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Sample records for inverse compton effect

  1. Production of X-rays by inverse Compton effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mainardi, R.T.

    2005-01-01

    X-rays and gamma rays of high energy values can be produced by the scattering of low energy photons with high energy electrons, being this a process controlled by the Compton scattering. If a laser beam is used, the x-ray beam inherits the properties of intensity, monochromaticity and collimation from the laser. In this work we analyze the generation of intense x-ray beams of energies between 10 and 100 KeV to be used in a wide range of applications where a high intensity and high degrees of monochromaticity and polarization are important properties to improve image reduce doses and improve radiation treatments. To this purpose we evaluated, using relativistic kinematics the scattered beam properties in terms of the scattering angle. This arrangement is being considered in several worldwide laboratories as an alternative to synchrotron radiation and is referred to as 'table top synchrotron radiation', since it cost of installation is orders of magnitude smaller than a 'synchrotron radiation source'. The radiation beam might exhibit non-linear properties in its interaction with matter, in a similar way as a laser beam and we will investigate how to calibrate and evaluate TLD dosemeters properties, both in low and high intensity fields either mono or polyenergetic in wide spectral energy ranges. (Author)

  2. Inverse comptonization vs. thermal synchrotron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fenimore, E.E.; Klebesadel, R.W.; Laros, J.G.

    1983-01-01

    There are currently two radiation mechanisms being considered for gamma-ray bursts: thermal synchrotron and inverse comptonization. They are mutually exclusive since thermal synchrotron requires a magnetic field of approx. 10 12 Gauss whereas inverse comptonization cannot produce a monotonic spectrum if the field is larger than 10 11 and is too inefficient relative to thermal synchrotron unless the field is less than 10 9 Gauss. Neither mechanism can explain completely the observed characteristics of gamma-ray bursts. However, we conclude that thermal synchrotron is more consistent with the observations if the sources are approx. 40 kpc away whereas inverse comptonization is more consistent if they are approx. 300 pc away. Unfortunately, the source distance is still not known and, thus, the radiation mechanism is still uncertain

  3. Inverse Compton gamma-rays from pulsars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morini, M.

    1983-01-01

    A model is proposed for pulsar optical and gamma-ray emission where relativistic electrons beams: (i) scatter the blackbody photons from the polar cap surface giving inverse Compton gamma-rays and (ii) produce synchrotron optical photons in the light cylinder region which are then inverse Compton scattered giving other gamma-rays. The model is applied to the Vela pulsar, explaining the first gamma-ray pulse by inverse Compton scattering of synchrotron photons near the light cylinder and the second gamma-ray pulse partly by inverse Compton scattering of synchrotron photons and partly by inverse Compton scattering of the thermal blackbody photons near the star surface. (author)

  4. Scaling laws in high-energy inverse compton scattering. II. Effect of bulk motions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nozawa, Satoshi; Kohyama, Yasuharu; Itoh, Naoki

    2010-01-01

    We study the inverse Compton scattering of the CMB photons off high-energy nonthermal electrons. We extend the formalism obtained by the previous paper to the case where the electrons have nonzero bulk motions with respect to the CMB frame. Assuming the power-law electron distribution, we find the same scaling law for the probability distribution function P 1,K (s) as P 1 (s) which corresponds to the zero bulk motions, where the peak height and peak position depend only on the power-index parameter. We solved the rate equation analytically. It is found that the spectral intensity function also has the same scaling law. The effect of the bulk motions to the spectral intensity function is found to be small. The present study will be applicable to the analysis of the x-ray and gamma-ray emission models from various astrophysical objects with nonzero bulk motions such as radio galaxies and astrophysical jets.

  5. Production of X-rays by inverse Compton effect; Produccion de rayos X por efecto Compton inverso

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mainardi, R.T. [Facultad de Matematica, Astronomia y Fisica, Universidad Nacional de Cordoba, 5000 Cordoba (Argentina)

    2005-07-01

    X-rays and gamma rays of high energy values can be produced by the scattering of low energy photons with high energy electrons, being this a process controlled by the Compton scattering. If a laser beam is used, the x-ray beam inherits the properties of intensity, monochromaticity and collimation from the laser. In this work we analyze the generation of intense x-ray beams of energies between 10 and 100 KeV to be used in a wide range of applications where a high intensity and high degrees of monochromaticity and polarization are important properties to improve image reduce doses and improve radiation treatments. To this purpose we evaluated, using relativistic kinematics the scattered beam properties in terms of the scattering angle. This arrangement is being considered in several worldwide laboratories as an alternative to synchrotron radiation and is referred to as 'table top synchrotron radiation', since it cost of installation is orders of magnitude smaller than a 'synchrotron radiation source'. The radiation beam might exhibit non-linear properties in its interaction with matter, in a similar way as a laser beam and we will investigate how to calibrate and evaluate TLD dosemeters properties, both in low and high intensity fields either mono or polyenergetic in wide spectral energy ranges. (Author)

  6. Signature of inverse Compton emission from blazars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaur, Haritma; Mohan, Prashanth; Wierzcholska, Alicja; Gu, Minfeng

    2018-01-01

    Blazars are classified into high-, intermediate- and low-energy-peaked sources based on the location of their synchrotron peak. This lies in infra-red/optical to ultra-violet bands for low- and intermediate-peaked blazars. The transition from synchrotron to inverse Compton emission falls in the X-ray bands for such sources. We present the spectral and timing analysis of 14 low- and intermediate-energy-peaked blazars observed with XMM-Newton spanning 31 epochs. Parametric fits to X-ray spectra help constrain the possible location of transition from the high-energy end of the synchrotron to the low-energy end of the inverse Compton emission. In seven sources in our sample, we infer such a transition and constrain the break energy in the range 0.6-10 keV. The Lomb-Scargle periodogram is used to estimate the power spectral density (PSD) shape. It is well described by a power law in a majority of light curves, the index being flatter compared to general expectation from active galactic nuclei, ranging here between 0.01 and 1.12, possibly due to short observation durations resulting in an absence of long-term trends. A toy model involving synchrotron self-Compton and external Compton (EC; disc, broad line region, torus) mechanisms are used to estimate magnetic field strength ≤0.03-0.88 G in sources displaying the energy break and infer a prominent EC contribution. The time-scale for variability being shorter than synchrotron cooling implies steeper PSD slopes which are inferred in these sources.

  7. Constraint on Parameters of Inverse Compton Scattering Model for ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    B2319+60, two parameters of inverse Compton scattering model, the initial Lorentz factor and the factor of energy loss of relativistic particles are constrained. Key words. Pulsar—inverse Compton scattering—emission mechanism. 1. Introduction. Among various kinds of models for pulsar radio emission, the inverse ...

  8. Time-independent inverse compton spectrum for photons from a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The general theoretical aspects of inverse Compton scattering was investigated and an equation for the timeindependent inverse Compton spectrum for photons from a plasma cloud of finite extent was derived. This was done by convolving the Kompaneets equation used for describing the evolution of the photon spectrum ...

  9. Resonant Inverse Compton Scattering Spectra from Highly Magnetized Neutron Stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wadiasingh, Zorawar; Baring, Matthew G.; Gonthier, Peter L.; Harding, Alice K.

    2018-02-01

    Hard, nonthermal, persistent pulsed X-ray emission extending between 10 and ∼150 keV has been observed in nearly 10 magnetars. For inner-magnetospheric models of such emission, resonant inverse Compton scattering of soft thermal photons by ultrarelativistic charges is the most efficient production mechanism. We present angle-dependent upscattering spectra and pulsed intensity maps for uncooled, relativistic electrons injected in inner regions of magnetar magnetospheres, calculated using collisional integrals over field loops. Our computations employ a new formulation of the QED Compton scattering cross section in strong magnetic fields that is physically correct for treating important spin-dependent effects in the cyclotron resonance, thereby producing correct photon spectra. The spectral cutoff energies are sensitive to the choices of observer viewing geometry, electron Lorentz factor, and scattering kinematics. We find that electrons with energies ≲15 MeV will emit most of their radiation below 250 keV, consistent with inferred turnovers for magnetar hard X-ray tails. More energetic electrons still emit mostly below 1 MeV, except for viewing perspectives sampling field-line tangents. Pulse profiles may be singly or doubly peaked dependent on viewing geometry, emission locale, and observed energy band. Magnetic pair production and photon splitting will attenuate spectra to hard X-ray energies, suppressing signals in the Fermi-LAT band. The resonant Compton spectra are strongly polarized, suggesting that hard X-ray polarimetry instruments such as X-Calibur, or a future Compton telescope, can prove central to constraining model geometry and physics.

  10. Inverse compton emission of gamma rays near the pulsar surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morini, M.

    1981-01-01

    The physical conditions near pulsar surface that might give rise to gamma ray emission from Crab and Vela pulsars are not yet well understood. Here I suggest that, in the context of the vacuum discharge mechanism proposed by Ruderman and Sutherland (1975), gamma rays are produced by inverse Compton scattering of secondary electrons with the thermal radiation of the star surface as well as for curvature and synchotron radiation. It is found that inverse Compton scattering is relevant if the neutron star surface temperature is greater than 10 6 K or of the polar cap temperature is of the order of 5 x 10 6 K. Inverse Compton scattering in anisotropic photon fields and Klein-Nishina regime is here carefully considered. (orig.)

  11. Detection of inverse Compton scattering in plasma wakefield experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bohlen, Simon

    2016-12-15

    Inverse Compton scattering (ICS) is the process of scattering of photons and electrons, where the photons gain a part of the electrons energy. In combination with plasma wakefield acceleration (PWA), ICS offers a compact MeV γ-ray source. A numerical study of ICS radiation produced in PWA experiments at FLASHForward was performed, using an ICS simulation code and the results from particle-in-cell modelling. The possibility of determining electron beam properties from measurements of the γ-ray source was explored for a wide range of experimental conditions. It was found that information about the electron divergence, the electron spectrum and longitudinal information can be obtained from measurements of the ICS beams for some cases. For the measurement of the ICS profile at FLASHForward, a CsI(Tl) scintillator array was chosen, similar to scintillators used in other ICS experiments. To find a suitable detector for spectrum measurements, an experimental test of a Compton spectrometer at the RAL was conducted. This test showed that a similar spectrometer could also be used at FLASHForward. However, changes to the spectrometer could be needed in order to use the pair production effect. In addition, further studies using Geant4 could lead to a better reconstruction of the obtained data. The studies presented here show that ICS is a promising method to analyse electron parameters from PWA experiments in further detail.

  12. Pulsar high energy emission due to inverse Compton scattering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lyutikov, Maxim

    2013-06-15

    We discuss growing evidence that pulsar high energy is emission is generated via Inverse Compton mechanism. We reproduce the broadband spectrum of Crab pulsar, from UV to very high energy gamma-rays - nearly ten decades in energy, within the framework of the cyclotron-self-Compton model. Emission is produced by two counter-streaming beams within the outer gaps, at distances above ∼ 20 NS radii. The outward moving beam produces UV-X-ray photons via Doppler-booster cyclotron emission, and GeV photons by Compton scattering the cyclotron photons produced by the inward going beam. The scattering occurs in the deep Klein-Nishina regime, whereby the IC component provides a direct measurement of particle distribution within the magnetosphere. The required plasma multiplicity is high, ∼10{sup 6} – 10{sup 7}, but is consistent with the average particle flux injected into the pulsar wind nebula.

  13. Nuclear photon science with inverse compton photon beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujiwara, Mamoru

    2007-01-01

    Recent developments of the synchrotron radiation facilities and intense lasers are now guiding us to a new research frontier with probes of a high energy GeV photon beam and an intense and short pulse MeV γ-ray beam. New directions of the science developments with photo-nuclear reactions are discussed. The inverse Compton γ-ray has two good advantages for searching for a microscopic quantum world; they are 1) good emittance and 2) high linear and circular polarizations. With these advantages, photon beams in the energy range from MeV to GeV are used for studying hadron structure, nuclear structure, astrophysics, materials science, as well as for applying medical science. (author)

  14. Analytical description of photon beam phase spaces in inverse Compton scattering sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Curatolo

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available We revisit the description of inverse Compton scattering sources and the photon beams generated therein, emphasizing the behavior of their phase space density distributions and how they depend upon those of the two colliding beams of electrons and photons. The main objective is to provide practical formulas for bandwidth, spectral density, brilliance, which are valid in general for any value of the recoil factor, i.e. both in the Thomson regime of negligible electron recoil, and in the deep Compton recoil dominated region, which is of interest for gamma-gamma colliders and Compton sources for the production of multi-GeV photon beams. We adopt a description based on the center of mass reference system of the electron-photon collision, in order to underline the role of the electron recoil and how it controls the relativistic Doppler/boost effect in various regimes. Using the center of mass reference frame greatly simplifies the treatment, allowing us to derive simple formulas expressed in terms of rms momenta of the two colliding beams (emittance, energy spread, etc. and the collimation angle in the laboratory system. Comparisons with Monte Carlo simulations of inverse Compton scattering in various scenarios are presented, showing very good agreement with the analytical formulas: in particular we find that the bandwidth dependence on the electron beam emittance, of paramount importance in Thomson regime, as it limits the amount of focusing imparted to the electron beam, becomes much less sensitive in deep Compton regime, allowing a stronger focusing of the electron beam to enhance luminosity without loss of mono-chromaticity. A similar effect occurs concerning the bandwidth dependence on the frequency spread of the incident photons: in deep recoil regime the bandwidth comes out to be much less dependent on the frequency spread. The set of formulas here derived are very helpful in designing inverse Compton sources in diverse regimes, giving a

  15. Inverse compton light source: a compact design proposal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deitrick, Kirsten Elizabeth [Old Dominion Univ., Norfolk, VA (United States); Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (TJNAF), Newport News, VA (United States)

    2017-05-01

    In the last decade, there has been an increasing demand for a compact Inverse Compton Light Source (ICLS) which is capable of producing high-quality X-rays by colliding an electron beam and a high-quality laser. It is only in recent years when both SRF and laser technology have advanced enough that compact sources can approach the quality found at large installations such as the Advanced Photon Source at Argonne National Laboratory. Previously, X-ray sources were either high flux and brilliance at a large facility or many orders of magnitude lesser when produced by a bremsstrahlung source. A recent compact source was constructed by Lyncean Technologies using a storage ring to produce the electron beam used to scatter the incident laser beam. By instead using a linear accelerator system for the electron beam, a significant increase in X-ray beam quality is possible, though even subsequent designs also featuring a storage ring offer improvement. Preceding the linear accelerator with an SRF reentrant gun allows for an extremely small transverse emittance, increasing the brilliance of the resulting X-ray source. In order to achieve sufficiently small emittances, optimization was done regarding both the geometry of the gun and the initial electron bunch distribution produced off the cathode. Using double-spoke SRF cavities to comprise the linear accelerator allows for an electron beam of reasonable size to be focused at the interaction point, while preserving the low emittance that was generated by the gun. An aggressive final focusing section following the electron beam's exit from the accelerator produces the small spot size at the interaction point which results in an X-ray beam of high flux and brilliance. Taking all of these advancements together, a world class compact X-ray source has been designed. It is anticipated that this source would far outperform the conventional bremsstrahlung and many other compact ICLSs, while coming closer to performing at the

  16. Brilliant GeV gamma-ray flash from inverse Compton scattering in the QED regime

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Z.; Hu, R. H.; Lu, H. Y.; Yu, J. Q.; Wang, D. H.; Fu, E. G.; Chen, C. E.; He, X. T.; Yan, X. Q.

    2018-04-01

    An all-optical scheme is proposed for studying laser plasma based incoherent photon emission from inverse Compton scattering in the quantum electrodynamic regime. A theoretical model is presented to explain the coupling effects among radiation reaction trapping, the self-generated magnetic field and the spiral attractor in phase space, which guarantees the transfer of energy and angular momentum from electromagnetic fields to particles. Taking advantage of a prospective ˜ 1023 W cm-2 laser facility, 3D particle-in-cell simulations show a gamma-ray flash with unprecedented multi-petawatt power and brightness of 1.7 × 1023 photons s-1 mm-2 mrad-2/0.1% bandwidth (at 1 GeV). These results bode well for new research directions in particle physics and laboratory astrophysics exploring laser plasma interactions.

  17. Stochastic Electrodynamics and the Compton effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Franca, H.M.; Barranco, A.V.

    1987-12-01

    Some of the main qualitative features of the Compton effect are tried to be described within the realm of Classical Stochastic Electrodynamics (SED). It is found indications that the combined action of the incident wave (frequency ω), the radiation reaction force and the zero point fluctuating electromagnetic fields of SED, are able to given a high average recoil velocity v/c=α/(1+α) to the charged particle. The estimate of the parameter α gives α ∼ ℎω/mc 2 where 2Πℎ is the constant and mc 2 is the rest energy of the particle. It is verified that this recoil is just that necessary to explain the frequency shift, observed in the scattered radiation as due to a classical double Doppler shift. The differential cross section for the radiation scattered by the recoiling charge using classical electromagnetism also calculated. The same expression as obtained by Compton in his fundamental work of 1923 is found. (author) [pt

  18. Induced Compton scattering effects in radiation transport approximations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gibson, D.R. Jr.

    1982-01-01

    In this thesis the method of characteristics is used to solve radiation transport problems with induced Compton scattering effects included. The methods used to date have only addressed problems in which either induced Compton scattering is ignored, or problems in which linear scattering is ignored. Also, problems which include both induced Compton scattering and spatial effects have not been considered previously. The introduction of induced scattering into the radiation transport equation results in a quadratic nonlinearity. Methods are developed to solve problems in which both linear and nonlinear Compton scattering are important. Solutions to scattering problems are found for a variety of initial photon energy distributions

  19. Induced Compton-scattering effects in radiation-transport approximations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gibson, D.R. Jr.

    1982-02-01

    The method of characteristics is used to solve radiation transport problems with induced Compton scattering effects included. The methods used to date have only addressed problems in which either induced Compton scattering is ignored, or problems in which linear scattering is ignored. Also, problems which include both induced Compton scattering and spatial effects have not been considered previously. The introduction of induced scattering into the radiation transport equation results in a quadratic nonlinearity. Methods are developed to solve problems in which both linear and nonlinear Compton scattering are important. Solutions to scattering problems are found for a variety of initial photon energy distributions

  20. The effect of Compton scattering on quantitative SPECT imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beck, J.W.; Jaszczak, R.J.; Starmer, C.F.

    1982-01-01

    A Monte Carlo code has been developed to simulate the response of a SPECT system. The accuracy of the code has been verified and has been used in this research to study and illustrate the effects of Compton scatter on quantitative SPECT measurements. The effects of Compton scattered radiation on gamma camera response have been discussed by several authors, and will be extended to rotating gamma camera SPECT systems. The unique feature of this research includes the pictorial illustration of the Compton scattered and the unscattered components of the photopeak data on SPECT imaging by simulating phantom studies with and without Compton scatter

  1. Simulation of inverse Compton scattering and its implications on the scattered linewidth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranjan, N.; Terzić, B.; Krafft, G. A.; Petrillo, V.; Drebot, I.; Serafini, L.

    2018-03-01

    Rising interest in inverse Compton sources has increased the need for efficient models that properly quantify the behavior of scattered radiation given a set of interaction parameters. The current state-of-the-art simulations rely on Monte Carlo-based methods, which, while properly expressing scattering behavior in high-probability regions of the produced spectra, may not correctly simulate such behavior in low-probability regions (e.g. tails of spectra). Moreover, sampling may take an inordinate amount of time for the desired accuracy to be achieved. In this paper, we present an analytic derivation of the expression describing the scattered radiation linewidth and propose a model to describe the effects of horizontal and vertical emittance on the properties of the scattered radiation. We also present an improved version of the code initially reported in Krafft et al. [Phys. Rev. Accel. Beams 19, 121302 (2016), 10.1103/PhysRevAccelBeams.19.121302], that can perform the same simulations as those present in cain and give accurate results in low-probability regions by integrating over the emissions of the electrons. Finally, we use these codes to carry out simulations that closely verify the behavior predicted by the analytically derived scaling law.

  2. Relativistic inverse Compton scattering of photons from the early universe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malu, Siddharth; Datta, Abhirup; Colafrancesco, Sergio; Marchegiani, Paolo; Subrahmanyan, Ravi; Narasimha, D; Wieringa, Mark H

    2017-12-05

    Electrons at relativistic speeds, diffusing in magnetic fields, cause copious emission at radio frequencies in both clusters of galaxies and radio galaxies through non-thermal radiation emission called synchrotron. However, the total power radiated through this mechanism is ill constrained, as the lower limit of the electron energy distribution, or low-energy cutoffs, for radio emission in galaxy clusters and radio galaxies, have not yet been determined. This lower limit, parametrized by the lower limit of the electron momentum - p min - is critical for estimating the total energetics of non-thermal electrons produced by cluster mergers or injected by radio galaxy jets, which impacts the formation of large-scale structure in the universe, as well as the evolution of local structures inside galaxy clusters. The total pressure due to the relativistic, non-thermal population of electrons can be measured using the Sunyaev-Zel'dovich Effect, and is critically dependent on p min , making the measurement of this non-thermal pressure a promising technique to estimate the electron low-energy cutoff. We present here the first unambiguous detection of this Sunyaev-Zel'dovich Effect for a non-thermal population of electrons in a radio galaxy jet/lobe, located at a significant distance away from the center of the Bullet cluster of galaxies.

  3. Compton effect thermally activated depolarization dosimeter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moran, Paul R.

    1978-01-01

    A dosimetry technique for high-energy gamma radiation or X-radiation employs the Compton effect in conjunction with radiation-induced thermally activated depolarization phenomena. A dielectric material is disposed between two electrodes which are electrically short circuited to produce a dosimeter which is then exposed to the gamma or X radiation. The gamma or X-radiation impinging on the dosimeter interacts with the dielectric material directly or with the metal composing the electrode to produce Compton electrons which are emitted preferentially in the direction in which the radiation was traveling. A portion of these electrons becomes trapped in the dielectric material, consequently inducing a stable electrical polarization in the dielectric material. Subsequent heating of the exposed dosimeter to the point of onset of ionic conductivity with the electrodes still shorted through an ammeter causes the dielectric material to depolarize, and the depolarization signal so emitted can be measured and is proportional to the dose of radiation received by the dosimeter.

  4. HIGH-ENERGY EMISSION OF GRB 130427A: EVIDENCE FOR INVERSE COMPTON RADIATION

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fan, Yi-Zhong; Zhang, Fu-Wen; He, Hao-Ning; Zhou, Bei; Yang, Rui-Zhi; Jin, Zhi-Ping; Wei, Da-Ming; Tam, P. H. T.; Liang, Yun-Feng

    2013-01-01

    A nearby superluminous burst GRB 130427A was simultaneously detected by six γ-ray space telescopes (Swift, the Fermi GLAST Burst Monitor (GBM)/Large Area Telescope, Konus-Wind, SPI-ACS/INTEGRAL, AGILE, and RHESSI) and by three RAPTOR full-sky persistent monitors. The isotropic γ-ray energy release is ∼10 54 erg, rendering it the most powerful explosion among gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) with a redshift z ≤ 0.5. The emission above 100 MeV lasted about one day, and four photons are at energies greater than 40 GeV. We show that the count rate of 100 MeV-100 GeV emission may be mainly accounted for by the forward shock synchrotron radiation and the inverse Compton radiation likely dominates at GeV-TeV energies. In particular, an inverse Compton radiation origin is favored for the ∼(95.3, 47.3, 41.4, 38.5, 32) GeV photons arriving at t ∼ (243, 256.3, 610.6, 3409.8, 34366.2) s after the trigger of Fermi-GBM. Interestingly, the external inverse Compton scattering of the prompt emission (the second episode, i.e., t ∼ 120-260 s) by the forward-shock-accelerated electrons is expected to produce a few γ-rays at energies above 10 GeV, while five were detected in the same time interval. A possible unified model for the prompt soft γ-ray, optical, and GeV emission of GRB 130427A, GRB 080319B, and GRB 090902B is outlined. Implications of the null detection of >1 TeV neutrinos from GRB 130427A by IceCube are discussed

  5. Inverse Compton gamma-rays from galactic dark matter annihilation. Anisotropy signatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Le; Sigl, Guenter; Miniati, Francesco

    2010-08-01

    High energy electrons and positrons from annihilating dark matter can imprint unique angular anisotropies on the diffuse gamma-ray flux by inverse Compton scattering off the interstellar radiation field. We develop a numerical tool to compute gamma-ray emission from such electrons and positrons diffusing in the smooth host halo and in substructure halos with masses down to 10 -6 M s un. We show that, unlike the total gamma-ray angular power spectrum observed by Fermi-LAT, the angular power spectrum from inverse Compton scattering is exponentially suppressed below an angular scale determined by the diffusion length of electrons and positrons. For TeV scale dark matter with a canonical thermal freeze-out cross section 3 x 10 -26 cm 3 /s, this feature may be detectable by Fermi-LAT in the energy range 100-300 GeV after more sophisticated foreground subtraction. We also find that the total flux and the shape of the angular power spectrum depends sensitively on the spatial distribution of subhalos in the Milky Way. Finally, the contribution from the smooth host halo component to the gamma-ray mean intensity is negligibly small compared to subhalos. (orig.)

  6. Inverse Compton gamma-rays from galactic dark matter annihilation. Anisotropy signatures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Le; Sigl, Guenter [Hamburg Univ. (Germany). 2. Inst. fuer Theoretische Physik; Miniati, Francesco [ETH Zuerich (Switzerland). Physics Dept.

    2010-08-15

    High energy electrons and positrons from annihilating dark matter can imprint unique angular anisotropies on the diffuse gamma-ray flux by inverse Compton scattering off the interstellar radiation field. We develop a numerical tool to compute gamma-ray emission from such electrons and positrons diffusing in the smooth host halo and in substructure halos with masses down to 10{sup -6}M{sub s}un. We show that, unlike the total gamma-ray angular power spectrum observed by Fermi-LAT, the angular power spectrum from inverse Compton scattering is exponentially suppressed below an angular scale determined by the diffusion length of electrons and positrons. For TeV scale dark matter with a canonical thermal freeze-out cross section 3 x 10{sup -26} cm{sup 3}/s, this feature may be detectable by Fermi-LAT in the energy range 100-300 GeV after more sophisticated foreground subtraction. We also find that the total flux and the shape of the angular power spectrum depends sensitively on the spatial distribution of subhalos in the Milky Way. Finally, the contribution from the smooth host halo component to the gamma-ray mean intensity is negligibly small compared to subhalos. (orig.)

  7. BOW TIES IN THE SKY. I. THE ANGULAR STRUCTURE OF INVERSE COMPTON GAMMA-RAY HALOS IN THE FERMI SKY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Broderick, Avery E.; Shalaby, Mohamad [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Waterloo, 200 University Avenue West, Waterloo, ON, N2L 3G1 (Canada); Tiede, Paul [Perimeter Institute for Theoretical Physics, 31 Caroline Street North, Waterloo, ON, N2L 2Y5 (Canada); Pfrommer, Christoph [Heidelberg Institute for Theoretical Studies, Schloss-Wolfsbrunnenweg 35, D-69118 Heidelberg (Germany); Puchwein, Ewald [Institute of Astronomy and Kavli Institute for Cosmology, University of Cambridge, Madingley Road, Cambridge, CB3 0HA (United Kingdom); Chang, Philip [Department of Physics, University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee, 1900 E. Kenwood Boulevard, Milwaukee, WI 53211 (United States); Lamberts, Astrid [Theoretical Astrophysics, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States)

    2016-12-01

    Extended inverse Compton halos are generally anticipated around extragalactic sources of gamma rays with energies above 100 GeV. These result from inverse Compton scattered cosmic microwave background photons by a population of high-energy electron/positron pairs produced by the annihilation of the high-energy gamma rays on the infrared background. Despite the observed attenuation of the high-energy gamma rays, the halo emission has yet to be directly detected. Here, we demonstrate that in most cases these halos are expected to be highly anisotropic, distributing the upscattered gamma rays along axes defined either by the radio jets of the sources or oriented perpendicular to a global magnetic field. We present a pedagogical derivation of the angular structure in the inverse Compton halo and provide an analytic formalism that facilitates the generation of mock images. We discuss exploiting this fact for the purpose of detecting gamma-ray halos in a set of companion papers.

  8. Development and characterization of a tunable ultrafast X-ray source via inverse-Compton-scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jochmann, Axel

    2014-01-01

    Ultrashort, nearly monochromatic hard X-ray pulses enrich the understanding of the dynamics and function of matter, e.g., the motion of atomic structures associated with ultrafast phase transitions, structural dynamics and (bio)chemical reactions. Inverse Compton backscattering of intense laser pulses from relativistic electrons not only allows for the generation of bright X-ray pulses which can be used in a pump-probe experiment, but also for the investigation of the electron beam dynamics at the interaction point. The focus of this PhD work lies on the detailed understanding of the kinematics during the interaction of the relativistic electron bunch and the laser pulse in order to quantify the influence of various experiment parameters on the emitted X-ray radiation. The experiment was conducted at the ELBE center for high power radiation sources using the ELBE superconducting linear accelerator and the DRACO Ti:sapphire laser system. The combination of both these state-of-the-art apparatuses guaranteed the control and stability of the interacting beam parameters throughout the measurement. The emitted X-ray spectra were detected with a pixelated detector of 1024 by 256 elements (each 26μm by 26μm) to achieve an unprecedented spatial and energy resolution for a full characterization of the emitted spectrum to reveal parameter influences and correlations of both interacting beams. In this work the influence of the electron beam energy, electron beam emittance, the laser bandwidth and the energy-anglecorrelation on the spectra of the backscattered X-rays is quantified. A rigorous statistical analysis comparing experimental data to ab-initio 3D simulations enabled, e.g., the extraction of the angular distribution of electrons with 1.5% accuracy and, in total, provides predictive capability for the future high brightness hard X-ray source PHOENIX (Photon electron collider for Narrow bandwidth Intense X-rays) and potential all optical gamma-ray sources. The results

  9. Compact FEL-driven inverse compton scattering gamma-ray source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Placidi, M. [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Di Mitri, S., E-mail: simone.dimitri@elettra.eu [Elettra - Sincrotrone Trieste S.C.p.A., 34149 Basovizza, Trieste (Italy); Pellegrini, C. [SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, Menlo Park, CA 94025 (United States); University of California, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States); Penn, G. [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States)

    2017-05-21

    Many research and applications areas require photon sources capable of producing gamma-ray beams in the multi-MeV energy range with reasonably high fluxes and compact footprints. Besides industrial, nuclear physics and security applications, a considerable interest comes from the possibility to assess the state of conservation of cultural assets like statues, columns etc., via visualization and analysis techniques using high energy photon beams. Computed Tomography scans, widely adopted in medicine at lower photon energies, presently provide high quality three-dimensional imaging in industry and museums. We explore the feasibility of a compact source of quasi-monochromatic, multi-MeV gamma-rays based on Inverse Compton Scattering (ICS) from a high intensity ultra-violet (UV) beam generated in a free-electron laser by the electron beam itself. This scheme introduces a stronger relationship between the energy of the scattered photons and that of the electron beam, resulting in a device much more compact than a classic ICS for a given scattered energy. The same electron beam is used to produce gamma-rays in the 10–20 MeV range and UV radiation in the 10–15 eV range, in a ~4×22 m{sup 2} footprint system.

  10. Synchrotron self-inverse Compton radiation from reverse shock on GRB 120326A

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Urata, Yuji [Institute of Astronomy, National Central University, Chung-Li 32054, Taiwan (China); Huang, Kuiyun; Takahashi, Satoko [Academia Sinica Institute of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Taipei 106, Taiwan (China); Im, Myungshin; Kim, Jae-Woo; Jang, Minsung [Center for the Exploration of the Origin of the Universe, Department of Physics and Astronomy, FPRD, Seoul National University, Shillim-dong, San 56-1, Kwanak-gu, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Yamaoka, Kazutaka [Solar-Terrestrial Environment Laboratory, Nagoya University, Furo-cho, Chikusa-ku, Nagoya, Aichi 464-8601 (Japan); Tashiro, Makoto [Department of Physics, Saitama University, Shimo-Okubo, Saitama 338-8570 (Japan); Pak, Soojong, E-mail: urata@astro.ncu.edu.tw [School of Space Research, Kyung Hee University, Yongin, Gyeonggi 446-701 (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-07-10

    We present multi-wavelength observations of a typical long duration GRB 120326A at z = 1.798, including rapid observations using a Submillimeter Array (SMA) and a comprehensive monitoring in the X-ray and optical. The SMA observation provided the fastest detection to date among seven submillimeter afterglows at 230 GHz. The prompt spectral analysis, using Swift and Suzaku, yielded a spectral peak energy of E{sub peak}{sup src}=107.8{sub −15.3}{sup +15.3} keV and an equivalent isotropic energy of E{sub iso} as 3.18{sub −0.32}{sup +0.40}×10{sup 52} erg. The temporal evolution and spectral properties in the optical were consistent with the standard forward shock synchrotron with jet collimation (6.°69 ± 0.°16). The forward shock modeling, using a two-dimensional relativistic hydrodynamic jet simulation, was also determined by the reasonable burst explosion and the synchrotron radiation parameters for the optical afterglow. The X-ray light curve showed no apparent jet break and the temporal decay index relation between the X-ray and optical (αo – α{sub X} = –1.45 ± 0.10) indicated different radiation processes in each of them. Introducing synchrotron self-inverse Compton radiation from reverse shock is a possible solution, and the detection and slow decay of the afterglow in submillimeter supports that this is a plausible idea. The observed temporal evolution and spectral properties, as well as forward shock modeling parameters, enabled us to determine reasonable functions to describe the afterglow properties. Because half of the events share similar properties in the X-ray and optical as the current event, GRB 120326A will be a benchmark with further rapid follow-ups, using submillimeter instruments such as an SMA and the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array.

  11. Synchrotron self-inverse Compton radiation from reverse shock on GRB 120326A

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Urata, Yuji; Huang, Kuiyun; Takahashi, Satoko; Im, Myungshin; Kim, Jae-Woo; Jang, Minsung; Yamaoka, Kazutaka; Tashiro, Makoto; Pak, Soojong

    2014-01-01

    We present multi-wavelength observations of a typical long duration GRB 120326A at z = 1.798, including rapid observations using a Submillimeter Array (SMA) and a comprehensive monitoring in the X-ray and optical. The SMA observation provided the fastest detection to date among seven submillimeter afterglows at 230 GHz. The prompt spectral analysis, using Swift and Suzaku, yielded a spectral peak energy of E peak src =107.8 −15.3 +15.3 keV and an equivalent isotropic energy of E iso as 3.18 −0.32 +0.40 ×10 52 erg. The temporal evolution and spectral properties in the optical were consistent with the standard forward shock synchrotron with jet collimation (6.°69 ± 0.°16). The forward shock modeling, using a two-dimensional relativistic hydrodynamic jet simulation, was also determined by the reasonable burst explosion and the synchrotron radiation parameters for the optical afterglow. The X-ray light curve showed no apparent jet break and the temporal decay index relation between the X-ray and optical (αo – α X = –1.45 ± 0.10) indicated different radiation processes in each of them. Introducing synchrotron self-inverse Compton radiation from reverse shock is a possible solution, and the detection and slow decay of the afterglow in submillimeter supports that this is a plausible idea. The observed temporal evolution and spectral properties, as well as forward shock modeling parameters, enabled us to determine reasonable functions to describe the afterglow properties. Because half of the events share similar properties in the X-ray and optical as the current event, GRB 120326A will be a benchmark with further rapid follow-ups, using submillimeter instruments such as an SMA and the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array.

  12. INVERSE COMPTON X-RAY EMISSION FROM SUPERNOVAE WITH COMPACT PROGENITORS: APPLICATION TO SN2011fe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Margutti, R.; Soderberg, A. M.; Chomiuk, L.; Milisavljevic, D.; Foley, R. J.; Slane, P.; Moe, M.; Chevalier, R.; Hurley, K.; Hughes, J. P.; Fransson, C.; Barthelmy, S.; Cummings, J.; Boynton, W.; Enos, H.; Fellows, C.; Briggs, M.; Connaughton, V.; Costa, E.; Del Monte, E.

    2012-01-01

    We present a generalized analytic formalism for the inverse Compton X-ray emission from hydrogen-poor supernovae and apply this framework to SN 2011fe using Swift X-Ray Telescope (XRT), UVOT, and Chandra observations. We characterize the optical properties of SN 2011fe in the Swift bands and find them to be broadly consistent with a 'normal' SN Ia, however, no X-ray source is detected by either XRT or Chandra. We constrain the progenitor system mass-loss rate M-dot -9 M ☉ yr -1 (3σ c.l.) for wind velocity v w = 100 km s –1 . Our result rules out symbiotic binary progenitors for SN 2011fe and argues against Roche lobe overflowing subgiants and main-sequence secondary stars if ∼> 1% of the transferred mass is lost at the Lagrangian points. Regardless of the density profile, the X-ray non-detections are suggestive of a clean environment (n CSM –3 ) for 2 × 10 15 ∼ 16 cm around the progenitor site. This is either consistent with the bulk of material being confined within the binary system or with a significant delay between mass loss and supernova explosion. We furthermore combine X-ray and radio limits from Chomiuk et al. to constrain the post-shock energy density in magnetic fields. Finally, we searched for the shock breakout pulse using gamma-ray observations from the Interplanetary Network and find no compelling evidence for a supernova-associated burst. Based on the compact radius of the progenitor star we estimate that the shock breakout pulse was likely not detectable by current satellites.

  13. Dyson Orbitals, Quasi-Particle effects and Compton scattering

    OpenAIRE

    Barbiellini, B.; Bansil, A.

    2004-01-01

    Dyson orbitals play an important role in understanding quasi-particle effects in the correlated ground state of a many-particle system and are relevant for describing the Compton scattering cross section beyond the frameworks of the impulse approximation (IA) and the independent particle model (IPM). Here we discuss corrections to the Kohn-Sham energies due to quasi-particle effects in terms of Dyson orbitals and obtain a relatively simple local form of the exchange-correlation energy. Illust...

  14. Development of a Watt-level gamma-ray source based on high-repetition-rate inverse Compton scattering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mihalcea, D.; Murokh, A.; Piot, P.; Ruan, J.

    2017-07-01

    A high-brilliance (~1022 photon s-1 mm-2 mrad-2 /0.1%) gamma-ray source experiment is currently being planned at Fermilab (Eγ≃1.1 MeV). The source implements a high-repetition-rate inverse Compton scattering by colliding electron bunches formed in a ~300-MeV superconducting linac with a high-intensity laser pulse. This paper describes the design rationale along with some of technical challenges associated to producing high-repetition-rate collision. The expected performances of the gamma-ray source are also presented.

  15. Inversion of the conical Radon transform with vertices on a surface of revolution arising in an application of a Compton camera

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moon, Sunghwan

    2017-01-01

    A Compton camera has been introduced for use in single photon emission computed tomography to improve the low efficiency of a conventional gamma camera. In general, a Compton camera brings about the conical Radon transform. Here we consider a conical Radon transform with the vertices on a rotation symmetric set with respect to a coordinate axis. We show that this conical Radon transform can be decomposed into two transforms: the spherical sectional transform and the weighted fan beam transform. After finding inversion formulas for these two transforms, we provide an inversion formula for the conical Radon transform. (paper)

  16. PROBING THE TRANSITION BETWEEN THE SYNCHROTRON AND INVERSE-COMPTON SPECTRAL COMPONENTS OF 1ES 1959+650

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bottacini, E.; Schady, P.; Rau, A.; Zhang, X.-L.; Greiner, J.; Boettcher, M.; Ajello, M.; Fendt, C.

    2010-01-01

    1ES 1959+650 is one of the most remarkable high-peaked BL Lacertae objects (HBL). In 2002, it exhibited a TeV γ-ray flare without a similar brightening of the synchrotron component at lower energies. This orphan TeV flare remained a mystery. We present the results of a multifrequency campaign, triggered by the INTEGRAL IBIS detection of 1ES 1959+650. Our data range from the optical to hard X-ray energies, thus covering the synchrotron and inverse-Compton components simultaneously. We observed the source with INTEGRAL, the Swift X-Ray Telescope, and the UV-Optical Telescope, and nearly simultaneously with a ground-based optical telescope. The steep spectral component at X-ray energies is most likely due to synchrotron emission, while at soft γ-ray energies the hard spectral index may be interpreted as the onset of the high-energy component of the blazar spectral energy distribution (SED). This is the first clear measurement of a concave X-ray-soft γ-ray spectrum for an HBL. The SED can be well modeled with a leptonic synchrotron self-Compton model. When the SED is fitted this model requires a very hard electron spectral index of q ∼ 1.85, possibly indicating the relevance of second-order Fermi acceleration.

  17. Soft X-ray generation via inverse compton scattering between high quality electron beam and high power laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Masakazu Washio; Kazuyuki Sakaue; Yoshimasa Hama; Yoshio Kamiya; Tomoko Gowa; Akihiko Masuda; Aki Murata; Ryo Moriyama; Shigeru Kashiwagi; Junji Urakawa

    2007-01-01

    High quality beam generation project based on High-Tech Research Center Project, which has been approved by Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology in 1999, has been conducted by advance research institute for science and engineering, Waseda University. In the project, laser photo-cathode RF-gun has been selected for the high quality electron beam source. RF cavities with low dark current, which were made by diamond turning technique, have been successfully manufactured. The low emittance electron beam was realized by choosing the modified laser injection technique. The obtained normalized emmitance was about 3 m.mrad at 100 pC of electron charge. The soft x-ray beam generation with the energy of 370 eV, which is in the energy region of so-called water window, by inverse Compton scattering has been performed by the collision between IR laser and the low emmitance electron beams. (Author)

  18. Compton suppression gamma-counting: The effect of count rate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millard, H.T.

    1984-01-01

    Past research has shown that anti-coincidence shielded Ge(Li) spectrometers enhanced the signal-to-background ratios for gamma-photopeaks, which are situated on high Compton backgrounds. Ordinarily, an anti- or non-coincidence spectrum (A) and a coincidence spectrum (C) are collected simultaneously with these systems. To be useful in neutron activation analysis (NAA), the fractions of the photopeak counts routed to the two spectra must be constant from sample to sample to variations must be corrected quantitatively. Most Compton suppression counting has been done at low count rate, but in NAA applications, count rates may be much higher. To operate over the wider dynamic range, the effect of count rate on the ratio of the photopeak counts in the two spectra (A/C) was studied. It was found that as the count rate increases, A/C decreases for gammas not coincident with other gammas from the same decay. For gammas coincident with other gammas, A/C increases to a maximum and then decreases. These results suggest that calibration curves are required to correct photopeak areas so quantitative data can be obtained at higher count rates. ?? 1984.

  19. Inverse Compton gamma-ray source for nuclear physics and related applications at the Duke FEL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Shea, P.G.; Litvinenko, V.N.; Madey, J.M.J.

    1995-01-01

    In recent years the development of intense, short-wavelength FEL light sources has opened opportunities for the development new applications of high-energy Compton-backscattered photons. These applications range from medical imaging with X-ray photons to high-energy physics with γγ colliders. In this paper we discuss the possibilities for nuclear physics studies using polarized Compton backscattered γ-rays from the Duke storage-ring-driven UV-FEL. There are currently a number of projects that produce polarized γ-rays for nuclear physics studies. All of these facilities operate by scattering conventional laser-light against electrons circulating in a storage ring. In our scheme, intra-cavity scattering of the UV-FEL light will produce a γ-flux enhancement of approximately 10 3 over existing sources. The Duke ring can operate at energies up to 1.2 GeV and can produce FEL photons up to 12.5 eV. We plan to generate γ-rays up to 200 MeV in energy with an average flux in excess of 10 7 /s/MeV, using a modest scattering beam of 10-mA average stored current. The γ-ray energy may be tuned by varying the FEL wavelength or by adjusting the stored electron beam energy. Because of the intense flux, we can eliminate the need for photon energy tagging by collimating of the γ-ray beam. We will discuss the characteristics of the device and its research opportunities

  20. Inverse Faraday Effect Revisited

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendonça, J. T.; Ali, S.; Davies, J. R.

    2010-11-01

    The inverse Faraday effect is usually associated with circularly polarized laser beams. However, it was recently shown that it can also occur for linearly polarized radiation [1]. The quasi-static axial magnetic field by a laser beam propagating in plasma can be calculated by considering both the spin and the orbital angular momenta of the laser pulse. A net spin is present when the radiation is circularly polarized and a net orbital angular momentum is present if there is any deviation from perfect rotational symmetry. This orbital angular momentum has recently been discussed in the plasma context [2], and can give an additional contribution to the axial magnetic field, thus enhancing or reducing the inverse Faraday effect. As a result, this effect that is usually attributed to circular polarization can also be excited by linearly polarized radiation, if the incident laser propagates in a Laguerre-Gauss mode carrying a finite amount of orbital angular momentum.[4pt] [1] S. ALi, J.R. Davies and J.T. Mendonca, Phys. Rev. Lett., 105, 035001 (2010).[0pt] [2] J. T. Mendonca, B. Thidé, and H. Then, Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 185005 (2009).

  1. Inverse Compton scattering X-ray source yield optimization with a laser path folding system inserted in a pre-existent RF linac

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chaleil, A.; Le Flanchec, V.; Binet, A.; Nègre, J.P.; Devaux, J.F.; Jacob, V.; Millerioux, M.; Bayle, A.; Balleyguier, P. [CEA DAM DIF, F-91297 Arpajon (France); Prazeres, R. [CLIO/LCP, Bâtiment 201, Université Paris-Sud, F-91450 Orsay (France)

    2016-12-21

    An inverse Compton scattering source is under development at the ELSA linac of CEA, Bruyères-le-Châtel. Ultra-short X-ray pulses are produced by inverse Compton scattering of 30 ps-laser pulses by relativistic electron bunches. The source will be able to operate in single shot mode as well as in recurrent mode with 72.2 MHz pulse trains. Within this framework, an optical multipass system that multiplies the number of emitted X-ray photons in both regimes has been designed in 2014, then implemented and tested on ELSA facility in the course of 2015. The device is described from both geometrical and timing viewpoints. It is based on the idea of folding the laser optical path to pile-up laser pulses at the interaction point, thus increasing the interaction probability. The X-ray output gain measurements obtained using this system are presented and compared with calculated expectations.

  2. THE γ-RAY SPECTRUM OF GEMINGA AND THE INVERSE COMPTON MODEL OF PULSAR HIGH-ENERGY EMISSION

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lyutikov, Maxim

    2012-01-01

    We reanalyze the Fermi spectra of the Geminga and Vela pulsars. We find that the spectrum of Geminga above the break is well approximated by a simple power law without the exponential cutoff, making Geminga's spectrum similar to that of Crab. Vela's broadband γ-ray spectrum is equally well fit with both the exponential cutoff and the double power-law shapes. In the broadband double power-law fits, for a typical Fermi spectrum of a bright γ-ray pulsar, most of the errors accumulate due to the arbitrary parameterization of the spectral roll-off. In addition, a power law with an exponential cutoff gives an acceptable fit for the underlying double power-law spectrum for a very broad range of parameters, making such fitting procedures insensitive to the underlying Fermi photon spectrum. Our results have important implications for the mechanism of pulsar high-energy emission. A number of observed properties of γ-ray pulsars—i.e., the broken power-law spectra without exponential cutoffs and stretching in the case of Crab beyond the maximal curvature limit, spectral breaks close to or exceeding the maximal breaks due to curvature emission, patterns of the relative intensities of the leading and trailing pulses in the Crab repeated in the X-ray and γ-ray regions, presence of profile peaks at lower energies aligned with γ-ray peaks—all point to the inverse Compton origin of the high-energy emission from majority of pulsars.

  3. Double Compton effect: a new method of detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cafagne, A.

    1978-01-01

    In this paper, a new method of observation of the double Compton effect is described. The proposed method is based on the use of a sum-coincidence circuit, whose resulting pulse is in a fast coincidence (ζ=1,7x10 -8 sec) with pulses (∼=10- 9 sec) from both scintillation detectors used to measure the energy of the coincident scattered gamma-rays. By means of this procedure, the contribution of the pulses from the sum-coincidence circuit due to random gamma-rays is eliminated. The spectra were registered in an Ortec model 6240 Multi-channel analyser using a further coincidence circuit, eliminate non-coincident pulses. The gate is open by a rectangulasr pulse which lasts for 10n sec and an adjustable delayed pulse generator adjusts its time-position in order to be coincident with the top of the sum-coincidence pulses. The adjustable delayed pulse generator compensates also for the finite time of propagation of the pulses in the circuits. Through this experimental technique it was possible to measure simultaneously the energy of each coincident photon which allowed an excellent comparison due the agreement found between the obtained results and the theory of Mandl and Skyrme. (Author) [pt

  4. Geometrical effects determinant of the Compton profile shape

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sartori, Renzo; Mainardi, R.T.

    1987-01-01

    The main purpose of this work is to evaluate the influence of the experimental set up on the shape of the Compton line. In any scattering experiment, the scattering angle is not well defined due to the collimators aperture and thus, a distribution of angles is found for each set up. This, in turn, produces the energies' distribution of the scattered photons around a mean value. This contribution has been evaluated and found it to be significant for several cases. In order to do this evaluation, a response function, that is numerically generated for each experimental set up and convoluted with the Compton profile, was defined. (Author) [es

  5. Formal analogy between Compton scattering and Doppler effect

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, A.; Olsen, Jørgen Seir

    1966-01-01

    Viewed from the scatterer, the energy of the incoming photon or particle is equal to that of the outgoing, and the angle of incidence is equal to the angle of reflection, when the direction of the velocity of the scatterer after the collision is taken as reference. This paper sets out to prove...... this statement in a more simple and direct way. The authors only consider the Compton scatting process as it is quite analogous to the particle case....

  6. Final state effects in neutron Compton scattering measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fielding, A.L.

    1997-10-01

    The single atom momentum distributions of condensed matter systems can be derived using the technique of neutron Compton scattering (NCS). The electron Volt spectrometer (eVS) which is situated at the world's most intense pulsed neutron spallation source, ISIS, has been configured to perform NCS measurements. Interpretation of NCS data requires the use of the impulse approximation, however even at the high energy and momentum transfers obtainable on the eVS deviations from the impulse approximation occur. These deviations are generally known as final state effects (FSE) which manifest themselves as an asymmetry in the measured momentum distribution. The aim of the work reported in this thesis is to demonstrate how final state effects can be accounted for in a simple way using the expansion method described by Sears. An advantage of the Sears method is that the first asymmetric term in the expansion is proportional to the mean Laplacian of the potential, 2 V>, thus giving access to further information on the single atom potential. The Sears expansion has been incorporated into data analysis routines and applied to measured data on three systems that were chosen to represent the systems that are regularly investigated using the eVS. Measurements have been carried out on the deuteron in ZrD 2 , a light atom in a heavy lattice, beryllium, a polycrystalline solid and pyrolytic graphite, an aligned crystalline sample with an anisotropic momentum distribution. The study shows how the new analysis method gives more reliable values for the mean kinetic energy k >, which can be derived from the measured momentum distribution. A comparison of measured data with simulated data calculated within the harmonic approximation reveals how 2 V> can be a sensitive probe of anharmonicity of the interatomic potential. An anisotropy in the derived k > and 2 V> of pyrolytic graphite has been measured indicating the dependence of final state effects on bonding strength. The derived 2 V

  7. Investigation of Compton effect on π-meson and charged pion polarizability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Antipov, Yu.M.; Batarin, V.A.; Bezzubov, V.A.

    1986-01-01

    The results of an experiment aimed at the study of the 40 GeV/c pion radiative scattering on nuclei at small momentum transfers are presented. Compton effect on the pion was investigated and the charged pion polarizability was measured. The pion Compton-effect cross section dependence on the incident photon energy ω' 1 (rest pion frame) was measured in the 100 - 600 MeV range. The polarizability of charged pion from the analysis of Compton-effect events has been found to be β π =-α π =(-6.9 ± 1.4 stat. ± 1.2 syst. )x10 -43 cm 3 and the sun of pion electrical α π and magnetic β π polarizability has been estimated to be in agreement with theoretical predictions: α π +β π ≅ 0

  8. Comptonization effects in spherical accretion onto black holes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ipser, J.R.; Price, R.H.

    1983-01-01

    For spherical accretion of gas onto a black hole, dissipative heating (from magnetic reconnection), dissipation of turbulence, etc.) leads at high accretion rates to densities and temperatures at which Comptonization unavoidably plays an important role, both in determining gas temperature and in forming the emergent spectrum. A careful and reliable treatment of the interaction of the gas with the radiation field is greatly complicated by the necessity of dealing with the essentially nonlocal nature of Comptonization. We limit ourselves here to finding approximate descriptions of some observational features of such astrophysical objects with a simple, yet justifiable, Ansatz that evades the complexities of nonlocality. The results for accretion spectra are of interest, e.g., in connection with galactic halo objects (1--10 5 M/sub sun/). High mass (10 7 --10 10 M/sub sun/) cases are of interest as models for active galactic nuclei. In particular, a very natural connection between the ratio of luminosity to Eddington luminosity and the hardness of X-ray spectra emerges, suggesting that the observed X-ray hardness ratios of luminous sources are a consequence of those sources being more or less Eddington limited

  9. Generation and application of soft-X-ray by means of inverse compton scattering between high quality election beam and IR laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Washio, M.; Sakaue, K.; Hama, Y.; Kamiya, Y.; Moriyama, R.; Hezume, K.; Saito, T.; Kuroda, R.; Kashiwagi, S.; Ushida, K.; Hayano, H.; Urakawa, J.

    2006-01-01

    High quality beam generation project based on High-Tech Research Center Project, which has been approved by Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology in 1999, has been conducted by advance research institute for science and engineering, Waseda University. In the project, laser photo-cathode RF-gun has been selected for the high quality electron beam source. RF cavities with low dark current, which were made by diamond turning technique, have been successfully manufactured. The low emittance electron beam was realized by choosing the modified laser injection technique. The obtained normalized emittance was about 3 mm·mrad at 100 pC of electron charge. The soft X-ray beam generation with the energy of 370 eV, which is in the energy region of so-called 'water window', by inverse Compton scattering has been performed by the collision between IR laser and the low emittance electron beams. (authors)

  10. Inverse Compton X-Ray Halos Around High-z Radio Galaxies: A Feedback Mechanism Powered by Far-Infrared Starbursts or the Cosmic Microwave Background?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Small, Ian; Blundell, Katherine M.; Lehmer, B. D.; Alexander, D. M.

    2012-01-01

    We report the detection of extended X-ray emission around two powerful radio galaxies at z approx. 3.6 (4C 03.24 and 4C 19.71) and use these to investigate the origin of extended, inverse Compton (IC) powered X-ray halos at high redshifts. The halos have X-ray luminosities of L(sub X) approx. 3 x 10(exp 44) erg/s and sizes of approx.60 kpc. Their morphologies are broadly similar to the approx.60 kpc long radio lobes around these galaxies suggesting they are formed from IC scattering by relativistic electrons in the radio lobes, of either cosmic microwave background (CMB) photons or far-infrared photons from the dust-obscured starbursts in these galaxies. These observations double the number of z > 3 radio galaxies with X-ray-detected IC halos. We compare the IC X-ray-to-radio luminosity ratios for the two new detections to the two previously detected z approx. 3.8 radio galaxies. Given the similar redshifts, we would expect comparable X-ray IC luminosities if millimeter photons from the CMB are the dominant seed field for the IC emission (assuming all four galaxies have similar ages and jet powers). Instead we see that the two z approx. 3.6 radio galaxies, which are 4 fainter in the far-infrared than those at z 3.8, also have approx.4x fainter X-ray IC emission. Including data for a further six z > or approx. 2 radio sources with detected IC X-ray halos from the literature, we suggest that in the more compact, majority of radio sources, those with lobe sizes < or approx.100-200 kpc, the bulk of the IC emission may be driven by scattering of locally produced far-infrared photons from luminous, dust-obscured starbursts within these galaxies, rather than millimeter photons from the CMB. The resulting X-ray emission appears sufficient to ionize the gas on approx.100-200 kpc scales around these systems and thus helps form the extended, kinematically quiescent Ly(alpha) emission line halos found around some of these systems. The starburst and active galactic nucleus

  11. Arthur H. Compton and Compton Scattering

    Science.gov (United States)

    dropdown arrow Site Map A-Z Index Menu Synopsis Arthur H. Compton and Compton Scattering Resources with Additional Information * Compton Honored * Compton Scattering Arthur H. Compton Courtesy of Lawrence Berkeley , 1923 Establishing Site X: Letter, Arthur H. Compton to Enrico Fermi, September 14, 1942, DOE Technical

  12. Fast sampling algorithm for the simulation of photon Compton scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brusa, D.; Salvat, F.

    1996-01-01

    A simple algorithm for the simulation of Compton interactions of unpolarized photons is described. The energy and direction of the scattered photon, as well as the active atomic electron shell, are sampled from the double-differential cross section obtained by Ribberfors from the relativistic impulse approximation. The algorithm consistently accounts for Doppler broadening and electron binding effects. Simplifications of Ribberfors' formula, required for efficient random sampling, are discussed. The algorithm involves a combination of inverse transform, composition and rejection methods. A parameterization of the Compton profile is proposed from which the simulation of Compton events can be performed analytically in terms of a few parameters that characterize the target atom, namely shell ionization energies, occupation numbers and maximum values of the one-electron Compton profiles. (orig.)

  13. INVERSE COMPTON X-RAY HALOS AROUND HIGH-z RADIO GALAXIES: A FEEDBACK MECHANISM POWERED BY FAR-INFRARED STARBURSTS OR THE COSMIC MICROWAVE BACKGROUND?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smail, Ian [Institute for Computational Cosmology, Durham University, South Road, Durham DH1 3LE (United Kingdom); Blundell, Katherine M. [Department of Astrophysics, University of Oxford, Keble Road, Oxford OX1 3RH (United Kingdom); Lehmer, B. D. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, The Johns Hopkins University, Homewood Campus, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Alexander, D. M. [Department of Physics, Durham University, South Road, Durham DH1 3LE (United Kingdom)

    2012-12-01

    We report the detection of extended X-ray emission around two powerful radio galaxies at z {approx} 3.6 (4C 03.24 and 4C 19.71) and use these to investigate the origin of extended, inverse Compton (IC) powered X-ray halos at high redshifts. The halos have X-ray luminosities of L {sub X} {approx} 3 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 44} erg s{sup -1} and sizes of {approx}60 kpc. Their morphologies are broadly similar to the {approx}60 kpc long radio lobes around these galaxies suggesting they are formed from IC scattering by relativistic electrons in the radio lobes, of either cosmic microwave background (CMB) photons or far-infrared photons from the dust-obscured starbursts in these galaxies. These observations double the number of z > 3 radio galaxies with X-ray-detected IC halos. We compare the IC X-ray-to-radio luminosity ratios for the two new detections to the two previously detected z {approx} 3.8 radio galaxies. Given the similar redshifts, we would expect comparable X-ray IC luminosities if millimeter photons from the CMB are the dominant seed field for the IC emission (assuming all four galaxies have similar ages and jet powers). Instead we see that the two z {approx} 3.6 radio galaxies, which are {approx}4 Multiplication-Sign fainter in the far-infrared than those at z {approx} 3.8, also have {approx}4 Multiplication-Sign fainter X-ray IC emission. Including data for a further six z {approx}> 2 radio sources with detected IC X-ray halos from the literature, we suggest that in the more compact, majority of radio sources, those with lobe sizes {approx}<100-200 kpc, the bulk of the IC emission may be driven by scattering of locally produced far-infrared photons from luminous, dust-obscured starbursts within these galaxies, rather than millimeter photons from the CMB. The resulting X-ray emission appears sufficient to ionize the gas on {approx}100-200 kpc scales around these systems and thus helps form the extended, kinematically quiescent Ly{alpha} emission line

  14. Two-temperature accretion disks with electron-positron pairs - Effects of Comptonized external soft photons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kusunose, Masaaki; Takahara, Fumio

    1990-01-01

    The present account of the effects of soft photons from external sources on two-temperature accretion disks in electron-positron pair equilibrium solves the energy-balance equation for a given radial distribution of the input rate of soft photons, taking into account their bremsstrahlung and Comptonization. Critical rate behavior is investigated as a function of the ratio of the energy flux of incident soft photons and the energy-generation rate. As in a previous study, the existence of a critical accretion rate is established.

  15. An Iwasawa-Taniguchi Effect for Compton-thick Active Galactic Nuclei

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boorman, Peter G.; Gandhi, Poshak; Baloković, Mislav; Brightman, Murray; Harrison, Fiona; Ricci, Claudio; Stern, Daniel

    2018-04-01

    We present the first study of an Iwasawa-Taniguchi/`X-ray Baldwin' effect for Compton-thick active galactic nuclei (AGN). We report a statistically significant anti-correlation between the rest-frame equivalent width (EW) of the narrow core of the neutral Fe Kα fluorescence emission line, ubiquitously observed in the reflection spectra of obscured AGN, and the mid-infrared 12 μ m continuum luminosity (taken as a proxy for the bolometric AGN luminosity). Our sample consists of 72 Compton-thick AGN selected from pointed and deep-field observations covering a redshift range of z ˜ 0.0014 - 3.7. We employ a Monte Carlo-based fitting method, which returns a Spearman's Rank correlation coefficient of ρ = - 0.28 ± 0.12, significant to 98.7% confidence. The best fit found is log(EW_{Fe Kα }) ∝ -0.08± 0.04 log(L_{12 {μ } m}), which is consistent with multiple studies of the X-ray Baldwin effect for unobscured and mildly obscured AGN. This is an unexpected result, as the Fe Kα line is conventionally thought to originate from the same region as the underlying reflection continuum, which together constitute the reflection spectrum. We discuss the implications this could have if confirmed on larger samples, including a systematic underestimation of the line of sight X-ray obscuring column density and hence the intrinsic luminosities and growth rates for the most luminous AGN.

  16. Nuclear Compton scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Christillin, P.

    1986-01-01

    The theory of nuclear Compton scattering is reformulated with explicit consideration of both virtual and real pionic degrees of freedom. The effects due to low-lying nuclear states, to seagull terms, to pion condensation and to the Δ dynamics in the nucleus and their interplay in the different energy regions are examined. It is shown that all corrections to the one-body terms, of diffractive behaviour determined by the nuclear form factor, have an effective two-body character. The possibility of using Compton scattering as a complementary source of information about nuclear dynamics is restressed. (author)

  17. Spin effects in nonlinear Compton scattering in a plane-wave laser pulse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boca, Madalina; Dinu, Victor; Florescu, Viorica

    2012-01-01

    We study theoretically the electron angular and energy distribution in the non-linear Compton effect in a finite plane-wave laser pulse. We first present analytical and numerical results for unpolarized electrons (described by a Volkov solution of the Dirac equation), in comparison with those corresponding to a spinless particle (obeying the Klein–Gordon equation). Then, in the spin 1/2 case, we include results for the spin flip probability. The regime in which the spin effects are negligible, i.e. the results for the unpolarized spin 1/2 particle coincide practically with those for the spinless particle, is the same as the regime in which the emitted radiation is well described by classical electrodynamics.

  18. Observation of terrestrial orbital motion using the cosmic-ray Compton-Getting effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cutler, D.J.; Groom, D.E.

    1986-01-01

    Using underground observations, the authors have found a small diurnal amplitude modulation of the cosmic-ray muon intensity which agrees in amplitude and phase with a first-order relativistic effect due to the Earth's motion, as discussed by Compton and Getting :1935, Phys. Rev., 47, 817:. Analysis of the arrival times of 5x10 8 muons during a period of 5.4 yr yields a fractional amplitude variation of 2.5sub(-0.6) sup(+0.7) x 10 -4 , with a maximum near dawn, at 08:18+-1.0 h local mean solar time (LT). The expected amplitude is 3.40 x 10 -4 , with the maximum at 06:00LT. (author)

  19. Inverse Raman effect: applications and detection techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hughes, L.J. Jr.

    1980-08-01

    The processes underlying the inverse Raman effect are qualitatively described by comparing it to the more familiar phenomena of conventional and stimulated Raman scattering. An experession is derived for the inverse Raman absorption coefficient, and its relationship to the stimulated Raman gain is obtained. The power requirements of the two fields are examined qualitatively and quantitatively. The assumption that the inverse Raman absorption coefficient is constant over the interaction length is examined. Advantages of the technique are discussed and a brief survey of reported studies is presented

  20. Inverse Raman effect: applications and detection techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hughes, L.J. Jr.

