WorldWideScience

Sample records for invention secrecy act

  1. 75 FR 19463 - Procedures for Monitoring Bank Secrecy Act Compliance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-14

    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY Office of Thrift Supervision Procedures for Monitoring Bank Secrecy Act Compliance AGENCY: Office of Thrift Supervision (OTS), Treasury. ACTION: Notice and request for comment...; and Information Collection Comments, Chief Counsel's Office, Office of Thrift Supervision, 1700 G...

  2. 75 FR 79440 - Financial Crimes Enforcement Network; Bank Secrecy Act Advisory Group; Solicitation of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-20

    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY Financial Crimes Enforcement Network; Bank Secrecy Act Advisory Group; Solicitation of Application for Membership AGENCY: Financial Crimes Enforcement Network, Department of the... financial institutions and trade groups for membership on the Bank Secrecy Act Advisory Group. New members...

  3. 76 FR 18365 - Fair Credit Reporting Act and Bank Secrecy Act Compliance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-04

    ... Procedure Act (APA), an agency may, for good cause, find (and incorporate the finding and a brief statement... and comment procedures prescribed by the APA are unnecessary because the final rule makes technical... Asked Questions, and the FFIEC Bank Secrecy Act/Anti-Money Laundering Examination Manual. (iii...

  4. Patentability of inventions under the Nigeria's patents and designs act

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Patentability of inventions under the Nigeria's patents and designs act: an examination. ... AFRICAN JOURNALS ONLINE (AJOL) · Journals · Advanced Search · USING ... The Nigerian Patent Registry refuses patent applications for Software or ...

  5. 76 FR 72878 - Financial Crimes Enforcement Network; Amendment to the Bank Secrecy Act Regulations-Imposition of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-28

    ... Iran as a Jurisdiction of Primary Money Laundering Concern AGENCY: Financial Crimes Enforcement Network... Republic of Iran (``Iran'') is a jurisdiction of primary money laundering concern pursuant to 31 U.S.C... Act amends the anti- money laundering provisions of the Bank Secrecy Act (``BSA''), codified at 12 U.S...

  6. 77 FR 33635 - Amendment to the Bank Secrecy Act Regulations-Requirement That Clerks of Court Report Certain...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-07

    ... business rule reflects that the definition of currency used therein is slightly different from the... Amendment to the Bank Secrecy Act Regulations--Requirement That Clerks of Court Report Certain Currency...: FinCEN is amending the rules relating to the reporting of certain currency transactions consistent...

  7. Atomic secrecy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sweet, W.

    1979-01-01

    An article, The H-Bomb Secret: How We Got It, Why We're Telling It, by Howard Morland was to be published in The Progressive magazine in February, 1979. The government, after learning of the author's and the editors' intention to publish the article and failing to persuade them to voluntarily delete about 20% of the text and all of the diagrams showing how an H-bomb works, requested a court injunction against publication. Acting under the Atomic Energy Act of 1954, US District Court Judge Robert W. Warren granted the government's request on March 26. Events dealing with the case are discussed in this publication. Section 1, Progressive Hydrogen Bomb Case, is discussed under the following: Court Order Blocking Magazine Report; Origins of the Howard Morland Article; Author's Motives, Defense of Publication; and Government Arguments Against Disclosure. Section 2, Access to Atomic Data Since 1939, contains information on need for secrecy during World War II; 1946 Atomic Energy Act and its effects; Soviet A-Bomb and the US H-Bomb; and consequences of 1954 Atomic Energy Act. Section 3, Disputed Need for Atomic Secrecy, contains papers entitled: Lack of Studies on H-Bomb Proliferation; Administration's Position on H-Bombs; and National Security Needs vs Free Press

  8. 76 FR 10234 - Amendment to the Bank Secrecy Act Regulations-Reports of Foreign Financial Accounts

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-24

    ... reporting requirement accounts located in jurisdictions that are not considered to be ``tax havens'' or that... report titled, Tax Haven Abuses: the Enablers, the Tools and Secrecy, Senate Hearing 109-797, 109th Cong... determined to have a high degree of usefulness in criminal, tax, regulatory, and counter-terrorism matters...

  9. Secrecy Jurisdictions

    OpenAIRE

    Schjelderup, Guttorm

    2015-01-01

    This paper surveys tax haven legislation and links the literature on tax havens to the literature on asymmetric information. I argue that the core aim of tax haven legislation is to create private information (secrecy) for the users of tax havens. This leads to moral hazard and transaction costs in non-havens. The business model of tax havens is illustrated by using Mauritsius and Jersey as case studies. I also provide several real world examples of how secrecy jurisdictions le...

  10. Perceptions of the Invention Disclosure Process at a Federal Laboratory after the America Invents Act of 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice-Moore, Sharla V.

    The America Invents Act of 2011 reformed the patent process in the United States. This study focused on the effect of one provision which allows the first inventor to file the application of patent to become the owner of the intellectual property. Prior to this, the Patent and Trademark Act of 1980 allowed small businesses, universities, and non-profit institutions to pursue ownership of intellectual property developed from federally funded research. The new regulations could influence government employees' disclosure of invention and new technology. There is limited research on the disclosure of technology process for government employees. This study examined 1,389 invention disclosure forms from March 2009 to March 2015 during three phases of the law: before it was signed, before the implementation of the first inventor to file provision in 2013, and after full enactment. The reported State of Development showed significant changes prior to implementation for large companies. The findings reveal disclosures were filed at an earlier stage of development, but no change was noted in the significance of the technology. A survey was also distributed using the framework of Organizational Justice theory. The results showed the disclosure reporting process was fair and unbiased. The research supports the efforts of management to keep employees informed about the disclosure process and the importance of technology transfer of government developed innovation. Key words: America Invents Act, Organizational Justice, patent process.

  11. 76 FR 59115 - Notice of Availability of Patent Fee Changes Under the Leahy-Smith America Invents Act

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-23

    ... Availability of Patent Fee Changes Under the Leahy- Smith America Invents Act AGENCY: United States Patent and... of the Leahy-Smith America Invents Act (i.e., September 26, 2011) by operation of the fifteen percent... in effect sixty days after the date of enactment of the Leahy-Smith America Invents Act (i.e...

  12. 77 FR 46615 - Changes To Implement Miscellaneous Post Patent Provisions of the Leahy-Smith America Invents Act

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-06

    ... the Leahy-Smith America Invents Act AGENCY: United States Patent and Trademark Office, Commerce. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: The Leahy-Smith America Invents Act (AIA) expands the scope of information... instituted. Section 6(a) and (d) of the Leahy-Smith American Invents Act also contains provisions (35 U.S.C...

  13. Decree of 17 June 1971, Stb. 420, concerning the implementation of Section 68 of the Nuclear Energy Act (Nuclear Energy Act (Secrecy) Decree)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1971-01-01

    This Decree lays down that rules may be made to secure the secrecy of a number of nuclear matters. An obligation to observe secrecy may be imposed upon persons engaged in the nuclear activities listed in the Decree if the interest of the State so requires. The competent Minister for the activity concerned is empowered to impose this obligation. (NEA) [fr

  14. 77 FR 442 - Changes To Implement Miscellaneous Post Patent Provisions of the Leahy-Smith America Invents Act

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-05

    ...-2011-0072] RIN 0651-AC66 Changes To Implement Miscellaneous Post Patent Provisions of the Leahy-Smith... proposed rulemaking. SUMMARY: The Leahy-Smith America Invents Act expands the scope of information that any... partes review, and post grant review. The Leahy-Smith America Invents Act also provides for an estoppel...

  15. Secrecy and misguided policy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rossin, A D [Center for International Security and Cooperation, Stanford, California (United States)

    2001-07-01

    The atomic bomb was born in secrecy. After the war, scientists and statesmen committed themselves to develop the promise of nuclear energy without the proliferation of nuclear weapons. The most obvious tool available to them was secrecy. But secrecy was not the sword that could easily be beaten into the plowshare. It proved to be a double-edged sword. It could not stop the spread of basic scientific information, and it turned out to be a weapon for marketing information to promote political aims. It served that purpose in promoting President Carter policy to stop reprocessing of spent fuel. (author)

  16. Secrecy and misguided policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rossin, A.D.

    2001-01-01

    The atomic bomb was born in secrecy. After the war, scientists and statesmen committed themselves to develop the promise of nuclear energy without the proliferation of nuclear weapons. The most obvious tool available to them was secrecy. But secrecy was not the sword that could easily be beaten into the plowshare. It proved to be a double-edged sword. It could not stop the spread of basic scientific information, and it turned out to be a weapon for marketing information to promote political aims. It served that purpose in promoting President Carter policy to stop reprocessing of spent fuel. (author)

  17. 77 FR 33638 - Amendment to the Bank Secrecy Act Regulations-Exemption From the Requirement To Report...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-07

    ... effectiveness of its anti-money laundering and counter-terrorist financing policies. \\1\\ These customers are... enforcement purposes. \\6\\ See section 402 of the Money Laundering Suppression Act of 1994 (the ``Money...\\ 31 U.S.C. 5311. \\4\\ Treasury Order 180-01 (Sept. 26, 2002). \\5\\ 31 U.S.C. 5318(h)(2). The Money...

  18. 78 FR 16182 - Changes To Implement the First Inventor To File Provisions of the Leahy-Smith America Invents Act...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-14

    ...-2012-0015] RIN 0651-AC77 Changes To Implement the First Inventor To File Provisions of the Leahy-Smith... inventor to file provisions of the Leahy-Smith America Invents Act (AIA) (First Inventor to File Final Rule... provisions of the AIA. See Changes To Implement the First Inventor To File Provisions of the Leahy-Smith...

  19. 78 FR 17871 - Changes To Implement the Technical Corrections to the Leahy-Smith America Invents Act as to Inter...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-25

    ... Business Method Patents--Definition of Technological Invention, 77 FR 48734 (Aug. 14, 2012) (final rule... Inter Partes Review AGENCY: United States Patent and Trademark Office, Commerce. ACTION: Final rule..., United States Code (``AIA Technical Corrections Act''). Consistent with the statutory changes, this final...

  20. Privacy Act System of Records: Invention Reports Submitted to the EPA, EPA-38

    Science.gov (United States)

    Learn about the Invention Reports Submitted to the EPA System, including who is covered in the system, the purpose of data collection, routine uses for the system's records, and other security procedures.

  1. Bringing Secrecy into the Open

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Costas, Jana; Grey, Christopher

    2014-01-01

    This paper brings into focus the concept of organizational secrecy, defined as the ongoing formal and informal social processes of intentional concealment of information from actors by actors in organizations. It is argued that existing literature on the topic is fragmented and predominantly...... focused on informational rather than social aspects of secrecy. The paper distinguishes between formal and informal secrecy and theorizes the social processes of these in terms of identity and control. It is proposed that organizational secrecy be added to the analytical repertoire of organization studies....

  2. Invention/Re-invention

    OpenAIRE

    Mera, M.

    2009-01-01

    This article examines the relationship between texts that are re-invented for different media and/or contexts including: film remakes, prequels and sequels, video games that become films and vice versa, internet mashups, and television series that move across geographical borders. The article points to significant sources in this emerging field and presents some of the challenges that arise in relation to its study. In particular questions of originality, fidelity, repetition and difference a...

  3. Aristotle's "Rhetoric": Reinterpreting Invention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quandahl, Ellen

    1986-01-01

    Shows that Aristotle's common topics are part of a theory of interpretation rather than a collection of devices for invention. Argues that it is more Aristotelian and more useful to understand composing as interpretation and not invention. Uses scholarship to inform pedagogy and to reorient composing toward acts of reading. (EL)

  4. Invention class

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Yeon Jung

    1990-03-01

    This book gives descriptions of whole conception of patent, which includes invention and human, the way to invent, ten commandments of invention, 50 well-known inventions and inventors, conception of industrial property right system, measures on industrial property right practice, measures on industrial property right invasion, the best 10 patent dispute in history, the best 10 real patent cases in history, field of patent invention, inventions and supporting system of technical development ; supporting by the patent and trademark office and the commerce-industry ministry.

  5. House of shame [nuclear secrecy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, Llew.

    1994-01-01

    The nuclear debate in the United Kingdom has been and continues to be shrouded in secrecy. Despite numerous Parliamentary questions, the author, a Member of Parliament and a former Member of the European Parliament, recounts his personal experience in failing to obtain details of nuclear matters. Reasons for keeping nuclear information secret range from claims that revealing it would endanger national security to the disproportionate cost of information exposure. (UK)

  6. 78 FR 11023 - Changes To Implement the First Inventor To File Provisions of the Leahy-Smith America Invents Act

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-14

    ... which the patent or application, as the case may be, names another inventor and was effectively filed... publication derived the claimed invention from the inventor or a joint inventor named in the application or... filed not later than twelve months (six months in the case of a design application) after the date on...

  7. The End of Bank Secrecy?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johannesen, Niels; Zucman, Gabriel

    2014-01-01

    the treaties affected bank deposits in tax havens. Rather than repatriating funds, our results suggest that tax evaders shifted deposits to havens not covered by a treaty with their home country. The crackdown thus caused a relocation of deposits at the benefit of the least compliant havens. We discuss......During the financial crisis, G20 countries compelled tax havens to sign bilateral treaties providing for exchange of bank information. Policymakers have celebrated this global initiative as the end of bank secrecy. Exploiting a unique panel dataset, our study is the first attempt to assess how...

  8. Statistical secrecy and multibit commitments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damgård, Ivan Bjerre; Pedersen, Torben P.; Pfitzmann, Birgit

    1998-01-01

    nothing about it. One definition is based on the L1-norm distance between probability distributions, the other on information theory. We prove that the two definitions are essentially equivalent. We also show that statistical counterparts of definitions of computational secrecy are essentially equivalent......We present and compare definitions of "statistically hiding" protocols, and we propose a novel statistically hiding commitment scheme. Informally, a protocol statistically hides a secret if a computationally unlimited adversary who conducts the protocol with the owner of the secret learns almost...... to our main definitions. Commitment schemes are an important cryptologic primitive. Their purpose is to commit one party to a certain value, while hiding this value from the other party until some later time. We present a statistically hiding commitment scheme allowing commitment to many bits...

  9. Non-Intentional Invention: The Promethean, Trickster, and Improvisational Invention Heuristics of Academic Writers and Poets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wirtz, Jason

    2013-01-01

    This essay introduces a novel way to conceptualize writerly invention -- invention as adopting a non-intentional intellectual stance wherein heuristics are experienced as acting upon the writer as opposed to being enacted by the writer. This view of invention complicates and extends the traditional, Aristotelian view of invention as discreet…

  10. Inventing Freud.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudnytsky, Peter L

    2008-06-01

    Written to commemorate the 150th anniversary of Freud's birth, this paper construes Nina Coltart's statement that "if Freud did not exist it would be necessary to invent him," with its implicit comparison of Freud to God, to refer to (a) the things that Freud taught that are incontrovertibly true; (b) the unavoidable subjectivity in all judgments of Freud; and (c) the resemblances between psychoanalysis and religion. This last comparison is likewise seen to have both positive and negative aspects. Freud's ideas have inspired many people, yet he unscientifically arrogated sovereign authority over psychoanalysis. Freud's admirers are reminded of his extreme difficulty in admitting he was wrong and changing his mind when he should have known better, while his detractors are encouraged to consider the evidence supporting many of Freud's core tenets and to recognize that his discovery of psychoanalysis is indeed one of the supreme achievements in human history.

  11. Mental illness stigma, secrecy and suicidal ideation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oexle, N; Ajdacic-Gross, V; Kilian, R; Müller, M; Rodgers, S; Xu, Z; Rössler, W; Rüsch, N

    2017-02-01

    Whether the public stigma associated with mental illness negatively affects an individual, largely depends on whether the person has been labelled 'mentally ill'. For labelled individuals concealing mental illness is a common strategy to cope with mental illness stigma, despite secrecy's potential negative consequences. In addition, initial evidence points to a link between stigma and suicidality, but quantitative data from community samples are lacking. Based on previous literature about mental illness stigma and suicidality, as well as about the potential influence of labelling processes and secrecy, a theory-driven model linking perceived mental illness stigma and suicidal ideation by a mediation of secrecy and hopelessness was established. This model was tested separately among labelled and unlabelled persons using data derived from a Swiss cross-sectional population-based study. A large community sample of people with elevated psychiatric symptoms was examined by interviews and self-report, collecting information on perceived stigma, secrecy, hopelessness and suicidal ideation. Participants who had ever used mental health services were considered as labelled 'mentally ill'. A descriptive analysis, stratified logistic regression models and a path analysis testing a three-path mediation effect were conducted. While no significant differences between labelled and unlabelled participants were observed regarding perceived stigma and secrecy, labelled individuals reported significantly higher frequencies of suicidal ideation and feelings of hopelessness. More perceived stigma was associated with suicidal ideation among labelled, but not among unlabelled individuals. In the path analysis, this link was mediated by increased secrecy and hopelessness. Results from this study indicate that among persons labelled 'mentally ill', mental illness stigma is a contributor to suicidal ideation. One explanation for this association is the relation perceived stigma has with

  12. Multipartite classical and quantum secrecy monotones

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cerf, N.J.; Massar, S.; Schneider, S.

    2002-01-01

    In order to study multipartite quantum cryptography, we introduce quantities which vanish on product probability distributions, and which can only decrease if the parties carry out local operations or public classical communication. These 'secrecy monotones' therefore measure how much secret correlation is shared by the parties. In the bipartite case we show that the mutual information is a secrecy monotone. In the multipartite case we describe two different generalizations of the mutual information, both of which are secrecy monotones. The existence of two distinct secrecy monotones allows us to show that in multipartite quantum cryptography the parties must make irreversible choices about which multipartite correlations they want to obtain. Secrecy monotones can be extended to the quantum domain and are then defined on density matrices. We illustrate this generalization by considering tripartite quantum cryptography based on the Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger state. We show that before carrying out measurements on the state, the parties must make an irreversible decision about what probability distribution they want to obtain

  13. Glasnost and Secrecy in the Soviet Military

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-12-21

    the most vicious and xenophobic brand of Russian chauvinism, complete with witch-hunts and spymania. Secrecy was also important for enhancing the...the Soviet Armed Forces, a significant factor tor a military establishment historically used to ’ie position of the underdog because of the Soviet

  14. Secrecy in Mobile Ad-hoc Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hüttel, Hans; Rafnsson, Willard

    2008-01-01

    We propose a framework for automated verification of secrecy properties of MANET protocols, consisting of a formal language and a proven sound verifi- cation technique which can be automated. We start off by presenting the dis- tributed applied pi calculus with broadcast (DAπβ ), whereafter we summ...

  15. New public management and policies of secrecy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lise DEMAILLY

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Crossing a survey of literature in sociology of health and her own inquiries in the field of mental health, the author studies the historical change in policies of secrecy in health domains and specifically, in modern democracies, practical aporias opposing rights and duties to and towards secrecy, rights and duty to and towards transparency. The paper describes weakening of medical secret regarding legitimization of standards of transparency, coordination and evaluation supported by the New Public Management (NPM. Two forms of resistance against technocratic enforcement to publicizing are suggested. The first of these forms is the historical exception, nowadays vilified as out of date, of psychoanalysis bound to strict secret of the singular interview and building there a space for emancipation, preventing any governance of behavior by healthiness. The second one: some intentional and paradoxical break of secret can result in symbolic reversal against domination and shame.

  16. Secrecy extraction from no-signaling correlations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scarani, Valerio; Gisin, Nicolas; Brunner, Nicolas; Masanes, Lluis; Pino, Sergi; Acin, Antonio

    2006-01-01

    Quantum cryptography shows that one can guarantee the secrecy of correlation on the sole basis of the laws of physics, that is, without limiting the computational power of the eavesdropper. The usual security proofs suppose that the authorized partners, Alice and Bob, have a perfect knowledge and control of their quantum systems and devices; for instance, they must be sure that the logical bits have been encoded in true qubits and not in higher dimensional systems. In this paper, we present an approach that circumvents this strong assumption. We define protocols, both for the case of bits and for generic d-dimensional outcomes, in which the security is guaranteed by the very structure of the Alice-Bob correlations, under the no-signaling condition. The idea is that if the correlations cannot be produced by shared randomness, then Eve has poor knowledge of Alice's and Bob's symbols. The present study assumes on the one hand that the eavesdropper Eve performs only individual attacks (this is a limitation to be removed in further work), and on the other hand that Eve can distribute any correlation compatible with the no-signaling condition (in this sense her power is greater than what quantum physics allows). Under these assumptions, we prove that the protocols defined here allow extracting secrecy from noisy correlations, when these correlations violate a Bell-type inequality by a sufficiently large amount. The region in which secrecy extraction is possible extends within the region of correlations achievable by measurements on entangled quantum states

  17. Openness versus Secrecy in Scientific Research Abstract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resnik, David B

    2006-02-01

    Openness is one of the most important principles in scientific inquiry, but there are many good reasons for maintaining secrecy in research, ranging from the desire to protect priority, credit, and intellectual property, to the need to safeguard the privacy of research participants or minimize threats to national or international security. This article examines the clash between openness and secrecy in science in light of some recent developments in information technology, business, and politics, and makes some practical suggestions for resolving conflicts between openness and secrecy."By academic freedom I understand the right to search for the truth and to publish and teach what one holds to be true. This right also implies a duty; one must not conceal any part of what one has recognized to be true. It is evident that any restriction of academic freedom serves to restrain the dissemination of knowledge, thereby impeding rational judgment and action."Albert Einstein, quotation inscribed on his statute in front of the National Academy of Sciences, Washington, DC.

  18. Blueprints for Disaster: Balancing Secrecy and Transparency of Government Continuity Plans

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-09-01

    ISO/IEC 31010:2009; COSO 2004; and OCEG “Red Book” 2.0: 2009. Institute of Risk Management , “ Risk Management Standards,” accessed June 26, 2015...Information Act (FOIA), protective security, risk management , Presidential Policy Directive 21 (PPD-21), National Security Presidential Directive 51 (NSPD...BLUEPRINTS FOR DISASTER: BALANCING SECRECY AND TRANSPARENCY OF GOVERNMENT CONTINUITY PLANS Stephen Scott Vollbrecht State Risk Manager for

  19. Keeping secrets from parents: Longitudinal associations of secrecy in adolescence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Frijns, T.; Finkenauer, C.; Vermulst, A.A.; Engels, R.C.M.E.

    2005-01-01

    A 2-wave survey study among 1173 10-14-year-olds tested the longitudinal contribution of secrecy from parents to psychosocial and behavioral problems in adolescence. Additionally, it investigated a hypothesized contribution of secrecy from parents to adolescent development by examining its relation

  20. Robust Secure Authentication and Data Storage with Perfect Secrecy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastian Baur

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available We consider an authentication process that makes use of biometric data or the output of a physical unclonable function (PUF, respectively, from an information theoretical point of view. We analyse different definitions of achievability for the authentication model. For the secrecy of the key generated for authentication, these definitions differ in their requirements. In the first work on PUF based authentication, weak secrecy has been used and the corresponding capacity regions have been characterized. The disadvantages of weak secrecy are well known. The ultimate performance criteria for the key are perfect secrecy together with uniform distribution of the key. We derive the corresponding capacity region. We show that, for perfect secrecy and uniform distribution of the key, we can achieve the same rates as for weak secrecy together with a weaker requirement on the distribution of the key. In the classical works on PUF based authentication, it is assumed that the source statistics are known perfectly. This requirement is rarely met in applications. That is why the model is generalized to a compound model, taking into account source uncertainty. We also derive the capacity region for the compound model requiring perfect secrecy. Additionally, we consider results for secure storage using a biometric or PUF source that follow directly from the results for authentication. We also generalize known results for this problem by weakening the assumption concerning the distribution of the data that shall be stored. This allows us to combine source compression and secure storage.

  1. Inventors and Inventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawson, Tom

    An 8-day unit introduces middle school students to American inventors and inventions. In separate lessons, students examine the patenting process, women inventors, minority inventors, Native American inventors, the airplane, Thomas Edison, and the impact of inventions on America's growth. A brief outline of daily lesson plans precedes a section of…

  2. The Invention Notebook Challenge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roman, Harry T.

    2018-01-01

    Like scientists who keep lab notebooks detailing their experiments, inventors keep invention notebooks that chronologically detail the inception, development, and refinement of their inventions. These notebooks are legal documents that can help prove one inventor's precedent over another. Scenarios like these are very real, as the author has had…

  3. Leisure Time Invention

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Davis, Lee N.; Davis, Jerome D.; Hoisl, Karin

    2013-01-01

    the employee is away from the workplace. We build on existing theory in the fields of organizational creativity and knowledge recombination, especially work relating context to creativity. The paper’s main theoretical contribution is to extend our understanding of the boundaries of employee creativity......This paper studies the contextual factors that influence whether invention occurs during work time or leisure time. Leisure time invention, a potentially important but thus far largely unexplored source of employee creativity, refers to invention where the main underlying idea occurs while...... by adding to the discussion of how access to and exploitation of different types of resources—during work hours or during leisure time — may affect creativity. Based on survey data from more than 3,000 inventions from German employee inventors, we find that leisure time inventions are more frequently...

  4. On the Secrecy Capacity of MISO Visible Light Communication Channels

    KAUST Repository

    Arfaoui, Mohamed Amine; Rezki, Zouheir; Ghrayeb, Ali; Alouini, Mohamed-Slim

    2017-01-01

    We study the secrecy capacity of the multiple- input single-output (MISO) Gaussian wiretap visible light communication (VLC) channel. We study a typical VLC scenario with one transmitter, one legitimate receiver, and one eavesdropper. Specifically

  5. THE RIGHT TO SECRECY OF COMMUNICATIONS - SITUATIONS AND CHALLENGES

    OpenAIRE

    Biljana Karovska-Andonovska

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, the basic elements of the right to secrecy of communications are presented. We analyzed the treatment of this fundamental right in international documents on human rights and in the constitutions of modern democracies. Also, we established the scope of protection of the confidentiality of certain types of communication. Moreover, we have identified the parts of the process of speech and written communication whose secrecy is protected in accordance wi...

  6. On the Secrecy Capacity of MISO Visible Light Communication Channels

    KAUST Repository

    Arfaoui, Mohamed Amine

    2017-02-07

    We study the secrecy capacity of the multiple- input single-output (MISO) Gaussian wiretap visible light communication (VLC) channel. We study a typical VLC scenario with one transmitter, one legitimate receiver, and one eavesdropper. Specifically, we compute the achievable secrecy rate for various input signaling distributions, including the truncated generalized normal (TGN) and uniform distributions. The transmitter is equipped with multiple light sources, while the legitimate and unauthorized receivers are each equipped with a single photodetector. We analyze the achievable secrecy rates via transmit beamforming and artificial noise. In addition, both zero-forcing beamforming and robust beamforming are considered. In the former case, the location of the eavesdropper is assumed to be known, whereas in the latter case, the location of the eavesdropper is unknown. Our numerical results show that the secrecy rate achieved by the TGN distribution is significantly improved as compared to those achieved by the truncated Gaussian and uniform distributions, for both zero-forcing beamforming and robust beamforming. We also derive an upper bound on the achievable secrecy capacity that we used to assess the closeness of the achievable secrecy rates to the derived bound.

  7. Science of invention patent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Yeong Taek; Park, Su Dong

    1999-02-01

    This book tells science of invention patent about new way of invention and creative solution for problems, basic conception of TRIZ, resolution of physical contradictory and technical contradictory, development of system and types of evolution, change of thinking for solving the problems, analysis of structure for problem solution, problem solution using scientific phenomenon and effect, use of standard solution and algorithm of creative problem solution.

  8. From Invention to Innovation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rorke, M.

    2000-07-18

    The Inventions and Innovation Program, formerly known as ERIP (Energy-related Inventions Program), was established by the U.S. Congress in 1974. The program offers assistance to independent inventors and very small businesses engaged in developing new energy-saving technologies. The program remains clearly focused on energy generation and savings. The I&I Program funding is based on a competitive proposal process.

  9. The Software Invention Cube: A classification scheme for software inventions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bergstra, J.A.; Klint, P.

    2008-01-01

    The patent system protects inventions. The requirement that a software invention should make ‘a technical contribution’ turns out to be untenable in practice and this raises the question, what constitutes an invention in the realm of software. The authors developed the Software Invention Cube

  10. L’invention instrumentale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacques Dewitte

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available L’instrument de musique n’a pas d’identité déterminée avant qu’il ne soit joué par un musicien concret, ou utilisé dans une œuvre singulière. Pour Stravinsky, l’instrument de musique « n’est rien en soi ». C’est l’œuvre, comme invention et création, qui donne à l’instrument son identité, sur la base de propriétés organologiques préexistantes. Les œuvres de Stravinsky pour petite formation illustrent cette idée d’une invention de l’instrument de musique par l’œuvre qu’il joue, ainsi que son amour pour des instruments nouveaux ou « nouveaux pour lui » (le cymbalum. L’invention instrumentale (qui n’est pas ici création d’un nouvel instrument consiste à faire sonner de manière neuve un instrument déjà existant. Cette invention suppose une « érotique » musicale, un amour spécifique pour les instruments et les altérités dont ils sont porteurs. Tout se passe alors comme si un a priori (une possibilité musicale enfouie dans l’instrumentA musical instrument has no specific identity until it is played by a concrete musician or used in a singular work. According to Stravinsky, a musical instrument is « nothing in itself ». Only a work, as a process of invention and creation, gives an instrument its identity on the basis of pre-existing organologic properties. Stravinsky’s works for small ensembles show how musical instruments may be invented by the work which they play, as well as the composer’s love for instruments that are new or “new for him” (such as the cymbalo. Musical invention (which does not mean here the creation of a new instrument consists in giving a new ring to an existing instrument. This kind of invention implies a notion of musical “eroticism”, that is a specific love for instruments and the otherness they may bear. Everything is happening as though an a priori quality (a musical possibility buried in the instrument appeared only a posteriori

  11. Improved achievable secrecy rate of visible light communication with cooperative jamming

    KAUST Repository

    Zaid, Hajar; Rezki, Zouheir; Chaaban, Anas; Alouini, Mohamed-Slim

    2016-01-01

    constraint on the input distribution which renders Gaussian inputs not admissible. We provide an achievable secrecy rate that improves upon a recently established one in a concurrent work by Mostafa and Lampe. Our scheme follows from both the secrecy capacity

  12. Protecting knowledge : How legal requirements to reveal information affect the importance of secrecy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sofka, Wolfgang; de Faria, Pedro; Shehu, Edlira

    2018-01-01

    Most firms use secrecy to protect their knowledge from potential imitators. However, the theoretical foundations for secrecy have not been well explored. We extend knowledge protection literature and propose theoretical mechanisms explaining how information visibility influences the importance of

  13. How can I invent?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Yeon Jung

    2001-10-15

    This book gives descriptions of how to invent with various and useful tips. The contents of this book are set up the proper goal according to your condition, let's find the other use, change the order and put a replacement, search more convenience, have application of color characteristic, imitation is beginning of the invention, convert imitation into creation, look into the deserted idea, learn the basic science, catch the stream of times, try to study hard, have a big dream, change your way of thinking, develop the system, and throw away the stereotype.

  14. How can I invent?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Yeon Jung

    2001-10-01

    This book gives descriptions of how to invent with various and useful tips. The contents of this book are set up the proper goal according to your condition, let's find the other use, change the order and put a replacement, search more convenience, have application of color characteristic, imitation is beginning of the invention, convert imitation into creation, look into the deserted idea, learn the basic science, catch the stream of times, try to study hard, have a big dream, change your way of thinking, develop the system, and throw away the stereotype.

  15. On Secrecy Performance of Mixed RF-FSO Systems

    KAUST Repository

    Lei, Hongjiang; Dai, Zhijun; Ansari, Imran Shafique; Park, Kihong; pan, Gaofeng; Alouini, Mohamed-Slim

    2017-01-01

    In this work, we study the secrecy performance of a mixed radio frequency-free space optical (RF-FSO) transmission systems. All RF links experience Nakagami-m fading and the FSO link experiences the Gamma-Gamma fading. The effect of pointing error and two types of detection techniques (i.e., heterodyne detection and intensity modulation with direct detection) are considered. We derive closed-form expressions for lower bound of the secrecy outage probability (SOP) and exact average secrecy capacity (ASC). Furthermore, by utilizing the expansion of Meijer's G-function, asymptotic results for SOP and ASC are derived when the electrical signal-to-noise ratio of the FSO link tends to infinity. Numerical and Monte-Carlo simulation results are provided to verify the accuracy of our proposed results.

  16. THE RIGHT TO SECRECY OF COMMUNICATIONS - SITUATIONS AND CHALLENGES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Biljana Karovska-Andonovska

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the basic elements of the right to secrecy of communications are presented. We analyzed the treatment of this fundamental right in international documents on human rights and in the constitutions of modern democracies. Also, we established the scope of protection of the confidentiality of certain types of communication. Moreover, we have identified the parts of the process of speech and written communication whose secrecy is protected in accordance with international standards. Special attention is devoted to the contemporary challenges facing the respect the secrecy of communications. In this regard, we analyzed the impact of the expansion of modern communication technologies on the confidentiality of communication. As a special challenge we analyzed the application of new methods for dealing with security threats on a national and global level, which among other things include interception of communications to collect information and evidence of involvement in criminal activities.

  17. The semantics of secrecy: young children's classification of secret content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anagnostaki, Lida; Wright, Michael J; Bourchier-Sutton, Alison J

    2010-01-01

    The authors explored whether young children can distinguish potential secrets from nonsecrets by their content, as can older children, adolescents, and adults. Ninety children, 4, 5, and 6 years old, rated the secrecy of items from an adult-validated list of personal information about an age- and gender-appropriate puppet. Two factors of the children's data corresponded to the adult categories of nonsecrets and secrets, and a third factor corresponded to surprises. All ages rated surprises as significantly more secret than nonsecret items; however, the surprise items contained linguistic cues to secrecy. A tendency to rate nonsecrets as secret decreased with age, but only the 6-year-olds rated secrets other than surprises as significantly more secret than nonsecrets. Thus, children acquire the implicit rules defining secret content from a somewhat later age than that reported for the cognitive or behavioral capacities for secrecy.

  18. On Secrecy Performance of Mixed RF-FSO Systems

    KAUST Repository

    Lei, Hongjiang

    2017-07-05

    In this work, we study the secrecy performance of a mixed radio frequency-free space optical (RF-FSO) transmission systems. All RF links experience Nakagami-m fading and the FSO link experiences the Gamma-Gamma fading. The effect of pointing error and two types of detection techniques (i.e., heterodyne detection and intensity modulation with direct detection) are considered. We derive closed-form expressions for lower bound of the secrecy outage probability (SOP) and exact average secrecy capacity (ASC). Furthermore, by utilizing the expansion of Meijer\\'s G-function, asymptotic results for SOP and ASC are derived when the electrical signal-to-noise ratio of the FSO link tends to infinity. Numerical and Monte-Carlo simulation results are provided to verify the accuracy of our proposed results.

  19. Invention note and patent note

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, Sung Su

    1997-09-01

    This book deals with origin of invention and term related patent and invention, making idea, brain storming, 10 laws of invention skill, attitude of inventors, invention order, making good inventions, patent system, preparation of application, procedure and method of patent, management of patent, patent and trademark office, patent lawyer, copyright, new intellectual property right, industrial property right, trademark, invasion of industrial property right, patent, Judgment, preparation of items, application of industrial property right and effect of inventor and related people.

  20. Information Secrecy And Public-Key Cryptography | Mekuria | Zede ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The subject and need of information secrecy with emphasis to the choice of fully using an already established public channel is to be discussed. Related histories and current achievements made in the area of information hiding, notable persons who changed the course of its progress from ancient times to this last ...

  1. Keeping Government Secrecy Safe: Beyond Whack-a-Mole

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Curtin, D.M.

    2011-01-01

    The concept of secrecy as a mechanism for not providing government information, on the one hand, and the commitment to openness of government, on the other, reflect certain historical understandings of the relationship between a government, citizens, officials and information. Within democratic

  2. Protecting traditional knowledge - Does secrecy offer a solution ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... their traditional knowledge. This paper reviews the concerns that may arise when holders of traditional knowledge attempt to rely on claiming unfair competition and contract laws to protect their traditional knowledge. Keywords: Traditional knowledge; TRIPS Agreement; unfair competition; confidential information; secrecy.

  3. 78 FR 23916 - Secrecy and License To Export

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-23

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE Patent and Trademark Office Secrecy and License To Export ACTION: Proposed collection; comment request. SUMMARY: The United States Patent and Trademark Office (USPTO), as part of its continuing effort to reduce paperwork and respondent burden, invites the general public and other Federal...

  4. Invention party of students 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Yeon Jung

    2000-02-01

    The contents of this book are story about making a mistake by friends, o dear! my mistake, shower and platform for crocks of sauces and condiments, good thing and bad thing when it appears, dream and invention of JuMok, failure is another discovery, a certain goal, idea in a life, addition and subtraction, a little hint is a great invention, question : why? This book gives advices and encouragement how to invent and what to invent to students.

  5. Examining the social and scientific roles of invention in science education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calabrese-Barton, Angela

    1998-03-01

    I have been drawn to the construct of “invention” and “inventive acts” because in my research involving how homeless children construct science and the self-in-science, an overwhelming theme has been the multiple ways in which self-identity in science has been described by the children through a language of invention. Using post-modern feminism and science and technologies studies, I examine the multiple uses and definitions of “invention” in science in order to develop a theory of invention and inventive acts around the themes: invention as a social act, invention as a recursive and socially linked process, and embodied agency. I use this framework to examine the construct of “invention” in two different case studies involving the science education of urban homeless children. Finally, I link this discussion of invention and inventive acts with current international reform initiatives revolving around constructivist science teaching and learning.

  6. Not-Invented-Here

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burcharth, Ana Luiza Lara de Araújo; Fosfuri, Andrea

    knowledge, the so-called Not-Invented-Here (NIH) syndrome. Drawing on multi-informant survey data of small and medium-sized Danish enterprises, the paper finds that socialization practices are an important driver of the NIH syndrome with such an effect being attenuated in technologically highly specialized......The management literature has highlighted several potential benefits of socialization practices within companies. By contrast, this paper posits that socialization practices, by fostering a higher degree of company identity, contribute to generate a greater reluctance to the adoption of external...

  7. I can invent

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Yeon Jung

    2001-10-15

    This book introduces the inventions which are unique and interesting. The titles of these are pots which boil very quick and safe, a desk with a pencil case, a scale which is not rusty, a book cover with a pocket, a skate with wax and mop, a seat belt airbag, a desk lamp which can control the light, a desk in the future, a recycling bin for cans, a blackboard eraser which erase very well, a useful crutches, swimming goggles attached convex lens, flower pots using waste tires, toilet paper holder with sawtooth, a brush which washes a flask, improved pump for petroleum.

  8. I can invent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Yeon Jung

    2001-10-01

    This book introduces the inventions which are unique and interesting. The titles of these are pots which boil very quick and safe, a desk with a pencil case, a scale which is not rusty, a book cover with a pocket, a skate with wax and mop, a seat belt airbag, a desk lamp which can control the light, a desk in the future, a recycling bin for cans, a blackboard eraser which erase very well, a useful crutches, swimming goggles attached convex lens, flower pots using waste tires, toilet paper holder with sawtooth, a brush which washes a flask, improved pump for petroleum.

  9. A critical examination of factors that might encourage secrecy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tough, Allen

    If a signal is detected someday from extraterrestrial intelligence, several factors might encourage complete and immediate secrecy. As a result, all data might be restricted to the receiving facility or nation instead of being shared promptly with SETI scientists around the world. Seven factors seem particularly like to encourage secrecy: (1) the belief that people may panic; (2) the fear of a negative impact on religion, science, and culture; (3) embarrassment; (4) the individual and national competitive urge; (5) avoiding a harmful premature reply; (6) a national trade or military advantage; and (7) the fear of a Trojan Horse. Three steps might alleviate the particularly difficult factors (numbers 4, 5, 6): an international treaty for immediate sharing of possible signals with SETI scientists in several other countries; implementation and frequent use of an actual network of scientists for such sharing; and further study of the possible need for partial restriction of data about the location and channel of a suspected signal.

  10. RFID Ownership Transfer with Positive Secrecy Capacity Channels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Munilla

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available RFID ownership transfer protocols (OTPs transfer tag ownership rights. Recently, there has been considerable interest in such protocols; however, guaranteeing privacy for symmetric-key settings without trusted third parties (TTPs is a challenge still unresolved. In this paper, we address this issue and show that it can be solved by using channels with positive secrecy capacity. We implement these channels with noisy tags and provide practical values, thus proving that perfect secrecy is theoretically possible. We then define a communication model that captures spatiotemporal events and describe a first example of symmetric-key based OTP that: (i is formally secure in the proposed communication model and (ii achieves privacy with a noisy tag wiretap channel without TTPs.

  11. Secrecy Capacity of a Class of Orthogonal Relay Eavesdropper Channels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aggarwal Vaneet

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The secrecy capacity of relay channels with orthogonal components is studied in the presence of an additional passive eavesdropper node. The relay and destination receive signals from the source on two orthogonal channels such that the destination also receives transmissions from the relay on its channel. The eavesdropper can overhear either one or both of the orthogonal channels. Inner and outer bounds on the secrecy capacity are developed for both the discrete memoryless and the Gaussian channel models. For the discrete memoryless case, the secrecy capacity is shown to be achieved by a partial decode-and-forward (PDF scheme when the eavesdropper can overhear only one of the two orthogonal channels. Two new outer bounds are presented for the Gaussian model using recent capacity results for a Gaussian multiantenna point-to-point channel with a multiantenna eavesdropper. The outer bounds are shown to be tight for two subclasses of channels. The first subclass is one in which the source and relay are clustered, and the eavesdropper receives signals only on the channel from the source and the relay to the destination, for which the PDF strategy is optimal. The second is a subclass in which the source does not transmit to the relay, for which a noise-forwarding strategy is optimal.

  12. Joint Secrecy for D2D Communications Underlying Cellular Networks

    KAUST Repository

    Hyadi, Amal

    2018-01-15

    In this work, we investigate the ergodic secrecy rate region of a block-fading spectrum-sharing system, where a D2D communication is underlying a cellular channel. We consider that both the primary and the secondary transmissions require their respective transmitted messages to be kept secret from a common eavesdropper under a joint secrecy constraint. The presented results are for three different scenarios, each corresponding to a particular requirement of the cellular system. First, we consider the case of a fair cellular system, and we show that the impact of jointly securing the transmissions can be balanced between the primary and the secondary systems. The second scenario examines the case when the primary network is demanding and requires the secondary transmission to be at a rate that is decodable by the primary receiver, while the last scenario assumes a joint transmission of artificial noise by the primary and the secondary transmitters. For each scenario, we present an achievable ergodic secrecy rate region that can be used as an indicator for the cellular and the D2D systems to agree under which terms the spectrum will be shared.

