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Sample records for inventory control approach

  1. Intelligent Approach to Inventory Control in Logistics under Uncertainty Conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Więcek, P.

    2016-07-01

    The article presents a proposal for a combined application of fuzzy logic and genetic algorithms to control the procurement process in the enterprise. The approach presented in this paper draws particular attention to the impact of external random factors in the form of demand and lead time uncertainty. The model uses time-variable membership function parameters in a dynamic fashion to describe the modelled output fuzzy (sets) values. An additional element is the use of genetic algorithms for optimisation of fuzzy rule base in the proposed method. The approach presented in this paper was veryfied according to four criteria based on a computer simulation performed on the basis of the actual data from an enterprise. (Author)

  2. A soft computing-based approach to optimise queuing-inventory control problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alaghebandha, Mohammad; Hajipour, Vahid

    2015-04-01

    In this paper, a multi-product continuous review inventory control problem within batch arrival queuing approach (MQr/M/1) is developed to find the optimal quantities of maximum inventory. The objective function is to minimise summation of ordering, holding and shortage costs under warehouse space, service level and expected lost-sales shortage cost constraints from retailer and warehouse viewpoints. Since the proposed model is Non-deterministic Polynomial-time hard, an efficient imperialist competitive algorithm (ICA) is proposed to solve the model. To justify proposed ICA, both ganetic algorithm and simulated annealing algorithm are utilised. In order to determine the best value of algorithm parameters that result in a better solution, a fine-tuning procedure is executed. Finally, the performance of the proposed ICA is analysed using some numerical illustrations.

  3. Inventory control strategies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Primrose, D.

    1998-01-01

    Finning International Inc. is in the business of selling, financing and servicing Caterpillar and complementary equipment. Its main markets are in western Canada, Britain and Chile. This paper discusses the parts inventory strategies system for Finning (Canada). The company's territory covers British Columbia, Alberta, the Yukon and the Northwest Territories. Finning's parts inventory consists of 80,000 component units valued at more than $150 M. Distribution centres are located in Langley, British Columbia and Edmonton, Alberta. To make inventory and orders easier to control, Finning has designed a computer-based system, with software written exclusively for Caterpillar dealers. The system makes use of a real time electronic interface with all Finning locations, plus all Caterpillar facilities and other dealers in North America. Details of the system are discussed, including territorial stocking procedures, addition to stock, exhaustion of stock, automatic/suggest order controls, surplus inventory management, and procedures for jointly managed inventory. 3 tabs., 1 fig

  4. Inventory of electronic money as method of its control: process approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.Р. Semenets

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The extent of legal regulation of inventory of electronic money in the company is considered. The absence of developed techniques of valuation as well as reflection of electronic money on the accounts, which results in distortion of indicators of financial statements are detected. The author develops the organizational and methodical provisions of inventory of electronic money in accordance with the stages that will ensure the avoidance of misstatements in the financial statements and providing users with more reliable information about the amount and as well as oddments of electronic money at the company on the balance sheet date. The effect of accounting policies, provisions for the organization of accounting as well as job description on the control system for transactions with electronic money, including their inventory, are determined. The author discovers the typical violations that occur during reflecting the transactions with electronic money in accounting, early detection of which will enable appropriate adjustments for the avoidance of misstatements of the information provided in the financial statements of the company.

  5. A critical spare part inventory control based on hazard function approach: A case study in a garment company

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melinda, Intan Dewi; Jauhari, Wakhid Ahmad

    2018-02-01

    Spare part procurement is a complex issue and requires an accurate analysis. Stock outs of spare part can leads a great impact on production. Therefore, it is necessary to design the inventory control of spare parts that guarantee the availability of spare parts needed for supporting the maintenance activity. This paper studies the inventory policy for sewing machine spare part using hazard function to approximate the demand. Hazard function is the indicator of the effect of ageing on the reliability of the system. It quantifies the risk of failure as the age of the system increases. We use a continuous review policy based on Hadley Within Approach to calculate the optimum inventory level for critical spare parts. There are four spare parts categorized as critical spare parts, which are needle plate, feed dog, rotary and binder attachment. The optimal ordering quantity for needle plate, feed, rotary and binder attachment are 5 units, 17 units, 5 units, and 9 units, respectively and the reorder point are 2 units, 1 unit, 2 units and 1 unit, respectively. Finally, the service level achieved by the proposed policy is in a range of 95.91%-97.93%, which indicates that the inventory level of spare parts can be used to support the required parts in the maintenance activity.

  6. Anomaly detection for analysis of annual inventory data: a quality control approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francis A. Roesch; Paul C. Van Deusen

    2010-01-01

    Annual forest inventories present special challenges and opportunities for those analyzing the data arising from them. Here, we address one question currently being asked by analysts of the US Forest Service’s Forest Inventory and Analysis Program’s quickly accumulating annual inventory data. The question is simple but profound: When combining the next year’s data for...

  7. Inventory Control System by Using Vendor Managed Inventory (VMI)

    OpenAIRE

    Dona Sabila Alzena; Mustafid Mustafid; Suryono Suryono

    2018-01-01

    The inventory control system has a strategic role for the business in managing inventory operations. Management of conventional inventory creates problems in the stock of goods that often runs into vacancies and excess goods at the retail level. This study aims to build inventory control system that can maintain the stability of goods availability at the retail level. The implementation of Vendor Managed Inventory (VMI) method on inventory control system provides transparency of sales data an...

  8. Optimal Control Inventory Stochastic With Production Deteriorating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Affandi, Pardi

    2018-01-01

    In this paper, we are using optimal control approach to determine the optimal rate in production. Most of the inventory production models deal with a single item. First build the mathematical models inventory stochastic, in this model we also assume that the items are in the same store. The mathematical model of the problem inventory can be deterministic and stochastic models. In this research will be discussed how to model the stochastic as well as how to solve the inventory model using optimal control techniques. The main tool in the study problems for the necessary optimality conditions in the form of the Pontryagin maximum principle involves the Hamilton function. So we can have the optimal production rate in a production inventory system where items are subject deterioration.

  9. Expected value based fuzzy programming approach to solve integrated supplier selection and inventory control problem with fuzzy demand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutrisno; Widowati; Sunarsih; Kartono

    2018-01-01

    In this paper, a mathematical model in quadratic programming with fuzzy parameter is proposed to determine the optimal strategy for integrated inventory control and supplier selection problem with fuzzy demand. To solve the corresponding optimization problem, we use the expected value based fuzzy programming. Numerical examples are performed to evaluate the model. From the results, the optimal amount of each product that have to be purchased from each supplier for each time period and the optimal amount of each product that have to be stored in the inventory for each time period were determined with minimum total cost and the inventory level was sufficiently closed to the reference level.

  10. A new approach for controlling a hybrid stochastic manufacturing / remanufacturing system with inventories and different leadtimes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kiesmüller, G.P.

    2003-01-01

    This paper addresses the control problem of a stochastic recovery system with two stocking points and different leadtimes for production and remanufacturing. For such systems the optimal control policy for a linear cost model is not known. Therefore, in the literature several heuristic policies are

  11. Inventory Control System by Using Vendor Managed Inventory (VMI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dona Sabila Alzena

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The inventory control system has a strategic role for the business in managing inventory operations. Management of conventional inventory creates problems in the stock of goods that often runs into vacancies and excess goods at the retail level. This study aims to build inventory control system that can maintain the stability of goods availability at the retail level. The implementation of Vendor Managed Inventory (VMI method on inventory control system provides transparency of sales data and inventory of goods at retailer level to supplier. Inventory control is performed by calculating safety stock and reorder point of goods based on sales data received by the system. Rule-based reasoning is provided on the system to facilitate the monitoring of inventory status information, thereby helping the process of inventory updates appropriately. Utilization of SMS technology is also considered as a medium of collecting sales data in real-time due to the ease of use. The results of this study indicate that inventory control using VMI ensures the availability of goods ± 70% and can reduce the accumulation of goods ± 30% at the retail level.

  12. Inventory Control System by Using Vendor Managed Inventory (VMI)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabila, Alzena Dona; Mustafid; Suryono

    2018-02-01

    The inventory control system has a strategic role for the business in managing inventory operations. Management of conventional inventory creates problems in the stock of goods that often runs into vacancies and excess goods at the retail level. This study aims to build inventory control system that can maintain the stability of goods availability at the retail level. The implementation of Vendor Managed Inventory (VMI) method on inventory control system provides transparency of sales data and inventory of goods at retailer level to supplier. Inventory control is performed by calculating safety stock and reorder point of goods based on sales data received by the system. Rule-based reasoning is provided on the system to facilitate the monitoring of inventory status information, thereby helping the process of inventory updates appropriately. Utilization of SMS technology is also considered as a medium of collecting sales data in real-time due to the ease of use. The results of this study indicate that inventory control using VMI ensures the availability of goods ± 70% and can reduce the accumulation of goods ± 30% at the retail level.

  13. Dynamic optimization approach for integrated supplier selection and tracking control of single product inventory system with product discount

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutrisno; Widowati; Heru Tjahjana, R.

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a mathematical model in the form of dynamic/multi-stage optimization to solve an integrated supplier selection problem and tracking control problem of single product inventory system with product discount. The product discount will be stated as a piece-wise linear function. We use dynamic programming to solve this proposed optimization to determine the optimal supplier and the optimal product volume that will be purchased from the optimal supplier for each time period so that the inventory level tracks a reference trajectory given by decision maker with minimal total cost. We give a numerical experiment to evaluate the proposed model. From the result, the optimal supplier was determined for each time period and the inventory level follows the given reference well.

  14. Data Driven Tuning of Inventory Controllers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huusom, Jakob Kjøbsted; Santacoloma, Paloma Andrade; Poulsen, Niels Kjølstad

    2007-01-01

    A systematic method for criterion based tuning of inventory controllers based on data-driven iterative feedback tuning is presented. This tuning method circumvent problems with modeling bias. The process model used for the design of the inventory control is utilized in the tuning...... as an approximation to reduce time required on experiments. The method is illustrated in an application with a multivariable inventory control implementation on a four tank system....

  15. COMPUTER ASSISTED INVENTORY CONTROL SYSTEM ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    issue in supply chain inventory manugement is to coordinate .... A supply chain is a network of organizations that are involved in the ... make decisions, which result in sub-optimization. ... same time reduce the ultimate cost of finished goods.

  16. PERIODIC REVIEW SYSTEM FOR INVENTORY REPLENISHMENT CONTROL FOR A TWO-ECHELON LOGISTICS NETWORK UNDER DEMAND UNCERTAINTY: A TWO-STAGE STOCHASTIC PROGRAMING APPROACH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.S.A. Cunha

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Here, we propose a novel methodology for replenishment and control systems for inventories of two-echelon logistics networks using a two-stage stochastic programming, considering periodic review and uncertain demands. In addition, to achieve better customer services, we introduce a variable rationing rule to address quantities of the item in short. The devised models are reformulated into their deterministic equivalent, resulting in nonlinear mixed-integer programming models, which are then approximately linearized. To deal with the uncertain nature of the item demand levels, we apply a Monte Carlo simulation-based method to generate finite and discrete sets of scenarios. Moreover, the proposed approach does not require restricted assumptions to the behavior of the probabilistic phenomena, as does several existing methods in the literature. Numerical experiments with the proposed approach for randomly generated instances of the problem show results with errors around 1%.

  17. Inventory management systems : Control and information issues

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssen, F.B.S.L.P.

    1998-01-01

    This dissertation addresses the management of inventory systems. The thesis starts with an exposition on mathematical models that can be used in inventory theory. Then we deal with some information issues related to the demand process. Namely, how to control products that have intermittent demand.

  18. INCAP - Applying short-term flexibility to control inventories

    OpenAIRE

    Lödding , Hermann; Lohmann , Steffen

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Inventory Based Capacity Control (INCAP) is a very simple method that allows inventory levels to be effectively controlled by using short-term capacity flexibility in make-to-stock settings. Moreover, INCAP can be used for finished goods inventories as well as for semi-finished goods inventories. The basic idea is to define upper and lower inventory limits and to adjust capacities if the inventory level reaches either limit. Should the inventory fall below the lower limit,...

  19. Inventory control in case of unknown demand and control parameters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssen, E.

    2010-01-01

    This thesis deals with unknown demand and control parameters in inventory control. Inventory control involves decisions on what to order when and in what quantity. These decisions are based on information about the demand. Models are constructed using complete demand information; these models ensure

  20. Automated refueling inventory control system at FFTF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ordonez, C.R.

    1983-10-01

    The Refueling Inventory Control System (RICS) at the Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF) keeps track of all assemblies that reside in the various refueling facilities. The automated RICS allows the user to obtain information regarding any assembly under its control by displaying the data on a screen. It also provides a simulation mode which allows assembly moves on a duplicated data base. This simulation is used to verify the refueling documentation before it is issued

  1. PERIODIC REVIEW SYSTEM FOR INVENTORY REPLENISHMENT CONTROL FOR A TWO-ECHELON LOGISTICS NETWORK UNDER DEMAND UNCERTAINTY: A TWO-STAGE STOCHASTIC PROGRAMING APPROACH

    OpenAIRE

    Cunha, P.S.A.; Oliveira, F.; Raupp, Fernanda M.P.

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Here, we propose a novel methodology for replenishment and control systems for inventories of two-echelon logistics networks using a two-stage stochastic programming, considering periodic review and uncertain demands. In addition, to achieve better customer services, we introduce a variable rationing rule to address quantities of the item in short. The devised models are reformulated into their deterministic equivalent, resulting in nonlinear mixed-integer programming models, which a...

  2. Optimization of Inventories for Multiple Companies by Fuzzy Control Method

    OpenAIRE

    Kawase, Koichi; Konishi, Masami; Imai, Jun

    2008-01-01

    In this research, Fuzzy control theory is applied to the inventory control of the supply chain between multiple companies. The proposed control method deals with the amountof inventories expressing supply chain between multiple companies. Referring past demand and tardiness, inventory amounts of raw materials are determined by Fuzzy inference. The method that an appropriate inventory control becomes possible optimizing fuzzy control gain by using SA method for Fuzzy control. The variation of ...

  3. Controlling Inventory: Real-World Mathematical Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Thomas G.; Özgün-Koca, S. Asli; Chelst, Kenneth R.

    2013-01-01

    Amazon, Walmart, and other large-scale retailers owe their success partly to efficient inventory management. For such firms, holding too little inventory risks losing sales, whereas holding idle inventory wastes money. Therefore profits hinge on the inventory level chosen. In this activity, students investigate a simplified inventory-control…

  4. Joint inventory control and pricing in a service-inventory system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marand, Ata Jalili; Li, Hongyan Jenny; Thorstenson, Anders

    2017-01-01

    This study addresses joint inventory control and pricing decisions for a service-inventory system. In such a system both an on-hand inventory item and a positive service time are required to fulfill customer demands. The service-inventory system also captures main features of the classical...... inventory systems with a positive processing time, e.g., make-to-order systems. In this study, the service-inventory system is modeled as an M/M/1 queue in which the customer arrival rate is price dependent. The inventory of an individual item is continuously reviewed under an (r,Q) policy....... The replenishment lead times of the inventory are exponentially distributed. Furthermore, customers arriving during stock-out periods are lost. The stochastic customer inter-arrival times, service times, and inventory replenishment lead times cause the high complexity of the problem and the difficulty in solving it...

  5. 19 CFR 146.93 - Inventory control and recordkeeping system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Inventory control and recordkeeping system. 146.93... § 146.93 Inventory control and recordkeeping system. (a) Attribution. All final products removed from or... provided for under § 146.95(b) of this subpart. (3) Other inventory method. An operator may use the FIFO...

  6. Analysis of inventory difference using fuzzy controllers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zardecki, A.

    1994-01-01

    The principal objectives of an accounting system for safeguarding nuclear materials are as follows: (a) to provide assurance that all material quantities are present in the correct amount; (b) to provide timely detection of material loss; and (c) to estimate the amount of any loss and its location. In fuzzy control, expert knowledge is encoded in the form of fuzzy rules, which describe recommended actions for different classes of situations represented by fuzzy sets. The concept of a fuzzy controller is applied to the forecasting problem in a time series, specifically, to forecasting and detecting anomalies in inventory differences. This paper reviews the basic notion underlying the fuzzy control systems and provides examples of application. The well-known material-unaccounted-for diffusion plant data of Jaech are analyzed using both feedforward neural networks and fuzzy controllers. By forming a deference between the forecasted and observed signals, an efficient method to detect small signals in background noise is implemented

  7. 10 CFR 74.43 - Internal controls, inventory, and records.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ..., inventory, and recordkeeping capabilities required in paragraphs (b), (c), and (d) of this section. (b...) Provides current knowledge of SNM items with respect to identity, element and isotope content, and stored... measurements for the licensee. (c) Inventory control and physical inventories. The licensee shall: (1) Provide...

  8. On Inventory Control For Perishable Inventory Systems Subject To Uncertainties On Customer Demands

    OpenAIRE

    Abbou , Rosa; Loiseau , Jean-Jacques; Khaldi , Hajer; Farraa , Berna ,

    2017-01-01

    International audience; This paper deals with the inventory controller design for constrained production systems subject to uncertainties on the customer demands. The case study focuses on the inventory regulation problem in production systems where contain perishable finite products. Such systems are characterized by the presence of delays due to production processes, and constraints from the instantaneous inventory level, production level and the finite capacities of stocks. To do that, we ...

  9. Solving a Novel Inventory Location Model with Stochastic Constraints and (R,s,S Inventory Control Policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillermo Cabrera

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We solve a novel inventory-location model with a stochastic capacity constraint based on a periodic inventory control (ILM-PR policy. The ILM-PR policy implies several changes with regard to other previous models proposed in the literature, which consider continuous review as their inventory policy. One of these changes is the inclusion of the undershoot concept, which has not been considered in previous ILM models in the literature. Based on our model, we are able to design a distribution network for a two-level supply chain, addressing both warehouse location and customer assignment decisions, whilst taking into consideration several aspects of inventory planning, in particular, evaluating the impact of the inventory control review period on the network configuration and system costs. Because the model is a very hard-to solve combinatorial nonlinear optimisation problem, we implemented two heuristics to solve it, namely, Tabu Search and Particle Swarm Optimisation. These approaches were tested over small instances in which they were able to find the optimal solution in just a few seconds. Because the model is a new one, a set of medium-size instances is provided that can be useful as a benchmark in future research. The heuristics showed a good convergence rate when applied to those instances. The results confirm that decision making over the inventory control policy has effects on the distribution network design.

  10. A simulated annealing approach to supplier selection aware inventory planning

    OpenAIRE

    Turk, Seda; Miller, Simon; Özcan, Ender; John, Robert

    2015-01-01

    Selection of an appropriate supplier is a crucial and challenging task in the effective management of a supply chain. Also, appropriate inventory management is critical to the success of a supply chain operation. In recent years, there has been a growing interest in the area of selection of an appropriate vendor and creating good inventory planning using supplier selection information. In this paper, we consider both of these tasks in a two-stage approach employing Interval Type-2 Fuzzy Sets ...

  11. The impact of decentralised control on firm-level inventory: evidence from the automotive industry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Leeuw, S.L.J.M.; Holweg, M.; Williams, G.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to investigate the effect of decentralised control on finished goods inventory levels in a distribution system, and to identify the factors that determine the overall inventory level. Design/methodology/approach: The authors' study is based on a mixed method

  12. A Control Systems Concept Inventory Test Design and Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bristow, M.; Erkorkmaz, K.; Huissoon, J. P.; Jeon, Soo; Owen, W. S.; Waslander, S. L.; Stubley, G. D.

    2012-01-01

    Any meaningful initiative to improve the teaching and learning in introductory control systems courses needs a clear test of student conceptual understanding to determine the effectiveness of proposed methods and activities. The authors propose a control systems concept inventory. Development of the inventory was collaborative and iterative. The…

  13. Real-time plutonium accountability and inventory control system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sarich, J.P.

    An on-line inventory system for a large storage and processing facility is planned. A terminal system will provide for interactive updating and information retrieval. The data base will contain information on inventory items and transactions, as well as process monitoring information and laboratory bookkeeping data. Access to the terminals, as well as the storage vaults, will be controlled by fingerprint comparison with a personnel identification data base. Bar code labels attached to each inventory item will be read by a light pen during physical inventories and when materials are transferred. The use of devices to continuously monitor and control storage locations within the vaults is planned. (U.S.)

  14. Real-time plutonium accountability and inventory control system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sarich, J.P.

    1975-01-01

    An on-line inventory system for a large storage and processing facility is planned. A terminal system will provide for interactive updating and information retrieval. The data base will contain information on inventory items and transactions, as well as process monitoring information and laboratory bookkeeping data. Access to the terminals, as well as the storage vaults, will be controlled by fingerprint comparison with a personnel identification data base. Bar code labels attached to each inventory item will be read by a light pen during physical inventories and when material is transferred. The use of devices to continuously monitor and control s locations within the vaults is planned

  15. Optimal strategy analysis based on robust predictive control for inventory system with random demand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saputra, Aditya; Widowati, Sutrisno

    2017-12-01

    In this paper, the optimal strategy for a single product single supplier inventory system with random demand is analyzed by using robust predictive control with additive random parameter. We formulate the dynamical system of this system as a linear state space with additive random parameter. To determine and analyze the optimal strategy for the given inventory system, we use robust predictive control approach which gives the optimal strategy i.e. the optimal product volume that should be purchased from the supplier for each time period so that the expected cost is minimal. A numerical simulation is performed with some generated random inventory data. We simulate in MATLAB software where the inventory level must be controlled as close as possible to a set point decided by us. From the results, robust predictive control model provides the optimal strategy i.e. the optimal product volume that should be purchased and the inventory level was followed the given set point.

  16. Hanford regulated laundry: inventory control and production improvement study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hostick, C. J.; Imhoff, C. H.; Levine, L. O.

    1986-04-01

    The purpose of this report is to assist the Hanford regulated laundry facility in reducing processing costs and in improving facility performance. Specific problem areas addressed were: no method for determining optimum manpower requirements, resulting in excessive amounts of employee overtime; no buffer inventory available to offset demand peaks, resulting in additional employee overtime and unmet demand; lack of adequate inventory control, resulting in unnecessary inventory costs; and no detailed analysis of the impact of 100% monitoring.

  17. A new approach for peat inventory methods; Turvetutkimusten menetelmaekehitystarkastelu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laatikainen, M.; Leino, J.; Lerssi, J.; Torppa, J.; Turunen, J. Email: jukka.turunen@gtk.fi

    2011-07-01

    Development of the new peatland inventory method started in 2009. There was a need to investigate whether new methods and tools could be developed cost-effectively so field inventory work would more completely cover the whole peatland area and the quality and liability of the final results would remain at a high level. The old inventory method in place at the Geological Survey of Finland (GTK) is based on the main transect and cross transect approach across a peatland area. The goal of this study was to find a practical grid-based method linked to the geographic information system suitable for field conditions. the triangle-grid method with even distance between the study points was found to be the most suitable approach. A new Ramac-ground penetrating radar was obtained by the GTK in 2009, and it was concluded in the study of new peatland inventory methods. This radar model is relatively light and very suitable, for example, to the forestry drained peatlands, which are often difficult to cross because of the intensive ditch network. the goal was to investigate the best working methods for the ground penetrating radar to optimize its use in the large-scale peatland inventory. Together with the new field inventory methods, a novel interpolation-based method (MITTI) for modelling peat depths was developed. MITTI makes it possible to take advantage of all the available peat-depth data including, at the moment, aerogeophysical and ground penetrating radar measurements, drilling data and the mire outline. The characteristic uncertainties of each data type are taken into account and, in addition to the depth model itself, an uncertainty map of the model is computed. Combined with the grid-based field inventory method, this multi-approach provides better tools to more accurately estimate the peat depths, peat amounts and peat type distributions. The development of the new peatland inventory method was divided into four separate sections: (1) Development of new field

  18. Savannah River Plant's Accountability Inventory Management System (AIMS) (Nuclear materials inventory control)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Croom, R.G.

    1976-06-01

    The Accountability Inventory Management System (AIMS) is a new computer inventory control system for nuclear materials at the Savannah River Plant, Aiken, South Carolina. The system has two major components, inventory files and system parameter files. AIMS, part of the overall safeguards program, maintains an up-to-date record of nuclear material by location, produces reports required by ERDA in addition to onplant reports, and is capable of a wide range of response to changing input/output requirements through use of user-prepared parameter cards, as opposed to basic system reprogramming

  19. Materials control and accountability challenges associated with plutonium inventories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crawford, D.W.

    1996-01-01

    There are currently many initiatives underway within the Department of Energy (DOE) to safely and securely manage large plutonium inventories arising from weapons dismantlement, changing missions and facility operations. Plutonium inventory information is increasingly accessible to the public as a result of the secretary of energy's openness initiative. As a result, knowledge of these inventories and levels to which the department has accounted for and controlled these inventories, will be under increased scrutiny from a variety of interest groups. The quality of this accountability data and what this data means will greatly influence the public's perception of how the US is protecting its plutonium inventories. In addition, the department's safeguards program provides an essential basis for the application of International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) safeguards that, in addition to possibly other international control regimes, will be in place over a large portion of these future inventories. The capability and functionality of the department's nuclear safeguards program will be important contributors to the success of US programs for the responsible stewardship of these vast plutonium inventories. This paper discusses some of the challenges, in terms of specific issues relating to one part of the department's safeguards program--materials control and accountability (MC and A)--to meet the growing domestic and international requirements and expectations associated with these plutonium inventories

  20. Materials control and accountability challenges associated with plutonium inventories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crawford, D.W. [USDOE Office of Safeguards and Security, Washington, DC (United States)

    1996-07-01

    There are currently many initiatives underway within the Department of Energy (DOE) to safely and securely manage large plutonium inventories arising from weapons dismantlement, changing missions and facility operations. Plutonium inventory information is increasingly accessible to the public as a result of the secretary of energy`s openness initiative. As a result, knowledge of these inventories and levels to which the department has accounted for and controlled these inventories, will be under increased scrutiny from a variety of interest groups. The quality of this accountability data and what this data means will greatly influence the public`s perception of how the US is protecting its plutonium inventories. In addition, the department`s safeguards program provides an essential basis for the application of International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) safeguards that, in addition to possibly other international control regimes, will be in place over a large portion of these future inventories. The capability and functionality of the department`s nuclear safeguards program will be important contributors to the success of US programs for the responsible stewardship of these vast plutonium inventories. This paper discusses some of the challenges, in terms of specific issues relating to one part of the department`s safeguards program--materials control and accountability (MC and A)--to meet the growing domestic and international requirements and expectations associated with these plutonium inventories.

  1. Inventory control with multiple setup costs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alp, O.; Huh, W.T.; Tan, T.

    2014-01-01

    We consider an infinite-horizon, periodic-review, single-item production/inventory system with random demand and backordering, where multiple setups are allowed in any period and a separate fixed cost is associated for each setup. Contrary to the majority of the literature on this topic, we do not

  2. Chemical inventory control program for mixed and hazardous waste facilities at SRS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ades, M.J.; Vincent, A.M. III.

    1997-01-01

    Mixed Waste (MW) and Hazardous Waste (HW) are being stored at the Savannah River Site (SRS) pending onsite and/or offsite treatment and disposal. The inventory control for these wastes has recently been brought under Technical Safety Requirements (TSR) in accordance with DOE Order 5480.22. With the TSRs was the question of the degree of rigor with which the inventory is to be tracked, considering that the variety of chemicals present, or that could be present, numbers in the hundreds. This paper describes the graded approach program to track Solid Waste (SW) inventories relative to TSRs. The approach uses a ratio of the maximum anticipated chemical inventory to the permissible inventory in accordance with Emergency Response Planning Guideline (ERPG) limits for on- and off-site receptors. A specific threshold ratio can then be determined. The chemicals above this threshold ratio are to be included in the chemical inventory control program. The chemicals that fall below the threshold ratio are managed in accordance with existing practice per State and RCRA hazardous materials requirements. Additionally, the facilities are managed in accordance with process safety management principles, specifically using process hazards analyses, which provides safety assurance for even the small quantities that may be excluded from the formal inventory control program. The method yields a practical approach to chemical inventory control, while maintaining appropriate chemical safety margins. The resulting number of specific chemicals that require inclusion in a rigorous inventory control program is greatly reduced by about 80%, thereby resulting in significant reduction in chemical data management while preserving appropriate safety margins

  3. Inventory Control of Spare Parts for Operating Nuclear Power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Jong-Hyuck; Jang, Se-Jin; Hwang, Eui-Youp; Yoo, Sung-Soo; Yoo, Keun-Bae; Lee, Sang-Guk; Hong, Sung-Yull [Korea Electric Power Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    2006-07-01

    Inventory control of spare parts plays an increasingly important role in operation management. The trade-off is clear: on one hand a large number of spare parts ties up a large amount of capital, while on the other hand too little inventory may result in extremely costly emergency actions. This is why during the last few decades inventory of spare parts control has been the topics of many publications. Recently management systems such as manufacturing resources planning (MRP) and enterprise resource planning (ERP) have been added. However, most of these contributions have similar theoretical background. This means the concepts and techniques are mainly based on mathematical assumptions and modeling inventory of spare parts situations Nuclear utilities in Korea have several problems to manage the optimum level of spare parts though they used MRP System. Because most of items have long lead time and they are imported from United States, Canada, France and so on. In this paper, we will examine the available inventory optimization models which are applicable to nuclear power plant and then select optimum model and assumptions to make inventory of spare parts strategies. Then we develop the computer program to select and determine optimum level of spare parts which should be automatically controlled by KHNP ERP system. The main contribution of this paper is an inventory of spare parts control model development, which can be applied to nuclear power plants in Korea.

  4. Inventory Control of Spare Parts for Operating Nuclear Power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Jong-Hyuck; Jang, Se-Jin; Hwang, Eui-Youp; Yoo, Sung-Soo; Yoo, Keun-Bae; Lee, Sang-Guk; Hong, Sung-Yull

    2006-01-01

    Inventory control of spare parts plays an increasingly important role in operation management. The trade-off is clear: on one hand a large number of spare parts ties up a large amount of capital, while on the other hand too little inventory may result in extremely costly emergency actions. This is why during the last few decades inventory of spare parts control has been the topics of many publications. Recently management systems such as manufacturing resources planning (MRP) and enterprise resource planning (ERP) have been added. However, most of these contributions have similar theoretical background. This means the concepts and techniques are mainly based on mathematical assumptions and modeling inventory of spare parts situations Nuclear utilities in Korea have several problems to manage the optimum level of spare parts though they used MRP System. Because most of items have long lead time and they are imported from United States, Canada, France and so on. In this paper, we will examine the available inventory optimization models which are applicable to nuclear power plant and then select optimum model and assumptions to make inventory of spare parts strategies. Then we develop the computer program to select and determine optimum level of spare parts which should be automatically controlled by KHNP ERP system. The main contribution of this paper is an inventory of spare parts control model development, which can be applied to nuclear power plants in Korea

  5. Optimal Acquisition and Inventory Control for a Remanufacturing System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhigang Jiang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Optimal acquisition and inventory control can often make the difference between successful and unsuccessful remanufacturing. However, there is a greater degree of uncertainty and complexity in a remanufacturing system, which leads to a critical need for planning and control models designed to deal with this added uncertainty and complexity. In this paper, a method for optimal acquisition and inventory control of a remanufacturing system is presented. The method considers three inventories, one for returned item and the other for serviceable and recoverable items. Taking the holding cost for returns, recoverable and remanufactured products, remanufacturing cost, disposal cost, and the loss caused by backlog into account, the optimal inventory control model is established to minimize the total costs. Finally, a numerical example is provided to illustrate the proposed methods.

  6. Optimal Inventory Control with Advance Supply Information

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marko Jaksic

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available It has been shown in numerous situations that sharing information between the companies leads to improved performance of the supply chain. We study a positive lead time periodic-review inventory system of a retailer facing stochastic demand from his customer and stochastic limited supply capacity of the manufacturer supplying the products to him. The consequence of stochastic supply capacity is that the orders might not be delivered in full, and the exact size of the replenishment might not be known to the retailer. The manufacturer is willing to share the so-called advance supply information (ASI about the actual replenishment of the retailer's pipeline order with the retailer. ASI is provided at a certain time after the orders have been placed and the retailer can now use this information to decrease the uncertainty of the supply, and thus improve its inventory policy. For this model, we develop a dynamic programming formulation, and characterize the optimal ordering policy as a state-dependent base-stock policy. In addition, we show some properties of the base-stock level. While the optimal policy is highly complex, we obtain some additional insights by comparing it to the state-dependent myopic inventory policy. We conduct the numerical analysis to estimate the in uence of the system parameters on the value of ASI. While we show that the interaction between the parameters is relatively complex, the general insight is that due to increasing marginal returns, the majority of the benets are gained only in the case of full, or close to full, ASI visibility.

  7. The School Building Principal and Inventory Control: A Case for Computerization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stronge, James

    1987-01-01

    General and special purpose database programs are appropriate for inventory control at the school building level. A fixed asset equipment inventory example illustrates the feasibility of computerized inventory control. (MLF)

  8. On the quality of global emission inventories. Approaches, methodologies, input data and uncertainties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olivier, J.G.J.

    2002-01-01

    Four key scientific questions will be investigated: (1) How does a user define the 'quality' of a global (or national) emission inventory? (Chapter 2); (2) What determines the quality of a global emission inventory? (Chapters 2 and 7); (3) How can inventory quality be achieved in practice and expressed in quantitative terms ('uncertainty')? (Chapters 3 to 6); and (4) What is the preferred approach for compiling a global emission inventory, given the practical limitations and the desired inventory quality? (Chapters 7 and 8)

  9. Implementing structure and control over unofficial inventories in a multispecialty group practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gall, M

    1994-02-01

    Materiel managers have been in control of most aspects of the supply chain except for the inventories of the end users, which account for 70 percent of the inventory supply dollars. When the Materials Manager at Lexington Clinic in Lexington, Kentucky, was approached by the Clinic's Chief Executive Officer to implement cost containment measures, the Materials Manager seized the opportunity to implement a six-step program aimed at controlling those supply dollars. Through requisition training, enforcing approval levels, limiting the number of requisitioners, and establishing par levels on floor inventories, the clinic's "unofficial" inventory supply dollars were reduced by 7 percent in the first 12 departments where the par levels were established. The program was hailed as a tremendous success and a positive experience for everyone, from nurses to warehouse clerks.

  10. Development of various NDA approach for verifying the hold inventory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakashima, Shinichi; Yamada, Shigeki; Takahashi, Syunya

    1999-01-01

    This report describes the phase 1 activity to investigate the various nondestructive assay methods which proved to be useful to evaluate the amount of uranium holdup inventory. The study has been carried out in the Ningyo-Toge Demonstration uranium enrichment facility. This feasibility study is the part of JNC/DOE cooperative safeguards agreement. We expect that a combination of neutron counting and gamma-ray measurement method is required to obtain a quantitative measure of process holdup. As the results of the investigation, the basic measurement approaches were discussed and the applicable potential to gaseous centrifuges cascades were evaluated. (author)

  11. Integral inventory control in spare parts networks with capacity restrictions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sleptchenko, Andrei

    2002-01-01

    Integral inventory control of repairable items in service networks can result in a significant gain compared to traditional local control mechanisms, in terms of both efficiency and customer service. Research on quantitative decision support models has yielded various useful results. However, in

  12. The order and volume fill rates in inventory control systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorstenson, Anders; Larsen, Christian

    2014-01-01

    This paper differentiates between an order (line) fill rate and a volume fill rate and specifies their performance for different inventory control systems. When the focus is on filling complete customer orders rather than total demanded quantity the order fill rate would be the preferred service...... level measure. The main result shows how the order and volume fill rates are related in magnitude. Earlier results derived for a single-item, single-stage, continuous review inventory system with backordering and constant lead times controlled by a base-stock policy are extended in different directions...... extensions consider more general inventory control review policies with backordering, as well as some relations between service measures. A particularly important result in the paper concerns an alternative service measure, the customer order fill rate, and shows how this measure always exceeds the other two...

  13. The order and volume fill rates in inventory control systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorstenson, Anders; Larsen, Christian

    2011-01-01

    This paper differentiates between an order (line) fill rate and a volume fill rate and specifies their performance for different inventory control systems. When the focus is on filling complete customer orders rather than total quantities the order fill rate would be the preferred service level...... measure. The main result shows how the order and volume fill rates are related in magnitude. Earlier results derived for a single-item, single-stage, continuous review inventory system with backordering and constant lead times controlled by a base-stock policy are extended in different directions...

  14. Connecting inventory control and repair shop control : a differentiated control structure for repairable spare parts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Driessen, M.A.; Rustenburg, W.D.; Houtum, van G.J.J.A.N.; Wiers, V.C.S.

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a control structure for integrating decisions on spare parts inventory control and the control of repair shops for maintenance spare parts. A dierentiated control structure is proposed for the various repair shop types recognized in practice. Decisions functions are mapped and

  15. Radioactive material inventory control at a waste characterization facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yong, L.K.; Chapman, J.A.; Schultz, F.J.

    1996-01-01

    Due to the recent introduction of more stringent Department of Energy (DOE) regulations and requirements pertaining to nuclear and criticality safety, the control of radioactive material inventory has emerged as an important facet of operations at DOE nuclear facilities. In order to comply with nuclear safety regulations and nuclear criticality requirements, radioactive material inventories at each nuclear facility have to be maintained below limits specified for the facility in its safety authorization basis documentation. Exceeding these radioactive material limits constitutes a breach of the facility's nuclear and criticality safety envelope and could potentially result in an accident, cause a shut-down of the facility, and bring about imminent regulatory repercussions. The practice of maintaining control of radioactive material, especially sealed and unsealed sources, is commonplace and widely implemented; however, the requirement to track the entire radioactivity inventory at each nuclear facility for the purpose of ensuring nuclear safety is a new development. To meet the new requirements, the Applied Radiation Measurements Department at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) has developed an information system, called the open-quotes Radioactive Material Inventory Systemclose quotes (RMIS), to track the radioactive material inventory at an ORNL facility, the Waste Examination and Assay Facility (WEAF). The operations at WEAF, which revolve around the nondestructive assay and nondestructive examination of waste and related research and development activities, results in an ever-changing radioactive material inventory. Waste packages and radioactive sources are constantly being brought in or taken out of the facility; hence, use of the RMIS is necessary to ensure that the radioactive material inventory limits are not exceeded

  16. A Modular Integrated RFID System for Inventory Control Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ross Bunker

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Recent advances in single-board computer technology have allowed for lightweight, power-efficient devices, such as the Raspberry Pi, to take the place of desktop PCs in certain applications. This has the potential to disrupt the way many current systems are structured, particularly for inventory management and control applications. In this paper, we explore the design and topology of a modular Radio frequency identification (RFID system for inventory management comprised of self-contained, autonomous scanning, and stationary control PCs in a handheld/portable configuration. While similar solutions for such a system may exist on the commercial market, this proposed development provides a template for an open source flexible, low-cost solution that can be easily expanded to meet the needs of businesses with large and small inventories.

  17. The order and volume fill rates in inventory control systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorstenson, Anders; Larsen, Christian

    2011-01-01

    This paper differentiates between an order (line) fill rate and a volume fill rate and specifies their performance for different inventory control systems. When the focus is on filling complete customer orders rather than total quantities the order fill rate would be the preferred service level m...

  18. Emissions inventories and options for control SUMMARY REPORT

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Swart RJ; Amstel AR van; Born GJ van den; Kroeze C; MTV; LAE

    1994-01-01

    This report is the final summary report of the project "Social causes of the greenhouse effect ; emissions inventories and options for control", funded by the National Research Programme on Global Air Pollution and Climate Change (NRP) and the Environment Directorate of the Ministry of Housing,

  19. Implementing Lean Six Sigma to achieve inventory control in supply chain management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Chen

    2017-11-01

    The inventory cost has important impact on the production cost. In order to get the maximum circulation of funds of enterprise with minimum inventory cost, the inventory control with Lean Six Sigma is presented in supply chain management. The inventory includes both the raw material and the semi-finished parts in manufacturing process. Though the inventory is often studied, the inventory control in manufacturing process is seldom mentioned. This paper reports the inventory control from the perspective of manufacturing process by using statistical techniques including DMAIC, Control Chart, and Statistical Process Control. The process stability is evaluated and the process capability is verified with Lean Six Sigma philosophy. The demonstration in power meter production shows the inventory is decreased from 25% to 0.4%, which indicates the inventory control can be achieved with Lean Six Sigma philosophy and the inventory cost in production can be saved for future sustainable development in supply chain management.

  20. The Aspects Of Inventory Controlling Instruments Implementation In The System Of Retail Chains Finance Management

    OpenAIRE

    Nataliya Buratchuk

    2014-01-01

    The article deals with issues of implementation of inventory controlling instruments in the system of retail chains finance management. The author suggests expanded classification of methods and instruments of inventory controlling distinguishing 3 groups of specific instruments: logistic controlling instruments, expenditures and supply chains controlling instruments and inventory special controlling mechanisms. Based on investigation of controlling methods and instruments, the approximate li...

  1. Approaches and Study Skills Inventory for Students (ASSIST) in an Introductory Course in Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Stephen; White, Sue; Wakeling, Lara; Naiker, Mani

    2015-01-01

    Approaches to study and learning may enhance or undermine educational outcomes, and thus it is important for educators to be knowledgeable about their students' approaches to study and learning. The Approaches and Study Skills Inventory for Students (ASSIST)--a 52 item inventory which identifies three learning styles (Deep, Strategic, and…

  2. An Improved Inventory Control Model for the Brazilian Navy Supply System

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-12-01

    Portuguese Centro de Controle de Inventario da Marinha, the Brazilian Navy Inventory Control Point (ICP) developed an empirical model called SPAADA...NAVAL POSTGRADUATE SCHOOL Monterey, California THESIS Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited AN IMPROVED INVENTORY CONTROL ...AN IMPROVED INVENTORY CONTROL MODEL FOR THE BRAZILIAN NAVY SUPPLY SYSTEM Contract Number Grant Number Program Element Number Author(s) Moreira

  3. An inventory control model for biomass dependent production systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grado, S.C.; Strauss, C.H.

    1993-01-01

    The financial performance of a biomass dependent production system was critiqued based on the development and validation of an inventory control model. Dynamic programming was used to examine the constraints and capabilities of producing ethanol from various biomass crops. In particular, the model evaluated the plantation, harvest, and manufacturing components of a woody biomass supply system. The optimum wood to ethanol production scheme produced 38 million litres of ethanol in the harvest year, at 13.6 million litre increase over the least optimal policy as demonstrated in the dynamic programming results. The system produced ethanol at a delivered cost of $0.38 L -1 which was consistent with the unit costs from other studies. Nearly 60% of the delivered costs were in ethanol production. The remaining costs were attributed to growing biomass (14%), harvest and shipment of the crop (18%), storage of the raw material and finished product (7%) and open-quotes lost salesclose quotes (2%). Inventory control, in all phases of production, proved to be an important cost consideration throughout the model. The model also analyzed the employment of alternative harvesting policies and the use of different or multiple feedstocks. A comparison between the least cost wood system and an even cut wood system further revealed the benefits of using an inventory control system

  4. An organizational perspective on inventory control : Theory and a case study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zomerdijk, L.G.; de Vries, J.

    2003-01-01

    Inventory control is a well-covered area in literature. Nowadays, many concepts and techniques are available for effectively controlling inventories. Eminent examples are stochastic models to determine order quantities, techniques for forecasting demand and different kinds of ABC analysis.

  5. An Approach for Forest Inventory in Canada's Northern Boreal region, Northwest Territories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahoney, C.; Hopkinson, C.; Hall, R.; Filiatrault, M.

    2017-12-01

    The northern extent of Canada's northern boreal forest is largely inaccessible resulting in logistical, financial, and human challenges with respect to obtaining concise and accurate forest resource inventory (FRI) attributes such as stand height, aboveground biomass and forest carbon stocks. This challenge is further exacerbated by mandated government resource management and reporting of key attributes with respect to assessing impacts of natural disturbances, monitoring wildlife habitat and establishing policies to mitigate effects of climate change. This study presents a framework methodology utilized to inventory canopy height and crown closure over a 420,000 km2 area in Canada's Northwest Territories (NWT) by integrating field, LiDAR and satellite remote sensing data. Attributes are propagated from available field to coincident airborne LiDAR thru to satellite laser altimetry footprints. A quality controlled form of the latter are then submitted to a k-nearest neighbor (kNN) imputation algorithm to produce a continuous map of each attribute on a 30 m grid. The resultant kNN stand height (r=0.62, p=0.00) and crown closure (r=0.64, p=0.00) products were identified as statistically similar to a comprehensive independent airborne LiDAR source. Regional uncertainty can be produced with each attribute to identify areas of potential improvement through future strategic data acquisitions or the fine tuning of model parameters. This study's framework concept was developed to inform Natural Resources Canada - Canadian Forest Service's Multisource Vegetation Inventory and update vast regions of Canada's northern forest inventories, however, its applicability can be generalized to any environment. Not only can such a framework approach incorporate other data sources (such as Synthetic Aperture Radar) to potentially better characterize forest attributes, but it can also utilize future Earth observation mission data (for example ICESat-2) to monitor forest dynamics and the

  6. Fuzzy Continuous Review Inventory Model using ABC Multi-Criteria Classification Approach: A Single Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meriastuti - Ginting

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. Inventory is considered as the most expensive, yet important,to any companies. It representsapproximately 50% of the total investment. Inventory cost has become one of the majorcontributorsto inefficiency, therefore it should be managed effectively. This study aims to propose an alternative inventory model,  by using ABC multi-criteria classification approach to minimize total cost. By combining FANP (Fuzzy Analytical Network Process and TOPSIS (Technique of Order Preferences by Similarity to the Ideal Solution, the ABC multi-criteria classification approach identified 12 items of 69 inventory items as “outstanding important class” that contributed to 80% total inventory cost. This finding  is then used as the basis to determine the proposed continuous review inventory model.This study found that by using fuzzy trapezoidal cost, the inventory  turnover ratio can be increased, and inventory cost can be decreased by 78% for each item in “class A” inventory.Keywords:ABC multi-criteria classification, FANP-TOPSIS, continuous review inventory model lead-time demand distribution, trapezoidal fuzzy number 

  7. Inventory management and control at the central distribution center for Univar Products International B.V.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pholnukulkit, Pimara

    2008-01-01

    This report presents the outcome of the Logistics Design Project carried out for Univar Products International B.V. The goal of this project is to design an inventory control system and implement an inventory control tool that supports decisions in managing inventory of all products in the central

  8. LQ Optimal Sliding Mode Control of Periodic Review Perishable Inventories with Transportation Losses

    OpenAIRE

    Leśniewski, Piotr; Bartoszewicz, Andrzej

    2013-01-01

    In this work we apply the control-theoretic approach to design a new replenishment strategy for inventory systems with perishable stock. Such systems are supposed to effectively satisfy an unknown and permanently time-varying consumers’ demand. The main obstacle of achieving this goal is the need of obtaining supplies from a distant source. During the supply process goods are inevitably lost due to various causes. Furthermore, those goods which successfully arrive at the distribution center s...

  9. Emissions inventories and options for control. Summary report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Swart, R.J.; Van Amstel, A.R.; Van den Born, G.J.; Kroeze, C.

    1995-10-01

    This report is the final summary report of the project `Social causes of the greenhouse effect, emissions inventories and options for control`. The objectives of the project, that started in 1990, were to support the development of a comprehensive Dutch climate policy and to identify gaps in the knowledge about sources of greenhouse gases. The four phases of the project are summarized. In the first phase, a first national inventory of greenhouse gas emissions was made, capturing carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}), chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs), methane (CH{sub 4}), nitrous oxide (N{sub 2}O) and the ozone precursors carbon monoxide (CO), nitrogen oxides (NO{sub x} ) and volatile organic compounds (VOC). In the second phase, the acquired expertise was used to support the development of Guidelines for National Emissions Inventories by the joint OECD/IPCC programme through workshop organization and participation in the international planning group. In the third phase, a detailed analysis was performed of the sources of methane, its current and future emissions and the options for control. Finally, a similar analysis was performed for nitrous oxide. In these studies, it was found that policies not specifically aiming at mitigating climate change, would help to control the emissions of the non-CO{sub 2} greenhouse gases. While for methane, national emissions would even decrease because of measures in the livestock management and waste disposal sectors, for nitrous oxide the reductions in agricultural emissions would be outweighed by increases, especially in the transportation sector. The project shows that the application of more detailed information leads to differences with the Guidelines, both because of the limited number of source categories in the Guidelines and because of different, locally specific emissions factors. 4 figs., 2 tabs., 14 refs.

  10. An inventory model of instantaneous deteriorating items with controllable deterioration rate for time dependent demand and holding cost

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinod Kumar Mishra

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The purpose of this paper to develop an inventory model for instantaneous deteriorating items with the consideration of the facts that the deterioration rate can be controlled by using the preservation technology (PT and the holding cost & demand rate both are linear function of time which was treated as constant in most of the deteriorating inventory model. Design/methodology/approach: Developed the mathematical equation of deterministic deteriorating inventory model in which demand rate and holding cost both is linear function of time, deterioration rate is constant, backlogging rate is variable and depend on the length of the next replenishment, shortages are allowed and partially backlogged and obtain an analytical solution which optimizes the total cost of the proposed inventory model. Findings: The model can be applied for optimizing the total inventory cost of deteriorating items inventory for such business enterprises where they use the preservation technology to control the deterioration rate under other assumptions of the model. Originality/value: The inventory system for deteriorating items has been an object of study for a long time, but little is known about the effect of investing in reducing the rate of product deterioration and their significant impact in the business. The proposed model is effective as well as efficient for the business organization that uses the preservation technology to reduce the deterioration rate of the instantaneous deteriorating items of the inventory.

  11. QUANTIFICATION OF THE DECISIONS OF CONTROL AND AUDIT IN INVENTORY MANAGEMENT IN CEMENT INDUSTRY ENTERPRISES

    OpenAIRE

    Sylwia £êgowik-Œwi¹cik

    2011-01-01

    Inventory management in enterprises of cement industry necessitates the assessment of the level of risk which is generated by production inventory. The processes of control and auditing allow for planning, monitoring and organization of inventory management in the analysed business entities. This paper is aimed at presentation of the phase of preparation of audit activities in the area of inventory and verification of model solutions for the processes of control and audit in terms of inventor...

