WorldWideScience

Sample records for invention discovery development

  1. Pulsed laser deposition—invention or discovery?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Venkatesan, T

    2014-01-01

    The evolution of pulsed laser deposition had been an exciting process of invention and discovery, with the development of high T c superconducting films as the main driver. It has become the method of choice in research and development for rapid prototyping of multicomponent inorganic materials for preparing a variety of thin films, heterostructures and atomically sharp interfaces, and has become an indispensable tool for advancing oxide electronics. In this paper I will give a personal account of the invention and development of this process at Bellcore/Rutgers, the opportunity, challenges and mostly the extraordinary excitement that was generated, typical of any disruptive technology. (paper)

  2. Inventions and developments of democracy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Uffe

    2010-01-01

    In traditional approaches to the history of political ideas, the history of democracy is uniformly studied concerning the point of departure, selection of canonical texts, etc. The paper introduces the Koselleckian conceptual history approach (Begriffsgeschichte) and the principle of a broader...... selection of texts than in the traditional history of ideas to provide a fuller account of usages of the concept, thereby opening up for alternative conceptions of the inventions and development of democracy....

  3. Wallace H. Coulter: decades of invention and discovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, J Paul

    2013-05-01

    Only a few inventors can be said to have made as great an impact on mankind as Wallace Coulter. His inquisitive mind and ability to see well beyond what existed served him well for 40 years of inventing. So many of the fundamental tools that exist today in the area of hematology were derived from or driven by Coulter's inventions that he could be called the most technological innovator in the field of modern hematology. In achieving these discoveries Wallace Coulter was clearly capable of visualizing future opportunities that few others recognized. His vision was combined with an uncanny ability to translate his ideas into products. He developed a large number of tools that shaped the fields of cytometry, image analysis, and industrial materials. His understanding of the future power of computation drove him to link these technologies in a unique way. In the end, Coulter shaped the technologies that ultimately drove hematology in a new direction, one that remains on a critical pathway linking technology innovation all the way to true translational impact. It was said of Henry Ford that "[h]e has no notion that wealth has made him great, and any one who is imprest merely by his wealth bores him. In his personal contacts he likes to dodge the subject. He would prefer to talk with a machinist about machinery, or with somebody who likes birds about birds. In these contacts, he asks no deference; and if he gets it, he suspects it is mere deference to wealth, and that ends his interest."(1) The same could be said of Wallace Coulter, who, like Ford, understood the concepts of mass production and customer service. Coulter had the ability to recognize the opportunity and fulfill the need for development of a blood-cell counter that could be placed in every pathology laboratory, and in so doing transformed a field from a qualitative to a quantitative environment. Every person who has ever entered a medical lab, hospital, or doctor's office has felt the impact of Coulter

  4. The asymmetry between discoveries and inventions in the Nobel Prize for Physics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bartneck, C.; Rauterberg, G.W.M.

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents an empirical study on the frequency of discoveries and inventions that were awarded with the. More than 70 per cent of all Nobel Prizes were given to discoveries. The majority of inventions were awarded at the beginning of the twentieth century and only three inventions had a

  5. Inventions for future sustainable development in agriculture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jacobsen, E.; Beers, P.J.; Fischer, A.R.H.

    2011-01-01

    This chapter is directed to the importance of different inventions as driver for sustainable development of agriculture. Inventions are defined as radical new ideas, perspectives and technologies that hold the potential to trigger a change in sustainable agriculture. Innovation is based on one or

  6. Electronic inventions and discoveries electronics from its earliest beginnings to the present day

    CERN Document Server

    Dummer, G W A

    1983-01-01

    Electronic Inventions and Discoveries: Electronics from Its Earliest Beginnings to the Present Day provides a summary of the development of the whole field of electronics. Organized into 13 chapters, the book covers and reviews the history of electronics as a whole and its aspects. The opening chapter covers the beginnings of electronics, while the next chapter discusses the development of components, transistors, and integrated circuits. The third chapter tackles the expansion of electronics and its effects on industry. The succeeding chapters discuss the history of the aspects of electronics

  7. Higgs the invention and discovery of the 'God Particle'

    CERN Document Server

    Baggott, Jim

    2012-01-01

    The hunt for the Higgs particle has involved the biggest, most expensive experiment ever. So exactly what is this particle? Why does it matter so much? What does it tell us about the Universe? Has the discovery announced on 4 July 2012 finished the search? And was finding it really worth all the effort? The short answer is yes. The Higgs field is proposed as the way in which particles gain mass - a fundamental property of matter. It's the strongest indicator yet that the Standard Model of physics really does reflect the basic building blocks of our Universe. Little wonder the hunt and discovery of this new particle has produced such intense media interest.