    1980-08-01

    The processes underlying the inverse Raman effect are qualitatively described by comparing it to the more familiar phenomena of conventional and stimulated Raman scattering. An experession is derived for the inverse Raman absorption coefficient, and its relationship to the stimulated Raman gain is obtained. The power requirements of the two fields are examined qualitatively and quantitatively. The assumption that the inverse Raman absorption coefficient is constant over the interaction length is examined. Advantages of the technique are discussed and a brief survey of reported studies is presented.

  1. Compton scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Botto, D.J.; Pratt, R.H.

    1979-05-01

    The current status of Compton scattering, both experimental observations and the theoretical predictions, is examined. Classes of experiments are distinguished and the results obtained are summarized. The validity of the incoherent scattering function approximation and the impulse approximation is discussed. These simple theoretical approaches are compared with predictions of the nonrelativistic dipole formula of Gavrila and with the relativistic results of Whittingham. It is noted that the A -2 based approximations fail to predict resonances and an infrared divergence, both of which have been observed. It appears that at present the various available theoretical approaches differ significantly in their predictions and that further and more systematic work is required

  2. Compton scattering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Botto, D.J.; Pratt, R.H.

    1979-05-01

    The current status of Compton scattering, both experimental observations and the theoretical predictions, is examined. Classes of experiments are distinguished and the results obtained are summarized. The validity of the incoherent scattering function approximation and the impulse approximation is discussed. These simple theoretical approaches are compared with predictions of the nonrelativistic dipole formula of Gavrila and with the relativistic results of Whittingham. It is noted that the A/sup -2/ based approximations fail to predict resonances and an infrared divergence, both of which have been observed. It appears that at present the various available theoretical approaches differ significantly in their predictions and that further and more systematic work is required.

  3. Using computer simulation to improve high order thinking skills of physics teacher candidate students in Compton effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Supurwoko; Cari; Sarwanto; Sukarmin; Fauzi, Ahmad; Faradilla, Lisa; Summa Dewi, Tiarasita

    2017-11-01

    The process of learning and teaching in Physics is often confronted with abstract concepts. It makes difficulty for students to understand and teachers to teach the concept. One of the materials that has an abstract concept is Compton Effect. The purpose of this research is to evaluate computer simulation model on Compton Effect material which is used to improve high thinking ability of Physics teacher candidate students. This research is a case study. The subject is students at physics educations who have attended Modern Physics lectures. Data were obtained through essay test for measuring students’ high-order thinking skills and quisioners for measuring students’ responses. The results obtained indicate that computer simulation model can be used to improve students’ high order thinking skill and can be used to improve students’ responses. With this result it is suggested that the audiences use the simulation media in learning

  4. Corrections for the effects of accidental coincidences, Compton scatter, and object size in positron emission mammography (PEM) imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raymond Raylman; Stanislaw Majewski; Randolph Wojcik; Andrew Weisenberger; Brian Kross; Vladimir Popov

    2001-06-01

    Positron emission mammography (PEM) has begun to show promise as an effective method for the detection of breast lesions. Due to its utilization of tumor-avid radiopharmaceuticals labeled with positron-emitting radionuclides, this technique may be especially useful in imaging of women with radiodense or fibrocystic breasts. While the use of these radiotracers affords PEM unique capabilities, it also introduces some limitations. Specifically, acceptance of accidental and Compton-scattered coincidence events can decrease lesion detectability. The authors studied the effect of accidental coincidence events on PEM images produced by the presence of 18F-Fluorodeoxyglucose in the organs of a subject using an anthropomorphic phantom. A delayed-coincidence technique was tested as a method for correcting PEM images for the occurrence of accidental events. Also, a Compton scatter correction algorithm designed specifically for PEM was developed and tested using a compressed breast phantom.

  5. Corrections for the effects of accidental coincidences, Compton scatter, and object size in positron emission mammography (PEM) imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raymond Raylman; Stanislaw Majewski; Randolph Wojcik; Andrew Weisenberger; Brian Kross; Vladimir Popov

    2001-01-01

    Positron emission mammography (PEM) has begun to show promise as an effective method for the detection of breast lesions. Due to its utilization of tumor-avid radiopharmaceuticals labeled with positron-emitting radionuclides, this technique may be especially useful in imaging of women with radiodense or fibrocystic breasts. While the use of these radiotracers affords PEM unique capabilities, it also introduces some limitations. Specifically, acceptance of accidental and Compton-scattered coincidence events can decrease lesion detectability. The authors studied the effect of accidental coincidence events on PEM images produced by the presence of 18F-Fluorodeoxyglucose in the organs of a subject using an anthropomorphic phantom. A delayed-coincidence technique was tested as a method for correcting PEM images for the occurrence of accidental events. Also, a Compton scatter correction algorithm designed specifically for PEM was developed and tested using a compressed breast phantom

  6. Gamma radiation compton scattering effect from the Ukrytie Object on the radiation situation at the Chernobyl' NPP territory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alekseeva, E.A.; Volkovich, A.G.; Koba, G.I.; Liksonov, V.I.; Stepanov, V.E.; Tyurin, A.S.; Urutskoev, L.I.; Chesnokov, A.V.

    1989-01-01

    With the aim of determination of the angular distribution of the gamma-radiation (GR) exposure dose rate (EDR) around the Ukrytie Object (UO) are described the measurement results of GR EDR in July 1988 at the territory, adjoining to UO. The conclusion is made that the main contribution into EDR ensures GR, scattered as a result of the Compton effect on air molecules and that the contribution of the NPP territory is small. 10 figs.; 3 tabs

  7. Compton scattering revisited

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pratt, R.H., E-mail: rpratt@pitt.ed [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA 15260 (United States); LaJohn, L.A., E-mail: lal18@pitt.ed [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA 15260 (United States); Florescu, V., E-mail: flor@barutu.fizica.unibuc.r [Centre for Advanced Quantum Physics, University of Bucharest, MG-11 Bucharest-Magurele, 077125 Magurele (Romania); Suric, T., E-mail: suric@irb.h [R. Boskovic Institute, Bijenicka 54, 10000 Zagreb (Croatia); Chatterjee, B.K., E-mail: barun_k_chatterjee@yahoo.co [Department of Physics, Bose Institute, Kolkata 700009 (India); Roy, S.C., E-mail: suprakash.roy@gmail.co [Department of Physics, Bose Institute, Kolkata 700009 (India)

    2010-02-15

    We review the standard theory of Compton scattering from bound electrons, and we describe recent findings that require modification of the usual understanding, noting the nature of consequences for experiment. The subject began with Compton and scattering from free electrons. Experiment actually involved bound electrons, and this was accommodated with the use of impulse approximation (IA), which described inelastic scattering from bound electrons in terms of scattering from free electrons. This was good for the Compton peak but failed for soft final photons. The standard theory was formalized by Eisenberger and Platzman (EP) [1970. Phys. Rev. A 2, 415], whose work also suggested why impulse approximation was better than one would expect, for doubly differential cross sections (DDCS), but not for triply differential cross sections (TDCS). A relativistic version of IA (RIA) was worked out by Ribberfors [1975. Phys. Rev. B 12, 2067]. And Suric et al. [1991. Phys. Rev. Lett. 67, 189] and Bergstrom et al. [1993. Phys. Rev. A 48, 1134] developed a full relativistic second order S-matrix treatment, not making impulse approximation, but within independent particle approximation (IPA). Newer developments in the theory of Compton scattering include: (1) Demonstration that the EP estimates of the validity of IA are incorrect, although the qualitative conclusion remains unchanged; IA is not to be understood as the first term in a standard series expansion. (2) The greater validity of IA for DDCS than for the TDCS, which when integrated give DDCS, is related to the existence of a sum rule, only valid for DDCS. (3) The so-called 'asymmetry' of a Compton profile is primarily to be understood as simply the shift of the peak position in the profile; symmetric and anti-symmetric deviations from a shifted Compton profile are very small, except for high Z inner shells where further p{sup -}>.A{sup -}> effects come into play. (4) Most relativistic effects, except at low

  8. Compton scattering revisited

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pratt, R.H.; LaJohn, L.A.; Florescu, V.; Suric, T.; Chatterjee, B.K.; Roy, S.C.

    2010-01-01

    We review the standard theory of Compton scattering from bound electrons, and we describe recent findings that require modification of the usual understanding, noting the nature of consequences for experiment. The subject began with Compton and scattering from free electrons. Experiment actually involved bound electrons, and this was accommodated with the use of impulse approximation (IA), which described inelastic scattering from bound electrons in terms of scattering from free electrons. This was good for the Compton peak but failed for soft final photons. The standard theory was formalized by Eisenberger and Platzman (EP) [1970. Phys. Rev. A 2, 415], whose work also suggested why impulse approximation was better than one would expect, for doubly differential cross sections (DDCS), but not for triply differential cross sections (TDCS). A relativistic version of IA (RIA) was worked out by Ribberfors [1975. Phys. Rev. B 12, 2067]. And Suric et al. [1991. Phys. Rev. Lett. 67, 189] and Bergstrom et al. [1993. Phys. Rev. A 48, 1134] developed a full relativistic second order S-matrix treatment, not making impulse approximation, but within independent particle approximation (IPA). Newer developments in the theory of Compton scattering include: (1) Demonstration that the EP estimates of the validity of IA are incorrect, although the qualitative conclusion remains unchanged; IA is not to be understood as the first term in a standard series expansion. (2) The greater validity of IA for DDCS than for the TDCS, which when integrated give DDCS, is related to the existence of a sum rule, only valid for DDCS. (3) The so-called 'asymmetry' of a Compton profile is primarily to be understood as simply the shift of the peak position in the profile; symmetric and anti-symmetric deviations from a shifted Compton profile are very small, except for high Z inner shells where further p → .A → effects come into play. (4) Most relativistic effects, except at low energies, are to be

  9. Compton suppression gamma ray spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Landsberger, S.; Iskander, F.Y.; Niset, M.; Heydorn, K.

    2002-01-01

    In the past decade there have been many studies to use Compton suppression methods in routine neutron activation analysis as well as in the traditional role of low level gamma ray counting of environmental samples. On a separate path there have been many new PC based software packages that have been developed to enhance photopeak fitting. Although the newer PC based algorithms have had significant improvements, they still suffer from being effectively used in weak gamma ray lines in natural samples or in neutron activated samples that have very high Compton backgrounds. We have completed a series of experiments to show the usefulness of Compton suppression. As well we have shown the pitfalls when using Compton suppression methods for high counting deadtimes as in the case of neutron activated samples. We have also investigated if counting statistics are the same both suppressed and normal modes. Results are presented in four separate experiments. (author)

  10. Determination of total iron in iron ore by x-ray fluorescence analysis using the Compton effect: comparison with others analytical techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castilho, M.V. de; Oliveira, R.C.

    1991-01-01

    Total iron in iron ores is determines by X-ray fluorescence analysis method using the compton effect. The Bragg angle is determined for compton no-coherent scattering related to K alpha of Rhodium. This measurement procedure can be used for best fitting of analytical results in X-ray fluorescence, when compared with others methods used for results corrections. (M.V.M.)

  11. A Face Inversion Effect without a Face

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandman, Talia; Yovel, Galit

    2012-01-01

    Numerous studies have attributed the face inversion effect (FIE) to configural processing of internal facial features in upright but not inverted faces. Recent findings suggest that face mechanisms can be activated by faceless stimuli presented in the context of a body. Here we asked whether faceless stimuli with or without body context may induce…

  12. Effect of detector collimator and sample thickness on 0.662 MeV multiply Compton-scattered gamma rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, Manpreet; Singh, Gurvinderjit; Sandhu, B.S.; Singh, Bhajan

    2006-01-01

    The simultaneous effect of detector collimator and sample thickness on 0.662 MeV multiply Compton-scattered gamma photons was studied experimentally. An intense collimated beam, obtained from 6-Ci 137 Cs source, is allowed to impinge on cylindrical aluminium samples of varying diameter and the scattered photons are detected by a 51 mmx51 mm NaI(Tl) scintillation detector placed at 90 o to the incident beam. The full energy peak corresponding to singly scattered events is reconstructed analytically. The thickness at which the multiply scattered events saturate is determined for different detector collimators. The parameters like signal-to-noise ratio and multiply scatter fraction (MSF) have also been deduced and support the work carried out by Shengli et al. [2000. EGS4 simulation of Compton scattering for nondestructive testing. KEK proceedings 200-20, Tsukuba, Japan, pp. 216-223] and Barnea et al. [1995. A study of multiple scattering background in Compton scatter imaging. NDT and E International 28, 155-162] based upon Monte Carlo calculations

  13. Inverse Faraday effect with plasmon beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ali, S; Mendonca, J T

    2011-01-01

    The angular momentum conservation equation is considered for an electron gas, in the presence of Laguerre-Gaussian (LG) plasmons propagating along the z-axis. The LG plasmons carry a finite orbital angular momentum despite longitudinal nature, which can be partly transfered to the electrons. For short timescales, such that ion motion can be neglected, plasmons primarily interact with the electrons, creating an azimuthal electric field and generating an axial magnetic field. This effect can be called an inverse Faraday effect due to plasmons. Numerically, it is found that the magnitude of the magnetic field enhances with the plasmon density or with the energy of the electron plasma waves. A comparison of the magnitudes of the axial magnetic field is made for the inverse Faraday effect excited by both plasmons and transverse photons.

  14. Inversions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Malcolm

    2009-01-01

    Inversions are fascinating phenomena. They are reversals of the normal or expected order. They occur across a wide variety of contexts. What do inversions have to do with learning spaces? The author suggests that they are a useful metaphor for the process that is unfolding in higher education with respect to education. On the basis of…

  15. Effective atomic number and effective electron densities of some inorganic compounds for Compton effect in the gamma energy range 280 keV to 1115 keV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prasannakumar, S.; Umesh, T.K.

    2014-01-01

    The effective atomic number and effective electron densities of some inorganic compounds for Compton effect in the gamma energy range 280 keV to 1115 keV by using Compton scattering cross sections which are determined on a goniometer assembly. An ORTEC model 23210 gamma-x high purity germanium detector (HpGe) has been used to record the data along with a personal computer based MCA in the angular region 50°-110°. The effective atomic numbers so obtained were found to be equal to the total number of electrons present in the sample in accordance with the chemical formula. The results so obtained are of first of their kind at these energies and are expected to be important in a variety of applications of radiation physics and chemistry. (author)

  16. Corrections for the effects of accidental coincidences, Compton scatter, and object size in positron emission mammography (PEM) imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raylman, R. R.; Majewski, S.; Wojcik, R.; Weisenberger, A. G.; Kross, B.; Popov, V.

    2001-06-01

    Positron emission mammography (PEM) has begun to show promise as an effective method for the detection of breast lesions. Due to its utilization of tumor-avid radiopharmaceuticals labeled with positron-emitting radionuclides, this technique may be especially useful in imaging of women with radiodense or fibrocystic breasts. While the use of these radiotracers affords PEM unique capabilities, it also introduces some limitations. Specifically, acceptance of accidental and Compton-scattered coincidence events can decrease lesion detectability. The authors studied the effect of accidental coincidence events on PEM images produced by the presence of /sup 18/F-Fluorodeoxyglucose in the organs of a subject using an anthropomorphic phantom. A delayed-coincidence technique was tested as a method for correcting PEM images for the occurrence of accidental events. Also, a Compton scatter correction algorithm designed specifically for PEM was developed and tested using a compressed breast phantom. Finally, the effect of object size on image counts and a correction for this effect were explored. The imager used in this study consisted of two PEM detector heads mounted 20 cm apart on a Lorad biopsy apparatus. The results demonstrated that a majority of the accidental coincidence events (/spl sim/80%) detected by this system were produced by radiotracer uptake in the adipose and muscle tissue of the torso. The presence of accidental coincidence events was shown to reduce lesion detectability. Much of this effect was eliminated by correction of the images utilizing estimates of accidental-coincidence contamination acquired with delayed coincidence circuitry built into the PEM system. The Compton scatter fraction for this system was /spl sim/14%. Utilization of a new scatter correction algorithm reduced the scatter fraction to /spl sim/1.5%. Finally, reduction of count recovery due to object size was measured and a correction to the data applied. Application of correction techniques

  17. Compton radiography, 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okuyama, Shinichi; Sera, Koichiro; Fukuda, Hiroshi; Shishido, Fumio; Mishina, Hitoshi.

    1977-01-01

    Compton radiography, a tomographic technic with Compton-scattered rays of a monochromatic gamma ray beam, was feasible of tomographing a chest phantom. The result suggested that the technic could be extended to imaging of the lung and the surrounding structures of the chest wall, mediastinum and liver in Compton tomographic mode. (auth.)

  18. SPECT quantification: a review of the different correction methods with compton scatter, attenuation and spatial deterioration effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Groiselle, C.; Rocchisani, J.M.; Moretti, J.L.; Dreuille, O. de; Gaillard, J.F.; Bendriem, B.

    1997-01-01

    SPECT quantification: a review of the different correction methods with Compton scatter attenuation and spatial deterioration effects. The improvement of gamma-cameras, acquisition and reconstruction software opens new perspectives in term of image quantification in nuclear medicine. In order to meet the challenge, numerous works have been undertaken in recent years to correct for the different physical phenomena that prevent an exact estimation of the radioactivity distribution. The main phenomena that have to betaken into account are scatter, attenuation and resolution. In this work, authors present the physical basis of each issue, its consequences on quantification and the main methods proposed to correct them. (authors)

  19. Compton radiography, 4. Magnification compton radiography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okuyama, S; Sera, K; Shishido, F; Fukuda, H [Tohoku Univ., Sendai (Japan). Research Inst. for Tuberculosis and Cancer; Mishina, H

    1978-03-01

    Compton radiography permits an acquisition of direct magnification Compton radiograms by use of a pinhole collimator, rendering it feasible to overcome the resolution of the scinticamera being employed. An improvement of resolution was attained from 7 mm to 1 mm separation. Usefulness of its clinical application can be seen in orientation of puncture and biopsy in deep structures and detection of various foreign bodies penetrated by blasts and so on under the ''magnification Compton fluoroscopy'' which can be developed on this principle in the near future.

  20. Inverse spin Hall effect by spin injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, S. Y.; Horing, Norman J. M.; Lei, X. L.

    2007-09-01

    Motivated by a recent experiment [S. O. Valenzuela and M. Tinkham, Nature (London) 442, 176 (2006)], the authors present a quantitative microscopic theory to investigate the inverse spin-Hall effect with spin injection into aluminum considering both intrinsic and extrinsic spin-orbit couplings using the orthogonalized-plane-wave method. Their theoretical results are in good agreement with the experimental data. It is also clear that the magnitude of the anomalous Hall resistivity is mainly due to contributions from extrinsic skew scattering.

  1. Silicon photomultipliers as readout elements for a Compton effect polarimeter: the COMPASS project

    CERN Document Server

    Del Monte, E; Brandonisio, A; Muleri, F; Soffitta, P; Costa, E; di Persio, G; Cosimo, S Di; Massaro, E; Morbidini, A; Morelli, E; Pacciani, L; Fabiani, S; Michilli, D; Giarrusso, S; Catalano, O; Impiombato, D; Mineo, T; Sottile, G; Billotta, S

    2016-01-01

    COMpton Polarimeter with Avalanche Silicon readout (COMPASS) is a research and development project that aims to measure the polarization of X-ray photons through Compton Scattering. The measurement is obtained by using a set of small rods of fast scintillation materials with both low-Z (as active scatterer) and high-Z (as absorber), all read-out with Silicon Photomultipliers. By this method we can operate scattering and absorbing elements in coincidence, in order to reduce the background. In the laboratory we are characterising the SiPMs using different types of scintillators and we are optimising the performances in terms of energy resolution, energy threshold and photon tagging efficiency. We aim to study the design of two types of satellite-borne instruments: a focal plane polarimeter to be coupled with multilayer optics for hard X-rays and a large area and wide field of view polarimeter for transients and Gamma Ray Bursts. In this paper we describe the status of the COMPASS project, we report about the la...

  2. Quantum Effects in Inverse Opal Structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bleiweiss, Michael; Datta, Timir; Lungu, Anca; Yin, Ming; Iqbal, Zafar; Palm, Eric; Brandt, Bruce

    2002-03-01

    Properties of bismuth inverse opals and carbon opal replicas were studied. The bismuth nanostructures were fabricated by pressure infiltration into porous artificial opal, while the carbon opal replicas were created via CVD. These structures form a regular three-dimensional network in which the bismuth and carbon regions percolate in all directions between the close packed spheres of SiO_2. The sizes of the conducting regions are of the order of tens of nanometers. Static susceptibility of the bismuth inverse opal showed clear deHaas-vanAlphen oscillations. Transport measurements, including Hall, were done using standard ac four and six probe techniques in fields up to 17 T* and temperatures between 4.2 and 200 K. Observations of Shubnikov-deHaas oscillations in magnetoresistance, one-dimensional weak localization, quantum Hall and other effects will be discussed. *Performed at the National High Magnetic Field Lab (NHMFL) FSU, Tallahassee, FL. This work was partially supported by grants from DARPA-nanothermoelectrics, NASA-EPSCOR and the USC nanocenter.

  3. Inversion effects for faces and objects in developmental prosopagnosia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klargaard, Solja K; Starrfelt, Randi; Gerlach, Christian

    2018-01-01

    The disproportionate face inversion effect (dFIE) concerns the finding that face recognition is more affected by inversion than recognition of non-face objects; an effect assumed to reflect that face recognition relies on special operations. Support for this notion comes from studies showing...... that face processing in developmental prosopagnosia (DP) is less affected by inversion than it is in normal subjects, and that DPs may even display face inversion superiority effects, i.e. better processing of inverted compared to upright faces. To date, however, there are no reports of direct comparisons...... between inversion effects for faces and objects, investigating whether the altered inversion effect in DP is specific to faces. We examined this question by comparing inversion effects for faces and cars in two otherwise identical recognition tasks in a group of DPs (N = 16) and a matched control group...

  4. Compton tomography system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grubsky, Victor; Romanoov, Volodymyr; Shoemaker, Keith; Patton, Edward Matthew; Jannson, Tomasz

    2016-02-02

    A Compton tomography system comprises an x-ray source configured to produce a planar x-ray beam. The beam irradiates a slice of an object to be imaged, producing Compton-scattered x-rays. The Compton-scattered x-rays are imaged by an x-ray camera. Translation of the object with respect to the source and camera or vice versa allows three-dimensional object imaging.

  5. Measurement of collision integral cross-sections of double-photon Compton effect using a single gamma ray detector: A response matrix approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saddi, M.B.; Singh, Bhajan; Sandhu, B.S.

    2008-01-01

    The collision integral cross-sections of double-photon Compton process are measured experimentally for 662 keV incident gamma photons. The measurements are successfully carried out using a single gamma ray detector, and do not require the complicated slow-fast coincidence technique used till now for observing this higher order quantum electrodynamics (QED) process. The energy spectra of one of the two final photons, originating in this process, in direction of the gamma ray detector are observed as a long tail to the single-photon Compton line on lower side of the full energy peak in the observed spectra. An inverse response matrix converts the observed pulse-height distribution of a NaI(Tl) scintillation detector to a true photon spectrum. This also results in extraction of events originating from double-photon Compton interactions. The present measured values of collision integral cross-section, although of same magnitude, deviate from the corresponding values obtained from the theory. In view of the magnitude of deviations, in addition to small value of probability of occurrence of this process, the agreement of measured values with theory is reasonably acceptable

  6. Study of the relationship between peaks scattering Rayleigh to Compton ratio and effective atomic number in biological samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pereira, Marcelo O.; Conti, Claudio de Carvalho; Anjos, Marcelino J.; Lopes, Ricardo T.

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this work was to develop a new method to correct the absorbed radiation (the mass attenuation coefficient curve) in low energy (E B O 3 , Na 2 CO 3 , CaCO 3 , Al 2 O 3 , K 2 SO 4 and MgO) of radiation produced by a gamma-ray source of Am-241(59.54 keV) also applied to certified biological samples of milk powder, hay powder and bovine liver (NIST 155 7B). In addition, six methods of effective atomic number determination were used as described in literature to determinate the Rayleigh to Compton scattering ratio (R/C) , in order to calculate the mass attenuation coefficient. The results obtained by the proposed method were compared with those obtained using the transmission method. The experimental results were in good agreement with transmission values suggesting that the method to correct radiation absorption presented in this paper is adequate for biological samples. (author)

  7. Compton current detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carvalho Campos, J.S. de.

    1984-01-01

    The project and construction of a Compton current detector, with cylindrical geometry using teflon as dielectric material; for electromagnetic radiation in range energy between 10 KeV and 2 MeV are described. The measurements of Compton current in teflon were obtained using an electrometer. The Compton current was promoted by photon flux proceeding from X ray sources (MG 150 Muller device) and gamma rays of 60 Co. The theory elaborated to explain the experimental results is shown. The calibration curves for accumulated charge and current in detector in function of exposition rates were obtained. (M.C.K.) [pt

  8. Inverse Higgs effect in nonlinear realizations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ivanov, E.A.; Ogievetskij, V.I.

    1975-01-01

    In theories with nonlinearly realized symmetry it is possible in a number of cases to eliminate some initial Goldstone and gauge fields by means of putting appropriate Cartan forms equal to zero. This is called the inverse Higgs phenomenon. We give a general treatment of the inverse Higgs phenomenon for gauge and space-time symmetries and consider four instructive examples which are the elimination of unessential gauge fields in chiral symmetry and in non-linearly realized supersymmetry and also the elimination of unessential Goldstone fields in the spontaneously broken conformal and projective symmetries

  9. The Inverse Faraday Effect In Plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eliezer, S.; Paiss, Y.; Horovitz, Y.; Henis, Z.

    1999-01-01

    The existence of axial magnetic field 1-3 induced by the interaction of circularly polarized laser light with plasma is reported. Axial magnetic fields from 500 Gauss up to 2.17 MegaGauss were measured using a Nd:YAG laser with a pulse duration of 7 ns for irradiance from 10 9 to 10 14 W/cm'2 accordingly. Up to 5 - 10 13 W/cm 2 , the results are in agreement with a nonlinear model of the inverse Faraday effect dominated by the ponderomotive force. Two diagnostic methods were used to measure the axial magnetic field. At low irradiance (10 9 - 10 1 '1 W/cm 2 ) the axial magnetic field induced by the circularly polarized laser light (CPLL) in a ferrite target was measured from the voltage signal induced by the magnetic field in an output coil. At higher irradiance the axial magnetic field was measured using the Faraday rotation diagnostic. The scaling law of the measured axial magnetic field B from the experiments performed with CPLL, in the intensities range of 10 9 - 10 13 W/cm 2 , is B ∼ I / 1/2 . At higher intensities of the order of 3 . 10 1 '4 W/cm 2 a sudden increase of the axial magnetic field beyond the above scaling law is observed in the experiments performed with CPLL. This study might have interesting implications in creating a mini tokamak configuration in laser produced plasmas, with intermediate plasma densities (10 22 cm 3 ) and confinement times (100 ns). Such an approach to fusion circumvents many of the complexities of inertial confinement fusion where very symmetric implosions using many laser beams are required. Intermediate fusion density may also overcome severe requirements of tokamak fusion

  10. Two center electron emission in collisions of fast ions with H, and H2: Interplay between interference and Compton profile effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Misra, D.; Kumar, Ajay; Kadhane, U.R.; Fainstein, P.D.; Tribedi, L.C.

    2006-01-01

    Young type interference effect has been studied in case of particle induced ionization of H 2 . Oscillations are derived by comparing the measured DDCS for H 2 with the calculated DDCS for H. The effect of the Compton profiles of H 2 and H on the interference structure is also studied. A theoretical model based on molecular distorted wave calculation explains the experimental results qualitatively

  11. Colour coherence in deep inelastic Compton scattering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lebedev, A.I.; Vazdik, J.A. (Lebedev Physical Inst., Academy of Sciences, Moscow (USSR))

    1992-01-01

    MC simulation of Deep Inelastic Compton on proton - both QED and QCD - was performed on the basis of LUCIFER program for HERA energies. Charged hadron flow was calculated for string and independent fragmentation with different cuts on p{sub t} and x. It is shown that interjet colour coherence leads in the case of QCD Compton to the drag effects diminishing the hadron flow in the direction between quark jet and proton remnant jet. (orig.).

  12. Colour coherence in deep inelastic Compton scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lebedev, A.I.; Vazdik, J.A.

    1992-01-01

    MC simulation of Deep Inelastic Compton on proton - both QED and QCD - was performed on the basis of LUCIFER program for HERA energies. Charged hadron flow was calculated for string and independent fragmentation with different cuts on p t and x. It is shown that interjet colour coherence leads in the case of QCD Compton to the drag effects diminishing the hadron flow in the direction between quark jet and proton remnant jet. (orig.)

  13. Theory of the inverse Faraday effect in metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hertel, Riccardo

    2006-01-01

    An analytic expression is given for the inverse Faraday effect, i.e., for the magnetization occurring in a transparent medium exposed to a circularly polarized high-frequency electromagnetic wave. Using a microscopic approach based on the Drude approximation of a free-electron gas, the magnetization of the medium due to the inverse Faraday effect is identified as the result of microscopic solenoidal currents generated by the electromagnetic wave. In contrast to the better known phenomenological derivation, this microscopic treatment provides important information on the frequency dependence of the inverse Faraday effect

  14. Effective and accurate processing and inversion of airborne electromagnetic data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Auken, Esben; Christiansen, Anders Vest; Andersen, Kristoffer Rønne

    Airborne electromagnetic (AEM) data is used throughout the world for mapping of mineral targets and groundwater resources. The development of technology and inversion algorithms has been tremendously over the last decade and results from these surveys are high-resolution images of the subsurface....... In this keynote talk, we discuss an effective inversion algorithm, which is both subjected to intense research and development as well as production. This is the well know Laterally Constrained Inversion (LCI) and Spatial Constrained Inversion algorithm. The same algorithm is also used in a voxel setup (3D model......) and for sheet inversions. An integral part of these different model discretization is an accurate modelling of the system transfer function and of auxiliary parameters like flight altitude, bird pitch,etc....

  15. A closed-form solution for the two-dimensional transport equation by the LTS{sub N} nodal method in the energy range of Compton effect

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodriguez, B.D.A., E-mail: barbararodriguez@furg.b [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande, Instituto de Matematica, Estatistica e Fisica, Rio Grande, RS (Brazil); Vilhena, M.T., E-mail: vilhena@mat.ufrgs.b [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Departamento de Matematica Pura e Aplicada, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Hoff, G., E-mail: hoff@pucrs.b [Pontificia Universidade Catolica do Rio Grande do Sul, Faculdade de Fisica, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Bodmann, B.E.J., E-mail: bardo.bodmann@ufrgs.b [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Departamento de Matematica Pura e Aplicada, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil)

    2011-01-15

    In the present work we report on a closed-form solution for the two-dimensional Compton transport equation by the LTS{sub N} nodal method in the energy range of Compton effect. The solution is determined using the LTS{sub N} nodal approach for homogeneous and heterogeneous rectangular domains, assuming the Klein-Nishina scattering kernel and a multi-group model. The solution is obtained by two one-dimensional S{sub N} equation systems resulting from integrating out one of the orthogonal variables of the S{sub N} equations in the rectangular domain. The leakage angular fluxes are approximated by exponential forms, which allows to determine a closed-form solution for the photons transport equation. The angular flux and the parameters of the medium are used for the calculation of the absorbed energy in rectangular domains with different dimensions and compositions. In this study, only the absorbed energy by Compton effect is considered. We present numerical simulations and comparisons with results obtained by using the simulation platform GEANT4 (version 9.1) with its low energy libraries.

  16. Cylindrical Field Effect Transistor: A Full Volume Inversion Device

    KAUST Repository

    Fahad, Hossain M.

    2010-01-01

    inversion in the body. However, these devices are still limited by lithographic and processing challenges making them unsuitable for commercial production. This thesis explores a unique device structure called the CFET (Cylindrical Field Effect Transistors

  17. The Compton generator revisited

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siboni, S.

    2014-09-01

    The Compton generator, introduced in 1913 by the US physicist A H Compton as a relatively simple device to detect the Earth's rotation with respect to the distant stars, is analyzed and discussed in a general perspective. The paper introduces a generalized definition of the generator, emphasizing the special features of the original apparatus, and provides a suggestive interpretation of the way the device works. To this end, an intriguing electromagnetic analogy is developed, which turns out to be particularly useful in simplifying the calculations. Besides the more extensive description of the Compton generator in itself, the combined use of concepts and methods coming from different fields of physics, such as particle dynamics in moving references frames, continuum mechanics and electromagnetism, may be of interest to both teachers and graduate students.

  18. Simulating the Compton-Getting effect for hydrogen flux measurements: Implications for IBEX-Hi and -Lo observations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zirnstein, E. J.; Heerikhuisen, J.; McComas, D. J.; Schwadron, N. A.

    2013-01-01

    The Interstellar Boundary EXplorer (IBEX), launched in 2008 October, has improved our understanding of the solar wind-local interstellar medium interaction through its detection of neutral atoms, particularly that of hydrogen (H). IBEX is able to create full maps of the sky in six-month intervals as the Earth orbits the Sun, detecting H with energies between ∼0.01 and 6 keV. Due to the relative motion of IBEX to the solar inertial frame, measurements made in the spacecraft frame introduce a Compton-Getting (CG) effect, complicating measurements at the lowest energies. In this paper we provide results from a numerical simulation that calculates fluxes of H atoms at 1 AU in the inertial and spacecraft frames (both ram and anti-ram), at energies relevant to IBEX-Hi and -Lo. We show theory behind the numerical simulations, applying a simple frame transformation to derived flux equations that provides a straightforward way to simulate fluxes in the spacecraft frame. We then show results of H energetic neutral atom fluxes simulated at IBEX-Hi energy passbands 2-6 in all frames, comparing with IBEX-Hi data along selected directions, and also show results simulated at energies relevant to IBEX-Lo. Although simulations at IBEX-Hi energies agree reasonably well with the CG correction method used for IBEX-Hi data, we demonstrate the importance of properly modeling low energy H fluxes due to inherent complexities involved with measurements made in moving frames, as well as dynamic radiation pressure effects close to the Sun.

  19. Compton scatter in germanium and its effect on imaging with gamma-ray position-sensitive detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sherman, I.S.; Strauss, M.G.; Brenner, R.

    1978-01-01

    The spatial spread due to Compton scatter in Ge was measured to study the reduction in image contrast and signal-to-noise ratio (S/N) resulting from erroneous readout in Ge position-sensitive detectors. The step response revealing this spread was obtained by scanning with a 122 keV γ-ray beam across a boundary of two sectors of a slotted coaxial Ge(Li) detector that is 40 mm diameter by 22 mm long. The derived line-spread function at 140 keV (/sup 99m/Tc) exhibits much shorter but thicker tails than those due to scatter in tissue as observed with a NaI detector through 5.5 cm of scattering material. Convolutions of rectangular profiles of voids with the Ge(Li) line-spread function show marked deterioration in contrast for voids less than 10 mm across, which in turn results in even greater deterioration of the S/N. As a result, the contrast for voids in Ge images is only 20 to 30 percent higher than that in NaI and the S/N is only comparable for equal detector areas. The degradation in image contrast due to scatter in Ge detectors can be greatly reduced by either using thin detectors (approximately 5 mm), where scatter virtually does not exist, or by using thicker detectors and rejecting scatter electronically. To reduce the effects of scatter on the S/N as well as on contrast, the erroneous position readouts must actually be corrected. A more realizable approach to achieving the ultimate potential of Ge detectors may be a scanning array of discrete detectors (not position sensitive) in which readout is not affected by scatter

  20. Alzheimer's disease: the amyloid hypothesis and the Inverse Warburg effect

    KAUST Repository

    Demetrius, Lloyd A.; Magistretti, Pierre J.; Pellerin, Luc

    2015-01-01

    Epidemiological and biochemical studies show that the sporadic forms of Alzheimer's disease (AD) are characterized by the following hallmarks: (a) An exponential increase with age; (b) Selective neuronal vulnerability; (c) Inverse cancer comorbidity. The present article appeals to these hallmarks to evaluate and contrast two competing models of AD: the amyloid hypothesis (a neuron-centric mechanism) and the Inverse Warburg hypothesis (a neuron-astrocytic mechanism). We show that these three hallmarks of AD conflict with the amyloid hypothesis, but are consistent with the Inverse Warburg hypothesis, a bioenergetic model which postulates that AD is the result of a cascade of three events—mitochondrial dysregulation, metabolic reprogramming (the Inverse Warburg effect), and natural selection. We also provide an explanation for the failures of the clinical trials based on amyloid immunization, and we propose a new class of therapeutic strategies consistent with the neuroenergetic selection model.

  1. Alzheimer's disease: the amyloid hypothesis and the Inverse Warburg effect

    KAUST Repository

    Demetrius, Lloyd A.

    2015-01-14

    Epidemiological and biochemical studies show that the sporadic forms of Alzheimer\\'s disease (AD) are characterized by the following hallmarks: (a) An exponential increase with age; (b) Selective neuronal vulnerability; (c) Inverse cancer comorbidity. The present article appeals to these hallmarks to evaluate and contrast two competing models of AD: the amyloid hypothesis (a neuron-centric mechanism) and the Inverse Warburg hypothesis (a neuron-astrocytic mechanism). We show that these three hallmarks of AD conflict with the amyloid hypothesis, but are consistent with the Inverse Warburg hypothesis, a bioenergetic model which postulates that AD is the result of a cascade of three events—mitochondrial dysregulation, metabolic reprogramming (the Inverse Warburg effect), and natural selection. We also provide an explanation for the failures of the clinical trials based on amyloid immunization, and we propose a new class of therapeutic strategies consistent with the neuroenergetic selection model.

  2. Voltmeter with Compton electrons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pereira, N R; Gorbics, S G; Weidenheimer, D M [Berkeley Research Associates, Springfield, VA (United States)

    1997-12-31

    A technique to measure the electron end point energy of bremsstrahlung in the MV regime using only two detectors is described. One of the detector measures the total radiation, the other filters out all except the hardest photons by looking only at their Compton electrons, whose average energy is determined with a magnetic field. (author). 4 figs., 2 refs.

  3. Estimation of organ and effective dose due to Compton backscatter security scans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoppe, Michael E.; Schmidt, Taly Gilat

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: To estimate organ and effective radiation doses due to backscatter security scanners using Monte Carlo simulations and a voxelized phantom set. Methods: Voxelized phantoms of male and female adults and children were used with the GEANT4 toolkit to simulate a backscatter security scan. The backscatter system was modeled based on specifications available in the literature. The simulations modeled a 50 kVp spectrum with 1.0 mm-aluminum-equivalent filtration and a previously measured exposure of approximately 4.6 μR at 30 cm from the source. Photons and secondary interactions were tracked from the source until they reached zero kinetic energy or exited from the simulation’s boundaries. The energy deposited in the phantoms’ respective organs was tallied and used to calculate total organ dose and total effective dose for frontal, rear, and full scans with subjects located 30 and 75 cm from the source. Results: For a full screen, all phantoms’ total effective doses were below the established 0.25 μSv standard, with an estimated maximum total effective dose of 0.07 μSv for full screen of a male child. The estimated maximum organ dose due to a full screen was 1.03 μGy, deposited in the adipose tissue of the male child phantom when located 30 cm from the source. All organ dose estimates had a coefficient of variation of less than 3% for a frontal scan and less than 11% for a rear scan. Conclusions: Backscatter security scanners deposit dose in organs beyond the skin. The effective dose is below recommended standards set by the Health Physics Society (HPS) and the American National Standards Institute (ANSI) assuming the system provides a maximum exposure of approximately 4.6 μR at 30 cm.

  4. Effectiveness of transposed inverse sets in faber regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. A. Adepoju

    1983-01-01

    of a given basic set of polynominals, are investigated in the present paper. A certain inevitable normalizing substitution, is first formulated, to be undergone by the given set to ensure the existence of the transposed inverse in the Faber region. The first main result of the present work (Theorem 2.1, on the one hand, provides a lower bound of the class of functions for which the normalized transposed inverse set is effective in the Faber region. On the other hand, the second main result (Theorem 5.2 asserts the fact that the normalized transposed inverse set of a simple set of polynomials, which is effective in a Faber region, should not necessarily be effective there.

  5. Study of Compton scattering influence in cardiac SPECT images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Munhoz, A.C.L.; Abe, R.; Zanardo, E.L.; Robilotta, C.C.

    1992-01-01

    The reduction effect from Compton fraction in the quality of and image is evaluated, with two ways of acquisition data: one, with the window of energetic analyser dislocated over the photopeak and the other, with two windows, one over the Compton contribution and the other, placed in the center over the photopeak. (C.G.C.)

  6. Inverse isotope effect in iron-based superconductor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shirage, Parasharam M.; Kihou, Kunihiro; Miyazawa, Kiichi; Lee, Chul-Ho; Kito, Hijiri; Yoshida, Yoshiyuki; Eisaki, Hiroshi; Tanaka, Yasumoto; Iyo, Akira

    2010-01-01

    We have found that (Ba, K)Fe 2 As 2 superconductor (a transition temperature, T c ∼ 38 K) shows an inverse Iron isotope effect (α Fe = -0.18 ± 0.03, where T c ∼ M -αFe and M is the iron isotope mass), i.e. the sample containing the larger iron mass depicts higher T c . Systematic studies using three types of Fe-isotopes ( 54 Fe, natural Fe and 57 Fe) reveal a clear inverse shift on T c by measurements of temperature dependent magnetization and resistivity. The inverse isotope effect that is the first case in high-T c superconductors strongly suggests that superconducting mechanism of the iron-based system is not explained by conventional BCS theory mediated by phonons.

  7. Compton Polarimetry at ELSA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hillert, Wolfgang; Aurand, Bastian; Wittschen, Juergen

    2009-01-01

    Part of the future polarization program performed at the Bonn accelerator facility ELSA will rely on precision Compton polarimetry of the stored transversely polarized electron beam. Precise and fast polarimetry poses high demands on the light source and the detector which were studied in detail performing numerical simulations of the Compton scattering process. In order to experimentally verify these calculations, first measurements were carried out using an argon ion laser as light source and a prototype version of a counting silicon microstrip detector. Calculated and measured intensity profiles of backscattered photons are presented and compared, showing excellent agreement. Background originating from beam gas radiation turned out to be the major limitation of the polarimeter performance. In order to improve the situation, a new polarimeter was constructed and is currently being set up. Design and expected performance of this polarimeter upgrade are presented.

  8. Description of the double Compton spectrometer at Mayence MPI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borchert, H.; Ziegler, B.; Gimm, H.; Zieger, A.; Hughes, R.J.; Ahrens, J.

    1977-01-01

    The double Compton spectrometer of the Laboratories of the Mayence Linear Accelerator consists in two identical magnetic spectrometers, in which the electron scattered forwards by photons through a Compton process, are detected. The spectrometers have been built to detect 10-350 MeV photons and, as they involve thin Compton targets, their effect on the photon flux is negligible. They are put in cascade inside a well collimated bremsstrahlung beam. A thick absorbing target (max. thickness 2m) can be inserted inside the beam. The facility is outlined, some special properties of the accelerator and the bremsstrahlung beam are given. The properties of a Compton spectrometer involving eleven detectors are given by eleven response functions giving the relations between the photon flux impinging the Compton target and the counting rates of the detectors for a given adjustment of the magnets. A Monte-Carlo method is used for the calculation together with analytical methods neglecting the multiple scattering effects [fr

  9. Compton radiography, 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okuyama, Shinichi; Sera, Koichiro; Fukuda, Hiroshi; Shishido, Fumio; Matsuzawa, Taiju

    1977-01-01

    Tomographic images of an object are obtainable by irradiating it with a collimated beam of monochromatic gamma rays and recording the resultant Compton rays scattered upward at right angles. This is the scattered-ray principle of the formation of a radiation image that differs from the traditional ''silhouette principle'' of radiography, and that bears prospects of stereopsis as well as cross-section tomography. (Evans, J.)

  10. Crystal Compton Camera

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ziock, Klaus-Peter [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Braverman, Joshua B. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Harrison, Mark J. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Hornback, Donald Eric [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Fabris, Lorenzo [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Newby, Jason [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2013-09-26

    Stand-off detection is one of the most important radiation detection capabilities for arms control and the control of illicit nuclear materials. For long range passive detection one requires a large detector and a means of “seeing through” the naturally occurring and varying background radiation, i.e. imaging. Arguably, Compton imaging is the best approach over much of the emission band suitable for long range detection. It provides not only imaging, but more information about the direction of incidence of each detected gamma-ray than the alternate approach of coded-aperture imaging. The directional information allows one to reduce the background and hence improve the sensitivity of a measurement. However, to make an efficient Compton imager requires localizing and measuring the simultaneous energy depositions when gamma-rays Compton scatter and are subsequently captured within a single, large detector volume. This concept has been demonstrated in semi-conductor detectors (HPGe, CZT, Si) but at ~ $1k/cm3 these materials are too expensive to build the large systems needed for standoff detection. Scintillator detectors, such as NaI(Tl), are two orders of magnitude less expensive and possess the energy resolution required to make such an imager. However, they do not currently have the ability to localize closely spaced, simultaneous energy depositions in a single large crystal. In this project we are applying a new technique that should, for the first time ever, allow cubic-millimeter event localization in a bulk scintillator crystal.

  11. Magnetic field sensor based on asymmetric inverse Wiedemann effect

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kraus, Luděk; Malátek, M.; Dvořák, M.

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 142, č. 2 (2008), s. 468-473 ISSN 0924-4247 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100520 Keywords : magnetic field sensor * inverse Wiedemann effect * off-diagonal magnetoimpedance * amorphous ribbon Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 1.724, year: 2008

  12. Chinese Characters Elicit Face-Like N170 Inversion Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Man-Ying; Kuo, Bo-Cheng; Cheng, Shih-Kuen

    2011-01-01

    Recognition of both faces and Chinese characters is commonly believed to rely on configural information. While faces typically exhibit behavioral and N170 inversion effects that differ from non-face stimuli (Rossion, Joyce, Cottrell, & Tarr, 2003), the current study examined whether a similar reliance on configural processing may result in similar…

  13. Influence of seeing effects on cloud model inversions

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Tziotziou, K.; Heinzel, Petr; Tsiropoula, G.

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 472, č. 1 (2007), s. 287-292 ISSN 0004-6361 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10030501 Keywords : cloud model * inversions * seeing effects Subject RIV: BN - Astronomy, Celestial Mechanics, Astrophysics Impact factor: 4.259, year: 2007

  14. Laser-Compton Scattering as a Potential Electron Beam Monitor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chouffani, K.; Wells, D.; Harmon, F.; Lancaster, G.; Jones, J.

    2002-01-01

    LCS experiments were carried out at the Idaho Accelerator Center (IAC); sharp monochromatic x-ray lines were observed. These are produced using the so-called inverse Compton effect, whereby optical laser photons are collided with a relativistic electron beam. The back-scattered photons are then kinematically boosted to keV x-ray energies. We have first demonstrated these beams using a 20 MeV electron beam collided with a 100 MW, 7 ns Nd; YAG laser. We observed narrow LCS x-ray spectral peaks resulting from the interaction of the electron beam with the Nd; YAG laser second harmonic (532 nm). The LCS x-ray energy lines and energy deviations were measured as a function of the electron beam energy and energy-spread respectively. The results showed good agreement with the predicted valves. LCS could provide an excellent probe of electron beam energy, energy spread, transverse and longitudinal distribution and direction

  15. Cylindrical Field Effect Transistor: A Full Volume Inversion Device

    KAUST Repository

    Fahad, Hossain M.

    2010-12-01

    The increasing demand for high performance as well as low standby power devices has been the main reason for the aggressive scaling of conventional CMOS transistors. Current devices are at the 32nm technology node. However, due to physical limitations as well as increase in short-channel effects, leakage, power dissipation, this scaling trend cannot continue and will eventually hit a barrier. In order to overcome this, alternate device topologies have to be considered altogether. Extensive research on ultra thin body double gate FETs and gate all around nanowire FETs has shown a lot of promise. Under strong inversion, these devices have demonstrated increased performance over their bulk counterparts. This is mainly attributed to full carrier inversion in the body. However, these devices are still limited by lithographic and processing challenges making them unsuitable for commercial production. This thesis explores a unique device structure called the CFET (Cylindrical Field Effect Transistors) which also like the above, relies on complete inversion of carriers in the body/bulk. Using dual gates; an outer and an inner gate, full-volume inversion is possible with benefits such as enhanced drive currents, high Ion/Ioff ratios and reduced short channel effects.

  16. Compton Operator in Quantum Electrodynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia, Hector Luna; Garcia, Luz Maria

    2015-01-01

    In the frame in the quantum electrodynamics exist four basic operators; the electron self-energy, vacuum polarization, vertex correction, and the Compton operator. The first three operators are very important by its relation with renormalized and Ward identity. However, the Compton operator has equal importance, but without divergence, and little attention has been given it. We have calculated the Compton operator and obtained the closed expression for it in the frame of dimensionally continuous integration and hypergeometric functions

  17. Compton's Kinematics and Einstein - Ehrenfest's radiation theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barranco, A.V.; Franca, H.M.

    1988-09-01

    The Compton Kinematic relations are obtained from entirely classical arguments, that is, without the corpuscular concept of the photon. The calculations are nonrelativistic and result from Einstein and Ehrenfest's radiation theory modified in order to introduce the effects of the classical zero-point fileds characteristic of Stochastic Electrodynamics. (author) [pt

  18. Inverse Edelstein effect induced by magnon-phonon coupling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Mingran; Puebla, Jorge; Auvray, Florent; Rana, Bivas; Kondou, Kouta; Otani, Yoshichika

    2018-05-01

    We demonstrate a spin to charge current conversion via magnon-phonon coupling and an inverse Edelstein effect on the hybrid device Ni/Cu (Ag )/Bi 2O3 . The generation of spin current (Js≈108A/m2 ) due to magnon-phonon coupling reveals the viability of acoustic spin pumping as a mechanism for the development of spintronic devices. A full in-plane magnetic field angle dependence of the power absorption and a combination of longitudinal and transverse voltage detection reveals the symmetric and asymmetric components of the inverse Edelstein effect voltage induced by Rayleigh-type surface acoustic waves. While the symmetric components are well studied, asymmetric components still need to be explored. We assign the asymmetric contributions to the interference between longitudinal and shear waves and an anisotropic charge distribution in our hybrid device.

  19. Effective atomic numbers of blue topaz at different gamma-rays energies obtained from Compton scattering technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tuschareon, S., E-mail: tuscharoen@hotmail.com; Limkitjaroenporn, P., E-mail: tuscharoen@hotmail.com; Kaewkhao, J., E-mail: tuscharoen@hotmail.com [Center of Excellence in Glass Technology and Materials Science (CEGM), Nakhon Pathom Rajabhat University, Nakhon Pathom, 73000, Thailand and Science Program, Faculty of Science and Technology, Nakhon Pathom Rajabhat University, Nakhon Pathom, 73000 (Thailand)

    2014-03-24

    Topaz occurs in a wide range of colors, including yellow, orange, brown, pink-to-violet and blue. All of these color differences are due to color centers. In order to improve the color of natural colorless topaz, the most commonly used is irradiated with x- or gamma-rays, indicated that attenuation parameters is important to enhancements by irradiation. In this work, the mass attenuation coefficients of blue topaz were measured at the different energy of γ-rays using the Compton scattering technique. The results show that, the experimental values of mass attenuation coefficient are in good agreement with the theoretical values. The mass attenuation coefficients increase with the decrease in gamma rays energies. This may be attributed to the higher photon interaction probability of blue topaz at lower energy. This result is a first report of mass attenuation coefficient of blue topaz at different gamma rays energies.

  20. The Quantum Mechanics of Nano-Confined Water: New Cooperative Effects Revealed with Neutron and X-Ray Compton Scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reiter, G F; Deb, Aniruddha

    2014-01-01

    Neutron Compton scattering(NCS) measurements of the momentum distribution of light ions using the Vesuvio instrument at ISIS provide a sensitive local probe of the environment of those ions. NCS measurements of the proton momentum distribution in bulk water show only small deviations from the usual picture of water as a collection of molecules, with the protons covalently bonded to an oxygen and interacting weakly, primarily electrostatically, with nearby molecules. However, a series of measurements of the proton momentum distribution in carbon nanotubes, xerogel, and Nafion show that the proton delocalizes over distances of 0.2-0.3Å when water is confined on the scale of 20Å. This delocalization must be the result of changes in the Born-Oppenheimer surface for the protons, which would imply that there are large deviations in the electron distribution from that of a collection of weakly interacting molecules. This has been observed at Spring-8 using x-ray Compton scattering. The observed deviation in the valence electron momentum distribution from that of bulk water is more than an order of magnitude larger than the change observed in bulk water as the water is heated from just above melting to just below boiling. We conclude that the protons and electrons in nano-confined water are in a qualitatively different ground state from that of bulk water. Since the properties of this state persist at room temperature, and the confinement distance necessary to observe it is comparable to the distance between the elements of biological cells, this state presumably plays a role in the functioning of those cells

  1. A closed-form solution for the two-dimensional Fokker-Planck equation for electron transport in the range of Compton Effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodriguez, B.D.A.; Vilhena, M.T.; Borges, V.; Hoff, G.

    2008-01-01

    In this paper we solve the Fokker-Planck (FP) equation, an alternative approach for the Boltzmann transport equation for charged particles in a rectangular domain. To construct the solution we begin applying the P N approximation in the angular variable and the Laplace Transform in the x-variable, thus obtaining a first order linear differential equation in y-variable, which the solution is straightforward. The angular flux of electrons and the parameters of the medium are used for the calculation of the energy deposited by the secondary electrons generated by Compton Effect. The remaining effects will not be taken into account. The results will be presented under absorbed energy form in several points of interested. We present numerical simulations and comparisons with results obtained by using Geant4 (version 8) program which applies the Monte Carlo's technique to low energy libraries for a two-dimensional problem assuming the screened Rutherford differential scattering cross-section

  2. Effects of induced stress on seismic forward modelling and inversion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tromp, Jeroen; Trampert, Jeannot

    2018-05-01

    We demonstrate how effects of induced stress may be incorporated in seismic modelling and inversion. Our approach is motivated by the accommodation of pre-stress in global seismology. Induced stress modifies both the equation of motion and the constitutive relationship. The theory predicts that induced pressure linearly affects the unstressed isotropic moduli with a slope determined by their adiabatic pressure derivatives. The induced deviatoric stress produces anisotropic compressional and shear wave speeds; the latter result in shear wave splitting. For forward modelling purposes, we determine the weak form of the equation of motion under induced stress. In the context of the inverse problem, we determine induced stress sensitivity kernels, which may be used for adjoint tomography. The theory is illustrated by considering 2-D propagation of SH waves and related Fréchet derivatives based on a spectral-element method.

  3. Effect of particle size on degree of inversion in ferrites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siddique, M.; Butt, N.M.

    2012-01-01

    Ferrites with the spinel structure are important materials because of their structural, magnetic and electrical properties. The suitability of these materials depends on both the intrinsic behavior of the material and the effects of the grain size. Moessbauer spectroscopy was employed to investigate the cation distribution and degree of inversion in bulk and nano sized particles of CuFe/sub 2/O/sub 4/, MnFe/sub 2/O/sub 4/ and NiFe/sub 2/O/sub 4/ ferrites. The Moessbauer spectra of all bulk ferrites showed complete magnetic behavior, whereas nanoparticle ferrites showed combination of ferromagnetic and superparamagnetic components. Moreover, the cation distribution in nanoparticle materials was also found to be different to that of their bulk counterparts indicating the particle size dependency. The inversion of Cu and Ni ions in bulk sample was greater than that of nanoparticles; whereas the inversion of Mn ions was less in bulk material as compared to the nanoparticles. Hence the degree of inversion decreased in CuFe/sub 2/O/sub 4/ and NiFe/sub 2/O/sub 4/ samples whereas, it increased in MnFe/sub 2/O/sub 4/ as the particle size decreased and thus showed the anomalous behavior in this case. The nanoparticle samples also showed paramagnetic behaviour due to superparamagnetism and this effect is more prominent in MnFe/sub 2/O/sub 4/. Moessbauer spectra of bulk and nanoparticles CuFe/sub 2/O/sub 4/ is shown. (Orig./A.B.)

  4. Investigation into the factors that influence inverse bulging effect during sheet hydro-mechanical deep drawing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lang Lihui

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The factors that influence inverse bulging effect during sheet hydro-mechanical deep drawing are especially researched in this paper. According to the different inverse bulging process, two modes can be singled: the initial inverse bulging (IIB and the local inverse bulging (LIB. IIB includes two parameters: inverse bulging height ratio (HIb/t and inverse bulging pressure ratio (PIb/t. LIB is influenced by IIB and has a direct relationship with liquid chamber pressure in the forming process. The optimal inverse bulging parameters of hemispherical bottom cylindrical part and flat bottom cylindrical part are obtained by numerical simulation. Process parameters including the clearance between the punch and the blank holder and the blank holder entrance radius that have a large influence on inverse bulging effect are optimized, so as to make inverse bulging effect behave better in hydroforming process. Finally, the accuracy of the numerical simulation results was verified by experiments.

  5. Inverse Funnel Effect of Excitons in Strained Black Phosphorus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo San-Jose

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available We study the effects of strain on the properties and dynamics of Wannier excitons in monolayer (phosphorene and few-layer black phosphorus (BP, a promising two-dimensional material for optoelectronic applications due to its high mobility, mechanical strength, and strain-tunable direct band gap. We compare the results to the case of molybdenum disulphide (MoS_{2} monolayers. We find that the so-called funnel effect, i.e., the possibility of controlling exciton motion by means of inhomogeneous strains, is much stronger in few-layer BP than in MoS_{2} monolayers and, crucially, is of opposite sign. Instead of excitons accumulating isotropically around regions of high tensile strain like in MoS_{2}, excitons in BP are pushed away from said regions. This inverse funnel effect is moreover highly anisotropic, with much larger funnel distances along the armchair crystallographic direction, leading to a directional focusing of exciton flow. A strong inverse funnel effect could enable simpler designs of funnel solar cells and offer new possibilities for the manipulation and harvesting of light.

  6. Inverse design of nanostructured surfaces for color effects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andkjær, Jacob Anders; Johansen, Villads Egede; Friis, Kasper Storgaard

    2014-01-01

    We propose an inverse design methodology for systematic design of nanostructured surfaces for color effects. The methodology is based on a 2D topology optimization formulation based on frequency-domain finite element simulations for E and/or H polarized waves. The goal of the optimization...... is to maximize color intensity in prescribed direction(s) for a prescribed color (RGB) vector. Results indicate that nanostructured surfaces with any desirable color vector can be generated; that complex structures can generate more intense colors than simple layerings; that angle independent colorings can...

  7. Compton scattering at high intensities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heinzl, Thomas, E-mail: thomas.heinzl@plymouth.ac.u [University of Plymouth, School of Mathematics and Statistics, Drake Circus, Plymouth PL4 8AA (United Kingdom)

    2009-12-01

    High-intensity Compton scattering takes place when an electron beam is brought into collision with a high power laser. We briefly review the main intensity signatures using the formalism of strong-field quantum electrodynamics.

  8. Weak Deeply Virtual Compton Scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ales Psaker; Wolodymyr Melnitchouk; Anatoly Radyushkin

    2006-01-01

    We extend the analysis of the deeply virtual Compton scattering process to the weak interaction sector in the generalized Bjorken limit. The virtual Compton scattering amplitudes for the weak neutral and charged currents are calculated at the leading twist within the framework of the nonlocal light-cone expansion via coordinate space QCD string operators. Using a simple model, we estimate cross sections for neutrino scattering off the nucleon, relevant for future high intensity neutrino beam facilities

  9. Quantization effects on the inversion mode of a double gate MOS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kalyan Mondol

    Full Text Available We investigate the quantization effects on the gate capacitance and charge distribution of a double gate MOSFET using a self-consistent solution of Poisson and Schrödinger equations of the industry standard simulation package Silvaco. Quantization effects on the gate C–V are simulated by varying the electron and hole effective masses. We notice that the inversion capacitance value decreases as the effective mass goes below 0.1mo and the shape of the C–V curve changes to step like in the inversion. We also notice that the inversion switches from surface inversion to volume inversion for low effective mass, and the quantization effect (step like shape in C–V and volume inversion in charge profile happen at the same effective mass. Keywords: Double gate MOSFETs, Quantum effects, Energy quantization, Channel inversion, Charge density

  10. Accurate measurement of electron beam polarization using Compton effect at TJNAF for the experiments G{sup p}{sub E} and N-{delta}; Mesure precise de la polarisation du faisceau d'electrons a TJNAF par polarimetrie compton pour les experiences G{sup p}{sub E} et N-{delta}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Escoffier, St

    2001-10-01

    This work deals with electron beam polarization measurements using Compton effect at TJNAF, for experiments of the proton electromagnetic form factors measurement and for nucleon response functions determination in the pion electroproduction reaction near the {delta}(1232) region. The Compton polarimeter, whose principle is built on elastic electron-photon scattering, was designed and built around a high finesse Fabry-Perot cavity (finesse = 25000). The incident Nd:YAG laser power is amplified by an optical cavity which provides a luminosity such as the statistical uncertainty on the electron polarization measurement is at the level of 1% in one hour. Using Pound-Drever method, laser frequency is locked on one of interferometer resonance frequencies. Circularly photon polarization inside the optical cavity was measured to be 99.6+/-0.45%. The electron beam polarization is deduced from the measurements of the photon polarization, experimental asymmetry and analysing power of our detector. The analysing power is determined by a measurement of the response function of the photon detector, composed of 25 PbWO{sub 4} crystals, thanks to coincidence events detected with the electron detector made up of 4 plans of 48 silicon strips. Measurement uncertainties come meanly from detector's response function modelling, pile up effect and photon beam polarization. Total relative uncertainty on the electron beam polarization measurement is about 1.4% for 40 minutes data taking. Moreover, the Compton polarimeter allows to estimate the electron helicity difference between two polarization reversals. This effect was found compatible with zero at 0.3%. (author)

  11. Ionization and pulse lethargy effects in inverse Cherenkov accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sprangle, P.; Hubbard, R.F.; Hafizi, B.