  12. Particle Swarm Optimization Approach in a Consignment Inventory System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharifyazdi, Mehdi; Jafari, Azizollah; Molamohamadi, Zohreh; Rezaeiahari, Mandana; Arshizadeh, Rahman

    2009-09-01

    Consignment Inventory (CI) is a kind of inventory which is in the possession of the customer, but is still owned by the supplier. This creates a condition of shared risk whereby the supplier risks the capital investment associated with the inventory while the customer risks dedicating retail space to the product. This paper considers both the vendor's and the retailers' costs in an integrated model. The vendor here is a warehouse which stores one type of product and supplies it at the same wholesale price to multiple retailers who then sell the product in independent markets at retail prices. Our main aim is to design a CI system which generates minimum costs for the two parties. Here a Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) algorithm is developed to calculate the proper values. Finally a sensitivity analysis is performed to examine the effects of each parameter on decision variables. Also PSO performance is compared with genetic algorithm.

  13. Diagnosing inventory management systems : An empirical evaluation of a conceptual approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Vries, Jan

    Although many studies have addressed the diagnosing of inventory systems, the field of operations management still seems to lack a systemised and integrated approach towards analysing inventory management systems. In this article, a contribution is made to fill this gap by proposing a conceptual

  14. Improvement of Inventory Control Using Continuous Review Policy in A Local Hospital at Bandung City, Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fina Hafnika

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. This research was aimed to analyze the excess inventories issue in pharmacy and medical equipment unit at a local hospital in Bandung which affected the service level of the hospital. As one of the busy hospital in Java, proven by the higher amount of the patient/year than in other average Java typical hospital, the hospital needs to concern about the pharmaceutical and medical equipment inventories in order to fulfill patients’ needs and in the same time keeping the inventory level under control. Therefore, an inventory control evaluation was conducted to determine the appropriate number of inventories and time of order to avoid the excessive goods in central warehouse of the hospital. By using probabilistic inventory model and continuous review policy, the pharmaceutical inventory in the hospital was calculated to compare the ideal and actual amount of the average inventory level (AIL. ABC (Always, Better, Control classification also classified in this research to identify the proper item which potentially can be reduced from the inventory. From the analysis, we have discovered that the hospital potentially able to reduce almost Rp 830 million or 57% from the overstock inventory level by using continuous review policy as the basis of inventory control calculation system. Keywords: Continuous review policy, inventory control, EOQ, ROP, AIL

  15. Automated Inventory Control System for Nigeria Power Holding ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The company may want to release some capital from its inventory investment by reducing stock levels. In addition, manual ways of handling inventory has failed to cope with factors like ... graphical interface ability for decision making.

  16. Random matrix approach to the dynamics of stock inventory variations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou Weixing; Mu Guohua; Kertész, János

    2012-01-01

    It is well accepted that investors can be classified into groups owing to distinct trading strategies, which forms the basic assumption of many agent-based models for financial markets when agents are not zero-intelligent. However, empirical tests of these assumptions are still very rare due to the lack of order flow data. Here we adopt the order flow data of Chinese stocks to tackle this problem by investigating the dynamics of inventory variations for individual and institutional investors that contain rich information about the trading behavior of investors and have a crucial influence on price fluctuations. We find that the distributions of cross-correlation coefficient C ij have power-law forms in the bulk that are followed by exponential tails, and there are more positive coefficients than negative ones. In addition, it is more likely that two individuals or two institutions have a stronger inventory variation correlation than one individual and one institution. We find that the largest and the second largest eigenvalues (λ 1 and λ 2 ) of the correlation matrix cannot be explained by random matrix theory and the projections of investors' inventory variations on the first eigenvector u(λ 1 ) are linearly correlated with stock returns, where individual investors play a dominating role. The investors are classified into three categories based on the cross-correlation coefficients C VR between inventory variations and stock returns. A strong Granger causality is unveiled from stock returns to inventory variations, which means that a large proportion of individuals hold the reversing trading strategy and a small part of individuals hold the trending strategy. Our empirical findings have scientific significance in the understanding of investors' trading behavior and in the construction of agent-based models for emerging stock markets. (paper)

  17. Random matrix approach to the dynamics of stock inventory variations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Wei-Xing; Mu, Guo-Hua; Kertész, János

    2012-09-01

    It is well accepted that investors can be classified into groups owing to distinct trading strategies, which forms the basic assumption of many agent-based models for financial markets when agents are not zero-intelligent. However, empirical tests of these assumptions are still very rare due to the lack of order flow data. Here we adopt the order flow data of Chinese stocks to tackle this problem by investigating the dynamics of inventory variations for individual and institutional investors that contain rich information about the trading behavior of investors and have a crucial influence on price fluctuations. We find that the distributions of cross-correlation coefficient Cij have power-law forms in the bulk that are followed by exponential tails, and there are more positive coefficients than negative ones. In addition, it is more likely that two individuals or two institutions have a stronger inventory variation correlation than one individual and one institution. We find that the largest and the second largest eigenvalues (λ1 and λ2) of the correlation matrix cannot be explained by random matrix theory and the projections of investors' inventory variations on the first eigenvector u(λ1) are linearly correlated with stock returns, where individual investors play a dominating role. The investors are classified into three categories based on the cross-correlation coefficients CV R between inventory variations and stock returns. A strong Granger causality is unveiled from stock returns to inventory variations, which means that a large proportion of individuals hold the reversing trading strategy and a small part of individuals hold the trending strategy. Our empirical findings have scientific significance in the understanding of investors' trading behavior and in the construction of agent-based models for emerging stock markets.

  18. Geometric Programming Approach to an Interactive Fuzzy Inventory Problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nirmal Kumar Mandal

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available An interactive multiobjective fuzzy inventory problem with two resource constraints is presented in this paper. The cost parameters and index parameters, the storage space, the budgetary cost, and the objective and constraint goals are imprecise in nature. These parameters and objective goals are quantified by linear/nonlinear membership functions. A compromise solution is obtained by geometric programming method. If the decision maker is not satisfied with this result, he/she may try to update the current solution to his/her satisfactory solution. In this way we implement man-machine interactive procedure to solve the problem through geometric programming method.

  19. Dynamic pricing and inventory control with delivery flexibility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Wen; He, Ying

    2018-01-01

    We study a multi-period inventory system with price-sensitive demand and uncertain supplier, focusing on the advantage of delivery flexibility. The optimal pricing and inventory replenishment decisions are explored. We also investigate the changes of marginal profit, optimal order quantities...

  20. A New Approach to Site Demand-Based Level Inventory Optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-01

    Note: If probability distributions are estimated based on mean and variance , use ˆ qix  and 2ˆ( )qi to generate these. q in , number of...TO SITE DEMAND-BASED LEVEL INVENTORY OPTIMIZATION by Tacettin Ersoz June 2016 Thesis Advisor: Javier Salmeron Second Reader: Emily...DATES COVERED Master’s thesis 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE A NEW APPROACH TO SITE DEMAND-BASED LEVEL INVENTORY OPTIMIZATION 5. FUNDING NUMBERS 6

  1. Myopic control of stochastic inventories with intermittent updates: continuous versus periodic replenishment

    OpenAIRE

    M Shnaiderman

    2012-01-01

    A manufacturer who is responsible for supplying a retailer with a single product is considered. The retailer sells the product in response to stochastic demand and provides the manufacturer with periodic updates about his inventories. Replenishing the retailer's inventory under two myopic base-stock policies is addressed. These policies, referred to as vendor managed inventory, represent a relatively new approach to allocating responsibility in the replenishment process. Specifically, the man...

  2. Airline seat inventory control benefiting from currency differentials to enhance revenues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.E. Love

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to develop an airline seat inventory control model which will capitalise on currency differentials that exist between city pairs. The approach taken here is to maximise Expected Marginal Seat Revenues as proposed by Belobaba for non-nested fare classes. the basic Expected Marginal Seat Revenue model is extended to explicitly include the effects of overbooking. Data from the South African Airways return flight between Cape Town and London is utilised to demonstrate the model.

  3. Control your inventory in a world of lean retailing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abernathy, F H; Dunlop, J T; Hammond, J H; Weil, D

    2000-01-01

    As retailers adopt lean retailing practices, manufacturers are feeling the pinch. Retailers no longer place large seasonal orders for goods in advance-instead, they require ongoing replenishment of stock, forcing manufacturers to predict demand and then hold substantial inventories indefinitely. Manufacturers now carry the cost of inventory risk--the possibility that demand will dry up and goods will have to be sold below cost. And as product proliferation increases, customer demand becomes harder to predict. Most manufacturers apply one inventory policy for all stock-keeping units in a product line. But the inventory demand for SKUs within the same product line can vary significantly. SKUs with high volume typically have little variation in weekly sales, while slow-selling SKUs can vary enormously in weekly sales. The greater the variation, the larger the inventory the manufacturer must hold relative to an SKU's expected weekly sales. By differentiating inventory policies at the SKU level, manufacturers can reduce inventories for the high-volume SKUs and increase them for the low-volume ones--and thereby improve the profit-ability of the entire line. SKU-level differentiation can also be applied to sourcing strategies. Instead of producing all the SKUs for a product line at a single location, either offshore at low cost or close to market at higher cost, manufacturers can typically do better by going for a mixed allocation. Low-variation goods should be produced mainly offshore, while high-variation goods are best made close to markets.

  4. IMPROVEMENT OF THE METHODS OF INTERNAL CONTROL OF INVENTORIES IN AGRICULTURAL ORGANIZATIONS

    OpenAIRE

    Afanasenko A. N.

    2013-01-01

    The article considers the necessity of inventories for any organization. The fate of the organization depends on its management effectiveness and its financial position. The organizational peculiarities of internal control in the agricultural sphere have been studied and the ways of improvement of the organizational and methodological mechanisms have been offered for the internal control of inventories in agricultural organizations

  5. Inventory Control System for a Healthcare Apparel Service Centre with Stockout Risk: A Case Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    An Pan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Based on the real-world inventory control problem of a capacitated healthcare apparel service centre in Hong Kong which provides tailor-made apparel-making services for the elderly and disabled people, this paper studies a partial backordered continuous review inventory control problem in which the product demand follows a Poisson process with a constant lead time. The system is controlled by an (Q,r inventory policy which incorporate the stockout risk, storage capacity, and partial backlog. The healthcare apparel service centre, under the capacity constraint, aims to minimize the inventory cost and achieving a low stockout risk. To address this challenge, an optimization problem is constructed. A real case-based data analysis is conducted, and the result shows that the expected total cost on an order cycle is reduced substantially at around 20% with our proposed optimal inventory control policy. An extensive sensitivity analysis is conducted to generate additional insights.

  6. Inventory Control System for a Healthcare Apparel Service Centre with Stockout Risk: A Case Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, An; Hui, Chi-Leung

    2017-01-01

    Based on the real-world inventory control problem of a capacitated healthcare apparel service centre in Hong Kong which provides tailor-made apparel-making services for the elderly and disabled people, this paper studies a partial backordered continuous review inventory control problem in which the product demand follows a Poisson process with a constant lead time. The system is controlled by an ( Q , r ) inventory policy which incorporate the stockout risk, storage capacity, and partial backlog. The healthcare apparel service centre, under the capacity constraint, aims to minimize the inventory cost and achieving a low stockout risk. To address this challenge, an optimization problem is constructed. A real case-based data analysis is conducted, and the result shows that the expected total cost on an order cycle is reduced substantially at around 20% with our proposed optimal inventory control policy. An extensive sensitivity analysis is conducted to generate additional insights.

  7. Numerical research of the optimal control problem in the semi-Markov inventory model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gorshenin, Andrey K. [Institute of Informatics Problems, Russian Academy of Sciences, Vavilova str., 44/2, Moscow, Russia MIREA, Faculty of Information Technology (Russian Federation); Belousov, Vasily V. [Institute of Informatics Problems, Russian Academy of Sciences, Vavilova str., 44/2, Moscow (Russian Federation); Shnourkoff, Peter V.; Ivanov, Alexey V. [National research university Higher school of economics, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2015-03-10

    This paper is devoted to the numerical simulation of stochastic system for inventory management products using controlled semi-Markov process. The results of a special software for the system’s research and finding the optimal control are presented.

  8. Numerical research of the optimal control problem in the semi-Markov inventory model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gorshenin, Andrey K.; Belousov, Vasily V.; Shnourkoff, Peter V.; Ivanov, Alexey V.

    2015-01-01

    This paper is devoted to the numerical simulation of stochastic system for inventory management products using controlled semi-Markov process. The results of a special software for the system’s research and finding the optimal control are presented

  9. Combined Log Inventory and Process Simulation Models for the Planning and Control of Sawmill Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guillermo A. Mendoza; Roger J. Meimban; Philip A. Araman; William G. Luppold

    1991-01-01

    A log inventory model and a real-time hardwood process simulation model were developed and combined into an integrated production planning and control system for hardwood sawmills. The log inventory model was designed to monitor and periodically update the status of the logs in the log yard. The process simulation model was designed to estimate various sawmill...

  10. Challenges and Approaches for Developing Ultrafine Particle Emission Inventories for Motor Vehicle and Bus Fleets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diane U. Keogh

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Motor vehicles in urban areas are the main source of ultrafine particles (diameters < 0.1 µm. Ultrafine particles are generally measured in terms of particle number because they have little mass and are prolific in terms of their numbers. These sized particles are of particular interest because of their ability to enter deep into the human respiratory system and contribute to negative health effects. Currently ultrafine particles are neither regularly monitored nor regulated by ambient air quality standards. Motor vehicle and bus fleet inventories, epidemiological studies and studies of the chemical composition of ultrafine particles are urgently needed to inform scientific debate and guide development of air quality standards and regulation to control this important pollution source. This article discusses some of the many challenges associated with modelling and quantifying ultrafine particle concentrations and emission rates for developing inventories and microscale modelling of motor vehicles and buses, including the challenge of understanding and quantifying secondary particle formation. Recommendations are made concerning the application of particle emission factors in developing ultrafine particle inventories for motor vehicle fleets. The article presents a précis of the first published inventory of ultrafine particles (particle number developed for the urban South-East Queensland motor vehicle and bus fleet in Australia, and comments on the applicability of the comprehensive set of average particle emission factors used in this inventory, for developing ultrafine particle (particle number and particle mass inventories in other developed countries.

  11. Spare parts inventory control under system availability constraints

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Houtum, van G.J.J.A.N.; Kranenburg, A.A.

    2015-01-01

    This book focuses on the tactical planning level for spare parts management. It describes a series of multi-item inventory models and presents exact and heuristic optimization methods, including greedy heuristics that work well for real, life-sized problems. The intended audience consists of

  12. Inventory control for point-of-use locations in hospitals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bijvank, M.; Vis, I. F. A.

    Most inventory management systems at hospital departments are characterised by lost sales, periodic reviews with short lead times, and limited storage capacity. We develop two types of exact models that deal with all these characteristics. In a capacity model, the service level is maximised subject

  13. Inventory control for point-of-use locations in hospitals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Bijvank (Marco); I.F.A. Vis (Iris)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractMost inventory management systems at hospital departments are characterised by lost sales, periodic reviews with short lead times, and limited storage capacity. We develop two types of exact models that deal with all these characteristics. In a capacity model, the service level is

  14. Inventory control with product returns : The impact of imperfect information

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Brito, M.P.; Laan, E.A.

    2009-01-01

    Product returns are characterized by considerable uncertainty on time and quantity. In the literature on inventory management for product return environments best forecasts of future returns are associated with methods that use the most information regarding product return history. In practice,

  15. The integrated control of production-inventory systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nyen, van P.L.M.

    2005-01-01

    In this thesis, we investigate a multi-product, multi-machine production-inventory (PI) system that is characterized by: ?? relatively high and stable demand; ?? uncertainty in the precise timing of demand; ?? variability in the production process; ?? job shop routings; ?? considerable setup times

  16. Automated Inventory Control System for Nigeria Power Holding

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PROF. O. E. OSUAGWU

    2013-09-01

    Sep 1, 2013 ... Power Holding Company of Nigeria (PHCN) currently holds in excess of millions in spare parts inventory ... equipment/utilities at all times in view of stochastic item ... line contingency and small conductor sizing lines which are ...

  17. Proof of Concept for an Approach to a Finer Resolution Inventory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chris J. Cieszewski; Kim Iles; Roger C. Lowe; Michal Zasada

    2005-01-01

    This report presents a proof of concept for a statistical framework to develop a timely, accurate, and unbiased fiber supply assessment in the State of Georgia, U.S.A. The proposed approach is based on using various data sources and modeling techniques to calibrate satellite image-based statewide stand lists, which provide initial estimates for a State inventory on a...

  18. A Series Expansion Approach to Risk Analysis of an Inventory System with Sourcing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berkhout, J.; Heidergott, B.F.

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we extend the series expansion approach for uni-chain Markov processes to a special case of finite multi-chains with possible transient states. We will show that multi-chain Markov models arise naturally in simple models such as a single item inventory system with sourcing, i.e., with

  19. An Inventory Controlled Supply Chain Model Based on Improved BP Neural Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei He

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Inventory control is a key factor for reducing supply chain cost and increasing customer satisfaction. However, prediction of inventory level is a challenging task for managers. As one of the widely used techniques for inventory control, standard BP neural network has such problems as low convergence rate and poor prediction accuracy. Aiming at these problems, a new fast convergent BP neural network model for predicting inventory level is developed in this paper. By adding an error offset, this paper deduces the new chain propagation rule and the new weight formula. This paper also applies the improved BP neural network model to predict the inventory level of an automotive parts company. The results show that the improved algorithm not only significantly exceeds the standard algorithm but also outperforms some other improved BP algorithms both on convergence rate and prediction accuracy.

  20. 41 CFR 101-26.606 - Supply support available from the inventory control points of the military departments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... from the inventory control points of the military departments. 101-26.606 Section 101-26.606 Public... § 101-26.606 Supply support available from the inventory control points of the military departments. Federal civil agencies may obtain items of supply which are procured and managed by the inventory control...

  1. Optimization of Inventory

    OpenAIRE

    PROKOPOVÁ, Nikola

    2017-01-01

    The subject of this thesis is optimization of inventory in selected organization. Inventory optimization is a very important topic in each organization because it reduces storage costs. At the beginning the inventory theory is presented. It shows the meaning and types of inventory, inventory control and also different methods and models of inventory control. Inventory optimization in the enterprise can be reached by using models of inventory control. In the second part the company on which is...

  2. A computer program for controlling a university radioactive material inventory: From confusion to computer to control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robb, D.B.; Riches, C.G.; O'Brian, M.J.; Riordan, F.J.

    1984-01-01

    The University of Washington is a large user of radioactive material. Over 250 authorized programs are working in over 600 labs with nearly 3500 orders of radioactive material per year. The state license sets limits on the total amount of material on campus. There are also limits on sewer disposal. To meet these needs it is necessary to know the amount of material on campus at any time. A computer program was developed which covered many aspects of the radiation safety record needs including inventory control. Inventory is now managed by tracking each order from purchase to disposal. A screen menu as part of the interactive program allows immediate and detailed information about the inventory at time of purchase approval and delivery. Because of this system our knowledge and control of radionuclide work on campus has increased dramatically. A description of how this system is used during ordering, delivery and disposal will be given. Details on the methods to check limits are included along with a summary of the reports made possible by the current data files

  3. EPA's Review of DOE's Inventory Tracking for TRU Wastes at Waste Control Specialists

    Science.gov (United States)

    On April 9, 2014, EPA's Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) waste characterization team visited Waste Control Specialists (WCS) to determine whether DOE was meeting EPA's waste inventory tracking requirements at 40 CFR 194.24(c)(4).

  4. A new approach to inventorying bodies of water, from local to global scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bartout, Pascal

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Having reliable estimates of the number of water bodies on different geographical scales is of great importance to better understand biogeochemical cycles and to tackle the social issues related to the economic and cultural use of water bodies. However, limnological research suffers from a lack of reliable inventories; the available scientific references are predominately based on water bodies of natural origin, large in size and preferentially located in previously glaciated areas. Artificial, small and randomly distributed water bodies, especially ponds, are usually not inventoried. Following Wetzel’s theory (1990, some authors included them in global inventories by using remote sensing or mathematical extrapolation, but fieldwork on the ground has been done on a very limited amount of territory. These studies have resulted in an explosive increase in the estimated number of water bodies, going from 8.44 million lakes (Meybeck 1995 to 3.5 billion water bodies (Downing 2010. These numbers raise several questions, especially about the methodology used for counting small-sized water bodies and the methodological treatment of spatial variables. In this study, we use inventories of water bodies for Sweden, Finland, Estonia and France to show incoherencies generated by the “global to local” approach. We demonstrate that one universal relationship does not suffice for generating the regional or global inventories of water bodies because local conditions vary greatly from one region to another and cannot be offset adequately by each other. The current paradigm for global estimates of water bodies in limnology, which is based on one representative model applied to different territories, does not produce sufficiently exact global inventories. The step-wise progression from the local to the global scale requires the development of many regional equations based on fieldwork; a specific equation that adequately reflects the actual relationship

  5. An expert system for spare parts inventory control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, K.Y.; Chen, P.Y.C.; Okrent, D.

    1987-01-01

    This paper describes an expert system which can handle spare part requirements not only in corrective maintenance (CM) or preventive maintenance (PM), but also when failure rates of components or parts are updated by new data or by predictive maintenance (PDM), and which can also decide optimum stocking level of each spare part. This expert system provides a maintenance (or inventory) manager with an improved basis for decision making in the maintenance related to spare parts. The definitions of PM and PDM from NUREG-1212 (USNRC 1986) are used herein. This expert system used Intellignece/Compiler (Intelligence Ware, 1986) as a language/tool in the IBM-PC

  6. Optimizing Multi-Product Multi-Constraint Inventory Control Systems with Stochastic Replenishments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allah Taleizadeh, Ata; Aryanezhad, Mir-Bahador; Niaki, Seyed Taghi Akhavan

    Multi-periodic inventory control problems are mainly studied employing two assumptions. The first is the continuous review, where depending on the inventory level orders can happen at any time and the other is the periodic review, where orders can only happen at the beginning of each period. In this study, we relax these assumptions and assume that the periodic replenishments are stochastic in nature. Furthermore, we assume that the periods between two replenishments are independent and identically random variables. For the problem at hand, the decision variables are of integer-type and there are two kinds of space and service level constraints for each product. We develop a model of the problem in which a combination of back-order and lost-sales are considered for the shortages. Then, we show that the model is of an integer-nonlinear-programming type and in order to solve it, a search algorithm can be utilized. We employ a simulated annealing approach and provide a numerical example to demonstrate the applicability of the proposed methodology.

  7. A Hybrid Approach to the Valuation of RFID/MEMS technology applied to ordnance inventory

    OpenAIRE

    Doerr, Kenneth H.; Gates, William R.; Mutty, John E.

    2006-01-01

    We report on an analysis of the costs and benefits of fielding Radio Frequency Identification / MicroElectroMechanical System (RFID /MEMS) technology for the management of ordnance inventory. A factorial model of these benefits is proposed. Our valuation approach combines a multi-criteria tool for the valuation of qualitative factors with a monte-carlo simulation of anticipated financial factors. In a sample survey, qualitative factors are shown to account of over half of the anticipated bene...

  8. A novel approach for inventory problem in the pharmaceutical supply chain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Candan, Gökçe; Yazgan, Harun Reşit

    2016-02-24

    In pharmaceutical enterprises, keeping up with global market conditions is possible with properly selected supply chain management policies. Generally; demand-driven classical supply chain model is used in the pharmaceutical industry. In this study, a new mathematical model is developed to solve an inventory problem in the pharmaceutical supply chain. Unlike the studies in literature, the "shelf life and product transition times" constraints are considered, simultaneously, first time in the pharmaceutical production inventory problem. The problem is formulated as a mixed-integer linear programming (MILP) model with a hybrid time representation. The objective is to maximize total net profit. Effectiveness of the proposed model is illustrated considering a classical and a vendor managed inventory (VMI) supply chain on an experimental study. To show the effectiveness of the model, an experimental study is performed; which contains 2 different supply chain policy (Classical and VMI), 24 and 30 months planning horizon, 10 and 15 different cephalosporin products. Finally the mathematical model is compared to another model in literature and the results show that proposed model is superior. This study suggest a novel approach for solving pharmaceutical inventory problem. The developed model is maximizing total net profit while determining optimal production plan under shelf life and product transition constraints in the pharmaceutical industry. And we believe that the proposed model is much more closed to real life unlike the other studies in literature.

  9. Steam Generator control in Nuclear Power Plants by water mass inventory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dong Wei [North Carolina State University, Department of Nuclear Engineering, Box 7909, Raleigh, NC 27695-7909 (United States); Doster, J. Michael [North Carolina State University, Department of Nuclear Engineering, Box 7909, Raleigh, NC 27695-7909 (United States)], E-mail: doster@eos.ncsu.edu; Mayo, Charles W. [North Carolina State University, Department of Nuclear Engineering, Box 7909, Raleigh, NC 27695-7909 (United States)

    2008-04-15

    Control of water mass inventory in Nuclear Steam Generators is important to insure sufficient cooling of the nuclear reactor. Since downcomer water level is measurable, and a reasonable indication of water mass inventory near steady-state, conventional feedwater control system designs attempt to maintain downcomer water level within a relatively narrow operational band. However, downcomer water level can temporarily react in a reverse manner to water mass inventory changes, commonly known as shrink and swell effects. These complications are accentuated during start-up or low power conditions. As a result, automatic or manual control of water level is difficult and can lead to high reactor trip rates. This paper introduces a new feedwater control strategy for Nuclear Steam Generators. The new method directly controls water mass inventory instead of downcomer water level, eliminating complications from shrink and swell all together. However, water mass inventory is not measurable, requiring an online estimator to provide a mass inventory signal based on measurable plant parameters. Since the thermal-hydraulic response of a Steam Generator is highly nonlinear, a linear state-observer is not feasible. In addition, difficulties in obtaining flow regime and density information within the Steam Generator make an estimator based on analytical methods impractical at this time. This work employs a water mass estimator based on feedforward neural networks. By properly choosing and training the neural network, mass signals can be obtained which are suitable for stable, closed-loop water mass inventory control. Theoretical analysis and simulation results show that water mass control can significantly improve the operation and safety of Nuclear Steam Generators.

  10. Steam Generator control in Nuclear Power Plants by water mass inventory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dong Wei; Doster, J. Michael; Mayo, Charles W.

    2008-01-01

    Control of water mass inventory in Nuclear Steam Generators is important to insure sufficient cooling of the nuclear reactor. Since downcomer water level is measurable, and a reasonable indication of water mass inventory near steady-state, conventional feedwater control system designs attempt to maintain downcomer water level within a relatively narrow operational band. However, downcomer water level can temporarily react in a reverse manner to water mass inventory changes, commonly known as shrink and swell effects. These complications are accentuated during start-up or low power conditions. As a result, automatic or manual control of water level is difficult and can lead to high reactor trip rates. This paper introduces a new feedwater control strategy for Nuclear Steam Generators. The new method directly controls water mass inventory instead of downcomer water level, eliminating complications from shrink and swell all together. However, water mass inventory is not measurable, requiring an online estimator to provide a mass inventory signal based on measurable plant parameters. Since the thermal-hydraulic response of a Steam Generator is highly nonlinear, a linear state-observer is not feasible. In addition, difficulties in obtaining flow regime and density information within the Steam Generator make an estimator based on analytical methods impractical at this time. This work employs a water mass estimator based on feedforward neural networks. By properly choosing and training the neural network, mass signals can be obtained which are suitable for stable, closed-loop water mass inventory control. Theoretical analysis and simulation results show that water mass control can significantly improve the operation and safety of Nuclear Steam Generators

  11. Information system design of inventory control spare parts maintenance (valuation class 5000) (case study: plant kw)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitriana, Rina; Moengin, Parwadi; Riana, Mega

    2016-02-01

    Plat KW hadn't using optimal inventory level planning yet and hadn't have an information system that well computerized. The research objective is to be able to design an information system related inventory control of spare parts maintenance. The study focused on five types of spare parts with the highest application rate during February 2013- March 2015 and included in the classification of fast on FSN analysis Grinding stones Cut 4". Cable Tie 15". Welding RB 26-32MM. Ring Plat ½" and Ring Plate 5/8 ". Inventory calculation used Economic Order Quantity (EOQ). Safety Stock (SS) and Reorder Point (ROP) methods. System analysis conducted using the framework PIECES with the proposed inventory control system. the performance of the plant KW relating to the supply of spare parts maintenance needs can be more efficient as well as problems at the company can be answered and can perform inventory cost savings amounting Rp.267.066. A computerized information system of inventory control spare parts maintenance provides a menu that can be accessed by each departments as the user needed.

  12. LQ Optimal Sliding Mode Control of Periodic Review Perishable Inventories with Transportation Losses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piotr Leśniewski

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In this work we apply the control-theoretic approach to design a new replenishment strategy for inventory systems with perishable stock. Such systems are supposed to effectively satisfy an unknown and permanently time-varying consumers’ demand. The main obstacle of achieving this goal is the need of obtaining supplies from a distant source. During the supply process goods are inevitably lost due to various causes. Furthermore, those goods which successfully arrive at the distribution center still deteriorate while stored in its warehouse. We explicitly take into account both of these factors in designing our control strategy. We propose a sliding mode strategy and choose its parameters to minimize a quadratic quality criterion. This approach allows us to ameliorate the bullwhip effect (the amplification of the demand variations when going up in the supply chain. The control strategy proposed in this work ensures bounded orders, guarantees full consumers’ demand satisfaction, and eliminates the risk of exceeding the warehouse capacity. These properties are stated in three theorems and proved in the paper.

  13. Multi-leg Seat Inventory Control Based on EMSU and Virtual Bucket

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Fan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Expected marginal seat revenue (EMSR is a well-known method for airline seat inventory control airlines. However, this method employs a static model to study the dynamic reservation process, and does not take into account the risk tolerance of policy makers. Expected marginal seat utility (EMSU replaces revenue by utility, which addresses the real situation of seat inventory control. However, there is still a lack of multi-leg seat control algorithms based on EMSU. Therefore, using EMSU and bucket algorithms, this paper applies the Markov decision-making process to simulate the flight reservation process and builds a dynamic multi-leg seat inventory control model. Experimental results validate the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  14. Administrative Lead Time at Navy Inventory Control Points

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Granetto, Paul

    1994-01-01

    .... We also evaluated the internal controls established for administrative lead time and the adequacy of management's implementation of the DoD Internal Management Control Program for monitoring administrative lead time...

  15. An Ecological Inventory Approach to Developing Curricula for Rural Areas of Developing Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baine, David; Puhan, Biranchi; Puhan, Gautam; Puhan, Siba

    2000-05-01

    The paper describes a curriculum development pilot study in a rural village in India. The purpose of the study was to develop and test application of an ecological inventory approach to curriculum development integrating academic and functional skill training. Ecologically valid curricula teach the knowledge, skills, attitudes and values required by students to function effectively in current and future environments (e.g., urban and/or rural, academic, vocational, domestic, community and recreational) in which the students perform. The discussion illustrates application of ecological inventories and describes several related data collection instruments and procedures. The paper also describes an Integrated Core Curriculum Structure (ICCS) as a guide for designing curricula based on ecological inventories. An example is provided of a practical Thematic Unit Plan derived from the ICCS and integrating a variety of functional and academic skills into a guide for instruction and evaluation. The discussion provides a clear insight into many of the problems faced by students, school leavers and graduates in rural areas of developing countries, both in their daily lives and as they plan for their futures.

  16. Typological and dimensional approach at comparing the Giessen Test (GT) with the NEO-Five-Factor-Inventory (NEO-FFI)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roth, Marcus; Körner, Annett; Herzberg, Philipp Yorck

    2008-01-01

    Objectives: This article reports comparisons of the Giessen Test (GT) with the NEO-Five-Factor-Inventory (NEO-FFI) based on a dimensional as well as on a typological approach. Method: Data were collected from 1673 subjects (aged between 18 and 96 years) constituting a representative sample of the German population. Results: The results indicate only moderate agreement (ranging from .25 to .61) between the subscales of the two personality inventories. The correspondence seems to be somewhat higher, when the typological approach was used instead of the dimensional approach. Conclusions: The typological approach is less dependent on the underlying questionnaires and provides a useful extension of the dimensional approach. PMID:19742276

  17. Model Development for Auto Spare Parts Inventory Control and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2012-12-01

    Dec 1, 2012 ... essential motivating factors for providing control in manufacturing companies has never showed any sign ... The management of these parts can only be done with the aid of a computer; ... perform a discrete event simulation of.

  18. Inventory control in multi-item production systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bruin, J.

    2010-01-01

    This thesis focusses on the analysis and construction of control policies in multiitem production systems. In such systems, multiple items can be made to stock, but they have to share the finite capacity of a single machine. This machine can only produce one unit at a time and if it is set-up for

  19. An inventory control project in a major Danish company using compound renewal demand models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Christian; Seiding, Claus Hoe; Teller, Christian

    2008-01-01

    procedures for determining suitable inventory control variables based on the fitted demand distributions and a service-level requirement stated in terms of an order fill rate. Finally, we validated the results of our models against the procedures that had been in use in the company. It was concluded...

  20. Inventory control for a perishable product with non-stationary demand

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pauls-Worm, K.G.J.

    2016-01-01

    Globally, around one-third of the edible parts of perishable food products is wasted every year. Adequate logistics management of the food supply chain is of importance. Inventory control of processed fresh food with a best-before or use-by date deals with the questions how much to order and how

  1. Inventory control in multi-echelon divergent systems with random lead times

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heijden, van der M.C.; Diks, E.B.; Kok, de A.G.

    1996-01-01

    This paper deals with integral inventory control in multi-echelon divergent systems with stochastic lead times. The policy considered is an echelon stock, periodic review, order-up-to (R, S) policy. A computational method is derived to obtain the order-up-to level and the allocation fractions

  2. The Attitudes & Beliefs on Classroom Control Inventory-Revised and Revisited: A Continuation of Construct Validation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Nancy K.; Yin, Zenong; Mayall, Hayley

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to report the psychometric properties of the revised Attitudes and Beliefs of Classroom Control Inventory (ABCC-R). Data were collected from 489 participants via the ABCC-R, Teacher Efficacy Scale, Problems in School Questionnaire, and a demographic questionnaire. Results were in keeping with the construct. The…

  3. Mixed Waste Management Facility (MWMF) Old Burial Ground (OBG) source control technology and inventory study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flach, G.P.; Rehder, T.E.; Kanzleiter, J.P.

    1996-10-02

    This report has been developed to support information needs for wastes buried in the Burial Ground Complex. Information discussed is presented in a total of four individual attachments. The general focus of this report is to collect information on estimated source inventories, leaching studies, source control technologies, and to provide information on modeling parameters and associated data deficiencies.

  4. Exact Fill Rates for (R, s, S) Inventory Control With Gamma Distributed Demand

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moors, J.J.A.; Strijbosch, L.W.G.

    2001-01-01

    For the familiar (R; s; S) inventory control system only approximate expressions exist for the fill rate, i.e. the fraction of demand that can be satisfied from stock.Best-known are the approximations derived from renewal theory by Tijms & Groenevelt (1984), holding under specific conditions; in

  5. Mixed Waste Management Facility (MWMF) Old Burial Ground (OBG) source control technology and inventory study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flach, G.P.; Rehder, T.E.; Kanzleiter, J.P.

    1996-01-01

    This report has been developed to support information needs for wastes buried in the Burial Ground Complex. Information discussed is presented in a total of four individual attachments. The general focus of this report is to collect information on estimated source inventories, leaching studies, source control technologies, and to provide information on modeling parameters and associated data deficiencies

  6. Inventory control in multi-echelon divergent systems with random lead times

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Heijden, Matthijs C.; Diks, Erik; de Kok, Ton

    1999-01-01

    This paper deals with integral inventory control in multi-echelon divergent systems with stochastic lead times. The policy considered is an echelon stock, periodic review, order-up-to (R, S) policy. A computational method is derived to obtain the order-up-to level and the allocation fractions

  7. Detailed CATHENA Model of the Wolsong 1 Pressure and Inventory Control System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cha, K.H. [Korea Electric Power Research Institute, Taejon (Korea)

    2002-07-01

    The Detailed CATHENA model of Wolsong 1 is development to be able to simulate a theramal hydraulic behavior of heat transport system(HTS) Pressure and Inventory Control System(PNIC) at any power operation condition and during transient events such as mall LOCA(small loss of coolant inventory and small breaks in the primary system piping) and non-LOCA(loss of reactivity regulation, loss of flow, loss if Class IV power, loss of PNIC). (author). 12 refs., 7 figs., 6 tabs.

  8. An inventory control project in a major Danish company using compound renewal demand models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Christian; Seiding, Claus Hoe; Teller, Christian

    operation is highly automated. However, the procedures for estimating demands and the policies for the inventory control system that were in use at the beginning of the project did not fully match the sophisticated technological standard of the physical system. During the initial phase of the project...... We describe the development of a framework to compute the optimal inventory policy for a large spare-parts' distribution centre operation in the RA division of the Danfoss Group in Denmark. The RA division distributes spare parts worldwide for cooling and A/C systems. The warehouse logistics...

  9. Safety analysis and inventory control of transuranic and low-level waste in common storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Porten, D.R.; Bonner, A.L.; Joyce, J.P.

    1993-01-01

    This paper describes a methodology developed For the inventory control of low-level waste (LLW) and transuranic (TRU) waste, when both are stored in the same location, and both contribute to an inventory constrained by safety considerations. Development of the method arose from the necessity to make safety analysis calculations for the addition of LLW, in quantities greater than existing inventory limits would allow when stored with TRU waste, in the Hanford Central Waste Complex (CWC)-Ensuring that the dose consequences of credible releases are maintained at low-hazard limits or less, was used to allow greater than Type A quantities of LLW into the CWC. Basically, what happens is the original limited amount of TRU allowed is reduced by some equivalent amount of LLW introduced. The total quantity of TRU, and LLW in excess of Type A quantities, must be administratively maintained via curie equivalency Factors to ensure operation as a low-hazard Facility. The ''equivalency'' between TRU and LLW proposed here is specific only to the CWC, but the methodology can be used for other specific applications, such as TRU and LLW storage or handling facilities where inventory limits must be enforced or where a simplified inventory system is required

  10. Dynamic Pricing and Production Control of an Inventory System with Remanufacturing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chunyan Gao

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We consider optimal pricing and manufacturing control of a continuous-review inventory system with remanufacturing. Customer demand and product return follow independent Poisson processes. Customer demand is filled by serviceable product, which can be either manufactured or remanufactured from the returned product. The lead times for both manufacturing and remanufacturing are exponentially distributed. The objective is to maximize the expected total discounted profit over an infinite planning horizon. We characterize the structural properties of the optimal policy through the optimality equation. Specifically, the optimal manufacturing policy is a base-stock policy with the base-stock level nonincreasing in the return inventory level. The optimal pricing policy is also a threshold policy, where the threshold level is nonincreasing in the return inventory level.

  11. Inventory control through gamma spectrometry at the enriched uranium laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vicens, H.E.; Korob, R.O.; Goldschmidt, A.E.

    1987-01-01

    The enriched uranium laboratory processes alternatively uranium 90% and 20% enriched in U-235. The control of the isotopic composition of lots is made through mass spectrometry. In the laboratory operation wastes of both enrichments are generated and the recovery is performed with a time delay. To strengthen the administrative controls, avoid errors related to personnel replacement and/or deferred operations, it seemed suitable to adjust the gamma spectrometry as a fast, simple and available method to determine the enrichment. The laboratory work includes a wet and a dry process. The waste recovery necessarily involves the handling of liquid samples. For this reason, it was decided to determine the calibration curve for uranyl nitrate samples of fixed concentration and geometry. The samples were prepared from material purified through double precipitation of uranium peroxide and subsequent ignition to U 3 O 8 in platinum crucible, in tubular oven during 8 hours at 720 deg C. The preparation of samples, the measurement description, the discussion of results and the analysis of errors due to the presence of insoluble material and concentration changes are included. (Author)

  12. Distributed source term analysis, a new approach to nuclear material inventory verification

    CERN Document Server

    Beddingfield, D H

    2002-01-01

    The Distributed Source-Term Analysis (DSTA) technique is a new approach to measuring in-process material holdup that is a significant departure from traditional hold-up measurement methodology. The DSTA method is a means of determining the mass of nuclear material within a large, diffuse, volume using passive neutron counting. The DSTA method is a more efficient approach than traditional methods of holdup measurement and inventory verification. The time spent in performing DSTA measurement and analysis is a fraction of that required by traditional techniques. The error ascribed to a DSTA survey result is generally less than that from traditional methods. Also, the negative bias ascribed to gamma-ray methods is greatly diminished because the DSTA method uses neutrons which are more penetrating than gamma-rays.

  13. Distributed source term analysis, a new approach to nuclear material inventory verification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beddingfield, D.H.; Menlove, H.O.

    2002-01-01

    The Distributed Source-Term Analysis (DSTA) technique is a new approach to measuring in-process material holdup that is a significant departure from traditional hold-up measurement methodology. The DSTA method is a means of determining the mass of nuclear material within a large, diffuse, volume using passive neutron counting. The DSTA method is a more efficient approach than traditional methods of holdup measurement and inventory verification. The time spent in performing DSTA measurement and analysis is a fraction of that required by traditional techniques. The error ascribed to a DSTA survey result is generally less than that from traditional methods. Also, the negative bias ascribed to γ-ray methods is greatly diminished because the DSTA method uses neutrons which are more penetrating than γ-rays

  14. 32 CFR 169a.8 - Inventory and review schedule (Report Control Symbol DD-P&L(A)).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Inventory and review schedule (Report Control... OF DEFENSE DEFENSE CONTRACTING COMMERCIAL ACTIVITIES PROGRAM PROCEDURES Procedures § 169a.8 Inventory and review schedule (Report Control Symbol DD-P&L(A)). (a) Information in each DoD Component's...

  15. Control system implementation for a complex low inventory cryogenic distillation system for Princeton TFTR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Busigin, A.; Busigin, C.J.; Adamek, F.; Woodall, K.B.; Robins, J.R.; Bellamy, D.G.; Fong, C.; Kalyanam, K.M.; Sood, S.K.

    1995-01-01

    The TFTR Tritium Purification System (TPS) is based on a Pd/Ag diffuser front-end for separating hydrogen isotopes from inert gas, and a four column cryogenic distillation cascade for separation of hydrogen isotopes. The system has a tritium inventory of approximately 0.5 g while successfully producing pure H 2 , D 2 and T 2 products. The system has recently been built and successfully commissioned with protium and deuterium. Stable automatic control of the cascade has been demonstrated even when feed rate and composition varied. The automatic control scheme maintained stable column inventories and excellent H 2 and D 2 product qualities. The control system employed new control concepts such as real time analysis of mid-column composition using temperature and pressure data for feedback control. Very stable column inventory control was achieved by automatic adjustment of inter-column flows (feed forward and feed back). This paper discusses the control system design and presents performance test results. (orig.)

  16. Improvement of inventory control and forecast according to activity-based classifications: T company as an example

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jui-Chan; Wu, Tzu-Jung; Chiu, Yen-Chun; Lu, Chunwei

    2017-06-01

    Inventory management is a major issue for all the industries. The supply of products to customers requires the readiness of the inventory. This allows rapid delivery and reduces waiting time for customers so that companies can profit from it. Any stock out or insufficiency will lead to loss of customers because their needs cannot be met. This will hurt firm profitability and market competitiveness. Inventory control is critical to retain liquidity and avoid overstocking. This is also the key to firm's survival and sustainability. To ensure an appropriate level of inventory, it is necessary to manage the inventory levels with sales forecast on an on-going basis. This paper seeks to assist Company T to improve its inventory control. Firstly, the products offered by Company T are classified into groups. The R programming language is used to stimulate and forecast future sales of different products. Different techniques are applied to manage the inventory levels according to the results of categorizations and forecasts that are consolidation of all the product items and grouping them into activity-based classifications, simulation and forecasting of future sales according to the categorization results, and formulation of different control techniques based on the simulations and forecasts. The results and the inventory management can be used to enhance the inventory control as well.

  17. Effects of control technology on the projected krypton-85 environmental inventory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oscarson, E.E.

    1973-01-01

    Growth projections for the USA nuclear power industry may be used to make projections of future radioactive material inventories available for potential release to the environment. Since krypton-85 is produced in reactors, the potential routes of release to the environment are at the reactors or the fuel reprocessing plants. The present generation of reactors and fuel reprocessing plants do not use any systems to limit the release of krypton-85 into the biosphere. Clean-up systems are currently being designed and could be introduced when necessary. The cumulative inventory of krypton-85 in the environment is dependent upon the time of introduction of these clean-up systems and their efficiencies, in addition to the total quantity produced. Annual and cumulative inventories of krypton-85 are projected to increase dramatically over the next 50 years. If controls are assumed to be initiated at various years, a series of graphs of different cumulative environmental inventories and the associated doses and health effects are drawn. Varying the year of introduction and the efficiency of these systems allows one to speculate as to the optimum time for control implementation

  18. A Multinomial Logit Approach to Estimating Regional Inventories by Product Class

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrence Teeter; Xiaoping Zhou

    1998-01-01

    Current timber inventory projections generally lack information on inventory by product classes. Most models available for inventory projection and linked to supply analyses are limited to projecting aggregate softwood and hardwood. The objective of this research is to develop a methodology to distribute the volume on each FIA survey plot to product classes and...

  19. Optimal Control Approaches to the Aggregate Production Planning Problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasser A. Davizón

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In the area of production planning and control, the aggregate production planning (APP problem represents a great challenge for decision makers in production-inventory systems. Tradeoff between inventory-capacity is known as the APP problem. To address it, static and dynamic models have been proposed, which in general have several shortcomings. It is the premise of this paper that the main drawback of these proposals is, that they do not take into account the dynamic nature of the APP. For this reason, we propose the use of an Optimal Control (OC formulation via the approach of energy-based and Hamiltonian-present value. The main contribution of this paper is the mathematical model which integrates a second order dynamical system coupled with a first order system, incorporating production rate, inventory level, and capacity as well with the associated cost by work force in the same formulation. Also, a novel result in relation with the Hamiltonian-present value in the OC formulation is that it reduces the inventory level compared with the pure energy based approach for APP. A set of simulations are provided which verifies the theoretical contribution of this work.

  20. Los enfoques de aprendizaje en estudiantes universitarios Catalanes mediante el approaches and study skills inventory for students (ASSIST) = Learning Approaches of Catalan University Students Measured with the Approaches and Study Skills Inventory for Students (ASSIST)

    OpenAIRE

    Tesouro i Cid, Montserrat; Cañabate Ortiz, Dolors; Puiggalí, Joan

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study is to measure the psychometric properties of a Catalan translation of the Approaches and Study Skills Inventory for Students (ASSIST), and to analyse the different learning styles used by university students, considering the influence of gender and type of studies. The instrument was administered to 834 students at the University of Girona. The results showed that most students interviewed had a deep approach to learning, although the analysis by gender showed that femal...

  1. Research on Multi-leg Inventory Control Based on Passenger Choice

    OpenAIRE

    Fan, Wei; Su, Qiubo; Ip, Wai Hung

    2014-01-01

    To remedy the lack of mathematical programming and the Expected Marginal Seat Revenue (EMSR) model for multi-leg seat inventory control, this paper proposes a method based on passenger choice. Except for data about which seats passengers decide to opt for, there is no need to obtain distributions of passengers’ demands or other “a priori” information. The proposed method can discover the real factors that affect passengers’ choices, and then estimate the probabilities of seat choices and the ...

  2. Plutonium and minor actinides management in the nuclear fuel cycle: assessing and controlling the inventory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mouney, H.

    2002-01-01

    The mastering of the plutonium and minor actinides inventory in the French Nuclear Cycle is based on a progressive approach from the present status, dealing with the partial reprocessing of spent fuels and the recycling of Pu in the MOX assemblies loaded in the 20 licensed PWRs. This strategy keeps the door open long-term, for example, for the eventual multi-recycling of excess Pu in dedicated new assemblies, such as APA or CORAIL in order to stabilize the Pu inventory in the fuel cycle or allow its utilization in new types of fast reactors. Presently, in the framework of 1991 law, scenario studies relying on present and/or innovative technologies are carried out in order to transmute both Pu and minor actinides, thus minimising the quantities to be for disposal. (author)

  3. Process control and safeguards system plutonium inventory conrol for MOX fuel facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mishima, T.; Aoki, M.; Muto, T.; Amanuma, T.

    1979-01-01

    The plutonium inventory control (PINC) system is a real-time material accountability control system that is expected to be applied to a new large-scale plutonium fuel production facility for both fast breeder reactor and heavy water reactor at the Power Reactor and Nuclear Development Corporation. The PINC is basically a system for material control but is expected to develop into a whole facility control system, including criticality control, process control, quality control, facility protection, and so forth. Under PINC, every process and storage area is divided into a unit area, which is the smallest unit for both accountability and process control. Item and material weight automatically are accounted for at every unit area, and data are simultaneously treated by a computer network system. Sensors necessary for the system are being developed. 9 figures

  4. Development and reliability testing of a Health Action Process Approach inventory for physical activity participation among individuals with schizophrenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelly eArbour-Nicitopoulos

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Individuals with schizophrenia tend to have high levels of cardiovascular disease and lower physical activity (PA levels than the general population. Research is urgently required in developing evidence-based behavioral interventions for increasing PA in this population. One model that has been increasingly used to understand the mechanisms underlying PA is the Health Action Process Approach (HAPA. The purpose of this study was to adapt and pilot-test a HAPA-based inventory that reliably captures salient, modifiable PA determinants for individuals with schizophrenia. Initially, twelve outpatients with schizophrenia reviewed the inventory and provided verbal feedback regarding comprehension, item relevance, and potential new content. A content analysis framework was used to inform modifications to the inventory. The resultant inventory underwent a quantitative assessment of internal consistency and test-retest reliability. Twenty-five outpatients (Mage= 41.5 ± 13.5 years; 64% male completed the inventory on two separate occasions, one week apart. All but two scales showed good internal consistency (Cronbach’s α=0.62–0.98 and test-retest correlations (rs = .21-.96. Preliminary assessment of criterion validity of the HAPA inventory showed significant, large-sized correlations between behavioural intentions and both affective outcome expectancies and task self-efficacy, and small-to-moderate correlations between self-reported minutes of moderate-to-vigorous PA and the volitional constructs of the HAPA model. These findings provide preliminary support for the reliability and validity of the first-ever inventory for examining theory-based predictors of moderate to vigorous PA intentions and behavior among individuals with schizophrenia. Further validation research with this inventory using an objective measure of PA behavior will provide additional support for its psychometric properties within the schizophrenia population.

