of which is reduced by employing the multilevel fast multipole method (MLFMM). Reconstructed Cauchy data on the surface allows the utilization of the Lorentz reciprocity and the Poynting's theorems. Exploiting these theorems, the noise level and an initial guess are estimated for the cavity problem. Moreover, it is possible to determine whether the material is lossy or not. In the second problem, the estimated surface currents form inhomogeneous boundary conditions of the cavity problem. The cavity problem is formulated by the finite element technique and solved iteratively by the Gauss–Newton method to reconstruct the properties of the object. Regularization for both the first and the second problems is achieved by a Krylov subspace method. The proposed method is tested against both synthetic and experimental data and promising reconstruction results are obtained.
On the solution of the inverse scattering problem on a ray
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Egikyan, R.S.; Zhidkov, E.P.
1988-01-01
Quantum inverse scattering problem (ISP) is considered within the framework of two-particle scattering for local interaction case depending only on the scattering between particles. Constructing the solution of secondary integral equation solution of ISP is described in the clear image. Numerical calculations are conducted using a direct method
Simplified solutions of the Cox-Thompson inverse scattering method at fixed energy
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Palmai, Tamas; Apagyi, Barnabas; Horvath, Miklos
2008-01-01
Simplified solutions of the Cox-Thompson inverse quantum scattering method at fixed energy are derived if a finite number of partial waves with only even or odd angular momenta contribute to the scattering process. Based on new formulae various approximate methods are introduced which also prove applicable to the generic scattering events
An inverse-scattering approach to the physics of transition metals ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
A method is developed for the deduction of a transition metal ion potential from a knowledge of the phase-shift. The method used is based the distorted plane – wave scattering approximation for the deduction of non singular potentials from scattering phase shifts in an inverse scattering approach. The resulting electron ...
Inversion of the total cross sections for electron-molecule and electron-atom scattering
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lun, D.R.; Amos, K.; Allen, L.J.
1994-01-01
Inverse scattering theory has been applied to construct the interaction potentials from total cross sections as a function of energy for electrons scattered off of atoms and molecules. The underlying potentials are assumed to be real and energy independent and are evaluated using the Eikonal approximation and with real phase shifts determined from the total cross sections. The inversion potentials have been determined using either a high energy limit approximation or by using a fixed energy inversion method at select energies. These procedures have been used to analyse e - - CH 4 , e - - SiH 4 , e - -Kr and e - -Xe scattering data in particular. 14 refs., 1 tabs., 3 figs
The algebraic method of the scattering inverse problem solution under untraditional statements
Popushnoj, M N
2001-01-01
The algebraic method of the scattering inverse problem solution under untraditional statements is proposed consistently in this review, in the framework of which some quantum theory od scattering charged particles problem were researched afterwards. The inverse problem of scattering theory of charged particles on the complex plane of the Coulomb coupling constant (CCC) is considered. A procedure of interaction potential restoration is established for the case when the energy, orbital moment quadrate and CCC are linearly dependent. The relation between one-parametric problems of the potential scattering of charged particles is investigated
An analytical approach to estimate the number of small scatterers in 2D inverse scattering problems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Fazli, Roohallah; Nakhkash, Mansor
2012-01-01
This paper presents an analytical method to estimate the location and number of actual small targets in 2D inverse scattering problems. This method is motivated from the exact maximum likelihood estimation of signal parameters in white Gaussian noise for the linear data model. In the first stage, the method uses the MUSIC algorithm to acquire all possible target locations and in the next stage, it employs an analytical formula that works as a spatial filter to determine which target locations are associated to the actual ones. The ability of the method is examined for both the Born and multiple scattering cases and for the cases of well-resolved and non-resolved targets. Many numerical simulations using both the coincident and non-coincident arrays demonstrate that the proposed method can detect the number of actual targets even in the case of very noisy data and when the targets are closely located. Using the experimental microwave data sets, we further show that this method is successful in specifying the number of small inclusions. (paper)
Desmal, Abdulla; Bagci, Hakan
2014-01-01
A numerical framework that incorporates recently developed iterative shrinkage thresholding (IST) algorithms within the Born iterative method (BIM) is proposed for solving the two-dimensional inverse electromagnetic scattering problem. IST
Multi-parameter Analysis and Inversion for Anisotropic Media Using the Scattering Integral Method
Djebbi, Ramzi
2017-01-01
the model. I study the prospect of applying a scattering integral approach for multi-parameter inversion for a transversely isotropic model with a vertical axis of symmetry. I mainly analyze the sensitivity kernels to understand the sensitivity of seismic
Potentials of the inverse scattering problem in the three-nucleon problem
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Pushkash, A.M.; Simenog, I.V.; Shapoval, D.V.
1993-01-01
Possibilities of using the method of the inverse scattering problem for describing simultaneously the two-nucleon and the low-energy three-nucleon data in the S-interaction approximation are examined. 20 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab
Seismic inverse scattering in the downward continuation approach
Stolk, C.C.; de Hoop, M.V.
Seismic data are commonly modeled by a linearization around a smooth background medium in combination with a high frequency approximation. The perturbation of the medium coefficient is assumed to contain the discontinuities. This leads to two inverse problems, first the linearized inverse problem
Review of the inverse scattering problem at fixed energy in quantum mechanics
Sabatier, P. C.
1972-01-01
Methods of solution of the inverse scattering problem at fixed energy in quantum mechanics are presented. Scattering experiments of a beam of particles at a nonrelativisitic energy by a target made up of particles are analyzed. The Schroedinger equation is used to develop the quantum mechanical description of the system and one of several functions depending on the relative distance of the particles. The inverse problem is the construction of the potentials from experimental measurements.
Riemann–Hilbert problem approach for two-dimensional flow inverse scattering
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Agaltsov, A. D., E-mail: agalets@gmail.com [Faculty of Computational Mathematics and Cybernetics, Lomonosov Moscow State University, 119991 Moscow (Russian Federation); Novikov, R. G., E-mail: novikov@cmap.polytechnique.fr [CNRS (UMR 7641), Centre de Mathématiques Appliquées, Ecole Polytechnique, 91128 Palaiseau (France); IEPT RAS, 117997 Moscow (Russian Federation); Moscow Institute of Physics and Technology, Dolgoprudny (Russian Federation)
2014-10-15
We consider inverse scattering for the time-harmonic wave equation with first-order perturbation in two dimensions. This problem arises in particular in the acoustic tomography of moving fluid. We consider linearized and nonlinearized reconstruction algorithms for this problem of inverse scattering. Our nonlinearized reconstruction algorithm is based on the non-local Riemann–Hilbert problem approach. Comparisons with preceding results are given.
Riemann–Hilbert problem approach for two-dimensional flow inverse scattering
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Agaltsov, A. D.; Novikov, R. G.
2014-01-01
We consider inverse scattering for the time-harmonic wave equation with first-order perturbation in two dimensions. This problem arises in particular in the acoustic tomography of moving fluid. We consider linearized and nonlinearized reconstruction algorithms for this problem of inverse scattering. Our nonlinearized reconstruction algorithm is based on the non-local Riemann–Hilbert problem approach. Comparisons with preceding results are given
Single and multiple electromagnetic scattering by dielectric obstacles from a resonance perspective
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Riley, D.J.
1987-03-01
A new application of the singularity expansion method (SEM) is explored. This application combines the classical theory of wave propagation through a multiple-scattering environment and the SEM. Because the SEM is generally considered to be a theory for describing surface currents on conducting scatters, extensions are made which permit, under certain conditions, a singularity expansion representation for the electromagnetic field scattered by a dielectric scatterer. Application of this expansion is then made to the multiple-scattering case using both single and multiple interactions. A resonance scattering tensor form is used for the SEM description which leds to an associated tensor form for the solution to the multiple-scattering problem with each SEM pole effect appearing explicitly. The coherent field is determined for both spatial and SEM parameter random variations. A numerical example for the case of an ensemble of dielectric spheres which possess frequency-dependent loss is also made. Accurate resonance expansions for the single-scattering problem are derived, and resonance trajectories based on the Debye relaxation model for the refractive index are introduced. Application of these resonance expansions is then made to the multiple-scattering results for a slab containing a distribution of spheres with varying radii. Conditions are discussed which describe when the hybrid theory is appropriate. 53 refs., 21 figs., 9 tabs
Barnett, Alex H.; Nelson, Bradley J.; Mahoney, J. Matthew
2015-09-01
We apply boundary integral equations for the first time to the two-dimensional scattering of time-harmonic waves from a smooth obstacle embedded in a continuously-graded unbounded medium. In the case we solve, the square of the wavenumber (refractive index) varies linearly in one coordinate, i.e. (Δ + E +x2) u (x1 ,x2) = 0 where E is a constant; this models quantum particles of fixed energy in a uniform gravitational field, and has broader applications to stratified media in acoustics, optics and seismology. We evaluate the fundamental solution efficiently with exponential accuracy via numerical saddle-point integration, using the truncated trapezoid rule with typically 102 nodes, with an effort that is independent of the frequency parameter E. By combining with a high-order Nyström quadrature, we are able to solve the scattering from obstacles 50 wavelengths across to 11 digits of accuracy in under a minute on a desktop or laptop.
Heavy ion scattering; a fixed energy inverse problem
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Amos, K.
1993-01-01
Heavy ion scattering has been studied quite intensively in the last decade and central in most analyses of data from such experiments be they on fusion, particle transfer or internal state excitations of the colliding pair, is the inter-ion interaction affecting their relative motion. It is customary to use the elastic scattering data to constrain solutions of the (nonrelativistic) Schroedinger equation to ascertain the character of that (central and complex) heavy ion potential. These matters for projectiles ranging from the lightest 'heavy' ion, a proton, to Oxygen nuclei are considered in brief herein. The targets range from 12 C to 208 Pb. The central entity in the analyses to be discussed will be the S-function, and so for completeness, the simple potential scattering theory details are presented that specify the S-function and relate it to measured cross-sections. 20 refs., 18 figs
Inverse scattering with mixed spectrum from δ-potentials
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lin Jiancheng.
1987-03-01
The inverse problem is studied in a system with mixed spectrum, i.e. the continuous part of the spectrum coincides with that of a repulsive δ-potential and the discrete part coincides with that of an attractive δ-potential. (author). 2 refs, 5 figs
Uniqueness of inverse scattering problem in local quantum physics
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Schroer, Bert [Centro Brasileiro de Pesquisas Fisicas (CBPF), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)]. E-mail: schroer@cbpf.br
2001-06-01
It is shown that the a Bisognano-Wichmann-Unruh inspired formulation of local quantum physics which starts from wedge-localized algebras, leads to a uniqueness proof for the scattering problem. The important mathematical tool is the thermal KMS aspect of localization and its strengthening by the requirement of crossing symmetry for generalized formfactors. (author)
A simple method for solving the inverse scattering problem
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Melnikov, V.N.; Rudyak, B.V.; Zakhariev, V.N.
1977-01-01
A new method is proposed for approximate reconstruction of a potential as a step function from scattering data using the completeness relation of solutions of the Schroedinger equation. The suggested method allows one to take into account exactly the additional centrifugal barrier for partial waves with angular momentum l>0, and also the Coulomb potential. The method admits different generalizations. Numerical calculations for checking the method have been performed
On the evolution equations, solvable through the inverse scattering method
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gerdjikov, V.S.; Khristov, E.Kh.
1979-01-01
The nonlinear evolution equations (NLEE), related to the one-parameter family of Dirac operators are considered in a uniform manner. The class of NLEE solvable through the inverse scatterina method and their conservation laws are described. The description of the hierarchy of Hamiltonian structures and the proof of complete integrability of the NLEE is presented. The class of Baecklund transformations for these NLEE is derived. The general formulae are illustrated by two important examples: the nonlinear Schroedinger equation and the sine-Gordon equation
Solution of the Cox-Thompson inverse scattering problem using finite set of phase shifts
Apagyi, B; Scheid, W
2003-01-01
A system of nonlinear equations is presented for the solution of the Cox-Thompson inverse scattering problem (1970 J. Math. Phys. 11 805) at fixed energy. From a given finite set of phase shifts for physical angular momenta, the nonlinear equations determine related sets of asymptotic normalization constants and nonphysical (shifted) angular momenta from which all quantities of interest, including the inversion potential itself, can be calculated. As a first application of the method we use input data consisting of a finite set of phase shifts calculated from Woods-Saxon and box potentials representing interactions with diffuse or sharp surfaces, respectively. The results for the inversion potentials, their first moments and asymptotic properties are compared with those provided by the Newton-Sabatier quantum inversion procedure. It is found that in order to achieve inversion potentials of similar quality, the Cox-Thompson method requires a smaller set of phase shifts than the Newton-Sabatier procedure.
Solution of the Cox-Thompson inverse scattering problem using finite set of phase shifts
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Apagyi, Barnabas; Harman, Zoltan; Scheid, Werner
2003-01-01
A system of nonlinear equations is presented for the solution of the Cox-Thompson inverse scattering problem (1970 J. Math. Phys. 11 805) at fixed energy. From a given finite set of phase shifts for physical angular momenta, the nonlinear equations determine related sets of asymptotic normalization constants and nonphysical (shifted) angular momenta from which all quantities of interest, including the inversion potential itself, can be calculated. As a first application of the method we use input data consisting of a finite set of phase shifts calculated from Woods-Saxon and box potentials representing interactions with diffuse or sharp surfaces, respectively. The results for the inversion potentials, their first moments and asymptotic properties are compared with those provided by the Newton-Sabatier quantum inversion procedure. It is found that in order to achieve inversion potentials of similar quality, the Cox-Thompson method requires a smaller set of phase shifts than the Newton-Sabatier procedure
The Problem of Scattering by a Mixture of Cracks and Obstacles
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Yan Guozheng
2009-01-01
Full Text Available Consider the scattering of an electromagnetic time-harmonic plane wave by an infinite cylinder having an open crack and a bounded domain in as cross section. We assume that the crack is divided into two parts, and one of the two parts is (possibly coated on one side by a material with surface impedance . Different boundary conditions are given on and . Applying potential theory, the problem can be reformulated as a boundary integral system. We obtain the existence and uniqueness of a solution to the system by using Fredholm theory.
Integrating the Toda Lattice with Self-Consistent Source via Inverse Scattering Method
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Urazboev, Gayrat
2012-01-01
In this work, there is shown that the solutions of Toda lattice with self-consistent source can be found by the inverse scattering method for the discrete Sturm-Liuville operator. For the considered problem the one-soliton solution is obtained.
A Literature Survey on Inverse Scattering for Electron Density Profile Determination. Volume II.
1981-09-24
THE INVERSE SCATTERING PROBLEM4 FOR THE EQUAT ION Of ACOUSTIC$ AVILA, G.S.S. DEPT. DE MATEMATICA . INST. DE CIENCIAS EXATAS. UNIV. Of BRASILIA...of Colict support Portinari. Joao C. Departamento do Matematica . Pontificia Universidade Catolica do Rio de Janeiro, Rio do Janeiro. Brasil J. Math
Tropospheric nitrogen dioxide inversions based on spectral measurements of scattered sunlight
Vlemmix, T.
2011-01-01
This thesis describes the development of inversion methods for tropospheric nitrogen dioxide (NO2), based on ground based observations of scattered sunlight with themulti-axis differential optical absorption spectroscopy (MAX-DOAS) technique. NO2 is an atmospheric trace gas which, when present near
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chaichian, M.; Kulish, P. P.
1978-04-01
Supersymmetric Liouville and sine-Gordon equations are studied. We write down for these models the system of linear equations for which the method of inverse scattering problem should be applicable. Expressions for an infinite set of conserved currents are explicitly given. Supersymmetric Baecklund transformations and generalized conservation laws are constructed. (author)
Inverse scattering transform method and soliton solutions for Davey-Stewartson II equation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Arkadiev, V.A.; Pogrebkov, A.K.; Polivanov, M.C.
1989-01-01
The inverse scattering method for Davey-Stewartson II (DS-II) equation including both soliton and continuous spectrum solutions is developed. The explicit formulae for N-soliton solutions are given. Note that our solitons decrease as |z| -2 with z tending to infinity. (author). 8 refs
Inverse scattering problem for a magnetic field in the Glauber approximation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bogdanov, I.V.
1985-01-01
New results in the general theory of scattering are obtained. An inverse problem at fixed energy for an axisymmetric magnetic field is formulated and solved within the frames of the quantum-mechanical Glauber approximation. The solution is found in quadratures in the form of an explicit inversion algorithm reproducing a vector potential by the angular dependence of the scattering amplitude. Extreme transitions from the eikonal inversion method to the classical and Born ones are investigated. Integral and differential equations are derived for the eikonal amplitude that ensure the real value of the vector potential and its energy independence. Magnetoelectric analogies the existence of equivalent axisymmetric electric and magnetic fields scattering charged particles in the same manner both in the Glauber and Born approximation are established. The mentioned analogies permit to simulate ion-potential scattering by potential one that is of interest from the practical viewpoint. Three-dimensional (excentral) eikonal inverse problems for the electric and magnetic fields are discussed. The results of the paper can be used in electron optics
“SmartGlass” Obstacles for Dynamic Inducing of Light Scattering in Vision Research Experiments
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Olga DANILENKO
2016-11-01
Full Text Available We describe a technique that allows control of visual stimuli quality through the use of a setup with a polymer dispersed liquid crystal (PDLC film positioned in the optical pathway of one or both human eyes. Nowadays, PDLC films allow alteration of the resolution and contrast limits of the transmitted light due to continuous change in the light scattering that is obtained by the application of an AC electrical field. In our experimental setup, the use of a wide-aperture up to area of 20 x 15 cm2 PDLC sheet is combined with a flat-screen PC display or with a modified display emission block without its interference filter unit and with an installed individually controllable colored light-emitting diode (LED backlight. In the latter case, the spatial structure of visual stimulus remains constant, but the PDLC switching-on timing for intensity, color, and contrast of visual stimuli control is done by a PC via an Arduino USB interface. Arduino applies a voltage to the backlight colored LEDs and the low voltage up to 30 – 80 V to light-scattering PDLC sheet. Modifications to this setup can improve the resolution of the timing and screen stimulus intensity and color purity, and increase the flexibility of its application in visual research tasks. A particular use of PDLC scattering sheets involves the altering of the stimuli input strength of the eye in different binocular viewing schemes. In such applications, a restricted-optical-aperture PDLC element is mounted in a goggle frame, and the element is controlled by the application of low-voltage AC field. The efficacy of the setup is demonstrated in experiments of human vision contrast sensitivity adaptation studies. Studies allow to determine the characteristic time of the contrast sensitivity altering of 4 s during adaptation phase and the same order of the characteristic time during recovery.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5755/j01.ms.22.4.12907
Elastic scattering of protons on 8Li nucleus in inverse kinematics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zhusupov, M.A.; Ibraeva, E.T.; Sanfirova, A.B.; Imambekov, O.
2002-01-01
In the present paper the proton elastic scattering on 8 Li in inverse kinematics is studies. The inverse kinematics means that a beam of radioactive nuclei is scattered on a stable hydrogen target. Proton as a target has an advantage during the interaction since it is stable and mechanism of proton-nucleus scattering is quite simple. 8 Li nucleus is considered in the three-body αtn-model with realistic potential of inter-cluster interactions. The wave function of this nucleus is calculated in the work where it was shown that such model well describes the main spectroscopic characteristics of the nucleus, root-mean square radius, binding energy, location of low laying energy levels, magnetic momentum and also total cross section and 7 Li(n, γ) 8 Li reaction rate at a wide energy region. Within Glauber-Sitenko multiply scattering theory, the differential cross section of elastic p 8 Li-scattering has been calculated. The first and the second multiplicities of scattering on nucleons and clusters of the nucleus were taken into account in Ω multiply scattering operator. There were considered several cases when as the initial parameters both amplitudes of nucleon-nucleon and nucleon-cluster scattering were taken. Sensitivity of the differential cross section both to the different wave functions of the target-nucleus and to the parameters of the elementary amplitudes and sensitivity to the scattering multiplicities at several beam energies has been investigated. Comparison with differential cross sections of elastic p 6 Li- and p 7 Li scattering has been carried out
Chu, Dezhang; Lawson, Gareth L; Wiebe, Peter H
2016-05-01
The linear inversion commonly used in fisheries and zooplankton acoustics assumes a constant inversion kernel and ignores the uncertainties associated with the shape and behavior of the scattering targets, as well as other relevant animal parameters. Here, errors of the linear inversion due to uncertainty associated with the inversion kernel are quantified. A scattering model-based nonlinear inversion method is presented that takes into account the nonlinearity of the inverse problem and is able to estimate simultaneously animal abundance and the parameters associated with the scattering model inherent to the kernel. It uses sophisticated scattering models to estimate first, the abundance, and second, the relevant shape and behavioral parameters of the target organisms. Numerical simulations demonstrate that the abundance, size, and behavior (tilt angle) parameters of marine animals (fish or zooplankton) can be accurately inferred from the inversion by using multi-frequency acoustic data. The influence of the singularity and uncertainty in the inversion kernel on the inversion results can be mitigated by examining the singular values for linear inverse problems and employing a non-linear inversion involving a scattering model-based kernel.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Prinari, Barbara; Ablowitz, Mark J.; Biondini, Gino
2006-01-01
The inverse scattering transform for the vector defocusing nonlinear Schroedinger (NLS) equation with nonvanishing boundary values at infinity is constructed. The direct scattering problem is formulated on a two-sheeted covering of the complex plane. Two out of the six Jost eigenfunctions, however, do not admit an analytic extension on either sheet of the Riemann surface. Therefore, a suitable modification of both the direct and the inverse problem formulations is necessary. On the direct side, this is accomplished by constructing two additional analytic eigenfunctions which are expressed in terms of the adjoint eigenfunctions. The discrete spectrum, bound states and symmetries of the direct problem are then discussed. In the most general situation, a discrete eigenvalue corresponds to a quartet of zeros (poles) of certain scattering data. The inverse scattering problem is formulated in terms of a generalized Riemann-Hilbert (RH) problem in the upper/lower half planes of a suitable uniformization variable. Special soliton solutions are constructed from the poles in the RH problem, and include dark-dark soliton solutions, which have dark solitonic behavior in both components, as well as dark-bright soliton solutions, which have one dark and one bright component. The linear limit is obtained from the RH problem and is shown to correspond to the Fourier transform solution obtained from the linearized vector NLS system
Quantitative photoplethysmography: Lambert-Beer law or inverse function incorporating light scatter.
Cejnar, M; Kobler, H; Hunyor, S N
1993-03-01
Finger blood volume is commonly determined from measurement of infra-red (IR) light transmittance using the Lambert-Beer law of light absorption derived for use in non-scattering media, even when such transmission involves light scatter around the phalangeal bone. Simultaneous IR transmittance and finger volume were measured over the full dynamic range of vascular volumes in seven subjects and outcomes compared with data fitted according to the Lambert-Beer exponential function and an inverse function derived for light attenuation by scattering materials. Curves were fitted by the least-squares method and goodness of fit was compared using standard errors of estimate (SEE). The inverse function gave a better data fit in six of the subjects: mean SEE 1.9 (SD 0.7, range 0.7-2.8) and 4.6 (2.2, 2.0-8.0) respectively (p < 0.02, paired t-test). Thus, when relating IR transmittance to blood volume, as occurs in the finger during measurements of arterial compliance, an inverse function derived from a model of light attenuation by scattering media gives more accurate results than the traditional exponential fit.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Otero, F A; Frontini, G L; Elicabe, G E
2011-01-01
An analytic model for the scattering of a spherical particle with spherical inclusions has been proposed under the RG approximation. The model can be used without limitations to describe an X-ray scattering experiment. However, for light scattering several conditions must be fulfilled. Based on this model an inverse methodology is proposed to estimate the radii of host particle and inclusions, the number of inclusions and the Distance Distribution Functions (DDF's) of the distances between inclusions and the distances between inclusions and the origin of coordinates. The methodology is numerically tested in a light scattering example in which the host particle is eliminated by matching the refractive indices of host particle and medium. The results obtained for this cluster particle are very satisfactory.
Darrh, A.; Downs, C. M.; Poppeliers, C.
2017-12-01
Born Scattering Inversion (BSI) of electromagnetic (EM) data is a geophysical imaging methodology for mapping weak conductivity, permeability, and/or permittivity contrasts in the subsurface. The high computational cost of full waveform inversion is reduced by adopting the First Born Approximation for scattered EM fields. This linearizes the inverse problem in terms of Born scattering amplitudes for a set of effective EM body sources within a 3D imaging volume. Estimation of scatterer amplitudes is subsequently achieved by solving the normal equations. Our present BSI numerical experiments entail Fourier transforming real-valued synthetic EM data to the frequency-domain, and minimizing the L2 residual between complex-valued observed and predicted data. We are testing the ability of BSI to resolve simple scattering models. For our initial experiments, synthetic data are acquired by three-component (3C) electric field receivers distributed on a plane above a single point electric dipole within a homogeneous and isotropic wholespace. To suppress artifacts, candidate Born scatterer locations are confined to a volume beneath the receiver array. Also, we explore two different numerical linear algebra algorithms for solving the normal equations: Damped Least Squares (DLS), and Non-Negative Least Squares (NNLS). Results from NNLS accurately recover the source location only for a large dense 3C receiver array, but fail when the array is decimated, or is restricted to horizontal component data. Using all receiver stations and all components per station, NNLS results are relatively insensitive to a sub-sampled frequency spectrum, suggesting that coarse frequency-domain sampling may be adequate for good target resolution. Results from DLS are insensitive to diminishing array density, but contain spatially oscillatory structure. DLS-generated images are consistently centered at the known point source location, despite an abundance of surrounding structure.
«Paralipomena» on uniqueness in inverse scattering from a finite number of data
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
R. Persico
2007-06-01
Full Text Available This paper shows new proof of non-uniqueness of the solution for the retrieving of a compact-supported function starting from a finite number of samples of its spectrum. As will be shown, this is relevant for linear inverse scattering problems, that in many cases can be recast as the reconstruction of a compact supported function from a finite set of samples of its spectrum. Since this reconstruction is not unique, from a practical point of view, any linear inverse scattering algorithm that can be recast in terms of a Fourier relationship between unknowns and data necessarily «trusts» on the absence of invisible objects in the particular situation at hand.
Fixed energy inversion of 5 eV e-Xe atom scattering
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lovell, A.; Amos, K.
2000-01-01
Fixed energy inverse scattering theory has been used to define central and spin-orbit Schroedinger potentials for the scattering of 5 eV polarized electrons from Xe atoms. The results are typical for a range of such data; including energies above threshold when the potentials become complex. The phase shifts obtained from an analysis of the measured differential cross section and analyzing power has been used as input data. Both semi-classical (WKB) and fully quantal inversion methods have been used to extract central and spin-orbit interactions. The analysis shows that information additional to the set of input phase shifts extracted from this (and similar) data may be needed to ascertain physical potentials
Solution of the inverse scattering problem at fixed energy with non-physical S matrix elements
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Eberspaecher, M.; Amos, K.; Apagyi, B.
1999-12-01
The quantum mechanical inverse elastic scattering problem is solved with the modified Newton-Sabatier method. A set of S matrix elements calculated from a realistic analytic optical model potential serves as input data. It is demonstrated that the quality of the inversion potential can be improved by including non-physical S matrix elements to half, quarter and eighth valued partial waves if the original set does not contain enough information to determine the interaction potential. We demonstrate that results can be very sensitive to the choice of those non-physical S matrix values both with the analytic potential model and in a real application in which the experimental cross section for the symmetrical scattering system of 12 C+ 12 C at E=7.998 MeV is analyzed
Understanding of phase modulation in two-level systems through inverse scattering
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hasenfeld, A.; Hammes, S.L.; Warren, W.S.
1988-01-01
Analytical and numerical calculations describe the effects of shaped radiation pulses on two-level systems in terms of quantum-mechanical scattering. Previous results obtained in the reduced case of amplitude modulation are extended to the general case of simultaneous amplitude and phase modulation. We show that an infinite family of phase- and amplitude-modulated pulses all generate rectangular inversion profiles. Experimental measurements also verify the theoretical analysis
Lax-pair operators for squared eigenfunctions in the inverse scattering transformations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Iino, Kazuhiro; Ichikawa, Yoshihiko.
1982-05-01
Modification of the algorithm of Chen, Lee and Liu enables us to construct alternative Lax-pair operators for the Korteweg-de Vries equation and the modified Korteweg-de Vries equation. These Lax-pair operators stand as the Lax-pair operators for the squared eigenfunction and the sum of squared eigenfunctions of the Ablowitz-Kaup-Newell-Segur inverse scattering transformation for these celebrated nonlinear evolution equations. (author)
Full waveform inversion based on scattering angle enrichment with application to real dataset
Wu, Zedong
2015-08-19
Reflected waveform inversion (RWI) provides a method to reduce the nonlinearity of the standard full waveform inversion (FWI). However, the drawback of the existing RWI methods is inability to utilize diving waves and the extra sensitivity to the migrated image. We propose a combined FWI and RWI optimization problem through dividing the velocity into the background and perturbed components. We optimize both the background and perturbed components, as independent parameters. The new objective function is quadratic with respect to the perturbed component, which will reduce the nonlinearity of the optimization problem. Solving this optimization provides a true amplitude image and utilizes the diving waves to update the velocity of the shallow parts. To insure a proper wavenumber continuation, we use an efficient scattering angle filter to direct the inversion at the early stages to direct energy corresponding to large (smooth velocity) scattering angles to the background velocity update and the small (high wavenumber) scattering angles to the perturbed velocity update. This efficient implementation of the filter is fast and requires less memory than the conventional approach based on extended images. Thus, the new FWI procedure updates the background velocity mainly along the wavepath for both diving and reflected waves in the initial stages. At the same time, it updates the perturbation with mainly reflections (filtering out the diving waves). To demonstrate the capability of this method, we apply it to a real 2D marine dataset.
Robust inverse scattering full waveform seismic tomography for imaging complex structure
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nurhandoko, Bagus Endar B.; Sukmana, Indriani; Wibowo, Satryo; Deny, Agus; Kurniadi, Rizal; Widowati, Sri; Mubarok, Syahrul; Susilowati; Kaswandhi
2012-01-01
Seismic tomography becomes important tool recently for imaging complex subsurface. It is well known that imaging complex rich fault zone is difficult. In this paper, The application of time domain inverse scattering wave tomography to image the complex fault zone would be shown on this paper, especially an efficient time domain inverse scattering tomography and their run in cluster parallel computer which has been developed. This algorithm is purely based on scattering theory through solving Lippmann Schwienger integral by using Born's approximation. In this paper, it is shown the robustness of this algorithm especially in avoiding the inversion trapped in local minimum to reach global minimum. A large data are solved by windowing and blocking technique of memory as well as computation. Parameter of windowing computation is based on shot gather's aperture. This windowing technique reduces memory as well as computation significantly. This parallel algorithm is done by means cluster system of 120 processors from 20 nodes of AMD Phenom II. Benchmarking of this algorithm is done by means Marmoussi model which can be representative of complex rich fault area. It is shown that the proposed method can image clearly the rich fault and complex zone in Marmoussi model even though the initial model is quite far from the true model. Therefore, this method can be as one of solution to image the very complex mode.
Robust inverse scattering full waveform seismic tomography for imaging complex structure
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Nurhandoko, Bagus Endar B.; Sukmana, Indriani; Wibowo, Satryo; Deny, Agus; Kurniadi, Rizal; Widowati, Sri; Mubarok, Syahrul; Susilowati; Kaswandhi [Wave Inversion and Subsurface Fluid Imaging Research (WISFIR) Lab., Complex System Research Division, Physics Department, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Institut Teknologi Bandung. and Rock Fluid Imaging Lab., Rock Physics and Cluster C (Indonesia); Rock Fluid Imaging Lab., Rock Physics and Cluster Computing Center, Bandung (Indonesia); Physics Department of Institut Teknologi Bandung (Indonesia); Rock Fluid Imaging Lab., Rock Physics and Cluster Computing Center, Bandung, Indonesia and Institut Teknologi Telkom, Bandung (Indonesia); Rock Fluid Imaging Lab., Rock Physics and Cluster Computing Center, Bandung (Indonesia)
2012-06-20
Seismic tomography becomes important tool recently for imaging complex subsurface. It is well known that imaging complex rich fault zone is difficult. In this paper, The application of time domain inverse scattering wave tomography to image the complex fault zone would be shown on this paper, especially an efficient time domain inverse scattering tomography and their run in cluster parallel computer which has been developed. This algorithm is purely based on scattering theory through solving Lippmann Schwienger integral by using Born's approximation. In this paper, it is shown the robustness of this algorithm especially in avoiding the inversion trapped in local minimum to reach global minimum. A large data are solved by windowing and blocking technique of memory as well as computation. Parameter of windowing computation is based on shot gather's aperture. This windowing technique reduces memory as well as computation significantly. This parallel algorithm is done by means cluster system of 120 processors from 20 nodes of AMD Phenom II. Benchmarking of this algorithm is done by means Marmoussi model which can be representative of complex rich fault area. It is shown that the proposed method can image clearly the rich fault and complex zone in Marmoussi model even though the initial model is quite far from the true model. Therefore, this method can be as one of solution to image the very complex mode.
Inverse random source scattering for the Helmholtz equation in inhomogeneous media
Li, Ming; Chen, Chuchu; Li, Peijun
2018-01-01
This paper is concerned with an inverse random source scattering problem in an inhomogeneous background medium. The wave propagation is modeled by the stochastic Helmholtz equation with the source driven by additive white noise. The goal is to reconstruct the statistical properties of the random source such as the mean and variance from the boundary measurement of the radiated random wave field at multiple frequencies. Both the direct and inverse problems are considered. We show that the direct problem has a unique mild solution by a constructive proof. For the inverse problem, we derive Fredholm integral equations, which connect the boundary measurement of the radiated wave field with the unknown source function. A regularized block Kaczmarz method is developed to solve the ill-posed integral equations. Numerical experiments are included to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method.
Quantal inversion of cross-section for the elastic scattering of 200 MeV protons from 12C
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Allen, L.J.; Amos, K.; Dortmans, P.J.
1994-01-01
Fixed energy quantal inverse scattering theory has been used to analyse the differential cross-section from the elastic scattering of 200 MeV protons from 12 C. Ambiguities in obtaining the scattering function from the differential cross-section are discussed and by means of example it is illustrated that not all scattering functions lead to physically reasonable potentials. 8 refs., 2 tabs., 4 figs
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Allen, L.J.; Spargo, A.E.C.; Leeb, H.
1998-01-01
The retrieval of a unique crystal potential from the scattering matrix S in high energy transmission electron diffraction is discussed. It is shown that, in general, data taken at a single orientation are not sufficient to determine all the elements of S. Additional measurements with tilted incident beam are required for the determination of the whole S-matrix. An algorithm for the extraction of the crystal potential from the S-matrix measured at a single energy and thickness is presented. The limiting case of thin crystals is discussed. Several examples with simulated data are considered
The Mathematical Basis of the Inverse Scattering Problem for Cracks from Near-Field Data
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Yao Mao
2015-01-01
Full Text Available We consider the acoustic scattering problem from a crack which has Dirichlet boundary condition on one side and impedance boundary condition on the other side. The inverse scattering problem in this paper tries to determine the shape of the crack and the surface impedance coefficient from the near-field measurements of the scattered waves, while the source point is placed on a closed curve. We firstly establish a near-field operator and focus on the operator’s mathematical analysis. Secondly, we obtain a uniqueness theorem for the shape and surface impedance. Finally, by using the operator’s properties and modified linear sampling method, we reconstruct the shape and surface impedance.
Inverse Raman scattering in silicon: A free-carrier enhanced effect
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Solli, D. R.; Koonath, P.; Jalali, B.
2009-01-01
Stimulated Raman scattering has been harnessed to produce the first silicon lasers and amplifiers. The Raman effect can also produce intensity-dependent nonlinear loss through a corollary process, inverse Raman scattering (IRS). This process has never been observed in a semiconductor. We demonstrate IRS in silicon--a process that is substantially modified by optically generated free carriers--achieving attenuation levels >15 dB with a pump intensity of 4 GW/cm 2 . Surprisingly, free-carrier absorption, the detrimental effect that generally suppresses nonlinear effects in silicon, actually facilitates IRS by delaying the onset of contamination from coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering. Silicon-based IRS could be a valuable tool for chip-scale signal processing.
Multi-parameter Analysis and Inversion for Anisotropic Media Using the Scattering Integral Method
Djebbi, Ramzi
2017-10-24
The main goal in seismic exploration is to identify locations of hydrocarbons reservoirs and give insights on where to drill new wells. Therefore, estimating an Earth model that represents the right physics of the Earth\\'s subsurface is crucial in identifying these targets. Recent seismic data, with long offsets and wide azimuth features, are more sensitive to anisotropy. Accordingly, multiple anisotropic parameters need to be extracted from the recorded data on the surface to properly describe the model. I study the prospect of applying a scattering integral approach for multi-parameter inversion for a transversely isotropic model with a vertical axis of symmetry. I mainly analyze the sensitivity kernels to understand the sensitivity of seismic data to anisotropy parameters. Then, I use a frequency domain scattering integral approach to invert for the optimal parameterization. The scattering integral approach is based on the explicit computation of the sensitivity kernels. I present a new method to compute the traveltime sensitivity kernels for wave equation tomography using the unwrapped phase. I show that the new kernels are a better alternative to conventional cross-correlation/Rytov kernels. I also derive and analyze the sensitivity kernels for a transversely isotropic model with a vertical axis of symmetry. The kernels structure, for various opening/scattering angles, highlights the trade-off regions between the parameters. For a surface recorded data, I show that the normal move-out velocity vn, ƞ and δ parameterization is suitable for a simultaneous inversion of diving waves and reflections. Moreover, when seismic data is inverted hierarchically, the horizontal velocity vh, ƞ and ϵ is the parameterization with the least trade-off. In the frequency domain, the hierarchical inversion approach is naturally implemented using frequency continuation, which makes vh, ƞ and ϵ parameterization attractive. I formulate the multi-parameter inversion using the
Zhou, Xin
1990-03-01
For the direct-inverse scattering transform of the time dependent Schrödinger equation, rigorous results are obtained based on an opertor-triangular-factorization approach. By viewing the equation as a first order operator equation, similar results as for the first order n x n matrix system are obtained. The nonlocal Riemann-Hilbert problem for inverse scattering is shown to have solution.
Single- and coupled-channel radial inverse scattering with supersymmetric transformations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Baye, Daniel; Sparenberg, Jean-Marc; Pupasov-Maksimov, Andrey M; Samsonov, Boris F
2014-01-01
The present status of the three-dimensional inverse-scattering method with supersymmetric transformations is reviewed for the coupled-channel case. We first revisit in a pedagogical way the single-channel case, where the supersymmetric approach is shown to provide a complete, efficient and elegant solution to the inverse-scattering problem for the radial Schrödinger equation with short-range interactions. A special emphasis is put on the differences between conservative and non-conservative transformations, i.e. transformations that do or do not conserve the behaviour of solutions of the radial Schrödinger equation at the origin. In particular, we show that for the zero initial potential, a non-conservative transformation is always equivalent to a pair of conservative transformations. These single-channel results are illustrated on the inversion of the neutron–proton triplet eigenphase shifts for the S- and D-waves. We then summarize and extend our previous works on the coupled-channel case, i.e. on systems of coupled radial Schrödinger equations, and stress remaining difficulties and open questions of this problem by putting it in perspective with the single-channel case. We mostly concentrate on two-channel examples to illustrate general principles while keeping mathematics as simple as possible. In particular, we discuss the important difference between the equal-threshold and different-threshold problems. For equal thresholds, conservative transformations can provide non-diagonal Jost and scattering matrices. Iterations of such transformations in the two-channel case are studied and shown to lead to practical algorithms for inversion. A convenient particular technique where the mixing parameter can be fitted without modifying the eigenphases is developed with iterations of pairs of conjugate transformations. This technique is applied to the neutron–proton triplet S–D scattering matrix, for which exactly-solvable matrix potential models are constructed
A systematic approach to robust preconditioning for gradient-based inverse scattering algorithms
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nordebo, Sven; Fhager, Andreas; Persson, Mikael; Gustafsson, Mats
2008-01-01
This paper presents a systematic approach to robust preconditioning for gradient-based nonlinear inverse scattering algorithms. In particular, one- and two-dimensional inverse problems are considered where the permittivity and conductivity profiles are unknown and the input data consist of the scattered field over a certain bandwidth. A time-domain least-squares formulation is employed and the inversion algorithm is based on a conjugate gradient or quasi-Newton algorithm together with an FDTD-electromagnetic solver. A Fisher information analysis is used to estimate the Hessian of the error functional. A robust preconditioner is then obtained by incorporating a parameter scaling such that the scaled Fisher information has a unit diagonal. By improving the conditioning of the Hessian, the convergence rate of the conjugate gradient or quasi-Newton methods are improved. The preconditioner is robust in the sense that the scaling, i.e. the diagonal Fisher information, is virtually invariant to the numerical resolution and the discretization model that is employed. Numerical examples of image reconstruction are included to illustrate the efficiency of the proposed technique
Wu, Zedong; Alkhalifah, Tariq Ali
2017-01-01
Reflection-waveform inversion (RWI) can help us reduce the nonlinearity of the standard full-waveform inversion (FWI) by inverting for the background velocity model using the wave-path of a single scattered wavefield to an image. However, current
Guseinov, I. M.; Khanmamedov, A. Kh.; Mamedova, A. F.