    1997-01-01

    Ionization processes limit the accelerating gradient and place an upper limit on the pulse duration of the electromagnetic driver in the inverse Cherenkov accelerator (ICA). Group velocity slippage, i.e., pulse lethargy, on the other hand, imposes a lower limit on the pulse duration. These limits are obtained for two ICA configurations in which the electromagnetic driver (e.g., laser or millimeter wave source) is propagated in a waveguide that is (i) lined with a dielectric material or (ii) filled with a neutral gas. In either configuration the electromagnetic driving field is guided and has an axial electric field with phase velocity equal to the speed of light in vacuum, c. The intensity of the driver in the ICA, and therefore the acceleration gradient, is limited by tunneling and collisional ionization effects. Partial ionization of the dielectric liner or gas can lead to significant modification of the dispersive properties of the waveguide, altering the phase velocity of the accelerating field and causing particle slippage, thus disrupting the acceleration process. An additional limitation on the pulse duration is imposed since the group velocity of the driving pulse is less than c and the pulse slips behind the accelerated electrons. Hence for sufficiently short pulses the electrons outrun the pulse, terminating the acceleration. Limitations on the driver pulse duration and accelerating gradient, due to ionization and pulse lethargy, are estimated for the two ICA configurations. Maximum accelerating gradients and pulse durations are presented for a 10 μm, 1 mm, and 1 cm wavelength electromagnetic driver. The combination of ionization and pulse lethargy effects impose severe limitations on the maximum energy gain in inverse Cherenkov accelerators. copyright 1997 The American Physical Society

  12. A closed-form solution for the two-dimensional transport equation by the LTSN nodal method in the range of Compton Effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodriguez, Barbara D.A.; Tullio de Vilhena, Marco; Hoff, Gabriela

    2008-01-01

    In this paper we report a two-dimensional LTS N nodal solution for homogeneous and heterogeneous rectangular domains, assuming the Klein-Nishina scattering kernel and multigroup model. The main idea relies on the solution of the two one-dimensional S N equations resulting from transverse integration of the S N equations in the rectangular domain by the LTS N nodal method, considering the leakage angular fluxes approximated by exponential, which allow us to determine a closed-form solution for the photons transport equation. The angular flux and the parameters of the medium are used for the calculation of the absorbed energy in rectangular domains with different dimensions and compositions. The incoming photons will be tracked until their whole energy is deposited and/or they leave the domain of interest. In this study, the absorbed energy by Compton Effect will be considered. The remaining effects will not be taken into account. We present numerical simulations and comparisons with results obtained by using Geant4 (version 9.1) program which applies the Monte Carlo's technique to low energy libraries for a two-dimensional problem assuming the Klein-Nishina scattering kernel. (authors)

  13. A closed-form solution for the two-dimensional Fokker-Planck equation for electron transport in the range of Compton Effect

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodriguez, B.D.A. [Universidade Federal Rio Grande do Sul, Programa de Pos-Graduacao em Engenharia Mecanica, Rua Portuguesa 218/304, 90650-12 Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil)], E-mail: barbara.arodriguez@gmail.com; Vilhena, M.T. [Universidade Federal Rio Grande do Sul, Departamento de Matematica Pura e Aplicada, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil)], E-mail: vilhena@mat.ufrgs.br; Borges, V. [Universidade Federal Rio Grande do Sul, Programa de Pos-Graduacao em Engenharia Mecanica, Rua Portuguesa 218/304, 90650-12 Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil)], E-mail: borges@ufrgs.br; Hoff, G. [Pontificia Universidade Catolica do Rio Grande do Sul, Faculdade de Fisica, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil)], E-mail: hoff@pucrs.br

    2008-05-15

    In this paper we solve the Fokker-Planck (FP) equation, an alternative approach for the Boltzmann transport equation for charged particles in a rectangular domain. To construct the solution we begin applying the P{sub N} approximation in the angular variable and the Laplace Transform in the x-variable, thus obtaining a first order linear differential equation in y-variable, which the solution is straightforward. The angular flux of electrons and the parameters of the medium are used for the calculation of the energy deposited by the secondary electrons generated by Compton Effect. The remaining effects will not be taken into account. The results will be presented under absorbed energy form in several points of interested. We present numerical simulations and comparisons with results obtained by using Geant4 (version 8) program which applies the Monte Carlo's technique to low energy libraries for a two-dimensional problem assuming the screened Rutherford differential scattering cross-section.

  14. Quantization effects on the inversion mode of a double gate MOS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mondol, Kalyan; Hasan, Md. Manzurul; Arafath, Yeasir; Alam, Khairul

    We investigate the quantization effects on the gate capacitance and charge distribution of a double gate MOSFET using a self-consistent solution of Poisson and Schrödinger equations of the industry standard simulation package Silvaco. Quantization effects on the gate C-V are simulated by varying the electron and hole effective masses. We notice that the inversion capacitance value decreases as the effective mass goes below 0.1mo and the shape of the C-V curve changes to step like in the inversion. We also notice that the inversion switches from surface inversion to volume inversion for low effective mass, and the quantization effect (step like shape) in C-V and volume inversion in charge profile happen at the same effective mass.

  15. Critical review of Compton imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guzzardi, R.; Licitra, G.

    1987-01-01

    This paper reviews the basic aspects, problems, and applications of Compton imaging including those related to nonmedical applications. The physics and technology at the base of this specific methodology are analyzed and the relative differences and merits with respect to other imaging techniques, using ionizing radiations, are reviewed. The basic Compton imaging approaches, i.e., point-by-point, line-by-line, and plane-by-plane, are analyzed. Specifically, physical design and technological aspects are reviewed and discussed. Furthermore, the most important clinical applications of the different methods are presented and discussed. Finally, possibilities and applications of the Compton imaging method to other nonmedical fields, as in the case of the important area of object defects recognition, are analyzed and reviewed. 56 references

  16. Simple theory of the inverse Faraday effect with relationship to optical constants N and K

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshino, Toshihiko

    2011-01-01

    The inverse Faraday effect in general materials is theoretically investigated based on the classical motion of an electron. It is shown that the inverse Faraday effect is simply and explicitly expressed in terms of optical constants N and K, i.e., the real and imaginary parts of complex refractive index of materials. The derived new formula provides a good physical perspective for the inverse Faraday effect and enables its easy quantitative evaluation from familiar optical constants. - Highlights: → The theory of the inverse Faraday effect in general materials is presented based on the classical motion model of electron. → The simple relationship between optical constants of materials and the inverse Faraday effect is given. → The given new formula enables easy quantitative evaluation of the inverse Faraday effect from known optical constants.

  17. Ultrafast magnetic vortex core switching driven by the topological inverse Faraday effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taguchi, Katsuhisa; Ohe, Jun-ichiro; Tatara, Gen

    2012-09-21

    We present a theoretical discovery of an unconventional mechanism of inverse Faraday effect which acts selectively on topological magnetic structures. The effect, topological inverse Faraday effect, is induced by the spin Berry's phase of the magnetic structure when a circularly polarized light is applied. Thus a spin-orbit interaction is not necessary unlike that in the conventional inverse Faraday effect. We demonstrate by numerical simulation that topological inverse Faraday effect realizes ultrafast switching of a magnetic vortex within a switching time of 150 ps without magnetic field.

  18. Measurements of Effective Schottky Barrier in Inverse Extraordinary Optoconductance Structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, L. C.; Werner, F. M.; Solin, S. A.; Gilbertson, Adam; Cohen, L. F.

    2013-03-01

    Individually addressable optical sensors with dimensions as low as 250nm, fabricated from metal semiconductor hybrid structures (MSH) of AuTi-GaAs Schottky interfaces, display a transition from resistance decreasing with intensity in micron-scale sensors (Extraordinary Optoconductance, EOC) to resistance increasing with intensity in nano-scale sensors (Inverse Extraordinary Optoconductance I-EOC). I-EOC is attributed to a ballistic to diffusive crossover with the introduction of photo-induced carriers and gives rise to resistance changes of up to 9462% in 250nm devices. We characterize the photo-dependence of the effective Schottky barrier in EOC/I-EOC structures by the open circuit voltage and reverse bias resistance. Under illumination by a 5 mW, 632.8 nm HeNe laser, the barrier is negligible and the Ti-GaAs interface becomes Ohmic. Comparing the behavior of two devices, one with leads exposed, another with leads covered by an opaque epoxy, the variation in Voc with the position of the laser can be attributed to a photovoltaic effect of the lead metal and bulk GaAs. The resistance is unaffected by the photovoltaic offset of the leads, as indicated by the radial symmetry of 2-D resistance maps obtained by rastering a laser across EOC/IEOC devices. SAS has a financial interest in PixelEXX, a start-up company whose mission is to market imaging arrays.

  19. Stabilization effect of Weibel modes due to inverse bremsstrahlung ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2016-11-04

    Nov 4, 2016 ... In this work, the Weibel instability due to inverse bremsstrahlung absorption in laser fusion plasma ... pling of self-generated magnetic field with the laser wave field. This is ... To describe fully ionized plasma where the interac-.

  20. Inverse Scattering Method and Soliton Solution Family for String Effective Action

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ya-Jun, Gao

    2009-01-01

    A modified Hauser–Ernst-type linear system is established and used to develop an inverse scattering method for solving the motion equations of the string effective action describing the coupled gravity, dilaton and Kalb–Ramond fields. The reduction procedures in this inverse scattering method are found to be fairly simple, which makes the proposed inverse scattering method applied fine and effective. As an application, a concrete family of soliton solutions for the considered theory is obtained

  1. Inverse Leidenfrost effect: self-propelling drops on a bath

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gauthier, Anais; van der Meer, Devaraj; Lohse, Detlef; Physics of Fluids Team

    2017-11-01

    When deposited on very hot solid, volatile drops can levitate over a cushion of vapor, in the so-called Leidenfrost state. This phenomenon can also be observed on a hot bath and similarly to the solid case, drops are very mobile due to the absence of contact with the substrate that sustains them. We discuss here a situation of ``inverse Leidenfrost effect'' where room-temperature drops levitate on a liquid nitrogen pool - the vapor is generated here by the bath sustaining the relatively hot drop. We show that the drop's movement is not random: the liquid goes across the bath in straight lines, a pattern only disrupted by elastic bouncing on the edges. In addition, the drops are initially self-propelled; first at rest, they accelerate for a few seconds and reach velocities of the order of a few cm/s, before slowing down. We investigate experimentally the parameters that affect their successive acceleration and deceleration, such as the size and nature of the drops and we discuss the origin of this pattern.

  2. Characterization of a Compton suppression system and the applicability of Poisson statistics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nicholson, G.; Landsberger, S.; Welch, L.

    2008-01-01

    The Compton suppression system (CSS) has been thoroughly characterized at the University of Texas' Nuclear Engineering Teaching Laboratory (NETL). Effects of dead-time, sample displacement from primary detector, and primary energy detector position relative to the active shield detector have been measured and analyzed. Also, the applicability of Poisson counting statistics to Compton suppression spectroscopy has been evaluated. (author)

  3. The First Time Ever I Saw Your Feet: Inversion Effect in Newborns' Sensitivity to Biological Motion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bardi, Lara; Regolin, Lucia; Simion, Francesca

    2014-01-01

    Inversion effect in biological motion perception has been recently attributed to an innate sensitivity of the visual system to the gravity-dependent dynamic of the motion. However, the specific cues that determine the inversion effect in naïve subjects were never investigated. In the present study, we have assessed the contribution of the local…

  4. Explanation of the Inverse Doppler Effect Observed in Nonlinear Transmission Lines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kozyrev, Alexander B.; Weide, Daniel W. van der

    2005-01-01

    The theory of the inverse Doppler effect recently observed in magnetic nonlinear transmission lines is developed. We explain the crucial role of the backward spatial harmonic in the occurrence of an inverse Doppler effect and draw analogies of the magnetic nonlinear transmission line to the backward wave oscillator

  5. Maximum Likelihood Compton Polarimetry with the Compton Spectrometer and Imager

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lowell, A. W.; Boggs, S. E; Chiu, C. L.; Kierans, C. A.; Sleator, C.; Tomsick, J. A.; Zoglauer, A. C. [Space Sciences Laboratory, University of California, Berkeley (United States); Chang, H.-K.; Tseng, C.-H.; Yang, C.-Y. [Institute of Astronomy, National Tsing Hua University, Taiwan (China); Jean, P.; Ballmoos, P. von [IRAP Toulouse (France); Lin, C.-H. [Institute of Physics, Academia Sinica, Taiwan (China); Amman, M. [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (United States)

    2017-10-20

    Astrophysical polarization measurements in the soft gamma-ray band are becoming more feasible as detectors with high position and energy resolution are deployed. Previous work has shown that the minimum detectable polarization (MDP) of an ideal Compton polarimeter can be improved by ∼21% when an unbinned, maximum likelihood method (MLM) is used instead of the standard approach of fitting a sinusoid to a histogram of azimuthal scattering angles. Here we outline a procedure for implementing this maximum likelihood approach for real, nonideal polarimeters. As an example, we use the recent observation of GRB 160530A with the Compton Spectrometer and Imager. We find that the MDP for this observation is reduced by 20% when the MLM is used instead of the standard method.

  6. On the inverse Magnus effect in free molecular flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weidman, Patrick D.; Herczynski, Andrzej

    2004-02-01

    A Newton-inspired particle interaction model is introduced to compute the sideways force on spinning projectiles translating through a rarefied gas. The simple model reproduces the inverse Magnus force on a sphere reported by Borg, Söderholm and Essén [Phys. Fluids 15, 736 (2003)] using probability theory. Further analyses given for cylinders and parallelepipeds of rectangular and regular polygon section point to a universal law for this class of geometric shapes: when the inverse Magnus force is steady, it is proportional to one-half the mass M of gas displaced by the body.

  7. The Compton polarimeter at ELSA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doll, D.

    1998-06-01

    In order to measure the degree of transverse polarization of the stored electron beam in the Electron Stretcher Accelerator ELSA a compton polarimeter is built up. The measurement is based on the polarization dependent cross section for the compton scattering of circular polarized photons off polarized electrons. Using a high power laser beam and detecting the scattered photons a measuring time of two minutes with a statistical error of 5% is expected from numerical simulations. The design and the results of a computer controlled feedback system to enhance the laser beam stability at the interaction point in ELSA are presented. The detection of the scattered photons is based on a lead converter and a silicon-microstrip detector. The design and test results of the detector module including readout electronic and computer control are discussed. (orig.)

  8. Beam dynamics simulation in the X-ray Compton source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gladkikh, P.; Karnaukhov, I.; Telegin, Yu.; Shcherbakov, A. E-mail: shcherbakov@kipt.kharkov.ua; Zelinsky, A

    2002-05-01

    At the National Science Center 'Kharkov Institute of Physics and Technology' the X-ray source based on Compton scattering has been developed. The computer code for simulation of electron beam dynamics with taking into account the Compton scattering effect based on Monte Carlo method is described in this report. The first results of computer simulation of beam dynamics with electron-photon interaction, parameters of electron and photon beams are presented. Calculations were carried out with the lattice of synchrotron light source SRS-800 Ukrainian Synchrotron Center.

  9. Beam dynamics simulation in the X-ray Compton source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gladkikh, P.; Karnaukhov, I.; Telegin, Yu.; Shcherbakov, A.; Zelinsky, A.

    2002-01-01

    At the National Science Center 'Kharkov Institute of Physics and Technology' the X-ray source based on Compton scattering has been developed. The computer code for simulation of electron beam dynamics with taking into account the Compton scattering effect based on Monte Carlo method is described in this report. The first results of computer simulation of beam dynamics with electron-photon interaction, parameters of electron and photon beams are presented. Calculations were carried out with the lattice of synchrotron light source SRS-800 Ukrainian Synchrotron Center

  10. Beam dynamics simulation in the X-ray Compton source

    CERN Document Server

    Gladkikh, P; Telegin, Yu P; Shcherbakov, A; Zelinsky, A

    2002-01-01

    At the National Science Center 'Kharkov Institute of Physics and Technology' the X-ray source based on Compton scattering has been developed. The computer code for simulation of electron beam dynamics with taking into account the Compton scattering effect based on Monte Carlo method is described in this report. The first results of computer simulation of beam dynamics with electron-photon interaction, parameters of electron and photon beams are presented. Calculations were carried out with the lattice of synchrotron light source SRS-800 Ukrainian Synchrotron Center.

  11. Attention Misplaced: The Role of Diagnostic Features in the Face-Inversion Effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hills, Peter J.; Ross, David A.; Lewis, Michael B.

    2011-01-01

    Inversion disproportionately impairs recognition of face stimuli compared to nonface stimuli arguably due to the holistic manner in which faces are processed. A qualification is put forward in which the first point fixated on is different for upright and inverted faces and this carries some of the face-inversion effect. Three experiments explored…

  12. CMOS/SOS RAM transient radiation upset and ''inversion'' effect investigation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nikiforov, A.Y.; Poljakov, I.V.

    1996-01-01

    The Complementary Metal-Oxide-Semiconductor/Silicon-on-Sapphire Random Access Memory (CMOS/SOS RAM) transient upset and inversion effect were investigated with pulsed laser, pulsed voltage generator and low-intensity light simulators. It was found that the inversion of information occurs due to memory cell photocurrents simultaneously with the power supply voltage drop transfer to memory cells outputs

  13. Measurement of the polarisation of Jefferson Laboratory electron beam by Compton effect for the HAPPEX parity violation experiment in elastic electron-proton scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baylac, Maud

    2000-01-01

    This research thesis reports and describes the first measurements of polarisation of the Jlab electron beam by using the Compton polarimeter, and the exploitation of these measurements by the HAPPEX experiment which aims at determining the contribution of strange quarks to nucleon electromagnetic shape factors. The author first presents these shape factors and their compositions in terms of quarks. He describes the experimental installation used by the HAPPEX experiment for the measurement of the parity violation asymmetry. He presents the principle of Compton polarimetry and the experimental installation used at Jlab. Then, he addresses the main part of his research work which addresses the processing and analysis of data acquired during the HAPPEX experiment: measurement of the experimental asymmetry, and determination of the analysis power. HAPPEX results are finally presented and discussed [fr

  14. High effective inverse dynamics modelling for dual-arm robot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Haoyu; Liu, Yanli; Wu, Hongtao

    2018-05-01

    To deal with the problem of inverse dynamics modelling for dual arm robot, a recursive inverse dynamics modelling method based on decoupled natural orthogonal complement is presented. In this model, the concepts and methods of Decoupled Natural Orthogonal Complement matrices are used to eliminate the constraint forces in the Newton-Euler kinematic equations, and the screws is used to express the kinematic and dynamics variables. On this basis, the paper has developed a special simulation program with symbol software of Mathematica and conducted a simulation research on the a dual-arm robot. Simulation results show that the proposed method based on decoupled natural orthogonal complement can save an enormous amount of CPU time that was spent in computing compared with the recursive Newton-Euler kinematic equations and the results is correct and reasonable, which can verify the reliability and efficiency of the method.

  15. Doppler broadening and its contribution to Compton energy-absorption cross sections: An analysis of the Compton component in terms of mass-energy absorption coefficient

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rao, D.V.; Takeda, T.; Itai, Y.; Akatsuka, T.; Cesareo, R.; Brunetti, A.; Gigante, G.E.

    2002-01-01

    Compton energy absorption cross sections are calculated using the formulas based on a relativistic impulse approximation to assess the contribution of Doppler broadening and to examine the Compton profile literature and explore what, if any, effect our knowledge of this line broadening has on the Compton component in terms of mass-energy absorption coefficient. Compton energy-absorption cross sections are evaluated for all elements, Z=1-100, and for photon energies 1 keV-100 MeV. Using these cross sections, the Compton component of the mass-energy absorption coefficient is derived in the energy region from 1 keV to 1 MeV for all the elements Z=1-100. The electron momentum prior to the scattering event should cause a Doppler broadening of the Compton line. The momentum resolution function is evaluated in terms of incident and scattered photon energy and scattering angle. The overall momentum resolution of each contribution is estimated for x-ray and γ-ray energies of experimental interest in the angular region 1 deg. -180 deg. . Also estimated is the Compton broadening using nonrelativistic formula in the angular region 1 deg. -180 deg., for 17.44, 22.1, 58.83, and 60 keV photons for a few elements (H, C, N, O, P, S, K, and Ca) of biological importance

  16. Doppler Broadening and its Contribution to Compton Energy-Absorption Cross Sections: An Analysis of the Compton Component in Terms of Mass-Energy Absorption Coefficient

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, D. V.; Takeda, T.; Itai, Y.; Akatsuka, T.; Cesareo, R.; Brunetti, A.; Gigante, G. E.

    2002-09-01

    Compton energy absorption cross sections are calculated using the formulas based on a relativistic impulse approximation to assess the contribution of Doppler broadening and to examine the Compton profile literature and explore what, if any, effect our knowledge of this line broadening has on the Compton component in terms of mass-energy absorption coefficient. Compton energy-absorption cross sections are evaluated for all elements, Z=1-100, and for photon energies 1 keV-100 MeV. Using these cross sections, the Compton component of the mass-energy absorption coefficient is derived in the energy region from 1 keV to 1 MeV for all the elements Z=1-100. The electron momentum prior to the scattering event should cause a Doppler broadening of the Compton line. The momentum resolution function is evaluated in terms of incident and scattered photon energy and scattering angle. The overall momentum resolution of each contribution is estimated for x-ray and γ-ray energies of experimental interest in the angular region 1°-180°. Also estimated is the Compton broadening using nonrelativistic formula in the angular region 1°-180°, for 17.44, 22.1, 58.83, and 60 keV photons for a few elements (H, C, N, O, P, S, K, and Ca) of biological importance.

  17. Study of Compton broadening due to electron-photon scattering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Srinivasa Rao M.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available We have investigated the effects of Compton broadening due to electron-photon scattering in hot stellar atmospheres. A purely electron-photon scattering media is assumed to have plane parallel geometry with an input radia­tion field localized on one side of the slab. The method is based on the discrete space theory of radiative transfer for the intensity of emitted radiation. The solution is developed to study the importance of scattering of radiation by free electrons in high temperature stellar atmospheres which produces a brodening and shift in spectral lines because of the Compton effect and the Doppler effect arising from mass and thermal motions of scattering electrons. It is noticed that the Comptonized spectrum depends on three parameters: the optical depth of the medium, the temperature of the thermal electrons and the viewing angle. We also showed that the Compton effect produces red shift and asymmetry in the line. These two effects increase as the optical depth increases. It is also noticed that the emergent specific intensities become completely asymmetric for higher optical depths.

  18. Study of Compton Broadening Due to Electron-Photon Scattering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Srinivasa Rao, M.

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available We have investigated the effects of Compton broadening due to electron-photon scattering in hot stellar atmospheres. A purely electron-photon scattering media is assumed to have plane parallel geometry with an input radiation field localized on one side of the slab. The method is based on the discrete space theory of radiative transfer for the intensity of emitted radiation.The solution is developed to study the importance of scattering of radiation by free electrons in high temperature stellar atmospheres which produces a brodening and shift in spectral lines because of the Compton effect and the Doppler effect arising from mass and thermal motions of scattering electrons.It is noticed that the Comptonized spectrum depends on three parameters: the optical depth of the medium, the temperature of the thermal electrons and the viewing angle.We also showed that the Compton effect produces red shift and asymmetry in the line. These two effects increase as the optical depth increases. It is also noticed that the emergent specific intensities become completely asymmetric for higher optical depths.

  19. Thermal Comptonization in standard accretion disks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maraschi, L.; Molendi, S.

    1990-01-01

    The standard model of an accretion disk is considered. The temperature in the inner region is computed assuming that the radiated power derives from Comptonized photons, produced in a homogeneous single-temperature plasma, supported by radiation pressure. The photon production mechanisms are purely thermal, including ion-electron bremsstrahlung, bound-free and bound-bound processes, and e-e bremsstrahlung. Pair production is not included, which limits the validity of the treatment to kT less than 60 keV. Three different approximations for the effects of Comptonization on the energy loss are used, yielding temperatures which agree within 50 percent. The maximum temperature is very sensitive to the accretion rate and viscosity parameters, ranging, for a 10 to the 8th solar mass black hole, between 0.1 and 50 keV for m between 0.1 and 1 and alpha between 0.1 and 1 and, for a 10-solar-mass black hole, between 0.6 and 60 keV for m between 0.1 and 0.9 and alpha between 0.1 and 0.5. For high viscosity and accretion rates, the emission spectra show a flat component following a peak corresponding to the temperature of the innermost optically thick annulus. 28 refs

  20. Compton radiography, 2. Clinical significance of Compton radiography of a chest phantom

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okuyama, S; Sera, K; Fukuda, H; Shishido, F [Tohoku Univ., Sendai (Japan). Research Inst. for Tuberculosis, Leprosy and Cancer; Mishina, H

    1977-09-01

    Compton radiography, a tomographic technic with Compton-scattered rays of a monochromatic gamma ray beam, was feasible of tomographing a chest phantom. The result suggested that the technic could be extended to imaging of the lung and the surrounding structures of the chest wall, mediastinum and liver in Compton tomographic mode.

  1. Compton scattering study of electron momentum distribution in lithium fluoride using 662 keV gamma radiations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vijayakumar, R.; Shivaramu; Ramamurthy, N.; Ford, M. J.

    2008-12-01

    Here we report the first ever 137Cs Compton spectroscopy study of lithium fluoride. The spherical average Compton profiles of lithium fluoride are deduced from Compton scattering measurements on poly crystalline sample at gamma ray energy of 662 keV. To compare the experimental data, we have computed the spherical average Compton profiles using self-consistent Hartree-Fock wave functions employed on linear combination of atomic orbital (HF-LCAO) approximation. The directional Compton profiles and their anisotropic effects are also calculated using the same HF-LCAO approximation. The experimental spherical average profiles are found to be in good agreement with the corresponding HF-LCAO calculations and in qualitative agreement with Hartree-Fock free atom values. The present experimental isotropic and calculated directional profiles are also compared with the available experimental isotropic and directional Compton profiles using 59.54 and 159 keV γ-rays.

  2. Compton scattering on 208Pb

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alberico, W.M.; Molinari, A.

    1982-01-01

    In this paper we briefly review the formalism of the nuclear Compton scattering in the frame of the low-energy theorems (LET). We treat the resonant terms of the amplitude, having collective intermediate nuclear states, as a superposition of Lorentz lines with energy, width and strength fixed by the photo-absorption experiments. The gauge terms are evaluated starting from a simple, but realistic, nuclear Hamiltonian. Dynamical nucleon-nucleon correlations are consistently taken into account, beyond those imposed by the Pauli principle. The comparison of the theoretical predictions with the data of elastic diffusion of photons from 208 Pb shows that LET are insufficient to account for the experiment. (orig.)

  3. Pion Virtual Compton Scattering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ocherashvili, Aharon [Tel Aviv U.

    2000-01-01

    Plasma production via field ionization occurs when an incoming electron beam is sufficiently dense that the electric field associated with the beam ionizes the neutral vapor. Experiments at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center (SLAC) explore the threshold conditions necessary to induce field ionization in a neutral lithium (Li) vapor. By independently varying the bunch length, transverse spot size or number of electrons per bunch, the radial component of the electric field is controlled to be above or below the threshold for field ionization. A self-ionized plasma is an essential step for the viability of plasma-based accelerators for future high-energy experiments. Based on the experimental results, the incoming beam ionizes the neutral Li vapor when its peak electric field is approximately 5 G V / m and higher. This electric field translates into a peak charge density of approximately 3x 1016 cm-3 . The experimental conditions are approximated and simulated in a 2-D particle-in-cell code, OOPIC. The code and the data correspond well in terms of the correct threshold conditions and the dependence on the critical beam parameters. In addition to the ionization threshold, the field ionization effects are characterized by the beam's energy loss through the Li vapor column due to the plasma wake field production. The peak and average energy loss as a result of wake production and beam propagation through the plasma is compared with simulation results from OOPIC. The simulation code accurately predicts the peak energy loss of the beam, but approximations in the code produce differences between the average energy loss measured and the loss calculated by the simulation.

  4. Effect of objective function on multi-objective inverse planning of radiation therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Guoli; Wu Yican; Song Gang; Wang Shifang

    2006-01-01

    There are two kinds of objective functions in radiotherapy inverse planning: dose distribution-based and Dose-Volume Histogram (DVH)-based functions. The treatment planning in our days is still a trial and error process because the multi-objective problem is solved by transforming it into a single objective problem using a specific set of weights for each object. This work investigates the problem of objective function setting based on Pareto multi-optimization theory, and compares the effect on multi-objective inverse planning of those two kinds of objective functions including calculation time, converge speed, etc. The basis of objective function setting on inverse planning is discussed. (authors)

  5. Comprehensive study of observables in Compton scattering on the nucleon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grießhammer, Harald W.; McGovern, Judith A.; Phillips, Daniel R.

    2018-03-01

    We present an analysis of 13 observables in Compton scattering on the proton. Cross sections, asymmetries with polarised beam and/or targets, and polarisation-transfer observables are investigated for energies up to the Δ(1232) resonance to determine their sensitivity to the proton's dipole scalar and spin polarisabilities. The Chiral Effective Field Theory Compton amplitude we use is complete at N4LO, O(e2δ4), for photon energies ω˜ m_{π}, and so has an accuracy of a few per cent there. At photon energies in the resonance region, it is complete at NLO, O(e2δ0), and so its accuracy there is about 20%. We find that for energies from pion-production threshold to about 250 MeV, multiple asymmetries have significant sensitivity to presently ill-determined combinations of proton spin polarisabilities. We also argue that the broad outcomes of this analysis will be replicated in complementary theoretical approaches, e.g., dispersion relations. Finally, we show that below the pion-production threshold, 6 observables suffice to reconstruct the Compton amplitude, and above it 11 are required. Although not necessary for polarisability extractions, this opens the possibility to perform "complete" Compton-scattering experiments. An interactive Mathematica notebook, including results for the neutron, is available from judith.mcgovern@manchester.ac.uk.

  6. Spectral Evolution of Synchrotron and Inverse Compton Emission in ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    emission peaks in the optical band (e.g., Nieppola et al. 2006). In order to under- stand the evolution of synchrotron and IC spectra of BL Lac objects, the X-ray spectral analysis with XMM–Newton X-ray observations of PKS 2155–304 and. S5 0716+7145 (see Zhang 2008, 2010 for details) was performed. Here, the results.

  7. X-ray Compton line scan tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kupsch, Andreas; Lange, Axel; Jaenisch, Gerd-Ruediger [Bundesanstalt fuer Materialforschung und -pruefung (BAM), Berlin (Germany). Fachgruppe 8.5 - Mikro-ZfP; Hentschel, Manfred P. [Technische Univ. Berlin (Germany); Kardjilov, Nikolay; Markoetter, Henning; Hilger, Andre; Manke, Ingo [Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin (HZB) (Germany); Toetzke, Christian [Potsdam Univ. (Germany)

    2015-07-01

    The potentials of incoherent X-ray scattering (Compton) computed tomography (CT) are investigated. The imaging of materials of very different atomic number or density at once is generally a perpetual challenge for X-ray tomography or radiography. In a basic laboratory set-up for simultaneous perpendicular Compton scattering and direct beam attenuation tomography are conducted by single channel photon counting line scans. This results in asymmetric distortions of the projection profiles of the scattering CT data set. In a first approach, corrections of Compton scattering data by taking advantage of rotational symmetry yield tomograms without major geometric artefacts. A cylindrical sample composed of PE, PA, PVC, glass and wood demonstrates similar Compton contrast for all the substances, while the conventional absorption tomogram only reveals the two high order materials. Comparison to neutron tomography reveals astonishing similarities except for the glass component (without hydrogen). Therefore, Compton CT offers the potential to replace neutron tomography, which requires much more efforts.

  8. The effect of inversion at 8p23 on BLK association with lupus in Caucasian population.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bahram Namjou

    Full Text Available To explore the potential influence of the polymorphic 8p23.1 inversion on known autoimmune susceptibility risk at or near BLK locus, we validated a new bioinformatics method that utilizes SNP data to enable accurate, high-throughput genotyping of the 8p23.1 inversion in a Caucasian population.Principal components analysis (PCA was performed using markers inside the inversion territory followed by k-means cluster analyses on 7416 European derived and 267 HapMaP CEU and TSI samples. A logistic regression conditional analysis was performed.Three subgroups have been identified; inversion homozygous, heterozygous and non-inversion homozygous. The status of inversion was further validated using HapMap samples that had previously undergone Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH assays with a concordance rate of above 98%. Conditional analyses based on the status of inversion were performed. We found that overall association signals in the BLK region remain significant after controlling for inversion status. The proportion of lupus cases and controls (cases/controls in each subgroup was determined to be 0.97 for the inverted homozygous group (1067 cases and 1095 controls, 1.12 for the inverted heterozygous group (1935 cases 1717 controls and 1.36 for non-inverted subgroups (924 cases and 678 controls. After calculating the linkage disequilibrium between inversion status and lupus risk haplotype we found that the lupus risk haplotype tends to reside on non-inversion background. As a result, a new association effect between non-inversion status and lupus phenotype has been identified ((p = 8.18×10(-7, OR = 1.18, 95%CI = 1.10-1.26.Our results demonstrate that both known lupus risk haplotype and inversion status act additively in the pathogenesis of lupus. Since inversion regulates expression of many genes in its territory, altered expression of other genes might also be involved in the development of lupus.

  9. Seeing the World Topsy-Turvy: The Primary Role of Kinematics in Biological Motion Inversion Effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sue-Anne Fitzgerald

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Physical inversion of whole or partial human body representations typically has catastrophic consequences on the observer's ability to perform visual processing tasks. Explanations usually focus on the effects of inversion on the visual system's ability to exploit configural or structural relationships, but more recently have also implicated motion or kinematic cue processing. Here, we systematically tested the role of both on perceptions of sex from upright and inverted point-light walkers. Our data suggest that inversion results in systematic degradations of the processing of kinematic cues. Specifically and intriguingly, they reveal sex-based kinematic differences: Kinematics characteristic of females generally are resistant to inversion effects, while those of males drive systematic sex misperceptions. Implications of the findings are discussed.

  10. Effects of ankle eversion taping using kinesiology tape in a patient with ankle inversion sprain

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Sun-Min; Lee, Jung-Hoon

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] The aim of this study was to report the effects of ankle eversion taping using kinesiology tape on ankle inversion sprain. [Subject] The subject was a 21-year-old woman with Grade 2 ankle inversion sprain. [Methods] Ankle eversion taping was applied to the sprained left ankle using kinesiology tape for 4 weeks (average, 15?h/day). [Results] Ankle instability and pain were reduced, and functional dynamic balance was improved after ankle eversion taping for 4 weeks. The Cumberland Ank...

  11. Inverse targeting —An effective immunization strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, C. M.; Mihaljev, T.; Herrmann, H. J.

    2012-05-01

    We propose a new method to immunize populations or computer networks against epidemics which is more efficient than any continuous immunization method considered before. The novelty of our method resides in the way of determining the immunization targets. First we identify those individuals or computers that contribute the least to the disease spreading measured through their contribution to the size of the largest connected cluster in the social or a computer network. The immunization process follows the list of identified individuals or computers in inverse order, immunizing first those which are most relevant for the epidemic spreading. We have applied our immunization strategy to several model networks and two real networks, the Internet and the collaboration network of high-energy physicists. We find that our new immunization strategy is in the case of model networks up to 14%, and for real networks up to 33% more efficient than immunizing dynamically the most connected nodes in a network. Our strategy is also numerically efficient and can therefore be applied to large systems.

  12. Compton Gamma-Ray Observatory

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-01-01

    This photograph shows the Compton Gamma-Ray Observatory (GRO) being deployed by the Remote Manipulator System (RMS) arm aboard the Space Shuttle Atlantis during the STS-37 mission in April 1991. The GRO reentered Earth atmosphere and ended its successful mission in June 2000. For nearly 9 years, the GRO Burst and Transient Source Experiment (BATSE), designed and built by the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC), kept an unblinking watch on the universe to alert scientists to the invisible, mysterious gamma-ray bursts that had puzzled them for decades. By studying gamma-rays from objects like black holes, pulsars, quasars, neutron stars, and other exotic objects, scientists could discover clues to the birth, evolution, and death of stars, galaxies, and the universe. The gamma-ray instrument was one of four major science instruments aboard the Compton. It consisted of eight detectors, or modules, located at each corner of the rectangular satellite to simultaneously scan the entire universe for bursts of gamma-rays ranging in duration from fractions of a second to minutes. In January 1999, the instrument, via the Internet, cued a computer-controlled telescope at Las Alamos National Laboratory in Los Alamos, New Mexico, within 20 seconds of registering a burst. With this capability, the gamma-ray experiment came to serve as a gamma-ray burst alert for the Hubble Space Telescope, the Chandra X-Ray Observatory, and major gound-based observatories around the world. Thirty-seven universities, observatories, and NASA centers in 19 states, and 11 more institutions in Europe and Russia, participated in the BATSE science program.

  13. A simple scanner for Compton tomography

    CERN Document Server

    Cesareo, R; Brunetti, A; Golosio, B; Castellano, A

    2002-01-01

    A first generation CT-scanner was designed and constructed to carry out Compton images. This CT-scanner is composed of a 80 kV, 5 mA X-ray tube and a NaI(Tl) X-ray detector; the tube is strongly collimated, generating a X-ray beam of 2 mm diameter, whilst the detector is not collimated to collect Compton photons from the whole irradiated cylinder. The performances of the equipment were tested contemporaneous transmission and Compton images.

  14. Poster — Thur Eve — 01: The effect of the number of projections on MTF and CNR in Compton scatter tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chighvinadze, T; Pistorius, S

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate the dependence of the reconstructed image quality on the number of projections in multi-projection Compton scatter tomography (MPCST). The conventional relationship between the projection number used for reconstruction and reconstructed image quality pertained to CT does not necessarily apply to MPCST, which can produce images from a single projection if the detectors have sufficiently high energy and spatial resolution. Methods: The electron density image was obtained using filtered-backprojection of the scatter signal over circular arcs formed using Compton equation. The behavior of the reconstructed image quality as a function of the projection number was evaluated through analytical simulations and characterized by CNR and MTF. Results: The increase of the projection number improves the contrast with this dependence being a function of fluence. The number of projections required to approach the asymptotic maximum contrast decreases as the fluence increases. Increasing projection number increases the CNR but not spatial resolution. Conclusions: For MPCST using a 500eV energy resolution and a 2×2mm 2 size detector, an adequate image quality can be obtained with a small number of projections provided the incident fluence is high enough. This is conceptually different from conventional CT where a minimum number of projections is required to obtain an adequate image quality. While increasing projection number, even for the lowest dose value, the CNR increases even though the number of photons per projection decreases. The spatial resolution of the image is improved by increasing the sampling within a projection rather than by increasing the number of projections

  15. Increase in compton scattering of gamma rays passing along metal surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grigor'ev, A.N.; Bilyk, Z.V.; Sakun, A.V.; Marushchenko, V.V.; Chernyavskij, O.Yu.; Litvinov, Yu.V.

    2014-01-01

    The paper considers experimental study of changes in energy of 137 Cs gamma source as gamma rays pass along metal surface. Decrease in gamma energy was examined by reducing the number of gamma rays in the complete absorption peak to the Compton length level and increasing the Compton effect. The number of gamma rays in the complete absorption peak decreases by 3.5 times in the angle range under study

  16. On the timing properties of germanium detectors: The centroid diagrams of prompt photopeaks and Compton events

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Penev, I.; Andrejtscheff, W.; Protochristov, Ch.; Zhelev, Zh.

    1987-01-01

    In the applications of the generalized centroid shift method with germanium detectors, the energy dependence of the time centroids of prompt photopeaks (zero-time line) and of Compton background events reveal a peculiar behavior crossing each other at about 100 keV. The effect is plausibly explained as associated with the ratio of γ-quanta causing the photoeffect and Compton scattering, respectively, at the boundaries of the detector. (orig.)

  17. Deeply virtual Compton scattering. Results and future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nowak, W.D.

    2005-03-01

    Access to generalised parton distributions (GPDs) through deeply virtual Compton scattering (DVCS) is briefly described. Presently available experimental results on DVCS are summarized in conjunction with plans for future measurements. (orig.)

  18. Computer control in a compton scattering spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cui Ningzhuo; Chen Tao; Gong Zhufang; Yang Baozhong; Mo Haiding; Hua Wei; Bian Zuhe

    1995-01-01

    The authors introduced the hardware and software of computer autocontrol of calibration and data acquisition in a Compton Scattering spectrometer which consists of a HPGe detector, Amplifiers and a MCA

  19. Neutron Compton scattering from selectively deuterated acetanilide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wanderlingh, U. N.; Fielding, A. L.; Middendorf, H. D.

    With the aim of developing the application of neutron Compton scattering (NCS) to molecular systems of biophysical interest, we are using the Compton spectrometer EVS at ISIS to characterize the momentum distribution of protons in peptide groups. In this contribution we present NCS measurements of the recoil peak (Compton profile) due to the amide proton in otherwise fully deuterated acetanilide (ACN), a widely studied model system for H-bonding and energy transfer in biomolecules. We obtain values for the average width of the potential well of the amide proton and its mean kinetic energy. Deviations from the Gaussian form of the Compton profile, analyzed on the basis of an expansion due to Sears, provide data relating to the Laplacian of the proton potential.

  20. Testing special relativity theory using Compton scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Contreras S, H.; Hernandez A, L.; Baltazar R, A.; Escareno J, E.; Mares E, C. A.; Hernandez V, C.; Vega C, H. R.

    2010-10-01

    The validity of the special relativity theory has been tested using the Compton scattering. Since 1905 several experiments has been carried out to show that time, mass, and length change with the velocity, in this work the Compton scattering has been utilized as a simple way to show the validity to relativity. The work was carried out through Monte Carlo calculations and experiments with different gamma-ray sources and a gamma-ray spectrometer with a 3 x 3 NaI (Tl) detector. The pulse-height spectra were collected and the Compton edge was observed. This information was utilized to determine the relationship between the electron's mass and energy using the Compton -knee- position, the obtained results were contrasted with two collision models between photon and electron, one model was built using the classical physics and another using the special relativity theory. It was found that calculations and experiments results fit to collision model made using the special relativity. (Author)

  1. Relativistic Turbulence with Strong Synchrotron and Synchrotron-Self-Compton Cooling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uzdensky, D. A.

    2018-03-01

    Many relativistic plasma environments in high-energy astrophysics, including pulsar wind nebulae, hot accretion flows onto black holes, relativistic jets in active galactic nuclei and gamma-ray bursts, and giant radio lobes, are naturally turbulent. The plasma in these environments is often so hot that synchrotron and inverse-Compton (IC) radiative cooling becomes important. In this paper we investigate the general thermodynamic and radiative properties (and hence the observational appearance) of an optically thin relativistically hot plasma stirred by driven magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) turbulence and cooled by radiation. We find that if the system reaches a statistical equilibrium where turbulent heating is balanced by radiative cooling, the effective electron temperature tends to attain a universal value θ = kT_e/m_e c^2 ˜ 1/√{τ_T}, where τT = neσTL ≪ 1 is the system's Thomson optical depth, essentially independent of the strength of turbulent driving and hence of the magnetic field. This is because both MHD turbulent dissipation and synchrotron cooling are proportional to the magnetic energy density. We also find that synchrotron self-Compton (SSC) cooling and perhaps a few higher-order IC components are automatically comparable to synchrotron in this regime. The overall broadband radiation spectrum then consists of several distinct components (synchrotron, SSC, etc.), well separated in photon energy (by a factor ˜ τ_T^{-1}) and roughly equal in power. The number of IC peaks is checked by Klein-Nishina effects and depends logarithmically on τT and the magnetic field. We also examine the limitations due to synchrotron self-absorption, explore applications to Crab PWN and blazar jets, and discuss links to radiative magnetic reconnection.

  2. Development of TOF-PET using Compton scattering by plastic scintillators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuramoto, M.; Nakamori, T.; Kimura, S.; Gunji, S.; Takakura, M.; Kataoka, J.

    2017-01-01

    We propose a time-of-flight (TOF) technique using plastic scintillators which have fast decay time of a few ns for positron emission tomography (PET). While the photoelectric absorption probability of the plastic for 511 keV gamma rays are extremely low due to its small density and effective atomic number, the cross section of Compton scattering is comparable to that of absorption by conventional inorganic scintillators. We thus propose TOF-PET using Compton scattering with plastic scintillators (Compton-PET), and performed fundamental experiments towards exploration of the Compton-PET capability. We demonstrated that the plastic scintillators achieved the better time resolution in comparison to LYSO(Ce) and GAGG(Ce) scintillators. In addition we evaluated the depth-of-interaction resolving capability with the plastic scintillators.

  3. Development of TOF-PET using Compton scattering by plastic scintillators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuramoto, M., E-mail: kuramoto@maxwell.kj.yamagata-u.ac.jp [Yamagata University, Kojirakawa 1-4-12, Yamagata 990-8560 (Japan); Nakamori, T., E-mail: nakamori@maxwell.kj.yamagata-u.ac.jp [Yamagata University, Kojirakawa 1-4-12, Yamagata 990-8560 (Japan); Kimura, S.; Gunji, S.; Takakura, M. [Yamagata University, Kojirakawa 1-4-12, Yamagata 990-8560 (Japan); Kataoka, J. [Waseda University, Okubo 3-4-1, Shinjuku, Tokyo 169-8555 (Japan)

    2017-02-11

    We propose a time-of-flight (TOF) technique using plastic scintillators which have fast decay time of a few ns for positron emission tomography (PET). While the photoelectric absorption probability of the plastic for 511 keV gamma rays are extremely low due to its small density and effective atomic number, the cross section of Compton scattering is comparable to that of absorption by conventional inorganic scintillators. We thus propose TOF-PET using Compton scattering with plastic scintillators (Compton-PET), and performed fundamental experiments towards exploration of the Compton-PET capability. We demonstrated that the plastic scintillators achieved the better time resolution in comparison to LYSO(Ce) and GAGG(Ce) scintillators. In addition we evaluated the depth-of-interaction resolving capability with the plastic scintillators.

  4. Development of TOF-PET using Compton scattering by plastic scintillators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuramoto, M.; Nakamori, T.; Kimura, S.; Gunji, S.; Takakura, M.; Kataoka, J.

    2017-02-01

    We propose a time-of-flight (TOF) technique using plastic scintillators which have fast decay time of a few ns for positron emission tomography (PET). While the photoelectric absorption probability of the plastic for 511 keV gamma rays are extremely low due to its small density and effective atomic number, the cross section of Compton scattering is comparable to that of absorption by conventional inorganic scintillators. We thus propose TOF-PET using Compton scattering with plastic scintillators (Compton-PET), and performed fundamental experiments towards exploration of the Compton-PET capability. We demonstrated that the plastic scintillators achieved the better time resolution in comparison to LYSO(Ce) and GAGG(Ce) scintillators. In addition we evaluated the depth-of-interaction resolving capability with the plastic scintillators.

  5. Chromosomal inversions effect body size and shape in different breeding resources in Drosophila buzzatii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández Iriarte, P J; Norry, F M; Hasson, E R

    2003-07-01

    The cactophilic Drosophila buzzatii provides an excellent model for the study of reaction norms across discrete environments because it breeds on rotting tissues (rots) of very different cactus species. Here we test the possible effects of second chromosome inversions on body size and shape (wing loading) across suitable natural breeding substrates. Using homokaryotypic stocks derived from several lines homozygous for four naturally occurring chromosomal inversions, we show that arrangements significantly affect size-related traits and wing loading. In addition, karyotypes show differing effects, across natural breeding resources, for wing loading. The 2st and 2jz(3) arrangements decrease and the 2j arrangement increases wing loading. For thorax length and wing loading, karyotypic correlations across host plants are slightly lower in females than in males. These results support the hypothesis that these traits have a genetic basis associated with the inversion polymorphism.

  6. Image reconstruction from limited angle Compton camera data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tomitani, T.; Hirasawa, M.

    2002-01-01

    The Compton camera is used for imaging the distributions of γ ray direction in a γ ray telescope for astrophysics and for imaging radioisotope distributions in nuclear medicine without the need for collimators. The integration of γ rays on a cone is measured with the camera, so that some sort of inversion method is needed. Parra found an analytical inversion algorithm based on spherical harmonics expansion of projection data. His algorithm is applicable to the full set of projection data. In this paper, six possible reconstruction algorithms that allow image reconstruction from projections with a finite range of scattering angles are investigated. Four algorithms have instability problems and two others are practical. However, the variance of the reconstructed image diverges in these two cases, so that window functions are introduced with which the variance becomes finite at a cost of spatial resolution. These two algorithms are compared in terms of variance. The algorithm based on the inversion of the summed back-projection is superior to the algorithm based on the inversion of the summed projection. (author)

  7. Nucleon Compton Scattering with Two Space-Like Photons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andrei Afanasev; I. Akushevich; N.P. Merenkov

    2002-01-01

    We calculate two-photon exchange effects for elastic electron-proton scattering at high momentum transfers. The corresponding nucleon Compton amplitude is defined by two space-like virtual photons that appear to have significant virtualities. We make predictions for (a) a single-spin beam asymmetry, and (b) a single-spin target asymmetry or recoil proton polarization caused by an unpolarized electron beam

  8. Compton scattering at finite temperature: thermal field dynamics approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Juraev, F.I.

    2006-01-01

    Full text: Compton scattering is a classical problem of quantum electrodynamics and has been studied in its early beginnings. Perturbation theory and Feynman diagram technique enables comprehensive analysis of this problem on the basis of which famous Klein-Nishina formula is obtained [1, 2]. In this work this problem is extended to the case of finite temperature. Finite-temperature effects in Compton scattering is of practical importance for various processes in relativistic thermal plasmas in astrophysics. Recently Compton effect have been explored using closed-time path formalism with temperature corrections estimated [3]. It was found that the thermal cross section can be larger than that for zero-temperature by several orders of magnitude for the high temperature realistic in astrophysics [3]. In our work we use a main tool to account finite-temperature effects, a real-time finite-temperature quantum field theory, so-called thermofield dynamics [4, 5]. Thermofield dynamics is a canonical formalism to explore field-theoretical processes at finite temperature. It consists of two steps, doubling of Fock space and Bogolyubov transformations. Doubling leads to appearing additional degrees of freedom, called tilded operators which together with usual field operators create so-called thermal doublet. Bogolyubov transformations make field operators temperature-dependent. Using this formalism we treat Compton scattering at finite temperature via replacing in transition amplitude zero-temperature propagators by finite-temperature ones. As a result finite-temperature extension of the Klein-Nishina formula is obtained in which differential cross section is represented as a sum of zero-temperature cross section and finite-temperature correction. The obtained result could be useful in quantum electrodynamics of lasers and for relativistic thermal plasma processes in astrophysics where correct account of finite-temperature effects is important. (author)

  9. The effect on dose accumulation accuracy of inverse-consistency and transitivity error reduced deformation maps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hardcastle, Nicholas; Bender, Edward T.; Tomé, Wolfgang A.

    2014-01-01

    It has previously been shown that deformable image registrations (DIRs) often result in deformation maps that are neither inverse-consistent nor transitive, and that the dose accumulation based on these deformation maps can be inconsistent if different image pathways are used for dose accumulation. A method presented to reduce inverse consistency and transitivity errors has been shown to result in more consistent dose accumulation, regardless of the image pathway selected for dose accumulation. The present study investigates the effect on the dose accumulation accuracy of deformation maps processed to reduce inverse consistency and transitivity errors. A set of lung 4DCT phases were analysed, consisting of four images on which a dose grid was created. Dose to 75 corresponding anatomical locations was manually tracked. Dose accumulation was performed between all image sets with Demons derived deformation maps as well as deformation maps processed to reduce inverse consistency and transitivity errors. The ground truth accumulated dose was then compared with the accumulated dose derived from DIR. Two dose accumulation image pathways were considered. The post-processing method to reduce inverse consistency and transitivity errors had minimal effect on the dose accumulation accuracy. There was a statistically significant improvement in dose accumulation accuracy for one pathway, but for the other pathway there was no statistically significant difference. A post-processing technique to reduce inverse consistency and transitivity errors has a positive, yet minimal effect on the dose accumulation accuracy. Thus the post-processing technique improves consistency of dose accumulation with minimal effect on dose accumulation accuracy.

  10. The role of experience-based perceptual learning in the face inversion effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Civile, Ciro; Obhi, Sukhvinder S; McLaren, I P L

    2018-04-03

    Perceptual learning of the type we consider here is a consequence of experience with a class of stimuli. It amounts to an enhanced ability to discriminate between stimuli. We argue that it contributes to the ability to distinguish between faces and recognize individuals, and in particular contributes to the face inversion effect (better recognition performance for upright vs inverted faces). Previously, we have shown that experience with a prototype defined category of checkerboards leads to perceptual learning, that this produces an inversion effect, and that this effect can be disrupted by Anodal tDCS to Fp3 during pre-exposure. If we can demonstrate that the same tDCS manipulation also disrupts the inversion effect for faces, then this will strengthen the claim that perceptual learning contributes to that effect. The important question, then, is whether this tDCS procedure would significantly reduce the inversion effect for faces; stimuli that we have lifelong expertise with and for which perceptual learning has already occurred. Consequently, in the experiment reported here we investigated the effects of anodal tDCS at Fp3 during an old/new recognition task for upright and inverted faces. Our results show that stimulation significantly reduced the face inversion effect compared to controls. The effect was one of reducing recognition performance for upright faces. This result is the first to show that tDCS affects perceptual learning that has already occurred, disrupting individuals' ability to recognize upright faces. It provides further support for our account of perceptual learning and its role as a key factor in face recognition. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Inverse free electron laser accelerator for advanced light sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. P. Duris

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available We discuss the inverse free electron laser (IFEL scheme as a compact high gradient accelerator solution for driving advanced light sources such as a soft x-ray free electron laser amplifier or an inverse Compton scattering based gamma-ray source. In particular, we present a series of new developments aimed at improving the design of future IFEL accelerators. These include a new procedure to optimize the choice of the undulator tapering, a new concept for prebunching which greatly improves the fraction of trapped particles and the final energy spread, and a self-consistent study of beam loading effects which leads to an energy-efficient high laser-to-beam power conversion.

  12. On the inverse Magnus effect for flow past a rotating cylinder

    Science.gov (United States)

    John, Benzi; Gu, Xiao-Jun; Barber, Robert W.; Emerson, David R.

    2016-11-01

    Flow past a rotating cylinder has been investigated using the direct simulation Monte Carlo method. The study focuses on the occurrence of the inverse Magnus effect under subsonic flow conditions. In particular, the variations in the coefficients of lift and drag have been investigated as a function of the Knudsen and Reynolds numbers. Additionally, a temperature sensitivity study has been carried out to assess the influence of the wall temperature on the computed aerodynamic coefficients. It has been found that both the Reynolds number and the cylinder wall temperature significantly affect the drag as well as the onset of lift inversion in the transition flow regime.

  13. A theory of the inverse magnetoelectric effect in layered magnetostrictive-piezoelectric structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filippov, D. A.; Radchenko, G. S.; Firsova, T. O.; Galkina, T. A.

    2017-05-01

    A theory of the inverse magnetoelectric effect in layered structures has been presented. The theory is based on solving the equations of elastodynamics and electrostatics separately for the magnetostrictive and piezoelectric phases, taking into account the conditions at the interface between the phases. Expressions for the coefficient of inverse magnetoelectric conversion through the parameters characterizing the magnetostrictive and piezoelectric phases have been obtained. Theoretical dependences of the inverse magnetoelectric conversion coefficient on the frequency of the alternating-current electric field for the three-layer PZT-Ni-PZT structure and the two-layer terfenol- D-PZT structure have been calculated. The results of the calculations are in good agreement with the experimental data.

  14. Effect of inversion layer at iron pyrite surface on photovoltaic device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uchiyama, Shunsuke; Ishikawa, Yasuaki; Uraoka, Yukiharu

    2018-03-01

    Iron pyrite has great potential as a thin-film solar cell material because it has high optical absorption, low cost, and is earth-abundant. However, previously reported iron pyrite solar cells showed poor photovoltaic characteristics. Here, we have numerically simulated its photovoltaic characteristics and band structures by utilizing a two-dimensional (2D) device simulator, ATLAS, to evaluate the effects of an inversion layer at the surface and a high density of deep donor defect states in the bulk. We found that previous device structures did not consider the inversion layer at the surface region of iron pyrite, which made it difficult to obtain the conversion efficiency. Therefore, we remodeled the device structure and suggested that removing the inversion layer and reducing the density of deep donor defect states would lead to a high conversion efficiency of iron pyrite solar cells.

  15. Theoretical analysis of the influence of flexoelectric effect on the defect site in nematic inversion walls

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheng Gui-Li; Xuan Li; Zhang Hui; Ye Wen-Jiang; Zhang Zhi-Dong; Song Hong-Wei

    2016-01-01

    Based on the experimental phenomena of flexoelectric response at defect sites in nematic inversion walls conducted by Kumar et al., we gave the theoretical analysis using the Frank elastic theory. When a direct-current electric field normal to the plane of the substrate is applied to the parallel aligned nematic liquid crystal cell with weak anchoring, the rotation of ±1 defects in the narrow inversion walls can be exhibited. The free energy of liquid crystal molecules around the +1 and –1 defect sites in the nematic inversion walls under the electric field was formulated and the electric-field-driven structural changes at the defect site characterized by polar and azimuthal angles of the local director were simulated. The results reveal that the deviation of azimuthal angle induced by flexoelectric effect are consistent with the switching of extinction brushes at the +1 and −1 defects obtained in the experiment conducted by Kumar et al. (paper)

  16. Compton camera imaging and the cone transform: a brief overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terzioglu, Fatma; Kuchment, Peter; Kunyansky, Leonid

    2018-05-01

    While most of Radon transform applications to imaging involve integrations over smooth sub-manifolds of the ambient space, lately important situations have appeared where the integration surfaces are conical. Three of such applications are single scatter optical tomography, Compton camera medical imaging, and homeland security. In spite of the similar surfaces of integration, the data and the inverse problems associated with these modalities differ significantly. In this article, we present a brief overview of the mathematics arising in Compton camera imaging. In particular, the emphasis is made on the overdetermined data and flexible geometry of the detectors. For the detailed results, as well as other approaches (e.g. smaller-dimensional data or restricted geometry of detectors) the reader is directed to the relevant publications. Only a brief description and some references are provided for the single scatter optical tomography. This work was supported in part by NSF DMS grants 1211463 (the first two authors), 1211521 and 141877 (the third author), as well as a College of Science of Texas A&M University grant.

  17. Compton Reflection in AGN with Simbol-X

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beckmann, V.; Courvoisier, T. J.-L.; Gehrels, N.; Lubiński, P.; Malzac, J.; Petrucci, P. O.; Shrader, C. R.; Soldi, S.

    2009-05-01

    AGN exhibit complex hard X-ray spectra. Our current understanding is that the emission is dominated by inverse Compton processes which take place in the corona above the accretion disk, and that absorption and reflection in a distant absorber play a major role. These processes can be directly observed through the shape of the continuum, the Compton reflection hump around 30 keV, and the iron fluorescence line at 6.4 keV. We demonstrate the capabilities of Simbol-X to constrain complex models for cases like MCG-05-23-016, NGC 4151, NGC 2110, and NGC 4051 in short (10 ksec) observations. We compare the simulations with recent observations on these sources by INTEGRAL, Swift and Suzaku. Constraining reflection models for AGN with Simbol-X will help us to get a clear view of the processes and geometry near to the central engine in AGN, and will give insight to which sources are responsible for the Cosmic X-ray background at energies >20 keV.

  18. The Compton-Schwarzschild correspondence from extended de Broglie relations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lake, Matthew J. [The Institute for Fundamental Study, “The Tah Poe Academia Institute' ,Naresuan University, Phitsanulok 65000 (Thailand); Thailand Center of Excellence in Physics, Ministry of Education,Bangkok 10400 (Thailand); Carr, Bernard [School of Physics and Astronomy, Queen Mary University of London,Mile End Road, London E1 4NS (United Kingdom)

    2015-11-17

    The Compton wavelength gives the minimum radius within which the mass of a particle may be localized due to quantum effects, while the Schwarzschild radius gives the maximum radius within which the mass of a black hole may be localized due to classial gravity. In a mass-radius diagram, the two lines intersect near the Planck point (l{sub P},m{sub P}), where quantum gravity effects become significant. Since canonical (non-gravitational) quantum mechanics is based on the concept of wave-particle duality, encapsulated in the de Broglie relations, these relations should break down near (l{sub P},m{sub P}). It is unclear what physical interpretation can be given to quantum particles with energy E≫m{sub P}c{sup 2}, since they correspond to wavelengths λ≪l{sub P} or time periods τ≪t{sub P} in the standard theory. We therefore propose a correction to the standard de Broglie relations, which gives rise to a modified Schrödinger equation and a modified expression for the Compton wavelength, which may be extended into the region E≫m{sub P}c{sup 2}. For the proposed modification, we recover the expression for the Schwarzschild radius for E≫m{sub P}c{sup 2} and the usual Compton formula for E≪m{sub P}c{sup 2}. The sign of the inequality obtained from the uncertainty principle reverses at m≈m{sub P}, so that the Compton wavelength and event horizon size may be interpreted as minimum and maximum radii, respectively. We interpret the additional terms in the modified de Broglie relations as representing the self-gravitation of the wave packet.

  19. Recent results from a Si/CdTe semiconductor Compton telescope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanaka, Takaaki; Watanabe, Shin; Takeda, Shin'ichiro; Oonuki, Kousuke; Mitani, Takefumi; Nakazawa, Kazuhiro; Takashima, Takeshi; Takahashi, Tadayuki; Tajima, Hiroyasu; Sawamoto, Naoyuki; Fukazawa, Yasushi; Nomachi, Masaharu

    2006-01-01

    We are developing a Compton telescope based on high-resolution Si and CdTe detectors for astrophysical observations in sub-MeV/MeV gamma-ray region. Recently, we constructed a prototype Compton telescope which consists of six layers of double-sided Si strip detectors (DSSDs) and CdTe pixel detectors to demonstrate the basic performance of this new technology. By irradiating the detector with gamma rays from radio isotope sources, we have succeeded in Compton reconstruction of images and spectra. The obtained angular resolution is 3.9 o (FWHM) at 511keV, and the energy resolution is 14keV (FWHM) at the same energy. In addition to the conventional Compton reconstruction, i.e., drawing cones in the sky, we also demonstrated a full reconstruction by tracking Compton recoil electrons using the signals detected in successive Si layers. By irradiating 137 Cs source, we successfully obtained an image and a spectrum of 662keV line emission with this method. As a next step, development of larger DSSDs with a size of 4cmx4cm is under way to improve the effective area of the Compton telescope. We are also developing a new low-noise analog ASIC to handle the increasing number of channels. Initial results from these two new technologies are presented in this paper as well

  20. Using Compton scattering for random coincidence rejection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kolstein, M.; Chmeissani, M.

    2016-01-01

    The Voxel Imaging PET (VIP) project presents a new approach for the design of nuclear medicine imaging devices by using highly segmented pixel CdTe sensors. CdTe detectors can achieve an energy resolution of ≈ 1% FWHM at 511 keV and can be easily segmented into submillimeter sized voxels for optimal spatial resolution. These features help in rejecting a large part of the scattered events from the PET coincidence sample in order to obtain high quality images. Another contribution to the background are random events, i.e., hits caused by two independent gammas without a common origin. Given that 60% of 511 keV photons undergo Compton scattering in CdTe (i.e. 84% of all coincidence events have at least one Compton scattering gamma), we present a simulation study on the possibility to use the Compton scattering information of at least one of the coincident gammas within the detector to reject random coincidences. The idea uses the fact that if a gamma undergoes Compton scattering in the detector, it will cause two hits in the pixel detectors. The first hit corresponds to the Compton scattering process. The second hit shall correspond to the photoelectric absorption of the remaining energy of the gamma. With the energy deposition of the first hit, one can calculate the Compton scattering angle. By measuring the hit location of the coincident gamma, we can construct the geometric angle, under the assumption that both gammas come from the same origin. Using the difference between the Compton scattering angle and the geometric angle, random events can be rejected.

  1. Deeply virtual Compton scattering off "4He

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hattawy, M.

    2015-01-01

    The "4He nucleus is of particular interest to study nuclear GPDs (Generalized Parton Distributions) as its partonic structure is described by only one chirally-even GPD. It is also a simple few-body system and has a high density that makes it the ideal target to investigate nuclear effects on partons. The experiment described in this thesis is JLab-E08-24, which was carried out in 2009 by the CLAS collaboration during the 'EG6' run. In this experiment, a 6 GeV longitudinally-polarized electron beam was scattered onto a 6 atm "4He gaseous target. During this experiment, in addition to the CLAS detector, a Radial Time Projection Chamber (RTPC), to detect low-energy nuclear recoils, and an Inner Calorimeter (IC), to improve the detection of photons at very forward angles, were used. We carried out a full analysis on our 6 GeV dataset, showing the feasibility of measuring exclusive nuclear Deeply Virtual Compton Scattering (DVCS) reactions. The analysis included: the identification of the final-state particles, the DVCS event selection, the π"0 background subtraction. The beam-spin asymmetry was then extracted for both DVCS channels and compared to the ones of the free-proton DVCS reaction, and to theoretical predictions from two models. Finally, the real and the imaginary parts of the "4He CFF (Compton Form Factor) HA have been extracted. Different levels of agreement were found between our measurements and the theoretical calculations. This thesis is organized as follows: In chapter 1, the available theoretical tools to study hadronic structure are presented, with an emphasis on the nuclear effects and GPDs. In chapter 2, the characteristics of the CLAS spectrometer are reviewed. In chapter 3, the working principle and the calibration aspects of the RTPC are discussed. In chapter 4, the identification of the final-state particles and the Monte-Carlo simulation are presented. In chapter 5, the selection of the DVCS events, the background subtraction, and uncertainty

  2. Describing Compton scattering and two-quanta positron annihilation based on Compton profiles: Two models suited for the Monte Carlo method

    CERN Document Server

    Bohlen, TT; Patera, V; Sala, P R

    2012-01-01

    An accurate description of the basic physics processes of Compton scattering and positron annihilation in matter requires the consideration of atomic shell structure effects and, in specific, the momentum distributions of the atomic electrons. Two algorithms which model Compton scattering and two-quanta positron annihilation at rest accounting for shell structure effects are proposed. Two-quanta positron annihilation is a physics process which is of particular importance for applications such as positron emission tomography (PET). Both models use a detailed description of the processes which incorporate consistently Doppler broadening and binding effects. This together with the relatively low level of complexity of the models makes them particularly suited to be employed by fast sampling methods for Monte Carlo particle transport. Momentum distributions of shell electrons are obtained from parametrized one-electron Compton profiles. For conduction electrons, momentum distributions are derived in the framework...