  5. Changing an automated drug inventory control system to a data base design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradish, R A

    1982-09-01

    A pharmacy department's change from indexed sequential access files to a data base management system (DBMS) for purposes of automated inventory control is described. The DBMS has three main functional areas: (1) inventory ordering and accountability, (2) charging of interdepartmental and intradepartmental orders, and (3) data manipulation with report design for management control. There are seven files directly related to the inventory ordering and accountability area. Each record can be accessed directly or through another file. Information on the quantity of a drug on hand, drug(s) supplied by a specific vendor, status of a purchase order, or calculation of an estimated order quantity can be retrieved quickly. In the drug master file, two records contain a reorder point and safety-stock level that are determined by searching the entries in the order history file and vendor master file. The intradepartmental and interdepartmental orders section contains five files assigned to record and store information on drug distribution. All items removed from the stockroom and distributed are recorded, and reports can be generated for itemized bills, total cost by area, and as formatted files for the accounts payable department. The design, development, and implementation of the DBMS took approximately a year using a part-time pharmacist and minimal outside help, while the previous system required constant expensive help of a programmer/analyst. The DBMS has given the pharmacy department a flexible inventory management system with increased drug control, decreased operating expenses, increased use of department personnel, and the ability to develop and enhance other systems.

  6. Genetic algorithm to optimize two-echelon inventory control system for perishable goods in terms of active packaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Babak Yousefi Yegane

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper considers an inventory control policy for a two-echelon inventory control system with one supplier-one buyer. We consider the case of deteriorating items which lead to shortage in supply chain. Therefore, it is necessary to decrease the deterioration rate by adding some specification to the packaging of these items that is known as active packaging. Although this packaging can reduce the deteriorating rate of products, but may be increases the cost of both supplier and buyer. Because of the complexity of the mathematical model, a genetic algorithm has been developed to determine the best policy of this inventory control system.

  7. Towards an Integrated Assessment Model for Tropospheric Ozone-Emission Inventories, Scenarios and Emission-control Options

    OpenAIRE

    Olsthoorn, X.

    1994-01-01

    IIASA intends to extend its RAINS model for addressing the issue of transboundary ozone air pollution. This requires the development of a VOC-emissions module, VOCs being precursors in ozone formation. The module should contain a Europe-wide emission inventory, a submodule for developing emission scenarios and a database of measures for VOC-emission control, including data about control effectiveness and control costs. It is recommended to use the forthcoming CORINAIR90 inventory for construc...

  8. An approach to a black carbon emission inventory for Mexico by two methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cruz-Núñez, Xochitl

    2014-01-01

    A black carbon (BC) emission inventory for Mexico is presented. Estimate was performed by using two approaches, based on fuel consumption and emission factors in a top-down scheme, and the second from PM25 emission data and its correlation with black carbon by source category, assuming that black carbon = elemental carbon. Results show that black carbon emissions are in interval 53–473 Gg using the fuel consumption approach and between 62 and 89 using the sector method. Black carbon key sources come from biomass burning in the rural sector, with 47 percent share to the National total. Mobile sources emissions account to 16% to the total. An opportunity to reduce, in the short-term, carbon dioxide equivalent (CO2-eq) emissions by reducing black carbon emissions would be obtained in reducing emissions mainly from biomass burning in rural housing sector and diesel emissions in the transport sector with important co-benefits in direct radiative forcing, public health and air quality. - Highlights: • Black carbon emissions are estimated between 53 and 473 Gg/year on a fuel consumption method. • Black carbon emissions are estimated between 62 and 89 Gg/year on a sector method

  9. An approach to a black carbon emission inventory for Mexico by two methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cruz-Núñez, Xochitl, E-mail: xcruz@unam.mx

    2014-05-01

    A black carbon (BC) emission inventory for Mexico is presented. Estimate was performed by using two approaches, based on fuel consumption and emission factors in a top-down scheme, and the second from PM25 emission data and its correlation with black carbon by source category, assuming that black carbon = elemental carbon. Results show that black carbon emissions are in interval 53–473 Gg using the fuel consumption approach and between 62 and 89 using the sector method. Black carbon key sources come from biomass burning in the rural sector, with 47 percent share to the National total. Mobile sources emissions account to 16% to the total. An opportunity to reduce, in the short-term, carbon dioxide equivalent (CO2-eq) emissions by reducing black carbon emissions would be obtained in reducing emissions mainly from biomass burning in rural housing sector and diesel emissions in the transport sector with important co-benefits in direct radiative forcing, public health and air quality. - Highlights: • Black carbon emissions are estimated between 53 and 473 Gg/year on a fuel consumption method. • Black carbon emissions are estimated between 62 and 89 Gg/year on a sector method.

  10. Tritium inventory control--the experience with DT tokamaks and its relevance for future machines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bell, A.C.; Gentile, C.A.; Laesser, R.L.K.; Coad, J.P.

    2003-01-01

    At present, the commercial use of tritium is relatively small scale. The main source of supply is as a by-product of heavy water moderated fission reactors and the products are mainly discrete sources or tracers with activity typically in the GBq range. There are in general no restrictions on the use of tritium other than those, which would normally apply to the use of radioactive material. The future use of tritium as intermediate fuel for a fusion power plant series will involve an increase by several orders of magnitude in the industrial use of tritium and may increase concerns relating to safety, transport and waste disposal. In addition, the use of tritium in fusion power will be unable to be satisfied by current sources of supply and tritium production in future fusion power plants will be essential for the operation of the plants as well as for the start of new ones. Power plant studies have, however, shown that these issues can be satisfactorily addressed. In addition the values for clearance of tritiated materials in a number of countries are consistent with the low environmental impact of disposal of tritiated waste. There are, however, many practical operational and regulatory problems, which will need to be solved in the context of the experimental programmes. The current regulations for control and accountancy of tritium inventory, as applied internationally and in specific countries, are reviewed and their influence on the DT fuel cycle considered. The effect of safety case limits on the need for control of tritium inventory in TFTR, JET and ITER is analysed. The sensitivity of the fuel cycle to tritium inventory is considered. The experience of controlling tritium inventory in TFTR and JET is reviewed and the latest results from JET presented. This takes into account the limits and constraints, the differing requirements for tritium processing, in-vessel retention, the needs for waste management and decommissioning including detritiation, and

  11. Evolutional Optimization on Material Ordering and Inventory Control of Supply Chain through Incentive Scheme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasertwattana, Kanit; Shimizu, Yoshiaki; Chiadamrong, Navee

    This paper studied the material ordering and inventory control of supply chain systems. The effect of controlling policies is analyzed under three different configurations of the supply chain systems, and the formulated problem has been solved by using an evolutional optimization method known as Differential Evolution (DE). The numerical results show that the coordinating policy with the incentive scheme outperforms the other policies and can improve the performance of the overall system as well as all members under the concept of supply chain management.

  12. Enhancements to inventory control procedures used at Koeberg nuclear power station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barker, M.P.; Adams, A.R.

    1991-01-01

    In industry today, industrial engineers are forced to seek new and innovative ideas to reduce costs. This can often be accomplished by simplified or modernized operational procedures. With the advancement in computer technology, operational procedures can be enhanced. Despite the fact that Eskom's Koeberg nuclear power station is one of a kind in Africa, it, like most other industries requires a large stock holding capacity. There are currently 25 000 stock items in the Koeberg Stores Information System. Controlling all of these items is no minor task and management is continually trying to optimise the inventory control procedures. One of these procedures is described. 3 refs., 1 fig

  13. Expected value analysis for integrated supplier selection and inventory control of multi-product inventory system with fuzzy cost

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutrisno, Widowati, Tjahjana, R. Heru

    2017-12-01

    The future cost in many industrial problem is obviously uncertain. Then a mathematical analysis for a problem with uncertain cost is needed. In this article, we deals with the fuzzy expected value analysis to solve an integrated supplier selection and supplier selection problem with uncertain cost where the costs uncertainty is approached by a fuzzy variable. We formulate the mathematical model of the problems fuzzy expected value based quadratic optimization with total cost objective function and solve it by using expected value based fuzzy programming. From the numerical examples result performed by the authors, the supplier selection problem was solved i.e. the optimal supplier was selected for each time period where the optimal product volume of all product that should be purchased from each supplier for each time period was determined and the product stock level was controlled as decided by the authors i.e. it was followed the given reference level.

  14. The Evaluation of Internal Control Implementation Over Merchandise Inventory at PT. Suramando (Pharmaceutical Distributors and General Suppliers) in Manado

    OpenAIRE

    Runtu, Treesje; Seredei, Srijantri

    2015-01-01

    Inventory is a firms current assets, that its amount is material and constituting one of essential factor in the corporate operational activity. That is why a good internal controls to must be done secure supplies from the acts of fraud, deviation and damage. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the internal control over merchandise inventory at PT. Suramando it is running well. The method used is qualitative method through descriptive analysis. The final conclusion is that based on the e...

  15. Superfund and Toxic Release Inventory Sites - INSTITUTIONAL_CONTROLS_IDEM_IN.SHP: Institutional Control Sites in Indiana (Indiana Department of Environmental Management, Polygon Shapefile)

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC State | GIS Inventory — INSTITUTIONAL_CONTROLS_IDEM_IN is a polygon shapefile that contains Institutional Control (IC) site locations in Indiana, provided by personnel of Indiana Department...

  16. A Dynamic Bayesian Network Model for the Production and Inventory Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Ji-Sun; Takazaki, Noriyuki; Lee, Tae-Hong; Kim, Jin-Il; Lee, Hee-Hyol

    In general, the production quantities and delivered goods are changed randomly and then the total stock is also changed randomly. This paper deals with the production and inventory control using the Dynamic Bayesian Network. Bayesian Network is a probabilistic model which represents the qualitative dependence between two or more random variables by the graph structure, and indicates the quantitative relations between individual variables by the conditional probability. The probabilistic distribution of the total stock is calculated through the propagation of the probability on the network. Moreover, an adjusting rule of the production quantities to maintain the probability of a lower limit and a ceiling of the total stock to certain values is shown.

  17. Gravity insensitive inventory control device for a two-phase flow system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bland, T.J.

    1987-01-01

    A liquid inventory control device is described for a flow system where the liquid changes phase to a vapor and back and a pitot pump separates vapor from liquid and pumps the liquid to a component of the flow system comprising: a liquid storage device for storing liquid under pressure, a tube positioned within the pitot pump and in open communication with the liquid storage device, and the tube having an opening positioned within the pitot pump at a location to establish a desired liquid level in the pitot pump and at which level the pressure at the pitot tube inlet will equal the liquid pressure at the liquid storage device

  18. Radiological control for 203Hg radiotracer determinations of mercury inventories at chlor-alkali plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, J E; Lee, C

    2001-11-01

    20Hg has been used safely to determine mercury inventories in large electrochemical process cells in the chlorine industry by a process of isotopic dilution. Laboratory conversion and processing of irradiated HgO can be done in closed systems with non-detectable releases to work areas or the environment and with exposure to whole body <0.25 mSv (25 mrem) and <3 mSv (300 mrem) to extremities. Personnel exposures during plant operations are controlled to non-detectable levels for whole body exposure and <0.3 mSv (30 mrem) to extremities for the operator; exposures for other plant personnel are non-detectable.

  19. New Approach for forest inventory estimation and timber harvesting planning in mountain areas: the SLOPE project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prandi, F.; Magliocchetti, D.; Poveda, A.; De Amicis, R.; Andreolli, M.; Devigili, F.

    2016-06-01

    Forests represent an important economic resource for mountainous areas being for a few region and mountain communities the main form of income. However, wood chain management in these contexts differs from the traditional schemes due to the limits imposed by terrain morphology, both for the operation planning aspects and the hardware requirements. In fact, forest organizational and technical problems require a wider strategic and detailed level of planning to reach the level of productivity of forest operation techniques applied on flatlands. In particular, a perfect knowledge of forest inventories improves long-term management sustainability and efficiency allowing a better understanding of forest ecosystems. However, this knowledge is usually based on historical parcel information with only few cases of remote sensing information from satellite imageries. This is not enough to fully exploit the benefit of the mountain areas forest stocks where the economic and ecological value of each single parcel depends on singletree characteristics. The work presented in this paper, based on the results of the SLOPE (Integrated proceSsing and controL systems fOr sustainable forest Production in mountain arEas) project, investigates the capability to generate, manage and visualize detailed virtual forest models using geospatial information, combining data acquired from traditional on-the-field laser scanning surveys technologies with new aerial survey through UAV systems. These models are then combined with interactive 3D virtual globes for continuous assessment of resource characteristics, harvesting planning and real-time monitoring of the whole production.

  20. New Approach for forest inventory estimation and timber harvesting planning in mountain areas: the SLOPE project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Prandi

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Forests represent an important economic resource for mountainous areas being for a few region and mountain communities the main form of income. However, wood chain management in these contexts differs from the traditional schemes due to the limits imposed by terrain morphology, both for the operation planning aspects and the hardware requirements. In fact, forest organizational and technical problems require a wider strategic and detailed level of planning to reach the level of productivity of forest operation techniques applied on flatlands. In particular, a perfect knowledge of forest inventories improves long-term management sustainability and efficiency allowing a better understanding of forest ecosystems. However, this knowledge is usually based on historical parcel information with only few cases of remote sensing information from satellite imageries. This is not enough to fully exploit the benefit of the mountain areas forest stocks where the economic and ecological value of each single parcel depends on singletree characteristics. The work presented in this paper, based on the results of the SLOPE (Integrated proceSsing and controL systems fOr sustainable forest Production in mountain arEas project, investigates the capability to generate, manage and visualize detailed virtual forest models using geospatial information, combining data acquired from traditional on-the-field laser scanning surveys technologies with new aerial survey through UAV systems. These models are then combined with interactive 3D virtual globes for continuous assessment of resource characteristics, harvesting planning and real-time monitoring of the whole production.

  1. Self-statements, self-esteem, and locus of control in discriminating college students' scores on the Beck Depression Inventory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madonna, S; Philpot, V D

    1996-04-01

    To study the use of the ratio of positive to negative self-statements, locus of control, and self-esteem in discriminating between scores on the Beck Depression Inventory 145 undergraduate college students were administered the Beck Depression Inventory, Automatic Thoughts Questionnaire-Revised, Coopersmith Self-esteem Inventory-Adult Form, and the Rotter Locus of Control scale in their classrooms. A stepwise discriminant analysis indicated that five variables combined to yield a statistically significant discrimination among low, middle, and high scores on the Beck Depression Inventory. The classification analysis indicated that 77.1% (n = 111) of the undergraduate students were correctly classified; 93.2% (82 of 88) were correctly classified as low scorers and 73.3% (18 of 46) were correctly classified as high scorers.

  2. Inventory development for perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (PFOS) in Turkey: challenges to control chemicals in articles and products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korucu, M Kemal; Gedik, Kadir; Weber, Roland; Karademir, Aykan; Kurt-Karakus, Perihan Binnur

    2015-10-01

    Perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (PFOS) and related substances have been listed as persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in the Stockholm Convention. Countries which have ratified the Convention need to take appropriate actions to control PFOS use and release. This study compiles and enhances the findings of the first inventory of PFOS and related substances use in Turkey conducted within the frame of the Stockholm Convention National Implementation Plan (NIP) update. The specific Harmonized Commodity Description and Coding System (Harmonized System (HS)) codes of imported and exported goods that possibly contain PFOS and 165 of Chemical Abstracts Service (CAS) numbers of PFOS-related substances were assessed for acquiring information from customs and other authorities. However, with the current approaches available, no useful information could be compiled since HS codes are not specific enough and CAS numbers are not used by customs. Furthermore, the cut-off volume in chemical databases in Turkey and the reporting limit in the HS system (0.1 %) are too high for controlling PFOS. The attempt of modeling imported volumes by a Monte Carlo simulation did not also result in a satisfactory estimate, giving an upper-bound estimate above the global production volumes. The replies to questionnaires were not satisfactory, highlighting that an elaborated approach is needed in the communication with potentially PFOS-using stakeholders. The experience of the challenges of gathering information on PFOS in articles and products revealed the gaps of controlling highly hazardous substances in products and articles and the need of improvements.

  3. Control system and nuclear materials inventory at IPEN/CNEN-SP, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Araujo, Jose Adroaldo de; Enokihara, Cyro Teiti

    2002-01-01

    The history, requirements, organization, and operation of the State System of Accounting and Control from the Institute for Energetic and Nuclear Research (IPEN-CNEN/SP) are described. The implementation system at the institution take into consideration the national and international safeguards requirements. It has started by the nuclear material (U, Pu and Th) physical inventory taking, including their provenance and transformation. The earlier computerized accounting system used for control has been replaced by a new one developed by the National Authority (CNEN/CSG). The optimized system has more flexibility, giving a more effective answer to any occurred change on Material Balance Area. The present system make use of an effective methodology. (author)

  4. An exact solution procedure for multi-item two-echelon spare parts inventory control problem with batch ordering in the central warehouse

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Topan, E.; Bayindir, Z.P.; Tan, T.

    2009-01-01

    We consider a multi-item two-echelon inventory system in which the central warehouse operates under a (Q; R) policy, and the local warehouses implement basestock policy. An exact solution procedure is proposed to find the inventory control policy parameters that minimize the system-wide inventory

  5. Inventory Data on Commercial Broiler Chicken Production System using Life Cycle Assessment Approach: A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suffian, S. A.; Sidek, A. A.; Yusof, H. M.; Al-Hazza, M. H. F.

    2018-01-01

    An inventory analysis of the life cycle of broiler chicken production from cradle-to-gate perspective was carried out with the aim to identify possible input and output parameters involved in the system. To do so, broiler chicken production in Myra Chicken Farm and Services was investigated in detail. Result shows the inventory data on feed consumption, transportation, physical performance parameter and other utilities that affect the product which is broilers. Broilers production in fact shows escalation year by year because of high demand from consumer. A cradle-to-gate assessment was conducted based on ISO 14040/14044 guidelines. Inventory data was gathered from farmers and available literature. Improving all the input and output system will increase the level of productivity and the cost of the production. Thus, at the end of the research, it will able to make industry player to understand and take into consideration the solutions in order to promote a green broiler chicken production.

  6. Production Supervision Incorporated With Network Technology-A Solution For Controlling In-Process Inventory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suraj Yadav

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available In context to the manufacturing management in medium scale production floor, work-in-process (WIP management or the inprocess inventory and control as the inevitable result of the production process has become a vital link of production plan. Due to the growing production requirements and the potential economic benefits of manufacturing process flow, enterprises have been pushed to integrate work-in-process management with their manufacturing process and the larger the company the larger the list of in-process inventory and this all are typically hard to manage so for the same respect the author in this paper has lighted on the integration of sophisticated electronics and networking technologies with the W.I.P with an native and low cost solution for managing the same, specially for the medium scaled company dealing with large number of product or with the customized product with reference to study of present scenario of a multinational company’s plant engineering department.

  7. Modelling the inventory and impact assessment of partitioning and transmutation approaches to spent nuclear fuel management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoggett-Jones, C.; Robbins, C.; Gettinby, G.; Blythe, S.

    2002-01-01

    An inventory modelling and impact assessment system to investigate the potential effects of partitioning and transmutation is proposed. It is founded on a mass based inventory analysis using the principles of basic nuclear physics and the international standards for assessing radiological health effects. It is specific to the back-end of the nuclear fuel cycle and is applied to four alternative spent fuel management strategies. The system accounts for the dynamic nature of post-irradiation scenarios and is being used to develop software for use within the nuclear power industry. Four example waste-disposal options are considered using the method. Impact assessments and parameter sensitivity analyses are presented

  8. Modelling the inventory and impact assessment of partitioning and transmutation approaches to spent nuclear fuel management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoggett-Jones, C. E-mail: craig@stams.strath.ac.uk; Robbins, C.; Gettinby, G.; Blythe, S

    2002-03-01

    An inventory modelling and impact assessment system to investigate the potential effects of partitioning and transmutation is proposed. It is founded on a mass based inventory analysis using the principles of basic nuclear physics and the international standards for assessing radiological health effects. It is specific to the back-end of the nuclear fuel cycle and is applied to four alternative spent fuel management strategies. The system accounts for the dynamic nature of post-irradiation scenarios and is being used to develop software for use within the nuclear power industry. Four example waste-disposal options are considered using the method. Impact assessments and parameter sensitivity analyses are presented.

  9. Development of A Web-Based Information System for Material Inventory Control: The Case of An Automotive Company

    OpenAIRE

    Renjana Setyoandara Wibisono; Tanika D Sofianti; Setijo Awibowo

    2016-01-01

    Inventory control is controlling the materials movement to fulfill the requirements. The materials can from the direct and indirect materials. the indirect materials are the materials that cannot be calculated according to the bill of materials. Indirect materials need safety stocks, so the requirements can always be fulfilled, means it need the control and monitoring of their levels. To control the movement of the materials, each department have roles to control and information that need to ...

  10. DURAND NEIGHBOURHOOD HERITAGE INVENTORY: TOWARD A DIGITAL CITYWIDE SURVEY APPROACH TO HERITAGE PLANNING IN HAMILTON

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Angel

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available In the face of changing economies and patterns of development, the definition of heritage is diversifying, and the role of inventories in local heritage planning is coming to the fore. The Durand neighbourhood is a layered and complex area located in inner-city Hamilton, Ontario, Canada, and the second subject area in a set of pilot inventory studies to develop a new city-wide inventory strategy for the City of Hamilton,. This paper presents an innovative digital workflow developed to undertake the Durand Built Heritage Inventory project. An online database was developed to be at the centre of all processes, including digital documentation, record management, analysis and variable outputs. Digital tools were employed for survey work in the field and analytical work in the office, resulting in a GIS-based dataset that can be integrated into Hamilton’s larger municipal planning system. Together with digital mapping and digitized historical resources, the Durand database has been leveraged to produce both digital and static outputs to shape recommendations for the protection of Hamilton’s heritage resources.

  11. An approach for verifying biogenic greenhouse gas emissions inventories with atmospheric CO2 concentration data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephen M Ogle; Kenneth Davis; Thomas Lauvaux; Andrew Schuh; Dan Cooley; Tristram O West; Linda S Heath; Natasha L Miles; Scott Richardson; F Jay Breidt; James E Smith; Jessica L McCarty; Kevin R Gurney; Pieter Tans; A Scott. Denning

    2015-01-01

    Verifying national greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions inventories is a critical step to ensure that reported emissions data to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) are accurate and representative of a country's contribution to GHG concentrations in the atmosphere. Furthermore, verifying biogenic fluxes provides a check on estimated...

  12. "Cola-Game": An Innovative Approach to Teaching Inventory Management in a Supply Chain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhumal, Parag; Sundararaghavan, P. S.; Nandkeolyar, Udayan

    2008-01-01

    In this article we present a game that can be used as a tool to educate students and managers on the issues in supply chain (SC), inventory management. The game has a bilevel demand with one level during regular times and another during sale times. The game could be played in two modes (independence and cooperation) and has been field tested in…

  13. A simulation-based approach to capturing auto-correlated demand parameter uncertainty in inventory management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Akçay, A.E.; Biller, B.; Tayur, S.

    2012-01-01

    We consider a repeated newsvendor setting where the parameters of the demand distribution are unknown, and we study the problem of setting inventory targets using only a limited amount of historical demand data. We assume that the demand process is autocorrelated and represented by an

  14. Digital Risk Inventory and Evaluation (RIE) : a Dutch approach offering valuable support for small business owners

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meeuwsen, J.M.

    2008-01-01

    The Dutch Working Conditions Act requires employers to perform a Risk Inventory and Evaluation (RIE). Until recently, small business owners (SMEs) in particular were unhappy about this rather time-consuming obligation. However, the introduction of digital RIE instruments disseminated through the web

  15. Durand Neighbourhood Heritage Inventory: Toward a Digital Citywide Survey Approach to Heritage Planning in Hamilton

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angel, V.; Garvey, A.; Sydor, M.

    2017-08-01

    In the face of changing economies and patterns of development, the definition of heritage is diversifying, and the role of inventories in local heritage planning is coming to the fore. The Durand neighbourhood is a layered and complex area located in inner-city Hamilton, Ontario, Canada, and the second subject area in a set of pilot inventory studies to develop a new city-wide inventory strategy for the City of Hamilton,. This paper presents an innovative digital workflow developed to undertake the Durand Built Heritage Inventory project. An online database was developed to be at the centre of all processes, including digital documentation, record management, analysis and variable outputs. Digital tools were employed for survey work in the field and analytical work in the office, resulting in a GIS-based dataset that can be integrated into Hamilton's larger municipal planning system. Together with digital mapping and digitized historical resources, the Durand database has been leveraged to produce both digital and static outputs to shape recommendations for the protection of Hamilton's heritage resources.

  16. Classification of boreal forest by satellite and inventory data using neural network approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romanov, A. A.

    2012-12-01

    The main objective of this research was to develop methodology for boreal (Siberian Taiga) land cover classification in a high accuracy level. The study area covers the territories of Central Siberian several parts along the Yenisei River (60-62 degrees North Latitude): the right bank includes mixed forest and dark taiga, the left - pine forests; so were taken as a high heterogeneity and statistically equal surfaces concerning spectral characteristics. Two main types of data were used: time series of middle spatial resolution satellite images (Landsat 5, 7 and SPOT4) and inventory datasets from the nature fieldworks (used for training samples sets preparation). Method of collecting field datasets included a short botany description (type/species of vegetation, density, compactness of the crowns, individual height and max/min diameters representative of each type, surface altitude of the plot), at the same time the geometric characteristic of each training sample unit corresponded to the spatial resolution of satellite images and geo-referenced (prepared datasets both of the preliminary processing and verification). The network of test plots was planned as irregular and determined by the landscape oriented approach. The main focus of the thematic data processing has been allocated for the use of neural networks (fuzzy logic inc.); therefore, the results of field studies have been converting input parameter of type / species of vegetation cover of each unit and the degree of variability. Proposed approach involves the processing of time series separately for each image mainly for the verification: shooting parameters taken into consideration (time, albedo) and thus expected to assess the quality of mapping. So the input variables for the networks were sensor bands, surface altitude, solar angels and land surface temperature (for a few experiments); also given attention to the formation of the formula class on the basis of statistical pre-processing of results of

  17. Optimizing models for production and inventory control using a genetic algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dragan S. Pamučar

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to make the Economic Production Quantity (EPQ model more applicable to real-world production and inventory control problems, in this paper we expand this model by assuming that some imperfect items of different product types being produced such as reworks are allowed. In addition, we may have more than one product and supplier along with warehouse space and budget limitation. We show that the model of the problem is a constrained non-linear integer program and propose a genetic algorithm to solve it. Moreover, a design of experiments is employed to calibrate the parameters of the algorithm for different problem sizes. In the end, a numerical example is presented to demonstrate the application of the proposed methodology.

  18. Predictive Optimal Control of Active and Passive Building Thermal Storage Inventory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gregor P. Henze; Moncef Krarti

    2005-09-30

    Cooling of commercial buildings contributes significantly to the peak demand placed on an electrical utility grid. Time-of-use electricity rates encourage shifting of electrical loads to off-peak periods at night and weekends. Buildings can respond to these pricing signals by shifting cooling-related thermal loads either by precooling the building's massive structure or the use of active thermal energy storage systems such as ice storage. While these two thermal batteries have been engaged separately in the past, this project investigated the merits of harnessing both storage media concurrently in the context of predictive optimal control. To pursue the analysis, modeling, and simulation research of Phase 1, two separate simulation environments were developed. Based on the new dynamic building simulation program EnergyPlus, a utility rate module, two thermal energy storage models were added. Also, a sequential optimization approach to the cost minimization problem using direct search, gradient-based, and dynamic programming methods was incorporated. The objective function was the total utility bill including the cost of reheat and a time-of-use electricity rate either with or without demand charges. An alternative simulation environment based on TRNSYS and Matlab was developed to allow for comparison and cross-validation with EnergyPlus. The initial evaluation of the theoretical potential of the combined optimal control assumed perfect weather prediction and match between the building model and the actual building counterpart. The analysis showed that the combined utilization leads to cost savings that is significantly greater than either storage but less than the sum of the individual savings. The findings reveal that the cooling-related on-peak electrical demand of commercial buildings can be considerably reduced. A subsequent analysis of the impact of forecasting uncertainty in the required short-term weather forecasts determined that it takes only very

  19. Evaluating The Global Inventory of Planetary Analog Environments on Earth: An Ontological Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conrad, P. G.

    2010-12-01

    Introduction: Field sites on Earth are routinely used to simulate planetary environments so that we can try to understand the evidence of processes such as sedimentary deposition, weathering, evolution of habitable environments, and behavior of spacecraft and instrumentation prior to selection of mission architectures, payload investigations and landing sites for in situ exploration of other planets. The rapid evolution of astrobiology science drivers for space exploration as well as increasing capability to explore planetary surfaces in situ has led to a proliferation of declarations that various Earth environments are analogs for less accessible planetary environments. We have not yet progressed to standardized measures of analog fidelity, and the analog value of field sites can be variable de-pending upon a variety of factors. Here we present a method of evaluating the fidelity and hence utility of analog environments by using an ontological approach to evaluating how well the analogs work. The use of ontologies as specification constructs is now quite common in artificial intelligence, systems engineering, business development and various informatics systems. We borrow from these developments just as they derive from the original use of ontology in philosophy, where it was meant as a systematic approach to describing the fundamental elements that define “being,” or existence [1]. An ontology is a framework for the specification of a concept or domain of interest. The knowledge regarding that domain, eg., inventory of objects, hierarchical classes, relationships and functions is what describes and defines the domain as a declarative formalism [2]. In the case of planetary environments, one can define a list of fundamen-tal attributes without which the domain (environment) in question must be defined (classified) otherwise. In particu-lar this is problematic when looking at ancient environments because of their alteration over time. In other words, their

  20. SOME SIMPLE APPROACHES TO PLANNING THE INVENTORY OF SPARE COMPONENTS OF AN INDUSTRIAL SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alenka Brezavšek

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Two variants of a simple stochastic model for planning the inventory of spare components supporting maintenance of an industrial system are developed. In both variants, the aim is to determine how many spare components are needed at the beginning of a planning interval to fulfil demand for corrective replacements during this interval. Under the first variant, the acceptable probability of spare shortage during the planning interval is chosen as a decision variable while in the second variant, the adequate spare inventory level is assessed taking into account the expected number of component failures within the planning interval. Calculation of the number of spare components needed depends on the form of the probability density function of component failure times. Different statistical density functions that are useful to describe this function are presented. Advantages and disadvantages of using a particular density function in our model are discussed. The applicability of the model is given through illustrative numerical examples.

  1. An approach for verifying biogenic greenhouse gas emissions inventories with atmospheric CO2 concentration data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ogle, Stephen M; Davis, Kenneth; Lauvaux, Thomas; Miles, Natasha L; Richardson, Scott; Schuh, Andrew; Cooley, Dan; Breidt, F Jay; West, Tristram O; Heath, Linda S; Smith, James E; McCarty, Jessica L; Gurney, Kevin R; Tans, Pieter; Denning, A Scott

    2015-01-01

    Verifying national greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions inventories is a critical step to ensure that reported emissions data to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) are accurate and representative of a country’s contribution to GHG concentrations in the atmosphere. Furthermore, verifying biogenic fluxes provides a check on estimated emissions associated with managing lands for carbon sequestration and other activities, which often have large uncertainties. We report here on the challenges and results associated with a case study using atmospheric measurements of CO 2 concentrations and inverse modeling to verify nationally-reported biogenic CO 2 emissions. The biogenic CO 2 emissions inventory was compiled for the Mid-Continent region of United States based on methods and data used by the US government for reporting to the UNFCCC, along with additional sources and sinks to produce a full carbon balance. The biogenic emissions inventory produced an estimated flux of −408 ± 136 Tg CO 2 for the entire study region, which was not statistically different from the biogenic flux of −478 ± 146 Tg CO 2 that was estimated using the atmospheric CO 2 concentration data. At sub-regional scales, the spatial density of atmospheric observations did not appear sufficient to verify emissions in general. However, a difference between the inventory and inversion results was found in one isolated area of West-central Wisconsin. This part of the region is dominated by forestlands, suggesting that further investigation may be warranted into the forest C stock or harvested wood product data from this portion of the study area. The results suggest that observations of atmospheric CO 2 concentration data and inverse modeling could be used to verify biogenic emissions, and provide more confidence in biogenic GHG emissions reporting to the UNFCCC. (letter)

  2. A systems approach to inventory management of repairables in the Navy

    OpenAIRE

    Apple, Chris Leon

    1985-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited This thesis develops an inventory model for repairable items which integrates the shipboard protection level into the wholesale stock level computations. It uses mean supply response time (MSRT) as its measure of effectiveness and provides methods for computing either the required wholesale stock level given a MSRT goal or for minimizing the system MSRT subject to budgetary constraints. Examples are provided which demons...

  3. Different accounting approaches to harvested wood products in national greenhouse gas inventories: their incentives to achievement of major policy goals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hashimoto, Seiji

    2008-01-01

    The 2006 IPCC Guidelines for National Greenhouse Gas Inventories provide four accounting approaches to harvested wood products (HWP). These differ in the way they define system boundaries. Therefore, reported national carbon emissions differ according to the accounting approach used, and the implications of each accounting approach differ for different countries. This paper investigates four IPCC accounting approaches, as well as the 1996 IPCC default approach, to determine whether they provide incentives to achievement of major policy goals related to climate, forest, trade, and waste, taking into account indirect effects of wood use change (i.e., the effects on forest carbon stocks and on carbon emissions from the use of other fuels and materials). Conclusions are as follows: (1) The analyses produced many different results from those of previous studies. These differences appear to be attributable to whether or not the indirect effects of wood use change are taken into account and the reference scenarios that are assumed; (2) The best approaches for achieving each policy goal differ, and the best approaches for particular policy goals might pose problems for other policy goals; (3) Overall, the IPCC default approach is the best accounting approach from the viewpoint of greater compatibility with, or integration across, the array of policy goals, although it does not address the issue of an increasing global carbon stock in HWP

  4. Study on inventory control model based on the B2C mode in big data environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhiping Zhang

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The current inventory problem has become the key issue in the enterprise survival and development. In this paper, we take “Taobao” as an example to conduct a detailed study of the inventory of the high conversion rate based on data mining. First, by using a funnel model to predict the conversion of the commodities on the critical path, we capture the factors influencing the consumer decision-making on each key point, and propose corresponding solutions of improving the conversion rate; Second, we use BP neural network algorithm to predict the goods traffic, and then obtain the corresponding weights by the relation analysis and the output of the goods traffic by the input of large data sample goods; Third, we can predict the inventory in accordance with the commodity conversion rate and flow prediction, and amend the predicted results to get accurate and real-time inventory forecast, avoiding the economic loss due to the inaccurate inventory.

  5. A Confirmatory Factor Analysis of Preservice Teachers' Responses to the Attitudes and Beliefs on Classroom Control Inventory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henson, Robin K.; Roberts, J. Kyle

    This study examined the factorial invariance of scores from the Attitudes and Beliefs on Classroom Control Inventory (ABCC) (Martin and others, 1998) for 243 undergraduate preservice teachers. Although the original ABCC was developed with inservice teachers, use of the instrument to study the classroom beliefs of preservice teachers had not been…

  6. Exercising self-control increases approach motivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmeichel, Brandon J; Harmon-Jones, Cindy; Harmon-Jones, Eddie

    2010-07-01

    The present research tested the hypothesis that exercising self-control causes an increase in approach motivation. Study 1 found that exercising (vs. not exercising) self-control increases self-reported approach motivation. Study 2a identified a behavior--betting on low-stakes gambles--that is correlated with approach motivation but is relatively uncorrelated with self-control, and Study 2b observed that exercising self-control temporarily increases this behavior. Last, Study 3 found that exercising self-control facilitates the perception of a reward-relevant symbol (i.e., a dollar sign) but not a reward-irrelevant symbol (i.e., a percent sign). Altogether, these results support the hypothesis that exercising self-control temporarily increases approach motivation. Failures of self-control that follow from prior efforts at self-control (i.e., ego depletion) may be explained in part by increased approach motivation.

  7. Optimal Strategy for Integrated Dynamic Inventory Control and Supplier Selection in Unknown Environment via Stochastic Dynamic Programming

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sutrisno; Widowati; Solikhin

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a mathematical model in stochastic dynamic optimization form to determine the optimal strategy for an integrated single product inventory control problem and supplier selection problem where the demand and purchasing cost parameters are random. For each time period, by using the proposed model, we decide the optimal supplier and calculate the optimal product volume purchased from the optimal supplier so that the inventory level will be located at some point as close as possible to the reference point with minimal cost. We use stochastic dynamic programming to solve this problem and give several numerical experiments to evaluate the model. From the results, for each time period, the proposed model was generated the optimal supplier and the inventory level was tracked the reference point well. (paper)

  8. Construct the stable vendor managed inventory partnership through a profit-sharing approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, S.; Yu, Z.; Dong, M.

    2015-01-01

    In real life, the vendor managed inventory (VMI) model is not always a stable supply chain partnership. This paper proposes a cooperative game based profit-sharing method to stabilize the VMI partnership. Specifically, in a B2C setting, we consider a VMI program including a manufacturer and multiple online retailers. The manufacturer provides the finished product at the equal wholesale price to multiple online retailers. The online retailers face the same customer demand information. We offer the model to compute the increased profits generated by information sharing for total possible VMI coalitions. Using the solution concept of Shapley value, the profit-sharing scheme is produced to fairly divide the total increased profits among the VMI members. We find that under a fair allocation scheme, the higher inventory cost of one VMI member increases the surplus of the other members. Furthermore, the manufacturer is glad to increase the size of VMI coalition, whereas, the retailers are delighted to limit the size of the alliance. Finally, the manufacturer can select the appropriate retailer to boost its surplus, which has no effect on the surplus of the other retailers. The numerical examples indicate that the grand coalition is stable under the proposed allocation scheme.

  9. Contamination Control: a systems approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Donck, J.C.J. van der

    2010-01-01

    Contamination influences a wide variety of industrial processes. For complex systems, contamination control, the collective effort to control contamination to such a level that it guarantees or even improves process or product functionality, offers a way for finding workable solutions. Central in

  10. Meso-scale on-road vehicle emission inventory approach: a study on Dhaka City of Bangladesh supporting the 'cause-effect' analysis of the transport system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iqbal, Asif; Allan, Andrew; Zito, Rocco

    2016-03-01

    The study aims to develop an emission inventory (EI) approach and conduct an inventory for vehicular sources in Dhaka City, Bangladesh. A meso-scale modelling approach was adopted for the inventory; the factors that influence the emissions and the magnitude of emission variation were identified and reported on, which was an innovative approach to account emissions unlike the conventional inventory approaches. Two techniques for the emission inventory were applied, viz. (i) a combined top-down and bottom-up approach that considered the total vehicle population and the average diurnal on-road vehicle speed profile in the city and (ii) a bottom-up approach that accounted for road link-specific emissions of the city considering diurnal traffic volume and speed profiles of the respective roads. For the bottom-up approach, road link-specific detailed data were obtained through field survey in 2012, where mid-block traffic count of the day, vehicle speed profile, road network and congestion data were collected principally. The emission variances for the change in transport system characteristics (like change in fuel type, AC usage pattern, increased speed and reduced congestion/stopping) were predicted and analysed in this study; congestion influenced average speed of the vehicles, and fuel types in the vehicles were identified as the major stressors. The study performance was considered reasonable when comparing with the limited number of similar studies conducted earlier. Given the increasing trend of private vehicles each year coupled with increasing traffic congestion, the city is under threat of increased vehicular emissions unless a good management strategy is implemented. Although the inventory is conducted for Dhaka and the result may be important locally, the approach adopted in this research is innovative in nature to be followed for conducting research on other urban transport systems.

  11. Inventory control of raw material using silver meal heuristic method in PR. Trubus Alami Malang

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikasari, D. M.; Lestari, E. R.; Prastya, E.

    2018-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the total inventory cost calculated using the method applied by PR. Trubus Alami and Silver Meal Heuristic (SMH) method. The study was started by forecasting the cigarette demand from July 2016 to June 2017 (48 weeks) using additive decomposition forecasting method. The additive decomposition was used because it has the lowest value of Mean Abosolute Deviation (MAD) and Mean Squared Deviation (MSD) compared to other methods such as multiplicative decomposition, moving average, single exponential smoothing, and double exponential smoothing. The forcasting results was then converted as a raw material needs and further calculated using SMH method to obtain inventory cost. As expected, the result shows that the order frequency of using SMH methods was smaller than that of using the method applied by Trubus Alami. This affected the total inventory cost. The result suggests that using SMH method gave a 29.41% lower inventory cost, giving the cost different of IDR 21,290,622. The findings, is therefore, indicated that the PR. Trubus Alami should apply the SMH method if the company wants to reduce the total inventory cost.

  12. STRUCTURAL APPROACH TO THE CONTROLLING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LOREDANA CIURLĂU

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Economic concentration has led to the emergence of large enterprises and complex that by the activities or the environment of their operation because of an activity of decentralization. The enterprise is cut in centers of responsibility which enjoys a autonomy more or less widely. The management control will be able to meet the needs of coordination of these organizations decentralised, orienting the "actors" within the meaning of the desired by the manager through the evaluation of the results obtained. The success of an enterprise requires a continuous adapting it to the environment or and competitiveness is transformed into a economic criterion by excellence.

  13. Simple Approaches to Improve the Automatic Inventory of ZEBRA Crossing from Mls Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arias, P.; Riveiro, B.; Soilán, M.; Díaz-Vilariño, L.; Martínez-Sánchez, J.

    2015-08-01

    The city management is increasingly supported by information technologies, leading to paradigms such as smart cities, where decision-makers, companies and citizens are continuously interconnected. 3D modelling turns of great relevance when the city has to be managed making use of geospatial databases or Geographic Information Systems. On the other hand, laser scanning technology has experienced a significant growth in the last years, and particularly, terrestrial mobile laser scanning platforms are being more and more used with inventory purposes in both cities and road environments. Consequently, large datasets are available to produce the geometric basis for the city model; however, this data is not directly exploitable by management systems constraining the implementation of the technology for such applications. This paper presents a new algorithm for the automatic detection of zebra crossing. The algorithm is divided in three main steps: road segmentation (based on a PCA analysis of the points contained in each cycle of collected by a mobile laser system), rasterization (conversion of the point cloud to a raster image coloured as a function of intensity data), and zebra crossing detection (using the Hough Transform and logical constrains for line classification). After evaluating different datasets collected in three cities located in Northwest Spain (comprising 25 strips with 30 visible zebra crossings) a completeness of 83% was achieved.

  14. INMACS: Operating experience of a mature, computer-assisted control system for nuclear material inventory and criticality safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ross, A.M.

    1983-01-01

    This paper describes the operating experience of INMACS, the Integrated Nuclear Material Accounting and Control System used in the Recycle Fuel Fabrication Laboratories at Chalk River. Since commissioning was completed in 1977, INMACS has checked and recorded approximately 3000 inventory-related transactions involved in fabricating thermal-recycle fuels of (U,Pu)0 2 and (Th,Pu)0 2 . No changes have been necessary to INMACS programs that are used by laboratory staff when moving or processing nuclear material. The various utility programs have allowed efficient management and surveillance of the INMACS data base. Hardware failures and the nuisance of system unavailability at the laboratory terminals have been minimized by regular preventative maintenance. The original efforts in the design and rigorous testing of programs have helped INMACS to be accepted enthusiastically by old and new staff of the laboratories. The work required for nuclear material inventory control is done efficiently and in an atmosphere of safety

  15. A Generic Approach to Parameter Control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Karafotias, G.; Smit, S.K.; Eiben, A.E.

    2012-01-01

    On-line control of EA parameters is an approach to parameter setting that offers the advantage of values changing during the run. In this paper, we investigate parameter control from a generic and parameter-independent perspective. We propose a generic control mechanism that is targeted to

  16. A PARTIAL ROBUST OPTIMIZATION APPROACH TO INVENTORY MANAGEMENT FOR THE OFFLINE-TO-ONLINE PROBLEM UNDER DIFFERENT SELLING PRICES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hui Yu; Jie Deng

    2017-01-01

    This study examines an optimal inventory strategy when a retailer markets a product at different selling prices through a dual-channel supply chain,comprising an online channel and an offline channel.Using the operating pattern of the offiine-to-online (O2O) business model,we develop a partial robust optimization (PRO) model.Then,we provide a closed-form solution when only the mean and standard deviation of the online channel demand distribution is known and the offline channel demand follows a uniform distribution (partial robust).Specifically,owing to the good structural properties of the solution,we obtain a heuristic ordering formula for the general distribution case (i.e.,the offline channel demand follows a general distribution).In addition,a series of numerical experiments prove the rationality of our conjecture.Moreover,after comparing our solution with other possible policies,we conclude that the PRO approach improves the performance of incorporating the internet into an existing supply chain and,thus,is able to adjust the level of conservativeness of the solution.Finally,in a degenerated situation,we compare our PRO approach with a combination of information approach.The results show that the PRO approach has more "robust" performance.As a result,a reasonable trade-off between robustness and performance is achieved.

  17. The impact of consumer returns policies on consignment contracts with inventory control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hu, W.; Li, Y.; Govindan, Kannan

    2014-01-01

    , and then the retailer sets her retail price for selling the product. The vendor gets paid based on net sold units and salvages unsold units as well as returned items in a secondary market. Under the framework, we study and compare two different consignment arrangements: the retailer/vendor manages consignment inventory...... (RMCI/VMCI) programs. To study the impact of return policy, we discuss a consignment contract without return policy as a benchmark. We show that whether or not the vendor offers a return policy, it is always beneficial for the channel to delegate the inventory decision to the vendor. We find...

  18. An interactive computer approach to performing resource analysis for a multi-resource/multi-project problem. [Spacelab inventory procurement planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlagheck, R. A.

    1977-01-01

    New planning techniques and supporting computer tools are needed for the optimization of resources and costs for space transportation and payload systems. Heavy emphasis on cost effective utilization of resources has caused NASA program planners to look at the impact of various independent variables that affect procurement buying. A description is presented of a category of resource planning which deals with Spacelab inventory procurement analysis. Spacelab is a joint payload project between NASA and the European Space Agency and will be flown aboard the Space Shuttle starting in 1980. In order to respond rapidly to the various procurement planning exercises, a system was built that could perform resource analysis in a quick and efficient manner. This system is known as the Interactive Resource Utilization Program (IRUP). Attention is given to aspects of problem definition, an IRUP system description, questions of data base entry, the approach used for project scheduling, and problems of resource allocation.

  19. METHODOLOGY AND ORGANIZATION OF ACCOUNTING AND INTERNAL CONTROL OF INVENTORIES OF THE COMPANY IN THE SYSTEM OF ASSET MANAGEMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koblyanska Olena

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. The article is devoted to theoretical, methodological and practical issues of accounting and internal control of the company’s stocks in the asset management system. The purpose of the study is to deepen and consolidate the theoretical and practical knowledge of the issues of accounting and internal control of the company’s stocks in the asset management system, identify practical problems with the implementation of the methodology and organization of accounting and internal control of the company’s stocks and develop recommendations for the elimination of deficiencies and improve the accounting and internal control of the company’s stocks. Results. The issue of relevance of proper accounting and internal control of stocks at the enterprise is considered. The research of typical operations with stocks was carried out with the use of the method of their reflection in the account. The classification of stocks, carrying out of their estimation, definition of the initial value, and also the typical correspondence from the account of stocks are resulted. A comparative characteristic of international and national inventory standards was implemented. The article deals with the features of the internal control of inventories at the enterprise, provides normative documents on its organization and methodology, describes the procedure for its implementation at the enterprise and identifies the typical mistakes that occur during its implementation. Conclusions. The questions about theoretical, methodological and practical issues of accounting and internal control of the company’s stocks in the asset management system were considered. A study of typical operations with stocks was carried out with the use of the method of their reflection in the accounts and the features of the internal control of inventories at the enterprise.

  20. Computational results for the control of a divergent N-echelon inventory system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Diks, E.B.; Kok, de A.G.

    1996-01-01

    Consider a divergent multi-echelon inventory system, e.g., a distribution system or a production system. At every facility in the system orders are placed (or production is initiated) periodically. The order arrives after a fixed lead time. At the end of each period linear costs are incurred at each

  1. A sample-based method for perishable good inventory control with a service level constraint

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hendrix, Eligius M.T.; Pauls-Worm, Karin G.J.; Rossi, Roberto; Alcoba, Alejandro G.; Haijema, Rene

    2015-01-01

    This paper studies the computation of so-called order-upto levels for a stochastic programming inventory problem of a perishable product. Finding a solution is a challenge as the problem enhances a perishable product, fixed ordering cost and non-stationary stochastic demand with a service level

  2. Flight Test Approach to Adaptive Control Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavlock, Kate Maureen; Less, James L.; Larson, David Nils

    2011-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration s Dryden Flight Research Center completed flight testing of adaptive controls research on a full-scale F-18 testbed. The validation of adaptive controls has the potential to enhance safety in the presence of adverse conditions such as structural damage or control surface failures. This paper describes the research interface architecture, risk mitigations, flight test approach and lessons learned of adaptive controls research.

  3. The Role of Hybrid Make-to-Stock (MTS) - Make-to-Order (MTO) and Economic Order Quantity (EOQ) Inventory Control Models in Food and Beverage Processing Industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Najhan Mohd Nagib, Ahmad; Naufal Adnan, Ahmad; Ismail, Azianti; Halim, Nurul Hayati Abdul; Syuhadah Khusaini, Nurul

    2016-11-01

    The inventory model had been utilized since the early 1900s. The implementation of the inventory management model is generally to ensure that an organisation is able to fulfil customer's demand at the lowest possible cost to improve profitability. This paper focuses on reviewing previous published papers regarding inventory control model mainly in the food and beverage processing industry. The author discusses four inventory models, which are the make-to-stock (MTS), make-to-order (MTO), economic order quantity (EOQ), and hybrid of MTS-MTO models. The issues raised by the researchers on the above techniques as well as the elements need to be considered upon selection have been discussed in this paper. The main objective of the study is to highlight the important role played by these inventory control models in the food and beverage processing industry.