2018-04-01
We consider the Schrödinger equation with an additional quadratic potential on the entire axis and use the transformation operator method to study the direct and inverse problems of the scattering theory. We obtain the main integral equations of the inverse problem and prove that the basic equations are uniquely solvable.
The shifting zoom: new possibilities for inverse scattering on electrically large domains
Persico, Raffaele; Ludeno, Giovanni; Soldovieri, Francesco; De Coster, Alberic; Lambot, Sebastien
2017-04-01
Inverse scattering is a subject of great interest in diagnostic problems, which are in their turn of interest for many applicative problems as investigation of cultural heritage, characterization of foundations or subservices, identification of unexploded ordnances and so on [1-4]. In particular, GPR data are usually focused by means of migration algorithms, essentially based on a linear approximation of the scattering phenomenon. Migration algorithms are popular because they are computationally efficient and do not require the inversion of a matrix, neither the calculation of the elements of a matrix. In fact, they are essentially based on the adjoint of the linearised scattering operator, which allows in the end to write the inversion formula as a suitably weighted integral of the data [5]. In particular, this makes a migration algorithm more suitable than a linear microwave tomography inversion algorithm for the reconstruction of an electrically large investigation domain. However, this computational challenge can be overcome by making use of investigation domains joined side by side, as proposed e.g. in ref. [3]. This allows to apply a microwave tomography algorithm even to large investigation domains. However, the joining side by side of sequential investigation domains introduces a problem of limited (and asymmetric) maximum view angle with regard to the targets occurring close to the edges between two adjacent domains, or possibly crossing these edges. The shifting zoom is a method that allows to overcome this difficulty by means of overlapped investigation and observation domains [6-7]. It requires more sequential inversion with respect to adjacent investigation domains, but the really required extra-time is minimal because the matrix to be inverted is calculated ones and for all, as well as its singular value decomposition: what is repeated more time is only a fast matrix-vector multiplication. References [1] M. Pieraccini, L. Noferini, D. Mecatti, C
A necessary condition for applying MUSIC algorithm in limited-view inverse scattering problem
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Park, Taehoon; Park, Won-Kwang
2015-01-01
Throughout various results of numerical simulations, it is well-known that MUltiple SIgnal Classification (MUSIC) algorithm can be applied in the limited-view inverse scattering problems. However, the application is somehow heuristic. In this contribution, we identify a necessary condition of MUSIC for imaging of collection of small, perfectly conducting cracks. This is based on the fact that MUSIC imaging functional can be represented as an infinite series of Bessel function of integer order of the first kind. Numerical experiments from noisy synthetic data supports our investigation. (paper)
Non-local currents in 2D QFT: an alternative To - the quantum inverse scattering method
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bernard, D.; Leclair, A.; Cornell Univ., Ithaca, NY
1990-01-01
The formalism based on non-local charges that we propose provides an alternative to the quantum inverse scattering method for solving integrable quantum field theories in 2D. The content of the paper is: 1. Introduction: historical background. 2. The NLC approach to 2D QFT: a summary. 3 Exchange algebras and on-shell conservation laws: why non-local charges are useful. 4. The lattice construction: the geometrical origin of non-local conserved currents. 5. The continuum construction: how to deal with non-local conserved currents. 6. Examples: Yangian and quantum group currents. 7 Conclusions: open problems. 22 refs., 4 figs
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Alvarez-Estrada, R.F.
1979-01-01
A comprehensive review of the inverse scattering solution of certain non-linear evolution equations of physical interest in one space dimension is presented. We explain in some detail the interrelated techniques which allow to linearize exactly the following equations: (1) the Korteweg and de Vries equation; (2) the non-linear Schrodinger equation; (3) the modified Korteweg and de Vries equation; (4) the Sine-Gordon equation. We concentrate in discussing the pairs of linear operators which accomplish such an exact linearization and the solution of the associated initial value problem. The application of the method to other non-linear evolution equations is reviewed very briefly
A necessary condition for applying MUSIC algorithm in limited-view inverse scattering problem
Park, Taehoon; Park, Won-Kwang
2015-09-01
Throughout various results of numerical simulations, it is well-known that MUltiple SIgnal Classification (MUSIC) algorithm can be applied in the limited-view inverse scattering problems. However, the application is somehow heuristic. In this contribution, we identify a necessary condition of MUSIC for imaging of collection of small, perfectly conducting cracks. This is based on the fact that MUSIC imaging functional can be represented as an infinite series of Bessel function of integer order of the first kind. Numerical experiments from noisy synthetic data supports our investigation.
Entekhabi, Mozhgan Nora; Isakov, Victor
2018-05-01
In this paper, we will study the increasing stability in the inverse source problem for the Helmholtz equation in the plane when the source term is assumed to be compactly supported in a bounded domain Ω with a sufficiently smooth boundary. Using the Fourier transform in the frequency domain, bounds for the Hankel functions and for scattering solutions in the complex plane, improving bounds for the analytic continuation, and the exact observability for the wave equation led us to our goals which are a sharp uniqueness and increasing stability estimate when the wave number interval is growing.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chernichenko, Yu.D.
2005-01-01
Within the relativistic quasipotential approach to quantum field theory, the relativistic inverse scattering problem is solved for the case where the total quasipotential describing the interaction of two relativistic spinless particles having different masses is a superposition of a nonlocal separable and a local quasipotential. It is assumed that the local component of the total quasipotential is known and that there exist bound states in this local component. It is shown that the nonlocal separable component of the total interaction can be reconstructed provided that the local component, an increment of the phase shift, and the energies of bound states are known
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Arians, S.
1997-01-01
We consider the Hamiltonian H=(p-A(x)) 2 /(2m)+V(x) of a quantum particle in a magnetic field B=rotA and a potential V in space dimensions ν≥2. If V is of short range, then the high-velocity limit of the scattering operator uniquely determines the magnetic field B and the potential V. If, in addition, long-range potentials V l are present, some knowledge of (the far out tail of) V l is needed to define a modified Dollard wave operator and a scattering operator S D . Again its high- velocity limit uniquely determines B and V=V s +V l . Moreover, we give explicit error bounds which are inverse proportional to the velocity. copyright 1997 American Institute of Physics
Smith, James A.
1992-01-01
The inversion of the leaf area index (LAI) canopy parameter from optical spectral reflectance measurements is obtained using a backpropagation artificial neural network trained using input-output pairs generated by a multiple scattering reflectance model. The problem of LAI estimation over sparse canopies (LAI 1000 percent for low LAI. Minimization methods applied to merit functions constructed from differences between measured reflectances and predicted reflectances using multiple-scattering models are unacceptably sensitive to a good initial guess for the desired parameter. In contrast, the neural network reported generally yields absolute percentage errors of <30 percent when weighting coefficients trained on one soil type were applied to predicted canopy reflectance at a different soil background.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zhang, Haiwen; Zhang, Bo
2013-01-01
This paper is concerned with the inverse problem of scattering of time-harmonic acoustic waves from a penetrable and a buried obstacle. By introducing a related transmission scattering problem, a Newton iteration method is proposed to simultaneously reconstruct both the penetrable interface and the buried obstacle inside from far-field data. The main feature of our method is that we do not need to know the type of boundary conditions on the buried obstacle. In particular, the boundary condition on the buried obstacle can also be determined simultaneously by the method. Finally, numerical examples using multi-frequency data are carried out to illustrate the effectiveness of our method. (paper)
A multifrequency MUSIC algorithm for locating small inhomogeneities in inverse scattering
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Griesmaier, Roland; Schmiedecke, Christian
2017-01-01
We consider an inverse scattering problem for time-harmonic acoustic or electromagnetic waves with sparse multifrequency far field data-sets. The goal is to localize several small penetrable objects embedded inside an otherwise homogeneous background medium from observations of far fields of scattered waves corresponding to incident plane waves with one fixed incident direction but several different frequencies. We assume that the far field is measured at a few observation directions only. Taking advantage of the smallness of the scatterers with respect to wavelength we utilize an asymptotic representation formula for the far field to design and analyze a MUSIC-type reconstruction method for this setup. We establish lower bounds on the number of frequencies and receiver directions that are required to recover the number and the positions of an ensemble of scatterers from the given measurements. Furthermore we briefly sketch a possible application of the reconstruction method to the practically relevant case of multifrequency backscattering data. Numerical examples are presented to document the potentials and limitations of this approach. (paper)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Palmai, T.; Apagyi, B.; Horvath, M.
2008-01-01
Solution of the Cox-Thompson inverse scattering problem at fixed energy 1-3 is reformulated resulting in semi-analytic equations. The new set of equations for the normalization constants and the nonphysical (shifted) angular momenta are free of matrix inversion operations. This simplification is a result of treating only the input phase shifts of partial waves of a given parity. Therefore, the proposed method can be applied for identical particle scattering of the bosonic type (or for certain cases of identical fermionic scattering). The new formulae are expected to be numerically more efficient than the previous ones. Based on the semi-analytic equations an approximate method is proposed for the generic inverse scattering problem, when partial waves of arbitrary parity are considered. (author)
Compact FEL-driven inverse compton scattering gamma-ray source
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Placidi, M. [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Di Mitri, S., E-mail: simone.dimitri@elettra.eu [Elettra - Sincrotrone Trieste S.C.p.A., 34149 Basovizza, Trieste (Italy); Pellegrini, C. [SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, Menlo Park, CA 94025 (United States); University of California, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States); Penn, G. [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States)
2017-05-21
Many research and applications areas require photon sources capable of producing gamma-ray beams in the multi-MeV energy range with reasonably high fluxes and compact footprints. Besides industrial, nuclear physics and security applications, a considerable interest comes from the possibility to assess the state of conservation of cultural assets like statues, columns etc., via visualization and analysis techniques using high energy photon beams. Computed Tomography scans, widely adopted in medicine at lower photon energies, presently provide high quality three-dimensional imaging in industry and museums. We explore the feasibility of a compact source of quasi-monochromatic, multi-MeV gamma-rays based on Inverse Compton Scattering (ICS) from a high intensity ultra-violet (UV) beam generated in a free-electron laser by the electron beam itself. This scheme introduces a stronger relationship between the energy of the scattered photons and that of the electron beam, resulting in a device much more compact than a classic ICS for a given scattered energy. The same electron beam is used to produce gamma-rays in the 10–20 MeV range and UV radiation in the 10–15 eV range, in a ~4×22 m{sup 2} footprint system.
Korolev, G. A.; Dobrovolsky, A. V.; Inglessi, A. G.; Alkhazov, G. D.; Egelhof, P.; Estradé, A.; Dillmann, I.; Farinon, F.; Geissel, H.; Ilieva, S.; Ke, Y.; Khanzadeev, A. V.; Kiselev, O. A.; Kurcewicz, J.; Le, X. C.; Litvinov, Yu. A.; Petrov, G. E.; Prochazka, A.; Scheidenberger, C.; Sergeev, L. O.; Simon, H.; Takechi, M.; Tang, S.; Volkov, V.; Vorobyov, A. A.; Weick, H.; Yatsoura, V. I.
2018-05-01
The absolute differential cross section for small-angle proton elastic scattering on the proton-rich 8B nucleus has been measured in inverse kinematics for the first time. The experiment was performed using a secondary radioactive beam with an energy of 0.7 GeV/u at GSI, Darmstadt. The active target, namely hydrogen-filled time projection ionization chamber IKAR, was used to measure the energy, angle and vertex point of the recoil protons. The scattering angle of the projectiles was simultaneously determined by the tracking detectors. The measured differential cross section is analyzed on the basis of the Glauber multiple scattering theory using phenomenological nuclear-density distributions with two free parameters. The radial density distribution deduced for 8B exhibits a halo structure with the root-mean-square (rms) matter radius Rm = 2.58 (6) fm and the rms halo radius Rh = 4.24 (25) fm. The results on 8B are compared to those on the mirror nucleus 8Li investigated earlier by the same method. A comparison is also made with previous experimental results and theoretical predictions for both nuclei.
Brown, Malcolm
2009-01-01
Inversions are fascinating phenomena. They are reversals of the normal or expected order. They occur across a wide variety of contexts. What do inversions have to do with learning spaces? The author suggests that they are a useful metaphor for the process that is unfolding in higher education with respect to education. On the basis of…
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dixneuf, Sophie; Rachet, Florent; Chrysos, Michael
2015-01-01
Owing in part to the p orbitals of its filled L shell, neon has repeatedly come on stage for its peculiar properties. In the context of collision-induced Raman spectroscopy, in particular, we have shown, in a brief report published a few years ago [M. Chrysos et al., Phys. Rev. A 80, 054701 (2009)], that the room-temperature anisotropic Raman lineshape of Ne–Ne exhibits, in the far wing of the spectrum, a peculiar structure with an aspect other than a smooth wing (on a logarithmic plot) which contrasts with any of the existing studies, and whose explanation lies in the distinct way in which overlap and exchange interactions interfere with the classical electrostatic ones in making the polarizability anisotropy, α ∥ − α ⊥ . Here, we delve deeper into that study by reporting data for that spectrum up to 450 cm −1 and for even- and odd-order spectral moments up to M 6 , as well as quantum lineshapes, generated from SCF, CCSD, and CCSD(T) models for α ∥ − α ⊥ , which are critically compared with the experiment. On account of the knowledge of the spectrum over the augmented frequency domain, we show how the inverse scattering problem can be tackled both effectively and economically, and we report an analytic function for the anisotropy whose quantum lineshape faithfully reproduces our observations
Inverse scattering and solitons in An-1 affine Toda field theories
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Beggs, E.J.; Johnson, P.R.
1997-01-01
We implement the inverse scattering method in the case of the A n affine Toda field theories, by studying the space-time evolution of simple poles in the underlying loop group. We find the known single-soliton solutions, as well as additional solutions with non-linear modes of oscillation around the standard solution, by studying the particularly simple case where the residue at the pole is a rank-one projection. We show that these solutions with extra modes have the same mass and topological charges as the standard solutions, so we do not shed any light on the missing topological charge problem in these models. From the monodromy matrix it is shown that these solutions have the same higher conserved charges as the standard solutions. We also show that the integrated energy-momentum density can be calculated from the central extension of the loop group. (orig.)
Brilliant GeV gamma-ray flash from inverse Compton scattering in the QED regime
Gong, Z.; Hu, R. H.; Lu, H. Y.; Yu, J. Q.; Wang, D. H.; Fu, E. G.; Chen, C. E.; He, X. T.; Yan, X. Q.
2018-04-01
An all-optical scheme is proposed for studying laser plasma based incoherent photon emission from inverse Compton scattering in the quantum electrodynamic regime. A theoretical model is presented to explain the coupling effects among radiation reaction trapping, the self-generated magnetic field and the spiral attractor in phase space, which guarantees the transfer of energy and angular momentum from electromagnetic fields to particles. Taking advantage of a prospective ˜ 1023 W cm-2 laser facility, 3D particle-in-cell simulations show a gamma-ray flash with unprecedented multi-petawatt power and brightness of 1.7 × 1023 photons s-1 mm-2 mrad-2/0.1% bandwidth (at 1 GeV). These results bode well for new research directions in particle physics and laboratory astrophysics exploring laser plasma interactions.
Scaling laws in high-energy inverse compton scattering. II. Effect of bulk motions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nozawa, Satoshi; Kohyama, Yasuharu; Itoh, Naoki
2010-01-01
We study the inverse Compton scattering of the CMB photons off high-energy nonthermal electrons. We extend the formalism obtained by the previous paper to the case where the electrons have nonzero bulk motions with respect to the CMB frame. Assuming the power-law electron distribution, we find the same scaling law for the probability distribution function P 1,K (s) as P 1 (s) which corresponds to the zero bulk motions, where the peak height and peak position depend only on the power-index parameter. We solved the rate equation analytically. It is found that the spectral intensity function also has the same scaling law. The effect of the bulk motions to the spectral intensity function is found to be small. The present study will be applicable to the analysis of the x-ray and gamma-ray emission models from various astrophysical objects with nonzero bulk motions such as radio galaxies and astrophysical jets.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chen, Xudong
2010-01-01
This paper proposes a version of the subspace-based optimization method to solve the inverse scattering problem with an inhomogeneous background medium where the known inhomogeneities are bounded in a finite domain. Although the background Green's function at each discrete point in the computational domain is not directly available in an inhomogeneous background scenario, the paper uses the finite element method to simultaneously obtain the Green's function at all discrete points. The essence of the subspace-based optimization method is that part of the contrast source is determined from the spectrum analysis without using any optimization, whereas the orthogonally complementary part is determined by solving a lower dimension optimization problem. This feature significantly speeds up the convergence of the algorithm and at the same time makes it robust against noise. Numerical simulations illustrate the efficacy of the proposed algorithm. The algorithm presented in this paper finds wide applications in nondestructive evaluation, such as through-wall imaging
Desmal, Abdulla
2014-07-01
A numerical framework that incorporates recently developed iterative shrinkage thresholding (IST) algorithms within the Born iterative method (BIM) is proposed for solving the two-dimensional inverse electromagnetic scattering problem. IST algorithms minimize a cost function weighted between measurement-data misfit and a zeroth/first-norm penalty term and therefore promote "sharpness" in the solution. Consequently, when applied to domains with sharp variations, discontinuities, or sparse content, the proposed framework is more efficient and accurate than the "classical" BIM that minimizes a cost function with a second-norm penalty term. Indeed, numerical results demonstrate the superiority of the IST-BIM over the classical BIM when they are applied to sparse domains: Permittivity and conductivity profiles recovered using the IST-BIM are sharper and more accurate and converge faster. © 1963-2012 IEEE.
Exclusive measurements of quasi-free proton scattering reactions in inverse and complete kinematics
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
V. Panin
2016-02-01
Full Text Available Quasi-free scattering reactions of the type (p,2p were measured for the first time exclusively in complete and inverse kinematics, using a 12C beam at an energy of ∼400 MeV/u as a benchmark. This new technique has been developed to study the single-particle structure of exotic nuclei in experiments with radioactive-ion beams. The outgoing pair of protons and the fragments were measured simultaneously, enabling an unambiguous identification of the reaction channels and a redundant measurement of the kinematic observables. Both valence and deeply-bound nucleon orbits are probed, including those leading to unbound states of the daughter nucleus. Exclusive (p,2p cross sections of 15.8(18 mb, 1.9(2 mb and 1.5(2 mb to the low-lying 0p-hole states overlapping with the ground state (3/2− and with the bound excited states of 11B at 2.125 MeV (1/2− and 5.02 MeV (3/2−, respectively, were determined via γ-ray spectroscopy. Particle-unstable deep-hole states, corresponding to proton removal from the 0s-orbital, were studied via the invariant-mass technique. Cross sections and momentum distributions were extracted and compared to theoretical calculations employing the eikonal formalism. The obtained results are in a good agreement with this theory and with direct-kinematics experiments. The dependence of the proton–proton scattering kinematics on the internal momentum of the struck proton and on its separation energy was investigated for the first time in inverse kinematics employing a large-acceptance measurement.
Indoor detection of passive targets recast as an inverse scattering problem
Gottardi, G.; Moriyama, T.
2017-10-01
The wireless local area networks represent an alternative to custom sensors and dedicated surveillance systems for target indoor detection. The availability of the channel state information has opened the exploitation of the spatial and frequency diversity given by the orthogonal frequency division multiplexing. Such a fine-grained information can be used to solve the detection problem as an inverse scattering problem. The goal of the detection is to reconstruct the properties of the investigation domain, namely to estimate if the domain is empty or occupied by targets, starting from the measurement of the electromagnetic perturbation of the wireless channel. An innovative inversion strategy exploiting both the frequency and the spatial diversity of the channel state information is proposed. The target-dependent features are identified combining the Kruskal-Wallis test and the principal component analysis. The experimental validation points out the detection performance of the proposed method when applied to an existing wireless link of a WiFi architecture deployed in a real indoor scenario. False detection rates lower than 2 [%] have been obtained.
Bernard, Simon; Cloutier, Guy
2017-10-01
Inversion methods in shear wave elastography use simplifying assumptions to recover the mechanical properties of soft tissues. Consequently, these methods suffer from artifacts when applied to media containing strong stiffness contrasts, and do not provide a map of the viscosity. In this work, the shear wave field recorded inside and around an inclusion was used to estimate the viscoelastic properties of the inclusion and surrounding medium, based on an inverse problem approach assuming local homogeneity of both media. An efficient semi-analytical method was developed to model the scattering of an elastic wave by an irregular inclusion, based on a decomposition of the field by Bessel functions and on a decomposition of the boundaries as Fourier series. This model was validated against finite element modeling. Shear waves were experimentally induced by acoustic radiation force in soft tissue phantoms containing stiff and soft inclusions, and the displacement field was imaged at a high frame rate using plane wave imaging. A nonlinear least-squares algorithm compared the model to the experimental data and adjusted the geometrical and mechanical parameters. The estimated shear storage and loss moduli were in good agreement with reference measurements, as well as the estimated inclusion shape. This approach provides an accurate estimation of geometry and viscoelastic properties for a single inclusion in a homogeneous background in the context of radiation force elastography.
Analytical description of photon beam phase spaces in inverse Compton scattering sources
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C. Curatolo
2017-08-01
Full Text Available We revisit the description of inverse Compton scattering sources and the photon beams generated therein, emphasizing the behavior of their phase space density distributions and how they depend upon those of the two colliding beams of electrons and photons. The main objective is to provide practical formulas for bandwidth, spectral density, brilliance, which are valid in general for any value of the recoil factor, i.e. both in the Thomson regime of negligible electron recoil, and in the deep Compton recoil dominated region, which is of interest for gamma-gamma colliders and Compton sources for the production of multi-GeV photon beams. We adopt a description based on the center of mass reference system of the electron-photon collision, in order to underline the role of the electron recoil and how it controls the relativistic Doppler/boost effect in various regimes. Using the center of mass reference frame greatly simplifies the treatment, allowing us to derive simple formulas expressed in terms of rms momenta of the two colliding beams (emittance, energy spread, etc. and the collimation angle in the laboratory system. Comparisons with Monte Carlo simulations of inverse Compton scattering in various scenarios are presented, showing very good agreement with the analytical formulas: in particular we find that the bandwidth dependence on the electron beam emittance, of paramount importance in Thomson regime, as it limits the amount of focusing imparted to the electron beam, becomes much less sensitive in deep Compton regime, allowing a stronger focusing of the electron beam to enhance luminosity without loss of mono-chromaticity. A similar effect occurs concerning the bandwidth dependence on the frequency spread of the incident photons: in deep recoil regime the bandwidth comes out to be much less dependent on the frequency spread. The set of formulas here derived are very helpful in designing inverse Compton sources in diverse regimes, giving a
van der Hilst, R. D.; de Hoop, M. V.; Shim, S. H.; Shang, X.; Wang, P.; Cao, Q.
2012-04-01
Over the past three decades, tremendous progress has been made with the mapping of mantle heterogeneity and with the understanding of these structures in terms of, for instance, the evolution of Earth's crust, continental lithosphere, and thermo-chemical mantle convection. Converted wave imaging (e.g., receiver functions) and reflection seismology (e.g. SS stacks) have helped constrain interfaces in crust and mantle; surface wave dispersion (from earthquake or ambient noise signals) characterizes wavespeed variations in continental and oceanic lithosphere, and body wave and multi-mode surface wave data have been used to map trajectories of mantle convection and delineate mantle regions of anomalous elastic properties. Collectively, these studies have revealed substantial ocean-continent differences and suggest that convective flow is strongly influenced by but permitted to cross the upper mantle transition zone. Many questions have remained unanswered, however, and further advances in understanding require more accurate depictions of Earth's heterogeneity at a wider range of length scales. To meet this challenge we need new observations—more, better, and different types of data—and methods that help us extract and interpret more information from the rapidly growing volumes of broadband data. The huge data volumes and the desire to extract more signal from them means that we have to go beyond 'business as usual' (that is, simplified theory, manual inspection of seismograms, …). Indeed, it inspires the development of automated full wave methods, both for tomographic delineation of smooth wavespeed variations and the imaging (for instance through inverse scattering) of medium contrasts. Adjoint tomography and reverse time migration, which are closely related wave equation methods, have begun to revolutionize seismic inversion of global and regional waveform data. In this presentation we will illustrate this development - and its promise - drawing from our work
Oh, Ju-Won
2016-07-04
Multiparameter full waveform inversion (FWI) applied to an elastic orthorhombic model description of the subsurface requires in theory a nine-parameter representation of each pixel of the model. Even with optimal acquisition on the Earth surface that includes large offsets, full azimuth, and multicomponent sensors, the potential for trade-off between the elastic orthorhombic parameters are large. The first step to understanding such trade-off is analysing the scattering potential of each parameter, and specifically, its scattering radiation patterns. We investigate such radiation patterns for diffraction and for scattering from a horizontal reflector considering a background isotropic model. The radiation patterns show considerable potential for trade-off between the parameters and the potentially limited resolution in their recovery. The radiation patterns of C11, C22, and C33 are well separated so that we expect to recover these parameters with limited trade-offs. However, the resolution of their recovery represented by recovered range of model wavenumbers varies between these parameters. We can only invert for the short wavelength components (reflection) of C33 while we can mainly invert for the long wavelength components (transmission) of the elastic coefficients C11 and C22 if we have large enough offsets. The elastic coefficients C13, C23, and C12 suffer from strong trade-offs with C55, C44, and C66, respectively. The trade-offs between C13 and C55, as well as C23 and C44, can be partially mitigated if we acquire P–SV and SV–SV waves. However, to reduce the trade-offs between C12 and C66, we require credible SH–SH waves. The analytical radiation patterns of the elastic constants are supported by numerical gradients of these parameters.
Solution of the nonlinear inverse scattering problem by T-matrix completion. I. Theory.
Levinson, Howard W; Markel, Vadim A
2016-10-01
We propose a conceptually different method for solving nonlinear inverse scattering problems (ISPs) such as are commonly encountered in tomographic ultrasound imaging, seismology, and other applications. The method is inspired by the theory of nonlocality of physical interactions and utilizes the relevant formalism. We formulate the ISP as a problem whose goal is to determine an unknown interaction potential V from external scattering data. Although we seek a local (diagonally dominated) V as the solution to the posed problem, we allow V to be nonlocal at the intermediate stages of iterations. This allows us to utilize the one-to-one correspondence between V and the T matrix of the problem. Here it is important to realize that not every T corresponds to a diagonal V and we, therefore, relax the usual condition of strict diagonality (locality) of V. An iterative algorithm is proposed in which we seek T that is (i) compatible with the measured scattering data and (ii) corresponds to an interaction potential V that is as diagonally dominated as possible. We refer to this algorithm as to the data-compatible T-matrix completion. This paper is Part I in a two-part series and contains theory only. Numerical examples of image reconstruction in a strongly nonlinear regime are given in Part II [H. W. Levinson and V. A. Markel, Phys. Rev. E 94, 043318 (2016)10.1103/PhysRevE.94.043318]. The method described in this paper is particularly well suited for very large data sets that become increasingly available with the use of modern measurement techniques and instrumentation.
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Melchert, O; Scheid, W; Apagyi, B
2006-01-01
The Cox-Thompson inverse scattering method at fixed energy has been generalized to treat complex phase shifts derived from experiments. New formulae for relating phase shifts to shifted angular momenta are derived. The method is applied to phase shifts of known potentials in order to test its quality and stability and, further, it is used to invert experimental n-α and n- 12 C phase shifts
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bellis, Cédric; Bonnet, Marc; Cakoni, Fioralba
2013-01-01
Originally formulated in the context of topology optimization, the concept of topological derivative has also proved effective as a qualitative inversion tool for a wave-based identification of finite-sized objects. This approach remains, however, largely based on a heuristic interpretation of the topological derivative, whereas most other qualitative approaches to inverse scattering are backed by a mathematical justification. As an effort toward bridging this gap, this study focuses on a topological derivative approach applied to the L 2 -norm of the misfit between far-field measurements. Either an inhomogeneous medium or a finite number of point-like scatterers are considered, using either the Born approximation or a full-scattering model. Topological derivative-based imaging functionals are analyzed using a suitable factorization of the far-field operator, for each of the considered cases, in order to characterize their behavior and assess their ability to reconstruct the unknown scatterer(s). Results include the justification of the usual sign heuristic underpinning the method for (i) the Born approximation and (ii) full-scattering models limited to moderately strong scatterers. Semi-analytical and numerical examples are presented. Within the chosen framework, the topological derivative approach is finally discussed and compared to other well-known qualitative methods. (paper)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Maksudov, F.G.; Gusejnov, G.Sh.
1986-01-01
Inverse scattering problem for the quadratic bundle of the Schroedinger one-dimensional operators in the whole axis is solved. The problem solution is given on the assumption of the discrete spectrum absence. In the discrete spectrum presence the inverse scattering problem solution is known for the Shroedinger differential equation considered
Wu, Zedong
2017-07-04
Reflection-waveform inversion (RWI) can help us reduce the nonlinearity of the standard full-waveform inversion (FWI) by inverting for the background velocity model using the wave-path of a single scattered wavefield to an image. However, current RWI implementations usually neglect the multi-scattered energy, which will cause some artifacts in the image and the update of the background. To improve existing RWI implementations in taking multi-scattered energy into consideration, we split the velocity model into background and perturbation components, integrate them directly in the wave equation, and formulate a new optimization problem for both components. In this case, the perturbed model is no longer a single-scattering model, but includes all scattering. Through introducing a new cheap implementation of scattering angle enrichment, the separation of the background and perturbation components can be implemented efficiently. We optimize both components simultaneously to produce updates to the velocity model that is nonlinear with respect to both the background and the perturbation. The newly introduced perturbation model can absorb the non-smooth update of the background in a more consistent way. We apply the proposed approach on the Marmousi model with data that contain frequencies starting from 5 Hz to show that this method can converge to an accurate velocity starting from a linearly increasing initial velocity. Also, our proposed method works well when applied to a field data set.
Inversion of the pahse diagram in polymer blends studied by small-angle neutron scattering
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Jinnai, Hiroshi; Hasegawa, Hirokazu; Hashimoto, Takeji; Han, C.C.
1993-01-01
The miscibility of an amorphous mixture of normal (protonated) polybutadiend (HPB) and perdeuterated polybutadiene (DPB) has been extensively studied and was characterized by an upper critical solution temperature (UCST). In this study the miscibility of HPB and DPB as a function of temperature was studied by small-angle neutron scattering (SANS). The vinyl component of the DPB was held constant at 16%, while the vinyl frantion of the HPB was varied from 17-80%. The binary interaction parameter, χ, was obtained. The mixtures of DPB and HPB with 17-39% vinyl show UCST behaviors; i.e., χ increases with decreasing temperature. The mixture of DPB and HPB with 52% vinyl was found to have almost no temperature dependence. However, the mixture of DPB and HPB with 65-80% show a lower critical solution temperature (LCST) behavior; i.e., χ increases with increasing temperature. This inversion of the phase diagram from UCST to LCST has never been observed. (author)
Some aspects of the inverse problem of scattering at fixed energy
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Coudray, C.
1979-01-01
The first two chapters deal with the Newton-Sabatier method. Numerical tests are performed for real and complex potentials. They allow the study of the respective influences of energy, and of the internal parameters of the potential: its shape, depth and range. Within certain limits, good agreements are obtained. In particular, it is shown that they always require energies larger than a 'critical' energy, the dependence of which in function of the internal parameters of the potential being analyzed. Then the third chapter is devoted to transparent and quasi-transparent potentials in Born approximation. A class of such potentials is exhibited and studied. All of them oscillate, and their decrease at infinity may be chosen according to any arbitrary power of the variable. One of them is the Born approximation of the transparent potential of the Newton-Sabatier method. The last chapter concerns finite range complex potentials belonging to a well-defined class. For such potentials, a set of coherent inverse scattering date is given. The corresponding fundamental equation is written and shown to possess an unique solution [fr
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Moura, C.A. de.
1976-09-01
We propose an algorithm for computing the potential V(x) associated to the one-dimensional Schroedinger operator E identical to - d 2 /dx 2 + V(x) -infinite < x< infinite from knowledge of the S.matrix, more exactly, of one of the reelection coefficients. The convergence of the algorithm is guaranteed by the stability results obtained for both the direct and inverse problems
Wyatt, Philip
2009-03-01
The electromagnetic inverse scattering problem suggests that if a homogeneous and non-absorbing object be illuminated with a monochromatic light source and if the far field scattered light intensity is known at sufficient scattering angles, then, in principle, one could derive the dielectric structure of the scattering object. In general, this is an ill-posed problem and methods must be developed to regularize the search for unique solutions. An iterative procedure often begins with a model of the scattering object, solves the forward scattering problem using this model, and then compares these calculated results with the measured values. Key to any such solution is instrumentation capable of providing adequate data. To this end, the development of the first laser based absolute light scattering photometers is described together with their continuing evolution and some of the remarkable discoveries made with them. For particles much smaller than the wavelength of the incident light (e.g. macromolecules), the inverse scattering problems are easily solved. Among the many solutions derived with this instrumentation are the in situ structure of bacterial cells, new drug delivery mechanisms, the development of new vaccines and other biologicals, characterization of wines, the possibility of custom chemotherapy, development of new polymeric materials, identification of protein crystallization conditions, and a variety discoveries concerning protein interactions. A new form of the problem is described to address bioterrorist threats. Over the many years of development and refinement, one element stands out as essential for the successes that followed: the R and D teams were always directed and executed by physics trained theorists and experimentalists. 14 Ph. D. physicists each made his/her unique contribution to the development of these evolving instruments and the interpretation of their results.
An optical potential from inversion of the 350 MeV 16 O - 16 O scattering data
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Allen, L.J.; Berge, L.; Steward, C.; Lipperheide, R.; Froebrich, P.
1992-01-01
A quantal inversion of the 16 O- 16 O scattering data at 350 MeV yields an optical potential which gives an excellent fit (χ 2 /F = 1.65) to the measured cross-section. The real part of this potential is shallower than any potential used by others for distances between 2 and 6 fm. The imaginary potential is also relatively weak. This potential does not favour a rainbow interpretation of the structure in data observed at large scattering angles. 12 refs., 1 tab., 4 figs
Full waveform inversion based on scattering angle enrichment with application to real dataset
Wu, Zedong; Alkhalifah, Tariq Ali
2015-01-01
Reflected waveform inversion (RWI) provides a method to reduce the nonlinearity of the standard full waveform inversion (FWI). However, the drawback of the existing RWI methods is inability to utilize diving waves and the extra sensitivity
Development and characterization of a tunable ultrafast X-ray source via inverse-Compton-scattering
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Jochmann, Axel
2014-01-01
will serve as a milestone and starting point for the scaling of the X-ray flux based on available interaction parameters of an ultrashort bright X-ray source at the ELBE center for high power radiation sources. The knowledge of the spatial and spectral distribution of photons from an inverse Compton scattering source is essential in designing future experiments as well as for tailoring the X-ray spectral properties to an experimental need.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Barford, Thomas; Birse, Michael C
2005-01-01
A distorted-wave version of the renormalization group is applied to scattering by an inverse-square potential and to three-body systems. In attractive three-body systems, the short-distance wavefunction satisfies a Schroedinger equation with an attractive inverse-square potential, as shown by Efimov. The resulting oscillatory behaviour controls the renormalization of the three-body interactions, with the renormalization-group flow tending to a limit cycle as the cut-off is lowered. The approach used here leads to single-valued potentials with discontinuities as the bound states are cut off. The perturbations around the cycle start with a marginal term whose effect is simply to change the phase of the short-distance oscillations, or the self-adjoint extension of the singular Hamiltonian. The full power counting in terms of the energy and two-body scattering length is constructed for short-range three-body forces
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
S. Bagchi
2015-12-01
Full Text Available The Isoscalar Giant Monopole Resonance (ISGMR and the Isoscalar Giant Dipole Resonance (ISGDR compression modes have been studied in the doubly-magic unstable nucleus 56Ni. They were measured by inelastic α-particle scattering in inverse kinematics at 50 MeV/u with the MAYA active target at the GANIL facility. The centroid of the ISGMR has been obtained at Ex=19.1±0.5 MeV. Evidence for the low-lying part of the ISGDR has been found at Ex=17.4±0.7 MeV. The strength distribution for the dipole mode shows similarity with the prediction from the Hartree–Fock (HF based random-phase approximation (RPA [1]. These measurements confirm inelastic α-particle scattering as a suitable probe for exciting the ISGMR and the ISGDR modes in radioactive isotopes in inverse kinematics.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Rijssel, Jos van; Kuipers, Bonny W.M.; Erné, Ben H.
2014-01-01
A numerical inversion method known from the analysis of light scattering by colloidal dispersions is now applied to magnetization curves of ferrofluids. The distribution of magnetic particle sizes or dipole moments is determined without assuming that the distribution is unimodal or of a particular shape. The inversion method enforces positive number densities via a non-negative least squares procedure. It is tested successfully on experimental and simulated data for ferrofluid samples with known multimodal size distributions. The created computer program MINORIM is made available on the web. - Highlights: • A method from light scattering is applied to analyze ferrofluid magnetization curves. • A magnetic size distribution is obtained without prior assumption of its shape. • The method is tested successfully on ferrofluids with a known size distribution. • The practical limits of the method are explored with simulated data including noise. • This method is implemented in the program MINORIM, freely available online
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Li Qi; Duan Qiuyuan; Zhang Jianbing
2012-01-01
The mixed discrete modified Korteweg-de Vries (mKdV) hierarchy and the Lax pair are derived. The hierarchy related to the Ablowitz-Ladik spectral problem is reduced to the isospectral discrete mKdV hierarchy and to the non-isospectral discrete mKdV hierarchy. N-soliton solutions of the hierarchies are obtained through inverse scattering transform.
Music algorithm for imaging of a sound-hard arc in limited-view inverse scattering problem
Park, Won-Kwang
2017-07-01
MUltiple SIgnal Classification (MUSIC) algorithm for a non-iterative imaging of sound-hard arc in limited-view inverse scattering problem is considered. In order to discover mathematical structure of MUSIC, we derive a relationship between MUSIC and an infinite series of Bessel functions of integer order. This structure enables us to examine some properties of MUSIC in limited-view problem. Numerical simulations are performed to support the identified structure of MUSIC.
Recovering an elastic obstacle containing embedded objects by the acoustic far-field measurements
Qu, Fenglong; Yang, Jiaqing; Zhang, Bo
2018-01-01
Consider the inverse scattering problem of time-harmonic acoustic waves by a 3D bounded elastic obstacle which may contain embedded impenetrable obstacles inside. We propose a novel and simple technique to show that the elastic obstacle can be uniquely recovered by the acoustic far-field pattern at a fixed frequency, disregarding its contents. Our method is based on constructing a well-posed modified interior transmission problem on a small domain and makes use of an a priori estimate for both the acoustic and elastic wave fields in the usual H 1-norm. In the case when there is no obstacle embedded inside the elastic body, our method gives a much simpler proof for the uniqueness result obtained previously in the literature (Natroshvili et al 2000 Rend. Mat. Serie VII 20 57-92 Monk and Selgas 2009 Inverse Problems Imaging 3 173-98).
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Namjoo, A.; Sarvari, S.M. Hosseini; Behzadmehr, A.; Mansouri, S.H.
2009-01-01
In this paper, an inverse analysis is performed for estimation of source term distribution from the measured exit radiation intensities at the boundary surfaces in a one-dimensional absorbing, emitting and isotropically scattering medium between two parallel plates with variable refractive index. The variation of refractive index is assumed to be linear. The radiative transfer equation is solved by the constant quadrature discrete ordinate method. The inverse problem is formulated as an optimization problem for minimizing an objective function which is expressed as the sum of square deviations between measured and estimated exit radiation intensities at boundary surfaces. The conjugate gradient method is used to solve the inverse problem through an iterative procedure. The effects of various variables on source estimation are investigated such as type of source function, errors in the measured data and system parameters, gradient of refractive index across the medium, optical thickness, single scattering albedo and boundary emissivities. The results show that in the case of noisy input data, variation of system parameters may affect the inverse solution, especially at high error values in the measured data. The error in measured data plays more important role than the error in radiative system parameters except the refractive index distribution; however the accuracy of source estimation is very sensitive toward error in refractive index distribution. Therefore, refractive index distribution and measured exit intensities should be measured accurately with a limited error bound, in order to have an accurate estimation of source term in a graded index medium.
The inside–outside duality for inverse scattering problems with near field data
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lechleiter, Armin; Peters, Stefan
2015-01-01
We derive an inside–outside duality for near field scattering data generated by time-harmonic scattering of acoustic point sources from a sound-soft scatterer. This duality in particular rigorously characterizes interior Dirichlet eigenvalues of the scattering object by near field operators for an interval of wave numbers. As a crucial new concept to prove this duality we exploit the numerical ranges of certain modifications of these near field operators. We also show that our theoretical results can be numerically used to approximate interior Dirichlet eigenvalues from multi-frequency near field measurements. (paper)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Coen, S.