  3. Origin and effective reduction of inversion domains in aluminum nitride grown by a sublimation method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shigetoh, Keisuke; Horibuchi, Kayo; Nakamura, Daisuke

    2017-11-01

    Owing to the large differences in the chemical properties between Al and N polarities in aluminum nitride (AlN), the choice of the polar direction for crystal growth strongly affects not only the quality but also the shape (facet formation) of the grown crystal. In particular, N-polar (0 0 0 -1) has been considered to be a more preferable direction than Al-polar (0 0 0 1) for sublimation growth because compared to Al-polar (0 0 0 1), N-polar (0 0 0 -1) exhibits better stability at high growth rate (high supersaturation) conditions and enables easier lateral enlargement of the crystal. However, some critical growth conditions induce polarity inversion and hinder stable N-polar growth. Furthermore, the origin of the polarity inversion in AlN growth by the sublimation method is still unclear. To ensure stable N-polar growth without polarity inversion, the formation mechanism of the inversion domain during AlN sublimation growth must be elucidated. Therefore, herein, we demonstrate homoepitaxial growth on an N-polar seed and carefully investigate the obtained crystal that shows polarity inversion. Annular bright-field scanning transmission electron microscopy reveals that polarity is completely converted to the Al polarity via the formation of a 30 nm thick mixed polar layer (MPL) just above the seed. Moreover, three-dimensional atom probe tomography shows the segregation of the oxygen impurities in the MPL with a high concentration of about 3 atom%. Finally, by avoiding the incorporation of oxygen impurity into the crystal at the initial stage of the growth, we demonstrate an effective reduction (seven orders of magnitude) of the inversion domain boundary formation.

  4. Laser-electron Compton interaction in plasma channels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pogorelsky, I.V.; Ben-Zvi, I.; Hirose, T.

    1998-10-01

    A concept of high intensity femtosecond laser synchrotron source (LSS) is based on Compton backscattering of focused electron and laser beams. The short Rayleigh length of the focused laser beam limits the length of interaction to a few picoseconds. However, the technology of the high repetition rate high-average power picosecond lasers required for high put through LSS applications is not developed yet. Another problem associated with the picosecond laser pulses is undesirable nonlinear effects occurring when the laser photons are concentrated in a short time interval. To avoid the nonlinear Compton scattering, the laser beam has to be split, and the required hard radiation flux is accumulated over a number of consecutive interactions that complicates the LSS design. In order to relieve the technological constraints and achieve a practically feasible high-power laser synchrotron source, the authors propose to confine the laser-electron interaction region in the extended plasma channel. This approach permits to use nanosecond laser pulses instead of the picosecond pulses. That helps to avoid the nonlinear Compton scattering regime and allows to utilize already existing technology of the high-repetition rate TEA CO 2 lasers operating at the atmospheric pressure. They demonstrate the advantages of the channeled LSS approach by the example of the prospective polarized positron source for Japan Linear Collider

  5. The normal and inverse magnetocaloric effect in RCu2 (R=Tb, Dy, Ho, Er) compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheng, X.Q.; Xu, Z.Y.; Zhang, B.; Hu, F.X.; Shen, B.G.

    2017-01-01

    Orthorhombic polycrystalline RCu 2 (R=Tb, Dy, Ho and Er) compounds were synthesized and the magnetic properties and magnetocaloric effect (MCE) were investigated in detail. All of the RCu 2 compounds are antiferromagnetic (AFM) ordered. As temperature increases, RCu 2 compounds undergo an AFM to AFM transition at T t and an AFM to paramagnetic (PM) transition at T N . Besides of the normal MCE around T N , large inverse MCE around T t was found in TbCu 2 compound. Under a field change of 0–7 T, the maximal value of inverse MCE is even larger than the value of normal MCE around T N for TbCu 2 compound. Considering of the normal and inverse MCE, TbCu 2 shows the largest refrigerant capacity among the RCu 2 (R=Tb, Dy, Ho and Er) compounds indicating its potential applications in low temperature multistage refrigeration. - Highlights: • Large inverse magnetocaloric effect is observed in TbCu 2 compound. • The AFM to AFM transition is observed in RCu 2 (R=Tb, Dy, Ho, Er) compounds. • The MCE performance of TbCu 2 compound is evaluated in a more comprehensively way.

  6. Effect of recent observations on Asian CO2 flux estimates by transport model inversions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maksyutov, Shamil; Patra, Prabir K.; Machida, Toshinobu; Mukai, Hitoshi; Nakazawa, Takakiyo; Inoue, Gen

    2003-01-01

    We use an inverse model to evaluate the effects of the recent CO 2 observations over Asia on estimates of regional CO 2 sources and sinks. Global CO 2 flux distribution is evaluated using several atmospheric transport models, atmospheric CO 2 observations and a 'time-independent' inversion procedure adopted in the basic synthesis inversion by the Transcom-3 inverse model intercomparison project. In our analysis we include airborne and tower observations in Siberia, continuous monitoring and airborne observations over Japan, and airborne monitoring on regular flights on Tokyo-Sydney route. The inclusion of the new data reduces the uncertainty of the estimated regional CO 2 fluxes for Boreal Asia (Siberia), Temperate Asia and South-East Asia. The largest effect is observed for the emission/sink estimate for the Boreal Asia region, where introducing the observations in Siberia reduces the source uncertainty by almost half. It also produces an uncertainty reduction for Boreal North America. Addition of the Siberian airborne observations leads to projecting extra sinks in Boreal Asia of 0.2 Pg C/yr, and a smaller change for Europe. The Tokyo-Sydney observations reduce and constrain the Southeast Asian source

  7. The effects of core-reflected waves on finite fault inversions with teleseismic body wave data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Yunyi; Ni, Sidao; Wei, Shengji; Almeida, Rafael; Zhang, Han

    2017-11-01

    Teleseismic body waves are essential for imaging rupture processes of large earthquakes. Earthquake source parameters are usually characterized by waveform analyses such as finite fault inversions using only turning (direct) P and SH waves without considering the reflected phases from the core-mantle boundary (CMB). However, core-reflected waves such as ScS usually have amplitudes comparable to direct S waves due to the total reflection from the CMB and might interfere with the S waves used for inversion, especially at large epicentral distances for long duration earthquakes. In order to understand how core-reflected waves affect teleseismic body wave inversion results, we develop a procedure named Multitel3 to compute Green's functions that contain turning waves (direct P, pP, sP, direct S, sS and reverberations in the crust) and core-reflected waves (PcP, pPcP, sPcP, ScS, sScS and associated reflected phases from the CMB). This ray-based method can efficiently generate synthetic seismograms for turning and core-reflected waves independently, with the flexibility to take into account the 3-D Earth structure effect on the timing between these phases. The performance of this approach is assessed through a series of numerical inversion tests on synthetic waveforms of the 2008 Mw7.9 Wenchuan earthquake and the 2015 Mw7.8 Nepal earthquake. We also compare this improved method with the turning-wave only inversions and explore the stability of the new procedure when there are uncertainties in a priori information (such as fault geometry and epicentre location) or arrival time of core-reflected phases. Finally, a finite fault inversion of the 2005 Mw8.7 Nias-Simeulue earthquake is carried out using the improved Green's functions. Using enhanced Green's functions yields better inversion results as expected. While the finite source inversion with conventional P and SH waves is able to recover large-scale characteristics of the earthquake source, by adding PcP and ScS phases

  8. The Effect of Inversion on 3- to 5-Year-Olds' Recognition of Face and Nonface Visual Objects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Picozzi, Marta; Cassia, Viola Macchi; Turati, Chiara; Vescovo, Elena

    2009-01-01

    This study compared the effect of stimulus inversion on 3- to 5-year-olds' recognition of faces and two nonface object categories matched with faces for a number of attributes: shoes (Experiment 1) and frontal images of cars (Experiments 2 and 3). The inversion effect was present for faces but not shoes at 3 years of age (Experiment 1). Analogous…

  9. Magnetization Transfer Effects on the Efficiency of Flow-driven Adiabatic Fast Passage Inversion of Arterial Blood

    OpenAIRE

    Hernandez-Garcia, Luis; Lewis, David P.; Moffat, Bradford; Branch, Craig A.

    2007-01-01

    Continuous arterial spin labeling experiments typically use flow-driven adiabatic fast passage (AFP) inversion of the arterial blood water protons. In this article, we measure the effect of magnetization transfer in blood and how it affects the inversion label. We use modified Bloch equations to model flow-driven adiabatic inversion in the presence of magnetization transfer in blood flowing at velocities from 1 to 30 cm/s in order to explain our findings. Magnetization transfer results in a r...

  10. INJECTION EFFICIENCY IN COMPTON RING NESTOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. I. Gladkikh

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available NESTOR is the hard X-ray source that is under commissioning at NSC KIPT. NESTOR based on the Compton scattering of laser photons on relativistic electrons. The structure of the facility can be represented as the following components: a linear accelerator, a transport channel, a storage ring, and a laser-optical system. Electrons are stored in the storage ring for energy of 40-200 MeV. Inevitable alignment errors of magnetic elements are strongly effect on the beam dynamics in the storage ring. These errors lead to a shift of the equilibrium orbit relative to the ideal one. Significant shift of the equilibrium orbit could lead to loss of the beam on physical apertures. Transverse sizes of electron and laser beams are only few tens of microns at the interaction point. The shift of electron beam at the interaction point could greatly complicate the operation adjustment of storage ring without sufficient beam position diagnostic system. This article presents the simulation results of the efficiency of electron beam accumulation in the NESTOR storage ring. Also, this article is devoted to electron beam dynamics due to alignment errors of magnetic element in the ring.

  11. New Compton densitometer for measuring pulmonary edema

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loo, B.W.; Goulding, F.S.; Simon, D.S.

    1985-10-01

    Pulmonary edema is the pathological increase of extravascular lung water found most often in patients with congestive heart failure and other critically ill patients who suffer from intravenous fluid overload. A non-invasive lung density monitor that is accurate, easily portable, safe and inexpensive is needed for clinical evaluation of pulmonary edema. Other researchers who have employed Compton scattering techniques generally used systems of extended size and detectors with poor energy resolution. This has resulted in significant systematic biases from multiply-scattered photons and larger errors in counting statistics at a given radiation dose to the patient. We are proposing a patented approach in which only backscattered photons are measured with a high-resolution HPGe detector in a compact system geometry. By proper design and a unique data extraction scheme, effects of the variable chest wall on lung density measurements are minimized. Preliminary test results indicate that with a radioactive source of under 30 GBq, it should be possible to make an accurate lung density measurement in one minute, with a risk of radiation exposure to the patient a thousand times smaller than that from a typical chest x-ray. The ability to make safe, frequent lung density measurements could be very helpful for monitoring the course of P.E. at the hospital bedside or outpatient clinics, and for evaluating the efficacy of therapy in clinical research. 6 refs., 5 figs.

  12. New Compton densitometer for measuring pulmonary edema

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loo, B.W.; Goulding, F.S.; Simon, D.S.

    1985-10-01

    Pulmonary edema is the pathological increase of extravascular lung water found most often in patients with congestive heart failure and other critically ill patients who suffer from intravenous fluid overload. A non-invasive lung density monitor that is accurate, easily portable, safe and inexpensive is needed for clinical evaluation of pulmonary edema. Other researchers who have employed Compton scattering techniques generally used systems of extended size and detectors with poor energy resolution. This has resulted in significant systematic biases from multiply-scattered photons and larger errors in counting statistics at a given radiation dose to the patient. We are proposing a patented approach in which only backscattered photons are measured with a high-resolution HPGe detector in a compact system geometry. By proper design and a unique data extraction scheme, effects of the variable chest wall on lung density measurements are minimized. Preliminary test results indicate that with a radioactive source of under 30 GBq, it should be possible to make an accurate lung density measurement in one minute, with a risk of radiation exposure to the patient a thousand times smaller than that from a typical chest x-ray. The ability to make safe, frequent lung density measurements could be very helpful for monitoring the course of P.E. at the hospital bedside or outpatient clinics, and for evaluating the efficacy of therapy in clinical research. 6 refs., 5 figs

  13. Effect of silica nanoparticles on the phase inversion of liquid-liquid dispersions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asadabadi, Maliheh Raji; Abolghasemi, Hossein; Nasab, Payman Davoodi; Maragheh, Mohammad Ghannadi

    2013-01-01

    The effect of silica nanoparticles on phase inversion of liquid-liquid dispersions in a stirred vessel was investigated. The studied systems were toluene dispersed in water and vice versa. In the first set of experiments, phase inversion behavior of systems without Silica nanoparticles was evaluated and subsequent experiments were conducted in the presence of the nanoparticles. For this purpose, Silica nanoparticles of different concentrations (0.01, 0.03, 0.05, 0.07 wt%) were dispersed in water. The nanofluid stability was examined using an ultraviolet-visible (UV-vis) spectrophotometer. The results indicated that increase in silica nanoparticle concentrations up to 0.07 wt% led to increase in agitation speed of phase inversion 43-53.5% and 38.5-45% in the case of O/W and W/O dispersions, respectively. Consequently, the tendency of dispersions to inversion diminished as nanoparticle concentrations increased. Finally, 0.05 wt% of silica nanoparticle was selected as the optimum on the range studied

  14. Compton suppression through rise-time analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Selvi, S.; Celiktas, C.

    2007-01-01

    We studied Compton suppression for 60 Co and 137 Cs radioisotopes using a signal selection criterion based on contrasting the fall time of the signals composing the photo peak with those composing the Compton continuum. The fall time criterion is employed by using the pulse shape analysis observing the change in the fall times of the gamma-ray pulses. This change is determined by measuring the changes in the rise times related to the fall time of the scintillator and the timing signals related to the fall time of the input signals. We showed that Compton continuum suppression is achieved best via the precise timing adjustment of an analog rise-time analyzer connected to a NaI(Tl) scintillation spectrometer

  15. Three-dimensional imaging of flat natural and cultural heritage objects by a Compton scattering modality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerrero Prado, Patricio; Nguyen, Mai K.; Dumas, Laurent; Cohen, Serge X.

    2017-01-01

    Characterization and interpretation of flat ancient material objects, such as those found in archaeology, paleoenvironments, paleontology, and cultural heritage, have remained a challenging task to perform by means of conventional x-ray tomography methods due to their anisotropic morphology and flattened geometry. To overcome the limitations of the mentioned methodologies for such samples, an imaging modality based on Compton scattering is proposed in this work. Classical x-ray tomography treats Compton scattering data as noise in the image formation process, while in Compton scattering tomography the conditions are set such that Compton data become the principal image contrasting agent. Under these conditions, we are able, first, to avoid relative rotations between the sample and the imaging setup, and second, to obtain three-dimensional data even when the object is supported by a dense material by exploiting backscattered photons. Mathematically this problem is addressed by means of a conical Radon transform and its inversion. The image formation process and object reconstruction model are presented. The feasibility of this methodology is supported by numerical simulations.

  16. Nucleon structure study by virtual compton scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berthot, J.; Bertin, P.Y.; Breton, V.; Fonvielle, H.; Hyde-Wright, C.; Quemener, G.; Ravel, O.; Braghieri, A.; Pedroni, P.; Boeglin, W.U.; Boehm, R.; Distler, M.; Edelhoff, R.; Friedrich, J.; Geiges, R.; Jennewein, P.; Kahrau, M.; Korn, M.; Kramer, H.; Krygier, K.W.; Kunde, V.; Liesenfeld, A.; Merle, K.; Neuhausen, R.; Offermann, E.A.J.M.; Pospischil, T.; Rosner, G.; Sauer, P.; Schmieden, H.; Schardt, S.; Tamas, G.; Wagner, A.; Walcher, T.; Wolf, S.

    1995-01-01

    We propose to study nucleon structure by Virtual Compton Scattering using the reaction p(e,e'p)γ with the MAMI facility. We will detect the scattered electron and the recoil proton in coincidence in the high resolution spectrometers of the hall A1. Compton events will be separated from the other channels (principally π 0 production) by missing-mass reconstruction. We plan to investigate this reaction near threshold. Our goal is to measure new electromagnetic observables which generalize the usual magnetic and electric polarizabilities. (authors). 9 refs., 18 figs., 7 tabs

  17. Effect of inversion time on the precision of myocardial late gadolinium enhancement quantification evaluated with synthetic inversion recovery MR imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Varga-Szemes, Akos; Schoepf, U.J.; De Cecco, Carlo N.; Fuller, Stephen R.; Suranyi, Pal [Medical University of South Carolina, Division of Cardiovascular Imaging, Department of Radiology and Radiological Science, Charleston, SC (United States); Geest, Rob J. van der [Leiden University Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Leiden (Netherlands); Spottiswoode, Bruce S. [Siemens Medical Solutions, Chicago, IL (United States); Muscogiuri, Giuseppe [Medical University of South Carolina, Division of Cardiovascular Imaging, Department of Radiology and Radiological Science, Charleston, SC (United States); Bambino Gesu Children' s Hospital IRCCS, Department of Imaging, Rome (Italy); Wichmann, Julian L. [Medical University of South Carolina, Division of Cardiovascular Imaging, Department of Radiology and Radiological Science, Charleston, SC (United States); University Hospital Frankfurt, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Frankfurt (Germany); Mangold, Stefanie [Medical University of South Carolina, Division of Cardiovascular Imaging, Department of Radiology and Radiological Science, Charleston, SC (United States); Eberhard-Karls University Tuebingen, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Tuebingen (Germany); Maurovich-Horvat, Pal; Merkely, Bela [Semmelweis University, MTA-SE Cardiovascular Imaging Research Group, Heart and Vascular Center, Budapest (Hungary); Litwin, Sheldon E. [Medical University of South Carolina, Division of Cardiology, Department of Medicine, Charleston, SC (United States); Vliegenthart, Rozemarijn [Medical University of South Carolina, Division of Cardiovascular Imaging, Department of Radiology and Radiological Science, Charleston, SC (United States); University of Groningen, University Medical Center Groningen, Center for Medical Imaging-North East Netherlands, Department of Radiology, Groningen (Netherlands)

    2017-08-15

    To evaluate the influence of inversion time (TI) on the precision of myocardial late gadolinium enhancement (LGE) quantification using synthetic inversion recovery (IR) imaging in patients with myocardial infarction (MI). Fifty-three patients with suspected prior MI underwent 1.5-T cardiac MRI with conventional magnitude (MagIR) and phase-sensitive IR (PSIR) LGE imaging and T1 mapping at 15 min post-contrast. T1-based synthetic MagIR and PSIR images were calculated with a TI ranging from -100 to +150 ms at 5-ms intervals relative to the optimal TI (TI{sub 0}). LGE was quantified using a five standard deviation (5SD) and full width at half-maximum (FWHM) thresholds. Measurements were compared using one-way analysis of variance. The MagIR{sub sy} technique provided precise assessment of LGE area at TIs ≥ TI{sub 0}, while precision was decreased below TI{sub 0}. The LGE area showed significant differences at ≤ -25 ms compared to TI{sub 0} using 5SD (P < 0.001) and at ≤ -65 ms using the FWHM approach (P < 0.001). LGE measurements did not show significant difference over the analysed TI range in the PSIR{sub sy} images using either of the quantification methods. T1 map-based PSIR{sub sy} images provide precise quantification of MI independent of TI at the investigated time point post-contrast. MagIR{sub sy}-based MI quantification is precise at TI{sub 0} and at longer TIs while showing decreased precision at TI values below TI{sub 0}. (orig.)

  18. Developmental changes in the effect of inversion: using a picture book to investigate face recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brace, N A; Hole, G J; Kemp, R I; Pike, G E; Van Duuren, M; Norgate, L

    2001-01-01

    A novel child-oriented procedure was used to examine the face-recognition abilities of children as young as 2 years. A recognition task was embedded in a picture book containing a story about two boys and a witch. The story and the task were designed to be entertaining for children of a wide age range. In eight trials, the children were asked to pick out one of the boys from amongst eight distractors as quickly as possible. Response-time data to both upright and inverted conditions were analysed. The results revealed that children aged 6 years onwards showed the classic inversion effect. By contrast, the youngest children, aged 2 to 4 years, were faster at recognising the target face in the inverted condition than in the upright condition. Several possible explanations for this 'inverted inversion effect' are discussed.

  19. Experimental verification of the inverse Doppler effect in negative-index material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Lie; Chen, Jiabi; Wang, Yan; Geng, Tao; Zhuang, Songlin

    2010-10-01

    μResearch of negative-index material (NIM) is a very hot developing research field in recent years. NIM is also called left-handed material (LHM), in which the electric field [see manuscript], the magnetic field [see manuscript] and the wave vector [see manuscript] are not composed of a set of right-handed coordinates but a set of left-handed coordinates. Thus the action of electromagnetic waves in both left-handed material and right-handed material is just the opposite, for instance, the negative refraction phenomenon, the inverse Doppler effect and so on. Here we report the explicit result of the inverse Doppler effect through a photonic crystal (PC) prism at 10.6m wavelength for the first time, and the result we get from the experiment is much similar to the theoretical analysis we have deduced before. During the experiment, the CO2 laser is used as a light source, and the PC prism is used as a sample, which can move a tiny distance (1mm) uniformly with a translating stage. Based on the method of optical heterodyne, we let the emergent light from the output surface of PC prism and the reference light from light source interfere at the surface of the detector. When the translating stage moves towards the detector, the optical paths in the PC prism will be changed, and then the Doppler frequency shift will be generated. Though several different samples have been tested repeatedly, the results we get are extraordinarily similar. So we can be sure that the inverse Doppler effect really exists in the NIM at optical frequencies. To our best knowledge, this is the only experimental verification of the inverse Doppler effect in the NIM at optical frequencies at home and aboard.

  20. Contribution of inner shell Compton ionization to the X-ray fluorescence line intensity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández, Jorge E.; Scot, Viviana; Di Giulio, Eugenio

    2016-10-01

    The Compton effect is a potential ionization mechanism of atoms. It produces vacancies in inner shells that are filled with the same mechanism of atomic relaxation as the one following photo-absorption. This contribution to X-ray fluorescence emission is frequently neglected because the total Compton cross-section is apparently much lower than the photoelectric one at useful X-ray energies. However, a more careful analysis suggests that is necessary to consider single shell cross sections (instead of total cross sections) as a function of energy. In this article these Compton cross sections are computed for the shells K, L1-L3 and M1-M5 in the framework of the impulse approximation. By comparing the Compton and the photoelectric cross-section for each shell it is then possible to determine the extent of the Compton correction to the intensity of the corresponding characteristic lines. It is shown that for the K shell the correction becomes relevant for excitation energies which are too high to be influent in X-ray spectrometry. In contrast, for L and M shells the Compton contribution is relevant for medium-Z elements and medium energies. To illustrate the different grades of relevance of the correction, for each ionized shell, the energies for which the Compton contribution reaches the extent levels of 1, 5, 10, 20, 50 and 100% of the photoelectric one are determined for all the elements with Z = 11-92. For practical applications it is provided a simple formula and fitting coefficients to compute average correction levels for the shells considered.

  1. A method to estimate the height of temperature inversion layer and the effective mixing depht

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nicolli, D.

    1978-05-01

    A review of the concept PBL or turbulent boundary layer is made as it is understood in meteorology. Some features of the PBL parameterization are also discussed, as well as the methods used to estimate the temperature inversion heights during morning and afternoon hours. The study bases on the assumption of the dry adiabatic lapse rate in the mixing layer that is, water vapor and airborne material are supposed to be homogeneously mixed below the inversion layer or in the effective mixing depth. The mean mixing heights over Rio de Janeiro area respectively about 500m and 1000m at morning and afternoon hours. For Sao Paulo these values are respectively 400m and 1300m at morning and afternoon hours [pt

  2. Theorems of low energy in Compton scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chahine, J.

    1984-01-01

    We have obtained the low energy theorems in Compton scattering to third and fouth order in the frequency of the incident photon. Next we calculated the polarized cross section to third order and the unpolarized to fourth order in terms of partial amplitudes not covered by the low energy theorems, what will permit the experimental determination of these partial amplitudes. (Author) [pt

  3. Compton scattering collision module for OSIRIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Gaudio, Fabrizio; Grismayer, Thomas; Fonseca, Ricardo; Silva, Luís

    2017-10-01

    Compton scattering plays a fundamental role in a variety of different astrophysical environments, such as at the gaps of pulsars and the stagnation surface of black holes. In these scenarios, Compton scattering is coupled with self-consistent mechanisms such as pair cascades. We present the implementation of a novel module, embedded in the self-consistent framework of the PIC code OSIRIS 4.0, capable of simulating Compton scattering from first principles and that is fully integrated with the self-consistent plasma dynamics. The algorithm accounts for the stochastic nature of Compton scattering reproducing without approximations the exchange of energy between photons and unbound charged species. We present benchmarks of the code against the analytical results of Blumenthal et al. and the numerical solution of the linear Kompaneets equation and good agreement is found between the simulations and the theoretical models. This work is supported by the European Research Council Grant (ERC- 2015-AdG 695088) and the Fundao para a Céncia e Tecnologia (Bolsa de Investigao PD/BD/114323/2016).

  4. On the Compton Twist-3 Asymmetries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Korotkiyan, V.M.; Teryaev, O.V.

    1994-01-01

    The 'fermionic poles' contribution to the twist-3 single asymmetry in the gluon Compton process is calculated. The 'gluonic poles' existence seems to contradict the density matrix positivity. Qualitative predictions for the direct photon and jets asymmetries are presented. 13 refs., 2 figs

  5. Constraints on low energy Compton scattering amplitudes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raszillier, I.

    1979-04-01

    We derive the constraints and correlations of fairly general type for Compton scattering amplitudes at energies below photoproduction threshold and fixed momentum transfer, following from (an upper bound on) the corresponding differential cross section above photoproduction threshold. The derivation involves the solution of an extremal problem in a certain space of vector - valued analytic functions. (author)

  6. Salt-induced effects on natural and inverse DPPC lipid membranes: Molecular dynamics simulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezaei Sani, Seyed Mojtaba; Akhavan, Mojdeh; Jalili, Seifollah

    2018-08-01

    Molecular dynamics (MD) simulations of a dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine (DPPC) bilayer and its neutral inverse-phosphocholine equivalent (DPCPe) were performed to find salt-induced effects on their surface structure and the nature of ion-lipid interactions. We found that the area per lipid is not considerably affected by the inversion, but the deuterium order parameter of carbon atoms in the region of carbonyl carbons changes dramatically. MD simulations indicate that Ca 2+ ions can bind to the surface of both DPPC and DPCPe membranes, but K + ions do not bind to them. In the case of Na + , however, the ions can bind to natural lipids but not to the inverse ones. Also, our results demonstrate that the hydration level of CPe bilayers is substantially lower than PC bilayers and the averaged orientation of water dipoles in the region of CPe headgroups is effectively inverted compared to PC lipids. This might be important in the interaction of the bilayer with its biological environment. Furthermore, it was found for the CPe bilayers that the enhanced peaks of the electrostatic potential profiles shift further away from the bilayer center relative to those of PC bilayers. This behavior makes the penetration of cations into the bilayer more difficult and possibly explains the experimentally observed enhanced release rates of anionic compounds in the CPe membrane. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Analyses of Effects of Cutting Parameters on Cutting Edge Temperature Using Inverse Heat Conduction Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Ribeiro dos Santos

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available During machining energy is transformed into heat due to plastic deformation of the workpiece surface and friction between tool and workpiece. High temperatures are generated in the region of the cutting edge, which have a very important influence on wear rate of the cutting tool and on tool life. This work proposes the estimation of heat flux at the chip-tool interface using inverse techniques. Factors which influence the temperature distribution at the AISI M32C high speed steel tool rake face during machining of a ABNT 12L14 steel workpiece were also investigated. The temperature distribution was predicted using finite volume elements. A transient 3D numerical code using irregular and nonstaggered mesh was developed to solve the nonlinear heat diffusion equation. To validate the software, experimental tests were made. The inverse problem was solved using the function specification method. Heat fluxes at the tool-workpiece interface were estimated using inverse problems techniques and experimental temperatures. Tests were performed to study the effect of cutting parameters on cutting edge temperature. The results were compared with those of the tool-work thermocouple technique and a fair agreement was obtained.

  8. Theoretical analysis of the influence of flexoelectric effect on the defect site in nematic inversion walls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gui-Li, Zheng; Hui, Zhang; Wen-Jiang, Ye; Zhi-Dong, Zhang; Hong-Wei, Song; Li, Xuan

    2016-03-01

    Based on the experimental phenomena of flexoelectric response at defect sites in nematic inversion walls conducted by Kumar et al., we gave the theoretical analysis using the Frank elastic theory. When a direct-current electric field normal to the plane of the substrate is applied to the parallel aligned nematic liquid crystal cell with weak anchoring, the rotation of ±1 defects in the narrow inversion walls can be exhibited. The free energy of liquid crystal molecules around the +1 and -1 defect sites in the nematic inversion walls under the electric field was formulated and the electric-field-driven structural changes at the defect site characterized by polar and azimuthal angles of the local director were simulated. The results reveal that the deviation of azimuthal angle induced by flexoelectric effect are consistent with the switching of extinction brushes at the +1 and -1 defects obtained in the experiment conducted by Kumar et al. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 11374087, 11274088, and 11304074), the Natural Science Foundation of Hebei Province, China (Grant Nos. A2014202123 and A2016202282), the Research Project of Hebei Education Department, China (Grant Nos. QN2014130 and QN2015260), and the Key Subject Construction Project of Hebei Province University, China.

  9. Inverse spin Hall effect induced by spin pumping into semiconducting ZnO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jung-Chuan [Institute of Physics, Academia Sinica, Taipei 11529, Taiwan (China); Huang, Leng-Wei [Graduate Institute of Applied Physics, National Chengchi University, Taipei 11605, Taiwan (China); Hung, Dung-Shing, E-mail: dshung@mail.mcu.edu.tw [Institute of Physics, Academia Sinica, Taipei 11529, Taiwan (China); Department of Information and Telecommunications Engineering, Ming Chuan University, Taipei 111, Taiwan (China); Chiang, Tung-Han [Department of Physics, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan 70101, Taiwan (China); Huang, J. C. A., E-mail: jcahuang@mail.ncku.edu.tw [Department of Physics, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan 70101, Taiwan (China); Advanced Optoelectronic Technology Center, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan 70101, Taiwan (China); Liang, Jun-Zhi [Advanced Optoelectronic Technology Center, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan 70101, Taiwan (China); Department of Physics, Fu Jen Catholic University, Taipei 242, Taiwan (China); Lee, Shang-Fan, E-mail: leesf@phys.sinica.edu.tw [Institute of Physics, Academia Sinica, Taipei 11529, Taiwan (China); Graduate Institute of Applied Physics, National Chengchi University, Taipei 11605, Taiwan (China)

    2014-02-03

    The inverse spin Hall effect (ISHE) of n-type semiconductor ZnO thin films with weak spin-orbit coupling has been observed by utilizing the spin pumping method. In the ferromagnetic resonance condition, the spin pumping driven by the dynamical exchange interaction of a permalloy film injects a pure spin current into the adjacent ZnO layer. This spin current gives rise to a DC voltage through the ISHE in the ZnO layer, and the DC voltage is proportional to the microwave excitation power. The effect is sizeable even when the spin backflow is considered.

  10. Inverse spin Hall effect induced by spin pumping into semiconducting ZnO

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Jung-Chuan; Huang, Leng-Wei; Hung, Dung-Shing; Chiang, Tung-Han; Huang, J. C. A.; Liang, Jun-Zhi; Lee, Shang-Fan

    2014-01-01

    The inverse spin Hall effect (ISHE) of n-type semiconductor ZnO thin films with weak spin-orbit coupling has been observed by utilizing the spin pumping method. In the ferromagnetic resonance condition, the spin pumping driven by the dynamical exchange interaction of a permalloy film injects a pure spin current into the adjacent ZnO layer. This spin current gives rise to a DC voltage through the ISHE in the ZnO layer, and the DC voltage is proportional to the microwave excitation power. The effect is sizeable even when the spin backflow is considered

  11. Plasmon mediated inverse Faraday effect in a graphene-dielectric-metal structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bychkov, Igor V; Kuzmin, Dmitry A; Tolkachev, Valentine A; Plaksin, Pavel S; Shavrov, Vladimir G

    2018-01-01

    This Letter shows the features of inverse Faraday effect (IFE) in a graphene-dielectric-metal (GDM) structure. The constants of propagation and attenuation of the surface plasmon-polariton modes are calculated. The effective magnetic field induced by surface plasmon modes in the dielectric due to the IFE is estimated to reach above 1 tesla. The possibility to control the distribution of the magnetic field by chemical potential of graphene is shown. The concept of strain-driven control of the IFE in the structure has been proposed and investigated.

  12. Stability analysis and time-step limits for a Monte Carlo Compton-scattering method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Densmore, Jeffery D.; Warsa, James S.; Lowrie, Robert B.

    2010-01-01

    A Monte Carlo method for simulating Compton scattering in high energy density applications has been presented that models the photon-electron collision kinematics exactly [E. Canfield, W.M. Howard, E.P. Liang, Inverse Comptonization by one-dimensional relativistic electrons, Astrophys. J. 323 (1987) 565]. However, implementing this technique typically requires an explicit evaluation of the material temperature, which can lead to unstable and oscillatory solutions. In this paper, we perform a stability analysis of this Monte Carlo method and develop two time-step limits that avoid undesirable behavior. The first time-step limit prevents instabilities, while the second, more restrictive time-step limit avoids both instabilities and nonphysical oscillations. With a set of numerical examples, we demonstrate the efficacy of these time-step limits.

  13. Inverse Kinematics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joel Sereno

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Inverse kinematics is the process of converting a Cartesian point in space into a set of joint angles to more efficiently move the end effector of a robot to a desired orientation. This project investigates the inverse kinematics of a robotic hand with fingers under various scenarios. Assuming the parameters of a provided robot, a general equation for the end effector point was calculated and used to plot the region of space that it can reach. Further, the benefits obtained from the addition of a prismatic joint versus an extra variable angle joint were considered. The results confirmed that having more movable parts, such as prismatic points and changing angles, increases the effective reach of a robotic hand.

  14. On the possibility of using X-ray Compton scattering to study magnetoelectrical properties of crystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Collins, S. P., E-mail: steve.collins@diamond.ac.uk; Laundy, D.; Connolley, T.; Laan, G. van der; Fabrizi, F. [Diamond Light Source Ltd, Harwell Science and Innovation Campus, Didcot, OX11 0DE (United Kingdom); Janssen, O. [Department of Physics, New York University, New York, NY 10003 (United States); Cooper, M. J. [Department of Physics, University of Warwick, CV4 7AL (United Kingdom); Ebert, H.; Mankovsky, S. [Universität München, Department Chemie, Haus E2.033, Butenandtstrasse 5-13, D-81377 München (Germany)

    2016-02-16

    The possibility of using X-ray Compton scattering to reveal antisymmetric components of the electron momentum density, as a fingerprint of magnetoelectric sample properties, is investigated experimentally and theoretically by studying the polar ferromagnet GaFeO{sub 3}. This paper discusses the possibility of using Compton scattering – an inelastic X-ray scattering process that yields a projection of the electron momentum density – to probe magnetoelectrical properties. It is shown that an antisymmetric component of the momentum density is a unique fingerprint of such time- and parity-odd physics. It is argued that polar ferromagnets are ideal candidates to demonstrate this phenomenon and the first experimental results are shown, on a single-domain crystal of GaFeO{sub 3}. The measured antisymmetric Compton profile is very small (≃ 10{sup −5} of the symmetric part) and of the same order of magnitude as the statistical errors. Relativistic first-principles simulations of the antisymmetric Compton profile are presented and it is shown that, while the effect is indeed predicted by theory, and scales with the size of the valence spin–orbit interaction, its magnitude is significantly overestimated. The paper outlines some important constraints on the properties of the antisymmetric Compton profile arising from the underlying crystallographic symmetry of the sample.

  15. Technical Note: Influence of Compton currents on profile measurements in small-volume ion chambers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanny, Sean; Sperling, Nicholas; Parsai, E. Ishmael, E-mail: e.parsai@utoledo.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Toledo Medical Center, 1325 Conference Drive, Toledo, Ohio 43614 (United States); Holmes, Shannon [Standard Imaging, 3120 Deming Way, Middleton, Wisconsin 53562 (United States)

    2015-10-15

    Purpose: This work is to evaluate the effects of Compton current generation in three small-volume ionization chambers on measured beam characteristics for electron fields. Methods: Beam scans were performed using Exradin A16, A26, and PTW 31014 microchambers. Scans with varying chamber components shielded were performed. Static point measurements, output factors, and cable only irradiations were performed to determine the contribution of Compton currents to various components of the chamber. Monte Carlo simulations were performed to evaluate why one microchamber showed a significant reduction in Compton current generation. Results: Beam profiles demonstrated significant distortion for two of the three chambers when scanned parallel to the chamber axis, produced by electron deposition within the wire. Measurements of ionization produced within the cable identified Compton current generation as the cause of these distortions. The size of the central collecting wire was found to have the greatest influence on the magnitude of Compton current generation. Conclusions: Microchambers can demonstrate significant (>5%) deviations from properties as measured with larger volume chambers (0.125 cm{sup 3} and above). These deviations can be substantially reduced by averaging measurements conducted at opposite polarities.

  16. Compton profiles by inelastic ion-electron scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boeckl, H.; Bell, F.

    1983-01-01

    It is shown that Compton profiles (CP) can be measured by inelastic ion-electron scattering. Within the impulse approximation the binary-encounter peak (BEP) reflects the CP of the target atom whereas the electron-loss peak (ELP) is given by projectile CP's. Evaluation of experimental data reveals that inelastic ion-electron scattering might be a promising method to supply inelastic electron or photon scattering for the determination of target CP's. The measurement of projectile CP's is unique to ion scattering since one gains knowledge about wave-function effects because of the high excitation degree of fast heavy-ion projectiles

  17. MICROBUNCH TEMPORAL DIAGNOSTIC BY COMPTON SCATTERING IN INTERFERING LASER BEAMS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    AMATUNI, A.TS.; POGORELSKY, I.V.

    1998-01-01

    The exact solution of the classical nonlinear equation of motion for a relativistic electron in the field of two electromagnetic (EM) waves is obtained. For the particular case of the linearly polarized standing EM wave in the planar optical cavity, the intensity of the nonlinear Compton scattering, the time of flight, and the momentum variation after the relativistic electron passes along the cavity axis are calculated in weak and strong field limits. The extent of these effects depends on the initial phase of the EM wave when the electron enters the cavity. This can be used for the production, diagnosis, and acceleration of relativistic electron (positron) microbunches

  18. POST-PERIASTRON GAMMA-RAY FLARE FROM PSR B1259-63/LS 2883 AS A RESULT OF COMPTONIZATION OF THE COLD PULSAR WIND

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khangulyan, Dmitry [Institute of Space and Astronautical Science/JAXA, 3-1-1 Yoshinodai, Chuo-ku, Sagamihara, Kanagawa 252-5210 (Japan); Aharonian, Felix A. [Dublin Institute for Advanced Studies, 31 Fitzwilliam Place, Dublin 2 (Ireland); Bogovalov, Sergey V. [Department of Molecular Physics, National Research Nuclear University (MEPHI), Kashirskoe shosse 31, Moscow 115409 (Russian Federation); Ribo, Marc, E-mail: khangul@astro.isas.jaxa.jp, E-mail: felix.aharonian@dias.ie, E-mail: svbogovalov@mephi.ru, E-mail: mribo@am.ub.es [Departament d' Astronomia i Meteorologia, Institut de Ciences del Cosmos (ICC), Universitat de Barcelona (IEEC-UB), Marti i Franques 1, E-08028 Barcelona (Spain)

    2012-06-10

    We argue that the bright flare of the binary pulsar PSR B1259-63/LS2883 detected by the Fermi Large Area Telescope is due to the inverse Compton scattering of the unshocked electron-positron pulsar wind with a Lorentz factor {Gamma}{sub 0} Almost-Equal-To 10{sup 4}. The combination of two effects both linked to the circumstellar disk (CD) is a key element in the proposed model. The first effect is related to the impact of the surrounding medium on the termination of the pulsar wind. Inside the disk, the 'early' termination of the wind results in suppression of its gamma-ray luminosity. When the pulsar escapes the disk, the conditions for termination of the wind undergo significant changes. This would lead to a dramatic increase of the pulsar wind zone, and thus to the proportional increase of the gamma-ray flux. On the other hand, if the parts of the CD disturbed by the pulsar can supply infrared photons of density high enough for efficient Comptonization of the wind, almost the entire kinetic energy of the pulsar wind would be converted to radiation, thus the gamma-ray luminosity of the wind could approach the level of the pulsar's spin-down luminosity as reported by the Fermi Collaboration.

  19. Reconstruction of the electron momentum distribution from a set of directional Compton profiles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hansen, N.K.

    1980-12-01

    A method is described in which the 3-dimensional one-electron momentum density distribution is obtained from a series of directional Compton profiles measured on single crystals; a directional Compton profile being the projection of the momentum density onto a line through the origin. The procedure consists of 1-dimensional Fourier transformations of the individual profiles. The Fourier transformed Compton profiles are fitted by a finite expansion in lattice harmonic functions, and the momentum density is finally obtained by a 3-dimensional Fourier transform. The effect of statistical errors are derived both for the momentum density and its Fourier transform. The problem of how to carry out the measurements in an optimal way has been approached and suggestions made. A computer program for calculation of momentum density and error distributions have been listed in an appendix. (orig.)

  20. Effect of a combined inversion and plantarflexion surface on ankle kinematics and EMG activities in landing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Divya Bhaskaran

    2015-12-01

    Conclusion: These findings suggest that compared to the inversion surface, the combined plantarflexion and inversion surface seems to provide a more unstable surface condition for lateral ankle sprains during landing.

  1. Spatial resolution measurements of the advanced radiographic capability x-ray imaging system at energies relevant to Compton radiography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hall, G. N., E-mail: hall98@llnl.gov; Izumi, N.; Landen, O. L.; Tommasini, R.; Holder, J. P.; Hargrove, D.; Bradley, D. K.; Lumbard, A.; Cruz, J. G.; Piston, K.; Bell, P. M.; Carpenter, A. C.; Palmer, N. E.; Felker, B.; Rekow, V.; Allen, F. V. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, 7000 East Avenue, Livermore, California 94550 (United States); Lee, J. J.; Romano, E. [National Security Technologies LLC, 161 S Vasco Rd., Livermore, California 94551 (United States)

    2016-11-15

    Compton radiography provides a means to measure the integrity, ρR and symmetry of the DT fuel in an inertial confinement fusion implosion near peak compression. Upcoming experiments at the National Ignition Facility will use the ARC (Advanced Radiography Capability) laser to drive backlighter sources for Compton radiography experiments and will use the newly commissioned AXIS (ARC X-ray Imaging System) instrument as the detector. AXIS uses a dual-MCP (micro-channel plate) to provide gating and high DQE at the 40–200 keV x-ray range required for Compton radiography, but introduces many effects that contribute to the spatial resolution. Experiments were performed at energies relevant to Compton radiography to begin characterization of the spatial resolution of the AXIS diagnostic.

  2. Angle-averaged Compton cross sections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nickel, G.H.

    1983-01-01

    The scattering of a photon by an individual free electron is characterized by six quantities: α = initial photon energy in units of m 0 c 2 ; α/sub s/ = scattered photon energy in units of m 0 c 2 ; β = initial electron velocity in units of c; phi = angle between photon direction and electron direction in the laboratory frame (LF); theta = polar angle change due to Compton scattering, measured in the electron rest frame (ERF); and tau = azimuthal angle change in the ERF. We present an analytic expression for the average of the Compton cross section over phi, theta, and tau. The lowest order approximation to this equation is reasonably accurate for photons and electrons with energies of many keV

  3. Angle-averaged Compton cross sections

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nickel, G.H.

    1983-01-01

    The scattering of a photon by an individual free electron is characterized by six quantities: ..cap alpha.. = initial photon energy in units of m/sub 0/c/sup 2/; ..cap alpha../sub s/ = scattered photon energy in units of m/sub 0/c/sup 2/; ..beta.. = initial electron velocity in units of c; phi = angle between photon direction and electron direction in the laboratory frame (LF); theta = polar angle change due to Compton scattering, measured in the electron rest frame (ERF); and tau = azimuthal angle change in the ERF. We present an analytic expression for the average of the Compton cross section over phi, theta, and tau. The lowest order approximation to this equation is reasonably accurate for photons and electrons with energies of many keV.

  4. High-Energy Compton Scattering Light Sources

    CERN Document Server

    Hartemann, Fred V; Barty, C; Crane, John; Gibson, David J; Hartouni, E P; Tremaine, Aaron M

    2005-01-01

    No monochromatic, high-brightness, tunable light sources currently exist above 100 keV. Important applications that would benefit from such new hard x-ray sources include: nuclear resonance fluorescence spectroscopy, time-resolved positron annihilation spectroscopy, and MeV flash radiography. The peak brightness of Compton scattering light sources is derived for head-on collisions and found to scale with the electron beam brightness and the drive laser pulse energy. This gamma 2

  5. Laser Compton polarimetry of proton beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stillman, A.

    1995-01-01

    A need exists for non-destructive polarization measurements of the polarized proton beams in the AGS and, in the future, in RHIC. One way to make such measurements is to scatter photons from the polarized beams. Until now, such measurements were impossible because of the extremely low Compton scattering cross section from protons. Modern lasers now can provide enough photons per laser pulse not only to scatter from proton beams but also, at least in RHIC, to analyze their polarization

  6. Future measurements of deeply virtual Compton scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Korotkov, V.A.; Nowak, W.D.

    2001-09-01

    Prospects for future measurements of Deeply Virtual Compton Scattering are studied using different simple models for parameterizations of generalized parton distributions (GPDs). Measurements of the lepton charge and lepton beam helicity asymmetry will yield important input for theoretical models towards the future extraction of GPDs. The kinematics of the HERMES experiment, complemented with a recoil detector, was adopted to arrive at realistic projected statistical uncertainties. (orig.)

  7. Colour dipoles and virtual Compton scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McDermott, M.

    2002-01-01

    An analysis of Deeply Virtual Compton Scattering (DVCS) is made within the colour dipole model. We compare and contrast two models for the dipole cross-section which have been successful in describing structure function data. Both models agree with the available cross section data on DVCS from HERA. We give predictions for various azimuthal angle asymmetries in HERA kinematics and for the DVCS cross section in the THERA region. (orig.)

  8. Proceedings of the Fourth Compton Symposium. Proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dermer, C.D.; Strickman, M.S.; Kurfess, J.D.

    1997-01-01

    These proceedings represent the papers presented at the Fourth Compton Symposium held in Williamsburg, Virginia in April, 1997. This symposium gives the latest development in gamma ray astronomy and summarizes the results obtained by the Compton Gamma Ray Observatory. One of the missions of the Observatory has been the study of physical processes taking place in the most dynamic sites in the Universe, including supernovae, novae, pulsars, black holes, active galaxies, and gamma-ray bursts. The energies covered range from hard X-ray to gamma-ray regions from 15 KeV to 30 GeV. The Burst and Transient Experiment (BASTE) measures brightness variations in gamma-ray bursts and solar flares. The Oriented Scintillation Spectroscopy Experiment (OSSE), measures spectral output of astrophysical sources in the 0.05 to 10 MeV range. The Imaging Compton Telescope (COMPTEL) detects gamma-rays and performs sky survey in the energy range 1 to 30 MeV. The Energetic Gamma Ray Experiment Telescope (EGRET) covers the broadest energy range from 20 MeV to 30 GeV. The papers presented result from all of the above. There were 249 papers presented and out of these, 6 have been abstracted for the Energy, Science and Technology database

  9. Helium Compton Form Factor Measurements at CLAS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Voutier, Eric J.-M. [Laboratoire de Physique Subatomique et Cosmologie

    2013-07-01

    The distribution of the parton content of nuclei, as encoded via the generalized parton distributions (GPDs), can be accessed via the deeply virtual Compton scattering (DVCS) process contributing to the cross section for leptoproduction of real photons. Similarly to the scattering of light by a material, DVCS provides information about the dynamics and the spatial structure of hadrons. The sensitivity of this process to the lepton beam polarization allows to single-out the DVCS amplitude in terms of Compton form factors that contain GPDs information. The beam spin asymmetry of the $^4$He($\\vec {\\mathrm e}$,e$' \\gamma ^4$He) process was measured in the experimental Hall B of the Jefferson Laboratory to extract the real and imaginary parts of the twist-2 Compton form factor of the $^4$He nucleus. The experimental results reported here demonstrate the relevance of this method for such a goal, and suggest the dominance of the Bethe-Heitler amplitude to the unpolarized process in the kinematic range explored by the experiment.

  10. Inverse strain rate effect on cyclic stress response in annealed Zircaloy-2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sudhakar Rao, G.; Verma, Preeti [Center of Advanced Study, Department of Metallurgical Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology (Banaras Hindu University), Varanasi 221005 (India); Chakravartty, J.K. [Mechanical Metallurgy Group, Bhabha Atomic Research Center, Trombay 400 085, Mumbai (India); Nudurupati, Saibaba [Nuclear Fuel Complex, Hyderabad 500 062 (India); Mahobia, G.S.; Santhi Srinivas, N.C. [Center of Advanced Study, Department of Metallurgical Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology (Banaras Hindu University), Varanasi 221005 (India); Singh, Vakil, E-mail: vsingh.met@itbhu.ac.in [Center of Advanced Study, Department of Metallurgical Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology (Banaras Hindu University), Varanasi 221005 (India)

    2015-02-15

    Low cycle fatigue behavior of annealed Zircaloy-2 was investigated at 300 and 400 °C at different strain amplitudes and strain rates of 10{sup −2}, 10{sup −3}, and 10{sup −4} s{sup −1}. Cyclic stress response showed initial hardening with decreasing rate of hardening, followed by linear cyclic hardening and finally secondary hardening with increasing rate of hardening for low strain amplitudes at both the temperatures. The rate as well the degree of linear hardening and secondary hardening decreased with decrease in strain rate at 300 °C, however, there was inverse effect of strain rate on cyclic stress response at 400 °C and cyclic stress was increased with decrease in strain rate. The fatigue life decreased with decrease in strain rate at both the temperatures. The occurrence of linear cyclic hardening, inverse effect of strain rate on cyclic stress response and deterioration in fatigue life with decrease in strain rate may be attributed to dynamic strain aging phenomena resulting from enhanced interaction of dislocations with solutes. Fracture surfaces revealed distinct striations, secondary cracking, and oxidation with decrease in strain rate. Deformation substructure showed parallel dislocation lines and dislocation band structure at 300 °C. Persistent slip band wall structure and development of fine Corduroy structure was observed at 400 °C.

  11. Impaired configural body processing in anorexia nervosa: evidence from the body inversion effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urgesi, Cosimo; Fornasari, Livia; Canalaz, Francesca; Perini, Laura; Cremaschi, Silvana; Faleschini, Laura; Thyrion, Erica Zappoli; Zuliani, Martina; Balestrieri, Matteo; Fabbro, Franco; Brambilla, Paolo

    2014-11-01

    Patients with anorexia nervosa (AN) suffer from severe disturbances of body perception. It is unclear, however, whether such disturbances are linked to specific alterations in the processing of body configurations with respect to the local processing of body part details. Here, we compared a consecutive sample of 12 AN patients with a group of 12 age-, gender- and education-matched controls using an inversion effect paradigm requiring the visual discrimination of upright and inverted pictures of whole bodies, faces and objects. The AN patients presented selective deficits in the discrimination of upright body stimuli, which requires configural processing. Conversely, patients and controls showed comparable abilities in the discrimination of inverted bodies, which involves only detail-based processing, and in the discrimination of both upright and inverted faces and objects. Importantly, the body inversion effect negatively correlated with the persistence scores at the Temperament and Character Inventory, which evaluates increased tendency to convert a signal of punishment into a signal of reinforcement. These results suggest that the deficits of configural processing in AN patients may be associated with their obsessive worries about body appearance and to the excessive attention to details that characterizes their general perceptual style. © 2013 The British Psychological Society.

  12. The effects of environmental variability and spatial sampling on the three-dimensional inversion problem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bender, Christopher M; Ballard, Megan S; Wilson, Preston S

    2014-06-01

    The overall goal of this work is to quantify the effects of environmental variability and spatial sampling on the accuracy and uncertainty of estimates of the three-dimensional ocean sound-speed field. In this work, ocean sound speed estimates are obtained with acoustic data measured by a sparse autonomous observing system using a perturbative inversion scheme [Rajan, Lynch, and Frisk, J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 82, 998-1017 (1987)]. The vertical and horizontal resolution of the solution depends on the bandwidth of acoustic data and on the quantity of sources and receivers, respectively. Thus, for a simple, range-independent ocean sound speed profile, a single source-receiver pair is sufficient to estimate the water-column sound-speed field. On the other hand, an environment with significant variability may not be fully characterized by a large number of sources and receivers, resulting in uncertainty in the solution. This work explores the interrelated effects of environmental variability and spatial sampling on the accuracy and uncertainty of the inversion solution though a set of case studies. Synthetic data representative of the ocean variability on the New Jersey shelf are used.

  13. Characterization of a viscoelastic heterogeneous object with an effective model by nonlinear full waveform inversion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mesgouez, A.

    2018-05-01

    The determination of equivalent viscoelastic properties of heterogeneous objects remains challenging in various scientific fields such as (geo)mechanics, geophysics or biomechanics. The present investigation addresses the issue of the identification of effective constitutive properties of a binary object by using a nonlinear and full waveform inversion scheme. The inversion process, without any regularization technique or a priori information, aims at minimizing directly the discrepancy between the full waveform responses of a bi-material viscoelastic cylindrical object and its corresponding effective homogeneous object. It involves the retrieval of five constitutive equivalent parameters. Numerical simulations are performed in a laboratory-scale two-dimensional configuration: a transient acoustic plane wave impacts the object and the diffracted fluid pressure, solid stress or velocity component fields are determined using a semi-analytical approach. Results show that the retrieval of the density and of the real parts of both the compressional and the shear wave velocities have been carried out successfully regarding the number and location of sensors, the type of sensors, the size of the searching space, the frequency range of the incident plane pressure wave, and the change in the geometric or mechanical constitution of the bi-material object. The retrieval of the imaginary parts of the wave velocities can reveal in some cases the limitations of the proposed approach.

  14. Inverse strain rate effect on cyclic stress response in annealed Zircaloy-2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sudhakar Rao, G.; Verma, Preeti; Chakravartty, J.K.; Nudurupati, Saibaba; Mahobia, G.S.; Santhi Srinivas, N.C.; Singh, Vakil

    2015-01-01

    Low cycle fatigue behavior of annealed Zircaloy-2 was investigated at 300 and 400 °C at different strain amplitudes and strain rates of 10 −2 , 10 −3 , and 10 −4 s −1 . Cyclic stress response showed initial hardening with decreasing rate of hardening, followed by linear cyclic hardening and finally secondary hardening with increasing rate of hardening for low strain amplitudes at both the temperatures. The rate as well the degree of linear hardening and secondary hardening decreased with decrease in strain rate at 300 °C, however, there was inverse effect of strain rate on cyclic stress response at 400 °C and cyclic stress was increased with decrease in strain rate. The fatigue life decreased with decrease in strain rate at both the temperatures. The occurrence of linear cyclic hardening, inverse effect of strain rate on cyclic stress response and deterioration in fatigue life with decrease in strain rate may be attributed to dynamic strain aging phenomena resulting from enhanced interaction of dislocations with solutes. Fracture surfaces revealed distinct striations, secondary cracking, and oxidation with decrease in strain rate. Deformation substructure showed parallel dislocation lines and dislocation band structure at 300 °C. Persistent slip band wall structure and development of fine Corduroy structure was observed at 400 °C

  15. Biological Applications of Extraordinary Electroconductance and Photovoltaic Effects in Inverse Extraordinary Optoconductance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Lauren Christine

    The Extraordinary Electroconductance (EEC) sensor has been previously demonstrated to have an electric field sensitivity of 3.05V/cm in a mesoscopic-scale structure fabricated at the center of a parallel plate capacitor. In this thesis, we demonstrate the first successful application of EEC sensors as electrochemical detectors of protein binding and biological molecule concentration. Using the avidin derivative, captavidin, in complex with the vitamin biotin, the change in four-point measured resistance with fluid protein concentration of bare EEC sensors was shown to increase by a factor of four in the presence of biomolecular binding as compared to baseline. Calculations for approximate field strengths introduced by a bound captavidin molecule are also presented. The development of Inverse-Extraordinary Optoconductance (I-EOC), an effect which occurs in nanoscale sensors, is also discussed. In the I-EOC effect, electron transport transitions from ballistic to diffusive with increasing light intensity. In these novel, room temperature optical detectors, the resistance is low at low light intensity and resistance increases by 9462% in a 250nm device mesa upon full illumination with a 5 mW HeNe laser. This is the inverse of bulk and mesoscopic device behavior, in which resistance decreases with increasing photon density.

  16. Inverse Raman scattering in silicon: A free-carrier enhanced effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Solli, D. R.; Koonath, P.; Jalali, B.

    2009-01-01

    Stimulated Raman scattering has been harnessed to produce the first silicon lasers and amplifiers. The Raman effect can also produce intensity-dependent nonlinear loss through a corollary process, inverse Raman scattering (IRS). This process has never been observed in a semiconductor. We demonstrate IRS in silicon--a process that is substantially modified by optically generated free carriers--achieving attenuation levels >15 dB with a pump intensity of 4 GW/cm 2 . Surprisingly, free-carrier absorption, the detrimental effect that generally suppresses nonlinear effects in silicon, actually facilitates IRS by delaying the onset of contamination from coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering. Silicon-based IRS could be a valuable tool for chip-scale signal processing.

  17. Compton radiography, 3. Compton scinti-tomography of the chest diseases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okuyama, S; Sera, K; Shishido, F; Fukuda, H [Tohoku Univ., Sendai (Japan). Research Inst. for Tuberculosis, Leprosy and Cancer; Mishina, H

    1977-10-01

    The compton radiography aims at collection of depth information by recording with a scinticamera those Compton rays that have resulted from scattering of a monoenergetic gamma beam by a volume of interest. Appreciably clear clinical scinti-tomograms were obtained of the chest wall, and intrathoracic structures such as the lungs, intrapulmonary pathologies, and mediastinum. This was achieved without any computer assistance for image reconstruction such as those in the case of XCT. Apparently, suitable corrections of the attenuations of the primary monoenergetic gamma rays and secondary Compton rays would greatly improve the image quality, and imaging time and radiation exposure as well. This technic is simple in principle, relatively cheap, and yet prospective of development of stereoptic fluoroscopy that would be extremely helpful in guiding such procedures as visceral biopsies.

  18. Advanced Source Deconvolution Methods for Compton Telescopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zoglauer, Andreas

    The next generation of space telescopes utilizing Compton scattering for astrophysical observations is destined to one day unravel the mysteries behind Galactic nucleosynthesis, to determine the origin of the positron annihilation excess near the Galactic center, and to uncover the hidden emission mechanisms behind gamma-ray bursts. Besides astrophysics, Compton telescopes are establishing themselves in heliophysics, planetary sciences, medical imaging, accelerator physics, and environmental monitoring. Since the COMPTEL days, great advances in the achievable energy and position resolution were possible, creating an extremely vast, but also extremely sparsely sampled data space. Unfortunately, the optimum way to analyze the data from the next generation of Compton telescopes has not yet been found, which can retrieve all source parameters (location, spectrum, polarization, flux) and achieves the best possible resolution and sensitivity at the same time. This is especially important for all sciences objectives looking at the inner Galaxy: the large amount of expected sources, the high background (internal and Galactic diffuse emission), and the limited angular resolution, make it the most taxing case for data analysis. In general, two key challenges exist: First, what are the best data space representations to answer the specific science questions? Second, what is the best way to deconvolve the data to fully retrieve the source parameters? For modern Compton telescopes, the existing data space representations can either correctly reconstruct the absolute flux (binned mode) or achieve the best possible resolution (list-mode), both together were not possible up to now. Here we propose to develop a two-stage hybrid reconstruction method which combines the best aspects of both. Using a proof-of-concept implementation we can for the first time show that it is possible to alternate during each deconvolution step between a binned-mode approach to get the flux right and a

  19. The face inversion effect following pitch and yaw rotations: investigating the boundaries of holistic processing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone eFavelle

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Upright faces are thought to be processed holistically. However, the range of views within which holistic processing occurs is unknown. Recent research by McKone (2008 suggests that holistic processing occurs for all yaw rotated face views (i.e. full-face through to profile. Here we examined whether holistic processing occurs for pitch, as well as yaw, rotated face views. In this face recognition experiment: (i participants made same/different judgments about two sequentially presented faces (either both upright or both inverted; (ii the test face was pitch/yaw rotated by between 0°-75° from the encoding face (always a full face view. Our logic was as follows: If a particular pitch/yaw rotated face view is being processed holistically when upright, then this processing should be disrupted by inversion. Consistent with previous research, significant face inversion effects (FIEs were found for all yaw rotated views. However, while FIEs were found for pitch rotations up to 45°, none were observed for 75° pitch rotations (rotated either above or below the full face. We conclude that holistic processing does not occur for all views of upright faces (e.g., not for uncommon pitch rotated views, only those that can be matched to a generic global representation of a face.