  13. Secrecy Capacity Analysis over α−μ Fading Channels

    KAUST Repository

    Lei, Hongjiang

    2017-02-15

    In this work, we study the secrecy capacity of the classic Wyner’s model over the α − μ fading channels, where α and μ specify the nonlinearity and clustering of fading channels, respectively. The average secrecy capacity (ASC) is derived in closed-form by using the extended generalized bivariate Fox’s Hfunction (EGBFHF). Moreover, the asymptotic analysis of ASC in high signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) regime is conducted. The asymptotic results unveil that the ASC follows the scaling law of Θ(ln p), where p stands for the ratio between the average powers of main channels and eavesdropping channels. Moreover, the ASC can be enhanced by increasing the transmit SNR, while there exists a ceiling of ASC as the SNRs at both sides are improved simultaneously. The accuracy of the analytical results is validated by Monte-Carlo simulations. The numerical results show that rigorous fading channels are beneficial to the secrecy performance, that is, serious nonlinearity (small α) and sparse clustering (small μ) will lead to the improvement of ASC.

  14. Secrecy Capacity Analysis over α−μ Fading Channels

    KAUST Repository

    Lei, Hongjiang; Ansari, Imran Shafique; Pan, Gaofeng; Alomair, Basel; Alouini, Mohamed-Slim

    2017-01-01

    In this work, we study the secrecy capacity of the classic Wyner’s model over the α − μ fading channels, where α and μ specify the nonlinearity and clustering of fading channels, respectively. The average secrecy capacity (ASC) is derived in closed-form by using the extended generalized bivariate Fox’s Hfunction (EGBFHF). Moreover, the asymptotic analysis of ASC in high signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) regime is conducted. The asymptotic results unveil that the ASC follows the scaling law of Θ(ln p), where p stands for the ratio between the average powers of main channels and eavesdropping channels. Moreover, the ASC can be enhanced by increasing the transmit SNR, while there exists a ceiling of ASC as the SNRs at both sides are improved simultaneously. The accuracy of the analytical results is validated by Monte-Carlo simulations. The numerical results show that rigorous fading channels are beneficial to the secrecy performance, that is, serious nonlinearity (small α) and sparse clustering (small μ) will lead to the improvement of ASC.

  15. Secret of success for invention technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Gwan Hyeong

    1990-12-01

    This book deals with importance, meaning, history of invention technology, technique of invention technology, and invention in connection with the duties. It covers importance, meaning, flow of invention technology development, basis of invention technology development, development, development investment, development workforce of invention technology, and development of invention technology introduction. It also contains outline, research, management of technology development information, outline, research, management of patent information, and reality of invention technology research development.

  16. Secrecy and Democracy: The Conflict between American Ideals and American Institutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-05-22

    secrecy begins1 — Hannah Arendt , The Burden of our Time) INTRODUCTION The United States was born in secrecy. In 1787, the Constitutional Convention...Application Programming Interfaces.” American Behavioral Scientist 57, no. 5 (December 2012): 623-642. DOI:10.1177/000276421269363. Arendt , Hannah . The...secrecy and transparency, privacy and publicity, that undermines 1Hannah Arendt , The Burden of our Time (London: Secker and Warburg, 1951), 386

  17. Fuel on the Invention Funnel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leone, Maria Isabella; Reichstein, Toke; Boccardelli, Paolo

    In this paper, we examine the impact of technology licensing-in on firm invention performance. Studying a sample of 266 licensees and matched non-licensees using a two-part model specification, we find that licensees are more likely to introduce inventions than their non-licensee counterparts. Th...

  18. Children's Disclosure and Secrecy: Links to Maternal Parenting Characteristics and Children's Coping Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almas, Alisa N.; Grusec, Joan E.; Tackett, Jennifer L.

    2011-01-01

    The relations between maternal parenting characteristics, child disclosure and secrecy, and child outcomes (positive and negative strategies for coping with distress), were examined in a study of 140 children (10-12-year-olds) and their mothers. Child disclosure and secrecy were shown to be distinct but related constructs with authoritativeness…

  19. Is it bad to have secrets? Cognitive preoccupation as a toxic element of secrecy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maas, J.; Wismeijer, A.A.J.; Assen, M.A.L.M. van; Aquarius, A.E.A.M.

    2012-01-01

    This ex post facto study examined the effect of secrecy on well-being in a sample of 287 HIV-positive individuals, using both self-report data and objective immune parameters. The effects on well-being of three components of secrecy were studied; self-concealment, possession of a secret, and

  20. Secrecy as embodied practice: beyond the confessional imperative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardon, Anita; Posel, Deborah

    2012-01-01

    This introduction to this special issue of Culture, Health & Sexuality aims to intervene critically in debates in public health about sexual rights and ways of de-stigmatising HIV/AIDS, in which silence and secrets are seen to undermine well-being and perpetuate stigma. It presents key insights from collaborative studies on HIV/AIDS and youth sexual health, arguing that advocates of disclosure and sexual rights need to think more contextually and tactically in promoting truth-telling. The authors aim to enhance current thinking on secrecy, which examines it primarily as a social practice, by emphasising the centrality of the body and the experience of embodiment in the making and unmaking of secrets. To understand secrecy as embodied practice requires understanding how it simultaneously involves the body as subject - as the basis from which we experience the world - and the body as object - that can be actively manipulated, silenced and 'done'. The authors show how tensions emerge when bodies reveal reproductive mishaps and describe how the dissonances are resolved through a variety of silencing practices. The paper ends by discussing the implications of these insights for sexual-health programmes.

  1. Secrecy From Parents and Type 1 Diabetes Management in Late Adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Main, Alexandra; Wiebe, Deborah J; Van Bogart, Karina; Turner, Sara L; Tucker, Christy; Butner, Jonathan E; Berg, Cynthia A

    2015-01-01

    This study examined (a) associations of parent-adolescent relationship characteristics and adolescent problem behavior with late adolescents' secrecy from parents about type 1 diabetes management, and (b) whether secrecy was associated with diabetes and psychological outcomes independently of these factors. Adolescents (N = 247, Mage = 17.76 years) completed survey measures of diabetes-related secrecy from parents, disclosure, parental acceptance, parental knowledge, and conduct problems. Mothers and adolescents reported on adolescent adherence to diabetes regimens and adolescents reported their depressive symptoms. Glycemic control was obtained from HbA1c test kits. Adolescent-reported disclosure to parents was uniquely negatively associated with secrecy from parents. Controlling for relationship variables, conduct problems, and sociodemographic and illness-related variables, secrecy from mothers was uniquely associated with poorer glycemic control and secrecy from both parents was associated with lower adherence. Secrecy about type 1 diabetes management is uniquely associated with diabetes outcomes independent of other relationship characteristics and problem behaviors. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Pediatric Psychology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  2. [Legal secrecy: abortion in Puerto Rico from 1937 to 1970].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchand-Arias, R E

    1998-03-01

    The essay discusses abortion in Puerto Rico from 1937 to 1970, concentrating in its legal status as well as its social practice. The research documents the contradictions between the legality of the procedure and a social practice characterized by secrecy. The essay discusses the role of the Clergy Consultation Service on Abortion in promoting the legal practice of absortion in Puerto Rico. It also discusses the ambivalent role of medical doctors who, despite being legally authorized to perform abortions to protect the life and health of women, refused to perform the procedure arguing abortion was illegal. The essay concludes with a brief discussion on perceptions of illegality regarding abortion, emphasizing the contradictions between the practice of abortion and that of sterilization in Puerto Rico.

  3. Secrecy, simultaneous discovery, and the theory of nuclear reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weart, S.

    1977-01-01

    The history of nuclear reactors gives us a singular opportunity to study what happens when the world's leading physicists, faced with the same problem, find solutions in complete isolation from one another. This paper takes as an example an elementary part of reactor theory, the four-factor formula. It was discovered independently at least six times (in France, Germany, the Soviet Union, and the United States). But the groups, separated by wartime secrecy, used the formula in very different ways. Usually it was simply ignored. In only two cases was the formula integrated with experimental work: by the French and, in an entirely different way, by Fermi's team in Chicago. Thus even though simultaneous discovery occurred, we need not conclude that the physics developed inevitably in a unique pattern

  4. Invention through Form and Function Analogy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rule, Audrey C.

    2015-01-01

    "Invention through Form and Function Analogy" is an invention book for teachers and other leaders working with youth who are involving students in the invention process. The book consists of an introduction and set of nine learning cycle formatted lessons for teaching the principles of invention through the science and engineering design…

  5. Overcome IMF crisis with idea and invention

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Yeon Jung

    1998-01-01

    This book introduces the invention as a tool to overcome IMF crisis. These are the titles of the way to create invention and idea : what is idea? everyone can create something, have a confidence, this is patent, replace or change something, invention is not logical, challenge the normal law, throw away stereotype, movement of idea, original imagination, there are a lot of solutions, there is no expert, have a positive thought, why does inventor invent? necessity is invention of mother, three stage of idea and invention and imitation for invention.

  6. Overcome IMF crisis with idea and invention

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Yeon Jung

    1998-01-15

    This book introduces the invention as a tool to overcome IMF crisis. These are the titles of the way to create invention and idea : what is idea? everyone can create something, have a confidence, this is patent, replace or change something, invention is not logical, challenge the normal law, throw away stereotype, movement of idea, original imagination, there are a lot of solutions, there is no expert, have a positive thought, why does inventor invent? necessity is invention of mother, three stage of idea and invention and imitation for invention.

  7. How easy the invention is

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Yeon Jung

    2002-05-15

    This book deals with the inventions invented by kids such as a utility helmet, a useful drawing board, automatic safe device, telephone for the blind, a peaceful washboard, roly poly milk bottle, seat belt with height control, gas hose to prevent thief, portable magic soap, useful bus handle, convent desk, a paper cup attached a spoon, a useful washboard, dressing room using moveable small cymbals, fluorescent light which is easy to put in a new one, rods for night, curtain for cars, spray shampoo, and a good calendar.

  8. How easy the invention is

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Yeon Jung

    2002-05-01

    This book deals with the inventions invented by kids such as a utility helmet, a useful drawing board, automatic safe device, telephone for the blind, a peaceful washboard, roly poly milk bottle, seat belt with height control, gas hose to prevent thief, portable magic soap, useful bus handle, convent desk, a paper cup attached a spoon, a useful washboard, dressing room using moveable small cymbals, fluorescent light which is easy to put in a new one, rods for night, curtain for cars, spray shampoo, and a good calendar.

  9. Invention party of students 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Yeon Jung

    2000-02-01

    The contents of this book are lettuce and royal foxglove tree leaves, memory of summer sea, summer vacation of a freak, waste tires and a fishbowl, a spoon and a iron hand, a iron hand and emergency signal light, my friend is Macgyver, a merry cleaning time, Hojin's invention diary. I am a inventor, a happy winter vacation, the best from losing the draw. This book gives a descriptions of the cases of inventions which are made up through unique and brilliant idea.

  10. Cooperative jamming power control to enhance secrecy communications of AF Relaying systems for Rayleigh fading channel

    KAUST Repository

    Park, Kihong; Alouini, Mohamed-Slim

    2012-01-01

    allocation; (i) rate-optimal power allocation and (ii) outage-optimal power allocation. More specifically, without the instantaneous channel knowledge for the eavesdropper side, the outage probability of the secrecy rate is minimized with respect

  11. Humanisme : inventer l'avenir

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayor, Federico

    2014-06-01

    Humanism: inventing the future - Humanity is still confronted by the scourges of poverty, hunger, violence and inequality. If we are to invent a better future, we must first understand the past, recalling the missed opportunities of 1918, 1945 and 1989, at the end of two world wars and a cold war. This article summarises the proposals put forward by the author on several occasions during his career. He expresses a forceful confidence in humankind's ability to take control of its destiny and shake off government that puts economic interest before universal human values. The twenty-first century should be the era of rebellion in cyberspace, one in which more women and young people are involved in decision making, heralding a future of freedom and happiness for all.

  12. Inventions and developments of democracy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Uffe

    2010-01-01

    In traditional approaches to the history of political ideas, the history of democracy is uniformly studied concerning the point of departure, selection of canonical texts, etc. The paper introduces the Koselleckian conceptual history approach (Begriffsgeschichte) and the principle of a broader...... selection of texts than in the traditional history of ideas to provide a fuller account of usages of the concept, thereby opening up for alternative conceptions of the inventions and development of democracy....

  13. Was the Monetarist Tradition Invented?

    OpenAIRE

    George S. Tavlas

    1998-01-01

    In 1969, Harry Johnson charged that Milton Friedman 'invented' a Chicago oral quantity theory tradition, the idea being that in order to launch a monetarist counter-revolution, Friedman needed to establish a linkage with pre-Keynesian orthodoxy. This paper shows that there was a distinct pre-Keynesian Chicago quantity-theory tradition that advocated increased government expenditure during the Great Depression in order to put money directly into circulation. This policy stance distinguished th...

  14. On the Secrecy Capacity of 5G New Radio Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ke Xiao

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The new radio technology for the fifth-generation wireless system has been extensively studied all over the world. Specifically, the air interface protocols for 5G radio access network will be standardized by the 3GPP in the coming years. In the next-generation 5G new radio (NR networks, millimeter wave (mmWave communications will definitely play a critical role, as new NR air interface (AI is up to 100 GHz just like mmWave. The rapid growth of mmWave systems poses a variety of challenges in physical layer (PHY security. This paper investigates those challenges in the context of several 5G new radio communication technologies, including multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO and nonorthogonal multiple access (NOMA. In particular, we introduce a ray-tracing (RT based 5G NR network channel model and reveal that the secrecy capacity in mmWave band widely depends on the richness of radio frequency (RF environment through numerical experiments.

  15. Simultaneous invention and the patent law

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Howells, John

    inventions they often find this to challenge the idea that patent law (which rewards only the first inventor with exclusive rights) is needed to encourage invention and innovation. We review the empirical evidence alleged to show that simultaneous invention is prevalent for important inventions. In general...... is typical of important pioneer inventions in both survey evidence and alleged illustrative cases of simultaneous invention. We show this in the cases of Edison, the Wright brothers, the Selden automobile patent vis a vis Ford, Watt and the steam engine. We then point out that patent law inherently ensures...... that patent protection is not extended to near simultaneous inventions. There remain a number of simultaneous inventions discovered through interference proceedings but we find the number too small to mount a serious challenge to the general operation of patent law....

  16. Scientific work on the level of inventions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piven' , G.I.; Pustovit, Yu.A.

    1980-06-01

    Describes the organizational scheme of the Ukrainian Research Scientific Coal-Chemical Institute patent department. The department evaluates new technological inventions patented abroad and associated with the coking industry, prepares information on new patents for the Institute's scientific staff. The department also helps employees of the Institute in formal patenting of their inventions. Inventions in the following fields are discussed: selective crushing of coal for coking, preheating of the coal charge, coal preparation (15 inventions) coal preparation before the coking process (45 inventions), modelling the optimum parameters of coking (6 inventions), production of formed coke (25 inventions) and smokeless and dustless charging of coal in coking ovens (6 invections). Twenty-one inventions are associated with using the waste products of coal preparation and coking, and environmental protection in conjunction with coking plants. (In Polish)

  17. 77 FR 48827 - Changes To Implement the Supplemental Examination Provisions of the Leahy-Smith America Invents...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-14

    ... Office 37 CFR Part 1 Changes To Implement the Supplemental Examination Provisions of the Leahy-Smith... Changes To Implement the Supplemental Examination Provisions of the Leahy-Smith America Invents Act and To... patent cases to implement the supplemental examination provisions of the Leahy-Smith America Invents Act...

  18. Obstacles to the implementation of the Freedom of Information Act ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... implementation of the FOI Act, particularly non-compliance by government or public officials. The article recommends strategies to overcome these challenges and concludes that with political will, the objectives of the FOI Act will be realized. Keywords: Freedom of information, access, records, secrecy, Law, expression ...

  19. On the ergodic secrecy capacity of the wiretap channel under imperfect main channel estimation

    KAUST Repository

    Rezki, Zouheir

    2011-11-01

    The ergodic secrecy capacity of the wiretap channel is known when the main channel (between the transmitter and the legitimate receiver) state information (CSI) is perfect at the transmitter and the coherence period is sufficiently large to enable random coding arguments in each block. In a fast fading scenario, when the codeword length spans many coherence periods, the secrecy capacity is still not known. In this paper, we present a framework that characterizes this secrecy capacity under imperfect main channel estimation at the transmitter. Inner and outer bounds on the ergodic secrecy capacity are derived for a class of independent identically distributed (i.i.d.) fading channels. The achievable rate is a simple on-off scheme using a Gaussian input. The upper bound is obtained using an appropriate correlation scheme of the main and the eavesdropper channels. The upper and the lower bounds coincide with recently derived ones in the perfect main CSI extreme. Furthermore, the lower bound matches the upper bound in no main CSI extreme, where the secrecy capacity is equal to zero. Numerical results are provided for independent identically distributed (i.i.d.) Rayleigh fading channels. © 2011 IEEE.

  20. On the secrecy capacity of the wiretap channel with imperfect main channel estimation

    KAUST Repository

    Rezki, Zouheir

    2014-10-01

    We study the secrecy capacity of fast fading channels under imperfect main channel (between the transmitter and the legitimate receiver) estimation at the transmitter. Lower and upper bounds on the ergodic secrecy capacity are derived for a class of independent identically distributed (i.i.d.) fading channels. The achievable rate follows from a standard wiretap code in which a simple on-off power control is employed along with a Gaussian input. The upper bound is obtained using an appropriate correlation scheme of the main and eavesdropper channels and is the best known upper bound so far. The upper and lower bounds coincide with recently derived ones in case of perfect main CSI. Furthermore, the upper bound is tight in case of no main CSI, where the secrecy capacity is equal to zero. Asymptotic analysis at high and low signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) is also given. At high SNR, we show that the capacity is bounded by providing upper and lower bounds that depend on the channel estimation error. At low SNR, however, we prove that the secrecy capacity is asymptotically equal to the capacity of the main channel as if there were no secrecy constraint. Numerical results are provided for i.i.d. Rayleigh fading channels.

  1. On the Secrecy Capacity Region of the Block-Fading BCC with Limited CSI Feedback

    KAUST Repository

    Hyadi, Amal

    2017-02-07

    In this work, we examine the secrecy capacity region of the block-fading broadcast channel with confidential messages (BCC) when the transmitter has limited knowledge of the channel. In particular, we consider a two-user communication system where the transmitter has one common message to be transmitted to both users and one confidential message intended to only one of them. The confidential message has to be kept secret from the other user to whom the information is not intended. The transmitter is not aware of the channel state information (CSI) of neither channel and is only provided by limited CSI feedback sent at the beginning of each fading block. Assuming an error-free feedback link, we characterize the secrecy capacity region of this channel and show that even with a 1-bit CSI feedback, a positive secrecy rate can still be achieved. Then, we look at the case where the feedback link is not error- free and is rather a binary erasure channel (BEC). In the latter case, we provide an achievable secrecy rate region and show that as long as the erasure event is not a probability 1 event, the transmitter can still transmit the confidential information with a positive secrecy rate.

  2. Invention Zaman Barok dan Pengembangan Permainan Piano

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RIANTI MARDALENA PASARIBU

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Invention in Barok Era and The Development of Piano Lesson. In piano lesson, one material of parts towhich had been given is polyphony, which is an Invention from J.S. Invention is a basic fi nger-skill for pianist.Invention develops in the Baroque period. The baroque ideology is not only called as the reaction of Renaissance,but also as the continuing development from Renaissance. Invention is known in two forms. First is as a pianocomposition and second is as a piano play which can push a pianist to understand more about an arrangement thathe played and expressed.

  3. Tree Ordination as Invented Tradition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Avery Morrow

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The symbolic ordination of trees as monks in Thailand is widely perceived in Western scholarship to be proof of the power of Buddhism to spur ecological thought. However, a closer analysis of tree ordination demonstrates that it is not primarily about Buddhist teaching, but rather is an invented tradition based on the sanctity of Thai Buddhist symbols as well as those of spirit worship and the monarchy. Tree ordinations performed by non-Buddhist minorities in Thailand do not demonstrate a religious commitment but rather a political one.

  4. On the secrecy capacity of the broadcast wiretap channel with limited CSI feedback

    KAUST Repository

    Hyadi, Amal

    2016-10-27

    In this paper, we investigate the problem of secure broadcasting over block-fading channels with limited channel knowledge at the transmitter. More particularly, we analyze the effect of having imperfect channel state information (CSI) via a finite rate feedback on the throughput of a broadcast channel where the transmission is intended for multiple legitimate receivers in the presence of an eavesdropper. First, we partially characterize the ergodic secrecy capacity of the system when the source broadcasts the same information to all the receivers, i.e., common message transmission. Then, we look at the independent messages case, where the transmitter broadcasts multiple independent messages to the legitimate receivers. For this case, we present lower and upper bounds on the ergodic secrecy sum-capacity. In both scenarios, we show that the proposed lower and upper bounds coincide asymptotically as the capacity of the feedback links becomes large, hence, fully characterizing the secrecy capacity in this case.

  5. Secrecy performance analysis of SIMO underlay cognitive radio systems with outdated CSI

    KAUST Repository

    Lei, Hongjiang; Zhang, Jianming; Park, Kihong; Ansari, Imran Shafique; Pan, Gaofeng; Alouini, Mohamed-Slim

    2017-01-01

    This study investigates the secrecy outage performance of a single-input multiple-output underlay cognitive radio network (CRN) with outdated channel state information (CSI). The confidential messages are transmitted from transmitter to the destination, while a multi-antenna eavesdropper exists. The maximal ratio combining and selection combining schemes are utilised at the receivers to improve the quality of the received signal-to-noise ratio. The exact and asymptotic closed-form expressions of secrecy outage probability are derived, and simulation results are provided to verify the authors' proposed analytical results. The results reveal that imperfect CSI of main channels deteriorates the secrecy outage performance while that of eavesdropping and interfering channels has contrary effect, and only a unity diversity order can be obtained in underlay CRNs with imperfect CSI.

  6. On the Secrecy Capacity of the Multiple-Antenna Wiretap Channel with Limited CSI Feedback

    KAUST Repository

    Hyadi, Amal; Rezki, Zouheir; Alouini, Mohamed-Slim

    2015-01-01

    We study the ergodic secrecy capacity of a block fading wiretap channel when there are multiple antennas at the transmitter, the legitimate receiver and the eavesdropper. We consider that the receivers are aware of their respective channel matrices while the transmitter is only provided by a B-bits feedback of the main channel state information. The feedback bits are sent by the legitimate receiver, at the beginning of each fading block, over an error free public link with limited capacity. Assuming an average transmit power constraint, we provide an upper and a lower bounds on the ergodic secrecy capacity. Then, we present a framework to design the optimal codebooks for feedback and transmission. In addition, we show that the proposed lower and upper bounds coincide asymptotically as the capacity of the feedback link becomes large; hence, fully characterizing the secrecy capacity in this case.

  7. On the secrecy capacity of the broadcast wiretap channel with imperfect channel state information

    KAUST Repository

    Hyadi, Amal

    2014-12-01

    In this paper, we consider secure broadcasting over fast fading channels. Assuming imperfect main channel state information (CSI) at the transmitter, we first provide an upper and a lower bounds on the ergodic secrecy capacity when a common message is broadcasted to multiple legitimate receivers in the presence of one eavesdropper. For this case, we show that the secrecy rate is limited by the legitimate receiver having, on average, the worst main channel link. Then, we present an expression for the achievable secrecy sum-rate when each legitimate receiver is interested in an independent message. The special cases of high SNR, perfect and no-main CSI are also analyzed. Numerical results are presented to illustrate the obtained results for the case of independent but not necessarily identically distributed Rayleigh fading channels.

  8. Secrecy performance analysis of SIMO underlay cognitive radio systems with outdated CSI

    KAUST Repository

    Lei, Hongjiang

    2017-06-13

    This study investigates the secrecy outage performance of a single-input multiple-output underlay cognitive radio network (CRN) with outdated channel state information (CSI). The confidential messages are transmitted from transmitter to the destination, while a multi-antenna eavesdropper exists. The maximal ratio combining and selection combining schemes are utilised at the receivers to improve the quality of the received signal-to-noise ratio. The exact and asymptotic closed-form expressions of secrecy outage probability are derived, and simulation results are provided to verify the authors\\' proposed analytical results. The results reveal that imperfect CSI of main channels deteriorates the secrecy outage performance while that of eavesdropping and interfering channels has contrary effect, and only a unity diversity order can be obtained in underlay CRNs with imperfect CSI.

  9. Improved achievable secrecy rate of visible light communication with cooperative jamming

    KAUST Repository

    Zaid, Hajar

    2016-02-25

    In this paper we study the problem of securing a visible light communication (VLC) link against passive eavesdropping, with the help of a (friendly) jammer. Differently from radio frequency (RF) communications, VLC imposes a peak amplitude constraint on the input distribution which renders Gaussian inputs not admissible. We provide an achievable secrecy rate that improves upon a recently established one in a concurrent work by Mostafa and Lampe. Our scheme follows from both the secrecy capacity result by Wyner and the artificial noise scheme by Goel and Negi, but using truncated Gaussian input distributions instead of uniform ones. Via numerical results, we show that our secrecy rate outperforms the concurrent rate in different settings. © 2015 IEEE.

  10. On the Secrecy Capacity of the Multiple-Antenna Wiretap Channel with Limited CSI Feedback

    KAUST Repository

    Hyadi, Amal

    2015-12-01

    We study the ergodic secrecy capacity of a block fading wiretap channel when there are multiple antennas at the transmitter, the legitimate receiver and the eavesdropper. We consider that the receivers are aware of their respective channel matrices while the transmitter is only provided by a B-bits feedback of the main channel state information. The feedback bits are sent by the legitimate receiver, at the beginning of each fading block, over an error free public link with limited capacity. Assuming an average transmit power constraint, we provide an upper and a lower bounds on the ergodic secrecy capacity. Then, we present a framework to design the optimal codebooks for feedback and transmission. In addition, we show that the proposed lower and upper bounds coincide asymptotically as the capacity of the feedback link becomes large; hence, fully characterizing the secrecy capacity in this case.

  11. On the secrecy capacity of the broadcast wiretap channel with limited CSI feedback

    KAUST Repository

    Hyadi, Amal; Rezki, Zouheir; Alouini, Mohamed-Slim

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we investigate the problem of secure broadcasting over block-fading channels with limited channel knowledge at the transmitter. More particularly, we analyze the effect of having imperfect channel state information (CSI) via a finite rate feedback on the throughput of a broadcast channel where the transmission is intended for multiple legitimate receivers in the presence of an eavesdropper. First, we partially characterize the ergodic secrecy capacity of the system when the source broadcasts the same information to all the receivers, i.e., common message transmission. Then, we look at the independent messages case, where the transmitter broadcasts multiple independent messages to the legitimate receivers. For this case, we present lower and upper bounds on the ergodic secrecy sum-capacity. In both scenarios, we show that the proposed lower and upper bounds coincide asymptotically as the capacity of the feedback links becomes large, hence, fully characterizing the secrecy capacity in this case.

  12. Recurring tensions between secrecy and democracy : Arguments on the Security Service in Dutch parliament, 1975-1995

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Braat, E.C.

    2016-01-01

    There is a recurring tension between secrecy and democracy. This article analyzes the continually ambiguous relations between intelligence and security agencies and their parliamentary principals. I present a novel conceptual framework to analyze political relations influenced by secrecy. I draw on

  13. Ghosts of inventions: Patent law's digital mediations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Hyo Yoon

    2018-04-01

    This article examines the shifts in the material ordering of inventions in patent law organization and their effects on the meaning and scope of inventions as intellectual property. Formats and media are constitutive of the establishment and stabilization of inventions as objects of intellectual property. Modern patent law's materiality had been dominated by paper documents but ever more consists of digital images, files, and networked data. The article traces and analyzes such effects of digital media on the meaning of intellectual/intangible property and argues that inventions increasingly matter as digital data in the legal realm.

  14. A Sketch of Modern Cryptology - The Art and Science of Secrecy

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 5; Issue 9. A Sketch of Modern Cryptology - The Art and Science of Secrecy Systems. Palash Sarkar. General Article Volume 5 Issue 9 September 2000 pp 22-40. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link:

  15. The End of Bank Secrecy? An Evaluation of the G20 Tax Haven Crackdown

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johannesen, Niels; Zucman, Gabriel

    During the ¿nancial crisis, G20 countries compelled tax havens to sign bilateral treaties providing for exchange of bank information. Policymakers have celebrated this global initiative as the end of bank secrecy. Exploiting a unique panel dataset, we study how the treaties a¿ected bank deposits ...

  16. 37 CFR 5.5 - Permit to disclose or modification of secrecy order.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... to file must be made known, as well as all attorneys, agents and others to whom the material will be....C. 182, shall be made by a “permit” or “modification” of the secrecy order. (b) Petitions for a... explanation of such clearance should be made in the petition including the name of the agency or department...

  17. A Lightweight Anonymous Authentication Protocol with Perfect Forward Secrecy for Wireless Sensor Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Ling; Peng, Daiyuan; Peng, Tu; Liang, Hongbin; Liu, Zhicai

    2017-11-21

    Due to their frequent use in unattended and hostile deployment environments, the security in wireless sensor networks (WSNs) has attracted much interest in the past two decades. However, it remains a challenge to design a lightweight authentication protocol for WSNs because the designers are confronted with a series of desirable security requirements, e.g., user anonymity, perfect forward secrecy, resistance to de-synchronization attack. Recently, the authors presented two authentication schemes that attempt to provide user anonymity and to resist various known attacks. Unfortunately, in this work we shall show that user anonymity of the two schemes is achieved at the price of an impractical search operation-the gateway node may search for every possible value. Besides this defect, they are also prone to smart card loss attacks and have no provision for perfect forward secrecy. As our main contribution, a lightweight anonymous authentication scheme with perfect forward secrecy is designed, and what we believe the most interesting feature is that user anonymity, perfect forward secrecy, and resistance to de-synchronization attack can be achieved at the same time. As far as we know, it is extremely difficult to meet these security features simultaneously only using the lightweight operations, such as symmetric encryption/decryption and hash functions.

  18. On the ergodic secrecy capacity of the wiretap channel under imperfect main channel estimation

    KAUST Repository

    Rezki, Zouheir; Khisti, Ashish J.; Alouini, Mohamed-Slim

    2011-01-01

    imperfect main channel estimation at the transmitter. Inner and outer bounds on the ergodic secrecy capacity are derived for a class of independent identically distributed (i.i.d.) fading channels. The achievable rate is a simple on-off scheme using a

  19. A Lightweight Anonymous Authentication Protocol with Perfect Forward Secrecy for Wireless Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ling Xiong

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Due to their frequent use in unattended and hostile deployment environments, the security in wireless sensor networks (WSNs has attracted much interest in the past two decades. However, it remains a challenge to design a lightweight authentication protocol for WSNs because the designers are confronted with a series of desirable security requirements, e.g., user anonymity, perfect forward secrecy, resistance to de-synchronization attack. Recently, the authors presented two authentication schemes that attempt to provide user anonymity and to resist various known attacks. Unfortunately, in this work we shall show that user anonymity of the two schemes is achieved at the price of an impractical search operation—the gateway node may search for every possible value. Besides this defect, they are also prone to smart card loss attacks and have no provision for perfect forward secrecy. As our main contribution, a lightweight anonymous authentication scheme with perfect forward secrecy is designed, and what we believe the most interesting feature is that user anonymity, perfect forward secrecy, and resistance to de-synchronization attack can be achieved at the same time. As far as we know, it is extremely difficult to meet these security features simultaneously only using the lightweight operations, such as symmetric encryption/decryption and hash functions.

  20. On the secrecy capacity of the broadcast wiretap channel with imperfect channel state information

    KAUST Repository

    Hyadi, Amal; Rezki, Zouheir; Khisti, Ashish J.; Alouini, Mohamed-Slim

    2014-01-01

    for the achievable secrecy sum-rate when each legitimate receiver is interested in an independent message. The special cases of high SNR, perfect and no-main CSI are also analyzed. Numerical results are presented to illustrate the obtained results for the case

  1. Public knowledge and common secrets. Secrecy and its limits in the early modern Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Davids, C.A.

    2005-01-01

    Openness of knowledge was in the Dutch Republic no more a natural state of affairs than in other parts of Europe at the time, but it became dominant there at an earlier date than elsewhere. This puzzling phenomenon is the subject of this essay. The article shows that tendencies to secrecy in crafts

  2. [Healthcare Provider Professional Secrecy: an Issue for Public Health Democracy somewhere between Immanence and Alienation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pautier, Silvère

    2017-09-01

    For a long time considered as total and absolute, healthcare professional secrecy is today difficult to reconcile with care practices. Lots of paradoxes question its preservation in favour of general interest and public order against the protection of private interest within an individualistic normative society. Exploring this interrogation, the article's objective is to initiate an ethical discussion from a professional caregiver secrecy's historical and sociological evolution perspective. Thus, with the help of theoretical understandings, especially those by Michel Foucault, medical secrecy is considered a defense of rationality specific to populations' government. This conceptualization finds arguments through social collective norms attached to an alienating biopower at the expense of secrecy integrated as an individualistic and immanent social norm. However, beyond the well-known debate on the absolute necessity for change, evolution… the distance from the Socratic and Hippocratic principles engage people and society in real democratic decisions about Health. Also, health professionals, patients, usgers and society must consider the limits that would lead to medical confidentiality.

  3. Silence and Memories of War: An Autoethnographic Exploration of Family Secrecy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rober, Peter; Rosenblatt, Paul C

    2017-03-01

    A personal journey and a scientific challenge, this is an autoethnographic study about my own family's secrecy. I knew my grandfather had been a German prisoner of war during World War II. We all knew. But nobody talked about it. Then one day I decided I wanted to do systematic research on the issue of family secrecy around my grandfather's war experiences. Researching one's own family can be called autoethnography. It could be said that autoethnography is an approach to research that aims to describe and systemically analyze (graphy) personal experience (auto) to understand social and cultural phenomena (ethno). This scientific approach is quite new in the field of family therapy. This study has been an important personal quest, but it also led to important reflections on silences in families, on my own professional development, and on methodological issues concerning autoethnographical research. For one thing, it highlights some of the positive aspects of family secrecy and silences, and invites us-when confronted with family secrecy in clinical practice-to carefully consider the potential destructive and life-giving aspects of the silence. © 2015 Family Process Institute.

  4. Understanding Research Strategies to Improve ERA Performance in Australian Universities: Circumventing Secrecy to Achieve Success

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diezmann, Carmel M.

    2018-01-01

    Many Australian universities have prioritised improving discipline performance on the national research assessment--Excellence for Research in Australia. However, a "culture of secrecy" pervades "Excellence in Research for Australia" (ERA). There are no specified criteria for the assignment of ratings on a 5-point scale ranging…

  5. Another of CERN's many inventions!

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Bulletin

    2010-01-01

    CERN has often been the incubator for the development of innovative technologies but very few people know about the capacitive touch screens invented for the consoles of the SPS Control Room in 1973. The Bulletin interviewed their inventor, Bent Stumpe, who also developed the CERN tracker ball and the computer-programmable knob.   Bent Stumpe, inventor of the CERN touch screens, tracker ball and programmable knob. Here we see him with one the first touch screens developed in 1973.   A specific goal, a lot of motivation and the technical skills to do it: that’s all you need to create something nobody else has ever done before. Back in the 1970s, the SPS was being built and its control room required the installation of thousands of buttons, knobs, switches and oscilloscopes to operate the machine. Frank Beck, newly recruited from the DD Division to be in charge of the central control hub in the SPS control room, asked Bent Stumpe for solutions to the following problem: how to bui...

  6. Can Universities Profit from General Purpose Inventions?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barirani, Ahmad; Beaudry, Catherine; Agard, Bruno

    2017-01-01

    The lack of control over downstream assets can hinder universities’ ability to extract rents from their inventive activities. We explore this possibility by assessing the relationship between invention generality and renewal decisions for a sample of Canadian nanotechnology patents. Our results s...

  7. New Paradigms for Computer Aids to Invention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langston, M. Diane

    Many people are interested in computer aids to rhetorical invention and want to know how to evaluate an invention aid, what the criteria are for a good one, and how to assess the trade-offs involved in buying one product or another. The frame of reference for this evaluation is an "old paradigm," which treats the computer as if it were…

  8. Inventions for future sustainable development in agriculture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jacobsen, E.; Beers, P.J.; Fischer, A.R.H.

    2011-01-01

    This chapter is directed to the importance of different inventions as driver for sustainable development of agriculture. Inventions are defined as radical new ideas, perspectives and technologies that hold the potential to trigger a change in sustainable agriculture. Innovation is based on one or

  9. Estudios de secreción de IL-12 en macrófagos J774A.1

    OpenAIRE

    Rojas Rojas, Angela Patricia

    2012-01-01

    El tráfico de membranas en macrófagos activados es requerido para dos eventos críticos en la inmunidad innata, como son fagocitosis y secreción de citoquinas proinflamatorias. Sin embargo, no existe evidencia significativa a cerca de las rutas de secreción en macrófagos, excepto para IL-1 β (Andrei et al., 2004) y TNF-a, en infección por Cándida albicans (Murray et al., 2005) y Leishmania amazonensis (Montoya, 2010), a diferencia de la secreción en células endocrinas y neuroendocrinas d...

  10. Secrecy in the collection and mediation practices of two World Wars objects: lessons from a shared survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emilie DA LAGE

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on secrecy, observed through the collection and mediation practices of two World Wars objects. The first part of this article examines secrecy through the prism of a survey conducted, on the one hand, by the collector to uncover the secret of the object, and, on the other hand, by us to uncover the secret of its collection. The second part of this contribution focuses on secrecy in the mediation practices of collectors and on the process of revelation and concealment of certain aspects of the exhibits, characterizing those practices. Some reflections on the communication of the results of our personal research are also presented.

  11. 75 FR 63382 - Financial Crimes Enforcement Network; Amendment to the Bank Secrecy Act Regulations; Defining...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-15

    ... funds to establish anti-money laundering (``AML'') programs. The amendment harmonizes the definition of... of 31 CFR 103.33 and 31 CFR 103.38 would have a de minimus impact on mutual funds and their transfer... of a SAR). FinCEN also requested comment on the anticipated impact of subjecting mutual funds to the...

  12. 77 FR 12367 - Agency Information Collection and Reporting Activities; Electronic Filing of Bank Secrecy Act...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-29

    ... capability of electronically filing BSA reports through its system called BSA E-Filing. Effective August 2011... Accounts (FBAR) report. BSA E-Filing is a secure, web-based electronic filing system. It is a flexible... filing institutions or individuals, thereby providing a significant improvement in data quality. BSA E...

  13. 76 FR 43585 - Bank Secrecy Act Regulations; Definitions and Other Regulations Relating to Money Services...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-21

    ... more other countries'' is intended to capture the fact that some foreign currencies are used by...'' to include, in part: a currency exchange; an issuer, redeemer, or cashier of travelers' checks... the MSB from being used to facilitate money laundering and the financing of terrorist activities; \\7...

  14. 76 FR 45403 - Bank Secrecy Act Regulations-Definitions and Other Regulations Relating to Prepaid Access

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-29

    ... prepaid access products and services posing lower risks of money laundering and terrorist financing from... exceptions to: (1) Establish written anti-money laundering (AML) programs that are reasonably designed to prevent the MSB from being used to facilitate money laundering and the financing of terrorist activities...

  15. 75 FR 65805 - Transfer and Reorganization of Bank Secrecy Act Regulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-26

    ... and the other for the anti-money laundering program rules for mutual funds.\\4\\ Although the two... Special Information Sharing Procedures to Deter Money Laundering and Terrorist Activity). \\7\\ See http... B--Programs 1010.200 General. 1010.205 Exempted anti-money laundering programs for certain financial...

  16. 75 FR 19241 - Financial Crimes Enforcement Network; Amendment to the Bank Secrecy Act Regulations; Defining...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-14

    ... definition of mutual fund in the rule requiring mutual funds to establish anti-money laundering (``AML...-money laundering programs and compliance procedures.\\1\\ Regulations implementing the BSA appear at 31... transactions.\\7\\ \\5\\ Anti-Money Laundering Programs for Mutual Funds, 67 FR 21117 (April 29, 2002); Customer...

  17. 75 FR 36589 - Financial Crimes Enforcement Network; Amendment to the Bank Secrecy Act Regulations-Definitions...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-28

    ... exempting certain categories of prepaid access products and services posing lower risks of money laundering... potential for the use of prepaid access as a means for furthering money laundering, terrorist financing, and... abuses of terrorist financing, money laundering, and other financial crime. In the course of our...

  18. 76 FR 64049 - Bank Secrecy Act Regulations: Definition of “Monetary Instrument”

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-17

    ..., and anti-money laundering program requirements on providers and sellers of prepaid access. While the..., stated: \\13\\ See Money Laundering Using New Payment Methods, Financial Action Task Force, October 2010... Money Laundering Strategy stated that prepaid access is ``* * * an emerging cash alternative for both...

  19. 78 FR 4591 - Bank Secrecy Act Advisory Group; Solicitation of Application for Membership

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-22

    .... ACTION: Notice and request for nominations. SUMMARY: FinCEN is inviting the public to nominate financial... FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Ina Boston, Senior Advisor, Office of Outreach, Regulatory Policy and... organization's participation on the BSAAG will bring value to the group Organizations may nominate themselves...

  20. 76 FR 4747 - Proposed Collection; Comment Request; Bank Secrecy Act Unified Currency Transaction Report...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-26

    .... (Check if) Armored car (Fl contract) b. (Check if) ATM c. (Check if) Mail Deposit or Shipment d. (Check... other gaming instruments h. Payment(s) on wager(s) (including race book and OTB or sports pool i. Travel...

  1. 76 FR 33413 - Proposed Renewal Without Change; Comment Request; Nine Bank Secrecy Act Recordkeeping Requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-08

    ... with a caption, in the body of the text, ``BSA Recordkeeping Requirements Comments.'' FOR FURTHER..., or regulatory investigations or proceedings, or in the conduct of intelligence or counter-intelligence activities, including analysis, to protect against international terrorism, and to implement anti...

  2. 76 FR 4745 - Proposed Collection; Comment Request; Bank Secrecy Act Designation of Exempt Person Report...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-26

    ... type a. SSN b. EIN 14. E-mail address (if available) 15. Phone number (if available) 15a. Extension (if... third party data as enhanced data if not provided and Country is U.S., Mexico or Canada and ZIP/ Postal...

  3. 76 FR 10516 - Transfer and Reorganization of Bank Secrecy Act Regulations-Technical Amendment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-25

    ... violate provisions of Title 12 of the Code of Federal Regulations. PART 1021--RULES FOR CASINOS AND CARD CLUBS 0 3. The authority citation for part 1021 is added to read as follows: Authority: 12 U.S.C. 1829b... CREDIT CARD SYSTEMS 0 17. The authority citation for part 1028 is added to read as follows: Authority: 12...

  4. 75 FR 63545 - Proposed Collection; Comment Request; Bank Secrecy Act Suspicious Activity Report Database...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-15

    ... reports that are determined to have a high degree of usefulness in criminal, tax, and regulatory matters... filing in much the same manner as used in widely accepted income tax filing software. Dynamic forms are.... Institution EIN (multiple related institution entries allowed for electronic filers) b. Accountant c. Agent d...

  5. 76 FR 57799 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Proposal That Electronic Filing of Bank Secrecy Act...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-16

    ..., tax, and regulatory matters, or in the conduct of intelligence or counter-intelligence activities to... scope of the BSA to intelligence or counter-intelligence activities to protect against international... forms that allows users to create templates, reducing data entry but still providing for printing paper...