1981-01-01
The theory given by Moses and deRidder is modified so that the derivative of the solution of the Gelfand-Levitan integral equation is not required. Based on this modification, a numerical procedure is developed which approximately constructs the dielectric profile of the layered half-space from the impulse response. Moreover, an inverse scattering theory is developed for a Goupillaud-type dielectric medium, and a fast numerical procedure based on the Berryman and Greene algorithm is presented. The performance of the numerical algorithms is examined by applying them to pecise and imprecise artificial impulse response data. 11 refs
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Mihalcea, D.; Murokh, A.; Piot, P.; Ruan, J.
2017-07-01
A high-brilliance (~10^{22} photon s^{-1} mm^{-2} mrad^{-2} /0.1%) gamma-ray source experiment is currently being planned at Fermilab (E_{γ}≃1.1 MeV). The source implements a high-repetition-rate inverse Compton scattering by colliding electron bunches formed in a ~300-MeV superconducting linac with a high-intensity laser pulse. This paper describes the design rationale along with some of technical challenges associated to producing high-repetition-rate collision. The expected performances of the gamma-ray source are also presented.
Daudé, Thierry
2017-01-01
In this paper, the authors study the direct and inverse scattering theory at fixed energy for massless charged Dirac fields evolving in the exterior region of a Kerr-Newman-de Sitter black hole. In the first part, they establish the existence and asymptotic completeness of time-dependent wave operators associated to our Dirac fields. This leads to the definition of the time-dependent scattering operator that encodes the far-field behavior (with respect to a stationary observer) in the asymptotic regions of the black hole: the event and cosmological horizons. The authors also use the miraculous property (quoting Chandrasekhar)-that the Dirac equation can be separated into radial and angular ordinary differential equations-to make the link between the time-dependent scattering operator and its stationary counterpart. This leads to a nice expression of the scattering matrix at fixed energy in terms of stationary solutions of the system of separated equations. In a second part, the authors use this expression of ...
Sparse frequencies data inversion and the role of multi-scattered energy
Alkhalifah, Tariq Ali
2017-01-01
time to inject more energy of those frequencies at a reduced cost. Such additional energy is necessary to the recording of more multi-scattered events. The objective of this new paradigm is a high resolution model of the Earth.
Oh, Juwon; Alkhalifah, Tariq Ali
2016-01-01
that includes large offsets, full azimuth, and multicomponent sensors, the potential for trade-off between the elastic orthorhombic parameters are large. The first step to understanding such trade-off is analysing the scattering potential of each parameter
Design of a 4.8-m ring for inverse Compton scattering x-ray source
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
H. S. Xu
2014-07-01
Full Text Available In this paper we present the design of a 50 MeV compact electron storage ring with 4.8-meter circumference for the Tsinghua Thomson scattering x-ray source. The ring consists of four dipole magnets with properly adjusted bending radii and edge angles for both horizontal and vertical focusing, and a pair of quadrupole magnets used to adjust the horizontal damping partition number. We find that the dynamic aperture of compact storage rings depends essentially on the intrinsic nonlinearity of the dipole magnets with small bending radius. Hamiltonian dynamics is found to agree well with results from numerical particle tracking. We develop a self-consistent method to estimate the equilibrium beam parameters in the presence of the intrabeam scattering, synchrotron radiation damping, quantum excitation, and residual gas scattering. We also optimize the rf parameters for achieving a maximum x-ray flux.
Schumacher, F.; Friederich, W.; Lamara, S.
2016-02-01
We present a new conceptual approach to scattering-integral-based seismic full waveform inversion (FWI) that allows a flexible, extendable, modular and both computationally and storage-efficient numerical implementation. To achieve maximum modularity and extendability, interactions between the three fundamental steps carried out sequentially in each iteration of the inversion procedure, namely, solving the forward problem, computing waveform sensitivity kernels and deriving a model update, are kept at an absolute minimum and are implemented by dedicated interfaces. To realize storage efficiency and maximum flexibility, the spatial discretization of the inverted earth model is allowed to be completely independent of the spatial discretization employed by the forward solver. For computational efficiency reasons, the inversion is done in the frequency domain. The benefits of our approach are as follows: (1) Each of the three stages of an iteration is realized by a stand-alone software program. In this way, we avoid the monolithic, unflexible and hard-to-modify codes that have often been written for solving inverse problems. (2) The solution of the forward problem, required for kernel computation, can be obtained by any wave propagation modelling code giving users maximum flexibility in choosing the forward modelling method. Both time-domain and frequency-domain approaches can be used. (3) Forward solvers typically demand spatial discretizations that are significantly denser than actually desired for the inverted model. Exploiting this fact by pre-integrating the kernels allows a dramatic reduction of disk space and makes kernel storage feasible. No assumptions are made on the spatial discretization scheme employed by the forward solver. (4) In addition, working in the frequency domain effectively reduces the amount of data, the number of kernels to be computed and the number of equations to be solved. (5) Updating the model by solving a large equation system can be
Sparse frequencies data inversion and the role of multi-scattered energy
Alkhalifah, Tariq Ali
2017-05-26
In trying to extract a broad spectrum of model wavenumbers from the data, necessary to build a plausible model of the Earth, we are, in theory, bounded at the high end by the diffraction resolution limit, which is proportional to the highest usable frequency in the data. At the low end, and courtesy of our multi-dimensional acquisition, the principles behind diffraction tomography theoretically extend our range to zero-wavenumbers, mainly provided by transmissions like diving waves. Within certain regions of the subsurface (i.e. deep), we face the prospective of having a model wavenumber gap in representing the velocity. Here, I demonstrate that inverting for multi scattered energy, we can recover additional wavenumbers not provided by single scattering gradients, that may feed the high and low ends of the model wavenumber spectrum, as well as help us fill in the infamous intermediate wavenumber gap. Thus, I outline a scenario in which we acquire dedicated sparse frequency data, allowing for more time to inject more energy of those frequencies at a reduced cost. Such additional energy is necessary to the recording of more multi-scattered events. The objective of this new paradigm is a high resolution model of the Earth.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Masakazu Washio; Kazuyuki Sakaue; Yoshimasa Hama; Yoshio Kamiya; Tomoko Gowa; Akihiko Masuda; Aki Murata; Ryo Moriyama; Shigeru Kashiwagi; Junji Urakawa
2007-01-01
High quality beam generation project based on High-Tech Research Center Project, which has been approved by Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology in 1999, has been conducted by advance research institute for science and engineering, Waseda University. In the project, laser photo-cathode RF-gun has been selected for the high quality electron beam source. RF cavities with low dark current, which were made by diamond turning technique, have been successfully manufactured. The low emittance electron beam was realized by choosing the modified laser injection technique. The obtained normalized emmitance was about 3 m.mrad at 100 pC of electron charge. The soft x-ray beam generation with the energy of 370 eV, which is in the energy region of so-called water window, by inverse Compton scattering has been performed by the collision between IR laser and the low emmitance electron beams. (Author)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Delbary, Fabrice; Piana, Michele; Aramini, Riccardo; Brignone, Massimo; Bozza, Giovanni
2008-01-01
Microwave tomography is a non-invasive approach to the early diagnosis of breast cancer. However the problem of visualizing tumors from diffracted microwaves is a difficult nonlinear ill-posed inverse scattering problem. We propose a qualitative approach to the solution of such a problem, whereby the shape and location of cancerous tissues can be detected by means of a combination of the Reciprocity Gap Functional method and the Linear Sampling method. We validate this approach to synthetic near-fields produced by a finite element method for boundary integral equations, where the breast is mimicked by the axial view of two nested cylinders, the external one representing the skin and the internal one representing the fat tissue.
Delbary, Fabrice; Aramini, Riccardo; Bozza, Giovanni; Brignone, Massimo; Piana, Michele
2008-11-01
Microwave tomography is a non-invasive approach to the early diagnosis of breast cancer. However the problem of visualizing tumors from diffracted microwaves is a difficult nonlinear ill-posed inverse scattering problem. We propose a qualitative approach to the solution of such a problem, whereby the shape and location of cancerous tissues can be detected by means of a combination of the Reciprocity Gap Functional method and the Linear Sampling method. We validate this approach to synthetic near-fields produced by a finite element method for boundary integral equations, where the breast is mimicked by the axial view of two nested cylinders, the external one representing the skin and the internal one representing the fat tissue.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Pozdnyakov, Yu.A.; Terenetskij, K.O.
1981-01-01
The approximate method for solution of the inverse scattering problem (ISP) at fixed energy for complex spherically symmetric potentials decreasing faster 1/r is considered. The method is based on using a generalized WKB approximation. For the designed potential V(r) a sufficiently ''close'' reference potential V(r) has been chosen. For both potentials S-matrix elements (ME) have been calculated and inversion procedure has been carried out. S-ME have been calculated for integral-valued and intermediate angular moment values. S-ME are presented in a graphical form for being restored reference, and restored potentials for proton scattering with Esub(p)=49.48 MeV energy on 12 C nuclei. The restoration is the better the ''closer'' the sought-for potential to the reference one. This allows to specify the potential by means of iterations: the restored potential can be used as a reference one, etc. The operation of a restored potential smoothing before the following iteration is introduced. Drawbacks and advantages of the ISP solution method under consideration are pointed out. The method application is strongly limited by the requirement that the energy should be higher than a certain ''critical'' one. The method is applicable in a wider region of particle energies (in the low-energies direction) than the ordinary WKB method. The method is more simple in realization conformably to complex potentials. The investigations carried out of the proposed ISP solution method at fixed energy for complex spherically-symmetric potentials allow to conclude that the method can be successFully applied to specify the central part of interaction of nucleons, α-particles and heavy ions of average and high energies with atomic nuclei [ru
Ahn, Chi Young; Jeon, Kiwan; Park, Won-Kwang
2015-06-01
This study analyzes the well-known MUltiple SIgnal Classification (MUSIC) algorithm to identify unknown support of thin penetrable electromagnetic inhomogeneity from scattered field data collected within the so-called multi-static response matrix in limited-view inverse scattering problems. The mathematical theories of MUSIC are partially discovered, e.g., in the full-view problem, for an unknown target of dielectric contrast or a perfectly conducting crack with the Dirichlet boundary condition (Transverse Magnetic-TM polarization) and so on. Hence, we perform further research to analyze the MUSIC-type imaging functional and to certify some well-known but theoretically unexplained phenomena. For this purpose, we establish a relationship between the MUSIC imaging functional and an infinite series of Bessel functions of integer order of the first kind. This relationship is based on the rigorous asymptotic expansion formula in the existence of a thin inhomogeneity with a smooth supporting curve. Various results of numerical simulation are presented in order to support the identified structure of MUSIC. Although a priori information of the target is needed, we suggest a least condition of range of incident and observation directions to apply MUSIC in the limited-view problem.
Williams, Benjamin S. (Inventor); Hu, Qing (Inventor)
2009-01-01
The present invention provides quantum cascade lasers and amplifier that operate in a frequency range of about 1 Terahertz to about 10 Terahertz. In one aspect, a quantum cascade laser of the invention includes a semiconductor heterostructure that provides a plurality of lasing modules connected in series. Each lasing module includes a plurality of quantum well structure that collectively generate at least an upper lasing state, a lower lasing state, and a relaxation state such that the upper and the lower lasing states are separated by an energy corresponding to an optical frequency in a range of about 1 to about 10 Terahertz. The lower lasing state is selectively depopulated via resonant LO-phonon scattering of electrons into the relaxation state.
Eilon, Zachary; Fischer, Karen M.; Dalton, Colleen A.
2018-04-01
We present a methodology for 1-D imaging of upper mantle structure using a Bayesian approach that incorporates a novel combination of seismic data types and an adaptive parameterisation based on piecewise discontinuous splines. Our inversion algorithm lays the groundwork for improved seismic velocity models of the lithosphere and asthenosphere by harnessing the recent expansion of large seismic arrays and computational power alongside sophisticated data analysis. Careful processing of P- and S-wave arrivals isolates converted phases generated at velocity gradients between the mid-crust and 300 km depth. This data is allied with ambient noise and earthquake Rayleigh wave phase velocities to obtain detailed VS and VP velocity models. Synthetic tests demonstrate that converted phases are necessary to accurately constrain velocity gradients, and S-p phases are particularly important for resolving mantle structure, while surface waves are necessary for capturing absolute velocities. We apply the method to several stations in the northwest and north-central United States, finding that the imaged structure improves upon existing models by sharpening the vertical resolution of absolute velocity profiles, offering robust uncertainty estimates, and revealing mid-lithospheric velocity gradients indicative of thermochemical cratonic layering. This flexible method holds promise for increasingly detailed understanding of the upper mantle.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Li Qi; Zhang Dajun; Chen Dengyuan
2010-01-01
N-soliton solutions of the hierarchy of non-isospectral mKdV equation with self-consistent sources and the hierarchy of non-isospectral sine-Gordon equation with self-consistent sources are obtained via the inverse scattering transform. (general)
Arahman, Nasrul; Maimun, Teuku; Mukramah, Syawaliah
2017-01-01
The composition of polymer solution and the methods of membrane preparation determine the solidification process of membrane. The formation of membrane structure prepared via non-solvent induced phase separation (NIPS) method is mostly determined by phase separation process between polymer, solvent, and non-solvent. This paper discusses the phase separation process of polymer solution containing Polyethersulfone (PES), N-methylpirrolidone (NMP), and surfactant Tetronic 1307 (Tet). Cloud point experiment is conducted to determine the amount of non-solvent needed on induced phase separation. Amount of water required as a non-solvent decreases by the addition of surfactant Tet. Kinetics of phase separation for such system is studied by the light scattering measurement. With the addition of Tet., the delayed phase separation is observed and the structure growth rate decreases. Moreover, the morphology of fabricated membrane from those polymer systems is analyzed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The images of both systems show the formation of finger-like macrovoids through the cross-section.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ishikawa, R. [National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, 2-21-1 Osawa, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-8588 (Japan); Asensio Ramos, A.; Manso Sainz, R.; Trujillo Bueno, J. [Instituto de Astrofisica de Canarias, E-38205 La Laguna, Tenerife (Spain); Belluzzi, L. [Istituto Ricerche Solari Locarno (IRSOL), via Patocchi, 6605 Locarno Monti (Switzerland); Štěpán, J. [Astronomical Institute of the Academy of Sciences, Fričova 298, 251 65 Ondřejov (Czech Republic); Goto, M. [National Institute for Fusion Science, 322-6 Oroshi-cho, Toki, Gifu 509-5292 (Japan); Tsuneta, S., E-mail: ryoko.ishikawa@nao.ac.jp [Institute of Space and Astronautical Science, Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency, 3-1-1 Yoshinodai, Chuo, Sagamihara, Kanagawa 252-5210 (Japan)
2014-06-01
Magnetic field measurements in the upper chromosphere and above, where the gas-to-magnetic pressure ratio β is lower than unity, are essential for understanding the thermal structure and dynamical activity of the solar atmosphere. Recent developments in the theory and numerical modeling of polarization in spectral lines have suggested that information on the magnetic field of the chromosphere-corona transition region could be obtained by measuring the linear polarization of the solar disk radiation at the core of the hydrogen Lyα line at 121.6 nm, which is produced by scattering processes and the Hanle effect. The Chromospheric Lyman-Alpha SpectroPolarimeter (CLASP) sounding rocket experiment aims to measure the intensity (Stokes I) and the linear polarization profiles (Q/I and U/I) of the hydrogen Lyα line. In this paper, we clarify the information that the Hanle effect can provide by applying a Stokes inversion technique based on a database search. The database contains all theoretical Q/I and U/I profiles calculated in a one-dimensional semi-empirical model of the solar atmosphere for all possible values of the strength, inclination, and azimuth of the magnetic field vector, though this atmospheric region is highly inhomogeneous and dynamic. We focus on understanding the sensitivity of the inversion results to the noise and spectral resolution of the synthetic observations as well as the ambiguities and limitation inherent to the Hanle effect when only the hydrogen Lyα is used. We conclude that spectropolarimetric observations with CLASP can indeed be a suitable diagnostic tool for probing the magnetism of the transition region, especially when complemented with information on the magnetic field azimuth that can be obtained from other instruments.
Prinari, Barbara; Demontis, Francesco; Li, Sitai; Horikis, Theodoros P.
2018-04-01
The inverse scattering transform (IST) with non-zero boundary conditions at infinity is developed for an m × m matrix nonlinear Schrödinger-type equation which, in the case m = 2, has been proposed as a model to describe hyperfine spin F = 1 spinor Bose-Einstein condensates with either repulsive interatomic interactions and anti-ferromagnetic spin-exchange interactions (self-defocusing case), or attractive interatomic interactions and ferromagnetic spin-exchange interactions (self-focusing case). The IST for this system was first presented by Ieda et al. (2007) , using a different approach. In our formulation, both the direct and the inverse problems are posed in terms of a suitable uniformization variable which allows to develop the IST on the standard complex plane, instead of a two-sheeted Riemann surface or the cut plane with discontinuities along the cuts. Analyticity of the scattering eigenfunctions and scattering data, symmetries, properties of the discrete spectrum, and asymptotics are derived. The inverse problem is posed as a Riemann-Hilbert problem for the eigenfunctions, and the reconstruction formula of the potential in terms of eigenfunctions and scattering data is provided. In addition, the general behavior of the soliton solutions is analyzed in detail in the 2 × 2 self-focusing case, including some special solutions not previously discussed in the literature.
Khachaturov, R. V.
2014-06-01
A mathematical model of X-ray reflection and scattering by multilayered nanostructures in the quasi-optical approximation is proposed. X-ray propagation and the electric field distribution inside the multilayered structure are considered with allowance for refraction, which is taken into account via the second derivative with respect to the depth of the structure. This model is used to demonstrate the possibility of solving inverse problems in order to determine the characteristics of irregularities not only over the depth (as in the one-dimensional problem) but also over the length of the structure. An approximate combinatorial method for system decomposition and composition is proposed for solving the inverse problems.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Chaleil, A.; Le Flanchec, V.; Binet, A.; Nègre, J.P.; Devaux, J.F.; Jacob, V.; Millerioux, M.; Bayle, A.; Balleyguier, P. [CEA DAM DIF, F-91297 Arpajon (France); Prazeres, R. [CLIO/LCP, Bâtiment 201, Université Paris-Sud, F-91450 Orsay (France)
2016-12-21
An inverse Compton scattering source is under development at the ELSA linac of CEA, Bruyères-le-Châtel. Ultra-short X-ray pulses are produced by inverse Compton scattering of 30 ps-laser pulses by relativistic electron bunches. The source will be able to operate in single shot mode as well as in recurrent mode with 72.2 MHz pulse trains. Within this framework, an optical multipass system that multiplies the number of emitted X-ray photons in both regimes has been designed in 2014, then implemented and tested on ELSA facility in the course of 2015. The device is described from both geometrical and timing viewpoints. It is based on the idea of folding the laser optical path to pile-up laser pulses at the interaction point, thus increasing the interaction probability. The X-ray output gain measurements obtained using this system are presented and compared with calculated expectations.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Broome, J.
1965-11-01
The programme SCATTER is a KDF9 programme in the Egtran dialect of Fortran to generate normalized angular distributions for elastically scattered neutrons from data input as the coefficients of a Legendre polynomial series, or from differential cross-section data. Also, differential cross-section data may be analysed to produce Legendre polynomial coefficients. Output on cards punched in the format of the U.K. A. E. A. Nuclear Data Library is optional. (author)
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Florian Schumacher
2016-01-01
Full Text Available Due to increasing computational resources, the development of new numerically demanding methods and software for imaging Earth’s interior remains of high interest in Earth sciences. Here, we give a description from a user’s and programmer’s perspective of the highly modular, flexible and extendable software package ASKI–Analysis of Sensitivity and Kernel Inversion–recently developed for iterative scattering-integral-based seismic full waveform inversion. In ASKI, the three fundamental steps of solving the seismic forward problem, computing waveform sensitivity kernels and deriving a model update are solved by independent software programs that interact via file output/input only. Furthermore, the spatial discretizations of the model space used for solving the seismic forward problem and for deriving model updates, respectively, are kept completely independent. For this reason, ASKI does not contain a specific forward solver but instead provides a general interface to established community wave propagation codes. Moreover, the third fundamental step of deriving a model update can be repeated at relatively low costs applying different kinds of model regularization or re-selecting/weighting the inverted dataset without need to re-solve the forward problem or re-compute the kernels. Additionally, ASKI offers the user sensitivity and resolution analysis tools based on the full sensitivity matrix and allows to compose customized workflows in a consistent computational environment. ASKI is written in modern Fortran and Python, it is well documented and freely available under terms of the GNU General Public License (http://www.rub.de/aski.
Impact of optical phonon scattering on inversion channel mobility in 4H-SiC trenched MOSFETs
Kutsuki, Katsuhiro; Kawaji, Sachiko; Watanabe, Yukihiko; Onishi, Toru; Fujiwara, Hirokazu; Yamamoto, Kensaku; Yamamoto, Toshimasa
2017-04-01
Temperature characteristics of the channel mobility were investigated for 4H-SiC trenched MOSFETs in the range from 30 to 200 °C. The conventional model of channel mobility limited by carrier scattering is based on Si-MOSFETs and shows a greatly different channel mobility from the experimental value, especially at high temperatures. On the other hand, our improved mobility model taking into account optical phonon scattering yielded results in excellent agreement with experimental results. Moreover, the major factors limiting the channel mobility were found to be Coulomb scattering in a low effective field (<0.7 MV/cm) and optical phonon scattering in a high effective field.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Vadim N. Pelevin
2001-12-01
Full Text Available A method for estimating the water backscattering coefficient was put forward on the basis of experimental data of diffuse attenuation coefficient for downwelling irradiance and irradiance reflectance. Calculations were carried out for open sea waters of different types and the spectral dependencies were found ("anomalous" spectra and explained. On this basis, a new model of light backscattering on particles in the sea is proposed. This model may be useful for modelling remote sensing reflectance spectra in order to solve the inverse problems of estimating the concentration of natural admixtures in shelf waters.
Fokas, A. S.; Pogrebkov, A. K.
2003-03-01
We study the initial value problem of the Kadomtsev-Petviashvili I (KPI) equation with initial data u(x1,x2,0) = u1(x1)+u2(x1,x2), where u1(x1) is the one-soliton solution of the Korteweg-de Vries equation evaluated at zero time and u2(x1,x2) decays sufficiently rapidly on the (x1,x2)-plane. This involves the analysis of the nonstationary Schrödinger equation (with time replaced by x2) with potential u(x1,x2,0). We introduce an appropriate sectionally analytic eigenfunction in the complex k-plane where k is the spectral parameter. This eigenfunction has the novelty that in addition to the usual jump across the real k-axis, it also has a jump across a segment of the imaginary k-axis. We show that this eigenfunction can be reconstructed through a linear integral equation uniquely defined in terms of appropriate scattering data. In turn, these scattering data are uniquely constructed in terms of u1(x1) and u2(x1,x2). This result implies that the solution of the KPI equation can be obtained through the above linear integral equation where the scattering data have a simple t-dependence.
Wapenaar, Kees; Thorbecke, Jan; van der Neut, Joost
2016-04-01
Green's theorem plays a fundamental role in a diverse range of wavefield imaging applications, such as holographic imaging, inverse scattering, time-reversal acoustics and interferometric Green's function retrieval. In many of those applications, the homogeneous Green's function (i.e. the Green's function of the wave equation without a singularity on the right-hand side) is represented by a closed boundary integral. In practical applications, sources and/or receivers are usually present only on an open surface, which implies that a significant part of the closed boundary integral is by necessity ignored. Here we derive a homogeneous Green's function representation for the common situation that sources and/or receivers are present on an open surface only. We modify the integrand in such a way that it vanishes on the part of the boundary where no sources and receivers are present. As a consequence, the remaining integral along the open surface is an accurate single-sided representation of the homogeneous Green's function. This single-sided representation accounts for all orders of multiple scattering. The new representation significantly improves the aforementioned wavefield imaging applications, particularly in situations where the first-order scattering approximation breaks down.
Resonances for Obstacles in Hyperbolic Space
Hintz, Peter; Zworski, Maciej
2017-12-01
We consider scattering by star-shaped obstacles in hyperbolic space and show that resonances satisfy a universal bound { Im λ ≤ - 1/2 } , which is optimal in dimension 2. In odd dimensions we also show that { Im λ ≤ - μ/ρ } for a universal constant {μ} , where { ρ } is the radius of a ball containing the obstacle; this gives an improvement for small obstacles. In dimensions 3 and higher the proofs follow the classical vector field approach of Morawetz, while in dimension 2 we obtain our bound by working with spaces coming from general relativity. We also show that in odd dimensions resonances of small obstacles are close, in a suitable sense, to Euclidean resonances.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sharma, Pavan K.; Gera, B.; Ghosh, A.K.; Kushwaha, H.S.
2010-01-01
Scalar dispersion in the atmosphere is an important area wherein different approaches are followed in development of good analytical model. The analyses based on Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) codes offer an opportunity of model development based on first principles of physics and hence such models have an edge over the existing models. Both forward and backward calculation methods are being developed for atmospheric dispersion around NPPs at BARC Forward modeling methods, which describe the atmospheric transport from sources to receptors, use forward-running transport and dispersion models or computational fluid dynamics models which are run many times, and the resulting dispersion field is compared to observations from multiple sensors. Backward or inverse modeling methods use only one model run in the reverse direction from the receptors to estimate the upwind sources. Inverse modeling methods include adjoint and tangent linear models, Kalman filters, and variational data assimilation, and neural network. The present paper is aimed at developing a new approach where the identified specific signatures at receptor points form the basis for source estimation or inversions. This approach is expected to reduce the large transient data sets to reduced and meaningful data sets. In fact this reduces the inherently transient data set into a time independent mean data set. Forward computation were carried out with CFD code for various case to generate a large set of data to train the ANN. Specific signature analysis was carried out to find the parameters of interest for ANN training like peak concentration, time to reach peak concentration and time to fall, the ANN was trained with data and source strength and location were predicted from ANN. Inverse problem was performed using ANN approach in long range atmospheric dispersion. An illustration of application of CFD code for atmospheric dispersion studies for a hypothetical case is also included in the paper. (author)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Richardson, J.M.; Fertig, K.W. Jr.
1983-01-01
In order to inspect flaws which lie too close to the surface a Fourier elastodynamic formalism is proposed which enables one to decompose the elastodynamic system into separately charterizable parts by means of planes perpendicular to the z-axis. The process can be represented by a generalized transfer function relating the near-field scattered waves to the waves incident on a slab of material containing the flaw. The Fourier elastodynamics are applied to the characterization of the total scattering process involving a flaw at various distances from a plastic-water interface. An abbreviated discussion of Fourier elastodynamics is presented, and the results specialized to the case of spherical voids and inclusions bear an interface. Finally, the computational results for several ranges of temporal frequency and for a sequence of values of the distance from the flaw center to the interface are discussed
Size Estimates in Inverse Problems
Di Cristo, Michele
2014-01-01
Detection of inclusions or obstacles inside a body by boundary measurements is an inverse problems very useful in practical applications. When only finite numbers of measurements are available, we try to detect some information on the embedded
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Washio, M.; Sakaue, K.; Hama, Y.; Kamiya, Y.; Moriyama, R.; Hezume, K.; Saito, T.; Kuroda, R.; Kashiwagi, S.; Ushida, K.; Hayano, H.; Urakawa, J.
2006-01-01
High quality beam generation project based on High-Tech Research Center Project, which has been approved by Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology in 1999, has been conducted by advance research institute for science and engineering, Waseda University. In the project, laser photo-cathode RF-gun has been selected for the high quality electron beam source. RF cavities with low dark current, which were made by diamond turning technique, have been successfully manufactured. The low emittance electron beam was realized by choosing the modified laser injection technique. The obtained normalized emittance was about 3 mm·mrad at 100 pC of electron charge. The soft X-ray beam generation with the energy of 370 eV, which is in the energy region of so-called 'water window', by inverse Compton scattering has been performed by the collision between IR laser and the low emittance electron beams. (authors)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Fagundes, Daniel Almeida
2010-01-01
The theoretical description of high-energy elastic hadron scattering constitutes an open problem in both, the underlying quantum field theory of strong interactions (QCD) and the phenomenological context. In this work the inverse problem in elastic hadron scattering is discussed in the impact parameter and eikonal frameworks, specifically a study on the empirical extraction of the profile, the inelastic overlap and the eikonal functions, from the experimental data and some principles and high-energy theorems (model independent). The analysis is limited to elastic proton-proton scattering in the center of momentum energy interval 19.4 - 62.5 GeV. In particular, a novel representation for the Martin's Real Part Formula is introduced but without the scaling property and suitable for empirical analysis. By means of this representation, and two other parametrizations previously introduced (constrained and unconstrained), several properties of the inelastic overlap function and the imaginary part of the eikonal (opacity) in the momentum transfer space are determined, in special: (1) evidence of a peripheral effect (tail) in the inelastic overlap function in the parameter impact space above 2 fm; (2) development of analytical parametrizations for this function leading to three gaussian components with centers at 0.0, ∼0.7 and ∼1.3 fm; (3) evidence of a finite zero (change of sign) in the opacity function in the momentum transfer space; (4) development of empirical parametrization for this function consistent with form factors as a product of two monopoles with constrained masses (not a dipole type) and a term with zero; (5) detailed discussion on the determination of the opacity function in the momentum transfer space through the semi-analytical approach. The applicability of these empirical results in the development of eikonal models (mainly those inspired in QCD) is also discussed. (author)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Krakauer, D.A.
1992-04-01
Electron-neutrino electron elastic scattering and two-body electron- neutrino carbon scattering reactions were observed using a 15 ton fine-grained detector and neutrinos from μ + decay at rest. The data was obtained during an exposure to neutrinos produced in LAMPF proton beam-stop. Based on identification of 262±46 ν e e - events the total cross-section for ν e e - → ν e e - was measured to be σ(ν e E - ) = (3.09±0.54(stat)±0.39(syst)) x 10 -43 cm 2 . The interference between the weak charged and neutral currents was measured for the first time. The interference was found to be destructive, with a magnitude 0.97±0.22 times the value predicted by the WSG theory. The total cross-section was also used to measure sin 2 θ W = 0.24±0.06(stat)±0.04(syst). The data restricts the maximum allowed value of the neutrino magnetic moment to be less than 1.3 x 10 -9 Bohr magnetrons for ν e and 8.8 x 10 -10 for ν mu . In a separate analysis, 182±22 12 C(ν e ,e - ) 12 N(gs) events with subsequent 12 N(β + ) 12 C were observed, corresponding to a total cross-section, σ(ν e 12 C → e - 12 N(gs)) = (1.03 ± 0.12(stat) ± 0.10(sys)) x10 -41 cm 2 . This was the first observation of ν e -induced transitions between specific nuclear states. The results is good agreement with theoretical predictions
Quasi-free scattering off {sup 12}C in inverse kinematics at the R3B/LAND-setup
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Panin, Valerii; Aumann, Thomas [Institut fuer Kernphysik, TU Darmstadt (Germany); Taylor, Jonathan [Department of Physics, University of Liverpool (United Kingdom); Collaboration: R3B-Collaboration
2011-07-01
An important part of the physics program at the future R3B (Reactions with Relativistic Radioactive Beams) experiment at FAIR will be based on the study of proton-induced reactions in a kinematical complete measurement. These are in particular the quasi-free scattering processes of the type (p,2p), (p,pn), (p,p{alpha}) etc, which will be used to investigate the single-particle and cluster structure of neutron-proton asymmetric nuclei and the role of nucleon-nucleon correlations in nuclei. A prototype setup for the detection of high-energy protons in (p,2p) reactions in coincidence with forward emitted light particles and heavy fragments has been built based on an array of Si micro-strip detectors for tracking and thick NaI scintillators for energy measurements. A {sup 12}C beam has been chosen for the bench-mark experiment since its structure is well known, and results from proton- as well as electron-induced knockout reactions are available. First results on two-proton angular correlations and momentum distributions of the knocked-out protons inside {sup 12}C are discussed as well as the excitation energy spectrum of the residual {sup 11}B nuclei.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ankudze, Bright; Philip, Anish [Department of Chemistry, University of Eastern Finland, P.O. Box 111, F1-80101, Joensuu (Finland); Pakkanen, Tuula T., E-mail: Tuula.Pakkanen@uef.fi [Department of Chemistry, University of Eastern Finland, P.O. Box 111, F1-80101, Joensuu (Finland); Matikainen, Antti; Vahimaa, Pasi [Institute of Photonics, University of Eastern Finland, P.O. Box 111, F1-80101, Joensuu (Finland)
2016-11-30
Highlights: • SERS substrates prepared by infiltration of nanoparticles into SiO{sub 2} inverse opal. • The SERS substrate gives an enhancement factor of 10{sup 7} for 4-aminothiophenol. • The sensitivity of the substrate is mainly attributed to gold nanoparticle clusters. - Abstract: SiO{sub 2} inverse opal (IO) films with embedded gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) for surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) application are reported. SiO{sub 2} IO films were loaded with AuNPs by a simple infiltration in a single cycle to form Au-SiO{sub 2} IOs. The optical property and the morphology of the Au-SiO{sub 2} IO substrates were characterized; it was observed that they retained the Bragg diffraction of SiO{sub 2} IO and the localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) of AuNPs. The SERS property of the Au-SiO{sub 2} IO substrates were studied with methylene blue (MB) and 4-aminothiophenol (4-ATP). The SERS enhancement factors were 10{sup 7} and 10{sup 6} for 4-ATP and MB, respectively. A low detection limit of 10{sup −10} M for 4-ATP was also obtained with the Au-SiO{sub 2} IO substrate. A relative standard deviation of 18.5% for the Raman signals intensity at 1077 cm{sup −1} for 4-ATP shows that the Au-SiO{sub 2} IO substrates have good signal reproducibility. The results of this study indicate that the Au-SiO{sub 2} IO substrates can be used in sensing and SERS applications.
Inverse Compton gamma-rays from pulsars
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Morini, M.
1983-01-01
A model is proposed for pulsar optical and gamma-ray emission where relativistic electrons beams: (i) scatter the blackbody photons from the polar cap surface giving inverse Compton gamma-rays and (ii) produce synchrotron optical photons in the light cylinder region which are then inverse Compton scattered giving other gamma-rays. The model is applied to the Vela pulsar, explaining the first gamma-ray pulse by inverse Compton scattering of synchrotron photons near the light cylinder and the second gamma-ray pulse partly by inverse Compton scattering of synchrotron photons and partly by inverse Compton scattering of the thermal blackbody photons near the star surface. (author)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sitenko, A.
1991-01-01
This book emerged out of graduate lectures given by the author at the University of Kiev and is intended as a graduate text. The fundamentals of non-relativistic quantum scattering theory are covered, including some topics, such as the phase-function formalism, separable potentials, and inverse scattering, which are not always coverded in textbooks on scattering theory. Criticisms of the text are minor, but the reviewer feels an inadequate index is provided and the citing of references in the Russian language is a hindrance in a graduate text
Recovering an obstacle using integral equations
Rundell, William
2009-05-01
We consider the inverse problem of recovering the shape, location and surface properties of an object where the surrounding medium is both conductive and homogeneous and we measure Cauchy data on an accessible part of the exterior boundary. It is assumed that the physical situation is modelled by harmonic functions and the boundary condition on the obstacle is one of Dirichlet type. The purpose of this paper is to answer some of the questions raised in a recent paper that introduced a nonlinear integral equation approach for the solution of this type of problem.
Geometric capture and escape of a microswimmer colliding with an obstacle.
Spagnolie, Saverio E; Moreno-Flores, Gregorio R; Bartolo, Denis; Lauga, Eric
2015-05-07
Motivated by recent experiments, we consider the hydrodynamic capture of a microswimmer near a stationary spherical obstacle. Simulations of model equations show that a swimmer approaching a small spherical colloid is simply scattered. In contrast, when the colloid is larger than a critical size it acts as a passive trap: the swimmer is hydrodynamically captured along closed trajectories and endlessly orbits around the colloidal sphere. In order to gain physical insight into this hydrodynamic scattering problem, we address it analytically. We provide expressions for the critical trapping radius, the depth of the "basin of attraction," and the scattering angle, which show excellent agreement with our numerical findings. We also demonstrate and rationalize the strong impact of swimming-flow symmetries on the trapping efficiency. Finally, we give the swimmer an opportunity to escape the colloidal traps by considering the effects of Brownian, or active, diffusion. We show that in some cases the trapping time is governed by an Ornstein-Uhlenbeck process, which results in a trapping time distribution that is well-approximated as inverse-Gaussian. The predictions again compare very favorably with the numerical simulations. We envision applications of the theory to bioremediation, microorganism sorting techniques, and the study of bacterial populations in heterogeneous or porous environments.
FOREWORD: Special section on electromagnetic characterization of buried obstacles
Lesselier, Dominique; Chew, Weng Cho
2004-12-01
approach in order to reconstruct in an effective fashion pertinent features of actual ordnances as shown from synthetic and measured data. Then, the detection and characterization problem can be made much simpler than the inverse problem. • T J Cui, Y Qin, G-L Wang and W C Chew, in `Low-frequency detection of two-dimensional buried objects using high-order extended Born approximations', develop a full range of higher and higher approximations (starting from the Born one and encompassing the extended Born one, and then pursue beyond them both in a recursive fashion) in order to avoid solving the fully nonlinear problem for large contrasts of the sought obstacles. Then they show how these developments can be employed for such types of objects in lossy media at low enough frequency, yielding reliable images at the moderate computational expense of tackling a properly regularized linear inverse problem and recursively using the high-order approximations thereupon. • A Dubois, K Belkebir and M Saillard, in `Localization and characterization of two-dimensional targets buried in a cluttered environment', counter the clutter problem (so far only in a two-dimensional setting) via a combination of a hybrid iterative minimization—reduced to a modified gradient or to a Newton-type algorithm—and of the DORT (decomposition of the time reversal operator) method—which currently enjoys a number of developments for electromagnetic detection and numbering of buried objects. This novel combination enables one to synthesize waves that are focused onto the scatterers, an appropriate DORT-related objective functional being added or multiplied to the standard one minimized along the course of the iterations. In so doing, strong clutter, which usually tends to shadow the targets and/or produce severe artifacts, is overcome to a suitable extent. • B Duchêne, A Joisel and M Lambert, in `Nonlinear inversions of immersed objects using laboratory-controlled data', discuss the inversion of
Obstacle avoidance for kinematically redundant robots using an adaptive fuzzy logic algorithm
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Beheshti, M.T.H.; Tehrani, A.K.
1999-05-01
In this paper the Adaptive Fuzzy Logic approach for solving the inverse kinematics of redundant robots in an environment with obstacles is presented. The obstacles are modeled as convex bodies. A fuzzy rule base that is updated via an adaptive law is used to solve the inverse kinematic problem. Additional rules have been introduced to take care of the obstacles avoidance problem. The proposed method has advantages such as high accuracy, simplicity of computations and generality for all redundant robots. Simulation results illustrate much better tracking performance than the dynamic base solution for a given trajectory in cartesian space, while guaranteeing a collision-free trajectory and observation of a mechanical joint limit
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Safronov, A.N.
2007-01-01
Full text: The pion-nucleon dynamics is one of the most fundamental problems in nuclear and particle physics. It is now widely believed that QCD is fundamental theory of strong interactions. On this basis all hadron-hadron interactions are completely determined by the underlying quark-gluon dynamics. However, due to the formidable mathematical problems raised by the non-perturbative character of QCD at low and intermediate energies, we are still far from a quantitative understanding hadron-hadron interactions from this point of view. Recently the relativistic approaches to constructing effective interaction operators between strongly interacting composite particles has been proposed on the basis of analytic S-matrix theory and methods for solving the inverse quantum scattering problem. The kernel of Marchenko equation in theory of inverse scattering problem can be expressed in terms of the discontinuity of the partial wave amplitude on dynamic cut in the complex s=k 2 plane, k being the relative momentum of colliding particles. The discontinuities of partial-wave amplitudes are determined by model-independent quantities (renormalized vertex constants and amplitudes of sub-processes involving on-mass-shell particles off physical region) and can be calculated by methods of relativistic quantum field theory within various dynamical approaches. In particular, effective field theory can be used to calculate the discontinuities across dynamical cuts closest to physical region. In present work a new manifestly Poincare-invariant approach to solving the inverse scattering problem is developed with allowance for inelasticity effects. The equations of the N/D method are used as dynamical equations in this approach. With the help of N/D-equations it was earlier shown that solution of a scattering problem in case of nonzero angular momentum does not exist for arbitrary discontinuity of partial-wave amplitude. The method is elaborated allowing to determine contributions of
Obstacle problems in mathematical physics
Rodrigues, J-F
1987-01-01
The aim of this research monograph is to present a general account of the applicability of elliptic variational inequalities to the important class of free boundary problems of obstacle type from a unifying point of view of classical Mathematical Physics.The first part of the volume introduces some obstacle type problems which can be reduced to variational inequalities. Part II presents some of the main aspects of the theory of elliptic variational inequalities, from the abstract hilbertian framework to the smoothness of the variational solution, discussing in general the properties of the free boundary and including some results on the obstacle Plateau problem. The last part examines the application to free boundary problems, namely the lubrication-cavitation problem, the elastoplastic problem, the Signorini (or the boundary obstacle) problem, the dam problem, the continuous casting problem, the electrochemical machining problem and the problem of the flow with wake in a channel past a profile.