  20. Compton Scattering of Quasi-Real Virtual Photons at LEP

    CERN Document Server

    Achard, P.; Aguilar-Benitez, M.; Alcaraz, J.; Alemanni, G.; Allaby, J.; Aloisio, A.; Alviggi, M.G.; Anderhub, H.; Andreev, Valery P.; Anselmo, F.; Arefiev, A.; Azemoon, T.; Aziz, T.; Bagnaia, P.; Bajo, A.; Baksay, G.; Baksay, L.; Baldew, S.V.; Banerjee, S.; Banerjee, Sw.; Barczyk, A.; Barillere, R.; Bartalini, P.; Basile, M.; Batalova, N.; Battiston, R.; Bay, A.; Becattini, F.; Becker, U.; Behner, F.; Bellucci, L.; Berbeco, R.; Berdugo, J.; Berges, P.; Bertucci, B.; Betev, B.L.; Biasini, M.; Biglietti, M.; Biland, A.; Blaising, J.J.; Blyth, S.C.; Bobbink, G.J.; Bohm, A.; Boldizsar, L.; Borgia, B.; Bottai, S.; Bourilkov, D.; Bourquin, M.; Braccini, S.; Branson, J.G.; Brochu, F.; Burger, J.D.; Burger, W.J.; Cai, X.D.; Capell, M.; Cara Romeo, G.; Carlino, G.; Cartacci, A.; Casaus, J.; Cavallari, F.; Cavallo, N.; Cecchi, C.; Cerrada, M.; Chamizo, M.; Chang, Y.H.; Chemarin, M.; Chen, A.; Chen, G.; Chen, G.M.; Chen, H.F.; Chen, H.S.; Chiefari, G.; Cifarelli, L.; Cindolo, F.; Clare, I.; Clare, R.; Coignet, G.; Colino, N.; Costantini, S.; de la Cruz, B.; Cucciarelli, S.; de Asmundis, R.; Deglon, P.; Debreczeni, J.; Degre, A.; Dehmelt, K.; Deiters, K.; della Volpe, D.; Delmeire, E.; Denes, P.; DeNotaristefani, F.; De Salvo, A.; Diemoz, M.; Dierckxsens, M.; Dionisi, C.; Dittmar, M.; Doria, A.; Dova, M.T.; Duchesneau, D.; Duda, M.; Echenard, B.; Eline, A.; El Hage, A.; El Mamouni, H.; Engler, A.; Eppling, F.J.; Extermann, P.; Falagan, M.A.; Falciano, S.; Favara, A.; Fay, J.; Fedin, O.; Felcini, M.; Ferguson, T.; Fesefeldt, H.; Fiandrini, E.; Field, J.H.; Filthaut, F.; Fisher, P.H.; Fisher, W.; Fisk, I.; Forconi, G.; Freudenreich, K.; Furetta, C.; Galaktionov, Iouri; Ganguli, S.N.; Garcia-Abia, Pablo; Gataullin, M.; Gentile, S.; Giagu, S.; Gong, Z.F.; Grenier, Gerald Jean; Grimm, O.; Gruenewald, M.W.; Guida, M.; Gupta, V.K.; Gurtu, A.; Gutay, L.J.; Haas, D.; Hatzifotiadou, D.; Hebbeker, T.; Herve, Alain; Hirschfelder, J.; Hofer, H.; Hohlmann, M.; Holzner, G.; Hou, S.R.; Jin, B.N.; Jindal, P.; Jones, Lawrence W.; de Jong, P.; Josa-Mutuberria, I.; Kaur, M.; Kienzle-Focacci, M.N.; Kim, J.K.; Kirkby, Jasper; Kittel, W.; Klimentov, A.; Konig, A.C.; Kopal, M.; Koutsenko, V.; Kraber, M.; Kraemer, R.W.; Kruger, A.; Kunin, A.; Ladron de Guevara, P.; Laktineh, I.; Landi, G.; Lebeau, M.; Lebedev, A.; Lebrun, P.; Lecomte, P.; Lecoq, P.; Le Coultre, P.; Le Goff, J.M.; Leiste, R.; Levtchenko, M.; Levtchenko, P.; Li, C.; Likhoded, S.; Lin, C.H.; Lin, W.T.; Linde, F.L.; Lista, L.; Liu, Z.A.; Lohmann, W.; Longo, E.; Lu, Y.S.; Luci, C.; Luminari, L.; Lustermann, W.; Ma, W.G.; Malgeri, L.; Malinin, A.; Mana, C.; Mans, J.; Martin, J.P.; Marzano, F.; Mazumdar, K.; McNeil, R.R.; Mele, S.; Merola, L.; Meschini, M.; Metzger, W.J.; Mihul, A.; Milcent, H.; Mirabelli, G.; Mnich, J.; Mohanty, G.B.; Muanza, G.S.; Muijs, A.J.M.; Musicar, B.; Musy, M.; Nagy, S.; Natale, S.; Napolitano, M.; Nessi-Tedaldi, F.; Newman, H.; Nisati, A.; Novak, T.; Kluge, Hannelies; Ofierzynski, R.; Organtini, G.; Pal, I.; Palomares, C.; Paolucci, P.; Paramatti, R.; Passaleva, G.; Patricelli, S.; Paul, Thomas Cantzon; Pauluzzi, M.; Paus, C.; Pauss, F.; Pedace, M.; Pensotti, S.; Perret-Gallix, D.; Piccolo, D.; Pierella, F.; Pioppi, M.; Piroue, P.A.; Pistolesi, E.; Plyaskin, V.; Pohl, M.; Pojidaev, V.; Pothier, J.; Prokofiev, D.; Rahal-Callot, G.; Rahaman, Mohammad Azizur; Raics, P.; Raja, N.; Ramelli, R.; Rancoita, P.G.; Ranieri, R.; Raspereza, A.; Razis, P.; Ren, D.; Rescigno, M.; Reucroft, S.; Riemann, S.; Riles, Keith; Roe, B.P.; Romero, L.; Rosca, A.; Rosemann, C.; Rosenbleck, C.; Rosier-Lees, S.; Roth, Stefan; Rubio, J.A.; Ruggiero, G.; Rykaczewski, H.; Sakharov, A.; Saremi, S.; Sarkar, S.; Salicio, J.; Sanchez, E.; Schafer, C.; Schegelsky, V.; Schmidt-Kaerst, S.; Schopper, H.; Schotanus, D.J.; Sciacca, C.; Servoli, L.; Shevchenko, S.; Shivarov, N.; Shoutko, V.; Shumilov, E.; Shvorob, A.; Son, D.; Souga, C.; Spillantini, P.; Steuer, M.; Stickland, D.P.; Stoyanov, B.; Straessner, A.; Sudhakar, K.; Sultanov, G.; Sun, L.Z.; Sushkov, S.; Suter, H.; Swain, J.D.; Szillasi, Z.; Tang, X.W.; Tarjan, P.; Tauscher, L.; Taylor, L.; Tellili, B.; Teyssier, D.; Timmermans, Charles; Ting, Samuel C.C.; Ting, S.M.; Tonwar, S.C.; Toth, J.; Tully, C.; Tung, K.L.; Ulbricht, J.; Valente, E.; Van de Walle, R.T.; Vasquez, R.; Veszpremi, V.; Vesztergombi, G.; Vetlitsky, I.; Viertel, G.; Villa, S.; Vivargent, M.; Vlachos, S.; Vodopianov, I.; Vogel, H.; Vogt, H.; Vorobiev, I.; Vorobyov, A.A.; Wadhwa, M.; Wang, Q.; Wang, X.L.; Wang, Z.M.; Weber, M.; Wynhoff, S.; Xia, L.; Xu, Z.Z.; Yamamoto, J.; Yang, B.Z.; Yang, H.J.; Yeh, S.C.; Zalite, An.; Zhang, Z.P.; Zhao, J.; Zhu, G.Y.; Zhu, R.Y.; Zhuang, H.L.; Zichichi, A.; Zimmermann, B.; Zoller, M.

    2005-01-01

    Compton scattering of quasi-real virtual photons, gamma e+- -> gamma e+-, is studied with 0.6fb-1 of data collected by the L3 detector at the LEP e+e- collider at centre-of-mass energies root(s')=189-209GeV. About 4500 events produced by the interaction of virtual photons emitted by e+- of one beam with e-+ of the opposite beam are collected for effective centre-of-mass energies of the photon-electron and photon-positron systems in the range from root(s')= 35GeV up to root(s')=175GeV, the highest energy at which Compton scattering was ever probed. The cross sections of the gamma e+- -> gamma e+- process as a function of root(s') and of the rest-frame scattering angle are measured, combined with previous L3 measurements down to root(s')~20GeV, and found to agree with the QED expectations.

  1. Dynamical barrier and isotope effects in the simplest substitution reaction via Walden inversion mechanism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Zhiqiang; Zhang, Zhaojun; Liu, Shu; Zhang, Dong H.

    2017-02-01

    Reactions occurring at a carbon atom through the Walden inversion mechanism are one of the most important and useful classes of reactions in chemistry. Here we report an accurate theoretical study of the simplest reaction of that type: the H+CH4 substitution reaction and its isotope analogues. It is found that the reaction threshold versus collision energy is considerably higher than the barrier height. The reaction exhibits a strong normal secondary isotope effect on the cross-sections measured above the reaction threshold, and a small but reverse secondary kinetic isotope effect at room temperature. Detailed analysis reveals that the reaction proceeds along a path with a higher barrier height instead of the minimum-energy path because the umbrella angle of the non-reacting methyl group cannot change synchronously with the other reaction coordinates during the reaction due to insufficient energy transfer from the translational motion to the umbrella mode.

  2. Change On The S-Z Effect Induced By The Cooling Flow CF On The Hot Electronic Gas At The Center OF The Clusters Of Galaxies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enkelejd Caca

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Building more accurate profiles for temperature and density of hot electronic gas concentrated in the center of clusters of galaxies is a constant problem in survey of Sunyeav Zeldovich effect SZ. An effect that consists in the inverse Compton effect of the hot electronic gas interacting with Cosmic Microwave Back- ground CMB photons passing through Intra Cluster Medium ICM. So far the Isothermal model is used for temperature profiling in the calculation of the inverse Compton effect but based on the recent improved observations from satellites which showed that the hot electronic gas presents a feature called Cooling Flow CF. Temperatures in this model differs towards the edges of the Clusters of Galaxies leading to a change on the Compton parameter in comparison with Isothermal model. In this paper are processed data provided by X-ray satellite Chandra. The X-ray analysis is based on two models for the electron density and temperature profile. A sample of 12 clusters of galaxies are analyzed and by building the temperature profiles using CF model the differences on the Compton parameter are 10-100 in comparison with Isothermal model. Therefore to increase the accuracy of evaluation of the Compton parameter we should take into account the change of the electronic gas tempera- ture change that affect changes in both CMB spectrum and temperature from SZ effect.

  3. Laser Compton polarimetry at JLab and MAMI. A status report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diefenbach, J.; Imai, Y.; Han Lee, J.; Maas, F.; Taylor, S.

    2007-01-01

    For modern parity violation experiments it is crucial to measure and monitor the electron beam polarization continuously. In the recent years different high-luminosity concepts, for precision Compton backscattering polarimetry, have been developed, to be used at modern CW electron beam accelerator facilities. As Compton backscattering polarimetry is free of intrinsic systematic uncertainties, it can be a superior alternative to other polarimetry techniques such as Moeller and Mott scattering. State-of-the-art high-luminosity Compton backscattering designs currently in use and under development at JLab and Mainz are compared to each other. The latest results from the Mainz A4 Compton polarimeter are presented. (orig.)

  4. Virtual Compton scattering off protons at moderately large momentum transfer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kroll, P.

    1996-01-01

    The amplitudes for virtual Compton scattering off protons are calculated within the framework of the diquark model in which protons are viewed as being built up by quarks and diquarks. The latter objects are treated as quasi-elementary constituents of the proton. Virtual Compton scattering, electroproduction off protons and the Bethe-Heitler contamination are photon discussed for various kinematical situations. We particularly emphasize the role of the electron asymmetry for measuring the relative phases between the virtual Compton and the Bethe-Heitler amplitudes. It is also shown that the model is able to describe very well the experimental data for real Compton scattering off protons. (orig.)

  5. Seeing emotions in the eyes – Inverse priming effects induced by eyes expressing mental states

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline eWagenbreth

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available ObjectiveAutomatic emotional processing of faces and facial expressions gain more and more of relevance in terms of social communication. Among a variety of different primes, targets and tasks, whole face images and facial expressions have been used to affectively prime emotional responses. This study investigates whether emotional information provided solely in eye regions that display mental states can also trigger affective priming.MethodsSixteen subjects answered a lexical decision task (LDT coupled with an affective priming paradigm. Emotion-associated eye regions were extracted from photographs of faces and acted as primes, whereas targets were either words or pseudo-words. Participants had to decide whether the targets were real German words or generated pseudo-words. Primes and targets belonged to the emotional categories fear, disgust, happiness and neutral.ResultsA general valence effect for positive words was observed: Responses in the LDT were faster for target words of the emotional category happiness when compared to other categories. Importantly, pictures of emotional eye regions preceding the target words affected their subsequent classification. While we show a classical priming effect for neutral target words - with shorter RT for congruent compared to incongruent prime-target pairs- , we observed an inverse priming effect for fearful and happy target words - with shorter RT for incongruent compared to congruent prime-target pairs. These inverse priming effects were driven exclusively by specific prime-target pairs.ConclusionReduced facial emotional information is sufficient to induce automatic implicit emotional processing. The emotional-associated eye regions were processed with respect to their emotional valence and affected the performance on the LDT.

  6. Dustfall Effect on Hyperspectral Inversion of Chlorophyll Content - a Laboratory Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yuteng; Ma, Baodong; Li, Xuexin; Zhang, Song; Wu, Lixin

    2018-04-01

    Dust pollution is serious in many areas of China. It is of great significance to estimate chlorophyll content of vegetation accurately by hyperspectral remote sensing for assessing the vegetation growth status and monitoring the ecological environment in dusty areas. By using selected vegetation indices including Medium Resolution Imaging Spectrometer Terrestrial Chlorophyll Index (MTCI) Double Difference Index (DD) and Red Edge Position Index (REP), chlorophyll inversion models were built to study the accuracy of hyperspectral inversion of chlorophyll content based on a laboratory experiment. The results show that: (1) REP exponential model has the most stable accuracy for inversion of chlorophyll content in dusty environment. When dustfall amount is less than 80 g/m2, the inversion accuracy based on REP is stable with the variation of dustfall amount. When dustfall amount is greater than 80 g/m2, the inversion accuracy is slightly fluctuation. (2) Inversion accuracy of DD is worst among three models. (3) MTCI logarithm model has high inversion accuracy when dustfall amount is less than 80 g/m2; When dustfall amount is greater than 80 g/m2, inversion accuracy decreases regularly and inversion accuracy of modified MTCI (mMTCI) increases significantly. The results provide experimental basis and theoretical reference for hyperspectral remote sensing inversion of chlorophyll content.

  7. Beam Size Measurement by Optical Diffraction Radiation and Laser System for Compton Polarimeter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Chuyu [Peking Univ., Beijing (China)

    2012-12-31

    difficulty of diagnostics. For most cases, intercepting measurements are no longer acceptable, and nonintercepting method like synchrotron radiation monitor can not be applied to linear accelerators. The development of accelerator technology asks for simutanous diagnostics innovations, to expand the performance of diagnostic tools to meet the requirements of the next generation accelerators. Diffraction radiation and inverse Compton scattering are two of the most promising techniques, their nonintercepting nature avoids perturbance to the beam and damage to the instrumentation. This thesis is divided into two parts, beam size measurement by optical diffraction radiation and Laser system for Compton polarimeter. Diffraction radiation, produced by the interaction between the electric field of charged particles and the target, is related to transition radiation. Even though the theory of diffraction radiation has been discussed since 1960s, there are only a few experimental studies in recent years. The successful beam size measurement by optical diffraction radiation at CEBAF machine is a milestone: First of all, we have successfully demonstrated diffraction radiation as an effective nonintercepting diagnostics; Secondly, the simple linear relationship between the diffraction radiation image size and the actual beam size improves the reliability of ODR measurements; And, we measured the polarized components of diffraction radiation for the first time and I analyzed the contribution from edge radiation to diffraction radiation.

  8. Beam Size Measurement by Optical Diffraction Radiation and Laser System for Compton Polarimeter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Chuyu

    2012-01-01

    difficulty of diagnostics. For most cases, intercepting measurements are no longer acceptable, and nonintercepting method like synchrotron radiation monitor can not be applied to linear accelerators. The development of accelerator technology asks for simutanous diagnostics innovations, to expand the performance of diagnostic tools to meet the requirements of the next generation accelerators. Diffraction radiation and inverse Compton scattering are two of the most promising techniques, their nonintercepting nature avoids perturbance to the beam and damage to the instrumentation. This thesis is divided into two parts, beam size measurement by optical diffraction radiation and Laser system for Compton polarimeter. Diffraction radiation, produced by the interaction between the electric field of charged particles and the target, is related to transition radiation. Even though the theory of diffraction radiation has been discussed since 1960s, there are only a few experimental studies in recent years. The successful beam size measurement by optical diffraction radiation at CEBAF machine is a milestone: First of all, we have successfully demonstrated diffraction radiation as an effective nonintercepting diagnostics; Secondly, the simple linear relationship between the diffraction radiation image size and the actual beam size improves the reliability of ODR measurements; And, we measured the polarized components of diffraction radiation for the first time and I analyzed the contribution from edge radiation to diffraction radiation

  9. Recording {gamma} spectrometer with elimination of compton background; Spectrographe {gamma} enregistreur avec elimination du bruit de fond compton

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Julliot, C [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France).Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1960-07-01

    This instrument, derived from the recording {gamma} spectrograph, gives better definition of photoelectric peaks by elimination of pulses caused by {gamma} photons incompletely absorbed in the scintillator (Compton effect). This system uses an original method devised by Peirson: the spectrum, devoid of photoelectric peak, supplied by a detector equipped with an anthracene scintillator, is cut off from the spectrum provided by a conventional detector equipped with a Nal (T1) scintillator. The regulation of the mechanical system, detector support and source allows the detection yields to be adjusted. The electronic system is identical in presentation with that of the recording spectrograph. (author) [French] Cet appareil derive du spectrographe {gamma} enregistreur permet d'obtenir une meilleure definition des pics photoelectriques, par elimination des impulsions provenant des photons {gamma} incompletement absorbes dans le scintillateur (effet Compton). Cet ensemble met en oeuvre une methode originale due a Peirson: le spectre, depourvu de pic photoelectrique, fourni par un detecteur, equipe avec un scintillateur d'anthracene, est retranche du spectre donne par un detecteur classique, equipe avec un scintillateur de NaI (T1). Le reglage de l'ensemble mecanique, support des detecteurs et de la source, permet d'ajuster les rendements de detection. L'ensemble electronique se presente sous un aspect identique a celui du spectrographe enregistreur. (auteur)

  10. Anisotropic spin–orbit stark effect in cubic semiconductors without an inversion center

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alekseev, P. S.

    2015-01-01

    The effect of external electric and magnetic fields on shallow donor levels in a semiconductor of the T d crystallographic class is analyzed. Application of an electric field eliminates the symmetry of the donor potential with respect to space inversion; as a result, corrections from the momentum-odd spin–orbit Dresselhaus term appear in the donor levels. In a strong electric field, such corrections determine the anisotropy of spin splitting of the donor levels relative to the directions of the external fields in the crystallographic coordinate system. Analytic expressions are derived for the spin splitting anisotropy for various relations between the magnitudes of the magnetic and electric fields. The results of this study can be used to determine the Dresselhaus spin–orbit interaction constant by a new method (in experiments on spin splitting of donor levels)

  11. Anisotropic spin–orbit stark effect in cubic semiconductors without an inversion center

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alekseev, P. S., E-mail: pavel.alekseev@mail.ioffe.ru [Russian Academy of Sciences, Ioffe Physicotechnical Institute (Russian Federation)

    2015-09-15

    The effect of external electric and magnetic fields on shallow donor levels in a semiconductor of the T{sub d} crystallographic class is analyzed. Application of an electric field eliminates the symmetry of the donor potential with respect to space inversion; as a result, corrections from the momentum-odd spin–orbit Dresselhaus term appear in the donor levels. In a strong electric field, such corrections determine the anisotropy of spin splitting of the donor levels relative to the directions of the external fields in the crystallographic coordinate system. Analytic expressions are derived for the spin splitting anisotropy for various relations between the magnitudes of the magnetic and electric fields. The results of this study can be used to determine the Dresselhaus spin–orbit interaction constant by a new method (in experiments on spin splitting of donor levels)

  12. Photoinduced ultrafast charge-order melting: Charge-order inversion and nonthermal effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Veenendaal, Michel van

    2016-01-01

    The effect of photoexcitation is studied for a system with checkerboard charge order induced by displacements of ligands around a metal site. The motion of the ligands is treated classically and the electronic charges are simplified to two-level molecular bond charges. The calculations are done for a checkerboard charge-ordered system with about 100 000 ligand oscillators coupled to a fixed-temperature bath. The initial photoexcitation is followed by a rapid decrease in the charge-order parameter within 50–100 femtoseconds while leaving the correlation length almost unchanged. Depending on the fluence, a complete melting of the charge order occurs in less than a picosecond. While for low fluences, the system returns to its original state, for full melting, it recovers to its broken-symmetry state leading to an inversion of the charge order. Finally, for small long-range interactions, recovery can be slow due to domain formation.

  13. The output characteristic of cantilever-like tactile sensor based on the inverse magnetostrictive effect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lili Wan

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The output characteristic model of a magnetostrictive cantilever-like tactile sensor has been founded based on the inverse-magnetostrictive effect, the flexure mode, and the Jiles-Atherton model. The magnetostrictive sensor has been designed and an output voltage is analyzed under the conditions of bias magnetic field, contact pressure and deflection of cantilever beam. The experiment has been performed to determine the relation among the induced output voltage, bias magnetic field, and pressure. It is found that the peak of the induced output voltage increases with an increasing pressure under the bias magnetic field of 4.8kA/m. The experimental result agrees well with the theoretical one and it means that the model can describe the relation among the induced output voltage, bias magnetic field, and pressure. The sensor with a Galfenol sheet may hold potentials in sample characterization and deformation predication in artificial intelligence area.

  14. Reversing the direction of space and inverse Doppler effect in positive refraction index media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun, Fei; He, Sailing

    2017-01-01

    A negative refractive index medium, in which all spatial coordinates are reversed (i.e. a left-hand triplet is formed) by a spatial folding transformation, can create many novel electromagnetic phenomena, e.g. backward wave propagation, and inversed Doppler effect (IDE). In this study, we use coordinate rotation transformation to reverse only two spatial coordinates (e.g. x ′ and y ′), while keeping z ′ unchanged. In this case, some novel phenomena, e.g. radiation-direction-reversing illusions and IDE, can be achieved in a free space region wrapped by the proposed shell without any negative refractive index medium, which is easier for experimental realization and future applications. (paper)

  15. Autoinduced catalysis and inverse equilibrium isotope effect in the frustrated Lewis pair catalyzed hydrogenation of imines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tussing, Sebastian; Greb, Lutz; Tamke, Sergej; Schirmer, Birgitta; Muhle-Goll, Claudia; Luy, Burkhard; Paradies, Jan

    2015-05-26

    The frustrated Lewis pair (FLP)-catalyzed hydrogenation and deuteration of N-benzylidene-tert-butylamine (2) was kinetically investigated by using the three boranes B(C6F5)3 (1), B(2,4,6-F3-C6H2)3 (4), and B(2,6-F2-C6H3)3 (5) and the free activation energies for the H2 activation by FLP were determined. Reactions catalyzed by the weaker Lewis acids 4 and 5 displayed autoinductive catalysis arising from a higher free activation energy (2 kcal mol(-1)) for the H2 activation by the imine compared to the amine. Surprisingly, the imine reduction using D2 proceeded with higher rates. This phenomenon is unprecedented for FLP and resulted from a primary inverse equilibrium isotope effect. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  16. The perception of (naked only) bodies and faceless heads relies on holistic processing: Evidence from the inversion effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonemei, Rob; Costantino, Andrea I; Battistel, Ilenia; Rivolta, Davide

    2018-05-01

    Faces and bodies are more difficult to perceive when presented inverted than when presented upright (i.e., stimulus inversion effect), an effect that has been attributed to the disruption of holistic processing. The features that can trigger holistic processing in faces and bodies, however, still remain elusive. In this study, using a sequential matching task, we tested whether stimulus inversion affects various categories of visual stimuli: faces, faceless heads, faceless heads in body context, headless bodies naked, whole bodies naked, headless bodies clothed, and whole bodies clothed. Both accuracy and inversion efficiency score results show inversion effects for all categories but for clothed bodies (with and without heads). In addition, the magnitude of the inversion effect for face, naked body, and faceless heads was similar. Our findings demonstrate that the perception of faces, faceless heads, and naked bodies relies on holistic processing. Clothed bodies (with and without heads), on the other side, may trigger clothes-sensitive rather than body-sensitive perceptual mechanisms. © 2017 The British Psychological Society.

  17. Beam dynamics in Compton ring gamma sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eugene Bulyak

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Electron storage rings of GeV energy with laser pulse stacking cavities are promising intense sources of polarized hard photons which, via pair production, can be used to generate polarized positron beams. In this paper, the dynamics of electron bunches circulating in a storage ring and interacting with high-power laser pulses is studied both analytically and by simulation. Both the common features and the differences in the behavior of bunches interacting with an extremely high power laser pulse and with a moderate pulse are discussed. Also considerations on particular lattice designs for Compton gamma rings are presented.

  18. Experimental confirmation of neoclassical Compton scattering theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aristov, V. V., E-mail: aristov@iptm.ru [Russian Academy of Sciences, Institute of Microelectronics Technology and High Purity Materials (Russian Federation); Yakunin, S. N. [National Research Centre “Kurchatov Institute” (Russian Federation); Despotuli, A. A. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Institute of Microelectronics Technology and High Purity Materials (Russian Federation)

    2013-12-15

    Incoherent X-ray scattering spectra of diamond and silicon crystals recorded on the BESSY-2 electron storage ring have been analyzed. All spectral features are described well in terms of the neoclassical scattering theory without consideration for the hypotheses accepted in quantum electrodynamics. It is noted that the accepted tabular data on the intensity ratio between the Compton and Rayleigh spectral components may significantly differ from the experimental values. It is concluded that the development of the general theory (considering coherent scattering, incoherent scattering, and Bragg diffraction) must be continued.

  19. The development of a Compton lung densitometer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loo, B.W.; Goulding, F.S.; Madden, N.W.; Simon, D.S.

    1988-11-01

    A field instrument is being developed for the non-invasive determination of absolute lung density using unique Compton backscattering techniques. A system consisting of a monoenergetic gamma-ray beam and a shielded high resolution high-purity-germanium (HPGe) detector in a close-coupled geometry is designed to minimize errors due to multiple scattering and uncontrollable attenuation in the chestwall. Results of studies on system performance with phantoms, the optimization of detectors, and the fabrication of a practical gamma-ray source are presented. 3 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs.

  20. The development of a Compton lung densitometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loo, B.W.; Goulding, F.S.; Madden, N.W.; Simon, D.S.

    1988-11-01

    A field instrument is being developed for the non-invasive determination of absolute lung density using unique Compton backscattering techniques. A system consisting of a monoenergetic gamma-ray beam and a shielded high resolution high-purity-germanium (HPGe) detector in a close-coupled geometry is designed to minimize errors due to multiple scattering and uncontrollable attenuation in the chestwall. Results of studies on system performance with phantoms, the optimization of detectors, and the fabrication of a practical gamma-ray source are presented. 3 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs

  1. A Compton polarimeter for CEBAF Hall A

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bardin, G; Cavata, C; Frois, B; Juillard, M; Kerhoas, S; Languillat, J C; Legoff, J M; Mangeot, P; Martino, J; Platchkov, S; Rebourgeard, P; Vernin, P; Veyssiere, C; CEBAF Hall A Collaboration

    1994-09-01

    The physic program at CEBAF Hall A includes several experiments using 4 GeV polarized electron beam: parity violation in electron elastic scattering from proton and {sup 4}He, electric form factor of the proton by recoil polarization, neutron spin structure function at low Q{sup 2}. Some of these experiments will need beam polarization measurement and monitoring with an accuracy close to 4%, for beam currents ranging from 100 nA to 100 microA. A project of a Compton Polarimeter that will meet these requirements is presented. It will comprise four dipoles and a symmetric cavity consisting of two identical mirrors. 1 fig., 10 refs.

  2. Cork quality estimation by using Compton tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brunetti, Antonio; Cesareo, Roberto; Golosio, Bruno; Luciano, Pietro; Ruggero, Alessandro

    2002-01-01

    The quality control of cork stoppers is mandatory in order to guarantee the perfect conservation of the wine. Several techniques have been developed but until now the quality control was essentially related to the status of the external surface. Thus possible cracks or holes inside the stopper will be hidden. In this paper a new technique based on X-ray Compton tomography is described. It is a non-destructive technique that allows one to reconstruct and visualize the cross-section of the cork stopper analyzed, and so to put in evidence the presence of internal imperfections. Some results are reported and compared with visual classification

  3. Transverse tomography by Compton scattering scintigraphy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Askienazy, S.; Lumbroso, J.; Lacaille, J.M.; Fredy, D.; Constans, J.P.; Barritault, L.

    The technique of tomography by Compton-scattering was applied to the exploration of the brain. Studies were carried out on phantoms and on patients and the first results are considered highly encouraging. On a phantom skull, holes at a depth of 7 cm are visible even on analogue documents and whatever their position with regard to the bone. On patients the ventricle cavities were revealed and comparisons with gas encephalograpy showed good agreement between the two techniques. The studies on phantoms also testified to the very low dose received by the patient: about 300 mRem for 2 million counts per section [fr

  4. Cork quality estimation by using Compton tomography

    CERN Document Server

    Brunetti, A; Golosio, B; Luciano, P; Ruggero, A

    2002-01-01

    The quality control of cork stoppers is mandatory in order to guarantee the perfect conservation of the wine. Several techniques have been developed but until now the quality control was essentially related to the status of the external surface. Thus possible cracks or holes inside the stopper will be hidden. In this paper a new technique based on X-ray Compton tomography is described. It is a non-destructive technique that allows one to reconstruct and visualize the cross-section of the cork stopper analyzed, and so to put in evidence the presence of internal imperfections. Some results are reported and compared with visual classification.

  5. EFFECT OF INVERSION ON TREATMENT OF FENCE SUBJECTED TO SAP DISPLACEMENT METHOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juarez Benigno Paes

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5902/1980509813338This work aimed to evaluate the effect of inversion of Prosopis juliflora and Leucaena leucocephala fenceposts, in distribution, penetration and retention of copper chrome borate (CCB solution applied by sapdisplacement method. The Prosopis juliflora was collected in Brazilian Agricultural Research Company(EMBRAPA and the Leucaena leucocephala at the Federal University of Campina Grande in Patos,Paraíba state, Brazil. Trees with DAP from 5.0 to 10.0 cm were employed. Disks of 2.0 cm of thicknesswere retired on the top and on the base of pieces. The external disks were then discarded and the internones were employed to determine the wood characteristics, being the round pieces with 2.0 m. A solutionof 2% of active ingredients of CCB was used to treated woods. A total of 10 pieces of each species weretreated, and five of them remained in the solution for 8 days and the five ones had their tops inverted afterthe sixth day of treatment. The pieces were seasoned; disks of 2.0 cm of thickness were taken in 5 positions along of pieces and the analyses for determination of copper and boron penetration took place. The valuesof wood characteristics indicated that the pieces were homogeneous. The absorption of the solution was of19.9 liters (Prosopis juliflora and of 17.0 liters (Leucaena leucocephala. The nominal retentions of CCBwere 7.72 and 5.34 kg active ingredients (a.i./m3, respectively. In general, the inversion of the pieces inthe preservative solution is recommended, by providing a better distribution, penetration and retention ofCCB on treated pieces.

  6. Compton scattering of photons from electrons bound in light elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bergstrom, P.M. Jr.

    1994-01-01

    A brief introduction to the topic of Compton scattering from bound electrons is presented. The fundamental nature of this process in understanding quantum phenomena is reviewed. Methods for accurate theoretical evaluation of the Compton scattering cross section are presented. Examples are presented for scattering of several keV photons from helium

  7. Combined Effects of Inversion and Feature Removal on N170 Responses Elicited by Faces and Car Fronts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kloth, Nadine; Itier, Roxane J.; Schweinberger, Stefan R.

    2013-01-01

    The face-sensitive N170 is typically enhanced for inverted compared to upright faces. Itier, Alain, Sedore, and McIntosh (2007) recently suggested that this N170 inversion effect is mainly driven by the eye region which becomes salient when the face configuration is disrupted. Here we tested whether similar effects could be observed with non-face…

  8. Effect of templates on inverse opals fabricated through annular self-assembly/sol-gel method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ge Dengteng; Yang Lili; Fan Zeng; Zhao Jiupeng; Li Yao

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → Flexible inverse opals could be facilely prepared through annular growth method. → The infiltrated materials are highly densified due to the existence of templates. → The crystalline grains are refined due to the the existence of templates. - Abstract: There is a strong interest in simple preparation of flexible inverse opals for applications. In this article, indium tin oxides (ITO) flexible inverse opals were prepared through annular growth of templates and sol-gel process. It is shown that this method provides a facile route for large scale flexible inverse opals with excellent ordered structures. ITO materials are found much denser in inverse opals, which is due to the increased capillary force during drying process and enhanced shrinkage during annealing process. It is also found that the crystalline grains are refined and the photoluminescence performance is strengthened in low frequency.

  9. Effects of next-to-leading order DGLAP evolution on generalized parton distributions of the proton and deeply virtual Compton scattering at high energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khanpour, Hamzeh [University of Science and Technology of Mazandaran, Department of Physics, Behshahr (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Institute for Research in Fundamental Sciences (IPM), School of Particles and Accelerators, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Goharipour, Muhammad [Institute for Research in Fundamental Sciences (IPM), School of Particles and Accelerators, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Guzey, Vadim [Petersburg Nuclear Physics Institute (PNPI), National Research Center ' ' Kurchatov Institute' ' , Gatchina (Russian Federation)

    2018-01-15

    We studied the effects of NLO Q{sup 2} evolution of generalized parton distributions (GPDs) using the aligned-jet model for the singlet quark and gluon GPDs at an initial evolution scale. We found that the skewness ratio for quarks is a slow logarithmic function of Q{sup 2}, reaching r{sup S} = 1.5-2 at Q{sup 2} = 100 GeV{sup 2} and r{sup g} ∼ 1 for gluons in a wide range of Q{sup 2}. Using the resulting GPDs, we calculated the DVCS cross section on the proton in NLO pQCD and found that this model in conjunction with modern parameterizations of proton PDFs (CJ15 and CT14) provides a good description of the available H1 and ZEUS data in a wide kinematic range. (orig.)

  10. Inverse photoemission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Namatame, Hirofumi; Taniguchi, Masaki

    1994-01-01

    Photoelectron spectroscopy is regarded as the most powerful means since it can measure almost perfectly the occupied electron state. On the other hand, inverse photoelectron spectroscopy is the technique for measuring unoccupied electron state by using the inverse process of photoelectron spectroscopy, and in principle, the similar experiment to photoelectron spectroscopy becomes feasible. The development of the experimental technology for inverse photoelectron spectroscopy has been carried out energetically by many research groups so far. At present, the heightening of resolution of inverse photoelectron spectroscopy, the development of inverse photoelectron spectroscope in which light energy is variable and so on are carried out. But the inverse photoelectron spectroscope for vacuum ultraviolet region is not on the market. In this report, the principle of inverse photoelectron spectroscopy and the present state of the spectroscope are described, and the direction of the development hereafter is groped. As the experimental equipment, electron guns, light detectors and so on are explained. As the examples of the experiment, the inverse photoelectron spectroscopy of semimagnetic semiconductors and resonance inverse photoelectron spectroscopy are reported. (K.I.)

  11. Chiral pair of Fermi arcs, anomaly cancellation, and spin or valley Hall effects in Weyl metals with broken inversion symmetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Iksu; Kim, Ki-Seok

    2018-04-01

    Anomaly cancellation has been shown to occur in broken time-reversal symmetry Weyl metals, which explains the existence of a Fermi arc. We extend this result in the case of broken inversion symmetry Weyl metals. Constructing a minimal model that takes a double pair of Weyl points, we demonstrate the anomaly cancellation explicitly. This demonstration explains why a chiral pair of Fermi arcs appear in broken inversion symmetry Weyl metals. In particular, we find that this pair of Fermi arcs gives rise to either "quantized" spin Hall or valley Hall effects, which corresponds to the "quantized" version of the charge Hall effect in broken time-reversal symmetry Weyl metals.

  12. Proton compton scattering in the resonance region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishii, Takanobu.

    1979-12-01

    Differential cross sections of the proton Compton scattering have been measured in the energy range between 400 and 1150 MeV at CMS angles of 130 0 , 100 0 and 70 0 . The recoil proton was detected with a magnetic spectrometer using multi-wire proportional chambers and wire spark chambers. In coincidence with the proton, the scattered photon was detected with a lead glass Cerenkov counter of the total absorption type with a lead plate converter, and horizontal and vertical scintillation counter hodoscopes. The background due to the neutral pion photoproduction, was subtracted by using the kinematic relations between the scattered photon and the recoil proton. Theoretical calculations based on an isobar model with two components, that is, the resonance plus background, were done, and the photon couplings of the second resonance region were determined firstly from the proton Compton data. The results are that the helicity 1/2 photon couplings of P 11 (1470) and S 11 (1535), and the helicity 3/2 photon coupling of D 13 (1520) are consistent with those determined from the single pion photoproduction data, but the helicity 1/2 photon coupling of D 13 (1520) has a somewhat larger value than that from the single pion photoproduction data. (author)

  13. Compton backscattered collmated X-ray source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruth, Ronald D.; Huang, Zhirong

    2000-01-01

    A high-intensity, inexpensive and collimated x-ray source for applications such as x-ray lithography is disclosed. An intense pulse from a high power laser, stored in a high-finesse resonator, repetitively collides nearly head-on with and Compton backscatters off a bunched electron beam, having relatively low energy and circulating in a compact storage ring. Both the laser and the electron beams are tightly focused and matched at the interaction region inside the optical resonator. The laser-electron interaction not only gives rise to x-rays at the desired wavelength, but also cools and stabilizes the electrons against intrabeam scattering and Coulomb repulsion with each other in the storage ring. This cooling provides a compact, intense bunch of electrons suitable for many applications. In particular, a sufficient amount of x-rays can be generated by this device to make it an excellent and flexible Compton backscattered x-ray (CBX) source for high throughput x-ray lithography and many other applications.

  14. Compton backscattered collimated x-ray source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruth, R.D.; Huang, Z.

    1998-10-20

    A high-intensity, inexpensive and collimated x-ray source is disclosed for applications such as x-ray lithography is disclosed. An intense pulse from a high power laser, stored in a high-finesse resonator, repetitively collides nearly head-on with and Compton backscatters off a bunched electron beam, having relatively low energy and circulating in a compact storage ring. Both the laser and the electron beams are tightly focused and matched at the interaction region inside the optical resonator. The laser-electron interaction not only gives rise to x-rays at the desired wavelength, but also cools and stabilizes the electrons against intrabeam scattering and Coulomb repulsion with each other in the storage ring. This cooling provides a compact, intense bunch of electrons suitable for many applications. In particular, a sufficient amount of x-rays can be generated by this device to make it an excellent and flexible Compton backscattered x-ray (CBX) source for high throughput x-ray lithography and many other applications. 4 figs.

  15. Virtual compton scattering at low energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lhuillier, D.

    1997-09-01

    The work described in this PhD is a study of the Virtual Compton scattering (VCS) off the proton at low energy, below pion production threshold. Our experiment has been carried out at MAMI in the collaboration with the help of two high resolution spectrometers. Experimentally, the VCS process is the electroproduction of photons off a liquid hydrogen target. First results of data analysis including radiative corrections are presented and compared with low energy theorem prediction. VCS is an extension of the Real Compton Scattering. The virtuality of the incoming photon allows us to access new observables of the nucleon internal structure which are complementarity to the elastic form factors: the generalized polarizabilities (GP). They are function of the squared invariant mass of the virtual photo. The mass limit of these observables restore the usual electric and magnetic polarizabilities. Our experiment is the first measurement of the VCS process at a virtual photon mass equals 0.33 Ge V square. The experimental development presents the analysis method. The high precision needed in the absolute cross-section measurement required an accurate estimate of radiative corrections to the VCS. This new calculation, which has been performed in the dimensional regulation scheme, composes the theoretical part of this thesis. At low q', preliminary results agree with low energy theorem prediction. At higher q', substraction of low energy theorem contribution to extract GP is discussed. (author)

  16. A dual purpose Compton suppression spectrometer

    CERN Document Server

    Parus, J; Raab, W; Donohue, D

    2003-01-01

    A gamma-ray spectrometer with a passive and an active shield is described. It consists of a HPGe coaxial detector of 42% efficiency and 4 NaI(Tl) detectors. The energy output pulses of the Ge detector are delivered into the 3 spectrometry chains giving the normal, anti- and coincidence spectra. From the spectra of a number of sup 1 sup 3 sup 7 Cs and sup 6 sup 0 Co sources a Compton suppression factor, SF and a Compton reduction factor, RF, as the parameters characterizing the system performance, were calculated as a function of energy and source activity and compared with those given in literature. The natural background is reduced about 8 times in the anticoincidence mode of operation, compared to the normal spectrum which results in decreasing the detection limits for non-coincident gamma-rays up to a factor of 3. In the presence of other gamma-ray activities, in the range from 5 to 11 kBq, non- and coincident, the detection limits can be decreased for some nuclides by a factor of 3 to 5.7.

  17. Recent results from the Compton Observatory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michelson, P.F.; Hansen, W.W. [Stanford Univ., CA (United States)

    1994-12-01

    The Compton Observatory is an orbiting astronomical observatory for gamma-ray astronomy that covers the energy range from about 30 keV to 30 GeV. The Energetic Gamma Ray Experiment Telescope (EGRET), one of four instruments on-board, is capable of detecting and imaging gamma radiation from cosmic sources in the energy range from approximately 20 MeV to 30 GeV. After about one month of tests and calibration following the April 1991 launch, a 15-month all sky survey was begun. This survey is now complete and the Compton Observatory is well into Phase II of its observing program which includes guest investigator observations. Among the highlights from the all-sky survey discussed in this presentation are the following: detection of five pulsars with emission above 100 MeV; detection of more than 24 active galaxies, the most distant at redshift greater than two; detection of many high latitude, unidentified gamma-ray sources, some showing significant time variability; detection of at least two high energy gamma-ray bursts, with emission in one case extending to at least 1 GeV. EGRET has also detected gamma-ray emission from solar flares up to energies of at least 2 GeV and has observed gamma-rays from the Large Magellanic Cloud.

  18. Deeply virtual Compton scattering at Jefferson Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biselli, Angela S. [Fairfield University - Department of Physics 1073 North Benson Road, Fairfield, CT 06430, USA; Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (TJNAF), Newport News, VA (United States)

    2016-08-01

    The generalized parton distributions (GPDs) have emerged as a universal tool to describe hadrons in terms of their elementary constituents, the quarks and the gluons. Deeply virtual Compton scattering (DVCS) on a proton or neutron ($N$), $e N \\rightarrow e' N' \\gamma$, is the process more directly interpretable in terms of GPDs. The amplitudes of DVCS and Bethe-Heitler, the process where a photon is emitted by either the incident or scattered electron, can be accessed via cross-section measurements or exploiting their interference which gives rise to spin asymmetries. Spin asymmetries, cross sections and cross-section differences can be connected to different combinations of the four leading-twist GPDs (${H}$, ${E}$, ${\\tilde{H}}$, ${\\tilde{E}}$) for each quark flavors, depending on the observable and on the type of target. This paper gives an overview of recent experimental results obtained for DVCS at Jefferson Laboratory in the halls A and B. Several experiments have been done extracting DVCS observables over large kinematics regions. Multiple measurements with overlapping kinematic regions allow to perform a quasi-model independent extraction of the Compton form factors, which are GPDs integrals, revealing a 3D image of the nucleon.

  19. Compton scattering and γ-quanta monochromatization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goryachev, B.I.; Shevchenko, V.G.

    1979-01-01

    The γ-quanta monochromatization method is proposed for sdudying high-excited states and mechanisms of nuclei photodisintegration. The method is based on the properties of photon Compton scattering. It permits to obtain high energy resolution without accurate analysis of the particle energies taking part in the scattering process. A possible design of the compton γ- monochromator is presented. The γ-quanta scatterer of the elements with a small nucleus charge (e.g. LiH) is placed inside the β-spectrometer of low resolution. The monochromator is expected to operate in the γ-beam of the high-current synchrotron, and it provides for a rather good energy resolution rho(W) while studying the high-excited nucleus states (rho(W) approximately 2% in the range of the giant dipole resonance). With the γ-quanta energy growth rho(W) increases as Wsup(0.6). The monochromator permits to obtain high statistical accuracy for a smaller period of time (at a considerably better energy resolution) than while working with a bremsstrahlung spectrum. The yield of quasimonochromatic photons related to the ΔW(ΔW = rho(W)W) range of energy resolution increases as Wsup(0.6). This fact makes it promjssing to use monochromator in the energy range considerably exceeding the characteristic energy of the gigantic dipole resonance

  20. Relativistic wave equations and compton scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sutanto, S.H.; Robson, B.A.

    1998-01-01

    Full text: Recently an eight-component relativistic wave equation for spin-1/2 particles was proposed.This equation was obtained from a four-component spin-1/2 wave equation (the KG1/2 equation), which contains second-order derivatives in both space and time, by a procedure involving a linearisation of the time derivative analogous to that introduced by Feshbach and Villars for the Klein-Gordon equation. This new eight-component equation gives the same bound-state energy eigenvalue spectra for hydrogenic atoms as the Dirac equation but has been shown to predict different radiative transition probabilities for the fine structure of both the Balmer and Lyman a-lines. Since it has been shown that the new theory does not always give the same results as the Dirac theory, it is important to consider the validity of the new equation in the case of other physical problems. One of the early crucial tests of the Dirac theory was its application to the scattering of a photon by a free electron: the so-called Compton scattering problem. In this paper we apply the new theory to the calculation of Compton scattering to order e 2 . It will be shown that in spite of the considerable difference in the structure of the new theory and that of Dirac the cross section is given by the Klein-Nishina formula

  1. Compton recoil electron tracking with silicon strip detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Neill, T.J.; Ait-Ouamer, F.; Schwartz, I.; Tumer, O.T.; White, R.S.; Zych, A.D.

    1992-01-01

    The application of silicon strip detectors to Compton gamma ray astronomy telescopes is described in this paper. The Silicon Compton Recoil Telescope (SCRT) tracks Compton recoil electrons in silicon strip converters to provide a unique direction for Compton scattered gamma rays above 1 MeV. With strip detectors of modest positional and energy resolutions of 1 mm FWHM and 3% at 662 keV, respectively, 'true imaging' can be achieved to provide an order of magnitude improvement in sensitivity to 1.6 x 10 - 6 γ/cm 2 -s at 2 MeV. The results of extensive Monte Carlo calculations of recoil electrons traversing multiple layers of 200 micron silicon wafers are presented. Multiple Coulomb scattering of the recoil electron in the silicon wafer of the Compton interaction and the next adjacent wafer is the basic limitation to determining the electron's initial direction

  2. Non-conventional procedure of polarimetry data inversion in conditions of comparable Faraday and Cotton-Mouton effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kravtsov, Yu.A.; Chrzanowski, J.; Mazon, D.

    2011-01-01

    A new procedure for inverting plasma polarimetry data is proposed in this paper. The procedure is based on the fit between a two parameter knowledge-based plasma model, which is using both magnetic and Thompson scattering data, and the polarimetric measurements. In turn the polarimetry system is assumed to measure two angular parameters of polarization: its azimuthal and ellipticity angles. The inversion procedure under consideration is based on the angular variables technique (AVT), describing evolution of the angular parameters of polarization ellipse in weakly anisotropic plasma. Generally inversion procedure can be applied both for weak and significant Faraday and Cotton-Mouton effects. For weak polarimetric effects inversion procedure shows the results of traditional polarimetry.

  3. Sensitivity booster for DOI-PET scanner by utilizing Compton scattering events between detector blocks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoshida, Eiji, E-mail: rush@nirs.go.jp; Tashima, Hideaki; Yamaya, Taiga

    2014-11-01

    In a conventional PET scanner, coincidence events are measured with a limited energy window for detection of photoelectric events in order to reject Compton scatter events that occur in a patient, but Compton scatter events caused in detector crystals are also rejected. Scatter events within the patient causes scatter coincidences, but inter crystal scattering (ICS) events have useful information for determining an activity distribution. Some researchers have reported the feasibility of PET scanners based on a Compton camera for tracing ICS into the detector. However, these scanners require expensive semiconductor detectors for high-energy resolution. In the Anger-type block detector, single photons interacting with multiple detectors can be obtained for each interacting position and complete information can be gotten just as for photoelectric events in the single detector. ICS events in the single detector have been used to get coincidence, but single photons interacting with multiple detectors have not been used to get coincidence. In this work, we evaluated effect of sensitivity improvement using Compton kinetics in several types of DOI-PET scanners. The proposed method promises to improve the sensitivity using coincidence events of single photons interacting with multiple detectors, which are identified as the first interaction (FI). FI estimation accuracy can be improved to determine FI validity from the correlation between Compton scatter angles calculated on the coincidence line-of-response. We simulated an animal PET scanner consisting of 42 detectors. Each detector block consists of three types of scintillator crystals (LSO, GSO and GAGG). After the simulation, coincidence events are added as information for several depth-of-interaction (DOI) resolutions. From the simulation results, we concluded the proposed method promises to improve the sensitivity considerably when effective atomic number of a scintillator is low. Also, we showed that FI estimate

  4. Assessing Tillage Effects on Soil Hydraulic Properties via Inverse Parameter Estimation using Tension Infiltrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwen, Andreas; Bodner, Gernot; Loiskandl, Willibald

    2010-05-01

    Hydraulic properties are key factors controlling water and solute movement in soils. While several recent studies have focused on the assessment of the spatial variability of hydraulic properties, the temporal dynamics are commonly not taken into account, primarily because its measurement is costly and time-consuming. However, there is extensive empirical evidence that these properties are subject to temporal changes, particularly in the near-saturated range where soil structure strongly influences water flow. One main source of temporal variability is soil tillage. It can improve macroporosity by loosening the soil and thereby changing the pore-size distribution. Since these modifications are quite unstable over time, the pore space partially collapses after tillage. This effect should be largest for conventional tillage (CT), where the soil is ploughed after harvest every year. Assessing the effect of different tillage treatments on the temporal variability of hydraulic properties requires adequate measurement techniques. Tension infiltrometry has become a popular and convenient method providing not only the hydraulic conductivity function but also the soil rentention properties. The inverse estimation of parameters from infiltration measurements remains challenging, despite some progress since the first approach of Šimůnek et al. (1998). Measured data like the cumulative infiltration, the initial and final volumetric water content, as well as independently measured retention data from soil core analysis with laboratory methods, have to be considered to find an optimum solution describing the soil's pore space. In the present study we analysed tension infiltration measurements obtained several times between August 2008 and December 2009 on an arable field in the Moravian Basin, Lower Austria. The tillage treatments were conventional tillage including ploughing (CT), reduced tillage with chisel only (RT), and no-tillage treatment using a direct seeding

  5. Laser propagation and compton scattering in parabolic plasma channel

    CERN Document Server

    Dongguo, L; Yokoya, K; Hirose, T

    2003-01-01

    A Gaussian laser beam propagating in a parabolic plasma channel is discussed in this paper. For a weak laser, plasma density perturbation induced by interaction between the laser field and plasma is very small, the refractive index can be assumed to be constant with respect to time variable. For a parabolic plasma channel, through the static propagation equation, we obtain an analytical solution of the profile function of the Gaussian laser beam for an unmatched case and give the general condition for the matched case. As the laser intensity increases, an effect due to strong laser fields is included. We discuss how to design and select the distribution of plasma density for a certain experiment in which a plasma channel is utilized to guide a laser beam. The number of scattered photons (X-rays) generated through Compton backscattering in a plasma channel is discussed. (author)

  6. Lorentz violation and black-hole thermodynamics: Compton scattering process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kant, E.; Klinkhamer, F.R.; Schreck, M.

    2009-01-01

    A Lorentz-noninvariant modification of quantum electrodynamics (QED) is considered, which has photons described by the nonbirefringent sector of modified Maxwell theory and electrons described by the standard Dirac theory. These photons and electrons are taken to propagate and interact in a Schwarzschild spacetime background. For appropriate Lorentz-violating parameters, the photons have an effective horizon lying outside the Schwarzschild horizon. A particular type of Compton scattering event, taking place between these two horizons (in the photonic ergoregion) and ultimately decreasing the mass of the black hole, is found to have a nonzero probability. These events perhaps allow for a violation of the generalized second law of thermodynamics in the Lorentz-noninvariant theory considered.

  7. Deeply virtual compton scattering in color dipole formalism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Machado, Magno V.T.

    2007-01-01

    In this contribution we summarize recent investigations on the Deeply Virtual Compton Scattering (DVCS) within the color dipole approach. The color dipole cross section is implemented through the phenomenological saturation model. The role played by its QCD evolution and skewedness effects in the DVCS cross section are discussed. The results are compared with the recent H1 and ZEUS Collaborations data. The skewing factor, defined as the ratio of the imaginary parts of the amplitudes Im A(γ* p → γ* p)/ Im A(γ* p → γ p) can be extracted from the data using recent DVCS and the inclusive inelastic cross section measurements at DESY-HERA. We report on this experimental extraction and compare the results to the theoretical predictions for NLO QCD and the color dipole approach. (author)

  8. Deeply virtual Compton scattering from gauge/gravity duality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Costa, Miguel S.; Djuric, Marko [University of Porto (Portugal)

    2013-04-15

    We use gauge/gravity duality to study deeply virtual Compton scattering (DVCS) in the limit of high center of mass energy at fixed momentum transfer, corresponding to the limit of low Bjorken x, where the process is dominated by the exchange of the pomeron. At strong coupling, the pomeron is described as the graviton Regge trajectory in AdS space, with a hard wall to mimic confinement effects. This model agrees with HERA data in a large kinematical range. The behavior of the DVCS cross section for very high energies, inside saturation, can be explained by a simple AdS black disk model. In a restricted kinematical window, this model agrees with HERA data as well.

  9. Deeply virtual Compton scattering from gauge/gravity duality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Costa, Miguel S.; Djurić, Marko

    2013-01-01

    We use gauge/gravity duality to study deeply virtual Compton scattering (DVCS) in the limit of high center of mass energy at fixed momentum transfer, corresponding to the limit of low Bjorken x, where the process is dominated by the exchange of the pomeron. At strong coupling, the pomeron is described as the graviton Regge trajectory in AdS space, with a hard wall to mimic confinement effects. This model agrees with HERA data in a large kinematical range. The behavior of the DVCS cross section for very high energies, inside saturation, can be explained by a simple AdS black disk model. In a restricted kinematical window, this model agrees with HERA data as well.

  10. Investigation of the effect of different parameters on the phase inversion temperature O/W nanoemulsions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Kaviani

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective(s: Nanoemulsions are a kind of emulsions that can be transparent, translucent (size range 50-200 nm or “milky” (up to 500 nm. Nanoemulsions are adequatly effective for transfer of active component through skin which facilitate the entrance of the active component . The transparent nature of the system and lack of the thickener and fluidity are among advantages of nanoemulsion. Materials and Methods: In this study, a nanoemulsion of lemon oil in water was prepared by the phase inversion temperature (PIT emulsification method in which the tween 40 was used as surfactant. The effect of concentration of NaCl in aqueous phase, pH and weight percent of surfactant and aqueous on the PIT and droplet size were investigated. Results: The results showed that with increasing of concentration of NaCl from 0.05 M to 1 M, PIT decrease from 72 to 50. The average droplet sizes, for 0.1, 0.5 and 1 M of NaCl in 25 ºC are 497.3, 308.1 and 189.9 nm, respectively and the polydispersity indexes are 0.348, 0.334 and 0.307, respectively. Conclusion: Considering the characteristics of nanoemulsions such as being transparent, endurance of solution and droplet size can provide suitable reaction environment for polymerization process used in making hygienic and medical materials.

  11. Spin pumping and inverse spin Hall effects in heavy metal/antiferromagnet/Permalloy trilayers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saglam, Hilal; Zhang, Wei; Jungfleisch, M. Benjamin; Jiang, Wanjun; Pearson, John E.; Hoffmann, Axel

    Recent work shows efficient spin transfer via spin waves in insulating antiferromagnets (AFMs), suggesting that AFMs can play a more active role in the manipulation of ferromagnets. We use spin pumping and inverse spin Hall effect experiments on heavy metal (Pt and W)/AFMs/Py (Ni80Fe20) trilayer structures, to examine the possible spin transfer phenomenon in metallic AFMs, i . e . , FeMn and PdMn. Previous work has studied electronic effects of the spin transport in these materials, yielding short spin diffusion length on the order of 1 nm. However, the work did not examine whether besides diffusive spin transport by the conduction electrons, there are additional spin transport contributions from spin wave excitations. We clearly observe spin transport from the Py spin reservoir to the heavy metal layer through the sandwiched AFMs with thicknesses well above the previously measured spin diffusion lengths, indicating that spin transport by spin waves may lead to non-negligible contributions This work was supported by US DOE, OS, Materials Sciences and Engineering Division. Lithographic patterning was carried out at the CNM, which is supported by DOE, OS under Contract No. DE-AC02-06CH11357.

  12. Generation of poloidal magnetic field in a hot collisional plasma by inverse Faraday effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Srivastava, M.K.; Lawande, S.V.; Dutta, D.; Sarkar, S.; Khan, M.; Chakraborty, B.

    1996-01-01

    Generation of poloidal magnetic field in a hot and collisional plasma by an inverse Faraday effect is discussed. This field can either be induced by a circularly polarized laser beam (CPLB) or a plane-polarized laser beam (PPLB). For the CPLB, an average field left-angle Re x right-angle ∼I 0 λ∼11.6 MG could be produced in a DT plasma for a high intensity (I 0 =10 22 W/m 2 ) and shorter wavelength (λ=0.35 μm) laser. This field is essentially induced by the field inhomogeneity effect and dominates over that induced by the plasma inhomogeneity effect (left-angle Re x right-angle ∼I 2/3 0 λ 7/3 ∼2.42 MG). The collisional and thermal contribution to left-angle Re x right-angle is just negligible for the CPLB. However, in the case of PPLB the poloidal field is generated only for a hot and collisional plasma and can be quite large for a longer wavelength laser (e.g., CO 2 laser, λ=10.6 μm). The collisional effect induces a field left-angle Re x right-angle ∼0.08 kG, which dominates near the turning point and is independent of the laser parameters. However, in the outer cronal region the thermal pressure effect dominates (e.g., left-angle Re x right-angle ∼I 5/3 0 λ 4/3 ∼3.0 MG). Further, left-angle Re x right-angle for the p-polarized beam is, in general, relatively smaller than that for the s-polarized beam. Practical implications of these results and their limitations are discussed. copyright 1996 American Institute of Physics

  13. Point-particle effective field theory I: classical renormalization and the inverse-square potential

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burgess, C.P.; Hayman, Peter [Physics & Astronomy, McMaster University,Hamilton, ON, L8S 4M1 (Canada); Perimeter Institute for Theoretical Physics,Waterloo, Ontario N2L 2Y5 (Canada); Williams, M. [Instituut voor Theoretische Fysica, KU Leuven,Celestijnenlaan 200D, B-3001 Leuven (Belgium); Zalavári, László [Physics & Astronomy, McMaster University,Hamilton, ON, L8S 4M1 (Canada); Perimeter Institute for Theoretical Physics,Waterloo, Ontario N2L 2Y5 (Canada)

    2017-04-19

    Singular potentials (the inverse-square potential, for example) arise in many situations and their quantum treatment leads to well-known ambiguities in choosing boundary conditions for the wave-function at the position of the potential’s singularity. These ambiguities are usually resolved by developing a self-adjoint extension of the original problem; a non-unique procedure that leaves undetermined which extension should apply in specific physical systems. We take the guesswork out of this picture by using techniques of effective field theory to derive the required boundary conditions at the origin in terms of the effective point-particle action describing the physics of the source. In this picture ambiguities in boundary conditions boil down to the allowed choices for the source action, but casting them in terms of an action provides a physical criterion for their determination. The resulting extension is self-adjoint if the source action is real (and involves no new degrees of freedom), and not otherwise (as can also happen for reasonable systems). We show how this effective-field picture provides a simple framework for understanding well-known renormalization effects that arise in these systems, including how renormalization-group techniques can resum non-perturbative interactions that often arise, particularly for non-relativistic applications. In particular we argue why the low-energy effective theory tends to produce a universal RG flow of this type and describe how this can lead to the phenomenon of reaction catalysis, in which physical quantities (like scattering cross sections) can sometimes be surprisingly large compared to the underlying scales of the source in question. We comment in passing on the possible relevance of these observations to the phenomenon of the catalysis of baryon-number violation by scattering from magnetic monopoles.

  14. Inverse analyses of effective diffusion parameters relevant for a two-phase moisture model of cementitious materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Addassi, Mouadh; Johannesson, Björn; Wadsö, Lars

    2018-01-01

    Here we present an inverse analyses approach to determining the two-phase moisture transport properties relevant to concrete durability modeling. The purposed moisture transport model was based on a continuum approach with two truly separate equations for the liquid and gas phase being connected...... test, and, (iv) capillary suction test. Mass change over time, as obtained from the drying test, the two different cup test intervals and the capillary suction test, was used to obtain the effective diffusion parameters using the proposed inverse analyses approach. The moisture properties obtained...

  15. Extraction of Generalized Parton Distributions from combined Deeply Virtual Compton Scattering and Timelike Compton scattering fits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boer, Marie

    2017-09-01

    Generalized Parton Distributions (GPDs) contain the correlation between the parton's longitudinal momentum and their transverse distribution. They are accessed through hard exclusive processes, such as Deeply Virtual Compton Scattering (DVCS). DVCS has already been measured in several experiments and several models allow for extracting GPDs from these measurements. Timelike Compton Scattering (TCS) is, at leading order, the time-reversal equivalent process to DVCS and accesses GPDs at the same kinematics. Comparing GPDs extracted from DVCS and TCS is a unique way for proving GPD universality. Combining fits from the two processes will also allow for better constraining the GPDs. We will present our method for extracting GPDs from DVCS and TCS pseudo-data. We will compare fit results from the two processes in similar conditions and present what can be expected in term of contraints on GPDs from combined fits.

  16. Effects of connection of electrical and mechanical potentials in inverse osmosis processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cortes, Farid; Chejne, Farid; Chejne, David; Velez, Fredy; Londono, Carlos

    2009-01-01

    A theoretical dissertation and experimental assays of the irreversible phenomena applied to electro-kinetics and inverse osmosis is presented. Experimental assays were made on simple equipment to evidence the occurrence of connected irreversible phenomena between electric current flow and global mass flow. The coupling of these two phenomena allowed us to make conclusions about the possibility of reducing operation costs of the inverse osmosis equipment due to increasing the saline solution flow between 12% and 20%.

  17. Effects of connection of electrical and mechanical potentials in inverse osmosis processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cortes, Farid; Chejne, Farid; Chejne, David; Velez, Fredy; Londono, Carlos [Grupo de Termodinamica Aplicada y Energias Alternativas - TAYEA, Instituto de Energia, Facultad de Minas, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Sede Medellin, Antigua (Colombia)

    2009-07-15

    A theoretical dissertation and experimental assays of the irreversible phenomena applied to electro-kinetics and inverse osmosis is presented. Experimental assays were made on simple equipment to evidence the occurrence of connected irreversible phenomena between electric current flow and global mass flow. The coupling of these two phenomena allowed us to make conclusions about the possibility of reducing operation costs of the inverse osmosis equipment due to increasing the saline solution flow between 12% and 20%. (author)

  18. The Effects of Form-Focused Instruction on the Acquisition of Subject-Verb Inversion in German

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindseth, Martina

    2016-01-01

    This study examines the effects of form-focused instruction (FFI) on the acquisition of subject-verb inversion word order in declarative sentences in German. A group of U.S. college students who participated in a semester-long study abroad program in Germany and were comparable in terms of preprogram oral proficiency levels and accuracy scores in…

  19. Direct and inverse Staebler-Wronski effects observed in carbon-doped hydrogenated amorphous silicon photo-detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arce, P.; Barcala, J.M.; Calvo, E.; Ferrando, A.; Josa, M.I.; Molinero, A.; Navarrete, J.; Oller, J.C.; Yuste, C.; Brochero, J.; Calderon, A.; Fernandez, M.G.; Gomez, G.; Gonzalez-Sanchez, F.J.; Martinez-Rivero, C.; Matorras, F.; Rodrigo, T.; Ruiz-Arbol, P.; Scodellaro, L.; Sobron, M.

    2011-01-01

    The photo-response behaviour of Amorphous Silicon Position Detectors (ASPDs) under prolonged illumination with a 681 nm diode-laser and a 633 nm He-Ne laser is presented. Both direct and inverse Staebler-Wronski effects are observed.

  20. Detection and quantification of inverse spin Hall effect from spin pumping in permalloy/normal metal bilayers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mosendz, O.; Vlaminck, V.; Pearson, J.E.; Fradin, F.Y.; Bauer, G.E.W.; Bader, S.D.; Hoffmann, A.

    2010-01-01

    Spin pumping is a mechanism that generates spin currents from ferromagnetic resonance over macroscopic interfacial areas, thereby enabling sensitive detection of the inverse spin Hall effect that transforms spin into charge currents in nonmagnetic conductors. Here we study the spin-pumping-induced

  1. Effect of hydraulic retention time on metal precipitation in sulfate reducing inverse fluidized bed reactors

    KAUST Repository

    Villa-Gómez, Denys Kristalia

    2014-02-13

    BACKGROUND: Metal sulfide recovery in sulfate reducing bioreactors is a challenge due to the formation of small precipitates with poor settling properties. The size of the metal sulfide precipitates with the change in operational parameters such as pH, sulfide concentration and reactor configuration has been previously studied. The effect of the hydraulic retention time (HRT) on the metal precipitate characteristics such as particle size for settling has not yet been addressed. RESULTS: The change in size of the metal (Cu, Zn, Pb and Cd) sulfide precipitates as a function of the HRT was studied in two sulfate reducing inversed fluidized bed (IFB) reactors operating at different chemical oxygen demand concentrations to produce high and low sulfide concentrations. The decrease of the HRT from 24 to 9h in both IFB reactors affected the contact time of the precipitates formed, thus making differences in aggregation and particle growth regardless of the differences in sulfide concentration. Further HRT decrease to 4.5h affected the sulfate reducing activity for sulfide production and hence, the supersaturation level and solid phase speciation. Metal sulfide precipitates affected the sulfate reducing activity and community in the biofilm, probably because of the stronger local supersaturation causing metal sulfides accumulation in the biofilm. CONCLUSIONS: This study shows that the HRT is an important factor determining the size and thus the settling rate of the metal sulfides formed in bioreactors.