  6. Multiple, connective intellection: the condition for invention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C S (Fanie de Beer

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Since this article involves invention, the conditions for inventiveness become the issue: assuming multiple reality; thinking in a special way; transgressing boundaries; acknowledging networks (in the terms of Michel Serres: communication, transduction, interference, distribution, passages between the sciences. There are, however, misplaced expectations: technology should work wonders in this regard while forgetting that humans, redefined though, remain the key to establish connections and networks between people, paradigms, disciplines, sciences and technologies. Against this background, Michel Serres’s emphasis on invention and “thinking as invention” and his a-critical anti-method – ‘connective, multiple intellection’ which is a special kind of thought – are desperately needed. Guattari’s articulation of the three ecologies and the ecosophic views he developed in this regard provides a significant amplification of the approach of ‘multiple connective intellection’. These insights can be enlightened and strongly driven home through the views of Latour with an anthropological and socio-dynamic perspective on the scientific endeavour with the articulation of the actor-network theory inherited from Serres. The thoughtful beyond-methodology of Edgar Morin with his strong noological position as the ultimate condition for inventiveness, and Gregory Ulmer with his special emphasis on invention and inventiveness, especially with the help and assistance of electronic means (video and internet, and with his work with the architect Bernard Tschumi on invention and inventiveness, are of special significance in the sphere of inventiveness, the real and final guarantee for a spirited re-enchantment of the world as well as the final demonstration that the battle for intelligence as opposed to ignorance, stupidity and barbarism can be fought with great hope to succeed.

  7. Sensational inventions by girls and boys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Yeon Jung

    1999-05-01

    This book introduces the interesting and original inventions invented by girls and boys. These are the titles of the inventions : an antenna ruler, muscular strength machine with spring, items to remove sticky matter for advertisement, chair ladder for the disabled, useful control box for feeding bees, a portable carriage for dogs, a lid of ashtray, hot-air balloon using solar power, toy cannon for reports, hard badminton racket, tv cable and a distributor which are easy to install, device for car automatic parking, a cleanser for vegetables.

  8. Sensational inventions by girls and boys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Yeon Jung

    1999-05-15

    This book introduces the interesting and original inventions invented by girls and boys. These are the titles of the inventions : an antenna ruler, muscular strength machine with spring, items to remove sticky matter for advertisement, chair ladder for the disabled, useful control box for feeding bees, a portable carriage for dogs, a lid of ashtray, hot-air balloon using solar power, toy cannon for reports, hard badminton racket, tv cable and a distributor which are easy to install, device for car automatic parking, a cleanser for vegetables.

  9. EPA-developed, patented technologies related to miscellaneous areas of environmental experties and invention that are available for licensing

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Under the Federal Technology Transfer Act (FTTA), Federal Agencies can patent inventions developed during the course of research. These technologies can then be...

  10. Contexts of vulnerability: Sex, secrecy and HIV/AIDS | Preston ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    comforting AIDS infected and affected family and community members. The paper ends with a call for researchers to be aware that AIDS stigma may render the very act of research a source of danger to those affected by HIV and AIDS. African Journal of AIDS Research 2003, 2(2): 89–94. Keywords: community, communitas ...

  11. Ancient engineers' inventions precursors of the present

    CERN Document Server

    Rossi, Cesare

    2017-01-01

    This book describes the inventions and designs of ancient engineers who are the precursors of the present. The period ranges mainly from 300 B.C. to 1600 A.D. with several exceptions. Many of the oldest inventions are documented by archaeological finds, often very little known, mainly from Pompeii, Herculaneum and Stabiae and reveal a surprising modernity in their conception. Most of the inventions presented in the first four parts of the book were conceived up to the late Roman Empire and may be considered as milestones, each in their respective field. The fifth part concentrates on more recent centuries. The sixth part deals with some building construction techniques. Generally, for each of the presented inventions, three elements of research and reference are provided: written documents (the classics), iconic references (coins, bas-reliefs, etc.) and archaeological findings. The authors did not write this book for engineers only; hence they describe all the devices without assuming wide technical knowledge...

  12. The Invention Convention: Mind Meets Simple Machines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadi-Tabassum, Samina

    1997-01-01

    Describes an Earth Day celebration where students had to design an invention made of simple machines that could crush an empty aluminum can through 10 rapid mechanical movements using materials foraged from the students' homes. (JRH)

  13. On the Secrecy Degrees of Freedom with Full-Duplex Communication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mahmood, Nurul Huda; Mogensen, Preben Elgaard

    2017-01-01

    of such an application. The potential of full duplex nodes in improving the physical layer security of a communication link is investigated in this contribution. We specifically derive the information theoretic secrecy degrees of freedom measure for a pair of nodes communicating in full duplex mode. Moreover, closed...... and the delay reduction of full duplex communication are somewhat limited in realistic network settings, leading researchers to study other possible applications of full duplex communication which can provide significantly higher gains over half duplex communication. Physical layer security is an example...... form expressions for the instantaneous and ergodic throughput gain of full duplex communication over conventional half duplex is derived. The secrecy degrees of freedom with full duplex is shown to be two as opposed to that of zero in half duplex mode....

  14. Secrecy Dimming Capacity in Multi-LED PAM-Based Visible Light Communications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Byung Wook Kim

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Recently, mobile cloud computing (MCC has gained a lot of interest for researchers building the next-generation mobile applications. Because unauthorized access may cause serious problems, security and privacy with MCC have become significant issues. This paper addresses the secrecy dimming capacity of secure transmission in MCC over visible light communication (VLC channels. By obtaining the entropy-maximizing symbol probability of multiple light emitting diode- (LED- based pulse amplitude modulation (PAM, mathematical analysis of the secrecy dimming capacity of VLC was derived. Simulation results show that the secure transmission ability of multi-LED-based VLC is determined according to the number of activated LEDs and target dimming level. This can be a guideline for practical VLC-based mobile network designers intending to secure wireless transmission and to decide on the number of activated LEDs at target dimming level to operate.

  15. A Metric for Secrecy-Energy Efficiency Tradeoff Evaluation in 3GPP Cellular Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio Ciabini

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Physical-layer security is now being considered for information protection in future wireless communications. However, a better understanding of the inherent secrecy of wireless systems under more realistic conditions, with a specific attention to the relative energy consumption costs, has to be pursued. This paper aims at proposing new analysis tools and investigating the relation between secrecy capacity and energy consumption in a 3rd Generation Partnership Project (3GPP cellular network , by focusing on secure and energy efficient communications. New metrics that bind together the secure area in the Base Station (BS sectors, the afforded date-rate and the power spent by the BS to obtain it, are proposed that permit evaluation of the tradeoff between these aspects. The results show that these metrics are useful in identifying the optimum transmit power level for the BS, so that the maximum secure area can be obtained while minimizing the energy consumption.

  16. ETHIC AND SECRECY ON THE CORPORATE ENVIRONMENT AND THE SECRETARIAT PROFESSIONALS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria do Carmo Whitaker

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper, based on theoretical and field research, aims at showing the importance of preserving confidentiality on a daily basis in the context of an "ethical company”. It reports how this practice besides solidifying the image of the organization can also guarantee the existence of a high level of trust and respect between the participants emphasizing the importance of secretarial professionals in that mission. Besides being a regulated profession, which has a code of ethics with explicit determinations about the importance of confidentiality, secrecy is one of the attributes required for the job. The secretaries are aware and convinced of the necessity of secrecy not only in the exercise of their profession, but in their private lives, considering that private interests should not outweigh the public interest.

  17. Cooperative jamming power control to enhance secrecy communications of AF Relaying systems for Rayleigh fading channel

    KAUST Repository

    Park, Kihong

    2012-09-01

    In this paper, we investigate secrecy communications in two-hop wireless relaying networks which consist of one source, one amplify-and-forward (AF) relay, one legitimate destination, and one eavesdropper. To prevent the eavesdropper from intercepting the source message, we make the destination send the intended noise to the AF relay during the first phase. This is referred to as cooperative jamming. According to the channel information at the destination, we address two types of jamming power allocation; (i) rate-optimal power allocation and (ii) outage-optimal power allocation. More specifically, without the instantaneous channel knowledge for the eavesdropper side, the outage probability of the secrecy rate is minimized with respect to the intended noise power level. We show that the outage-optimal allocation gives almost the same outage probability as the rateoptimal one. In addition, the jamming power consumption can be significantly reduced compared to the fixed and rate-optimal power allocation methods. © 2012 IEEE.

  18. Interference Neutralization vs Clean Relaying in Cognitive Radio Networks with Secrecy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pin-Hsun Lin

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we study cognitive radio networks with secrecy constraints on the primary transmission. In particular we consider several transmission schemes for the secondary transmitter, namely interference neutralization (IN and cooperative jamming with and without clean relaying (CR. We derive and analyze the achievable secondary rate performance of the schemes. Furthermore we thoroughly investigate the advantages and shortcomings of these schemes through numerical simulations in a geometric model where we highlight the impact of the users’ locations and show the important difference in all schemes depending on the topology. Our results show that the secondary transmitter can successfully adapt its transmission scheme (and parameters, i.e., either IN or CR, depending on its location to maximize its rate while insuring perfect secrecy of the primary transmission.

  19. How James Watt invented the copier forgotten inventions of our great scientists

    CERN Document Server

    Schils, René

    2012-01-01

    Features 25 different scientists and the ideas which may not have made them famous, but made history… Typically, we remember our greatest scientists from one single invention, one new formula or one incredible breakthrough. This narrow perspective does not give justice to the versatility of many scientists who also earned a reputation in other areas of science. James Watt, for instance, is known for inventing the steam engine, yet most people do not know that he also invented the copier. Alexander Graham Bell of course invented the telephone, but only few know that he invented artificial breathing equipment, a prototype of the ‘iron lung’. Edmond Halley, whose name is associated with the comet that visits Earth every 75 years, produced the first mortality tables, used for life insurances. This entertaining book is aimed at anyone who enjoys reading about inventions and discoveries by the most creative minds. Detailed illustrations of the forgotten designs and ideas enrich the work throughout.

  20. An Optimal Joint User Association and Power Allocation Algorithm for Secrecy Information Transmission in Heterogeneous Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rong Chai

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, heterogeneous radio access technologies have experienced rapid development and gradually achieved effective coordination and integration, resulting in heterogeneous networks (HetNets. In this paper, we consider the downlink secure transmission of HetNets where the information transmission from base stations (BSs to legitimate users is subject to the interception of eavesdroppers. In particular, we stress the problem of joint user association and power allocation of the BSs. To achieve data transmission in a secure and energy efficient manner, we introduce the concept of secrecy energy efficiency which is defined as the ratio of the secrecy transmission rate and power consumption of the BSs and formulate the problem of joint user association and power allocation as an optimization problem which maximizes the joint secrecy energy efficiency of all the BSs under the power constraint of the BSs and the minimum data rate constraint of user equipment (UE. By equivalently transforming the optimization problem into two subproblems, that is, power allocation subproblem and user association subproblem of the BSs, and applying iterative method and Kuhn-Munkres (K-M algorithm to solve the two subproblems, respectively, the optimal user association and power allocation strategies can be obtained. Numerical results demonstrate that the proposed algorithm outperforms previously proposed algorithms.

  1. Secrecy in Educational Practices: Enacting Nested Black Boxes in Cheating and Deception Detection Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jo An Oravec

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper covers secrecy from the vantage point of recent technological initiatives designed to detect cheating and deception in educational contexts as well as to monitor off-campus social media speech code violations. Many of these systems are developed and implemented by third-party corporate entities who claim practices to be proprietary and secret. The outsourcers involved in these efforts have provided one level of secrecy and educational administrators involved yet another level, thus constructing "nested black boxes." Also discussed in this paper is the “paranoid style” of administration, often supported by the surveillance and construction of rosters of potential non-conformists, such as alleged cheaters and speech code violators. The educational technologies described in this article are increasingly applied to workplace practices, with young people being trained in what is deemed acceptable conduct. Secrecy can serve to alter the character of relationships within the educational institutions involved as well as inside the workplaces in which the approaches are increasingly being integrated.

  2. Secrecy Outage of Max-Min TAS Scheme in MIMO-NOMA Systems

    KAUST Repository

    Lei, Hongjiang

    2018-04-09

    This paper considers a secure non-orthogonal multiple access system, where confidential messages are transmitted from a base station to multiple legitimate destinations and wiretapped by multiple illegitimate receivers. It is assumed that all the channels experience Nakagami-m fading model and all the nodes are equipped with multiple antennas, respectively. Both non-colluding and colluding eavesdroppers are respectively considered. Max-min (MM) transmit antenna selection (TAS) strategy is adopted to improve the secrecy performance of the target system, in which both users in user paring are considered simultaneously. In particular, closed-form expressions for the cumulative distribution function of the signal-to-interference-noise ratio at the legitimate user are derived firstly. Then we obtain the exact and asymptotic analytical results in a closed form for the secrecy outage probability of MM TAS scheme. Monte-Carlo simulation results are presented to corroborate the correctness of the analysis. The results show that the secrecy diversity order is zero and non-zero for fixed and dynamic power allocations, respectively.

  3. Secrecy Outage of Max-Min TAS Scheme in MIMO-NOMA Systems

    KAUST Repository

    Lei, Hongjiang; Zhang, Jianming; Park, Kihong; Xu, Peng; Zhang, Zufan; Pan, Gaofeng; Alouini, Mohamed-Slim

    2018-01-01

    This paper considers a secure non-orthogonal multiple access system, where confidential messages are transmitted from a base station to multiple legitimate destinations and wiretapped by multiple illegitimate receivers. It is assumed that all the channels experience Nakagami-m fading model and all the nodes are equipped with multiple antennas, respectively. Both non-colluding and colluding eavesdroppers are respectively considered. Max-min (MM) transmit antenna selection (TAS) strategy is adopted to improve the secrecy performance of the target system, in which both users in user paring are considered simultaneously. In particular, closed-form expressions for the cumulative distribution function of the signal-to-interference-noise ratio at the legitimate user are derived firstly. Then we obtain the exact and asymptotic analytical results in a closed form for the secrecy outage probability of MM TAS scheme. Monte-Carlo simulation results are presented to corroborate the correctness of the analysis. The results show that the secrecy diversity order is zero and non-zero for fixed and dynamic power allocations, respectively.

  4. Federal Technology Transfer Act (FTTA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA's Federal Technology Transfer Act (FTTA) is a mechanism with which EPA can patent its inventions and license them to companies, through which innovative technologies can enter the marketplace to improve the environment and human health.

  5. 45 CFR 650.19 - Electronic invention handling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Report or a Final Invention Statement and Certification. (b) Questions on use of iEdison and requests for... 45 Public Welfare 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Electronic invention handling. 650.19 Section 650... PATENTS § 650.19 Electronic invention handling. (a) Grantees must use the iEdison Invention Information...

  6. SCHOOL ECONOMY IN THE INVENTING EDUCATION PARADIGM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anatoliy Alexandrovich Lepeshev

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Requirements applied to specialists for working in the sixth wave of innovation, i.e. Industry 4.0, determines the necessity of education system improvement concerning training solution and, as a result, creation of inventive ideas. Today in our country this process is stimulated by various competitions, including financing for the implementation of results. In training programs knowledge approach still prevails. The corresponding methods, along with stimulation, are included into educational programs in leading foreign educational institutions, mostly at universities. If in previous decades mostly divergent methods were studied (morphological analysis, the focal objects method, synectics, etc., then now the leading place is taken by theory of inventive problem solving – TRIZ created in the former USSR by G.S. Altshuller in connection with the increasing leading corporations requirement for specialists in TRIZ. This fact gives Russia essential competitive advantages in the innovative way of development. For effective use of this advantage it is important to form the TRIZ-based innovative thinking beginning from school days. For this purpose authors developed new methods in TRIZ-pedagogics, uniting metasubject results (in higher education institutions – competences into the system of innovative thinking. As a result, both educational and economic effects are achieved: the intellectual property created in educational process. For schools it is the possibility of significant improvement of financing causing importance of new mechanisms of intellectual property fixation, protection and implementation. Recommendations about creation of such system are provided in the article. Purpose Defining the opportunities and ways of improving economic effectiveness of educational activities in the paradigm of inventive education. Tasks: – analysis of school education institutions experience in implementation of approaches preceding the inventing education

  7. Pulsed laser deposition—invention or discovery?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Venkatesan, T

    2014-01-01

    The evolution of pulsed laser deposition had been an exciting process of invention and discovery, with the development of high T c superconducting films as the main driver. It has become the method of choice in research and development for rapid prototyping of multicomponent inorganic materials for preparing a variety of thin films, heterostructures and atomically sharp interfaces, and has become an indispensable tool for advancing oxide electronics. In this paper I will give a personal account of the invention and development of this process at Bellcore/Rutgers, the opportunity, challenges and mostly the extraordinary excitement that was generated, typical of any disruptive technology. (paper)

  8. 76 FR 42684 - Statutory Invention Registration

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-19

    ... 3.00 Totals 8 10.00 There is annual (non-hour) cost burden in the way of filing fees associated with...) Filing fee $ cost burden (a) (b) (a x b) (c) Statutory Invention Registration (Requested prior to 2 $920...) respondent cost burden for this collection in the form of postage costs and filing fees will be $8,170. IV...

  9. Inventing Democracy: Future Alternatives for Social Action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deethardt, John F.

    1983-01-01

    Considers the rational basis for participatory democracy and six ideas designed to embody that conceptual basis. Contends that the mission of speech communication scholars to the civic culture should be an activation of civic competencies and an invention of new places to practice free speech skills. (PD)

  10. Patent Work: The Other Side of Invention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dillon, Tamara

    2009-01-01

    In popular culture, the inventor is often portrayed as a lone tinkerer who emerges from a workshop with some magnificent new device. In reality, most inventions are the collaborative effort of scientists and engineers--usually researchers affiliated with a college or corporation--that result in the discovery, creation, or improvement of either…

  11. Performance Analysis of Secrecy Outage Probability for AF-Based Partial Relay Selection with Outdated Channel Estimates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyu-Sung Hwang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available We study the secrecy outage probability of the amplify-and-forward (AF relaying protocol, which consists of one source, one destination, multiple relays, and multiple eavesdroppers. In this system, the aim is to transmit the confidential messages from a source to a destination via the selected relay in presence of eavesdroppers. Moreover, partial relay selection scheme is utilized for relay selection based on outdated channel state information where only neighboring channel information (source-relays is available and passive eavesdroppers are considered where a transmitter does not have any knowledge of eavesdroppers’ channels. Specifically, we offer the exact secrecy outage probability of the proposed system in a one-integral form as well as providing the asymptotic secrecy outage probability in a closed-form. Numerical examples are given to verify our provided analytical results for different system conditions.

  12. On the secrecy capacity of the MISO wiretap channel under imperfect channel estimation

    KAUST Repository

    Rezki, Zouheir; Alomair, Basel; Alouini, Mohamed-Slim

    2014-01-01

    We consider a wiretap channel consisting of a source with multiple antennas, a legitimate receiver and an eavesdropper with a single antenna each. The channels between the source and the receivers undergo fast fading. We assume that the transmitter, in addition to the statistics of both channels, is only aware of a noisy version of the CSI to the legitimate receiver referred to as main channel. The legitimate receiver is aware of both its instantaneous channel gain and the transmitter's estimate of the main channel. On the other hand, the eavesdropper's receiver, in addition to its instantaneous channel realization, is aware of the actual main CSI and the transmitter's estimate as well. While the capacity of this channel is still open even with perfect CSI at the transmitter, we provide in this paper upper and lower bounds on the secrecy capacity. The upper bound is tighter than the one corresponding to perfect main CSI and the gap between the two upper bounds is characterized in function of the channel estimation error variance, at high-SNR. Furthermore, we show that our upper and lower bounds coincide in the case of no main CSI providing a trivial secrecy capacity.

  13. On the secrecy capacity of the MISO wiretap channel under imperfect channel estimation

    KAUST Repository

    Rezki, Zouheir

    2014-12-01

    We consider a wiretap channel consisting of a source with multiple antennas, a legitimate receiver and an eavesdropper with a single antenna each. The channels between the source and the receivers undergo fast fading. We assume that the transmitter, in addition to the statistics of both channels, is only aware of a noisy version of the CSI to the legitimate receiver referred to as main channel. The legitimate receiver is aware of both its instantaneous channel gain and the transmitter\\'s estimate of the main channel. On the other hand, the eavesdropper\\'s receiver, in addition to its instantaneous channel realization, is aware of the actual main CSI and the transmitter\\'s estimate as well. While the capacity of this channel is still open even with perfect CSI at the transmitter, we provide in this paper upper and lower bounds on the secrecy capacity. The upper bound is tighter than the one corresponding to perfect main CSI and the gap between the two upper bounds is characterized in function of the channel estimation error variance, at high-SNR. Furthermore, we show that our upper and lower bounds coincide in the case of no main CSI providing a trivial secrecy capacity.

  14. Don't ask or tell: Pay secrecy policies in U.S. workplaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenfeld, Jake

    2017-07-01

    How widespread are workplace rules against discussing wages and salaries in the U.S.? And what are the core correlates of whether or not an employer prohibits or discourages this type of speech? Using a unique dataset that includes a measure of whether workers are prohibited or discouraged from discussing pay, this article investigates the prevalence of pay secrecy policies, and what worker- and workplace-level characteristics are associated with these rules. Key findings reveal that these policies are commonplace, despite being illegal, and that they are concentrated in more "coercive" rather than "enabling" organizations. These more coercive workplaces are disproportionately in the private sector, lack union representation, and have managers that are generally punitive in their approach and unaccommodating of employees. Findings also indicate that the greater discretion pay secrecy provides managers does not result in discriminatory application of these rules to women, racial/ethnic minorities, or immigrants. The article concludes with a call for data collection efforts that would allow researchers to analyze the consequences of this widespread managerial practice. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Frederick Soddy's invention of isotopes in 1911

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Attas, M.

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes the history of the invention of isotopes by Frederick Soddy in 1911. The idea of the nucleus had been conceived by a physicist, Ernest Rutherford. But it took a chemist, Frederick Soddy, to make chemical sense of the zoo of recently discovered radioactive elements, by inventing the idea of isotopes. He showed how one radioactive substance transformed itself spontaneously into another, following mathematical laws of exponential growth and decay. In his book The Chemistry of the Radio-Elements, Soddy compiled complete descriptions of the physical and chemical properties of each of the radioactive substances. He organized their sequences of transmutations by the.similarities in their chemical properties, so that the emanations, for example, were all side-by-side in a chart.

  16. Invented genealogies as political mythologies: definitionand examples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filip-Lucian Iorga

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The genealogical imaginary is a subcategory of the imaginary referring to the origin and it comprises a wide range of genealogical myths: fictitious ancestors, whether divine or human, fabulous kinships, invented genealogies, descendancies which are impossible to certify with documents, erroneous interpretations of certain degrees of kinship, real genealogies that have received unexpected interpretations and historiographic clichés grown on more or less attestable genealogies. The case of the Balş family is one of the most interesting: trying to integrate in the political structures of the Austrian and Russian Empire, some members of this old Moldavian family invent a fictitious genealogy that links the French counts of Baux, the Balsa family, a Serbian medieval dynasty and the Balş family, Moldavian boyars.

  17. The story of global patent inventions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Yeun Jung

    1996-11-01

    This book introduces the global patent inventions, which are soap floating on the water, computer, radar, zipper, fuel cell, a raincoat, a pencil, a ball point pen, vitamin, an ice saw, a subway, post it, endoscope, ultrasonic detector, machine to pierce the hall, hair-restorer, a refrigerator, tricycle tractor of Benz steam engine of watt, carburettor, aluminum smelting process, video game, ice cream freezer, lead powder, piling system, burner using infrared rays, small projector, blender for recycling of resource, and artificial silk.

  18. The story of global patent inventions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Yeun Jung

    1996-11-15

    This book introduces the global patent inventions, which are soap floating on the water, computer, radar, zipper, fuel cell, a raincoat, a pencil, a ball point pen, vitamin, an ice saw, a subway, post it, endoscope, ultrasonic detector, machine to pierce the hall, hair-restorer, a refrigerator, tricycle tractor of Benz steam engine of watt, carburettor, aluminum smelting process, video game, ice cream freezer, lead powder, piling system, burner using infrared rays, small projector, blender for recycling of resource, and artificial silk.

  19. Review of The Invention of Enterprise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael E. Marotta

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The Invention of Enterprise: Entrepreneurship from Ancient Mesopotamia to Modern Times, David S. Landes, Joel Mokyr, and William J. Baumol, eds., Princeton University Press, 2010, is a dense anthology that provides an “orbital view” of the history of trade and commerce. The essays encompass several theoretic frameworks while following three themes: the creation of enterprises; the distinctions between creative and corrosive capitalism; and the societies that engender those different modes.

  20. Nanotechnological inventions considerably improve performance characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VLASOV Vladimir Alexeevich

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The invention «The method of production of carbon nanomaterial (RU 2509053» can be used as an additive for concretes and polymers which significantly improves their performance characteristics. The method of production of carbon nanomaterial consists of the following stages: preliminary preparation of sphagnous moss when it is refined from foreign admixtures, dried up to 10% humidity and ground, then ground material is exposed to pyrolysis under the temperature 850–950оC for 1–2 hours and cooled up to the environment temperature. After that amorphous carbon obtained in pyrolysis is treated with mechanical activation in the variable planetary mill for 7–10 hours. The invention makes it possible to provide increased outcome of nanotubes with high cleanliness. The invention «The method of production of nanodispersed metal powders and alloys of them (RU 2509626» relates to the powder metallurgy. Powder metal chloride or powder mixture at least of two metal chlorides is treated in the environment of the water steam which is supplied in reaction space at the rate of 50–100 ml/min at the temperature 400–800оC at the presence of absorbent carbon or introducing carbon oxide (II obtained during dissolution of formic acid HCOOH. The invention provides reliable production of nanodispersed metal powders and alloys of them from 3-d metal range: Ni, Co, Cu, Fe, Zn which can be used in powder metallurgy to improve baking process, in chemical industry as the fillers of polymers and reaction catalysts; as additives to anticorrosive covers, etc.

  1. Deepening Learning through Learning-by-Inventing

    OpenAIRE

    Apiola, Mikko; Tedre, Matti

    2013-01-01

    It has been shown that deep approaches to learning, intrinsic motivation, and self-regulated learning have strong positive effects on learning. How those pedagogical theories can be integrated in computing curricula is, however, still lacking empirically grounded analyses. This study integrated, in a robotics-based programming class, a method of learning-by-inventing, and studied its qualitative effects on students’ learning through 144 interviews. Five findings were related with learning the...

  2. From Hallucination to Fiction: The Invention of Meaning in Psychosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lippi, Silvia; Lehaire, Célia; Petit, Laetitia

    2016-12-01

    Taking their inspiration from a case history, the authors explore the effects of a writing workshop led by a professional writer for patients in a psychiatric hospital. This workshop allowed different modes of transference to unfold: transference to the analyst-therapist, transference to the writer who led the workshop, and transference to the other members of the group. The writing activity created conditions in which there could be a movement from hallucination to delusion-a delusion expressed in fiction through the act of writing. Psychotic patients "invent" a writing that remains unfinished and that relates to the experiences of persecution. Writing thus makes it possible for them to tolerate language, through its transformation into writing.

  3. Drug Delivery Research: The Invention Cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Kinam

    2016-07-05

    Controlled drug delivery systems have been successful in introducing improved formulations for better use of existing drugs and novel delivery of biologicals. The initial success of producing many oral products and some injectable depot formulations, however, reached a plateau, and the progress over the past three decades has been slow. This is likely due to the difficulties of formulating hydrophilic, high molecular weight drugs, such as proteins and nucleic acids, for targeting specific cells, month-long sustained delivery, and pulsatile release. Since the approaches that have served well for delivery of small molecules are not applicable to large molecules, it is time to develop new methods for biologicals. The process of developing future drug delivery systems, termed as the invention cycle, is proposed, and it starts with clearly defining the problems for developing certain formulations. Once the problems are well-defined, creative imagination examines all potential options and selects the best answer and alternatives. Then, innovation takes over to generate unique solutions for developing new formulations that resolve the previously identified problems. Ultimately, the new delivery systems will have to go through a translational process to produce the final formulations for clinical use. The invention cycle also emphasizes examining the reasons for success of certain formulations, not just the reasons for failure of many systems. Implementation of the new invention cycle requires new mechanisms of funding the younger generation of scientists and a new way of identifying their achievements, thereby releasing them from the burden of short-termism.

  4. The Transformation of Science Into Patented Inventions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beukel, Karin

    This paper presents the results of a grounded theory study of the transformation of scientific discoveries into patented inventions. Using an algebraic interpretive approach, the narratives collected during interviews are analyzed as Bayesian inferences and the developed theory is tested. The fin......This paper presents the results of a grounded theory study of the transformation of scientific discoveries into patented inventions. Using an algebraic interpretive approach, the narratives collected during interviews are analyzed as Bayesian inferences and the developed theory is tested....... The findings recast the relationship between science and patents as a process in which the way the transformation of the scientific invention is handled has an effect on the breadth of the patent scope. Unleashing patent scope surplus is dependent on processes related to abstraction and cognitive variety......, which can be mobilized by patent experts with both an in-depth understanding of the scientific discovery, due to their educational background in the life sciences, and capabilities within the legal framework for patenting. More specifically, the findings reveal previously unreported aspects...

  5. 75 FR 54656 - Government-Owned Inventions, Available for Licensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-08

    ... availability of inventions for licensing. SUMMARY: Patent applications on the inventions listed below assigned..., Pasadena, CA 91109; telephone (818) 354-7770. NASA Case No.: NPO-46771-1: Diamond Heat-Spreader for...

  6. 78 FR 31948 - Government-Owned Inventions; Availability for Licensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-28

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health Government-Owned Inventions... research and development. Foreign patent applications are filed on selected inventions to extend market... libraries Optimization assay to further develop potential drug candidates Competitive Advantages: Fast...

  7. Economy and Transparency: The Model Invention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmud Hassan TALUKDAR

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Relation of Transparency and Economic growth is a long global debate in the society. Theoretically, policy makers, scholars and researchers argue that there is a close relation among these two variables. However, the quantitative relation and any global model is yet unrevealed. So, the main aim of this paper is to ascertain the nature, dimension and extent of the relationship between economy and Transparency as well as to invent a global model. This paper is useful for researchers, planners, policy makers and scholars who are directly or indirectly involved or willing to involve in the thrust for quantitative relation of these two variables. Literature review is the main source of information of this study. In introductory section, this paper briefly describes theoretical relationship of economy and Transparency as well as it also describes the proxy variables.GDP (2012 of different countries are used as proxy of Economy and Corruption Perception Index (CPI scores (2012 of different countries are used as proxy of level of Transparency. In methodology section this paper describes the detail methodology, sampling procedure and level of analysis. This study randomly selects 30 countries (10 from higher CPI scores+10 from moderate CPI scores+ 10 from lower CPI scores around the globe as sample. In the third section, this research presents the correlation value which divulge that there is a positive correlation (p=.047 with 95% confidence level. That reveals, if the level of transparency of any country increase, the GDP also increase accordingly. Then in this section two quantitative models are developed using linear regression analysis. First invented model is: Economy (GDP in billion US$ = [(8.983*Level of transparency -108.11]. This paper termed the first invented model as “Mahmud EcoT Model-1”. This model calibrates that one unit improvement of transparency leads 8.98 billion US$ improvement in the GDP of a country. Then taking this unit

  8. On Secrecy Outage of Relay Selection in Underlay Cognitive Radio Networks over Nakagami-m Fading Channels

    KAUST Repository

    Lei, Hongjiang; Zhang, Huan; Ansari, Imran Shafique; Ren, Zhi; Pan, Gaofeng; Qaraqe, Khalid A.; Alouini, Mohamed-Slim

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, the secrecy outage performance of an underlay cognitive decode-and-forward relay network over independent but not necessarily identical distributed (i.n.i.d) Nakagami-m fading channels is investigated, in which the secondary user transmitter communicates with the secondary destination via relays, and an eavesdropper attempts to overhear the information. Based on whether the channel state information (CSI) of the wiretap links is available or not, we analyze the secrecy outage performance with optimal relay selection (ORS) and suboptimal relay selection (SRS) schemes, and multiple relays combining scheme (MRC) scheme is considered for comparison purpose. The exact and asymptotic closed-form expressions for the secrecy outage probability with three different relay selection schemes are derived and verified by Monte-Carlo simulations. The numerical results illustrate that ORS scheme always outperforms SRS and MRC schemes, and SRS scheme is better than MRC scheme in the lower fading parameters scenario. Furthermore, through asymptotic analysis, we find that these three different schemes achieve the same secrecy diversity order, which is determined by the number of the relays, and the fading parameters of the links among the relays and the destination.

  9. On Secrecy Outage of Relay Selection in Underlay Cognitive Radio Networks over Nakagami-m Fading Channels

    KAUST Repository

    Lei, Hongjiang

    2017-10-02

    In this paper, the secrecy outage performance of an underlay cognitive decode-and-forward relay network over independent but not necessarily identical distributed (i.n.i.d) Nakagami-m fading channels is investigated, in which the secondary user transmitter communicates with the secondary destination via relays, and an eavesdropper attempts to overhear the information. Based on whether the channel state information (CSI) of the wiretap links is available or not, we analyze the secrecy outage performance with optimal relay selection (ORS) and suboptimal relay selection (SRS) schemes, and multiple relays combining scheme (MRC) scheme is considered for comparison purpose. The exact and asymptotic closed-form expressions for the secrecy outage probability with three different relay selection schemes are derived and verified by Monte-Carlo simulations. The numerical results illustrate that ORS scheme always outperforms SRS and MRC schemes, and SRS scheme is better than MRC scheme in the lower fading parameters scenario. Furthermore, through asymptotic analysis, we find that these three different schemes achieve the same secrecy diversity order, which is determined by the number of the relays, and the fading parameters of the links among the relays and the destination.

  10. 76 FR 13193 - Government-Owned Inventions; Availability for Licensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-10

    ...-451-7533 for more information. Method for the Detection of a Subdural Hematoma Using a Handheld Hematoma Detector and Discriminator Description of Invention: The invention offered for licensing and... utilized to discriminate between subdural and epidural hematoma. The invention also discloses a novel...

  11. 75 FR 39544 - Government-Owned Inventions; Availability for Licensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-09

    ... inventions to extend market coverage for companies and may also be available for licensing. ADDRESSES... might be used as a basis for a potential new strategy in cancer therapeutics. The invention also might... novel way to target various cancers for treatment. This invention maybe also useful in regenerative...

  12. Identifying and Developing Inventive Talent in the Republic of Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Seungmo

    2016-01-01

    In the 21st century, the need to develop creative potential through education is more critical than ever. Invention-gifted education is one approach that can both foster creativity and develop inventive talent. Invention-gifted education in the Republic of Korea is distinctive in its systematic approach to talent identification and talent…

  13. 40 CFR 40.160-3 - Reporting of inventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... application. (b) A final invention report is required within 90 days after completion of the project period... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Reporting of inventions. 40.160-3... ASSISTANCE RESEARCH AND DEMONSTRATION GRANTS § 40.160-3 Reporting of inventions. As provided in appendix B of...

  14. 37 CFR 1.293 - Statutory invention registration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... the date of publication of the statutory invention registration; (2) The required fee for filing a request for publication of a statutory invention registration as provided for in § 1.17 (n) or (o); (3) A... application. (b) Any request for publication of a statutory invention registration must include the following...

  15. Care and secrecy: being a mother of children living with HIV in Burkina Faso.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hejoaka, Fabienne

    2009-09-01

    Home care has become a central component of the response to the HIV/AIDS epidemic, displacing caregiving work onto women. While increasing interest has been paid to HIV/AIDS care with a focus on ailing adults and orphan foster care, the issue of caring for children living with HIV has received little attention in the social sciences. Based on ethnographic material gathered in Burkina Faso between November 2005 and December 2006, the aim of this paper was to gain understanding of women who mother and care for children living with HIV in resource-limited countries. The study involved participant observation in community-based organizations in Burkina Faso and semi-structured interviews with 20 women mothering HIV-positive children as well as 15 children infected with HIV, aged between 8 and 18 years. In daily care mothers face many great challenges, ranging from the routine of pill-taking to disturbing discussions with children asking questions about their health or treatment. The results also show how HIV/AIDS-related stigma adds an additional layer to the burden of care, compelling mothers to deal with the tension between secrecy surrounding the disease and the openness required in providing care and receiving social support. As mothers live in fear of disclosure, they have to develop concealment strategies around children's treatment and the nature of the disease. Conversely, some mothers may share their secret with kin members, close relatives or their children to gain social support. As HIV/AIDS care is shaped by secrecy, these findings shed light on mothers' isolation in child care within a context of changing patterns of family bonds and lack of formal psychosocial support addressing child-related issues. Finally, women's engagement in child care invites us to look beyond the essentialist approach of women's vulnerability conveyed by international discourse to characterise the situation of women facing the HIV/AIDS impact.

  16. The Las Vegas Strip as a Genuinely Invented Global Landscape

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Ortega

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Las Vegas, Nevada, is typically recognised as a place via a single urban gesture, that gesture being Las Vegas Boulevard, which is more commonly referred to as "The Strip". In constructing a thesis around the theme, "Here or There? Interconnections between the Global and the Local", one cannot ignore the invitation to discuss globalisation and its effects on a particular local fabric. For the purpose of this text, globalisation can be thought of as what Carmona et al describe as an intricate series of events leading to the world "becoming increasingly interconnected, with centralised decision making exploiting economies of scale and standardisation" (2003: 101. The centralised decision-making process for The Strip is evident in the strategy to develop individually themed casino resorts along Las Vegas Boulevard that respond to a competitive economy, thus creating a newly standardised landscape. If we also understand that globalisation can be thought of as the development of an interconnected world where economic, political and cultural boundaries can be easily crossed, this work can begin to define how the Las Vegas Strip is a genuinely invented global landscape. This paper addresses the "here-ness" as well as the "there-ness" of The Strip, while offering a dialectical framework for establishing a meaning of place by having 'there' placed 'here'. By employing semiological interpretations of real landscapes from around the globe (for example, Venturi et al, 1972, The Strip becomes a newly invented landscape of "simulations" (Baudrillard, 1988. As such, The Strip acts as a narrative that forms a unique place, opening the door to questions of authenticity and identity. This paper concludes by focusing on the question of "Here or There?" as an appropriate deviation from the assumed role that the post-modern landscape of the Las Vegas Strip plays. This work is intended to be a point of departure from the frequent criticism of the Las Vegas Strip as

  17. Evaluation of Energy-Related Inventions Program: An Empirical Analysis of 204 Inventions; TOPICAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, M.A.

    1987-01-01

    This report is an evaluation of the Energy-Related Inventions Program (ERIP). It assess the program's effectiveness and impacts, characterizes participating inventions and inventors, and identifies correlates of successful commercialization in order to suggest possible improvements. Seventy of the 204 ERIP inventions that were studied were successfully introduced into the market, accounting for more than$200M in sales from 1976 through 1984. During 1984, 921 full-time equivalent employees were supported directly by ERIP inventors or their licensees. (Estimates of indirect economic impacts are also contained in the report.) Data on patterns of fund raising clearly show a need for assistance by programs like ERIP. Commercially successful inventors shared several traits. They had less formal education, fewer patents, more work experience in small firms, more outside funding early in their work, more shared responsibility with others for invention development, more management experience, and greater previous experience with starting new businesses. Recommendations are made regarding: (1) priorities for allocating ERIP grants; (2) improved efficiency of the NBS/DOE operations; (3) delivery of technical and commercialization assistance to grant recipients; and (4) further evaluation research

  18. 75 FR 79947 - Privacy Act of 1974: Implementation of Exemptions; Department of Homeland Security/ALL-031...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-21

    ... contains regulatory documents #0;having general applicability and legal effect, most of which are keyed #0... particularly to any potential plans to collect cybersecurity information from private entities regarding cyber... security threats and would not include the Bank Secrecy Act (BSA) related SARs filed with FinCEN. The ISE...

  19. The invention of the athletic body

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hortensia Moreno

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Based on two mythic figures − one belonging to classic Greece (the “Glowing Body”, and another to primitive Christianity (the “Heavenly Body” − I reflect on the symbolic logic of exclusion as enacted in four moments in the history of the Olympic Games. The first has to do with the invention of amateurism in the sporting philosophy of Coubertin, or the class exclusion. The second refers to the Anthropology Days held at the 1904 Olympic Games in Saint Louis (Missouri, or the ethnic/racial exclusion. The third is the Berlin Parade of Nations in 1936, or the national supremacy. The fourth explores the introduction of gender verification in Mexico City (1968, or the gender exclusion. In this fashion, we re-connect the imagined/imaginary configuration of the body with practices and politics which will result in an anthropological rationalization of discrimination.

  20. Physical tools for textile creativity and invention

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heimdal, Elisabeth Jacobsen; Lenau, Torben Anker

    2010-01-01

    Two textile research projects (one completed and one ongoing) are described, where physical inspirational tools are developed and tested with the aim of stimulating textile creativity and invention, i.e. the use of textile materials in new kinds of products, thus bringing textiles into new contexts....... The first research project (completed) concerns how textile designers use new responsive materials and technologies, whereas the second (ongoing) concerns how architects and design engineers can use textile materials. In both projects, the developed inspirational tool is tested through workshops...... with the mentioned stakeholders. In these workshops, new ways of disseminating the results from research in textiles and textile design are experimented with. The submitted contribution therefore mainly addresses the role of interdisciplinarity in textile design research as well as the impact of new materials...

  1. Singapore: The Politics of Inventing National Identity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephan Ortmann

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This study wants to shed new light on the politics of Singapore’s national identity invention. Since independence in 1965, the Singaporean government has tried to generate a sense of national identity in Singapore. While at first, the priority was on pragmatic values to promote the economic development, this changed in the late 1980s when the government became concerned with the widespread materialism within the society. As an alternative, so-called Asian values sought to provide an ideological alternative and a new basis for a stronger national identity. At the same time, average Singaporeans have developed their own unique conceptions of the city-state’s national identity, which sometimes contradict the official nation-building efforts and thus constitute a subtle form of opposition. Many Singaporeans demand greater participation in the negotiation of their Singaporean identity, which demonstrates the difficulty of constructing a sustainable authoritarian civic national identity.

  2. Consciousness and the Invention of Morel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lampros ePerogamvros

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available A scientific study of consciousness should take into consideration both objective and subjective measures of conscious experiences. To this date, very few studies have tried to integrate third-person data, or data about the neurophysiological correlates of conscious states, with first-person data, or data about subjective experience. Inspired by Morel’s invention (Casares, 1940, a literary machine capable of reproducing sensory-dependent external reality, this article suggests that combination of virtual reality techniques and brain reading technologies, that is, decoding of conscious states by brain activity alone, can offer this integration. It is also proposed that the multimodal, simulating and integrative capacities of the dreaming brain render it an 'endogenous' Morel's machine, which can potentially be used in studying consciousness, but not always in a reliable way. Both the literary machine and dreaming could contribute to a better understanding of conscious states.