Reciprocally-Rotating Velocity Obstacles
Giese, Andrew; Latypov, Daniel; Amato, Nancy M.
2014-01-01
obstacles. One state-of-the-art local collision avoidance technique is Optimal Reciprocal Collision Avoidance (ORCA). Despite being fast and efficient for circular-shaped agents, ORCA may deadlock when polygonal shapes are used. To address this shortcoming
Treatment of divergent expansions in scattering theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gersten, A.; Malin, S.
1978-01-01
One of the biggest obstacles in applying quantum field theory to realistic scattering problems are the divergencies of pertubation expansions for large coupling constants and the divergencies of partial wave expansions for massless particles exchanges. There exist, however, methods of summation of the divergent expansions which can lead to significant application in physics. In this paper we treat the problem of summing such expansions using three methods: (i) a generalization of the Pade approximation to the multivariable case. The suggested definition is unique and preserves unitarity. (ii) The summation of divergent partial waves for arbitrary spins. (iii) A successful application of a series inversion to the 3 P 1 nucleon-nucleon phase shift up to 200 MeV. (orig./WL) [de
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ilieva, Stoyanka
2008-01-01
In the current experiment, the differential cross sections for proton elastic scattering on the isotopes 7,9,10,11,12,14 Be and 8 B were measured. As results from the experiment, the absolute differential cross sections dσ/dt as a function of the four momentum transfer t were obtained. In this work the differential cross sections for elastic p- 12 Be, p- 14 Be and p- 8 B scattering at low t (t≤0.05(GeV/c) 2 ) are presented. The measured cross sections were analyzed within the Glauber multiple-scattering theory using different density parameterizations, and the nuclear matter density distributions and radii of the investigated isotopes were determined. The determined rms matter radius is 3.11±0.04±0.13 fm. In the case of the 12 Be nucleus the results showed an extended matter distribution as well. For this nucleus a matter radius of 2.82±0.03±0.12 fm was determined. An interesting result is that the free 12 Be nucleus behaves differently from the core of 14 Be and is much more extended than it. Preliminary experimental results for the isotope 8 B are also presented. An extended matter distribution was obtained (though much more compact as compared to the neutron halos). A proton halo structure was observed for the first time with the proton elastic scattering method. The deduced matter radius is 2.60±0.02±0.26 fm. Results from the feasibility studies of the EXL detector setup, performed at the present ESR storage ring, are presented. (orig.)
Surface obstacles in pulsatile flow
Carr, Ian A.; Plesniak, Michael W.
2017-11-01
Flows past obstacles mounted on flat surfaces have been widely studied due to their ubiquity in nature and engineering. For nearly all of these studies, the freestream flow over the obstacle was steady, i.e., constant velocity, unidirectional flow. Unsteady, pulsatile flows occur frequently in biology, geophysics, biomedical engineering, etc. Our study is aimed at extending the comprehensive knowledge base that exists for steady flows to considerably more complex pulsatile flows. Characterizing the vortex and wake dynamics of flows around surface obstacles embedded in pulsatile flows can provide insights into the underlying physics in all wake and junction flows. In this study, we experimentally investigate the wake of two canonical obstacles: a cube and a circular cylinder with an aspect ratio of unity. Our previous studies of a surface-mounted hemisphere in pulsatile flow are used as a baseline for these two new, more complex geometries. Phase-averaged PIV and hot-wire anemometry are used to characterize the dynamics of coherent structures in the wake and at the windward junction of the obstacles. Complex physics occur during the deceleration phase of the pulsatile inflow. We propose a framework for understanding these physics based on self-induced vortex propagation, similar to the phenomena exhibited by vortex rings.
ANALYSIS OF STUDENTS’ LEARNING OBSTACLES ON LEARNING INVERS FUNCTION MATERIAL
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Krisna Satrio Perbowo
2017-09-01
Full Text Available This research is based on the presence of obstacle in learning mathematics on inverse function. This research aims to analyze the learning obstacle, to know the types of error that is suffered by the students in learning inverse function. Kind of this kualitative research descriptive with data triangulation. The research subjects are high school students which is contained of 74 students and was taken 6 students to be main sample. The data of students’ error is obtained from the writen test result, the students’ false answers are identified into the type of error. Then it was chosen several students to be interviewed. Which the analysis result finding data in this research showed there are 4 types of errors, which are concept error, procedure error, counting error and concluding error. An obstacle which appear in learning inverse function is influenced by two factors, i.e internal factor and eksternal factor. Internal factor is showed by the students’ motivation in following learning and students’ skill in receiving learning material. While the eksternal factor is showed by the curriculum which applied in school with acceleration class caused many narrow learning time, teaching materials that is less complete with the discussion of question sample.
Mathematical Models of Smart Obstacles
2006-10-01
Matematica “G. Castelnuovo” Università di Roma “La Sapienza”, Piazzale Aldo Moro 2 00185 Roma Italy Ph. N. +39-06-49913282, FAX N. +39-06...Dipartimento di Matematica G. Castelnuovo Università di Roma La Sapienza, Piazzale Aldo Moro 2 00185 Roma Italy 8. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION REPORT NUMBER 9... Matematica G. Castelnuovo Università di Roma “La Sapienza” 00185 Roma, Italy 2 Smart (or active) obstacles are obstacles that when illuminated by an
Rutkevich, Sergei B; Diehl, H W
2015-06-01
The O(n) ϕ(4) model on a strip bounded by a pair of planar free surfaces at separation L can be solved exactly in the large-n limit in terms of the eigenvalues and eigenfunctions of a self-consistent one-dimensional Schrödinger equation. The scaling limit of a continuum version of this model is considered. It is shown that the self-consistent potential can be eliminated in favor of scattering data by means of appropriately extended methods of inverse scattering theory. The scattering data (Jost function) associated with the self-consistent potential are determined for the L=∞ semi-infinite case in the scaling regime for all values of the temperature scaling field t=(T-T(c))/T(c) above and below the bulk critical temperature T(c). These results are used in conjunction with semiclassical and boundary-operator expansions and a trace formula to derive exact analytical results for a number of quantities such as two-point functions, universal amplitudes of two excess surface quantities, the universal amplitude difference associated with the thermal singularity of the surface free energy, and potential coefficients. The asymptotic behaviors of the scaled eigenenergies and eigenfunctions of the self-consistent Schrödinger equation as function of x=t(L/ξ(+))(1/ν) are determined for x→-∞. In addition, the asymptotic x→-∞ forms of the universal finite-size scaling functions Θ(x) and ϑ(x) of the residual free energy and the Casimir force are computed exactly to order 1/x, including their x(-1)ln|x| anomalies.
Size Estimates in Inverse Problems
Di Cristo, Michele
2014-01-06
Detection of inclusions or obstacles inside a body by boundary measurements is an inverse problems very useful in practical applications. When only finite numbers of measurements are available, we try to detect some information on the embedded object such as its size. In this talk we review some recent results on several inverse problems. The idea is to provide constructive upper and lower estimates of the area/volume of the unknown defect in terms of a quantity related to the work that can be expressed with the available boundary data.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Namatame, Hirofumi; Taniguchi, Masaki
1994-01-01
Photoelectron spectroscopy is regarded as the most powerful means since it can measure almost perfectly the occupied electron state. On the other hand, inverse photoelectron spectroscopy is the technique for measuring unoccupied electron state by using the inverse process of photoelectron spectroscopy, and in principle, the similar experiment to photoelectron spectroscopy becomes feasible. The development of the experimental technology for inverse photoelectron spectroscopy has been carried out energetically by many research groups so far. At present, the heightening of resolution of inverse photoelectron spectroscopy, the development of inverse photoelectron spectroscope in which light energy is variable and so on are carried out. But the inverse photoelectron spectroscope for vacuum ultraviolet region is not on the market. In this report, the principle of inverse photoelectron spectroscopy and the present state of the spectroscope are described, and the direction of the development hereafter is groped. As the experimental equipment, electron guns, light detectors and so on are explained. As the examples of the experiment, the inverse photoelectron spectroscopy of semimagnetic semiconductors and resonance inverse photoelectron spectroscopy are reported. (K.I.)
Li, Mengkui; Zhang, Shuangxi; Bodin, Thomas; Lin, Xu; Wu, Tengfei
2018-06-01
Inversion of receiver functions is commonly used to recover the S-wave velocity structure beneath seismic stations. Traditional approaches are based on deconvolved waveforms, where the horizontal component of P-wave seismograms is deconvolved by the vertical component. Deconvolution of noisy seismograms is a numerically unstable process that needs to be stabilized by regularization parameters. This biases noise statistics, making it difficult to estimate uncertainties in observed receiver functions for Bayesian inference. This study proposes a method to directly invert observed radial waveforms and to better account for data noise in a Bayesian formulation. We illustrate its feasibility with two synthetic tests having different types of noises added to seismograms. Then, a real site application is performed to obtain the 1-D S-wave velocity structure beneath a seismic station located in the Tengchong volcanic area, Southwestern China. Surface wave dispersion measurements spanning periods from 8 to 65 s are jointly inverted with P waveforms. The results show a complex S-wave velocity structure, as two low velocity zones are observed in the crust and uppermost mantle, suggesting the existence of magma chambers, or zones of partial melt. The upper magma chambers may be the heart source that cause the thermal activity on the surface.
Robust obstacle detection for unmanned surface vehicles
Qin, Yueming; Zhang, Xiuzhi
2018-03-01
Obstacle detection is of essential importance for Unmanned Surface Vehicles (USV). Although some obstacles (e.g., ships, islands) can be detected by Radar, there are many other obstacles (e.g., floating pieces of woods, swimmers) which are difficult to be detected via Radar because these obstacles have low radar cross section. Therefore, detecting obstacle from images taken onboard is an effective supplement. In this paper, a robust vision-based obstacle detection method for USVs is developed. The proposed method employs the monocular image sequence captured by the camera on the USVs and detects obstacles on the sea surface from the image sequence. The experiment results show that the proposed scheme is efficient to fulfill the obstacle detection task.
Ingram, WT
2012-01-01
Inverse limits provide a powerful tool for constructing complicated spaces from simple ones. They also turn the study of a dynamical system consisting of a space and a self-map into a study of a (likely more complicated) space and a self-homeomorphism. In four chapters along with an appendix containing background material the authors develop the theory of inverse limits. The book begins with an introduction through inverse limits on [0,1] before moving to a general treatment of the subject. Special topics in continuum theory complete the book. Although it is not a book on dynamics, the influen
Waveform inversion for acoustic VTI media in frequency domain
Wu, Zedong; Alkhalifah, Tariq Ali
2016-01-01
Reflected waveform inversion (RWI) provides a method to reduce the nonlinearity of the standard full waveform inversion (FWI) by inverting for the background model using a single scattered wavefield from an inverted perturbation. However, current
A nonlinear inversion for the velocity background and perturbation models
Wu, Zedong; Alkhalifah, Tariq Ali
2015-01-01
Reflected waveform inversion (RWI) provides a method to reduce the nonlinearity of the standard full waveform inversion (FWI) by inverting for the single scattered wavefield obtained using an image. However, current RWI methods usually neglect
Unwrapped phase inversion for near surface seismic data
Choi, Yun Seok; Alkhalifah, Tariq Ali
2012-01-01
The Phase-wrapping is one of the main obstacles of waveform inversion. We use an inversion algorithm based on the instantaneous-traveltime that overcomes the phase-wrapping problem. With a high damping factor, the frequency-dependent instantaneous
Neuroepigenomics: Resources, Obstacles, and Opportunities.
Satterlee, John S; Beckel-Mitchener, Andrea; Little, Roger; Procaccini, Dena; Rutter, Joni L; Lossie, Amy C
2015-01-01
Long-lived post-mitotic cells, such as the majority of human neurons, must respond effectively to ongoing changes in neuronal stimulation or microenvironmental cues through transcriptional and epigenomic regulation of gene expression. The role of epigenomic regulation in neuronal function is of fundamental interest to the neuroscience community, as these types of studies have transformed our understanding of gene regulation in post-mitotic cells. This perspective article highlights many of the resources available to researchers interested in neuroepigenomic investigations and discusses some of the current obstacles and opportunities in neuroepigenomics.
Neuroepigenomics: resources, obstacles, and opportunities
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
John S. Satterlee
2015-01-01
Full Text Available Long-lived postmitotic cells, such as most human neurons, must respond effectively to ongoing changes in neuronal stimulation or microenvironmental cues through transcriptional and epigenomic regulation of gene expression. The role of epigenomic regulation in neuronal function is of fundamental interest to the neuroscience community, as these types of studies have transformed our understanding of gene regulation in postmitotic cells. This perspective article highlights many of the resources available to researchers interested in neuroepigenomic investigations and discusses some of the current obstacles and opportunities in neuroepigenomics.
Nuclear power: obstacles and solutions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hart, R.S.
2002-01-01
Nuclear power has a history extending over more than 50 years; it has been pursued both for military power applications (primarily aircraft carrier and submarine propulsion) and for commercial power applications. Nuclear power has benefited from many hundreds of billions of dollars in research, development, design, construction, and operations expenditures, and has received substantial attention and support world-wide, having being implemented by most developed countries, including all of the G-7 countries, and several developing countries (for example, India, China, and Republic of Korea). In spite of this long history, massive development effort, and unprecedented financial commitment, nuclear power has failed to achieve commercial success, having captured less than 5% of the world's primary energy supply market. There are many factors contributing to the stagnation/decline of the commercial nuclear power business. These factors include: non competitive economics, lengthy construction schedules, large and demanding human resource requirements, safety concerns, proliferation concerns, waste management concerns, the high degree of government financial and political involvement necessary, and the incompatibility of the available nuclear power plant designs with most process heat applications due to their temperature limitations and/or large heat output. An examination of the obstacles to deployment of nuclear power plants of current design suggest a set of requirements for new nuclear power plants, which may overcome or circumvent these obstacles. These requirements include: inherent characteristics that will achieve reactor shutdown under any postulated accident condition; the removal of decay heat by natural and passive means; no safety dependence on operator actions and tolerant to operator error, and malicious or incompetent operator action; and, economic viability in relatively small unit sizes. Many innovative reactor technologies and concepts are under
Nuclear power: obstacles and solutions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hart, R.S.
2001-01-01
Nuclear power has a history extending over more than 50 years; it has been pursued both for military power applications (primarily aircraft carrier and submarine propulsion) and for commercial power applications. Nuclear power has benefited from many hundreds of billions of dollars in research, development, design, construction, and operations expenditures, and has received substantial attention and support world-wide, having being implemented by most developed countries, including all of the G-7 countries, and several developing countries (for example, India, China, and Republic of Korea). In spite of this long history, massive development effort, and unprecedented financial commitment, nuclear power has failed to achieve commercial success, having captured less than 5% of the world's primary energy supply market. There are many factors contributing to the stagnation/decline of the commercial nuclear power business. These factors include: non competitive economics, lengthy construction schedules, large and demanding human resource requirements, safety concerns, proliferation concerns, waste management concerns, the high degree of government financial and political involvement necessary, and the incompatibility of the available nuclear power plant designs with most process heat applications due to their temperature limitations and/or large heat output. An examination of the obstacles to deployment of nuclear power plants of current design suggest a set of requirements for new nuclear power plants, which may overcome or circumvent these obstacles. These requirements include: inherent characteristics that will achieve reactor shutdown under any postulated accident condition; the removal of decay heat by natural and passive means; no safety dependence on operator actions and tolerant to operator error, and malicious or incompetent operator action; and, economic viability in relatively small unit sizes. Many innovative reactor technologies and concepts are under
Multiscattering inversion for low-model wavenumbers
Alkhalifah, Tariq Ali; Wu, Zedong
2016-01-01
A successful full-waveform inversion implementation updates the low-wavenumber model components first for a proper description of the wavefield propagation and slowly adds the high wavenumber potentially scattering parts of the model. The low
Reciprocally-Rotating Velocity Obstacles
Giese, Andrew
2014-05-01
© 2014 IEEE. Modern multi-agent systems frequently use highlevel planners to extract basic paths for agents, and then rely on local collision avoidance to ensure that the agents reach their destinations without colliding with one another or dynamic obstacles. One state-of-the-art local collision avoidance technique is Optimal Reciprocal Collision Avoidance (ORCA). Despite being fast and efficient for circular-shaped agents, ORCA may deadlock when polygonal shapes are used. To address this shortcoming, we introduce Reciprocally-Rotating Velocity Obstacles (RRVO). RRVO generalizes ORCA by introducing a notion of rotation for polygonally-shaped agents. This generalization permits more realistic motion than ORCA and does not suffer from as much deadlock. In this paper, we present the theory of RRVO and show empirically that it does not suffer from the deadlock issue ORCA has, permits agents to reach goals faster, and has a comparable collision rate at the cost of performance overhead quadratic in the (typically small) user-defined parameter δ.
VISION BASED OBSTACLE DETECTION IN UAV IMAGING
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
S. Badrloo
2017-08-01
Full Text Available Detecting and preventing incidence with obstacles is crucial in UAV navigation and control. Most of the common obstacle detection techniques are currently sensor-based. Small UAVs are not able to carry obstacle detection sensors such as radar; therefore, vision-based methods are considered, which can be divided into stereo-based and mono-based techniques. Mono-based methods are classified into two groups: Foreground-background separation, and brain-inspired methods. Brain-inspired methods are highly efficient in obstacle detection; hence, this research aims to detect obstacles using brain-inspired techniques, which try to enlarge the obstacle by approaching it. A recent research in this field, has concentrated on matching the SIFT points along with, SIFT size-ratio factor and area-ratio of convex hulls in two consecutive frames to detect obstacles. This method is not able to distinguish between near and far obstacles or the obstacles in complex environment, and is sensitive to wrong matched points. In order to solve the above mentioned problems, this research calculates the dist-ratio of matched points. Then, each and every point is investigated for Distinguishing between far and close obstacles. The results demonstrated the high efficiency of the proposed method in complex environments.
Inversion of the star transform
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zhao, Fan; Schotland, John C; Markel, Vadim A
2014-01-01
We define the star transform as a generalization of the broken ray transform introduced by us in previous work. The advantages of using the star transform include the possibility to reconstruct the absorption and the scattering coefficients of the medium separately and simultaneously (from the same data) and the possibility to utilize scattered radiation which, in the case of conventional x-ray tomography, is discarded. In this paper, we derive the star transform from physical principles, discuss its mathematical properties and analyze numerical stability of inversion. In particular, it is shown that stable inversion of the star transform can be obtained only for configurations involving odd number of rays. Several computationally-efficient inversion algorithms are derived and tested numerically. (paper)
Multiscattering inversion for low-model wavenumbers
Alkhalifah, Tariq Ali
2016-09-21
A successful full-waveform inversion implementation updates the low-wavenumber model components first for a proper description of the wavefield propagation and slowly adds the high wavenumber potentially scattering parts of the model. The low-wavenumber components can be extracted from the transmission parts of the recorded wavefield emanating directly from the source or the transmission parts from the single- or double-scattered wavefield computed from a predicted scatter field acting as secondary sources.We use a combined inversion of data modeled from the source and those corresponding to single and double scattering to update the velocity model and the component of the velocity (perturbation) responsible for the single and double scattering. The combined inversion helps us access most of the potential model wavenumber information that may be embedded in the data. A scattering-angle filter is used to divide the gradient of the combined inversion, so initially the high-wavenumber (low-scattering-angle) components of the gradient are directed to the perturbation model and the low-wavenumber (highscattering- angle) components are directed to the velocity model. As our background velocity matures, the scatteringangle divide is slowly lowered to allow for more of the higher wavenumbers to contribute the velocity model. Synthetic examples including the Marmousi model are used to demonstrate the additional illumination and improved velocity inversion obtained when including multiscattered energy. © 2016 Society of Exploration Geophysicists.
Inverse scattering problem for quantum graph vertices
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Cheon, T.; Exner, Pavel; Turek, O.
2011-01-01
Roč. 83, č. 6 (2011), 062715/1-062715/4 ISSN 1050-2947 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LC06002; GA ČR GAP203/11/0701 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10480505 Keywords : WIRES Subject RIV: BH - Optics, Masers, Lasers Impact factor: 2.878, year: 2011
Tracked robot controllers for climbing obstacles autonomously
Vincent, Isabelle
2009-05-01
Research in mobile robot navigation has demonstrated some success in navigating flat indoor environments while avoiding obstacles. However, the challenge of analyzing complex environments to climb obstacles autonomously has had very little success due to the complexity of the task. Unmanned ground vehicles currently exhibit simple autonomous behaviours compared to the human ability to move in the world. This paper presents the control algorithms designed for a tracked mobile robot to autonomously climb obstacles by varying its tracks configuration. Two control algorithms are proposed to solve the autonomous locomotion problem for climbing obstacles. First, a reactive controller evaluates the appropriate geometric configuration based on terrain and vehicle geometric considerations. Then, a reinforcement learning algorithm finds alternative solutions when the reactive controller gets stuck while climbing an obstacle. The methodology combines reactivity to learning. The controllers have been demonstrated in box and stair climbing simulations. The experiments illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed approach for crossing obstacles.
Obstacle detection system for underground mining vehicles
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Cohen, P.; Polotski, V.; Piotte, M.; Melamed, F. [Ecole Polytechnique de Montreal, Montreal, PQ (Canada)
1998-01-01
A device for detecting obstacles by autonomous vehicles navigating in mine drifts is described. The device is based upon structured lighting and the extraction of relevant features from images of obstacles. The system uses image profile changes, ground and wall irregularities, disturbances of the vehicle`s trajectory, and impaired visibility to detect obstacles, rather than explicit three-dimensional scene reconstruction. 7 refs., 5 figs.
Inverse and Ill-posed Problems Theory and Applications
Kabanikhin, S I
2011-01-01
The text demonstrates the methods for proving the existence (if et all) and finding of inverse and ill-posed problems solutions in linear algebra, integral and operator equations, integral geometry, spectral inverse problems, and inverse scattering problems. It is given comprehensive background material for linear ill-posed problems and for coefficient inverse problems for hyperbolic, parabolic, and elliptic equations. A lot of examples for inverse problems from physics, geophysics, biology, medicine, and other areas of application of mathematics are included.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Joel Sereno
2010-01-01
Full Text Available Inverse kinematics is the process of converting a Cartesian point in space into a set of joint angles to more efficiently move the end effector of a robot to a desired orientation. This project investigates the inverse kinematics of a robotic hand with fingers under various scenarios. Assuming the parameters of a provided robot, a general equation for the end effector point was calculated and used to plot the region of space that it can reach. Further, the benefits obtained from the addition of a prismatic joint versus an extra variable angle joint were considered. The results confirmed that having more movable parts, such as prismatic points and changing angles, increases the effective reach of a robotic hand.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Desesquelles, P.
1997-01-01
Computer Monte Carlo simulations occupy an increasingly important place between theory and experiment. This paper introduces a global protocol for the comparison of model simulations with experimental results. The correlated distributions of the model parameters are determined using an original recursive inversion procedure. Multivariate analysis techniques are used in order to optimally synthesize the experimental information with a minimum number of variables. This protocol is relevant in all fields if physics dealing with event generators and multi-parametric experiments. (authors)
A bio-inspired kinematic controller for obstacle avoidance during reaching tasks with real robots.
Srinivasa, Narayan; Bhattacharyya, Rajan; Sundareswara, Rashmi; Lee, Craig; Grossberg, Stephen
2012-11-01
This paper describes a redundant robot arm that is capable of learning to reach for targets in space in a self-organized fashion while avoiding obstacles. Self-generated movement commands that activate correlated visual, spatial and motor information are used to learn forward and inverse kinematic control models while moving in obstacle-free space using the Direction-to-Rotation Transform (DIRECT). Unlike prior DIRECT models, the learning process in this work was realized using an online Fuzzy ARTMAP learning algorithm. The DIRECT-based kinematic controller is fault tolerant and can handle a wide range of perturbations such as joint locking and the use of tools despite not having experienced them during learning. The DIRECT model was extended based on a novel reactive obstacle avoidance direction (DIRECT-ROAD) model to enable redundant robots to avoid obstacles in environments with simple obstacle configurations. However, certain configurations of obstacles in the environment prevented the robot from reaching the target with purely reactive obstacle avoidance. To address this complexity, a self-organized process of mental rehearsals of movements was modeled, inspired by human and animal experiments on reaching, to generate plans for movement execution using DIRECT-ROAD in complex environments. These mental rehearsals or plans are self-generated by using the Fuzzy ARTMAP algorithm to retrieve multiple solutions for reaching each target while accounting for all the obstacles in its environment. The key aspects of the proposed novel controller were illustrated first using simple examples. Experiments were then performed on real robot platforms to demonstrate successful obstacle avoidance during reaching tasks in real-world environments. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Exploring performance obstacles of intensive care nurses.
Gurses, Ayse P; Carayon, Pascale
2009-05-01
High nursing workload, poor patient safety, and poor nursing quality of working life (QWL) are major issues in intensive care units (ICUs). Characteristics of the ICU and performance obstacles may contribute to these issues. The goal of this study was to comprehensively identify the performance obstacles perceived by ICU nurses. We used a qualitative research design and conducted semi-structured interviews with 15 ICU nurses of a medical-surgical ICU. Based on this qualitative study and a previously reported quantitative study, we identified seven main types of performance obstacles experienced by ICU nurses. Obstacles related to the physical environment (e.g., noise, amount of space), family relations (e.g., distractions caused by family, lack of time to spend with family), and equipment (e.g., unavailability, misplacement) were the most frequently experienced performance obstacles. The qualitative interview data provided rich information regarding the factors contributing to the performance obstacles. Overall, ICU nurses experience a variety of performance obstacles in their work on a daily basis. Future research is needed to understand the impact of performance obstacles on nursing workload, nursing QWL, and quality and safety of care.
Ep for efficient stochastic control with obstacles
Mensink, T.; Verbeek, J.; Kappen, H.J.
2010-01-01
Abstract. We address the problem of continuous stochastic optimal control in the presence of hard obstacles. Due to the non-smooth character of the obstacles, the traditional approach using dynamic programming in combination with function approximation tends to fail. We consider a recently
Electromagnetic obstacle detection in close distance
Kurzela, Michał; Burd, Aleksander
2016-09-01
The main topic is the electronic system, designed and built to help car drivers during parking. It uses electromagnetism phenomena for making an estimation of arrangement of obstacles. The device works with close distance (about 5-15cm), depending on the material from which the obstacle is made.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Weber, Wolfgang; Zastrau, Bernd W.
2010-01-01
In this contribution some aspects of SH wave scattering due to a single eccentric n-layered obstacle are being looked at. Herewith, the basis solution is derived analytically for an elliptic inclusion as it occurs in civil engineering practice e. g. within textile reinforced concrete. Hence, (modified) MATHIEUfunctions have to be evaluated. Later on, the degenerate case of an eccentric circular obstacle is dealt with.
Obstacle Avoidance for Redundant Manipulators Utilizing a Backward Quadratic Search Algorithm
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Tianjian Hu
2016-06-01
Full Text Available Obstacle avoidance can be achieved as a secondary task by appropriate inverse kinematics (IK resolution of redundant manipulators. Most prior literature requires the time-consuming determination of the closest point to the obstacle for every calculation step. Aiming at the relief of computational burden, this paper develops what is termed a backward quadratic search algorithm (BQSA as another option for solving IK problems in obstacle avoidance. The BQSA detects possible collisions based on the root property of a category of quadratic functions, which are derived from ellipse-enveloped obstacles and the positions of each link's end-points. The algorithm executes a backward search for possible obstacle collisions, from the end-effector to the base, and avoids obstacles by utilizing a hybrid IK scheme, incorporating the damped least-squares method, the weighted least-norm method and the gradient projection method. Some details of the hybrid IK scheme, such as values of the damped factor, weights and the clamping velocity, are discussed, along with a comparison of computational load between previous methods and BQSA. Simulations of a planar seven-link manipulator and a PUMA 560 robot verify the effectiveness of BQSA.
Women's orgasm obstacles: A qualitative study.
Nekoolaltak, Maryam; Keshavarz, Zohreh; Simbar, Masoumeh; Nazari, Ali Mohammad; Baghestani, Ahmad Reza
2017-08-01
Woman's orgasm plays a vital role in sexual compatibility and marital satisfaction. Orgasm in women is a learnable phenomenon that is influenced by several factors. The aim of this study is exploring obstacles to orgasm in Iranian married women. This qualitative study with directed content analysis approach was conducted in 2015-2016, on 20 Iranian married women who were individually interviewed at two medical clinics in Tehran, Iran. Orgasm obstacles were explored in one category, 4 subcategories, and 25 codes. The main category was "Multidimensionality of women's orgasm obstacles". Subcategories and some codes included: Physical obstacles (wife's or husband's boredom, vaginal infection, insufficient vaginal lubrication), psychological obstacles (lack of sexual knowledge, shame, lack of concentration on sex due to household and children problems), relational obstacles (husband's hurry, having a dispute and annoyance with spouse) and contextual obstacles (Irregular sleep hours, lack of privacy and inability to separate children's bedroom from their parents, lack of peace at home). For prevention or treatment of female orgasm disorders, attention to physical factors is not enough. Obtaining a comprehensive history about physical, psychological, relational and contextual dimensions of woman's life is necessary.
Inverse problem in nuclear physics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zakhariev, B.N.
1976-01-01
The method of reconstruction of interaction from the scattering data is formulated in the frame of the R-matrix theory in which the potential is determined by position of resonance Esub(lambda) and their reduced widths γ 2 lambda. In finite difference approximation for the Schroedinger equation this new approach allows to make the logics of the inverse problem IP more clear. A possibility of applications of IP formalism to various nuclear systems is discussed. (author)
Darekar, Anuja; Lamontagne, Anouk; Fung, Joyce
2015-04-01
Circumvention around an obstacle entails a dynamic interaction with the obstacle to maintain a safe clearance. We used a novel mathematical interpolation method based on the modified Shepard's method of Inverse Distance Weighting to compute dynamic clearance that reflected this interaction as well as minimal clearance. This proof-of-principle study included seven young healthy, four post-stroke and four healthy age-matched individuals. A virtual environment designed to assess obstacle circumvention was used to administer a locomotor (walking) and a perceptuo-motor (navigation with a joystick) task. In both tasks, participants were asked to navigate towards a target while avoiding collision with a moving obstacle that approached from either head-on, or 30° left or right. Among young individuals, dynamic clearance did not differ significantly between obstacle approach directions in both tasks. Post-stroke individuals maintained larger and smaller dynamic clearance during the locomotor and the perceptuo-motor task respectively as compared to age-matched controls. Dynamic clearance was larger than minimal distance from the obstacle irrespective of the group, task and obstacle approach direction. Also, in contrast to minimal distance, dynamic clearance can respond differently to different avoidance behaviors. Such a measure can be beneficial in contrasting obstacle avoidance behaviors in different populations with mobility problems. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Laser Obstacle Detection System Flight Testing
National Research Council Canada - National Science Library
Davis, Timothy
2003-01-01
...). The Aviation Applied Technology Directorate (AATD) was contracted to mount the HELLAS sensor on the nose of a UH-60L Blackhawk helicopter and to conduct flight tests to evaluate the HELLAS obstacle detection sensor...
Optical Flow based Robot Obstacle Avoidance
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Kahlouche Souhila
2008-11-01
Full Text Available In this paper we try to develop an algorithm for visual obstacle avoidance of autonomous mobile robot. The input of the algorithm is an image sequence grabbed by an embedded camera on the B21r robot in motion. Then, the optical flow information is extracted from the image sequence in order to be used in the navigation algorithm. The optical flow provides very important information about the robot environment, like: the obstacles disposition, the robot heading, the time to collision and the depth. The strategy consists in balancing the amount of left and right side flow to avoid obstacles, this technique allows robot navigation without any collision with obstacles. The robustness of the algorithm will be showed by some examples.
Advection endash diffusion around a curved obstacle
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ahluwalia, D.S.; Keller, J.B.; Knessl, C.
1998-01-01
Advection and diffusion of a substance around a curved obstacle is analyzed when the advection velocity is large compared to the diffusion velocity, i.e., when the Peclet number is large. Asymptotic expressions for the concentration are obtained by the use of boundary layer theory, matched asymptotic expansions, etc. The results supplement and extend previous ones for straight obstacles. They apply to electrophoresis, the flow of ground water, chromatography, sedimentation, etc. copyright 1998 American Institute of Physics
Homogenization of variational inequalities for obstacle problems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sandrakov, G V
2005-01-01
Results on the convergence of solutions of variational inequalities for obstacle problems are proved. The variational inequalities are defined by a non-linear monotone operator of the second order with periodic rapidly oscillating coefficients and a sequence of functions characterizing the obstacles. Two-scale and macroscale (homogenized) limiting variational inequalities are obtained. Derivation methods for such inequalities are presented. Connections between the limiting variational inequalities and two-scale and macroscale minimization problems are established in the case of potential operators.
Algorithm for Spatial Clustering with Obstacles
El-Sharkawi, Mohamed E.; El-Zawawy, Mohamed A.
2009-01-01
In this paper, we propose an efficient clustering technique to solve the problem of clustering in the presence of obstacles. The proposed algorithm divides the spatial area into rectangular cells. Each cell is associated with statistical information that enables us to label the cell as dense or non-dense. We also label each cell as obstructed (i.e. intersects any obstacle) or non-obstructed. Then the algorithm finds the regions (clusters) of connected, dense, non-obstructed cells. Finally, th...
Statistics of dislocation pinning at localized obstacles
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Dutta, A. [S. N. Bose National Centre for Basic Sciences, Salt Lake, Kolkata 700098 (India); Bhattacharya, M., E-mail: mishreyee@vecc.gov.in; Barat, P. [Variable Energy Cyclotron Centre, 1/AF Bidhannagar, Kolkata 700064 (India)
2014-10-14
Pinning of dislocations at nanosized obstacles like precipitates, voids, and bubbles is a crucial mechanism in the context of phenomena like hardening and creep. The interaction between such an obstacle and a dislocation is often studied at fundamental level by means of analytical tools, atomistic simulations, and finite element methods. Nevertheless, the information extracted from such studies cannot be utilized to its maximum extent on account of insufficient information about the underlying statistics of this process comprising a large number of dislocations and obstacles in a system. Here, we propose a new statistical approach, where the statistics of pinning of dislocations by idealized spherical obstacles is explored by taking into account the generalized size-distribution of the obstacles along with the dislocation density within a three-dimensional framework. Starting with a minimal set of material parameters, the framework employs the method of geometrical statistics with a few simple assumptions compatible with the real physical scenario. The application of this approach, in combination with the knowledge of fundamental dislocation-obstacle interactions, has successfully been demonstrated for dislocation pinning at nanovoids in neutron irradiated type 316-stainless steel in regard to the non-conservative motion of dislocations. An interesting phenomenon of transition from rare pinning to multiple pinning regimes with increasing irradiation temperature is revealed.
Obstacles to nutrition labeling in restaurants.
Almanza, B A; Nelson, D; Chai, S
1997-02-01
This study determined the major obstacles that foodservices face regarding nutrition labeling. Survey questionnaire was conducted in May 1994. In addition to demographic questions, the directors were asked questions addressing willingness, current practices, and perceived obstacles related to nutrition labeling. Sixty-eight research and development directors of the largest foodservice corporations as shown in Restaurants & Institutions magazine's list of the top 400 largest foodservices (July 1993). P tests were used to determine significance within a group for the number of foodservices that were currently using nutrition labeling, perceived impact of nutrition labeling on sales, and perceived responsibility to add nutrition labels. Regression analysis was used to determine the importance of factors on willingness to label. Response rate was 45.3%. Most companies were neutral about their willingness to use nutrition labeling. Two thirds of the respondents were not currently using nutrition labels. Only one third thought that it was the foodservice's responsibility to provide such information. Several companies perceived that nutrition labeling would have a potentially negative effect on annual sales volume. Major obstacles were identified as menu or personnel related, rather than cost related. Menu-related obstacles included too many menu variations, limited space on the menu for labeling, and loss of flexibility in changing the menu. Personnel-related obstacles included difficulty in training employees to implement nutrition labeling, and not enough time for foodservice personnel to implement nutrition labeling. Numerous opportunities will be created for dietetics professionals in helping foodservices overcome these menu- or personnel-related obstacles.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yoneyama, Takao; Ishimatsu, Tsuneo; Komata, Hisashi; Suzuki, Keisaburo.
1997-01-01
The present invention provides techniques for detecting and removing obstacles, which can be applied to pipelines and vessels to be used in structures such as nuclear power structures and electric power generation facilities. Namely, when the pipelines or vessels are in any of the stages, namely, production, installation, before the use after installation and before the reuse after inspection, obstacles remaining in the pipelines and vessels are blown off by using a fluid jetting mechanism (air compressor). Elastic waves generated when the blown off obstacles abut against the pipelines and vessels are detected by using a sensor. As a result, the remaining obstacles can be detected during any one of the stages described above. The blowing is repeated till the absence of the obstacles is confirmed by elastic wave signals detected by the sensor. As a result, the remaining obstacles can be removed. (I.S.)
Structural Obstacles against Order of Law in Safavid Iran
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Hamid Ebadollahi
2010-04-01
Full Text Available While focusing on the teleological matters, most of the studies about the roots of disorder and anarchy in Iran attempt to explain the “present” obstacles against order of law; the present study aims to analyze the structural-historical conditions affecting the “possibility and impossibility of the order of law in Iran”. In the former studies, “Iran’s history” is inversely applied in order to explain the present situation of society. Instead of interpreting the determining social structures in the history, such studies attempts to understand “contemporary Iran”. Furthermore, applying comparative-fundamentalist method, they base their analysis on the economic or political conditions of the matter. However, the present study claims that the general theory of social transformation –either the Marxian or Weberian- -that is produced approaching western medieval societies- could not explain roots of disorder and anarchy in Iran. Instead, applying a structuralist model, and focusing on “articulation” in analysis, the present study aims to explore the historical obstacles against the order of law in the history of Iran (rather than western medieval history. Thus, it claims that the main root of “disorder in the history of Iran” is the governing system of political, martial, and economic management in Iran.
Homogenization of Electromagnetic and Seismic Wavefields for Joint Inverse Modeling
Newman, G. A.; Commer, M.; Petrov, P.; Um, E. S.
2011-12-01
A significant obstacle in developing a robust joint imaging technology exploiting seismic and electromagnetic (EM) wave fields is the resolution at which these different geophysical measurements sense the subsurface. Imaging of seismic reflection data is an order of magnitude finer in resolution and scale compared to images produced with EM data. A consistent joint image of the subsurface geophysical attributes (velocity, electrical conductivity) requires/demands the different geophysical data types be similar in their resolution of the subsurface. The superior resolution of seismic data results from the fact that the energy propagates as a wave, while propagation of EM energy is diffusive and attenuates with distance. On the other hand, the complexity of the seismic wave field can be a significant problem due to high reflectivity of the subsurface and the generation of multiple scattering events. While seismic wave fields have been very useful in mapping the subsurface for energy resources, too much scattering and too many reflections can lead to difficulties in imaging and interpreting seismic data. To overcome these obstacles a formulation for joint imaging of seismic and EM wave fields is introduced, where each data type is matched in resolution. In order to accomplish this, seismic data are first transformed into the Laplace-Fourier Domain, which changes the modeling of the seismic wave field from wave propagation to diffusion. Though high frequency information (reflectivity) is lost with this transformation, several benefits follow: (1) seismic and EM data can be easily matched in resolution, governed by the same physics of diffusion, (2) standard least squares inversion works well with diffusive type problems including both transformed seismic and EM, (3) joint imaging of seismic and EM data may produce better starting velocity models critical for successful reverse time migration or full waveform imaging of seismic data (non transformed) and (4
Localization of small obstacles in Stokes flow
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Caubet, Fabien; Dambrine, Marc
2012-01-01
We want to detect small obstacles immersed in a fluid flowing in a larger bounded domain Ω in the three-dimensional case. We assume that the fluid motion is governed by the steady-state Stokes equations. We make a measurement on a part of the exterior boundary ∂Ω and then take a Kohn–Vogelius approach to locate these obstacles. We use here the notion of the topological derivative in order to determine the number of objects and their rough locations. Thus we first establish an asymptotic expansion of the solution of the Stokes equations in Ω when we add small obstacles inside. Then, we use it to find a topological asymptotic expansion of the considered Kohn–Vogelius functional which gives us the formula of its topological gradient. Finally, we make some numerical simulations exploring the efficiency and the limits of this method. (paper)
Overcoming Obstacles to Drug Repositioning in Japan
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Yuhei Nishimura
2017-10-01
Full Text Available Drug repositioning (DR is the process of identifying new indications for existing drugs. DR usually focuses on drugs that have cleared phase-I safety trials but has yet to show efficacy for the intended indication. Therefore, DR can probably skip the preclinical and phase-I study, which can reduce the cost throughout drug development. However, the expensive phase-II/III trials are required to establish efficacy. The obstacles to DR include identification of new indications with a high success rate in clinical studies, obtaining funding for clinical studies, patent protection, and approval systems. To tackle these obstacles, various approaches have been applied to DR worldwide. In this perspective, we provide representative examples of DR and discuss the ongoing efforts to overcome obstacles to DR in Japan.