  2. Effect of sulfide concentration on the location of the metal precipitates in inversed fluidized bed reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Villa-Gomez, D., E-mail: d.villagomez@unesco-ihe.org [Core Pollution Prevention and Control, UNESCO-IHE, Institute for Water Education, PO Box 3015, 2601 DA Delft (Netherlands); Ababneh, H.; Papirio, S.; Rousseau, D.P.L.; Lens, P.N.L. [Core Pollution Prevention and Control, UNESCO-IHE, Institute for Water Education, PO Box 3015, 2601 DA Delft (Netherlands)

    2011-08-15

    Highlights: {yields} Sulfide concentration governs the location of metal precipitates in sulfate reducing bioreactors. {yields} High dissolved sulfide induces metal precipitation in the bulk liquid as fines. {yields} Low dissolved sulfide concentrations yield local supersaturation and thus metal precipitation in the biofilm. -- Abstract: The effect of the sulfide concentration on the location of the metal precipitates within sulfate-reducing inversed fluidized bed (IFB) reactors was evaluated. Two mesophilic IFB reactors were operated for over 100 days at the same operational conditions, but with different chemical oxygen demand (COD) to SO{sub 4}{sup 2-} ratio (5 and 1, respectively). After a start up phase, 10 mg/L of Cu, Pb, Cd and Zn each were added to the influent. The sulfide concentration in one IFB reactor reached 648 mg/L, while it reached only 59 mg/L in the other one. In the high sulfide IFB reactor, the precipitated metals were mainly located in the bulk liquid (as fines), whereas in the low sulfide IFB reactor the metal preciptiates were mainly present in the biofilm. The latter can be explained by local supersaturation due to sulfide production in the biofilm. This paper demonstrates that the sulfide concentration needs to be controlled in sulfate reducing IFB reactors to steer the location of the metal precipitates for recovery.

  3. Disappearance of the inversion effect during memory-guided tracking of scrambled biological motion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Changhao; Yue, Guang H; Chen, Tingting; Ding, Jinhong

    2016-08-01

    The human visual system is highly sensitive to biological motion. Even when a point-light walker is temporarily occluded from view by other objects, our eyes are still able to maintain tracking continuity. To investigate how the visual system establishes a correspondence between the biological-motion stimuli visible before and after the disruption, we used the occlusion paradigm with biological-motion stimuli that were intact or scrambled. The results showed that during visually guided tracking, both the observers' predicted times and predictive smooth pursuit were more accurate for upright biological motion (intact and scrambled) than for inverted biological motion. During memory-guided tracking, however, the processing advantage for upright as compared with inverted biological motion was not found in the scrambled condition, but in the intact condition only. This suggests that spatial location information alone is not sufficient to build and maintain the representational continuity of the biological motion across the occlusion, and that the object identity may act as an important information source in visual tracking. The inversion effect disappeared when the scrambled biological motion was occluded, which indicates that when biological motion is temporarily occluded and there is a complete absence of visual feedback signals, an oculomotor prediction is executed to maintain the tracking continuity, which is established not only by updating the target's spatial location, but also by the retrieval of identity information stored in long-term memory.

  4. Inverse Limits

    CERN Document Server

    Ingram, WT

    2012-01-01

    Inverse limits provide a powerful tool for constructing complicated spaces from simple ones. They also turn the study of a dynamical system consisting of a space and a self-map into a study of a (likely more complicated) space and a self-homeomorphism. In four chapters along with an appendix containing background material the authors develop the theory of inverse limits. The book begins with an introduction through inverse limits on [0,1] before moving to a general treatment of the subject. Special topics in continuum theory complete the book. Although it is not a book on dynamics, the influen

  5. Deeply virtual compton scattering at 6 GeV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berthot, J.; Chen, J.P.; Chudakov, E.

    2000-01-01

    We propose a measurement of the Deep Virtual Compton Scattering process (DVCS) ep → epγ in Hall A at Jefferson Lab with a 6 GeV beam. We are able to explore the onset of Q 2 scaling, by measuring a beam helicity asymmetry for Q 2 ranging from 1.5 to 2.5 GeV 2 at x B ∼0.35. At this kinematics, the asymmetry is dominated by the DVCS - Bethe-Heitler (BH) interference, which is proportional to the imaginary part of the DVCS amplitude amplified by the full magnitude of the BH amplitude. The imaginary part of the DVCS amplitude is expected to scale early. Indeed, the imaginary part of the forward Compton amplitude measured in deep inelastic scattering (via the optical theorem) scales at Q 2 as low as 1 GeV 2 . If the scaling regime is reached, we will make an 8% measurement of the skewed parton distributions (SPD) contributing to the DVCS amplitude. Also, this experiment allows us to separately estimate the size of the higher-twist effects, since they are only suppressed by an additional factor 1/Q compared to the leading-twist term, and have a different angular dependence. We use a polarized electron beam and detect the scattered electron in the HRSe, the real photon in an electromagnetic calorimeter (under construction) and the recoil proton in a shielded scintillator array (to be constructed). This allows as to determine the difference in cross-sections for electrons of opposite helicities. This observable is directly linked to the SPD's. We estimate that 25 days of beam (600 hours) are needed to achieve this goal. (authors)

  6. Deeply virtual compton scattering at 6 GeV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berthot, J. [Universite Blaise Pascal, Clermont-Ferrand II, Lab. de Physique Corpusculaire (CNRS), 63 - Aubiere (France); Chen, J.P.; Chudakov, E. [National Accelerator Facility, Newport News, Virginia (United States)] [and others

    2000-07-01

    We propose a measurement of the Deep Virtual Compton Scattering process (DVCS) ep {yields} ep{gamma} in Hall A at Jefferson Lab with a 6 GeV beam. We are able to explore the onset of Q{sup 2} scaling, by measuring a beam helicity asymmetry for Q{sup 2} ranging from 1.5 to 2.5 GeV{sup 2} at x{sub B}{approx}0.35. At this kinematics, the asymmetry is dominated by the DVCS - Bethe-Heitler (BH) interference, which is proportional to the imaginary part of the DVCS amplitude amplified by the full magnitude of the BH amplitude. The imaginary part of the DVCS amplitude is expected to scale early. Indeed, the imaginary part of the forward Compton amplitude measured in deep inelastic scattering (via the optical theorem) scales at Q{sup 2} as low as 1 GeV{sup 2}. If the scaling regime is reached, we will make an 8% measurement of the skewed parton distributions (SPD) contributing to the DVCS amplitude. Also, this experiment allows us to separately estimate the size of the higher-twist effects, since they are only suppressed by an additional factor 1/Q compared to the leading-twist term, and have a different angular dependence. We use a polarized electron beam and detect the scattered electron in the HRSe, the real photon in an electromagnetic calorimeter (under construction) and the recoil proton in a shielded scintillator array (to be constructed). This allows as to determine the difference in cross-sections for electrons of opposite helicities. This observable is directly linked to the SPD's. We estimate that 25 days of beam (600 hours) are needed to achieve this goal. (authors)

  7. Light Higgs production at the Compton Collider

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jikia, G.; Soeldner-Rembold, S.

    2000-01-01

    We have studied the production of a light Higgs boson with a mass of 120 GeV in photon-photon collisions at a Compton collider. The event generator for the backgrounds to a Higgs signal due to b-barb and c-barc heavy quark pair production in polarized γγ collisions is based on a complete next-to-leading order (NLO) perturbative QCD calculation. For J z = 0 the large double-logarithmic corrections up to four loops are also included. It is shown that the two-photon width of the Higgs boson can be measured with high statistical accuracy of about 2% for integrated γγ luminosity in the hard part of the spectrum of 40 fb -1 . As a result the total Higgs boson width can be calculated in a model independent way to an accuracy of about 14%

  8. Deuteron Compton scattering below pion photoproduction threshold

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levchuk, M. I.; L'vov, A. I.

    2000-07-01

    Deuteron Compton scattering below pion photoproduction threshold is considered in the framework of the nonrelativistic diagrammatic approach with the Bonn OBE potential. A complete gauge-invariant set of diagrams is taken into account which includes resonance diagrams without and with NN-rescattering and diagrams with one- and two-body seagulls. The seagull operators are analyzed in detail, and their relations with free- and bound-nucleon polarizabilities are discussed. It is found that both dipole and higher-order polarizabilities of the nucleon are required for a quantitative description of recent experimental data. An estimate of the isospin-averaged dipole electromagnetic polarizabilities of the nucleon and the polarizabilities of the neutron is obtained from the data.

  9. Deuteron Compton scattering below pion photoproduction threshold

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levchuk, M.I.; L'vov, A.I.

    2000-01-01

    Deuteron Compton scattering below pion photoproduction threshold is considered in the framework of the nonrelativistic diagrammatic approach with the Bonn OBE potential. A complete gauge-invariant set of diagrams is taken into account which includes resonance diagrams without and with NN-rescattering and diagrams with one- and two-body seagulls. The seagull operators are analyzed in detail, and their relations with free- and bound-nucleon polarizabilities are discussed. It is found that both dipole and higher-order polarizabilities of the nucleon are required for a quantitative description of recent experimental data. An estimate of the isospin-averaged dipole electromagnetic polarizabilities of the nucleon and the polarizabilities of the neutron is obtained from the data

  10. Deuteron Compton scattering below pion photoproduction threshold

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levchuk, M.I. E-mail: levchuk@dragon.bas-net.by; L' vov, A.I. E-mail: lvov@x4u.lebedev.ru

    2000-07-17

    Deuteron Compton scattering below pion photoproduction threshold is considered in the framework of the nonrelativistic diagrammatic approach with the Bonn OBE potential. A complete gauge-invariant set of diagrams is taken into account which includes resonance diagrams without and with NN-rescattering and diagrams with one- and two-body seagulls. The seagull operators are analyzed in detail, and their relations with free- and bound-nucleon polarizabilities are discussed. It is found that both dipole and higher-order polarizabilities of the nucleon are required for a quantitative description of recent experimental data. An estimate of the isospin-averaged dipole electromagnetic polarizabilities of the nucleon and the polarizabilities of the neutron is obtained from the data.

  11. Exclusive compton scattering on the proton

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, J.P.; Chudakov, E.; DeJager, C.; Degtyarenko, P.; Ent, R.; Gomez, J.; Hansen, O.; Keppel, C.; Klein, F.; Kuss, M.

    1999-01-01

    An experiment is proposed to measure the cross sections for Real Compton Scattering from the proton in the energy range 3-6 GeV and over a wide angular range, and to measure the longitudinal and transverse components of the polarization transfer to the recoil proton at a single kinematic point. Together, these measurements will test models of the reaction mechanism and determine new structure functions of the proton that are related to the same non-forward parton densities that determine the elastic electron scattering form factors and the parton densities. The experiment utilizes an untagged Bremsstrahlung photon beam and the standard Hall A cryogenic targets. The scattered photon is detected in a photon spectrometer, currently under construction. The coincident recoil proton is detected in one of the Hall A magnetic spectrometers and its polarization components are measured in the existing Focal Plane Polarimeter. This proposal extends and supersedes E97 - 108 which was approved by PAC13. (author)

  12. Exclusive compton scattering on the proton

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, J.P.; Chudakov, E.; DeJager, C.; Degtyarenko, P.; Ent, R.; Gomez, J.; Hansen, O.; Keppel, C.; Klein, F.; Kuss, M. [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility, Newport News, VA (United States)] [and others

    1999-07-01

    An experiment is proposed to measure the cross sections for Real Compton Scattering from the proton in the energy range 3-6 GeV and over a wide angular range, and to measure the longitudinal and transverse components of the polarization transfer to the recoil proton at a single kinematic point. Together, these measurements will test models of the reaction mechanism and determine new structure functions of the proton that are related to the same non-forward parton densities that determine the elastic electron scattering form factors and the parton densities. The experiment utilizes an untagged Bremsstrahlung photon beam and the standard Hall A cryogenic targets. The scattered photon is detected in a photon spectrometer, currently under construction. The coincident recoil proton is detected in one of the Hall A magnetic spectrometers and its polarization components are measured in the existing Focal Plane Polarimeter. This proposal extends and supersedes E97 - 108 which was approved by PAC13. (author)

  13. Exclusive Compton Scattering on the Proton

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, J. P.; Chudakov, E.; DeJager, C.; Degtyarenko, P.; Ent, R.; Gomez, J.; Hansen, O.; Keppel, C.; Klein, F.; Kuss, M.; LeRose, J.; Liang, M.; Michaels, R.; Mitchell, J.; Liyanage, N.; Rutt, P.; Saha, A.; Wojtsekhowski, B.; Bouwhuis, M.; Chang, T.H.; Holt, R. J.; Nathan, A. M.; Roedelbronn, M.; Wijesooriya, K.; Williamson, S. E.; Dodge, G.; Hyde-Wright, C.; Radyushkin, A.; Sabatie, F.; Weinstein, L. B.; Ulmer, P.; Bosted, P.; Finn, J. M.; Jones, M.; Churchwell, S.; Howell, C.; Gilman, R.; Glashausser, C.; Jiang, X.; Ransome, R.; Strauch, S.; Berthot, J.; Bertin, P.; Fonvielle, H.; Roblin, Y.; Bertozzi, W.; Gilad, S.; Rowntree, D.; Zu, Z.; Brown, D.; Chang, G.; Afanasev, A.; Egiyan, K.; Hoohauneysan, E.; Ketikyan, A.; Mailyan, S.; Petrosyan, A.; Shahinyan, A.; Voskanyan, H.; Boeglin, W.; Markowitz, P.; Hines, J.; Strobel, G.; Templon, J.; Feldman, G.; Morris, C. L.; Gladyshev, V.; Lindgren, R. A.; Calarco, J.; Hersman, W.; Leuschner, M.; Gasparian, A.

    1999-01-01

    An experiment is proposed to measure the cross sections for Real Compton Scattering from the proton in the energy range 3-6 GeV and over a wide angular range; and to measure the longitudinal and transverse components of the polarization transfer to the recoil proton at a single kinematic point. Together; these measurements will test models of the reaction mechanism and determine new structure functions of the proton that are related to the same nonforward parton densities that determine the elastic electron scattering form factors and the parton densities. The experiment utilizes an untagged bremsstrahlung photon beam and the standard Hall A cryogenic targets. The scattered photon is detected in a photon spectrometer; currently under construction. The coincident recoil proton is detected in one of the Hall A magnetic spectrometers and its polarization components are measured in the existing Focal Plane Polarimeter. This proposal extends and supercedes E97-108 which was approved by PAC13

  14. Doppler Broadening Calculations of Compton Scattering for Molecules, Plastics, Tissues, and Few Biological Materials in the X-Ray Region: An Analysis in Terms of Compton Broadening and Geometrical Energy Broadening

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, D. V.; Cesareo, R.; Brunetti, A.; Gigante, G. E.; Akatsuka, T.; Takeda, T.; Itai, Y.

    2004-09-01

    Relativistic and nonrelativistic Compton profile cross sections for H, C, N, O, P, and Ca and for a few important biological materials such as water, polyethylene, lucite, polystyrene, nylon, polycarbonate, bakelite, fat, bone and calcium hydroxyapatite are estimated for a number of Kα x-ray energies and for 59.54 keV (Am-241) γ photons. Energy broadening and geometrical broadening (ΔG) is estimated by assuming θmin and θmax are symmetrically situated around θ=90°. FWHM of J(PZ) and FWHM of Compton energy broadening are evaluated at various incident photon energies. These values are estimated around the centroid of the Compton profile with an energy interval of 0.1 and 1.0 keV for 59.54 keV photons. Total Compton, individual shell, and Compton energy-absorption scattering cross sections are evaluated in the energy region from 0.005 to 0.5 MeV. It is an attempt to know the effect of Doppler broadening for single atoms, many of which constitute the biological materials.

  15. A filtered backprojection reconstruction algorithm for Compton camera

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lojacono, Xavier; Maxim, Voichita; Peyrin, Francoise; Prost, Remy [Lyon Univ., Villeurbanne (France). CNRS, Inserm, INSA-Lyon, CREATIS, UMR5220; Zoglauer, Andreas [California Univ., Berkeley, CA (United States). Space Sciences Lab.

    2011-07-01

    In this paper we present a filtered backprojection reconstruction algorithm for Compton Camera detectors of particles. Compared to iterative methods, widely used for the reconstruction of images from Compton camera data, analytical methods are fast, easy to implement and avoid convergence issues. The method we propose is exact for an idealized Compton camera composed of two parallel plates of infinite dimension. We show that it copes well with low number of detected photons simulated from a realistic device. Images reconstructed from both synthetic data and realistic ones obtained with Monte Carlo simulations demonstrate the efficiency of the algorithm. (orig.)

  16. High-pressure system for Compton scattering experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oomi, G.; Honda, F.; Kagayama, T.; Itoh, F.; Sakurai, H.; Kawata, H.; Shimomura, O.

    1998-01-01

    High-pressure apparatus for Compton scattering experiments has been developed to study the momentum distribution of conduction electrons in metals and alloys at high pressure. This apparatus was applied to observe the Compton profile of metallic Li under pressure. It was found that the Compton profile at high pressure could be obtained within several hours by using this apparatus and synchrotron radiation. The result on the pressure dependence of the Fermi momentum of Li obtained here is in good agreement with that predicted from the free-electron model

  17. Compton scatter imaging: A tool for historical exploration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harding, G.; Harding, E.

    2010-01-01

    This review discusses the principles and technological realisation of a technique, termed Compton scatter imaging (CSI), which is based on spatially resolved detection of Compton scattered X-rays. The applicational focus of this review is to objects of historical interest. Following a historical survey of CSI, a description is given of the major characteristics of Compton X-ray scatter. In particular back-scattered X-rays allow massive objects to be imaged, which would otherwise be too absorbing for the conventional transmission X-ray technique. The ComScan (an acronym for Compton scatter scanner) is a commercially available backscatter imaging system, which is discussed here in some detail. ComScan images from some artefacts of historical interest, namely a fresco, an Egyptian mummy and a mediaeval clasp are presented and their use in historical analysis is indicated. The utility of scientific and technical advance for not only exploring history, but also restoring it, is briefly discussed.

  18. Applicability of compton imaging in nuclear decommissioning activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ljubenov, V.Lj.; Marinkovic, P.M.

    2002-01-01

    During the decommissioning of nuclear facilities significant part of the activities is related to the radiological characterization, waste classification and management. For these purposes a relatively new imaging technique, based on information from the gamma radiation that undergoes Compton scattering, is applicable. Compton imaging systems have a number of advantages for nuclear waste characterization, such as identifying hot spots in mixed waste in order to reduce the volume of high-level waste requiring extensive treatment or long-term storage, imaging large contaminated areas and objects etc. Compton imaging also has potential applications for monitoring of production, transport and storage of nuclear materials and components. This paper discusses some system design requirements and performance specifications for these applications. The advantages of Compton imaging are compared to competing imaging techniques. (author)

  19. Virtual compton scattering off protons at moderately large momentum transfer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kroll, P; Schuermann, M [Wuppertal Univ. (Gesamthochschule) (Germany); Guichon, P A.M. [CEA Centre d` Etudes de Saclay, 91 - Gif-sur-Yvette (France). Dept. d` Astrophysique, de la Physique des Particules, de la Physique Nucleaire et de l` Instrumentation Associee

    1995-06-28

    The amplitudes for virtual Compton scattering off protons are calculated within the framework of the diquark model in which protons are viewed as being built up by quarks and diquarks. The latter objects are treated as quasi-elementary constituents of the proton. Virtual Compton scattering, electroproduction of photons and the Bethe-Heitler contamination are discussed for various kinematical situations. We particularly emphasize the role of the electron asymmetry for measuring the relative phases between the virtual Compton and the Bethe-Heitler amplitudes. It is also shown that the model is able to describe very well the experimental data for real Compton scattering off protons. (authors). 35 refs., 8 figs., 1 tab.

  20. Electronic structure of hafnium: A Compton profile study

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    To extract the true Compton profile from the raw data, the raw data were cor- rected for ... For the present sample and experimental conditions, the contribution of .... are in better agreement with the simple renormalized free atom calculations for.

  1. Virtual compton scattering off protons at moderately large momentum transfer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kroll, P.; Schuermann, M.; Guichon, P.A.M.

    1995-01-01

    The amplitudes for virtual Compton scattering off protons are calculated within the framework of the diquark model in which protons are viewed as being built up by quarks and diquarks. The latter objects are treated as quasi-elementary constituents of the proton. Virtual Compton scattering, electroproduction of photons and the Bethe-Heitler contamination are discussed for various kinematical situations. We particularly emphasize the role of the electron asymmetry for measuring the relative phases between the virtual Compton and the Bethe-Heitler amplitudes. It is also shown that the model is able to describe very well the experimental data for real Compton scattering off protons. (authors). 35 refs., 8 figs., 1 tab

  2. Deconvolution of shift-variant broadening for Compton scatter imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evans, Brian L.; Martin, Jeffrey B.; Roggemann, Michael C.

    1999-01-01

    A technique is presented for deconvolving shift-variant Doppler broadening of singly Compton scattered gamma rays from their recorded energy distribution. Doppler broadening is important in Compton scatter imaging techniques employing gamma rays with energies below roughly 100 keV. The deconvolution unfolds an approximation to the angular distribution of scattered photons from their recorded energy distribution in the presence of statistical noise and background counts. Two unfolding methods are presented, one based on a least-squares algorithm and one based on a maximum likelihood algorithm. Angular distributions unfolded from measurements made on small scattering targets show less evidence of Compton broadening. This deconvolution is shown to improve the quality of filtered backprojection images in multiplexed Compton scatter tomography. Improved sharpness and contrast are evident in the images constructed from unfolded signals

  3. Compton suppression naa in the analysis of food and beverages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmed, Y.A.; Ewa, I.O.B.; Umar, I.M.; Funtua, I.I.; Lanberger, S.; O'kelly, D.J.; Braisted, J.D.

    2009-01-01

    Applicability and performance of Compton suppression method in the analysis of food and beverages was re-established in this study. Using ''1''3''7Cs and ''6''0Co point sources Compton Suppression Factors (SF), Compton Reduction Factors (RF), Peak-to-Compton ratio (P/C), Compton Plateau (C p l), and Compton Edge (C e ) were determined for each of the two sources. The natural background reduction factors in the anticoincidence mode compared to the normal mode were evaluated. The reported R.F. values of the various Compton spectrometers for ''6''0Co source at energy 50-210 keV (backscattering region), 600 keV (Compton edge corresponding to 1173.2 keV gamma-ray) and 1110 keV (Compton edge corresponding to 1332.5 keV gamma-ray) were compared with that of the present work. Similarly the S.F. values of the spectrometers for ''1''3''7Cs source were compared at the backscattered energy region (S.F. b = 191-210 keV), Compton Plateau (S.F. p l = 350-370 keV), and Compton Edge (S.F. e = 471-470 keV) and all were found to follow a similar trend. We also compared peak reduction ratios for the two cobalt energies (1173.2 and 1332.5) with the ones reported in literature and two results agree well. Applicability of the method to food and beverages was put to test for twenty one major, minor, and trace elements (Ba, Sr, I, Br, Cu, V, Mg, Na, Cl, Mn, Ca, Sn,K, Cd, Zn, As, Sb, Ni, Cs, Fe, and Co) commonly found in food, milk, tea and tobacco. The elements were assayed using five National Institute for Standards and Technology (NIST) certified reference materials (Non-fat powdered milk, Apple leaves, Tomato leaves, and Citrus leaves). The results obtained shows good agreement with NIST certified values, indicating that the method is suitable for simultaneous determination of micro-nutrients, macro-nutrients and heavy elements in food and beverages without undue interference problems

  4. Gamma-gamma density and lithology tools simulation based on GEANT4 advanced low energy Compton scattering (GALECS) package

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Esmaeili-sani, Vahid; Moussavi-zarandi, Ali; Boghrati, Behzad; Afarideh, Hossein

    2012-01-01

    Geophysical bore-hole data represent the physical properties of rocks, such as density and formation lithology, as a function of depth in a well. Properties of rocks are obtained from gamma ray transport logs. Transport of gamma rays, from a 137 Cs point gamma source situated in a bore-hole tool, through rock media to detectors, has been simulated using a GEANT4 radiation transport code. The advanced Compton scattering concepts were used to gain better analyses about well formation. The simulation and understanding of advanced Compton scattering highly depends on how accurately the effects of Doppler broadening and Rayleigh scattering are taken into account. A Monte Carlo package that simulates the gamma-gamma well logging tools based on GEANT4 advanced low energy Compton scattering (GALECS).

  5. X-ray dosimetry in mammography for W/Mo and Mo/Mo combinations utilizing Compton spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Almeida Junior, Jose N.; Terini, Ricardo A.; Herdade, Silvio B.; Furquim, Tania A.C.

    2009-01-01

    Mean Glandular Dose (MGD) cannot be measured directly in mammography equipment. Therefore, methods based on Compton spectrometry are alternatives to evaluate dose distributions in a standard breast phantom, as well as mean glandular dose. In this work, a CdTe detector was used for the spectrometry measurements of radiation scattered by compton effect, at nearly 90, by a PMMA cylinder. For this, the reconstruction of primary beam spectra from the scattered ones has been made using Klein-Nishina theory and Compton formalism, followed by a determination of incident air kerma, absorbed dose values in the breast phantom and, finally, MGD. Incident and attenuated X-ray spectra and depth-dose distributions in a BR-12 phantom have been determined and are presented for the mammography range (28 to 35kV), showing good agreement with previous literature data, obtained with TLD. (author)

  6. Gamma-gamma density and lithology tools simulation based on GEANT4 advanced low energy Compton scattering (GALECS) package

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Esmaeili-sani, Vahid, E-mail: vaheed_esmaeely80@yahoo.com [Department of Nuclear Engineering and Physics, Amirkabir University of Technology, P.O. Box 4155-4494, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Moussavi-zarandi, Ali; Boghrati, Behzad; Afarideh, Hossein [Department of Nuclear Engineering and Physics, Amirkabir University of Technology, P.O. Box 4155-4494, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2012-02-01

    Geophysical bore-hole data represent the physical properties of rocks, such as density and formation lithology, as a function of depth in a well. Properties of rocks are obtained from gamma ray transport logs. Transport of gamma rays, from a {sup 137}Cs point gamma source situated in a bore-hole tool, through rock media to detectors, has been simulated using a GEANT4 radiation transport code. The advanced Compton scattering concepts were used to gain better analyses about well formation. The simulation and understanding of advanced Compton scattering highly depends on how accurately the effects of Doppler broadening and Rayleigh scattering are taken into account. A Monte Carlo package that simulates the gamma-gamma well logging tools based on GEANT4 advanced low energy Compton scattering (GALECS).

  7. Bin mode estimation methods for Compton camera imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ikeda, S.; Odaka, H.; Uemura, M.; Takahashi, T.; Watanabe, S.; Takeda, S.

    2014-01-01

    We study the image reconstruction problem of a Compton camera which consists of semiconductor detectors. The image reconstruction is formulated as a statistical estimation problem. We employ a bin-mode estimation (BME) and extend an existing framework to a Compton camera with multiple scatterers and absorbers. Two estimation algorithms are proposed: an accelerated EM algorithm for the maximum likelihood estimation (MLE) and a modified EM algorithm for the maximum a posteriori (MAP) estimation. Numerical simulations demonstrate the potential of the proposed methods

  8. Use of primary beam filtration in estimating mass attenuation coefficients by Compton scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Connor, B.H.; Chang, W.J.

    1985-01-01

    Mass attenuation coefficients (MACs) are frequently estimated over a range of wavelengths in x-ray spectrometry from the intensity of the Compton peak I /SUB C/ associated with a prominent tube line. The MAC μ /SUB ll/ at wavelength lambda is estimated from the MAC at the Compton wavelength lambda /SUB C/ with the approximations μ /SUB ll/ α μ /SUB C/ and μ /SUB C/ α l/I /SUB C/ , Systematic errors may introduce absorption edge bias (AEB) effects into the results, caused by sample components with absorption edges between lambda /SUB C/ and lambda. A procedure is described which eliminates AEB effects by measuring I /SUB C/ using emission radiation from a primary beam filter

  9. The Effect of Inversion on Face Recognition in Adults with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hedley, Darren; Brewer, Neil; Young, Robyn

    2015-01-01

    Face identity recognition has widely been shown to be impaired in individuals with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). In this study we examined the influence of inversion on face recognition in 26 adults with ASD and 33 age and IQ matched controls. Participants completed a recognition test comprising upright and inverted faces. Participants with ASD…

  10. Unambiguous separation of the inverse spin Hall and anomalous Nernst effects within a ferromagnetic metal using the spin Seebeck effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Stephen M.; Hoffman, Jason; Pearson, John E.; Bhattacharya, Anand

    2014-01-01

    The longitudinal spin Seebeck effect is measured on the ferromagnetic insulator Fe 3 O 4 with the ferromagnetic metal Co 0.2 Fe 0.6 B 0.2 (CoFeB) as the spin detector. By using a non-magnetic spacer material between the two materials (Ti), it is possible to decouple the two ferromagnetic materials and directly observe pure spin flow from Fe 3 O 4 into CoFeB. It is shown that in a single ferromagnetic metal, the inverse spin Hall effect (ISHE) and anomalous Nernst effect (ANE) can occur simultaneously with opposite polarity. Using this and the large difference in the coercive fields between the two magnets, it is possible to unambiguously separate the contributions of the spin Seebeck effect from the ANE and observe the degree to which each effect contributes to the total response. These experiments show conclusively that the ISHE and ANE in CoFeB are separate phenomena with different origins and can coexist in the same material with opposite response to a thermal gradient.

  11. Observation of feature ripening inversion effect at the percolation threshold for the growth of thin silver films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nehm, Frederik, E-mail: frederik.nehm@iapp.de; Schubert, Sylvio; Müller-Meskamp, Lars; Leo, Karl

    2014-04-01

    The growth behavior of thin silver films on organic layers is investigated during deposition by means of simultaneous in-situ monitoring of sheet resistance and transmittance. Thermally evaporated films up to 11 nm show a distinct percolation behavior with strong resistance drop at the percolation thickness. Additionally, evaporations are divided into a sequence of one nanometer steps. In the deposition breaks, the films exhibit a ripening effect with an inversion at the percolation thickness, by changing from an increasing to decreasing sheet resistance over time. Scanning electron micrographs suggest same ripening mechanisms for islands below the percolation thickness as for holes above. - Highlights: • Fundamental understanding of metal thin film growth is presented. • Optical and electrical in-situ measurements used for optimizing transparent electrodes • Stepwise Ag deposition reveals extraordinary ripening effects. • Feature ripening inversion is discovered at the percolation threshold.

  12. Observation of feature ripening inversion effect at the percolation threshold for the growth of thin silver films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nehm, Frederik; Schubert, Sylvio; Müller-Meskamp, Lars; Leo, Karl

    2014-01-01

    The growth behavior of thin silver films on organic layers is investigated during deposition by means of simultaneous in-situ monitoring of sheet resistance and transmittance. Thermally evaporated films up to 11 nm show a distinct percolation behavior with strong resistance drop at the percolation thickness. Additionally, evaporations are divided into a sequence of one nanometer steps. In the deposition breaks, the films exhibit a ripening effect with an inversion at the percolation thickness, by changing from an increasing to decreasing sheet resistance over time. Scanning electron micrographs suggest same ripening mechanisms for islands below the percolation thickness as for holes above. - Highlights: • Fundamental understanding of metal thin film growth is presented. • Optical and electrical in-situ measurements used for optimizing transparent electrodes • Stepwise Ag deposition reveals extraordinary ripening effects. • Feature ripening inversion is discovered at the percolation threshold

  13. Compton Composites Late in the Early Universe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frederick Mayer

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Beginning roughly two hundred years after the big-bang, a tresino phase transition generated Compton-scale composite particles and converted most of the ordinary plasma baryons into new forms of dark matter. Our model consists of ordinary electrons and protons that have been bound into mostly undetectable forms. This picture provides an explanation of the composition and history of ordinary to dark matter conversion starting with, and maintaining, a critical density Universe. The tresino phase transition started the conversion of ordinary matter plasma into tresino-proton pairs prior to the the recombination era. We derive the appropriate Saha–Boltzmann equilibrium to determine the plasma composition throughout the phase transition and later. The baryon population is shown to be quickly modified from ordinary matter plasma prior to the transition to a small amount of ordinary matter and a much larger amount of dark matter after the transition. We describe the tresino phase transition and the origin, quantity and evolution of the dark matter as it takes place from late in the early Universe until the present.

  14. Scaling limit of deeply virtual Compton scattering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    A. Radyushkin

    2000-07-01

    The author outlines a perturbative QCD approach to the analysis of the deeply virtual Compton scattering process {gamma}{sup *}p {r_arrow} {gamma}p{prime} in the limit of vanishing momentum transfer t=(p{prime}{minus}p){sup 2}. The DVCS amplitude in this limit exhibits a scaling behavior described by a two-argument distributions F(x,y) which specify the fractions of the initial momentum p and the momentum transfer r {equivalent_to} p{prime}{minus}p carried by the constituents of the nucleon. The kernel R(x,y;{xi},{eta}) governing the evolution of the non-forward distributions F(x,y) has a remarkable property: it produces the GLAPD evolution kernel P(x/{xi}) when integrated over y and reduces to the Brodsky-Lepage evolution kernel V(y,{eta}) after the x-integration. This property is used to construct the solution of the one-loop evolution equation for the flavor non-singlet part of the non-forward quark distribution.

  15. Electron momentum density and Compton profile by a semi-empirical approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguiar, Julio C.; Mitnik, Darío; Di Rocco, Héctor O.

    2015-08-01

    Here we propose a semi-empirical approach to describe with good accuracy the electron momentum densities and Compton profiles for a wide range of pure crystalline metals. In the present approach, we use an experimental Compton profile to fit an analytical expression for the momentum densities of the valence electrons. This expression is similar to a Fermi-Dirac distribution function with two parameters, one of which coincides with the ground state kinetic energy of the free-electron gas and the other resembles the electron-electron interaction energy. In the proposed scheme conduction electrons are neither completely free nor completely bound to the atomic nucleus. This procedure allows us to include correlation effects. We tested the approach for all metals with Z=3-50 and showed the results for three representative elements: Li, Be and Al from high-resolution experiments.

  16. Precise tests of x-ray scattering theories in the Compton regime

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dunford, R. W.; Gemmell, D. S.; Kanter, E. P.; Kraessig, B.; Southworth, S. H.; Young, L.

    1999-01-01

    The authors report two experiments intended to test the accuracy of state-of-the-art theoretical predictions for x-ray scattering from low-Z atoms. The first one deals with the differential x-ray scattering cross sections in Ne and He from 11-22 keV and the Ne Compton-to-Rayleigh scattering ratio in this energy range. It was found that, in order to be consistent with the experimental results, an accurate description at low Z must include nonlocal exchange, electron correlation, and dynamic effects. The second experiment concerns the ratio of helium double-to-single ionization for Compton scattering in the 8-28 keV energy range where published experimental and theoretical results so far fail to give a consistent picture. The progress of the experiment and the data analysis is reported

  17. X-ray Compton scattering experiments for fluid alkali metals at high temperatures and pressures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsuda, K., E-mail: kazuhiro-matsuda@scphys.kyoto-u.ac.jp; Fukumaru, T.; Kimura, K.; Yao, M. [Graduate School of Science, Kyoto University, Kyoto 606-8502 (Japan); Tamura, K. [Graduate School of Engineering, Kyoto University, Kyoto 606-8502 (Japan); Katoh, M. [A.L.M.T. Corp., Iwasekoshi-Machi 2, Toyama 931-8543 (Japan); Kajihara, Y.; Inui, M. [Graduate School of Integrated Arts and Sciences, Hiroshima University, Higashi-Hiroshima 739-8521 (Japan); Itou, M.; Sakurai, Y. [Japan Synchrotron Radiation Research Institute, SPring-8, 1-1-1 Kouto, Sayo, Hyogo 679-5198 (Japan)

    2015-08-17

    We have developed a high-pressure vessel and a cell for x-ray Compton scattering measurements of fluid alkali metals. Measurements have been successfully carried out for alkali metal rubidium at elevated temperatures and pressures using synchrotron radiation at SPring-8. The width of Compton profiles (CPs) of fluid rubidium becomes narrow with decreasing fluid density, which indicates that the CPs sensitively detect the effect of reduction in the valence electron density. At the request of all authors of the paper, and with the agreement of the Proceedings Editor, an updated version of this article was published on 10 September 2015. The original article supplied to AIP Publishing was not the final version and contained PDF conversion errors in Formulas (1) and (2). The errors have been corrected in the updated and re-published article.

  18. Evaluation of geometrical contributions to the spread of the Compton-scatter energy distribution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanson, A.L.; Gigante, G.E.; Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita degli Studi di Roma I, ''La Sapienza,'' Corso Vittorio Emanuele II, 244, 00186 Roma, Italy)

    1989-01-01

    The spectrum from Compton-scattered x rays is an inherently broad distribution. This distribution is the sum of several Gaussian-like distributions, which gives the sum its unique shape. The Gaussian-like distributions are the result of convoluting the so-called Compton profile, the spread in the scattered-x-ray energies due to the momentum distributions of the target electrons, with the detector response and the geometrical effects. The distribution is then further modified by the absorption within the sample. A formulation for both qualitatively and quantitatively determining the magnitude of the geometrical contributions is presented. This formulation is based on a recently devised approach to the scattering geometry [Hanson, Gigante, Meron, Phys. Rev. Lett. 61, 135 (1988)]. A methodology for determining the geometrical spread in the energy of the scattered x rays is presented. The results can be conveniently used to optimize scattering geometries for the reduction of the geometry-caused spread

  19. Effect of silhouetting and inversion on view invariance in the monkey inferotemporal cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratan Murty, N Apurva; Arun, S P

    2017-07-01

    We effortlessly recognize objects across changes in viewpoint, but we know relatively little about the features that underlie viewpoint invariance in the brain. Here, we set out to characterize how viewpoint invariance in monkey inferior temporal (IT) neurons is influenced by two image manipulations-silhouetting and inversion. Reducing an object into its silhouette removes internal detail, so this would reveal how much viewpoint invariance depends on the external contours. Inverting an object retains but rearranges features, so this would reveal how much viewpoint invariance depends on the arrangement and orientation of features. Our main findings are 1 ) view invariance is weakened by silhouetting but not by inversion; 2 ) view invariance was stronger in neurons that generalized across silhouetting and inversion; 3 ) neuronal responses to natural objects matched early with that of silhouettes and only later to that of inverted objects, indicative of coarse-to-fine processing; and 4 ) the impact of silhouetting and inversion depended on object structure. Taken together, our results elucidate the underlying features and dynamics of view-invariant object representations in the brain. NEW & NOTEWORTHY We easily recognize objects across changes in viewpoint, but the underlying features are unknown. Here, we show that view invariance in the monkey inferotemporal cortex is driven mainly by external object contours and is not specialized for object orientation. We also find that the responses to natural objects match with that of their silhouettes early in the response, and with inverted versions later in the response-indicative of a coarse-to-fine processing sequence in the brain. Copyright © 2017 the American Physiological Society.

  20. An experimental method for the optimization of anti-Compton spectrometer

    CERN Document Server

    Badran, H M

    1999-01-01

    The reduction of the Compton continuum can be achieved using a Compton suppression shield. For the first time, an experimental method is purposed for estimating the optimum dimensions of such a shield. The method can also provide information on the effect of the air gap, source geometry, gamma-ray energy, etc., on the optimum dimension of the active shield. The method employs the measurements of the Compton suppression efficiency in two dimensions using small size scintillation detectors. Two types of scintillation materials; NaI(Tl) and NE-102A plastic scintillators, were examined. The effect of gamma-ray energy and source geometry were also investigated using sup 1 sup 3 sup 7 Cs and sup 6 sup 0 Co sources with three geometries; point, cylindrical, and Marinelli shapes. The results indicate the importance of both NaI(Tl) and NE-102A guard detectors in surrounding the main detector rather than the distance above it. The ratio between the part of the guard detector above the surface of the main detector to th...

  1. Effective theories of scattering with an attractive inverse-square potential and the three-body problem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barford, Thomas; Birse, Michael C

    2005-01-01

    A distorted-wave version of the renormalization group is applied to scattering by an inverse-square potential and to three-body systems. In attractive three-body systems, the short-distance wavefunction satisfies a Schroedinger equation with an attractive inverse-square potential, as shown by Efimov. The resulting oscillatory behaviour controls the renormalization of the three-body interactions, with the renormalization-group flow tending to a limit cycle as the cut-off is lowered. The approach used here leads to single-valued potentials with discontinuities as the bound states are cut off. The perturbations around the cycle start with a marginal term whose effect is simply to change the phase of the short-distance oscillations, or the self-adjoint extension of the singular Hamiltonian. The full power counting in terms of the energy and two-body scattering length is constructed for short-range three-body forces

  2. Virtual compton scattering at low energy; Diffusion compton virtuelle a basse energie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lhuillier, D

    1997-09-01

    The work described in this PhD is a study of the Virtual Compton scattering (VCS) off the proton at low energy, below pion production threshold. Our experiment has been carried out at MAMI in the collaboration with the help of two high resolution spectrometers. Experimentally, the VCS process is the electroproduction of photons off a liquid hydrogen target. First results of data analysis including radiative corrections are presented and compared with low energy theorem prediction. VCS is an extension of the Real Compton Scattering. The virtuality of the incoming photon allows us to access new observables of the nucleon internal structure which are complementarity to the elastic form factors: the generalized polarizabilities (GP). They are function of the squared invariant mass of the virtual photo. The mass limit of these observables restore the usual electric and magnetic polarizabilities. Our experiment is the first measurement of the VCS process at a virtual photon mass equals 0.33 Ge V square. The experimental development presents the analysis method. The high precision needed in the absolute cross-section measurement required an accurate estimate of radiative corrections to the VCS. This new calculation, which has been performed in the dimensional regulation scheme, composes the theoretical part of this thesis. At low q', preliminary results agree with low energy theorem prediction. At higher q', substraction of low energy theorem contribution to extract GP is discussed. (author)

  3. Virtual compton scattering at low energy; Diffusion compton virtuelle a basse energie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lhuillier, D

    1997-09-01

    The work described in this PhD is a study of the Virtual Compton scattering (VCS) off the proton at low energy, below pion production threshold. Our experiment has been carried out at MAMI in the collaboration with the help of two high resolution spectrometers. Experimentally, the VCS process is the electroproduction of photons off a liquid hydrogen target. First results of data analysis including radiative corrections are presented and compared with low energy theorem prediction. VCS is an extension of the Real Compton Scattering. The virtuality of the incoming photon allows us to access new observables of the nucleon internal structure which are complementarity to the elastic form factors: the generalized polarizabilities (GP). They are function of the squared invariant mass of the virtual photo. The mass limit of these observables restore the usual electric and magnetic polarizabilities. Our experiment is the first measurement of the VCS process at a virtual photon mass equals 0.33 Ge V square. The experimental development presents the analysis method. The high precision needed in the absolute cross-section measurement required an accurate estimate of radiative corrections to the VCS. This new calculation, which has been performed in the dimensional regulation scheme, composes the theoretical part of this thesis. At low q', preliminary results agree with low energy theorem prediction. At higher q', substraction of low energy theorem contribution to extract GP is discussed. (author)

  4. Compton spectra of atoms at high x-ray intensity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Son, Sang-Kil; Geffert, Otfried; Santra, Robin

    2017-03-01

    Compton scattering is the nonresonant inelastic scattering of an x-ray photon by an electron and has been used to probe the electron momentum distribution in gas-phase and condensed-matter samples. In the low x-ray intensity regime, Compton scattering from atoms dominantly comes from bound electrons in neutral atoms, neglecting contributions from bound electrons in ions and free (ionized) electrons. In contrast, in the high x-ray intensity regime, the sample experiences severe ionization via x-ray multiphoton multiple ionization dynamics. Thus, it becomes necessary to take into account all the contributions to the Compton scattering signal when atoms are exposed to high-intensity x-ray pulses provided by x-ray free-electron lasers (XFELs). In this paper, we investigate the Compton spectra of atoms at high x-ray intensity, using an extension of the integrated x-ray atomic physics toolkit, xatom. As the x-ray fluence increases, there is a significant contribution from ionized electrons to the Compton spectra, which gives rise to strong deviations from the Compton spectra of neutral atoms. The present study provides not only understanding of the fundamental XFEL-matter interaction but also crucial information for single-particle imaging experiments, where Compton scattering is no longer negligible. , which features invited work from the best early-career researchers working within the scope of J. Phys. B. This project is part of the Journal of Physics series’ 50th anniversary celebrations in 2017. Sang-Kil Son was selected by the Editorial Board of J. Phys. B as an Emerging Leader.

  5. Subband Structure and Effective Mass in the Inversion Layer of a Strain Si-Based Alloy P-Type MOSFET.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Kuan-Ting; Fan, Jun Wei; Chang, Shu-Tong; Lin, Chung-Yi

    2015-03-01

    In this paper, the subband structure and effective mass of an Si-based alloy inversion layer in a PMOSFET are studied theoretically. The strain condition considered in our calculations is the intrinsic strain resulting from growth of the silicon-carbon alloy on a (001) Si substrate and mechanical uniaxial stress. The quantum confinement effect resulting from the vertically effective electric field was incorporated into the k · p calculation. The distinct effective mass, such as the quantization effective mass and the density-of-states (DOS) effective mass, as well as the subband structure of the silicon-carbon alloy inversion layer for a PMOSFET under substrate strain and various effective electric field strengths, were all investigated. Ore results show that subband structure of relaxed silicon-carbon alloys with low carbon content are almost the same as silicon. We find that an external stress applied parallel to the channel direction can efficiently reduce the effective mass along the channel direction, thus producing hole mobility enhancement.

  6. HEROIC: 3D general relativistic radiative post-processor with comptonization for black hole accretion discs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narayan, Ramesh; Zhu, Yucong; Psaltis, Dimitrios; Saḑowski, Aleksander

    2016-03-01

    We describe Hybrid Evaluator for Radiative Objects Including Comptonization (HEROIC), an upgraded version of the relativistic radiative post-processor code HERO described in a previous paper, but which now Includes Comptonization. HEROIC models Comptonization via the Kompaneets equation, using a quadratic approximation for the source function in a short characteristics radiation solver. It employs a simple form of accelerated lambda iteration to handle regions of high scattering opacity. In addition to solving for the radiation field, HEROIC also solves for the gas temperature by applying the condition of radiative equilibrium. We present benchmarks and tests of the Comptonization module in HEROIC with simple 1D and 3D scattering problems. We also test the ability of the code to handle various relativistic effects using model atmospheres and accretion flows in a black hole space-time. We present two applications of HEROIC to general relativistic magnetohydrodynamics simulations of accretion discs. One application is to a thin accretion disc around a black hole. We find that the gas below the photosphere in the multidimensional HEROIC solution is nearly isothermal, quite different from previous solutions based on 1D plane parallel atmospheres. The second application is to a geometrically thick radiation-dominated accretion disc accreting at 11 times the Eddington rate. Here, the multidimensional HEROIC solution shows that, for observers who are on axis and look down the polar funnel, the isotropic equivalent luminosity could be more than 10 times the Eddington limit, even though the spectrum might still look thermal and show no signs of relativistic beaming.

  7. Application of Compton suppression spectrometry in the improvement of nuclear analytical techniques for biological samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmed, Y. A.; Ewa, I.O.B.; Funtua, I.I.; Jonah, S.A.; Landsberger, S.

    2007-01-01

    Compton Suppression Factors (SF) and Compton Reduction Factors (RF) of the UT Austin's Compton suppression spectrometer being parameters characterizing the system performance were measured using ''1''3''7Cs and ''6''0Co point sources. The system performance was evaluated as a function of energy and geometry. The (P/C), A(P/C), (P/T), Cp, and Ce were obtained for each of the parameters. The natural background reduction factor in the anticoincidence mode and that of normal mode was calculated and its effect on the detection limit of biological samples evaluated. Applicability of the spectrometer and the method for biological samples was tested in the measurement of twenty-four elements (Ba, Sr, I, Br, Cu, V, Mg, Na, Cl, Mn, Ca, Sn, In, K, Mo, Cd, Zn, As, Sb, Ni, Rb, Cs, Fe, and Co) commonly found in food, milk, tea and tobacco items. They were determined from seven National Institute for Standard and Technology (NIST) certified reference materials (rice flour, oyster tissue, non-fat powdered milk, peach leaves, tomato leaves, apple leaves, and citrus leaves). Our results shows good agreement with the NIST certified values, indicating that the method developed in the present study is suitable for the determination of aforementioned elements in biological samples without undue interference problems

  8. Sum rules across the unpolarized Compton processes involving generalized polarizabilities and moments of nucleon structure functions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lensky, Vadim; Hagelstein, Franziska; Pascalutsa, Vladimir; Vanderhaeghen, Marc

    2018-04-01

    We derive two new sum rules for the unpolarized doubly virtual Compton scattering process on a nucleon, which establish novel low-Q2 relations involving the nucleon's generalized polarizabilities and moments of the nucleon's unpolarized structure functions F1(x ,Q2) and F2(x ,Q2). These relations facilitate the determination of some structure constants which can only be accessed in off-forward doubly virtual Compton scattering, not experimentally accessible at present. We perform an empirical determination for the proton and compare our results with a next-to-leading-order chiral perturbation theory prediction. We also show how these relations may be useful for a model-independent determination of the low-Q2 subtraction function in the Compton amplitude, which enters the two-photon-exchange contribution to the Lamb shift of (muonic) hydrogen. An explicit calculation of the Δ (1232 )-resonance contribution to the muonic-hydrogen 2 P -2 S Lamb shift yields -1 ±1 μ eV , confirming the previously conjectured smallness of this effect.

  9. A didactic experiment showing the Compton scattering by means of a clinical gamma camera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amato, Ernesto; Auditore, Lucrezia; Campennì, Alfredo; Minutoli, Fabio; Cucinotta, Mariapaola; Sindoni, Alessandro; Baldari, Sergio

    2017-06-01

    We describe a didactic approach aimed to explain the effect of Compton scattering in nuclear medicine imaging, exploiting the comparison of a didactic experiment with a gamma camera with the outcomes from a Monte Carlo simulation of the same experimental apparatus. We employed a 99m Tc source emitting 140.5keV photons, collimated in the upper direction through two pinholes, shielded by 6mm of lead. An aluminium cylinder was placed on the source at 50mm of distance. The energy of the scattered photons was measured on the spectra acquired by the gamma camera. We observed that the gamma ray energy measured at each step of rotation gradually decreased from the characteristic energy of 140.5keV at 0° to 102.5keV at 120°. A comparison between the obtained data and the expected results from the Compton formula and from the Monte Carlo simulation revealed a full agreement within the experimental error (relative errors between -0.56% and 1.19%), given by the energy resolution of the gamma camera. Also the electron rest mass has been evaluated satisfactorily. The experiment was found useful in explaining nuclear medicine residents the phenomenology of the Compton scattering and its importance in the nuclear medicine imaging, and it can be profitably proposed during the training of medical physics residents as well. Copyright © 2017 Associazione Italiana di Fisica Medica. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Compton scatter correction for planner scintigraphic imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vaan Steelandt, E; Dobbeleir, A; Vanregemorter, J [Algemeen Ziekenhuis Middelheim, Antwerp (Belgium). Dept. of Nuclear Medicine and Radiotherapy

    1995-12-01

    A major problem in nuclear medicine is the image degradation due to Compton scatter in the patient. Photons emitted by the radioactive tracer scatter in collision with electrons of the surrounding tissue. Due to the resulting loss of energy and change in direction, the scattered photons induce an object dependant background on the images. This results in a degradation of the contrast of warm and cold lesions. Although theoretically interesting, most of the techniques proposed in literature like the use of symmetrical photopeaks can not be implemented on the commonly used gamma camera due to the energy/linearity/sensitivity corrections applied in the detector. A method for a single energy isotope based on existing methods with adjustments towards daily practice and clinical situations is proposed. It is assumed that the scatter image, recorded from photons collected within a scatter window adjacent to the photo peak, is a reasonable close approximation of the true scatter component of the image reconstructed from the photo peak window. A fraction `k` of the image using the scatter window is subtracted from the image recorded in the photo peak window to produce the compensated image. The principal matter of the method is the right value for the factor `k`, which is determined in a mathematical way and confirmed by experiments. To determine `k`, different kinds of scatter media are used and are positioned in different ways in order to simulate a clinical situation. For a secondary energy window from 100 to 124 keV below a photo peak window from 126 to 154 keV, a value of 0.7 is found. This value has been verified using both an antropomorph thyroid phantom and the Rollo contrast phantom.

  11. Polarization observables in Virtual Compton Scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doria, Luca

    2007-10-01

    Virtual Compton Scattering (VCS) is an important reaction for understanding nucleon structure at low energies. By studying this process, the generalized polarizabilities of the nucleon can be measured. These observables are a generalization of the already known polarizabilities and will permit theoretical models to be challenged on a new level. More specifically, there exist six generalized polarizabilities and in order to disentangle them all, a double polarization experiment must be performed. Within this work, the VCS reaction p(e,e'p)γ was measured at MAMI using the A1 Collaboration three spectrometer setup with Q 2 =0.33 (GeV/c) 2 . Using the highly polarized MAMI beam and a recoil proton polarimeter, it was possible to measure both the VCS cross section and the double polarization observables. Already in 2000, the unpolarized VCS cross section was measured at MAMI. In this new experiment, we could confirm the old data and furthermore the double polarization observables were measured for the first time. The data were taken in five periods between 2005 and 2006. In this work, the data were analyzed to extract the cross section and the proton polarization. For the analysis, a maximum likelihood algorithm was developed together with the full simulation of all the analysis steps. The experiment is limited by the low statistics due mainly to the focal plane proton polarimeter efficiency. To overcome this problem, a new determination and parameterization of the carbon analyzing power was performed. The main result of the experiment is the extraction of a new combination of the generalized polarizabilities using the double polarization observables. (orig.)

  12. Polarization observables in Virtual Compton Scattering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doria, Luca

    2007-10-15

    Virtual Compton Scattering (VCS) is an important reaction for understanding nucleon structure at low energies. By studying this process, the generalized polarizabilities of the nucleon can be measured. These observables are a generalization of the already known polarizabilities and will permit theoretical models to be challenged on a new level. More specifically, there exist six generalized polarizabilities and in order to disentangle them all, a double polarization experiment must be performed. Within this work, the VCS reaction p(e,e'p){gamma} was measured at MAMI using the A1 Collaboration three spectrometer setup with Q{sup 2}=0.33 (GeV/c){sup 2}. Using the highly polarized MAMI beam and a recoil proton polarimeter, it was possible to measure both the VCS cross section and the double polarization observables. Already in 2000, the unpolarized VCS cross section was measured at MAMI. In this new experiment, we could confirm the old data and furthermore the double polarization observables were measured for the first time. The data were taken in five periods between 2005 and 2006. In this work, the data were analyzed to extract the cross section and the proton polarization. For the analysis, a maximum likelihood algorithm was developed together with the full simulation of all the analysis steps. The experiment is limited by the low statistics due mainly to the focal plane proton polarimeter efficiency. To overcome this problem, a new determination and parameterization of the carbon analyzing power was performed. The main result of the experiment is the extraction of a new combination of the generalized polarizabilities using the double polarization observables. (orig.)

  13. X-band RF Photoinjector for Laser Compton X-ray and Gamma-ray Sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marsh, R. A. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Anderson, G. G. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Anderson, S. G. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Gibson, D. J. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Barty, C. J. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2015-05-06

    Extremely bright narrow bandwidth gamma-ray sources are expanding the application of accelerator technology and light sources in new directions. An X-band test station has been commissioned at LLNL to develop multi-bunch electron beams. This multi-bunch mode will have stringent requirements for the electron bunch properties including low emittance and energy spread, but across multiple bunches. The test station is a unique facility featuring a 200 MV/m 5.59 cell X-band photogun powered by a SLAC XL4 klystron driven by a Scandinova solid-state modulator. This paper focuses on its current status including the generation and initial characterization of first electron beam. Design and installation of the inverse-Compton scattering interaction region and upgrade paths will be discussed along with future applications.

  14. Multidimensional inversion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Desesquelles, P.

    1997-01-01

    Computer Monte Carlo simulations occupy an increasingly important place between theory and experiment. This paper introduces a global protocol for the comparison of model simulations with experimental results. The correlated distributions of the model parameters are determined using an original recursive inversion procedure. Multivariate analysis techniques are used in order to optimally synthesize the experimental information with a minimum number of variables. This protocol is relevant in all fields if physics dealing with event generators and multi-parametric experiments. (authors)

  15. Effect of gamma rays at the dihydrofolate reductase locus: deletions and inversions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Urlaub, G.; Mitchell, P.J.; Kas, E.; Chasin, L.A.; Funanage, V.L.; Myoda, T.T.; Hamlin, J.

    1986-01-01

    A series 11 gamma-ray-induced mutants at the dihydrofolate reductase (dhfr) locus in Chinese hamster ovary cells has been examined for the types of DNA sequence change brought about by this form of ionizing radiation. All 11 mutants were found to have suffered major structural changes affecting the dhfr gene. In eight of the mutants, all or part of the dhfr gene has been deleted. The extent of these deletions was examined in seven of these mutants and, for comparison, in two deletion mutants that were induced by UV irradiation. For this purpose, probes from an overlapping set of cosmids that span 210 kb of DNA in this region were used. Three of seven gamma-ray-induced mutants and one UV-induced mutant were shown to have deleted the entire 210-kb region. In the remaining mutants, endpoints ranging from within the dhfr gene to 100 kb downstream were observed. No upstream endpoints were detected, so that an upper limit on the size of these large deletions could not be assigned. Three of the 11 gamma-ray-induced mutants contained an interruption in the dhfr gene without any detectable loss of sequence. Restriction analysis of these interrupted mutants showed that at least 8-14 kb of foreign DNA sequence became joined to the gene at the point of disruption. Cytogenetic analysis of these mutants showed that in two cases an inversion of the banding pattern on chromosome Z-2 had taken place. The inverted dhfr mutants contain very low amounts of dhfr RNA sequences, and the 5' end of an inversion mutant gene exhibits the same pattern of DNA methylation and DNase I-hypersensitivity as the wild-type gene. Our results suggest that ionizing radiation causes primarily, if not exclusively, large deletions and inversions in mammalian cells

  16. Importance of Doppler broadening in Compton scatter imaging techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Donepudi V.; Takeda, Tohoru; Itai, Yuji; Seltzer, S. M.; Hubbell, John H.; Zeniya, Tsutomu; Akatsuka, Takao; Cesareo, Roberto; Brunetti, Antonio; Gigante, Giovanni E.

    2001-12-01

    Compton scattering is a potential tool for the determination of bone mineral content or tissue density for dose planning purposes, and requires knowledge of the energy distribution of the X-rays through biological materials of medical interest in the X-ray and (gamma) -ray region. The energy distribution is utilized in a number of ways in diagnostic radiology, for example, in determining primary photon spectra, electron densities in separate volumes, and in tomography and imaging. The choice of the X-ray energy is more related to X-ray absorption, where as that of the scattering angle is more related to geometry. The evaluation of all the contributions are mandatory in Compton profile measurements and is important in X-ray imaging systems in order to achieve good results. In view of this, Compton profile cross-sections for few biological materials are estimated at nineteen K(alpha) X-ray energies and 60 keV (Am-241) photons. Energy broadening, geometrical broadening from 1 to 180 degree(s), FWHM of J(Pz) and FWHM of Compton energy broadening has been evaluated at various incident photon energies. These values are estimated around the centroid of the Compton profile with an energy interval of 0.1 keV and 1.0 keV for 60 keV photons. The interaction cross sections for the above materials are estimated using fractions-by-weight of the constituent elements. Input data for these tables are purely theoretical.

  17. Dispersion relations in real and virtual Compton scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drechsel, D.; Pasquini, B.; Vanderhaeghen, M.

    2003-01-01

    A unified presentation is given on the use of dispersion relations in the real and virtual Compton scattering processes off the nucleon. The way in which dispersion relations for Compton scattering amplitudes establish connections between low energy nucleon structure quantities, such as polarizabilities or anomalous magnetic moments, and the nucleon excitation spectrum is reviewed. We discuss various sum rules for forward real and virtual Compton scattering, such as the Gerasimov-Drell-Hearn sum rule and its generalizations, the Burkhardt-Cottingham sum rule, as well as sum rules for forward nucleon polarizabilities, and review their experimental status. Subsequently, we address the general case of real Compton scattering (RCS). Various types of dispersion relations for RCS are presented as tools for extracting nucleon polarizabilities from the RCS data. The information on nucleon polarizabilities gained in this way is reviewed and the nucleon structure information encoded in these quantities is discussed. The dispersion relation formalism is then extended to virtual Compton scattering (VCS). The information on generalized nucleon polarizabilities extracted from recent VCS experiments is described, along with its interpretation in nucleon structure models. As a summary, the physics content of the existing data is discussed and some perspectives for future theoretical and experimental activities in this field are presented

  18. The Effect of Common Inversion Polymorphisms In(2L)t and In(3R)Mo on Patterns of Transcriptional Variation in Drosophila melanogaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavington, Erik; Kern, Andrew D

    2017-11-06

    Chromosomal inversions are a ubiquitous feature of genetic variation. Theoretical models describe several mechanisms by which inversions can drive adaptation and be maintained as polymorphisms. While inversions have been shown previously to be under selection, or contain genetic variation under selection, the specific phenotypic consequences of inversions leading to their maintenance remain unclear. Here we use genomic sequence and expression data from the Drosophila Genetic Reference Panel (DGRP) to explore the effects of two cosmopolitan inversions, In ( 2L ) t and In ( 3R ) Mo , on patterns of transcriptional variation. We demonstrate that each inversion has a significant effect on transcript abundance for hundreds of genes across the genome. Inversion-affected loci (IAL) appear both within inversions as well as on unlinked chromosomes. Importantly, IAL do not appear to be influenced by the previously reported genome-wide expression correlation structure. We found that five genes involved with sterol uptake, four of which are Niemann-Pick Type 2 orthologs, are upregulated in flies with In ( 3R ) Mo but do not have SNPs in linkage disequilibrium (LD) with the inversion. We speculate that this upregulation is driven by genetic variation in mod ( mdg4 ) that is in LD with In ( 3R ) Mo We find that there is little evidence for a regional or position effect of inversions on gene expression at the chromosomal level, but do find evidence for the distal breakpoint of In ( 3R ) Mo interrupting one gene and possibly disassociating the two flanking genes from regulatory elements. Copyright © 2017 Lavington and Kern.

  19. Wide angle Compton scattering within the SCET factorization framework

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kivel, N.

    2016-01-01

    Existing data for the electromagnetic proton form factors and for the cross section of the wide angle Compton scattering (WACS) show that the hard two-gluon exchange mechanism (collinear factorization) is still not applicable in the kinematical region where Mandelstam variables s ∼ -t ∼ -u are about a few GeV 2 . On the other hand these observables can be described in phenomenological models where spectator quarks are soft which assumes a large contribution due to the soft-overlap mechanism. It turns out that the simple QCD factorization picture is not complete and must also include the soft-overlap contribution which can be described as a certain matrix element in the soft collinear effective theory (SCET). Then the leading power contribution to WACS amplitude is described as a sum of the hard- and soft-spectator contributions. The existing experimental data allows one to check certain conclusions based on the assumption about dominant role of the soft-spectator mechanism. (author)

  20. Compton-thick AGN at high and low redshift

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akylas, A.; Georgantopoulos, I.; Corral, A.; Ranalli, P.; Lanzuisi, G.

    2017-10-01

    The most obscured sources detected in X-ray surveys, the Compton-thick AGN present great interest both because they represent the hidden side of accretion but also because they may signal the AGN birth. We analyse the NUSTAR observations from the serendipitous observations in order to study the Compton-thick AGN at the deepest possible ultra-hard band (>10 keV). We compare our results with our SWIFT/BAT findings in the local Universe, as well as with our results in the CDFS and COSMOS fields. We discuss the comparison with X-ray background synthesis models finding that a low fraction of Compton-thick sources (about 15 per cent of the obscured population) is compatible with both the 2-10keV band results and those at harder energies.