  3. The Democratic Invention. A Reading of Lefort.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matías Sirczuk

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper I will present the way in which Lefort interprets modern democracy as a new form of society in regard to the sources of law and legitimacy. Lefort is a thinker who is difficult to place within the context of contemporary political theory: he not only defends democracy against Marxism but also thinks that this form of society cannot be circumscribed within the limits of the modern state, nor be understood through the categories that the tradition of political philosophy has developed to distinguish between political regimes. Lefort combines the defense of democracy with a radical critique of the established order. He identifies the democratic invention with the institution of a dynamic that makes, by right, the radical questioning of law the source of political legitimacy.

  4. How important are local inventive milieus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ejermo, Olof; Hansen, Høgni Kalsø

    2015-01-01

    positive effects are also evident from birthplace, whereas no consistent positive effect can be derived from individuals’ high school location. Therefore, the formative influences mainly deriving from family upbringing, birth region and from local milieu effects arising from a conscious choice to attend......Using data on the entire population in combination with data on almost all individuals in Sweden listed as inventors, we study how the probability of being listed on a patent as inventor is influenced by the density of other future inventors residing in the same region. In this process, we control...... for demographic and sector effects along with the educational characteristics of parents. This approach allows us to trace how location history influences individuals’ inventive capacity. We focus on three types of influences: (a) future inventors in the municipality around the time of birth, (b) future inventors...

  5. The electronics revolution inventing the future

    CERN Document Server

    Williams, J B

    2017-01-01

    This book is about how electronics, computing, and telecommunications have profoundly changed our lives – the way we work, live, and play. It covers a myriad of topics from the invention of the fundamental devices, and integrated circuits, through radio and television, to computers, mobile telephones and GPS. Today our lives are ruled by electronics as they control the home and computers dominate the workspace. We walk around with mobile phones and communicate by email. Electronics didn’t exist until into the twentieth century. The industrial revolution is the term usually applied to the coming of steam, railways and the factory system. In the twentieth century, it is electronics that has changed the way we gather our information, entertain ourselves, communicate and work. This book demonstrates that this is, in fact, another revolution. .

  6. Ethical limitations in patenting biotechnological inventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lugagnani, V

    1999-01-01

    In order to connect ethical considerations with practical limits to patentability, the moral judgement should possibly move from the exploitation of the invention to the nature and/or objectives of Research and Development (R&D) projects which have produced it: in other words, it appears quite reasonable and logical that Society is not rewarding unethical R&D activities by granting intellectual property rights. As far as biotechnology R&D is concerned, ethical guidance can be derived from the 1996 Council of EuropeOs OConvention for the protection of human rights and dignity of the human being with regard to the application of biology and medicineO, whose Chapter V - Scientific research - provides guidelines on: i. protection of persons undergoing research (e.g. informed consent); ii. protection of persons not able to consent to research; iii. research on embryos in vitro. As far as the specific point of patenting biotechnology inventions is concerned, the four exclusions prescribed by Directive 98/44/EC (i.e. human cloning, human germ-line gene therapy, use of human embryos for commercial purposes, unjustified animal suffering for medical purposes) are all we have in Europe in terms of ethical guidance to patentability. In Italy, in particular, we certainly need far more comprehensive legislation, expressing SocietyOs demand to provide ethical control of modern biotechnology. However it is quite difficult to claim that ethical concerns are being raised by currently awarded biotechnology patents related to living organisms and material thereof; they largely deal with the results of genomic R&D, purposely and usefully oriented toward improving health-care and agri-food processes, products and services. ONo patents on lifeOO can be an appealing slogan of militants against modern biotechnology, but it is far too much of an over-simplified abstraction to become the Eleventh Commandment our Society.

  7. Invention Development Program Helps Nurture NCI at Frederick Technologies | Poster

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Invention Development Fund (IDF) was piloted by the Technology Transfer Center (TTC) in 2014 to facilitate the commercial development of NCI technologies. The IDF received a second round of funding from the NCI Office of the Director and the Office of Budget and Management to establish the Invention Development Program (IDP) for fiscal year 2016. The IDP is using these funds to help advance a second set of inventions.

  8. Energy-Related Inventions Program: an overview of the evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soderstrom, E.J.; Bronfman, L.M.; Rorke, M.G.

    1983-09-01

    The Energy-Related Inventions Program (ERIP) is jointly administered by the US Departments of Energy and Commerce. Grants were awarded for 165 of 208 inventions recommended by the National Bureau of Standards (NBS). Of the 165 inventions, 46 have been able to acquire follow-on financing from a variety of sources. Further, 35 of the inventions have reached the marketplace, and their cumulative sales to date total $178 million. An additional 10 inventions are now starting into production. Jobs that have been created directly by production related to the inventions total 756; additional spin-off jobs attributable to the inventions include component and material suppliers, jobbers, franchisees, and distributors. The program was recently evaluated at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, with the following conclusions: (1) the evaluation process at NBS has been successful in identifying technically and economically feasible inventions, (2) the success rate for the program is about equivalent to the reported success rates of private venture capital firms, (3) the program is supporting inventions at a point in their development where they are supported by neither the venture capital community nor industry, and (4) the one-time DOE grants and the associated ERIP support to inventors have been successful in readying inventors for follow-on financing from the private sector.

  9. 7 CFR 1150.184 - Patents, copyrights, inventions and publications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Milk), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE DAIRY PROMOTION PROGRAM... the rental, sale, leasing, franchising, or other uses of such patents, copyrights, inventions, or...

  10. 7 CFR 1220.254 - Patents, copyrights, inventions, and publications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ...) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF..., franchising, or other uses of such patents, copyrights, inventions, or publications, inure to the benefit of...

  11. To succeed using patent and invention which are brillant idea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu, Jae Bok

    1999-07-01

    This book deals with what invention is, how we can be a inventor, how we apply inventions to intellectual property office, and other useful advice and lesson on patent. These are the titles of each part : trouble stories on success to invent, everybody can be a inventor, this is a invention. There is a problem when the idea is same or similar, preceding patent, where does it hide? database on patent, patent information, Let's go to Korean intellectual property office, patient application which we misses in our dream, and instructions of patent including various sides.

  12. Prevalencia de microorganismos asociados a secreción genital femenina, Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Di Bartolomeo Susana

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Hay un aumento significativo de pacientes con Secreción Genital Femenina, en el Sector Público del gran Buenos Aires. Fue necesario actualizar la prevalencia de los microorganismos asociados a los efectos de revisar el apoyo necesario de laboratorio y ajustar las medidas de prevención y control. MÉTODOS: Se incorporan a este estudio, la totalidad de los casos atendidos (1997-1998: 84 adolescentes (15 a 19 años y 784 adultas (20 a 60 años sintomáticas. El protocolo incluye (secreción vaginal y endocervical detección de Neisseria gonorrhoeae, Streptococcus agalactiae, Trichomonas vaginalis, Candida spp y vaginosis bacteriana. Aplicando métodos específicos directos y cultivo, Chlamydia trachomatis (detección de antígeno, Ureaplasma urealitycum y Mycoplasma hominis (cultivos fueron estudiados en parte de la población total. RESULTADOS: El aumento de la demanda de consulta fue continuo desde 1997 y aumentó 2.10 veces del primero al último semestre de 1998. En las mujeres adultas se encontró: vaginosis bacteriana, 23,8%; Candida spp 17,8%; S. agalactiae 5,6%; T. vaginalis 2,4%. En 50,3% no se detecto ninguno. En adolescentes se detectó: vaginosis bacteriana, 17,8%; Candida spp 29,7%; S. agalactiae 3,6%, T. vaginalis 2,4%: En 46,4% de los casos el resultado fue negativo. En el grupo de mujeres adultas sintomáticas, no en la totalidad, se detectó: C. trachomatis (7/400 1,76%, U. urealyticum (209/340 61,4% y M. hominis (45/272 16,5%. CONCLUSIONES: El aumento significativo de consultas se debe a problemas sociales en la población, no al aumento de ninguna patología en especial. Impacta como problema clínico concreto la prevalencia de vaginosis bacteriana y Candida spp. Llama la atención, la nula incidencia de N. gonorrhoeae y la baja circulación de T. Vaginalis y C. trachomatis, en este tipo de población. La prevalencia de U. urealyticum y M. hominis es alta, pero su real participación en la patología genital de

  13. Prevalencia de microorganismos asociados a secreción genital femenina, Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susana Di Bartolomeo

    2002-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Hay un aumento significativo de pacientes con Secreción Genital Femenina, en el Sector Público del gran Buenos Aires. Fue necesario actualizar la prevalencia de los microorganismos asociados a los efectos de revisar el apoyo necesario de laboratorio y ajustar las medidas de prevención y control. MÉTODOS: Se incorporan a este estudio, la totalidad de los casos atendidos (1997-1998: 84 adolescentes (15 a 19 años y 784 adultas (20 a 60 años sintomáticas. El protocolo incluye (secreción vaginal y endocervical detección de Neisseria gonorrhoeae, Streptococcus agalactiae, Trichomonas vaginalis, Candida spp y vaginosis bacteriana. Aplicando métodos específicos directos y cultivo, Chlamydia trachomatis (detección de antígeno, Ureaplasma urealitycum y Mycoplasma hominis (cultivos fueron estudiados en parte de la población total. RESULTADOS: El aumento de la demanda de consulta fue continuo desde 1997 y aumentó 2.10 veces del primero al último semestre de 1998. En las mujeres adultas se encontró: vaginosis bacteriana, 23,8%; Candida spp 17,8%; S. agalactiae 5,6%; T. vaginalis 2,4%. En 50,3% no se detecto ninguno. En adolescentes se detectó: vaginosis bacteriana, 17,8%; Candida spp 29,7%; S. agalactiae 3,6%, T. vaginalis 2,4%: En 46,4% de los casos el resultado fue negativo. En el grupo de mujeres adultas sintomáticas, no en la totalidad, se detectó: C. trachomatis (7/400 1,76%, U. urealyticum (209/340 61,4% y M. hominis (45/272 16,5%. CONCLUSIONES: El aumento significativo de consultas se debe a problemas sociales en la población, no al aumento de ninguna patología en especial. Impacta como problema clínico concreto la prevalencia de vaginosis bacteriana y Candida spp. Llama la atención, la nula incidencia de N. gonorrhoeae y la baja circulación de T. Vaginalis y C. trachomatis, en este tipo de población. La prevalencia de U. urealyticum y M. hominis es alta, pero su real participación en la patología genital de

  14. Keeping secrets from friends: Exploring the effects of friendship quality, loneliness and self-esteem on secrecy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corsano, Paola; Musetti, Alessandro; Caricati, Luca; Magnani, Barbara

    2017-07-01

    The tendency to keep secrets in adolescents has been studied in particular in their relationships with their parents and associated with psychosocial disadvantages. The current study focused on peer relationships and investigated the effects of friendship quality, loneliness in a multidimensional perspective, and self-esteem on secrecy from friends. Italian adolescents (N = 457; 47% male; 100% white) aged between 13 and 19 years (M = 16.11; SD = 1.53) reported their secrecy from friends, peer and parent-related loneliness, aversion and affinity for aloneness, their self-esteem and the quality of their relationships with their friends. The results showed that peer-related loneliness, affinity for aloneness and self-esteem in particular affect keeping secrets from friends, independent of the participant's gender. Moreover, peer-related loneliness and affinity for aloneness mediated the relationship between self-esteem and secrecy. The data were discussed in the light of adolescence developmental tasks. Copyright © 2017 The Foundation for Professionals in Services for Adolescents. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Secrecy vs. the need for ecological information: challenges to environmental activism in Russia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jandl, T

    1998-01-01

    This article identifies the lessons learned from the Nikitin case study in Russia. The Nikitin case involves the analysis of sources of radioactive contamination in several Russian counties and in the Russian Northern Fleet. Norway was interested in the issue due to proximity to the storage sites. The issue involved national security and environmental protection. It was learned that mixing national security issues with environmental issues offers dangerous and multiple challenges. Environmental groups must build relationships with a wide audience. International security policy must include the issues of globalization of trade and the spread of environmental problems into the global commons (oceans and atmosphere). The risk of an environmentally dangerous accident as a consequence of Cold War activities is greater than the risk of nuclear war. Secrecy in military affairs is not justified when there is inadequate storage of nuclear weapons and contaminated materials. In Russia, the concern is great due to their economic transition and shortages of funds for even the most basic needs, which excludes nuclear waste clean up. The Bellona Foundation studied the extent of nuclear pollution from military nuclear reactors in the Kola peninsula of northwest Russia, in 1994 and 1996. Russian security police arrested one of the report authors for alleged national security violations. A valuable lesson learned was that local Russian environmental groups needed international support. The military nuclear complex poses an enormous hazard. Limiting inspections is an unacceptable national security risk. The new Russian law on state secrets is too broad.

  16. An enhanced password authentication scheme for session initiation protocol with perfect forward secrecy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Shuming; Xu, Guoai; Ahmad, Haseeb; Guo, Yanhui

    2018-01-01

    The Session Initiation Protocol (SIP) is an extensive and esteemed communication protocol employed to regulate signaling as well as for controlling multimedia communication sessions. Recently, Kumari et al. proposed an improved smart card based authentication scheme for SIP based on Farash's scheme. Farash claimed that his protocol is resistant against various known attacks. But, we observe some accountable flaws in Farash's protocol. We point out that Farash's protocol is prone to key-compromise impersonation attack and is unable to provide pre-verification in the smart card, efficient password change and perfect forward secrecy. To overcome these limitations, in this paper we present an enhanced authentication mechanism based on Kumari et al.'s scheme. We prove that the proposed protocol not only overcomes the issues in Farash's scheme, but it can also resist against all known attacks. We also provide the security analysis of the proposed scheme with the help of widespread AVISPA (Automated Validation of Internet Security Protocols and Applications) software. At last, comparing with the earlier proposals in terms of security and efficiency, we conclude that the proposed protocol is efficient and more secure.

  17. A new jamming technique for secrecy in multi-antenna wireless networks

    KAUST Repository

    Bakr, Omar

    2010-06-01

    We consider the problem of secure wireless communication in the presence of an eavesdropper when the transmitter has multiple antennas, using a variation of the recently proposed artificial noise technique. Under this technique, the transmitter sends a pseudo-noise jamming signal to selectively degrade the link to the eavesdropper without affecting the desired receiver. The previous work in the literature focuses on ideal Gaussian signaling for both the desired signal and the noise signal. The main contribution of this paper is to show that the Gaussian signaling model has important limitations and propose an alternative "induced fading" jamming technique that takes some of these limitations into account. Specifically we show that under the Gaussian noise scheme, the eavesdropper is able to recover the desired signal with very low bit error rates when the transmitter is constrained to use constant envelope signaling. Furthermore, we show that an eavesdropper with multiple antennas is able to use simple, blind constant-envelope algorithms to completely remove the Gaussian artificial noise signal and thus defeat the secrecy scheme. We propose an alternative scheme that induces artificial fading in the channel to the eavesdropper, and show that it outperforms the Gaussian noise scheme in the sense of causing higher bit error rates at the eavesdropper and is also more resistant to constant modulus-type algorithms. © 2010 IEEE.

  18. Enhancing Secrecy With Multiantenna Transmission in Millimeter Wave Vehicular Communication Systems

    KAUST Repository

    Eltayeb, Mohammed E.; Choi, Junil; Al-Naffouri, Tareq Y.; Heath, Robert W.

    2017-01-01

    Millimeter wave (mmWave) vehicular communication systems will provide an abundance of bandwidth for the exchange of raw sensor data and support driver-assisted and safety-related functionalities. Lack of secure communication links, however, may lead to abuses and attacks that jeopardize the efficiency of transportation systems and the physical safety of drivers. In this paper, we propose two physical layer (PHY) security techniques for vehicular mmWave communication systems. The first technique uses multiple antennas with a single radio-frequency (RF) chain to transmit information symbols to a target receiver and noise-like signals in nonreceiver directions. The second technique uses multiple antennas with a few RF chains to transmit information symbols to a target receiver and opportunistically inject artificial noise in controlled directions, thereby reducing interference in vehicular environments. Theoretical and numerical results show that the proposed techniques provide higher secrecy rate when compared to traditional PHY security techniques that require digital or more complex antenna architectures.

  19. Enhancing Secrecy With Multiantenna Transmission in Millimeter Wave Vehicular Communication Systems

    KAUST Repository

    Eltayeb, Mohammed E.

    2017-03-14

    Millimeter wave (mmWave) vehicular communication systems will provide an abundance of bandwidth for the exchange of raw sensor data and support driver-assisted and safety-related functionalities. Lack of secure communication links, however, may lead to abuses and attacks that jeopardize the efficiency of transportation systems and the physical safety of drivers. In this paper, we propose two physical layer (PHY) security techniques for vehicular mmWave communication systems. The first technique uses multiple antennas with a single radio-frequency (RF) chain to transmit information symbols to a target receiver and noise-like signals in nonreceiver directions. The second technique uses multiple antennas with a few RF chains to transmit information symbols to a target receiver and opportunistically inject artificial noise in controlled directions, thereby reducing interference in vehicular environments. Theoretical and numerical results show that the proposed techniques provide higher secrecy rate when compared to traditional PHY security techniques that require digital or more complex antenna architectures.

  20. An enhanced password authentication scheme for session initiation protocol with perfect forward secrecy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-01-01

    The Session Initiation Protocol (SIP) is an extensive and esteemed communication protocol employed to regulate signaling as well as for controlling multimedia communication sessions. Recently, Kumari et al. proposed an improved smart card based authentication scheme for SIP based on Farash’s scheme. Farash claimed that his protocol is resistant against various known attacks. But, we observe some accountable flaws in Farash’s protocol. We point out that Farash’s protocol is prone to key-compromise impersonation attack and is unable to provide pre-verification in the smart card, efficient password change and perfect forward secrecy. To overcome these limitations, in this paper we present an enhanced authentication mechanism based on Kumari et al.’s scheme. We prove that the proposed protocol not only overcomes the issues in Farash’s scheme, but it can also resist against all known attacks. We also provide the security analysis of the proposed scheme with the help of widespread AVISPA (Automated Validation of Internet Security Protocols and Applications) software. At last, comparing with the earlier proposals in terms of security and efficiency, we conclude that the proposed protocol is efficient and more secure. PMID:29547619

  1. The practical Einstein experiments, patents, inventions

    CERN Document Server

    Illy, József

    2012-01-01

    Albert Einstein may be best known as the wire-haired whacky physicist who gave us the theory of relativity, but that's just one facet of this genius' contribution to human knowledge and modern science. As Jozsef Illy expertly shows in this book, Einstein had an eminently practical side as well. As a youth, Einstein was an inveterate tinkerer in the electrical supply factory his father and uncle owned and operated. His first paid job was as a patent examiner. Later in life, Einstein contributed to many inventions, including refrigerators, microphones, and instruments for aviation. In published papers, Einstein often provided ways to test his theories and fundamental problems of the scientific community of his times. He delved deeply into a variety of technological innovations, most notably the gyrocompass, and consulted for industry in patent cases and on other legal matters. Einstein also provided explanations for common and mundane phenomena, such as the meandering of rivers. In these and other hands-on exam...

  2. Why Is Hard To Patent An Invention?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available When employed by a company, in almost all the cases a new employee has to sign an agreement giving the company exclusive rights to any intellectual property developed as part of their work assignments. This agreement could extend beyond a change of jobs and cause conflict of interests in new employment situations. A patent is a government-granted monopoly given to an inventor as both a reward for the intellectual and financial investment, and a stimulus to innovate. As a monopoly, the patent has legal power to exclude others from exploiting the invention in any way for a period of 20 years from the time the patent application has been filed. A trademark provides instant recognition of a product or company; a service mark provides instant recognition of a service. They both have unlimited lifetime. But the owner must renew or confirm continuous use at the end of five years, and every 10 years thereafter. A trade secret is information keep secret by the owner to give him advantage over competitors. Since it is secret, a trade secret protection has unlimited lifetime.

  3. CERN at the International Inventions Fair

    CERN Multimedia

    2007-01-01

    CERN is the guest of honour at the 35th International Inventions Fair, which will take place from 18th to 22nd April at Palexpo, in Geneva. CERN has been chosen as the guest of honour for its ability to develop new technologies and translate them for the benefit of society. For the Fair, CERN has teamed up with ten companies that have made use of technologies and ideas from the Laboratory. The CERN stand at the exhibition will be dedicated to a presentation of the Laboratory and the LHC. Each of the technologies featured will be highlighted on the stand, along with the companies that have put them into more general use. This will allow visitors to trace the path from basic research to practical application from start to finish. One example is Medipix, a particle detection technology that has found applications in medical imaging. Visitors to the Fair will be able to see a Medipix detector in action on the CERN stand, and use it to view the particles emitted by everyday objects.

  4. 75 FR 67985 - Government-Owned Inventions; Availability for Licensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-04

    ... . Inhibition of Cell Motility, Angiogenesis and Metastasis Description of Invention: The present invention... SH2 domain-mediated interactions in the metastatic process and support the potential efficacy of this... Modality: Inhibition of cell motility-dependent processes, including angiogenesis and metastasis, in...

  5. NIH Employee Invention Report (EIR) | NCI Technology Transfer Center | TTC

    Science.gov (United States)

    NIH researchers must immediately contact their Laboratory or Branch Chief and inform him or her of a possible invention, and then consult with your NCI TTC Technology Transfer Manager about submitting an Employee Invention Report (EIR) Form. | [google6f4cd5334ac394ab.html

  6. 10 CFR 784.5 - Waiver of identified inventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... contractor has made or will make substantial investment of financial resources or technology developed at the contractor's private expense which will directly benefit the commercialization of the invention; (g) The... extent to which the Government has contributed to the field of technology of the invention; (e) The...

  7. 76 FR 18564 - Government-Owned Inventions; Availability for Licensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-04

    ... Antibiotics: Naturally-Occurring Chrysophaetins and Their Analogues Description of Invention: This invention... the very limited number of new antibiotics developed in recent decades and the increased epidemic of infectious diseases. In fact, infectious diseases are the leading cause of death worldwide. In the United...

  8. Entrapment and Escape: Inventional Metaphors in Ronald Reagan's Economic Rhetoric.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aden, Roger C.

    1989-01-01

    Examines Ronald Reagan's use of inventional metaphors of entrapment and escape, language meshing with the American public's perception of the economy in the early 1980s. Notes that Reagan's reliance on inventional metaphors produced a rigidity in his approach to new situations, ultimately damaging his ability to lead the nation. (MM)

  9. 75 FR 44267 - Government-Owned Inventions; Availability for Licensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-28

    ... inventions to extend market coverage for companies and may also be available for licensing. ADDRESSES..., PhD, at 301-435-3121 or [email protected] for more information. Software for Accurate Segmentation of Cell Nuclei in Breast Tissue Description of Invention: Automatic segmentation of cell nuclei is...

  10. Playful Invention and Exploration. Final Evaluation Report: Executive Summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    St. John; Mark; Carroll, Becky; Helms, Jen; Smith, Anita

    2008-01-01

    PIE (Playful Invention and Exploration) is a unique approach to learning that centers on the use of technology and design challenges to create powerful learning experiences in informal education settings. The Playful Invention and Exploration (PIE) Institute project was funded in 2005 by the National Science Foundation (NSF). Overall, 150…

  11. Rhetorical Invention and Advanced Literacy: An Historical Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagaman, John

    Recent criticism of rhetorical invention faults the discipline for not promoting "advanced literacy," defined as the use of critical reading and writing abilities to serve social ends. Aristotle's vision of rhetoric has contributed significantly to a cognitive view of invention, but Aristotle also acknowledged the importance of social…

  12. Distant Recombination and the Creation of Basic Inventions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barirani, Ahmad; Beaudry, Catherine; Agard, Bruno

    2015-01-01

    This article explores whether the relationship between the breath of technological integration (recombination distance) and the breath of an invention׳s subsequent application (basicness) is moderated by the sector of activity (private or public), science-linkage strength and industry characteris...

  13. 43 CFR 6.2 - Report of invention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... official working hours, the extent use was made of government facilities, equipment, funds, material or... withhold the report until the process or device is completely reduced to practice, reduction to practice... the Government and of the inventor. If an invention is reduced to practice after the invention report...

  14. 76 FR 37000 - Amendment to the Bank Secrecy Act Regulations-Reports of Foreign Financial Accounts; Correction

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-24

    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY Financial Crimes Enforcement Network 31 CFR Part 1010 RIN 1506-AB08.... List of Subjects in 31 CFR Part 1010 Administrative practice and procedure, Banks, Banking, Brokers, Currency, Foreign banking, Foreign currencies, Gambling, Investigations, Penalties, Reporting and...

  15. 75 FR 8844 - Financial Crimes Enforcement Network; Amendment to the Bank Secrecy Act Regulations-Reports of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-26

    ... focused attention on whether offshore hedge funds are associated with illegal tax avoidance and are taking... domestic criminal, tax, and regulatory laws. The House report on the bill leading to the enactment of the... been utilized by Americans to evade income taxes, conceal assets illegally, and purchase gold; have...

  16. THE VALUE AND ECONOMIC EFFECTS OF UNAPPLIED INVENTIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raul Sorin V. FÂNTÂNĂ

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The accounting regulations, the guidelines for their application and other articles by accounting specialists argue that inventions created internally are not recognized as intangible assets. Only assets acquired separately can be measured reliably, based on the document justifying the purchase transaction. Other specialised papers show that it is difficult to establish the existence of this intangible asset and its credible cost. That is, it can give or calculate a value of the invention only if it can show the acceptable cost of achieving it. But all these works argue that the protection of inventions is profitable if it is the basis of a new business, if it promotes or protects the current activity. However, these papers elude - because it is uncomfortable - the situation where an invention created internally has a value only because it forecloses the market. It is curious that an invention has accounting value only when traded.

  17. Ice parties among young men who have sex with men in Thailand: Pleasures, secrecy and risks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guadamuz, Thomas E; Boonmongkon, Pimpawun

    2018-05-01

    Crystal methamphetamine (ice) has become the substance of choice among young men who have sex with men (YMSM) in urban Thailand. Yet, there is scarce data on this phenomenon, partly due to the difficulty in accessing men who will disclose and openly discuss the social contexts, meanings and risks surrounding ice practice. We present an ethnography of ice parties, critically discussing the in-depth social meanings of ice; the sexual socialities and the secrecy surrounding its use; the transactions between older and younger men; and the role of the Internet and mobile technology. Forty repeated narrative interviews (life stories), ten focus group discussions, as well as systematic online and offline observations were conducted over a three-year period. Purposive sampling was used to recruit study participants in a variety of online and offline spaces and through working closely with local Thai community-based organizations serving MSM. To be eligible, participants had to be between 18 and 29 years, able to converse in Thai, had used ice, and had anal sex with another man in the past 6 months. We also strived for sample variability with respects to socio-demographic characteristics (e.g., age, educational attainment and living situation). Data analysis was conducted in Thai by two researchers using the constant comparative method based on grounded theory. On surface, participants described ice parties as exclusive, in trend, luxurious, fun and pleasurable-a kind of modern camaraderie among beautiful men. In reality, however, this group phenomenon was a social hierarchy containing several important players with relational power to one another, to the ice itself and to the physical space where ice was being consumed. These players included ice suppliers, party hosts, party guests and "icetenders." The paper also discusses the sociality of secrecy that surrounds ice parties as well as the power relations between older relatively rich men who provide ice and the younger

  18. Commercial progress and impacts of inventions and innovations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perlack, R.D.; Rizy, C.G.; Franchuk, C.A.; Cohn, S.M.

    1999-08-01

    This report presents the survey results from the 1997 inventions and innovations evaluation questionnaire. The evaluation impacts are based on responses from 136 out of 334 inventors sent the questionnaire. In 1996, there were 67 inventions identified that currently have direct, licensed, or spinoff sales. In total, the number of inventions and innovations with current sales and past sales (now retired from the market) is 144. This represents a commercial success rate of over 27%. For these grant-receiving inventions, the following performance metrics are of interest: (1) total cumulative direct and licensed sales through 1996 were $700 million (1995$), in addition, cumulative spinoff sales and royalties were $90 million and $20 million (1995$) through 1996, respectively; (2) employment sustained by direct and licensed sales was 1,189 full-time equivalents in 1996, employment attributable to technologies with no sales was 90 full-time equivalents, and the annual federal income taxes collected as a result of this employment was in excess of $6 million; and (3) energy savings attribute to supported inventions and innovations were estimated at 78 trillion Btu in 1996 with an estimated value of nearly $190 million (1995$), the associated reduction in carbon emissions was over 1.5 million metric tons. In terms of future commercialization progress and impacts, the 1997 survey revealed that 60% of the respondents are actively pursuing their invention, and nearly 50% of the inventions are in the prototype development, pre-production prototype testing, and pre-production development stages.

  19. Negotiating Discourses of Shame, Secrecy, and Silence: Migrant and Refugee Women's Experiences of Sexual Embodiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ussher, Jane M; Perz, Janette; Metusela, Christine; Hawkey, Alexandra J; Morrow, Marina; Narchal, Renu; Estoesta, Jane

    2017-10-01

    In Australia and Canada, the sexual health needs of migrant and refugee women have been of increasing concern, because of their underutilization of sexual health services and higher rate of sexual health problems. Previous research on migrant women's sexual health has focused on their higher risk of difficulties, or barriers to service use, rather than their construction or understanding of sexuality and sexual health, which may influence service use and outcomes. Further, few studies of migrant and refugee women pay attention to the overlapping role of culture, gender, class, and ethnicity in women's understanding of sexual health. This qualitative study used an intersectional framework to explore experiences and constructions of sexual embodiment among 169 migrant and refugee women recently resettled in Sydney, Australia and Vancouver, Canada, from Afghanistan, Iraq, Somalia, South Sudan, Sudan, Sri Lanka, India, and South America, utilizing a combination of individual interviews and focus groups. Across all of the cultural groups, participants described a discourse of shame, associated with silence and secrecy, as the dominant cultural and religious construction of women's sexual embodiment. This was evident in constructions of menarche and menstruation, the embodied experience that signifies the transformation of a girl into a sexual woman; constructions of sexuality, including sexual knowledge and communication, premarital virginity, sexual pain, desire, and consent; and absence of agency in fertility control and sexual health. Women were not passive in relation to a discourse of sexual shame; a number demonstrated active resistance and negotiation in order to achieve a degree of sexual agency, yet also maintain cultural and religious identity. Identifying migrant and refugee women's experiences and constructions of sexual embodiment are essential for understanding sexual subjectivity, and provision of culturally safe sexual health information in order to

  20. Beyond Invention: Patent as Knowledge Law

    OpenAIRE

    Madison, Michael

    2017-01-01

    The decision of the Supreme Court of the United States in Bilski v. Kappos, concerning the legal standard for determining patentable subject matter under the American Patent Act, is used as a starting point for a brief review of historical, philosophical, and cultural influences on subject matter questions in both patent and copyright law. The article suggests that patent and copyright law jurisprudence was constructed initially by the Court with explicit attention to the relationship between...

  1. The Invention of Tradition: Illyrian Heraldry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandar Palavestra

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The "Illyrian heraldry", as a phenomenon of the invented tradition, encompasses the rolls of arms - armorials, which appear in Dalmatia, Italy, Spain and Austria at the end of the XVI and beginning of the XVII century. These armorials contained Serbian and other southern Slav monarchic, territorial and family coats of arms. The authenticity, heraldic sources and origins of these armorials are extremely complex problems that can be traced back to the medieval heraldic heritage of the Serbs, on the one hand, and reveal the intricate web of political circumstances in the XVI and XVII centuries. Illyrian heraldry is also closely linked to the personal and political ambitions of the Spanish admiral, Don Pedro Ohmučević Grgurić, from Slano near Dubrovnik. One cannot, however, link the entire Illyrian heraldry movement only to the daring ambitions of Petar Ohmučević Grgurić In in the XVI and XVII centuries historical constructions, inspired for the most part by sincere Slav patriotism, emerged that proved the unity of the Illyrians and the Slavs, revealed the alleged Slav origins of famous figures (Alexander the Great, Justinian, or simply extolled the splendor and magnitude of a lost Slav kingdom, that could be restored again. Much as it was developing within the spiritual scope of the Catholic church, this "Slovine" movement found its historical basis in the medieval statehood of Serbia and Bosnia, particularly in the powerful empire of Stephan Dushan (1331-55, in the Serbian potentates, heroes, their glitter and opulence, which used to glorify the Slav world. Since the XVII century till today, despite their doubtful authenticity, the Illyrian armorials have been considered important genealogical and heraldic documents. Many families relied on the information in Illyrian heraldic collections when claiming their true, or, more often purported, ancient hereditary rights, titles and lands. The Illyrian armorials were transcribed and reprinted in

  2. 76 FR 55069 - Government-Owned Inventions; Availability for Licensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-06

    ... invention relates to an improved system for measuring bone mineral density (BMD). BMD measurement is an... vivo data available (animal) Inventors: Geraldo Kaplan (FDA), Krishnamurthy Konduru (FDA), et al...

  3. Making Patent Scopes Exceed the Technological Scopes of Scientific Inventions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beukel, Karin

    This paper presents the results of a grounded theory study of the transformation of scientific discoveries into patented inventions. Using an algebraic interpretive approach, the narratives collected during interviews are analyzed as Bayesian inferences and the developed theory is tested. The fin...... for searching in new directions for solutions if challenges of exploitation with regard to the scientific invention arise.......This paper presents the results of a grounded theory study of the transformation of scientific discoveries into patented inventions. Using an algebraic interpretive approach, the narratives collected during interviews are analyzed as Bayesian inferences and the developed theory is tested....... The findings recast the relationship between science and patents as a process in which the way the transformation of the scientific invention is handled has an effect on the breadth of the patent scope. Unleashing patent scope surplus is dependent on processes related to abstraction and cognitive variety...

  4. 78 FR 29386 - Government-Owned Inventions, Available for Licensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-20

    ... NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION [Notice (13-053)] Government-Owned Inventions, Available for Licensing AGENCY: National Aeronautics and Space Administration. ACTION: Notice of... N Channel JFET Based Digital Logic Gate Structure Using Resistive Level Shifters and Having Direct...

  5. 75 FR 58401 - Government-Owned Inventions; Availability for Licensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-24

    ..., attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), and schizophrenia. Development of selective pharmacological... bipolar disorder, attention deficit disorder (ADD), and autism. Applications Method of diagnosis and... Disorders Description of Invention: The inventors have isolated and characterized an alkaloid, phantasmidine...

  6. 78 FR 38352 - Government-Owned Inventions; Availability for Licensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-26

    ...). The invention rat is superior to AD mice models because the rat has a larger sized brain to.... Licensing Contact: Patrick McCue, Ph.D.; 301-435-5560; [email protected] . Collaborative Research...

  7. 75 FR 43992 - Government-Owned Inventions; Availability for Licensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-27

    ... immune system may play an important role. This invention discloses that patients with AMD gain additional... of age related macular degeneration. This is in light of new findings that immune mechanisms appear...

  8. 75 FR 44270 - Government-Owned Inventions; Availability for Licensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-28

    ... belongs to a group of disorders in which the immune system may play an important role. This invention... agents in the treatment of age related macular degeneration. This is in light of new findings that immune...

  9. 77 FR 31859 - Government-Owned Inventions; Availability for Licensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-30

    ... inventions to extend market coverage for companies and may also be available for licensing. FOR FURTHER... three-dimensional segmentation approach for the quantitative interpretation of electron tomograms. IEEE...

  10. 7 CFR 1230.88 - Patents, copyrights, inventions, and publications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... provisions of this subpart shall be the property of the United States Government as represented by the Board..., leasing, franchising, or other uses of such patents, copyrights, inventions, or publications inure to the...

  11. 7 CFR 1160.505 - Patents, copyrights, inventions and publications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... funds collected under the provisions of this subpart are the property of the United States Government as... the rental, sale, leasing, franchising, or other uses of such patents, copyrights, inventions, or...

  12. 76 FR 72207 - Government-Owned Inventions; Availability for Licensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-22

    ... Macular degeneration Diabetic retinopathy Retinal vein occlusion Competitive Advantages: Small sample... Vascular access devices Competitive Advantages: Non-degradable antimicrobial methods. Development Stage... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health Government-Owned Inventions...

  13. 78 FR 21614 - Government-Owned Inventions; Availability for Licensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-11

    ... useful in drug development. Competitive Advantages: The bioluminescent marker allows for effective...-related Macular Degeneration. Competitive Advantages: This technology is potentially a more sensitive... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health Government-Owned Inventions...

  14. 75 FR 58404 - Government-Owned Inventions; Availability for Licensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-24

    ... the indicated licensing contact at the Office of Technology Transfer, National Institutes of Health... disorders (see above Description of Invention). Please contact NHGRI Technology Development Coordinator... for alcohol and drug addiction. Neuropsychiatric disorders including, for example, mood, anxiety...

  15. The Power of Individual-level Drivers of Inventive Performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zwick, Thomas; Frosch, Katharina; Hoisl, Karin

    2017-01-01

    (KSAO) model. We link survey information spanning the inventors’ entire careers and psychometric test evidence with patent history data for more than 1000 inventors. We also control for variables that have traditionally been used in studies of inventive performance including inventor age, applicant type......, technology, patent, and time information. We show that educational level, skills acquired during the career, personality traits, career motivation, cognitive ability, and cognitive problem-solving style are significantly related to inventive performance....

  16. Degrees of secrecy in an open environment. The case of electronic theses and dissertations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joachim SCHÖPFE

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The open access (OA principle requires that scientific information be made widely and readily available to society. Defined in 2003 as a “comprehensive source of human knowledge and cultural heritage that has been approved by the scientific community”, open access implies that content be openly accessible and this needs the active commitment of each and every individual producer of scientific knowledge. Today, the success of the open access initiative cannot be denied. Yet, in spite of the growing success of the open access initiative, a significant part of scientific and technical information remains unavailable on the web or circulates with restrictions. Even in institutional repositories (IR created to provide access to the scientific output of an academic institution and central vector of the so-called green road to open access, more or less important sectors of the scientific production are missing. This is because of lack of awareness, embargo, deposit of metadata without full text, confidential content etc. This problem concerns in particular electronic theses and dissertations (ETDs that are disseminated with different statuses – some are freely available, others are under embargo, confidential, restricted to campus access (encrypted or not or not available at all. While other papers may be available through alternative channels (journals, monographs etc., ETDs most often are not. Our paper describes a new and unexpected effect of the development of digital libraries and open access, as a paradoxical practice of hiding information from the scientific community and society, partly while sharing it with a restricted population (campus. We try to explain these different shades of grey literature in terms of different degrees of secrecy related to intellectual property, legitimate interests, expected exploitation and trade secrets, and suggest some ways of increasing availability of ETDs in an open environment (inter-lending loan and

  17. The dilemma of secrecy in the study of three ethnic groups from the South American Gran Chaco

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guadalupe BARÚA

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available From an epistemological perspective, ethics poses a problem that goes beyond the issue of the stakeholders’ rationality or irrationality. Besides, it refers to the conceptual framework of knowledge, practices, and emotions allowed and forbidden within the group, as well as to their possible revelation to the researcher. This compels us to reconsider group secrets and their disclosure to the anthropologist. Undoubtedly, the resolution of this problem attempts to introduce a novel topic both concerning ethnographic fieldwork and anthropological reflection. Our examples are provided by the Wichi and Chorote Indians of the Argentine Chaco and by the Nivaclé of the Paraguayan Chaco. Secrets usually fall within the private sphere, whose meaning differs among these cultures: it may be based on a reasonable respect for intimacy, but also on the attribution of cosmological disorder that manifests the disintegration of the world. According to our experience, rubbish, body waste, corpses, or the violation of modesty as required by sexual relations attest to such disorder. Hence, all those topics associated either with Life or Death should occur not only in private but in a protected environment. We bring forward these issues by classifying secrecy into the following fields: 1 cognitive; 2 gender differences; 3 emotions; 4 offense; 5 guilt; 6 new forms of secrecy and disclosure. In this paper, the relevance of secrets is shown in unexpected situations arising from an interaction that takes place on the boundaries of standardised knowledge, and may contribute to the enhancement of anthropological knowledge while revealing unforeseen topics.

  18. Becoming a morther by non-anonymous egg donation: secrecy and the relationship between egg recipient, egg donor and egg donation child

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berkel, D.A.M. van; Candido, A.; Pijffers, W.H.

    The object of the study was to investigate secrecy in non-anonymous egg donation, to explore some characteristics of this kind of egg donation arrangement and the relationship of the recipient with her non-genetic child. Forty-four egg recipients and 62 IVF patients with a child conceived through

  19. Financial transparency in Britain’s secrecy jurisdictions has just got a whole lot murkier following the UK’s decision to leave the EU

    OpenAIRE

    Young, M. A.

    2016-01-01

    In light of recent political events, this commentary aims to provoke and promote a discussion concerning the effect of the UK’s decision to leave the EU, on its ability to regulate financial crime in the Overseas Territories and Crown Dependencies which operate as financial secrecy havens.

  20. Science, technology and inventions: Children draw their own visions

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Addezio, G.; Rubbia, G.; Marsili, A.

    2013-12-01

    Italian primary schools participated with enthusiasm to the drawing competition 'I'm a scientist too! Science and scientists from the children point of view' organized by the Laboratorio di Didattica e Divulgazione Scientifica of Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia (INGV) in Rome, Italy. The best drawings were awarded and published in the 2011 school calendar. Children were asked to realize a drawing, choosing among three suggestions: 1) How do you imagine a scientist, and how do you imagine the daily activities of a researcher? 2) What invention do you consider the most important among all those you know? 3) What would you invent? The topic 'invention' (#3) was the most successful. In fact, among the collected 1,000 drawings, 400 drawings depict scientists, nearly 150 depict scientists with their inventions, and other 350 depict inventions alone. A classification scheme was designed in order to synthetically describe this set of images and analyze it. The Draw-A-Scientist scheme, known from literature, was maintained but modified in order to characterize both inventors and inventions. A preliminary analysis about scientists reveals a persistent gender stereotype, since most of depicted persons were male and nearly half of girls draw men scientists. The image of 'mad scientist' is still present but it is mainly related to men. Women scientists are drawn by girls; they are represented as young, not crazy, usually good-looking. There are no particular differences between boys and girls in assigning research fields to scientists. Women scientists are often depicted as assistants, but when alone they are self-confident enough to give their name to an invention or to aspire for Nobel Prize. In this work we present the preliminary analysis performed on drawings containing inventions. What do girls and boys 6 to 11 years old invent? Robots, helping in housekeeping or in doing homework; rockets, space vehicles and time machines, but also fictional machines and

  1. Social networks in the history of innovation and invention

    CERN Document Server

    Moon, Francis C

    2014-01-01

    This book integrates history of science and technology with modern social network theory. Using examples from the history of machines, as well as case studies from wireless, radio and chaos theory, the author challenges the genius model of invention. Network analysis concepts are presented to demonstrate the societal nature of invention in areas such as steam power, internal combustion engines, early aviation, air conditioning and more. Using modern measures of network theory, the author demonstrates that the social networks of invention from the 19th and early 20th centuries have similar characteristics to modern 21st C networks such as the World Wide Web. The book provides evidence that exponential growth in technical innovation is linked to the growth of historical innovation networks.