Inverse Raman effect: applications and detection techniques
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hughes, L.J. Jr.
1980-08-01
The processes underlying the inverse Raman effect are qualitatively described by comparing it to the more familiar phenomena of conventional and stimulated Raman scattering. An experession is derived for the inverse Raman absorption coefficient, and its relationship to the stimulated Raman gain is obtained. The power requirements of the two fields are examined qualitatively and quantitatively. The assumption that the inverse Raman absorption coefficient is constant over the interaction length is examined. Advantages of the technique are discussed and a brief survey of reported studies is presented
Inverse Raman effect: applications and detection techniques
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hughes, L.J. Jr.
1980-08-01
The processes underlying the inverse Raman effect are qualitatively described by comparing it to the more familiar phenomena of conventional and stimulated Raman scattering. An experession is derived for the inverse Raman absorption coefficient, and its relationship to the stimulated Raman gain is obtained. The power requirements of the two fields are examined qualitatively and quantitatively. The assumption that the inverse Raman absorption coefficient is constant over the interaction length is examined. Advantages of the technique are discussed and a brief survey of reported studies is presented.
Unwrapped phase inversion for near surface seismic data
Choi, Yun Seok
2012-11-04
The Phase-wrapping is one of the main obstacles of waveform inversion. We use an inversion algorithm based on the instantaneous-traveltime that overcomes the phase-wrapping problem. With a high damping factor, the frequency-dependent instantaneous-traveltime inversion provides the stability of refraction tomography, with higher resolution results, and no arrival picking involved. We apply the instantaneous-traveltime inversion to the synthetic data generated by the elastic time-domain modeling. The synthetic data is a representative of the near surface seismic data. Although the inversion algorithm is based on the acoustic wave equation, the numerical examples show that the instantaneous-traveltime inversion generates a convergent velocity model, very similar to what we see from traveltime tomography.
Student Obstacles in Solving Algebraic Thinking Problems
Andini, W.; Suryadi, D.
2017-09-01
The aim of this research is to analize the student obstacles on solving algebraic thinking problems in low grades elementary school. This research is a preliminary qualitative research, and involved 66 students of grade 3 elementary school. From the analysis student test results, most of student experience difficulty in solving algebraic thinking problems. The main obstacle is the student’s difficulty in understanding the problem of generalizing the pattern because the students are not accustomed to see the rules that exist in generalize the pattern.
Obstacle mean-field game problem
Gomes, Diogo A.; Patrizi, Stefania
2015-01-01
In this paper, we introduce and study a first-order mean-field game obstacle problem. We examine the case of local dependence on the measure under assumptions that include both the logarithmic case and power-like nonlinearities. Since the obstacle operator is not differentiable, the equations for first-order mean field game problems have to be discussed carefully. Hence, we begin by considering a penalized problem. We prove this problem admits a unique solution satisfying uniform bounds. These bounds serve to pass to the limit in the penalized problem and to characterize the limiting equations. Finally, we prove uniqueness of solutions. © European Mathematical Society 2015.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Wei Zhang
2017-11-01
Full Text Available In view of a dynamic obstacle environment with motion uncertainty, we present a dynamic collision avoidance method based on the collision risk assessment and improved velocity obstacle method. First, through the fusion optimization of forward-looking sonar data, the redundancy of the data is reduced and the position, size and velocity information of the obstacles are obtained, which can provide an accurate decision-making basis for next-step collision avoidance. Second, according to minimum meeting time and the minimum distance between the obstacle and unmanned underwater vehicle (UUV, this paper establishes the collision risk assessment model, and screens key obstacles to avoid collision. Finally, the optimization objective function is established based on the improved velocity obstacle method, and a UUV motion characteristic is used to calculate the reachable velocity sets. The optimal collision speed of UUV is searched in velocity space. The corresponding heading and speed commands are calculated, and outputted to the motion control module. The above is the complete dynamic obstacle avoidance process. The simulation results show that the proposed method can obtain a better collision avoidance effect in the dynamic environment, and has good adaptability to the unknown dynamic environment.
Numerical computations of interior transmission eigenvalues for scattering objects with cavities
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Peters, Stefan; Kleefeld, Andreas
2016-01-01
In this article we extend the inside-outside duality for acoustic transmission eigenvalue problems by allowing scattering objects that may contain cavities. In this context we provide the functional analytical framework necessary to transfer the techniques that have been used in Kirsch and Lechleiter (2013 Inverse Problems, 29 104011) to derive the inside-outside duality. Additionally, extensive numerical results are presented to show that we are able to successfully detect interior transmission eigenvalues with the inside-outside duality approach for a variety of obstacles with and without cavities in three dimensions. In this context, we also discuss the advantages and disadvantages of the inside-outside duality approach from a numerical point of view. Furthermore we derive the integral equations necessary to extend the algorithm in Kleefeld (2013 Inverse Problems, 29 104012) to compute highly accurate interior transmission eigenvalues for scattering objects with cavities, which we will then use as reference values to examine the accuracy of the inside-outside duality algorithm. (paper)
Visualizing news: obstacles, challenges, and solutions
Dr. Piet Bakker; Gerard Smit; Yael de Haan; Laura Buijs
2013-01-01
Depicting news graphically is considered an apt way to deal with challenges of modern journalism: to disclose big data, and present news attractively, visually, and fast to grasp. This study delves into reported obstacles and challenges for the production of news visualizations. It focuses on the
Obstacles to Gender Parity in Engineering Education
Rohatynskyj, Marta; Davidson, Valerie; Stiver, Warren; Hayward, Maren
2008-01-01
Low rates of women's enrolment in engineering programs has been identified as a global problem within the general concern to enable women to attain parity in education in all areas. A Western women in engineering meta-narrative is identified which contains a complex of obstacles that typify the situation of Western women. The question is asked…
Design of railway obstacle detection prototype
CSIR Research Space (South Africa)
Xungu, Sipho A
2017-11-01
Full Text Available Survey Inspection Device (SID) test prototype platform to serve as an early warning system for locomotives and was to travel 2km ahead of a locomotive in order to inspect the railway for possible obstacles such as human beings, livestock and collisions...
Recovering an obstacle using integral equations
Rundell, William
2009-01-01
. It is assumed that the physical situation is modelled by harmonic functions and the boundary condition on the obstacle is one of Dirichlet type. The purpose of this paper is to answer some of the questions raised in a recent paper that introduced a nonlinear
Learn to Avoid or Overcome Leadership Obstacles
D'Auria, John
2015-01-01
Leadership is increasingly recognized as an important factor in moving schools forward, yet we have been relatively random in how we prepare and support them. Four obstacles often block or diminish their effectiveness. Avoiding or overcoming each of these requires an underlying set of skills and knowledge that we believe can be learned and…
Simple Obstacle Avoidance Algorithm for Rehabilitation Robots
Stuyt, Floran H.A.; Römer, GertWillem R.B.E.; Stuyt, Harry .J.A.
2007-01-01
The efficiency of a rehabilitation robot is improved by offering record-and-replay to operate the robot. While automatically moving to a stored target (replay) collisions of the robot with obstacles in its work space must be avoided. A simple, though effective, generic and deterministic algorithm
Inverse problems of geophysics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yanovskaya, T.B.
2003-07-01
This report gives an overview and the mathematical formulation of geophysical inverse problems. General principles of statistical estimation are explained. The maximum likelihood and least square fit methods, the Backus-Gilbert method and general approaches for solving inverse problems are discussed. General formulations of linearized inverse problems, singular value decomposition and properties of pseudo-inverse solutions are given
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ilieva, Stoyanka
2008-07-01
In the current experiment, the differential cross sections for proton elastic scattering on the isotopes {sup 7,9,10,11,12,14}Be and {sup 8}B were measured. As results from the experiment, the absolute differential cross sections d{sigma}/dt as a function of the four momentum transfer t were obtained. In this work the differential cross sections for elastic p-{sup 12}Be, p-{sup 14}Be and p-{sup 8}B scattering at low t (t{<=}0.05(GeV/c){sup 2}) are presented. The measured cross sections were analyzed within the Glauber multiple-scattering theory using different density parameterizations, and the nuclear matter density distributions and radii of the investigated isotopes were determined. The determined rms matter radius is 3.11{+-}0.04{+-}0.13 fm. In the case of the {sup 12}Be nucleus the results showed an extended matter distribution as well. For this nucleus a matter radius of 2.82{+-}0.03{+-}0.12 fm was determined. An interesting result is that the free {sup 12}Be nucleus behaves differently from the core of {sup 14}Be and is much more extended than it. Preliminary experimental results for the isotope {sup 8}B are also presented. An extended matter distribution was obtained (though much more compact as compared to the neutron halos). A proton halo structure was observed for the first time with the proton elastic scattering method. The deduced matter radius is 2.60{+-}0.02{+-}0.26 fm. Results from the feasibility studies of the EXL detector setup, performed at the present ESR storage ring, are presented. (orig.)
Saetta, Gianluca; Grond, Ilva; Brugger, Peter; Lenggenhager, Bigna; Tsay, Anthony J; Giummarra, Melita J
2018-03-21
Phantom limbs are the phenomenal persistence of postural and sensorimotor features of an amputated limb. Although immaterial, their characteristics can be modulated by the presence of physical matter. For instance, the phantom may disappear when its phenomenal space is invaded by objects ("obstacle shunning"). Alternatively, "obstacle tolerance" occurs when the phantom is not limited by the law of impenetrability and co-exists with physical objects. Here we examined the link between this under-investigated aspect of phantom limbs and apparent motion perception. The illusion of apparent motion of human limbs involves the perception that a limb moves through or around an object, depending on the stimulus onset asynchrony (SOA) for the two images. Participants included 12 unilateral lower limb amputees matched for obstacle shunning (n = 6) and obstacle tolerance (n = 6) experiences, and 14 non-amputees. Using multilevel linear models, we replicated robust biases for short perceived trajectories for short SOA (moving through the object), and long trajectories (circumventing the object) for long SOAs in both groups. Importantly, however, amputees with obstacle shunning perceived leg stimuli to predominantly move through the object, whereas amputees with obstacle tolerance perceived leg stimuli to predominantly move around the object. That is, in people who experience obstacle shunning, apparent motion perception of lower limbs was not constrained to the laws of impenetrability (as the phantom disappears when invaded by objects), and legs can therefore move through physical objects. Amputees who experience obstacle tolerance, however, had stronger solidity constraints for lower limb apparent motion, perhaps because they must avoid co-location of the phantom with physical objects. Phantom limb experience does, therefore, appear to be modulated by intuitive physics, but not in the same way for everyone. This may have important implications for limb experience post
Time-independent inverse compton spectrum for photons from a ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
The general theoretical aspects of inverse Compton scattering was investigated and an equation for the timeindependent inverse Compton spectrum for photons from a plasma cloud of finite extent was derived. This was done by convolving the Kompaneets equation used for describing the evolution of the photon spectrum ...
Level set methods for inverse scattering—some recent developments
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dorn, Oliver; Lesselier, Dominique
2009-01-01
We give an update on recent techniques which use a level set representation of shapes for solving inverse scattering problems, completing in that matter the exposition made in (Dorn and Lesselier 2006 Inverse Problems 22 R67) and (Dorn and Lesselier 2007 Deformable Models (New York: Springer) pp 61–90), and bringing it closer to the current state of the art
inverse correction of fourier transforms for one-dimensional strongly ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
Hsin Ying-Fei
2016-05-01
May 1, 2016 ... As it is widely used in periodic lattice design theory and is particularly useful in aperiodic lattice design [12,13], the accuracy of the FT algorithm under strong scattering conditions is the focus of this paper. We propose an inverse correction approach for the inaccurate FT algorithm in strongly scattering ...
Obstacles Facing the Iranian Basketball Academy
Hamta Hadian; Mohamad Reza Boroumand; Saeed Amirnejad; Masoud Najafi
2016-01-01
This study, which is a strategic study with a mixed research approach aimed to identify obstacles facing the academies of Iranian Basketball Federation. The population comprises board of directors and committees responsible for Education and Talent Spotting Association, academy administrators, physical education instructors, qualified experts, professors, coaches, referees and heads of delegations who were asked via interviews and questionnaire (exploratory manner) to state internal and exter...
Nonholonomic feedback control among moving obstacles
Armstrong, Stephen Gregory
A feedback controller is developed for navigating a nonholonomic vehicle in an area with multiple stationary and possibly moving obstacles. Among other applications the developed algorithms can be used for automatic parking of a passenger car in a parking lot with complex configuration or a ground robot in cluttered environment. Several approaches are explored which combine nonholonomic systems control based on sliding modes and potential field methods.
Clustering with Obstacles in Spatial Databases
El-Zawawy, Mohamed A.; El-Sharkawi, Mohamed E.
2009-01-01
Clustering large spatial databases is an important problem, which tries to find the densely populated regions in a spatial area to be used in data mining, knowledge discovery, or efficient information retrieval. However most algorithms have ignored the fact that physical obstacles such as rivers, lakes, and highways exist in the real world and could thus affect the result of the clustering. In this paper, we propose CPO, an efficient clustering technique to solve the problem of clustering in ...
Obstacle detection and avoiding of quadcopter
Wang, Dizhong; Lin, Jiajian
2017-10-01
Recent years, the flight control technology over quadcopter has been boosted vigorously and acquired the comprehensive application in a variety of industries. However, it is prominent for there to be problems existed in the stable and secure flight with the development of its autonomous flight. Through comparing with the characteristics of ultrasonic ranging and laser Time-of-Flight(abbreviated to ToF) distance as well as vision measurement and its related sensors, the obstacle detection and identification sensors need to be installed in order to effectively enhance the safety flying for aircraft, which is essential for avoiding the dangers around the surroundings. That the major sensors applied to objects perception at present are distance measuring instruments which based on the principle and application of non-contact detection technology . Prior to acknowledging the general principles of flight and obstacle avoiding, the aerodynamics modeling of the quadcopter and its object detection means has been initially determined on this paper. Based on such premise, this article emphasized on describing and analyzing the research on obstacle avoiding technology and its application status, and making an expectation for the trend of its development after analyzing the primary existing problems concerning its accuracy object avoidance.
An inverse method for radiation transport
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Favorite, J. A. (Jeffrey A.); Sanchez, R. (Richard)
2004-01-01
Adjoint functions have been used with forward functions to compute gradients in implicit (iterative) solution methods for inverse problems in optical tomography, geoscience, thermal science, and other fields, but only once has this approach been used for inverse solutions to the Boltzmann transport equation. In this paper, this approach is used to develop an inverse method that requires only angle-independent flux measurements, rather than angle-dependent measurements as was done previously. The method is applied to a simplified form of the transport equation that does not include scattering. The resulting procedure uses measured values of gamma-ray fluxes of discrete, characteristic energies to determine interface locations in a multilayer shield. The method was implemented with a Newton-Raphson optimization algorithm, and it worked very well in numerical one-dimensional spherical test cases. A more sophisticated optimization method would better exploit the potential of the inverse method.
Inverse radiative transfer problems in two-dimensional heterogeneous media
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tito, Mariella Janette Berrocal
2001-01-01
The analysis of inverse problems in participating media where emission, absorption and scattering take place has several relevant applications in engineering and medicine. Some of the techniques developed for the solution of inverse problems have as a first step the solution of the direct problem. In this work the discrete ordinates method has been used for the solution of the linearized Boltzmann equation in two dimensional cartesian geometry. The Levenberg - Marquardt method has been used for the solution of the inverse problem of internal source and absorption and scattering coefficient estimation. (author)
Obstacles: their impact on thinking and beyond thinking
Marguc, J.; van Kleef, G.A.; Förster, J.; Contreras, D.A.
2010-01-01
People encounter myriads of obstacles throughout their lives. Those can be big or small, such as a fallen tree blocking the road to work or life circumstances that make it hard for an adolescent to obtain a university degree. What are the effects of such obstacles? Could it be that obstacles have an
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hategan, Cornel; Comisel, Horia; Ionescu, Remus A.
2004-01-01
The quasiresonant scattering consists from a single channel resonance coupled by direct interaction transitions to some competing reaction channels. A description of quasiresonant Scattering, in terms of generalized reduced K-, R- and S- Matrix, is developed in this work. The quasiresonance's decay width is, due to channels coupling, smaller than the width of the ancestral single channel resonance (resonance's direct compression). (author)
Donne, A. J. H.
1994-01-01
Thomson scattering is a very powerful diagnostic which is applied at nearly every magnetic confinement device. Depending on the experimental conditions different plasma parameters can be diagnosed. When the wave vector is much larger than the plasma Debye length, the total scattered power is
Full waveform inversion for mechanized tunneling reconnaissance
Lamert, Andre; Musayev, Khayal; Lambrecht, Lasse; Friederich, Wolfgang; Hackl, Klaus; Baitsch, Matthias
2016-04-01
In mechanized tunnel drilling processes, exploration of soil structure and properties ahead of the tunnel boring machine can greatly help to lower costs and improve safety conditions during drilling. We present numerical full waveform inversion approaches in time and frequency domain of synthetic acoustic data to detect different small scale structures representing potential obstacles in front of the tunnel boring machine. With the use of sensitivity kernels based on the adjoint wave field in time domain and in frequency domain it is possible to derive satisfactory models with a manageable amount of computational load. Convergence to a suitable model is assured by the use of iterative model improvements and gradually increasing frequencies. Results of both, time and frequency approach, will be compared for different obstacle and source/receiver setups. They show that the image quality strongly depends on the used receiver and source positions and increases significantly with the use of transmission waves due to the installed receivers and sources at the surface and/or in bore holes. Transmission waves lead to clearly identified structure and position of the obstacles and give satisfactory guesses for the wave speed. Setups using only reflected waves result in blurred objects and ambiguous position of distant objects and allow to distinguish heterogeneities with higher or lower wave speed, respectively.
Do characteristics of a stationary obstacle lead to adjustments in obstacle stepping strategies?
Worden, Timothy A; De Jong, Audrey F; Vallis, Lori Ann
2016-01-01
Navigating cluttered and complex environments increases the risk of falling. To decrease this risk, it is important to understand the influence of obstacle visual cues on stepping parameters, however the specific obstacle characteristics that have the greatest influence on avoidance strategies is still under debate. The purpose of the current work is to provide further insight on the relationship between obstacle appearance in the environment and modulation of stepping parameters. Healthy young adults (N=8) first stepped over an obstacle with one visible top edge ("floating"; 8 trials) followed by trials where experimenters randomly altered the location of a ground reference object to one of 7 different positions (8 trials per location), which ranged from 6cm in front of, directly under, or up to 6cm behind the floating obstacle (at 2cm intervals). Mean take-off and landing distance as well as minimum foot clearance values were unchanged across different positions of the ground reference object; a consistent stepping trajectory was observed for all experimental conditions. Contrary to our hypotheses, results of this study indicate that ground based visual cues are not essential for the planning of stepping and clearance strategies. The simultaneous presentation of both floating and ground based objects may have provided critical information that lead to the adoption of a consistent strategy for clearing the top edge of the obstacle. The invariant foot placement observed here may be an appropriate stepping strategy for young adults, however this may not be the case across the lifespan or in special populations. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
A Robust Obstacle Avoidance for Service Robot Using Bayesian Approach
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Widodo Budiharto
2011-03-01
Full Text Available The objective of this paper is to propose a robust obstacle avoidance method for service robot in indoor environment. The method for obstacles avoidance uses information about static obstacles on the landmark using edge detection. Speed and direction of people that walks as moving obstacle obtained by single camera using tracking and recognition system and distance measurement using 3 ultrasonic sensors. A new geometrical model and maneuvering method for moving obstacle avoidance introduced and combined with Bayesian approach for state estimation. The obstacle avoidance problem is formulated using decision theory, prior and posterior distribution and loss function to determine an optimal response based on inaccurate sensor data. Algorithms for moving obstacles avoidance method proposed and experiment results implemented to service robot also presented. Various experiments show that our proposed method very fast, robust and successfully implemented to service robot called Srikandi II that equipped with 4 DOF arm robot developed in our laboratory.
APPLICATION OF DSM IN OBSTACLE CLEARANCE SURVEYING OF AERODROME
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
X. Qiao
2016-06-01
Full Text Available Compared to the wide use of digital elevation model (DEM, digital surface model (DSM receives less attention because that it is composed by not only terrain surface, but also vegetations and man-made objects which are usually regarded as useless information. Nevertheless, these objects are useful for the identification of obstacles around an aerodrome. The primary objective of the study was to determine the applicability of DSM in obstacle clearance surveying of aerodrome. According to the requirements of obstacle clearance surveying at QT airport, aerial and satellite imagery were used to generate DSM, by means of photogrammetry, which was spatially analyzed with the hypothetical 3D obstacle limitation surfaces (OLS to identify the potential obstacles. Field surveying was then carried out to retrieve the accurate horizontal position and height of the obstacles. The results proved that the application of DSM could make considerable improvement in the efficiency of obstacle clearance surveying of aerodrome.
Obstacles using amorphous materials for volume applications
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kiessling, Albert [Festo AG and Co. KG, 73734, Esslingen (Germany); Reininger, Thomas, E-mail: drn@de.festo.com [Festo AG and Co. KG, 73734, Esslingen (Germany)
2012-10-15
This contribution is especially focussed on the attempt to use amorphous or nanocrystalline metals in position sensor applications and to describe the difficulties and obstacles encountered in coherence with the development of appropriate industrial high volume series products in conjunction with the related quality requirements. The main motivation to do these investigations was to beat the generally known sensors especially silicon based Hall-sensors as well as AMR- and GMR-sensors - well known from mobile phones and electronic storage devices like hard discs and others - in terms of cost-effectiveness and functionality.
Error identities for variational problems with obstacles
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Repin, S.; Valdman, Jan
2018-01-01
Roč. 98, č. 4 (2018), s. 635-658 ISSN 0044-2267 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GF16-34894L; GA ČR GA17-04301S; GA MŠk(CZ) 7AMB16AT015 Institutional support: RVO:67985556 Keywords : variational problems with obstacles * coincidence set * convex functionals * error identities Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics OBOR OECD: Pure mathematics Impact factor: 1.332, year: 2016 http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2017/MTR/valdman-0483574.pdf
Han, Zhi-Gang; Cui, Cai-Hui
2009-10-01
Spatial accessibility denotes the ease with which activities may be reached from a given location using a particular transportation system. There are a number of accessibility measures methods and models, such as time of access to city centre, mean travel costs and opportunity accessibility. But these methods or models ignore the existence of obstacles. In fact, there are many kinds of obstacles in the world, such as rivers, railways, etc. The paper reviews the progress of accessibility measures, and introduces the obstacle to the accessibility measures. Meanwhile, through the analysis of A* algorithm, the advantage of A* algorithm that could avoid obstacles is put forward. Based on the above mentioned, the obstacle oriented accessibility measures based on simple gravity model is discussed in details. Finally, a case study is fulfilled by comparison between the obstacle oriented and non-obstacle accessibility measures.
Zika virus: Vaccine initiatives and obstacles
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Reema Mukherjee
2017-01-01
Full Text Available Over 130,000 humans in Brazil are infected with Zika virus (ZIKV since March 2015, and presently 29 countries in Americas have reported local autochthonous ZIKV transmission. Besides the associated clinical features, Brazil has also reported a temporal and spatial association of ZIKV with Guillain-Barre syndrome (GBS and Zika fetal syndrome. ZIKV vaccine approaches include purified inactivated virus, nucleic acid-based vaccines (DNA, RNA, live vector vaccines, subunit vaccines, virus-like particle technologies, and live recombinant vaccines similar to the technologies used against other human flaviviruses. At present, 15 commercial entities are involved in the development of ZIKV vaccine. Vaccines developed through different approaches would have their own inherent advantages and disadvantages. The presentation of disease in different populations and lack of clarity on the pathogenesis and complications is the most important obstacle. Second, Zika belongs to a genus that is notorious for the antibody-mediated enhancement of infection, which proved to be a stumbling block during the development of the dengue vaccine. Identifying large naive and yet uninfected at-risk populations may be an obstacle to demonstrating efficacy. Next, the association of Zika with GBS is being researched since the vaccine may have the potential to provoke similar neuropathophysiologic mechanisms. Zika's association with adverse fetal outcomes necessitates that pregnant women and women of childbearing age are considered for evaluating vaccines, which form a vulnerable group for vaccine trials.
CONCERT MANAGEMENT IN CROATIA: OBSTACLES AND CHALLENGES
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Irina Basara
2016-12-01
Full Text Available The concept of concert management in the Republic of Croatia encounters numerous obstacles in any attempt to institutionalize it. Unlike other countries in the European Union, there is no register of the concert stages, venues as well as facilities for the provision of hearing / consumption of music in the form of performances. Process management organization is incomplete, and institutions that are closely associated with such events do not carry out the classification, categorization and analysis of events that are within the concerts' domain. Commercial music, economically far most cost-effective, is completely ignored and within the framework of cultural events not even the slightest attention is given to it. On the contrary, it is considered the music of poor quality and completely irrelevant. This paper tries to frame the mentioned genre, which includes various musical directions that economically bring significant benefits and help the survival of these related activities indirectly, and ultimately have a positive impact on the economy. Comparing global trends it speaks about the position of the Croatian music industry and lists the main obstacles for setting up a solid foundation for the construction of an adequate system of indexation of concert businesses that, as part of the creative industries records a meteoric economic growth.
Obstacles in the climate policy arena
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Manders, T.; Tang, P.
2001-01-01
Implementing climate policy is not a straightforward matter. International negotiations during the recent climate conference in The Hague ended in disagreement. With the present position of the United States chances to reach an agreement are even slimmer than ever. One of the obstacles is to what extent trade in emission rights should be allowed. Economically speaking, there are strong arguments for allowing as much flexibility as possible. Ironically, our analysis shows that the party favouring restrictions on emissions trade, the European Union, suffers most from curtailing flexibility. Another obstacle which comes up when addressing more ambitious goals in climate policy is the involvement of developing countries. A treaty should aim at emissions reductions in developing countries as well. If the potentially serious consequences of the greenhouse effect are to be avoided, that is even essential. To induce these reductions, the developed countries could consider to compensate the developing countries. For industrialised countries compensation has the effect to raise the costs of climate policy considerably
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Amos, K.; Allen, L.J.; Steward, C.; Hodgson, P.E.; Sofianos, S.A.
1995-01-01
Direct solution of the Schroedinger equation and inversion methods of analysis of elastic scattering data are considered to evaluate the information that they can provide about the physical interaction between colliding nuclear particles. It was found that both optical model and inversion methods based upon inverse scattering theories are subject to ambiguities. Therefore, it is essential that elastic scattering data analyses are consistent with microscopic calculations of the potential. 25 refs
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Amos, K.; Allen, L.J.; Steward, C. [Melbourne Univ., Parkville, VIC (Australia). School of Physics; Hodgson, P.E. [Oxford Univ. (United Kingdom). Dept. of Physics; Sofianos, S.A. [University of South Africa (UNISA), Pretoria (South Africa). Dept. of Physics
1995-10-01
Direct solution of the Schroedinger equation and inversion methods of analysis of elastic scattering data are considered to evaluate the information that they can provide about the physical interaction between colliding nuclear particles. It was found that both optical model and inversion methods based upon inverse scattering theories are subject to ambiguities. Therefore, it is essential that elastic scattering data analyses are consistent with microscopic calculations of the potential. 25 refs.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Stirling, W.G.; Perry, S.C.
1996-01-01
We outline the theoretical and experimental background to neutron scattering studies of critical phenomena at magnetic and structural phase transitions. The displacive phase transition of SrTiO 3 is discussed, along with examples from recent work on magnetic materials from the rare-earth (Ho, Dy) and actinide (NpAs, NpSb, USb) classes. The impact of synchrotron X-ray scattering is discussed in conclusion. (author) 13 figs., 18 refs
Parameterization analysis and inversion for orthorhombic media
Masmoudi, Nabil
2018-05-01
Accounting for azimuthal anisotropy is necessary for the processing and inversion of wide-azimuth and wide-aperture seismic data because wave speeds naturally depend on the wave propagation direction. Orthorhombic anisotropy is considered the most effective anisotropic model that approximates the azimuthal anisotropy we observe in seismic data. In the framework of full wave form inversion (FWI), the large number of parameters describing orthorhombic media exerts a considerable trade-off and increases the non-linearity of the inversion problem. Choosing a suitable parameterization for the model, and identifying which parameters in that parameterization could be well resolved, are essential to a successful inversion. In this thesis, I derive the radiation patterns for different acoustic orthorhombic parameterization. Analyzing the angular dependence of the scattering of the parameters of different parameterizations starting with the conventionally used notation, I assess the potential trade-off between the parameters and the resolution in describing the data and inverting for the parameters. In order to build practical inversion strategies, I suggest new parameters (called deviation parameters) for a new parameterization style in orthorhombic media. The novel parameters denoted ∈d, ƞd and δd are dimensionless and represent a measure of deviation between the vertical planes in orthorhombic anisotropy. The main feature of the deviation parameters consists of keeping the scattering of the vertical transversely isotropic (VTI) parameters stationary with azimuth. Using these scattering features, we can condition FWI to invert for the parameters which the data are sensitive to, at different stages, scales, and locations in the model. With this parameterization, the data are mainly sensitive to the scattering of 3 parameters (out of six that describe an acoustic orthorhombic medium): the horizontal velocity in the x1 direction, ∈1 which provides scattering mainly near
Acute puerperal uterine inversion
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hussain, M.; Liaquat, N.; Noorani, K.; Bhutta, S.Z; Jabeen, T.
2004-01-01
Objective: To determine the frequency, causes, clinical presentations, management and maternal mortality associated with acute puerperal inversion of the uterus. Materials and Methods: All the patients who developed acute puerperal inversion of the uterus either in or outside the JPMC were included in the study. Patients of chronic uterine inversion were not included in the present study. Abdominal and vaginal examination was done to confirm and classify inversion into first, second or third degrees. Results: 57036 deliveries and 36 acute uterine inversions occurred during the study period, so the frequency of uterine inversion was 1 in 1584 deliveries. Mismanagement of third stage of labour was responsible for uterine inversion in 75% of patients. Majority of the patients presented with shock, either hypovolemic (69%) or neurogenic (13%) in origin. Manual replacement of the uterus under general anaesthesia with 2% halothane was successfully done in 35 patients (97.5%). Abdominal hysterectomy was done in only one patient. There were three maternal deaths due to inversion. Conclusion: Proper education and training regarding placental delivery, diagnosis and management of uterine inversion must be imparted to the maternity care providers especially to traditional birth attendants and family physicians to prevent this potentially life-threatening condition. (author)
Inverse problems in linear transport theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dressler, K.
1988-01-01
Inverse problems for a class of linear kinetic equations are investigated. The aim is to identify the scattering kernel of a transport equation (corresponding to the structure of a background medium) by observing the 'albedo' part of the solution operator for the corresponding direct initial boundary value problem. This means to get information on some integral operator in an integrodifferential equation through on overdetermined boundary value problem. We first derive a constructive method for solving direct halfspace problems and prove a new factorization theorem for the solutions. Using this result we investigate stationary inverse problems with respect to well posedness (e.g. reduce them to classical ill-posed problems, such as integral equations of first kind). In the time-dependent case we show that a quite general inverse problem is well posed and solve it constructively. (orig.)
Giving up nuclear energy. Obstacles, conditions, consequences
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Koegel-Dorfs, H.
1990-01-01
Life on this earth is not possible without using energy. The resources of the energies used so far are limited and their utilization carries certain risks which have now become obvious: climatic problems on the one hand, safety problems on the other. Chernobyl, Wackersdorf, tornados and population growth are issues mentioned all the time in the fight for the best solution. Even church synodes have spoken up and demanded to give up nuclear energy. The energy issue, however, has become a question of survival. This study, worked out by a group of scientists (natural science, energy science, lawyers, theologians) analyses the obstacles, conditions and consequences of such a step. The possible solution of rational energy utilization and substitution of energy services and regenerative energies is discussed in depth. The book concludes that problems can only be coped with if there is a feeling of joint responsibility and global social consensus. (orig./HP) [de
Investing in CIS: obstacles and strategies
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Anon.
1996-01-01
The CIS (Community of Independent States) needs the help of foreign investments to develop its huge hydrocarbon potentialities. Because of the uncertainties concerning the legal and fiscal context of their activities, the role of the international oil companies has remained limited so far. These problems were discussed in May 1996 during an important ''General Session'' of the OTC 96 congress. Proven and explored onshore oil reserves in Russia are enormous, in particular in Western and Eastern Siberia. However, the economically most interesting resources are located in the offshore zones of the Barents, Pechora and Kara seas and of Eastern Siberia and Okhotsk. This paper describes the last years decay of oil production in CIS and its causes, in particular the obstacles to foreign investments (exportation and transport taxes), the recent contracts and joint-ventures with American major companies (Exxon, Amoco..), and the situation of the Russian industry in petroleum engineering and field exploitation materials. (J.S.)
Scattering theory of the linear Boltzmann operator
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hejtmanek, J.
1975-01-01
In time dependent scattering theory we know three important examples: the wave equation around an obstacle, the Schroedinger and the Dirac equation with a scattering potential. In this paper another example from time dependent linear transport theory is added and considered in full detail. First the linear Boltzmann operator in certain Banach spaces is rigorously defined, and then the existence of the Moeller operators is proved by use of the theorem of Cook-Jauch-Kuroda, that is generalized to the case of a Banach space. (orig.) [de
International Cooperation in Physics - Opportunities and Obstacles
Vary, James P.
2000-03-01
The rapid advances in high speed digital communications are making new scientific achievements feasible. This presents a new opportunity for all scientists, especially those in developing countries, to participate in world-class science at a reasonable cost. ``Virtual Laboratories" or ``Collaboratories" provide promising mechanisms to bridge geographical boundaries and infrastructure disparities. While science and technology are recognized as engines of economic development, they are also keys to addressing societal problems and fostering peace. Following the historical precedent of CERN founded after World War II, an initiative organized by UNESCO to create a world-class research institute in the Middle East is underway. A synchrotron light-source is being offered by Germany as the key experimental facility. This project called ``Synchrotron Light for Experimental Science and Applications in the Middle East" or ``SESAME" offers a special opportunity for basic and applied science in the Arab nations of the Middle East to take a giant leap forward. I will review the current status of this initiative and indicate the opportunities and challenges for countries of the Middle East. An emerging mega-science project in Astronomy is the ``Southern Africa Large Telescope" or ``SALT" which, when completed, will be the Southern Hemisphere's largest single telescope. University partners in the US are pledging support for SALT’s construction and operation. SALT promises to become a focal point of world-class basic science in Sub-Saharan Africa. The primary obstacles to international cooperation involving scientists in developing countries stem from scarce financial resources needed to allow potential collaborators to meet and explore where the win-win opportunities reside. Follow up support is a second major obstacle.
Directed cell migration in the presence of obstacles
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Grima Ramon
2007-01-01
Full Text Available Abstract Background Chemotactic movement is a common feature of many cells and microscopic organisms. In vivo, chemotactic cells have to follow a chemotactic gradient and simultaneously avoid the numerous obstacles present in their migratory path towards the chemotactic source. It is not clear how cells detect and avoid obstacles, in particular whether they need a specialized biological mechanism to do so. Results We propose that cells can sense the presence of obstacles and avoid them because obstacles interfere with the chemical field. We build a model to test this hypothesis and find that this naturally enables efficient at-a-distance sensing to be achieved with no need for a specific and active obstacle-sensing mechanism. We find that (i the efficiency of obstacle avoidance depends strongly on whether the chemotactic chemical reacts or remains unabsorbed at the obstacle surface. In particular, it is found that chemotactic cells generally avoid absorbing barriers much more easily than non-absorbing ones. (ii The typically low noise in a cell's motion hinders the ability to avoid obstacles. We also derive an expression estimating the typical distance traveled by chemotactic cells in a 3D random distribution of obstacles before capture; this is a measure of the distance over which chemotaxis is viable as a means of directing cells from one point to another in vivo. Conclusion Chemotactic cells, in many cases, can avoid obstacles by simply following the spatially perturbed chemical gradients around obstacles. It is thus unlikely that they have developed specialized mechanisms to cope with environments having low to moderate concentrations of obstacles.
DEVELOPMENT OF FRANCHISING IN CROATIA OBSTACLES AND POLICY RECOMMENDATIONS
Alpeza, Mirela; Erceg, Aleksandar; Oberman Peterka, Sunčica
2015-01-01
Franchising is very popular growth model but despite the wide application of franchising in the developed countries of the world, its impact on the Croatian economy is still marginal. The purpose of this research is to identify the obstacles and challenges to a wider application of franchising in Croatia and generate policy recommendations for removing the identified obstacles. Obstacles and recommendations are identified on the basis of a conducted longitudinal qualitative research, the firs...
On cylindrically converging shock waves shaped by obstacles
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Eliasson, V; Henshaw, W D; Appelo, D
2007-07-16
Motivated by recent experiments, numerical simulations were performed of cylindrically converging shock waves. The converging shocks impinged upon a set of zero to sixteen regularly space obstacles. For more than two obstacles the resulting diffracted shock fronts formed polygonal shaped patterns near the point of focus. The maximum pressure and temperature as a function of number of obstacles were studied. The self-similar behavior of cylindrical, triangular and square-shaped shocks were also investigated.
Obstacles to the use of natural gas in electric markets
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lynch, M.M.
1992-01-01
A brief overview of the New England Electric System (NEES) and its current and planned natural gas fired generation is presented. Some statistics are given that indicate that electric generation is the biggest growth market for natural gas, underscoring the importance of overcoming the obstacles to the use of gas in electric generation markets. What is seen as the major obstacles to gas use in the electric power industry and some ways to overcome these obstacles are reviewed
Obstacle detection by stereo vision of fast correlation matching
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Jeon, Seung Hoon; Kim, Byung Kook
1997-01-01
Mobile robot navigation needs acquiring positions of obstacles in real time. A common method for performing this sensing is through stereo vision. In this paper, indoor images are acquired by binocular vision, which contains various shapes of obstacles. From these stereo image data, in order to obtain distances to obstacles, we must deal with the correspondence problem, or get the region in the other image corresponding to the projection of the same surface region. We present an improved correlation matching method enhancing the speed of arbitrary obstacle detection. The results are faster, simple matching, robustness to noise, and improvement of precision. Experimental results under actual surroundings are presented to reveal the performance. (author)
Effect of form of obstacle on speed of crowd evacuation
Yano, Ryosuke
2018-03-01
This paper investigates the effect of the form of an obstacle on the time that a crowd takes to evacuate a room, using a toy model. Pedestrians are modeled as active soft matter moving toward a point with intended velocities. An obstacle is placed in front of the exit, and it has one of four shapes: a cylindrical column, a triangular prism, a quadratic prism, or a diamond prism. Numerical results indicate that the evacuation-completion time depends on the shape of the obstacle. Obstacles with a circular cylinder (C.C.) shape yield the shortest evacuation-completion time in the proposed model.
The seismic reflection inverse problem
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Symes, W W
2009-01-01
The seismic reflection method seeks to extract maps of the Earth's sedimentary crust from transient near-surface recording of echoes, stimulated by explosions or other controlled sound sources positioned near the surface. Reasonably accurate models of seismic energy propagation take the form of hyperbolic systems of partial differential equations, in which the coefficients represent the spatial distribution of various mechanical characteristics of rock (density, stiffness, etc). Thus the fundamental problem of reflection seismology is an inverse problem in partial differential equations: to find the coefficients (or at least some of their properties) of a linear hyperbolic system, given the values of a family of solutions in some part of their domains. The exploration geophysics community has developed various methods for estimating the Earth's structure from seismic data and is also well aware of the inverse point of view. This article reviews mathematical developments in this subject over the last 25 years, to show how the mathematics has both illuminated innovations of practitioners and led to new directions in practice. Two themes naturally emerge: the importance of single scattering dominance and compensation for spectral incompleteness by spatial redundancy. (topical review)
Inverse compton emission of gamma rays near the pulsar surface
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Morini, M.
1981-01-01
The physical conditions near pulsar surface that might give rise to gamma ray emission from Crab and Vela pulsars are not yet well understood. Here I suggest that, in the context of the vacuum discharge mechanism proposed by Ruderman and Sutherland (1975), gamma rays are produced by inverse Compton scattering of secondary electrons with the thermal radiation of the star surface as well as for curvature and synchotron radiation. It is found that inverse Compton scattering is relevant if the neutron star surface temperature is greater than 10 6 K or of the polar cap temperature is of the order of 5 x 10 6 K. Inverse Compton scattering in anisotropic photon fields and Klein-Nishina regime is here carefully considered. (orig.)
Inverse logarithmic potential problem
Cherednichenko, V G
1996-01-01
The Inverse and Ill-Posed Problems Series is a series of monographs publishing postgraduate level information on inverse and ill-posed problems for an international readership of professional scientists and researchers. The series aims to publish works which involve both theory and applications in, e.g., physics, medicine, geophysics, acoustics, electrodynamics, tomography, and ecology.
Inverse Kinematics using Quaternions
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Henriksen, Knud; Erleben, Kenny; Engell-Nørregård, Morten
In this project I describe the status of inverse kinematics research, with the focus firmly on the methods that solve the core problem. An overview of the different methods are presented Three common methods used in inverse kinematics computation have been chosen as subject for closer inspection....