  4. VOCs emission characteristics and priority control analysis based on VOCs emission inventories and ozone formation potentials in Zhoushan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qiaoli; Li, Sujing; Dong, Minli; Li, Wei; Gao, Xiang; Ye, Rongmin; Zhang, Dongxiao

    2018-06-01

    Zhoushan is an island city with booming tourism and service industry, but also has many developed VOCs and/or NOX emission industries. It is necessary to carry out regional VOCs and O3 pollution control in Zhoushan as the only new area owns the provincial economic and social administration rights. Anthropogenic VOCs emission inventories were built based on emission factor method and main emission sources were identified according to the emission inventories. Then, localized VOCs source profiles were built based on in-site sampling and referring to other studies. Furthermore, ozone formation potentials (OFPs) profiles were built through VOCs source profiles and maximum incremental reactivity (MIR) theory. At last, the priority control analysis results showed that industrial processes, especially surface coating, are the key of VOCs and O3 control. Alkanes were the most emitted group, accounting for 58.67%, while aromatics contributed the most to ozone production accounting for 69.97% in total OFPs. n-butane, m/p-xylene, i-pentane, n-decane, toluene, propane, n-undecane, o-xylene, methyl cyclohexane and ethyl benzene were the top 10 VOC species that should be preferentially controlled for VOCs emission control. However, m/p-xylene, o-xylene, ethylene, n-butane, toluene, propene, 1,2,4-trimethyl benzene, 1,3,5-trimethyl benzene, ethyl benzene and 1,2,3-trimethyl benzene were the top 10 VOC species that required preferential control for O3 pollution control.

  5. Application of particle swarm optimisation for solving deteriorating inventory model with fluctuating demand and controllable deterioration rate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yu-Ren; Dye, Chung-Yuan

    2013-06-01

    In most of the inventory models in the literature, the deterioration rate of goods is viewed as an exogenous variable, which is not subject to control. In the real market, the retailer can reduce the deterioration rate of product by making effective capital investment in storehouse equipments. In this study, we formulate a deteriorating inventory model with time-varying demand by allowing preservation technology cost as a decision variable in conjunction with replacement policy. The objective is to find the optimal replenishment and preservation technology investment strategies while minimising the total cost over the planning horizon. For any given feasible replenishment scheme, we first prove that the optimal preservation technology investment strategy not only exists but is also unique. Then, a particle swarm optimisation is coded and used to solve the nonlinear programming problem by employing the properties derived from this article. Some numerical examples are used to illustrate the features of the proposed model.

  6. Control of civilian plutonium inventories using burning in a non-fertile fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oversby, V.M. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States); McPheeters, C.C. [Argonne National Laboratory, 9700 South Cass Avenue, Argonne, IL 60439-4837 (United States); Degueldre, C. [Paul Scherrer Institute, 5232 Villigen-PSI (Switzerland); Paratte, J.M. [Paul Scherrer Institute, 5232 Villigen-PSI (Switzerland)

    1997-05-01

    The increasing inventories of plutonium generated by commercial nuclear power production represent a potential source for proliferation of nuclear weapons. To address this threat we propose separating the plutonium from the other constituents of commercial reactor spent fuel and burning it in a non-fertile fuel based on a zirconium dioxide matrix. The separation can be performed by the Purex process currently in use, but we recommend development of a more compact separation technology that would produce less secondary waste than currently used technology and would allow for more stringent accounting of plutonium inventories. The non-fertile fuel is designed for use in conventional light water power reactors and does not require development of new reactor technology. (orig.).

  7. Control of civilian plutonium inventories using burning in a non-fertile fuel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oversby, V. M.; McPheeters, C. C.; Degueldre, C.; Paratte, J. M.

    1997-05-01

    The increasing inventories of plutonium generated by commercial nuclear power production represent a potential source for proliferation of nuclear weapons. To address this threat we propose separating the plutonium from the other constituents of commercial reactor spent fuel and burning it in a non-fertile fuel based on a zirconium dioxide matrix. The separation can be performed by the Purex process currently in use, but we recommend development of a more compact separation technology that would produce less secondary waste than currently used technology and would allow for more stringent accounting of plutonium inventories. The non-fertile fuel is designed for use in conventional light water power reactors and does not require development of new reactor technology.

  8. A computerized system for control and management of radionuclide inventory: application in nuclear medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoory, S.; Levy, I.M.; Moskowitz, G.; Bandyopadhyay, D.; Vaugeois, J.C.

    1982-01-01

    An interactive computerized system for radioisotope management and instantaneous inventory is reported. The system is capable of handling operations such as filing, nuclear imaging and disposing of various radionuclides. All radiopharmaceutical transactions are achieved with the aid of a Prime 300 mini-computer of 192K words of high speed semi-conductor memory and over 120 mega bytes of disk storage. The system automatically corrects for the appropriate decay, monitors and updates the storage file after every subsequent study. The performed study is recorded in a special file, together with the time and data retrieved from the computer's real time clock at the time of the entry. The system provides an organized and complete bookkeeping of all records concerning radionuclide transactions. It is found to be simple, efficient, highly versatile, and drastically reduces the time of operation and errors in handling the radioisotope inventory. (author)

  9. Evaluation of various fuel cycles to control inventories of plutonium and minor in advanced fuel cycles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, L.F.; Anderson, T.; Preston, J.; Humberstone, M.; Hou, J.; McConn, J.; Van Den Durpel, L.

    2007-01-01

    Inventories of Plutonium and minor actinides are important factors in determination of the risk associated with the use of nuclear energy. This includes the potential of exceeding release limits from a repository and the potential for proliferation. The amount of these materials in any given fleet of reactors is determined in large part by the choice of fuel cycle and by the types of reactors selected for operation. Most of the US reactor fleet will need to be replaced within the next 30 years and additional reactors will need to be added if the contribution of power from nuclear energy is expanded. In order to minimize risk and to make judicious use of repository space, inventories of all radionuclides will need to be effectively managed. Use of hard-spectrum reactors to burn excess Plutonium and other actinides is technologically feasible and is most likely less costly than any other options for minimizing various risks. Calculations for the inventories of several categories of radionuclides indicate that introduction of a modest fraction of fast reactors into the US reactor fleet is effective in stabilizing the growth of problematic radioisotopes. Results are obtained from the DANESS (Dynamic Analysis of Nuclear Energy System Strategies)1,2 Code and from the solution of algebraic equations that define steady state inventories. There are various different possible fuel cycle scenarios to utilize in the implementation of fast, thermal and intermediate spectrum reactors into the U.S. fleet. Results include various combinations of reactor types and fuel with varying times of implementations. Mass flows with uncertainties for equilibrium cycles will also be reported. Time-dependent scenarios are modeled with the DANESS code, and algebraic equations for various fuel cycles are derived. Uncertainties are obtained using Monte Carlo simulations based on estimates of parameters in the models. (authors)

  10. A time-based control policy for a perishable inventory system with lost sales

    OpenAIRE

    Tekin, Eylem

    1998-01-01

    Ankara : Department of Industrial Engineering and the Institute of Engineering and Science of Bilkent Univ., 1998. Thesis (Master's) -- Bilkent University, 1998. Includes bibliographical references leaves 49-52 In this study, we propose a new time-based poiicy for continuous review inventory systems where the products have fixed fife times and unmet denicinds are iost. We cierive the exact expressions of the key operating characteristics of the rnociei. Based on these perfo...

  11. Evaluation of various fuel cycles to control inventories of plutonium and minor in advanced fuel cycles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, L.F.; Anderson, T.; Preston, J.; Humberstone, M.; Hou, J.; McConn, J. [Tennessee Univ., Nuclear Engineering Dept., Knoxville, TN (United States); Van Den Durpel, L. [Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL (United States)

    2007-07-01

    Inventories of Plutonium and minor actinides are important factors in determination of the risk associated with the use of nuclear energy. This includes the potential of exceeding release limits from a repository and the potential for proliferation. The amount of these materials in any given fleet of reactors is determined in large part by the choice of fuel cycle and by the types of reactors selected for operation. Most of the US reactor fleet will need to be replaced within the next 30 years and additional reactors will need to be added if the contribution of power from nuclear energy is expanded. In order to minimize risk and to make judicious use of repository space, inventories of all radionuclides will need to be effectively managed. Use of hard-spectrum reactors to burn excess Plutonium and other actinides is technologically feasible and is most likely less costly than any other options for minimizing various risks. Calculations for the inventories of several categories of radionuclides indicate that introduction of a modest fraction of fast reactors into the US reactor fleet is effective in stabilizing the growth of problematic radioisotopes. Results are obtained from the DANESS (Dynamic Analysis of Nuclear Energy System Strategies)1,2 Code and from the solution of algebraic equations that define steady state inventories. There are various different possible fuel cycle scenarios to utilize in the implementation of fast, thermal and intermediate spectrum reactors into the U.S. fleet. Results include various combinations of reactor types and fuel with varying times of implementations. Mass flows with uncertainties for equilibrium cycles will also be reported. Time-dependent scenarios are modeled with the DANESS code, and algebraic equations for various fuel cycles are derived. Uncertainties are obtained using Monte Carlo simulations based on estimates of parameters in the models. (authors)

  12. COORDINATED LOCATION, DISTRIBUTION AND INVENTORY DECISIONS IN SUPPLY CHAIN NETWORK DESIGN: A MULTI-OBJECTIVE APPROACH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Reza Nasiri

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available

    ENGLISH ABSTRACT: This research presents an integrated multi-objective distribution model for use in simultaneous strategic and operational food supply chain (SC planning. The proposed method is adopted to allow use of a performance measurement system that includes conflicting objectives such as distribution costs, customer service level (safety stock holding, resource utilisation, and the total delivery time, with reference to multiple warehouse capacities and uncertain forecast demands. To deal with these objectives and enable the decision makers (DMs to evaluate a greater number of alternative solutions, three different approaches are implemented in the proposed solution procedure. A detailed case study derived from food industrial data is used to illustrate the preference of the proposed approach. The proposed method yields an efficient solution and an overall degree of DMs’ satisfaction with the determined objective values.

    AFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING: Die navorsing behandel ’n geïntegreerde multidoelwit distribusiemodel vir strategiese beplanning van ’n voedseltoevoerketting. Om met die model doelmatig te werk, moet ’n versameling van randvoorwaardes hanteer word om die saamgestelde optimiseringsdoelwit te bereik teen ’n agtergrond van uiteenlopende sienings.

  13. Purchasing and inventory management techniques for optimizing inventory investment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McFarlane, I.; Gehshan, T.

    1993-01-01

    In an effort to reduce operations and maintenance costs among nuclear plants, many utilities are taking a closer look at their inventory investment. Various approaches for inventory reduction have been used and discussed, but these approaches are often limited to an inventory management perspective. Interaction with purchasing and planning personnel to reduce inventory investment is a necessity in utility efforts to become more cost competitive. This paper addresses the activities that purchasing and inventory management personnel should conduct in an effort to optimize inventory investment while maintaining service-level goals. Other functions within a materials management organization, such as the warehousing and investment recovery functions, can contribute to optimizing inventory investment. However, these are not addressed in this paper because their contributions often come after inventory management and purchasing decisions have been made

  14. 21 CFR 1304.11 - Inventory requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... the inventory of the registered location to which they are subject to control or to which the person... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Inventory requirements. 1304.11 Section 1304.11... REGISTRANTS Inventory Requirements § 1304.11 Inventory requirements. (a) General requirements. Each inventory...

  15. Approaches to tobacco control: the evidence base.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aquilino, M Lober; Lowe, J B

    2004-02-01

    Tobacco production, distribution, and use are international issues with significant health and economic implications. This paper provides an overview of the effective approaches to tobacco control including decreasing demand for tobacco products through taxation, consumer education, research, bans on advertising and promotion, warning labels, and restrictions on public smoking. The effectiveness of reducing the supply of tobacco products through prohibition, restrictions on youth access, crop substitution, trade restrictions, and control of smuggling, will also be discussed. Decreasing smoking, particularly among young people, by preventing or delaying initiation, preventing regular use, and increasing cessation through behavioural approaches for all ages is reviewed. Cessation methods including pharmacological approaches, 'quitlines', Internet programmes, and the targeting of specific populations are discussed. Internet availability of tobacco products and sustainability of current efforts are presented as continuing challenges to tobacco control.

  16. Systems Approach to Arms Control Verification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allen, K; Neimeyer, I; Listner, C; Stein, G; Chen, C; Dreicer, M

    2015-05-15

    Using the decades of experience of developing concepts and technologies for verifying bilateral and multilateral arms control agreements, a broad conceptual systems approach is being developed that takes into account varying levels of information and risk. The IAEA has already demonstrated the applicability of a systems approach by implementing safeguards at the State level, with acquisition path analysis as the key element. In order to test whether such an approach could also be implemented for arms control verification, an exercise was conducted in November 2014 at the JRC ITU Ispra. Based on the scenario of a hypothetical treaty between two model nuclear weapons states aimed at capping their nuclear arsenals at existing levels, the goal of this exercise was to explore how to use acquisition path analysis in an arms control context. Our contribution will present the scenario, objectives and results of this exercise, and attempt to define future workshops aimed at further developing verification measures that will deter or detect treaty violations.

  17. Eating Disorder Inventory-3, validation in Swedish patients with eating disorders, psychiatric outpatients and a normal control sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyman-Carlsson, Erika; Engström, Ingemar; Norring, Claes; Nevonen, Lauri

    2015-02-01

    The Eating Disorder Inventory-3 (EDI-3) is designed to assess eating disorder psychopathology and the associated psychological symptoms. The instrument has been revised and has not yet been validated for Swedish conditions in its current form. The aim of this study was to investigate the validity and reliability of this inventory and present national norms for Swedish females. Data from patients with eating disorders (n = 292), psychiatric outpatients (n = 140) and normal controls (n = 648), all females, were used to study the internal consistency, the discriminative ability, and the sensitivity and specificity of the inventory using preliminary cut-offs for each subscale and diagnosis separately. Swedish norms were compared with those from Denmark, USA, Canada, Europe and Australian samples. The reliability was acceptable for all subscales except Asceticism among normal controls. Analysis of variance showed that the EDI-3 discriminates significantly between eating disorders and normal controls. Anorexia nervosa was significantly discriminated from bulimia nervosa and eating disorder not otherwise specified on the Eating Disorder Risk Scales. Swedish patients scored significantly lower than patients from other countries on the majority of the subscales. Drive for Thinness is the second best predictor for an eating disorder. The best predictor for anorexia nervosa was Interoceptive Deficits and Bulimia for the other diagnoses. Conclusions/clinical implications: The EDI-3 is valid for use with Swedish patients as a clinical assessment tool for the treatment planning and evaluation of patients with eating-related problems. However, it still exist some uncertainty regarding its use as a screening tool.

  18. Methane and nitrous oxide: Methods in national emissions inventories and options for control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Amstel, A.R. (ed.)

    1993-07-01

    The UN Framework Convention on Climate Change signed in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, calls for the return of anthropogenic emissions of greenhouse gases to their 1990 levels by the year 2000 in industrialized countries. It also calls for a monitoring of the emissions of greenhouse gases. It is important that reliable and scientifically credible national inventories are available for the international negotiations. Therefore a consistent methodology and a transparent reporting format is needed. The title workshop had two main objectives: (1) to support the development a methodology and format for national emissions inventories of greenhouse gases by mid 1993, as coordinated by the Science Working Group of the IPCC and the OECD; and (2) the development of technical options for reduction of greenhouse gases and the assessment of the socio-economic feasibility of these options. The workshop consisted of key note overview presentations, and two rounds of working group sessions, each covering five parallel sessions on selected sources. In the first round of each working group session the literature, existing methods for methane and nitrous oxide inventories, and the OECD/IPCC guidelines have been addressed. Then, in the second round, options for emission reductions have been discussed, as well as their socio-economic implications. The methane sources discussed concern oil and gas, coal mining, ruminants, animal waste, landfills and sewage treatment, combustion and industry, rice production and wetlands, biomass burning. The nitrous oxide sources discussed are agricultural soils and combustion and industry. The proceedings on methane comprise 16 introductory papers and 7 papers on the results of the working groups, while in part two four introductory papers and two papers on the results of working groups on nitrous oxide are presented. In part three future emission reduction policy options are discussed. Finally, 16 poster contributions are included

  19. Analysis of forecasting and inventory control of raw material supplies in PT INDAC INT’L

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lesmana, E.; Subartini, B.; Riaman; Jabar, D. A.

    2018-03-01

    This study discusses the data forecasting sales of carbon electrodes at PT. INDAC INT L uses winters and double moving average methods, while for predicting the amount of inventory and cost required in ordering raw material of carbon electrode next period using Economic Order Quantity (EOQ) model. The result of error analysis shows that winters method for next period gives result of MAE, MSE, and MAPE, the winters method is a better forecasting method for forecasting sales of carbon electrode products. So that PT. INDAC INT L is advised to provide products that will be sold following the sales amount by the winters method.

  20. Reactivity-based industrial volatile organic compounds emission inventory and its implications for ozone control strategies in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Xiaoming; Chen, Xiaofang; Zhang, Jiani; Shi, Tianli; Sun, Xibo; Fan, Liya; Wang, Liming; Ye, Daiqi

    2017-08-01

    Increasingly serious ozone (O3) pollution, along with decreasing NOx emission, is creating a big challenge in the control of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in China. More efficient and effective measures are assuredly needed for controlling VOCs. In this study, a reactivity-based industrial VOCs emission inventory was established in China based on the concept of ozone formation potential (OFP). Key VOCs species, major VOCs sources, and dominant regions with high reactivity were identified. Our results show that the top 15 OFP-based species, including m/p-xylene, toluene, propene, o-xylene, and ethyl benzene, contribute 69% of the total OFP but only 30% of the total emission. The architectural decoration industry, oil refinery industry, storage and transport, and seven other sources constituted the top 10 OFP subsectors, together contributing a total of 85%. The provincial and spatial characteristics of OFP are generally consistent with those of mass-based inventory. The implications for O3 control strategies in China are discussed. We propose a reactivity-based national definition of VOCs and low-reactive substitution strategies, combined with evaluations of health risks. Priority should be given to the top 15 or more species with high reactivity through their major emission sources. Reactivity-based policies should be flexibly applied for O3 mitigation based on the sensitivity of O3 formation conditions.

  1. Emissions inventories for urban airshed model application in the Philadelphia Aqcr (Air Quality Control Region)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1982-04-01

    This report documents the procedures used to develop emissions input required by the Urban Airshed photochemical oxidant model. Ambient air quality data were gathered as part of another effort during the summer of 1979 in Philadelphia to be used in the model validation effort. For 1979 and the 1987 projection year, ES compiled hour by hour emissions data for a representative weekday in the oxidant season. The pollutants inventoried are five categories of VOC required by the Airshed model, four categories of VOC defined in RAPS, NO, NO2, CO, SO2, and TSP. Point and area sources were considered with the highway vehicle portion of the inventory being subcontracted to DVRPC. County level area source data were allocated to a 502-cell grid system. Projections were made so that ozone air quality in 1987 could be investigated. ES developed annualized EIS/PandR data and data files containing temporal and VOC/NOx profiles in order to generate the data packets required by the Airshed model.

  2. Inventory Modelling for a Manufacturer of Sweets : An Evaluation of an Adjusted Compund Renewal Approach for B-Items With A Relative Short Production Lead Time

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heuts, R.M.J.; Luijten, M.L.J.

    1999-01-01

    In this paper we are especially interested how to optimize the production/inventory control for a manufacturer of sweets, under the following circumstances: short production lead times in combination with an intermittent demand pattern for the so-called B-taste items. As for A-taste items a compound

  3. A Modular Approach to Redundant Robot Control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, R.J.

    1997-12-01

    This paper describes a modular approach for computing redundant robot kinematics. First some conventional redundant control methods are presented and shown to be 'passive control laws', i.e. they can be represented by a network consisting of passive elements. These networks are then put into modular form by applying scattering operator techniques. Additional subnetwork modules can then be added to further shape the motion. Modules for obstacle detection, joint limit avoidance, proximity sensing, and for imposing nonlinear velocity constraints are presented. The resulting redundant robot control system is modular, flexible and robust

  4. Controllable Load Management Approaches in Smart Grids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingshuang Shen

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available With rapid smart grid technology development, the customer can actively participate in demand-side management (DSM with the mutual information communication between the distributor operation company and the smart devices in real-time. Controllable load management not only has the advantage of peak shaving, load balance, frequency regulation, and voltage stability, but is also effective at providing fast balancing services to the renewable energy grid in the distributed power system. The load management faces an enormous challenge as the customer has a large number of both small residential loads and dispersed renewable sources. In this paper, various controllable load management approaches are discussed. The traditional controllable load approaches such as the end users’ controllable appliances, storage battery, Vehicle-to-Grid (V2G, and heat storage are reviewed. The “broad controllable loads” management, such as the microgrid, Virtual Power Plant (VPP, and the load aggregator are also presented. Furthermore, the load characteristics, control strategies, and control effectiveness are analyzed.

  5. Joint Optimization of Star P-hub Median Problem and Seat Inventory Control Decisions Considering a Hybrid Routing Transportation System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamid Tikani

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we study the problem of integrated capacitated hub location problem and seat inventory control considering concept and techniques of revenue management. We consider an airline company maximizes its revenue by utilizing the best network topology and providing proper booking limits for all itineraries and fare classes. The transportation system arises in the form of a star/star network and includes both hub-stop and non-stop flights. This problem is formulated as a two-stage stochastic integer program with mixed-integer recourse. We solve various instances carried out from the Turkish network data set. Due to the NP-hardness of the problem, we propose a hybrid optimization method, consisting of an evolutionary algorithm based on genetic algorithm and exact solution. The quality of the solutions found by the proposed meta-heuristic is compared with the original version of GA and the mathematical programming model. The results obtained by the proposed model imply that integrating hub location and seat inventory control problem would help to increase the total revenue of airline companies. Also, in the case of serving non-stop flights, the model can provide more profit by employing less number of hubs.

  6. Development of A Web-Based Information System for Material Inventory Control: The Case of An Automotive Company

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renjana Setyoandara Wibisono

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Inventory control is controlling the materials movement to fulfill the requirements. The materials can from the direct and indirect materials. the indirect materials are the materials that cannot be calculated according to the bill of materials. Indirect materials need safety stocks, so the requirements can always be fulfilled, means it need the control and monitoring of their levels. To control the movement of the materials, each department have roles to control and information that need to be shared. PT XYZ is an automotive assembler company, the company need a tool to control the indirect materials inbound and outbound and control its stock. This research is to have the tool that will be a web-based program because to share the information throughout the department of planning, production, and logistics. In developing and implementing the program itself, the RUP methodology is used to guide in doing this research with having four phases and activities that support the research. The result is the program itself have been successful to fulfilled the user requirements. The program shows the real time information for the levels of the materials and also the inbound and outbound of the materials for the user to monitor its levels.

  7. Operator approach to linear control systems

    CERN Document Server

    Cheremensky, A

    1996-01-01

    Within the framework of the optimization problem for linear control systems with quadratic performance index (LQP), the operator approach allows the construction of a systems theory including a number of particular infinite-dimensional optimization problems with hardly visible concreteness. This approach yields interesting interpretations of these problems and more effective feedback design methods. This book is unique in its emphasis on developing methods for solving a sufficiently general LQP. Although this is complex material, the theory developed here is built on transparent and relatively simple principles, and readers with less experience in the field of operator theory will find enough material to give them a good overview of the current state of LQP theory and its applications. Audience: Graduate students and researchers in the fields of mathematical systems theory, operator theory, cybernetics, and control systems.

  8. An integrated supply chain inventory model with imperfect-quality items, controllable lead time and distribution-free demand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin Hsien-Jen

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we consider an integrated vendor-buyer inventory policy for a continuous review model with a random number of defective items and screening process gradually at a fixed screening rate in buyer’s arriving order lot. We assume that shortages are allowed and partially backlogged on the buyer’s side, and that the lead time demand distribution is unknown, except its first two moments. The objective is to apply the minmax distribution free approach to determine the optimal order quantity, reorder point, lead time and the number of lots delivered in one production run simultaneously so that the expected total system cost is minimized. Numerical experiments along with sensitivity analysis were performed to illustrate the effects of parameters on the decision and the total system cost.

  9. Pricing and Inventory Control Strategy for a Periodic-Review Energy Buy-Back System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Jihong; CHEN Hongqiao; DING Xiaosong; LI Xian

    2016-01-01

    Along with the rapid development of economics and enhancement of industrialization,the power demand keeps rising and frequently creates mismatch between demand and supply in electricity.This provides miscellaneous energy buy-back programs with great opportunities.Such programs,when activated,offer certain amount of financial compensations to participants for reducing their energy consumption during peak time.They aim at encouraging participants to shift their electricity usage from peak to non-peak time,and thereby release the demand pressure during peak time.This paper considers a periodic-review joint pricing and inventory decision model under an energy buy-back program over finite planning horizons,in which the compensation levels,setup cost and additive random demand function are incorporated.The objective is to maximize a manufacturer's expected total profit.By using Veinott's conditions,it is shown that the manufacturer's optimal decision is a state dependent (s,S,P) policy under a peak market condition,or partly an (s,S,A,P) policy under the normal market condition.

  10. Nitrogen Source Inventory and Loading Tool: An integrated approach toward restoration of water-quality impaired karst springs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eller, Kirstin T; Katz, Brian G

    2017-07-01

    Nitrogen (N) from anthropogenic sources has contaminated groundwater used as drinking water in addition to impairing water quality and ecosystem health of karst springs. The Nitrogen Source Inventory and Loading Tool (NSILT) was developed as an ArcGIS and spreadsheet-based approach that provides spatial estimates of current nitrogen (N) inputs to the land surface and loads to groundwater from nonpoint and point sources within the groundwater contributing area. The NSILT involves a three-step approach where local and regional land use practices and N sources are evaluated to: (1) estimate N input to the land surface, (2) quantify subsurface environmental attenuation, and (3) assess regional recharge to the aquifer. NSILT was used to assess nitrogen loading to groundwater in two karst spring areas in west-central Florida: Rainbow Springs (RS) and Kings Bay (KB). The karstic Upper Floridan aquifer (UFA) is the source of water discharging to the springs in both areas. In the KB study area (predominantly urban land use), septic systems and urban fertilizers contribute 48% and 22%, respectively, of the estimated total annual N load to groundwater 294,400 kg-N/yr. In contrast for the RS study area (predominantly agricultural land use), livestock operations and crop fertilizers contribute 50% and 13%, respectively, of the estimated N load to groundwater. Using overall groundwater N loading rates for the KB and RS study areas, 4.4 and 3.3 kg N/ha, respectively, and spatial recharge rates, the calculated groundwater nitrate-N concentration (2.1 mg/L) agreed closely with the median nitrate-N concentration (1.7 mg/L) from groundwater samples in agricultural land use areas in the RS study area for the period 2010-2014. NSILT results provide critical information for prioritizing and designing restoration efforts for water-quality impaired springs and spring runs affected by multiple sources of nitrogen loading to groundwater. The calculated groundwater N concentration for

  11. Procedure for taking physical inventories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boston, R.A.

    1984-01-01

    Physical inventories are taken periodically to meet Company, State and IAEA requirements. Those physical inventories may be verified by IAEA and/or State inspectors. This presentation describes in an introductory but detailed manner the approaches and procedures used in planning, preparing, conducting, reconciling and reporting physical inventories for the Model Plant. Physical inventories are taken for plant accounting purposes to provide an accurate basis for starting and closing the plant material balance. Physical inventories are also taken for safeguards purposes to provide positive assurance that the nuclear materials of concern are indeed present and accounted for

  12. Inventory parameters

    CERN Document Server

    Sharma, Sanjay

    2017-01-01

    This book provides a detailed overview of various parameters/factors involved in inventory analysis. It especially focuses on the assessment and modeling of basic inventory parameters, namely demand, procurement cost, cycle time, ordering cost, inventory carrying cost, inventory stock, stock out level, and stock out cost. In the context of economic lot size, it provides equations related to the optimum values. It also discusses why the optimum lot size and optimum total relevant cost are considered to be key decision variables, and uses numerous examples to explain each of these inventory parameters separately. Lastly, it provides detailed information on parameter estimation for different sectors/products. Written in a simple and lucid style, it offers a valuable resource for a broad readership, especially Master of Business Administration (MBA) students.

  13. Measurement approaches to support future warhead arms control transparency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olinger, C.T.; Frankle, C.M.; Johnson, M.W.; Poths, J.

    1998-01-01

    Transparency on warhead stockpiles, warhead dismantlement, and fissile material stockpiles in nuclear weapons states will become increasingly important in the move beyond START II toward lower quantities of warheads. Congressional support for further warhead reductions will likely depend on the degree of irreversibility, or in other words, the rapidity with which warhead inventories could be reconstituted. Whether irreversibility considerations can be satisfied will depend on monitoring dismantlement as well as constraining the available stockpile of fissile materials for possible refabrication into warheads. Measurement techniques designed to address the above problems will need to consider NPT Article 1 obligations as well as Russian and US classification regulations, which prohibit or restrict the transfer of nuclear warhead design information to other states. Classification considerations currently limit the potential completeness of future inspections of weapons materials. Many conventional international safeguards approaches are not currently viable for arms control applications because they would reveal weapons design information. The authors discuss a variety of technical measures that may help to improve transparence of warhead and fissile material stockpiles and may enable limited warhead dismantlement transparency

  14. Computational procedure of optimal inventory model involving controllable backorder rate and variable lead time with defective units

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Wen-Chuan; Wu, Jong-Wuu; Tsou, Hsin-Hui; Lei, Chia-Ling

    2012-10-01

    This article considers that the number of defective units in an arrival order is a binominal random variable. We derive a modified mixture inventory model with backorders and lost sales, in which the order quantity and lead time are decision variables. In our studies, we also assume that the backorder rate is dependent on the length of lead time through the amount of shortages and let the backorder rate be a control variable. In addition, we assume that the lead time demand follows a mixture of normal distributions, and then relax the assumption about the form of the mixture of distribution functions of the lead time demand and apply the minimax distribution free procedure to solve the problem. Furthermore, we develop an algorithm procedure to obtain the optimal ordering strategy for each case. Finally, three numerical examples are also given to illustrate the results.

  15. Integrated vendor-buyer inventory models with inflation and time value of money in controllable lead time

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prashant Jindal

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In the global critical economic scenario, inflation plays a vital role in deciding optimal pricing of goods in any business entity. This article presents two single-vendor single-buyer integrated supply chain inventory models with inflation and time value of money. Shortage is allowed during the lead-time and it is partially backlogged. Lead time is controllable and can be reduced using crashing cost. In the first model, we consider the demand of lead time follows a normal distribution, and in the second model, it is considered distribution-free. For both cases, our objective is to minimize the integrated system cost by simultaneously optimizing the order quantity, safety factor, lead time and number of lots. The discounted cash flow and classical optimization technique are used to derive the optimal solution for both cases. Numerical examples including the sensitivity analysis of system parameters is provided to validate the results of the supply chain models.

  16. Comparison of Routable Control System Security Approaches

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edgar, Thomas W.; Hadley, Mark D.; Carroll, Thomas E.; Manz, David O.; Winn, Jennifer D.

    2011-06-01

    This document is an supplement to the 'Secure and Efficient Routable Control Systems.' It addressed security in routable control system communication. The control system environment that monitors and manages the power grid historically has utilized serial communication mechanisms. Leased-line serial communication environments operating at 1200 to 9600 baud rates are common. However, recent trends show that communication media such as fiber, optical carrier 3 (OC-3) speeds, mesh-based high-speed wireless, and the Internet are becoming the media of choice. In addition, a dichotomy has developed between the electrical transmission and distribution environments, with more modern communication infrastructures deployed by transmission utilities. The preceding diagram represents a typical control system. The Communication Links cloud supports all of the communication mechanisms a utility might deploy between the control center and devices in the field. Current methodologies used for security implementations are primarily led by single vendors or standards bodies. However, these entities tend to focus on individual protocols. The result is an environment that contains a mixture of security solutions that may only address some communication protocols at an increasing operational burden for the utility. A single approach is needed that meets operational requirements, is simple to operate, and provides the necessary level of security for all control system communication. The solution should be application independent (e.g., Distributed Network Protocol/Internet Protocol [DNP/IP], International Electrotechnical Commission [IEC] C37.118, Object Linking and Embedding for Process Control [OPC], etc.) and focus on the transport layer. In an ideal setting, a well-designed suite of standards for control system communication will be used for vendor implementation and compliance testing. An expected outcome of this effort is an international standard.

  17. A probabilistic approach to controlling crevice chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Millett, P.J.; Brobst, G.E.; Riddle, J.

    1995-01-01

    It has been generally accepted that the corrosion of steam generator tubing could be reduced if the local pH in regions where impurities concentrate could be controlled. The practice of molar ratio control is based on this assumption. Unfortunately, due to the complexity of the crevice concentration process, efforts to model the crevice chemistry based on bulk water conditions are quite uncertain. In-situ monitoring of the crevice chemistry is desirable, but may not be achievable in the near future. The current methodology for assessing the crevice chemistry is to monitor the hideout return chemistry when the plant shuts down. This approach also has its shortcomings, but may provide sufficient data to evaluate whether the crevice pH is in a desirable range. In this paper, an approach to controlling the crevice chemistry based on a target molar ratio indicator is introduced. The molar ratio indicator is based on what is believed to be the most reliable hideout return data. Probabilistic arguments are then used to show that the crevice pH will most likely be in a desirable range when the target molar ratio is achieved

  18. A comparison between the order and the volume fill rates for a base-stock inventory control system under a compound renewal demand process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Christian; Thorstenson, Anders

    The order fill rate is less commonly used than the volume fill rate (most often just denoted fill rate) as a performance measure for inventory control systems. However, in settings where the focus is on filling customer orders rather than total quantities, the order fill rate should be the prefer......The order fill rate is less commonly used than the volume fill rate (most often just denoted fill rate) as a performance measure for inventory control systems. However, in settings where the focus is on filling customer orders rather than total quantities, the order fill rate should...

  19. An integrated approach to inventory and flexible capacity management subject to fixed costs and non-stationary stochastic demand

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tan, T.; Alp, O.

    2009-01-01

    In a manufacturing system with flexible capacity, inventory management can be coupled with capacity management in order to handle fluctuations in demand more effectively. Typical examples include the effective use of temporary workforce and overtime production. In this paper, we discuss an

  20. Nuclear outages: an approach to project controls

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bryson, R.

    1985-01-01

    The annual budget for maintaining and operating a nuclear power plant has risen dramatically over the past 5 years. NRC-mandated plant improvements and outage related expenses are often cited to be the main contributors to these escalating budgets. Nuclear utilities have responded by developing programs to improve plant availability and outage costs through improved outage performance. Utilities recognize that for capital improvements the program to control costs does no begin with outage planning, but rather more appropriately up front during the engineering phase. To support their management objectives, utilities have been developing comprehensive project control systems for concurrently reducing capital expenditures, outage-related costs, and time. This paper provides an approach to project controls that, rather than using one all inclusive comprehensive system, requires five separate monitoring systems - one for each phase of an activity's life cycle. Through the integration of these discrete but interrelated systems, utility management acquires the necessary tools for comprehensive planning and control of their modification program and effective detailed monitoring for all outage-related activities

  1. Approaches to Learning to Control Dynamic Uncertainty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magda Osman

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available In dynamic environments, when faced with a choice of which learning strategy to adopt, do people choose to mostly explore (maximizing their long term gains or exploit (maximizing their short term gains? More to the point, how does this choice of learning strategy influence one’s later ability to control the environment? In the present study, we explore whether people’s self-reported learning strategies and levels of arousal (i.e., surprise, stress correspond to performance measures of controlling a Highly Uncertain or Moderately Uncertain dynamic environment. Generally, self-reports suggest a preference for exploring the environment to begin with. After which, those in the Highly Uncertain environment generally indicated they exploited more than those in the Moderately Uncertain environment; this difference did not impact on performance on later tests of people’s ability to control the dynamic environment. Levels of arousal were also differentially associated with the uncertainty of the environment. Going beyond behavioral data, our model of dynamic decision-making revealed that, in actual fact, there was no difference in exploitation levels between those in the highly uncertain or moderately uncertain environments, but there were differences based on sensitivity to negative reinforcement. We consider the implications of our findings with respect to learning and strategic approaches to controlling dynamic uncertainty.

  2. Screening Air Traffic Control Specialists for Psychopathology Using the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    King, Raymond E; Schroeder, David J; Manning, Carol A; Retzlaff, Paul D; Williams, Clara A

    2008-01-01

    ...) as a psychological screening tool for conditionally selected FAA Air Traffic Control Specialists (ATCSs). A sample of 1,014 ATCSs in training voluntarily completed the MMPI-2 as part of a research program...

  3. Immunocontraceptives: New Approaches to Fertility Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kiranjeet Kaur

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The rapidly increasing global population has bowed the attention of family planning and associated reproductive health programmes in the direction of providing a safe and reliable method which can be used to limit family size. The world population is estimated to exceed a phenomenal 10 billion by the year 2050 A.D., thus presenting a real jeopardy of overpopulation with severe implications for the future. Despite the availability of contraceptive methods, there are over one million elective abortions globally each year due to unintended pregnancies, having devastating impact on reproductive health of women worldwide. This highlights the need for the development of newer and improved contraceptive methods. A novel contraceptive approach that is gaining substantial attention is “immunocontraception” targeting gamete production, gamete outcome, or gamete function. Amongst these, use of sperm antigens (gamete function seems to be an exciting and feasible approach. However, the variability of immune response and time lag to attain titer among vaccinated individuals after active immunization has highlighted the potential relevance of preformed antibodies in this league. This review is an attempt to analyze the current status and progress of immunocontraceptive approaches with respect to their establishment as a future fertility control agent.

  4. Riparian Inventory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Kansas Data Access and Support Center — This dataset is a digital representation of the 1:24,000 Land Use Riparian Areas Inventory for the state of Kansas. The dataset includes a 100 foot buffer around all...

  5. Heuristics for multi-item two-echelon spare parts inventory control problem with batch ordering in the central warehouse

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Topan, E.; Bayindir, Z.P.; Tan, T.

    2010-01-01

    We consider a multi-item two-echelon inventory system in which the central warehouse operates under a (Q;R) policy, and each local warehouse implements (S ¡ 1; S) policy. The objective is to find the policy parameters minimizing expected system-wide inventory holding and fixed ordering costs subject

  6. Heuristics for multi-item two-echelon spare parts inventory control subject to aggregate and individual service measures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Topan, E.; Bayindir, Z.P.; Tan, T.

    2017-01-01

    We consider a multi-item two-echelon spare parts inventory system in which the central warehouse operates under a (Q, R) policy and local warehouses implement (S−1,S) policy. The objective is to find the policy parameters minimizing expected system-wide inventory holding and fixed ordering subject

  7. INMACS - An approach to on-line nuclear materials accounting and control in a fuel fabrication environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yan, G.; L'Archeveque, J.V.R.; Paul, R.N.

    1977-08-01

    Taking advantage of modern system technologies, the concept of an Integrated Nuclear Materials Accounting and Control System (INMACS) was formulated as an alternative solution to manual inventory procedures. The selected approach offers prospects for tackling the more general fissile materials inventory problem while satisfying the immediate requirements of the Fuel Fabrication Pilot Line at CRNL. A PDP-11/40 minicomputer system was purchased, and a Data Base Management System (DBMS) was designed and implemented to provide a uniform file handling capability. The specific requirements of the Pilot Line were met by a package of application programs. About 16 man-years have been spent on the project. INMACS has been installed in the field and its usefulness as an on-line inventory system will be demonstrated in the Pilot Line. (author)

  8. Municipal solid waste management planning for Xiamen City, China: a stochastic fractional inventory-theory-based approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xiujuan; Huang, Guohe; Zhao, Shan; Cheng, Guanhui; Wu, Yinghui; Zhu, Hua

    2017-11-01

    In this study, a stochastic fractional inventory-theory-based waste management planning (SFIWP) model was developed and applied for supporting long-term planning of the municipal solid waste (MSW) management in Xiamen City, the special economic zone of Fujian Province, China. In the SFIWP model, the techniques of inventory model, stochastic linear fractional programming, and mixed-integer linear programming were integrated in a framework. Issues of waste inventory in MSW management system were solved, and the system efficiency was maximized through considering maximum net-diverted wastes under various constraint-violation risks. Decision alternatives for waste allocation and capacity expansion were also provided for MSW management planning in Xiamen. The obtained results showed that about 4.24 × 10 6  t of waste would be diverted from landfills when p i is 0.01, which accounted for 93% of waste in Xiamen City, and the waste diversion per unit of cost would be 26.327 × 10 3  t per $10 6 . The capacities of MSW management facilities including incinerators, composting facility, and landfills would be expanded due to increasing waste generation rate.

  9. Computation of order and volume fill rates for a base stock inventory control system with heterogeneous demand to investigate which customer class gets the best service

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Christian

    We consider a base stock inventory control system serving two customer classes whose demands are generated by two independent compound renewal processes. We show how to derive order and volume fill rates of each class. Based on assumptions about first order stochastic dominance we prove when one...

  10. A comparison between the order and the volume fill rate for a base-stock inventory control system under a compound renewal demand process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Christian; Thorstenson, Anders

    2008-01-01

    The order fill rate (OFR) is sometimes suggested as an alternative to the volume fill rate (VFR) (most often just denoted fill rate) as a performance measure for inventory control systems. We consider a continuous review, base-stock policy, where replenishment orders have a constant lead time...

  11. Inventory management of spare parts in an energy company

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guajardo, Mario; Roennqvist, Mikael; Halvorsen, Ann Mari; Kallevik, Svein Inge

    2012-06-15

    We address a problem of inventory management of spare parts in the context of a large energy company, producer of oil and gas. Spare parts are critical for assuring operational conditions in offshore platforms. About 200,000 different items are held in several inventory plants. The inventory system implemented at the company corresponds to a min-max system. The control parameters are decided based mainly on the expert judgment of the planners. Also, though the inventory plants can in practice be supplied from each other, the inventory planning is performed separately by the plant planners. This is because of different ownership structures where the studied company has the operative responsibility. The company is pursuing a system in which all planners conform to the same inventory management approach and evaluation, as well as being more cost efficient. Our work focuses on supporting this goal. We apply methods to decide the inventory control parameters for this system under a service level constraint. The methodology we use distinguishes unit-size and lot-size demand cases. We perform computational experiments to find control parameters for a sample of items. After the control parameters are found, we use them to explore the impact of risk pooling among the plants and inaccuracy arising from duplicate item codes.(Author)

  12. Control-matrix approach to stellarator design and control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mynick, H. E.; Pomphrey, N.

    2000-01-01

    The full space Z(equivalent to){Z j=1,...,Nz } of independent variables defining a stellarator configuration is large. To find attractive design points in this space, or to understand operational flexibility about a given design point, one needs insight into the topography in Z-space of the physics figures of merit P i which characterize the machine performance, and means of determining those directions in Z-space which give one independent control over the P i , as well as those which affect none of them, and so are available for design flexibility. The control matrix (CM) approach described here provides a mathematical means of obtaining these. In this work, the CM approach is described and used in studying some candidate Quasi-Axisymmetric (QA) stellarator configurations the National Compact Stellarator Experiment design group has been considering. In the process of the analysis, a first exploration of the topography of the configuration space in the vicinity of these candidate systems has been performed, whose character is discussed

  13. Control-matrix approach to stellarator design and control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mynick, H.E.; Pomphrey, N.

    2000-01-01

    The full space Z always equal to {Zj=1,..Nz} of independent variables defining a stellarator configuration is large. To find attractive design points in this space, or to understand operational flexibility about a given design point, one needs insight into the topography in Z-space of the physics figures of merit Pi which characterize the machine performance, and means of determining those directions in Z-space which give one independent control over the Pi, as well as those which affect none of them, and so are available for design flexibility. The control matrix (CM) approach described here provides a mathematical means of obtaining these. In this work, the authors describe the CM approach and use it in studying some candidate Quasi-Axisymmetric (QA) stellarator configurations the NCSX design group has been considering. In the process of the analysis, a first exploration of the topography of the configuration space in the vicinity of these candidate systems has been performed, whose character is discussed

  14. Development of a Laser Ablation System Kit (LASK) for Tokamak in vessel tritium and dust inventory control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hernandez, C.; Roche, H.; Pocheau, C.; Grisolia, C.; Gargiulo, L.; Semerok, A.; Vatry, A.; Delaporte, P.; Mercadier, L.

    2009-01-01

    During Tokamak operation, Plasma Facing Components (PFCs) are subjected to severe interaction with plasma. As a consequence and independently of the PFCs composition, materials eroded and then re-deposited in the form of layers on the surfaces, can flake and produce dusts. These fragile structures are able to trap part of the hydrogenated species (tritium for example) in vessel inventory. For safety reasons, it is mandatory to measure and to control vessel dust and tritium inventory. Up to now, laser techniques are a part of the most promising methods able to solve these ITER open issues. Of special interest are laser systems loaded on a miniature tool that can be attached to a Multi Purpose Deployer (MPD) and used for laser treatments (detritiation and other), for PFCs chemical analysis as well as for micro particles recovery of dust produced during laser ablation. Such a system (Laser Ablation System Kit: LASK) is currently under development at IRFM and the following presentation will describe the current achievements of this project and the perspectives. In this paper, we will present an innovative compact system, which, loaded on a Multi Purpose Deployer, could allow operation in a harsh environment (pressure range from atmospheric to Ultra High Vacuum and temperature up to 120 deg. C). According to the process conditions, different treatments can be performed: at low laser fluence, PFCs thermal treatment will be expected, while at high laser fluence material will be ablated allowing Dust (and T) recovery as well as chemical analysis of material. This 'in-line' chemical analysis based on Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS) enables the ablation process to be controlled and preserves the substrate integrity. The paper will be focussed on the methodology followed during the LASK development and the method used to determine a laser process window able to remove co-deposited film without damaging the bulk material and taking into account external parameter

  15. Personality trait interactions in parents of patients with borderline personality disorder: a controlled study using the Temperament and Character Inventory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fassino, Secondo; Amianto, Federico; Gastaldi, Filippo; Abbate-Daga, Giovanni; Brambilla, Francesca; Leombruni, Paolo

    2009-01-30

    Family environment is a pathogenic factor of borderline personality disorder (BPD). However, the personality traits of patients with BPD and their parents have never been assessed using the same instrument and then examined for relationships. In the present study, we explored the temperament and character traits of BPD patients and their parents to investigate possible interactions. In total, 56 patients with BPD and their parents were evaluated with the Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI) and compared with 53 control families. Discriminant and correlation analyses indicated that subjects with BPD displayed higher levels of novelty seeking, harm avoidance, and self-transcendence and lower levels of self-directedness than control subjects. Their fathers displayed higher levels of novelty seeking and lower levels of persistence and self-directedness, and their mothers displayed lower levels of self-directedness compared with levels in control parents. In BPD families, temperament and character traits displayed high levels of discriminatory power. Novelty seeking in offspring with borderline personality disorder was significantly correlated with their mothers' novelty seeking and their fathers' self-transcendence. Self-directedness in borderline offspring was significantly correlated with both their mothers' and fathers' novelty seeking, and their self-transcendence was significantly correlated with their mothers' novelty seeking and harm avoidance. The different correlational pattern for borderline and control families is discussed. Characteristic personality patterns were found in BPD offspring and in both parents. The relationship between personality traits of borderline offspring and those of their parents may be related to both genetic transmission and family dynamics. Ramifications for treatment are discussed.

  16. Hanford inventory program user's manual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hinkelman, K.C.

    1994-01-01

    Provides users with instructions and information about accessing and operating the Hanford Inventory Program (HIP) system. The Hanford Inventory Program is an integrated control system that provides a single source for the management and control of equipment, parts, and material warehoused by Westinghouse Hanford Company in various site-wide locations. The inventory is comprised of spare parts and equipment, shop stock, special tools, essential materials, and convenience storage items. The HIP replaced the following systems; ACA, ASP, PICS, FSP, WSR, STP, and RBO. In addition, HIP manages the catalog maintenance function for the General Supplies inventory stocked in the 1164 building and managed by WIMS

  17. Project of an information integrated system to provide support to the regulatory control of the radioactive waste inventory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Christovao, Marilia Tavares

    2005-05-01

    Sources and radioactive waste deriving from industry activities, medical practice and other areas are collected, received, and stored as waste on Brazilian Nuclear Energy Commission (CNEN) Institutes, that also generate, treat and store their own radioactive waste. The object of this project is to present an Integrated Information System named SICORR, having as guidelines, the referred processes to the radioactive waste regulatory control, under the responsibility of the Radioactive Waste Division (DIREJ), the General Coordination of Licensing and Control (CGLC), the Directorate of Safety and Radiation Protection (DRS) and the CNEN. The main objective of the work was reached, once the project SICORR modeling considers the radioactive waste control inventory, enclosing the treatment and integration of the radioactive waste and the radionuclides data and processes; the installations that produce, use, transport or store radiation sources data; and, CNEN Institutes responsible for the radioactive waste management data. The SICORR functions or essential modules involve the data treatment, integration, standardization and consistency between the processes. The SICORR specification and the analysis results are registered in documents, Software Specification Proposal (PESw) and Software Requirements Specification (ERSw), and are presented in text, in diagrams and user interfaces. Use cases have been used in the SICORR context diagram. The user interfaces for each use case have been detailed, defining the graphical layout, the relationships description with other interfaces, the interface details properties and the commands and the product entrances and exits. For objects radioactive waste and radionuclides, states diagrams have been drawn. The activities diagram represents the business model process. The class diagram represents the static objects and relationships that exist between them, under the specification point of view. The class diagram have been determined

  18. A periodic review integrated inventory model with controllable safety stock and setup cost under service level constraint and distribution-free demand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurdhi, N. A.; Jamaluddin, A.; Jauhari, W. A.; Saputro, D. R. S.

    2017-06-01

    In this study, we consider a stochastic integrated manufacturer-retailer inventory model with service level constraint. The model analyzed in this article considers the situation in which the vendor and the buyer establish a long-term contract and strategic partnership to jointly determine the best strategy. The lead time and setup cost are assumed can be controlled by an additional crashing cost and an investment, respectively. It is assumed that shortages are allowed and partially backlogged on the buyer’s side, and that the protection interval (i.e., review period plus lead time) demand distribution is unknown but has given finite first and second moments. The objective is to apply the minmax distribution free approach to simultaneously optimize the review period, the lead time, the setup cost, the safety factor, and the number of deliveries in order to minimize the joint total expected annual cost. The service level constraint guarantees that the service level requirement can be satisfied at the worst case. By constructing Lagrange function, the analysis regarding the solution procedure is conducted, and a solution algorithm is then developed. Moreover, a numerical example and sensitivity analysis are given to illustrate the proposed model and to provide some observations and managerial implications.