  2. PUBLICATION BANS IN A FACEBOOK AGE: HOW INTERNET VIGILANTES HAVE CHALLENGED THE YOUTH CRIMINAL JUSTICE ACT’S “SECRECY LAWS” FOLLOWING THE 2011 VANCOUVER STANLEY CUP RIOT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tania Arvanitidis

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available On June 15th, 2011, a hockey riot occurred in Vancouver, British Columbia. This event is prominent in Canada’s history for, among other reasons, the unprecedented extent to which it was documented via photographs and video footage. The days that followed the riot saw much of this media documentation uploaded to social media platforms on the Internet, where Internet users worked together to identify and collectively “name and shame” those believed to have been involved in the disturbance. Several individuals targeted by these “Internet vigilantes” were young offenders whose identities are legally protected from publication under the Youth Criminal Justice Act (YCJA. This article examines the phenomenon of “Internet vigilantism”, and raises the issue of whether those provisions within the YCJA that prohibit the identification of youth remain relevant today, given the current difficulties in enforcing these provisions. Following an overview of these “secrecy provisions”, the phenomenon of Internet vigilantism is defined, and challenges posed by acts of Internet vigilantism are discussed. A “naming and shaming” Facebook group created for the purpose of identifying participants in the 2011 Vancouver riot is then looked to as a case study of Internet vigilantism in action. This article concludes with recommendations for how justice officials and social media outlets may modify current practices to better protect the safety and security of young offenders, and to minimize harmful instances of Internet vigilantism.

  3. Summary Robert Noyce and the invention of Silicon Valley

    CERN Document Server

    2014-01-01

    This work offers a summary of the book "THE MAN BEHIND THE MICROCHIP: Robert Noyce and the Invention of Silicon Valley""by Leslie Berlin.The Man behind the Microchip is Leslie Berlin's first book. This author is project historian for the Silicon Valley Archives, a division of the Stanford University Department of Special Collections. This book tells the story of a giant of the high-tech industry: the multimillionaire Bob Noyce. This co-founder of Fairchild Semiconductor and Intel co-invented the integrated circuit which became the electronic heart of every modern computer, automobile, advance

  4. Cooke and Wheatstone and the invention of the electric telegraph

    CERN Document Server

    Hubbard, Geoffrey

    2013-01-01

    Originally published in 1965. Charles Wheatstone collaborated with William Cooke in the invention and early exploitation of the Electric Telegraph. This was the first long distance, faster-than-a-horse messenger. This volume gives an account of the earlier work on which the English invention was founded, and the curious route by which it came to England. It discusses the way in which two such antagonistic men were driven into collaboration and sets out the history of the early telegraph lines, including work on the London and Birmingham Railway and the Great Western Railway.

  5. Reluctant genius Alexander Graham Bell and the passion for invention

    CERN Document Server

    Gray, Charlotte

    2011-01-01

    The popular image of Alexander Graham Bell is that of an elderly American patriarch, memorable only for his paunch, his Santa Claus beard, and the invention of the telephone. In this magisterial reassessment based on thorough new research, acclaimed biographer Charlotte Gray reveals Bell's wide-ranging passion for invention and delves into the private life that supported his genius. The child of a speech therapist and a deaf mother, and possessed of superbly acute hearing, Bell developed an early interest in sound. His understanding of how sound waves might relate to electrical waves enabled h

  6. User's guide to the radionuclide inventory and hazard code INVENT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nancarrow, D.J.; Thorne, M.C.

    1986-05-01

    This report constitutes the user's guide to the radionuclide inventory and hazard index code INVENT and provides an explanation of the mathematical basis of the code, the database used and operation of the code. INVENT was designed to facilitate the post-closure radiological assessment of land-based repositories for low and intermediate-level wastes. For those radionuclides identified to be of potential significance, it allows the calculation of time-dependent radionuclide activities, hazard indices for both inhalation and ingestion of activity, and photon spectra. (author)

  7. On the finite-SNR diversity-multiplexing tradeoff of zero-forcing transmit scheme under secrecy constraint

    KAUST Repository

    Rezki, Zouheir

    2011-06-01

    In this paper, we address the finite Signal-to-Noise Ratio (SNR) Diversity-Multiplexing Tradeoff (DMT) of the Multiple Input Multiple Output (MIMO) wiretap channel, where a Zero-Forcing (ZF) transmit scheme, that intends to send the secret information in the orthogonal space of the eavesdropper channel, is used. First, we introduce the secret multiplexing gain at finite-SNR that generalizes the definition at high-SNR. Then, we provide upper and lower bounds on the outage probability under secrecy constraint, from which secret diversity gain estimates of ZF are derived. Through asymptotic analysis, we show that the upper bound underestimates the secret diversity gain, whereas the lower bound is tight at high-SNR, and thus its related diversity gain estimate is equal to the actual asymptotic secret diversity gain of the Multiple-Input Multiple-Output (MIMO) wiretap channel. © 2011 IEEE.

  8. Biological warfare warriors, secrecy and pure science in the Cold War: how to understand dialogue and the classifications of science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bud, Robert

    2014-01-01

    This paper uses a case study from the Cold War to reflect on the meaning at the time of the term 'Pure Science'. In 1961, four senior scientists from Britain's biological warfare centre at Porton Down visited Moscow both attending an International Congress and visiting Russian microbiological and biochemical laboratories. The reports of the British scientists in talking about a limited range of topics encountered in the Soviet Union expressed qualities of openness, sociologists of the time associated with pure science. The paper reflects on the discourses of "Pure Science", secrecy and security in the Cold War. Using Bakhtin's approach, I suggest the cordial communication between scientists from opposing sides can be seen in terms of the performance, or speaking, of one language among several at their disposal. Pure science was the language they were allowed to share outside their institutions, and indeed political blocs.

  9. A Stiff Man-Child Walking: Derrida’s Economy of Secrecy and Faulkner’s “Barn Burning”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Wainwright

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Working from Jacques Derrida’s contentions about secrecy and authorial responsibility, and paying brief but specific attention to Charles Baudelaire’s “La fausse monnaie” (1869, as suggested by Derridean concerns over capitalist economics, this article studies the manner in which the inviolable and conditional secrets of William Faulkner’s “Barn Burning” (1938 reveal the poststructural tendencies avant la lettre of this leading American modernist.  While Faulkner scholars have focused on the ambivalent language and metaphors deployed in this short story, they have not formerly traced the manner in which “Barn Burning” incites a sense of deconstructive criticism, and have thereby failed to acknowledge Faulkner’s attendant authorial irresponsibility.  This article redresses this critical imbalance.

  10. 10 CFR 1023.1 - Introductory material on the Board and its functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Board's primary function is to hear and decide appeals from final decisions of DOE contracting officers... Invention Licensing Appeals Board to hear and decide appeals from license terminations, denials of license... Invention Secrecy Act, 35 U.S.C. 181-188, including: (i) Whether a patent is affected with the public...

  11. 75 FR 12764 - Government-Owned Inventions; Availability for Licensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-17

    ..., lung, mammarys and kidney cancers. These mouse models serve as vehicles to test the efficacy of new... inventions to extend market coverage for companies and may also be available for licensing. ADDRESSES... applications. Spontaneously Transformed Mouse Epithelial Cancer Cell Lines Serving as Mouse Models: A New Model...

  12. 77 FR 32642 - Patents and Inventions; Delegation of Authority

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-01

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Patents and... Prevention (CDC), the Deputy Director, DLPP, LSPPPO, OSELS, CDC, and the Chief, Technology Management Branch... regarding the invention and patent program of CDC and the authority to make determinations of rights in...

  13. The laser and its uses: 50 years after its invention

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Besnard, P.; Favennec, P.N.

    2011-01-01

    The laser, 50 years after its invention, has become a major player in modern technologies with its efficient partner the optical fiber. This book reviews the numerous applications of laser in diverse fields such as telecommunication, metrology, optical radar, surface treatment, medicine. The last chapter is dedicated to inertial fusion through the presentation of the Megajoule laser (LMJ) project

  14. 76 FR 72713 - Government-Owned Inventions; Availability for Licensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-25

    ...; Availability for Licensing AGENCY: National Institutes of Health, Public Health Service, HHS. ACTION: Notice... are thought to play a central role in this process. The subject invention is a novel method of... (CTLA4IgG) fusion protein to salivary glands. The system effectively blocks CTLA4 ligand interactions with...

  15. 75 FR 12761 - Government-Owned Inventions; Availability for Licensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-17

    ... inventions to extend market coverage for companies and may also be available for licensing. ADDRESSES..., ADP-ribosylated HNP-1 and other defensins are degraded rapidly in vivo due to the susceptibility of... at the level of approximately $6 billion a year and is expected to grow to $13 billion by the year...

  16. 78 FR 29387 - Government-Owned Inventions, Available for Licensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-20

    ... NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION [Notice (13-056)] Government-Owned Inventions, Available for Licensing AGENCY: National Aeronautics and Space Administration. ACTION: Notice of... Method; NASA Case No.: MSC-25265-1: Device and Method and for Digital-to-Analog Transformation and...

  17. 75 FR 41501 - Government-Owned Inventions; Availability for Licensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-16

    ... applications. A Transgenic Model of Human Basal Triple Negative Breast Cancer [C3(l)- tag mice] Description of Invention: Basal triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) is a common form of human breast cancer for which..., causes a painful stimulation and incapacitates a person for only a brief period. This technology may...

  18. 10 CFR 603.860 - Rights to inventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... approved by assigned intellectual property counsel. (c) Taking past investments as an example, the... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (CONTINUED) ASSISTANCE REGULATIONS TECHNOLOGY INVESTMENT AGREEMENTS Award Terms Related to Other Administrative Matters Intellectual Property § 603.860 Rights to inventions. (a) The...

  19. 78 FR 78370 - Government-Owned Inventions; Availability for Licensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-26

    ... have developed a research tool, a murine cell line model (JygMC(A)) with a reporter construct, of... marrow transplantation, stem cell therapy, tissue regeneration) Competitive Advantages: Labeling markers... federally-funded research and development. Foreign patent applications are filed on selected inventions to...

  20. 78 FR 37554 - Government-Owned Inventions; Availability for Licensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-21

    ... generation of self-renewing cells with a high proliferative capacity. Induced pluripotent stem cells (iPS... invention relates to a method of using CD47-modulating compounds to induce multipotent stem cells without..., please contact Denise Crooks at [email protected] . Method of Inducing Pluripotent or Multipotent...

  1. 75 FR 39545 - Government-Owned Inventions; Availability for Licensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-09

    ... Virus Recombinant HA Proteins for Vaccine and Diagnostic Applications Description of Invention: Pandemic... are specific recombinant HA proteins from H1N1, H5N1, and other strains of influenza virus produced in... H5N1 peptides useful for assays to detect antibodies generated [[Page 39546

  2. Increasing Access to Patented Inventions by Post-grant Measures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schovsbo, Jens Hemmingsen

    2009-01-01

    " and the so called "tragedy of the anticommons". Next the paper discusses the use of (some) post grant measure to increase access to patented inventions. Traditionally patent law has not paid much attention to such measures. The paper argues that developments suggest that there is good reason to reconsider...

  3. Nobel physics prize to Charpak for inventing particle detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schwarzschild, B.

    1993-01-01

    This article describes the work of Georges Charpak of France leading to his receipt of the 1992 Nobel Prize in Physics. The Nobel Prize was awarded to Charpak open-quotes for his invention and development of particle detectors, in particular the multiwire proportional chamber.close quotes Historical aspects of Charpak's life and research are given

  4. Metaphor and the Rhetorical Invention of Cold War "Idealists."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivie, Robert L.

    1987-01-01

    Presents a procedure for identifying metaphorical concepts guiding the rhetorical invention of three Cold War "idealists": Henry Wallace, J. William Fulbright, and Helen Caldicott, whose collective failure to dispel threatening images of the Soviets is located in a recurrent system of metaphors that promotes a reversal of the enemy-image…

  5. 78 FR 73549 - Government-Owned Inventions; Availability for Licensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-06

    ... extend market coverage for companies and may also be available for licensing. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION... resistance due to the high sequence conservation of the target. More stable than thioesters. Development... makes this invention a novel and potential long-term therapeutic for restoration of exocrine gland...

  6. 78 FR 42527 - Government-Owned Inventions; Availability for Licensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-16

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health Government-Owned Inventions... (allowing high- throughput production with limited screening) Higher efficiency cloning of baculovirus... for this technology. Related Technology: HHS Reference No. E-164-2011--Combinatorial Cloning Platform...

  7. 78 FR 48692 - Government-Owned Inventions; Availability for Licensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-09

    ... federally-funded research and development. Foreign patent applications are filed on selected inventions to... disrupts lipid homeostasis in liver. J Biol Chem. 2010 Apr 2;285(14):10880-9. [PMID 20097939]. Intellectual Property: HHS Reference No. E-465-2013/0--Research Tool. Patent protection is not being pursued for this...

  8. 76 FR 40381 - Government-Owned Inventions; Availability for Licensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-08

    ... inventions to extend market coverage for companies and may also be available for licensing. ADDRESSES... effective treatment option. EGFRvIII CARs can cross the blood-brain barrier, are expected to target only... squamous cell carcinomas. A personalized cancer treatment strategy for patients whose tumor cells express...

  9. 76 FR 49777 - Government-Owned Inventions; Availability for Licensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-11

    ... repress cell activation targets. Immunotherapy, although an effective treatment strategy, sometimes fails... inventions to extend market coverage for companies and may also be available for licensing. ADDRESSES... Target Validation Laboratory, DCTD, NCI, NIH, is seeking statements of capability or interest from...

  10. 76 FR 63309 - Government-Owned Inventions; Availability for Licensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-12

    ... applications, such as the characterization and study of glucocorticoid signaling in cancer, inflammation, and... is a need to track the spread of these viruses both in the animal and human populations to avert or.... SUMMARY: The inventions listed below are owned by an agency of the U.S. Government and are available for...

  11. Not invented here : managing corporate innovation in a new era

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vrande, van de V.J.A.

    2007-01-01

    Not Invented here: Managing Corporate Innovation in a New Era External technology sourcing as a means to develop new businesses is taking a more central role in established companies. Acquiring new technologies from outside the firm which speeds up the innovation process and complements internal R&D

  12. 78 FR 16690 - Government-Owned Inventions; Availability for Licensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-18

    ... Ionizing Radiation Description of Technology: The invention relates to methods of using ketogenic compounds to protect against the adverse effects of radiation exposure, including ionizing radiation tissue... therapeutic efficacy of radiation therapies by protecting non-target tissues from incidental radiation damage...

  13. 75 FR 21634 - Government-Owned Inventions; Availability for Licensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-26

    ... interventional devices for delivery of drugs, cells, energy, or sutures through complex trajectories of the body... Ligands for Live Cell Imaging Description of Invention: Recently-developed protein tags enable the..., to fusion proteins containing these tags. For example, SNAP and CLIP tags bind O\\6\\-benzylguanine...

  14. The Invention Studio: A University Maker Space and Culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forest, Craig R.; Moore, Roxanne A.; Jariwala, Amit S.; Fasse, Barbara Burks; Linsey, Julie; Newstetter, Wendy; Ngo, Peter; Quintero, Christopher

    2014-01-01

    Creativity, invention, and innovation are values championed as central pillars of engineering education. However, university environments that foster open-ended design-build projects are uncommon. Fabrication and prototyping spaces at universities are typically "machine shops" where students relinquish actual fabrication activities to…

  15. IVO`s CHP know-how: experience, inventions, patents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aeijaelae, M.; Ohtonen, V. [ed.

    1997-11-01

    IVO can justly claim mastery in the co-generation of district heat and electricity - CHP. As well as looking at the issue from the viewpoint of planners, builders and operators, IVO`s engineers also view power plants through the eyes of the product developer and inventor. This approach has resulted in successful power plant configurations, inventions and patents and visions

  16. 76 FR 55070 - Government-Owned Inventions; Availability for Licensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-06

    .... SUMMARY: The inventions listed below are owned by an agency of the U.S. Government and are available for..., 6011 Executive Boulevard, Suite 325, Rockville, Maryland 20852-3804; telephone: 301-496-7057; fax: 301... samples for anti- cancer immunotherapy by making use of gas permeable (GP) flasks. This advancement in...

  17. 75 FR 70010 - Government-Owned Inventions; Availability for Licensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-16

    ... Appella (NCI), John K. Inman (NIAID), Deyun Wang (NIDDK), Lisa M. Miller Jenkins (NCI), Ryo Hayashi (NCI). Publications: 1. Miller Jenkins LM, et al. Nature Chemical Biology, in press. 2. Miller Jenkins LM, et al..., evaluate, or commercialize this invention. Please contact Dr. Henry Eden at [email protected] for more...

  18. 75 FR 26258 - Government-Owned Inventions; Availability for Licensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-11

    ....gov for more information. Parvovirus B19 Codon Optimized Structural Proteins for Vaccine and Diagnostic Applications Description of Invention: Parvovirus B19 (B19V) is the only known pathogenic human parvovirus. Infection by this viral pathogen can cause transient aplastic crisis in individuals with high red...

  19. Fourth Graders Make Inventions Using SCAMPER and Animal Adaptation Ideas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussain, Mahjabeen; Carignan, Anastasia

    2016-01-01

    This study explores to what extent the SCAMPER (Substitute, Combine, Adapt, Modify, Put to another use, Eliminate, and Rearrange) technique combined with animal adaptation ideas learned through form and function analogy activities can help fourth graders generate creative ideas while augmenting their inventiveness. The sample consisted of 24…

  20. Analysis of Probability of Non-zero Secrecy Capacity for Multi-hop Networks in Presence of Hardware Impairments over Nakagami-m Fading Channels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T.-T. Phu

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we evaluate probability of non-zero secrecy capacity of multi-hop relay networks over Nakagami-m fading channels in presence of hardware impairments. In the considered protocol, a source attempts to transmit its data to a destination by using multi-hop randomize-and-forward (RF strategy. The data transmitted by the source and relays are overheard by an eavesdropper. For performance evaluation, we derive exact expressions of probability of non-zero secrecy capacity (PoNSC, which are expressed by sums of infinite series of exponential functions and exponential integral functions. We then perform Monte Carlo simulations to verify the theoretical analysis.

  1. Keys to Taking Your Nanotech Inventions to the Market

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rickert, Scott

    Although many scientists and engineers may wish to be an owner of something they invented, and then take that something to the market, there are many obstacles to do so. Many of these roadblocks are self-imposed, and many more are there because most of us are not aware of the very strict rules that exist in the world of marketing, selling, and manufacturing in the United States. This lecture will identify a small subset of these obstacles and discuss some ways to overcome them. Belief in your goals is most important, and this belief must be shared by others, or you cannot succeed. Believe it or not, no one wants to steal your ideas or inventions. They would much rather have you take it to market yourself. This really is a lecture about winning.

  2. Invented spelling – a window on early literacy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elżbieta Awramiuk

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A wide spectrum of research on preschool spelling development in different languages is presented. In Poland, children at kindergarten are usually at a stage of pre-literacy. Invented spelling means the writing produced by young children (aged 3–7 before they are formally taught reading and writing or are at the beginning of the learning process. Their writing is more spontaneous than learnt. The paper describes an investigation of the development of early literacy and factors influencing it, such as knowledge about orthography (spelling, early morphological awareness or teaching methods. Children’s early writing provides a window on their conceptualisation of the written language, illustrating the process of developing language awareness and spelling skills. Invented spelling, together with phonological abilities and letter knowledge is considered to be a strong predictor for later literacy skills.

  3. Invention activities as preparation for learning laboratory data handling skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Day, James

    2012-10-01

    Undergraduate physics laboratories are often driven by a mix of goals, and usually enough of them to cause cognitive overload for the student. Our recent findings align well with studies indicating that students often exit a physics lab without having properly learned how to handle real data. The value of having students explore the underlying structure of a problem before being able to solve it has been shown as an effective way to ready students for learning. Borrowing on findings from the fields of education and cognitive psychology, we use ``invention activities'' to precede direct instruction and bolster learning. In this talk I will show some of what we have learned about students' data handling skills, explain how an invention activity works, and share some observations of successful transfer.

  4. Invention of Lithium Ion Secondary Battery and Its Business Development

    OpenAIRE

    正本, 順三/米田,晴幸; 米田, 晴幸; MASAMOTO, Junzo; YONEDA, Haruyuki

    2010-01-01

    At present, mobile phones and laptop computers are essential items in our daily life. As a battery for such portable devices, the lithium ion secondary battery is used. The lithium ion secondary battery, which is used as a battery for such portable devices, was first invented by Dr. Yoshino at Asahi Kasei. In this paper, the authors describe how the lithium ion secondary battery was developed by the inventor. The authors also describe the battery separator, which is one of the key components ...

  5. Not invented here : managing corporate innovation in a new era

    OpenAIRE

    Vrande, van de, V.J.A.

    2007-01-01

    Not Invented here: Managing Corporate Innovation in a New Era External technology sourcing as a means to develop new businesses is taking a more central role in established companies. Acquiring new technologies from outside the firm which speeds up the innovation process and complements internal R&D is an important aspect of new business development within the paradigm of open innovation. It is becoming a requirement to create and sustain competitive advantage in different product markets, an...

  6. The Airplane as an Open-Source Invention

    OpenAIRE

    Peter B. Meyer

    2013-01-01

    Airplanes were invented after decades of experimentation in many countries through a process we can call open-source innovation. Experimenters, inventors, and writers contributed to the airplane’s development by sharing information in publications, in clubs, by writing letters and by visiting. The hundreds of aeronautical patents before 1900 were treated like publications, not like claims to intellectual property. Inventors of modern airplanes copied earlier designs, analogously to advances i...

  7. Disclosure of Professional Secrecy – A Criminal Law Analysis and Dilemmas (Dileme kaznivega dejanja neupravičene izdaje poklicne skrivnosti

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miha Šepec

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Disclosure of professional secrecy is incriminated in Article 142 of the Slovenian Penal Code (KZ-1. The offence protects the privacy of individuals in order to protect them from abuse when personal information and secrets are communicated to persons of certain professions (doctors, lawyers, priests, etc.. The issue is analyzed briefly; however, the context raises extremely complex dogmatic issues, particularly in the direction when unlawfulness of the crime shall be excluded, whether it is reasonable that such a complex offence is not prosecuted ex officio or upon request by the injured person, and the nature of relationship between the offence of disclosure of professional secrecy according to Article 142 and offences under Articles 280 (Failure to Inform Authorities of Preparations for Crime and 281 (Failure to Provide Information of Crime or Perpetrator of the Slovenian Penal Code. The aim of this paper is to highlight some legal dogmatic issues that have not yet been discussed in legal practice. On the other hand, the authors would also like to urge the legislature to amend the current criminal offence of disclosure of professional secrecy.

  8. Commercialising university inventions for sustainability : A case study of (non-)intermediating 'cleantech' at Aalto University

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kivimaa, Paula; Boon, Wouter; Antikainen, Riina

    2017-01-01

    The challenge to transform towards more sustainable societies requires action on multiple levels, including commercialisation of inventions created in universities. We examine intermediation in the pre-commercialisation phase of cleantech inventions developed at Aalto University, Finland, focusing

  9. Book Review: Inventing the Market: Smith, Hegel & Political Theory by Liza Herzog

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boscan, Luis

    2014-01-01

    Review of: Inventing the Market: Smith, Hegel & Political Theory. Liza Herzog. Oxford University Press. April 2013.......Review of: Inventing the Market: Smith, Hegel & Political Theory. Liza Herzog. Oxford University Press. April 2013....

  10. Nanotechnological Inventions and Nanomaterials Produce A Profound Effect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VLASOV Vladimir Alexeevich

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The inventions in the area of nanotechnologies and nanomaterials produce a profound effect in construction, housing and communal services and adjacent economic fields as they allow us: to increase mechanical strength, coefficient of elasticity, alkali resistance and temperature of products vitrification; to obtain nanostructured coatings with the property of shape memory on the steel; to raise the dynamics of coal burning and its full burnout in the boilers of thermoelectric power station; to produce metal nanopowders with increased stored energy 10–15% etc. For example, the invention «Epoxy composition for high strength, alkali resistant structures» refers to epoxy composition used as a binder for production of high strength, thermal- and alkali-resistant glass-fiber material which can be applied in the manufacture process of construction reinforcement to strengthen concrete structures. The invention «The method to produce nanostructured reaction foil» can be used to join different materials including metal alloys, ceramics, amorphous materials and elements of microelectronic devices that are sensible to the heating. This process provides decreased labour-output ratio and energy consumption as well as the condition to manufacture foil with specified stored energy and high mechanical properties. The invention «The method of intensification of burning lowreactionary coal in the boilers of thermoelectric power station» refers to the thermal energy and can be implemented at the thermal plants. The increased dynamics of inflaming and burning leads to full burnout of powdered-coal low-reactionary fuel and decreased mechanical underfiring. The specialists may be also interested in the following inventions: fine dispersed organic suspension of carbon metal-containing nanostructures and the method to produce it; the dispersion of carbon nanotubes; the composition for reinforcement of building structures; the reinforced plate element made of

  11. Para que servem os inventários de fauna?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luís Fábio Silveira

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Inventários de fauna acessam diretamente a diversidade de uma localidade, em um determinado espaço e tempo. Os dados primários gerados pelos inventários compõem uma das ferramentas mais importantes na tomada de decisões a respeito do manejo de áreas naturais. Entretanto, vários problemas têm sido observados em diversos níveis relacionados aos inventários de fauna no Brasil e vão desde a formação de recursos humanos até a ausência de padronização, de desenho experimental e de seleção de métodos inadequados. São apresentados estudos de caso com mamíferos, répteis, anfíbios e peixes, nos quais são discutidos problemas como variabilidade temporal e métodos para detecção de fauna terrestre, sugerindo que tanto os inventários quanto os programas de monitoramento devam se estender por prazos maiores e que os inventários devem incluir diferentes metodologias para que os seus objetivos sejam plenamente alcançados.Inventories of fauna directly access the diversity of a locality in a certain period of time. The primary data generated by these inventories comprise one of the most important steps in decisions making regarding the management of natural areas. However, several problems have been observed at different levels related to inventories of fauna in Brazil, and range from the training of humans to the lack of standardization of experimental design and selection of inappropriate methods. We present case studies of mammals, reptiles, amphibians and fishes, where they discussed issues such temporal variability and methods for detection of terrestrial fauna, suggesting that both inventories and monitoring programs should be extended for longer terms and that inventories should include different methodologies to ensure that their goals are fully achieved.

  12. Invented Spelling, Word Stress, and Phonological Awareness in Relation to Reading Difficulties in Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehta, Sheena

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of the current research is to assess the clinical utility of an invented spelling tool and determine whether invented spelling and word stress (supra-segmental level measures) can also be used to better identify reading difficulties. The proposed invented spelling tool incorporated linguistic manipulations to alter the difficulty…

  13. The asymmetry between discoveries and inventions in the Nobel Prize for Physics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bartneck, C.; Rauterberg, G.W.M.

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents an empirical study on the frequency of discoveries and inventions that were awarded with the. More than 70 per cent of all Nobel Prizes were given to discoveries. The majority of inventions were awarded at the beginning of the twentieth century and only three inventions had a

  14. 37 CFR 1.295 - Review of decision finally refusing to publish a statutory invention registration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... dissatisfied with the final refusal to publish a statutory invention registration for reasons other than... refunded if the final refusal to publish a statutory invention registration for reasons other than... refusing to publish a statutory invention registration. 1.295 Section 1.295 Patents, Trademarks, and...

  15. 45 CFR 7.1 - Duty of employee to report inventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Duty of employee to report inventions. 7.1 Section 7.1 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATION EMPLOYEE INVENTIONS § 7.1 Duty of employee to report inventions. Every Department employee is required to report to...

  16. The Genetic Privacy Act and commentary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Annas, G.J.; Glantz, L.H.; Roche, P.A.

    1995-02-28

    The Genetic Privacy Act is a proposal for federal legislation. The Act is based on the premise that genetic information is different from other types of personal information in ways that require special protection. The DNA molecule holds an extensive amount of currently indecipherable information. The major goal of the Human Genome Project is to decipher this code so that the information it contains is accessible. The privacy question is, accessible to whom? The highly personal nature of the information contained in DNA can be illustrated by thinking of DNA as containing an individual`s {open_quotes}future diary.{close_quotes} A diary is perhaps the most personal and private document a person can create. It contains a person`s innermost thoughts and perceptions, and is usually hidden and locked to assure its secrecy. Diaries describe the past. The information in one`s genetic code can be thought of as a coded probabilistic future diary because it describes an important part of a unique and personal future. This document presents an introduction to the proposal for federal legislation `the Genetic Privacy Act`; a copy of the proposed act; and comment.

  17. Secrecy in Wireless Information and Power Transfer for One-Way and Two-Way Untrusted Relaying with Friendly Jamming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin Xiao

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available An untrusted relay system combined with a simultaneous wireless information and power transfer (SWIPT scheme is considered in one-way and two-way relaying transmission strategies. In the system, two source nodes can only communicate with each other via an untrusted energy harvesting relay node, which sends the message by using its harvested energy from the source nodes. Specifically, we classify the intermediate relay as an eavesdropper into two modes: active eavesdropper and nonactive eavesdropper, depending on whether it has sufficient energy of its own to transmit the message or not. Under a simplified three-node fading wiretap channel setup, the transmit power allocation and power splitting ratio are jointly optimized to minimize the outage probability in the delay-sensitive case and to maximize the average rate in the delay-insensitive case, subject to the average and peak total power constraints. Applying the dual-decomposition method, the optimization problem can be efficiently solved in the delay-sensitive scenario. Moreover, an iterative algorithm is proposed to derive the solution to maximize the average rate in the delay-insensitive scenario. Numerical results demonstrate the performance of system outage probability in the two modes versus different rates and how efficiently the secrecy rate is improved compared with traditional schemes.

  18. Inventive Activity of Researchers: Cross-Country Rating Assessments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatyana Ivanovna Volkova

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, the study of the research capacity of the country and regions has become more active not only from the point of view of their leading components (personnel, financial, information, organizational, material-and-technical ones but also from the perspective of the assessment of productivity and effectiveness of researchers’ work. In the cross-country analysis, the certain highly aggregative parameters, which values, as a rule, are not in favour of Russia, are used. At the same time, at profound studying of this topic, these estimates cannot represent correctly the real trends of inventive activity in the scientific and technological sphere of the country and its regions. Moreover, the measurement of the researchers’ creative potential realization is carried out mainly through the assessment systems of their printing activity. Little attention is paid to the problem of the rating assessments of the researchers’ inventive and patent activity and its products from a cross-country perspective (especially to the detailed ones as well as to its institutional determinants. Therefore, the authors have chosen this subject-matter of the research. Its empirical basis is the statistical materials of both the national database and those which are recognized by the world scientific community. This research has both theoretical and methodological orientations. The purpose is the development of methodological and methodical tools of the research and assessment of researchers’ inventive activity including methodological support of cross-country comparative assessments. The authors have based the hypothesis on their previous research: in the conditions of the decreasing level of financial security, continuous reduction of a number of researchers, institutional restrictions and contradictions, the inventive activity of national researchers is still exist, and in a number of its leading parameters is implemented at the level of the advanced

  19. Privacy Act

    Science.gov (United States)

    Learn about the Privacy Act of 1974, the Electronic Government Act of 2002, the Federal Information Security Management Act, and other information about the Environmental Protection Agency maintains its records.

  20. Nanotechnologies and nanomaterials: review of inventions. Part 1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    IVANOV Leonid Alexeevich

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The new technical solutions including inventions in the area of nanotechnology and nanomaterials are efficiently applied in communal and housing services as well as in construction and other joint fields. The invention «Protection system of urban housing and the method to build it (RU 2604933» refers to construction including environmental structures and can be used to protect cities, objects of national economy from destruction, floods and other types of natural and antropogenic disasters. Reinforcement of basements of city buildings is performed with barrels with fillers and flexible dampener-ties that receive natural and antropogenic impacts thus providing safety, including ecological one, for urban housing. The system is equipped with solar accumulators that supply energy to people in case of emergencies and additional monitoring system to inform people about emergencies. Storm discharge facilities protect cities and towns from floods. All that provides safety of inhabitants’ lives and functioning of enterprises when natural and antropogenic disasters such as floods, mud-and-stone flows and other types occur. The specialists may be also interested in the following nanotechnological inventions: the method to produce hardening mortar (RU 2601885, increase of durability of basalt fiber concrete by nanostructural additives, the method to treat surface and underground waters from titanium and its compounds by means of carbon nanotubes and ultrasound (RU 2575029, material on polymer basis for combined radio- and radiation protection (RU 2605696, thermoelectric heat pump with nanofilm semiconductor sides (RU 2595911, polymer composite nanomaterial (RU 2605590, the method to produce compositions from polymer and nanosize fillers (RU 2586979, the method to produce complex nanodispersed additive for highstrength concrete (RU 2563264 et al.

  1. Inventing around Edison’s Incandescent Lamp Patent

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Howells, John; Katznelson, Ron D.

    ’s ‘898 patent. Third, by analysis of forward citation to these patents we show that regardless of these inventions’ commercial viability in the incandescent lamp market, some became important prior art for new technological fields and some laid the groundwork for the later successful substitute...... for Edison’s carbon filament. Fourthly, we show that the recent view that Edison’s patent gave the patent holder General Electric (GE) a dominant position in the incandescent lamp market is incorrect: we show that besides commercially-successful invention around the claims of this patent, data for GE...

  2. Inventing around Edison’s incandescent lamp patent

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Howells, John; Ron D, Katznelson

    ’s ‘898 patent. Third, by analysis of forward citation to these patents we show that regardless of these inventions’ commercial viability in the incandescent lamp market, some became important prior art for new technological fields and some laid the groundwork for the later successful substitute...... for Edison’s carbon filament. Fourthly, we show that the recent view that Edison’s patent gave the patent holder General Electric (GE) a dominant position in the incandescent lamp market is incorrect: we show that besides commercially-successful invention around the claims of this patent, data for GE...

  3. Sun, wave, earth, and wind. 50 energy machines already invented

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eriksen, B W

    1980-01-01

    This publication gives illustrated examples of issued patents showing what has already been invented, the aim being to avoid scarce resources of creativity and finance being wastefully expended on already existing solutions. Furthermore, it is the aim of this publication to direct the attention of experimenters, researchers and inventors working within the field of alternative energy sources to patent literature in order that they may use it as a basis for further development and thus avoid reinventing the wheel. The examples given are only illustrative. They do not represent a full survey of patent literature.

  4. The Invention of a Danish Well-being Tourism Region

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjalager, Anne Mette

    2011-01-01

    . Strategy is about expressing the direction and timing of development. In this particular regional setting, with numerous individual actors, it was not simple to reconcile the needs and objectives of those involved, but collaboration has nevertheless resulted in targeted fields of action. Substance...... a commitment for the future. Symbolic actions are fundamental parts of the substance or visual elements that happen to have an intrinsic communicative power. Symbolic actions addressed in the project included community based marketing and policy related extensions, etc. Inventing a regional product or brand...... requires a painstaking combination of strategy, substance, structure and symbolic action, and in Southern Denmark, the first steps have been taken....

  5. Marking time the epic quest to invent the perfect calendar

    CERN Document Server

    Steel, Duncan

    2001-01-01

    ""If you lie awake worrying about the overnight transition from December 31, 1 b.c., to January 1, a.d. 1 (there is no year zero), then you will enjoy Duncan Steel's Marking Time.""--American Scientist ""No book could serve as a better guide to the cumulative invention that defines the imaginary threshold to the new millennium.""--Booklist A Fascinating March through History and the Evolution of the Modern-Day Calendar . . . In this vivid, fast-moving narrative, you'll discover the surprising story of how our modern calendar came about and how it has changed dramatically through the years.

  6. Helping professionals and Border Force secrecy: effective asylum-seeker healthcare requires independence from callous policies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dudley, Michael

    2016-02-01

    To examine the Australian Border Force Act (BFA) and its context, its implications for asylum-seeker healthcare and professionals, and contemporary and historical parallels. Prolonged immigration detention and policies aiming to deter irregular migration cause maritime asylum-seekers undeniable, well-publicised harms and (notwithstanding claims about preventing drownings) show reckless indifference and calculated cruelty. Service personnel may be harmed. Such policies misuse helping professionals to underwrite state abuses and promote public numbing and indifference, resembling other state abuses in the 'war on terror' and (with qualification) historical counterparts, e.g. Nazi Germany. Human service practitioners and organisations recently denounced the BFA that forbids disclosure about these matters.Continuing asylum-seeker healthcare balances the likelihood of effective care and monitoring with lending credibility to abuses. Boycotting it might sacrifice scrutiny and care, fail to compel professionals and affect temporary overseas workers. Entirely transferring healthcare from immigration to Federal and/or State health departments, with resources augmented to adequate standard, would strengthen clinical independence and quality, minimise healthcare's being securitised and politicised, and uphold ethical codes. Such measures will not resolve detention's problems, but coupled with independent auditing, would expose and moderate detention's worst effects, promoting changes in national conversation and policy-making. © The Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Psychiatrists 2016.

  7. The invention and early history of the CCD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, George E.

    2009-01-01

    As the first practical solid-state imaging device, the invention of the Charge Coupled Device has profoundly affected image sensing technology. They are used in a wide range of applications as both area and linear imaging devices starting with the replacement of imaging tubes used in commercial TV cameras and camcorders. The rapid increase of their use in digital cameras has initiated the demise of film photography and created vast new markets with great economic benefit for many. Other uses include a wide variety of scientific, surveillance and scanning applications. The inception of the device at Bell Labs by Willard S. Boyle and George E. Smith in 1969 was strongly influenced by several unique factors existing both within Bell Labs and the current world state of technology. These factors and their relevance will be discussed along with the train of thought leading to the invention. Early experimental devices and their initial applications were vigorously pursued and will be described. Current applications will be mentioned.

  8. The nanotechnological inventions raise competitive ability of the products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VLASOV Vladimir Alexeevich

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available A brief description of the nanotechnological inventions is given. The inventions in the area of nanotechnologies and nanomaterials produce a profound effect in construction, housing and communal services and adjacent economic fields as they allow us: to obtain high strength and durability of surfaces of the details, to provide different materials with hydrophil properties, to increase efficiency of transformation of light energy into electrical one etc., and in general – to raise competitive ability of the products. For example, the method of production of solar element and a unit of solar elements (RU 2532137 comprises following stages: formation of pn-transfer in semiconductor base plate, formation of passivating layer on the light-receptive surface and/or non light-receptive surface of semiconductor base plate and formation of power robbing electrodes on the light-receptive surface and non light-receptive. A film of aluminium oxide is formed as passivating layer, its thickness is up to 40 nm, and lectrode is formed by baking conductive paste under the temperature 500–900ͦͦ°C for 1 second – 30 inutes with formation of sintered product. The sintered product penetrates through passivating layer setting electric contact between electrode and base plate. The formation of aluminium ide with specified thickness on the surface of base plate makes it possible to achieve good passivating characteristics and good electric contact between silica and electrode only by eans of baking conductive paste, that is standard technology. Moreover the baking stage which was necessary to get the effect of film passivation for aluminium oxide in the past now can be cancelled to decrease costs. The specialists may be also interested in the following nanotechnological inventions: reinforced flaked element made of natural or conglomerate stone and its multilayer protective coating (RU 2520193; fine organic suspension of carbon metal-containing nanostructures

  9. Private Finance 2 (PF2): Re-inventing the Wheel?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zawawi, N. A. W. A.; Abdul-Aziz, A. R.; Khamidi, M. F.; Othman, I.; Idrus, A.; Umar, A. A.

    2013-06-01

    The Procurement policy of any government is the most influential factor in determining the efficiency of infrastructure and service provision like roads, water supply and energy. The UK's HM Treasury released its new guidelines on private involvement in infrastructures provision and services towards reforming the popular Private Finance Initiatives (PFI) policy. This new approach, it now refers to as the Private Finance 2 (PF2) is meant to correct the imperfections which have bedeviled the older version-PFI. However, the 'new guidelines' contained nothing really new in the area of private financing and operation of public infrastructures, at best it is akin to 're-inventing the wheel' rather than being 'new'. While dwelling extensively on issues relating to cheaper financing sources, risks transfer, counterpart funding by government and improving public sector procurement skills, this paper argues that some countries in the developing world have long recognised these issues and taken practical steps to correct them.

  10. Japan's patent issues relating to life science therapeutic inventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tessensohn, John A

    2014-09-01

    Japan has made 'innovation in science and technology' as one of its central pillars to ensure high growth in its next stage of economic development and its life sciences market which hosts regenerative medicine was proclaimed to be 'the best market in the world right now.' Although life science therapeutic inventions are patentable subject matter under Japanese patent law, there are nuanced obviousness and enablement challenges under Japanese patent law that can be surmounted in view of some encouraging Japanese court developments in fostering a pro-patent applicant environment in the life sciences therapeutic patent field. Nevertheless, great care must be taken when drafting and prosecuting such patent applications in the world's second most important life sciences therapeutic market.

  11. Inventing the future: Energy and the CO2 "greenhouse" effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, E. E., Jr.

    Dennis Gabor, A winner of the Nobel Prize for Physics, once remarked that man cannot predict the future, but he can invent it. The point is that while we do not know with certainty how things will turn out, our own actions can play a powerful role in shaping the future. Naturally, Gabor had in mind the power of science and technology, and the model includes that of correction or feedback. It is an important: Man does not have the gift of prophecy. Any manager or government planner would err seriously by masterminding a plan based unalterably on some vision of the future, without provision for mid-course correction. It is also a comforting thought. With man's notorious inability to create reliable predictions about such matters as elections, stock markets, energy supply and demand, and, of course, the weather, it is a great consolation to feel that we can still retain some control of the future.

  12. Transmedia marketing and re-invention of public relations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jakus Dalibor

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Many concepts have been developed to describe the convergence of media, public relations and storytelling formats in contemporary media systems. This article presents a theoretical reflection on “transmedia storytelling” from a perspective of integration narrative in the context of the re-invention of public relations. The rapid evolution of digital media technology and the emergence of transmedia storytelling present foresight professionals with a powerful new approach for communicating about the future. A transmedia story unfolds across multiple media platforms with each new text making a distinctive and valuable contribution to the whole. Between other, this article also outlines some of the key principles and elements of transmedia storytelling in combination with modern public relations, in order to provide a basic framework that public relations practitioner can use when designing transmedia projects.

  13. The Invention of Infertility in the Classical Greek World:

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flemming, Rebecca

    2013-01-01

    Summary The article examines the understandings of, and responses to, reproductive failure in the classical Greek world. It discusses explanations and treatments for non-procreation in a range of ancient Greek medical texts, focusing on the writings of the Hippocratic Corpus, which devote considerable energy to matters of fertility and generation, and places them alongside the availability of a divine approach to dealing with reproductive disruption, the possibility of asking various deities, including the specialist healing god Asclepius, for assistance in having children. Though the relations between these options are complex, they combine to produce a rich remedial array for those struggling with childlessness, the possibility that any impediment to procreation can be removed. Classical Greece, rather than the nineteenth century, or even 1978, is thus the time when “infertility,” understood as an essentially reversible somatic state, was invented. PMID:24362276

  14. Art, Science and the Invention of Things That Last

    KAUST Repository

    Edwards, David

    2018-01-14

    Aesthetic creation involves a close collaboration between discovery, invention and cultural exhibition, as well as between learning and producing value. It is typified by the patterns of creative behavior in highly innovative communities like Silicon Valley (for IT) or Boston (for biotech) where cultures of learning, experimentation, and production or commercialization coexist, and where a high degree of interdisciplinary collaboration occurs. In this lecture, David Edwards will highlight the growing movement of aesthetic creation in the arts, sciences and engineering as a path for sustaining and improving the human condition in the longest term. He will highlight aesthetic creation in the light of the culture lab model of Le Laboratoire (Paris, Cambridge) and the new World Frontiers Forum with examples of learning, pubic experimentation and value creation particularly related to the future of sensory experience.