  1. Conventional and inverse magnetocaloric effect in Pr2CuSi3 and Gd2CuSi3 compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Fang; Yuan, Feng-ying; Wang, Jin-zhi; Feng, Tang-fu; Hu, Guo-qi

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Two phase transitions in a narrow temperature range were observed and studied. • Both typical and inverse magnetocaloric effect were observed and discussed. • The inverse magnetocaloric effect was attributed to the spin-glass behavior. - Abstract: Magnetic properties and magnetocaloric effect (MCE) in Pr 2 CuSi 3 and Gd 2 CuSi 3 compounds were investigated systematically. Both Pr 2 CuSi 3 and Gd 2 CuSi 3 compounds experienced two phase transitions in a relatively narrow temperature range: first a paramagnet (PM)–ferromagnet (FM) second-order phase transition at 12 and 26 K and then a FM–spin glass (SG) transition at 6 K and 7.5 K, respectively. The magnetic entropy change (ΔS M ) was calculated based on Maxwell relation using the collected magnetization data. The maximum of ΔS M for Pr 2 CuSi 3 and Gd 2 CuSi 3 compounds was 7.6 and 5 J kg −1 K −1 , respectively, at the applied filed change of 0–5 T. The shape of the temperature dependence of ΔS M (ΔS M –T) curve was obviously different from that of the conventional magnetic materials undergoing only one typical phase transition. In the left half part of ΔS M –T curve, ΔS M is not very sensitive to the applied field and they tend to intersect with the decrease of temperature. Both typical conventional and inverse MCE behavior were observed in Gd 2 CuSi 3 , which would be originated from the two transition features at the low temperatures

  2. The hydrogen anomaly problem in neutron Compton scattering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karlsson, Erik B.

    2018-03-01

    Neutron Compton scattering (also called ‘deep inelastic scattering of neutrons’, DINS) is a method used to study momentum distributions of light atoms in solids and liquids. It has been employed extensively since the start-up of intense pulsed neutron sources about 25 years ago. The information lies primarily in the width and shape of the Compton profile and not in the absolute intensity of the Compton peaks. It was therefore not immediately recognized that the relative intensities of Compton peaks arising from scattering on different isotopes did not always agree with values expected from standard neutron cross-section tables. The discrepancies were particularly large for scattering on protons, a phenomenon that became known as ‘the hydrogen anomaly problem’. The present paper is a review of the discovery, experimental tests to prove or disprove the existence of the hydrogen anomaly and discussions concerning its origin. It covers a twenty-year-long history of experimentation, theoretical treatments and discussions. The problem is of fundamental interest, since it involves quantum phenomena on the subfemtosecond time scale, which are not visible in conventional thermal neutron scattering but are important in Compton scattering where neutrons have two orders of magnitude times higher energy. Different H-containing systems show different cross-section deficiencies and when the scattering processes are followed on the femtosecond time scale the cross-section losses disappear on different characteristic time scales for each H-environment. The last section of this review reproduces results from published papers based on quantum interference in scattering on identical particles (proton or deuteron pairs or clusters), which have given a quantitative theoretical explanation both regarding the H-cross-section reduction and its time dependence. Some new explanations are added and the concluding chapter summarizes the conditions for observing the specific quantum

  3. Simulation study of HEMT structures with HfO2 cap layer for mitigating inverse piezoelectric effect related device failures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deepthi Nagulapally

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The Inverse Piezoelectric Effect (IPE is thought to contribute to possible device failure of GaN High Electron Mobility Transistors (HEMTs. Here we focus on a simulation study to probe the possible mitigation of the IPE by reducing the internal electric fields and related elastic energy through the use of high-k materials. Inclusion of a HfO2 “cap layer” above the AlGaN barrier particularly with a partial mesa structure is shown to have potential advantages. Simulations reveal even greater reductions in the internal electric fields by using “field plates” in concert with high-k oxides.

  4. A counting silicon microstrip detector for precision compton polarimetry

    CERN Document Server

    Doll, D W; Hillert, W; Krüger, H; Stammschroer, K; Wermes, N

    2002-01-01

    A detector for the detection of laser photons backscattered off an incident high-energy electron beam for precision Compton polarimetry in the 3.5 GeV electron stretcher ring ELSA at Bonn University has been developed using individual photon counting. The photon counting detector is based on a silicon microstrip detector system using dedicated ASIC chips. The produced hits by the pair converted Compton photons are accumulated rather than individually read out. A transverse profile displacement can be measured with mu m accuracy rendering a polarization measurement of the order of 1% on the time scale of 10-15 min possible.

  5. High-repetition intra-cavity source of Compton radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pogorelsky, I; Polyanskiy, M; Agustsson, R; Campese, T; Murokh, A; Ovodenko, A; Shaftan, T

    2014-01-01

    We report our progress in developing a high-power Compton source for a diversity of applications ranging from university-scale compact x-ray light sources and metrology tools for EUV lithography, to high-brilliance gamma-sources for nuclear analysis. Our conceptual approach lies in multiplying the source’s repetition rate and increasing its average brightness by placing the Compton interaction point inside the optical cavity of an active laser. We discuss considerations in its design, our simulations, and tests of the laser’s cavity that confirm the feasibility of the proposed concept. (paper)

  6. Final-photon angular distributions in Compton double-ionization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kornberg, M.A.

    1999-01-01

    Angular distributions of the scattered-photon in two-electron ionization of helium by Compton scattering are reported. Our calculations are performed as a direct integration over Compton profiles. We show that backward scattering is adequately described using an uncorrelated final-state approximation, as compared with impulse approximation (IA) results. The relation dσ c 2+ /dΩ = R c dσ c + /dΩ is fulfilled within IA at high-photon energies, with R c the asymptotic shake-off ratio. (orig.)

  7. Reconstructed Image Spatial Resolution of Multiple Coincidences Compton Imager

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreyev, Andriy; Sitek, Arkadiusz; Celler, Anna

    2010-02-01

    We study the multiple coincidences Compton imager (MCCI) which is based on a simultaneous acquisition of several photons emitted in cascade from a single nuclear decay. Theoretically, this technique should provide a major improvement in localization of a single radioactive source as compared to a standard Compton camera. In this work, we investigated the performance and limitations of MCCI using Monte Carlo computer simulations. Spatial resolutions of the reconstructed point source have been studied as a function of the MCCI parameters, including geometrical dimensions and detector characteristics such as materials, energy and spatial resolutions.

  8. Experimental and theoretical Compton profiles of Be, C and Al

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aguiar, Julio C., E-mail: jaguiar@arn.gob.a [Autoridad Regulatoria Nuclear, Av. Del Libertador 8250, C1429BNP, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Instituto de Fisica ' Arroyo Seco' , Facultad de Ciencias Exactas, U.N.C.P.B.A., Pinto 399, 7000 Tandil (Argentina); Di Rocco, Hector O. [Instituto de Fisica ' Arroyo Seco' , Facultad de Ciencias Exactas, U.N.C.P.B.A., Pinto 399, 7000 Tandil (Argentina); Arazi, Andres [Laboratorio TANDAR, Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica, Av. General Paz 1499, 1650 San Martin, Buenos Aires (Argentina)

    2011-02-01

    The results of Compton profile measurements, Fermi momentum determinations, and theoretical values obtained from a linear combination of Slater-type orbital (STO) for core electrons in beryllium; carbon and aluminium are presented. In addition, a Thomas-Fermi model is used to estimate the contribution of valence electrons to the Compton profile. Measurements were performed using monoenergetic photons of 59.54 keV provided by a low-intensity Am-241 {gamma}-ray source. Scattered photons were detected at 90{sup o} from the beam direction using a p-type coaxial high-purity germanium detector (HPGe). The experimental results are in good agreement with theoretical calculations.

  9. Environmental radioactivity measurements Using a compton suppression spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharshar, T.; Elnimr, T.

    1998-01-01

    The natural and artificial radioactivities of some environmental samples such as soil and vegetables have been studied through gamma-ray spectroscopy with a new constructed compton suppression spectrometer (CSS). The spectrometer consists of a 10% p-type HPGe detector as a main detector, an annular NE-102 A plastic scintillator as a guard detector, and a fast-slow coincidence system employing standard electronic modules for anti-compton operation. This study shows that CSS is a powerful tool for measuring the low level activities of environmental samples

  10. The scanning Compton polarimeter for the SLD experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woods, M.

    1996-10-01

    For the 1994/95 run of the SLD experiment at SLAC, a Compton polarimeter measured the luminosity-weighted electron beam polarization to be (77.2 ± 0.5)%. This excellent accuracy is achieved by measuring the rate asymmetry of Compton-scattered electrons near the kinematic endpoint. The polarimeter takes data continuously while the electron and positron beams are in collision and achieves a statistical precision of better than 1% in a three minute run. To calibrate the polarimeter and demonstrate its accuracy, many scans are frequently done. These include scans of the laser polarization, the detector position with respect to the kinematic edge, and the laser power

  11. A compact X-ray source based on Compton scattering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bulyak, E.; Gladkikh, P.; Grigor' ev, Yu.; Guk, I.; Karnaukhov, I.; Khodyachikh, A.; Kononenko, S.; Mocheshnikov, N.; Mytsykov, A.; Shcherbakov, A. E-mail: shcherbakov@kipt.kharkov.ua; Tarasenko, A.; Telegin, Yu.; Zelinsky, A

    2001-07-21

    The main parameters of Kharkov electron storage ring N-100 with a beam energy range from 70 to 150 MeV are presented. The main results that were obtained in experimental researches are briefly described. The future of the N-100 upgrade to the development of the X-ray generator based on Compton back-scattering are presented. The electron beam energy range will be extended up to 250 MeV and the circumference of the storage ring will be 13.72 m. The lattice, parameters of the electron beam and the Compton back-scattering photons flux are described.

  12. A compact X-ray source based on Compton scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bulyak, E.; Gladkikh, P.; Grigor'ev, Yu.; Guk, I.; Karnaukhov, I.; Khodyachikh, A.; Kononenko, S.; Mocheshnikov, N.; Mytsykov, A.; Shcherbakov, A.; Tarasenko, A.; Telegin, Yu.; Zelinsky, A.

    2001-01-01

    The main parameters of Kharkov electron storage ring N-100 with a beam energy range from 70 to 150 MeV are presented. The main results that were obtained in experimental researches are briefly described. The future of the N-100 upgrade to the development of the X-ray generator based on Compton back-scattering are presented. The electron beam energy range will be extended up to 250 MeV and the circumference of the storage ring will be 13.72 m. The lattice, parameters of the electron beam and the Compton back-scattering photons flux are described

  13. Analysis of materials in ducts by Compton scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gouveia, M.A.G.; Lopes, R.T.; Jesus, E.F.O. de; Camerini, C.S.

    2000-01-01

    This work presents the use of the Compton Scattering Technique as essay, for materials characterization in petroleum ducts. The essay have been accomplished in laboratory ambit, so that the presented results should be analyzed so that the system can come to be used in the field. The inspection was performed using Compton Scattering techniques, with two detectors aligned, in an angle of 90 degrees with a source of Cs-137 with energy of 662 keV. The results demonstrated the good capacity of the system to detect materials deposited in petroleum ducts during petroleum transportation. (author)

  14. The first demonstration of the concept of “narrow-FOV Si/CdTe semiconductor Compton camera”

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ichinohe, Yuto, E-mail: ichinohe@astro.isas.jaxa.jp [Institute of Space and Astronautical Science, Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency, 3-1-1 Yoshinodai, Chuo, Sagamihara, Kanagawa 252-5210 (Japan); University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan); Uchida, Yuusuke; Watanabe, Shin [Institute of Space and Astronautical Science, Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency, 3-1-1 Yoshinodai, Chuo, Sagamihara, Kanagawa 252-5210 (Japan); University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan); Edahiro, Ikumi [Hiroshima University, 1-3-1 Kagamiyama, Higashi-Hiroshima, Hiroshima 739-8526 (Japan); Hayashi, Katsuhiro [Institute of Space and Astronautical Science, Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency, 3-1-1 Yoshinodai, Chuo, Sagamihara, Kanagawa 252-5210 (Japan); Kawano, Takafumi; Ohno, Masanori [Hiroshima University, 1-3-1 Kagamiyama, Higashi-Hiroshima, Hiroshima 739-8526 (Japan); Ohta, Masayuki [Institute of Space and Astronautical Science, Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency, 3-1-1 Yoshinodai, Chuo, Sagamihara, Kanagawa 252-5210 (Japan); Takeda, Shin' ichiro [Okinawa Institute of Science and Technology Graduate University, 1919-1 Tancha, Onna-son, Okinawa 904-0495 (Japan); Fukazawa, Yasushi [Hiroshima University, 1-3-1 Kagamiyama, Higashi-Hiroshima, Hiroshima 739-8526 (Japan); Katsuragawa, Miho [Institute of Space and Astronautical Science, Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency, 3-1-1 Yoshinodai, Chuo, Sagamihara, Kanagawa 252-5210 (Japan); University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan); Nakazawa, Kazuhiro [University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan); Odaka, Hirokazu [Institute of Space and Astronautical Science, Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency, 3-1-1 Yoshinodai, Chuo, Sagamihara, Kanagawa 252-5210 (Japan); Tajima, Hiroyasu [Solar-Terrestrial Environment Laboratory, Nagoya University, Furo-cho, Chikusa, Nagoya, Aichi 464-8601 (Japan); Takahashi, Hiromitsu [Hiroshima University, 1-3-1 Kagamiyama, Higashi-Hiroshima, Hiroshima 739-8526 (Japan); and others

    2016-01-11

    The Soft Gamma-ray Detector (SGD), to be deployed on board the ASTRO-H satellite, has been developed to provide the highest sensitivity observations of celestial sources in the energy band of 60–600 keV by employing a detector concept which uses a Compton camera whose field-of-view is restricted by a BGO shield to a few degree (narrow-FOV Compton camera). In this concept, the background from outside the FOV can be heavily suppressed by constraining the incident direction of the gamma ray reconstructed by the Compton camera to be consistent with the narrow FOV. We, for the first time, demonstrate the validity of the concept using background data taken during the thermal vacuum test and the low-temperature environment test of the flight model of SGD on ground. We show that the measured background level is suppressed to less than 10% by combining the event rejection using the anti-coincidence trigger of the active BGO shield and by using Compton event reconstruction techniques. More than 75% of the signals from the field-of-view are retained against the background rejection, which clearly demonstrates the improvement of signal-to-noise ratio. The estimated effective area of 22.8 cm{sup 2} meets the mission requirement even though not all of the operational parameters of the instrument have been fully optimized yet.

  15. The effect of Lyman α self-absorption on population inversions between quantum states 2 and 3 of hydrogen-like ions in recombining plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tallents, G.J.

    1978-01-01

    The effect in recombining plasmas of Lyman α self-absorption on quasi-steady-state population inversions between quantum states n = 2 and 3 of hydrogen-like ions is theoretically investigated. It is shown how the electron density range over which population inversion is possible diminishes as Lyman α self-absorption increases. The highest degree of absorption which can be tolerated and still achieve an inversion is shown to occur when the thermal limit corresponds to n approximately equal to 4. The results of the computations are related to the conditions to be found in the expansion plume of laser-produced plasmas. (author)

  16. Spin injection and inverse Edelstein effect in the surface states of topological Kondo insulator SmB6

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Qi; Mi, Jian; Zhao, Dan; Su, Tang; Yuan, Wei; Xing, Wenyu; Chen, Yangyang; Wang, Tianyu; Wu, Tao; Chen, Xian Hui; Xie, X. C.; Zhang, Chi; Shi, Jing; Han, Wei

    2016-01-01

    There has been considerable interest in exploiting the spin degrees of freedom of electrons for potential information storage and computing technologies. Topological insulators (TIs), a class of quantum materials, have special gapless edge/surface states, where the spin polarization of the Dirac fermions is locked to the momentum direction. This spin–momentum locking property gives rise to very interesting spin-dependent physical phenomena such as the Edelstein and inverse Edelstein effects. However, the spin injection in pure surface states of TI is very challenging because of the coexistence of the highly conducting bulk states. Here, we experimentally demonstrate the spin injection and observe the inverse Edelstein effect in the surface states of a topological Kondo insulator, SmB6. At low temperatures when only surface carriers are present, a clear spin signal is observed. Furthermore, the magnetic field angle dependence of the spin signal is consistent with spin–momentum locking property of surface states of SmB6. PMID:27834378

  17. Study of the effective inverse photon efficiency using optical emission spectroscopy combined with cavity ring-down spectroscopy approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xingwei; Li, Cong; Wang, Yong; Wang, Zhiwei; Feng, Chunlei; Ding, Hongbin

    2015-09-01

    The hydrocarbon impurities formation is inevitable due to wall erosion in a long pulse high performance scenario with carbon-based plasma facing materials in fusion devices. The standard procedure to determine the chemical erosion yield in situ is by means of inverse photon efficiency D/XB. In this work, the conversion factor between CH4 flux and photon flux of CH A → X transition (effective inverse photon efficiency PE-1) was measured directly using a cascaded arc plasma simulator with argon/methane. This study shows that the measured PE-1 is different from the calculated D/XB. We compared the photon flux measured by optical emission spectroscopy (OES) and calculated by electron impact excitation of CH(X) which was diagnosed by cavity ring-down spectroscopy (CRDS). It seems that charge exchange and dissociative recombination processes are the main channels of CH(A) production and removal which lead to the inconsistency of PE -1 and D/XB at lower temperature. Meanwhile, the fraction of excited CH(A) produced by dissociative recombination processes was investigated, and we found it increased with Te in the range from 4% to 13% at Te definition instead of D/XB since the electron impact excitation is not the only channel of CH(A) production. These results have an effect on evaluating the yield of chemical erosion in divertor of fusion device.

  18. A Compton Imaging Prototype for Range Verification in Particle Therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Golnik, C.; Hueso Gonzalez, F.; Kormoll, T.; Pausch, G.; Rohling, H.; Fiedler, F.; Heidel, K.; Schoene, S.; Sobiella, M.; Wagner, A.; Enghardt, W.

    2013-06-01

    During the 2012 AAPM Annual Meeting 33 percent of the delegates considered the range uncertainty in proton therapy as the main obstacle of becoming a mainstream treatment modality. Utilizing prompt gamma emission, a side product of particle tissue interaction, opens the possibility of in-beam dose verification, due to the direct correlation between prompt gamma emission and particle dose deposition. Compton imaging has proven to be a technique to measure three dimensional gamma emission profiles and opens the possibility of adaptive dose monitoring and treatment correction. We successfully built a Compton Imaging prototype, characterized the detectors and showed the imaging capability of the complete device. The major advantage of CZT detectors is the high energy resolution and the high spatial resolution, which are key parameters for Compton Imaging. However, our measurements at the proton beam accelerator facility KVI in Groningen (Netherlands) disclosed a spectrum of prompt gamma rays under proton irradiation up to 4.4 MeV. As CZT detectors of 5 mm thickness do not efficiently absorb photons in such energy ranges, another absorption, based on a Siemens LSO block detector is added behind CZT1. This setup provides a higher absorption probability of high energy photons. With a size of 5.2 cm x 5.2 cm x 2.0 cm, this scintillation detector further increases the angular acceptance of Compton scattered photons due to geometric size. (authors)

  19. Infrared phenomena in quantum electrodynamics : II. Bremsstrahlung and compton scattering

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haeringen, W. van

    The infrared aspects of quantum electrodynamics are discussed by treating two examples of scattering processes, bremsstrahlung and Compton scattering. As in the previous paper one uses a non-covariant diagram technique which gives very clear insight in the cancelling of infrared divergences between

  20. On a low intensity 241 Am Compton spectrometer for measurement ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In this paper, a new design and construction of a low intensity (100 mCi) 241Am -ray Compton spectrometer is presented. The planar spectrometer is based on a small disc source with the shortest geometry. Measurement of the momentum density of polycrystalline Al is used to evaluate the performance of the new design.

  1. Electronic properties and Compton profiles of silver iodide

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    We have carried out an extensive study of electronic properties of silver iodide in - and -phases. The theoretical Compton profiles, energy bands, density of states and anisotropies in momentum densities are computed using density functional theories. We have also employed full-potential linearized augmented ...

  2. X-ray generator based on Compton scattering

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Androsov, V.P.; Agafonov, A.V.; Botman, J.I.M.; Bulyak, E.V.; Drebot, I.; Gladkikh, P.I.; Grevtsev, V.; Ivashchenko, V.; Karnaukhov, I.M.; Lapshin, V.I.

    2005-01-01

    Nowadays, the sources of the X-rays based on a storage ring with low beam energy and Compton scattering of intense laser beam are under development in several laboratories. In the paper the state-of-art in development and construction of cooperative project of a Kharkov advanced X-ray source NESTOR

  3. Einstein-Ehrenfest's radiation theory and Compton-Debye's kinetics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barranco, A.V.; Franca, H.M.

    1990-01-01

    Einstein and Ehrenfest's radiation theory is modified in order to introduce the efeects of random zero-point fields, characteristics of classical stochastic electrodynamics. As a result, the Compton and Debye's kinematic relations are obtained within the realm of a completely undulatory theory, that is, without having to consider the corpuscular character of the photon. (A.C.A.S.) [pt

  4. A New Comptonization Model for Weakly Magnetized Accreting NS LMXBs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paizis, A.; Farinelli, R.; Titarchuk, L.; Frontera, F.; Cocchi, M.; Ferrigno, C.

    2009-05-01

    We have developed a new Comptonization model to propose, for the first time, a self consistent physical interpretation of the complex spectral evolution seen in NS LMXBs. The model and its application to LMXBs are presented and compared to the Simbol-X expected capabilities.

  5. Attenuation studies near K-absorption edges using Compton ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The results are consistent with theoretical values derived from the XCOM package. Keywords. Photon interaction; 241Am; gamma ray attenuation; Compton scattering; absorption edge; rare earth elements. PACS Nos 32.80.-t; 32.90.+a. 1. Introduction. Photon interaction studies at energies around the absorption edge have ...

  6. Strong anisotropy in the low temperature Compton profiles of ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Compton profiles of momentum distribution of conduction electrons in the orthorhombic phase of -Ga metal at low temperature are calculated in the band model for the three crystallographic directions (100), (010), and (001). Unlike the results at room temperature, previously reported by Lengeler, Lasser and Mair, the ...

  7. Gamma-spectrometry with Compton suppressed detectors arrays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schueck, C.; Hannachi, F.; Chapman, R.

    1985-01-01

    Recent results of experiments performed with two different Compton-suppressed detectors arrays in Daresbury and Berkeley (/sup 163,164/Yb and 154 Er, respectively), are presented together with a brief description of the national French array presently under construction in Strasbourg. 25 refs., 15 figs

  8. Accurate Compton scattering measurements for N{sub 2} molecules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kobayashi, Kohjiro [Advanced Technology Research Center, Gunma University, 1-5-1 Tenjin-cho, Kiryu, Gunma 376-8515 (Japan); Itou, Masayoshi; Tsuji, Naruki; Sakurai, Yoshiharu [Japan Synchrotron Radiation Research Institute (JASRI), 1-1-1 Kouto, Sayo-cho, Sayo-gun, Hyogo 679-5198 (Japan); Hosoya, Tetsuo; Sakurai, Hiroshi, E-mail: sakuraih@gunma-u.ac.jp [Department of Production Science and Technology, Gunma University, 29-1 Hon-cho, Ota, Gunma 373-0057 (Japan)

    2011-06-14

    The accurate Compton profiles of N{sub 2} gas were measured using 121.7 keV synchrotron x-rays. The present accurate measurement proves the better agreement of the CI (configuration interaction) calculation than the Hartree-Fock calculation and suggests the importance of multi-excitation in the CI calculations for the accuracy of wavefunctions in ground states.

  9. Design of a 4.8-m ring for inverse Compton scattering x-ray source

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. S. Xu

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we present the design of a 50 MeV compact electron storage ring with 4.8-meter circumference for the Tsinghua Thomson scattering x-ray source. The ring consists of four dipole magnets with properly adjusted bending radii and edge angles for both horizontal and vertical focusing, and a pair of quadrupole magnets used to adjust the horizontal damping partition number. We find that the dynamic aperture of compact storage rings depends essentially on the intrinsic nonlinearity of the dipole magnets with small bending radius. Hamiltonian dynamics is found to agree well with results from numerical particle tracking. We develop a self-consistent method to estimate the equilibrium beam parameters in the presence of the intrabeam scattering, synchrotron radiation damping, quantum excitation, and residual gas scattering. We also optimize the rf parameters for achieving a maximum x-ray flux.

  10. Nuclear and particle physics with inverse compton γ-ray beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujiwara, Mamoru

    2004-01-01

    A new facility for GeV γ-ray beams in the energy range of 1.5 - 2.4 GeV is now used to develop hadron physics, and lead to an important finding of ''Penta-quark'' hadron, Θ + particle at 1540 MeV. The experimental results to observe φ and K + mesons guide us to a new look of quark dynamics with strangeness quarks. A beam line for MeV γ-rays is discussed in view of the observation of the parity violation due to the weak-strong coupling in nuclear medium. (author)

  11. NuSTAR observations of the bullet cluster: constraints on inverse compton emission

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wik, Daniel R.; Hornstrup, Allan; Molendi, S.

    2014-01-01

    and have degree-scale fields of view, their backgrounds are both high and difficult to characterize. The associated uncertainties result in lower sensitivity to IC emission and a greater chance of false detection. In this work, we present 266 ks NuSTAR observations of the Bullet cluster, which is detected......-but not perfectly-described as an isothermal plasma with kT = 14.2 ± 0.2 keV. To slightly improve the fit, a second temperature component is added, which appears to account for lower temperature emission from the cool core, pushing the primary component to kT ~ 15.3 keV. We see no convincing need to invoke an IC...

  12. Effect of cold water and inverse lighting on growth performance of broiler chickens under extreme heat stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sang-oh; Park, Byung-sung; Hwangbo, Jong

    2015-07-01

    The present study was carried out to investigate the effect of provision of extreme heat stress diet (EHD), inverse lighting, cold water on growth performance of broiler chickens exposed to extreme heat stress. The chickens were divided into four treatment groups, (T1, T2, T3, T4) as given below: Ti (EHD 1, 10:00-19:00 dark, 19:00-10:00 light, cool water 9 degrees C); T2 (EHD 2, 10:00-19:00 dark, 19:00-10:00 light, cool water 9 degrees C); T3 (EHD 1, 09:00-18:00 dark, 18:00-09:00 light, cool water 141C); T4 (EHD 2, 09:00-18:00 dark, 18:00-09:00 light, cool water 14 degrees C. EHD 1 contained soybean oil, molasses, methionine and lysine; EHD 2 contained the same ingredients as EHD 1 with addition of vitamin C. Groups T1 and T2 were given cooler water than the othertwo groups, and displayed higher body weight increase and diet intake as compared to T3 and T4 (pstress diet, inverse lighting (10:00-19:00 dark, 19:00-10:00 light) with cold water at 9 degrees C under extreme heat stress could enhance growth performance of broiler chickens.

  13. First-principles theory of anharmonicity and the inverse isotope effect in superconducting palladium-hydride compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Errea, Ion; Calandra, Matteo; Mauri, Francesco

    2013-10-25

    Palladium hydrides display the largest isotope effect anomaly known in the literature. Replacement of hydrogen with the heavier isotopes leads to higher superconducting temperatures, a behavior inconsistent with harmonic theory. Solving the self-consistent harmonic approximation by a stochastic approach, we obtain the anharmonic free energy, the thermal expansion, and the superconducting properties fully ab initio. We find that the phonon spectra are strongly renormalized by anharmonicity far beyond the perturbative regime. Superconductivity is phonon mediated, but the harmonic approximation largely overestimates the superconducting critical temperatures. We explain the inverse isotope effect, obtaining a -0.38 value for the isotope coefficient in good agreement with experiments, hydrogen anharmonicity being mainly responsible for the isotope anomaly.

  14. Cost effective solution using inverse lithography OPC for DRAM random contact layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jun, Jinhyuck; Hwang, Jaehee; Choi, Jaeseung; Oh, Seyoung; Park, Chanha; Yang, Hyunjo; Dam, Thuc; Do, Munhoe; Lee, Dong Chan; Xiao, Guangming; Choi, Jung-Hoe; Lucas, Kevin

    2017-04-01

    Many different advanced devices and design layers currently employ double patterning technology (DPT) as a means to overcome lithographic and OPC limitations at low k1 values. Certainly device layers with k1 value below 0.25 require DPT or other pitch splitting methodologies. DPT has also been used to improve patterning of certain device layers with k1 values slightly above 0.25, due to the difficulty of achieving sufficient pattern fidelity with only a single exposure. Unfortunately, this broad adoption of DPT also came with a significant increase in patterning process cost. In this paper, we discuss the development of a single patterning technology process using an integrated Inverse Lithography Technology (ILT) flow for mask synthesis. A single pattering technology flow will reduce the manufacturing cost for a k1 > 0.25 full chip random contact layer in a memory device by replacing the more expensive DPT process with ILT flow, while also maintaining good lithographic production quality and manufacturable OPC/RET production metrics. This new integrated flow consists of applying ILT to the difficult core region and traditional rule-based assist features (RBAFs) with OPC to the peripheral region of a DRAM contact layer. Comparisons of wafer results between the ILT process and the non-ILT process showed the lithographic benefits of ILT and its ability to enable a robust single patterning process for this low-k1 device layer. Advanced modeling with a negative tone develop (NTD) process achieved the accuracy levels needed for ILT to control feature shapes through dose and focus. Details of these afore mentioned results will be described in the paper.

  15. A new Compton densitometer for measuring pulmonary edema

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loo, B.W.; Goulding, F.S.; Simon, S.

    1986-01-01

    Pulmonary edema (PE) is the pathological increase of extravascular lung water found most often in patients with congestive heart failure and other critically ill patients who suffer from intravenous fluid overload. The chest x-ray, the standard method for validating the presence of PE, is neither quantitative nor sensitive. A non-invasive lung density monitor that is accurate, easily portable, safe and inexpensive is needed for clinical use. To deal with the problem of attenuation along the beam paths, previous gamma-ray techniques require simultaneous measurement of transmitted and scattered beams. Since multiple scattering is a strong function of the density of the scattering medium and the mass distribution within the detection geometry, there will be inherent uncertainties in the system calibration unless it is performed on a body structure closely matched to that of each individual patient. Other researchers who have employed Compton scattering techniques generally used systems of extended size and detectors with poor energy resolution. This has resulted in significant systematic biases from multiply-scattered photons and larger errors in counting statistics at a given radiation dose to the patient. We are proposing a patented approach in which only backscattered photons are measured with a high-resolution HPGe detector in a compact system geometry. By proper design and a unique data extraction scheme, effects of the variable chest wall on lung density measurements are minimized. Preliminary test results indicate that with a radioactive source of under 30 GBq, it should be possible to make an accurate lung density, measurement in one minute, with a risk of radiation exposure to the patient a thousand times smaller than that from a typical chest x-ray

  16. On the inversion of the scattering polarization and the Hanle effect signals in the hydrogen Lyα line

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ishikawa, R. [National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, 2-21-1 Osawa, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-8588 (Japan); Asensio Ramos, A.; Manso Sainz, R.; Trujillo Bueno, J. [Instituto de Astrofisica de Canarias, E-38205 La Laguna, Tenerife (Spain); Belluzzi, L. [Istituto Ricerche Solari Locarno (IRSOL), via Patocchi, 6605 Locarno Monti (Switzerland); Štěpán, J. [Astronomical Institute of the Academy of Sciences, Fričova 298, 251 65 Ondřejov (Czech Republic); Goto, M. [National Institute for Fusion Science, 322-6 Oroshi-cho, Toki, Gifu 509-5292 (Japan); Tsuneta, S., E-mail: ryoko.ishikawa@nao.ac.jp [Institute of Space and Astronautical Science, Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency, 3-1-1 Yoshinodai, Chuo, Sagamihara, Kanagawa 252-5210 (Japan)

    2014-06-01

    Magnetic field measurements in the upper chromosphere and above, where the gas-to-magnetic pressure ratio β is lower than unity, are essential for understanding the thermal structure and dynamical activity of the solar atmosphere. Recent developments in the theory and numerical modeling of polarization in spectral lines have suggested that information on the magnetic field of the chromosphere-corona transition region could be obtained by measuring the linear polarization of the solar disk radiation at the core of the hydrogen Lyα line at 121.6 nm, which is produced by scattering processes and the Hanle effect. The Chromospheric Lyman-Alpha SpectroPolarimeter (CLASP) sounding rocket experiment aims to measure the intensity (Stokes I) and the linear polarization profiles (Q/I and U/I) of the hydrogen Lyα line. In this paper, we clarify the information that the Hanle effect can provide by applying a Stokes inversion technique based on a database search. The database contains all theoretical Q/I and U/I profiles calculated in a one-dimensional semi-empirical model of the solar atmosphere for all possible values of the strength, inclination, and azimuth of the magnetic field vector, though this atmospheric region is highly inhomogeneous and dynamic. We focus on understanding the sensitivity of the inversion results to the noise and spectral resolution of the synthetic observations as well as the ambiguities and limitation inherent to the Hanle effect when only the hydrogen Lyα is used. We conclude that spectropolarimetric observations with CLASP can indeed be a suitable diagnostic tool for probing the magnetism of the transition region, especially when complemented with information on the magnetic field azimuth that can be obtained from other instruments.

  17. The temperature dependence of the momentum distribution of beryllium measured by neutron Compton scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fielding, A.L.; Timms, D.; Mayers, J.

    1999-01-01

    A new neutron Compton scattering (NCS) measurement of the temperature dependence of the kinetic energy in polycrystalline beryllium at momentum transfers in the range 27.91 to 104.21 A -1 is presented. The measurements have been made with the Electron Volt Spectrometer (eVS) at the ISIS facility and the measured kinetic energies are shown to be in good agreement with calculations made in the harmonic approximation. Numerical simulations are also presented based on the Sears expansion which predict that final state effects in NCS experiments become less significant at elevated temperatures. (author)

  18. High-temperature cuprate superconductors studied by x-ray Compton scattering and positron annihilation spectroscopies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barbiellini, Bernardo

    2013-01-01

    The bulk Fermi surface in an overdoped (x = 0.3) single crystal of La 2−x Sr x CuO 4 has been observed by using x-ray Compton scattering. This momentum density technique also provides a powerful tool for directly seeing what the dopant Sr atoms are doing to the electronic structure of La 2 CuO 4 . Because of wave function effects, positron annihilation spectroscopy does not yield a strong signature of the Fermi surface in extended momentum space, but it can be used to explore the role of oxygen defects in the reservoir layers for promoting high temperature superconductivity.

  19. High-temperature cuprate superconductors studied by x-ray Compton scattering and positron annihilation spectroscopies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbiellini, Bernardo

    2013-06-01

    The bulk Fermi surface in an overdoped (x = 0.3) single crystal of La2-xSrxCuO4 has been observed by using x-ray Compton scattering. This momentum density technique also provides a powerful tool for directly seeing what the dopant Sr atoms are doing to the electronic structure of La2CuO4. Because of wave function effects, positron annihilation spectroscopy does not yield a strong signature of the Fermi surface in extended momentum space, but it can be used to explore the role of oxygen defects in the reservoir layers for promoting high temperature superconductivity.

  20. Time evolution analysis of the electron distribution in Thomson/Compton back-scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petrillo, V.; Bacci, A.; Curatolo, C.; Maroli, C.; Serafini, L.; Rossi, A. R.

    2013-01-01

    We present the time evolution of the energy distribution of a relativistic electron beam after the Compton back-scattering with a counter-propagating laser field, performed in the framework of the Quantum Electrodynamics, by means of the code CAIN. As the correct angular distribution of the spontaneous emission is accounted, the main effect is the formation of few stripes, followed by the diffusion of the more energetic particles toward lower values in the longitudinal phase space. The Chapman-Kolmogorov master equation gives results in striking agreement with the numerical ones. An experiment on the Thomson source at SPARC-LAB is proposed

  1. Energy spectrum of Compton scattering of laser photons on relativistic electrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ando, Hiroaki; Yoneda, Yasuharu

    1976-01-01

    The high energy photons in gamma-ray region are obtainable by the Compton scattering of laser photons on relativistic electrons. But the motion of the electrons in the storage ring is not necessarily uniform. In the study of the uneven effect, the energy distribution of scattered photons is derived from the assumed momentum distribution of incident electrons. It is generally impossible to derive the momentum distribution of incident electrons from the energy spectrum of scattered photons. The additional conditions which make this possible in a special case are considered. A calculational method is examined for deriving the energy spectrum of scattered photons from the assumed momentum distribution of incident electrons. (Mori, K.)

  2. Inverse method for effects characterization from ultrasonic b-scan images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faur, M.

    1999-02-01

    In service inspections of French nuclear pressure water reactor vessels are carried out automatically in complete immersion from the inside by means of ultrasonic focused probes working in the pulse echo mode. Concern has been expressed about the capabilities of performing non destructive evaluation of the Outer Surface Defects (OSD), i.e. defects located in the vicinity of the outer surface of the inspected components. OSD are insonified by both a direct field that passes through the inner surface (water/steel) of the component containing the defect and a secondary field reflected from the outer surface. Consequently, the Bscan images, containing the signatures of such defects, are complicated and their interpretation is a difficult task. This work deals with extraction of the maximum available information for characterizing OSD from ultrasonic Bscan images. Our main objectives are to obtain the type of OSD and their geometric parameters by means of two specific inverse methods. The first method is used for the identification of the geometrical parameters of the equivalent planar OSD from segmented Bscan images. Ultrasonic equivalent defect sizing model-based methods may be used to size a defect in a material by obtaining a best-fit simple equivalent shape that matches the ultrasonic observed data. We illustrate the application of such an equivalent sizing OSD method that is based on a simplified direct model. The major drawback of this identification method, as used to date, is that only a part of the useful information contained into original Bscan image, i.e. segmented Bscan image, is used for defect characterization. Moreover, it requires the availability of defect classification information (i.e. if the defect is volumetric or planer, e. g. a crack or a lack of fusion), which, generally, may be as difficult to obtain as the defect parameters themselves. Therefore, we propose a parameter estimation method for extracting complementary information on the defect

  3. The integration of improved Monte Carlo compton scattering algorithms into the Integrated TIGER Series

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quirk, Thomas J. IV

    2004-01-01

    The Integrated TIGER Series (ITS) is a software package that solves coupled electron-photon transport problems. ITS performs analog photon tracking for energies between 1 keV and 1 GeV. Unlike its deterministic counterpart, the Monte Carlo calculations of ITS do not require a memory-intensive meshing of phase space; however, its solutions carry statistical variations. Reducing these variations is heavily dependent on runtime. Monte Carlo simulations must therefore be both physically accurate and computationally efficient. Compton scattering is the dominant photon interaction above 100 keV and below 5-10 MeV, with higher cutoffs occurring in lighter atoms. In its current model of Compton scattering, ITS corrects the differential Klein-Nishina cross sections (which assumes a stationary, free electron) with the incoherent scattering function, a function dependent on both the momentum transfer and the atomic number of the scattering medium. While this technique accounts for binding effects on the scattering angle, it excludes the Doppler broadening the Compton line undergoes because of the momentum distribution in each bound state. To correct for these effects, Ribbefor's relativistic impulse approximation (IA) will be employed to create scattering cross section differential in both energy and angle for each element. Using the parameterizations suggested by Brusa et al., scattered photon energies and angle can be accurately sampled at a high efficiency with minimal physical data. Two-body kinematics then dictates the electron's scattered direction and energy. Finally, the atomic ionization is relaxed via Auger emission or fluorescence. Future work will extend these improvements in incoherent scattering to compounds and to adjoint calculations.

  4. Inverse gamma ray dose rate effect in californium-252 RBE experiment with human T-1 cells irradiated in vitro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Todd, P.; Feola, J.M.

    1986-01-01

    Metabolically deoxygenated suspensions of human T-1 cells were used to determine the RBE in hypoxia of low dose rate (LDR) Cf-252 radiation compared to LDR gamma radiation. Based upon the initial portion of the survival curves the RBE was 5.0 ± 1.0 for all components of the Cf-252 radiation and 7.1 ± 1.7 for the neutrons alone. An inverse dose rate effect was observed for LDR gamma radiation in which greater cell sensitivity was observed at lower dose rates and longer irradiation periods. It was demonstrated that there was little or no sublethal damage repair or cell progression during LDR at 21 deg C, and the observed decrease in cell survival probability with increasing irradiation time at a given dose was attributable to reoxygenation of the cell suspensions during the course of LDR exposures. (Auth.)

  5. Gamma-ray detection and Compton camera image reconstruction with application to hadron therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frandes, M.

    2010-09-01

    A novel technique for radiotherapy - hadron therapy - irradiates tumors using a beam of protons or carbon ions. Hadron therapy is an effective technique for cancer treatment, since it enables accurate dose deposition due to the existence of a Bragg peak at the end of particles range. Precise knowledge of the fall-off position of the dose with millimeters accuracy is critical since hadron therapy proved its efficiency in case of tumors which are deep-seated, close to vital organs, or radio-resistant. A major challenge for hadron therapy is the quality assurance of dose delivery during irradiation. Current systems applying positron emission tomography (PET) technologies exploit gamma rays from the annihilation of positrons emitted during the beta decay of radioactive isotopes. However, the generated PET images allow only post-therapy information about the deposed dose. In addition, they are not in direct coincidence with the Bragg peak. A solution is to image the complete spectrum of the emitted gamma rays, including nuclear gamma rays emitted by inelastic interactions of hadrons to generated nuclei. This emission is isotropic, and has a spectrum ranging from 100 keV up to 20 MeV. However, the measurement of these energetic gamma rays from nuclear reactions exceeds the capability of all existing medical imaging systems. An advanced Compton scattering detection method with electron tracking capability is proposed, and modeled to reconstruct the high-energy gamma-ray events. This Compton detection technique was initially developed to observe gamma rays for astrophysical purposes. A device illustrating the method was designed and adapted to Hadron Therapy Imaging (HTI). It consists of two main sub-systems: a tracker where Compton recoiled electrons are measured, and a calorimeter where the scattered gamma rays are absorbed via the photoelectric effect. Considering a hadron therapy scenario, the analysis of generated data was performed, passing trough the complete

  6. Miniature magnetic bottle confined by circularly polarized laser light and measurements of the inverse Faraday effect in plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eliezer, S.; Paiss, Y.; Horovitz, Y.; Henis, Z.

    1997-01-01

    A new concept of hot plasma confinement in a miniature magnetic bottle induced by circularly polarized laser light is suggested. Magnetic fields generated by circularly polarized laser light may be of the order of megagauss, depending on the laser intensity. In this configuration the circularly polarized light is used to obtain confinement of a plasma contained in a good conductor vessel. The confinement in this scheme is supported by the magnetic forces. The Lawson criterion for a DT plasma might be achieved for number density n = 5*10 21 cm -3 and confinement time τ= 20 ns. The laser and plasma parameters required to obtain an energetic gain are calculated. Experiments and preliminary calculations were performed to study the feasibility of the above scheme. Measurements of the axial magnetic field induced by circularly polarized laser light, the so called inverse Faraday effect, and of the absorption of circularly polarized laser light in plasma, are reported. The experiments were performed with a circularly polarized Nd:YAG laser, having a wavelength of 1.06 τm and a pulse duration of 7 ns, in a range of irradiances from 10 9 to 10 14 W/cm 2 . Axial magnetic fields from 500 Gauss to 2 megagauss were measured. Up to 5*10 13 W/cm 3 the results are in agreement with a nonlinear model of the inverse Faraday effect dominated by the ponderomotive force. For the laser irradiance studied here, 9*10 13 - 2.5*10 14 W/cm 2 , the absorption of circularly polarized light was 14% higher relative to the absorption of linear polarized light

  7. The effect of averaging adjacent planes for artifact reduction in matrix inversion tomosynthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godfrey, Devon J.; Page McAdams, H.; Dobbins, James T.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Matrix inversion tomosynthesis (MITS) uses linear systems theory and knowledge of the imaging geometry to remove tomographic blur that is present in conventional backprojection tomosynthesis reconstructions, leaving in-plane detail rendered clearly. The use of partial-pixel interpolation during the backprojection process introduces imprecision in the MITS modeling of tomographic blur, and creates low-contrast artifacts in some MITS planes. This paper examines the use of MITS slabs, created by averaging several adjacent MITS planes, as a method for suppressing partial-pixel artifacts. Methods: Human chest tomosynthesis projection data, acquired as part of an IRB-approved pilot study, were used to generate MITS planes, three-plane MITS slabs (MITSa3), five-plane MITS slabs (MITSa5), and seven-plane MITS slabs (MITSa7). These were qualitatively examined for partial-pixel artifacts and the visibility of normal and abnormal anatomy. Additionally, small (5 mm) subtle pulmonary nodules were simulated and digitally superimposed upon human chest tomosynthesis projection images, and their visibility was qualitatively assessed in the different reconstruction techniques. Simulated images of a thin wire were used to generate modulation transfer function (MTF) and slice-sensitivity profile curves for the different MITS and MITS slab techniques, and these were examined for indications of partial-pixel artifacts and frequency response uniformity. Finally, mean-subtracted, exposure-normalized noise power spectra (ENNPS) estimates were computed and compared for MITS and MITS slab reconstructions, generated from 10 sets of tomosynthesis projection data of an acrylic slab. The simulated in-plane MTF response of each technique was also combined with the square root of the ENNPS estimate to yield stochastic signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) information about the different reconstruction techniques. Results: For scan angles of 20° and 5 mm plane separation, seven MITS planes must be

  8. The effect of averaging adjacent planes for artifact reduction in matrix inversion tomosynthesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Godfrey, Devon J. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina 27705 (United States); Page McAdams, H. [Carl E. Ravin Advanced Imaging Laboratories, Department of Radiology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina 27705 (United States); Dobbins, James T. III [Carl E. Ravin Advanced Imaging Laboratories, Department of Radiology, Department of Biomedical Engineering, Department of Physics, and Medical Physics Graduate Program, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina 27705 (United States)

    2013-02-15

    Purpose: Matrix inversion tomosynthesis (MITS) uses linear systems theory and knowledge of the imaging geometry to remove tomographic blur that is present in conventional backprojection tomosynthesis reconstructions, leaving in-plane detail rendered clearly. The use of partial-pixel interpolation during the backprojection process introduces imprecision in the MITS modeling of tomographic blur, and creates low-contrast artifacts in some MITS planes. This paper examines the use of MITS slabs, created by averaging several adjacent MITS planes, as a method for suppressing partial-pixel artifacts. Methods: Human chest tomosynthesis projection data, acquired as part of an IRB-approved pilot study, were used to generate MITS planes, three-plane MITS slabs (MITSa3), five-plane MITS slabs (MITSa5), and seven-plane MITS slabs (MITSa7). These were qualitatively examined for partial-pixel artifacts and the visibility of normal and abnormal anatomy. Additionally, small (5 mm) subtle pulmonary nodules were simulated and digitally superimposed upon human chest tomosynthesis projection images, and their visibility was qualitatively assessed in the different reconstruction techniques. Simulated images of a thin wire were used to generate modulation transfer function (MTF) and slice-sensitivity profile curves for the different MITS and MITS slab techniques, and these were examined for indications of partial-pixel artifacts and frequency response uniformity. Finally, mean-subtracted, exposure-normalized noise power spectra (ENNPS) estimates were computed and compared for MITS and MITS slab reconstructions, generated from 10 sets of tomosynthesis projection data of an acrylic slab. The simulated in-plane MTF response of each technique was also combined with the square root of the ENNPS estimate to yield stochastic signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) information about the different reconstruction techniques. Results: For scan angles of 20 Degree-Sign and 5 mm plane separation, seven MITS

  9. The effect of averaging adjacent planes for artifact reduction in matrix inversion tomosynthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godfrey, Devon J; McAdams, H Page; Dobbins, James T

    2013-02-01

    Matrix inversion tomosynthesis (MITS) uses linear systems theory and knowledge of the imaging geometry to remove tomographic blur that is present in conventional backprojection tomosynthesis reconstructions, leaving in-plane detail rendered clearly. The use of partial-pixel interpolation during the backprojection process introduces imprecision in the MITS modeling of tomographic blur, and creates low-contrast artifacts in some MITS planes. This paper examines the use of MITS slabs, created by averaging several adjacent MITS planes, as a method for suppressing partial-pixel artifacts. Human chest tomosynthesis projection data, acquired as part of an IRB-approved pilot study, were used to generate MITS planes, three-plane MITS slabs (MITSa3), five-plane MITS slabs (MITSa5), and seven-plane MITS slabs (MITSa7). These were qualitatively examined for partial-pixel artifacts and the visibility of normal and abnormal anatomy. Additionally, small (5 mm) subtle pulmonary nodules were simulated and digitally superimposed upon human chest tomosynthesis projection images, and their visibility was qualitatively assessed in the different reconstruction techniques. Simulated images of a thin wire were used to generate modulation transfer function (MTF) and slice-sensitivity profile curves for the different MITS and MITS slab techniques, and these were examined for indications of partial-pixel artifacts and frequency response uniformity. Finally, mean-subtracted, exposure-normalized noise power spectra (ENNPS) estimates were computed and compared for MITS and MITS slab reconstructions, generated from 10 sets of tomosynthesis projection data of an acrylic slab. The simulated in-plane MTF response of each technique was also combined with the square root of the ENNPS estimate to yield stochastic signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) information about the different reconstruction techniques. For scan angles of 20° and 5 mm plane separation, seven MITS planes must be averaged to sufficiently

  10. The effect of averaging adjacent planes for artifact reduction in matrix inversion tomosynthesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Godfrey, Devon J.; Page McAdams, H.; Dobbins, James T. III

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Matrix inversion tomosynthesis (MITS) uses linear systems theory and knowledge of the imaging geometry to remove tomographic blur that is present in conventional backprojection tomosynthesis reconstructions, leaving in-plane detail rendered clearly. The use of partial-pixel interpolation during the backprojection process introduces imprecision in the MITS modeling of tomographic blur, and creates low-contrast artifacts in some MITS planes. This paper examines the use of MITS slabs, created by averaging several adjacent MITS planes, as a method for suppressing partial-pixel artifacts. Methods: Human chest tomosynthesis projection data, acquired as part of an IRB-approved pilot study, were used to generate MITS planes, three-plane MITS slabs (MITSa3), five-plane MITS slabs (MITSa5), and seven-plane MITS slabs (MITSa7). These were qualitatively examined for partial-pixel artifacts and the visibility of normal and abnormal anatomy. Additionally, small (5 mm) subtle pulmonary nodules were simulated and digitally superimposed upon human chest tomosynthesis projection images, and their visibility was qualitatively assessed in the different reconstruction techniques. Simulated images of a thin wire were used to generate modulation transfer function (MTF) and slice-sensitivity profile curves for the different MITS and MITS slab techniques, and these were examined for indications of partial-pixel artifacts and frequency response uniformity. Finally, mean-subtracted, exposure-normalized noise power spectra (ENNPS) estimates were computed and compared for MITS and MITS slab reconstructions, generated from 10 sets of tomosynthesis projection data of an acrylic slab. The simulated in-plane MTF response of each technique was also combined with the square root of the ENNPS estimate to yield stochastic signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) information about the different reconstruction techniques. Results: For scan angles of 20° and 5 mm plane separation, seven MITS planes must be

  11. Does an atom interferometer test the gravitational redshift at the Compton frequency?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wolf, Peter; Borde, Christian J; Blanchet, Luc; Reynaud, Serge; Salomon, Christophe; Cohen-Tannoudji, Claude

    2011-01-01

    Atom interferometers allow the measurement of the acceleration of freely falling atoms with respect to an experimental platform at rest on Earth's surface. Such experiments have been used to test the universality of free fall by comparing the acceleration of the atoms to that of a classical freely falling object. In a recent paper, Mueller et al (2010 Nature 463 926-9) argued that atom interferometers also provide a very accurate test of the gravitational redshift (or universality of clock rates). Considering the atom as a clock operating at the Compton frequency associated with the rest mass, they claimed that the interferometer measures the gravitational redshift between the atom-clocks in the two paths of the interferometer at different values of gravitational potentials. In this paper, we analyze this claim in the frame of general relativity and of different alternative theories. We show that the difference of 'Compton phases' between the two paths of the interferometer is actually zero in a large class of theories, including general relativity, all metric theories of gravity, most non-metric theories and most theoretical frameworks used to interpret the violations of the equivalence principle. Therefore, in most plausible theoretical frameworks, there is no redshift effect and atom interferometers only test the universality of free fall. We also show that frameworks in which atom interferometers would test the redshift pose serious problems, such as (i) violation of the Schiff conjecture, (ii) violation of the Feynman path integral formulation of quantum mechanics and of the principle of least action for matter waves, (iii) violation of energy conservation, and more generally (iv) violation of the particle-wave duality in quantum mechanics. Standard quantum mechanics is no longer valid in such frameworks, so that a consistent interpretation of the experiment would require an alternative formulation of quantum mechanics. As such an alternative has not been

  12. Time-varying effect moderation using the structural nested mean model: estimation using inverse-weighted regression with residuals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almirall, Daniel; Griffin, Beth Ann; McCaffrey, Daniel F.; Ramchand, Rajeev; Yuen, Robert A.; Murphy, Susan A.

    2014-01-01

    This article considers the problem of examining time-varying causal effect moderation using observational, longitudinal data in which treatment, candidate moderators, and possible confounders are time varying. The structural nested mean model (SNMM) is used to specify the moderated time-varying causal effects of interest in a conditional mean model for a continuous response given time-varying treatments and moderators. We present an easy-to-use estimator of the SNMM that combines an existing regression-with-residuals (RR) approach with an inverse-probability-of-treatment weighting (IPTW) strategy. The RR approach has been shown to identify the moderated time-varying causal effects if the time-varying moderators are also the sole time-varying confounders. The proposed IPTW+RR approach provides estimators of the moderated time-varying causal effects in the SNMM in the presence of an additional, auxiliary set of known and measured time-varying confounders. We use a small simulation experiment to compare IPTW+RR versus the traditional regression approach and to compare small and large sample properties of asymptotic versus bootstrap estimators of the standard errors for the IPTW+RR approach. This article clarifies the distinction between time-varying moderators and time-varying confounders. We illustrate the methodology in a case study to assess if time-varying substance use moderates treatment effects on future substance use. PMID:23873437

  13. Effects of applied electromagnetic fields on the linear and nonlinear optical properties in an inverse parabolic quantum well

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ungan, F.; Yesilgul, U.; Kasapoglu, E.; Sari, H.; Sökmen, I.

    2012-01-01

    In this present work, we have investigated theoretically the effects of applied electric and magnetic fields on the linear and nonlinear optical properties in a GaAs/Al x Ga 1−x As inverse parabolic quantum well for different Al concentrations at the well center. The Al concentration at the barriers was always x max =0.3. The energy levels and wave functions are calculated within the effective mass approximation and the envelope function approach. The analytical expressions of optical properties are obtained by using the compact density-matrix approach. The linear, third-order nonlinear and total absorption and refractive index changes depending on the Al concentration at the well center are investigated as a function of the incident photon energy for the different values of the applied electric and magnetic fields. The results show that the applied electric and magnetic fields have a great effect on these optical quantities. - Highlights: ► The x c concentration has a great effect on the optical characteristics of these structures. ► The EM fields have a great effect on the optical properties of these structures. ► The total absorption coefficients increased as the electric and magnetic field increases. ► The RICs reduced as the electric and magnetic field increases.

  14. Evidence of Dopant Type-Inversion and Other Radiation Damage Effects of the CDF Silicon Detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinez-Ballarin, Roberto [Univ. of the Basque Country, Leioa (Spain)

    2010-06-01

    The aim of this document is to study the effect of radiation damage on the silicon sensors. The reflection of the effect of radiation can be observed in two fundamental parameters of the detector: the bias current and the bias voltage. The leakage current directly affects the noise, while the bias voltage is required to collect the maximum signal deposited by the charged particle.

  15. Inverse agonism at α2A adrenoceptors augments the hypophagic effect of sibutramine in rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janhunen, Sanna K.; van der Zwaal, Esther M.; la Fleur, Susanne E.; Adan, Roger A. H.

    2011-01-01

    Because the use of monoamine reuptake inhibitors as weight-reducing agents is limited by adverse effects, novel antiobesity drugs are needed. We studied acute effects of the noradrenaline (NA) and serotonin (5-HT) reuptake inhibitor sibutramine (SIB), alone and after pretreatment with α1- and

  16. Simplified slow anti-coincidence circuit for Compton suppression systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Azmi, Darwish

    2008-01-01

    Slow coincidence circuits for the anti-coincidence measurements have been considered for use in Compton suppression technique. The simplified version of the slow circuit has been found to be fast enough, satisfactory and allows an easy system setup, particularly with the advantage of the automatic threshold setting of the low-level discrimination. A well-type NaI detector as the main detector surrounded by plastic guard detector has been arranged to investigate the performance of the Compton suppression spectrometer using the simplified slow circuit. The system has been tested to observe the improvement in the energy spectra for medium to high-energy gamma-ray photons from terrestrial and environmental samples

  17. The Compton-thick Growth of Supermassive Black Holes constrained

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchner, J.; Georgakakis, A.; Nandra, K.

    2017-10-01

    A heavily obscured growth phase of supermassive black holes (SMBH) is thought to be important in the co-evolution with galaxies. X-rays provide a clean and efficient selection of unobscured and obscured AGN. Recent work with deeper observations and improved analysis methodology allowed us to extend constraints to Compton-thick number densities. We present the first luminosity function of Compton-thick AGN at z=0.5-4 and constrain the overall mass density locked into black holes over cosmic time, a fundamental constraint for cosmological simulations. Recent studies including ours find that the obscuration is redshift and luminosity-dependent in a complex way, which rules out entire sets of obscurer models. A new paradigm, the radiation-lifted torus model, is proposed, in which the obscurer is Eddington-rate dependent and accretion creates and displaces torus clouds. We place observational limits on the behaviour of this mechanism.

  18. Laser Compton Scattering Gamma Ray Induced Photo-Trasmutation

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Dazhi

    2004-01-01

    High brightness beams of gamma rays produced with laser Compton scattering have the potential to realize photo-transmutation through (γ,n) reaction, implying an efficient method to dispose long-lived fission products. Preliminary investigations have been carried out in understanding the feasibility of development of a transmutation facility to repose nuclear waste. A laser Compton scattering experimental setup based on a storage ring started to generate gamma-ray beams for studying the coupling of gamma photons and nuclear giant resonance. This paper demonstrates the dependency of nuclear transmutation efficiency on target dimensions and gamma ray features. 197Au sample was adopted in our experiment, and experimental results correspond to the theoretical estimations.

  19. Deeply virtual compton scattering on a virtual pion target

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amrath, D.; Diehl, M.; Lansberg, J.P.; Heidelberg Univ.

    2008-07-01

    We study deeply virtual Compton scattering on a virtual pion that is emitted by a proton. Using a range of models for the generalized parton distributions of the pion, we evaluate the cross section, as well as the beam spin and beam charge asymmetries in the leading-twist approximation. Studying Compton scattering on the pion in suitable kinematics puts high demands on both beam energy and luminosity, and we find that the corresponding requirements will first be met after the energy upgrade at Jefferson Laboratory. As a by-product of our study, we construct a parameterization of pion generalized parton distributions that has a non-trivial interplay between the x and t dependence and is in good agreement with form factor data and lattice calculations. (orig.)

  20. Electronic properties of Be and Al by Compton scattering technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aguiar, J.C.; Di Rocco, H.O.

    2011-01-01

    In this work, electronic properties of beryllium and aluminum are examined by using Compton scattering technique. The method is based on the irradiation of samples using a beam narrow of mono- energetic photons of 59.54 keV product of radioactive decay of Am -241 . Scattered radiation is collected by a high resolution semiconductor detector positioned at an angle of 90°. The measured spectrum is commonly called Compton profile and contains useful information about the electronic structure of the material. The experimental results are compared with theoretical calculations such as density functional theory showing a good agreement. However, these results show some discrepancies with many libraries used in codes such as Monte Carlo simulation. Since these libraries are based on the values tabulated by Biggs, Mendelsohn and Mann 1975 thus overestimating the scattered radiation on the material. (authors) [es

  1. The Mathematical Foundations of 3D Compton Scatter Emission Imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. T. Truong

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The mathematical principles of tomographic imaging using detected (unscattered X- or gamma-rays are based on the two-dimensional Radon transform and many of its variants. In this paper, we show that two new generalizations, called conical Radon transforms, are related to three-dimensional imaging processes based on detected Compton scattered radiation. The first class of conical Radon transform has been introduced recently to support imaging principles of collimated detector systems. The second class is new and is closely related to the Compton camera imaging principles and invertible under special conditions. As they are poised to play a major role in future designs of biomedical imaging systems, we present an account of their most important properties which may be relevant for active researchers in the field.

  2. Model independent dispersion approach to proton Compton scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caprini, I.; Radescu, E.E.

    1980-12-01

    The proton Compton scattering at low and intermediate energies is studied by means of a dispersion framework which exploits in an optimal way the (fixed momentum transfer) analyticity properties of the amplitudes in conjunction with the consequences of the (s-channel) unitarity. The mathematical background of the work consists of methods specific to boundary value problems for analytic vector-valued functions and interpolation theory. In comparison with previous related work, the external problems to be solved now are much more difficult because of the inclusion of the photoproduction input and also lead to additional computational complications. The lower bounds on the differential cross-section, obtained without any reference to subtractions and annihilation channel contributions, appear sufficiently restrictive to evidentiate rigorously some inconsistencies between results of single pion photoproduction multipole extractions and proton Compton scattering data. (author)

  3. Complete $O(\\alpha)$ QED corrections to polarized Compton scattering

    CERN Document Server

    Denner, Ansgar

    1999-01-01

    The complete QED corrections of O(alpha) to polarized Compton scattering are calculated for finite electron mass and including the real corrections induced by the processes e^- gamma -> e^- gamma gamma and e^- gamma -> e^- e^- e^+. All relevant formulas are listed in a form that is well suited for a direct implementation in computer codes. We present a detailed numerical discussion of the O(alpha)-corrected cross section and the left-right asymmetry in the energy range of present and future Compton polarimeters, which are used to determine the beam polarization of high-energetic e^+- beams. For photons with energies of a few eV and electrons with SLC energies or smaller, the corrections are of the order of a few per mille. In the energy range of future e^+e^- colliders, however, they reach 1-2% and cannot be neglected in a precision polarization measurement.

  4. Inversion Effects in the Perception of the Moving Human Form: A Comparison of Adolescents with Autism Spectrum Disorder and Typically Developing Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cleary, Laura; Looney, Kathy; Brady, Nuala; Fitzgerald, Michael

    2014-01-01

    The "body inversion effect" refers to superior recognition of upright than inverted images of the human body and indicates typical configural processing. Previous research by Reed et al. using static images of the human body shows that people with autism fail to demonstrate this effect. Using a novel task in which adults, adolescents…

  5. Research of synchrotron radiation by virtual photon and compton scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meng Xianzhu

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents a new theory to explain the synchrotron radiation. When charged particle does circular motion in the accelerator, the magnetic field of the accelerator can be taken as periodic, and equivalent to virtual photon. By Compton scattering of virtual photon and charged particle, the virtual photon can be transformed into photon to radiate out. According to this theory, the formula of photon wavelength in synchrotron radiation is found out, and the calculation results of wavelength is consonant with experimental data. (author)

  6. Detection of detachments and inhomogeneities in frescos by Compton scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castellano, A.; Cesareo, R.; Buccolieri, G.; Donativi, M.; Palama, F.; Quarta, S.; De Nunzio, G.; Brunetti, A.; Marabelli, M.; Santamaria, U.