  19. Strategic Inventories in Vertical Contracts

    OpenAIRE

    Krishnan Anand; Ravi Anupindi; Yehuda Bassok

    2008-01-01

    Classical reasons for carrying inventory include fixed (nonlinear) production or procurement costs, lead times, nonstationary or uncertain supply/demand, and capacity constraints. The last decade has seen active research in supply chain coordination focusing on the role of incentive contracts to achieve first-best levels of inventory. An extensive literature in industrial organization that studies incentives for vertical controls largely ignores the effect of inventories. Does the ability to ...

  20. LANDSAT-D data format control book. Volume 6, appendix G: GSFC HDT-AM inventory tape (GHIT-AM)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-01-01

    The data format specifications of the Goddard HDT inventory tapes (GHITS), which accompany shipments of archival digital multispectral scanner image data (HDT-AM tapes), are defined. The GHIT is a nine-track, 1600-BPI tape which conforms to the ANSI standard and serves as an inventory and description of the image data included in the shipment. The archival MSS tapes (HDT-AMs) contain radiometrically corrected but geometrically uncorrected image data plus certain ancillary data necessary to perform the geometric corrections.

  1. Joint Optimization of Distribution Network Design and Two-Echelon Inventory Control with Stochastic Demand and CO2 Emission Tax Charges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shuangyan; Li, Xialian; Zhang, Dezhi; Zhou, Lingyun

    2017-01-01

    This study develops an optimization model to integrate facility location and inventory control for a three-level distribution network consisting of a supplier, multiple distribution centers (DCs), and multiple retailers. The integrated model addressed in this study simultaneously determines three types of decisions: (1) facility location (optimal number, location, and size of DCs); (2) allocation (assignment of suppliers to located DCs and retailers to located DCs, and corresponding optimal transport mode choices); and (3) inventory control decisions on order quantities, reorder points, and amount of safety stock at each retailer and opened DC. A mixed-integer programming model is presented, which considers the carbon emission taxes, multiple transport modes, stochastic demand, and replenishment lead time. The goal is to minimize the total cost, which covers the fixed costs of logistics facilities, inventory, transportation, and CO2 emission tax charges. The aforementioned optimal model was solved using commercial software LINGO 11. A numerical example is provided to illustrate the applications of the proposed model. The findings show that carbon emission taxes can significantly affect the supply chain structure, inventory level, and carbon emission reduction levels. The delay rate directly affects the replenishment decision of a retailer.

  2. Joint Optimization of Distribution Network Design and Two-Echelon Inventory Control with Stochastic Demand and CO2 Emission Tax Charges.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuangyan Li

    Full Text Available This study develops an optimization model to integrate facility location and inventory control for a three-level distribution network consisting of a supplier, multiple distribution centers (DCs, and multiple retailers. The integrated model addressed in this study simultaneously determines three types of decisions: (1 facility location (optimal number, location, and size of DCs; (2 allocation (assignment of suppliers to located DCs and retailers to located DCs, and corresponding optimal transport mode choices; and (3 inventory control decisions on order quantities, reorder points, and amount of safety stock at each retailer and opened DC. A mixed-integer programming model is presented, which considers the carbon emission taxes, multiple transport modes, stochastic demand, and replenishment lead time. The goal is to minimize the total cost, which covers the fixed costs of logistics facilities, inventory, transportation, and CO2 emission tax charges. The aforementioned optimal model was solved using commercial software LINGO 11. A numerical example is provided to illustrate the applications of the proposed model. The findings show that carbon emission taxes can significantly affect the supply chain structure, inventory level, and carbon emission reduction levels. The delay rate directly affects the replenishment decision of a retailer.

  3. Applying inventory classification to a large inventory management system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin Isaac May

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Inventory classification aims to ensure that business-driving inventory items are efficiently managed in spite of constrained resources. There are numerous single- and multiple-criteria approaches to it. Our objective is to improve resource allocation to focus on items that can lead to high equipment availability. This concern is typical of many service industries such as military logistics, airlines, amusement parks and public works. Our study tests several inventory prioritization techniques and finds that a modified multi-criterion weighted non-linear optimization (WNO technique is a powerful approach for classifying inventory, outperforming traditional techniques of inventory prioritization such as ABC analysis in a variety of performance objectives.

  4. An integrated approach to process control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schippers, W.A.J.

    2001-01-01

    The control of production processes is the subject of several disciplines, such as statistical process control (SPC), total productive maintenance (TPM), and automated process control (APC). Although these disciplines are traditionally separated (both in science and in business practice), their

  5. Controller synthesis for negative imaginary systems: a data driven approach

    KAUST Repository

    Mabrok, Mohamed; Petersen, Ian R.

    2016-01-01

    -driven controller synthesis methodology for NI systems is presented. In this approach, measured frequency response data of the plant is used to construct the controller frequency response at every frequency by minimising a cost function. Then, this controller

  6. A Stackelberg Game Approach in an Integrated Inventory Model with Carbon-Emission and Setup Cost Reduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Biswajit Sarkar

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper formulates an integrated inventory model that allows Stackelberg game policy for optimizing joint total cost of a vendor and buyer system. After receiving the lot, the buyer commences an inspection process to determine the defective items. All defective items the buyer sends to vendor during the receiving of the next lot. Due to increasing number of shipments fixed and variable transportation, as well as carbon emissions, are considered, which makes the model sustainable integrated model forever. To reduce the setup cost for the vendor, a discrete setup reduction is considered for maximization more profit. The players of the integrated model are with unequal power (as leader and follower and the Stackelberg game strategy is utilized to solve this model for obtaining global optimum solution over the finite planning horizon. An illustrative numerical example is given to understand this model clearly.

  7. Radiopharmaceutical quality control-Pragmatic approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barbier, Y.

    1994-01-01

    The quality control must be considered in a practical manner. The radiopharmaceuticals are drugs. They must satisfy the quality assurance control. These products are then conform to Pharmacopeia. But sometimes the user must control some data especially radiochemical purity and pH value. On all the administered solutions four controls are compulsory: radionuclide identity, administered radioactivity, organoleptic character and pH

  8. Computation of order and volume fill rates for a base stock inventory control system with heterogeneous demand to investigate which customer class gets the best service

    OpenAIRE

    Larsen, Christian

    2006-01-01

    We consider a base stock inventory control system serving two customer classes whose demands are generated by two independent compound renewal processes. We show how to derive order and volume fill rates of each class. Based on assumptions about first order stochastic dominance we prove when one customer class will get the best service. That theoretical result is validated through a series of numerical experiments which also reveal that it is quite robust.

  9. A comparison between the order and the volume fill rates for a base-stock inventory control system under a compound renewal demand process

    OpenAIRE

    Larsen, Christian; Thorstenson, Anders

    2006-01-01

    The order fill rate is less commonly used than the volume fill rate (most often just denoted fill rate) as a performance measure for inventory control systems. However, in settings where the focus is on filling customer orders rather than total quantities, the order fill rate should be the preferred measure. In this paper we consider a continuous review, base-stock policy, where all replenishment orders have the same constant lead time and all unfilled demands are backordered. We develop exac...

  10. A simulation based approach to optimize inventory replenishment with RAND algorithm: An extended study of corrected demand using Holt's method for textile industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morshed, Mohammad Sarwar; Kamal, Mostafa Mashnoon; Khan, Somaiya Islam

    2016-07-01

    Inventory has been a major concern in supply chain and numerous researches have been done lately on inventory control which brought forth a number of methods that efficiently manage inventory and related overheads by reducing cost of replenishment. This research is aimed towards providing a better replenishment policy in case of multi-product, single supplier situations for chemical raw materials of textile industries in Bangladesh. It is assumed that industries currently pursue individual replenishment system. The purpose is to find out the optimum ideal cycle time and individual replenishment cycle time of each product for replenishment that will cause lowest annual holding and ordering cost, and also find the optimum ordering quantity. In this paper indirect grouping strategy has been used. It is suggested that indirect grouping Strategy outperforms direct grouping strategy when major cost is high. An algorithm by Kaspi and Rosenblatt (1991) called RAND is exercised for its simplicity and ease of application. RAND provides an ideal cycle time (T) for replenishment and integer multiplier (ki) for individual items. Thus the replenishment cycle time for each product is found as T×ki. Firstly, based on data, a comparison between currently prevailing (individual) process and RAND is provided that uses the actual demands which presents 49% improvement in total cost of replenishment. Secondly, discrepancies in demand is corrected by using Holt's method. However, demands can only be forecasted one or two months into the future because of the demand pattern of the industry under consideration. Evidently, application of RAND with corrected demand display even greater improvement. The results of this study demonstrates that cost of replenishment can be significantly reduced by applying RAND algorithm and exponential smoothing models.

  11. Systems approach for design control at Monitored Retrievable Storage Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, P.N.; Williams, J.R.

    1994-01-01

    This paper describes the systems approach in establishing design control for the Monitored Retrievable Storage Project design development. Key elements in design control are enumerated and systems engineering aspects are detailed. Application of lessons learned from the Yucca Mountain Project experience is addressed. An integrated approach combining quality assurance and systems engineering requirements is suggested to practice effective design control

  12. Reconciling estimates of the contemporary North American carbon balance among terrestrial biosphere models, atmospheric inversions, and a new approach for estimating net ecosystem exchange from inventory-based data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel J. Hayes; David P. Turner; Graham Stinson; A. David Mcguire; Yaxing Wei; Tristram O. West; Linda S. Heath; Bernardus Dejong; Brian G. McConkey; Richard A. Birdsey; Werner A. Kurz; Andrew R. Jacobson; Deborah N. Huntzinger; Yude Pan; W. Mac Post; Robert B. Cook

    2012-01-01

    We develop an approach for estimating net ecosystem exchange (NEE) using inventory-based information over North America (NA) for a recent 7-year period (ca. 2000-2006). The approach notably retains information on the spatial distribution of NEE, or the vertical exchange between land and atmosphere of all non-fossil fuel sources and sinks of CO2,...

  13. A recommended approach to the National Pollutant Release Inventory (NPRI) for the upstream oil and gas industry : 2002 : CAC emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-04-01

    The National Pollutant Release Inventory (NPRI) is a database of annual releases to air, water, land and off-site transfers of 273 specified pollutants. Environment Canada requires that the NPRI be reported annually. Criteria Air Contaminants (CAC) had to be reported for the first time in 2002. Air pollutants that contribute to the formation of ground level ozone and smog are included in the definition of CAC, along with any eye or respiratory irritants to both humans and animals. The substances of special interest to the petroleum industry are: oxides of nitrogen, sulphur dioxide, carbon monoxide, volatile organic compounds, total particulate matter, and particulate matters. This guide is intended to provide member companies of Canadian Association of Petroleum Producers (CAPP), operating upstream oil and gas facilities, with readily available data to determine the amount of CAC emissions released from their processes and equipment. Companies using these guidelines will be able to compare the performance of various upstream oil and gas companies more readily because the data is consistent. The scope of the project was described in section 1, and the sources of CAC emissions were identified in section 2. The reporting threshold was discussed in section 3. Data required for collection was outlined in section 4. Section 5 outlines how CAC emission quantities are determined. Calculation examples were provided in section 6 and definitions provided in section 7. 11 tabs., 1 fig

  14. Cross-Cultural Invariance of the Mental Toughness Inventory Among Australian, Chinese, and Malaysian Athletes: A Bayesian Estimation Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gucciardi, Daniel F; Zhang, Chun-Qing; Ponnusamy, Vellapandian; Si, Gangyan; Stenling, Andreas

    2016-04-01

    The aims of this study were to assess the cross-cultural invariance of athletes' self-reports of mental toughness and to introduce and illustrate the application of approximate measurement invariance using Bayesian estimation for sport and exercise psychology scholars. Athletes from Australia (n = 353, Mage = 19.13, SD = 3.27, men = 161), China (n = 254, Mage = 17.82, SD = 2.28, men = 138), and Malaysia (n = 341, Mage = 19.13, SD = 3.27, men = 200) provided a cross-sectional snapshot of their mental toughness. The cross-cultural invariance of the mental toughness inventory in terms of (a) the factor structure (configural invariance), (b) factor loadings (metric invariance), and (c) item intercepts (scalar invariance) was tested using an approximate measurement framework with Bayesian estimation. Results indicated that approximate metric and scalar invariance was established. From a methodological standpoint, this study demonstrated the usefulness and flexibility of Bayesian estimation for single-sample and multigroup analyses of measurement instruments. Substantively, the current findings suggest that the measurement of mental toughness requires cultural adjustments to better capture the contextually salient (emic) aspects of this concept.

  15. Access control, security, and trust a logical approach

    CERN Document Server

    Chin, Shiu-Kai

    2010-01-01

    Access Control, Security, Trust, and Logic Deconstructing Access Control Decisions A Logical Approach to Access Control PRELIMINARIES A Language for Access ControlSets and Relations Syntax SemanticsReasoning about Access Control Logical RulesFormal Proofs and Theorems Soundness of Logical RulesBasic Concepts Reference Monitors Access Control Mechanisms: Tickets and Lists Authentication Security PoliciesConfidentiality, Integrity, and Availability Discretionary Security Policies Mandatory Security Policies Military Security Policies Commercial PoliciesDISTRIBUTED ACCESS CONTROL Digital Authenti

  16. Configurations of Control: A Transaction Cost Approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R.F. Speklé (Roland)

    2003-01-01

    textabstractIn this paper, I present a theory of management control based on Transaction Cost Economics. This theory seeks to integrate into a single framework a set of insights as to the nature of the organization's activities, the control problems that are inherent in these activities, and the

  17. DEVELOPMENT OF A SPREADSHEET BASED VENDOR MANAGED INVENTORY MODEL FOR A SINGLE ECHELON SUPPLY CHAIN: A CASE STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karanam Prahlada Rao

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Vendor managed inventory (VMI is a supply chain initiative where the supplier assumes the responsibility for managing inventories using advanced communication means such as online messaging and data retrieval system. A well collaborated vendor manage inventory system can improve supply chain performance by decreasing the inventory level and increasing the fill rate. This paper investigates the implementation of vendor managed inventory systems in a consumer goods industry. We consider (r, Q policy for replenishing its inventory. The objective of work is to minimize the inventory across the supply chain and maximize the service level. The major contribution of this work is to develop a spreadsheet model for VMI system, Evaluation of Total inventory cost by using spreadsheet based method and Analytical method, Quantifying inventory reduction, Estimating service efficiency level, and validating the VMI spread sheet model with randomly generated demand. In the application, VMI as an inventory control system is able to reduce the inventory cost without sacrificing the service level. The results further more show that the inventory reduction obtained from analytical method is closer to the spread sheet based approach, which reveals the VMI success. However the VMI success is impacted by the quality of buyersupplier relationships, the quality of the IT system and the intensity of information sharing, but not by the quality of information shared.

  18. Optimising multi-product multi-chance-constraint inventory control system with stochastic period lengths and total discount under fuzzy purchasing price and holding costs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allah Taleizadeh, Ata; Niaki, Seyed Taghi Akhavan; Aryanezhad, Mir-Bahador

    2010-10-01

    While the usual assumptions in multi-periodic inventory control problems are that the orders are placed at the beginning of each period (periodic review) or depending on the inventory level they can happen at any time (continuous review), in this article, we relax these assumptions and assume that the periods between two replenishments of the products are independent and identically distributed random variables. Furthermore, assuming that the purchasing price are triangular fuzzy variables, the quantities of the orders are of integer-type and that there are space and service level constraints, total discount are considered to purchase products and a combination of back-order and lost-sales are taken into account for the shortages. We show that the model of this problem is a fuzzy mixed-integer nonlinear programming type and in order to solve it, a hybrid meta-heuristic intelligent algorithm is proposed. At the end, a numerical example is given to demonstrate the applicability of the proposed methodology and to compare its performance with one of the existing algorithms in real world inventory control problems.

  19. Inventory Abstraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leigh, C.

    2000-01-01

    The purpose of the inventory abstraction as directed by the development plan (CRWMS M and O 1999b) is to: (1) Interpret the results of a series of relative dose calculations (CRWMS M and O 1999c, 1999d). (2) Recommend, including a basis thereof, a set of radionuclides that should be modeled in the Total System Performance Assessment in Support of the Site Recommendation (TSPA-SR) and the Total System Performance Assessment in Support of the Final Environmental Impact Statement (TSPA-FEIS). (3) Provide initial radionuclide inventories for the TSPA-SR and TSPA-FEIS models. (4) Answer the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC)'s Issue Resolution Status Report ''Key Technical Issue: Container Life and Source Term'' (CLST IRSR) (NRC 1999) key technical issue (KTI): ''The rate at which radionuclides in SNF [Spent Nuclear Fuel] are released from the EBS [Engineered Barrier System] through the oxidation and dissolution of spent fuel'' (Subissue 3). The scope of the radionuclide screening analysis encompasses the period from 100 years to 10,000 years after the potential repository at Yucca Mountain is sealed for scenarios involving the breach of a waste package and subsequent degradation of the waste form as required for the TSPA-SR calculations. By extending the time period considered to one million years after repository closure, recommendations are made for the TSPA-FEIS. The waste forms included in the inventory abstraction are Commercial Spent Nuclear Fuel (CSNF), DOE Spent Nuclear Fuel (DSNF), High-Level Waste (HLW), naval Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF), and U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) plutonium waste. The intended use of this analysis is in TSPA-SR and TSPA-FEIS. Based on the recommendations made here, models for release, transport, and possibly exposure will be developed for the isotopes that would be the highest contributors to the dose given a release to the accessible environment. The inventory abstraction is important in assessing system performance because

  20. INVENTORY ABSTRACTION

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ragan, G.

    2001-01-01

    The purpose of the inventory abstraction, which has been prepared in accordance with a technical work plan (CRWMS M andO 2000e for/ICN--02 of the present analysis, and BSC 2001e for ICN 03 of the present analysis), is to: (1) Interpret the results of a series of relative dose calculations (CRWMS M andO 2000c, 2000f). (2) Recommend, including a basis thereof, a set of radionuclides that should be modeled in the Total System Performance Assessment in Support of the Site Recommendation (TSPA-SR) and the Total System Performance Assessment in Support of the Final Environmental Impact Statement (TSPA-FEIS). (3) Provide initial radionuclide inventories for the TSPA-SR and TSPA-FEIS models. (4) Answer the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC)'s Issue Resolution Status Report ''Key Technical Issue: Container Life and Source Term'' (CLST IRSR) key technical issue (KTI): ''The rate at which radionuclides in SNF [spent nuclear fuel] are released from the EBS [engineered barrier system] through the oxidation and dissolution of spent fuel'' (NRC 1999, Subissue 3). The scope of the radionuclide screening analysis encompasses the period from 100 years to 10,000 years after the potential repository at Yucca Mountain is sealed for scenarios involving the breach of a waste package and subsequent degradation of the waste form as required for the TSPA-SR calculations. By extending the time period considered to one million years after repository closure, recommendations are made for the TSPA-FEIS. The waste forms included in the inventory abstraction are Commercial Spent Nuclear Fuel (CSNF), DOE Spent Nuclear Fuel (DSNF), High-Level Waste (HLW), naval Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF), and U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) plutonium waste. The intended use of this analysis is in TSPA-SR and TSPA-FEIS. Based on the recommendations made here, models for release, transport, and possibly exposure will be developed for the isotopes that would be the highest contributors to the dose given a release

  1. Improving quality of life through the routine use of the patient concerns inventory for head and neck cancer patients: a cluster preference randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, Simon N; Lowe, Derek; Lowies, Cher; Yeo, Seow Tien; Allmark, Christine; Mcavery, Dominic; Humphris, Gerald M; Flavel, Robert; Semple, Cherith; Thomas, Steven J; Kanatas, Anastasios

    2018-04-18

    The consequences of treatment for Head and Neck cancer (HNC) patients has profound detrimental impacts such as impaired QOL, emotional distress, delayed recovery and frequent use of healthcare. The aim of this trial is to determine if the routine use of the Patients Concerns Inventory (PCI) package in review clinics during the first year following treatment can improve overall quality of life, reduce the social-emotional impact of cancer and reduce levels of distress. Furthermore, we aim to describe the economic costs and benefits of using the PCI. This will be a cluster preference randomised control trial with consultants either 'using' or 'not using' the PCI package at clinic. It will involve two centres Leeds and Liverpool. 416 eligible patients from at least 10 consultant clusters are required to show a clinically meaningful difference in the primary outcome. The primary outcome is the percentage of participants with less than good overall quality of life at the final one-year clinic as measured by the University of Washington QOL questionnaire version 4 (UWQOLv4). Secondary outcomes at one-year are the mean social-emotional subscale (UWQOLv4) score, Distress Thermometer (DT) score ≥ 4, and key health economic measures (QALY-EQ-5D-5 L; CSRI). This trial will provide knowledge on the effectiveness of a consultation intervention package based around the PCI used at routine follow-up clinics following treatment of head and neck cancer with curative intent. If this intervention is (cost) effective for patients, the next step will be to promote wider use of this approach as standard care in clinical practice. 32,382. Clinical Trials Identifier, NCT03086629 . Version 3.0, 1st July 2017.

  2. Implementation Guide for Approaching Ship Floor Control

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Folz, Darrold; Diedrick, Karen

    1992-01-01

    .... Since the shipbuilding job shop environment revolves around the assembly of a single product, it is difficult to bring in "off the shelf" production control software which will speak to shipbuilding's unique needs...

  3. Sustainable malaria control: transdisciplinary approaches for translational applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    With the adoption of the Global Malaria Action Plan, several countries are moving from malaria control towards elimination and eradication. However, the sustainability of some of the approaches taken may be questionable. Here, an overview of malaria control and elimination strategies is provided and the sustainability of each in context of vector- and parasite control is assessed. From this, it can be concluded that transdisciplinary approaches are essential for sustained malaria control and elimination in malaria-endemic communities. PMID:23268712

  4. Sustainable malaria control: transdisciplinary approaches for translational applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Birkholtz Lyn-Marie

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract With the adoption of the Global Malaria Action Plan, several countries are moving from malaria control towards elimination and eradication. However, the sustainability of some of the approaches taken may be questionable. Here, an overview of malaria control and elimination strategies is provided and the sustainability of each in context of vector- and parasite control is assessed. From this, it can be concluded that transdisciplinary approaches are essential for sustained malaria control and elimination in malaria-endemic communities.

  5. 30 CFR 220.032 - Inventories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... operations. The accumulation of surplus stocks shall be avoided by proper materiel control, inventory and... physical inventory that has not been credited to NPSL operations under § 220.015(a)(2) shall be credited to... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Inventories. 220.032 Section 220.032 Mineral...

  6. Model of the impact of parameters controlling replenishment in the bs (min-max continuous review system on the actual inventory availibility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanisław Krzyżaniak

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Due to random changes in demand, inventory management is still - despite the development of alternative goods flow management concepts - an important issue both in terms of costs of maintenance and replenishment as well as the level of service measured by inventory availability levels. There are a number of replenishment systems to be used in such conditions, but they are most often formed on the basis of two basic ones: a system based on the reorder point and based on periodic inspection.  This paper refers to the former system, the BS system (min-max, in which an order is placed after reaching inventory level B (information level, reorder point for a quantity allowing to reach level S. This system is very often used in business practice. Observations conducted under realistic conditions indicate the need to improve the classical models describing the system.  This results, among other things, from the fact that the actual level of available inventory at the start of the replenishment cycle may be significantly lower than level B, resulting in lower than expected levels of customer service. Taking account of this phenomenon through model determination of the cumulative distribution function for the observed difference makes it possible to select the correct parameters to control the replenishment system in question and - therefore - to achieve the expected economic effects. Methods: The object of the study is to create a mathematical model allowing the determination of the required inventory level B taking into account the difference D between this level and the actual level of inventory at the start of the replenishment cycle.  To determine the effect of various factors such as demand distribution parameters in the adopted unit of time and the difference between level S (max and B (min, a dedicated tool (simulator in EXCEL spreadsheet for determining the distribution of frequency of value D has been developed.  Then a

  7. The behavior-analytic approach to emotional self-control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jussara Rocha Batista

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Some psychological approaches distinguish behavioral self-control from emotional self-control, the latter being approached with the reference to inside events controlled by the individual himself. This paper offers some directions to a behavior-analytic approach of what has been referred to as emotional self-control. According to Behavior Analysis, no new process is found in emotional self-control, but components that are additional to those found in behavioral self-control, which require appropriate treatment. The paper highlights some determinants of behavioral repertoires taken as instances of emotional self-control: the social context in which self-control is produced and maintained; the conflicts between consequences for the individual and for the group; and the degree of participation of the motor apparatus in the emission of emotional responses. Keywords: emotional self-control; emotional responses; inner world; behavior analysis.

  8. Controller design approach based on linear programming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Ryo; Shibasaki, Hiroki; Ogawa, Hiromitsu; Murakami, Takahiro; Ishida, Yoshihisa

    2013-11-01

    This study explains and demonstrates the design method for a control system with a load disturbance observer. Observer gains are determined by linear programming (LP) in terms of the Routh-Hurwitz stability criterion and the final-value theorem. In addition, the control model has a feedback structure, and feedback gains are determined to be the linear quadratic regulator. The simulation results confirmed that compared with the conventional method, the output estimated by our proposed method converges to a reference input faster when a load disturbance is added to a control system. In addition, we also confirmed the effectiveness of the proposed method by performing an experiment with a DC motor. © 2013 ISA. Published by ISA. All rights reserved.

  9. Optical pulse shaping approaches to coherent control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goswami, Debabrata

    2003-01-01

    The last part of the twentieth century has experienced a huge resurge of activity in the field of coherent light-matter interaction, more so in attempting to exert control over such interactions. Birth of coherent control was originally spurred by the theoretical understanding of the quantum interferences that lead to energy randomization and experimental developments in ultrafast laser spectroscopy. The theoretical predictions on control of reaction channels or energy randomization processes are still more dramatic than the experimental demonstrations, though this gap between the two is consistently reducing over the recent years with realistic theoretical models and technological developments. Experimental demonstrations of arbitrary optical pulse shaping have made some of the previously impracticable theoretical predictions possible to implement. Starting with the simple laser modulation schemes to provide proof-of-the-principle demonstrations, feedback loop pulse shaping systems have been developed that can actively manipulate some atomic and molecular processes. This tremendous experimental boost of optical pulse shaping developments has prospects and implications into many more new directions, such as quantum computing and terabit/sec data communications. This review captures certain aspects and impacts of optical pulse shaping into the fast developing areas of coherent control and other related fields. Currently available reviews focus on one or the other detailed aspects of coherent control, and the reader will be referred to such details as and when necessary for issues that are dealt in brief here. We will focus on the current issues including control of intramolecular dynamics and make connections to the future concepts, such as, quantum computation, biomedical applications, etc

  10. Statistical quality control a loss minimization approach

    CERN Document Server

    Trietsch, Dan

    1999-01-01

    While many books on quality espouse the Taguchi loss function, they do not examine its impact on statistical quality control (SQC). But using the Taguchi loss function sheds new light on questions relating to SQC and calls for some changes. This book covers SQC in a way that conforms with the need to minimize loss. Subjects often not covered elsewhere include: (i) measurements, (ii) determining how many points to sample to obtain reliable control charts (for which purpose a new graphic tool, diffidence charts, is introduced), (iii) the connection between process capability and tolerances, (iv)

  11. Speciated OVOC and VOC emission inventories and their implications for reactivity-based ozone control strategy in the Pearl River Delta region, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ou, Jiamin; Zheng, Junyu; Li, Rongrong; Huang, Xiaobo; Zhong, Zhuangmin; Zhong, Liuju; Lin, Hui

    2015-10-15

    The increasing ground-ozone (O3) levels, accompanied by decreasing SO2, NO2, PM10 and PM2.5 concentrations benefited from air pollution control measures implemented in recent years, initiated a serious challenge to control Volatile Organic Compound (VOC) emissions in the Pearl River Delta (PRD) region, China. Speciated VOC emission inventory is fundamental for estimating Ozone Formation Potentials (OFPs) to identify key reactive VOC species and sources in order to formulate efficient O3 control strategies. With the use of the latest bulk VOC emission inventory and local source profiles, this study developed the PRD regional speciated Oxygenated Volatile Organic Compound (OVOC) and VOC emission inventories to identify the key emission-based and OFP-based VOC sources and species. Results showed that: (1) Methyl alcohol, acetone and ethyl acetate were the major constituents in the OVOC emissions from industrial solvents, household solvents, architectural paints and biogenic sources; (2) from the emission-based perspective, aromatics, alkanes, OVOCs and alkenes made up 39.2%, 28.2%, 15.9% and 10.9% of anthropogenic VOCs; (3) from the OFP-based perspective, aromatics and alkenes become predominant with contributions of 59.4% and 25.8% respectively; (4) ethene, m/p-xylene, toluene, 1,2,4-trimethyl benzene and other 24 high OFP-contributing species were the key reactive species that contributed to 52% of anthropogenic emissions and up to 80% of OFPs; and (5) industrial solvents, industrial process, gasoline vehicles and motorcycles were major emission sources of these key reactive species. Policy implications for O3 control strategy were discussed. The OFP cap was proposed to regulate VOC control policies in the PRD region due to its flexibility in reducing the overall OFP of VOC emission sources in practice. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Computer science approach to quantum control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Janzing, D.

    2006-01-01

    Whereas it is obvious that every computation process is a physical process it has hardly been recognized that many complex physical processes bear similarities to computation processes. This is in particular true for the control of physical systems on the nanoscopic level: usually the system can only be accessed via a rather limited set of elementary control operations and for many purposes only a concatenation of a large number of these basic operations will implement the desired process. This concatenation is in many cases quite similar to building complex programs from elementary steps and principles for designing algorithm may thus be a paradigm for designing control processes. For instance, one can decrease the temperature of one part of a molecule by transferring its heat to the remaining part where it is then dissipated to the environment. But the implementation of such a process involves a complex sequence of electromagnetic pulses. This work considers several hypothetical control processes on the nanoscopic level and show their analogy to computation processes. We show that measuring certain types of quantum observables is such a complex task that every instrument that is able to perform it would necessarily be an extremely powerful computer. Likewise, the implementation of a heat engine on the nanoscale requires to process the heat in a way that is similar to information processing and it can be shown that heat engines with maximal efficiency would be powerful computers, too. In the same way as problems in computer science can be classified by complexity classes we can also classify control problems according to their complexity. Moreover, we directly relate these complexity classes for control problems to the classes in computer science. Unifying notions of complexity in computer science and physics has therefore two aspects: on the one hand, computer science methods help to analyze the complexity of physical processes. On the other hand, reasonable

  13. Wind Turbine Control: Robust Model Based Approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mirzaei, Mahmood

    . Wind turbines are the most common wind energy conversion systems and are hoped to be able to compete economically with fossil fuel power plants in near future. However this demands better technology to reduce the price of electricity production. Control can play an essential part in this context....... This is because, on the one hand, control methods can decrease the cost of energy by keeping the turbine close to its maximum efficiency. On the other hand, they can reduce structural fatigue and therefore increase the lifetime of the wind turbine. The power produced by a wind turbine is proportional...... to the square of its rotor radius, therefore it seems reasonable to increase the size of the wind turbine in order to capture more power. However as the size increases, the mass of the blades increases by cube of the rotor size. This means in order to keep structural feasibility and mass of the whole structure...

  14. A fatigue approach to wind turbine control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hammerum, K; Brath, P; Poulsen, N K

    2007-01-01

    Conventional design of wind turbine controllers is focused on speed and produced electric power. As fatigue loads is an important design consideration, the resulting design is evaluated also with respect to the fatigue loads inflicted on the turbine structure. This is normally done by performing simulations using tools like FLEX, HAWC or FAST, followed by rainflow counting in the resulting time series. This procedure constitutes an iterative design procedure involving realisations of the stress processes in order to obtain the time series needed for fatigue estimates. The focus of this paper is the elimination of the need for process realisation. To this end, known techniques for approximative fatigue load assesment based on the spectral moments of the inflicted stress histories are applied. Assuming a linearised system model, we present a novel scheme for efficient computation of these spectral moments. The scheme is applied to obtain rapid evaluation of cost functions including fatigue loads, hereby allowing efficient numerical optimisation of the controller. Three different controller design examples are given, all defined directly in terms of component life times

  15. A plant control system development approach for IRIS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wood, R.T.; Brittain, C.R.; March-Leuba, J.A.; Conway, L.E.; Oriani, L.

    2003-01-01

    The plant control system concept for the International Reactor Innovative and Secure (IRIS) will make use of integrated control, diagnostic, and decision modules to provide a highly automated intelligent control capability. The plant control system development approach established for IRIS involves determination and verification of control strategies based on whole-plant simulation; identification of measurement, control, and diagnostic needs; development of an architectural framework in which to integrate an intelligent plant control system; and design of the necessary control and diagnostic elements for implementation and validation. This paper describes key elements of the plant control system development approach established for IRIS and presents some of the strategies and methods investigated to support the desired control capabilities. (author)

  16. Different Approaches to Control of TISO Thermal System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaroslava KRÁLOVÁ

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The contribution is aimed on problematic of multivariable control. Multivariable system can be controlled by multivariable controller or we can use decentralized control. Control of thermal system with two inputs and one output is shown in the paper. The goal of paper is to find what sort of results we can get by classical approaches and by more sophisticated strategies. Two discrete-time PID controllers are selected as a representative of classical approach and split-range with discrete-time PID controller is selected as a representative of more sophisticated strategy. Control strategies are compared in the view of control quality and costs, information and knowledge required by control design and application.

  17. An Approach to Naval Arms Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-07-01

    commentary pro and con on the control of SLCM’s has 9 I: been uttered by people not known to be expert on maritime strategy and the roles of navies in crisis ... transcultural misunderstanding is indeed deep and widespread (e.g., witness the surprise on the part of America’s leading television pundits that China’s...force on behalf of (U.S definition of) international order in situations short of war; 0 alliance cohesion; 37 i * crisis , arms race, and political

  18. Future approaches to material control and accounting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sherr, T.S.; Smith, G.D.; Wirfs, L.F.

    1978-01-01

    This paper presents a short description of the safeguards responsibilities and activities of the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), the NRC regulatory requirements for safeguards in the area of material control and accounting (MCandA), and the current NRC efforts which may result in significant changes in the current U.S. safeguards system. The preliminary results of NRC staff and contractor MCandA activities are discussed, as well as the recommendations of a recent NRC task force on MCandA. 9 refs

  19. Distributed Secondary Control for Islanded MicroGrids – A Networked Control Systems Approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shafiee, Qobad; Vasquez, Juan Carlos; Guerrero, Josep M.

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents a novel approach to conceive the secondary control in droop-controlled MicroGrids. The conventional approach is based on restoring the frequency and amplitude deviations produced by the local droop controllers by using a MicroGrid Central Controller. A distributed networked...... control system is used in order to implement a distributed secondary control thus avoiding the use of a MicroGrid Central Control. The proposed approach is not only able to restore frequency and voltage of the MicroGrid but also ensures reactive power sharing. The distributed secondary control do...

  20. A controllability approach to the control of a class of chaotic systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bowong, Samuel; Moukam Kakmeni, F.M.; Tchawoua, Clement; Abdus Salam International Centre for Theoretical Physics, Trieste

    2003-10-01

    In this paper the exponential control problem for a class of chaotic systems with affine dependence on the control is addressed and solved by the controllability approach. It is shown that the controllability approach in conjunction with Lyapunov Direct Method yields a promising way of controlling chaotic dynamics. The proposed strategy is an input-output control scheme which comprises a state estimator and an exponential linearizing feedback. The proposed output feedback controller allows chaos suppression and can be applied to a large class of chaotic systems. Explicit expression of the control time is given. Computer simulations confirm the feasibility of the proposed approach. (author)

  1. Tuberculosis control in the Americas: current approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pio, A; Western, K

    1976-01-01

    Tuberculosi remains a serious public health problem in the Americas, and it has not declined as rapidly or as much as experts projected it would in the 1940's. Scientific advances in control of the disease over the last three decades have produced effective chemotherapeutic agents, established the immunizing capacity of BCG vaccine, and demonstrated the superior value of bacteriologic diagnosis in symptomatic individuals over mass community x-ray surveys, which are both inefficient and costly. They have also shown that most cases can be treated on an ambulatory basis, obviating the need for the lengthy hospital stays which have heretofore weighed so heavily on budgets. By standardization of control methods, both for diagnosis and for chemotherapy, these tasks can be taken on by polyvalent staff in the general health services, whose wide coverage places them in a position to reach a much larger segment of the population than that attended by the traditional vertical system. To a greater or lesser degree, all the countries in the Americas are beginning to orient their strategies in this direction, and some of them already have considerable progress to report.

  2. Artificial intelligence approach to accelerator control systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schultz, D.E.; Hurd, J.W.; Brown, S.K.

    1987-01-01

    An experiment was recently started at LAMPF to evaluate the power and limitations of using artificial intelligence techniques to solve problems in accelerator control and operation. A knowledge base was developed to describe the characteristics and the relationships of the first 30 devices in the LAMPF H+ beam line. Each device was categorized and pertinent attributes for each category defined. Specific values were assigned in the knowledge base to represent each actual device. Relationships between devices are modeled using the artificial intelligence techniques of rules, active values, and object-oriented methods. This symbolic model, built using the Knowledge Engineering Environment (KEE) system, provides a framework for analyzing faults, tutoring trainee operators, and offering suggestions to assist in beam tuning. Based on information provided by the domain expert responsible for tuning this portion of the beam line, additional rules were written to describe how he tunes, how he analyzes what is actually happening, and how he deals with failures. Initial results have shown that artificial intelligence techniques can be a useful adjunct to traditional methods of numerical simulation. Successful and efficient operation of future accelerators may depend on the proper merging of symbolic reasoning and conventional numerical control algorithms

  3. Application of stochastic approach based on Monte Carlo (MC) simulation for life cycle inventory (LCI) to the steel process chain: case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bieda, Bogusław

    2014-05-15

    The purpose of the paper is to present the results of application of stochastic approach based on Monte Carlo (MC) simulation for life cycle inventory (LCI) data of Mittal Steel Poland (MSP) complex in Kraków, Poland. In order to assess the uncertainty, the software CrystalBall® (CB), which is associated with Microsoft® Excel spreadsheet model, is used. The framework of the study was originally carried out for 2005. The total production of steel, coke, pig iron, sinter, slabs from continuous steel casting (CSC), sheets from hot rolling mill (HRM) and blast furnace gas, collected in 2005 from MSP was analyzed and used for MC simulation of the LCI model. In order to describe random nature of all main products used in this study, normal distribution has been applied. The results of the simulation (10,000 trials) performed with the use of CB consist of frequency charts and statistical reports. The results of this study can be used as the first step in performing a full LCA analysis in the steel industry. Further, it is concluded that the stochastic approach is a powerful method for quantifying parameter uncertainty in LCA/LCI studies and it can be applied to any steel industry. The results obtained from this study can help practitioners and decision-makers in the steel production management. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Multiple Model Approaches to Modelling and Control,

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    on the ease with which prior knowledge can be incorporated. It is interesting to note that researchers in Control Theory, Neural Networks,Statistics, Artificial Intelligence and Fuzzy Logic have more or less independently developed very similar modelling methods, calling them Local ModelNetworks, Operating......, and allows direct incorporation of high-level and qualitative plant knowledge into themodel. These advantages have proven to be very appealing for industrial applications, and the practical, intuitively appealing nature of the framework isdemonstrated in chapters describing applications of local methods...... to problems in the process industries, biomedical applications and autonomoussystems. The successful application of the ideas to demanding problems is already encouraging, but creative development of the basic framework isneeded to better allow the integration of human knowledge with automated learning...

  5. Innovation of the Process of Inventorying of the Selected Transport Units: Case Study in the Automotive Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chocholáč Jan

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available In the current situation, highly competitive time when the emphasis is on shortening delivery schedules, streamlining the production cycle and, ultimately, reducing the total cost businesses are forced to optimizations and innovations. The article deals with the inventory of the selected transport units in warehouses. The inventory is currently being carried out through manual labor of employees. This paper proposes a possible implementation of new and innovative approach to inventory control, with the help of an automated inventory realized by the drones.

  6. Glucose control and cardiovascular outcomes: Reorienting approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romesh eKhardori

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Cardiovascular disease accounts for nearly 70 % of morbidity and mortality in patients with diabetes mellitus. Strides made in diabetes care have indeed helped prevent or reduce the burden of microvascular complications in both type-1 and type-2 diabetes. However, the same can’t be said about macrovascular disease in diabetes. Several prospective trials so far have failed to provide conclusive evidence of glycemic control superiority in reducing macrovascular complications or death rate in people with advanced disease or those with long duration of diabetes. There are trends that suggest that benefits are restricted to those with lesser burden and shorter duration of disease. Furthermore, it is also suggested that benefits might accrue but it would take longer time to manifest. Clinicians are fraught with challenge to decide how to triage patients for intensified care versus less intense care. This review focusses on evidence and attempts to provide a balanced view of literature that has radically affected how physicians treat patients with macrovascular disease. It also takes cognizance of the fact that natural course of disease may be changing as well possibly related to better overall awareness and possibly improved access to information about better individual healthcare. The review further takes note of some hard held notions about pathobiology of disease that must be interpreted with caution in light of new emerging data. In light of recent developments ADA and EASD have taken step to provide some guidance to clinicians through a joint position statement. A lot more research would be required to figure out how best to manage macrovascular disease in diabetes mellitus. Glucocentric stance would have to yield to evidence based, and possibly, concurrent multifactorial intervention to enhance quality of care that is safe and effective.

  7. Glucose control and cardiovascular outcomes: reorienting approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khardori, Romesh; Nguyen, Diep D

    2012-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease accounts for nearly 70% of morbidity and mortality in patients with diabetes mellitus. Strides made in diabetes care have indeed helped prevent or reduce the burden of microvascular complications in both type 1 and type 2 diabetes. However, the same cannot be said about macrovascular disease in diabetes. Several prospective trials so far have failed to provide conclusive evidence of the superiority of glycemic control in reducing macrovascular complications or death rates in people with advanced disease or those with long duration of diabetes. There are trends that suggest that benefits are restricted to those with lesser burden and shorter duration of disease. Furthermore, it is also suggested that benefits might accrue but it would take a longer time to manifest. Clinicians are faced with the challenge to decide how to triage patients for intensified care vs less intense care. This review focuses on evidence and attempts to provide a balanced view of the literature that has radically affected how physicians treat patients with macrovascular disease. It also takes cognizance of the fact that the natural course of the disease may be changing as well, possibly related to better overall awareness and possibly improved access to information about better individual healthcare. The review further takes note of some hard held notions about the pathobiology of the disease that must be interpreted with caution in light of new and emerging data. In light of recent developments ADA and EASD have taken step to provide some guidance to clinicians through a joint position statement. A lot more research would be required to figure out how best to manage macrovascular disease in diabetes mellitus. Glucocentric stance would need to be reconsidered, and attention paid to concurrent multifactorial interventions that seem to be effective in reducing vascular outcomes.

  8. Validation of the Inventory of Interpersonal Problems (IIP-64): a comparison of Swedish female outpatients with anorexia nervosa or bulimia nervosa and controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindberg, Karolin; Nevonen, Lauri; Gustafsson, Sanna Aila; Nyman-Carlsson, Erika; Norring, Claes

    2018-04-27

    The aim of the study was to explore the psychometric properties of the Inventory of Interpersonal Problems (IIP-64) and to compare levels of interpersonal distress in Swedish female outpatients with anorexia nervosa or bulimia nervosa with age- and gender-matched controls. Totally, 401 participants were included; anorexia nervosa (n = 74), bulimia nervosa (n = 85) and controls (n = 242). All participants completed the IIP-64. The eating disorder (ED) patients also filled out the Eating Disorder Inventory-2/3 (EDI). Internal consistency of IIP-64 was acceptable to high. Principal component analyses with varimax rotation of the IIP-64 subscales confirmed the circumplex structure with two underlying orthogonal dimensions; affiliation and dominance. Significant correlations between EDI-3 composite scales ineffectiveness and interpersonal problems and IIP-64 were found. ED patients reported higher levels of interpersonal distress than controls on all but one subscale (intrusive/needy). IIP-64 can be considered to have acceptable to good reliability and validity in a Swedish ED sample. IIP-64 can be a useful complement in assessment of interpersonal problems in ED.

  9. Mechanical systems a unified approach to vibrations and controls

    CERN Document Server

    Gans, Roger F

    2015-01-01

    This essential textbook covers analysis and control of engineering mechanisms, which include almost any apparatus with moving parts used in daily life, from musical instruments to robots. The text  presents both vibrations and controls with considerable breadth and depth using a unified notation. It strikes a nice balance between the analytical and the practical.  This text contains enough material for a two semester sequence, but it can also be used in a single semester course combining the two topics. Mechanical Systems: A Unified Approach to Vibrations and Controls presents a common notation and approach to these closely related areas. Examples from the both vibrations and controls components are integrated throughout this text. This book also: ·         Presents a unified approach to vibrations and controls, including an excellent diagram that simultaneously discusses embedding classical vibrations (mechanical systems) in a discussion of models, inverse models, and open and closed loop control ...

  10. A multiparameter chaos control method based on OGY approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Souza de Paula, Aline; Amorim Savi, Marcelo

    2009-01-01

    Chaos control is based on the richness of responses of chaotic behavior and may be understood as the use of tiny perturbations for the stabilization of a UPO embedded in a chaotic attractor. Since one of these UPO can provide better performance than others in a particular situation the use of chaos control can make this kind of behavior to be desirable in a variety of applications. The OGY method is a discrete technique that considers small perturbations promoted in the neighborhood of the desired orbit when the trajectory crosses a specific surface, such as a Poincare section. This contribution proposes a multiparameter semi-continuous method based on OGY approach in order to control chaotic behavior. Two different approaches are possible with this method: coupled approach, where all control parameters influences system dynamics although they are not active; and uncoupled approach that is a particular case where control parameters return to the reference value when they become passive parameters. As an application of the general formulation, it is investigated a two-parameter actuation of a nonlinear pendulum control employing coupled and uncoupled approaches. Analyses are carried out considering signals that are generated by numerical integration of the mathematical model using experimentally identified parameters. Results show that the procedure can be a good alternative for chaos control since it provides a more effective UPO stabilization than the classical single-parameter approach.

  11. A periodic review integrated inventory model with controllable setup cost, imperfect items, and inspection errors under service level constraint

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saga, R. S.; Jauhari, W. A.; Laksono, P. W.

    2017-11-01

    This paper presents an integrated inventory model which consists of single vendor and buyer. The buyer managed its inventory periodically and orders products from the vendor to satisfy the end customer’s demand, where the annual demand and the ordering cost were in the fuzzy environment. The buyer used a service level constraint instead of the stock-out cost term, so that the stock-out level per cycle was bounded. Then, the vendor produced and delivered products to the buyer. The vendor had a choice to commit an investment to reduce the setup cost. However, the vendor’s production process was imperfect, thus the lot delivered contained some defective products. Moreover, the buyer’s inspection process was not error-free since the inspector could be mistaken in categorizing the product’s quality. The objective was to find the optimum value for the review period, the setup cost, and the number of deliveries in one production cycle which might minimize the joint total cost. Furthermore, the algorithm and numerical example were provided to illustrate the application of the model.

  12. Multi-echelon, multi-indenture spare parts inventory control subject to system availability and budget constraints

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Costantino, Francesco; Di Gravio, Giulio; Tronci, Massimo

    2013-01-01

    Inventory management of spare parts is one of the most critical issues in the aeronautical industry, given the required level of system availability related to the strategic importance and high stocking costs of the components. Even if a large number of spare parts increases warehousing costs, every single shortage have a greater impact: the adoption of best-in-class inventory management techniques becomes crucial. On these considerations, the paper presents an innovative model of spare parts allocation for the Italian Air Force with the aim of minimizing backorders and, at the same time, ensuring an availability of 99% depending on the actual flight plan. The model, solved by a marginal analysis, considers an original configuration of features combining different skills of maintenance centers in a hierarchical multi-echelon, multi-item, multi-indenture structure. A real case is provided in order to analyze the solving method and the results. -- Highlights: •We studied a problem of allocations for spare parts of aeronautical systems. •The model presents different repair capabilities of maintenance centers. •The model fits constraints on budget and on total operational availability. •The model is solved by a marginal analysis with a backorder/price ratio. •A numerical example shows a spare parts allocation with relative considerations

  13. Two models of inventory control with supplier selection in case of multiple sourcing: a case of Isfahan Steel Company

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabieh, Masood; Soukhakian, Mohammad Ali; Mosleh Shirazi, Ali Naghi

    2016-06-01

    Selecting the best suppliers is crucial for a company's success. Since competition is a determining factor nowadays, reducing cost and increasing quality of products are two key criteria for appropriate supplier selection. In the study, first the inventories of agglomeration plant of Isfahan Steel Company were categorized through VED and ABC methods. Then the models to supply two important kinds of raw materials (inventories) were developed, considering the following items: (1) the optimal consumption composite of the materials, (2) the total cost of logistics, (3) each supplier's terms and conditions, (4) the buyer's limitations and (5) the consumption behavior of the buyers. Among diverse developed and tested models—using the company's actual data within three pervious years—the two new innovative models of mixed-integer non-linear programming type were found to be most suitable. The results of solving two models by lingo software (based on company's data in this particular case) were equaled. Comparing the results of the new models to the actual performance of the company revealed 10.9 and 7.1 % reduction in total procurement costs of the company in two consecutive years.