  15. Private Finance 2 (PF2): Re-inventing the Wheel?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zawawi, N A W A; Khamidi, M F; Othman, I; Umar, A A; Abdul-Aziz, A R; Idrus, A

    2013-01-01

    The Procurement policy of any government is the most influential factor in determining the efficiency of infrastructure and service provision like roads, water supply and energy. The UK's HM Treasury released its new guidelines on private involvement in infrastructures provision and services towards reforming the popular Private Finance Initiatives (PFI) policy. This new approach, it now refers to as the Private Finance 2 (PF2) is meant to correct the imperfections which have bedeviled the older version-PFI. However, the 'new guidelines' contained nothing really new in the area of private financing and operation of public infrastructures, at best it is akin to 're-inventing the wheel' rather than being 'new'. While dwelling extensively on issues relating to cheaper financing sources, risks transfer, counterpart funding by government and improving public sector procurement skills, this paper argues that some countries in the developing world have long recognised these issues and taken practical steps to correct them.

  16. Presencia de sistemas de secreción de patógenos en bacterias endosimbióticas aisladas de Lupinus de la península Ibérica

    OpenAIRE

    Pastor, Víctor; Iglesias, Ana Isabel; Duran Wendt, David Ricardo; Rey Navarro, Luis

    2012-01-01

    Los rizobios son bacterias endosimbióticas capaces de fijar nitrógeno en estructuras especializadas de leguminosas. Esta simbiosis es altamente específica y depende, entre otros factores, de la capacidad de los rizobios de secretar proteínas efectoras a las células vegetales. Se han descrito diferentes sistemas de secreción en patógenos animales y vegetales y posteriormente también se han encontrado en algunos rizobios. En este trabajo se presenta el estudio de varios sistemas de secreción id...

  17. 7 CFR 1280.231 - Patents, copyrights, inventions, product formulations, and publications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES... the rental, sale leasing, franchising, or other uses of such patents, copyrights, inventions, or...

  18. A Tale of Two Paranoids: A Critical Analysis of the Use of the Paranoid Style and Public Secrecy by Donald Trump and Viktor Orbán

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andria Timmer

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Within the last decade, a rising tide of right-wing populism across the globe has inspired a renewed push toward nationalism. Capitalizing on an increasingly chaotic public sphere, leaders are stoking fear in their constituents such that their radical ideologies and hardline policy decisions may be enacted. This article offers a comparative study of two leaders exploiting the vulnerabilities of their respective citizenries: United States President Donald Trump and Hungarian Prime Minister Victor Orbán. Drawing from and reimagining Richard Hofstadter’s germane essay, “The Paranoid Style in American Politics,” we argue that both represent a new manifestation of the paranoid style as it enables (and is enabled by “public secrecy.” By controlling the media and redirecting collective attention by way of rhetorical sleight of hand, the two are able to sow disorder and confusion such that their secrecy may persist out in the open. Despite using similar issues to promulgate fear and paranoia, most prominently the refugee and immigration crises, and their similar end goals, the two must nonetheless engage in different discursive strategies that reflect the distinct cultures and histories of their respective countries.

  19. ACTS 2014

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Co-curator of ACTS 2014 together with Rasmus Holmboe, Judith Schwarzbart and Sanne Kofoed. ACTS is the Museum of Contemporary Art’s international bi-annual festival. ACTS was established in 2011 and, while the primary focus is on sound and performance art, it also looks toward socially oriented art....... For the 2014 festival, the museum has entered into a collaboration with the Department for Performance Design at Roskilde University – with continued focus on sound and performance art, and social art in public spaces. With ACTS, art moves out of its usual exhibition space and instead utilizes the city, its...... various possibilities and public spaces as a stage. ACTS takes place in and around the museum and diverse locations in Roskilde city. ACTS is partly curated by the museum staff and partly by guest curators. ACTS 2014 is supported by Nordea-fonden and is a part of the project The Museum goes downtown....

  20. 78 FR 59039 - Government-Owned Inventions; Availability for Licensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-25

    ... molecules that act on the same cannabinoid receptors that recognize and mediate the effects of marijuana...: pharmacologically induced synthetic lethality. Cancer Cell. 2013 Feb 11;23(2):228-37. [PMID 23352416]. Intellectual...

  1. Wallace H. Coulter: decades of invention and discovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, J Paul

    2013-05-01

    Only a few inventors can be said to have made as great an impact on mankind as Wallace Coulter. His inquisitive mind and ability to see well beyond what existed served him well for 40 years of inventing. So many of the fundamental tools that exist today in the area of hematology were derived from or driven by Coulter's inventions that he could be called the most technological innovator in the field of modern hematology. In achieving these discoveries Wallace Coulter was clearly capable of visualizing future opportunities that few others recognized. His vision was combined with an uncanny ability to translate his ideas into products. He developed a large number of tools that shaped the fields of cytometry, image analysis, and industrial materials. His understanding of the future power of computation drove him to link these technologies in a unique way. In the end, Coulter shaped the technologies that ultimately drove hematology in a new direction, one that remains on a critical pathway linking technology innovation all the way to true translational impact. It was said of Henry Ford that "[h]e has no notion that wealth has made him great, and any one who is imprest merely by his wealth bores him. In his personal contacts he likes to dodge the subject. He would prefer to talk with a machinist about machinery, or with somebody who likes birds about birds. In these contacts, he asks no deference; and if he gets it, he suspects it is mere deference to wealth, and that ends his interest."(1) The same could be said of Wallace Coulter, who, like Ford, understood the concepts of mass production and customer service. Coulter had the ability to recognize the opportunity and fulfill the need for development of a blood-cell counter that could be placed in every pathology laboratory, and in so doing transformed a field from a qualitative to a quantitative environment. Every person who has ever entered a medical lab, hospital, or doctor's office has felt the impact of Coulter

  2. Prevalencia de microorganismos asociados a secreción genital femenina, Argentina Prevalence of associated microorganisms in genital discharge, Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susana Di Bartolomeo

    2002-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Hay un aumento significativo de pacientes con Secreción Genital Femenina, en el Sector Público del gran Buenos Aires. Fue necesario actualizar la prevalencia de los microorganismos asociados a los efectos de revisar el apoyo necesario de laboratorio y ajustar las medidas de prevención y control. MÉTODOS: Se incorporan a este estudio, la totalidad de los casos atendidos (1997-1998: 84 adolescentes (15 a 19 años y 784 adultas (20 a 60 años sintomáticas. El protocolo incluye (secreción vaginal y endocervical detección de Neisseria gonorrhoeae, Streptococcus agalactiae, Trichomonas vaginalis, Candida spp y vaginosis bacteriana. Aplicando métodos específicos directos y cultivo, Chlamydia trachomatis (detección de antígeno, Ureaplasma urealitycum y Mycoplasma hominis (cultivos fueron estudiados en parte de la población total. RESULTADOS: El aumento de la demanda de consulta fue continuo desde 1997 y aumentó 2.10 veces del primero al último semestre de 1998. En las mujeres adultas se encontró: vaginosis bacteriana, 23,8%; Candida spp 17,8%; S. agalactiae 5,6%; T. vaginalis 2,4%. En 50,3% no se detecto ninguno. En adolescentes se detectó: vaginosis bacteriana, 17,8%; Candida spp 29,7%; S. agalactiae 3,6%, T. vaginalis 2,4%: En 46,4% de los casos el resultado fue negativo. En el grupo de mujeres adultas sintomáticas, no en la totalidad, se detectó: C. trachomatis (7/400 1,76%, U. urealyticum (209/340 61,4% y M. hominis (45/272 16,5%. CONCLUSIONES: El aumento significativo de consultas se debe a problemas sociales en la población, no al aumento de ninguna patología en especial. Impacta como problema clínico concreto la prevalencia de vaginosis bacteriana y Candida spp. Llama la atención, la nula incidencia de N. gonorrhoeae y la baja circulación de T. Vaginalis y C. trachomatis, en este tipo de población. La prevalencia de U. urealyticum y M. hominis es alta, pero su real participación en la patología genital de

  3. From Bilski back to Benson: preemption, inventing around, and the case of genetic diagnostics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dreyfuss, Rochelle; Evans, James P

    2011-06-01

    The long-anticipated decision in Bilski v. Kappos was supposed to end uncertainty regarding the patentability of process claims (or, at the least, business method claims). Instead, the opinion featured a series of anomalies: The Court emphasized strict construction of the Patent Act, but acknowledged three judge-made exceptions to patentability. It disapproved State Street, the Federal Circuit case that had upheld business method patents, but could muster only four votes for the proposition that business methods are in fact unpatentable. But even though the Court upheld business method patents, it invalidated all of Bilski's hedging claims. And while the Justices agreed on one thing - a patent that "preempts" something (a mathematical formula, an approach, a commonly used idea, a wide swath of technological developments, the public's access) is bad - they failed to operationalize the concept. That problem had plagued the law prior to State Street; in the interest of preventing the same set of problems from recurring, this Article uses recent empirical studies on gene patents to tease out indicia ("clues") to supplement the machine-or-transformation test for determining when a claim is preemptive and therefore invalid. Chief among these clues is the inability to invent around claims that cover broad prospects.

  4. Expedited patent examination for green inventions: Developing countries' policy choices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu, Bingbin

    2013-01-01

    Innovation in green technology is important. Patent rights can provide incentives for green technology research and development. Expedited patent examination for green inventions has emerged as a policy instrument to provide such incentives. Developing countries were never opposed to patents for green technologies. China and Brazil have led the way by offering expedited examinations for green patent applications. More developing countries are expected to follow. Expedited examination for green technologies is consistent with the intellectual property system objectives and is justified by the clear social benefit from green technologies. Introducing such expedited programs in developing countries has sufficient advantages. Existing models of expedited programs for green technologies are analyzed to generalize key issues and to discern suitable policy choices for developing countries. When introducing such programs, a balanced definition for green technology is preferred; a special classification requirement is premature and is not recommended; a pre-examination search requirement is generally recommended to balance patent office workloads, and a green patent database is recommended. - Highlights: • There is no north–south divide in promoting green technologies. • Earlier issuance of green patents has its great social benefit. • Green patent application should receive expedited examination. • Developing countries should introduce such expedited programs. • A suitable approach for developing countries is searched and recommended

  5. Biography of louis braille and invention of the braille alphabet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez, Javier; Olea, Jesús; Torres, Jesús; Alonso, Inmaculada; Harder, Dirk; Fischer, Konstanze

    2009-01-01

    Louis Braille (1809-1852) was born in France. At the age of three, he wounded his right eye with a cobbler's tool while playing in his father's workshop. No medical knowledge could save his eyesight at that time. Louis's left eye became inflamed, apparently due to subsequent sympathetic ophthalmia, and he eventually lost the sight in that eye. At the age of five, Louis Braille was completely blind. He is considered to be the inventor of a writing system by touch that bears his name, the Braille system. This revolutionary system has allowed blind people to access written culture, and it can therefore be considered a major advance in the quality of life for the blind. The immediate precursor of the invention of the Braille system was the alphabet created by Charles Barbier de la Serre (1767-1841) who created a language by touch designed for military and secret use. Louis Braille modified this alphabet into the Braille alphabet, which is practically the same one that is currently used. It required time to be recognized and to be implemented as a reading and writing method for blind people throughout the world. In 1950, UNESCO effectively universalized the Braille alphabet, and in 2005 it recognized Braille system as a "vital language of communication, as legitimate as all other languages in the world."

  6. No wonder you wonder! great inventions and scientific mysteries

    CERN Document Server

    Phipps, Claude

    2016-01-01

    This book explores and explains scientific mysteries and principles, leavened with tongue-in-cheek humor and an abundance of illustrations. Chapters are short, but give an understanding of technology and science not available elsewhere. Questions include: • What holds a satellite up while it goes around the Earth? • Why is the sky (made out of clear air!) blue instead of green, or just black as night like the sky that high altitude jumper Felix Baumgartner saw? • How is laser light different from “normal” light? • Did Columbus really discover that the Earth is round? • Which one invention will assuredly survive our civilization? • Why can’t you travel back in time?  If you often feel embarrassed because you don’t have a clue about lasers, the difference between volts, amps and watts, or how jet planes really work – but you would like to understand the physical principles of our modern world, whether you’re a teen or a parent – this book is for you! To understand the basics of quantu...

  7. Invention Versus Direct Instruction: For Some Content, It's a Tie

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chase, Catherine C.; Klahr, David

    2017-12-01

    An important, but as yet unresolved pedagogical question is whether discovery-oriented or direct instruction methods lead to greater learning and transfer. We address this issue in a study with 101 fourth and fifth grade students that contrasts two distinct instructional methods. One is a blend of discovery and direct instruction called Invent-then-Tell (IT), and the other is a version of direct instruction called Tell-then-Practice (TP). The relative effectiveness of these methods is compared in the context of learning a critical inquiry skill—the control-of-variables strategy. Previous research has demonstrated the success of IT over TP for teaching deep domain structures, while other research has demonstrated the superiority of direct instruction for teaching simple experimental design, a domain-general inquiry skill. In the present study, students in both conditions made equally large gains on an immediate assessment of their application and conceptual understanding of experimental design, and they also performed similarly on a test of far transfer. These results were fairly consistent across school populations with various levels of prior achievement and socioeconomic status. Findings suggest that broad claims about the relative effectiveness of these two distinct methods should be conditionalized by particular instructional contexts, such as the type of knowledge being taught.

  8. Modelling Chemical Reasoning to Predict and Invent Reactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segler, Marwin H S; Waller, Mark P

    2017-05-02

    The ability to reason beyond established knowledge allows organic chemists to solve synthetic problems and invent novel transformations. Herein, we propose a model that mimics chemical reasoning, and formalises reaction prediction as finding missing links in a knowledge graph. We have constructed a knowledge graph containing 14.4 million molecules and 8.2 million binary reactions, which represents the bulk of all chemical reactions ever published in the scientific literature. Our model outperforms a rule-based expert system in the reaction prediction task for 180 000 randomly selected binary reactions. The data-driven model generalises even beyond known reaction types, and is thus capable of effectively (re-)discovering novel transformations (even including transition metal-catalysed reactions). Our model enables computers to infer hypotheses about reactivity and reactions by only considering the intrinsic local structure of the graph and because each single reaction prediction is typically achieved in a sub-second time frame, the model can be used as a high-throughput generator of reaction hypotheses for reaction discovery. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  9. Tradition and Agency. Tracing cultural continuity and invention

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tradition helps ensure continuity and stability in human affairs, signifying both the handing down of cultural heritage from one generation to the next, and the particular customs, beliefs and rituals being handed down. In the social sciences, tradition has been a central concept from the very st...... address the larger questions of cultural continuity, agency and the use of cultural resources. In the postscript, Terence Ranger offers a complementary perspective by tracing the effects of nationalism, imperialism and globalised exchange on tradition.......Tradition helps ensure continuity and stability in human affairs, signifying both the handing down of cultural heritage from one generation to the next, and the particular customs, beliefs and rituals being handed down. In the social sciences, tradition has been a central concept from the very...... revolutionize the understanding of tradition in anthropology, history and sociology, stimulating an enormous amount of research on invented and imagined traditions. However, most of this research has focussed on the cultural dynamics of specific local innovations and reactions to global developments...

  10. Invention of science a new history of the scientific revolution

    CERN Document Server

    Wootton, David

    2015-01-01

    We live in a world made by science. How and when did this happen? This book tells the story of the extraordinary intellectual and cultural revolution that gave birth to modern science, and mounts a major challenge to the prevailing orthodoxy of its history. Before 1492 it was assumed that all significant knowledge was already available; there was no concept of progress; people looked for understanding to the past not the future. This book argues that everything changed with the discovery of America, which demonstrated that new knowledge was possible: indeed it introduced the very concept of "discovery", and opened the way to the invention of science. The first crucial discovery was Tycho Brahe's nova of 1572: proof that there could be change in the heavens. The telescope (1610) rendered the old astronomy obsolete. Torricelli's experiment with the vacuum (1643) led directly to the triumph of the experimental method in the Royal Society of Boyle and Newton. By 1750 Newtonianism was being celebrated throughout E...

  11. 37 CFR 1.475 - Unity of invention before the International Searching Authority, the International Preliminary...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... general inventive concept (“requirement of unity of invention”). Where a group of inventions is claimed in... combinations of categories: (1) A product and a process specially adapted for the manufacture of said product; or (2) A product and a process of use of said product; or (3) A product, a process specially adapted...

  12. Girls & Young Women Inventing: Twenty True Stories about Inventors Plus How You Can Be One Yourself.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karnes, Frances A.; Bean, Suzanne M.

    This book presents first-person accounts of 20 young female inventors. Most have won prizes for their inventions; some have even obtained patents. Part 1 "Inventors and Their Inventions," focuses on the young inventors and their lives, how they came up with their ideas, who helped them, what problems they faced, and how they solved their problems.…

  13. Reflexivity and the Sociology of Science and Technology: The Invention of "Eryc" the Antibiotic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collyer, Fran

    2011-01-01

    Until recently, the social-technical process of invention has fallen between sociological investigation of the genesis of a new idea (an ideational phenomenon) and the production of a new technology (a material phenomenon). The advent of post-modernism and post-structuralism offered new avenues for theorising invention, accounting for, on the one…

  14. Delay and Secrecy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Czarnitzki, Dirk; Grimpe, Christoph; Toole, Andrew A.

    2015-01-01

    examines the relationship between industry sponsorship and restrictions on disclosure using individual-level data on German academic researchers. Accounting for self-selection into extramural sponsorship, our evidence strongly supports the perspective that industry sponsorship jeopardizes public disclosure......The viability of modern open science norms and practices depend on public disclosure of new knowledge, methods, and materials. Aggregate data from the OECD show a broad shift in the institutional financing structure that supports academic research from public to private sponsorship. This article...

  15. Delay and Secrecy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Czarnitzki, Dirk; Grimpe, Christoph; Toole, Andrew A.

    examines the relationship between industry sponsorship and restrictions on disclosure using individual-level data on German academic researchers. Accounting for self-selection into extramural sponsorship, our evidence strongly supports the perspective that industry sponsorship jeopardizes public disclosure......The viability of modern open science norms and practices depend on public disclosure of new knowledge, methods, and materials. Aggregate data from the OECD show a broad shift in the institutional financing structure that supports academic research from public to private sponsorship. This paper...

  16. Older, sociable capuchins (Cebus capucinus) invent more social behaviors, but younger monkeys innovate more in other contexts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, Susan E.; Godoy, Irene

    2017-01-01

    An important extension to our understanding of evolutionary processes has been the discovery of the roles that individual and social learning play in creating recurring phenotypes on which selection can act. Cultural change occurs chiefly through invention of new behavioral variants combined with social transmission of the novel behaviors to new practitioners. Therefore, understanding what makes some individuals more likely to innovate and/or transmit new behaviors is critical for creating realistic models of culture change. The difficulty in identifying what behaviors qualify as new in wild animal populations has inhibited researchers from understanding the characteristics of behavioral innovations and innovators. Here, we present the findings of a long-term, systematic study of innovation (10 y, 10 groups, and 234 individuals) in wild capuchin monkeys (Cebus capucinus) in Lomas Barbudal, Costa Rica. Our methodology explicitly seeks novel behaviors, requiring their absence during the first 5 y of the study to qualify as novel in the second 5 y of the study. Only about 20% of 187 innovations identified were retained in innovators’ individual behavioral repertoires, and 22% were subsequently seen in other group members. Older, more social monkeys were more likely to invent new forms of social interaction, whereas younger monkeys were more likely to innovate in other behavioral domains (foraging, investigative, and self-directed behaviors). Sex and rank had little effect on innovative tendencies. Relative to apes, capuchins devote more of their innovations repertoire to investigative behaviors and social bonding behaviors and less to foraging and comfort behaviors. PMID:28739946

  17. Caracterización físico-química y actividad antimicrobiana de la secreción mucosa de Achatina fulica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrés E Pereira P

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Introducción: El caracol gigante africano Achatina fulica es reconocido como una plaga que afecta la biodiversidad, la Salud Pública y la productividad. Sin embargo, se ha demostrado que su secreción mucosa tiene propiedades cosméticas, cicatrizantes y antimicrobianas. Objetivo: Determinar las características físico-químicas y evaluar la actividad antimicrobiana de la secreción mucosa de Achatina fulica. Metodología: Se hicieron pruebas bioquímicas para la determinación cualitativa y cuantitativa de glúcidos, proteínas y lípidos. Se determinó el contenido de Calcio, Potasio, cloruros, Sodio y Magnesio. Se midieron los parámetros de conductividad eléctrica, potencial óxido-reducción, saturación de oxígeno, oxígeno total disuelto, pH, sólidos disueltos totales. Se realizó un ensayo de actividad antibacteriana por la técnica de microdilución en caldo. Resultados: Se encontraron glúcidos en concentraciones de 582 μg/mL en la fracción soluble y de 62.1 μg/mL en la fracción de mucinas, y proteínas en concentraciones de 836 μg/mL en la fracción soluble y de 1413 μg/mL en la fracción de mucinas. Se observó actividad antimicrobiana frente a las tres cepas ensayadas. Streptococcus agalactiae alcanzó un MIC90 a una concentración de 3,6 mg/mL con la fracción de mucinas; Staphylococcus aureus resistente a meticilina tuvo un MIC50 de 3,3 mg/mL y Escherichia coli un MIC 70 de 3.8 mg/mL. Conclusiones: Se reportan por primera vez las características físicas y los oligoelementos presente en la secreción de Achatina fulica. La actividad antibacteriana obtenida frente a cepas Gram positivas y Gram negativas plantea la necesidad de realizar estudios para purificar las moléculas con dicha actividad, conocer los mecanismos de acción y establecer la inocuidad, entre otros.

  18. Curatorial Acts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bal, M.

    2012-01-01

    In a self-critical inquiry into my own recent work of co-curating and the experience of seeing my video work being curated by others, this article examines acts of framing as performative acts that seek to transform visitors' preconceptions. This affective effect is pursued by means of immersion,

  19. Recent Inventions and Trends in Algal Biofuels Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karemore, Ankush; Nayak, Manoranjan; Sen, Ramkrishna

    2016-01-01

    In recent times, when energy crisis compounded by global warming and climate change is receiving worldwide attention, the emergence of algae, as a better feedstock for third-generation biofuels than energy crops or plants, holds great promise. As compared to conventional biofuels feedstocks, algae offer several advantages and can alone produce a significant amount of biofuels sustainably in a shorter period to fulfill the rising demand for energy. Towards commercialisation, there have been numerous efforts put for- ward for the development of algae-derived biofuel. This article reviews and summarizes the recent inventions and the current trends that are reported and captured in relevant patents pertaining to the novel methods of algae biomass cultivation and processing for biofuels and value-added products. In addition, the recent advancement in techniques and technologies for microalgal biofuel production has been highlighted. Various steps involved in the production of algal biofuels have been considered in this article. Moreover, the work that advances to improve the efficiency and cost-effectiveness of the processes for the manufacture of biofuels has been presented. Our survey was conducted in the patent databases: WIPO, Spacenet and USPTO. There are still some technological bottlenecks that could be overcome by designing advanced photobioreactor and raceway ponds, developing new and low cost technologies for biomass cultivation, harvesting, drying and extraction. Recent advancement in algae biofuels methods is directed toward developing efficient and integrated systems to produce biofuels by overcoming the current challenges. However, further research effort is required to scale-up and improve the efficiency of these methods in the upstream and downstream technologies to make the cost of biofuels competitive with petroleum fuels.

  20. 392 Domesticating Representative Democracy: Re-Inventing the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    2011-07-21

    Jul 21, 2011 ... It is also important for us to note that the democracy in question, as it reflects in the ... interest groups in order to try to influence the actions of parties ... office, politicians act like entrepreneurs and brokers, .... The communitarians, for instance, believe that a social conception of human .... unity and identity.

  1. 75 FR 75179 - Government-Owned Inventions; Availability for Licensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-02

    ... before they can act to kill the cell. As a result, research has generally been directed to overcoming MDR... the cell long enough to exert their effects. However, compounds that inhibit ABC transporter activity... this cell line will allow researchers to decipher the biology of this gene as well as aid in the...

  2. Innovation and invention in Finland. Strategies for networking. An international evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zegveld, W.; McCarthy, S.; Lemola, T.

    1998-12-31

    The objective of the evaluation was to come up with recommendations on how the Finnish systems for promoting independent inventions and their commercialisation could be most appropriately developed. In practice, the evaluation was expected to address at least the following aspects of the promotion: The role of the public sector; The role of the private sector (inventors, financiers, companies); The evaluation of the Finnish Foundation for Inventions (FFI); The strengths and weaknesses of the present system for promoting inventions and their commercialisation. In effect, the evaluation proved to be the evaluation of a subsystem integrated within the overall Finnish National System of Innovation with its many players from the public and private sectors. An effort was made to evaluate the relationship between the different actors in this system and closer cooperation is recommended in many areas. Interviews were held with 130 individuals from 70 organisations. The evaluators address the following nine issues: (1) Improving the balance between r and d and the promotion of inventiveness/innovation; (2) Increased coherence between the different organisations; (3) The responsibility of inventors and research organisations in inventive activities and the role of support organisations; (4) A gradual shift towards private services; (5) The development of the role of FFI; (6) Improving the competence in the area of intellectual property rights; (7) Financial incentives for inventors; (8) Increasing the awareness on invention and innovation; (9) The requirement to broaden the concept of inventiveness and innovation. (orig.)

  3. Innovation and invention in Finland. Strategies for networking. An international evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zegveld, W; McCarthy, S; Lemola, T

    1999-12-31

    The objective of the evaluation was to come up with recommendations on how the Finnish systems for promoting independent inventions and their commercialisation could be most appropriately developed. In practice, the evaluation was expected to address at least the following aspects of the promotion: The role of the public sector; The role of the private sector (inventors, financiers, companies); The evaluation of the Finnish Foundation for Inventions (FFI); The strengths and weaknesses of the present system for promoting inventions and their commercialisation. In effect, the evaluation proved to be the evaluation of a subsystem integrated within the overall Finnish National System of Innovation with its many players from the public and private sectors. An effort was made to evaluate the relationship between the different actors in this system and closer cooperation is recommended in many areas. Interviews were held with 130 individuals from 70 organisations. The evaluators address the following nine issues: (1) Improving the balance between r and d and the promotion of inventiveness/innovation; (2) Increased coherence between the different organisations; (3) The responsibility of inventors and research organisations in inventive activities and the role of support organisations; (4) A gradual shift towards private services; (5) The development of the role of FFI; (6) Improving the competence in the area of intellectual property rights; (7) Financial incentives for inventors; (8) Increasing the awareness on invention and innovation; (9) The requirement to broaden the concept of inventiveness and innovation. (orig.)

  4. O Serviço de Informações e a cultura do segredo The Secret Service and the culture of secrecy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzeley Kalil Mathias

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Neste texto revisitamos a formação dos serviços de inteligência no Brasil e sua adaptação à cultura do segredo. Também avaliamos como a existência de serviços de inteligência no interior das forças armadas modificaram a estratégia de atuação castrense no âmbito interno, utilizando como exemplo a campanha Marajoara, terceira empreitada militar na guerrilha do Araguaia.In this paper we revisit the formation of intelligence services in Brazil and its adaptation to the culture of secrecy. We also evaluate how the existence of intelligence services within the armed forces have changed the strategy of action in the framework military built, using the example of the Marajoara campaign in Araguaia guerrilla.

  5. To succeed with invention and patent which are my own idea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu, Jae Bok

    1999-07-01

    This book introduces how to invent through various way such as successful story about the effect to invent, conception like everyone can be a inventor and this is invention. This book also explains all of process of patent such as application of patent, patent in Korea, Japan, the U.S and other countries, what is patent information, how to hunt patent, intellectual property right, priority system, international patent application is possible in Korea, other common sense on patent application, patent as a great power and questions and answers on patent.

  6. ACT Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to clot, the higher the degree of clotting inhibition. During surgery, the ACT is kept above a ... What is ECLS? An Introduction to Extracorporeal Life Support. University of Michigan Health System [On-line information]. ...

  7. 75 FR 30779 - Notice of Jointly Owned Invention Available for Licensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-02

    ... indicated below. The invention available for licensing is: [NIST DOCKET NUMBER: 10-004] Title: Gradient.... Gebbie, Director, Physics Laboratory. [FR Doc. 2010-13200 Filed 6-1-10; 8:45 am] BILLING CODE 3510-13-P ...

  8. Is co-invention expediting technological catch up? A study of collaboration between emerging country firms

    OpenAIRE

    Giuliani, Elisa; Martinelli, Arianna; Rabellotti, Roberta

    2015-01-01

    Firms from emerging countries such as Brazil, India, and China (BIC) are going global, and Europe is attracting around one-third of their direct outward investments. Growing internationalization constitutes an opportunity for technological catch up. In this paper we analyze BIC firms' cross-border inventions with European Union (EU-27) actors, during the period 1990-2012. Our results suggest that cross-border inventions represent an opportunity for BIC firms to accumulate technological capabi...

  9. Invention profiles and uneven growth in the field of emerging nano-energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guan, Jiancheng; Liu, Na

    2015-01-01

    This paper aims to synthetically investigate invention profiles and uneven growth of technological knowledge in the emerging nano-energy field, based on patents data extracted from the Derwent Innovation Index (DII) database during the time period 1991–2012. The trend analysis shows that invention in this field has experienced enormous growth and also diversification over the past 22 years. The co-occurrence network of burst technology domains reveals that technology domains constantly burst, and innovative progress in nanotechnology has tremendously contributed to energy production, storage, conversion and harvesting and so on. Nano-energy patented inventions mainly come from a combinatorial process with a very limited role of developing brand-new technological capabilities. Reusing existing technological capabilities including recombination reuse, recombination creation and single reuse is the primary source of inventions. For the impacts of technology networks' embeddedness, we find that network tie strength suppresses the growth of technological knowledge domains, and network status and convergence both facilitate the growth of technological knowledge domains. We expect that this study will provide some enlightenment for inventing or creating new knowledge in emerging fields in complex technological environment. - Highlights: • We define and utilize a unique dataset of nano-energy patents. • We identify and map the burst technological knowledge domains. • Quantitative argument is provided to prove the combinatorial invention. • Impacts of network embeddedness on growth of technology domain are examined. • Network characteristics affect the growth of technology domain

  10. The Energy-Related Inventions Program: A decade of commercial progress

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, M.A.; Franchuk, C.A. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Wilson, C.R. [Tennessee Univ., Knoxville, TN (United States)

    1991-12-01

    This report provides information on the recent commercial progress of inventions supported by the US Department of Energy`s Energy-Related Inventions Programs (ERIP). It describes the results of the latest in a series of ERIP evaluation projects that have been completed since 1980. It focuses on the economic impacts of the program, notably sales and employment benefits. The period of interest is 1980 through 1990. The evaluation is based on data collected through mail and telephone surveying of 143 participants in the Program. As of October 1989, a total of 486 inventions were recommended to DOE by the National Institute for Standards and Technology, which screens all submitted inventions in terms of technical merit, potential for commercial success, and potential energy impact. By the end of 1990, at least 109 of these inventions had entered the market, generating total cumulative sales of more than $500 million. With $25.7 million in grants awarded from 1975 through 1990, and $63.1 million in program appropriations over the same period, ERIP has generated a 20:1 return in terms of sales values to grants, and an 8:1 return in sales versus program appropriations. It is estimated that 25% of all ERIP inventions had achieved sales by the end of 1990. While it is difficult to make exact comparisons between these percentages and other indicators of the success rates of technological innovations as a whole, the ERIP figures remain impressive. The commercial progress of spin-off technologies is also documented.

  11. Teachers' learning on the workshop of STS approach as a way of enhancing inventive thinking skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngaewkoodrua, Nophakun; Yuenyong, Chokchai

    2018-01-01

    To improve science teachers to develop the STS lesson plans for enhancing the students' inventive thinking skills, the workshop of improving science teachers to develop the STS lesson plans for enhancing the Inventive thinking skills were organized. The paper aimed to clarify what teachers learn from the workshop. The goal of the activity of the workshop aimed to: 1) improve participants a better understanding of the relationship between the Inquiry based learning with STS approach, 2) understand the meaning and importance of the STS approach and identify the various stages of Yuenyong (2006) STS learning process, 3) discuss what they learned from the examples of Yuenyong (2006) lesson plan, 4) develop some activities for each stage of Yuenyong (2006) STS approach, and 5) ideas of providing STS approach activities for enhancing inventive thinking skills. Participants included 3 science teachers who work in Khon Kaen, Thailand. Methodology regarded interpretive paradigm. Teachers' learning about pedagogy of enhancing the students' inventive thinking skills will be interpreted through participant observation, teachers' tasks, and interview. The finding revealed that all participants could demonstrate their ideas how to generate the STS lesson plans as a way of enhancing inventive thinking skills. Teachers could mention some element of inventive thinking skills which could be generated on their STS learning activities.

  12. Possibilities of collecting evidences about crime act of sexual exploitation in human beings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mijalković Saša

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Collecting evidences about organized crime act of sexual exploitation in human begins often is very difficult because of high level of organization, secrecy ant precaution taken during committing prostitution, pornography, sex tourism and human trafficking. On the other side, high illegal profit enable criminals to engage "expensive" and experienced lawyers, whose often make values and reliability of collected evidences questionable, appealing to irregularities during police collecting procedure. Among traditional criminalities methods and proofing activities, in the study, modern tendencies in special investigative measures and techniques are considered. After that, there is pointing at specificity, meaning and value of material tracks and objects, which are essential for proofing crime act or perpetrator’s guiltiness. On the end, there is pointing at importance of victims’ cooperation in collecting evidences about their sexual exploitation.

  13. 77 FR 43742 - Changes To Implement the First Inventor To File Provisions of the Leahy-Smith America Invents Act

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-26

    ...; and treats commonly owned or joint research agreement patents and patent application publications as... or joint research agreement patents and patent application publications as being by the same... published or deemed published under 35 U.S.C. 122(b), in which the patent or application, as the case may be...

  14. Using History to Teach Invention and Design: The Case of the Telephone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorman, Michael E.; Robinson, J. Kirby

    This paper shows how a historical case, the invention of the telephone, can be used to teach invention and design in a way that combines engineering, social sciences, and humanities. The historical problem of transmitting speech was turned into an active learning module, in which students sought to improve patents obtained by early telephone inventors like Alexander Graham Bell and Elisha Gray, using equipment similar to what was available at the time. The result was a collaborative learning environment in which students from a wide range of majors worked in teams, eventually producing a patent application. As part of the project, they were allowed to search historical materials like the Bell notebooks, which were made available on line. This experience gave them a better understanding of the invention and design process.

  15. The mathematician's mind the psychology of invention in the mathematical field

    CERN Document Server

    Hadamard, Jacques

    1996-01-01

    Fifty years ago when Jacques Hadamard set out to explore how mathematicians invent new ideas, he considered the creative experiences of some of the greatest thinkers of his generation, such as George Polya, Claude Lévi-Strauss, and Albert Einstein. It appeared that inspiration could strike anytime, particularly after an individual had worked hard on a problem for days and then turned attention to another activity. In exploring this phenomenon, Hadamard produced one of the most famous and cogent cases for the existence of unconscious mental processes in mathematical invention and other forms of creativity. Written before the explosion of research in computers and cognitive science, his book, originally titled The Psychology of Invention in the Mathematical Field, remains an important tool for exploring the increasingly complex problem of mental life. The roots of creativity for Hadamard lie not in consciousness, but in the long unconscious work of incubation, and in the unconscious aesthetic selection of ide...

  16. Technological Innovation and Beyond: Exploring Public Value of University Inventions Based on Contingent Effectiveness Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Milana, Evita; Li-Ying, Jason; Faria, Lourenco

    2017-01-01

    University inventions are traditionally seen as significant input into development of new technologies and innovations in the market as they generate growth and regional development. (REF) Yet, these inventions developed into new technologies can simultaneously create public values such as those...... that are related with sustainability goals. In this paper, we apply the Contingent Effectiveness Model by Bozeman et.al. (2015) as a framework to consider the effectiveness of technology transfer from university to industry via licensing, and examine what values derive during the commercialization process...... of university inventions. We define four main values: technological, economic, social and environmental, and place the latter two under the concept of public value. The aim of this paper is to expand the understanding of public value and incorporate it into technology transfer literature. We assign...

  17. Patentna zaštita poverljivih pronalazaka / Patent protection of classified invention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Obrad T. Čabarkapa

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Svaki pronalazak za koji se utvrdi da je značajan za odbranu i bezbednost Republike Srbije smatra se poverljivim. Za patentnu zaštitu poverljivih pronalazaka podnosi se prijava organu nadležnom za poslove odbrane, koji ima isključivo pravo da raspolaže poverljivim pronalascima1. U organizacijskoj jedinici nadležnoj za poslove naučne i inovacione delatnosti2 realizuje postupak ispitivanja poverljivih prijava patenata. Da bi se donela ocena o poverljivosti prijavljenog pronalaska neophodno je realizovati određene faze u postupku ispitivanja prijave. Poverljivi pronalazak se ne objavljuje, a pronalazač, nakon priznavanja patenta, u skladu sa zakonskim propisima, ima određena moralna i materijalna prava. / Every invention established to be of significance for defense or security of the Republic of Serbia is considered to be a classified invention. For the purpose of patent protection of classified inventions, a confidential application must be submitted to a relevant defense authority having the exclusive right to deal with classified inventions3. An organizational unit competent for scientific and innovation issues carries out the examination of classified patent applications. In order to evaluate classification of the submitted invention, regarding its significance for defense or security of the country as well as to make the final decision on the application, the examination procedure should be carried out through several phases. A classified invention is not to be published and once the patent has been approved, the inventor enjoys moral and material rights in accordance with law.

  18. The Energy-Related Inventions Program: A decade of commercial progress

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, M.A.; Franchuk, C.A. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)); Wilson, C.R. (Tennessee Univ., Knoxville, TN (United States))

    1991-12-01

    This report provides information on the recent commercial progress of inventions supported by the US Department of Energy's Energy-Related Inventions Programs (ERIP). It describes the results of the latest in a series of ERIP evaluation projects that have been completed since 1980. It focuses on the economic impacts of the program, notably sales and employment benefits. The period of interest is 1980 through 1990. The evaluation is based on data collected through mail and telephone surveying of 143 participants in the Program. As of October 1989, a total of 486 inventions were recommended to DOE by the National Institute for Standards and Technology, which screens all submitted inventions in terms of technical merit, potential for commercial success, and potential energy impact. By the end of 1990, at least 109 of these inventions had entered the market, generating total cumulative sales of more than $500 million. With $25.7 million in grants awarded from 1975 through 1990, and $63.1 million in program appropriations over the same period, ERIP has generated a 20:1 return in terms of sales values to grants, and an 8:1 return in sales versus program appropriations. It is estimated that 25% of all ERIP inventions had achieved sales by the end of 1990. While it is difficult to make exact comparisons between these percentages and other indicators of the success rates of technological innovations as a whole, the ERIP figures remain impressive. The commercial progress of spin-off technologies is also documented.

  19. A Patient-Invented Maneuver to Alleviate Freezing of Gait Using a Foot Loop Band

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasuyuki Okuma

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Freezing of gait (FOG is a disabling gait disorder in parkinsonian patients characterized by the inability to initiate or continue locomotion. I herein present a 65-year-old man with Parkinson's disease who invented a unique method (foot loop band to alleviate FOG, which has not been previously described in the literature. The mechanisms to alleviate FOG include not only facilitating mechanical weight shift, but also restoring internal cueing and driving motor commands for gait initiation. This patient-invented maneuver may be recommended for patients having intractable FOG, because it is portable, cheap and safe.

  20. Assessing the Inventiveness of Bio-Pharmaceuticals under European and US Patent Law

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Minssen, Timo

    , is utterly wrong, since any DNA and the information it contains is the embodiment of the code of life and should be regarded part of the common heritage of mankind. Some patent opponents go even further and argue for a prohibition of patents on proteins. Others, and in particular the life science industry...... specifically, it investigates how the European and US patent systems interpret and apply the so called "inventive step" (Europe) or "non-obviousness" requirement (U.S.) vis-à-vis bio-pharmaceutical technology with a special emphasis on DNA-and protein related inventions. In addition to evaluating the de lata...

  1. Background story of the invention of efficient blue InGaN light emitting diodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakamura, Shuji [University of California, Santa Barbara, CA (United States)

    2015-06-15

    Shuji Nakamura discovered p-type doping in Gallium Nitride (GaN) and developed blue, green, and white InGaN based light emitting diodes (LEDs) and blue laser diodes (LDs). His inventions made possible energy efficient, solid-state lighting systems and enabled the next generation of optical storage. Together with Isamu Akasaki and Hiroshi Amano, he is one of the three recipients of the 2014 Nobel Prize in Physics. In his Nobel lecture, Shuji Nakamura gives an overview of this research and the story of his inventions. (copyright 2015 by WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  2. The economic, energy, and environmental impacts of the Energy-Related Inventions Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, M.A.; Wilson, C.R.; Franchuk, C.A.; Cohn, S.M.; Jones, D.

    1994-07-01

    This report provides information on the economic, energy, and environmental impacts of inventions supported by the Energy-Related Inventions Program (ERIP) -- a program jointly operated by the US Department of Energy and the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST). It describes the results of the latest in a series of ERIP evaluation projects that have been completed since 1980. The period of interest is 1980 through 1992. The evaluation is based on data collected in 1993 through mail and telephone surveys of 253 program participants, and historical data collected during previous evaluations for an additional 189 participants

  3. The economic, energy, and environmental impacts of the Energy-Related Inventions Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, M.A.; Wilson, C.R.; Franchuk, C.A.; Cohn, S.M.; Jones, D.

    1994-07-01

    This report provides information on the economic, energy, and environmental impacts of inventions supported by the Energy-Related Inventions Program (ERIP) -- a program jointly operated by the US Department of Energy and the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST). It describes the results of the latest in a series of ERIP evaluation projects that have been completed since 1980. The period of interest is 1980 through 1992. The evaluation is based on data collected in 1993 through mail and telephone surveys of 253 program participants, and historical data collected during previous evaluations for an additional 189 participants.

  4. Children's Invented Notations and Verbal Responses to a Piano Work by Claude Debussy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elkoshi, Rivka

    2015-01-01

    This study considers the way children listen to classical music composed for them and the effect of age on their spontaneous invented notations and verbal responses. The musical selection is a piano piece for children by Claude Debussy:"'Jimbo's Lullaby" from "Children's Corner". Two hundred and nine children 4-9.5-years-old…

  5. Visual Invention and the Composition of Scientific Research Graphics: A Topological Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Lynda

    2018-01-01

    This report details the second phase of an ongoing research project investigating the visual invention and composition processes of scientific researchers. In this phase, four academic researchers completed think-aloud protocols as they composed graphics for research presentations; they also answered follow-up questions about their visual…

  6. 76 FR 31307 - Notice of Intent To License Government-Owned Inventions; Intent To License Exclusively

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-31

    ... DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Department of the Army Notice of Intent To License Government-Owned Inventions; Intent To License Exclusively AGENCY: Department of the Army, DoD. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The... Army. The US Army Edgewood Chemical Biological Center and the US Army Research Laboratory intend to...