  8. Identifying and Developing Inventive Talent in the Republic of Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Seungmo

    2016-01-01

    In the 21st century, the need to develop creative potential through education is more critical than ever. Invention-gifted education is one approach that can both foster creativity and develop inventive talent. Invention-gifted education in the Republic of Korea is distinctive in its systematic approach to talent identification and talent…

  9. Invention Development Program Helps Nurture NCI at Frederick Technologies | Poster

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Invention Development Fund (IDF) was piloted by the Technology Transfer Center (TTC) in 2014 to facilitate the commercial development of NCI technologies. The IDF received a second round of funding from the NCI Office of the Director and the Office of Budget and Management to establish the Invention Development Program (IDP) for fiscal year 2016. The IDP is using these funds to help advance a second set of inventions.

  10. Patent border wars: defining the boundary between scientific discoveries and patentable inventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holman, Christopher M

    2007-12-01

    Drawing an appropriate boundary between unpatentable natural phenomena and patentable inventions is crucial in preventing the patent laws from unduly restricting access to fundamental scientific discoveries. Some would argue that, particularly in the U.S., patents are being issued that purport to claim a novel product or process but that, in effect, encompass any practical application of a fundamental biological principle. Examples include gene patents, which Congress is considering banning, and patents relating to biological correlations and pathways, such as the patents at issue in the headline-grabbing LabCorp v. Metabolite and Ariad v. Eli Lilly litigations. In view of the mounting concern, it seems likely that Congress and/or the courts will address the issue, and perhaps substantially shift the boundary.

  11. Invention of Lithium Ion Secondary Battery and Its Business Development

    OpenAIRE

    正本, 順三/米田,晴幸; 米田, 晴幸; MASAMOTO, Junzo; YONEDA, Haruyuki

    2010-01-01

    At present, mobile phones and laptop computers are essential items in our daily life. As a battery for such portable devices, the lithium ion secondary battery is used. The lithium ion secondary battery, which is used as a battery for such portable devices, was first invented by Dr. Yoshino at Asahi Kasei. In this paper, the authors describe how the lithium ion secondary battery was developed by the inventor. The authors also describe the battery separator, which is one of the key components ...

  12. Invention class

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Yeon Jung

    1990-03-01

    This book gives descriptions of whole conception of patent, which includes invention and human, the way to invent, ten commandments of invention, 50 well-known inventions and inventors, conception of industrial property right system, measures on industrial property right practice, measures on industrial property right invasion, the best 10 patent dispute in history, the best 10 real patent cases in history, field of patent invention, inventions and supporting system of technical development ; supporting by the patent and trademark office and the commerce-industry ministry.

  13. DiscoveryDevelopment of Rituximab

    Science.gov (United States)

    NCI funded the development of rituximab, one of the first monoclonal antibody cancer treatments. With the discovery of rituximab, more than 70 percent of patients diagnosed with non-hodgkin lymphoma now live five years past their initial diagnosis.

  14. Expedited patent examination for green inventions: Developing countries' policy choices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu, Bingbin

    2013-01-01

    Innovation in green technology is important. Patent rights can provide incentives for green technology research and development. Expedited patent examination for green inventions has emerged as a policy instrument to provide such incentives. Developing countries were never opposed to patents for green technologies. China and Brazil have led the way by offering expedited examinations for green patent applications. More developing countries are expected to follow. Expedited examination for green technologies is consistent with the intellectual property system objectives and is justified by the clear social benefit from green technologies. Introducing such expedited programs in developing countries has sufficient advantages. Existing models of expedited programs for green technologies are analyzed to generalize key issues and to discern suitable policy choices for developing countries. When introducing such programs, a balanced definition for green technology is preferred; a special classification requirement is premature and is not recommended; a pre-examination search requirement is generally recommended to balance patent office workloads, and a green patent database is recommended. - Highlights: • There is no north–south divide in promoting green technologies. • Earlier issuance of green patents has its great social benefit. • Green patent application should receive expedited examination. • Developing countries should introduce such expedited programs. • A suitable approach for developing countries is searched and recommended

  15. Drug discovery and developments in developing countries ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    the major burden being in developing countries. Many of ... The driving force for drug discovery and development by pharmaceutical firms ... world and particularly in the third world countries ..... GFHR (2000) Global Forum for Health Research:.