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Botto, D.J.; Pratt, R.H.
1979-05-01
The current status of Compton scattering, both experimental observations and the theoretical predictions, is examined. Classes of experiments are distinguished and the results obtained are summarized. The validity of the incoherent scattering function approximation and the impulse approximation is discussed. These simple theoretical approaches are compared with predictions of the nonrelativistic dipole formula of Gavrila and with the relativistic results of Whittingham. It is noted that the A -2 based approximations fail to predict resonances and an infrared divergence, both of which have been observed. It appears that at present the various available theoretical approaches differ significantly in their predictions and that further and more systematic work is required
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Botto, D.J.; Pratt, R.H.
1979-05-01
The current status of Compton scattering, both experimental observations and the theoretical predictions, is examined. Classes of experiments are distinguished and the results obtained are summarized. The validity of the incoherent scattering function approximation and the impulse approximation is discussed. These simple theoretical approaches are compared with predictions of the nonrelativistic dipole formula of Gavrila and with the relativistic results of Whittingham. It is noted that the A/sup -2/ based approximations fail to predict resonances and an infrared divergence, both of which have been observed. It appears that at present the various available theoretical approaches differ significantly in their predictions and that further and more systematic work is required.
Inverse transport theory of photoacoustics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bal, Guillaume; Jollivet, Alexandre; Jugnon, Vincent
2010-01-01
We consider the reconstruction of optical parameters in a domain of interest from photoacoustic data. Photoacoustic tomography (PAT) radiates high-frequency electromagnetic waves into the domain and measures acoustic signals emitted by the resulting thermal expansion. Acoustic signals are then used to construct the deposited thermal energy map. The latter depends on the constitutive optical parameters in a nontrivial manner. In this paper, we develop and use an inverse transport theory with internal measurements to extract information on the optical coefficients from knowledge of the deposited thermal energy map. We consider the multi-measurement setting in which many electromagnetic radiation patterns are used to probe the domain of interest. By developing an expansion of the measurement operator into singular components, we show that the spatial variations of the intrinsic attenuation and the scattering coefficients may be reconstructed. We also reconstruct coefficients describing anisotropic scattering of photons, such as the anisotropy coefficient g(x) in a Henyey–Greenstein phase function model. Finally, we derive stability estimates for the reconstructions
Wavefield separation by energy norm Born scattering
Sun, Bingbing
2017-08-17
In Reflection Based Waveform Inversion, the gradient is computed by cross-correlating the direct and Born scattered wavefield with their adjoints applied to the data residuals. In this case, the transmitted part of the Born scattered wavefield produces high wavenumber artifacts, which would harm the convergence of the inversion process. We propose an efficient Energy Norm Born Scattering (ENBS) to attenuate the transmission components of the Born modeling, and allow it to produce only reflections. ENBS is derived from the adjoint of the Energy Norm (inverse scattering) imaging condition and in order to get deeper insights of how this method works, we show analytically that given an image, in which reflectivity is represented by a Dirac delta function, ENBS attenuates transmission energy perfectly. We use numerical examples to demonstrate that ENBS works in both the time and the frequency domain. We also show that in reflection waveform inversion (RWI) the wave path constructed by ENBS would be cleaner and free of high wavenumber artifacts associated with conventional Born scattering.
Wavefield separation by energy norm Born scattering
Sun, Bingbing; Alkhalifah, Tariq Ali
2017-01-01
In Reflection Based Waveform Inversion, the gradient is computed by cross-correlating the direct and Born scattered wavefield with their adjoints applied to the data residuals. In this case, the transmitted part of the Born scattered wavefield produces high wavenumber artifacts, which would harm the convergence of the inversion process. We propose an efficient Energy Norm Born Scattering (ENBS) to attenuate the transmission components of the Born modeling, and allow it to produce only reflections. ENBS is derived from the adjoint of the Energy Norm (inverse scattering) imaging condition and in order to get deeper insights of how this method works, we show analytically that given an image, in which reflectivity is represented by a Dirac delta function, ENBS attenuates transmission energy perfectly. We use numerical examples to demonstrate that ENBS works in both the time and the frequency domain. We also show that in reflection waveform inversion (RWI) the wave path constructed by ENBS would be cleaner and free of high wavenumber artifacts associated with conventional Born scattering.
Locomotor circumvention strategies are altered by stroke: I. Obstacle clearance.
Darekar, Anuja; Lamontagne, Anouk; Fung, Joyce
2017-06-15
Functional locomotion requires the ability to adapt to environmental challenges such as the presence of stationary or moving obstacles. Difficulties in obstacle circumvention often lead to restricted community ambulation in individuals with stroke. The objective of this study was to contrast obstacle circumvention strategies between post-stroke (n = 12) and healthy individuals (n = 12) performing locomotor and perceptuomotor (joystick navigation) tasks with different obstacle approaches. Participants walked and navigated with a joystick towards a central target, in a virtual environment simulating a large room, while avoiding an obstacle that either remained stationary at the pre-determined point of intersection or moved from head-on or diagonally 30° left/right. The outcome measures included dynamic clearance (DC), instantaneous distance from obstacle at crossing (IDC), number of collisions and preferred side of circumvention. These measures were compared between groups (stroke vs. healthy), obstacle parameter (stationary vs. moving head-on) and direction of approach (left/paretic vs. right/non-paretic). DC was significantly larger when circumventing a moving obstacle that approached head-on as compared to a stationary obstacle for both groups during both tasks, while not significantly different in either diagonal approach in either group. IDC was smaller in the stroke group while walking and larger in both groups during joystick navigation when avoiding moving as compared to stationary obstacle. IDC was significantly larger in the stroke group compared to controls for diagonal approaches during walking, wherein two different strategies emerged amongst individuals with stroke: circumventing to the same (V same n = 6) or opposite (V opp n = 4) side of obstacle approach. This behavior was not seen in the perceptuomotor task, wherein post-stroke participants circumvented to opposite side of the obstacle approach as seen in healthy participants. In the
Scattering theory and orthogonal polynomials
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Geronimo, J.S.
1977-01-01
The application of the techniques of scattering theory to the study of polynomials orthogonal on the unit circle and a finite segment of the real line is considered. The starting point is the recurrence relations satisfied by the polynomials instead of the orthogonality condition. A set of two two terms recurrence relations for polynomials orthogonal on the real line is presented and used. These recurrence relations play roles analogous to those satisfied by polynomials orthogonal on unit circle. With these recurrence formulas a Wronskian theorem is proved and the Christoffel-Darboux formula is derived. In scattering theory a fundamental role is played by the Jost function. An analogy is deferred of this function and its analytic properties and the locations of its zeros investigated. The role of the analog Jost function in various properties of these orthogonal polynomials is investigated. The techniques of inverse scattering theory are also used. The discrete analogues of the Gelfand-Levitan and Marchenko equations are derived and solved. These techniques are used to calculate asymptotic formulas for the orthogonal polynomials. Finally Szego's theorem on toeplitz and Hankel determinants is proved using the recurrence formulas and some properties of the Jost function. The techniques of inverse scattering theory are used to calculate the correction terms
An estimate on the purely imaginary poles of scattering matrix
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bozhkov, Y.D.
1988-12-01
In this work we obtain two estimates (upper and lower) on the number of purely imaginary poles of the scattering matrix for the wave equation in the exterior of a compact smooth obstacle in R n , n ≥ 3 odd. The method of Lax and Phillips is used. (author). 5 refs
Performance characteristics of solar air heater with surface mounted obstacles
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bekele, Adisu; Mishra, Manish; Dutta, Sushanta
2014-01-01
Highlights: • Solar air heater with delta shaped obstacles have been studied. • Obstacle angle of incidence strongly affects the thermo-hydraulic performance. • Thermal performance of obstacle mounted collectors is superior to smooth collectors. • Thermo-hydraulic performance of the present SAH is higher than those in previous studies. - Abstract: The performance of conventional solar air heaters (SAHs) can be improved by providing obstacles on the heated wall (i.e. on the absorber plate). Experiments have been performed to collect heat transfer and flow-friction data from an air heater duct with delta-shaped obstacles mounted on the absorber surface and having an aspect ratio 6:1 resembling the conditions close to the solar air heaters. This study encompassed for the range of Reynolds number (Re) from 2100 to 30,000, relative obstacle height (e/H) from 0.25 to 0.75, relative obstacle longitudinal pitch (P l /e) from 3/2 to 11/2, relative obstacle transverse pitch (P t /b) from 1 to 7/3 and the angle of incidence (α) varied from 30° to 90°. The thermo-hydraulic performance characteristics of SAH have been compared with the previous published works and the optimum range of the geometries have been explored for the better performance of such air-heaters compared to the other designs of solar air heaters
Getting to Darwin: Obstacles to Accepting Evolution by Natural Selection
Thagard, Paul; Findlay, Scott
2010-01-01
Darwin's theory of evolution by natural selection is central to modern biology, but is resisted by many people. This paper discusses the major psychological obstacles to accepting Darwin's theory. Cognitive obstacles to adopting evolution by natural selection include conceptual difficulties, methodological issues, and coherence problems that…
Foot strike patterns after obstacle clearance during running.
Scholten, Shane D; Stergiou, Nicholas; Hreljac, Alan; Houser, Jeremy; Blanke, Daniel; Alberts, L Russell
2002-01-01
Running over obstacles of sufficient height requires heel strike (HS) runners to make a transition in landing strategy to a forefoot (FF) strike, resulting in similar ground reaction force patterns to those observed while landing from a jump. Identification of the biomechanical variables that distinguish between the landing strategies may offer some insight into the reasons that the transition occurs. The purpose of this study was to investigate the difference in foot strike patterns and kinetic parameters of heel strike runners between level running and running over obstacles of various heights. Ten heel strike subjects ran at their self-selected pace under seven different conditions: unperturbed running (no obstacle) and over obstacles of six different heights (10%, 12.5%, 15%, 17.5%, 20%, and 22.5% of their standing height). The obstacle was placed directly before a Kistler force platform. Repeated measures ANOVAs were performed on the subject means of selected kinetic parameters. The statistical analysis revealed significant differences (P strike patterns were affected by the increased obstacle height. Between the 12.5% and 15% obstacle conditions, the group response changed from a heel strike to a forefoot strike pattern. At height > 15%, the pattern was more closely related to the foot strike patterns found in jumping activities. This strategy change may represent a gait transition effected as a mechanism to protect against increased impact forces. Greater involvement of the ankle and the calf muscles could have assisted in attenuating the increased impact forces while maintaining speed after clearing the obstacle.
Biologically-Inspired Adaptive Obstacle Negotiation Behavior of Hexapod Robots
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Dennis eGoldschmidt
2014-01-01
Full Text Available Neurobiological studies have shown that insects are able to adapt leg movements and posture for obstacle negotiation in changing environments. Moreover, the distance to an obstacle where an insect begins to climb is found to be a major parameter for successful obstacle negotiation. Inspired by these findings, we present an adaptive neural control mechanism for obstacle negotiation behavior in hexapod robots. It combines locomotion control, backbone joint control, local leg reflexes, and neural learning. While the first three components generate locomotion including walking and climbing, the neural learning mechanism allows the robot to adapt its behavior for obstacle negotiation with respect to changing conditions, e.g., variable obstacle heights and different walking gaits. By successfully learning the association of an early, predictive signal (conditioned stimulus, CS and a late, reflex signal (unconditioned stimulus, UCS, both provided by ultrasonic sensors at the front of the robot, the robot can autonomously find an appropriate distance from an obstacle to initiate climbing. The adaptive neural control was developed and tested first on a physical robot simulation, and was then successfully transferred to a real hexapod robot, called AMOS II. The results show that the robot can efficiently negotiate obstacles with a height up to 85% of the robot's leg length in simulation and 75% in a real environment.
Minimum-link paths among obstacles in the plane
Mitchell, J.S.B.; Rote, G.; Woeginger, G.J.
1992-01-01
Given a set of nonintersecting polygonal obstacles in the plane, thelink distance between two pointss andt is the minimum number of edges required to form a polygonal path connectings tot that avoids all obstacles. We present an algorithm that computes the link distance (and a corresponding
Swarm Robotics with Circular Formation Motion Including Obstacles Avoidance
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Nabil M. Hewahi
2017-07-01
Full Text Available The robots science has been developed over the past few years, where robots have become used to accomplish difficult, repetitive or accurate tasks, which are very hard for humans to carry out. In this paper, we propose an algorithm to control the motion of a swarm of robots and make them able to avoid obstacles. The proposed solution is based on forming the robots in circular fashion. A group set of robots consists of multiple groups of robots, each group of robots consists of robots forming a circular shape and each group set is a circular form of robots. The proposed algorithm is concerned with first locating the randomly generated robots in groups and secondly with the swarm robot motion and finally with the swarm obstacle avoidance and swarm reorganization after crossing the obstacle. The proposed algorithm has been simulated with five different obstacles with various numbers of randomly generated robots. The results show that the swarm in the circular form can deal with the obstacles very effectively by passing the obstacles smoothly. The proposed algorithm has been compared with flocking algorithm and it is shown that the circular formation algorithm does not need extensive computation after obstacle avoidance whereas the flocking algorithm needs extensive computation. In addition, the circular formation algorithm maintains every robot in its group after avoiding the obstacles whereas with flocking algorithm does not.
Induced vibrations facilitate traversal of cluttered obstacles
Thoms, George; Yu, Siyuan; Kang, Yucheng; Li, Chen
When negotiating cluttered terrains such as grass-like beams, cockroaches and legged robots with rounded body shapes most often rolled their bodies to traverse narrow gaps between beams. Recent locomotion energy landscape modeling suggests that this locomotor pathway overcomes the lowest potential energy barriers. Here, we tested the hypothesis that body vibrations induced by intermittent leg-ground contact facilitate obstacle traversal by allowing exploration of locomotion energy landscape to find this lowest barrier pathway. To mimic a cockroach / legged robot pushing against two adjacent blades of grass, we developed an automated robotic system to move an ellipsoidal body into two adjacent beams, and varied body vibrations by controlling an oscillation actuator. A novel gyroscope mechanism allowed the body to freely rotate in response to interaction with the beams, and an IMU and cameras recorded the motion of the body and beams. We discovered that body vibrations facilitated body rolling, significantly increasing traversal probability and reducing traversal time (P locomotor pathways in complex 3-D terrains.
Logical obstacles in learning planetary motion
Dileep, V.; Sathe, D. V.
Daniel Schaffer wrote now-a-days scientists and particularly theoretical physicists are not held in unquestioned esteem in his editorial This became the starting point of my presentation which was dedicated to the memory of Abdus Salam 1 Had he survived to witness the IYP he would have become surprised on knowing that Frank Wilczek had maximum trouble in learning classical mechanics 2 These facts require us to restudy learning O level physics from the logical point of view - in order to attract promising young students to take up challenges of physics and astronomy of the 21 st century Newton s laws of motion are known for more than 300 years and so there should not be any problems in learning and teaching these laws now in the 21 st century But findings of educators reported in the last 30 years show that there are some serious and global problems I have shown that there are some logical obstacles which make adverse effect on the comprehension of circular motion and related topics 3 In this presentation relevant aspects are discussed References begin enumerate item D V Sathe August 2001 Chemical Education International http www iupac org publications cei vol2 0201x0026 html item Frank Wilczek October 2004 Physics Today p 11 item D V Sathe December 2001 COSPAR Info Bulletin 152 p 53 end enumerate
Obstacle Avoidance for Unmanned Undersea Vehicle in Unknown Unstructured Environment
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Zheping Yan
2013-01-01
Full Text Available To avoid obstacle in the unknown environment for unmanned undersea vehicle (UUV, an obstacle avoiding system based on improved vector field histogram (VFH is designed. Forward looking sonar is used to detect the environment, and the divisional sonar modal is applied to deal with the measure uncertainty. To adapt to the VFH, rolling occupancy grids are used for the map building, and high accuracy details of local environment are obtained. The threshold is adaptively adjusted by the statistic of obstacles to solve the problem that VFH is sensitive to threshold. To improve the environment adaptability, the hybrid-behaviors strategy is proposed, which selects the optimal avoidance command according to the motion status and environment character. The simulation shows that UUV could avoid the obstacles fast and escape from the U shape obstacles.
Simulation of Molecular Transport in Systems Containing Mobile Obstacles.
Polanowski, Piotr; Sikorski, Andrzej
2016-08-04
In this paper, we investigate the movement of molecules in crowded environments with obstacles undergoing Brownian motion by means of extensive Monte Carlo simulations. Our investigations were performed using the dynamic lattice liquid model, which was based on the cooperative movement concept and allowed to mimic systems at high densities where the motion of all elements (obstacles as well as moving particles) were highly correlated. The crowded environments are modeled on a two-dimensional triangular lattice containing obstacles (particles whose mobility was significantly reduced) moving by a Brownian motion. The subdiffusive motion of both elements in the system was analyzed. It was shown that the percolation transition does not exist in such systems in spite of the cooperative character of the particles' motion. The reduction of the obstacle mobility leads to the longer caging of liquid particles by mobile obstacles.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Burkhard, N.R.
1979-01-01
The gravity inversion code applies stabilized linear inverse theory to determine the topography of a subsurface density anomaly from Bouguer gravity data. The gravity inversion program consists of four source codes: SEARCH, TREND, INVERT, and AVERAGE. TREND and INVERT are used iteratively to converge on a solution. SEARCH forms the input gravity data files for Nevada Test Site data. AVERAGE performs a covariance analysis on the solution. This document describes the necessary input files and the proper operation of the code. 2 figures, 2 tables
Sharp spatially constrained inversion
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Vignoli, Giulio G.; Fiandaca, Gianluca G.; Christiansen, Anders Vest C A.V.C.
2013-01-01
We present sharp reconstruction of multi-layer models using a spatially constrained inversion with minimum gradient support regularization. In particular, its application to airborne electromagnetic data is discussed. Airborne surveys produce extremely large datasets, traditionally inverted...... by using smoothly varying 1D models. Smoothness is a result of the regularization constraints applied to address the inversion ill-posedness. The standard Occam-type regularized multi-layer inversion produces results where boundaries between layers are smeared. The sharp regularization overcomes...... inversions are compared against classical smooth results and available boreholes. With the focusing approach, the obtained blocky results agree with the underlying geology and allow for easier interpretation by the end-user....
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Rosenwald, J.-C.
2008-01-01
The lecture addressed the following topics: Optimizing radiotherapy dose distribution; IMRT contributes to optimization of energy deposition; Inverse vs direct planning; Main steps of IMRT; Background of inverse planning; General principle of inverse planning; The 3 main components of IMRT inverse planning; The simplest cost function (deviation from prescribed dose); The driving variable : the beamlet intensity; Minimizing a 'cost function' (or 'objective function') - the walker (or skier) analogy; Application to IMRT optimization (the gradient method); The gradient method - discussion; The simulated annealing method; The optimization criteria - discussion; Hard and soft constraints; Dose volume constraints; Typical user interface for definition of optimization criteria; Biological constraints (Equivalent Uniform Dose); The result of the optimization process; Semi-automatic solutions for IMRT; Generalisation of the optimization problem; Driving and driven variables used in RT optimization; Towards multi-criteria optimization; and Conclusions for the optimization phase. (P.A.)
Applications of elliptic Carleman inequalities to Cauchy and inverse problems
Choulli, Mourad
2016-01-01
This book presents a unified approach to studying the stability of both elliptic Cauchy problems and selected inverse problems. Based on elementary Carleman inequalities, it establishes three-ball inequalities, which are the key to deriving logarithmic stability estimates for elliptic Cauchy problems and are also useful in proving stability estimates for certain elliptic inverse problems. The book presents three inverse problems, the first of which consists in determining the surface impedance of an obstacle from the far field pattern. The second problem investigates the detection of corrosion by electric measurement, while the third concerns the determination of an attenuation coefficient from internal data, which is motivated by a problem encountered in biomedical imaging.
Inverse planning and optimization: a comparison of solutions
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ringor, Michael [School of Health Sciences, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN (United States); Papiez, Lech [Department of Radiation Oncology, Indiana University, Indianapolis, IN (United States)
1998-09-01
The basic problem in radiation therapy treatment planning is to determine an appropriate set of treatment parameters that would induce an effective dose distribution inside a patient. One can approach this task as an inverse problem, or as an optimization problem. In this presentation, we compare both approaches. The inverse problem is presented as a dose reconstruction problem similar to tomography reconstruction. We formulate the optimization problem as linear and quadratic programs. Explicit comparisons are made between the solutions obtained by inversion and those obtained by optimization for the case in which scatter and attenuation are ignored (the NS-NA approximation)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Leader, Elliot
1991-01-01
With very few unexplained results to challenge conventional ideas, physicists have to look hard to search for gaps in understanding. An area of physics which offers a lot more than meets the eye is elastic and diffractive scattering where particles either 'bounce' off each other, emerging unscathed, or just graze past, emerging relatively unscathed. The 'Blois' workshops provide a regular focus for this unspectacular, but compelling physics, attracting highly motivated devotees
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
1991-02-01
The annual report on hand gives an overview of the research work carried out in the Laboratory for Neutron Scattering (LNS) of the ETH Zuerich in 1990. Using the method of neutron scattering, it is possible to examine in detail the static and dynamic properties of the condensed material. In accordance with the multidisciplined character of the method, the LNS has for years maintained a system of intensive co-operation with numerous institutes in the areas of biology, chemistry, solid-state physics, crystallography and materials research. In 1990 over 100 scientists from more than 40 research groups both at home and abroad took part in the experiments. It was again a pleasure to see the number of graduate students present, who were studying for a doctorate and who could be introduced into the neutron scattering during their stay at the LNS and thus were in the position to touch on central ways of looking at a problem in their dissertation using this modern experimental method of solid-state research. In addition to the numerous and interesting ways of formulating the questions to explain the structure, nowadays the scientific programme increasingly includes particularly topical studies in connection with high temperature-supraconductors and materials research
Friedrich, Harald
2016-01-01
This corrected and updated second edition of "Scattering Theory" presents a concise and modern coverage of the subject. In the present treatment, special attention is given to the role played by the long-range behaviour of the projectile-target interaction, and a theory is developed, which is well suited to describe near-threshold bound and continuum states in realistic binary systems such as diatomic molecules or molecular ions. It is motivated by the fact that experimental advances have shifted and broadened the scope of applications where concepts from scattering theory are used, e.g. to the field of ultracold atoms and molecules, which has been experiencing enormous growth in recent years, largely triggered by the successful realization of Bose-Einstein condensates of dilute atomic gases in 1995. The book contains sections on special topics such as near-threshold quantization, quantum reflection, Feshbach resonances and the quantum description of scattering in two dimensions. The level of abstraction is k...
Obstacles to and motivation for successful breast-feeding
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
A-M Bergh
1993-03-01
Full Text Available This study determined obstetric physiotherapists' perceptions about major obstacles to and methods of motivation for successful breast-feeding by means of the Friedman non-parametric procedure for the two-way analysis of variance. Three categories of obstacles were identified: maternal obstacles, health professionals and society. Maternal obstacles mentioned most were insufficient motivation (25% and knowledge (24%, anxiety (14%, fatigue (14%, and employment (14%. Obstacles related to health professionals included tack of support for mothers (20%, inappropriate lactation management (19%, lack of knowledge (15%, negative attitudes (5% and staff shortages (5%. With regard to society, lack of support (27% and life-styles (29% were identified as significant obstacles. The two most significantly important methods of motivation were information and education (53% and contact with other breast-feeders (27%. It is concluded that breast-feeding education efforts can be improved by identifying obstacles to breast-feeding and methods of motivation and that the Friedman test may be a statistical procedure to consider for determining priorities.
Multiple Moving Obstacles Avoidance of Service Robot using Stereo Vision
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Achmad Jazidie
2011-12-01
Full Text Available In this paper, we propose a multiple moving obstacles avoidance using stereo vision for service robots in indoor environments. We assume that this model of service robot is used to deliver a cup to the recognized customer from the starting point to the destination. The contribution of this research is a new method for multiple moving obstacle avoidance with Bayesian approach using stereo camera. We have developed and introduced 3 main modules to recognize faces, to identify multiple moving obstacles and to maneuver of robot. A group of people who is walking will be tracked as a multiple moving obstacle, and the speed, direction, and distance of the moving obstacles is estimated by a stereo camera in order that the robot can maneuver to avoid the collision. To overcome the inaccuracies of vision sensor, Bayesian approach is used for estimate the absense and direction of obstacles. We present the results of the experiment of the service robot called Srikandi III which uses our proposed method and we also evaluate its performance. Experiments shown that our proposed method working well, and Bayesian approach proved increasing the estimation perform for absence and direction of moving obstacle.
A stereo vision-based obstacle detection system in vehicles
Huh, Kunsoo; Park, Jaehak; Hwang, Junyeon; Hong, Daegun
2008-02-01
Obstacle detection is a crucial issue for driver assistance systems as well as for autonomous vehicle guidance function and it has to be performed with high reliability to avoid any potential collision with the front vehicle. The vision-based obstacle detection systems are regarded promising for this purpose because they require little infrastructure on a highway. However, the feasibility of these systems in passenger car requires accurate and robust sensing performance. In this paper, an obstacle detection system using stereo vision sensors is developed. This system utilizes feature matching, epipoplar constraint and feature aggregation in order to robustly detect the initial corresponding pairs. After the initial detection, the system executes the tracking algorithm for the obstacles. The proposed system can detect a front obstacle, a leading vehicle and a vehicle cutting into the lane. Then, the position parameters of the obstacles and leading vehicles can be obtained. The proposed obstacle detection system is implemented on a passenger car and its performance is verified experimentally.
Echoic Sensory Substitution Information in a Single Obstacle Circumvention Task.
Kolarik, Andrew J; Scarfe, Amy C; Moore, Brian C J; Pardhan, Shahina
2016-01-01
Accurate motor control is required when walking around obstacles in order to avoid collisions. When vision is unavailable, sensory substitution can be used to improve locomotion through the environment. Tactile sensory substitution devices (SSDs) are electronic travel aids, some of which indicate the distance of an obstacle using the rate of vibration of a transducer on the skin. We investigated how accurately such an SSD guided navigation in an obstacle circumvention task. Using an SSD, 12 blindfolded participants navigated around a single flat 0.6 x 2 m obstacle. A 3-dimensional Vicon motion capture system was used to quantify various kinematic indices of human movement. Navigation performance under full vision was used as a baseline for comparison. The obstacle position was varied from trial to trial relative to the participant, being placed at two distances 25 cm to the left, right or directly ahead. Under SSD guidance, participants navigated without collision in 93% of trials. No collisions occurred under visual guidance. Buffer space (clearance between the obstacle and shoulder) was larger by a factor of 2.1 with SSD guidance than with visual guidance, movement times were longer by a factor of 9.4, and numbers of velocity corrections were larger by a factor of 5 (all p<0.05). Participants passed the obstacle on the side affording the most space in the majority of trials for both SSD and visual guidance conditions. The results are consistent with the idea that SSD information can be used to generate a protective envelope during locomotion in order to avoid collisions when navigating around obstacles, and to pass on the side of the obstacle affording the most space in the majority of trials.
Echoic Sensory Substitution Information in a Single Obstacle Circumvention Task.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Andrew J Kolarik
Full Text Available Accurate motor control is required when walking around obstacles in order to avoid collisions. When vision is unavailable, sensory substitution can be used to improve locomotion through the environment. Tactile sensory substitution devices (SSDs are electronic travel aids, some of which indicate the distance of an obstacle using the rate of vibration of a transducer on the skin. We investigated how accurately such an SSD guided navigation in an obstacle circumvention task. Using an SSD, 12 blindfolded participants navigated around a single flat 0.6 x 2 m obstacle. A 3-dimensional Vicon motion capture system was used to quantify various kinematic indices of human movement. Navigation performance under full vision was used as a baseline for comparison. The obstacle position was varied from trial to trial relative to the participant, being placed at two distances 25 cm to the left, right or directly ahead. Under SSD guidance, participants navigated without collision in 93% of trials. No collisions occurred under visual guidance. Buffer space (clearance between the obstacle and shoulder was larger by a factor of 2.1 with SSD guidance than with visual guidance, movement times were longer by a factor of 9.4, and numbers of velocity corrections were larger by a factor of 5 (all p<0.05. Participants passed the obstacle on the side affording the most space in the majority of trials for both SSD and visual guidance conditions. The results are consistent with the idea that SSD information can be used to generate a protective envelope during locomotion in order to avoid collisions when navigating around obstacles, and to pass on the side of the obstacle affording the most space in the majority of trials.
Connection of Scattering Principles: A Visual and Mathematical Tour
Broggini, Filippo; Snieder, Roel
2012-01-01
Inverse scattering, Green's function reconstruction, focusing, imaging and the optical theorem are subjects usually studied as separate problems in different research areas. We show a physical connection between the principles because the equations that rule these "scattering principles" have a similar functional form. We first lead the reader…
Solution of inverse localization problem associated to multistatic radar system
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Boutkhil M.
2016-01-01
Full Text Available This work deals with the problem of inverse localization by a target with the aim to retrieve the position of the target, given the intensity and phase of the electromagnetic waves scattered by this object. Assuming the surface cross section to be known as well as the intensity and phase of the scattered waves, the target position was reconstructed through the echo signals scattered of each bistatic. We develop in the same time a multistatic ambiguity function trough bistatic ambiguity function to investigate several fundamental aspects that determine multistatic radar performance. We used a multistatic radar constructed of two bistatic radars, two transmitters and one receiver.
Using Thermal Radiation in Detection of Negative Obstacles
Rankin, Arturo L.; Matthies, Larry H.
2009-01-01
A method of automated detection of negative obstacles (potholes, ditches, and the like) ahead of ground vehicles at night involves processing of imagery from thermal-infrared cameras aimed at the terrain ahead of the vehicles. The method is being developed as part of an overall obstacle-avoidance scheme for autonomous and semi-autonomous offroad robotic vehicles. The method could also be applied to help human drivers of cars and trucks avoid negative obstacles -- a development that may entail only modest additional cost inasmuch as some commercially available passenger cars are already equipped with infrared cameras as aids for nighttime operation.
Getting to Darwin: Obstacles to Accepting Evolution by Natural Selection
Thagard, Paul; Findlay, Scott
2010-06-01
Darwin’s theory of evolution by natural selection is central to modern biology, but is resisted by many people. This paper discusses the major psychological obstacles to accepting Darwin’s theory. Cognitive obstacles to adopting evolution by natural selection include conceptual difficulties, methodological issues, and coherence problems that derive from the intuitiveness of alternative theories. The main emotional obstacles to accepting evolution are its apparent conflict with valued beliefs about God, souls, and morality. We draw on the philosophy of science and on a psychological theory of cognitive and emotional belief revision to make suggestions about what can be done to improve acceptance of Darwinian ideas.
Scattering angle-based filtering via extension in velocity
Kazei, Vladimir; Tessmer, Ekkehart; Alkhalifah, Tariq
2016-01-01
The scattering angle between the source and receiver wavefields can be utilized in full-waveform inversion (FWI) and in reverse-time migration (RTM) for regularization and quality control or to remove low frequency artifacts. The access to the scattering angle information is costly as the relation between local image features and scattering angles has non-stationary nature. For the purpose of a more efficient scattering angle information extraction, we develop techniques that utilize the simplicity of the scattering angle based filters for constantvelocity background models. We split the background velocity model into several domains with different velocity ranges, generating an
Scattering angle-based filtering via extension in velocity
Kazei, Vladimir
2016-09-06
The scattering angle between the source and receiver wavefields can be utilized in full-waveform inversion (FWI) and in reverse-time migration (RTM) for regularization and quality control or to remove low frequency artifacts. The access to the scattering angle information is costly as the relation between local image features and scattering angles has non-stationary nature. For the purpose of a more efficient scattering angle information extraction, we develop techniques that utilize the simplicity of the scattering angle based filters for constantvelocity background models. We split the background velocity model into several domains with different velocity ranges, generating an
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Kaasbjerg, Kristen; Martiny, Johannes H. J.; Low, Tony
2017-01-01
protectionmechanism against intervalley scattering in monolayer TMDs. The predicteddefectdependent selection rules for intervalley scattering can be verified viaFourier transform scanning tunneling spectroscopy (FT-STS), and provide aunique identification of, e.g., atomic vacancy defects (M vs X). Our findingsare......Intervalley scattering by atomic defects in monolayer transition metaldichalcogenides (TDMs; MX2) presents a serious obstacle for applicationsexploiting their unique valley-contrasting properties. Here, we show that thesymmetry of the atomic defects can give rise to an unconventional...
Scattered Neutron Tomography Based on A Neutron Transport Inverse Problem
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
William Charlton
2007-01-01
Neutron radiography and computed tomography are commonly used techniques to non-destructively examine materials. Tomography refers to the cross-sectional imaging of an object from either transmission or reflection data collected by illuminating the object from many different directions
Inverse scattering and refraction corrected reflection for breast cancer imaging
Wiskin, J.; Borup, D.; Johnson, S.; Berggren, M.; Robinson, D.; Smith, J.; Chen, J.; Parisky, Y.; Klock, John
2010-03-01
Reflection ultrasound (US) has been utilized as an adjunct imaging modality for over 30 years. TechniScan, Inc. has developed unique, transmission and concomitant reflection algorithms which are used to reconstruct images from data gathered during a tomographic breast scanning process called Warm Bath Ultrasound (WBU™). The transmission algorithm yields high resolution, 3D, attenuation and speed of sound (SOS) images. The reflection algorithm is based on canonical ray tracing utilizing refraction correction via the SOS and attenuation reconstructions. The refraction correction reflection algorithm allows 360 degree compounding resulting in the reflection image. The requisite data are collected when scanning the entire breast in a 33° C water bath, on average in 8 minutes. This presentation explains how the data are collected and processed by the 3D transmission and reflection imaging mode algorithms. The processing is carried out using two NVIDIA® Tesla™ GPU processors, accessing data on a 4-TeraByte RAID. The WBU™ images are displayed in a DICOM viewer that allows registration of all three modalities. Several representative cases are presented to demonstrate potential diagnostic capability including: a cyst, fibroadenoma, and a carcinoma. WBU™ images (SOS, attenuation, and reflection modalities) are shown along with their respective mammograms and standard ultrasound images. In addition, anatomical studies are shown comparing WBU™ images and MRI images of a cadaver breast. This innovative technology is designed to provide additional tools in the armamentarium for diagnosis of breast disease.
Relativistic inverse Compton scattering of photons from the early universe.
Malu, Siddharth; Datta, Abhirup; Colafrancesco, Sergio; Marchegiani, Paolo; Subrahmanyan, Ravi; Narasimha, D; Wieringa, Mark H
2017-12-05
Electrons at relativistic speeds, diffusing in magnetic fields, cause copious emission at radio frequencies in both clusters of galaxies and radio galaxies through non-thermal radiation emission called synchrotron. However, the total power radiated through this mechanism is ill constrained, as the lower limit of the electron energy distribution, or low-energy cutoffs, for radio emission in galaxy clusters and radio galaxies, have not yet been determined. This lower limit, parametrized by the lower limit of the electron momentum - p min - is critical for estimating the total energetics of non-thermal electrons produced by cluster mergers or injected by radio galaxy jets, which impacts the formation of large-scale structure in the universe, as well as the evolution of local structures inside galaxy clusters. The total pressure due to the relativistic, non-thermal population of electrons can be measured using the Sunyaev-Zel'dovich Effect, and is critically dependent on p min , making the measurement of this non-thermal pressure a promising technique to estimate the electron low-energy cutoff. We present here the first unambiguous detection of this Sunyaev-Zel'dovich Effect for a non-thermal population of electrons in a radio galaxy jet/lobe, located at a significant distance away from the center of the Bullet cluster of galaxies.
Souza Silva, Wagner; Aravind, Gayatri; Sangani, Samir; Lamontagne, Anouk
2018-03-01
This study examines how three types of obstacles (cylinder, virtual human and virtual human with footstep sounds) affect circumvention strategies of healthy young adults. Sixteen participants aged 25.2 ± 2.5 years (mean ± 1SD) were tested while walking overground and viewing a virtual room through a helmet mounted display. As participants walked towards a stationary target in the far space, they avoided an obstacle (cylinder or virtual human) approaching either from the right (+40°), left (-40°) or head-on (0°). Obstacle avoidance strategies were characterized using the position and orientation of the head. Repeated mixed model analysis showed smaller minimal distances (p = 0.007) while avoiding virtual humans as compared to cylinders. Footstep sounds added to virtual humans did not modify (p = 0.2) minimal distances compared to when no sound was provided. Onset times of avoidance strategies were similar across conditions (p = 0.06). Results indicate that the nature of the obstacle (human-like vs. non-human object) matters and can modify avoidance strategies. Smaller obstacle clearances in response to virtual humans may reflect the use of a less conservative avoidance strategy, due to a resemblance of obstacles to pedestrians and a recall of strategies used in daily locomotion. The lack of influence of footstep sounds supports the fact that obstacle avoidance primarily relies on visual cues and the principle of 'inverse effectiveness' whereby multisensory neurons' response to multimodal stimuli becomes weaker when the unimodal sensory stimulus (vision) is strong. Present findings should be taken into consideration to optimize the ecological validity of VR-based obstacle avoidance paradigms used in research and rehabilitation. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
The efficient presentation - obstacles, strategies, success
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Daniela-Elena Radu
2007-12-01
Full Text Available The making of presentations has become an omnipresent act of communication in the companies practice, but also in the didactic one. The notoriety and the increase of the importance of an efficient presentation lie in the transformations felt by a society of knowledge, communication being the answer in front of a constant information wave.Business people look in fear at the preparation of a presentation, the interaction with the audience andtheir feedback, all these leading to a low efficiency in transmitting the message.The speaker must overcome a group of obstacles, the most important being the reduced human capacityto capture the information transmitted orally; in this respect, he has available a group of visual instruments and strategies to capture the attention. In order to achieve efficiency one needs mental and emotional preparation, knowing the audience and the presentations objective and eliminating the old listing format in PowerPoint, for focusing the communication of the audiences necessities. The present essay aims to analyze the verbal, non-verbal and para-verbal communication act that constitutes the base of any presentation, the reasons that lead to failure and the ways to increase efficiency, in order to succeed in transmitting a well structured and easy to remember message.Many researchers and practice workers within the communication, economic but also IT fields, have tried to find the solution for organizing and transmitting the message during a presentation, in accordance with the new technologies. In elaborating the present paper, we have used our personal experience and data obtained through 30 in-depth interviews,with managers in companies such Bostina Asociatii Skoda, Petrom etc.; we have used in our research articles of honored professors in social sciences from the Harvard and Stanford Universities , researches of the Minnesota and Ulster Universities, as well as works of specialists in marketing and information
X-ray scatter removal by deconvolution
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Seibert, J.A.; Boone, J.M.
1988-01-01
The distribution of scattered x rays detected in a two-dimensional projection radiograph at diagnostic x-ray energies is measured as a function of field size and object thickness at a fixed x-ray potential and air gap. An image intensifier-TV based imaging system is used for image acquisition, manipulation, and analysis. A scatter point spread function (PSF) with an assumed linear, spatially invariant response is modeled as a modified Gaussian distribution, and is characterized by two parameters describing the width of the distribution and the fraction of scattered events detected. The PSF parameters are determined from analysis of images obtained with radio-opaque lead disks centrally placed on the source side of a homogeneous phantom. Analytical methods are used to convert the PSF into the frequency domain. Numerical inversion provides an inverse filter that operates on frequency transformed, scatter degraded images. Resultant inverse transformed images demonstrate the nonarbitrary removal of scatter, increased radiographic contrast, and improved quantitative accuracy. The use of the deconvolution method appears to be clinically applicable to a variety of digital projection images
De Wolf, E.A.
2002-01-01
We discuss basic concepts and properties of diffractive phenomena in soft hadron collisions and in deep-inelastic scattering at low Bjorken-x. The paper is not a review of the rapidly developing field but presents an attempt to show in simple terms the close inter-relationship between the dynamics of high-energy hadronic and deep-inelastic diffraction. Using the saturation model of Golec-Biernat and Wusthoff as an example, a simple explanation of geometrical scaling is presented. The relation between the QCD anomalous multiplicity dimension and the Pomeron intercept is discussed.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wolf, E.A. de
2002-01-01
We discuss basic concepts and properties of diffractive phenomena in soft hadron collisions and in deep-inelastic scattering at low Bjorken - x. The paper is not a review of the rapidly developing field but presents an attempt to show in simple terms the close inter-relationship between the dynamics of high-energy hadronic and deep-inelastic diffraction. Using the saturation model of Golec-Biernat and Wuesthoff as an example, a simple explanation of geometrical scaling is presented. The relation between the QCD anomalous multiplicity dimension and the Pomeron intercept is discussed. (author)
2011-01-24
..., Randolph County, Takeoff Minimums and Obstacle DP, Orig El Dorado, KS, Captain Jack Thomas/El Dorado... Minimums and Obstacle DP, Amdt 3 Cook, MN, Cook Muni, Takeoff Minimums and Obstacle DP, Orig Duluth, MN...