    2005-01-01

    A mobile instrument has been developed for the detection and mapping of detachments in frescos by using Compton back scattered photons. The instrument is mainly composed of a high energy X-ray tube, an X-ray detection system and a translation table. The instrument was first applied to samples simulating various detachment situations, and then transferred to the Vatican Museum to detect detachments and inhomogeneities in the stanza di Eliodoro, one of the 'Raphael's stanze'

  7. Detection of detachments and inhomogeneities in frescos by Compton scattering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castellano, A. [Dipartimento di Scienza dei Materiali, Universita di Lecce, 73100 Lecce (Italy); INFN, Sezione di Lecce, via per Arnesano, 73100 Lecce (Italy); Cesareo, R. [Istituto di Matematica e Fisica, Universita di Sassari, 07100 Sassari (Italy) and INFN, Sezione di Cagliari, Cittadella Universitaria di Monserrato, 09042 Cagliari (Italy)]. E-mail: cesareo@uniss.it; Buccolieri, G. [Dipartimento di Scienza dei Materiali, Universita di Lecce, 73100 Lecce (Italy); INFN, Sezione di Lecce, via per Arnesano, 73100 Lecce (Italy); Donativi, M. [Dipartimento di Scienza dei Materiali, Universita di Lecce, 73100 Lecce (Italy); Palama, F. [Dipartimento di Scienza dei Materiali, Universita di Lecce, 73100 Lecce (Italy); INFN, Sezione di Lecce, via per Arnesano, 73100 Lecce (Italy); Quarta, S. [Dipartimento di Scienza dei Materiali, Universita di Lecce, 73100 Lecce (Italy); INFN, Sezione di Lecce, via per Arnesano, 73100 Lecce (Italy); De Nunzio, G. [Dipartimento di Scienza dei Materiali, Universita di Lecce, 73100 Lecce (Italy); INFN, Sezione di Lecce, via per Arnesano, 73100 Lecce (Italy); Brunetti, A. [Istituto di Matematica e Fisica, Universita di Sassari, 07100 Sassari (Italy); INFN, Sezione di Cagliari, Cittadella Universitaria di Monserrato, 09042 Cagliari (Italy); Marabelli, M. [Istituto Centrale del Restauro, P.zza S. Francesco di Paola, 00184 Rome (Italy); Santamaria, U. [Laboratori dei Musei Vaticani, Citta del Vaticano, Rome (Italy)

    2005-07-01

    A mobile instrument has been developed for the detection and mapping of detachments in frescos by using Compton back scattered photons. The instrument is mainly composed of a high energy X-ray tube, an X-ray detection system and a translation table. The instrument was first applied to samples simulating various detachment situations, and then transferred to the Vatican Museum to detect detachments and inhomogeneities in the stanza di Eliodoro, one of the 'Raphael's stanze'.

  8. Quantitative Compton suppression spectrometry at elevated counting rates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Westphal, G.P.; Joestl, K.; Schroeder, P.; Lauster, R.; Hausch, E.

    1999-01-01

    For quantitative Compton suppression spectrometry the decrease of coincidence efficiency with counting rate should be made negligible to avoid a virtual increase of relative peak areas of coincident isomeric transitions with counting rate. To that aim, a separate amplifier and discriminator has been used for each of the eight segments of the active shield of a new well-type Compton suppression spectrometer, together with an optimized, minimum dead-time design of the anticoincidence logic circuitry. Chance coincidence losses in the Compton suppression spectrometer are corrected instrumentally by comparing the chance coincidence rate to the counting rate of the germanium detector in a pulse-counting Busy circuit (G.P. Westphal, J. Rad. Chem. 179 (1994) 55) which is combined with the spectrometer's LFC counting loss correction system. The normally not observable chance coincidence rate is reconstructed from the rates of germanium detector and scintillation detector in an auxiliary coincidence unit, after the destruction of true coincidence by delaying one of the coincidence partners. Quantitative system response has been tested in two-source measurements with a fixed reference source of 60 Co of 14 kc/s, and various samples of 137 Cs, up to aggregate counting rates of 180 kc/s for the well-type detector, and more than 1400 kc/s for the BGO shield. In these measurements, the net peak areas of the 1173.3 keV line of 60 Co remained constant at typical values of 37 000 with and 95 000 without Compton suppression, with maximum deviations from the average of less than 1.5%

  9. Deeply virtual Compton scattering: How to test handbag dominance?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gousset, T.; Gousset, T.; Diehl, M.; Pire, B.; Diehl, M.; Ralston, J.P.

    1998-01-01

    We propose detailed tests of the handbag approximation in exclusive deeply virtual Compton scattering. Those tests make no use of any prejudice about parton correlations in the proton which are basically unknown objects and beyond the scope of perturbative QCD. Since important information on the proton substructure can be gained in the regime of light cone dominance we consider that such a class of tests is of special relevance. copyright 1998 American Institute of Physics

  10. Directional Unfolded Source Term (DUST) for Compton Cameras.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mitchell, Dean J.; Mitchell, Dean J.; Horne, Steven M.; O' Brien, Sean; Thoreson, Gregory G

    2018-03-01

    A Directional Unfolded Source Term (DUST) algorithm was developed to enable improved spectral analysis capabilities using data collected by Compton cameras. Achieving this objective required modification of the detector response function in the Gamma Detector Response and Analysis Software (GADRAS). Experimental data that were collected in support of this work include measurements of calibration sources at a range of separation distances and cylindrical depleted uranium castings.

  11. Timelike Compton scattering off the neutron and generalized parton distributions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boer, M.; Guidal, M. [CNRS-IN2P3, Universite Paris-Sud, Institut de Physique Nucleaire d' Orsay, Orsay (France); Vanderhaeghen, M. [Johannes Gutenberg Universitaet, Institut fuer Kernphysik and PRISMA Cluster of Excellence, Mainz (Germany)

    2016-02-15

    We study the exclusive photoproduction of an electron-positron pair on a neutron target in the Jefferson Lab energy domain. The reaction consists of two processes: the Bethe-Heitler and the Timelike Compton Scattering. The latter process provides potentially access to the Generalized Parton Distributions (GPDs) of the nucleon. We calculate all the unpolarized, single- and double-spin observables of the reaction and study their sensitivities to GPDs. (orig.)

  12. Inversion symmetry and bulk Rashba effect in methylammonium lead iodide perovskite single crystals

    KAUST Repository

    Frohna, Kyle

    2018-05-02

    Methylammonium lead iodide perovskite (MAPbI3) exhibits long charge carrier lifetimes that are linked to its high efficiency in solar cells. Yet, the mechanisms governing these unusual carrier dynamics are not completely understood. A leading hypothesis-disproved in this work-is that a large, static bulk Rashba effect slows down carrier recombination. Here, using second harmonic generation rotational anisotropy measurements on MAPbI3 crystals, we demonstrate that the bulk structure of tetragonal MAPbI3 is centrosymmetric with I4/mcm space group. Our calculations show that a significant Rashba splitting in the bandstructure requires a non-centrosymmetric lead iodide framework, and that incorrect structural relaxations are responsible for the previously predicted large Rashba effect. The small Rashba splitting allows us to compute effective masses in excellent agreement with experiment. Our findings rule out the presence of a large static Rashba effect in bulk MAPbI3, and our measurements find no evidence of dynamic Rashba effects.

  13. Inversion symmetry and bulk Rashba effect in methylammonium lead iodide perovskite single crystals

    KAUST Repository

    Frohna, Kyle; Deshpande, Tejas; Harter, John; Peng, Wei; Barker, Bradford A.; Neaton, Jeffrey B.; Louie, Steven G.; Bakr, Osman; Hsieh, David; Bernardi, Marco

    2018-01-01

    Methylammonium lead iodide perovskite (MAPbI3) exhibits long charge carrier lifetimes that are linked to its high efficiency in solar cells. Yet, the mechanisms governing these unusual carrier dynamics are not completely understood. A leading hypothesis-disproved in this work-is that a large, static bulk Rashba effect slows down carrier recombination. Here, using second harmonic generation rotational anisotropy measurements on MAPbI3 crystals, we demonstrate that the bulk structure of tetragonal MAPbI3 is centrosymmetric with I4/mcm space group. Our calculations show that a significant Rashba splitting in the bandstructure requires a non-centrosymmetric lead iodide framework, and that incorrect structural relaxations are responsible for the previously predicted large Rashba effect. The small Rashba splitting allows us to compute effective masses in excellent agreement with experiment. Our findings rule out the presence of a large static Rashba effect in bulk MAPbI3, and our measurements find no evidence of dynamic Rashba effects.

  14. Inverse spin-valve effect in nanoscale Si-based spin-valve devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiep, Duong Dinh; Tanaka, Masaaki; Hai, Pham Nam

    2017-12-01

    We investigated the spin-valve effect in nano-scale silicon (Si)-based spin-valve devices using a Fe/MgO/Ge spin injector/detector deposited on Si by molecular beam epitaxy. For a device with a 20 nm Si channel, we observed clear magnetoresistance up to 3% at low temperature when a magnetic field was applied in the film plane along the Si channel transport direction. A large spin-dependent output voltage of 20 mV was observed at a bias voltage of 0.9 V at 15 K, which is among the highest values in lateral spin-valve devices reported so far. Furthermore, we observed that the sign of the spin-valve effect is reversed at low temperatures, suggesting the possibility of a spin-blockade effect of defect states in the MgO/Ge tunneling barrier.

  15. ILC beam energy measurement by means of laser Compton backscattering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muchnoi, N. [Budker Inst. for Nuclear Physics, Novosibirsk (Russian Federation); Schreiber, H.J.; Viti, M. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Zeuthen (Germany)

    2008-10-15

    A novel, non-invasive method of measuring the beam energy at the International Linear Collider is proposed. Laser light collides head-on with beam particles and either the energy of the Compton scattered electrons near the kinematic end-point is measured or the positions of the Compton backscattered {gamma}-rays, the edge electrons and the unscattered beam particles are recorded. A compact layout for the Compton spectrometer is suggested. It consists of a bending magnet and position sensitive detectors operating in a large radiation environment. Several options for high spatial resolution detectors are discussed. Simulation studies support the use of an infrared or green laser and quartz fiber detectors to monitor the backscattered photons and edge electrons. Employing a cavity monitor, the beam particle position downstream of the magnet can be recorded with submicrometer precision. Such a scheme provides a feasible and promising method to access the incident beam energy with precisions of 10{sup -4} or better on a bunch-to-bunch basis while the electron and positron beams are in collision. (orig.)

  16. Compton profile with synchrotron light - application to Y-123 superconductivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De, Udayan

    2005-01-01

    Electron beam accelerated to 6 GeV in the European Synchrotron Radiation Facility (ESRF) at Grenoble, France, can deliver highly mono-energetic, intense (10 12 photons/sec at sample at 100 mA ring current) and fine photon beam reaching x-ray and γ energies. So photons of 57 keV from this synchrotron has been used for Compton Profile or CP experiment (at different temperatures down to 70 K) on our YBa 2 Cu 3 O 7 or Y-123 single crystals with T c = 91 K. Photons, Compton scattered even at a definite angle, θ, show a distribution (called Compton Profile) of energy and hence of momentum reflecting the EMD or electron momentum distribution in the solid. The temperature variation of S-parameter, defined as the fraction of low momentum electrons, has been found from preliminary CP data. It confirmed the surprising double minimum found from Doppler broadening of positron annihilation radiation lineshape (DBPARL). The CP set-up at the synchrotron including the detectors and cryogenics as well as the new results are outlined. (author)

  17. Electronic structure of the palladium hydride studied by compton scattering

    CERN Document Server

    Mizusaki, S; Yamaguchi, M; Hiraoka, N; Itou, M; Sakurai, Y

    2003-01-01

    The hydrogen-induced changes in the electronic structure of Pd have been investigated by Compton scattering experiments associated with theoretical calculations. Compton profiles (CPs) of single crystal of Pd and beta phase hydride PdH sub x (x=0.62-0.74) have been measured along the [100], [110] and [111] directions with a momentum resolution of 0.14-0.17 atomic units using 115 keV x-rays. The theoretical Compton profiles have been calculated from the wavefunctions obtained utilizing the full potential linearized augmented plane wave method within the local density approximation for Pd and stoichiometric PdH. The experimental and the theoretical results agreed well with respect to the difference in the CPs between PdH sub x and Pd, and the anisotropy in the CPs of Pd or PdH sub x. This study provides lines of evidence that upon hydride formation the lowest valance band of Pd is largely modified due to hybridization with H 1s-orbitals and the Fermi energy is raised into the sp-band. (author)

  18. ILC beam energy measurement by means of laser Compton backscattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muchnoi, N.; Schreiber, H.J.; Viti, M.

    2008-10-01

    A novel, non-invasive method of measuring the beam energy at the International Linear Collider is proposed. Laser light collides head-on with beam particles and either the energy of the Compton scattered electrons near the kinematic end-point is measured or the positions of the Compton backscattered γ-rays, the edge electrons and the unscattered beam particles are recorded. A compact layout for the Compton spectrometer is suggested. It consists of a bending magnet and position sensitive detectors operating in a large radiation environment. Several options for high spatial resolution detectors are discussed. Simulation studies support the use of an infrared or green laser and quartz fiber detectors to monitor the backscattered photons and edge electrons. Employing a cavity monitor, the beam particle position downstream of the magnet can be recorded with submicrometer precision. Such a scheme provides a feasible and promising method to access the incident beam energy with precisions of 10 -4 or better on a bunch-to-bunch basis while the electron and positron beams are in collision. (orig.)

  19. Dielectric response of fully and partially depleted ferroelectric thin films and inversion of the thickness effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Misirlioglu, I B; Yildiz, M

    2013-01-01

    We study the effect of full and partial depletion on the dielectric response characteristics of ferroelectric thin films with impurities via a computational approach. Using a thermodynamic approach along with the fundamental equations for semiconductors, we show that films with partial depletion display unique features and an enhanced dielectric response compared with those fully depleted. We find that the capacitance peak at switching can be significantly suppressed in the case of high impurity densities (>10 25 m −3 ) with relatively low ionization energy, of the order of 0.5 eV. For conserved number of species in films, electromigration of ionized impurities at room temperature is negligible and has nearly no effect on the dielectric response. In films with high impurity density, the dielectric response at zero bias is enhanced with respect to charge-free films or those with relatively low impurity density ( 24 m −3 ). We demonstrate that partially depleted films should be expected to exhibit peculiar capacitance–voltage characteristics at low and high bias and that the thickness effect probed in experiments in ferroelectric thin films could be entirely inverted in thin films with depletion charges where a higher dielectric response can be measured in thicker films. Therefore, depletion charge densities in ferroelectric thin films should be estimated before size-effect-related studies. Finally, we noted that these findings are in good qualitative agreement with dielectric measurements carried out on PbZr x Ti 1−x O 3 . (paper)

  20. An Inverse Relative Age Effect in Male Alpine Skiers at the Absolute Top Level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bjerke, Øyvind; Pedersen, Arve Vorland; Aune, Tore K; Lorås, Håvard

    2017-01-01

    The Relative Age Effect (RAE) can be described as the advantage of being born early after a certain cut-off date within a group of selection. The effect has been found across a wide range of sports and is particularly evident in pre-elite sports and team sports with a high selection pressure. At the absolute top level in team elite sports, the advantage of being relatively older has been reported to disappear, and even reverse, so that the relatively younger athletes are advantaged. In order to further examine such a reversal of the RAE, we investigated the performance of the overall top 50 skiers each year in the alpine World Cup, over a period of 20 years, among men ( N = 234) and women ( N = 235). The data indicated that the relatively younger male athletes at the absolute top level had accumulated, on average, more World Cup points compared to the relatively older skiers. No such effect was observed among the female skiers. This finding suggest the existence of a reversed relative age effect in male elite alpine skiing.

  1. An Inverse Relative Age Effect in Male Alpine Skiers at the Absolute Top Level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Øyvind Bjerke

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The Relative Age Effect (RAE can be described as the advantage of being born early after a certain cut-off date within a group of selection. The effect has been found across a wide range of sports and is particularly evident in pre-elite sports and team sports with a high selection pressure. At the absolute top level in team elite sports, the advantage of being relatively older has been reported to disappear, and even reverse, so that the relatively younger athletes are advantaged. In order to further examine such a reversal of the RAE, we investigated the performance of the overall top 50 skiers each year in the alpine World Cup, over a period of 20 years, among men (N = 234 and women (N = 235. The data indicated that the relatively younger male athletes at the absolute top level had accumulated, on average, more World Cup points compared to the relatively older skiers. No such effect was observed among the female skiers. This finding suggest the existence of a reversed relative age effect in male elite alpine skiing.

  2. Multi-frequency inversion-charge pumping for charge separation and mobility analysis in high-k/InGaAs metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Djara, V.; Cherkaoui, K.; Negara, M. A.; Hurley, P. K., E-mail: paul.hurley@tyndall.ie [Tyndall National Institute, University College Cork, Dyke Parade, Cork (Ireland)

    2015-11-28

    An alternative multi-frequency inversion-charge pumping (MFICP) technique was developed to directly separate the inversion charge density (N{sub inv}) from the trapped charge density in high-k/InGaAs metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistors (MOSFETs). This approach relies on the fitting of the frequency response of border traps, obtained from inversion-charge pumping measurements performed over a wide range of frequencies at room temperature on a single MOSFET, using a modified charge trapping model. The obtained model yielded the capture time constant and density of border traps located at energy levels aligned with the InGaAs conduction band. Moreover, the combination of MFICP and pulsed I{sub d}-V{sub g} measurements enabled an accurate effective mobility vs N{sub inv} extraction and analysis. The data obtained using the MFICP approach are consistent with the most recent reports on high-k/InGaAs.

  3. Radiation-chemical discussion on inverse dose-rate effect observed in radiation-induced strand breaks of plasmid DNA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Masuda, Takahiro

    1994-01-01

    Experimental results of inverse dose-rate effect, so-called Kada Effects, which was published by Takakura and her coworkers on radiation-induced strand breaks of plasmid DNA in aerated aqueous solution, have been kinetically analyzed and discussed on the basis of radiation chemistry. the kinetic analysis indicates that there are two possible mechanisms; 1) equilibrium mixture of O 2 - and HO 2 is responsible for strand breaks of DNA, and 2) peroxyl radical produced from citrate is effective for the strand breaks. However, the detailed kinetic analysis revealed that the latter is improbable because unimolecular decay of the peroxyl radical must be assumed to be negligible for its participation despite fast decay of analogous organic peroxyl radicals. The analysis has also given 9.93±0.10 dm 3 mol -1 s -1 per nucleotide unit, which corresponds to 7.62 x 10 4 dm 3 mol -1 s -1 per DNA molecule, as the rate constant for the reaction of the equilibrium mixture with plasmid pBR 322 DNA. Furthermore the probability that the reaction of the mixture with a nucleotide unit of DNA leads to strand breaks was obtained to be 3.36 x 10 -3 for gamma-irradiated system and 1.98 x 10 -3 for beta-irradiated system, respectively. (author)

  4. Wireless power transfer exploring spin rectification and inverse spin Hall effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seeger, R. L.; Garcia, W. J. S.; Dugato, D. A.; da Silva, R. B.; Harres, A.

    2018-04-01

    Devices based on spin rectification effects are of great interest for broadband communication applications, since they allow the rectification of radio frequency signals by simple ferromagnetic materials. The phenomenon is enhanced at ferromagnetic resonance condition, which may be attained when an external magnetic field is applied. The necessity of such field, however, hinders technological applications. Exploring spin rectification and spin Hall effects in exchange-biased samples, we were able to rectify radio frequency signals without an external applied magnetic field. Direct voltages of the order of μV were obtained when Ta/NiFe/FeMn/Ta thin films were exposed to microwaves in a shorted microstrip line for a relatively broad frequency range. Connecting the films to a resistive load, we estimated the fraction of the incident radio frequency power converted into usable dc power.

  5. Bayesian seismic AVO inversion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buland, Arild

    2002-07-01

    A new linearized AVO inversion technique is developed in a Bayesian framework. The objective is to obtain posterior distributions for P-wave velocity, S-wave velocity and density. Distributions for other elastic parameters can also be assessed, for example acoustic impedance, shear impedance and P-wave to S-wave velocity ratio. The inversion algorithm is based on the convolutional model and a linearized weak contrast approximation of the Zoeppritz equation. The solution is represented by a Gaussian posterior distribution with explicit expressions for the posterior expectation and covariance, hence exact prediction intervals for the inverted parameters can be computed under the specified model. The explicit analytical form of the posterior distribution provides a computationally fast inversion method. Tests on synthetic data show that all inverted parameters were almost perfectly retrieved when the noise approached zero. With realistic noise levels, acoustic impedance was the best determined parameter, while the inversion provided practically no information about the density. The inversion algorithm has also been tested on a real 3-D dataset from the Sleipner Field. The results show good agreement with well logs but the uncertainty is high. The stochastic model includes uncertainties of both the elastic parameters, the wavelet and the seismic and well log data. The posterior distribution is explored by Markov chain Monte Carlo simulation using the Gibbs sampler algorithm. The inversion algorithm has been tested on a seismic line from the Heidrun Field with two wells located on the line. The uncertainty of the estimated wavelet is low. In the Heidrun examples the effect of including uncertainty of the wavelet and the noise level was marginal with respect to the AVO inversion results. We have developed a 3-D linearized AVO inversion method with spatially coupled model parameters where the objective is to obtain posterior distributions for P-wave velocity, S

  6. Reactivity in inverse micelles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brochette, Pascal

    1987-01-01

    This research thesis reports the study of the use of micro-emulsions of water in oil as reaction support. Only the 'inverse micelles' domain of the ternary mixing (water/AOT/isooctane) has been studied. The main addressed issues have been: the micro-emulsion disturbance in presence of reactants, the determination of reactant distribution and the resulting kinetic theory, the effect of the interface on electron transfer reactions, and finally protein solubilization [fr

  7. 'PET -Compton' system. Comparative evaluation with PET system using Monte Carlo simulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diaz Garcia, Angelina; Arista Romeu, Eduardo; Abreu Alfonso, Yamiel; Leyva Fabelo, Antonio; Pinnera Hernandez, Ibrahin; Bolannos Perez, Lourdes; Rubio Rodriguez, Juan A; Perez Morales, Jose M.; Arce Dubois, Pedro; Vela Morales, Oscar; Willmott Zappacosta, Carlos

    2011-01-01

    Positron Emission Tomography (PET) in small animals has actually achieved spatial resolution round about 1 mm and currently there are under study different approaches to improve this spatial resolution. One of them combines PET technology with Compton Cameras. This paper presents the idea of the so called 'PET-Compton' systems and includes comparative evaluation of spatial resolution and global efficiency in both PET and PET-Compton system by means of Monte Carlo simulations using Geant4 code. Simulation is done on a PET-Compton system consisting of LYSO-LuYAP scintillating detectors of particular small animal PET scanner named 'Clear-PET' and for Compton detectors based on CdZnTe semiconductor. A group of radionuclides that emits a positron (e + ) and γ quantum almost simultaneously and fulfills some selection criteria for their possible use in PET-Compton systems for medical and biological applications were studied under simulation conditions. (Author)

  8. CsI Calorimeter for a Compton-Pair Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grove, Eric J.

    We propose to build and test a hodoscopic CsI(Tl) scintillating-crystal calorimeter for a medium-energy γ-ray Compton and pair telescope. The design and technical approach for this calorimeter relies deeply on heritage from the Fermi LAT CsI Calorimeter, but it dramatically improves the low-energy performance of that design by reading out the scintillation light with silicon photomultipliers (SiPMs), making the technology developed for Fermi applicable in the Compton regime. While such a hodoscopic calorimeter is useful for an entire class of medium-energy γ-ray telescope designs, we propose to build it explicitly to support beam tests and balloon flight of the Proto-ComPair telescope, the development and construction of which was funded in a four-year APRA program beginning in 2015 ("ComPair: Steps to a Medium Energy γ-ray Mission" with PI J. McEnery of GSFC). That award did not include funding for its CsI calorimeter subsystem, and this proposal is intended to cover that gap. ComPair is a MIDEX-class instrument concept to perform a high-sensitivity survey of the γ-ray sky from 0.5 MeV to 500 MeV. ComPair is designed to provide a dramatic increase in sensitivity relative to previous instruments in this energy range (predominantly INTEGRAL/SPI and Compton COMPTEL), with the same transformative sensitivity increase - and corresponding scientific return- that the Fermi Large Area Telescope provided relative to Compton EGRET. To enable transformative science over a broad range of MeV energies and with a wide field of view, ComPair is a combined Compton telescope and pair telescope employing a silicon-strip tracker (for Compton scattering and pair conversion and tracking) and a solid-state CdZnTe calorimeter (for Compton absorption) and CsI calorimeter (for pair calorimetry), surrounded by a plastic scintillator anti-coincidence detector. Under the current proposal, we will complete the detailed design, assembly, and test of the CsI calorimeter for the risk

  9. Compton scattering spectrum as a source of information of normal and neoplastic breast tissues' composition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Antoniassi, M.; Conceicao, A.L.C. [Departamento de Fisica-Faculdade de Filosofia Ciencias e Letras de Ribeirao Preto, Universidade de Sao Paulo, Ribeirao Preto, 14040-901 Sao Paulo (Brazil); Poletti, M.E., E-mail: poletti@ffclrp.usp.br [Departamento de Fisica-Faculdade de Filosofia Ciencias e Letras de Ribeirao Preto, Universidade de Sao Paulo, Ribeirao Preto, 14040-901 Sao Paulo (Brazil)

    2012-07-15

    In this work we measured X-ray scatter spectra from normal and neoplastic breast tissues using photon energy of 17.44 keV and a scattering angle of 90 Degree-Sign , in order to study the shape (FWHM) of the Compton peaks. The obtained results for FWHM were discussed in terms of composition and histological characteristics of each tissue type. The statistical analysis shows that the distribution of FWHM of normal adipose breast tissue clearly differs from all other investigated tissues. Comparison between experimental values of FWHM and effective atomic number revealed a strong correlation between them, showing that the FWHM values can be used to provide information about elemental composition of the tissues. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer X-ray scatter spectra from normal and neoplastic breast tissues were measured. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Shape (FWHM) of Compton peak was related with elemental composition and characteristics of each tissue type. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A statistical hypothesis test showed clear differences between normal and neoplastic breast tissues. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer There is a strong correlation between experimental values of FWHM and effective atomic number. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Shape (FWHM) of Compton peak can be used to provide information about elemental composition of the tissues.

  10. Genomic clones of bovine parvovirus: Construction and effect of deletions and terminal sequence inversions on infectivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shull, B.C.; Chen, K.C.; Lederman, M.; Stout, E.R.; Bates, R.C.

    1988-01-01

    Genomic clones of the autonomous parvovirus bovine parvovirus (BPV) were constructed by blunt-end ligation of reannealed virion plus and minus DNA strands into the plasmid pUC8. These clones were stable during propagation in Escherichia coli JM107. All clones tested were found to be infectious by the criteria of plaque titer and progressive cytophathic effect after transfection into bovine fetal lung cells. Sequencing of the recombinant plasmids demonstrated that all of the BPV inserts had left-end (3')-terminal deletions of up to 34 bases. Defective genomes could also be detected in the progeny DNA even though the infection was initiated with homogeneous, cloned DNA. Full-length genomic clones with 3' flip and 3' flop conformations were constructed and were found to have equal infectivity. Expression of capsid proteins from tranfected genomes was demonstrated by hemagglutination, indirect immunofluorescence, and immunoprecipitation of [ 35 S]methionine-labeled cell lysates. Use of appropriate antiserum for immunoprecipitation showed the synthesis of BPV capsid and noncapsid proteins after transfection. Independently, a series of genomic clones with increasingly larger 3'-terminal deletions was prepared from separately subcloned 3'-terminal fragments. Transfection of these clones into bovine fetal lung cells revealed that deletions of up to 34 bases at the 3' end lowered but did not abolish infectivity, while deletions of greater than 52 bases were lethal. End-label analysis showed that the 34-base deletion was repaired to wild-type length in the progeny virus

  11. An effective inversion algorithm for retrieving bimodal aerosol particle size distribution from spectral extinction data

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Zhenzong; Qi, Hong; Yao, Yuchen; Ruan, Liming

    2014-12-01

    The Ant Colony Optimization algorithm based on the probability density function (PDF-ACO) is applied to estimate the bimodal aerosol particle size distribution (PSD). The direct problem is solved by the modified Anomalous Diffraction Approximation (ADA, as an approximation for optically large and soft spheres, i.e., χ⪢1 and |m-1|⪡1) and the Beer-Lambert law. First, a popular bimodal aerosol PSD and three other bimodal PSDs are retrieved in the dependent model by the multi-wavelength extinction technique. All the results reveal that the PDF-ACO algorithm can be used as an effective technique to investigate the bimodal PSD. Then, the Johnson's SB (J-SB) function and the modified beta (M-β) function are employed as the general distribution function to retrieve the bimodal PSDs under the independent model. Finally, the J-SB and M-β functions are applied to recover actual measurement aerosol PSDs over Beijing and Shanghai obtained from the aerosol robotic network (AERONET). The numerical simulation and experimental results demonstrate that these two general functions, especially the J-SB function, can be used as a versatile distribution function to retrieve the bimodal aerosol PSD when no priori information about the PSD is available.

  12. A cost-effective structure of a centralized-light-source WDM-PON utilizing inverse-duobinary-RZ downstream and DPSK upstream

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Long-Quan; Qiao Yao-Jun; Ji Yue-Feng

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a new structure of a centralized-light-source wavelength division multiplexed passive optical network (WDM-PON) utilizing inverse-duobinary-return-to-zero (inverse-duobinary-RZ) downstream and DPSK upstream. It reuses downstream light for the upstream modulation, which retrenches lasers assembled at each optical network unit (ONU), and ultimately cuts down the cost of ONUs a great deal. Meanwhile, a 50-km-reach WDM-PON experiment with 10-Gb/s inverse-duobinary-RZ downstream and 6-Gb/s DPSK upstream is demonstrated here. It is revealed to be a novel cost-effective alternative for the next generation access network. (electromagnetism, optics, acoustics, heat transfer, classical mechanics, and fluid dynamics)

  13. Nucleon polarizabilities from deuteron Compton scattering within a Green's function hybrid approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hildebrandt, R.P.; Hemmert, T.R. [Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Institut fuer Theoretische Physik (T39), Physik-Department, Garching (Germany); Griesshammer, H.W. [Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Institut fuer Theoretische Physik (T39), Physik-Department, Garching (Germany); Universitaet Erlangen-Nuernberg, Institut fuer Theoretische Physik III, Naturwissenschaftliche Fakultaet I, Erlangen (Germany); The George Washington University, Center for Nuclear Studies, Department of Physics, Washington DC (United States)

    2010-10-15

    We examine elastic Compton scattering from the deuteron for photon energies ranging from zero to 100MeV, using state-of-the-art deuteron wave functions and NN potentials. Nucleon-nucleon rescattering between emission and absorption of the two photons is treated by Green's functions in order to ensure gauge invariance and the correct Thomson limit. With this Green's function hybrid approach, we fulfill the low-energy theorem of deuteron Compton scattering and there is no significant dependence on the deuteron wave function used. Concerning the nucleon structure, we use the chiral effective field theory with explicit {delta} (1232) degrees of freedom within the small-scale expansion up to leading-one-loop order. Agreement with available data is good at all energies. Our 2-parameter fit to all elastic {gamma} d data leads to values for the static isoscalar dipole polarizabilities which are in excellent agreement with the isoscalar Baldin sum rule. Taking this value as additional input, we find {alpha}{sub E}{sup s} = (11.3{+-}0.7(stat){+-}0.6(Baldin){+-}1(theory)){sup .}10{sup -4} fm{sup 3} and {beta}{sub M}{sup s} = (3.2{+-}0.7(stat){+-}0.6(Baldin){+-}1(theory)){sup .}10{sup -4} fm{sup 3} and conclude by comparison to the proton numbers that neutron and proton polarizabilities are the same within rather small errors. (orig.)

  14. Compton scattering of microwave background radiation by gas in galaxy clusters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gould, R.J.; Rephaeli, Y.

    1978-01-01

    Based on data on the X-ray spectrum of the Coma cluster, interpreted as thermal bremsstrahlung, the expected brightness depletion from Compton scattering of the microwave background in the direction of the cluster is computed. The calculated depletion is about one-third that recently observed by Gull and Northover, and the discrepancy is discussed. In comparing the observed microwave depletion in the direction of other clusters which are X-ray sources it is found that there is no correlation with the cluster X-ray luminosity, while a dependence proportional to L/sub x//sup 1/2/ is expected. Consequently, the microwave depletion observations cannot yet be taken as good evidence for a thermal bremsstrahlung origin for the X-ray emission. The perturbation from Compton scattering of photons on the high-frequency (Wien) tail of the blackbody distribution is computed and found to be much larger than predicted in previous calculations. In the Wien tail the effect is a relative increase in the blackbody intensity that is appreciably greater in magnitude than the depletion in the Rayleigh-Jeans domain

  15. Iterative Monte Carlo simulation with the Compton kinematics-based GEB in a plastic scintillation detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Chankyu; Kim, Yewon [Department of Nuclear and Quantum Engineering, KAIST, Daejeon 305-701 (Korea, Republic of); Moon, Myungkook [Neutron Instrumentation Division, KAERI, Daejeon 305-353 (Korea, Republic of); Cho, Gyuseong, E-mail: gscho@kaist.ac.kr [Department of Nuclear and Quantum Engineering, KAIST, Daejeon 305-701 (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-09-21

    Plastic scintillators have been used for gamma ray detection in the fields of dosimetry and homeland security because of their desired characteristics such as a fast decay time, a low production cost, availability in a large-scale, and a tissue-equivalence. Gaussian energy broadening (GEB) in MCNP simulation is an effective treatment for tallies to calculate the broadened response function of a detector similarly to measured spectra. The full width at half maximum (FWHM) of a photopeak has been generally used to compute input parameters required for the GEB treatment. However, it is hard to find the photopeak in measured gamma spectra with plastic scintillators so that computation of the input parameters for the GEB has to be taken with another way. In this study, an iterative method for the GEB treated MCNP simulation to calculate the response function of a plastic scintillator is suggested. Instead of the photopeak, Compton maximum and Compton edge were used to estimate energy broadening in the measured spectra and to determine the GEB parameters. In a demonstration with a CsI(Tl) scintillator, the proposed iterative simulation showed the similar gamma spectra to the existing method using photopeaks. The proposed method was then applied to a polystyrene scintillator, and the simulation result were in agreement with the measured spectra with only a little iteration.

  16. An effective inversion algorithm for retrieving bimodal aerosol particle size distribution from spectral extinction data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He, Zhenzong; Qi, Hong; Yao, Yuchen; Ruan, Liming

    2014-01-01

    The Ant Colony Optimization algorithm based on the probability density function (PDF-ACO) is applied to estimate the bimodal aerosol particle size distribution (PSD). The direct problem is solved by the modified Anomalous Diffraction Approximation (ADA, as an approximation for optically large and soft spheres, i.e., χ⪢1 and |m−1|⪡1) and the Beer–Lambert law. First, a popular bimodal aerosol PSD and three other bimodal PSDs are retrieved in the dependent model by the multi-wavelength extinction technique. All the results reveal that the PDF-ACO algorithm can be used as an effective technique to investigate the bimodal PSD. Then, the Johnson's S B (J-S B ) function and the modified beta (M-β) function are employed as the general distribution function to retrieve the bimodal PSDs under the independent model. Finally, the J-S B and M-β functions are applied to recover actual measurement aerosol PSDs over Beijing and Shanghai obtained from the aerosol robotic network (AERONET). The numerical simulation and experimental results demonstrate that these two general functions, especially the J-S B function, can be used as a versatile distribution function to retrieve the bimodal aerosol PSD when no priori information about the PSD is available. - Highlights: • Bimodal PSDs are retrieved by ACO based on probability density function accurately. • J-S B and M-β functions can be used as the versatile function to recover bimodal PSDs. • Bimodal aerosol PSDs can be estimated by J-S B function more reasonably

  17. From neutron Compton profiles to momentum distribution: Assessment of direct numerical determination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Senesi, R.; Flammini, D.; Romanelli, G.; Andreani, C.

    2013-01-01

    Inelastic neutron scattering at high momentum transfers, in the neutron Compton scattering regime, provides an access to the neutron Compton profiles, the analogous of Compton profiles in X-ray scattering. The line shape analysis of the neutron Compton profiles is usually carried out making use of multiparametric nonlinear fitting, garnering detailed information about the momentum distribution of the target atoms. This paper presents the proposal to directly determine numerically the momentum distribution from the profiles, thus eliminating the possible instabilities present in multiparametric fitting. A comparison with Monte Carlo simulations and with previous measurements on polycrystalline ice provides quantitative assessments of the proposed method

  18. Study of a high finesse four mirrors Fabry Perot cavity for X-rays and Gamma rays production by laser-electron Compton scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fedala, Y.

    2008-10-01

    The main goal of this thesis is the study and design of a high finesse Fabry Perot cavity to amplify a laser beam in order to achieve power gains ranging from 10 4 to 10 5 . This cavity is dedicated to the production of intense and monochromatic X-ray for medical applications (medical RADIOTHOMX ring) and gamma rays for a Compton based polarized positron source by Compton scattering of a high power laser beam and electron beam. To increase the brightness of the Compton interaction at the collision points, it is essential to have not only a high power laser beam but also very small laser beam radii at the interaction points. To achieve such performances, 2 scenarios are possible: a concentric 2 mirrors cavity which is mechanically unstable or a 4 mirrors cavity more complex but more stable. We tested numerically mechanical stability and stability of Eigen modes polarization of various planar and non-planar geometries of 4 mirrors cavities. Experimentally, we have developed a four mirrors tetrahedral 'bow-tie' cavity; radii of the order of 20 microns were made. The Eigen modes of such a cavity, in both planar and non planar geometries, were measured and compared with the numerical results. A good agreement was observed. In a second time, the impact of Compton interaction on the transverse dynamics, in the case of the polarized positrons source, and the longitudinal dynamic, in the case of the medical ring of the electron beam was studied. Compton scattering causes energy loss and induces an additional dispersion of energy in electron beam. For the polarized positrons source, 10 collision points are planned. The transport line has been determined and the modelling of the Compton interaction effect with a simple matrix calculation was made. For the medical ring, Compton scattering causes bunch lengthening and the increase of energy dispersion which are to influence the produced X-ray flux. A study of the longitudinal dynamics of the electron beam in the ring was

  19. Inverse problems of geophysics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yanovskaya, T.B.

    2003-07-01

    This report gives an overview and the mathematical formulation of geophysical inverse problems. General principles of statistical estimation are explained. The maximum likelihood and least square fit methods, the Backus-Gilbert method and general approaches for solving inverse problems are discussed. General formulations of linearized inverse problems, singular value decomposition and properties of pseudo-inverse solutions are given

  20. Effect of kaolin particle size and loading on the characteristics of kaolin ceramic support prepared via phase inversion technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siti Khadijah Hubadillah

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In this study, low cost ceramic supports were prepared from kaolin via phase inversion technique with two kaolin particle sizes, which are 0.04–0.6 μm (denoted as type A and 10–15 μm (denoted as type B, at different kaolin contents ranging from 14 to 39 wt.%, sintered at 1200 °C. The effect of kaolin particle sizes as well as kaolin contents on membrane structure, pore size distribution, porosity, mechanical strength, surface roughness and gas permeation of the support were investigated. The support was prepared using kaolin type A induced asymmetric structure by combining macroporous voids and sponge-like structure in the support with pore size of 0.38 μm and 1.05 μm, respectively, and exhibited ideal porosity (27.7%, great mechanical strength (98.9 MPa and excellent gas permeation. Preliminary study shows that the kaolin ceramic support in this work is potential to gas separation application at lower cost.

  1. Inverse spin Hall effect from pulsed spin current in organic semiconductors with tunable spin-orbit coupling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Dali; van Schooten, Kipp J; Kavand, Marzieh; Malissa, Hans; Zhang, Chuang; Groesbeck, Matthew; Boehme, Christoph; Valy Vardeny, Z

    2016-08-01

    Exploration of spin currents in organic semiconductors (OSECs) induced by resonant microwave absorption in ferromagnetic substrates is appealing for potential spintronics applications. Owing to the inherently weak spin-orbit coupling (SOC) of OSECs, their inverse spin Hall effect (ISHE) response is very subtle; limited by the microwave power applicable under continuous-wave (cw) excitation. Here we introduce a novel approach for generating significant ISHE signals in OSECs using pulsed ferromagnetic resonance, where the ISHE is two to three orders of magnitude larger compared to cw excitation. This strong ISHE enables us to investigate a variety of OSECs ranging from π-conjugated polymers with strong SOC that contain intrachain platinum atoms, to weak SOC polymers, to C60 films, where the SOC is predominantly caused by the curvature of the molecule's surface. The pulsed-ISHE technique offers a robust route for efficient injection and detection schemes of spin currents at room temperature, and paves the way for spin orbitronics in plastic materials.

  2. Magnetic-field-induced crossover from the inverse Faraday effect to the optical orientation in EuTe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavlov, V. V.; Pisarev, R. V.; Nefedov, S. G.; Akimov, I. A.; Yakovlev, D. R.; Bayer, M.; Henriques, A. B.; Rappl, P. H. O.; Abramof, E.

    2018-05-01

    A time-resolved optical pump-probe technique has been applied for studying the ultrafast dynamics in the magnetic semiconductor EuTe near the absorption band gap. We show that application of external magnetic field up to 6 T results in crossover from the inverse Faraday effect taking place on the femtosecond time scale to the optical orientation phenomenon with an evolution in the picosecond time domain. We propose a model which includes both these processes, possessing different spectral and temporal properties. The circularly polarized optical pumping induces the electronic transition 4 f 7 5 d 0 → 4 f 6 5 d 1 forming the absorption band gap in EuTe. The observed crossover is related to a strong magnetic-field shift of the band gap in EuTe at low temperatures. It was found that manipulation of spin states on intrinsic defect levels takes place on a time scale of 19 ps in the applied magnetic field of 6 T.

  3. Energy and intensity distributions of 0.279 MeV multiply Compton-scattered photons in soldering material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, Manpreet; Singh, Gurvinderjit; Singh, Bhajan; Sandhu, B.S.

    2007-01-01

    An inverse response matrix converts the observed pulse-height distribution of a NaI(Tl) scintillation detector to a photon spectrum. This also results in extraction of intensity distribution of multiply scattered events originating from interactions of 0.279 MeV photons with thick targets of soldering material. The observed pulse-height distributions are a composite of singly and multiply scattered events in addition to bremmstrahlung-and Rayleigh-scattered events. To evaluate the contribution of multiply scattered events, the spectrum of singly scattered events contributing to inelastic Compton peak is reconstructed analytically. The optimum thickness (saturation depth), at which the number of multiply scattered events saturates, has been measured. Monte Carlo calculations also support the present results

  4. Thermal Comptonization in standard accretion disks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maraschi, L.; Molendi, S.

    1990-01-01

    Using the theory of geometrically thin accretion disks (where the effects of viscosity are parametrized in terms of the total pressure, viscosity parameter, α) equations are presented for the innermost region of the disk (where the pressure is due to radiation, and the main source of opacity is Thompson scattering). It is important to stress that the four equations can be solved without making use of an equation for the temperature. This is not true for the other regions of the disk. An equation given is used to determine the temperature, assuming that the disk is homogeneous and isothermal in the vertical direction. (author)

  5. The effect of pressure-controlled inverse ratio ventilation on lung protection in obese patients undergoing gynecological laparoscopic surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Lili; Shen, Jianjun; Yan, Min

    2017-10-01

    To examine the effects of pressure-controlled inverse ratio ventilation (PCIRV) and volume-control ventilation (VCV) on arterial oxygenation, pulmonary function, hemodynamics, levels of surfactant protein A (SP-A), and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) in obese patients undergoing gynecological laparoscopic surgery. Sixty patients, body mass index (BMI) ≥30 kg/m 2 , scheduled for elective gynecological laparoscopic surgery were enrolled in the study. Patients were randomly allocated to receive either PCIRV with an inspiratory-expiratory (I:E) ratio of 1.5:1 (PCIRV group n = 30) or VCV with an I:E ratio of 1:2 (VCV group n = 30). Ventilation variables, viz. tidal volume (V T ), dynamic respiratory-system compliance (C RS ), driving pressure (ΔP = V T /C RS ), arterial blood oxygen partial pressure/fraction of inspiration oxygen (PaO 2 /FiO 2 ) and arterial blood carbon dioxide partial pressure (PaCO 2 ), were measured. Hemodynamic variables, viz. mean arterial pressure (MAP), heart rate (HR), and serum levels of SP-A and TNF-α, were also measured. When compared to patients in the VCV group, patients in the PCIRV group had higher V T , dynamic C RS , and PaO 2 /FiO 2 , and lower ΔP and PaCO 2 at 20 and 60 min after the start of pneumoperitoneum (p ventilation, promote gas exchange and oxygenation, and is associated with decreased levels of SP-A and TNF-α. These effects demonstrate improved lung protection provided by PCIRV in this patient population.

  6. Experimental study of angular dependence in double photon Compton scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sandhu, B.S.; Dewan, R.; Saddi, M.B.; Singh, B.; Ghumman, B.S.

    2000-01-01

    The collision differential cross-section and energy of one of the final photons for double photon Compton scattering have been measured as a function of scattering angle θ 1 . The incident photon energy is 0.662 MeV and thin aluminium foils are used as a scatterer. The two simultaneously emitted photons in this higher order process are detected in coincidence using two NaI(Tl) scintillation spectrometers and 30 ns timing electronics. The measured values for energy and collision differential cross-section agree with theory within experimental estimated error. The present data provide information of angular dependence in this higher order process

  7. Meson-induced correlations of nucleons in nuclear Compton scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huett, M.; Milstein, A.I.

    1998-01-01

    The nonresonant (seagull) contribution to the nuclear Compton amplitude at low energies is strongly influenced by nucleon correlations arising from meson exchange. We study this problem in a modified Fermi gas model, where nuclear correlation functions are obtained with the help of perturbation theory. The dependence of the mesonic seagull amplitude on the nuclear radius is investigated and the influence of a realistic nuclear density on this amplitude is discussed. We found that different form factors appear for the static part (proportional to the enhancement constant κ) of the mesonic seagull amplitude and for the parts, which contain the contribution from electromagnetic polarizabilities. copyright 1998 The American Physical Society

  8. Compton scattering by mesons in nuclei: Experiment on 208Pb

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuhrberg, K.; Martin, G.; Haeger, D.; Ludwig, M.; Schumacher, M.; Andersson, B.E.; Blomqvist, K.I.; Ruijter, H.; Sandell, A.; Schroeder, B.; Hayward, E.; Nilsson, L.; Zorro, R.

    1992-01-01

    Using 58 and 73 MeV tagged photons and scattering angles from 60deg to 150deg, it is shown that is possible to observe Compton scattering by 'mesons in nuclei ' through an incomplete cancellation of the mesonic (exchange- current) seagull amplitude by parts of the nuclear resonance amplitude related to the giant-dipole resonance of 208 Pb. This phenomenon is a property of an extended nucleus and , therefore, cannot be dtudied on the deuteron. Predictions of the exchange form factor which determines the angular distribution of the exchange seagull amplitude are compared with experimental data. (orig.)

  9. Compton profiles of some 4d transition-metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharma, B.K.; Tomak, M.

    1982-08-01

    We have computed Compton profiles for 4d transition-metals using the Renormalized Free Atom (RFA) model for two different electron configurations, namely 4dsup(n-1)5s 1 and 4dsup(n-2)5s 2 . The results for niobium and molybdenum are presented and compared with those obtained for these metals within free atom model. For low values of momenta the RFA profiles are broader than the latter ones. The constancy of J(0) values reported for 3d-metals is shown to be present also in case of 4d-metals. (author)

  10. Measurement of Deeply Virtual Compton Scattering at HERA

    CERN Document Server

    Adloff, C.; Andrieu, B.; Anthonis, T.; Arkadov, V.; Astvatsatourov, A.; Babaev, A.; Bahr, J.; Baranov, P.; Barrelet, E.; Bartel, W.; Bate, P.; Beglarian, A.; Behnke, O.; Beier, C.; Belousov, A.; Benisch, T.; Berger, Christoph; Berndt, T.; Bizot, J.C.; Boudry, V.; Braunschweig, W.; Brisson, V.; Broker, H.B.; Brown, D.P.; Bruckner, W.; Bruncko, D.; Burger, J.; Busser, F.W.; Bunyatyan, A.; Burrage, A.; Buschhorn, G.; Bystritskaya, L.; Campbell, A.J.; Cao, Jun; Caron, S.; Clarke, D.; Clerbaux, B.; Collard, C.; Contreras, J.G.; Coppens, Y.R.; Coughlan, J.A.; Cousinou, M.C.; Cox, B.E.; Cozzika, G.; Cvach, J.; Dainton, J.B.; Dau, W.D.; Daum, K.; Davidsson, M.; Delcourt, B.; Delerue, N.; Demirchyan, R.; De Roeck, A.; De Wolf, E.A.; Diaconu, C.; Dingfelder, J.; Dixon, P.; Dodonov, V.; Dowell, J.D.; Droutskoi, A.; Dubak, A.; Duprel, C.; Eckerlin, Guenter; Eckstein, D.; Efremenko, V.; Egli, S.; Eichler, R.; Eisele, F.; Eisenhandler, E.; Ellerbrock, M.; Elsen, E.; Erdmann, M.; Erdmann, W.; Faulkner, P.J.W.; Favart, L.; Fedotov, A.; Felst, R.; Ferencei, J.; Ferron, S.; Fleischer, M.; Fleming, Y.H.; Flugge, G.; Fomenko, A.; Foresti, I.; Formanek, J.; Foster, J.M.; Franke, G.; Gabathuler, E.; Gabathuler, K.; Garvey, J.; Gassner, J.; Gayler, Joerg; Gerhards, R.; Gerlich, C.; Ghazaryan, Samvel; Goerlich, L.; Gogitidze, N.; Goldberg, M.; Goodwin, C.; Grab, C.; Grassler, H.; Greenshaw, T.; Grindhammer, Guenter; Hadig, T.; Haidt, D.; Hajduk, L.; Haynes, W.J.; Heinemann, B.; Heinzelmann, G.; Henderson, R.C.W.; Hengstmann, S.; Henschel, H.; Heremans, R.; Herrera, G.; Herynek, I.; Hildebrandt, M.; Hilgers, M.; Hiller, K.H.; Hladky, J.; Hoting, P.; Hoffmann, D.; Horisberger, R.; Hurling, S.; Ibbotson, M.; Issever, C .; Jacquet, M.; Jaffre, M.; Janauschek, L.; Janssen, X.; Jemanov, V.; Jonsson, L.; Johnson, D.P.; Jones, M.A.S.; Jung, H.; Kastli, H.K.; Kant, D.; Kapichine, M.; Karlsson, M.; Karschnick, O.; Keil, F.; Keller, N.; Kennedy, J.; Kenyon, I.R.; Kermiche, S.; Kiesling, Christian M.; Kjellberg, P.; Klein, M.; Kleinwort, C.; Kluge, T.; Knies, G.; Koblitz, B.; Kolya, S.D.; Korbel, V.; Kostka, P.; Kotelnikov, S.K.; Koutouev, R.; Koutov, A.; Krehbiel, H.; Kroseberg, J.; Kruger, K.; Kupper, A.; Kuhr, T.; Kurca, T.; Lahmann, R.; Lamb, D.; Landon, M.P.J.; Lange, W.; Lastovicka, T.; Laycock, P.; Lebailly, E.; Lebedev, A.; Leissner, B.; Lemrani, R.; Lendermann, V.; Levonian, S.; Lindstroem, M.; List, B.; Lobodzinska, E.; Lobodzinski, B.; Loginov, A.; Loktionova, N.; Lubimov, V.; Luders, S.; Luke, D.; Lytkin, L.; Mahlke-Kruger, H.; Malden, N.; Malinovski, E.; Malinovski, I.; Maracek, R.; Marage, P.; Marks, J.; Marshall, R.; Martyn, H.U.; Martyniak, J.; Maxfield, S.J.; Meer, D.; Mehta, A.; Meier, K.; Meyer, A.B.; Meyer, H.; Meyer, J.; Meyer, P.O.; Mikocki, S.; Milstead, D.; Mkrtchyan, T.; Mohr, R.; Mohrdieck, S.; Mondragon, M.N.; Moreau, F.; Morozov, A.; Morris, J.V.; Muller, K.; Murin, P.; Nagovizin, V.; Naroska, B.; Naumann, J.; Naumann, T.; Nellen, G.; Newman, Paul R.; Nicholls, T.C.; Niebergall, F.; Niebuhr, C.; Nix, O.; Nowak, G.; Olsson, J.E.; Ozerov, D.; Panassik, V.; Pascaud, C.; Patel, G.D.; Peez, M.; Perez, E.; Phillips, J.P.; Pitzl, D.; Poschl, R.; Potachnikova, I.; Povh, B.; Rabbertz, K.; Radel, G.; Rauschenberger, J.; Reimer, P.; Reisert, B.; Reyna, D.; Risler, C.; Rizvi, E.; Robmann, P.; Roosen, R.; Rostovtsev, A.; Rusakov, S.; Rybicki, K.; Sankey, D.P.C.; Scheins, J.; Schilling, F.P.; Schleper, P.; Schmidt, D.; Schmidt, S.; Schmitt, S.; Schneider, M.; Schoeffel, L.; Schoning, A.; Schorner, T.; Schroder, V.; Schultz-Coulon, H.C.; Schwanenberger, C.; Sedlak, K.; Sefkow, F.; Chekelian, V.; Sheviakov, I.; Shtarkov, L.N.; Sirois, Y.; Sloan, T.; Smirnov, P.; Solovev, Y.; South, D.; Spaskov, V.; Specka, Arnd E.; Spitzer, H.; Stamen, R.; Stella, B.; Stiewe, J.; Straumann, U.; Swart, M.; Tasevsky, M.; Chernyshov, V.; Chetchelnitski, S.; Thompson, Graham; Thompson, P.D.; Tobien, N.; Traynor, D.; Truoel, Peter; Tsipolitis, G.; Tsurin, I.; Turnau, J.; Turney, J.E.; Tzamariudaki, E.; Udluft, S.; Urban, Marcel; Usik, A.; Valkar, S.; Valkarova, A.; Vallee, C.; Van Mechelen, P.; Vassilev, S.; Vazdik, Y.; Vichnevski, A.; Wacker, K.; Wallny, R.; Waugh, B.; Weber, G.; Weber, M.; Wegener, D.; Werner, C.; Werner, M.; Werner, N.; White, G.; Wiesand, S.; Wilksen, T.; Winde, M.; Winter, G.G.; Wissing, C.; Wobisch, M.; Wunsch, E.; Wyatt, A.C.; Zacek, J.; Zalesak, J.; Zhang, Z.; Zhokin, A.; Zomer, F.; Zsembery, J.; zur Nedden, M.

    2001-01-01

    A measurement is presented of elastic Deeply Virtual Compton Scattering e^+ + p -> e^+ + photon + p at HERA using data taken with the H1 detector. The cross section is measured as a function of the photon virtuality, Q^2, and the invariant mass, W, of the gamma p system, in the kinematic range 2 < Q^2 < 20 GeV^2, 30 < W < 120 GeV and |t| < 1 GeV^2, where t is the squared momentum transfer to the proton. The measurement is compared to QCD based calculations.

  11. Kharkov X-ray Generator Based On Compton Scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shcherbakov, A.; Zelinsky, A.; Mytsykov, A.; Gladkikh, P.; Karnaukhov, I.; Lapshin, V.; Telegin, Y.; Androsov, V.; Bulyak, E.; Botman, J.I.M.; Tatchyn, R.; Lebedev, A.

    2004-01-01

    Nowadays X-ray sources based on storage rings with low beam energy and Compton scattering of intense laser beams are under development in several laboratories. An international cooperative project of an advanced X-ray source of this type at the Kharkov Institute of Physics and Technology (KIPT) is described. The status of the project is reviewed. The design lattice of the storage ring and calculated X-ray beam parameters are presented. The results of numerical simulation carried out for proposed facility show a peak spectral X-ray intensity of about 1014 can be produced

  12. Sources of the X-rays Based on Compton Scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Androsov, V.; Bulyak, E.; Gladkikh, P.; Karnaukhov, I.; Mytsykov, A.; Telegin, Yu.; Shcherbakov, A.; Zelinsky, A.

    2007-01-01

    The principles of the intense X-rays generation by laser beam scattering on a relativistic electron beam are described and description of facilities assigned to produce the X-rays based on Compton scattering is presented. The possibilities of various types of such facilities are estimated and discussed. The source of the X-rays based on a storage ring with low beam energy is described in details and advantages of the sources of such type are discussed.The results of calculation and numerical simulation carried out for laser electron storage ring NESTOR that is under development in NSC KIPT show wide prospects of the accelerator facility of such type

  13. Parallel effects of the inversion In(3R)Payne on body size across the North American and Australian clines in Drosophila melanogaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapun, M; Schmidt, C; Durmaz, E; Schmidt, P S; Flatt, T

    2016-05-01

    Chromosomal inversions are thought to play a major role in climatic adaptation. In D. melanogaster, the cosmopolitan inversion In(3R)Payne exhibits latitudinal clines on multiple continents. As many fitness traits show similar clines, it is tempting to hypothesize that In(3R)P underlies observed clinal patterns for some of these traits. In support of this idea, previous work in Australian populations has demonstrated that In(3R)P affects body size but not development time or cold resistance. However, similar data from other clines of this inversion are largely lacking; finding parallel effects of In(3R)P across multiple clines would considerably strengthen the case for clinal selection. Here, we have analysed the phenotypic effects of In(3R)P in populations originating from the endpoints of the latitudinal cline along the North American east coast. We measured development time, egg-to-adult survival, several size-related traits (femur and tibia length, wing area and shape), chill coma recovery, oxidative stress resistance and triglyceride content in homokaryon lines carrying In(3R)P or the standard arrangement. Our central finding is that the effects of In(3R)P along the North American cline match those observed in Australia: standard arrangement lines were larger than inverted lines, but the inversion did not influence development time or cold resistance. Similarly, In(3R)P did not affect egg-to-adult survival, oxidative stress resistance and lipid content. In(3R)P thus seems to specifically affect size traits in populations from both continents. This parallelism strongly suggests an adaptive pattern, whereby the inversion has captured alleles associated with growth regulation and clinal selection acts on size across both continents. © 2016 European Society For Evolutionary Biology. Journal of Evolutionary Biology © 2016 European Society For Evolutionary Biology.

  14. The electron beam dynamics simulation in the laser-electron storage ring involving compton and intrabeam scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gladkikh, P.I.; Telegin, Yu.N.; Karnaukhov, I.M.

    2002-01-01

    The feasibility of the development of intense X-ray sources based on Compton scattering in laser-electron storage rings is discussed. The results of the electron beam dynamics simulation involving Compton and intrabeam scattering are presented

  15. The electron beam dynamics simulation in the laser-electron storage ring involving compton and intrabeam scattering

    CERN Document Server

    Gladkikh, P I; Karnaukhov, I M

    2002-01-01

    The feasibility of the development of intense X-ray sources based on Compton scattering in laser-electron storage rings is discussed. The results of the electron beam dynamics simulation involving Compton and intrabeam scattering are presented.

  16. Effect of coupling asymmetry on mean-field solutions of the direct and inverse Sherrington-Kirkpatrick model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sakellariou, Jason; Roudi, Yasser; Mezard, Marc

    2012-01-01

    We study how the degree of symmetry in the couplings influences the performance of three mean field methods used for solving the direct and inverse problems for generalized Sherrington-Kirkpatrick models. In this context, the direct problem is predicting the potentially time-varying magnetizations...... than the other two approximations, TAP outperforms MF when the coupling matrix is nearly symmetric, while MF works better when it is strongly asymmetric. For the inverse problem, MF performs better than both TAP and nMF, although an ad hoc adjustment of TAP can make it comparable to MF. For high...

  17. The Compton Camera - medical imaging with higher sensitivity Exhibition LEPFest 2000

    CERN Multimedia

    2000-01-01

    The Compton Camera reconstructs the origin of Compton-scattered X-rays using electronic collimation with Silicon pad detectors instead of the heavy conventional lead collimators in Anger cameras - reaching up to 200 times better sensitivity and a factor two improvement in resolution. Possible applications are in cancer diagnosis, neurology neurobiology, and cardiology.

  18. PET-COMPTON System. Comparative evaluation with PET System using Monte Carlo Simulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diaz Garcia, Angelina; Arista Romeu, Eduardo; Abreu Alfonso, Yamiel; Leyva Fabelo, Antonio; Pinnera HernAndez, Ibrahin; Bolannos Perez, Lourdes; Rubio Rodriguez, Juan A.; Perez Morales, Jose M.; Arce Dubois, Pedro; Vela Morales, Oscar; Willmott Zappacosta, Carlos

    2012-01-01

    Positron Emission Tomography (PET) in small animals has actually achieved spatial resolution round about 1 mm and currently there are under study different approaches to improve this spatial resolution. One of them combines PET technology with Compton Cameras. This paper presents the idea of the so called PET-Compton systems and has included comparative evaluation of spatial resolution and global efficiency in both PET and PET-Compton system by means of Monte Carlo simulations using Geant4 code. Simulation was done on a PET-Compton system made-up of LYSO-LuYAP scintillating detectors of particular small animal PET scanner named Clear-PET and for Compton detectors based on CdZnTe semiconductor. A group of radionuclides that emits a positron (e+) and quantum almost simultaneously and fulfills some selection criteria for their possible use in PET-Compton systems for medical and biological applications were studied under simulation conditions. By means of analytical reconstruction using SSRB (Single Slide Rebinning) method were obtained superior spatial resolution in PET-Compton system for all tested radionuclides (reaching sub-millimeter values of for 22Na source). However this analysis done by simulation have shown limited global efficiency values in PET-Compton system (in the order of 10 -5 -10 -6 %) instead of values around 5*10 -1 % that have been achieved in PET system. (author)

  19. Interface Passivation Effects on the Photovoltaic Performance of Quantum Dot Sensitized Inverse Opal TiO₂ Solar Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hori, Kanae; Zhang, Yaohong; Tusamalee, Pimsiri; Nakazawa, Naoki; Yoshihara, Yasuha; Wang, Ruixiang; Toyoda, Taro; Hayase, Shuzi; Shen, Qing

    2018-06-25

    Quantum dot (QD)-sensitized solar cells (QDSSCs) are expected to achieve higher energy conversion efficiency than traditional single-junction silicon solar cells due to the unique properties of QDs. An inverse opal (IO)-TiO₂ (IO-TiO₂) electrode is useful for QDSSCs because of its three-dimensional (3D) periodic nanostructures and better electrolyte penetration compared to the normal nanoparticles (NPs)-TiO₂ (NPs-TiO₂) electrode. We find that the open-circuit voltages V oc of the QDSSCs with IO-TiO₂ electrodes are higher than those of QDSSCs with NPs-TiO₂ electrodes. One important strategy for enhancing photovoltaic conversion efficiency of QDSSCs with IO-TiO₂ electrodes is surface passivation of photoanodes using wide-bandgap semiconducting materials. In this study, we have proposed surface passivation on IO-TiO₂ with ZnS coating before QD deposition. The efficiency of QDSSCs with IO-TiO₂ electrodes is largely improved (from 0.74% to 1.33%) because of the enhancements of V oc (from 0.65 V to 0.74 V) and fill factor ( FF ) (from 0.37 to 0.63). This result indicates that ZnS passivation can reduce the interfacial recombination at the IO-TiO₂/QDs and IO-TiO₂/electrolyte interfaces, for which two possible explanations can be considered. One is the decrease of recombination at IO-TiO₂/electrolyte interfaces, and the other one is the reduction of the back-electron injection from the TiO₂ electrode to QDs. All of the above results are effective for improving the photovoltaic properties of QDSSCs.

  20. Evaluation of list-mode ordered subset expectation maximization image reconstruction for pixelated solid-state compton gamma camera with large number of channels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolstein, M.; De Lorenzo, G.; Chmeissani, M.

    2014-04-01

    The Voxel Imaging PET (VIP) Pathfinder project intends to show the advantages of using pixelated solid-state technology for nuclear medicine applications. It proposes designs for Positron Emission Tomography (PET), Positron Emission Mammography (PEM) and Compton gamma camera detectors with a large number of signal channels (of the order of 106). For Compton camera, especially with a large number of readout channels, image reconstruction presents a big challenge. In this work, results are presented for the List-Mode Ordered Subset Expectation Maximization (LM-OSEM) image reconstruction algorithm on simulated data with the VIP Compton camera design. For the simulation, all realistic contributions to the spatial resolution are taken into account, including the Doppler broadening effect. The results show that even with a straightforward implementation of LM-OSEM, good images can be obtained for the proposed Compton camera design. Results are shown for various phantoms, including extended sources and with a distance between the field of view and the first detector plane equal to 100 mm which corresponds to a realistic nuclear medicine environment.