  16. The CP molecule labyrinth: a paradigm of how endeavors in total synthesis lead to discoveries and inventions in organic synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicolaou, K C; Baran, Phil S

    2002-08-02

    Imagine an artist carving a sculpture from a marble slab and finding gold nuggets in the process. This thought is not a far-fetched description of the work of a synthetic chemist pursuing the total synthesis of a natural product. At the end of the day, he or she will be judged by the artistry of the final work and the weight of the gold discovered in the process. However, as colorful as this description of total synthesis may be, it does not entirely capture the essence of the endeavor, for there is much more to be told, especially with regard to the contrast of frustrating failures and exhilarating moments of discovery. To fully appreciate the often Herculean nature of the task and the rewards that accompany it, one must sense the details of the enterprise behind the scenes. A more vivid description of total synthesis as a struggle against a tough opponent is perhaps appropriate to dramatize these elements of the experience. In this article we describe one such endeavor of total synthesis which, in addition to reaching the target molecule, resulted in a wealth of new synthetic strategies and technologies for chemical synthesis. The total synthesis of the CP molecules is compared to Theseus' most celebrated athlos (Greek for exploit, accomplishment): the conquest of the dreaded Minotaur, which he accomplished through brilliance, skill, and bravery having traversed the famous labyrinth with the help of Ariadne. This story from Greek mythology comes alive in modern synthetic expeditions toward natural products as exemplified by the total synthesis of the CP molecules which serve as a paradigm for modern total synthesis endeavors, where the objectives are discovery and invention in the broader sense of organic synthesis.

  17. The new world of discovery, invention, and innovation: convergence of knowledge, technology, and society

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roco, Mihail C.; Bainbridge, William S.

    2013-09-01

    Convergence of knowledge and technology for the benefit of society (CKTS) is the core opportunity for progress in the twenty-first century. CKTS is defined as the escalating and transformative interactions among seemingly different disciplines, technologies, communities, and domains of human activity to achieve mutual compatibility, synergism, and integration, and through this process to create added value and branch out to meet shared goals. Convergence has been progressing by stages over the past several decades, beginning with nanotechnology for the material world, followed by convergence of nanotechnology, biotechnology, information, and cognitive science (NBIC) for emerging technologies. CKTS is the third level of convergence. It suggests a general process to advance creativity, innovation, and societal progress based on five general purpose principles: (1) the interdependence of all components of nature and society, (2) decision analysis for research, development, and applications based on dynamic system-logic deduction, (3) enhancement of creativity and innovation through evolutionary processes of convergence that combines existing principles and divergence that generates new ones, (4) the utility of higher-level cross-domain languages to generate new solutions and support transfer of new knowledge, and (5) the value of vision-inspired basic research embodied in grand challenges. CKTS is a general purpose approach in knowledge society. It allows society to answer questions and resolve problems that isolated capabilities cannot, as well as to create new competencies, knowledge, and technologies on this basis. Possible solutions are outlined for key societal challenges in the next decade, including support for foundational emerging technologies NBIC to penetrate essential platforms of human activity and create new industries and jobs, improve lifelong wellness and human potential, achieve personalized and integrated healthcare and education, and secure a

  18. The new world of discovery, invention, and innovation: convergence of knowledge, technology, and society

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roco, Mihail C.; Bainbridge, William S.

    2013-01-01

    Convergence of knowledge and technology for the benefit of society (CKTS) is the core opportunity for progress in the twenty-first century. CKTS is defined as the escalating and transformative interactions among seemingly different disciplines, technologies, communities, and domains of human activity to achieve mutual compatibility, synergism, and integration, and through this process to create added value and branch out to meet shared goals. Convergence has been progressing by stages over the past several decades, beginning with nanotechnology for the material world, followed by convergence of nanotechnology, biotechnology, information, and cognitive science (NBIC) for emerging technologies. CKTS is the third level of convergence. It suggests a general process to advance creativity, innovation, and societal progress based on five general purpose principles: (1) the interdependence of all components of nature and society, (2) decision analysis for research, development, and applications based on dynamic system-logic deduction, (3) enhancement of creativity and innovation through evolutionary processes of convergence that combines existing principles and divergence that generates new ones, (4) the utility of higher-level cross-domain languages to generate new solutions and support transfer of new knowledge, and (5) the value of vision-inspired basic research embodied in grand challenges. CKTS is a general purpose approach in knowledge society. It allows society to answer questions and resolve problems that isolated capabilities cannot, as well as to create new competencies, knowledge, and technologies on this basis. Possible solutions are outlined for key societal challenges in the next decade, including support for foundational emerging technologies NBIC to penetrate essential platforms of human activity and create new industries and jobs, improve lifelong wellness and human potential, achieve personalized and integrated healthcare and education, and secure a