Supersymmetry, reflectionless symmetric potentials and the inverse method
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bagchi, B.
1990-01-01
The role of inverse scattering method is illustrated to examine the connection between the multi-soliton solutions of Korteweg-de Vries (KdV) equation and discrete eigenvalues of Schrodinger equation. The necessity of normalization of the Schrodinger wave functions, which are constructed purely from a supersymmetric consideration is pointed out
Sedimentation control in the reservoirs by using an obstacle
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
2Faculty of Water Sciences Engineering, Shahid Chamran University, Ahwaz, Iran. 3Department of ... some experiments were carried out without an obstacle. Results showed ..... Design and management of dams, reservoirs and watersheds ...
UOBPRM: A uniformly distributed obstacle-based PRM
Yeh, Hsin-Yi; Thomas, Shawna; Eppstein, David; Amato, Nancy M.
2012-01-01
This paper presents a new sampling method for motion planning that can generate configurations more uniformly distributed on C-obstacle surfaces than prior approaches. Here, roadmap nodes are generated from the intersections between C
Biologically-Inspired Adaptive Obstacle Negotiation Behavior of Hexapod Robots
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Goldschmidt, Dennis; Wörgötter, Florentin; Manoonpong, Poramate
2014-01-01
by these findings, we present an adaptive neural control mechanism for obstacle negotiation behavior in hexapod robots. It combines locomotion control, backbone joint control, local leg reflexes, and neural learning. While the first three components generate locomotion including walking and climbing, the neural...... learning mechanism allows the robot to adapt its behavior for obstacle negotiation with respect to changing conditions, e.g., variable obstacle heights and different walking gaits. By successfully learning the association of an early, predictive signal (conditioned stimulus, CS) and a late, reflex signal...... (unconditioned stimulus, UCS), both provided by ultrasonic sensors at the front of the robot, the robot can autonomously find an appropriate distance from an obstacle to initiate climbing. The adaptive neural control was developed and tested first on a physical robot simulation, and was then successfully...
Understanding Obstacles to Peace: Actors, Interests, and Strategies ...
International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)
2011-02-24
Feb 24, 2011 ... Understanding Obstacles to Peace: Actors, Interests, and Strategies in Africa's ... The case studies all employ methods of “thick description” process tracing ... Addressing Africa's unmet need for family planning by intensifying ...
Surrounding Moving Obstacle Detection for Autonomous Driving Using Stereo Vision
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Hao Sun
2013-06-01
Full Text Available Detection and tracking surrounding moving obstacles such as vehicles and pedestrians are crucial for the safety of mobile robotics and autonomous vehicles. This is especially the case in urban driving scenarios. This paper presents a novel framework for surrounding moving obstacles detection using binocular stereo vision. The contributions of our work are threefold. Firstly, a multiview feature matching scheme is presented for simultaneous stereo correspondence and motion correspondence searching. Secondly, the multiview geometry constraint derived from the relative camera positions in pairs of consecutive stereo views is exploited for surrounding moving obstacles detection. Thirdly, an adaptive particle filter is proposed for tracking of multiple moving obstacles in surrounding areas. Experimental results from real-world driving sequences demonstrate the effectiveness and robustness of the proposed framework.
Overcoming the Obstacles to Establishing a Democratic State in Afghanistan
National Research Council Canada - National Science Library
Young, Dennis O
2007-01-01
.... This project looks at several of those obstacles to democracy in Afghanistan, to include the absence of a democratic history and tradition, an endemic culture of corruption, a pervasive narcotics...
Obstacles to implementation; Huerden auf dem Weg in die Praxis
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Klempert, Oliver
2010-11-23
Photovoltaic systems have always promised autonomy to customers. The new German Renewables Act (Erneuerbare-Energien-Gesetz) provides reimbursement for self-consumption of power generated on site. However, there are still many obstacles to overcome. (orig.)
OBSTACLES IN THE APPLICATION OF MICROENCAPSULATION IN ISLET TRANSPLANTATION
DEVOS, P; WOLTERS, GHJ; FRITSCHY, WM; VANSCHILFGAARDE, R
Several factors stand in the way of successful clinical transplantation of alginate-polylysine-alginate microencapsulated pancreatic islets. These obstacles can be classified into three categories. The first regards the technical aspects of the production process. Limiting factors are the
Excavating obstacles and enablers to internationalization at home
Beelen, Jos; Woldegiyorgis, Ayenachew A.; Rumbley, Laura E.; de Wit, Hans
2017-01-01
Gives an overview of my research as a visiting scholar at The Boston College Center for International Higher Education. This research classifies these obstacles and enablers in four categories: disciplinary, external, internal and personal.
UOBPRM: A uniformly distributed obstacle-based PRM
Yeh, Hsin-Yi
2012-10-01
This paper presents a new sampling method for motion planning that can generate configurations more uniformly distributed on C-obstacle surfaces than prior approaches. Here, roadmap nodes are generated from the intersections between C-obstacles and a set of uniformly distributed fixed-length segments in C-space. The results show that this new sampling method yields samples that are more uniformly distributed than previous obstacle-based methods such as OBPRM, Gaussian sampling, and Bridge test sampling. UOBPRM is shown to have nodes more uniformly distributed near C-obstacle surfaces and also requires the fewest nodes and edges to solve challenging motion planning problems with varying narrow passages. © 2012 IEEE.
Advancing Army Women as Senior Leaders - Understanding the Obstacles
National Research Council Canada - National Science Library
Ellefson, Kristi
1998-01-01
This paper examined through research, whether any evidence exists which indicates that, army women are confronted with inherent obstacles as they try to advance through the ranks to senior level positions...
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Mosegaard, Klaus
2012-01-01
For non-linear inverse problems, the mathematical structure of the mapping from model parameters to data is usually unknown or partly unknown. Absence of information about the mathematical structure of this function prevents us from presenting an analytical solution, so our solution depends on our......-heuristics are inefficient for large-scale, non-linear inverse problems, and that the 'no-free-lunch' theorem holds. We discuss typical objections to the relevance of this theorem. A consequence of the no-free-lunch theorem is that algorithms adapted to the mathematical structure of the problem perform more efficiently than...... pure meta-heuristics. We study problem-adapted inversion algorithms that exploit the knowledge of the smoothness of the misfit function of the problem. Optimal sampling strategies exist for such problems, but many of these problems remain hard. © 2012 Springer-Verlag....
Inverse scale space decomposition
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Schmidt, Marie Foged; Benning, Martin; Schönlieb, Carola-Bibiane
2018-01-01
We investigate the inverse scale space flow as a decomposition method for decomposing data into generalised singular vectors. We show that the inverse scale space flow, based on convex and even and positively one-homogeneous regularisation functionals, can decompose data represented...... by the application of a forward operator to a linear combination of generalised singular vectors into its individual singular vectors. We verify that for this decomposition to hold true, two additional conditions on the singular vectors are sufficient: orthogonality in the data space and inclusion of partial sums...... of the subgradients of the singular vectors in the subdifferential of the regularisation functional at zero. We also address the converse question of when the inverse scale space flow returns a generalised singular vector given that the initial data is arbitrary (and therefore not necessarily in the range...
Dynamic Obstacle Clearing for Real-time Character Animation
Glardon, Pascal; Boulic, Ronan; Thalmann, Daniel
2006-01-01
This paper proposes a novel method to control virtual characters in dynamic environments. A virtual character is animated by a locomotion and jumping engine, enabling production of continuous parameterized motions. At any time during runtime, flat obstacles (e.g. a puddle of water) can be created and placed in front of a character. The method first decides whether the character is able to get around or jump over the obstacle. Then the motion parameters are accordingly modified. The transition...
Generalized inverses theory and computations
Wang, Guorong; Qiao, Sanzheng
2018-01-01
This book begins with the fundamentals of the generalized inverses, then moves to more advanced topics. It presents a theoretical study of the generalization of Cramer's rule, determinant representations of the generalized inverses, reverse order law of the generalized inverses of a matrix product, structures of the generalized inverses of structured matrices, parallel computation of the generalized inverses, perturbation analysis of the generalized inverses, an algorithmic study of the computational methods for the full-rank factorization of a generalized inverse, generalized singular value decomposition, imbedding method, finite method, generalized inverses of polynomial matrices, and generalized inverses of linear operators. This book is intended for researchers, postdocs, and graduate students in the area of the generalized inverses with an undergraduate-level understanding of linear algebra.
On the inverse of the Pomeranchuk theorem
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nagy, E.
1977-04-01
The Pomeranchuk theorem is valid only for bounded total cross sections at infinite energies, and for arbitrarily rising cross sections one cannot prove the zero asymptotic limit of the difference of the particle and antiparticle total cross sections. In the paper the problem is considered from the inverse point of view. It is proved using dispersion relations that if the total cross sections rise with some power of logarithm and the difference of the particle and antiparticle total cross sections remain finite, then the real to imaginary ratios of both the particle and antiparticle forward scattering amplitudes are bounded. (Sz.N.Z.)
Inverse spin Hall effect by spin injection
Liu, S. Y.; Horing, Norman J. M.; Lei, X. L.
2007-09-01
Motivated by a recent experiment [S. O. Valenzuela and M. Tinkham, Nature (London) 442, 176 (2006)], the authors present a quantitative microscopic theory to investigate the inverse spin-Hall effect with spin injection into aluminum considering both intrinsic and extrinsic spin-orbit couplings using the orthogonalized-plane-wave method. Their theoretical results are in good agreement with the experimental data. It is also clear that the magnitude of the anomalous Hall resistivity is mainly due to contributions from extrinsic skew scattering.
DEVELOPMENT OF FRANCHISING IN CROATIA OBSTACLES AND POLICY RECOMMENDATIONS
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Mirela Alpeza
2015-11-01
Full Text Available Franchising is very popular growth model but despite the wide application of franchising in the developed countries of the world, its impact on the Croatian economy is still marginal. The purpose of this research is to identify the obstacles and challenges to a wider application of franchising in Croatia and generate policy recommendations for removing the identified obstacles. Obstacles and recommendations are identified on the basis of a conducted longitudinal qualitative research, the first phase of which was conducted in 2006, and second in 2014. The overall results of this research were presented in a form of PEST analysis and compared with the results of the 2006 research aiming to detect changes (improvements/ deterioration in individual areas of the research political, economic, legal and technologic factors of influence on the development of franchising in Croatia. Based on the detected changes, conclusions and policy recommendations were identified.The obstacles can be divided in two categories: franchising specific barriers and general business related obstacles for doing business in Croatia. Without removing most of these obstacles, it is unrealistic to expect high growth of franchising activities in Croatia in near future.
Women’s orgasm obstacles: A qualitative study
Nekoolaltak, Maryam; Keshavarz, Zohreh; Simbar, Masoumeh; Nazari, Ali Mohammad; Baghestani, Ahmad Reza
2017-01-01
Background: Woman’s orgasm plays a vital role in sexual compatibility and marital satisfaction. Orgasm in women is a learnable phenomenon that is influenced by several factors. Objective: The aim of this study is exploring obstacles to orgasm in Iranian married women. Materials and Methods: This qualitative study with directed content analysis approach was conducted in 2015-2016, on 20 Iranian married women who were individually interviewed at two medical clinics in Tehran, Iran. Results: Orgasm obstacles were explored in one category, 4 subcategories, and 25 codes. The main category was “Multidimensionality of women’s orgasm obstacles”. Subcategories and some codes included: Physical obstacles (wife’s or husband’s boredom, vaginal infection, insufficient vaginal lubrication), psychological obstacles (lack of sexual knowledge, shame, lack of concentration on sex due to household and children problems), relational obstacles (husband’s hurry, having a dispute and annoyance with spouse) and contextual obstacles (Irregular sleep hours, lack of privacy and inability to separate children’s bedroom from their parents, lack of peace at home). Conclusion: For prevention or treatment of female orgasm disorders, attention to physical factors is not enough. Obtaining a comprehensive history about physical, psychological, relational and contextual dimensions of woman’s life is necessary. PMID:29082366
The influence of roughness and obstacle on wind power map
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Abas Ab Wahab; Mohd Fadhil Abas; Mohd Hafiz Ismail
2006-01-01
In the development of wind energy in Malaysia, the need for wind power map of Peninsular Malaysia has aroused. The map is needed to help in determining the potential areas where low wind speed wind turbines could operate optimally. In establishing the wind power map the effects of roughness and obstacles have been investigated. Wind data from 24 meteorological stations around the country have been utilized in conjunction with the respective local roughness and obstacles. Two sets of wind power maps have been developed i.e. the wind power maps with and without roughness and obstacles. These two sets of wind power maps exhibit great significant amount of difference in the wind power values especially in the inland areas where the wind power map without roughness and obstacles gives much lower values than those with roughness and obstacles. This paper outlines the process of establishing the two sets of wind power map as well as discussing the influence of roughness and obstacles based on the results obtained
A Hybrid Architecture for Vision-Based Obstacle Avoidance
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Mehmet Serdar Güzel
2013-01-01
Full Text Available This paper proposes a new obstacle avoidance method using a single monocular vision camera as the only sensor which is called as Hybrid Architecture. This architecture integrates a high performance appearance-based obstacle detection method into an optical flow-based navigation system. The hybrid architecture was designed and implemented to run both methods simultaneously and is able to combine the results of each method using a novel arbitration mechanism. The proposed strategy successfully fused two different vision-based obstacle avoidance methods using this arbitration mechanism in order to permit a safer obstacle avoidance system. Accordingly, to establish the adequacy of the design of the obstacle avoidance system, a series of experiments were conducted. The results demonstrate the characteristics of the proposed architecture, and the results prove that its performance is somewhat better than the conventional optical flow-based architecture. Especially, the robot employing Hybrid Architecture avoids lateral obstacles in a more smooth and robust manner than when using the conventional optical flow-based technique.
Plant root and shoot dynamics during subsurface obstacle interaction
Conn, Nathaniel; Aguilar, Jeffrey; Benfey, Philip; Goldman, Daniel
As roots grow, they must navigate complex underground environments to anchor and retrieve water and nutrients. From gravity sensing at the root tip to pressure sensing along the tip and elongation zone, the complex mechanosensory feedback system of the root allows it to bend towards greater depths and avoid obstacles of high impedance by asymmetrically suppressing cell elongation. Here we investigate the mechanical and physiological responses of roots to rigid obstacles. We grow Maize, Zea mays, plants in quasi-2D glass containers (22cm x 17cm x 1.4cm) filled with photoelastic gel and observe that, regardless of obstacle interaction, smaller roots branch off the primary root when the upward growing shoot (which contains the first leaf) reaches an average length of 40 mm, coinciding with when the first leaf emerges. However, prior to branching, contacts with obstacles result in reduced root growth rates. The growth rate of the root relative to the shoot is sensitive to the angle of the obstacle surface, whereby the relative root growth is greatest for horizontally oriented surfaces. We posit that root growth is prioritized when horizontal obstacles are encountered to ensure anchoring and access to nutrients during later stages of development. NSF Physics of Living Systems.
Gendered Obstacles Faced by Historical Women in Physics and Astronomy
Jones, Kristen M.
2007-12-01
A gender gap still exists in modern science; this is especially evident in the fields of physics and astronomy. The cause of such a gap is the center of debate. Is this discrepancy the result of inherent ability or socialization? Most studies have focused on modern issues and how women are socialized today. The role of historical gender perspectives and social opinions in creating the field of modern science and any discrepancies within it has not yet been explored in depth. This project investigates the obstacles faced by historical women in physics and astronomy that stem from the officialized gender biases that accompanied the establishment of modern science. Such obstacles are both formal and informal. Four women were chosen to span the three hundred year period between the standardization of the field and the modern day: Laura Bassi, Mary Somerville, Lise Meitner, and Jocelyn Bell Burnell. The investigation reveals that formal obstacles significantly decreased over the time period, while informal obstacles eroded more gradually. Obstacles also reflected historical events such as the World Wars and the Enlightenment. Trends in obstacles faced by four prominent women physicists indicate that education, finances, support networks, and social opinion played a large role in determining success in the field. The applicability to modern day physics issues and the gender gap is discussed. Many thanks to the Pathways Scholars Program and the Ronald E. McNair Post-Baccalaureate Achievement Program for funding for this project.
Women’s orgasm obstacles: A qualitative study
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Maryam Nekoolaltak
2017-09-01
Full Text Available Background: Woman’s orgasm plays a vital role in sexual compatibility and marital satisfaction. Orgasm in women is a learnable phenomenon that is influenced by several factors. Objective: The aim of this study is exploring obstacles to orgasm in Iranian married women. Materials and Methods: This qualitative study with directed content analysis approach was conducted in 2015-2016, on 20 Iranian married women who were individually interviewed at two medical clinics in Tehran, Iran. Results: Orgasm obstacles were explored in one category, 4 subcategories, and 25 codes. The main category was “Multidimensionality of women’s orgasm obstacles”. Subcategories and some codes included: Physical obstacles (wife’s or husband’s boredom, vaginal infection, insufficient vaginal lubrication, psychological obstacles (lack of sexual knowledge, shame, lack of concentration on sex due to household and children problems, relational obstacles (husband’s hurry, having a dispute and annoyance with spouse and contextual obstacles (Irregular sleep hours, lack of privacy and inability to separate children’s bedroom from their parents, lack of peace at home. Conclusion: For prevention or treatment of female orgasm disorders, attention to physical factors is not enough. Obtaining a comprehensive history about physical, psychological, relational and contextual dimensions of woman’s life is necessary.
Cellular neural networks for motion estimation and obstacle detection
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
D. Feiden
2003-01-01
Full Text Available Obstacle detection is an important part of Video Processing because it is indispensable for a collision prevention of autonomously navigating moving objects. For example, vehicles driving without human guidance need a robust prediction of potential obstacles, like other vehicles or pedestrians. Most of the common approaches of obstacle detection so far use analytical and statistical methods like motion estimation or generation of maps. In the first part of this contribution a statistical algorithm for obstacle detection in monocular video sequences is presented. The proposed procedure is based on a motion estimation and a planar world model which is appropriate to traffic scenes. The different processing steps of the statistical procedure are a feature extraction, a subsequent displacement vector estimation and a robust estimation of the motion parameters. Since the proposed procedure is composed of several processing steps, the error propagation of the successive steps often leads to inaccurate results. In the second part of this contribution it is demonstrated, that the above mentioned problems can be efficiently overcome by using Cellular Neural Networks (CNN. It will be shown, that a direct obstacle detection algorithm can be easily performed, based only on CNN processing of the input images. Beside the enormous computing power of programmable CNN based devices, the proposed method is also very robust in comparison to the statistical method, because is shows much less sensibility to noisy inputs. Using the proposed approach of obstacle detection in planar worlds, a real time processing of large input images has been made possible.
WKB approach to evaluate series of Mathieu functions in scattering problems
Hubert, Maxime; Dubertrand, Remy
2017-01-01
The scattering of a wave obeying Helmholtz equation by an elliptic obstacle can be described exactly using series of Mathieu functions. This situation is relevant in optics, quantum mechanics and fluid dynamics. We focus on the case when the wavelength is comparable to the obstacle size, when the most standard approximations fail. The approximations of the radial (or modified) Mathieu functions using WKB method are shown to be especially efficient, in order to precisely evaluate series of suc...
Bayesian seismic AVO inversion
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Buland, Arild
2002-07-01
A new linearized AVO inversion technique is developed in a Bayesian framework. The objective is to obtain posterior distributions for P-wave velocity, S-wave velocity and density. Distributions for other elastic parameters can also be assessed, for example acoustic impedance, shear impedance and P-wave to S-wave velocity ratio. The inversion algorithm is based on the convolutional model and a linearized weak contrast approximation of the Zoeppritz equation. The solution is represented by a Gaussian posterior distribution with explicit expressions for the posterior expectation and covariance, hence exact prediction intervals for the inverted parameters can be computed under the specified model. The explicit analytical form of the posterior distribution provides a computationally fast inversion method. Tests on synthetic data show that all inverted parameters were almost perfectly retrieved when the noise approached zero. With realistic noise levels, acoustic impedance was the best determined parameter, while the inversion provided practically no information about the density. The inversion algorithm has also been tested on a real 3-D dataset from the Sleipner Field. The results show good agreement with well logs but the uncertainty is high. The stochastic model includes uncertainties of both the elastic parameters, the wavelet and the seismic and well log data. The posterior distribution is explored by Markov chain Monte Carlo simulation using the Gibbs sampler algorithm. The inversion algorithm has been tested on a seismic line from the Heidrun Field with two wells located on the line. The uncertainty of the estimated wavelet is low. In the Heidrun examples the effect of including uncertainty of the wavelet and the noise level was marginal with respect to the AVO inversion results. We have developed a 3-D linearized AVO inversion method with spatially coupled model parameters where the objective is to obtain posterior distributions for P-wave velocity, S
Calculation of the inverse data space via sparse inversion
Saragiotis, Christos
2011-01-01
The inverse data space provides a natural separation of primaries and surface-related multiples, as the surface multiples map onto the area around the origin while the primaries map elsewhere. However, the calculation of the inverse data is far from trivial as theory requires infinite time and offset recording. Furthermore regularization issues arise during inversion. We perform the inversion by minimizing the least-squares norm of the misfit function by constraining the $ell_1$ norm of the solution, being the inverse data space. In this way a sparse inversion approach is obtained. We show results on field data with an application to surface multiple removal.
New Techniques in Neutron Scattering
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Birk, Jonas Okkels
potential performance than any existing facility, however in order to use this pulse structure optimally many existing neutron scattering instruments will need to be redesigned. This defense will concentrate on the design and optimization of the inverse time-of-flight cold neutron spectrometer CAMEA......, simulations and prototyping to optimize the instrument and ensure that it will deliver the predicted performance when constructed. During the design a new prismatic analyser concept that can be of interest to many other neutron spectrometers was developed. The design work was compiled into an instrument......Neutron scattering is an important experimental technique in amongst others solid state physics, biophysics, and engineering. This year construction of European Spallation Source (ESS) was commenced in Lund, Sweeden. The facility will use a new long pulsed source principle to obtain higher...
Note of non-destructive detection of voids by a high frequency inversion technique
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Cohen, J.K.; Bleistein, N.
1978-01-01
An inverse method for nondestructive detection of scatterers of high contrast, such as voids or strongly reflecting inclusions, is described. The phase and range normalized far field scattering amplitude is shown to be directly proportional to the Fourier transform of the characteristic function of the scatterer. The characteristic function is equal to unity inside the region occupied by the scatterer and is zero outside. Thus, knowledge of this function provides a description of the scatterer. The method is applied to flaws in a sphere
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Brueckel, Thomas; Heger, Gernot; Richter, Dieter; Roth, Georg; Zorn, Reiner
2012-01-01
The following topics are dealt with: Neutron scattering in contemporary research, neutron sources, symmetry of crystals, diffraction, nanostructures investigated by small-angle neutron scattering, the structure of macromolecules, spin dependent and magnetic scattering, structural analysis, neutron reflectometry, magnetic nanostructures, inelastic scattering, strongly correlated electrons, dynamics of macromolecules, applications of neutron scattering. (HSI)
Scattering of spermatozoa off cylindrical pillars
Bukatin, Anton; Lushi, Enkeleida; Kantsler, Vasily
2017-11-01
The motion of micro-swimmers in structured environments, even though crucial in processes such as in vivo and in vitro egg fertilization, is still not completely understood. We combine microfluidic experiments with mathematical modeling of 3D swimming near convex surfaces to quantify the dynamics of individual sperm cells in the proximity of cylindrical pillars. Our results show that the hydrodynamic and contact forces that account for the shape asymmetry and flagellar motion, are crucial in correctly describing the dynamics observed in the experiments. Last, we discuss how the size of the cylindrical obstacles determines whether the swimmers scatter off or get trapped circling the pillar.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Hongzhe Jin
2017-01-01
Full Text Available This paper presents a synthetic algorithm for tracking a moving object in a multiple-dynamic obstacles environment based on kinematically planar manipulators. By observing the motions of the object and obstacles, Spline filter associated with polynomial fitting is utilized to predict their moving paths for a period of time in the future. Several feasible paths for the manipulator in Cartesian space can be planned according to the predicted moving paths and the defined feasibility criterion. The shortest one among these feasible paths is selected as the optimized path. Then the real-time path along the optimized path is planned for the manipulator to track the moving object in real-time. To improve the convergence rate of tracking, a virtual controller based on PD controller is designed to adaptively adjust the real-time path. In the process of tracking, the null space of inverse kinematic and the local rotation coordinate method (LRCM are utilized for the arms and the end-effector to avoid obstacles, respectively. Finally, the moving object in a multiple-dynamic obstacles environment is thus tracked via real-time updating the joint angles of manipulator according to the iterative method. Simulation results show that the proposed algorithm is feasible to track a moving object in a multiple-dynamic obstacles environment.
Development of an optimal velocity selection method with velocity obstacle
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kim, Min Geuk; Oh, Jun Ho [KAIST, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)
2015-08-15
The Velocity obstacle (VO) method is one of the most well-known methods for local path planning, allowing consideration of dynamic obstacles and unexpected obstacles. Typical VO methods separate a velocity map into a collision area and a collision-free area. A robot can avoid collisions by selecting its velocity from within the collision-free area. However, if there are numerous obstacles near a robot, the robot will have very few velocity candidates. In this paper, a method for choosing optimal velocity components using the concept of pass-time and vertical clearance is proposed for the efficient movement of a robot. The pass-time is the time required for a robot to pass by an obstacle. By generating a latticized available velocity map for a robot, each velocity component can be evaluated using a cost function that considers the pass-time and other aspects. From the output of the cost function, even a velocity component that will cause a collision in the future can be chosen as a final velocity if the pass-time is sufficiently long enough.
Propagation of spiral waves pinned to circular and rectangular obstacles.
Sutthiopad, Malee; Luengviriya, Jiraporn; Porjai, Porramain; Phantu, Metinee; Kanchanawarin, Jarin; Müller, Stefan C; Luengviriya, Chaiya
2015-05-01
We present an investigation of spiral waves pinned to circular and rectangular obstacles with different circumferences in both thin layers of the Belousov-Zhabotinsky reaction and numerical simulations with the Oregonator model. For circular objects, the area always increases with the circumference. In contrast, we varied the circumference of rectangles with equal areas by adjusting their width w and height h. For both obstacle forms, the propagating parameters (i.e., wavelength, wave period, and velocity of pinned spiral waves) increase with the circumference, regardless of the obstacle area. Despite these common features of the parameters, the forms of pinned spiral waves depend on the obstacle shapes. The structures of spiral waves pinned to circles as well as rectangles with the ratio w/h∼1 are similar to Archimedean spirals. When w/h increases, deformations of the spiral shapes are observed. For extremely thin rectangles with w/h≫1, these shapes can be constructed by employing semicircles with different radii which relate to the obstacle width and the core diameter of free spirals.
Interaction of turbulent deflagrations with representative flow obstacles
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Durst, B.; Ardey, N.; Mayinger, F.
1997-01-01
In the case of a gradual release of hydrogen in the course of an assumed, severe accident in a light water reactor, the combustion will normally start out as a slow deflagration. Acceleration of an initially slow flame due to interactions of chemical kinetics and turbulent heat and mass transfer can result in very high flame speeds. Therefore, in order to assess hydrogen mitigation techniques, detailed knowledge about flame acceleration and interaction of flames with obstacles is required. The reported investigations are aimed at the investigation of the mechanisms responsible for turbulent flame acceleration and improving present correlations for estimates and models for numerical simulations of hydrogen combustion processes. A medium-scale square cross-section setup is employed, using flow obstacles with shapes representative for reactor containments. The global flame speed is deduced from measurements using thermocouples, pressure transducers and photodiodes. Measurements using a two-component LDA-system are being carried through in order to correlate global flame spread and local turbulence parameters. Results indicate that low blockage-ratio obstacles only marginally influence the flame, as disturbances which are induced remain local to the vicinity of the obstacle and die out very quickly downstream thereof. Flow visualizations by means of a Schlieren setup indicate very complex flow structures in the vicinity of obstacles. The results are being used to validate turbulent reaction models. A model based on probability density functions (pdf) of assumed shape has been developed and initial calculations are presented. (author)
Electrochemically driven emulsion inversion
Johans, Christoffer; Kontturi, Kyösti
2007-09-01
It is shown that emulsions stabilized by ionic surfactants can be inverted by controlling the electrical potential across the oil-water interface. The potential dependent partitioning of sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) was studied by cyclic voltammetry at the 1,2-dichlorobenzene|water interface. In the emulsion the potential control was achieved by using a potential-determining salt. The inversion of a 1,2-dichlorobenzene-in-water (O/W) emulsion stabilized by SDS was followed by conductometry as a function of added tetrapropylammonium chloride. A sudden drop in conductivity was observed, indicating the change of the continuous phase from water to 1,2-dichlorobenzene, i.e. a water-in-1,2-dichlorobenzene emulsion was formed. The inversion potential is well in accordance with that predicted by the hydrophilic-lipophilic deviation if the interfacial potential is appropriately accounted for.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Gale, A.S.; Surlyk, Finn; Anderskouv, Kresten
2013-01-01
Evidence from regional stratigraphical patterns in Santonian−Campanian chalk is used to infer the presence of a very broad channel system (5 km across) with a depth of at least 50 m, running NNW−SSE across the eastern Isle of Wight; only the western part of the channel wall and fill is exposed. W......−Campanian chalks in the eastern Isle of Wight, involving penecontemporaneous tectonic inversion of the underlying basement structure, are rejected....
Reactivity in inverse micelles
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Brochette, Pascal
1987-01-01
This research thesis reports the study of the use of micro-emulsions of water in oil as reaction support. Only the 'inverse micelles' domain of the ternary mixing (water/AOT/isooctane) has been studied. The main addressed issues have been: the micro-emulsion disturbance in presence of reactants, the determination of reactant distribution and the resulting kinetic theory, the effect of the interface on electron transfer reactions, and finally protein solubilization [fr
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Steinhauer, L.C.; Romea, R.D.; Kimura, W.D.
1997-01-01
A new method for laser acceleration is proposed based upon the inverse process of transition radiation. The laser beam intersects an electron-beam traveling between two thin foils. The principle of this acceleration method is explored in terms of its classical and quantum bases and its inverse process. A closely related concept based on the inverse of diffraction radiation is also presented: this concept has the significant advantage that apertures are used to allow free passage of the electron beam. These concepts can produce net acceleration because they do not satisfy the conditions in which the Lawson-Woodward theorem applies (no net acceleration in an unbounded vacuum). Finally, practical aspects such as damage limits at optics are employed to find an optimized set of parameters. For reasonable assumptions an acceleration gradient of 200 MeV/m requiring a laser power of less than 1 GW is projected. An interesting approach to multi-staging the acceleration sections is also presented. copyright 1997 American Institute of Physics
Intersections, ideals, and inversion
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Vasco, D.W.
1998-01-01
Techniques from computational algebra provide a framework for treating large classes of inverse problems. In particular, the discretization of many types of integral equations and of partial differential equations with undetermined coefficients lead to systems of polynomial equations. The structure of the solution set of such equations may be examined using algebraic techniques.. For example, the existence and dimensionality of the solution set may be determined. Furthermore, it is possible to bound the total number of solutions. The approach is illustrated by a numerical application to the inverse problem associated with the Helmholtz equation. The algebraic methods are used in the inversion of a set of transverse electric (TE) mode magnetotelluric data from Antarctica. The existence of solutions is demonstrated and the number of solutions is found to be finite, bounded from above at 50. The best fitting structure is dominantly one dimensional with a low crustal resistivity of about 2 ohm-m. Such a low value is compatible with studies suggesting lower surface wave velocities than found in typical stable cratons
Intersections, ideals, and inversion
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Vasco, D.W.
1998-10-01
Techniques from computational algebra provide a framework for treating large classes of inverse problems. In particular, the discretization of many types of integral equations and of partial differential equations with undetermined coefficients lead to systems of polynomial equations. The structure of the solution set of such equations may be examined using algebraic techniques.. For example, the existence and dimensionality of the solution set may be determined. Furthermore, it is possible to bound the total number of solutions. The approach is illustrated by a numerical application to the inverse problem associated with the Helmholtz equation. The algebraic methods are used in the inversion of a set of transverse electric (TE) mode magnetotelluric data from Antarctica. The existence of solutions is demonstrated and the number of solutions is found to be finite, bounded from above at 50. The best fitting structure is dominantly onedimensional with a low crustal resistivity of about 2 ohm-m. Such a low value is compatible with studies suggesting lower surface wave velocities than found in typical stable cratons.
A Riemann-Hilbert approach to the inverse problem for the Stark operator on the line
Its, A.; Sukhanov, V.
2016-05-01
The paper is concerned with the inverse scattering problem for the Stark operator on the line with a potential from the Schwartz class. In our study of the inverse problem, we use the Riemann-Hilbert formalism. This allows us to overcome the principal technical difficulties which arise in the more traditional approaches based on the Gel’fand-Levitan-Marchenko equations, and indeed solve the problem. We also produce a complete description of the relevant scattering data (which have not been obtained in the previous works on the Stark operator) and establish the bijection between the Schwartz class potentials and the scattering data.
Testing earthquake source inversion methodologies
Page, Morgan T.; Mai, Paul Martin; Schorlemmer, Danijel
2011-01-01
Source Inversion Validation Workshop; Palm Springs, California, 11-12 September 2010; Nowadays earthquake source inversions are routinely performed after large earthquakes and represent a key connection between recorded seismic and geodetic data
C1,1 regularity for degenerate elliptic obstacle problems
Daskalopoulos, Panagiota; Feehan, Paul M. N.
2016-03-01
The Heston stochastic volatility process is a degenerate diffusion process where the degeneracy in the diffusion coefficient is proportional to the square root of the distance to the boundary of the half-plane. The generator of this process with killing, called the elliptic Heston operator, is a second-order, degenerate-elliptic partial differential operator, where the degeneracy in the operator symbol is proportional to the distance to the boundary of the half-plane. In mathematical finance, solutions to the obstacle problem for the elliptic Heston operator correspond to value functions for perpetual American-style options on the underlying asset. With the aid of weighted Sobolev spaces and weighted Hölder spaces, we establish the optimal C 1 , 1 regularity (up to the boundary of the half-plane) for solutions to obstacle problems for the elliptic Heston operator when the obstacle functions are sufficiently smooth.
Path Generation by Avoiding Obstacles using the Intersection of Bodies
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Komák Martin
2018-02-01
Full Text Available We will discuss the problem of path finding in 3D space with an obstacle. The thesis deals with the problem of searching for the shortest path between the individual points in the space so that this path does not come into collision with an obstacle. A system has been designed to construct paths in cross-sectional planes of the given object representing an obstacle, based on its surface contour. The system solves the issue of loading STL format, creating cross-sectional planes of the object, intersection between geometric shapes, and generation of lines around the contour of the object in 2D. An experiment was performed, in which we have been moving around a model of a jet aircraft and its results are described in the conclusion.
Bidirectional optical scattering facility
Federal Laboratory Consortium — Goniometric optical scatter instrument (GOSI)The bidirectional reflectance distribution function (BRDF) quantifies the angular distribution of light scattered from a...
Factors influencing obstacle crossing performance in patients with Parkinson's disease.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ying-Yi Liao
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Tripping over obstacles is the major cause of falls in community-dwelling patients with Parkinson's disease (PD. Understanding the factors associated with the obstacle crossing behavior may help to develop possible training programs for crossing performance. This study aimed to identify the relationships and important factors determining obstacle crossing performance in patients with PD. METHODS: Forty-two idiopathic patients with PD (Hoehn and Yahr stages I to III participated in this study. Obstacle crossing performance was recorded by the Liberty system, a three-dimensional motion capture device. Maximal isometric strength of the lower extremity was measured by a handheld dynamometer. Dynamic balance and sensory integration ability were assessed using the Balance Master system. Movement velocity (MV, maximal excursion (ME, and directional control (DC were obtained during the limits of stability test to quantify dynamic balance. The sum of sensory organization test (SOT scores was used to quantify sensory organization ability. RESULTS: Both crossing stride length and stride velocity correlated significantly with lower extremity muscle strength, dynamic balance control (forward and sideward, and sum of SOT scores. From the regression model, forward DC and ankle dorsiflexor strength were identified as two major determinants for crossing performance (R(2 = .37 to.41 for the crossing stride length, R(2 = .43 to.44 for the crossing stride velocity. CONCLUSIONS: Lower extremity muscle strength, dynamic balance control and sensory integration ability significantly influence obstacle crossing performance. We suggest an emphasis on muscle strengthening exercises (especially ankle dorsiflexors, balance training (especially forward DC, and sensory integration training to improve obstacle crossing performance in patients with PD.
Comparing Two Approaches for Point-Like Scatterer Detection
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Angela Dell’Aversano
2015-01-01
Full Text Available Many inverse scattering problems concern the detection and localisation of point-like scatterers which are sparsely enclosed within a prescribed investigation domain. Therefore, it looks like a good option to tackle the problem by applying reconstruction methods that are properly tailored for such a type of scatterers or that naturally enforce sparsity in the reconstructions. Accordingly, in this paper we compare the time reversal-MUSIC and the compressed sensing. The study develops through numerical examples and focuses on the role of noise in data and mutual coupling between the scatterers.
Migration of scattered teleseismic body waves
Bostock, M. G.; Rondenay, S.
1999-06-01
The retrieval of near-receiver mantle structure from scattered waves associated with teleseismic P and S and recorded on three-component, linear seismic arrays is considered in the context of inverse scattering theory. A Ray + Born formulation is proposed which admits linearization of the forward problem and economy in the computation of the elastic wave Green's function. The high-frequency approximation further simplifies the problem by enabling (1) the use of an earth-flattened, 1-D reference model, (2) a reduction in computations to 2-D through the assumption of 2.5-D experimental geometry, and (3) band-diagonalization of the Hessian matrix in the inverse formulation. The final expressions are in a form reminiscent of the classical diffraction stack of seismic migration. Implementation of this procedure demands an accurate estimate of the scattered wave contribution to the impulse response, and thus requires the removal of both the reference wavefield and the source time signature from the raw record sections. An approximate separation of direct and scattered waves is achieved through application of the inverse free-surface transfer operator to individual station records and a Karhunen-Loeve transform to the resulting record sections. This procedure takes the full displacement field to a wave vector space wherein the first principal component of the incident wave-type section is identified with the direct wave and is used as an estimate of the source time function. The scattered displacement field is reconstituted from the remaining principal components using the forward free-surface transfer operator, and may be reduced to a scattering impulse response upon deconvolution of the source estimate. An example employing pseudo-spectral synthetic seismograms demonstrates an application of the methodology.
Monopole scattering with a twist
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Houghton, C.J.; Sutcliffe, P.M.
1996-01-01
By imposing certain combined inversion and rotation symmetries on the rational maps for SU(2) BPS monopoles we construct geodesics in the monopole moduli space. In the moduli space approximation these geodesics describe a novel kind of monopole scattering. During these scattering processes axial symmetry is instantaneously attained and, in some, monopoles with the symmetries of the regular solids are formed. The simplest example corresponds to a charge three monopole invariant under a combined inversion and 90 circle rotation symmetry. In this example three well-separated collinear unit charge monopoles coalesce to form first a tetrahedron, then a torus, then the dual tetrahedron and finally separate again along the same axis of motion. We explicitly construct the spectral curves in this case and use a numerical ADHMN construction to compute the energy density at various times during the motion. We find that the dynamics of the zeros of the Higgs field is extremely rich and we discover a new phenomenon; there exist charge k SU(2) BPS monopoles with more than k zeros of the Higgs field. (orig.)
Terrain Mapping and Obstacle Detection Using Gaussian Processes
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Kjærgaard, Morten; Massaro, Alessandro Salvatore; Bayramoglu, Enis
2011-01-01
In this paper we consider a probabilistic method for extracting terrain maps from a scene and use the information to detect potential navigation obstacles within it. The method uses Gaussian process regression (GPR) to predict an estimate function and its relative uncertainty. To test the new...... show that the estimated maps follow the terrain shape, while protrusions are identified and may be isolated as potential obstacles. Representing the data with a covariance function allows a dramatic reduction of the amount of data to process, while maintaining the statistical properties of the measured...... and interpolated features....
Collective rotations of active particles interacting with obstacles
Mokhtari, Zahra; Aspelmeier, Timo; Zippelius, Annette
2017-10-01
We consider active particles in a heterogeneous medium, modeled by static, random obstacles. In accordance with the known tendency of active particles to cluster, we observe accumulation and crystallization of active particles around the obstacles which serve as nucleation sites. In the limit of high activity, the crystals start to rotate spontaneously, resembling a rotating rigid body. We trace the occurrence of these oscillations to the enhanced attraction of particles whose orientation points along the rotational velocity as compared to those whose orientation points in the opposite direction.
Entire solutions for bistable lattice differential equations with obstacles
Hoffman, Aaron; Vleck, E S Van
2018-01-01
The authors consider scalar lattice differential equations posed on square lattices in two space dimensions. Under certain natural conditions they show that wave-like solutions exist when obstacles (characterized by "holes") are present in the lattice. Their work generalizes to the discrete spatial setting the results obtained in Berestycki, Hamel, and Matuno (2009) for the propagation of waves around obstacles in continuous spatial domains. The analysis hinges upon the development of sub and super-solutions for a class of discrete bistable reaction-diffusion problems and on a generalization of a classical result due to Aronson and Weinberger that concerns the spreading of localized disturbances.