  14. Controle de estoque de peças de reposição em local único: uma revisão da literatura Single location spare parts inventory control: the state of the art

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Roberto do Rego

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Estoques de peças de reposição atendem necessidades de manutenção e reparo de produtos de consumo, veículos, máquinas e equipamentos industriais, acarretando frequentemente altos custos de capital e forte impacto no nível de serviço aos clientes. A grande multiplicidade de componentes, com ciclos de vida mais curtos e baixas demandas dificultam a gestão destes estoques. Este artigo apresenta revisão da literatura sobre modelos de controle de estoques de peças de reposição em local único, abordando tanto a previsão de demanda quanto o controle de estoques nos diferentes estágios do ciclo de vida das peças. A partir do levantamento bibliográfico, identificam-se algumas lacunas referentes à decisão de estocagem ou não de um item, elaboração de pedidos iniciais e finais, na integração de modelos de previsão de demanda com o controle de estoque e também de estudos de caso na aplicação prática dos modelos.Spare parts inventory are needed for maintenance and repair of final products, vehicles, industrial machines and equipments, frequently requiring high investments and significantly affecting customer satisfaction. Inventory management is complex due to the large number of different items and low demands. This article presents a literature review on single location spare parts inventory control, embracing both demand forecasting techniques and inventory control decisions on the different life cycle stages. Overall, the literature review identified the following research opportunities on inventory management: criteria to decide to stock or not an item, how many to order in the first and the last batch, demand forecasting and inventory control models integration and case studies on real applications.

  15. Dynamics and control of quadcopter using linear model predictive control approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, M.; Okasha, M.; Idres, M. M.

    2017-12-01

    This paper investigates the dynamics and control of a quadcopter using the Model Predictive Control (MPC) approach. The dynamic model is of high fidelity and nonlinear, with six degrees of freedom that include disturbances and model uncertainties. The control approach is developed based on MPC to track different reference trajectories ranging from simple ones such as circular to complex helical trajectories. In this control technique, a linearized model is derived and the receding horizon method is applied to generate the optimal control sequence. Although MPC is computer expensive, it is highly effective to deal with the different types of nonlinearities and constraints such as actuators’ saturation and model uncertainties. The MPC parameters (control and prediction horizons) are selected by trial-and-error approach. Several simulation scenarios are performed to examine and evaluate the performance of the proposed control approach using MATLAB and Simulink environment. Simulation results show that this control approach is highly effective to track a given reference trajectory.

  16. The control-of-consumption approach to alcohol abuse prevention

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ravn, Ib

    1987-01-01

    The single-distribution theory of alcohol consumption and the derived prevention strategy, the control-of-consumption approach, are conceptualized as three probabilistic relationships between four variables, collectively called "the Ledermann string": availability, average consumption, proportion...

  17. Two-process approach to electron beam welding control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lastovirya, V.N.

    1987-01-01

    The analysis and synthesis of multi-dimensional welding control systems, which require the usage of computers, should be conducted within the temporal range. From the general control theory point two approaches - one-process and two-process - are possible to electron beam welding. In case of two-process approach, subprocesses of heat source formation and direct metal melting are separated. Two-process approach leads to two-profile control system and provides the complete controlability of electron beam welding within the frameworks of systems with concentrated, as well as, with distributed parameters. Approach choice for the given problem solution is determined, first of all, by stability degree of heat source during welding

  18. A theoretical approach on controlling agricultural pest by biological controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mondal, Prasanta Kumar; Jana, Soovoojeet; Kar, T K

    2014-03-01

    In this paper we propose and analyze a prey-predator type dynamical system for pest control where prey population is treated as the pest. We consider two classes for the pest namely susceptible pest and infected pest and the predator population is the natural enemy of the pest. We also consider average delay for both the predation rate i.e. predation to the susceptible pest and infected pest. Considering a subsystem of original system in the absence of infection, we analyze the existence of all possible non-negative equilibria and their stability criteria for both the subsystem as well as the original system. We present the conditions for transcritical bifurcation and Hopf bifurcation in the disease free system. The theoretical evaluations are demonstrated through numerical simulations.

  19. A "Hybrid" Approach for Synthesizing Optimal Controllers of Hybrid Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhao, Hengjun; Zhan, Naijun; Kapur, Deepak

    2012-01-01

    to discretization manageable and within bounds. A major advantage of our approach is not only that it avoids errors due to numerical computation, but it also gives a better optimal controller. In order to illustrate our approach, we use the real industrial example of an oil pump provided by the German company HYDAC...

  20. An approach of partial control design for system control and synchronization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu Wuhua; Wang Jiang; Li Xiumin

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, a general approach of partial control design for system control and synchronization is proposed. It turns control problems into simpler ones by reducing their control variables. This is realized by utilizing the dynamical relations between variables, which are described by the dynamical relation matrix and the dependence-influence matrix. By adopting partial control theory, the presented approach provides a simple and general way to stabilize systems to their partial or whole equilibriums, or to synchronize systems with their partial or whole states. Further, based on this approach, the controllers can be simplified. Two examples of synchronizing chaotic systems are given to illustrate its effectiveness.

  1. Reliability and Construct Validity of the Psychopathic Personality Inventory-Revised in a Swedish Non-Criminal Sample - A Multimethod Approach including Psychophysiological Correlates of Empathy for Pain.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karolina Sörman

    Full Text Available Cross-cultural investigation of psychopathy measures is important for clarifying the nomological network surrounding the psychopathy construct. The Psychopathic Personality Inventory-Revised (PPI-R is one of the most extensively researched self-report measures of psychopathic traits in adults. To date however, it has been examined primarily in North American criminal or student samples. To address this gap in the literature, we examined PPI-R's reliability, construct validity and factor structure in non-criminal individuals (N = 227 in Sweden, using a multimethod approach including psychophysiological correlates of empathy for pain. PPI-R construct validity was investigated in subgroups of participants by exploring its degree of overlap with (i the Psychopathy Checklist: Screening Version (PCL:SV, (ii self-rated empathy and behavioral and physiological responses in an experiment on empathy for pain, and (iii additional self-report measures of alexithymia and trait anxiety. The PPI-R total score was significantly associated with PCL:SV total and factor scores. The PPI-R Coldheartedness scale demonstrated significant negative associations with all empathy subscales and with rated unpleasantness and skin conductance responses in the empathy experiment. The PPI-R higher order Self-Centered Impulsivity and Fearless Dominance dimensions were associated with trait anxiety in opposite directions (positively and negatively, respectively. Overall, the results demonstrated solid reliability (test-retest and internal consistency and promising but somewhat mixed construct validity for the Swedish translation of the PPI-R.

  2. 7 CFR 930.57 - Secondary inventory reserve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... shall retain control over the release of any cherries from the secondary inventory reserve. No cherries... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Secondary inventory reserve. 930.57 Section 930.57... Handling Regulations § 930.57 Secondary inventory reserve. (a) In the event the inventory reserve...

  3. Assessing the Approaches to Classification of the State Financial Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baraniuk Yurii R.

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The article is aimed at assessing the approaches to classification of the State financial control, as well as disclosing the relationship and differences between its forms, types and methods. The results of comparative analysis of existing classifications of the State financial control have been covered. The substantiation of its identification by forms, types and methods of control was explored. Clarification of the interpretation of the concepts of «form of control», «type of control», «subtype of control», «method of control», «methodical reception of control» has been provided. It has been determined that the form of the State financial control is a manifestation of the internal organization of control and the methods of its carrying out; a model of classification of the State financial control has been substantiated; attributes of the first and second order have been allocated; substantiation of methods and techniques has been improved; their composition and structure have been identified. This approach allows to divide general questions of the State financial control into theoretical and practical and, taking into consideration the expansion of the list of objects of the State financial control, will help to improve its methodology.

  4. A layered and distributed approach to platform systems control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Neef, R.M.; Lieburg, A. van; Gosliga, S.P. van; Gillis, M.P.W.

    2003-01-01

    With the increasing complexity of platform systems and the ongoing demand for reduced manning comes the need for novel approaches to ship control systems. Current control and management systems fall short on maintainability, robustness and scalability. From the operator's perspective information

  5. Formation control of unicycle robots using virtual structure approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sadowska, A.D.; Huijberts, H.J.C.; Kostic, D.; Wouw, van de N.; Nijmeijer, H.

    2011-01-01

    This paper addresses the problem of formation control of groups of unicycle robots with possibly time-varying formation shapes. To solve the problem, we propose two simple distributed formation control algorithms based on the virtual structure approach. We prove exponential convergence of error

  6. Evaluation of pull production control strategies under uncertainty: An integrated fuzzy AHP-TOPSIS approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aydin Torkabadi

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Just-In-Time (JIT production has continuously been considered by industrial practitioners and researchers as a leading strategy for the yet popular Lean production. Pull Production Control Policies (PPCPs are the major enablers of JIT that locally control the level of inventory by authorizing the production in each station. Aiming to improve the PPCPs, three authorization mechanisms: Kanban, constant-work-in-process (ConWIP, and a hybrid system, are evaluated by considering uncertainty. Design/methodology/approach: Multi-Criteria Decision Making (MCDM methods are successful in evaluating alternatives with respect to several objectives. The proposed approach of this study applies the fuzzy set theory together with an integrated Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP and a Technique for Order Performance by Similarity to Ideal Solution (TOPSIS method. Findings: The study finds that hybrid Kanban-ConWIP pull production control policies have a better performance in controlling the studied multi-layer multi-stage manufacturing and assembly system. Practical implications: To examine the approach a real case from automobile electro mechanical part production industry is studied. The production system consists of multiple levels of manufacturing, feeding a multi-stage assembly line with stochastic processing times to satisfy the changing demand. Originality/value: This study proposes the integrated Kanban-ConWIP hybrid pull control policies and implements several alternatives on a multi-stage and multi-layer manufacturing and assembly production system. An integrated Fuzzy AHP TOPSIS method is developed to evaluate the alternatives with respect to several JIT criteria.

  7. Application of stochastic approach based on Monte Carlo (MC) simulation for life cycle inventory (LCI) to the steel process chain: Case study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bieda, Bogusław

    2014-05-01

    The purpose of the paper is to present the results of application of stochastic approach based on Monte Carlo (MC) simulation for life cycle inventory (LCI) data of Mittal Steel Poland (MSP) complex in Kraków, Poland. In order to assess the uncertainty, the software CrystalBall® (CB), which is associated with Microsoft® Excel spreadsheet model, is used. The framework of the study was originally carried out for 2005. The total production of steel, coke, pig iron, sinter, slabs from continuous steel casting (CSC), sheets from hot rolling mill (HRM) and blast furnace gas, collected in 2005 from MSP was analyzed and used for MC simulation of the LCI model. In order to describe random nature of all main products used in this study, normal distribution has been applied. The results of the simulation (10,000 trials) performed with the use of CB consist of frequency charts and statistical reports. The results of this study can be used as the first step in performing a full LCA analysis in the steel industry. Further, it is concluded that the stochastic approach is a powerful method for quantifying parameter uncertainty in LCA/LCI studies and it can be applied to any steel industry. The results obtained from this study can help practitioners and decision-makers in the steel production management. - Highlights: • The benefits of Monte Carlo simulation are examined. • The normal probability distribution is studied. • LCI data on Mittal Steel Poland (MSP) complex in Kraków, Poland dates back to 2005. • This is the first assessment of the LCI uncertainties in the Polish steel industry.

  8. A control approach for plasma density in tokamak machines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boncagni, Luca, E-mail: luca.boncagni@enea.it [EURATOM – ENEA Fusion Association, Frascati Research Center, Division of Fusion Physics, Rome, Frascati (Italy); Pucci, Daniele; Piesco, F.; Zarfati, Emanuele [Dipartimento di Ingegneria Informatica, Automatica e Gestionale ' ' Antonio Ruberti' ' , Sapienza Università di Roma (Italy); Mazzitelli, G. [EURATOM – ENEA Fusion Association, Frascati Research Center, Division of Fusion Physics, Rome, Frascati (Italy); Monaco, S. [Dipartimento di Ingegneria Informatica, Automatica e Gestionale ' ' Antonio Ruberti' ' , Sapienza Università di Roma (Italy)

    2013-10-15

    Highlights: •We show a control approach for line plasma density in tokamak. •We show a control approach for pressure in a tokamak chamber. •We show experimental results using one valve. -- Abstract: In tokamak machines, chamber pre-fill is crucial to attain plasma breakdown, while plasma density control is instrumental for several tasks such as machine protection and achievement of desired plasma performances. This paper sets the principles of a new control strategy for attaining both chamber pre-fill and plasma density regulation. Assuming that the actuation mean is a piezoelectric valve driven by a varying voltage, the proposed control laws ensure convergence to reference values of chamber pressure during pre-fill, and of plasma density during plasma discharge. Experimental results at FTU are presented to discuss weaknesses and strengths of the proposed control strategy. The whole system has been implemented by using the MARTe framework [1].

  9. An Adaptive Speed Control Approach for DC Shunt Motors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruben Tapia-Olvera

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available A B-spline neural networks-based adaptive control technique for angular speed reference trajectory tracking tasks with highly efficient performance for direct current shunt motors is proposed. A methodology for adaptive control and its proper training procedure are introduced. This algorithm sets the control signal without using a detailed mathematical model nor exact values of the parameters of the nonlinear dynamic system. The proposed robust adaptive tracking control scheme only requires measurements of the velocity output signal. Thus, real-time measurements or estimations of acceleration, current and disturbance signals are avoided. Experimental results confirm the efficient and robust performance of the proposed control approach for highly demanding motor operation conditions exposed to variable-speed reference trajectories and completely unknown load torque. Hence, laboratory experimental tests on a direct current shunt motor prove the viability of the proposed adaptive output feedback trajectory tracking control approach.

  10. A Goal-Function Approach to Analysis of Control Situations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lind, Morten

    2010-01-01

    The concept of situations plays a central role in all theories of meaning and context. and serve to frame or group events and other occurrences into coherent meaningful wholes. Situations are typed, may be interconnected and organized into higher level structures. In operation of industrial...... processes situations should identify operational aspects relevant for control agent’s decision making in plant supervision and control. Control situations can be understood as recurrent and interconnected patterns of control with important implications for control and HMI design. Goal-Function approaches...

  11. Assessing the Approaches to Classification of the State Financial Control

    OpenAIRE

    Baraniuk Yurii R.

    2017-01-01

    The article is aimed at assessing the approaches to classification of the State financial control, as well as disclosing the relationship and differences between its forms, types and methods. The results of comparative analysis of existing classifications of the State financial control have been covered. The substantiation of its identification by forms, types and methods of control was explored. Clarification of the interpretation of the concepts of «form of control», «type of control», «sub...

  12. Forest inventory in Myanmar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bo, Sit [Forest Resource Div., Forest Department (Myanmar)

    1993-10-01

    Forest inventory in Myanmar started in 1850s. Up till 1975, Myanmar Forest Department conducted forest inventories covering approximately one forest division every year. The National Forest Survey and Inventory Project funded by UNDP and assisted by FAO commenced in 1981 and the National Forest Management and Inventory project followed in 1986. Up till end March 1993, pre-investment inventory has covered 26.7 million acres, reconnaissance inventory 5.4 million acres and management inventory has carried out in 12 townships

  13. Forest inventory in Myanmar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sit Bo

    1993-01-01

    Forest inventory in Myanmar started in 1850s. Up till 1975, Myanmar Forest Department conducted forest inventories covering approximately one forest division every year. The National Forest Survey and Inventory Project funded by UNDP and assisted by FAO commenced in 1981 and the National Forest Management and Inventory project followed in 1986. Up till end March 1993, pre-investment inventory has covered 26.7 million acres, reconnaissance inventory 5.4 million acres and management inventory has carried out in 12 townships

  14. TSCA Inventory

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This dataset consists of the non confidential identities of chemical substances submitted under the Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA). TSCA was enacted to ensure...

  15. Nonlinear identification and control a neural network approach

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, G P

    2001-01-01

    The series Advances in Industrial Control aims to report and encourage technology transfer in control engineering. The rapid development of control technology has an impact on all areas of the control discipline. New theory, new controllers, actuators, sensors, new industrial processes, computer methods, new applications, new philosophies . . . , new challenges. Much of this development work resides in industrial reports, feasibility study papers and the reports of advanced collaborative projects. The series otTers an opportunity for researchers to present an extended exposition of such new work in all aspects of industrial control for wider and rapid dissemination. The time for nonlinear control to enter routine application seems to be approaching. Nonlinear control has had a long gestation period but much ofthe past has been concerned with methods that involve formal nonlinear functional model representations. It seems more likely that the breakthough will come through the use of other more flexible and ame...

  16. Parametric Approach to Trajectory Tracking Control of Robot Manipulators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shijie Zhang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The mathematic description of the trajectory of robot manipulators with the optimal trajectory tracking problem is formulated as an optimal control problem, and a parametric approach is proposed for the optimal trajectory tracking control problem. The optimal control problem is first solved as an open loop optimal control problem by using a time scaling transform and the control parameterization method. Then, by virtue of the relationship between the optimal open loop control and the optimal closed loop control along the optimal trajectory, a practical method is presented to calculate an approximate optimal feedback gain matrix, without having to solve an optimal control problem involving the complex Riccati-like matrix differential equation coupled with the original system dynamics. Simulation results of 2-link robot manipulator are presented to show the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  17. A high-resolution regional emission inventory of atmospheric mercury and its comparison with multi-scale inventories: a case study of Jiangsu, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Zhong

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available A better understanding of the discrepancies in multi-scale inventories could give an insight into their approaches and limitations as well as provide indications for further improvements; international, national, and plant-by-plant data are primarily obtained to compile those inventories. In this study we develop a high-resolution inventory of Hg emissions at 0.05°  ×  0.05° for Jiangsu, China, using a bottom-up approach and then compare the results with available global/national inventories. With detailed information on individual sources and the updated emission factors from field measurements applied, the annual Hg emissions of anthropogenic origin in Jiangsu in 2010 are estimated at 39 105 kg, of which 51, 47, and 2 % were Hg0, Hg2+, and Hgp, respectively. This provincial inventory is thoroughly compared to three downscaled national inventories (NJU, THU, and BNU and two global ones (AMAP/UNEP and EDGARv4.tox2. Attributed to varied methods and data sources, clear information gaps exist in multi-scale inventories, leading to differences in the emission levels, speciation, and spatial distributions of atmospheric Hg. The total emissions in the provincial inventory are 28, 7, 19, 22, and 70 % larger than NJU, THU, BNU, AMAP/UNEP, and EDGARv4.tox2, respectively. For major sectors, including power generation, cement, iron and steel, and other coal combustion, the Hg contents (HgC in coals/raw materials, abatement rates of air pollution control devices (APCDs and activity levels are identified as the crucial parameters responsible for the differences in estimated emissions between inventories. Regarding speciated emissions, a larger fraction of Hg2+ is found in the provincial inventory than national and global inventories, resulting mainly from the results by the most recent domestic studies in which enhanced Hg2+ were measured for cement and iron and steel plants. Inconsistent information on large power and industrial plants is

  18. An NPV and AC Analysis of a Stochastic Inventory System with Joint Manufacturing and Remanufacturing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E.A. van der Laan (Erwin)

    2000-01-01

    textabstractWhile the net present value (NPV) approach is widely accepted as the right framework for studying production and inventory control systems, average cost (AC) models are more widely used. For the well known EOQ model it can be veri_ed that (under certain conditions) the AC approach gives

  19. Stochastic Control of Energy Efficient Buildings: A Semidefinite Programming Approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ma, Xiao [ORNL; Dong, Jin [ORNL; Djouadi, Seddik M [ORNL; Nutaro, James J [ORNL; Kuruganti, Teja [ORNL

    2015-01-01

    The key goal in energy efficient buildings is to reduce energy consumption of Heating, Ventilation, and Air- Conditioning (HVAC) systems while maintaining a comfortable temperature and humidity in the building. This paper proposes a novel stochastic control approach for achieving joint performance and power control of HVAC. We employ a constrained Stochastic Linear Quadratic Control (cSLQC) by minimizing a quadratic cost function with a disturbance assumed to be Gaussian. The problem is formulated to minimize the expected cost subject to a linear constraint and a probabilistic constraint. By using cSLQC, the problem is reduced to a semidefinite optimization problem, where the optimal control can be computed efficiently by Semidefinite programming (SDP). Simulation results are provided to demonstrate the effectiveness and power efficiency by utilizing the proposed control approach.

  20. A methodological approach to designing sewer system control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mollerup, Ane Loft

    for this thesis was therefore the wish for a methodological approach to sewer system control design. Using a case study the following research hypothesis was tested in this thesis: Using classical and modern control theory, a methodological approach can be derived for designing sewer system control. This can aid....... This was not unexpected, since the true potential of having optimisation arises, when a system has many control loops with limit-ing constraints and/or changing prioritisation between them. The results showed that for small sewer systems, where the complexity is limited, it is not necessarily the best option to implement...... generate control systems of the future that are more robust, more structured, have a better performance and are easi-er to maintain....

  1. A new approach of active compliance control via fuzzy logic control for multifingered robot hand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamil, M. F. A.; Jalani, J.; Ahmad, A.

    2016-07-01

    Safety is a vital issue in Human-Robot Interaction (HRI). In order to guarantee safety in HRI, a model reference impedance control can be a very useful approach introducing a compliant control. In particular, this paper establishes a fuzzy logic compliance control (i.e. active compliance control) to reduce impact and forces during physical interaction between humans/objects and robots. Exploiting a virtual mass-spring-damper system allows us to determine a desired compliant level by understanding the behavior of the model reference impedance control. The performance of fuzzy logic compliant control is tested in simulation for a robotic hand known as the RED Hand. The results show that the fuzzy logic is a feasible control approach, particularly to control position and to provide compliant control. In addition, the fuzzy logic control allows us to simplify the controller design process (i.e. avoid complex computation) when dealing with nonlinearities and uncertainties.

  2. International IPCC workshop on methane and nitrous oxide: methods in national emissions inventories and options for control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amstel, A.R. van (ed.)

    1993-07-01

    This workshop had two main objectives: to support the development of an internationally agreed methodology and reporting format for national emission inventories of greenhouse gases by mid 1993, as coordinated by the Science Working Group of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) and the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD); and the development of technical options for reduction of these greenhouse gases and the assessment of the socio-economic feasibility of these options. These proceedings contain the overview papers presented at the workshop, the background papers prepared for the working group sessions and the conclusions and recommendations of the working groups put forward during these sessions. 16 poster summaries are also included. During the workshop, 8 different sources of methane were discussed - oil and gas, coal mining, ruminants, animal waste, landfills and sewage treatments, combustion and industry, rice production and wetlands, and biomass burning - and 2 sources of nitrous oxide - agricultural soils and combustion and industry. All papers have been abstracted separately.

  3. Vendor Managed Inventory:Retail Industry Perspective of Malaysia

    OpenAIRE

    Madjlesi Taklimi, Zahra

    2011-01-01

    The concept of Vendor Managed Inventory (VMI) radically changes a traditional inventory management. Under the typical business model, the buyer or retailer is in total control of the timing and volume of the order, in order placing and managing the inventory plan. Whereas VMI is a supply chain initiative where the supplier is responsible for all decisions regarding inventories at the retailers, i.e. under VMI program the supplier is authorized to manage inventories of agreed-upon stock-keepin...

  4. The role of inventory management in Canadian economic fluctuations

    OpenAIRE

    Hung-Hay Lau

    1996-01-01

    Swings in inventory investment have traditionally played a major role in Canadian business cycles. However, advances in inventory-control techniques and the reduced uncertainty associated with lower inflation have enabled firms to manage their inventories much more tightly and effectively. This article examines recent developments in the management of non-farm business inventories in Canada at both the aggregate and the sectoral level and looks at implications for the role of inventories as a...

  5. An ecosystem approach to malaria control in an urban setting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carrasquilla Gabriel

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available We conducted a research project aimed at strengthening local government and the community for a sustainable malaria control strategy. The project began with a baseline diagnosis of malaria prevalence, a KAP survey, entomology, and health services delivery, after which an epidemiological study was performed to identify risk factors associated with malaria, thereafter used to plan intervention measures. A program evaluation was conducted five years later. By using an ecosystem approach to reanalyze data, this paper discusses how malaria arises from a complex interaction of cultural, economic, ecological, social, and individual factors. Intervention measures require an intersectorial and transdisciplinary approach that does not exist at the moment. Health sector leadership is limited, and there is no true community participation. Implications for research, including the use of qualitative and quantitative methods, study design, and complexity of data analysis are discussed. Finally, implications for malaria control are discussed, stressing the differences between the ecosystem and integrated disease control approaches.

  6. Controller synthesis for negative imaginary systems: a data driven approach

    KAUST Repository

    Mabrok, Mohamed

    2016-02-17

    The negative imaginary (NI) property occurs in many important applications. For instance, flexible structure systems with collocated force actuators and position sensors can be modelled as negative imaginary systems. In this study, a data-driven controller synthesis methodology for NI systems is presented. In this approach, measured frequency response data of the plant is used to construct the controller frequency response at every frequency by minimising a cost function. Then, this controller response is used to identify the controller transfer function using system identification methods. © The Institution of Engineering and Technology 2016.

  7. Episodic reinforcement learning control approach for biped walking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katić Duško

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a hybrid dynamic control approach to the realization of humanoid biped robotic walk, focusing on the policy gradient episodic reinforcement learning with fuzzy evaluative feedback. The proposed structure of controller involves two feedback loops: a conventional computed torque controller and an episodic reinforcement learning controller. The reinforcement learning part includes fuzzy information about Zero-Moment- Point errors. Simulation tests using a medium-size 36-DOF humanoid robot MEXONE were performed to demonstrate the effectiveness of our method.

  8. APE (state-oriented approach) centralized control procedures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Astier, D.; Depont, G.; Van Dermarliere, Y.

    2004-01-01

    This article presents the progressive implementation of the state-oriented approach (APE) for centralized control procedures in French nuclear power plants. The implementation began in the years 1982-83 and it concerned only the circuits involved in engineered safeguard systems such IS (safety injection), EAS (containment spray system) and GMPP (reactor coolant pump set). In 2003 the last PWR unit switched from the event oriented approach to APE for post-accidental situations

  9. A new approach to adaptive control of manipulators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seraji, H.

    1987-01-01

    An approach in which the manipulator inverse is used as a feedforward controller is employed in the adaptive control of manipulators in order to achieve trajectory tracking by the joint angles. The desired trajectory is applied as an input to the feedforward controller, and the controller output is used as the driving torque for the manipulator. An adaptive algorithm obtained from MRAC theory is used to update the controller gains to cope with variations in the manipulator inverse due to changes of the operating point. An adaptive feedback controller and an auxiliary signal enhance closed-loop stability and achieve faster adaptation. Simulation results demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed control scheme for different reference trajectories, and despite large variations in the payload.

  10. Perishable Inventory Challenges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damgaard, Cecilie Maria; Nguyen, Vivi Thuy; Hvolby, Hans-Henrik

    2012-01-01

    in the retail supply chains. The goal is to find and evaluate the parameters which affect the decision making process, when finding the optimal order quantity and order time. The paper takes a starting point in the retail industry but links to other industries.......The paper investigates how inventory control of perishable items is managed and line up some possible options of improvement. This includes a review of relevant literature dealing with the challenges of determining ordering policies for perishable products and a study of how the current procedures...

  11. An Approach to Robust Control of the Hopf Bifurcation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giacomo Innocenti

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper illustrates a novel approach to modify the Hopf bifurcation nature via a nonlinear state feedback control, which leaves the equilibrium properties unchanged. This result is achieved by recurring to linear and nonlinear transformations, which lead the system to locally assume the ordinary differential equation representation. Third-order models are considered, since they can be seen as proper representatives of a larger class of systems. The explicit relationship between the control input and the Hopf bifurcation nature is obtained via a frequency approach, that does not need the computation of the center manifold.

  12. The control-of-consumption approach to alcohol abuse prevention

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ravn, Ib

    1987-01-01

    Key empirical studies of the postulates of the single-distribution theory and the associated control-of-consumption approach are reviewed. The review is organized in terms of the six links possible between the four variables of the "Ledermann string" (availability, average consumption, proportion...... of heavy consumers, and prevalence of damage) presented in Part I. It is concluded that, on the whole, the available evidence is too inconsistent to support the control-of-consumption approach and that a more comprehensive understanding of alcohol abuse and prevention is needed....

  13. Optimization of nonlinear controller with an enhanced biogeography approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed Salem

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper is dedicated to the optimization of nonlinear controllers basing of an enhanced Biogeography Based Optimization (BBO approach. Indeed, The BBO is combined to a predator and prey model where several predators are used with introduction of a modified migration operator to increase the diversification along the optimization process so as to avoid local optima and reach the optimal solution quickly. The proposed approach is used in tuning the gains of PID controller for nonlinear systems. Simulations are carried out over a Mass spring damper and an inverted pendulum and has given remarkable results when compared to genetic algorithm and BBO.

  14. Model predictive control approach for a CPAP-device

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scheel Mathias

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The obstructive sleep apnoea syndrome (OSAS is characterized by a collapse of the upper respiratory tract, resulting in a reduction of the blood oxygen- and an increase of the carbon dioxide (CO2 - concentration, which causes repeated sleep disruptions. The gold standard to treat the OSAS is the continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP therapy. The continuous pressure keeps the upper airway open and prevents the collapse of the upper respiratory tract and the pharynx. Most of the available CPAP-devices cannot maintain the pressure reference [1]. In this work a model predictive control approach is provided. This control approach has the possibility to include the patient’s breathing effort into the calculation of the control variable. Therefore a patient-individualized control strategy can be developed.

  15. New approaches in intelligent control techniques, methodologies and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Kountchev, Roumen

    2016-01-01

    This volume introduces new approaches in intelligent control area from both the viewpoints of theory and application. It consists of eleven contributions by prominent authors from all over the world and an introductory chapter. This volume is strongly connected to another volume entitled "New Approaches in Intelligent Image Analysis" (Eds. Roumen Kountchev and Kazumi Nakamatsu). The chapters of this volume are self-contained and include summary, conclusion and future works. Some of the chapters introduce specific case studies of various intelligent control systems and others focus on intelligent theory based control techniques with applications. A remarkable specificity of this volume is that three chapters are dealing with intelligent control based on paraconsistent logics.

  16. Series of standards for use by an oil and gas production administration for progress-of work reports and inventory control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kucherniuk, V A; Eliseev, V G; Iskandarov, R G

    1981-01-01

    Based on a study of the characteristics of product flows from oil wells, the test and monitoring equipment used to monitor the quantity of oil, and the standard documentation, it is demonstrated that in order to increase the measurement accuracy of the product produced by the oil and gas production administration, it is necessary to develop a system of enterprise standards to account for it. A list is given of standards of use by oil and gas production administration to account for its product. The use of the standards with existing metering equipment makes it possible to decrease the variation between operational and inventory records for the quantity of oil at the ''Rechitsaneft'' oil and gas production administration up to 5% and consequently to increase the control efficiency over the operation of the fields.

  17. B Plant exhaust filter inventory analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lan, J.S.; Wootan, D.W.; Carter, L.L.; Bunch, W.L.; Covey, L.I.; Greenborg, J.

    1994-10-01

    This paper describes a method for determining radionuclide inventories in filters using measurements of radiation fields that determine photon dose rates and photon-plus-electron dose rates between filter banks. The mathematical approach quantifies the curie inventories of filter banks by using the measured dose rates and the calculated Green's functions involving detector responses per unit source

  18. Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) in patients with breast disease and breast cancer: a prospective case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eskelinen, Matti; Ollonen, Paula

    2011-01-01

    In 1972, Beck introduced an inventory (BDI) for rapid screening of depression. The associations between the BDI and the risk of breast cancer (BC) are rarely considered together in prospective studies. In an extension of the Kuopio Breast Cancer Study, 115 women with breast cancer symptoms were semi-structurally interviewed in-depth as well as asked to complete standardised questionnaires (Forsen, Spielberger, MADRS), and all study variables were obtained before any diagnostic procedures were carried out. BDI was used to evaluate the depression of the study participants. The clinical examinations and biopsies showed BC in 34 patients, benign breast disease (BBD) in 53 patients, and 28 individuals were shown to be healthy (HSS). There was a trend for the women with HSS to have less sadness (BDI mean score, 0.27) than those of the BC (BDI mean score, 0.56) and BBD groups (BDI mean score, 0.49). The HSS group tended to be less pessimistic (BDI mean score, 0.15) than the patients in the BC group (BDI mean score, 0.44) and in the BBD group (BDI mean score, 0.42). The HSS group also had less self-accusation (BDI mean score, 0.19) than the patients in the BC group (BDI mean score, 0.50) and the patients in the BBD group (BDI mean score, 0.62). The HSS group also reported less work inhibition and weight loss than the patients in the BC group and in the BBD group. The mean sum of the scores of BDI variables was significantly lower in the HSS group (BDI mean score, 7.1) than in the BC (BDI mean score, 8.4) or BBD groups (BDI mean score, 8.8). The results of this study do not support a specific link between BDI and breast cancer risk. However, the patients with BC and BBD tended to have an increased risk for depressive symptoms.

  19. Reconciling estimates of the contemporary North American carbon balance among terrestrial biosphere models, atmospheric inversions, and a new approach for estimating net ecosystem exchange from inventory-based data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes, Daniel J.; Turner, David P.; Stinson, Graham; McGuire, A. David; Wei, Yaxing; West, Tristram O.; Heath, Linda S.; de Jong, Bernardus; McConkey, Brian G.; Birdsey, Richard A.; Kurz, Werner A.; Jacobson, Andrew R.; Huntzinger, Deborah N.; Pan, Yude; Post, W. Mac; Cook, Robert B.

    2012-01-01

    We develop an approach for estimating net ecosystem exchange (NEE) using inventory-based information over North America (NA) for a recent 7-year period (ca. 2000–2006). The approach notably retains information on the spatial distribution of NEE, or the vertical exchange between land and atmosphere of all non-fossil fuel sources and sinks of CO2, while accounting for lateral transfers of forest and crop products as well as their eventual emissions. The total NEE estimate of a -327 ± 252 TgC yr-1 sink for NA was driven primarily by CO2 uptake in the Forest Lands sector (-248 TgC yr-1), largely in the Northwest and Southeast regions of the US, and in the Crop Lands sector (-297 TgC yr-1), predominantly in the Midwest US states. These sinks are counteracted by the carbon source estimated for the Other Lands sector (+218 TgC yr-1), where much of the forest and crop products are assumed to be returned to the atmosphere (through livestock and human consumption). The ecosystems of Mexico are estimated to be a small net source (+18 TgC yr-1) due to land use change between 1993 and 2002. We compare these inventory-based estimates with results from a suite of terrestrial biosphere and atmospheric inversion models, where the mean continental-scale NEE estimate for each ensemble is -511 TgC yr-1 and -931 TgC yr-1, respectively. In the modeling approaches, all sectors, including Other Lands, were generally estimated to be a carbon sink, driven in part by assumed CO2 fertilization and/or lack of consideration of carbon sources from disturbances and product emissions. Additional fluxes not measured by the inventories, although highly uncertain, could add an additional -239 TgC yr-1 to the inventory-based NA sink estimate, thus suggesting some convergence with the modeling approaches.

  20. Labour Costs for Inventory Control Less Expensive than Repurchasing. A Review of: Sung, J. S., Whisler, J. A., & Sung, N. (2009. A cost-benefit analysis of a collections inventory project: A statistical analysis of inventory data from a medium-sized academic library. Journal of Academic Librarianship, 35(4, 314-323.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Newton Miller

    2010-09-01

    % misplaced more than 100 books away from the correct position. In general, 82% of mis-shelved books were found within 1 to 25 books away from their correct location. By calculating that 5300 books were mis-shelved beyond 25 books away from their proper position, labour costs were estimated to be at least $159,000 USD (5300 x $30.00 USD per book in labour costs. Costs for interlibrary loan were calculated at approximately $30.00 USD per transaction, and patron’s time wasted trying to locate misplaced books was estimated at 30 minutes per book. This was much more than the labour costs associated with scanning books, which at an average speed of 8 seconds per book and $10.00 US per hour for scanning worked out to be 2.2 cents per book, or $11,000 USD to scan the entire half-million monograph collection.Conclusion – The results appear to reveal that the labour costs for inventory control are less expensive than repurchasing or borrowing the same number of books.

  1. [Individual, community, regulatory, and systemic approaches to tobacco control interventions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorini, Giuseppe

    2011-01-01

    During the 60s and the 70s strategies for decreasing initiation or quitting have been developed, in order to find those with high success rates. Unfortunately, interventions with an individual approach involved few smokers, so their impact in decreasing smoking prevalence was limited. The socio-ecological model offers a theoretical framework to community interventions for smoking cessation developed during the 80s, in which smoking was considered not only an individual, but also a social problem. In the 80s and the 90s smoking cessation community trials were developed, such as the Community Intervention Trial for Smoking Cessation (COMMIT). Afterwards, policy interventions (price policy; smoking bans in public places; advertising bans; bans of sales to minors) were developed, such as the American Stop Smoking Intervention Study for Cancer Prevention (ASSIST). California has been the first State all over the world to develop a comprehensive Tobacco Control Program in 1988, becoming the place for an ever-conducted natural experiment. All policy interventions in tobacco control have been finally grouped together in the World Health Organization - Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (WHO-FCTC), the first Public Health Treaty. Study designs have changed, according to the individual, community, or regulatory approaches: the classical randomized controlled trials (RCTs), in which the sampling unit is the individual, have been carried out for the evaluation of smoking cessation treatments, whereas cluster RCTs, in which the sampling unit is the community, have been conducted for evaluating community interventions, such as COMMIT. Finally, quasi-experimental studies (before/after study; prospective cohorts, both with a control group), in which the observational unit is a State, have been used for evaluating tobacco control policies, such as ASSIST and the International Tobacco Control Policy Evaluation Project. Although the successes of the last 20 years, tobacco

  2. Compressor Surge Control Design Using Linear Matrix Inequality Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Uddin, Nur; Gravdahl, Jan Tommy

    2017-01-01

    A novel design for active compressor surge control system (ASCS) using linear matrix inequality (LMI) approach is presented and including a case study on piston-actuated active compressor surge control system (PAASCS). The non-linear system dynamics of the PAASCS is transformed into linear parameter varying (LPV) system dynamics. The system parameters are varying as a function of the compressor performance curve slope. A compressor surge stabilization problem is then formulated as a LMI probl...

  3. A stochastic programming approach to manufacturing flow control

    OpenAIRE

    Haurie, Alain; Moresino, Francesco

    2012-01-01

    This paper proposes and tests an approximation of the solution of a class of piecewise deterministic control problems, typically used in the modeling of manufacturing flow processes. This approximation uses a stochastic programming approach on a suitably discretized and sampled system. The method proceeds through two stages: (i) the Hamilton-Jacobi-Bellman (HJB) dynamic programming equations for the finite horizon continuous time stochastic control problem are discretized over a set of sample...

  4. Adaptive Control of the Chaotic System via Singular System Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yudong Li

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the control problem of the chaotic system subject to disturbance. The sliding mode surface is designed by singular system approach, and sufficient condition for convergence is given. Then, the adaptive sliding mode controller is designed to make the state arrive at the sliding mode surface in finite time. Finally, Lorenz system is considered as an example to show the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  5. Inventories and sales uncertainty\\ud

    OpenAIRE

    Caglayan, M.; Maioli, S.; Mateut, S.

    2011-01-01

    We investigate the empirical linkages between sales uncertainty and firms´ inventory investment behavior while controlling for firms´ financial strength. Using large panels of manufacturing firms from several European countries we find that higher sales uncertainty leads to larger stocks of inventories. We also identify an indirect effect of sales uncertainty on inventory accumulation through the financial strength of firms. Our results provide evidence that financial strength mitigates the a...

  6. Inventory Centralization Decision Framework for Spare Parts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gregersen, Nicklas; Herbert-Hansen, Zaza Nadja Lee

    2018-01-01

    Within the current literature, there is a lack of a holistic and multidisciplinary approach to managing spare parts and their inventory configuration. This paper addresses this research gap by examining the key contextual factors which influence the degree of inventory centralization and proposes...... a novel holistic theoretical framework, the Inventory Centralization Decision Framework (ICDF), useful for practitioners. Through an extensive review of inventory management literature, six contextual factors influencing the degree of inventory centralization have been identified. Using the ICDF...... practitioners can assess the most advantageous inventory configuration of spare parts. The framework is tested on a large global company which, as a result, today actively uses the ICDF; thus showing its practical applicability....

  7. Control approach development for variable recruitment artificial muscles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins, Tyler E.; Chapman, Edward M.; Bryant, Matthew

    2016-04-01

    This study characterizes hybrid control approaches for the variable recruitment of fluidic artificial muscles with double acting (antagonistic) actuation. Fluidic artificial muscle actuators have been explored by researchers due to their natural compliance, high force-to-weight ratio, and low cost of fabrication. Previous studies have attempted to improve system efficiency of the actuators through variable recruitment, i.e. using discrete changes in the number of active actuators. While current variable recruitment research utilizes manual valve switching, this paper details the current development of an online variable recruitment control scheme. By continuously controlling applied pressure and discretely controlling the number of active actuators, operation in the lowest possible recruitment state is ensured and working fluid consumption is minimized. Results provide insight into switching control scheme effects on working fluids, fabrication material choices, actuator modeling, and controller development decisions.

  8. A credit policy approach in a two-warehouse inventory model for deteriorating items with price- and stock-dependent demand under partial backlogging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panda, Gobinda Chandra; Khan, Md. Al-Amin; Shaikh, Ali Akbar

    2018-04-01

    Advertisement of the product is an important factor in inventory analysis. Also, price and stock have an important role to attract more customers in the competitive business situations. Trade credit policy is another important role in inventory analysis. We have combined these three factors together in a two-warehouse inventory model and represented it mathematically. In addition, we have added deteriorating factor of our proposed problem with price- and stock-dependent demand under partial backlogged shortage and solved. The frequency of advertisement is considered constant for a year in this paper. The proposed model is highly nonlinear in nature. Due to highly nonlinearity, we could not find the closed form solution. In this paper, trade credit facility is taken in the perspective of retailer, and all the possible cases and subcases of the model are discussed and solved using lingo 10.0 software. The results of sensitivity analysis prove the effectiveness of the proposed model.

  9. Modeling Alaska boreal forests with a controlled trend surface approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mo Zhou; Jingjing Liang

    2012-01-01

    An approach of Controlled Trend Surface was proposed to simultaneously take into consideration large-scale spatial trends and nonspatial effects. A geospatial model of the Alaska boreal forest was developed from 446 permanent sample plots, which addressed large-scale spatial trends in recruitment, diameter growth, and mortality. The model was tested on two sets of...

  10. Chapter 11: The approach to achieving glycaemic control*

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2012-11-08

    Nov 8, 2012 ... therapy.3–7 The concept of patient-centred care incorporates patients as ... The SEMDSA approach to glycaemic control does not lose focus of ... patient. South African Family Practice 2018; 60(2):8-16 ... pancreatic cancer.

  11. Preventing Zika disease with novel vector control approaches ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Preventing Zika disease with novel vector control approaches. The highest numbers of dengue cases in Latin America in the last few years have occurred in Brazil, Colombia, and Mexico. These countries have also faced outbreaks of chikungunya (2014-2015) and Zika (2015-2016). All three diseases are transmitted by the ...

  12. From integrated control to integrated farming, an experimental approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vereijken, P.H.

    1989-01-01

    Integrated control or integrated pest management (IPM), as envisaged originally, is not being practised to any large extent in arable farming, notwithstanding considerable research efforts. The reasons for this are discussed. A more basic approach called integrated farming is suggested. Preliminary

  13. Data Driven Fault Tolerant Control : A Subspace Approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dong, J.

    2009-01-01

    The main stream research on fault detection and fault tolerant control has been focused on model based methods. As far as a model is concerned, changes therein due to faults have to be extracted from measured data. Generally speaking, existing approaches process measured inputs and outputs either by

  14. Inventory of armourstone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Le Turdu Valéry

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Natural armourstone is widely used for hydraulic works, both in the coastal domain and in border of rivers and torrents, especially to protect against flood and the effects of waves and currents. To meet the expectations associated with this resource, an inventory of armourstone quarries was realized on a national scale in France. This inventory informs not only about the localization of quarries but also about the quality and the availability of materials. To fully optimize this inventory in a dynamic format, the association of all actors of the sector was preferred to archival research. This partnership approach led to project deliverables that can constitute durably a shared reference. The database can indeed be updated regularly thanks to the contacts established with the professionals of quarries. The access to this database is offered to a wide public: maritime and fluvial ports, local authorities in charge of planning and managing structures that protect against flood and other hydraulic hazards. This new database was organized considering its importance on the operational plan. This led to a hierarchical organization at two levels for each quarry face: first level, a synthesis sheet brings the essential information to realize choices upstream to the operational phases. Second level, a detailed specification sheet presents the technical characteristics observed in the past on the considered face. The atlas has two information broadcasting formats: a pdf file with browsing functions and a geographical information system that allows remote request of the database. These two media have their own updating rhythms, annual for the first and continue for the second.

  15. A Partial Backlogging Inventory Model for Deteriorating Item under Fuzzy Inflation and Discounting over Random Planning Horizon: A Fuzzy Genetic Algorithm Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dipak Kumar Jana

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available An inventory model for deteriorating item is considered in a random planning horizon under inflation and time value money. The model is described in two different environments: random and fuzzy random. The proposed model allows stock-dependent consumption rate and shortages with partial backlogging. In the fuzzy stochastic model, possibility chance constraints are used for defuzzification of imprecise expected total profit. Finally, genetic algorithm (GA and fuzzy simulation-based genetic algorithm (FSGA are used to make decisions for the above inventory models. The models are illustrated with some numerical data. Sensitivity analysis on expected profit function is also presented. Scope and Purpose. The traditional inventory model considers the ideal case in which depletion of inventory is caused by a constant demand rate. However, to keep sales higher, the inventory level would need to remain high. Of course, this would also result in higher holding or procurement cost. Also, in many real situations, during a longer-shortage period some of the customers may refuse the management. For instance, for fashionable commodities and high-tech products with short product life cycle, the willingness for a customer to wait for backlogging is diminishing with the length of the waiting time. Most of the classical inventory models did not take into account the effects of inflation and time value of money. But in the past, the economic situation of most of the countries has changed to such an extent due to large-scale inflation and consequent sharp decline in the purchasing power of money. So, it has not been possible to ignore the effects of inflation and time value of money any more. The purpose of this paper is to maximize the expected profit in the random planning horizon.

  16. Adaptive control of discrete-time chaotic systems: a fuzzy control approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feng Gang; Chen Guanrong

    2005-01-01

    This paper discusses adaptive control of a class of discrete-time chaotic systems from a fuzzy control approach. Using the T-S model of discrete-time chaotic systems, an adaptive control algorithm is developed based on some conventional adaptive control techniques. The resulting adaptively controlled chaotic system is shown to be globally stable, and its robustness is discussed. A simulation example of the chaotic Henon map control is finally presented, to illustrate an application and the performance of the proposed control algorithm

  17. Active Disturbance Rejection Approach for Robust Fault-Tolerant Control via Observer Assisted Sliding Mode Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Cortés-Romero

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This work proposes an active disturbance rejection approach for the establishment of a sliding mode control strategy in fault-tolerant operations. The core of the proposed active disturbance rejection assistance is a Generalized Proportional Integral (GPI observer which is in charge of the active estimation of lumped nonlinear endogenous and exogenous disturbance inputs related to the creation of local sliding regimes with limited control authority. Possibilities are explored for the GPI observer assisted sliding mode control in fault-tolerant schemes. Convincing improvements are presented with respect to classical sliding mode control strategies. As a collateral advantage, the observer-based control architecture offers the possibility of chattering reduction given that a significant part of the control signal is of the continuous type. The case study considers a classical DC motor control affected by actuator faults, parametric failures, and perturbations. Experimental results and comparisons with other established sliding mode controller design methodologies, which validate the proposed approach, are provided.

  18. Housing Inventory Count

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Housing and Urban Development — This report displays the data communities reported to HUD about the nature of their dedicated homeless inventory, referred to as their Housing Inventory Count (HIC)....

  19. Integrated inventory information system

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Sarupria, J.S.; Kunte, P.D.

    The nature of oceanographic data and the management of inventory level information are described in Integrated Inventory Information System (IIIS). It is shown how a ROSCOPO (report on observations/samples collected during oceanographic programme...

  20. World Glacier Inventory

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The World Glacier Inventory (WGI) contains information for over 130,000 glaciers. Inventory parameters include geographic location, area, length, orientation,...

  1. HHS Enterprise Data Inventory

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Enterprise Data Inventory (EDI) is the comprehensive inventory listing of agency data resources including public, restricted public, and non-public datasets.

  2. Science Inventory | US EPA

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Science Inventory is a searchable database of research products primarily from EPA's Office of Research and Development. Science Inventory records provide descriptions of the product, contact information, and links to available printed material or websites.

  3. National Wetlands Inventory Polygons

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — Wetland area features mapped as part of the National Wetlands Inventory (NWI). The National Wetlands Inventory is a national program sponsored by the US Fish and...

  4. A survey on control schemes for distributed solar collector fields. Part II: Advanced control approaches

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Camacho, E.F.; Rubio, F.R. [Universidad de Sevilla, Escuela Superior de Ingenieros, Departamento de Ingenieria de Sistemas y Automatica, Camino de Los Descubrimientos s/n, E-41092 Sevilla (Spain); Berenguel, M. [Universidad de Almeria, Departamento de Lenguajes y Computacion, Area de Ingenieria de Sistemas y Automatica, Carretera Sacramento s/n, E-04120 La Canada, Almeria (Spain); Valenzuela, L. [Plataforma Solar de Almeria - CIEMAT, Carretera Senes s/n, P.O. Box 22, E-04200 Tabernas (Almeria) (Spain)

    2007-10-15

    This article presents a survey of the different advanced automatic control techniques that have been applied to control the outlet temperature of solar plants with distributed collectors during the last 25 years. A classification of the modeling and control approaches described in the first part of this survey is used to explain the main features of each strategy. The treated strategies range from classical advanced control strategies to those with few industrial applications. (author)

  5. Plan and procedures for rapid inventory taking at the Research Institute for Atomic Reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalygin, V.; Gorobets, A.; Karlov, S.; Suda, S.C.; Bonner, M.F.; Satkowiak, L.