  19. The new world of discovery, invention, and innovation: convergence of knowledge, technology, and society

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roco, Mihail C., E-mail: mroco@nsf.gov; Bainbridge, William S. [National Science Foundation (United States)

    2013-09-15

    Convergence of knowledge and technology for the benefit of society (CKTS) is the core opportunity for progress in the twenty-first century. CKTS is defined as the escalating and transformative interactions among seemingly different disciplines, technologies, communities, and domains of human activity to achieve mutual compatibility, synergism, and integration, and through this process to create added value and branch out to meet shared goals. Convergence has been progressing by stages over the past several decades, beginning with nanotechnology for the material world, followed by convergence of nanotechnology, biotechnology, information, and cognitive science (NBIC) for emerging technologies. CKTS is the third level of convergence. It suggests a general process to advance creativity, innovation, and societal progress based on five general purpose principles: (1) the interdependence of all components of nature and society, (2) decision analysis for research, development, and applications based on dynamic system-logic deduction, (3) enhancement of creativity and innovation through evolutionary processes of convergence that combines existing principles and divergence that generates new ones, (4) the utility of higher-level cross-domain languages to generate new solutions and support transfer of new knowledge, and (5) the value of vision-inspired basic research embodied in grand challenges. CKTS is a general purpose approach in knowledge society. It allows society to answer questions and resolve problems that isolated capabilities cannot, as well as to create new competencies, knowledge, and technologies on this basis. Possible solutions are outlined for key societal challenges in the next decade, including support for foundational emerging technologies NBIC to penetrate essential platforms of human activity and create new industries and jobs, improve lifelong wellness and human potential, achieve personalized and integrated healthcare and education, and secure a

  20. Tourism, development and disneyzation: a question about resources or inventiveness?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Cordoba y Ordóñez

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Tourism, one of the more dynamic activities of the socioeconomic system, is profoundly entangled with economic and above all cultural globalization. Growth, diversification and several qualitative changes have helped tourism activities to transversally affect a growing number of activities and social levels around the world. This is especially evident when contemplating disneyzation processes. In them, heritage management practices have become a core issue in development policies that not very often consider their cultural impacts. This paper aims to offer some reflections for the discussion of these issues through the examination of arguments and empirical study cases from Mexico.

  1. Invention/Re-invention

    OpenAIRE

    Mera, M.

    2009-01-01

    This article examines the relationship between texts that are re-invented for different media and/or contexts including: film remakes, prequels and sequels, video games that become films and vice versa, internet mashups, and television series that move across geographical borders. The article points to significant sources in this emerging field and presents some of the challenges that arise in relation to its study. In particular questions of originality, fidelity, repetition and difference a...

  2. Inventing Freud.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudnytsky, Peter L

    2008-06-01

    Written to commemorate the 150th anniversary of Freud's birth, this paper construes Nina Coltart's statement that "if Freud did not exist it would be necessary to invent him," with its implicit comparison of Freud to God, to refer to (a) the things that Freud taught that are incontrovertibly true; (b) the unavoidable subjectivity in all judgments of Freud; and (c) the resemblances between psychoanalysis and religion. This last comparison is likewise seen to have both positive and negative aspects. Freud's ideas have inspired many people, yet he unscientifically arrogated sovereign authority over psychoanalysis. Freud's admirers are reminded of his extreme difficulty in admitting he was wrong and changing his mind when he should have known better, while his detractors are encouraged to consider the evidence supporting many of Freud's core tenets and to recognize that his discovery of psychoanalysis is indeed one of the supreme achievements in human history.

  3. Secret of success for invention technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Gwan Hyeong

    1990-12-01

    This book deals with importance, meaning, history of invention technology, technique of invention technology, and invention in connection with the duties. It covers importance, meaning, flow of invention technology development, basis of invention technology development, development, development investment, development workforce of invention technology, and development of invention technology introduction. It also contains outline, research, management of technology development information, outline, research, management of patent information, and reality of invention technology research development.

  4. Invention party of students 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Yeon Jung

    2000-02-01

    The contents of this book are story about making a mistake by friends, o dear! my mistake, shower and platform for crocks of sauces and condiments, good thing and bad thing when it appears, dream and invention of JuMok, failure is another discovery, a certain goal, idea in a life, addition and subtraction, a little hint is a great invention, question : why? This book gives advices and encouragement how to invent and what to invent to students.