Kinect-Based Moving Human Tracking System with Obstacle Avoidance
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Abdel Mehsen Ahmad
2017-04-01
Full Text Available This paper is an extension of work originally presented and published in IEEE International Multidisciplinary Conference on Engineering Technology (IMCET. This work presents a design and implementation of a moving human tracking system with obstacle avoidance. The system scans the environment by using Kinect, a 3D sensor, and tracks the center of mass of a specific user by using Processing, an open source computer programming language. An Arduino microcontroller is used to drive motors enabling it to move towards the tracked user and avoid obstacles hampering the trajectory. The implemented system is tested under different lighting conditions and the performance is analyzed using several generated depth images.
Alpha resonant scattering for astrophysical reaction studies
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Yamaguchi, H.; Kahl, D.; Nakao, T. [Center for Nuclear Study (CNS), University of Tokyo, RIKEN campus, 2-1 Hirosawa, Wako, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan); Wakabayashi, Y.; Kubano, S. [The Institute of Physical and Chemical Research (RIKEN), 2-1 Hirosawa, Wako, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan); Hashimoto, T. [Research Center for Nuclear Physics (RCNP), Osaka University, 10-1 Mihogaoka, Ibaraki, Osaka 567-0047 (Japan); Hayakawa, S. [Istituto Nazionale Fisica Nucleare - Laboratori Nazionali del Sud (INFN-LNS), Via S. Sofia 62, 95125 Catania (Italy); Kawabata, T. [Department of Physics, Kyoto University, Kita-Shirakawa, Kyoto 606-8502 (Japan); Iwasa, N. [Department of Physics, Tohoku University, Aoba, Sendai, Miyagi 980-8578 (Japan); Teranishi, T. [Department of Physics, Kyushu University, 6-10-1 Hakozaki, Fukuoka 812-8581 (Japan); Kwon, Y. K. [Institute for Basic Science, 70, Yuseong-daero 1689-gil, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-811 (Korea, Republic of); Binh, D. N. [30 MeV Cyclotron Center, Tran Hung Dao Hospital, Hoan Kiem District, Hanoi (Viet Nam); Khiem, L. H.; Duy, N. G. [Institute of Physics, Vietnam Academy of Science and Technology, 18 Hong Quoc Viet, Nghia do, Hanoi (Viet Nam)
2014-05-02
Several alpha-induced astrophysical reactions have been studied at CRIB (CNS Radioactive Ion Beam separator), which is a low-energy RI beam separator at Center for Nuclear Study (CNS) of the University of Tokyo. One of the methods to study them is the α resonant scattering using the thick-target method in inverse kinematics. Among the recent studies at CRIB, the measurement of {sup 7}Be+α resonant scattering is discussed. Based on the result of the experiment, we evaluated the contributions of high-lying resonances for the {sup 7}Be(α,γ) reaction, and proposed a new cluster band in {sup 11}C.
Alpha resonant scattering for astrophysical reaction studies
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yamaguchi, H.; Kahl, D.; Nakao, T.; Wakabayashi, Y.; Kubano, S.; Hashimoto, T.; Hayakawa, S.; Kawabata, T.; Iwasa, N.; Teranishi, T.; Kwon, Y. K.; Binh, D. N.; Khiem, L. H.; Duy, N. G.
2014-01-01
Several alpha-induced astrophysical reactions have been studied at CRIB (CNS Radioactive Ion Beam separator), which is a low-energy RI beam separator at Center for Nuclear Study (CNS) of the University of Tokyo. One of the methods to study them is the α resonant scattering using the thick-target method in inverse kinematics. Among the recent studies at CRIB, the measurement of 7 Be+α resonant scattering is discussed. Based on the result of the experiment, we evaluated the contributions of high-lying resonances for the 7 Be(α,γ) reaction, and proposed a new cluster band in 11 C
Abnormal scattering of polymer in binary solvent
To, Kiwing; Kim, Chul A.; Choi, Hyoung J.
The behavior of a high molecular weight polymer (polyethylene-oxide, PEO) in a binary liquid mixture (nitroethane/3-methyl-pentane, NE/MP) is studied at the one-phase temperature of NE/MP by static and dynamic light scattering methods. We found that the scattering intensity increased abruptly near the critical composition of NE/MP although the sample was very far from the critical temperature of NE/MP. Explanations in terms of critical opalescence and wetting layer inversion are discussed.
Velten, Andreas
2017-05-01
Light scattering is a primary obstacle to optical imaging in a variety of different environments and across many size and time scales. Scattering complicates imaging on large scales when imaging through the atmosphere when imaging from airborne or space borne platforms, through marine fog, or through fog and dust in vehicle navigation, for example in self driving cars. On smaller scales, scattering is the major obstacle when imaging through human tissue in biomedical applications. Despite the large variety of participating materials and size scales, light transport in all these environments is usually described with very similar scattering models that are defined by the same small set of parameters, including scattering and absorption length and phase function. We attempt a study of scattering and methods of imaging through scattering across different scales and media, particularly with respect to the use of time of flight information. We can show that using time of flight, in addition to spatial information, provides distinct advantages in scattering environments. By performing a comparative study of scattering across scales and media, we are able to suggest scale models for scattering environments to aid lab research. We also can transfer knowledge and methodology between different fields.
Time-reversal of electromagnetic scattering for small scatterer classification
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Smith, J Torquil; Berryman, James G
2012-01-01
Time-reversal operators, or the alternatively labelled, but equivalent, multistatic response matrix methods, are used to show how to determine the number of scatterers present in an electromagnetic scattering scenario that might be typical of UneXploded Ordinance (UXO) detection, classification and removal applications. Because the nature of the target UXO application differs from that of many other common inversion problems, emphasis is placed here on classification and enumeration rather than on detailed imaging. The main technical issues necessarily revolve around showing that it is possible to find a sufficient number of constraints via multiple measurements (i.e. using several distinct views at the target site) to solve the enumeration problem. The main results show that five measurements with antenna pairs are generally adequate to solve the classification and enumeration problems. However, these results also demonstrate a need for decreasing noise levels in the multistatic matrix as the number n of scatterers increases for the intended practical applications of the method. (paper)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Brueckel, Thomas; Heger, Gernot; Richter, Dieter; Roth, Georg; Zorn, Reiner [eds.
2010-07-01
The following topics are dealt with: Neutron sources, symmetry of crystals, diffraction, nanostructures investigated by small-angle neutron scattering, the structure of macromolecules, spin dependent and magnetic scattering, structural analysis, neutron reflectometry, magnetic nanostructures, inelastic scattering, strongly correlated electrons, dynamics of macromolecules, applications of neutron scattering. (HSI)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Brueckel, Thomas; Heger, Gernot; Richter, Dieter; Roth, Georg; Zorn, Reiner
2013-01-01
The following topics are dealt with: Neutron sources, symmetry of crystals, nanostructures investigated by small-angle neutron scattering, structure of macromolecules, spin dependent and magnetic scattering, structural analysis, neutron reflectometry, magnetic nanostructures, inelastic neutron scattering, strongly correlated electrons, polymer dynamics, applications of neutron scattering. (HSI)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Brueckel, Thomas; Heger, Gernot; Richter, Dieter; Roth, Georg; Zorn, Reiner
2010-01-01
The following topics are dealt with: Neutron sources, symmetry of crystals, diffraction, nanostructures investigated by small-angle neutron scattering, the structure of macromolecules, spin dependent and magnetic scattering, structural analysis, neutron reflectometry, magnetic nanostructures, inelastic scattering, strongly correlated electrons, dynamics of macromolecules, applications of neutron scattering. (HSI)
On a Highly Nonlinear Self-Obstacle Optimal Control Problem
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Di Donato, Daniela, E-mail: daniela.didonato@unitn.it [University of Trento, Department of Mathematics (Italy); Mugnai, Dimitri, E-mail: dimitri.mugnai@unipg.it [Università di Perugia, Dipartimento di Matematica e Informatica (Italy)
2015-10-15
We consider a non-quadratic optimal control problem associated to a nonlinear elliptic variational inequality, where the obstacle is the control itself. We show that, fixed a desired profile, there exists an optimal solution which is not far from it. Detailed characterizations of the optimal solution are given, also in terms of approximating problems.
Stumbling over obstacles in older adults compared to young adults
Schillings, AM; Mulder, T; Duysens, J
Falls are a major problem in older adults. Many falls occur because of stumbling. The aim of the present study is to investigate stumbling reactions of older adults and to compare them with young adults. While subjects walked on a treadmill, a rigid obstacle unexpectedly obstructed the forward sway
Aquaponics business in Europe: some legal obstacles and solutions
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Agnes Joly
2015-11-01
Full Text Available The authors gathered information on perceived impact of current legislation on entrepreneurial possibilities in developing commercial aquaponics in Europe. The paper highlights the detected obstacles, and the solutions developed to address the legislative issues. Three main issues outlined are: administration, environment, and safety.
Step characteristics during obstacle avoidance in hemiplegic stroke
Otter, A; Haart, M; Mulder, T; Duysens, J
Whereas several animal studies have indicated the important role of the motor cortex in the control of voluntary gait modifications, little is known about the effects of cortical lesions on gait adaptability in humans. Obstacle avoidance tasks provide an adequate paradigm to study the adaptability
Social isolation: a learning obstacle in the primary school | Bester ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
The teaching methodology of Outcomes-based Education is mainly based on group work. For this reason it would be extremely difficult for social isolates to benefit from Outcomes-based Education because of their inability to form relationships or work together with others in groups. In the light of this obstacle the aim of the ...
Organizational factors in fire prevention: roles, obstacles, and recommendations
John R. Christiansen; William S. Folkman; Keith W. Warner; Michael L. Woolcott
1976-01-01
Problems being encountered in implementing fire prevention programs were explored by studying the organization for fire prevention at the Fish Lake, Uinta, and Wasatch National Forests in Utah. The study focused on role congruency in fire prevention activities and on the social and organizational obstacles to effective programs. The problems identified included lack of...
Diffusion induced flow on a wedge-shaped obstacle
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zagumennyi, Ia V; Dimitrieva, N F
2016-01-01
In this paper the problem of evolution of diffusion induced flow on a wedge-shaped obstacle is analyzed numerically. The governing set of fundamental equations is solved using original solvers from the open source OpenFOAM package on supercomputer facilities. Due to breaking of naturally existing diffusion flux of a stratifying agent by the impermeable surface of the wedge a complex multi-level vortex system of compensatory fluid motions is formed around the obstacle. Sharp edges of the obstacle generate extended high-gradient horizontal interfaces which are clearly observed in laboratory experiments by high-resolution Schlieren visualization. Formation of an intensive pressure depression zone in front of the leading vertex of the wedge is responsible for generation of propulsive force resulting in a self-displacement of the obstacle along the neutral buoyancy horizon in a stably stratified environment. The size of the pressure deficiency area near the sharp vertex of a concave wedge is about twice that for a convex one. This demonstrates a more intensive propulsion mechanism in case of the concave wedge and, accordingly, a higher velocity of its self-movement in a continuously stratified medium. (paper)
Circumvention of suddenly appearing obstacles in young and older adults
Pijnappels, M.; Kingma, I.; Van Dieën, J. H.
2010-01-01
Reduced ability to circumvent an obstacle, which is noticed only shortly before collision, could be a cause of falls and injury, especially in older adults. In this study, we investigated differences in strategies and their characteristics between young and older adults when circumventing a suddenly
A vibrating thermoelastic plate in a contact with an obstacle
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Bock, I.; Jarušek, Jiří
2015-01-01
Roč. 63, č. 1 (2015), s. 39-52 ISSN 1210-3195 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP201/12/0671 Institutional support: RVO:67985840 Keywords : thermoelastic plate * unilateral dynamic contact * rigid obstacle Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics http://tatra.mat.savba.sk/paper.php?id_paper=1244
Slow maturation of planning in obstacle avoidance in humans
Corporaal, Sharissa H A; Swinnen, Stephan P.; Duysens, Jacques; Bruijn, Sjoerd M.
2016-01-01
Complex gait (e.g., obstacle avoidance) requires a higher cognitive load than simple steady-state gait, which is a more automated movement. The higher levels of the central nervous system, responsible for adjusting motor plans to complex gait, develop throughout childhood into adulthood. Therefore,
Aquaponics business in Europe : some legal obstacles and solutions
Joly, Agnes; Junge, Ranka; Bardocz, Tamas
2015-01-01
The authors gathered information on perceived impact of current legislation on entrepreneurial possibilities in developing commercial aquaponics in Europe. The paper highlights the detected obstacles, and the solutions developed to address the legislative issues. Three main issues outlined are: administration, environment, and safety.
Obstacle Avoidance Control Design: An Experimental Evaluation in Vehicle Platooning
Goos, J.; Alirezaei, M.; Semsar-Kazerooni, E.; Ploeg, J.
2016-01-01
In this paper, an obstacle avoidance controller (OA) based on the impedance control method is developed. The main goal of the OA controller is to guarantee robust gap making for a merging vehicle within a platoon of vehicles which are longitudinally automated. The proposed OA controller is developed
Sex Education in Spain: Teachers' Views of Obstacles
Martinez, Jose L.; Carcedo, Rodrigo J.; Fuertes, Antonio; Vicario-Molina, Isabel; Fernandez-Fuertes, Andres A.; Orgaz, Begona
2012-01-01
This paper offers an overview of the current state, difficulties, limitations and future possibilities for sex education in Spain. On the basis of a study involving 3760 teachers from all provinces in Spain, a detailed analysis of the obstacles at legislative, school and teacher levels was developed. Significant weaknesses were found at each of…
Multigrid Computation of Stratified Flow over Two-Dimensional Obstacles
Paisley, M. F.
1997-09-01
A robust multigrid method for the incompressible Navier-Stokes equations is presented and applied to the computation of viscous flow over obstacles in a bounded domain under conditions of neutral stability and stable density stratification. Two obstacle shapes have been used, namely a vertical barrier, for which the grid is Cartesian, and a smooth cosine-shaped obstacle, for which a boundary-conforming transformation is incorporated. Results are given for laminar flows at low Reynolds numbers and turbulent flows at a high Reynolds number, when a simple mixing length turbulence model is included. The multigrid algorithm is used to compute steady flows for each obstacle at low and high Reynolds numbers in conditions of weak static stability, defined byK=ND/πU≤ 1, whereU,N, andDare the upstream velocity, bouyancy frequency, and domain height respectively. Results are also presented for the vertical barrier at low and high Reynolds number in conditions of strong static stability,K> 1, when lee wave motions ensure that the flow is unsteady, and the multigrid algorithm is used to compute the flow at each timestep.
Special Semiotic Characters: What is an Obstacle-Sign?
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Gary Genosko
2013-11-01
Full Text Available This article regains an understudied exposition from Michel Foucault’s Discipline and Punish concerning the nuanced semio-techniques that constitute a punitive city perfused with obstacle-signs. The semiotic import of these signs are explicated and then brought into contemporary focus with regard to their political efficacy in drunk-driving campaigns.
Flow through a very porous obstacle in a shallow channel.
Creed, M J; Draper, S; Nishino, T; Borthwick, A G L
2017-04-01
A theoretical model, informed by numerical simulations based on the shallow water equations, is developed to predict the flow passing through and around a uniform porous obstacle in a shallow channel, where background friction is important. This problem is relevant to a number of practical situations, including flow through aquatic vegetation, the performance of arrays of turbines in tidal channels and hydrodynamic forces on offshore structures. To demonstrate this relevance, the theoretical model is used to (i) reinterpret core flow velocities in existing laboratory-based data for an array of emergent cylinders in shallow water emulating aquatic vegetation and (ii) reassess the optimum arrangement of tidal turbines to generate power in a tidal channel. Comparison with laboratory-based data indicates a maximum obstacle resistance (or minimum porosity) for which the present theoretical model is valid. When the obstacle resistance is above this threshold the shallow water equations do not provide an adequate representation of the flow, and the theoretical model over-predicts the core flow passing through the obstacle. The second application of the model confirms that natural bed resistance increases the power extraction potential for a partial tidal fence in a shallow channel and alters the optimum arrangement of turbines within the fence.
Linearized least-square imaging of internally scattered data
Aldawood, Ali; Hoteit, Ibrahim; Turkiyyah, George M.; Zuberi, M. A H; Alkhalifah, Tariq Ali
2014-01-01
Internal multiples deteriorate the quality of the migrated image obtained conventionally by imaging single scattering energy. However, imaging internal multiples properly has the potential to enhance the migrated image because they illuminate zones in the subsurface that are poorly illuminated by single-scattering energy such as nearly vertical faults. Standard migration of these multiples provide subsurface reflectivity distributions with low spatial resolution and migration artifacts due to the limited recording aperture, coarse sources and receivers sampling, and the band-limited nature of the source wavelet. Hence, we apply a linearized least-square inversion scheme to mitigate the effect of the migration artifacts, enhance the spatial resolution, and provide more accurate amplitude information when imaging internal multiples. Application to synthetic data demonstrated the effectiveness of the proposed inversion in imaging a reflector that is poorly illuminated by single-scattering energy. The least-square inversion of doublescattered data helped delineate that reflector with minimal acquisition fingerprint.
Inverse Faraday Effect Revisited
Mendonça, J. T.; Ali, S.; Davies, J. R.
2010-11-01
The inverse Faraday effect is usually associated with circularly polarized laser beams. However, it was recently shown that it can also occur for linearly polarized radiation [1]. The quasi-static axial magnetic field by a laser beam propagating in plasma can be calculated by considering both the spin and the orbital angular momenta of the laser pulse. A net spin is present when the radiation is circularly polarized and a net orbital angular momentum is present if there is any deviation from perfect rotational symmetry. This orbital angular momentum has recently been discussed in the plasma context [2], and can give an additional contribution to the axial magnetic field, thus enhancing or reducing the inverse Faraday effect. As a result, this effect that is usually attributed to circular polarization can also be excited by linearly polarized radiation, if the incident laser propagates in a Laguerre-Gauss mode carrying a finite amount of orbital angular momentum.[4pt] [1] S. ALi, J.R. Davies and J.T. Mendonca, Phys. Rev. Lett., 105, 035001 (2010).[0pt] [2] J. T. Mendonca, B. Thidé, and H. Then, Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 185005 (2009).
Glory scattering by black holes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Matzner, R.A.; DeWitte-Morette, C.; Nelson, B.; Zhang, T.
1985-01-01
We present a physically motivated derivation of the JWKB backward glory-scattering cross section of massless waves by Schwarzschild black holes. The angular dependence of the cross section is identical with the one derived by path integration, namely, dsigma/dΩ = 4π 2 lambda -1 B/sub g/ 2 (dB mWπ, where lambda is the wavelength, B(theta) is the inverse of the classical deflection function CTHETA(B), B/sub g/ is the glory impact parameter, s is the helicity of the scattered wave, and J/sub 2s/ is the Bessel function of order 2s. The glory rings formed by scalar waves are bright at the center; those formed by polarized waves are dark at the center. For scattering of massless particles by a spherical black hole of mass M, B(theta)/Mapprox.3 √3 + 3.48 exp(-theta), theta > owigπ. The numerical values of dsigma/dΩ for this deflection function are found to agree with earlier computer calculations of glory cross sections from black holes
Autonomous Navigation and Obstacle Avoidance of a Micro-Bus
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Carlos Fernández
2013-04-01
Full Text Available At present, the topic of automated vehicles is one of the most promising research areas in the field of Intelligent Transportation Systems (ITS. The use of automated vehicles for public transportation also contributes to reductions in congestion levels and to improvements in traffic flow. Moreover, electrical public autonomous vehicles are environmentally friendly, provide better air quality and contribute to energy conservation. The driverless public transportation systems, which are at present operating in some airports and train stations, are restricted to dedicated roads and exhibit serious trouble dynamically avoiding obstacles in the trajectory. In this paper, an electric autonomous mini-bus is presented. All datasets used in this article were collected during the experiments carried out in the demonstration event of the 2012 IEEE Intelligent Vehicles Symposium that took place in Alcalá de Henares (Spain. The demonstration consisted of a route 725 metres long containing a list of latitude-longitude points (waypoints. The mini-bus was capable of driving autonomously from one waypoint to another using a GPS sensor. Furthermore, the vehicle is provided with a multi-beam Laser Imaging Detection and Ranging (LIDAR sensor for surrounding reconstruction and obstacle detection. When an obstacle is detected in the planned path, the planned route is modified in order to avoid the obstacle and continue its way to the end of the mission. On the demonstration day, a total of 196 attendees had the opportunity to get a ride on the vehicles. A total of 28 laps were successfully completed in full autonomous mode in a private circuit located in the National Institute for Aerospace Research (INTA, Spain. In other words, the system completed 20.3 km of driverless navigation and obstacle avoidance.
Doctors' health: obstacles and enablers to returning to work.
Cohen, D; Rhydderch, M; Reading, P; Williams, S
2015-08-01
For doctors returning to work after absence due to ill-health or performance concerns, the obstacles can seem insurmountable. Doctors' perspectives of these obstacles have been investigated. To support them more effectively, the perspectives of organizations that interact with such doctors should also be considered. To explore the obstacles and enablers to doctors' return to work after long-term absence from the perspective of key organizations involved in assessment and support. We identified organizations operating in the field of doctors' health, well-being and performance. We conducted semi-structured, 30-45 min telephone interviews with representatives of the organizations, exploring problems that they had encountered that were experienced by doctors with health or performance concerns returning to work after absence of a month or longer. We analysed our field notes using theoretical analysis. We conducted 11 telephone interviews. Data analysis identified four key themes of obstacles and enablers to returning to work: 'communication', 'return to work', 'finance and funding' and 'relationships and engagement'. Sub-themes relating to the organization and the individual also emerged. Organizations responsible for supporting doctors back to work reported poor communication as a significant obstacle to doctors returning to work after illness. They also reported differences between specialities, employing organizations, occupational health departments and human resources in terms of knowledge and expertise in supporting doctors with complex issues. Clear communication channels, care pathways and support processes, such as workplace advocates, were perceived as strong enablers to return to work for doctors after long-term absence. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Occupational Medicine. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.
Classification of obstacle shape for generating walking path of humanoid robot
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Park, Chan Soo; Kim, Do Ik
2013-01-01
To generate the walking path of a humanoid robot in an unknown environment, the shapes of obstacles around the robot should be detected accurately. However, doing so incurs a very large computational cast. Therefore this study proposes a method to classify the obstacle shape into three types: a shape small enough for the robot to go over, a shape planar enough for the robot foot to make contact with, and an uncertain shape that must be avoided by the robot. To classify the obstacle shape, first, the range and the number of the obstacles is detected. If an obstacle can make contact with the robot foot, the shape of an obstacle is accurately derived. If an obstacle has uncertain shape or small size, the shape of an obstacle is not detected to minimize the computational load. Experimental results show that the proposed algorithm efficiently classifies the shapes of obstacles around the robot in real time with low computational load
Classification of obstacle shape for generating walking path of humanoid robot
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Park, Chan Soo; Kim, Do Ik [Korea Institute of Science and Technology, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)
2013-02-15
To generate the walking path of a humanoid robot in an unknown environment, the shapes of obstacles around the robot should be detected accurately. However, doing so incurs a very large computational cast. Therefore this study proposes a method to classify the obstacle shape into three types: a shape small enough for the robot to go over, a shape planar enough for the robot foot to make contact with, and an uncertain shape that must be avoided by the robot. To classify the obstacle shape, first, the range and the number of the obstacles is detected. If an obstacle can make contact with the robot foot, the shape of an obstacle is accurately derived. If an obstacle has uncertain shape or small size, the shape of an obstacle is not detected to minimize the computational load. Experimental results show that the proposed algorithm efficiently classifies the shapes of obstacles around the robot in real time with low computational load.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Brueckel, Thomas; Heger, Gernot; Richter, Dieter; Roth, Georg; Zorn, Reiner (eds.)
2010-07-01
The following topics are dealt with: Neutron sources, neutron properties and elastic scattering, correlation functions measured by scattering experiments, symmetry of crystals, applications of neutron scattering, polarized-neutron scattering and polarization analysis, structural analysis, magnetic and lattice excitation studied by inelastic neutron scattering, macromolecules and self-assembly, dynamics of macromolecules, correlated electrons in complex transition-metal oxides, surfaces, interfaces, and thin films investigated by neutron reflectometry, nanomagnetism. (HSI)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Brueckel, Thomas; Heger, Gernot; Richter, Dieter; Roth, Georg; Zorn, Reiner
2010-01-01
The following topics are dealt with: Neutron sources, neutron properties and elastic scattering, correlation functions measured by scattering experiments, symmetry of crystals, applications of neutron scattering, polarized-neutron scattering and polarization analysis, structural analysis, magnetic and lattice excitation studied by inelastic neutron scattering, macromolecules and self-assembly, dynamics of macromolecules, correlated electrons in complex transition-metal oxides, surfaces, interfaces, and thin films investigated by neutron reflectometry, nanomagnetism. (HSI)
The Study of Cooperative Obstacle Avoidance Method for MWSN Based on Flocking Control
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Zuo Chen
2014-01-01
Full Text Available Compared with the space fixed feature of traditional wireless sensor network (WSN, mobile WSN has better robustness and adaptability in unknown environment, so that it is always applied in the research of target tracking. In order to reach the target, the nodes group should find a self-adaptive method to avoid the obstacles together in their moving directions. Previous methods, which were based on flocking control model, realized the strategy of obstacle avoidance by means of potential field. However, these may sometimes lead the nodes group to fall into a restricted area like a trap and never get out of it. Based on traditional flocking control model, this paper introduced a new cooperative obstacle avoidance model combined with improved SA obstacle avoidance algorithm. It defined the tangent line of the intersection of node’s velocity line and the edge of obstacle as the steering direction. Furthermore, the cooperative obstacle avoidance model was also improved in avoiding complex obstacles. When nodes group encounters mobile obstacles, nodes will predict movement path based on the spatial location and velocity of obstacle. And when nodes group enters concave obstacles, nodes will temporarily ignore the gravity of the target and search path along the edge of the concave obstacles. Simulation results showed that cooperative obstacle avoidance model has significant improvement on average speed and time efficiency in avoiding obstacle compared with the traditional flocking control model. It is more suitable for obstacle avoidance in complex environment.
The study of cooperative obstacle avoidance method for MWSN based on flocking control.
Chen, Zuo; Ding, Lei; Chen, Kai; Li, Renfa
2014-01-01
Compared with the space fixed feature of traditional wireless sensor network (WSN), mobile WSN has better robustness and adaptability in unknown environment, so that it is always applied in the research of target tracking. In order to reach the target, the nodes group should find a self-adaptive method to avoid the obstacles together in their moving directions. Previous methods, which were based on flocking control model, realized the strategy of obstacle avoidance by means of potential field. However, these may sometimes lead the nodes group to fall into a restricted area like a trap and never get out of it. Based on traditional flocking control model, this paper introduced a new cooperative obstacle avoidance model combined with improved SA obstacle avoidance algorithm. It defined the tangent line of the intersection of node's velocity line and the edge of obstacle as the steering direction. Furthermore, the cooperative obstacle avoidance model was also improved in avoiding complex obstacles. When nodes group encounters mobile obstacles, nodes will predict movement path based on the spatial location and velocity of obstacle. And when nodes group enters concave obstacles, nodes will temporarily ignore the gravity of the target and search path along the edge of the concave obstacles. Simulation results showed that cooperative obstacle avoidance model has significant improvement on average speed and time efficiency in avoiding obstacle compared with the traditional flocking control model. It is more suitable for obstacle avoidance in complex environment.
Prefrontal cortex activation during obstacle negotiation: What's the effect size and timing?
Maidan, Inbal; Shustak, Shiran; Sharon, Topaz; Bernad-Elazari, Hagar; Geffen, Nimrod; Giladi, Nir; Hausdorff, Jeffrey M; Mirelman, Anat
2018-04-01
Obstacle negotiation is a daily activity that requires the integration of sensorimotor and cognitive information. Recent studies provide evidence for the important role of prefrontal cortex during obstacle negotiation. We aimed to explore the effects of obstacle height and available response time on prefrontal activation. Twenty healthy young adults (age: 30.1 ± 1.0 years; 50% women) walked in an obstacle course while negotiating anticipated and unanticipated obstacles at heights of 50 mm and 100 mm. Prefrontal activation was measured using a functional near-infrared spectroscopy system. Kinect cameras measured the obstacle negotiation strategy. Prefrontal activation was defined based on mean level of HbO 2 before, during and after obstacle negotiation and the HbO 2 slope from gait initiation and throughout the task. Changes between types of obstacles were assessed using linear-mix models and partial correlation analyses evaluated the relationship between prefrontal activation and the distance between the feet as the subjects traversed the obstacles. Different obstacle heights showed similar changes in prefrontal activation measures (p > 0.210). However, during unanticipated obstacles, the slope of the HbO 2 response was steeper (p = 0.048), as compared to anticipated obstacles. These changes in prefrontal activation during negotiation of unanticipated obstacles were correlated with greater distance of the leading foot after the obstacles (r = 0.831, p = 0.041). These findings are the first to show that the pattern of prefrontal activation depends on the nature of the obstacle. More specifically, during unanticipated obstacles the recruitment of the prefrontal cortex is faster and greater than during negotiating anticipated obstacles. These results provide evidence of the important role of the prefrontal cortex and the ability of healthy young adults to tailor the activation pattern to different types of obstacles. Copyright © 2018
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Jayaswal, B.; Mazumder, S.
1998-09-01
Small-angle scattering data from strong scattering systems, e.g. porous materials, cannot be analysed invoking single scattering approximation as specimen needed to replicate the bulk matrix in essential properties are too thick to validate the approximation. The presence of multiple scattering is indicated by invalidity of the functional invariance property of the observed scattering profile with variation of sample thickness and/or wave length of the probing radiation. This article delineates how non accounting of multiple scattering affects the results of analysis and then how to correct the data for its effect. It deals with an algorithm to extract single scattering profile from small-angle scattering data affected by multiple scattering. The algorithm can process the scattering data and deduce single scattering profile in absolute scale. A software package, SIMSAS, is introduced for executing this inversion step. This package is useful both to simulate and to analyse multiple small-angle scattering data. (author)
Zeeman splitting of surface-scattered neutrons
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Felcher, G.P.; Adenwalla, S.; De Haan, V.O.; Van Well, A.A.
1995-01-01
If a beam of slow neutrons impinges on a solid at grazing incidence, the neutrons reflected can be used to probe the composition and magnetization of the solid near its surface. In this process, the incident and reflected neutrons generally have identical kinetic energies. Here we report the results of an experiment in which subtle inelastic scattering processes are revealed as relatively large deviations in scattering angle. The neutrons are scattered from a ferromagnetic surface in the presence of a strong ambient magnetic field, and exhibit a small but significant variation in kinetic energy as a function of the reflection angle. This effect is attributable to the Zeeman splitting of the energies of the neutron spin states due to the ambient magnetic field: some neutrons flip their spins upon reflection from the magnetized surface, thereby exchanging kinetic energy for magnetic potential energy. The subtle effects of Zeeman splitting are amplified by the extreme sensitivity of grazing-angle neutron scattering, and might also provide a useful spectroscopic tool if significant practical obstacles (such as low interaction cross-sections) can be overcome. (author)
Numerical modelling of multiple scattering between two elastical particles
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Bjørnø, Irina; Jensen, Leif Bjørnø
1998-01-01
in suspension have been studied extensively since Foldy's formulation of his theory for isotropic scattering by randomly distributed scatterers. However, a number of important problems related to multiple scattering are still far from finding their solutions. A particular, but still unsolved, problem......Multiple acoustical signal interactions with sediment particles in the vicinity of the seabed may significantly change the course of sediment concentration profiles determined by inversion from acoustical backscattering measurements. The scattering properties of high concentrations of sediments...... is the question of proximity thresholds for influence of multiple scattering in terms of particle properties like volume fraction, average distance between particles or other related parameters. A few available experimental data indicate a significance of multiple scattering in suspensions where the concentration...
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Markus Spiliotis
Full Text Available Inverse fusion PCR cloning (IFPC is an easy, PCR based three-step cloning method that allows the seamless and directional insertion of PCR products into virtually all plasmids, this with a free choice of the insertion site. The PCR-derived inserts contain a vector-complementary 5'-end that allows a fusion with the vector by an overlap extension PCR, and the resulting amplified insert-vector fusions are then circularized by ligation prior transformation. A minimal amount of starting material is needed and experimental steps are reduced. Untreated circular plasmid, or alternatively bacteria containing the plasmid, can be used as templates for the insertion, and clean-up of the insert fragment is not urgently required. The whole cloning procedure can be performed within a minimal hands-on time and results in the generation of hundreds to ten-thousands of positive colonies, with a minimal background.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hicks, H.R.; Dory, R.A.; Holmes, J.A.
1983-01-01
We illustrate in some detail a 2D inverse-equilibrium solver that was constructed to analyze tokamak configurations and stellarators (the latter in the context of the average method). To ensure that the method is suitable not only to determine equilibria, but also to provide appropriately represented data for existing stability codes, it is important to be able to control the Jacobian, tilde J is identical to delta(R,Z)/delta(rho, theta). The form chosen is tilde J = J 0 (rho)R/sup l/rho where rho is a flux surface label, and l is an integer. The initial implementation is for a fixed conducting-wall boundary, but the technique can be extended to a free-boundary model
Magneto-optical extinction trend inversion in ferrofluids
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Shulyma, S.I., E-mail: kiw_88@mail.ru; Tanygin, B.M., E-mail: b.m.tanygin@gmail.com; Kovalenko, V.F.; Petrychuk, M.V.
2016-10-15
Effects of pulse magnetic field on the optical transmission properties of thin ferrofluid (FF) layers were experimentally investigated. It was observed that, under an influence of an external uniform magnetic field, pulses applied to the samples surfaces in normal direction decrease the optical transmission with further returning it to its original state, even before the end of the field pulse. The dependencies of the observed effects on the magnetic pulse magnitude and the samples thickness were investigated. The experimental results are explained using FF columnar aggregates growth and lateral coalescence under influence of a magnetic field, leading to a light scattering type Rayleigh-to-Mie transition. Further evolution of this process comes to a geometrical optics scale and respective macroscopic observable opaque FF columnar aggregates emergence. These changes of optical transmission are non-monotonic during the magnetic field pulse duration with minimal value in the case of Mie scattering, which is known as a magneto-optical extinction trend inversion. The residual inversion was detected after the external magnetic field pulse falling edge. Using molecular dynamics simulation, we showed that a homogeneous external magnetic field is enough for the formation of columnar aggregates and their fusion. The results clarify the known Li theory (Li et al., 2004, 2007), implying an inhomogeneous field as a required prerequisite for the magneto-optical extinction trend inversion phenomenon. - Highlights: • Ferrofluid columnar aggregates have been observed in a homogeneous magnetic field. • Magneto-optical extinction trend inversion is related to the Mie light scattering. • Crucial role of columnar aggregates growth and lateral coalescence has been revealed. • Residual extinction trend inversion was observed after the field switch off.
Magneto-optical extinction trend inversion in ferrofluids
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Shulyma, S.I.; Tanygin, B.M.; Kovalenko, V.F.; Petrychuk, M.V.
2016-01-01
Effects of pulse magnetic field on the optical transmission properties of thin ferrofluid (FF) layers were experimentally investigated. It was observed that, under an influence of an external uniform magnetic field, pulses applied to the samples surfaces in normal direction decrease the optical transmission with further returning it to its original state, even before the end of the field pulse. The dependencies of the observed effects on the magnetic pulse magnitude and the samples thickness were investigated. The experimental results are explained using FF columnar aggregates growth and lateral coalescence under influence of a magnetic field, leading to a light scattering type Rayleigh-to-Mie transition. Further evolution of this process comes to a geometrical optics scale and respective macroscopic observable opaque FF columnar aggregates emergence. These changes of optical transmission are non-monotonic during the magnetic field pulse duration with minimal value in the case of Mie scattering, which is known as a magneto-optical extinction trend inversion. The residual inversion was detected after the external magnetic field pulse falling edge. Using molecular dynamics simulation, we showed that a homogeneous external magnetic field is enough for the formation of columnar aggregates and their fusion. The results clarify the known Li theory (Li et al., 2004, 2007), implying an inhomogeneous field as a required prerequisite for the magneto-optical extinction trend inversion phenomenon. - Highlights: • Ferrofluid columnar aggregates have been observed in a homogeneous magnetic field. • Magneto-optical extinction trend inversion is related to the Mie light scattering. • Crucial role of columnar aggregates growth and lateral coalescence has been revealed. • Residual extinction trend inversion was observed after the field switch off.
Transmuted Generalized Inverse Weibull Distribution
Merovci, Faton; Elbatal, Ibrahim; Ahmed, Alaa
2013-01-01
A generalization of the generalized inverse Weibull distribution so-called transmuted generalized inverse Weibull dis- tribution is proposed and studied. We will use the quadratic rank transmutation map (QRTM) in order to generate a flexible family of probability distributions taking generalized inverse Weibull distribution as the base value distribution by introducing a new parameter that would offer more distributional flexibility. Various structural properties including explicit expression...
Inverse Monte Carlo: a unified reconstruction algorithm for SPECT
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Floyd, C.E.; Coleman, R.E.; Jaszczak, R.J.
1985-01-01
Inverse Monte Carlo (IMOC) is presented as a unified reconstruction algorithm for Emission Computed Tomography (ECT) providing simultaneous compensation for scatter, attenuation, and the variation of collimator resolution with depth. The technique of inverse Monte Carlo is used to find an inverse solution to the photon transport equation (an integral equation for photon flux from a specified source) for a parameterized source and specific boundary conditions. The system of linear equations so formed is solved to yield the source activity distribution for a set of acquired projections. For the studies presented here, the equations are solved using the EM (Maximum Likelihood) algorithm although other solution algorithms, such as Least Squares, could be employed. While the present results specifically consider the reconstruction of camera-based Single Photon Emission Computed Tomographic (SPECT) images, the technique is equally valid for Positron Emission Tomography (PET) if a Monte Carlo model of such a system is used. As a preliminary evaluation, experimentally acquired SPECT phantom studies for imaging Tc-99m (140 keV) are presented which demonstrate the quantitative compensation for scatter and attenuation for a two dimensional (single slice) reconstruction. The algorithm may be expanded in a straight forward manner to full three dimensional reconstruction including compensation for out of plane scatter
Bistatic Forward Scattering Radar Detection and Imaging
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Hu Cheng
2016-06-01
Full Text Available Forward Scattering Radar (FSR is a special type of bistatic radar that can implement image detection, imaging, and identification using the forward scattering signals provided by the moving targets that cross the baseline between the transmitter and receiver. Because the forward scattering effect has a vital significance in increasing the targets’ Radar Cross Section (RCS, FSR is quite advantageous for use in counter stealth detection. This paper first introduces the front line technology used in forward scattering RCS, FSR detection, and Shadow Inverse Synthetic Aperture Radar (SISAR imaging and key problems such as the statistical characteristics of forward scattering clutter, accurate parameter estimation, and multitarget discrimination are then analyzed. Subsequently, the current research progress in FSR detection and SISAR imaging are described in detail, including the theories and experiments. In addition, with reference to the BeiDou navigation satellite, the results of forward scattering experiments in civil aircraft detection are shown. Finally, this paper considers future developments in FSR target detection and imaging and presents a new, promising technique for stealth target detection.
Quantum-mechanical scattering in one dimension
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Boya, Luis J.
2008-01-01
The purpose of this mainly pedagogical review is to fill a lacuna in the usual treatment of scattering in quantum mechanics, by showing the essential of it in the simplest, one-dimensional setting. We define in this situation amplitudes and scattering coefficients and deal with optical and Levinson' theorems as consequences of unitarity in coordinate or momentum space. Parity waves en lieu of partial waves, integral equations and Born series, etc., are defined naturally in this frame. Several solvable examples are shown. Two topics best studied in 1d are transparent potentials and supersymmetric quantum mechanics. Elementary analytical properties and general behaviour of amplitudes give rise to study inverse problems, that is, recovering the potential from scattering data. Isospectral deformations of the wave equation give relations with some nonlinear evolution equations (Lax), solvable by the inverse scattering method (Kruskal), and we consider the KdV equation as an example. We also refer briefly to some singular potentials, where, e.g., the essence of renormalization can be read off again in the simplest setting. The whole paper emphasizes the tutorial and introductory aspects
Calculation of the inverse data space via sparse inversion
Saragiotis, Christos; Doulgeris, Panagiotis C.; Verschuur, Dirk Jacob Eric
2011-01-01
The inverse data space provides a natural separation of primaries and surface-related multiples, as the surface multiples map onto the area around the origin while the primaries map elsewhere. However, the calculation of the inverse data is far from
Inverse feasibility problems of the inverse maximum flow problems
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
199–209. c Indian Academy of Sciences. Inverse feasibility problems of the inverse maximum flow problems. ADRIAN DEACONU. ∗ and ELEONOR CIUREA. Department of Mathematics and Computer Science, Faculty of Mathematics and Informatics, Transilvania University of Brasov, Brasov, Iuliu Maniu st. 50,. Romania.