  7. 76 FR 17840 - Notice of Intent To License Government-Owned Inventions; Intent To License Exclusively

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-31

    ... DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Department of the Army Notice of Intent To License Government-Owned Inventions; Intent To License Exclusively AGENCY: Department of the Army, DoD. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The... McGill telephone: 410-436-8467, [email protected]us.army.mil , U.S. Army Edgewood Chemical Biological Center...

  8. Cryoballoon ablation of atrial fibrillation: state of the art 10 years after its invention.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sorgente, A.; Chierchia, G.B.; Asmundis, C. de; Capulzini, L.; Sarkozy, A.; Brugada, P.

    2010-01-01

    The present review will discuss the technical aspects of a new patent invented in 1999 which allows cryoballoon ablation, an emerging technology used for the non pharmacological treatment of paroxysmal atrial fibrillation. A general evaluation of the safety and the reliability of the technique will

  9. Toward a Reconception of Absence in the School Workplace: Teacher Absenteeism as Invention and Social Exchange.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobson, Stephen L.; And Others

    Findings of a study that formulated and tested new ways of thinking about teacher absence are presented in this paper, which is based on the premise that teacher absenteeism is a social invention that must be studied within the context of the work site and understood as a function of the social exchange that occurs therein. Prior research has used…

  10. 76 FR 30322 - Notice of Availability of Government-Owned Inventions; Available for Licensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-25

    ... DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Department of the Navy Notice of Availability of Government-Owned Inventions... below are assigned to the United States Government as represented by the Secretary of the Navy. U.S...'' issued on February 16, 2010; U.S. Patent Number 6,600,694 entitled ``Digital Signal Processor Based...

  11. 78 FR 22529 - Notice of Availability of Government-Owned Inventions; Available for Licensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-16

    ... DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Department of the Navy Notice of Availability of Government-Owned Inventions... below are assigned to the United States Government as represented by the Secretary of the Navy and are...: ANALYTICAL RECONSTRUCTION OF DIGITAL SIGNALS VIA STITCHED POLYNOMIAL FITTING//Navy Case No. 101761: APPARATUS...

  12. Promoting Early Literacy via Practicing Invented Spelling: A Comparison of Different Mediation Routines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levin, Iris; Aram, Dorit

    2013-01-01

    The present study compared the effects of different mediation routines provided to kindergartners from families of low socioeconomic status on the students' invented spelling attempts and on their gains obtained on spelling and other early literacy skills (letter naming, sounds of letters, word segmentation, and word decoding). The effects of the…

  13. 37 CFR 1.488 - Determination of unity of invention before the International Preliminary Examining Authority.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ..., and Copyrights UNITED STATES PATENT AND TRADEMARK OFFICE, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE GENERAL RULES OF... International Searching Authority, or (3) If applicant fails to restrict the claims or pay additional fees... common inventive concept. In such a case the International Preliminary Examining Authority may raise the...

  14. Pinyin Invented Spelling in Mandarin Chinese-Speaking Children With and Without Reading Difficulties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Yi; Liu, Ru-De; McBride, Catherine; Zhang, Dake

    2015-01-01

    This study examined analytical pinyin (a phonological coding system for teaching pronunciation and lexical tones of Chinese characters) skills in 54 Mandarin-speaking fourth graders by using an invented spelling instrument that tapped into syllable awareness, phoneme awareness, lexical tones, and tone sandhi in Chinese. Pinyin invented spelling was significantly correlated with Chinese character recognition and Chinese phonological awareness (i.e., syllable deletion and phoneme deletion). In comparison to good and average readers, poor readers performed significantly worse on the invented spelling task, and a difference was also found between average and good readers. To differentiate readers at different levels, the pinyin invented spelling task, which examined both segmental and suprasegmental elements, was superior to the typical phonological awareness task, which examined segments only. Within this new task, items involving tone sandhi (Chinese language changes in which the tones of words alter according to predetermined rules) were more difficult to manipulate than were those without tone sandhi. The findings suggest that this newly developed task may be optimal for tapping unique phonological and linguistic features in reading of Chinese and examining particular tonal difficulties in struggling Chinese readers. In addition, the results suggest that phonics manipulations within tasks of phonological and tonal awareness can alter their difficulty levels. © Hammill Institute on Disabilities 2014.

  15. Invented Spelling Activities in Small Groups and Early Spelling and Reading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, Margarida Alves; Salvador, Liliana; Albuquerque, Ana; Silva, Cristina

    2016-01-01

    Our aim was to assess the impact of an invented spelling programme conducted in small groups on children's written language acquisition in Portuguese. We expected the experimental group to have better post-test results than the control group in spelling and reading. Participants were 160 preschool-age children who were randomly divided into an…

  16. Group Playing by Ear in Higher Education: The Processes That Support Imitation, Invention and Group Improvisation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varvarigou, Maria

    2017-01-01

    This article explores how group playing by ear (GEP) through imitation of recorded material and opportunities for inventive work during peer interaction was used to support first year undergraduate western classical music students' aural, group creativity and improvisation skills. The framework that emerged from the analysis of the data describes…

  17. 76 FR 37795 - Notice of Availability of Government-Owned Inventions; Available for Licensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-28

    ... DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Department of the Navy Notice of Availability of Government-Owned Inventions....S. Patent No. 7,316,194: Rudders for High-Speed Ships//U.S. Patent No. 7,322,786: Mobile Loader for Transfer of Containers Between Delivery Vehicles and Marine Terminal Cranes//U.S. Patent No. 7,324,016...

  18. Inventing Citizens During World War I: Suffrage Cartoons in "The Woman Citizen."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramsey, E. Michele

    2000-01-01

    Contributes to scholarship advancing the understanding of human communication by examining the rhetorical invention strategies of suffrage rhetoric in the cultural context of World War I. Shows how the political cartoons published in the mainstream Suffrage Movement's "The Woman Citizen" constructed women as strong, competent, and…

  19. How Emotional Stability and Openness to Experience Support Invention: A Study with German Independent Inventors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mieg, Harald A.; Bedenk, Stephan J.; Braun, Anna; Neyer, Franz J.

    2012-01-01

    How does invention depend on personality? Do inventors differ from noninventors? This study investigated the personal factors influencing a sample of independent inventors in Germany (N = 69). Standardized psychological questionnaires were employed to assess the Big Five personality dimensions, willingness to take risks, self-concept, and…

  20. Re-Presenting Subversive Songs: Applying Strategies for Invention and Arrangement to Nontraditional Speech Texts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charlesworth, Dacia

    2010-01-01

    Invention deals with the content of a speech, arrangement involves placing the content in an order that is most strategic, style focuses on selecting linguistic devices, such as metaphor, to make the message more appealing, memory assists the speaker in delivering the message correctly, and delivery ideally enables great reception of the message.…

  1. 77 FR 7095 - Transitional Program for Covered Business Method Patents-Definition of Technological Invention

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-10

    ... 0651-AC75 Transitional Program for Covered Business Method Patents-- Definition of Technological... definition of technological invention that the Board will use in conducting transitional covered business... definition for covered business method patent in proposed Sec. 42.301(a). Additionally, the Office in a...

  2. 77 FR 54647 - Culturally Significant Objects Imported for Exhibition Determinations: “Sicily: Art and Invention...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-05

    ... exhibition ``Sicily: Art and Invention Between Greece and Rome,'' imported from abroad for temporary... exhibit objects at The J. Paul Getty Museum in Los Angeles, California from on or about April 3, 2013, until on or about August 19, 2013; and then at the Cleveland Museum of Art in Cleveland, Ohio from...

  3. Connect the Book. Always Inventing: A Photobiography of Alexander Graham Bell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brodie, Carolyn S.

    2004-01-01

    Cell phones, video phones, voice messaging?one wonders what Alexander Graham Bell would have thought about the many venues today for electronic communication with one another. Bell's March 10, 1876 invention is now 128 years old, but there is no doubt that Bell's "talking machine" changed the world. This article presents a brief review of the…

  4. A Spiritual Contact Zone: Re-Inventing Ritual Space in The Netherlands' Afrika Museum

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kleuskens, E.; School, F.; Thijs, S.; Westendorp, M.F.; Venbrux, H.J.M.

    2010-01-01

    The research project Holy Ground, led by Paul Post and Arie Molendijk, has drawn attention to the process of 're-inventing ritual space in modern Western culture' by examining various places, such as 'rooms of silence and memorial shrines for victims of disease and violence'. Here we want to address

  5. Tracking the internationalization of multinational corporate inventive activity : National and sectoral characteristics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alkemade, Floortje; Heimeriks, Gaston; Schoen, Antoine; Villard, Lionel; Laurens, Patricia

    2015-01-01

    This paper introduces a unique database, the Corporate Invention Board (CIB). The CIB combines patent data from the PATSTAT database with financial data from the ORBIS database about the 2289 companies with the largest R&D investments. We illustrate the database by showing a comprehensive overview

  6. Tracking the internationalization of multinational corporate inventive activity : national and sectoral characteristics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alkemade, F.; Heimeriks, G.; Schoen, A.; Villard, L.; Laurens, P.

    2015-01-01

    This paper introduces a unique database, the Corporate Invention Board (CIB). The CIB combines patent data from the PATSTAT database with financial data from the ORBIS database about the 2289 companies with the largest R&D investments. We illustrate the database by showing a comprehensive overview

  7. Thomas Edison's Inventions in the 1900s and Today: From "New" to You! [Lesson Plan].

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002

    The purpose of this lesson is to familiarize students with life and technology around 1900 so that they can better understand how Thomas Edison and his many inventions influenced both. Without some understanding of Edison's time, it is unclear just how significant an impact Edison had on the world, both then and now. While the incandescent light…

  8. Collective invention during the British Industrial Revolution : the case of the Cornish pumping engine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nuvolari, A.

    2004-01-01

    In this paper we argue that what Robert Allen has termed as collective invention settings (that is settings in which competing firms share technological knowledge) were a crucial source of innovation during the early phases of industrialization. Until now this has been very little considered in the

  9. Collective invention during the British industrial revolution : the case of the Cornish pumping engine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nuvolari, A.

    2004-01-01

    This paper argues that what Robert Allen has termed collective invention settings (that is, settings in which competing firms share technological knowledge) were a crucial source of innovation during the early phases of industrialisation. Until now this has been very little considered in the

  10. 48 CFR 1852.227-85 - Invention reporting and rights-Foreign.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... and complete technical information concerning the invention as is necessary to enable an understanding of the nature and operation thereof. (c) The Contractor hereby grants to the Government of the United... the State in which this contract is to be performed. As to such State, Contractor hereby grants to the...

  11. 28 CFR 345.73 - Procedures for granting awards for suggestions or inventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Procedures for granting awards for suggestions or inventions. 345.73 Section 345.73 Judicial Administration FEDERAL PRISON INDUSTRIES, INC., DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE FEDERAL PRISON INDUSTRIES (FPI) INMATE WORK PROGRAMS Awards Program § 345.73 Procedures...

  12. The needs analysis of learning Inventive Problem Solving for technical and vocational students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sai'en, Shanty; Tze Kiong, Tee; Yunos, Jailani Md; Foong, Lee Ming; Heong, Yee Mei; Mohaffyza Mohamad, Mimi

    2017-08-01

    Malaysian Ministry of Education highlighted in their National Higher Education Strategic plan that higher education’s need to focus adopting 21st century skills in order to increase a graduate’s employability. Current research indicates that most graduate lack of problem solving skills to help them securing the job. Realising the important of this skill hence an alternative way suggested as an option for high institution’s student to solve their problem. This study was undertaken to measure the level of problem solving skills, identify the needs of learning inventive problem solving skills and the needs of developing an Inventive problem solving module. Using a questionnaire, the study sampled 132 students from Faculty of Technical and Vocational Education. Findings indicated that majority of the students fail to define what is an inventive problem and the root cause of a problem. They also unable to state the objectives and goal thus fail to solve the problem. As a result, the students agreed on the developing Inventive Problem Solving Module to assist them.

  13. The energy-related inventions program: Continuing benefits to the inventor community

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Braid, R.B. Jr.; Brown, M.A.; Wilson, C.R.; Franchuk, C.A.; Rizy, C.G.

    1996-10-01

    This report provides information on the economic, energy, and environmental impacts of inventions supported by the Energy-Related Inventions Program (ERIP) - a technology commercialization program jointly operated by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST). It describes the results of the latest in a series of ERIP evaluation projects that have been completed since 1980. The period of interest is 1980 through 1994. The evaluation is based on data collected in 1995 through mail and telephone surveys of 211 program participants, and historical data collected during previous evaluations for an additional 253 participants. As of September 1993, a total of 609 inventions had been recommended to DOE by NIST, which screens all submitted inventions for technical merit, potential for commercial success, and potential energy impact. By the end of 1994, at least 144 (or 24%) of these inventions had entered the market, generating total cumulative sales of $961 million (in 19944). It is estimated that in 1994 ERIP inventors earned royalties of $2.3 million, and over the lifetime of the program, royalties total $28.2 million. With $47.5 million in grants awarded from 1975 through 1994 and $124 million in program appropriations over the same period, ERIP has generated a 20:1 return in terms of sales values to grants, and an 8:1 return in sales versus program appropriations. Further, it is estimated that at least 757 job-years of employment were supported by ERIP technologies in 1994, and that this resulted in a return of approximately $3.4 million in individual income taxes to the U.S. Treasury. Finally, approximately $334 million of energy expenditures were saved in 1994 as a result of the commercial success of five ERIP projects. These energy savings resulted in reduced emissions of 2.1 million metric tons of carbon in 1994 alone.

  14. An RFID-Based Smart Structure for the Supply Chain: Resilient Scanning Proofs and Ownership Transfer with Positive Secrecy Capacity Channels †

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortiz, Andrés

    2017-01-01

    The National Strategy for Global Supply Chain Security published in 2012 by the White House identifies two primary goals for strengthening global supply chains: first, to promote the efficient and secure movement of goods, and second to foster a resilient supply chain. The Internet of Things (IoT), and in particular Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) technology, can be used to realize these goals. For product identification, tracking and real-time awareness, RFID tags are attached to goods. As tagged goods move along the supply chain from the suppliers to the manufacturers, and then on to the retailers until eventually they reach the customers, two major security challenges can be identified: (I) to protect the shipment of goods that are controlled by potentially untrusted carriers; and (II) to secure the transfer of ownership at each stage of the chain. For the former, grouping proofs in which the tags of the scanned goods generate a proof of “simulatenous” presence can be employed, while for the latter, ownership transfer protocols (OTP) are used. This paper describes enhanced security solutions for both challenges. We first extend earlier work on grouping proofs and group codes to capture resilient group scanning with untrusted readers; then, we describe a modified version of a recently published OTP based on channels with positive secrecy capacity adapted to be implemented on common RFID systems in the supply chain. The proposed solutions take into account the limitations of low cost tags employed in the supply chain, which are only required to generate pseudorandom numbers and compute one-way hash functions. PMID:28677637

  15. An RFID-Based Smart Structure for the Supply Chain: Resilient Scanning Proofs and Ownership Transfer with Positive Secrecy Capacity Channels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mike Burmester

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The National Strategy for Global Supply Chain Security published in 2012 by the White House identifies two primary goals for strengthening global supply chains: first, to promote the efficient and secure movement of goods, and second to foster a resilient supply chain. The Internet of Things (IoT, and in particular Radio Frequency Identification (RFID technology, can be used to realize these goals. For product identification, tracking and real-time awareness, RFID tags are attached to goods. As tagged goods move along the supply chain from the suppliers to the manufacturers, and then on to the retailers until eventually they reach the customers, two major security challenges can be identified: (I to protect the shipment of goods that are controlled by potentially untrusted carriers; and (II to secure the transfer of ownership at each stage of the chain. For the former, grouping proofs in which the tags of the scanned goods generate a proof of “simulatenous” presence can be employed, while for the latter, ownership transfer protocols (OTP are used. This paper describes enhanced security solutions for both challenges. We first extend earlier work on grouping proofs and group codes to capture resilient group scanning with untrusted readers; then, we describe a modified version of a recently published OTP based on channels with positive secrecy capacity adapted to be implemented on common RFID systems in the supply chain. The proposed solutions take into account the limitations of low cost tags employed in the supply chain, which are only required to generate pseudorandom numbers and compute one-way hash functions.

  16. An RFID-Based Smart Structure for the Supply Chain: Resilient Scanning Proofs and Ownership Transfer with Positive Secrecy Capacity Channels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burmester, Mike; Munilla, Jorge; Ortiz, Andrés; Caballero-Gil, Pino

    2017-07-04

    The National Strategy for Global Supply Chain Security published in 2012 by the White House identifies two primary goals for strengthening global supply chains: first, to promote the efficient and secure movement of goods, and second to foster a resilient supply chain. The Internet of Things (IoT), and in particular Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) technology, can be used to realize these goals. For product identification, tracking and real-time awareness, RFID tags are attached to goods. As tagged goods move along the supply chain from the suppliers to the manufacturers, and then on to the retailers until eventually they reach the customers, two major security challenges can be identified: (I) to protect the shipment of goods that are controlled by potentially untrusted carriers; and (II) to secure the transfer of ownership at each stage of the chain. For the former, grouping proofs in which the tags of the scanned goods generate a proof of "simulatenous" presence can be employed, while for the latter, ownership transfer protocols (OTP) are used. This paper describes enhanced security solutions for both challenges. We first extend earlier work on grouping proofs and group codes to capture resilient group scanning with untrusted readers; then, we describe a modified version of a recently published OTP based on channels with positive secrecy capacity adapted to be implemented on common RFID systems in the supply chain. The proposed solutions take into account the limitations of low cost tags employed in the supply chain, which are only required to generate pseudorandom numbers and compute one-way hash functions.

  17. 76 FR 13135 - Intent To Grant an Exclusive License for a U.S. Government-Owned Invention

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-10

    ... DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Department of the Army Intent To Grant an Exclusive License for a U.S. Government-Owned Invention AGENCY: Department of the Army, DoD. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: In accordance with... intent to grant an exclusive, revocable license for the invention claimed in the patent application PCT...

  18. Invention and Transfer of Climate Change Mitigation Technologies on a Global Scale: A Study Drawing on Patent Data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dechezlepretre, A.; Glachant, M.; Hascic, I.; Johnstone, N.; Meniere, Y.

    2010-01-01

    This paper uses the EPO/OECD World Patent Statistical Database (PATSTAT) to provide a quantitative description of the geographic distribution of inventions in thirteen climate mitigation technologies since 1978 and their international diffusion on a global scale. Statistics suggest that innovation has mostly been driven by energy prices until 1990. Since then, environmental policies, and climate policies more recently, have accelerated the pace of innovation. Innovation is highly concentrated in three countries - Japan, Germany and the USA - which account for 60% of total innovations. Surprisingly, the innovation performance of emerging economies is far from being negligible as China and South Korea together represent about 15% of total inventions. However, they export much less inventions than industrialized countries, suggesting their inventions have less value. More generally, international transfers mostly occur between developed countries (73% of exported inventions). Exports from developed countries to emerging economies are still limited (22%) but are growing rapidly, especially to China. (authors)

  19. Glucemia, insulinemia y secreción de insulina en ratas prepúberes hiperandrogenizadas e hiperestrogenizadas Glycemia, insulinemia and insulin secretion in prepubescent rats receiving high doses of androgens and strogens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aimée Álvarez Álvarez

    2001-04-01

    Full Text Available Se estudió el efecto de una sobredosis de enantato de testosterona y de benzoato de estradiol en ratas machos prepúberes, sobre el comportamiento de la glucemia y la insulinemia in vivo, durante una prueba de tolerancia a la glucosa. Adicionalmente se exploró, in vitro, la capacidad de secreción de insulina estimulada por glucosa de los islotes de Langerhans de estas ratas hiperandrogenizadas e hiperestrogenizadas. Se encontró que la hiperandrogenización se acompañaba de un deterioro de la sensibilidad a la insulina, con hiperinsulinemia, que no se corresponde con un aumento de la capacidad de secreción de insulina de los islotes de Langerhans. Sin embargo, se comprobó que la hiperestrogenización no indujo cambios en los perfiles de glucemia, ni de insulinemia, ni en la capacidad de secreción de insulina de los islotes de Langerhans de este grupo de ratas hiperestrogenizadas.The effect of an overdose of testosterone heptanoate and estradiol in male prepubescent rats on the behavior of glycemia and insulinemia was studied in vivo during a glucose tolerance test. The capacity of insulin secretion stimulated by glucose from the islets of Langerhans of these rats that were administered a high dose of androgens and estrogens was explored in vitro. It was found that the high level of circulating androgens was accompanied by a deterioration of sensitivity to insulin with hyperinsulinemia that does not correspond to an increase of the insulin secreting capacity of the islets of Langerhans. However, it was demonstrated that the high level of circulating estrogens did not produce changes either in the glycemia and insulinemia profiles or in the insulin secreting capacity of the islets of Langerhans in this group of rats that received an elevated dose of estrogens.

  20. Inventing Memories

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandvik, Kjetil; Christensen, Dorthe Refslund

    .0 marks a social turn in digitally mediated communication and culture, placing the media user in the role as co-producer, innovator and participant which accentuates the impact of media on today's society and culture. The term covers a variety of interactive systems which among other things facilitates...... media have on life practices such as grieving and morning becomes evident when it comes to a website like mindet.dk and that parallels may be drawn to other mediatized ritualistic practices such as the aesthetical staging of Danish children's burial sites. In the 1990'ies ‘new media' was seen...... sphere with a totally different set of social rules and matrices but displays the same wide range of performative, social and communicative aspects as do the offline world. That being said, at the same time, performing your grief online, apparently offers you a media and a technology that you...

  1. Inventing Racism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuriff, G. E.

    2002-01-01

    Discusses the form racism takes in the United States, highlighting three types of racism that social scientists and scholars find to be pervasive today (modern racism, aversive racism, and implicit stereotypes). All three depart from traditional understandings of racism by being found not in overt actions and expressions but in political opinion,…

  2. Clonación y caracterización de CaSEC14 : un gen inmplicado en la ruta de secreción de proteínas en "Candida albicans"

    OpenAIRE

    Monteoliva Díaz, Lucía

    1997-01-01

    Uno de los objetivos fundamentales de nuestro grupo de investigación es la identificación de distintas funciones celulares de la célula fúngica que puedan utilizarse en el desarrollo de nuevos fármacos antifungicos. En este trabajo se ha clonado y caracterizado el gen casec14 de la levadura patógena oportunista candida albicans, implicado en la ruta de secreción de proteínas. Dicho gen codifica una proteína, casec14p, que presenta una secuencia con elevada homologa (67%) con otras proteínas s...

  3. The industrial application requirement for biotech inventions in light of recent EPO & UK case law:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Minssen, Timo; Nilsson, David

    2012-01-01

    In this study we illuminate and discuss the most recent developments in respect of the interpretation of the “industrial application” requirement with respect to gene and protein related inventions in Europe. The analysis will focus on the relevant provisions of the EPC and decisional practice from...... the European Patent Organisation (“EPO”), particularly decisions from the Technical Board of Appeal 3.3.08 (the “Board”). To get a glimpse of the national dimension, we will also look at the first patent judgment from the "new" UK Supreme Court, i.e. the groundbreaking decision in HGS v Eli Lilly, In the final...... discussion, we will elaborate on two issues in particular; (i) determine which types of qualities an invention should have in order to meet the industrial application requirement in the first place; and (ii) what type of evidence an applicant is expected to present in respect of (potential) applications...

  4. Ormiaochracea as a Model Organism in Sound Localization Experiments and in Inventing Hearing Aids.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    - -

    1998-09-01

    Full Text Available Hearing aid prescription for patients suffering hearing loss has always been one of the main concerns of the audiologists. Thanks to technology that has provided Hearing aids with digital and computerized systems which has improved the quality of sound heard by hearing aids. Though we can learn from nature in inventing such instruments as in the current article that has been channeled to a kind of fruit fly. Ormiaochracea is a small yellow nocturnal fly, a parasitoid of crickets. It is notable because of its exceptionally acute directional hearing. In the current article we will discuss how it has become a model organism in sound localization experiments and in inventing hearing aids.

  5. The Fictional Black Blues Figure: Blues Music and the Art of Narrative Self-Invention

    OpenAIRE

    Mack, Kimberly

    2015-01-01

    The Fictional Black Blues Figure: Blues Music and the Art of Narrative Self-Invention, Kimberly MackMy dissertation examines representations of black American blues musicians in contemporary American fiction, drama, and popular music, and it argues that blues music can be examined as a narrative art rooted in the tradition of fictionalized autobiographical self-fashioning. I contend that the contemporary, multi-racial, literary and musical characters in my project who participate in so-called...

  6. Inventing and naming America:  Place and Place Names in Vladimir Nabokov’s Lolita

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monica Manolescu-Oancea

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available In the afterword to Lolita, Nabokov claimed that in this book he had to invent both Lolita and America after having invented Europe in his previous fiction. This paper focuses precisely on the various ways in which Nabokov “invented” America in his best-known novel. This invention is first of all the result of the author’s evolving stance on the complexity of what he called “average ‘reality’” in his works. Through a survey of Nabokov’s statements on the choice and role of place in the forewords to his Russian works and in his critical texts, I show that Lolita is indeed considered by Nabokov to be a “recreation” of American reality, to a much greater extent than his Russian works had been recreations of a given milieu. I take the metaphor of the “crazy quilt” mentioned in Lolita to suggest complexity, chromatic exuberance, hybridity. The invention of America is also the result of a process of naming. Place names will be examined, not only those which make up Quilty’s “cryptogrammic paperchase”, but also Humbert’s choice of place names. The problem of referentiality is discussed and the way recent criticism has dealt with it. Finally, the interplay between one and many is emphasized, the way in which the diversity of the “crazy quilt” is counterbalanced by the uniqueness of the mastermind having produced it. The American motto “From many make one” could be reinterpreted as “From one make many”.

  7. "Inventing Hysteria" An Investigation on How Social Constructivism Uses Technology to Define Reality

    OpenAIRE

    Stadler, Doris

    2016-01-01

    In my paper I want to focus on the social constructivists and their approach of using technology to define (constructed) reality. Based on this, constructivists argue that technology can be a means to define social roles. Furthermore, I want to analyze this theory on the practical example of the photographs of women in different phases of hysteria, based on Georges Didi-Huberman’s book Invention of Hysteria (1982)

  8. Re-Inventing Teachers' Competences at Early Childhood Education in Building Characters Needed for Global Competition

    OpenAIRE

    Machmud, Karmila

    2015-01-01

    The goal of this paper is to elaborate and to re-invent the competencies needed by early childhood education teachers. Building children’s character from an early age is significant, but the main problem that is often overlooked is the contribution of Early Childhood Education teachers. Children’s character formation is largely determined by the quality of early childhood teachers. So if we want to instill character values required by our nations, the improvement of the quality of early child...

  9. Invented Spelling, Word Stress, and Syllable Awareness in Relation to Reading Difficulties in Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehta, Sheena; Ding, Yi; Ness, Molly; Chen, Eric C

    2018-06-01

    The study assessed the clinical utility of an invented spelling tool and determined whether invented spelling with linguistic manipulation at segmental and supra-segmental levels can be used to better identify reading difficulties. We conducted linguistic manipulation by using real and nonreal words, incorporating word stress, alternating the order of consonants and vowels, and alternating the number of syllables. We recruited 60 third-grade students, of which half were typical readers and half were poor readers. The invented spelling task consistently differentiated those with reading difficulties from typical readers. It explained unique variance in conventional spelling, but not in word reading. Word stress explained unique variance in both word reading and conventional spelling, highlighting the importance of addressing phonological awareness at the supra-segmental level. Poor readers had poorer performance when spelling both real and nonreal words and demonstrated substantial difficulty in detecting word stress. Poor readers struggled with spelling words with double consonants at the beginning and ending of words, and performed worse on spelling two- and three-syllable words than typical readers. Practical implications for early identification and instruction are discussed.

  10. The theory of inventive problem solving integrated to the cleaner production: theoretical approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flávio Issao Kubota

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Efforts towards to reduction of environmental impact by enterprises are a solving problem process, which often need inventive solutions that generate environmental, technical and economic benefits. Hence, this research aimed to verify, through literature, and discuss the Theory of Inventive Problem Solving (TRIZ integration to cleaner production (CP strategies, in order to structure a new methodology for inventive solutions focused on reduction of effluents, waste and emissions. To perform this study, we proceeded a qualitative and descriptive research, with documentary data collection strategy. The results show predominance of CP level 1 researches, with greater focus on product improvement, a smaller quantity of process modification studies (level 1 and internal recycling (level 2, and no evidence of TRIZ utilization was obtained on level 3 (external recycling and biogenic cycles. The proposed integration is promising, since both methodologies aim ideal situation and problems’ reduction. At the end, opportunities were detected for application of TRIZ in production processes, by means of functional analysis and Ideal Final Result (IFR, being possible to direct teams towards optimization of technical systems.

  11. The myth of DSM's invention of new categories of disorder: Houts's diagnostic discontinuity thesis disconfirmed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wakefield, J C

    2001-05-01

    Houts (2001) argues that increases in DSM diagnostic categories are due to the invention of new disorders that are discontinuous with old conceptions of disorder and would not have been previously diagnosed. He maintains that DSM category increases are not comparable in nature to ICD category increases, which are mainly refinements of recognized disorders. I survey categories of disorder introduced after DSM-II and assess whether they are discontinuous with old concepts and categories of disorder. Candidate categories are identified from: Houts and Follette (1998), Mentalism, mechanisms, and medical analogues: Reply to Wakefield. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology; Kutchins and Kirk (1997) Making us crazy: DSM: The psychiatric bible and the creation of mental disorders. New York: Free Press; and my own list. The result is that virtually none of the candidate categories are invented, discontinuous categories. In almost every case, the newly labeled conditions were considered disorders at the time of DSM-II and would have been diagnosed under DSM-II categories. I also reexamine DSM-IV sleep disorder categories, which Houts claims are discontinuous with past diagnostic conceptions. The result is that all DSM-IV sleep disorders were recognized as disorders at the time of DSM-II, and most were recognized as mental disorders. I conclude that DSM category increases are comparable in nature to ICD category increases, and that the invention-of-disorder account cannot explain the vast majority of such increases.

  12. IMPROVING PATENT PROTECTION OF INVENTIVE ACTIVITY IN THE CONTEXT OF EU LEGISLATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nataliya Philyk

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: clarify legal nature of relations emerging in connection with registration of patent law objects. In this article the authors research special features of legal regulation of inventive activity. In particular, they consider several issues of patenting the patent law objects and clarify legal nature of relations arose during registration of the rights to the patent law objects. Methods: formal legal and case-study methods together with inductive reasoning, and comparison were used to analyse the legislation in the area of jurisdiction inventive activity Results: during the research the authors focus their attention to the drawbacks of the effective legislation and form the main directions of the effective legislation improvement in accordance with international law in the context of the patent law objects protection. Special attention is devoted to analysis of the main threats of the patent law violations and ways to overcome them. Conclusions: the results confirming improving the efficiency of the system of intellectual property protection through institutional changes and changes in the legal regulation of inventive activity and results will have a positive impact on the reform of the system of intellectual property protection in Ukraine.

  13. Comparative Study of the Role of Institutions in Shaping Inventive Activity in Mid-Range Emerging Economies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ervits Irina

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this paper is to investigate the effects of institutions on national rates of inventive activity. Invention, part of the innovation process, is acknowledged as one of the driving forces behind economic growth, and patent statistics are frequently used as a measurable indicator of inventive output. Thus this paper explores the relationship between national patent statistics and measures of institutional quality. As a result of our research, the effect of the “threshold of inventive activity” was observed. This effect demonstrates that when countries reach a certain level of institutional development and attain a general institutional climate conducive to inventive activity, the number of patent applications begins to sharply increase. The paper contributes to the body of evidence that confirms that a combination of fundamental institutions like the rule of law or freedom of expression, which are not necessarily aimed at boosting innovation, create an overall environment conducive to patenting. We demonstrate that “mid-range emerging economies”,2 including those in Central and Eastern Europe3 (CEE, where the quality of institutions is lagging behind more developed counterparts and/or their influence is weak or sporadic, have not yet reached the threshold of inventive activity yet. However, those CEE countries that have acceded to the European Union first have made visible progress with respect to institutional quality and invention.

  14. The inventions in the area of nanotechnologies and nanomaterials. Part 1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VLASOV Vladimir Alexeevich

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The inventions in the area of nanotechnologies and nanomaterials produce a profound effect in construction, housing and communal services and adjacent economic fields. The invention «Raw material mixture for high strength fiber concrete (RU 2569140» refers to the industry of building materials and can be used for production of concrete units in civil, industrial and road construction including ones with the use of nanotechnologies. The technical result of the invention is that it increases bending and compressive strength, corrosion resistance of fiber concrete, decreases the consumption of silica-containing component introduced into raw material mixture to increase the corrosion resistance of the basalt fiber. The invention «The device to form nanostructured shape memory coatings on the surface of the hollow details (RU 2569871» refers to engineering and metallurgy. The device contains technological unit for ion purification of the surface of the treated detail by creating glow discharge in vacuum chamber. The source of metal ion implantation is installed at the frame of vacuum chamber and is connected with control block. On the lid of vacuum chamber there is a device round the upper end of the tube with the detail. The device is for surface plastic deformation of the applied coating to obtain nanostructured shape memory layer. All that increases strength characteristics, coating reliability as well as convertible deformation and wear resistance. The specialists may be also interested in the following nanotechnological inventions: the method to produce complex nanodispersed additive for high strength concrete (RU 2563264; the method to produce graphene nanocomposite and tungsten carbide (RU 2570691; the method of ultrasound final polishing for details from constructional and tool steels and the equipment for its implementation (RU 2530678; the method to produce nanodispersed powders and the equipment for its implementation (RU 2533580; the

  15. Atomic Energy Commission Act, 2000 (Act 588)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-01-01

    Act 588 of the Republic of Ghana entitled, Atomic Energy Commission Act, 2000, amends and consolidates the Atomic Energy Commission Act, 204 of 1963 relating to the establishment of the Atomic Energy Commission. Act 588 makes provision for the Ghana Atomic Energy Commission to establish more institutes for the purpose of research in furtherance of its functions and also promote the commercialization of its research and development results. (E.A.A.)

  16. The Physical Burdens of Secrecy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slepian, Michael L.; Masicampo, E. J.; Toosi, Negin R.; Ambady, Nalini

    2012-01-01

    The present work examined whether secrets are experienced as physical burdens, thereby influencing perception and action. Four studies examined the behavior of people who harbored important secrets, such as secrets concerning infidelity and sexual orientation. People who recalled, were preoccupied with, or suppressed an important secret estimated…

  17. Pinyin and English Invented Spelling in Chinese-Speaking Students Who Speak English as a Second Language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Yi; Liu, Ru-De; McBride, Catherine A; Fan, Chung-Hau; Xu, Le; Wang, Jia

    2018-05-07

    This study examined pinyin (the official phonetic system that transcribes the lexical tones and pronunciation of Chinese characters) invented spelling and English invented spelling in 72 Mandarin-speaking 6th graders who learned English as their second language. The pinyin invented spelling task measured segmental-level awareness including syllable and phoneme awareness, and suprasegmental-level awareness including lexical tones and tone sandhi in Chinese Mandarin. The English invented spelling task manipulated segmental-level awareness including syllable awareness and phoneme awareness, and suprasegmental-level awareness including word stress. This pinyin task outperformed a traditional phonological awareness task that only measured segmental-level awareness and may have optimal utility to measure unique phonological and linguistic features in Chinese reading. The pinyin invented spelling uniquely explained variance in Chinese conventional spelling and word reading in both languages. The English invented spelling uniquely explained variance in conventional spelling and word reading in both languages. Our findings appear to support the role of phonological activation in Chinese reading. Our experimental linguistic manipulations altered the phonological awareness item difficulties.

  18. Inventions in the nanotechnological area considerably increase wear- and chemical resistance of construction products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VLASOV Vladimir Alexeevich

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The invention «Reinforced flaked element made of natural or conglomerate stone and its multilayer protective coating (RU 2520193» is referred to construction materials. Reinforced flaked element made of natural or conglomerate stone consists of: natural or conglomerate materials as the basis; multilayer coating which protects the mentioned basis from chemical substances and wearing mechanical factors influencing on this element where the multilayer coating includes at least three layers formed by one or many film-forming compositions which comprise top layer with scratch-resistant nanoparticles and encircled with polyester, melamine, phenolic, acryl or epoxy resin (or any combination of them which provides protection against scratches; damper intermediate layer made of epoxy and/or acryl resin which provides impact resistant; lower layer adjoining to the basis and containing particles of Al2O3 or silicon carbide plus acryl polymer and providing resistance to abrasive wear. Technical result is increased wear- and chemical resistance of flaked elements from natural or conglomerate materials. The invention «Fine organic suspension of carbon metal-containing nanostructures and the method to produce it (RU 2515858» is referred to the area of physical and colloid chemistry and can be used to obtain polymer compositions. Fine organic suspension of carbon metal-containing nanostructures is produced by interaction between nanostructures and polyethylenepolyamine. At first the powder of carbon metalcontaining nanostructures (which are nanoparticles of 3d-metal such as copper, cobalt, nickel stabilized in carbon nanostructures is mechanically milled, then it is mechanically ground with polyethylenepolyamine introduced portionally unless and until the content of nanostructures is less 1 g/ml. The invention results in decreased power inputs as the obtained fine organic suspension of carbon and metal-containing nanostructures is able to recover due to

  19. The Effects of Instruction of Creative Invention on Students' Situational Interest in Physics Lesson

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, Tim

    There are a few empirical studies (Palmer, 2008; Dohn, 2010) or intervention programs (Hidi & Harackiewicz, 2000) about students' situational interest in physics lessons, although the declining interest in physics among students has been well documented in the research literature (Gardner, 1998 ; International Bureau for Education, 2001; European Commission, 2007; Oon & Subramaniam, 2011). Even in the research area of science education, yet little is known about how to trigger students' catching and holding situational interest in a physics lesson. In this study, five intervention lessons of creative invention were developed. Each lesson consists of three parts including Eberle's (1971, 1972) SCAMPER technique on the creative thinking, knowledge and concepts of physics curriculum, hands-on activities related to both SCAMPER technique and physics concepts. Two surveys were developed and used to measure the situational interest and individual interest of students in physics lessons. Qualitative conversational interviews were used to interpret the sources of situational interest of students in physics lessons. Results in this study indicate that new inventive products and television programs or films related to SCAMPER can trigger the catching interest in physics lessons. Meaningful hands-on activities related to both SCAMPER technique and physics concepts can trigger the holding interest in physics lessons. There is no significant difference in situational interest among students with different academic abilities except in the topic related to electronic components. The students with lower academic ability have greater situational interest than the students with higher academic ability in learning the topic related to electronic components. There is no significant difference in situational interest between boys and girls except in the topic related to revolving paper lantern. Girls have higher situational interest than boys in learning the topic related to revolving

  20. Al Gore did Not Invent the Internet, Hans Christian Oersted did in 1820

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, James; Anand, Aman; Dahiya, Jai

    2009-04-01

    In this talk it will be shown how the simple process of a current in a wire producing ``action at a distance'' in a compass can lead to development of the telegraph, telephone, wireless communication and finally to the internet. This discovery led to the invention of a motor and an electric generator. Such simple discoveries often have profound effects on what we are able to do. A discussion of how activities based on this discovery are being used in the Regional Collaborative for Excellence in Science Teaching UNT to engage students and teachers in science activities. Hand out materials will be provided to the audience on these activities.

  1. Invention of a tunable damper for use with an acoustic waveguide in hostile environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rogers, S.C.

    1984-06-01

    A damper was invented to remove undesirable stress pulses from an acoustic waveguide. Designed to be tunable, the damper was constructed to withstand a corrosive or otherwise hostile environment. It serves to simplify the design and enhance the performance of a water-level measurement system, of which the damper and acoustic waveguide are integral parts. An experimental damper was constructed and applied to an existing level probe and measurement system. The resulting damper, properly tuned, causes acoustic stress pulses that pass into it along the waveguide to be attenuated

  2. Measuring originality: common patterns of invention in research and technology organizations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tang, D.L.; Wiseman, E.; Keating, T.; Archambeault, J.

    2016-07-01

    The National Research Council of Canada (NRC) co-chairs an international working group on performance benchmarking and impact assessment of Research and Technology Organizations (RTO). The Knowledge Management branch of the NRC conducted the patent analysis portion of the benchmarking study. In this paper, we present a Weighted Originality index that can more accurately measure the spread of technological combinations in terms of hierarchical patent classifications. Using this patent indicator, we revealed a common pattern of distribution of invention originality in RTOs. Our work contributes to the methodological advancement of patent measures for the scientometric community. (Author)

  3. Impact of the energy-related inventions program on the national economy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, M.A.; Morell, J.A.; Snell, S.A.; Kerley, C.R.

    1987-01-01

    The market entry, sales, and employment data presented in this paper suggest that ERIP has been able to efficiently produce positive economic impacts. It is likely that the documented successes of ERIP's inventors will be even greater as their projects mature and more current commercialization information is collected. Survey data presented elsewhere indicate that the ERIP financial support, endorsement, encouragement, and commercialization education are viewed by participants as the most important benefits of the program (Brown, Morell, Snell, Soderstrom, and Friggle, 1987). Other federal, state, and local programs might profit substantially from modelling the composition and delivery of their assistance after the Energy-Related Inventions Program.

  4. Um método de inventário do ciclo de processo de manufatura

    OpenAIRE

    Rossato, Ivete de Fatima

    2002-01-01

    Tese (doutorado) - Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, Centro Tecnológico. Programa de Pós-Graduação em Engenharia de Produção. A crescente preocupação com os impactos ambientais gerados pelo fornecimento de bens e serviços tem despertado na sociedade um interesse pelo desenvolvimento de novas ferramentas e métodos que auxiliem na compreensão, controle e redução desses impactos. Este trabalho apresenta uma proposta de um método para realizar o inventário do ciclo de vida de um proces...

  5. Inventering av Suldalslågen. Produksjonspotensial for sjøvandrende laksefisk

    OpenAIRE

    Foldvik, Anders; Pettersen, Oskar

    2017-01-01

    Foldvik, A. & Pettersen, O. 2017. Inventering av Suldalslågen. Produksjonspotensial for sjøvandrende laksefisk. - NINA Kortrapport 75, 18 s. Reguleringen av Suldalslågen til kraftproduksjon har hatt negative effekter for habitat for laksefisk, blant annet i form av sedimentering og begroing av substratet. Disse prosessene har blitt forsøkt motvirket ved å ha en serie med spyleflommer på over 200 m3/s om høsten. På oppdrag fra Statkraft inverterte NINA oppvekst- og gyteforhold for laks i Su...