    1997-01-01

    A major element of a system for nuclear material protection, control, and accounting (MPC and A) is to take the physical inventory of the nuclear material periodically. Physical inventory taking (PIT) includes ensuring that all nuclear material on inventory is included in the facility records and that the measured content of items or containers corresponds to the recorded values. A preliminary step to the conduct of the PIT is application of rapid inventory procedures that serve to provide the benchmark for the inventory, e.g., by identifying if any items are missing and also, if any unrecorded items are present. The Rapid Inventory approach is being implemented by the Research Institute for Atomic Reactors (RIAR) in Dimitrovgrad, Russia, as one of the first steps in the program to enhance nuclear materials safeguards at the site. This effort is being conducted under the US-Russian Cooperative Program on Nuclear Materials Protection. Control And Accounting (MPC and A), with assistance provided by specialists from US Department of Energy National Laboratories. This paper summarizes the features of the existing physical inventory system at RIAR, discusses the upgrades being introduced, and provides some observations on the technology transfer process with regard to the safeguards program

  6. Plan and procedures for rapid inventory taking at the research institute for atomic reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalygin, V.; Gorobets, A.; Karlov, S.; Suda, S.C.; Bonner, F.M.

    1999-01-01

    A major element of a system for nuclear material protection, control, and accounting (MPC and A) is to take the physical inventory of the nuclear material periodically. Physical inventory taking (PIT) includes ensuring that all nuclear material on inventory is included in the facility records and that the measured content of items or containers (or at least a suitable random sample thereof) corresponds to the recorded values. A preliminary step to the conduct of the PIT is application of rapid inventory procedures that serve to provide the benchmark for the inventory, e.g., by identifying if any items are missing and also, if any unrecorded items are present. The Rapid Inventory approach is being implemented by the Research Institute for Atomic Reactors (RIAR) in Dimitrovgrad, Russia, as one of the first steps in the program to enhance nuclear materials safeguards at the site. This effort is being conducted under the US-Russian Cooperative Program on Nuclear Materials Protection, Control And Accounting (MPC and A), with assistance provided by specialists from U.S. Department of Energy National Laboratories. This paper summarizes the features of the existing physical inventory system at RIAR, discusses the upgrades being introduced, and provides some observations on the technology transfer process with regard to the safeguards program. (author)

  7. Prediction of Safety Stock Using Fuzzy Time Series (FTS and Technology of Radio Frequency Identification (RFID for Stock Control at Vendor Managed Inventory (VMI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mashuri Chamdan

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This research was conducted by prediction of safety stock using Fuzzy Time Series (FTS and technology of Radio Frequency Identification (RFID for stock control at Vendor Managed Inventory (VMI. Well-controlled stock influenced company revenue and minimized cost. It discussed about information system of safety stock prediction developed through programming language of PHP. Input data consisted of demand got from automatic, online and real time acquisition using technology of RFID, then, sent to server and stored at online database. Furthermore, data of acquisition result was predicted by using algorithm of FTS applying universe of discourse defining and fuzzy sets determination. Fuzzy set result was continued to division process of universe of discourse in order to be to final step. Prediction result was displayed at information system dashboard developed. By using 60 data from demand data, prediction score was 450.331 and safety stock was 135.535. Prediction result was done by error deviation validation using Mean Square Percent Error of 15%. It proved that FTS was good enough in predicting demand and safety stock for stock control. For deeper analysis, researchers used data of demand and universe of discourse U varying at FTS to get various result based on test data used.

  8. Prediction of Safety Stock Using Fuzzy Time Series (FTS) and Technology of Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) for Stock Control at Vendor Managed Inventory (VMI)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mashuri, Chamdan; Suryono; Suseno, Jatmiko Endro

    2018-02-01

    This research was conducted by prediction of safety stock using Fuzzy Time Series (FTS) and technology of Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) for stock control at Vendor Managed Inventory (VMI). Well-controlled stock influenced company revenue and minimized cost. It discussed about information system of safety stock prediction developed through programming language of PHP. Input data consisted of demand got from automatic, online and real time acquisition using technology of RFID, then, sent to server and stored at online database. Furthermore, data of acquisition result was predicted by using algorithm of FTS applying universe of discourse defining and fuzzy sets determination. Fuzzy set result was continued to division process of universe of discourse in order to be to final step. Prediction result was displayed at information system dashboard developed. By using 60 data from demand data, prediction score was 450.331 and safety stock was 135.535. Prediction result was done by error deviation validation using Mean Square Percent Error of 15%. It proved that FTS was good enough in predicting demand and safety stock for stock control. For deeper analysis, researchers used data of demand and universe of discourse U varying at FTS to get various result based on test data used.

  9. A nonlinear optimal control approach for chaotic finance dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rigatos, G.; Siano, P.; Loia, V.; Tommasetti, A.; Troisi, O.

    2017-11-01

    A new nonlinear optimal control approach is proposed for stabilization of the dynamics of a chaotic finance model. The dynamic model of the financial system, which expresses interaction between the interest rate, the investment demand, the price exponent and the profit margin, undergoes approximate linearization round local operating points. These local equilibria are defined at each iteration of the control algorithm and consist of the present value of the systems state vector and the last value of the control inputs vector that was exerted on it. The approximate linearization makes use of Taylor series expansion and of the computation of the associated Jacobian matrices. The truncation of higher order terms in the Taylor series expansion is considered to be a modelling error that is compensated by the robustness of the control loop. As the control algorithm runs, the temporary equilibrium is shifted towards the reference trajectory and finally converges to it. The control method needs to compute an H-infinity feedback control law at each iteration, and requires the repetitive solution of an algebraic Riccati equation. Through Lyapunov stability analysis it is shown that an H-infinity tracking performance criterion holds for the control loop. This implies elevated robustness against model approximations and external perturbations. Moreover, under moderate conditions the global asymptotic stability of the control loop is proven.

  10. Quantification of live aboveground forest biomass dynamics with Landsat time-series and field inventory data: A comparison of empirical modeling approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott L. Powell; Warren B. Cohen; Sean P. Healey; Robert E. Kennedy; Gretchen G. Moisen; Kenneth B. Pierce; Janet L. Ohmann

    2010-01-01

    Spatially and temporally explicit knowledge of biomass dynamics at broad scales is critical to understanding how forest disturbance and regrowth processes influence carbon dynamics. We modeled live, aboveground tree biomass using Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) field data and applied the models to 20+ year time-series of Landsat satellite imagery to...

  11. Top-down and bottom-up approaches to greenhouse gas inventory methods—a comparison between national- and forest-scale reporting methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    David Nicholls; Frank Barnes; Felicia Acrea; Chinling Chen; Lara Y. Buluç; Michele M. Parker

    2015-01-01

    Federal agencies are mandated to measure, manage, and reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. The General Services Administration (GSA) Carbon Footprint Tool (CFT) is an online tool built to utilize measured GHG inventories to help Forest Service units streamline reporting and make informed decisions about operational efficiency. In fiscal year 2013, the Forest Service...

  12. Functional Assessment Inventory Manual.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crewe, Nancy M.; Athelstan, Gary T.

    This manual, which provides extensive new instructions for administering the Functional Assessment Inventory (FAI), is intended to enable counselors to begin using the inventory without undergoing any special training. The first two sections deal with the need for functional assessment and issues in the development and use of the inventory. The…

  13. Exploring the Impact of Network Structure and Demand Collaboration on the Dynamics of a Supply Chain Network Using a Robust Control Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongchang Wei

    2015-01-01

    uncertain environment. The impact of network structure and collaboration on the dynamics and robustness of supply chain network, however, remains to be explored. In this paper, a unified state space model for a two-layer supply chain network composed of multiple distributors and multiple retailers is developed. A robust control algorithm is advocated to reduce both order and demand fluctuations for unknown demand. Numerical simulations demonstrate that the robust control approach has the advantage to reduce both inventory and order fluctuations. In the simulation experiment, it is interesting to notice that complex network structure and collaborations might contribute to the reduction of inventory and order oscillations. This paper yields new insights into the overestimated bullwhip effect problem and helps us understand the complexities of supply chain networks.

  14. Activity based costing model for inventory valuation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vineet Chouhan

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Activity-Based-Model (ABC is used for the purpose of significant improvement for overhead accounting systems by providing the best information required for managerial decision. This pa-per discusses implacability of ABC technique on inventory valuation as a management account-ing innovation. In order to prove the applicability of ABC for inventory control a material driven medium-sized and privately owned company from engineering (iron and steel industry is select-ed and by analysis of its production process and its material dependency and use of indirect in-ventory, an ABC model is explored for better inventory control. The case revealed that the ne-cessity of ABC in the area of inventory control is significant. The company is not only able to increase its quality of decision but also it can significantly analyze its cost of direct material cost, valuation of direct material and use its implications for better decision making.

  15. Exact Fill Rates for the (R, S Inventory Control with Discrete Distributed Demands for the Backordering Case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eugenia BABILONI

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The fill rate is usually computed by using the traditional approach, which calculates it as the complement of the quotient between the expected unfulfilled demand and the expected demand per replenishment cycle, instead of directly the expected fraction of fulfilled demand. Furthermore the available methods to estimate the fill rate apply only under specific demand conditions. This paper shows the research gap regarding the estimation procedures to compute the fill rate and suggests: (i a new exact procedure to compute the traditional approximation for any discrete demand distribution; and (ii a new method to compute the fill rate directly as the fraction of fulfilled demand for any discrete demand distribution. Simulation results show that the latter methods outperform the traditional approach, which underestimates the simulated fill rate, over different demand patterns. This paper focuses on the traditional periodic review, base stock system when backlogged demands are allowed.

  16. Intelligent process control operator aid -- An artificial intelligence approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharma, D.D.; Miller, D.D.; Hajek, B.; Chandrasekaran, B.

    1986-01-01

    This paper describes an approach for designing intelligent process and power plant control operator aids. It is argued that one of the key aspects of an intelligent operator aid is the capability for dynamic procedure synthesis with incomplete definition of initial state, unknown goal states, and the dynamic world situation. The dynamic world state is used to determine the goal, select appropriate plan steps from prespecified procedures to achieve the goal, control the execution of the synthesized plan, and provide for dynamic recovery from failure often using a goal hierarchy. The dynamic synthesis of a plan requires integration of various problems solving capabilities such as plan generation, plan synthesis, plan modification, and failure recovery from a plan. The programming language for implementing the DPS framework provides a convenient tool for developing applications. An application of the DPS approach to a Nuclear Power Plant emergency procedure synthesis is also described. Initial test results indicate that the approach is successful in dynamically synthesizing the procedures. The authors realize that the DPS framework is not a solution for all control tasks. However, many existing process and plant control problems satisfy the requirements discussed in the paper and should be able to benefit from the framework described

  17. Issues and approaches in control for autonomous reactor operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vilim, R. B.; Khalil, H. S.; Wei, T. Y. C.

    2000-01-01

    A capability for autonomous and passively safe operation is one of the goals of the NERI funded development of Generation IV nuclear plants. An approach is described for evaluating the effect of increasing autonomy on safety margins and load behavior and for examining issues that arise with increasing autonomy and their potential impact on performance. The method provides a formal approach to the process of exploiting the innate self-regulating property of a reactor to make it less dependent on operator action and less vulnerable to automatic control system fault and/or operator error. Some preliminary results are given

  18. Controlling Particle Morphologies at Fluid Interfaces: Macro- and Micro- approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beesabathuni, Shilpa Naidu

    The controlled generation of varying shaped particles is important for many applications: consumer goods, biomedical diagnostics, food processing, adsorbents and pharmaceuticals which can benefit from the availability of geometrically complex and chemically inhomogeneous particles. This thesis presents two approaches to spherical and non-spherical particle synthesis using macro and microfluidics. In the first approach, a droplet microfluidic technique is explored to fabricate spherical conducting polymer, polyaniline, particles with precise control over morphology and functionality. Microfluidics has recently emerged as an important alternate to the synthesis of complex particles. The conducting polymer, polyaniline, is widely used and known for its stability, high conductivity, and favorable redox properties. In this approach, monodisperse micron-sized polyaniline spherical particles were synthesized using two-phase droplet microfluidics from Aniline and Ammonium persulfate oxidative polymerization in an oil-based continuous phase. The morphology of the polymerized particles is porous in nature which can be used for encapsulation as well as controlled release applications. Encapsulation of an enzyme, glucose oxidase, was also performed using the technique to synthesize microspheres for glucose sensing. The polymer microspheres were characterized using SEM, UV-Vis and EDX to understand the relationship between their microstructure and stability. In the second approach, molten drop impact in a cooling aqueous medium to generate non-spherical particles was explored. Viscoelastic wax based materials are widely used in many applications and their performance and application depends on the particle morphology and size. The deformation of millimeter size molten wax drops as they impacted an immiscible liquid interface was investigated. Spherical molten wax drops impinged on a cooling water bath, then deformed and as a result of solidification were arrested into various

  19. Exact Fill Rates for the (R, S) Inventory Control with Discrete Distributed Demands for the Backordering Case

    OpenAIRE

    Eugenia BABILONI; Ester GUIJARRO; Manuel CARDÓS; Sofía ESTELLÉS

    2012-01-01

    The fill rate is usually computed by using the traditional approach, which calculates it as the complement of the quotient between the expected unfulfilled demand and the expected demand per replenishment cycle, instead of directly the expected fraction of fulfilled demand. Furthermore the available methods to estimate the fill rate apply only under specific demand conditions. This paper shows the research gap regarding the estimation procedures to compute the fill rate and suggests: (i) a ne...

  20. Retail inventory management with lost sales

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Curseu - Stefanut, A.

    2012-01-01

    The inventory control problem of traditional store-based grocery retailers has several challenging features. Demand for products is stochastic, and is typically lost when no inventory is available on the shelves. As the consumer behavior studies reveal, only a small percentage of customers are

  1. Management of asthma: new approaches to establishing control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarver, Nancy; Murphy, Kevin

    2009-01-01

    The high burden of asthma indicates suboptimal control of this chronic condition. This review describes approaches for establishing asthma control based on an understanding of potential issues in the achievement and maintenance of asthma control, recent changes in asthma management guidelines that facilitate attainment of treatment goals, and the importance of the healthcare provider-patient partnership to emphasize treatment based on asthma control. Review of the published literature, asthma management guidelines, and patient asthma education resources. Asthma control is best achieved by patient-oriented versus disease-oriented management strategies that incorporate a combination of pharmacologic and nonpharmacologic treatment modalities. Tools that assess and monitor asthma may facilitate the achievement and maintenance of asthma control. Key components of an optimal management strategy include solid partnerships between healthcare providers and patients, comprehensive patient and caregiver education, personalized written asthma action plans, patient-reported evaluation of symptom control, appropriate drug therapy, strategies for improving compliance with asthma medication regimens, and a treatment algorithm that outlines the facets of asthma management. Information presented in this article will guide nurse practitioners in helping patients with asthma achieve and maintain long-term disease control.

  2. Multimodel Predictive Control Approach for UAV Formation Flight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chang-jian Ru

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Formation flight problem is the most important and interesting problem of multiple UAVs (unmanned aerial vehicles cooperative control. In this paper, a novel approach for UAV formation flight based on multimodel predictive control is designed. Firstly, the state equation of relative motion is obtained and then discretized. By the geometrical method, the characteristic points of state are determined. Afterwards, based on the linearization technique, the standard linear discrete model is obtained at each characteristic state point. Then, weighted model set is proposed using the idea of T-S (Takagi-Sugeno fuzzy control and the predictive control is carried out based on the multimodel method. Finally, to verify the performance of the proposed method, two different simulation scenarios are performed.

  3. Evaluation of Voltage Control Approaches for Future Smart Distribution Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pengfei Wang

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper evaluates meta-heuristic and deterministic approaches for distribution network voltage control. As part of this evaluation, a novel meta-heuristic algorithm, Cuckoo Search, is applied for distribution network voltage control and compared with a deterministic voltage control algorithm, the oriented discrete coordinate decent method (ODCDM. ODCDM has been adopted in a state-of-the-art industrial product and applied in real distribution networks. These two algorithms have been evaluated under a set of test cases, which were generated to represent the voltage control problems in current and future distribution networks. Sampled test results have been presented, and findings have been discussed regarding the adoption of different optimization algorithms for current and future distribution networks.

  4. Generalized approach to bilateral control for EMG driven exoskeleton

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gradetsky Valery

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper discusses a generalized approach to bilateral control for EMG driven exoskeleton systems. In this paper we consider a semi-automatic mechatronic system that is controlled via human muscle activity (EMG level. The problem is to understand how the movement of the exoskeleton effects on the control. The considered system can be described in terms of bilateral control. This means the existence of force feedback from the object via the exoskeleton links and drives to operator. The simulation of the considered model was held on the MATLAB Simulink. The mathematical model of the bilateral system with exoskeleton and operator was developed. Transient functions for different dynamic parameters were obtained. It was shown that force feedback is essential for the R&D of such systems.

  5. Personality features in ultra-high risk for psychosis: a comparative study with schizophrenia and control subjects using the Temperament and Character Inventory-Revised (TCI-R).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fresán, Ana; León-Ortiz, Pablo; Robles-García, Rebeca; Azcárraga, Mariana; Guizar, Diana; Reyes-Madrigal, Francisco; Tovilla-Zárate, Carlos Alfonso; de la Fuente-Sandoval, Camilo

    2015-02-01

    Several variables have been identified as risk factors for conversion to overt psychosis in ultra-high risk for psychosis (UHR) individuals. Although almost two-thirds of them do not experience a transition to psychosis, they still exhibit functional disabilities. Other subjective developmental features may be useful for a more precise identification of individuals at UHR. Avoidant behaviors are consistently reported in schizophrenia and in UHR individuals and may be the reflection of a pattern of personality. Thus, personality features in UHR individuals deserves further research. The objective of the present study was to compare temperament and character dimensions between UHR individuals, patients with schizophrenia and healthy controls. One hundred participants (25 UHR individuals, 25 schizophrenia patients and 50 control subjects) where evaluated with the Temperament and Character Inventory-Revised (TCI-R). Univariate ANOVAs followed by Bonferroni tests were used. UHR individuals and schizophrenia patients exhibited higher levels of Harm Avoidance (HA) when compared to control subjects. For HA1 Anticipatory worry vs Uninhibited optimism and HA4 Fatigability & asthenia, UHR and schizophrenia groups showed similar scores and both groups were higher compared to control subjects. With respect to Cooperativeness (CO), UHR and schizophrenia reported lower scores than control subjects, in particular CO2 Empathy vs Social disinterest and CO3 Helpfulness vs unhelpfulness. This study replicates and extends the consideration of HA as a psychopathological related endophenotype and gives us further information of the possible role of personality features in the expression of some of the social dysfunctions observed both in prodromal subjects and schizophrenia patients. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Effect of inventory method on niche models: random versus systematic error

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heather E. Lintz; Andrew N. Gray; Bruce McCune

    2013-01-01

    Data from large-scale biological inventories are essential for understanding and managing Earth's ecosystems. The Forest Inventory and Analysis Program (FIA) of the U.S. Forest Service is the largest biological inventory in North America; however, the FIA inventory recently changed from an amalgam of different approaches to a nationally-standardized approach in...

  7. Advanced control room evaluation: General approach and rationale

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Hara, J.M.; Wachtel, J.

    1991-01-01

    Advanced control rooms (ACRs) for future nuclear power plants (NPPs) are being designed utilizing computer-based technologies. The US Nuclear Regulatory Commission reviews the human engineering aspects of such control rooms to ensure that they are designed to good human factors engineering principles and that operator performance and reliability are appropriately supported in order to protect public health and safety. This paper describes the rationale and general approach to the development of a human factors review guideline for ACRs. The factors influencing the guideline development are discussed, including the review environment, the types of advanced technologies being addressed, the human factors issues associated with advanced technology, and the current state-of-the-art of human factors guidelines for advanced human-system interfaces (HSIs). The proposed approach to ACR review would track the design and implementation process through the application of review guidelines reflecting four review modules: planning, design process analysis, human factors engineering review, and dynamic performance evaluation. 21 refs

  8. Mathematical models for therapeutic approaches to control HIV disease transmission

    CERN Document Server

    Roy, Priti Kumar

    2015-01-01

    The book discusses different therapeutic approaches based on different mathematical models to control the HIV/AIDS disease transmission. It uses clinical data, collected from different cited sources, to formulate the deterministic as well as stochastic mathematical models of HIV/AIDS. It provides complementary approaches, from deterministic and stochastic points of view, to optimal control strategy with perfect drug adherence and also tries to seek viewpoints of the same issue from different angles with various mathematical models to computer simulations. The book presents essential methods and techniques for students who are interested in designing epidemiological models on HIV/AIDS. It also guides research scientists, working in the periphery of mathematical modeling, and helps them to explore a hypothetical method by examining its consequences in the form of a mathematical modelling and making some scientific predictions. The model equations, mathematical analysis and several numerical simulations that are...

  9. Assessing Probabilistic Risk Assessment Approaches for Insect Biological Control Introductions

    OpenAIRE

    Kaufman, Leyla V.; Wright, Mark G.

    2017-01-01

    The introduction of biological control agents to new environments requires host specificity tests to estimate potential non-target impacts of a prospective agent. Currently, the approach is conservative, and is based on physiological host ranges determined under captive rearing conditions, without consideration for ecological factors that may influence realized host range. We use historical data and current field data from introduced parasitoids that attack an endemic Lepidoptera species in H...

  10. Exponential stability for formation control systems with generalized controllers: A unified approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sun, Zhiyong; Mou, Shaoshuai; Anderson, Brian D.O.; Cao, Ming

    2016-01-01

    This paper discusses generalized controllers for distance-based rigid formation shape stabilization and aims to provide a unified approach for the convergence analysis. We consider two types of formation control systems according to different characterizations of target formations: minimally rigid

  11. A Hybrid Sensor Based Backstepping Control Approach with its Application to Fault-Tolerant Flight Control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sun, L.G.; De Visser, C.C.; Chu, Q.P.; Falkena, W.

    2013-01-01

    Recently, an incremental type sensor based backstepping (SBB) control approach, based on singular perturbation theory and Tikhonov’s theorem, has been proposed. This Lyapunov function based method uses measurements of control variables and less model knowledge, and it is not susceptible to the model

  12. Inventory - Dollars and sense

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samson, J.R.

    1992-01-01

    Nuclear utilities are becoming more aware of the importance of having an inventory investment that supports two opposing philosophies. The business philosophy wants a minimal inventory investment to support a better return on invested dollars. This increase in return comes from having the dollars available to invest versus having the money tied up in inventory sitting on the shelf. The opposing viewpoint is taken by maintenance/operations organizations, which desire the maximum inventory available on-site to repair any component at any time to keep the units on-line at all times. Financial managers also want to maintain cash flow throughout operations so that plants run without interruptions. Inventory management is therefore a mixture of financial logistics with an operation perspective in mind. A small amount of common sense and accurate perception also help. The challenge to the materials/inventory manager is to optimize effectiveness of the inventory by having high material availability at the lowest possible cost

  13. KENDALI OPTIMAL DARI SISTEM INVENTORI DENGAN PENINGKATAN DAN PENURUNAN BARANG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P Affandi

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Terdapat banyak permasalahan yang melibatkan teori sistem dan teori kontrol serta aplikasinya. Contohnya, beberapa referensi teori  yang mengaplikasikan teori kontrol ke dalam masalah inventori. Masalah klasik dalam masalah inventori adalah bagaimana mengatur perubahan permintaan konsumen pada sebuah produk barang jadi. Selain mengalami penurunan yang disebabkan kerusakan dan kemerosotan, ternyata inventori juga bisa mengalami peningkatan. Biasanya, inventori yang mengalami peningkatan terjadi pada inventori yang melakukan proses produksi yang berlangsung secara terus menerus; Sedangkan permintaan sedikit juga terjadi pada inventori makhluk hidup yang mengalami perkembangbiakan. Selanjutnya, hal ini mengakibatkan terjadinya peningkatan jumlah inventori. Dapat disimpulkan bahwa secara teori, sistem Inventori dapat mengalami peningkatan dan penurunan. Masalah ini dapat dimodelkan dan diselesaikan dengan menggunakan teknik kontrol optimal, sehingga akan diperoleh nilai optimal tingkat inventori dan rata-rata produksi optimal.There are many problems involving the theory of systems, control theory and its application. For example, some reference theories apply control theory to the inventory problems. The classical problem in the inventory problem was how to manage changes in consumer demand in a finished product. Besides it declines caused by damage and deterioration, evidently inventory can also increase. Typically, inventories that increased were inventories have production process continues over time; While little demand also occurred in inventories of living beings who have breeding. evidently, this led to an increasing in the amount of inventory. It can be concluded that, in theory, inventory system can be increased and decreased. This problem can be modeled and solved using optimal control techniques, so it will be obtained an optimum value of inventory levels and the average optimal production.

  14. Risk-based configuration control system: Analysis and approaches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samanta, P.K.; Kim, I.S.; Lofgren, E.V.; Vesely, W.E.

    1990-01-01

    This paper presents an analysis of risks associated with component outage configurations during power operation of a nuclear power plant and discusses approaches and strategies for developing a risk-based configuration control system. A configuration, as used here, is a set of component states. The objective of risk-based configuration control is to detect and control plant configurations using a risk-perspective. The configuration contributions to core-melt frequency and core-melt probability are studied for two plants. Large core-melt frequency can be caused by configurations and there are a number of such configurations that are not currently controlled by technical specifications. However, the expected frequency of occurrence of the impacting configurations is small and the actual core-melt probability contributions are also generally small. Effective strategies and criteria for controlling configuration risks are presented. Such control strategies take into consideration the risks associated with configurations, the nature and characteristics of the configuration risks, and also the practical considerations such as adequate repair times and/or options to transfer to low risk configurations. Alternative types of criteria are discussed that are not overly restrictive to result in unnecessary plant shutdown, but rather motivates effective test and maintenance practices that control risk-significant configurations to allow continued operation with an adequate margin to meet challenges to safety

  15. Risk-based configuration control system: Analysis and approaches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samanta, P.K.; Vesely, W.E.; Kim, I.S.; Lofgren, E.V.

    1989-01-01

    This paper presents an analysis of risks associated with component outage configurations during power operation of a nuclear power plant and discusses approaches and strategies for developing a risk-based configuration control system. A configuration, as used here, is a set of component states. The objective of risk-based configuration control is to detect and control plant configurations using a risk-perspective. The configuration contributions to core-melt frequency and core-melt probability are studied for two plants. Large core-melt frequency can be caused by configurations and there are a number of such configurations that are not currently controlled by technical specifications. However, the expected frequency of occurrence of the impacting configurations is small and the actual core-melt probability contributions are also generally small. Effective strategies and criteria for controlling configuration risks are presented. Such control strategies take into consideration the risks associated with configurations, the nature and characteristics of the configuration risks, and also the practical considerations such as adequate repair times and/or options to transfer to low risk configurations. Alternative types of criteria are discussed that are not overly restrictive to result in unnecessary plant shutdown, but rather motivates effective tests and maintenance practices that control; risk-significant configurations to allow continued operation with an adequate margin to meet challenges to safety. 3 refs., 7 figs., 2 tabs

  16. Application of controllable unit approach (CUA) to performance-criterion-based nuclear material control and accounting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foster, K.W.; Rogers, D.R.

    1979-01-01

    The Nuclear Regulatory Commission is considering the use of maximum-loss performance criteria as a means of controlling SNM in nuclear plants. The Controllable Unit Approach to material control and accounting (CUA) was developed by Mound to determine the feasibility of controlling a plant to a performance criterion. The concept was tested with the proposed Anderson, SC, mixed-oxide plant, and it was shown that CUA is indeed a feasible method for controlling a complex process to a performance criterion. The application of CUA to an actual low-enrichment plant to assist the NRC in establishing performance criteria for uranium processes is discussed. 5 refs

  17. Intelligent control system Cellular Robotics Approach to Nuclear Plant control and maintenance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fukuda, Toshio; Sekiyama, Kousuke; Xue Guoqing; Ueyama, Tsuyoshi.

    1994-01-01

    This paper presents the concept of Cellular Robotic System (CEBOT) and describe the strategy of a distributed sensing, control and planning as a Cellular Robotics Approach to the Nuclear Plant control and maintenance. Decentralized System is effective in large plant and The CEBOT possesses desirable features for realization of Nuclear Plant control and maintenance because of its flexibility and adaptability. Also, as related on going research work, self-organizing manipulator and communication issues are mentioned. (author)

  18. A deterministic - approach controller design for electrohydraulic position servo control system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johari Osman

    2000-01-01

    This paper is concerned with the design of a tracking controller for controlling electrohydraulic position servo system based on a deterministic approach. The system is treated as an uncertain system with bounded uncertainties where the bounds are assumed known. It will be shown that the electrohydraulic position servo systems with the proposed controller is practically stable and tracks the desired position in spite of the uncertainties and nonlinearities present in the system (author)

  19. A line of defense approach to fissile material control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holloway, S.P.; Holloway, N.J.

    1995-01-01

    A crucial element of the safety policy of the UK Atomic Weapons Establishment (AWE) is that concerned with the safe control of fissile material in order to minimize the potential for unplanned criticality. The principles by which AWE controls fissile material advocate a simple Line of Defense (LOD) approach to assessing criticality-safety related aspects of fissile operations. An LOD assessment provides a measure of the depth of defense available to prevent general types of criticality accident and can be used to demonstrate compliance with the risk-based Basic Safety Limits (BSLs) and Objectives (BSOs) used by the UK Nuclear Installations Inspectorate (NII) to judge the safety of operations in accordance with its Safety Assessment Principles (SAPs) for Nuclear Plants. This paper discusses the LOD concept, the basis of LOD assessment and describes LODs specific to criticality control

  20. Control of Bovine Mastitis: Old and Recent Therapeutic Approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes, Fernanda; Henriques, Mariana

    2016-04-01

    Mastitis is defined as the inflammatory response resulting of the infection of the udder tissue and it is reported in numerous species, namely in domestic dairy animals. This pathology is the most frequent disease of dairy cattle and can be potentially fatal. Mastitis is an economically important pathology associated with reduced milk production, changes in milk composition and quality, being considered one of the most costly to dairy industry. Therefore, the majority of research in the field has focused on control of bovine mastitis and many efforts are being made for the development of new and effective anti-mastitis drugs. Antibiotic treatment is an established component of mastitis control programs; however, the continuous search for new therapeutic alternatives, effective in the control and treatment of bovine mastitis, is urgent. This review will provide an overview of some conventional and emerging approaches in the management of bovine mastitis' infections.

  1. Stall Recovery Guidance Algorithms Based on Constrained Control Approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stepanyan, Vahram; Krishnakumar, Kalmanje; Kaneshige, John; Acosta, Diana

    2016-01-01

    Aircraft loss-of-control, in particular approach to stall or fully developed stall, is a major factor contributing to aircraft safety risks, which emphasizes the need to develop algorithms that are capable of assisting the pilots to identify the problem and providing guidance to recover the aircraft. In this paper we present several stall recovery guidance algorithms, which are implemented in the background without interfering with flight control system and altering the pilot's actions. They are using input and state constrained control methods to generate guidance signals, which are provided to the pilot in the form of visual cues. It is the pilot's decision to follow these signals. The algorithms are validated in the pilot-in-the loop medium fidelity simulation experiment.

  2. Risk-based configuration control system: Analysis and approaches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samanta, P.K.; Kim, I.S.; Vesely, W.E.; Lofgren, E.V.

    1989-01-01

    This paper presents an evaluation of the configuration risks associated with the operation of a nuclear power plant and the approaches to control these risks using risk-based configuration control considerations. In that context, the actual and maximum potential configuration risks at a plant are analyzed and the alternative types criteria for a risk-based configuration control systems are described. The risk-based configuration calculations which are studied here focus on the core-melt frequency impacts from given plant configurations. By calculating the core-melt frequency for given configurations, the configurations which cause large core-melt frequency increases can be identified and controlled. The duration time in which the configuration can exist can then be limited or the core-melt frequency level associated with the configuration can be reduced by various actions. Furthermore, maintenances and tests can be scheduled to avoid the configurations which cause large core-melt frequency increases. Present technical specifications do not control many of these configurations which can cause large core-melt frequency increases but instead focus on many risk-unimportant allowed outage times. Hence, risk-based configuration management can be effectively used to reduce core-melt frequency associated risks at a plant and at the same time can provide flexibility in plant operation. The alternative strategies for controlling the core-melt frequency and other risk contributions include: (1) controlling the increased risk level which is associated with the configuration; (2) controlling the individual configuration risk which is associated with a given duration of a configuration; (3) controlling the time period configuration risk from configurations which occur in a time period

  3. Force Control for a Pneumatic Cylinder Using Generalized Predictive Controller Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad ’Athif Mohd Faudzi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Pneumatic cylinder is a well-known device because of its high power to weight ratio, easy use, and environmental safety. Pneumatic cylinder uses air as its power source and converts it to a possible movement such as linear and rotary movement. In order to control the pneumatic cylinder, controller algorithm is needed to control the on-off solenoid valve with encoder and pressure sensor as the feedback inputs. In this paper, generalized predictive controller (GPC is proposed as the control strategy for the pneumatic cylinder force control. To validate and compare the performance, proportional-integral (PI controller is also presented. Both controllers algorithms GPC and PI are developed using existing linear model of the cylinder from previous research. Results are presented in simulation and experimental approach using MATLAB-Simulink as the platform. The results show that the GPC is capable of fast response with low steady state error and percentage overshoot compared to PI.

  4. Validation and Standardization of the Weight Control Perceived Self-Effi cacy Inventory in a Mexican College Population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erick Landeros-Olvera

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: Evaluar si el inventario Auto-eficacia Percibida para el Control de Peso (AP-CP es reproducible en población universitaria. Material y Métodos: Estudio de proceso, observacional y prolectivo. Se invitó a 60 sujetos de dos regiones geográficas de México para responder el AP-CP en dos ocasiones por separado. Resultados. El Índice de Validez de Contenido fue de 0.96. En la prueba re-prueba, la diferencia promedio fue 0.7; coeficiente α =0.95. El inventario también fue sensible para detectar diferencias de acuerdo a género y grados de IMC. Conclusión. El inventario AP-CP es reproducible y sensible para aplicarse en población mexicana universitaria.

  5. Suppression of hydrogenated carbon film deposition by scavenger techniques and their application to the tritium inventory control of fusion devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tabares, F.L.; Tafalla, D.; Tanarro, I.; Herrero, V.J.; Islyaikin, A.; Maffiotte, C.

    2002-01-01

    The well-known radical and ion scavenger techniques of application in amorphous hydrogenated carbon film deposition studies are investigated in relation to the mechanism of tritium and deuterium co-deposition in carbon-dominated fusion devices. A particularly successful scheme results from the injection of nitrogen into methane/hydrogen plasmas for conditions close to those prevailing in the divertor region of present fusion devices. A complete suppression of the a-C : H film deposition has been achieved for N 2 /CH 4 ratios close to one in methane (5%)/hydrogen DC plasma. The implications of these findings in the tritium retention control in future fusion reactors are addressed. (author). Letter-to-the-editor

  6. Controle de estoque por revisão contínua e revisão periódica: uma análise comparativa utilizando simulação Continuous and periodic review inventory control: a comparative analysis using simulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hobed Rosa

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available O estudo e a concepção de modelos de gestão de estoque, baseados na ideia básica de lote econômico de compra (LEC, continuam sendo áreas de interesse para pesquisa. Mais recentemente, tais pesquisas têm abordado a avaliação e a quantificação dos impactos desses modelos sobre a performance da cadeia de suprimentos. Nesse sentido, este trabalho investiga a importância, do ponto de vista de estoque médio e custo total, de se trabalhar com fornecedores que garantam prazos de entrega confiáveis quando o LEC é adotado como política de reposição. Utilizando simulação, duas sistemáticas (Q e P de controle de estoque são comparadas para níveis distintos de dispersão do tempo médio de ressuprimento do fornecedor. Para tempos de ressuprimento inferiores ou próximos ao intervalo ótimo de pedido, a sistemática Q mostra-se vantajosa, enquanto para tempos maiores as duas sistemáticas praticamente se equivalem. Testes de hipótese são utilizados para análise dos resultados.The basic idea introduced in the Economic Order Quantity (EOQ model is still an important approach in the study and design of models for inventory management. Recently, some research projects have sought to assess the effects and impacts of these inventory models on supply chain performance. In this context, the paper investigates the consequence of supplier delivery lead-time uncertainty on average inventory held and total cost incurred over a period in a company that uses EOQ rules as replenishment policy. Through computer simulation we compare two inventory control models (herein referred to as Q and P "systematic" using a range of values for the supplier's delivery lead time standard deviation. When lead-time is short or close to optimum replenishment interval systematic Q is found to be better. However, for long delivery lead-time the results of both models are nearly equals. Statistical hypothesis tests are applied in the analyses.

  7. Forest Carbon Storage in the Northern Midwest, USA: A Bottom-Up Scaling Approach Combining Local Meteorological and Biometric Data With Regional Forest Inventories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curtis, P. S.; Gough, C. M.; Vogel, C. S.

    2005-12-01

    Carbon (C) storage increasingly is considered an important part of the economic return of forestlands, making easily parameterized models for assessing current and future C storage important for both ecosystem and money managers. For the deciduous forests of the northern midwest, USA, detailed information relating annual C storage to local site characteristics can be combined with spatially extensive forest inventories to produce simple, robust models of C storage useful at a variety of scales. At the University of Michigan Biological Station (45o35`' N, 84o42`' W) we measured C storage, or net ecosystem production (NEP), in 65 forest stands varying in age, disturbance history, and productivity (site index) using biometric methods, and independently measured net C exchange at the landscape level using meteorological methods. Our biometric and meteorological estimates of NEP converged to within 1% of each other over five years, providing important confirmation of the robustness of these two approaches applied within northern deciduous forests (Gough et al. 2005). We found a significant relationship between NEP, stand age ( A, yrs), and site index ( Is, m), where NEP = 0.134 + 0.022 * (LN[ A* Is]) (r2 = 0.50, P database (ncrs2.fs.fed.us/4801/fiadb/) to estimate forest C storage at different scales across the upper midwest, Great Lakes region. Model estimates were validated against independent estimates of C storage for other forests in the region. At the local ecosystem-level (~1 km2) C storage averaged 1.52 Mg ha-1 yr-1. Scaling to the two-county area surrounding our meteorological and biometric study sites, average stand age decreased and site index increased, resulting in estimated storage of 1.62 Mg C ha-1 yr-1, or 0.22 Tg C yr-1 in the 1350 km2 of deciduous forest in this area. For the state of Michigan (31,537 km2 of deciduous forest), average uptake was estimated at 1.55 Mg C ha-1 yr-1, or 4.9 Tg C yr-1 total storage. For the three state region encompassing

  8. S-variable approach to LMI-based robust control

    CERN Document Server

    Ebihara, Yoshio; Arzelier, Denis

    2015-01-01

    This book shows how the use of S-variables (SVs) in enhancing the range of problems that can be addressed with the already-versatile linear matrix inequality (LMI) approach to control can, in many cases, be put on a more unified, methodical footing. Beginning with the fundamentals of the SV approach, the text shows how the basic idea can be used for each problem (and when it should not be employed at all). The specific adaptations of the method necessitated by each problem are also detailed. The problems dealt with in the book have the common traits that: analytic closed-form solutions are not available; and LMIs can be applied to produce numerical solutions with a certain amount of conservatism. Typical examples are robustness analysis of linear systems affected by parametric uncertainties and the synthesis of a linear controller satisfying multiple, often  conflicting, design specifications. For problems in which LMI methods produce conservative results, the SV approach is shown to achieve greater accuracy...

  9. A bottom-up approach to automatically configured Tango control systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rubio-Manrique, S.; Beltran, D.; Costa, I.; Fernandez-Carreiras, D.; Gigante, J.V.; Klora, J.; Matilla, O.; Ranz, R.; Ribas, J.; Sanchez, O.

    2012-01-01

    Alba is the first synchrotron light source built in Spain. Most of Alba control system has been developed on top of Tango control system. An amount of 5531 devices are controlled in Alba accelerators (linac, booster and storage ring) using 150 Linux PCs. Alba maintains a central repository, so called 'Cabling and Controls database' (CCDB), which keeps the inventory of equipment, cables, connections and their configuration and technical specifications. The valuable information kept in this MySQL database enables some tools to automatically create and configure Tango devices and other software components of the control systems of Accelerators, beamlines and laboratories. This paper describes the process involved in this automatic setup

  10. Safeguards inventory and process monitoring regulatory comparison

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cavaluzzi, Jack M. [Texas A & M Univ., College Station, TX (United States); Gibbs, Philip W. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States)

    2013-06-27

    Detecting the theft or diversion of the relatively small amount of fissile material needed to make a nuclear weapon given the normal operating capacity of many of today’s running nuclear production facilities is a difficult task. As throughput increases, the ability of the Material Control and Accountability (MC&A) Program to detect the material loss decreases because the statistical measurement uncertainty also increases. The challenge faced is the ability of current accounting, measurement, and material control programs to detect small yet significant losses under some regulatory approaches can decrease to the point where it is extremely low if not practically non-existent at normal operating capacities. Adding concern to this topic is that there are variations among regulatory bodies as far as what is considered a Significant Quantity (SQ). Some research suggests that thresholds should be lower than those found in any current regulation which if adopted would make meeting detection goals even more difficult. This paper reviews and compares the current regulatory requirements for the MA elements related to physical inventory, uncertainty of the Inventory Difference (ID), and Process Monitoring (PM) in the United States Department of Energy (DOE) and Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), Rosatom of the Russian Federation and the Chinese Atomic Energy Agency (CAEA) of China. The comparison looks at how the regulatory requirements for the implementation of various MA elements perform across a range of operating capacities in example facilities.

  11. Robust and optimal control a two-port framework approach

    CERN Document Server

    Tsai, Mi-Ching

    2014-01-01

    A Two-port Framework for Robust and Optimal Control introduces an alternative approach to robust and optimal controller synthesis procedures for linear, time-invariant systems, based on the two-port system widespread in electrical engineering. The novel use of the two-port system in this context allows straightforward engineering-oriented solution-finding procedures to be developed, requiring no mathematics beyond linear algebra. A chain-scattering description provides a unified framework for constructing the stabilizing controller set and for synthesizing H2 optimal and H∞ sub-optimal controllers. Simple yet illustrative examples explain each step. A Two-port Framework for Robust and Optimal Control  features: ·         a hands-on, tutorial-style presentation giving the reader the opportunity to repeat the designs presented and easily to modify them for their own programs; ·         an abundance of examples illustrating the most important steps in robust and optimal design; and ·   �...

  12. Quantum Ensemble Classification: A Sampling-Based Learning Control Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chunlin; Dong, Daoyi; Qi, Bo; Petersen, Ian R; Rabitz, Herschel

    2017-06-01

    Quantum ensemble classification (QEC) has significant applications in discrimination of atoms (or molecules), separation of isotopes, and quantum information extraction. However, quantum mechanics forbids deterministic discrimination among nonorthogonal states. The classification of inhomogeneous quantum ensembles is very challenging, since there exist variations in the parameters characterizing the members within different classes. In this paper, we recast QEC as a supervised quantum learning problem. A systematic classification methodology is presented by using a sampling-based learning control (SLC) approach for quantum discrimination. The classification task is accomplished via simultaneously steering members belonging to different classes to their corresponding target states (e.g., mutually orthogonal states). First, a new discrimination method is proposed for two similar quantum systems. Then, an SLC method is presented for QEC. Numerical results demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed approach for the binary classification of two-level quantum ensembles and the multiclass classification of multilevel quantum ensembles.

  13. Managing and reallocating inventory across two markets with local information

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spiliotopoulou, E.

    2018-01-01

    Consider a firm that controls inventory centrally for two separate markets that are managed by regional managers having local demand information. The central planner provides a dedicated inventory level to each market, to ensure a minimum service level, but can reallocate inventory once associated

  14. 76 FR 33780 - Extension of Time for Inventory

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-09

    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR National Park Service [2253-665] Extension of Time for Inventory AGENCY... inventories of Native American human remains and associated funerary objects in their possession or control. Recent regulations (43 CFR 10.13) provide deadlines for completing inventories of human remains and...

  15. Review of inventory systems with deterioration since 2001

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakker, M.; Riezebos, J.; Teunter, R.H.

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents an up-to-date review of the advances made in the field of inventory control of perishable items (deteriorating inventory). The last extensive review on this topic dates back to 2001 (Goyal S.K. and Giri B.C., Recent trends in modeling of deteriorating inventory, European Journal

  16. Clearinghouse for Inventories and Emissions Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emissions inventories, modeling, and monitoring are the basis for understanding, controlling and tracking stationary sources of air pollution. This technical site provides access to tools and data to support those efforts.

  17. Model of the impact of parameters controlling replenishment in the bs (min-max) continuous review system on the actual inventory availibility

    OpenAIRE

    Stanisław Krzyżaniak

    2015-01-01

    Background: Due to random changes in demand, inventory management is still - despite the development of alternative goods flow management concepts - an important issue both in terms of costs of maintenance and replenishment as well as the level of service measured by inventory availability levels. There are a number of replenishment systems to be used in such conditions, but they are most often formed on the basis of two basic ones: a system based on the reorder point and based on periodic in...

  18. Application of stochastic approach based on Monte Carlo (MC) simulation for life cycle inventory (LCI) of the rare earth elements (REEs) in beneficiation rare earth waste from the gold processing: case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bieda, Bogusław; Grzesik, Katarzyna

    2017-11-01

    The study proposes an stochastic approach based on Monte Carlo (MC) simulation for life cycle assessment (LCA) method limited to life cycle inventory (LCI) study for rare earth elements (REEs) recovery from the secondary materials processes production applied to the New Krankberg Mine in Sweden. The MC method is recognizes as an important tool in science and can be considered the most effective quantification approach for uncertainties. The use of stochastic approach helps to characterize the uncertainties better than deterministic method. Uncertainty of data can be expressed through a definition of probability distribution of that data (e.g. through standard deviation or variance). The data used in this study are obtained from: (i) site-specific measured or calculated data, (ii) values based on literature, (iii) the ecoinvent process "rare earth concentrate, 70% REO, from bastnäsite, at beneficiation". Environmental emissions (e.g, particulates, uranium-238, thorium-232), energy and REE (La, Ce, Nd, Pr, Sm, Dy, Eu, Tb, Y, Sc, Yb, Lu, Tm, Y, Gd) have been inventoried. The study is based on a reference case for the year 2016. The combination of MC analysis with sensitivity analysis is the best solution for quantified the uncertainty in the LCI/LCA. The reliability of LCA results may be uncertain, to a certain degree, but this uncertainty can be noticed with the help of MC method.

  19. Effective inventory management for nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MacFarlane, I.S.

    1985-01-01

    Effective inventory management plays a major role at nuclear power plants toward achieving a high level of availability in a cost-effective manner. It enables maintenance personnel to obtain the correct parts easily, when needed, and in satisfactory condition to perform as intended. In addition, appropriate controls and documentation ensure parts are being used in the correct equipment application. The following elements of inventory management will help achieve plant availability goals: (1) appropriate inventory levels, (2) preapproved procurement requirements, (3) storage maintenance, (4) documentation of parts, and (5) control of computer data base

  20. Intermediacy between political control and institutional autonomy: A transformative approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nirmala Dorasamy

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The public sector is about providing services, managing resources efficiently and securing a return on investment. Producing results and managing performance depends on adaptation, flexibility and creativity. While one may argue for greater control to achieve performance indicators, this has to be underpinned by managerial control systems both internally and externally. Post NPM reforms have tried to respond to the problem of single purpose organisations that have distanced political control. While post NPM reforms tipped the scale toward more political control, it did not restore the balance between control and autonomy. In view of the NPM and post NPM reforms and the accompanying challenges, the paper argues that it is not possible to device a “one size fits all” response to these challenges. In trying to analyse the dilemma of balancing political control and institutional autonomy an institutional theoretical perspective is used by analysing structural and instrumental features (national political environment, cultural features (historical administrative traditions and external constraints (technical and institutional environments. It needs to be recognised that the aforementioned features have constraints. The structural and instrumental features specify the formal constraints on leaderships decisions. These constraints may give political leaders strong hierarchical control or may not give them much direction, but a lot of potential discretionary influence. The cultural features specify that public organisations develop informal norms and values which lead to a distinct institutional culture. While these informal norms and values are infused in formal structures and decision making, it may be inconsistent with the sub-culture, thereby giving it less systemic influence. The technical and institutional environment which focuses on efficiency production and internal culture may develop beliefs over time that cannot be ignored. Christensen

  1. Vendor-managed inventory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Govindan, Kannan

    2013-01-01

    Vendor-managed inventory (VMI) represents the methodology through which the upstream stage of a supply chain (vendor) takes responsibility for managing the inventories at the downstream stage (customer) based on previously agreed limits. VMI is another method by which supply chains can be managed...... review, we have identified six dimensions of VMI: namely, inventory, transportation, manufacturing, general benefits, coordination/collaboration, and information sharing. In addition, there are, three methodological classifications: modelling, simulation, and case studies. Finally, we will consider...

  2. Robust motion control of oscillatory-base manipulators h∞-control and sliding-mode-control-based approaches

    CERN Document Server

    Toda, Masayoshi

    2016-01-01

    This book provides readers with alternative robust approaches to control design for an important class of systems characteristically associated with ocean-going vessels and structures. These systems, which include crane vessels, on-board cranes, radar gimbals, and a conductivity temperature and depth winch, are modelled as manipulators with oscillating bases. One design approach is based on the H-infinity control framework exploiting an effective combination of PD control, an extended matrix polytope and a robust stability analysis method with a state-dependent coefficient form. The other is based on sliding-mode control using some novel nonlinear sliding surfaces. The model demonstrates how successful motion control can be achieved by suppressing base oscillations and in the presence of uncertainties. This is important not only for ocean engineering systems in which the problems addressed here originate but more generally as a benchmark platform for robust motion control with disturbance rejection. Researche...

  3. Valuation of inventories in systems with product recovery

    OpenAIRE

    Teunter, Ruud; Laan, Erwin

    2003-01-01

    textabstractValuation of inventories has different purposes, in particular accounting and decision making, and it is not necessary for a firm to use the same valuation method for both purposes. In fact, it is not uncommon to use accounting books as well as management books. In this chapter, we will only consider inventory values from the perspective of decision making. More specifically, we will analyze the effect of inventory valuation on inventory control decisions (and not the correspondin...

  4. National Wetlands Inventory Lines

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — Linear wetland features (including selected streams, ditches, and narrow wetland bodies) mapped as part of the National Wetlands Inventory (NWI). The National...