  6. Electronic inventions and discoveries electronics from its earliest beginnings to the present day

    CERN Document Server

    Dummer, G W A

    1983-01-01

    Electronic Inventions and Discoveries: Electronics from Its Earliest Beginnings to the Present Day provides a summary of the development of the whole field of electronics. Organized into 13 chapters, the book covers and reviews the history of electronics as a whole and its aspects. The opening chapter covers the beginnings of electronics, while the next chapter discusses the development of components, transistors, and integrated circuits. The third chapter tackles the expansion of electronics and its effects on industry. The succeeding chapters discuss the history of the aspects of electronics

  7. Nuclear Regulatory Authority Act, 2015 (Act 895)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2015-04-01

    An Act to establish a Nuclear Regulatory Authority in Ghana. This Act provides for the regulation and management of activities and practices for the peaceful use of nuclear material or energy, and to provide for the protection of persons and the environment against the harmful effects of radiation; and to ensure the effective implementation of the country’s international obligations and for related matters. This Act replaced the Radiation Protection Instrument, of 1993 (LI 1559).

  8. Inventário masculino dos esquemas de gênero do autoconceito (IMEGA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Giavoni

    Full Text Available O propósito deste artigo foi elaborar e validar o Inventário Masculino dos Esquemas de Gênero do Autoconceito (IMEGA. Baseado nas estruturas fatoriais das escalas masculina e feminina do Inventário dos Esquemas de Gênero do Autoconceito (IEGA, este instrumento avalia os esquemas masculino e feminino do autoconceito dos homens. A amostra utilizada foi composta por estudantes universitários do sexo masculino. Para a validade de construto do IMEGA, foram realizadas análises fatoriais (Principal Axis Factoring - PAF, com rotações oblíquas e ortogonais, para ambas as escalas e análise da consistência interna dos fatores (alfa de Cronbach. Os resultados demonstram que ambas as escalas são compostas por estruturas multifatoriais que se assemelham às estruturas fatoriais do IEGA. Devidamente validado, o IMEGA pode ser utilizado para avaliar os esquemas masculino e feminino do autoconceito de indivíduos do sexo masculino.

  9. The invention of graphene electronics and the physics of epitaxial graphene on silicon carbide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Heer, Walt A

    2012-01-01

    Graphene electronics was officially invented at the Georgia Institute of Technology in 2003 after experimental and theoretical research on graphene properties starting from 2001. This paper focuses on the motivation and events leading to the invention of graphene electronics, as well as on recent developments. Graphene electronics was originally conceived as a new electronics paradigm to incorporate the room-temperature ballistic and coherent properties of carbon nanotubes in a patternable electronic material. Graphene on silicon carbide was chosen as the most suitable material. Other electronics schemes, involving transferred (exfoliated and chemical vapor deposition-produced) graphitic materials, that operate in the diffusive regime may not be competitive with standard methods and may therefore not significantly impact electronics. In recent years, epitaxial graphene has improved to the point where graphene electronics according to the original concept appears to be within reach. Beyond electronics, epitaxial graphene research has led to important developments in graphene physics in general and has become a leading platform for graphene science as well.

  10. EkSTEMiT Learning Module and Inculcation of Inventive Thinking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norhaslinda Abdul Samad

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The young generation of today must be prepared with the knowledge and skills necessary to be able to compete globally thus boosting economic growth and prosperity. Therefore, students should not only be equipped with knowledge but they are in need of the “21st century skills”, which is the top priority and one of the main education agenda goals today. As one of the domains in the 21st century skills, inventive thinking includes elements of flexibility, self-regulation, curiosity, creativity, risk taking, higher order thinking and reasoning. In order to inculcate inventive thinking for students, the EkSTEMiT Learning Module was developed for the topic Electrochemistry; one of the most difficult topics to learn among students. EkSTEMiT Learning Module was developed based on the STEM (Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics integrated model. Thus, this paper will discuss the conceptual framework underlying the development of EkSTEMiT Learning Module with descriptions of learning activities designed for Electrochemistry.

  11. Unstimulated salivary flow rate, pH and buffer capacity of saliva in healthy volunteers Débito basal, pH y capacidad tampón de la secreción salivar en sujetos sanos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Fenoll-Palomares

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: to assess the salivary flow rate, pH, and buffer capacity of healthy volunteers, and their relationships with age, gender, obesity, smoking, and alcohol consumption, and to establish the lower-end value of normal salivary flow (oligosialia. Methods: a prospective study was conducted in 159 healthy volunteers (age > 18 years, absence of medical conditions that could decrease salivary flow. Unstimulated whole saliva was collected during ten minutes, and salivary flow rate (ml/min, pH, and bicarbonate concentration (mmol/l were measured using a Radiometer ABL 520. The 5 percentile of salivary flow rate and bicarbonate concentration was considered the lower limit of normality. Results: median salivary flow rate was 0.48 ml/min (range: 0.1-2 ml/min. Age younger than 44 years was associated with higher flow rates (OR 2.10. Compared with women, men presented a higher flow rate (OR 3.19 and buffer capacity (OR 2.81. Bicarbonate concentration correlated with salivary flow rate. The lower-end values of normal flow rate and bicarbonate concentration were 0.15 ml/min and 1.800 mmol/l, respectively. The presence of obesity, smoking, and alcohol consumption did not influence salivary parameters. Conclusions: in healthy volunteers, salivary flow rate depends on age and gender, and correlates with buffer capacity. Obesity, smoking, and alcohol use do not influence salivary secretion.Objetivos: conocer el débito, pH y capacidad tampón de la saliva en sujetos sanos y sus relaciones con edad, sexo, obesidad y hábitos tabáquico y alcohólico, así como establecer la definición de hiposialia. Métodos: estudio observacional prospectivo en 159 voluntarios sanos (> 18 años, sin factores conocidos que disminuyan la secreción salivar. Se ha recogido la saliva total, sin estímulo, durante 10 minutos, determinando su débito (ml/min, pH y capacidad tampón (concentración de bicarbonato en mmol/l mediante autoanalizador Radiometer ABL 520. Se han

  12. Acting and Teacher Education: Being Model for Identity Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kemal Sinan Özmen

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available This study follows three pre-service teachers during three academic semesters in which they took an acting course for teachers and participated in practicum with a special focus on rehearsing and developing their teacher identities. In order to create the necessary context for them, an acting course for pre-service teacher education was designed in parallel with a model which is based on an influential acting theory. This model, namely the BEING (Believe, Experiment, Invent, Navigate, Generate, was also designed by the researcher. The incentive behind designing a model grounded on acting literature was that the relevant literature does not provide trainers with a universal model which can be referred as a manual for running and monitoring acting courses for teachers. In this case study, this model was also tested in terms of its applicability and functionality in practice. Based on analyses of audio taped interviews, session journals and reflections, the five stages of the BEING Model was found to be highly applicable and functional in terms of reflecting the natural development process of teacher identity development. Pre-service teachers displayed a significant development in communication skills and professional identities. Therefore, the BEING model provides a perspective and a philosophy of benefiting from acting literature for teacher educators with little or no knowledge on acting and theatre

  13. Acting and Teacher Education: Being Model for Identity Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kemal Sinan Özmen

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available This study follows three pre-service teachers during three academic semesters in which they took an acting course for teachers and participated in practicum with a special focus on rehearsing and developing their teacher identities. In order to create the necessary context for them, an acting course for pre-service teacher education was designed in parallel with a model which is based on an influential acting theory. This model, namely the BEING (Believe, Experiment, Invent, Navigate, Generate, was also designed by the researcher. The incentive behind designing a model grounded on acting literature was that the relevant literature does not provide trainers with a universal model which can be referred as a manual for running and monitoring acting courses for teachers. In this case study, this model was also tested in terms of its applicability and functionality in practice. Based on analyses of audio taped interviews, session journals and reflections, the five stages of the BEING Model was found to be highly applicable and functional in terms of reflecting the natural development process of teacher identity development. Pre-service teachers displayed a significant development in communication skills and professional identities. Therefore, the BEING model provides a perspective and a philosophy of benefiting from acting literature for teacher educators with little or no knowledge on acting and theatre.

  14. Atomic Act amended

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drabova, D.

    2002-01-01

    In the paper by the chairwoman of the Czech nuclear regulatory authority, the history of Czech nuclear legislation is outlined, the reasons for the amendment of the Atomic Act (Act No. 18/1997) are explained, and the amendments themselves are highlighted. The Act No. 13/2002 of 18 December 2001 is reproduced from the official Collection of Acts of the Czech Republic in the facsimile form. The following acts were thereby amended: Atomic Act No. 18/1997, Metrology Act No. 505/1990, Public Health Protection Act No. 258/2000, and Act No. 2/1969 on the Establishment of Ministries and Other Governmental Agencies of the Czech Republic. (P.A.)

  15. Taxonomía de onicóforos de Santander, Colombia y termogravimetría, calorimetría de barrido diferencial y espectroscopía infrarroja de la secreción adhesiva (Onychophora: Peripatidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier H Jerez-Jaimes

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Redescribimos taxonómicamente el gusano Macroperipatus geagy Bouvier 1899, a partir de 15 especímenes recolectados en los cafetales de hacienda El Roble, Santander, Colombia. De acuerdo con la reconstrucción en tres dimensiones de la superficie dorsal del cuerpo, las papilas primarias y accesorias de M. geagy se distribuyen sin formar un patrón determinado. Características diagnósticas: un diente accesorio y un diente principal en la mandíbula externa; y un diente principal, un diente accesorio y siete dentículos en la sierra de la mandíbula interna. Cuerpo: longitud (X=45.66; S=26.10 mm, peso (X= 0.95; S= 2.21 y pares de lobopodos (X= 28.13; S= 1.30. Se elaboró una clave para seis especies de Macroperipatus. La secreción adhesiva en estado líquido perdió 60% del peso inicial al alcanzar los 70 ºC, la muestra sólida perdió el 13% del peso cerca de los 90 ºC, la fase de estabilidad térmica de la secreción estuvo entre los 90 y 280 ºC en la secreción líquida y entre los 100 y 205 ºC en la sólida. La temperatura de inicio de la degradación de las muestras se registró a los 355 ºC. En comparación con la araña Nephila sp., el onicóforo perdió mayor porcentaje de peso y alcanzó la fase de degradación a temperaturas más bajas. Los cambios en el flujo de calor en la secreción adhesiva sólida y líquida de M. geagy fueron confirmados con el comportamiento de las muestras en el análisis de termogravimetría. La proporción de láminas beta calculado en el espectro infrarrojo de la secreción adhesiva fue del 59%. La presencia de este tipo de conformación de la estructura secundaria de las proteínas en la secreción adhesiva de M. geagy conferiría extensibilidad y resistencia a la tracción, en similitud con las fibras de seda tejidas por las arañas para depredación.Velvet worm taxonomy from Santander, Colombia and thermogravimetry, differential scanning calorimetry and infrared spectroscopy of the adhesive

  16. Airway Clearance Techniques (ACTs)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Therapeutics Lab Developing New Treatments The CF Foundation offers a number of resources for learning about clinical ... her father: Demonstrate and discuss common ACT therapies Offer their tips for fitting ACTs into daily life ...

  17. Airway Clearance Techniques (ACTs)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Treatments and Therapies Airway Clearance Airway Clearance Techniques (ACTs) There are different ways to clear your airways. ... or caregiver. Older kids and adults can choose ACTs that they can do on their own. Share ...

  18. Innovative method by design-around concepts with integrating the algorithm for inventive problem solving

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Wang Chih; Chen Jahau Lewis

    2014-01-01

    The work proposes a new design tool that integrates design-around concepts with the algorithm for inventive problem solving (Russian acronym: ARIZ). ARIZ includes a complete procedure for analyzing problems and related resource, resolving conflicts and generating solutions. The combination of ARIZ and design-around concepts and understanding identified principles that govern patent infringements can prevent patent infringements whenever designers innovate, greatly reducing the cost and time associated with the product design stage. The presented tool is developed from an engineering perspective rather than a legal perspective, and so can help designers easily to prevent patent infringements and succeed in innovating by designing around. An example is used to demonstrate the proposed method.

  19. Technological Monitoring Study Based on Invention Patents of Omeprazoleand Derivatives with Pharmaceutical Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leandra Guimarães de Oliveira

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available The current study intends to present the relevance of omeprazole, esomeprazole, rabeprazole, pantoprazole and lansoprazole by means of the technological foresight study, through invention patent documents from Brazilian applicants as indicators of innovation. The European database of patents (Espacenet, Word Patent Index (DERWENT and the Brazilian Patent Base of INPI were used, combining keywords and International Patent Classifications. The major applicants, countries of publication and claims categories were mapped. The 212 patent requests collected are mainly distributed in Chemistry, Pharmacy and Pharmacology areas. The results obtained revealed that the US was the main country with studies directed to this technological area (59 patent applications and the major applicant was the company Astrazeneca AB. Therefore, we can understand that this is a promising technology that may reflect in an increase of R&D activities and patent applications in this area.

  20. The invention of infertility in the classical Greek world: medicine, divinity, and gender.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flemming, Rebecca

    2013-01-01

    The article examines the understandings of, and responses to, reproductive failure in the classical Greek world. It discusses explanations and treatments for non-procreation in a range of ancient Greek medical texts, focusing on the writings of the Hippocratic Corpus, which devote considerable energy to matters of fertility and generation, and places them alongside the availability of a divine approach to dealing with reproductive disruption, the possibility of asking various deities, including the specialist healing god Asclepius, for assistance in having children. Though the relations between these options are complex, they combine to produce a rich remedial array for those struggling with childlessness, the possibility that any impediment to procreation can be removed. Classical Greece, rather than the nineteenth century, or even 1978, is thus the time when "infertility," understood as an essentially reversible somatic state, was invented.

  1. From invention to innovation: Commercialization of new technology by independent and small business inventors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1989-05-15

    This handbook emerged from the commitment of Energy-Related Inventions Program personnel to supporting the commercialization efforts of independent and small business inventors with new technologies. As you read this document, you will face questions that may seem far removed from technological concerns--questions about the market, your competition, your business structure, and about legal and regulatory requirements. These may seem peripheral to your present and future work. But, make no mistake, you must carefully and honestly consider and answer these if you expect to penetrate the market in sustained way and profit from your work. Over four hundred of your peers--some by success, others by failure--have shown us the lessons incorporated in this volume. By using it, and by commenting on it, you benefit from their collective experience, and make invaluable additions to it. 4 figs., 3 tabs.

  2. Patent border wars: defining the boundary between scientific discoveries and patentable inventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holman, Christopher M

    2007-12-01

    Drawing an appropriate boundary between unpatentable natural phenomena and patentable inventions is crucial in preventing the patent laws from unduly restricting access to fundamental scientific discoveries. Some would argue that, particularly in the U.S., patents are being issued that purport to claim a novel product or process but that, in effect, encompass any practical application of a fundamental biological principle. Examples include gene patents, which Congress is considering banning, and patents relating to biological correlations and pathways, such as the patents at issue in the headline-grabbing LabCorp v. Metabolite and Ariad v. Eli Lilly litigations. In view of the mounting concern, it seems likely that Congress and/or the courts will address the issue, and perhaps substantially shift the boundary.

  3. SIA - Sistema de Inventário Automatizado para as bibliotecas do SIBi/USP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosa Maria Fischi Zani

    Full Text Available Descreve a criação e implantação do Sistema de Inventário Automatizado - SAI - para o Sistema Integrado de Bibliotecas da Universidade de São Paulo - SIBi/USP -, ressaltando as vantagens do emprego da tecnologia para tornar mais ágil, eficaz e confiável o processo. O modelo mostrou-se flexível às particularidades dos acervos e das bibliotecas. Enumera os principais requisitos para automação do procedimento, bem como as tecnologias envolvidas e disponíveis no mercado. Após aplicação de teste piloto, o modelo foi aprovado pelas bibliotecas da USP.

  4. The Astronomical Instrument, So-Gahui Invented During King Sejong Period

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yong-Sam Lee; Kim, Sang-Hyuk

    2002-09-01

    So-ganui, namely small simplified armillary sphere, was invented as an astronomical instrument by Lee Cheon, Jeong Cho, Jung In-Ji under 16 years' rule of King Sejong. We collect records and observed data on So-ganui. It is designed to measure position of celestial sphere and to determine time. It also can be transformed equatorial to horizontal, and horizontal to equatorial coordinate. It can measure the right ascension, declination, altitude and azimuth. It is composed of Sayu-hwan (Four displacements), Jeokdo-hwan (Equatorial dial), Baekgak-hwan (Ring with one hundred-interval quarters), Gyuhyeong (Sighting aliadade), Yongju (Dragon-pillar) and Bu (Stand). So-ganui was used conveniently portable surveying as well as astronomical instrument and possible to determine time during day and night.

  5. Re-Inventing Teachers’ Competences at Early Childhood Education in Building Characters Needed for Global Competition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karmila Machmud

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this paper is to elaborate and to re-invent the competencies needed by early childhood education teachers. Building children’s character from an early age is significant, but the main problem that is often overlooked is the contribution of Early Childhood Education teachers. Children’s character formation is largely determined by the quality of early childhood teachers. So if we want to instill character values required by our nations, the improvement of the quality of early childhood teachers is very significant. In terms of shaping children’s character, they should be equipped with some important skills and competences, because they have a significant role in building the Indonesian Children’s characters needed in global competition without abandoning their identity as a dignified Indonesian.

  6. Inventing a space mission the story of the Herschel space observatory

    CERN Document Server

    Minier, Vincent; Bontems, Vincent; de Graauw, Thijs; Griffin, Matt; Helmich, Frank; Pilbratt, Göran; Volonte, Sergio

    2017-01-01

    This book describes prominent technological achievements within a very successful space science mission: the Herschel space observatory. Focusing on the various processes of innovation it offers an analysis and discussion of the social, technological and scientific context of the mission that paved the way to its development. It addresses the key question raised by these processes in our modern society, i.e.: how knowledge management of innovation set the conditions for inventing the future? In that respect the book is based on a transdisciplinary analysis of the programmatic complexity of Herschel, with inputs from space scientists, managers, philosophers, and engineers. This book is addressed to decision makers, not only in space science, but also in other industries and sciences using or building large machines. It is also addressed to space engineers and scientists as well as students in science and management.

  7. Choosing the Right Path: Image Schema Theory as a Foundation for Concept Invention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hedblom, Maria M.; Kutz, Oliver; Neuhaus, Fabian

    2015-12-01

    Image schemas are recognised as a fundamental ingredient in human cognition and creative thought. They have been studied extensively in areas such as cognitive linguistics. With the goal of exploring their potential role in computational creative systems, we here study the viability of the idea to formalise image schemas as a set of interlinked theories. We discuss in particular a selection of image schemas related to the notion of `path', and show how they can be mapped to a formalised family of microtheories reflecting the different aspects of path following. Finally, we illustrate the potential of this approach in the area of concept invention, namely by providing several examples illustrating in detail in what way formalised image schema families support the computational modelling of conceptual blending.

  8. Tactile drawings, ethics, and a sanctuary: metaphoric devices invented by a blind woman.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, John M

    2013-01-01

    Until the last two decades, indications that blind people would understand and create pictures were sparse. EW, a totally blind adult, who began making raised-line drawings in her thirties, created a portfolio of several hundred sketches in nine years. She selects her own topics and invents her treatments of the subjects. What is of special interest here is that two of her drawings, shown in the present paper, depict places but also use devices to indicate one is a sanctuary and the other concerns a tragic era, using metaphor. Lightness of line in a forest drawing indicates it is out of reality, enchanted, and a sanctuary. A tilted grid in a drawing of a Holocaust memorial shows the events at issue were twisted and crooked. The devices are metaphoric and novel. The drawings deal with an ontological category--values--for which metaphorical devices in raised-line depictions have not previously been considered.

  9. Generalizing, optimizing, and inventing numerical algorithms for the fractional Fourier, Fresnel, and linear canonical transforms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hennelly, Bryan M.; Sheridan, John T.

    2005-05-01

    By use of matrix-based techniques it is shown how the space-bandwidth product (SBP) of a signal, as indicated by the location of the signal energy in the Wigner distribution function, can be tracked through any quadratic-phase optical system whose operation is described by the linear canonical transform. Then, applying the regular uniform sampling criteria imposed by the SBP and linking the criteria explicitly to a decomposition of the optical matrix of the system, it is shown how numerical algorithms (employing interpolation and decimation), which exhibit both invertibility and additivity, can be implemented. Algorithms appearing in the literature for a variety of transforms (Fresnel, fractional Fourier) are shown to be special cases of our general approach. The method is shown to allow the existing algorithms to be optimized and is also shown to permit the invention of many new algorithms.

  10. Problem-based learning for technical students on the base TRIZ (theory of inventive problem solving

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Babenko Oksana

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The basis of modern educational technology in teaching is problem-based learning through the use of educational technologies Powerful Thinking - Theory of Inventive Problem Solving (TRIZ, including a systematic approach to the complex organization of independent work of search and research character. Developed by systemic administration of the physical features workshops on the basis TRIZ in the cycle of the natural sciences with the implementation of all aspects of the educational activities - substantive, procedural and motivational. A new model of the physical design of the workshop and its form of organization, which is based on problem-based learning with the use of TRIZ Interactive form of organization of the workshop allows you to get high-quality substantive and personality of the students who have a significant role in the formation of professional competencies and affect the quality of produce practice-oriented specialists.

  11. The Role of the Popes in the Invention of Complementarity and the Anathematization of Gender

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary Anne Case

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This article examines the origins and uses by the Vatican of the theological anthropology of complementarity, arguing that the doctrine of complementarity, under which the sexes are essentially different though not unequal, is an invention of the twentieth century untraceable in earlier centuries, but developed by, among others, the Popes from Pius XII through Benedict XVI, in part as a response to feminist claims, including those recently anathematized by the Vatican under the term ‘gender.’ After exploring some difficulties with the application of the doctrine of complementarity as Catholic orthodoxy, the article concludes by compiling preliminary evidence as to the extent Pope Francis will continue his predecessors’ approach to complementarity.

  12. Patents and Publics: Engaging Museum Audiences with Issues of Ownership and Invention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James F. Stark

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available It is all very well to note the hyperbole about patents and ‘intellectual property’ in the recent battles between technology companies such as Apple, Samsung and HTC. But how can museums productively use collection items marked with a patent beyond workaday tasks of identification and cataloguing? We argue that information on patents can enhance visitors’ critical engagement with museum displays; complex ownership claims and counter-claims in patent disputes can underpin lively narratives based around museum objects. Asking why some objects and not others were patented, and how historical consumers responded to that status of ‘patented’ enables us to look at these objects afresh. In particular we analyse the responses of public consultation groups to patenting in the medical trade, as well as the engagement of museum staff with these issues. Such consultation processes offer information that can be used to enhance museum displays with engaging narratives of ownership and invention.

  13. From ecological records to big data: the invention of global biodiversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devictor, Vincent; Bensaude-Vincent, Bernadette

    2016-12-01

    This paper is a critical assessment of the epistemological impact of the systematic quantification of nature with the accumulation of big datasets on the practice and orientation of ecological science. We examine the contents of big databases and argue that it is not just accumulated information; records are translated into digital data in a process that changes their meanings. In order to better understand what is at stake in the 'datafication' process, we explore the context for the emergence and quantification of biodiversity in the 1980s, along with the concept of the global environment. In tracing the origin and development of the global biodiversity information facility (GBIF) we describe big data biodiversity projects as a techno-political construction dedicated to monitoring a new object: the global diversity. We argue that, biodiversity big data became a powerful driver behind the invention of the concept of the global environment, and a way to embed ecological science in the political agenda.

  14. Early Nineteenth-Century New Yorkers and the Invention of New York City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    François WEIL

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Cet article s’intéresse à l’« invention » de New York, dans la période antérieure à la Guerre de Sécession, et aux formes ou aux procédés qui suscitèrent l’émergence d’une nouvelle conscience de soi dans la ville. Il évoque d’abord les facteurs contradictoires qui contribuèrent au développement d’une culture littéraire et artistique. Il tente ensuite de montrer comment les new-yorkais traduisirent leur fierté ancestrale et leurs sentiments identitaires sous forme de recherches historiques et généalogiques. Enfin, il montre la manière dont certains ouvrages élaborèrent une nouvelle grammaire, une nouvelle image, afin d’esquisser les contours géographiques et sociologiques de la métropole naissante.This essay explores the « invention » of New York City in the antebellum era, or the parallel forms of cultural processes and elaborations that led to the emergence of a new sense of self-awareness in the city. It first evokes the contradictory ways in which a literary and artistic culture developed. It then attempts to reveal how New Yorkers translated their ancestral pride and identity feelings into historical and genealogical pursuits. It finally explores the way in which some works contributed to the creation of a new grammar, a new image, in order to draw the contours of the geography and sociology of the new metropolis.

  15. Nuclear Installations Act 1965

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1965-01-01

    This Act governs all activities related to nuclear installations in the United Kingdom. It provides for the licensing procedure for nuclear installations, the duties of licensees, the competent authorities and carriers of nuclear material in respect of nuclear occurrences, as well as for the system of third party liability and compensation for nuclear damage. The Act repeals the Nuclear Installations (Licensing and Insurance) Act 1959 and the Nuclear Installations (Amendment Act) 1965 except for its Section 17(2). (NEA) [fr

  16. Essentials of the successful drafting of invention applications on nuclear technology in the view of patent examination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhai Chenyang

    2010-01-01

    Up to now, there has been a comparatively low ratio of domestic authorization in terms of invention applications in the field of nuclear technology. In this paper, the main reasons according to my experience in the patent examination are revealed in the following three aspects: (1) there is a lack of novelty or inventive step; (2) the scope of some claims is not clearly defined; (3) the description is improperly drafting. Common problems are shown and analyzed. Suggestion for avoiding the problems and corresponding solutions are given. (author)

  17. 77 FR 71404 - Notice of Intent to License Government-Owned Inventions; Intent to License on a Partially...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-30

    ... DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Department of the Army Notice of Intent to License Government-Owned Inventions; Intent to License on a Partially-Exclusive Basis AGENCY: Department of the Army, DoD. ACTION... by the Secretary of the Army. The US Army Edgewood Chemical Biological Center intends to license...

  18. The Associations among Preschool Children's Growth in Early Reading, Executive Function, and Invented Spelling Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chenyi; Bingham, Gary E.; Quinn, Margaret F.

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to examine associations among children's emergent literacy (early reading), language, executive function (EF), and invented spelling skills across prekindergarten. Participants included 123, primarily African American, 4-year-old children enrolled in a variety of prekindergarten settings. In addition to…

  19. A study of inventiveness among Society of Interventional Radiology members and the impact of their social networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Kieran J; Elias, Gavin; Jaffer, Hussein; Mandani, Rashesh

    2013-07-01

    To investigate the nature of inventiveness among members of the Society of Interventional Radiology (SIR) and learn what influenced the inventors and assisted their creativity. The membership directory of the SIR was cross-referenced with filings at the United States Patent and Trademark Organization (USPTO) and the Patent Cooperation Treaty (PCT). The inventors were queried with an online survey to illuminate their institutions of training and practice as well as enabling or inhibiting factors to their inventiveness. Responses were analyzed through the construction of social network maps and thematic and graphical analysis. It was found that 457 members of the SIR held 2,492 patents or patent filings. After 1986, there was a marked and sustained increase in patent filings. The online survey was completed by 73 inventors holding 470 patents and patent filings. The social network maps show the key role of large academic interventional radiology departments and individual inventors in the formation of interconnectivity among inventors and the creation of the intellectual property (IP). Key inhibitors of the inventive process include lack of mentorship, of industry contacts, and of legal advice. Key enablers include mentorship, motivation, and industry contacts. Creativity and inventiveness in SIR members stem from institutions that are hubs of innovation and networks of key innovators; inventors are facilitated by personal motivation, mentorship, and strong industry contacts. Copyright © 2013 SIR. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Examining the Relationship between Emergent Literacy Skills and Invented Spelling in Prekindergarten Spanish-Speaking Dual Language Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pendergast, Meghan; Bingham, Gary; Patton-Terry, Nicole

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to examine associations among English and Spanish emergent literacy skills of prekindergarten (pre-K) Spanish-speaking dual language learners in relation to their English invented spelling. Study participants included 141 Spanish-speaking 4-year-old children enrolled in state-funded pre-K programs in a large…

  1. 76 FR 6456 - Intent To Grant an Exclusive License for a U.S. Government-Owned Invention

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-04

    ... DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Department of the Army Intent To Grant an Exclusive License for a U.S. Government-Owned Invention AGENCY: Department of the Army, DoD. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: In accordance with 35 U.S.C. 209(e), and 37 CFR 404.7(a)(1)(i), announcement is made of the intent to grant an exclusive...

  2. O inventário de recursos do ambiente familiar The home environment resources scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edna Maria Marturano

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste artigo é descrever o desenvolvimento do RAF - Inventário de Recursos do Ambiente Familiar. Baseado na concepção ecológica do desenvolvimento, o RAF avalia recursos do ambiente familiar que podem contribuir para o aprendizado acadêmico nos anos do ensino fundamental, em três domínios: recursos que promovem processos proximais; atividades que sinalizam estabilidade na vida familiar; práticas parentais que promovem a ligação família-escola. Uma revisão de pesquisas que utilizaram o RAF indica índices aceitáveis de consistência interna, bem como associação entre escores no RAF e indicadores de desempenho escolar e ajustamento. Passeios, brinquedos e livros, bem como oportunidades de interação com os pais em casa, foram recursos relacionados a indicadores de bom desempenho escolar e ajustamento. Embora ainda sejam necessários estudos de validação e fidedignidade, o inventário tem sido uma ferramenta útil para pesquisadores e pode ser usado por profissionais que trabalham em contexto clínico ou educacional.The aim of this article is to describe the development of the HERS - Home Environment Resources Scale. The HERS is based on an ecological view of development. It assesses support resources available to the child at home, which can contribute for school achievement. These resources relate to three domains: resources that promote proximal processes; activities that signal stability in family processes; parental practices that promote a home-school linkage. Previous research using the HERS has indicated acceptable indexes of internal consistency, as well as significant associations between HERS scores and measures of academic achievement and adjustment. Leisure activities, toys, books, and opportunities for the child to interact with parents at home were all related to child achievement and adjustment. Although further studies are needed to secure its reliability and validity, the instrument has proven to be a

  3. Radioactive Substances Act 1960

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1960-01-01

    This Act regulates the keeping and use of radioactive material and makes provision for the disposal and storage of radioactive waste in the United Kingdom. It provides for a licensing system for such activities and for exemptions therefrom, in particular as concerns the United Kingdom Atomic Energy Authority. The Act repeals Section 4(5) of the Atomic Energy Authority Act, 1954 which made temporary provision for discharge of waste on or from premises occupied by the Authority. (NEA) [fr

  4. Learning dialog act processing

    OpenAIRE

    Wermter, Stefan; Löchel, Matthias

    1996-01-01

    In this paper we describe a new approach for learning dialog act processing. In this approach we integrate a symbolic semantic segmentation parser with a learning dialog act network. In order to support the unforeseeable errors and variations of spoken language we have concentrated on robust data-driven learning. This approach already compares favorably with the statistical average plausibility method, produces a segmentation and dialog act assignment for all utterances in a robust manner,...

  5. Airway Clearance Techniques (ACTs)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Reform Could Impact People With CF The Preserving Employee Wellness Programs Act Our Advocacy Work Advocacy Achievements Advocacy News Briefings, Testimonies, and Regulatory ...

  6. Radiological Protection Act 1970

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1970-01-01

    This Act provides for the establishment of a Radiological Protection Board to undertake research and advise on protection from radiation hazards. Its functions include provision of advice to Government departments with responsibilities in relation to protection of sectors of the community or the community as a whole against the hazards of ionizing radiation. The Act, which lays down that the Board shall replace certain departments concerned with radiation protection, repeals several Sections of the Radioactive Substances Act 1948 and the Science and Technology Act 1965. (NEA) [fr

  7. 25 CFR 700.33 - Act (The Act).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Act (The Act). 700.33 Section 700.33 Indians THE OFFICE OF NAVAJO AND HOPI INDIAN RELOCATION COMMISSION OPERATIONS AND RELOCATION PROCEDURES General Policies and Instructions Definitions § 700.33 Act (The Act). (a) The Act. The Act is Pub. L. 93-531, (88 Stat...

  8. A play´s libretto “Sami”. The invention of evil. A Halloween tale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Bernardo González León

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available In an atmosphere of comedy, satire and play, we go through the most significant celestial event in the Western religious view on the myth of creation of the Universe, and the celestial battle between Luzbel who, out of pride, rebelled against God, desiring to be like him, and was expelled from heaven by the Archangel Michael as a punishment, along with the army of rebellious angels who were dragged by him (a group of innocent cherubim, being known from that time as the Fallen Angel: Bearer of Light; this is, the logos (who delivers the wisdom and the fire to men; but also becomes the supreme archetype of the Rebel, the first universal separatist and autonomist, for the sake of freedom and anarchy. And is in this polarisation of the medieval mind that appears what we know as evil: an invention of human culture. Here the classic characters of the Middle Ages are reinterpreted: God, the Death, demons, angels and cherubim, are mixed with classic Celtic spirits, fairies, witches, and Merlin, coinciding with the naturalistic and ecological spirit of the ";;new age” in a fun recreation of this ultimate contradiction.

  9. PENGEMBANGAN DESAIN STARTING BLOCK KOLAM RENANG DENGAN MENGGUNAKAN THEORY OF INVENTIVE PROBLEM SOLVING (TRIZ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denny Nurkertamanda

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Swimmingpool starting block is one of swimming equiptment that must be used in swimming sport competition.It used not only by senior athlete but also the beginner. In addition, it used not only in one swimmingpool butalso another pool which has different height of watersurface and swimmingpoll wallside.Now, the condition of starting block only fit with some of athlete. The other athlete had difficulties when use it.Because of that, design improvement need to be done for starting block to be adaptable for all athlete in anyage and adaptable for the condition of watersurface.Adaptability fitur improvement for starting block makes fitur stabilition of product composition getting worse,and those things is unwanted. So that Theory of Inventive Problem Solving (TRIZ method is needed to solvethe problem technical contradiction so the ideal final output can be reached.Adaptable starting block design can be reached after solve the technical contradiction happened when solvingthe problems used TRIZ. Reducing the parameters which had disadvantages for the ideal final product suchas: weight of the moving object, quantity of the material used, dangerous factor of the object, and dangerousfactors from environtment.

  10. Roger Hayward and the Invention of the Two-Mirror Schmidt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, T. E.

    2005-12-01

    Roger Hayward (1899-1979), now virtually unknown, was a multitalented architect, scientific illustrator, and optical inventor. Remembered primarily for illustrating Scientific American magazine's Amateur Scientist column between 1949 and 1974, he also illustrated more than a dozen textbooks in optics, physics, geology, oceanography, and chemistry, several of which became classics in their fields. He designed façades with astronomical themes for major buildings in Los Angeles, California, and sculpted mammoth, realistic models of the moon for Griffith Observatory, Adler Planetarium, and Disneyland. Throughout his life, he recreationally painted watercolors and oils that at least one critic likened to the work of John Singer Sargent. Hayward is least known as an optical designer, yet he made significant contributions to the DU spectrophotometer that established the multimillion-dollar company Beckman Instruments. During the pre-radar days of World War II at Mount Wilson Observatory, Hayward invented a classified Cassegrain version of the Schmidt telescope especially adapted for nighttime infrared aerial photography, plus extraordinarily simple machines that allowed inexperienced soldiers to grind, polish, and test accurate aspheric Schmidt correcting plates at speeds compatible with mass production - and later received U.S. patents for them all. This paper, drawn in part from unpublished letters between Hayward and Albert G. Ingalls, will feature little-known images of Hayward's work.

  11. Inventário dos esquemas de gênero do autoconceito (IEGA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Giavoni

    Full Text Available Este trabalho apresenta a construção e validação do Inventário dos Esquemas de Gênero do Autoconceito (IEGA. Este instrumento avalia dois componentes do autoconceito - os esquemas masculino e feminino. Na etapa de construção foram levantadas e analisadas estatisticamente, características designadas à masculinidade e à feminilidade. Na etapa de validação, estas características passaram a compor as escalas masculina e feminina do IEGA. Em ambas as etapas, as amostras utilizadas foram compostas por estudantes universitários. Para a validade de construto foram realizadas análises fatoriais para ambas as escalas e análises da consistência interna dos fatores. Através do método Principal Axis Factoring (PAF e rotações oblíquas, as escalas masculina e feminina apresentaram estruturas multidimensionais. Devidamente validado, o IEGA pode ser utilizado para avaliar os esquemas masculino e feminino do autoconceito.

  12. The self invented personality? Reflections on authenticity and writing analytic papers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Astor, James

    2005-09-01

    One of the great themes of American literature is the self-invented personality, whether it is Scott Fitzgerald's Gatsby or one of Philip Roth's alter egos, such as Nathaniel Zuckerman. This is just one of several approaches which novelists employ. They take a problem from life, perhaps their own, and then embark on solving the problem of the book-which is how to write about this. Sometimes, as in Tobias Wolff's novel Old School, the personality of the narrator is woven into an exploration of the creative process itself. Wolff's novel concerns itself not just with writing but with how to become a writer. I explore how this process is similar to both writing about analysis and becoming an analyst. In doing this I discuss issues of authenticity, fiction, art, the effects of identification, the power of the super-ego, supervision and learning, integrity of life and work, envy and the xenocidal impulse, the regulation of our profession and the loss of trust, and in so doing join in discussion with Plaut, Wharton, Tuckett and others about professional communications, the internal world and the mysteriousness of our relation to our internal objects.

  13. [Medical inventions: developments and approaches in employer-employee [correction of worker-employee] relations].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teff, Zvi

    2012-11-01

    The past twenty years have witnessed a huge increase in research activity on the government health system in Israel. Consequently, a number of questions of enhanced importance arise: to whom the resultant IP (intellectual property) belongs?--to the researcher or the employer? and what compensation should the researcher receive for his inventive efforts? The government found many cases where the IP was registered in the name of the inventor/researcher, thus denying the government ownership of the IP. In 2009, the government sued Omryx over ownership of such an IP. Following these developments, the government issued new rules for management of IP in the government health system. They came into effect in November 2010. In many respects, the new rules are more stringent than the Israeli Patent Law in respect of the inventor. However, the stipulation of awards to the inventor in the new rules is generous. In order for the new rules to be enforceable, the following guidelines are recommended: The new rules should be more aligned with the Patent Law and with the meaning given to the Law by the judicial system, and There is need for the assent and awareness of health system workers to the conditions set out in the new rules, preferably in the form of new work contracts that clearly and concurrently delineate the worker's duties, particularly those pertaining to IP.

  14. The invented Baja California: visions of a Mexican territory in the middle 20th century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Héctor Mendoza Vargas

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available This article examines the travels of Peter Gerhard and Ángel Bassols Batalla through the Baja California in the 1950s from a comparative perspective. From the theo-retical viewpoints of the history of geography and the geographical journey as sources of information and working method in situ, the observation and empirical knowledge of the territory are established. The traveling style of both authors involves a cultural consideration, since an invented space emerges before their eyes from their own experience in the peninsula. As a traveler, Peter Gerhard journeyed the peninsula seeking the ancient missions that distinguished Baja California. That is why he organized and integrated the information in a guide, in collaboration with Howard E. Gulick. He conceived the guide for tourists of the United States interested in this region so close to their country. Published in 1956, the guide became the most complete instrument for vacationists in general, and also for sport fishermen, hunters, explorers and campers.

  15. Inventário dos esquemas de gênero do autoconceito (IEGA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giavoni Adriana

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho apresenta a construção e validação do Inventário dos Esquemas de Gênero do Autoconceito (IEGA. Este instrumento avalia dois componentes do autoconceito - os esquemas masculino e feminino. Na etapa de construção foram levantadas e analisadas estatisticamente, características designadas à masculinidade e à feminilidade. Na etapa de validação, estas características passaram a compor as escalas masculina e feminina do IEGA. Em ambas as etapas, as amostras utilizadas foram compostas por estudantes universitários. Para a validade de construto foram realizadas análises fatoriais para ambas as escalas e análises da consistência interna dos fatores. Através do método Principal Axis Factoring (PAF e rotações oblíquas, as escalas masculina e feminina apresentaram estruturas multidimensionais. Devidamente validado, o IEGA pode ser utilizado para avaliar os esquemas masculino e feminino do autoconceito.

  16. Bringing functions together with fusion enzymes--from nature's inventions to biotechnological applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elleuche, Skander

    2015-02-01

    It is a mammoth task to develop a modular protein toolbox enabling the production of posttranslational organized multifunctional enzymes that catalyze reactions in complex pathways. However, nature has always guided scientists to mimic evolutionary inventions in the laboratory and, nowadays, versatile methods have been established to experimentally connect enzymatic activities with multiple advantages. Among the oldest known natural examples is the linkage of two or more juxtaposed proteins catalyzing consecutive, non-consecutive, or opposing reactions by a native peptide bond. There are multiple reasons for the artificial construction of such fusion enzymes including improved catalytic activities, enabled substrate channelling by proximity of biocatalysts, higher stabilities, and cheaper production processes. To produce fused proteins, it is either possible to genetically fuse coding open reading frames or to connect proteins in a posttranslational process. Molecular biology techniques that have been established for the production of end-to-end or insertional fusions include overlap extension polymerase chain reaction, cloning, and recombination approaches. Depending on their flexibility and applicability, these methods offer various advantages to produce fusion genes in high throughput, different orientations, and including linker sequences to maximize the flexibility and performance of fusion partners. In this review, practical techniques to fuse genes are highlighted, enzymatic parameters to choose adequate enzymes for fusion approaches are summarized, and examples with biotechnological relevance are presented including a focus on plant biomass-degrading glycosyl hydrolases.

  17. The Urgency Of Ijtihad By Judges In Effort Law Invention At The Religion Court In Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kiljamilawati

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The presence of renewals in Islamic law resulting in the emergence of various changes in the social order of Muslims either in relation to ideology political social cultural and so on. It later brings new challenges that must be answered and therefore ijtihad must be continuously made to find a solution to the various problems of new law which is required by Muslims. The type of research is a normative-juridical and empirical research. Normative research is trying to examine the problem of law invention by the judge in the Religion Courts with a case approach. Ijtihad has a very urgent role in efforts to carry out duties as law enforcer and justice by digging follow and understand the legal values that live and develop in the peoples and accommodate the developments of Islamic law. The method of ijtihad by judges in the Religion Court use maqashid al-sharia and maslahah and istihsan method. At the practical level so characteristic inherent in the religion courts persists then should any verdict must include argument of Islamic law sources.

  18. How search in science impacts on the value of inventions at early and late stages in the R&D cycle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beukel, Karin; Valentin, Finn; Lund Jensen, Rasmus

    . The patents filed on these inventions offer, through their citations to prior art, a fine-grained view of the role of science along the R&D cycle. Applying a unique text-mining algorithm we categorize a set of 1,058 patens from Scandinavian drug discovery firms into six types of drug-related inventions. Tests...

  19. Newly invented biobased materials from low-carbon, diverted waste fibers: research methods, testing, and full-scale application in a case study structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Julee A Herdt; John Hunt; Kellen Schauermann

    2016-01-01

    This project demonstrates newly invented, biobased construction materials developed by applying lowcarbon, biomass waste sources through the Authors’ engineered fiber processes and technology. If manufactured and applied large-scale the project inventions can divert large volumes of cellulose waste into high-performance, low embodied energy, environmental construction...

  20. Marine Mammal Protection Act

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Marine Mammal Protection Act (MMPA or Act) prohibits, with certain exceptions, the "take" of marine mammals in U.S. waters and by U.S. citizens on the high seas,...