  5. Data-Driven Controller Design The H2 Approach

    CERN Document Server

    Sanfelice Bazanella, Alexandre; Eckhard, Diego

    2012-01-01

    Data-driven methodologies have recently emerged as an important paradigm alternative to model-based controller design and several such methodologies are formulated as an H2 performance optimization. This book presents a comprehensive theoretical treatment of the H2 approach to data-driven control design. The fundamental properties implied by the H2 problem formulation are analyzed in detail, so that common features to all solutions are identified. Direct methods (VRFT) and iterative methods (IFT, DFT, CbT) are put under a common theoretical framework. The choice of the reference model, the experimental conditions, the optimization method to be used, and several other designer’s choices are crucial to the quality of the final outcome, and firm guidelines for all these choices are derived from the theoretical analysis presented. The practical application of the concepts in the book is illustrated with a large number of practical designs performed for different classes of processes: thermal, fluid processing a...

  6. Study of Intelligent Secure Chemical Inventory Management System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shukran, Mohd Afizi Mohd; Naim Abdullah, Muhammad; Nazri Ismail, Mohd; Maskat, Kamaruzaman; Isa, Mohd Rizal Mohd; Shahfee Ishak, Muhammad; Adib Khairuddin, Muhamad

    2017-08-01

    Chemical inventory management system has been experiencing a new revolution from traditional inventory system which is manual to an automated inventory management system. In this paper, some review of the classic and modern approaches to chemical inventory management system has been discussed. This paper also describe about both type of inventory management. After a comparative analysis of the traditional method and automated method, it can be said that both methods have some distinctive characteristics. Moreover, the automated inventory management method has higher accuracy of calculation because the calculations are handled by software, eliminating possible errors and saving time. The automated inventory system also allows users and administrators to track the availability, location and consumption of chemicals. The study of this paper can provide forceful review analysis support for the chemical inventory management related research.

  7. Vitamin D Supplementation Affects the Beck Depression Inventory, Insulin Resistance, and Biomarkers of Oxidative Stress in Patients with Major Depressive Disorder: A Randomized, Controlled Clinical Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sepehrmanesh, Zahra; Kolahdooz, Fariba; Abedi, Fatemeh; Mazroii, Navid; Assarian, Amin; Asemi, Zatollah; Esmaillzadeh, Ahmad

    2016-02-01

    Vitamin D may decrease depression symptoms through its beneficial effects on neurotransmitters, metabolic profiles, biomarkers of inflammation, and oxidative stress. This study was designed to assess whether vitamin D supplementation can reduce symptoms of depression, metabolic profiles, serum high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP), and biomarkers of oxidative stress in patients with major depressive disorder (MDD). This randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial was performed in 40 patients between 18 and 65 y of age with a diagnosis of MDD based on criteria from the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders. Patients were randomly assigned to receive either a single capsule of 50 kIU vitamin D/wk (n = 20) or placebo (n = 20) for 8 wk. Fasting blood samples were taken at baseline and postintervention to quantify relevant variables. The primary [Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), which examines depressive symptoms] and secondary (glucose homeostasis variables, lipid profiles, hs-CRP, and biomarkers of oxidative stress) outcomes were assessed. Baseline concentrations of mean serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D were significantly different between the 2 groups (9.2 ± 6.0 and 13.6 ± 7.9 μg/L in the placebo and control groups, respectively, P = 0.02). After 8 wk of intervention, changes in serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentrations were significantly greater in the vitamin D group (+20.4 μg/L) than in the placebo group (-0.9 μg/L, P stress. This trial was registered at www.irct.ir as IRCT201412065623N29. © 2016 American Society for Nutrition.

  8. Minnesota multiphasic personality inventory-2 restructured form (MMPI-2-RF) scale score differences in bariatric surgery candidates diagnosed with binge eating disorder versus BMI-matched controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marek, Ryan J; Ben-Porath, Yossef S; Ashton, Kathleen; Heinberg, Leslie J

    2014-04-01

    Binge Eating Disorder (BED) is among the most common psychiatric disorders in bariatric surgery candidates. The Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2 Restructured Form (MMPI-2-RF) is a broadband, psychological test that includes measures of emotional and behavioral dysfunction, which have been associated with BED behaviors in bariatric surgery candidates; however these studies have lacked appropriate controls. In the current study, we compared MMPI-2-RF scale scores of bariatric surgery patients diagnosed with BED (BED+) with BMI-matched controls without BED (BED-). Three-hundred and seven BED+ participants (72.64% female and 67.87% Caucasian; mean BMI of 51.36 kg/m(2) [SD = 11.94]) were drawn from a large, database (N = 1304). Three-hundred and seven BED- participants were matched on BMI and demographics (72.64% female, 68.63% Caucasian, and mean BMI of 51.30 kg/m(2) [SD = 11.70]). The BED+ group scored significantly higher on measures of Demoralization, Low Positive Emotions, and Dysfunctional Negative Emotions and scored lower on measures of Antisocial Behaviors, reflecting behavioral constraint. Optimal T-Score cutoffs were below the traditional 65 T score for several MMPI-2-RF scales. MMPI-2-RF externalizing measures also added incrementally to differentiating between the groups beyond the Binge Eating Scale (BES). BED+ individuals produced greater elevations on a number of MMPI-2-RF internalizing scales and externalizing scales. Use of the test in conjunction with a clinical interview and other self-report data can further aid the clinician in guiding patients to appropriate treatment to optimize outcome. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Novel Approach to Control of Robotic Hand Using Flex Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandesh R.S

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper discuss about novel design approach to control of a robotic hand using flex sensors which indicates a biomechatronic multi fingered robotic hand. This robotic hand consists of base unit, upper arm, lower arm, palm and five fingers. The aim is to develop an anthropomorphic five fingered robotic hand. The proposed design illustrates the use of 5 micro DC motors with 9 Degrees of Freedom (DOF.Each finger is controlled independently. Further three extra motors were used for the control of wrist elbow and base movement. The study of the DC motor is being carried out using the transfer function model for constant excitation. The micro DC motor performance was analyzed using MATLAB simulation environment. The whole system is implemented using flex sensors. The flex sensors placed on the human hand gloves appear as if they look like real human hand.  89v51 microcontroller was used for all the controlling actions along with RF transmitter/receiver .The performance of the system has been conducted experimentally and studied.

  10. Fault Tolerant Control for Civil Structures Based on LMI Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chunxu Qu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The control system may lose the performance to suppress the structural vibration due to the faults in sensors or actuators. This paper designs the filter to perform the fault detection and isolation (FDI and then reforms the control strategy to achieve the fault tolerant control (FTC. The dynamic equation of the structure with active mass damper (AMD is first formulated. Then, an estimated system is built to transform the FDI filter design problem to the static gain optimization problem. The gain is designed to minimize the gap between the estimated system and the practical system, which can be calculated by linear matrix inequality (LMI approach. The FDI filter is finally used to isolate the sensor faults and reform the FTC strategy. The efficiency of FDI and FTC is validated by the numerical simulation of a three-story structure with AMD system with the consideration of sensor faults. The results show that the proposed FDI filter can detect the sensor faults and FTC controller can effectively tolerate the faults and suppress the structural vibration.

  11. RF control at SSCL - an object oriented design approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dohan, D.A.; Osberg, E.; Biggs, R.; Bossom, J.; Chillara, K.; Richter, R.; Wade, D.

    1994-01-01

    The Superconducting Super Collider (SSC) in Texas, the construction of which was stopped in 1994, would have represented a major challenge in accelerator research and development. This paper addresses the issues encountered in the parallel design and construction of the control systems for the RF equipment for the five accelerators comprising the SSC. An extensive analysis of the components of the RF control systems has been undertaken, based upon the Schlaer-Mellor object-oriented analysis and design (OOA/OOD) methodology. The RF subsystem components such as amplifiers, tubes, power supplies, PID loops, etc. were analyzed to produce OOA information, behavior and process models. Using these models, OOD was iteratively applied to develop a generic RF control system design. This paper describes the results of this analysis and the development of 'bridges' between the analysis objects, and the EPICS-based software and underlying VME-based hardware architectures. The application of this approach to several of the SSCL RF control systems is discussed. ((orig.))

  12. Specificity of continuous auditing approach on information technology internal controls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaćanski Slobodan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Contemporary business world, can not be imagined without the use of information technology in all aspects of business. The use of information technology in manufacturing and non-production companies' activities can greatly facilitate and accelerate the process of operation and control. Because of its complexity, they possess vulnerable areas and provide space for the emergence of accidental and intentional frauds that can significantly materially affect the business decisions made by the companies' management. Implementation of internal controls can greatly reduce the level of errors that can contribute to making the wrong decisions. In order to protect the operating system, the company's management implement an internal audit to periodically examine the fundamental quality of the internal control systems. Since the internal audit, according to its character, only periodically checks quality of internal control systems and information technologies to be reported to the manager, the problem arises in the process of in wrong time reporting the management structures of the business entity. To eliminate this problem, management implements a special approach to internal audit, called continuous auditing.

  13. Possible approaches to fast quality control of IFE targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koresheva, E.R.; Nikitenko, A.I.; Aleksandrova, I.V.; Bazdenkov, S.V.; Belolipetskiy, A.A.; Chtcherbakov, V.I.; Osipov, I.E.

    2006-01-01

    In recent years, research into the development of reliable methods and techniques for characterization and quality control of ICF/IFE targets has been carried out very actively. This is motivated by the need to provide the means for precise and accurate knowledge of cryogenic target parameters. On the other hand, particular emphasis should be paid to the fact that fuelling of a commercial power plant requires ∼6 targets each second. This indicates that the development of fast quality control techniques is of critical importance as well. Therefore, in this report we discuss the issues underlying the construction of different algorithms for characterization and quality control of ICF/IFE targets. Among them are: (a) algorithm banks and their structure, (b) algorithm testing, (c) target reconstruction experiments. The algorithm bank incorporates the algorithms for two stages of target production: the stage of fuel layering technique development (motionless target) and the stage of cryogenic target delivery (injected target). In the first case an inverse algorithm for individual target characterization (3D target reconstruction) and two threshold algorithms for fast control of target quality are presented. They are based on tomographic information processing methods. Experimentally, tomographic data acquisition is carried out by a hundred projections microtomograph. The spatial resolution of the optical system of the microtomograph is 1 μm for 490 nm wavelength, the accuracy of target angular positioning is ±1.5-2.5 min. In the second case we describe the algorithm based on Fourier transform holography for ultra fast target characterization during its injection. The performed computer experiments have demonstrated much promise of this approach in the following directions: recognition of the target imperfections in both low- and high- harmonics; quality control of both a single target and a target batch; simultaneous control of both an injected target quality and

  14. Density control in ITER: an iterative learning control and robust control approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravensbergen, T.; de Vries, P. C.; Felici, F.; Blanken, T. C.; Nouailletas, R.; Zabeo, L.

    2018-01-01

    Plasma density control for next generation tokamaks, such as ITER, is challenging because of multiple reasons. The response of the usual gas valve actuators in future, larger fusion devices, might be too slow for feedback control. Both pellet fuelling and the use of feedforward-based control may help to solve this problem. Also, tight density limits arise during ramp-up, due to operational limits related to divertor detachment and radiative collapses. As the number of shots available for controller tuning will be limited in ITER, in this paper, iterative learning control (ILC) is proposed to determine optimal feedforward actuator inputs based on tracking errors, obtained in previous shots. This control method can take the actuator and density limits into account and can deal with large actuator delays. However, a purely feedforward-based density control may not be sufficient due to the presence of disturbances and shot-to-shot differences. Therefore, robust control synthesis is used to construct a robustly stabilizing feedback controller. In simulations, it is shown that this combined controller strategy is able to achieve good tracking performance in the presence of shot-to-shot differences, tight constraints, and model mismatches.

  15. THE THEORETHICAL APPROACH AND PRACTICE OF CONTROLLING AND BUSSINESS RISK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    István HÁGEN

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Achieving the controlling approach at the companies has the obvious advantage that it is getting easier to exactly define the strategic and operative objectives, the planning system encourages the increase of performance and the decrease of costs and it helps by comparing plan-fact data. By defining the indices and continuous monitoring it is easier to get the fact data closer to the plans, so in case of careful planning business risk can be reduced. With the application of the controlling approach enterprises can be made economical, efficient and effective, so the activity naturally involving several risks, namely weather conditions, biological hazards, can be made more predictable. To sum up, the application of the Balanced Scorecard at the enterprises on the one hand helps short-term profitability and on the other hand designates what to do to reach long-term financial profitability and competitiveness. The objective of the research was to conduct a survey via questionnaires suitable for analysis as well as relevant deep interviews among the small and medium sized enterprises from different branches in the Carpathian Basin.

  16. Managing the maintenance inventory of a cement manufacturer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morne Eloff

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Inventory management is a crucial aspect of managing a company successfully. This is even more apparent in the case of maintenance inventories for production equipment, which impact directly on production equipment efficiency. This is a typical inventory management issue for a cement manufacturer that faces the problem of managing its maintenance inventories optimally when certain maintenance items have exceptionally long lead times (100 weeks and values in excess of R500 000. An assessment of the cement manufacturer’s approach to managing its maintenance inventories indicated various shortcomings, which have resulted in a significant level of obsolescence. One approach to managing maintenance inventories efficiently is to implement a classification of the inventory items in terms of their criticality to the cement production process. The critical nature of a component could be established through a risk-based approach (minimisation of the risk of production loss and taking into account the type of maintenance (planned vs unplanned that the component is required for. A risk-based approach should form the basis of the maintenance inventory management of the cement manufacturer as this would allow the cement manufacturer to utilise other inventory management methods effectively. In addition, it is important to ensure that employees are well versed in the different inventory management approaches utilised and that high levels of integration between departments are pursued.

  17. TFTR tritium inventory accountability system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saville, C.; Ascione, G.; Elwood, S.; Nagy, A.; Raftopoulos, S.; Rossmassler, R.; Stencel, J.; Voorhees, D.; Tilson, C.

    1995-01-01

    This paper discusses the program, PPPL (Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory) Material Control and Accountability Plan, that has been implemented to track US Department of Energy's tritium and all other accountable source material. Specifically, this paper details the methods used to measure tritium in various systems at the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor; resolve inventory differences; perform inventory by difference inside the Tokamak; process and measure plasma exhaust and other effluent gas streams; process, measure and ship scrap or waste tritium on molecular sieve beds; and detail organizational structure of the Material Control and Accountability group. In addition, this paper describes a Unix-based computerized software system developed at PPPL to account for all tritium movements throughout the facility. 5 refs., 2 figs

  18. Denmark's National Inventory Report

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Illerup, J. B.; Lyck, E.; Winther, M.

    This report is Denmark's National Inventory Report reported to the Conference of the Parties under the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) due by 15 April 2001. The report contains information on Denmark's inventories for all years' from 1990 to 1999 for CO2, CH4, N2O, CO...

  19. Uncertainties in emission inventories

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aardenne, van J.A.

    2002-01-01

    Emission inventories provide information about the amount of a pollutant that is emitted to the atmosphere as a result of a specific anthropogenic or natural process at a given time or place. Emission inventories can be used for either policy or scientific purposes. For

  20. Denmark's National Inventory Report

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Illerup, J. B.; Lyck, E.; Winther, M.

    This report is Denmark's National Inventory Report reported to the Conference of the Parties under the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) due by 15 April 2001. The report contains information on Denmark's inventories for all years' from 1990 to 1999 for CO2, CH4, N2O, ......, NMVOC, SO2, HFCs, PFCs and SF6....

  1. Cyber secure systems approach for NPP digital control systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCreary, T. J.; Hsu, A. [HF Controls Corporation, 16650 Westgrove Drive, Addison, TX 75001 (United States)

    2006-07-01

    Whether fossil or nuclear power, the chief operations goal is to generate electricity. The heart of most plant operations is the I and C system. With the march towards open architecture, the I and C system is more vulnerable than ever to system security attacks (denial of service, virus attacks and others), thus jeopardizing plant operations. Plant staff must spend large amounts of time and money setting up and monitoring a variety of security strategies to counter the threats and actual attacks to the system. This time and money is a drain on the financial performance of a plant and distracts valuable operations resources from their real goals: product. The pendulum towards complete open architecture may have swung too far. Not all aspects of proprietary hardware and software are necessarily 'bad'. As the aging U.S. fleet of nuclear power plants starts to engage in replacing legacy control systems, and given the on-going (and legitimate) concern about the security of present digital control systems, decisions about how best to approach cyber security are vital to the specification and selection of control system vendors for these upgrades. The authors maintain that utilizing certain resources available in today's digital technology, plant control systems can be configured from the onset to be inherently safe, so that plant staff can concentrate on the operational issues of the plant. The authors postulate the concept of the plant I and C being bounded in a 'Cyber Security Zone' and present a design approach that can alleviate the concern and cost at the plant level of dealing with system security strategies. Present approaches through various IT cyber strategies, commercial software, and even postulated standards from various industry/trade organizations are almost entirely reactive and simply add to cost and complexity. This Cyber Security Zone design demonstrates protection from the four classes of cyber security attacks: 1)Threat from

  2. Cyber secure systems approach for NPP digital control systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCreary, T. J.; Hsu, A.

    2006-01-01

    Whether fossil or nuclear power, the chief operations goal is to generate electricity. The heart of most plant operations is the I and C system. With the march towards open architecture, the I and C system is more vulnerable than ever to system security attacks (denial of service, virus attacks and others), thus jeopardizing plant operations. Plant staff must spend large amounts of time and money setting up and monitoring a variety of security strategies to counter the threats and actual attacks to the system. This time and money is a drain on the financial performance of a plant and distracts valuable operations resources from their real goals: product. The pendulum towards complete open architecture may have swung too far. Not all aspects of proprietary hardware and software are necessarily 'bad'. As the aging U.S. fleet of nuclear power plants starts to engage in replacing legacy control systems, and given the on-going (and legitimate) concern about the security of present digital control systems, decisions about how best to approach cyber security are vital to the specification and selection of control system vendors for these upgrades. The authors maintain that utilizing certain resources available in today's digital technology, plant control systems can be configured from the onset to be inherently safe, so that plant staff can concentrate on the operational issues of the plant. The authors postulate the concept of the plant I and C being bounded in a 'Cyber Security Zone' and present a design approach that can alleviate the concern and cost at the plant level of dealing with system security strategies. Present approaches through various IT cyber strategies, commercial software, and even postulated standards from various industry/trade organizations are almost entirely reactive and simply add to cost and complexity. This Cyber Security Zone design demonstrates protection from the four classes of cyber security attacks: 1)Threat from an intruder attempting to

  3. A new approach to PWR power control using intelligent techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boroushaki, M.; Ghofrani, M.B.; Lucas, C.; Yazdanpanah, M.J.; Sadati, N.

    2004-01-01

    Improved load following capability is one of the main technical performances of advanced PWR(APWR). Controlling the nuclear reactor core during load following operation encounters some difficulties. These difficulties mainly arise from nuclear reactor core limitations in local power peaking, while the core is subject to large and sharp variation of local power density during transients. Axial offset (A.O) is the parameter usually used to represent of core power peaking, in form of a practical parameter. This paper, proposes a new intelligent approach to A.o control of PWR nuclear reactors core during load following operation. This method uses a neural network model of the core to predict the dynamic behavior of the core and a fuzzy critic based on the operator knowledge and experience for the purpose of decision-making during load following operations. Simulation results show that this method can use optimum control rod groups maneuver with variable overlapping and may improve the reactor load following capability

  4. Biomimetic approach to tacit learning based on compound control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimoda, Shingo; Kimura, Hidenori

    2010-02-01

    The remarkable capability of living organisms to adapt to unknown environments is due to learning mechanisms that are totally different from the current artificial machine-learning paradigm. Computational media composed of identical elements that have simple activity rules play a major role in biological control, such as the activities of neurons in brains and the molecular interactions in intracellular control. As a result of integrations of the individual activities of the computational media, new behavioral patterns emerge to adapt to changing environments. We previously implemented this feature of biological controls in a form of machine learning and succeeded to realize bipedal walking without the robot model or trajectory planning. Despite the success of bipedal walking, it was a puzzle as to why the individual activities of the computational media could achieve the global behavior. In this paper, we answer this question by taking a statistical approach that connects the individual activities of computational media to global network behaviors. We show that the individual activities can generate optimized behaviors from a particular global viewpoint, i.e., autonomous rhythm generation and learning of balanced postures, without using global performance indices.

  5. Optimal fuel inventory strategies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caspary, P.J.; Hollibaugh, J.B.; Licklider, P.L.; Patel, K.P.

    1990-01-01

    In an effort to maintain their competitive edge, most utilities are reevaluating many of their conventional practices and policies in an effort to further minimize customer revenue requirements without sacrificing system reliability. Over the past several years, Illinois Power has been rethinking its traditional fuel inventory strategies, recognizing that coal supplies are competitive and plentiful and that carrying charges on inventory are expensive. To help the Company achieve one of its strategic corporate goals, an optimal fuel inventory study was performed for its five major coal-fired generating stations. The purpose of this paper is to briefly describe Illinois Power's system and past practices concerning coal inventories, highlight the analytical process behind the optimal fuel inventory study, and discuss some of the recent experiences affecting coal deliveries and economic dispatch

  6. Utility of a brief assessment tool developed from the Dizziness Handicap Inventory to screen for Cervicogenic dizziness: A case control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, Susan A; Callister, Robin; Katekar, Michael G; Treleaven, Julia M

    2017-08-01

    Cervicogenic dizziness (CGD) is hard to diagnose as there is no objective test. Can a brief assessment tool be derived from the Dizziness Handicap Inventory (DHI) to assist in screening for CGD? Case-control study with split-sample analysis. 86 people with CGD and 86 people with general dizziness completed the DHI as part of the assessment of their dizziness. Descriptive statistics were used to assess how frequently each question on the DHI was answered 'yes' or 'sometimes' by participants with CGD and by participants with general dizziness. The questions that best discriminated between GCD and general dizziness were compiled into a brief assessment tool for CGD. Data from 80 participants (40 from each group) were used to generate a receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve to establish a cut-off score for that brief assessment tool. Then, data from the remaining 92 participants were used to try to validate the diagnostic ability of the brief assessment tool using that cut-off score. Questions 1, 9 and 11 were the most discriminatory and were combined to form the brief assessment tool. The ROC curve indicated an optimal threshold of 9. The diagnostic ability of the brief assessment tool among the remaining 46 participants from each group was: sensitivity 77% (95% CI: 67 to 84), specificity 66% (56-75), positive likelihood ratio 2.28 (1.66-3.13), and negative likelihood ratio 0.35 (0.23-0.53). A brief assessment tool of three questions appears to be helpful in screening for CGD. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  7. The effectiveness of the Screening Inventory of Psychosocial Problems (SIPP) in cancer patients treated with radiotherapy: design of a cluster randomised controlled trial

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Braeken, Anna PBM; Lechner, Lilian; Gils, Francis CJM van; Houben, Ruud MA; Eekers, Daniëlle; Ambergen, Ton; Kempen, Gertrudis IJM

    2009-01-01

    The Screening Inventory of Psychosocial Problems (SIPP) is a short, validated self-reported questionnaire to identify psychosocial problems in Dutch cancer patients. The one-page 24-item questionnaire assesses physical complaints, psychological complaints and social and sexual problems. Very little is known about the effects of using the SIPP in consultation settings. Our study aims are to test the hypotheses that using the SIPP (a) may contribute to adequate referral to relevant psychosocial caregivers, (b) should facilitate communication between radiotherapists and cancer patients about psychosocial distress and (c) may prevent underdiagnosis of early symptoms reflecting psychosocial problems. This paper presents the design of a cluster randomised controlled trial (CRCT) evaluating the effectiveness of using the SIPP in cancer patients treated with radiotherapy. A CRCT is developed using a Solomon four-group design (two intervention and two control groups) to evaluate the effects of using the SIPP. Radiotherapists, instead of cancer patients, are randomly allocated to the experimental or control groups. Within these groups, all included cancer patients are randomised into two subgroups: with and without pre-measurement. Self-reported assessments are conducted at four times: a pre-test at baseline before the first consultation and a post-test directly following the first consultation, and three and 12 months after baseline measurement. The primary outcome measures are the number and types of referrals of cancer patients with psychosocial problems to relevant (psychosocial) caregivers. The secondary outcome measures are patients' satisfaction with the radiotherapist-patient communication, psychosocial distress and quality of life. Furthermore, a process evaluation will be carried out. Data of the effect-evaluation will be analysed according to the intention-to-treat principle and data regarding the types of referrals to health care providers and patient

  8. Mixed H∞ and passive control for linear switched systems via hybrid control approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Qunxian; Ling, Youzhu; Wei, Lisheng; Zhang, Hongbin

    2018-03-01

    This paper investigates the mixed H∞ and passive control problem for linear switched systems based on a hybrid control strategy. To solve this problem, first, a new performance index is proposed. This performance index can be viewed as the mixed weighted H∞ and passivity performance. Then, the hybrid controllers are used to stabilise the switched systems. The hybrid controllers consist of dynamic output-feedback controllers for every subsystem and state updating controllers at the switching instant. The design of state updating controllers not only depends on the pre-switching subsystem and the post-switching subsystem, but also depends on the measurable output signal. The hybrid controllers proposed in this paper can include some existing ones as special cases. Combine the multiple Lyapunov functions approach with the average dwell time technique, new sufficient conditions are obtained. Under the new conditions, the closed-loop linear switched systems are globally uniformly asymptotically stable with a mixed H∞ and passivity performance index. Moreover, the desired hybrid controllers can be constructed by solving a set of linear matrix inequalities. Finally, a numerical example and a practical example are given.

  9. Autonomous formation flight of helicopters: Model predictive control approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Hoam

    Formation flight is the primary movement technique for teams of helicopters. However, the potential for accidents is greatly increased when helicopter teams are required to fly in tight formations and under harsh conditions. This dissertation proposes that the automation of helicopter formations is a realistic solution capable of alleviating risks. Helicopter formation flight operations in battlefield situations are highly dynamic and dangerous, and, therefore, we maintain that both a high-level formation management system and a distributed coordinated control algorithm should be implemented to help ensure safe formations. The starting point for safe autonomous formation flights is to design a distributed control law attenuating external disturbances coming into a formation, so that each vehicle can safely maintain sufficient clearance between it and all other vehicles. While conventional methods are limited to homogeneous formations, our decentralized model predictive control (MPC) approach allows for heterogeneity in a formation. In order to avoid the conservative nature inherent in distributed MPC algorithms, we begin by designing a stable MPC for individual vehicles, and then introducing carefully designed inter-agent coupling terms in a performance index. Thus the proposed algorithm works in a decentralized manner, and can be applied to the problem of helicopter formations comprised of heterogenous vehicles. Individual vehicles in a team may be confronted by various emerging situations that will require the capability for in-flight reconfiguration. We propose the concept of a formation manager to manage separation, join, and synchronization of flight course changes. The formation manager accepts an operator's commands, information from neighboring vehicles, and its own vehicle states. Inside the formation manager, there are multiple modes and complex mode switchings represented as a finite state machine (FSM). Based on the current mode and collected

  10. Terminal Control Area Aircraft Scheduling and Trajectory Optimization Approaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samà Marcella

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Aviation authorities are seeking optimization methods to better use the available infrastructure and better manage aircraft movements. This paper deals with the realtime scheduling of take-off and landing aircraft at a busy terminal control area and with the optimization of aircraft trajectories during the landing procedures. The first problem aims to reduce the propagation of delays, while the second problem aims to either minimize the travel time or reduce the fuel consumption. Both problems are particularly complex, since the first one is NP-hard while the second one is nonlinear and a combined solution needs to be computed in a short-time during operations. This paper proposes a framework for the lexicographic optimization of the two problems. Computational experiments are performed for the Milano Malpensa airport and show the existing gaps between the performance indicators of the two problems when different lexicographic optimization approaches are considered.

  11. Project management a systems approach to planning, scheduling, and controlling

    CERN Document Server

    Kerzner, Harold

    2017-01-01

    Project Management is the bestselling text for students and professionals, presenting a streamlined approach to project management functions in full alignment with PMI(r)'s latest Project Management Body of Knowledge (PMBOK(r)). This new 12th edition has been updated to reflect the latest changes found in the PMBOK(r) Guide--Sixth Edition, and features new coverage of emerging topics including global stakeholder management, causes of failure, agile project management, project governance failure, customer approval milestones, classifying project metrics, and more. Supplementary materials are available for students, working professionals, and instructors. * Understand organizational structures and project management functions * Learn how to control costs, manage risk, and analyze trade-offs * Examine different methods used for planning, scheduling, QA, and more * Work effectively with customers and stakeholders from around the globe Project Management is the comprehensive reference to keep within arm's reach. ...

  12. Controls on desert dune activity - a geospatial approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lancaster, N.; Hesse, P. P.

    2017-12-01

    Desert and other inland dunes occur on a wide spectrum of activity (defined loosely as the proportion of the surface area subject to sand movement) from unvegetated to sparsely vegetated "active" dunes through discontinuously vegetated inactive dunes to completely vegetated and degraded dunes. Many of the latter are relicts of past climatic conditions. Although field studies and modeling of the interactions between winds, vegetation cover, and dune activity can provide valuable insights, the response of dune systems to climate change and variability past, present, and future has until now been hampered by the lack of pertinent observational data on geomorphic and climatic boundary conditions and dune activity status for most dune areas. We have developed GIS-based approach that permits analysis of boundary conditions and controls on dune activity at a range of spatial scales from dunefield to global. In this approach, the digital mapping of dune field and sand sea extent has been combined with systematic observations of dune activity at 0.2° intervals from high resolution satellite image data, resulting in four classes of activity. 1 km resolution global gridded datasets for the aridity index (AI); precipitation, satellite-derived percent vegetation cover; and estimates of sand transport potential (DP) were re-sampled for each 0.2° grid cell, and dune activity was compared to vegetation cover, sand transport potential, precipitation, and the aridity index. Results so far indicate that there are broad-scale relationships between dunefield mean activity, climate, and vegetation cover. However, the scatter in the data suggest that other local factors may be at work. Intra-dune field patterns are complex in many cases. Overall, much more work needs to be done to gain a full understanding of controls at different spatial and temporal scales, which can be faciliated by this spatial database.

  13. A fuzzy behaviorist approach to sensor-based robot control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pin, F.G.

    1996-05-01

    Sensor-based operation of autonomous robots in unstructured and/or outdoor environments has revealed to be an extremely challenging problem, mainly because of the difficulties encountered when attempting to represent the many uncertainties which are always present in the real world. These uncertainties are primarily due to sensor imprecisions and unpredictability of the environment, i.e., lack of full knowledge of the environment characteristics and dynamics. An approach. which we have named the {open_quotes}Fuzzy Behaviorist Approach{close_quotes} (FBA) is proposed in an attempt to remedy some of these difficulties. This approach is based on the representation of the system`s uncertainties using Fuzzy Set Theory-based approximations and on the representation of the reasoning and control schemes as sets of elemental behaviors. Using the FBA, a formalism for rule base development and an automated generator of fuzzy rules have been developed. This automated system can automatically construct the set of membership functions corresponding to fuzzy behaviors. Once these have been expressed in qualitative terms by the user. The system also checks for completeness of the rule base and for non-redundancy of the rules (which has traditionally been a major hurdle in rule base development). Two major conceptual features, the suppression and inhibition mechanisms which allow to express a dominance between behaviors are discussed in detail. Some experimental results obtained with the automated fuzzy, rule generator applied to the domain of sensor-based navigation in aprion unknown environments. using one of our autonomous test-bed robots as well as a real car in outdoor environments, are then reviewed and discussed to illustrate the feasibility of large-scale automatic fuzzy rule generation using the {open_quotes}Fuzzy Behaviorist{close_quotes} concepts.

  14. Concepts for inventory verification in critical facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cobb, D.D.; Sapir, J.L.; Kern, E.A.; Dietz, R.J.

    1978-12-01

    Materials measurement and inventory verification concepts for safeguarding large critical facilities are presented. Inspection strategies and methods for applying international safeguards to such facilities are proposed. The conceptual approach to routine inventory verification includes frequent visits to the facility by one inspector, and the use of seals and nondestructive assay (NDA) measurements to verify the portion of the inventory maintained in vault storage. Periodic verification of the reactor inventory is accomplished by sampling and NDA measurement of in-core fuel elements combined with measurements of integral reactivity and related reactor parameters that are sensitive to the total fissile inventory. A combination of statistical sampling and NDA verification with measurements of reactor parameters is more effective than either technique used by itself. Special procedures for assessment and verification for abnormal safeguards conditions are also considered. When the inspection strategies and inventory verification methods are combined with strict containment and surveillance methods, they provide a high degree of assurance that any clandestine attempt to divert a significant quantity of fissile material from a critical facility inventory will be detected. Field testing of specific hardware systems and procedures to determine their sensitivity, reliability, and operational acceptability is recommended. 50 figures, 21 tables

  15. Improving Aviation Depot Level Repairable (AVDLR) Inventory and Repair Management

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Baird, Dennis

    1997-01-01

    .... Additionally, research was conducted to document the management process for determining repair requirements at the Naval Inventory Control Point Philadelphia and how those requirements are accepted...

  16. Interactive Inventory Monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garud, Sumedha

    2013-01-01

    Method and system for monitoring present location and/or present status of a target inventory item, where the inventory items are located on one or more inventory shelves or other inventory receptacles that communicate with an inventory base station through use of responders such as RFIDs. A user operates a hand held interrogation and display (lAD) module that communicates with, or is part of the base station to provide an initial inquiry. lnformation on location(s) of the larget invenlory item is also indicated visibly and/or audibly on the receptacle(s) for the user. Status information includes an assessment of operation readiness and a time, if known, that the specified inventory item or class was last removed or examined or modified. Presentation of a user access level may be required for access to the target inventgory item. Another embodiment provides inventory informatin for a stack as a sight-impaired or hearing-impaired person adjacent to that stack.

  17. Inventory extension at the Nuclear Materials Storage Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stanbro, W.D.; Longmire, V.; Olinger, C.T.; Argo, P.E.

    1996-09-01

    The planned renovation of the Nuclear Material Storage Facility (NMSF) at Los Alamos National Laboratory will be a significant addition to the plutonium storage capacity of the nuclear weapons complex. However, the utility of the facility may be impaired by an overly conservative approach to performing inventories of material in storage. This report examines options for taking advantage of provisions in Department of Energy orders to extend the time between inventories. These extensions are based on a combination of modern surveillance technology, facility design features, and revised operational procedures. The report also addresses the possibility that NMSF could be the site of some form of international inspection as part of the US arms control and nonproliferation policy

  18. Assessing Probabilistic Risk Assessment Approaches for Insect Biological Control Introductions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaufman, Leyla V; Wright, Mark G

    2017-07-07

    The introduction of biological control agents to new environments requires host specificity tests to estimate potential non-target impacts of a prospective agent. Currently, the approach is conservative, and is based on physiological host ranges determined under captive rearing conditions, without consideration for ecological factors that may influence realized host range. We use historical data and current field data from introduced parasitoids that attack an endemic Lepidoptera species in Hawaii to validate a probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) procedure for non-target impacts. We use data on known host range and habitat use in the place of origin of the parasitoids to determine whether contemporary levels of non-target parasitism could have been predicted using PRA. Our results show that reasonable predictions of potential non-target impacts may be made if comprehensive data are available from places of origin of biological control agents, but scant data produce poor predictions. Using apparent mortality data rather than marginal attack rate estimates in PRA resulted in over-estimates of predicted non-target impact. Incorporating ecological data into PRA models improved the predictive power of the risk assessments.

  19. Assessing Probabilistic Risk Assessment Approaches for Insect Biological Control Introductions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leyla V. Kaufman

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The introduction of biological control agents to new environments requires host specificity tests to estimate potential non-target impacts of a prospective agent. Currently, the approach is conservative, and is based on physiological host ranges determined under captive rearing conditions, without consideration for ecological factors that may influence realized host range. We use historical data and current field data from introduced parasitoids that attack an endemic Lepidoptera species in Hawaii to validate a probabilistic risk assessment (PRA procedure for non-target impacts. We use data on known host range and habitat use in the place of origin of the parasitoids to determine whether contemporary levels of non-target parasitism could have been predicted using PRA. Our results show that reasonable predictions of potential non-target impacts may be made if comprehensive data are available from places of origin of biological control agents, but scant data produce poor predictions. Using apparent mortality data rather than marginal attack rate estimates in PRA resulted in over-estimates of predicted non-target impact. Incorporating ecological data into PRA models improved the predictive power of the risk assessments.

  20. Scientific approaches to AIDS prevention and control in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teng, T; Shao, Y

    2011-04-01

    The HIV epidemic in China started among intravenous drug users in the late 1980s. The second wave of the epidemic was caused by an outbreak in the paid plasma donors in central China in the mid-1990s. Sexually transmitted HIV cases have steadily increased and comprised more than half the reported HIV/AIDS infections since 2007. In the last 5 years, there has been a sharp increase of HIV infection in men who have sex with men. The HIV epidemic in China has expanded from high-risk groups to the general population and from rural regions to urban areas. This brief article discusses the history of HIV epidemics in China and the challenges facing the current AIDS control efforts in the country. It explains that only scientific approaches can sustain the national AIDS control programs and introduce the type of research needed to address those challenges. The selected research areas include molecular epidemiology, drug resistance surveillance, and the Chinese HIV vaccine research.

  1. AMAZON RAINFOREST COSMETICS: CHEMICAL APPROACH FOR QUALITY CONTROL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariko Funasaki

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The market for natural cosmetics featuring ingredients derived from Amazon natural resources is growing worldwide. However, there is neither enough scientific basis nor quality control of these ingredients. This paper is an account of the chemical constituents and their biological activities of fourteen Amazonian species used in cosmetic industry, including açaí (Euterpe oleracea, andiroba (Carapa guianensis, bacuri (Platonia insignis, Brazil nut (Bertholletia excelsa, buriti (Mauritia vinifera or M. flexuosa, cumaru (Dipteryx odorata, cupuaçu (Theobroma grandiflorum, guarana (Paullinia cupana, mulateiro (Calycophyllum spruceanum, murumuru (Astrocaryum murumuru, patawa (Oenocarpus bataua or Jessenia bataua, pracaxi (Pentaclethra macroloba, rosewood (Aniba rosaeodora, and ucuuba (Virola sebifera. Based on the reviewed articles, we selected chemical markers for the quality control purpose and evaluated analytical methods. Even though chromatographic and spectroscopic methods are major analytical techniques in the studies of these species, molecular approaches will also be important as used in food and medicine traceability. Only a little phytochemical study is available about most of the Amazonian species and some species such as açaí and andiroba have many reports on chemical constituents, but studies on biological activities of isolated compounds and sampling with geographical variation are limited.

  2. Field nondestructive assay measurements as applied to process inventories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Westsik, G.A.

    1979-08-01

    An annual process equipment holdup inventory measurement program for a plutonium processing plant was instituted by Rockwell Hanford Operations (Rockwell) at Richland, Washington. The inventories, performed in 1977 and 1978, were designed to improve plutonium accountability and control. The inventory method used field nondestructive assay (NDA) measurement techniques with portable electronics and sodium iodide detectors. Access to and movement of plutonium in work areas was curtailed during the inventory process using administrative controls. Comparison of the two annual inventories showed good reproducibility of results within the calculated error ranges. For items where no plutonium movement occurred and which contained greater than 20 grams plutonium, the average measurement difference between the two inventories was 22%. The procedures and equipment used and the operational experience from the inventories are described

  3. Current Approaches for Control Room I and C Modernization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lopez, Alberto; Jimenez, Alfonso

    2002-01-01

    In general, instrumentation and control (I and C) systems for nuclear power plants were made using analogic systems and relays, since this was the only technology available by the time these systems were designed. This fact impacts on the operational and maintenance capabilities required to these systems. For this reason, nuclear power plants are facing nowadays two challenges: on one hand, the obsolescence of these systems contributes to the increase in the operation and maintenance costs - due to the difficulties for getting spare parts and support from the system vendors -. On the other hand, there has been an increase in the utilities competitiveness due to the electric power market liberalization. All this, of course, along with the commitment to maintain the current safety levels and meet the new requirements and standards that may arise in the near future. The application of current technologies, especially digital technology, solves the obsolescence problems and allows for a more functional and updated human-machine interface. Nevertheless, the cost associated to these modifications makes it necessary to develop strategies to determine which systems need to be modified and how to implement modifications effectively, so that these systems can work jointly with others using different technologies. Other issues inherent to digital technology must be considered, such as verification and validation of the software and of the human-machine interface, which are required for its licensing. This presentation describes the current approaches for I and C modernization, the main reasons, technologies and implementation plans, focusing on the control room and on the impact on operations. The main issues to be considered for developing a specific modernization plan are analysed. The goals and status of the 'Feasibility Study of the Control Room I and C Modernization' are described. This study is currently being developed by Endesa, Iberdrola and Tecnatom, and is included

  4. New experimental approaches to the biology of flight control systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Graham K; Bacic, Marko; Bomphrey, Richard J; Carruthers, Anna C; Gillies, James; Walker, Simon M; Thomas, Adrian L R

    2008-01-01

    Here we consider how new experimental approaches in biomechanics can be used to attain a systems-level understanding of the dynamics of animal flight control. Our aim in this paper is not to provide detailed results and analysis, but rather to tackle several conceptual and methodological issues that have stood in the way of experimentalists in achieving this goal, and to offer tools for overcoming these. We begin by discussing the interplay between analytical and empirical methods, emphasizing that the structure of the models we use to analyse flight control dictates the empirical measurements we must make in order to parameterize them. We then provide a conceptual overview of tethered-flight paradigms, comparing classical ;open-loop' and ;closed-loop' setups, and describe a flight simulator that we have recently developed for making flight dynamics measurements on tethered insects. Next, we provide a conceptual overview of free-flight paradigms, focusing on the need to use system identification techniques in order to analyse the data they provide, and describe two new techniques that we have developed for making flight dynamics measurements on freely flying birds. First, we describe a technique for obtaining inertial measurements of the orientation, angular velocity and acceleration of a steppe eagle Aquila nipalensis in wide-ranging free flight, together with synchronized measurements of wing and tail kinematics using onboard instrumentation and video cameras. Second, we describe a photogrammetric method to measure the 3D wing kinematics of the eagle during take-off and landing. In each case, we provide demonstration data to illustrate the kinds of information available from each method. We conclude by discussing the prospects for systems-level analyses of flight control using these techniques and others like them.

  5. SBA Network Components & Software Inventory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Small Business Administration — SBA’s Network Components & Software Inventory contains a complete inventory of all devices connected to SBA’s network including workstations, servers, routers,...

  6. Development and validation of a lead emission inventory for the Greater Cairo area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeinab Safar

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Studies that investigate the environmental health risks to Cairo residents invariably conclude that lead is one of the area’s major health hazards. The Cairo Air Improvement Project (CAIP, which was implemented by a team led by Chemonics International, funded by USAID in partnership with the Egyptian Environmental Affairs Agency (EEAA, started developing a lead emission inventory for the greater Cairo (GC area in 1998. The inventory contains a list by major source of the annual lead emissions in the GC area. Uses of the inventory and associated database include developing effective regulatory and control strategies, assessing emissions trends, and conducting modeling exercises. This paper describes the development of the current lead emissions inventory (1999–2010, along with an approach to develop site specific emission factors and measurements to validate the inventory. This paper discusses the major sources of lead in the GC area, which include lead smelters, Mazout (heavy fuel oil combustion, lead manufacturing batteries factories, copper foundries, and cement factories. Included will be the trend in the lead emissions inventory with regard to the production capacity of each source category. In addition, the lead ambient measurements from 1999 through 2010 are described and compared with the results of Source Attribution Studies (SAS conducted in 1999, 2002, and 2010. Due to EEAA/CAIP efforts, a remarkable decrease in more than 90% in lead emissions was attained for 2007.

  7. The structure and dimensionality of the Inventory of Depressive Symptomatology Self Report (IDS-SR) in patients with depressive disorders and healthy controls

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wardenaar, Klaas J.; van Veen, Tineke; Giltay, Erik J.; den Hollander-Gijsman, Margien; Penninx, Brenda W. J. H.; Zitman, Frans G.

    Background: The Inventory of Depressive Symptomatology Self Report (IDS-SR) is a widely used but heterogeneous measure of depression severity. Insight in its factor structure and dimensionality could help to develop more homogeneous IDS-SR subscales. However previous factoranalytical studies have

  8. Canada`s greenhouse gas emissions inventory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jaques, A. [Environment Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada)

    1998-09-01

    In 1994, Canada was the seventh largest global emitter of CO{sub 2}. The Kyoto Protocol has made it necessary to continue to improve methods for developing emissions inventories. An emissions inventory was defined as `a comprehensive account of air pollutant emissions and associated data from sources within the inventory area over a specified time frame that can be used to determine the effect of emissions on the environment`. The general approach is to compile large-scale emission estimates under averaged conditions for collective sources and sectors, using data that is available on a sectoral, provincial and national basis. Ideally, continuous emission monitors should be used to develop emissions inventories. Other needed improvements include additional research on emissions data, and increased support for international negotiations on reporting policies and related methodologies, verification procedures and adjustments. 1 ref., 5 figs.

  9. Experimental validation of pulsed column inventory estimators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beyerlein, A.L.; Geldard, J.F.; Weh, R.; Eiben, K.; Dander, T.; Hakkila, E.A.

    1991-01-01

    Near-real-time accounting (NRTA) for reprocessing plants relies on the timely measurement of all transfers through the process area and all inventory in the process. It is difficult to measure the inventory of the solvent contractors; therefore, estimation techniques are considered. We have used experimental data obtained at the TEKO facility in Karlsruhe and have applied computer codes developed at Clemson University to analyze this data. For uranium extraction, the computer predictions agree to within 15% of the measured inventories. We believe this study is significant in demonstrating that using theoretical models with a minimum amount of process data may be an acceptable approach to column inventory estimation for NRTA. 15 refs., 7 figs

  10. Control of conducting polymer actuators without physical feedback: simulated feedback control approach with particle swarm optimization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xiang, Xingcan; Mutlu, Rahim; Alici, Gursel; Li, Weihua

    2014-01-01

    Conducting polymer actuators have shown significant potential in articulating micro instruments, manipulation devices, and robotics. However, implementing a feedback control strategy to enhance their positioning ability and accuracy in any application requires a feedback sensor, which is extremely large in size compared to the size of the actuators. Therefore, this paper proposes a new sensorless control scheme without the use of a position feedback sensor. With the help of the system identification technique and particle swarm optimization, the control scheme, which we call the simulated feedback control system, showed a satisfactory command tracking performance for the conducting polymer actuator’s step and dynamic displacement responses, especially under a disturbance, without needing a physical feedback loop, but using a simulated feedback loop. The primary contribution of this study is to propose and experimentally evaluate the simulated feedback control scheme for a class of the conducting polymer actuators known as tri-layer polymer actuators, which can operate both in dry and wet media. This control approach can also be extended to other smart actuators or systems, for which the feedback control based on external sensing is impractical. (paper)

  11. INEEL Liquid Effluent Inventory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Major, C.A.

    1997-06-01

    The INEEL contractors and their associated facilities are required to identify all liquid effluent discharges that may impact the environment at the INEEL. This liquid effluent information is then placed in the Liquid Effluent Inventory (LEI) database, which is maintained by the INEEL prime contractor. The purpose of the LEI is to identify and maintain a current listing of all liquid effluent discharge points and to identify which discharges are subject to federal, state, or local permitting or reporting requirements and DOE order requirements. Initial characterization, which represents most of the INEEL liquid effluents, has been performed, and additional characterization may be required in the future to meet regulations. LEI information is made available to persons responsible for or concerned with INEEL compliance with liquid effluent permitting or reporting requirements, such as the National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System, Wastewater Land Application, Storm Water Pollution Prevention, Spill Prevention Control and Countermeasures, and Industrial Wastewater Pretreatment. The State of Idaho Environmental Oversight and Monitoring Program also needs the information for tracking liquid effluent discharges at the INEEL. The information provides a baseline from which future liquid discharges can be identified, characterized, and regulated, if appropriate. The review covered new and removed buildings/structures, buildings/structures which most likely had new, relocated, or removed LEI discharge points, and at least 10% of the remaining discharge points.

  12. A survey on control schemes for distributed solar collector fields. Part I: Modeling and basic control approaches

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Camacho, E.F.; Rubio, F.R. [Universidad de Sevilla, Escuela Superior de Ingenieros, Departamento de Ingenieria de Sistemas y Automatica, Camino de Los Descubrimientos s/n, E-41092, Sevilla (Spain); Berenguel, M. [Universidad de Almeria, Departamento de Lenguajes y Computacion, Area de Ingenieria de Sistemas y Automatica, Carretera Sacramento s/n, E-04120 La Canada, Almeria (Spain); Valenzuela, L. [Plataforma Solar de Almeria - CIEMAT, Carretera Senes s/n, P.O. Box 22, E-04200 Tabernas, Almeria (Spain)

    2007-10-15

    This article presents a survey of the different automatic control techniques that have been applied to control the outlet temperature of solar plants with distributed collectors during the last 25 years. Different aspects of the control problem involved in this kind of plants are treated, from modeling and simulation approaches to the different basic control schemes developed and successfully applied in real solar plants. A classification of the modeling and control approaches is used to explain the main features of each strategy. (author)

  13. National Emission Inventory (NEI)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This data exchange allows states to submit data to the US Environmental Protection Agency's National Emissions Inventory (NEI). NEI is a national database of air...

  14. National Emission Inventory

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The National Emission Inventory contains measured, modeled, and estimated data for emissions of all known source categories in the US (stationary sources, fires,...

  15. Toxics Release Inventory (TRI)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Toxics Release Inventory (TRI) is a dataset compiled by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). It contains information on the release and waste...

  16. Business Process Inventory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Office of Personnel Management — Inventory of maps and descriptions of the business processes of the U.S. Office of Personnel Management (OPM), with an emphasis on the processes of the Office of the...

  17. National Wetlands Inventory Points

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — Wetland point features (typically wetlands that are too small to be as area features at the data scale) mapped as part of the National Wetlands Inventory (NWI). The...

  18. Asset Inventory Database

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Agency for International Development — AIDM is used to track USAID assets such as furniture, computers, and equipment. Using portable bar code readers, receiving and inventory personnel can capture...

  19. NCRN Hemlock Inventory Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of the Interior — ​Data associated with the 2015 hemlock inventory project in NCR. Eastern hemlock (Tsuga canadensis) is a coniferous tree native to the NE and Appalachian regions of...

  20. Logistics and Inventory System -

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Transportation — The Logistics and Inventory System (LIS) is the agencys primary supply/support automation tool. The LIS encompasses everything from order entry by field specialists...