  5. Historical review of californium-252 discovery and development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stoddard, D.H.

    1985-01-01

    This paper discusses the discovery and history of californium 252. This isotope may be synthesized by irradiating plutonium 239, plutonium 242, americium 243, or curium 244 with neutrons in a nuclear reactor. Various experiments and inventions involving 252 Cf conducted at the Savannah River Plant are discussed. The evolution of radiotherapy using californium 252 is reviewed

  6. Discovery and preclinical development of new antibiotics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Diarmaid; Karlén, Anders

    2014-05-01

    Antibiotics are the medical wonder of our age, but an increasing frequency of resistance among key pathogens is rendering them less effective. If this trend continues the consequences for cancer patients, organ transplant patients, and indeed the general community could be disastrous. The problem is complex, involving abuse and overuse of antibiotics (selecting for an increasing frequency of resistant bacteria), together with a lack of investment in discovery and development (resulting in an almost dry drug development pipeline). Remedial approaches to the problem should include taking measures to reduce the selective pressures for resistance development, and taking measures to incentivize renewed investment in antibiotic discovery and development. Bringing new antibiotics to the clinic is critical because this is currently the only realistic therapy that can ensure the level of infection control required for many medical procedures. Here we outline the complex process involved in taking a potential novel antibiotic from the initial discovery of a hit molecule, through lead and candidate drug development, up to its entry into phase I clinical trials. The stringent criteria that a successful drug must meet, balancing high efficacy in vivo against a broad spectrum of pathogens, with minimal liabilities against human targets, explain why even with sufficient investment this process is prone to a high failure rate. This emphasizes the need to create a well-funded antibiotic discovery and development pipeline that can sustain the continuous delivery of novel candidate drugs into clinical trials, to ensure the maintenance of the advanced medical procedures we currently take for granted.

  7. The Software Invention Cube: A classification scheme for software inventions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bergstra, J.A.; Klint, P.

    2008-01-01

    The patent system protects inventions. The requirement that a software invention should make ‘a technical contribution’ turns out to be untenable in practice and this raises the question, what constitutes an invention in the realm of software. The authors developed the Software Invention Cube

  8. Open source drug discovery--a new paradigm of collaborative research in tuberculosis drug development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhardwaj, Anshu; Scaria, Vinod; Raghava, Gajendra Pal Singh; Lynn, Andrew Michael; Chandra, Nagasuma; Banerjee, Sulagna; Raghunandanan, Muthukurussi V; Pandey, Vikas; Taneja, Bhupesh; Yadav, Jyoti; Dash, Debasis; Bhattacharya, Jaijit; Misra, Amit; Kumar, Anil; Ramachandran, Srinivasan; Thomas, Zakir; Brahmachari, Samir K

    2011-09-01

    It is being realized that the traditional closed-door and market driven approaches for drug discovery may not be the best suited model for the diseases of the developing world such as tuberculosis and malaria, because most patients suffering from these diseases have poor paying capacity. To ensure that new drugs are created for patients suffering from these diseases, it is necessary to formulate an alternate paradigm of drug discovery process. The current model constrained by limitations for collaboration and for sharing of resources with confidentiality hampers the opportunities for bringing expertise from diverse fields. These limitations hinder the possibilities of lowering the cost of drug discovery. The Open Source Drug Discovery project initiated by Council of Scientific and Industrial Research, India has adopted an open source model to power wide participation across geographical borders. Open Source Drug Discovery emphasizes integrative science through collaboration, open-sharing, taking up multi-faceted approaches and accruing benefits from advances on different fronts of new drug discovery. Because the open source model is based on community participation, it has the potential to self-sustain continuous development by generating a storehouse of alternatives towards continued pursuit for new drug discovery. Since the inventions are community generated, the new chemical entities developed by Open Source Drug Discovery will be taken up for clinical trial in a non-exclusive manner by participation of multiple companies with majority funding from Open Source Drug Discovery. This will ensure availability of drugs through a lower cost community driven drug discovery process for diseases afflicting people with poor paying capacity. Hopefully what LINUX the World Wide Web have done for the information technology, Open Source Drug Discovery will do for drug discovery. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. The law aspects of biotechnology patenting. The living source between discovery and invention; Aspetti giuridici del brevetto biotecnologico. La materia vivente tra scoperta e invenzione

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fontanella, G.; Cantale, C.; Galeffi, P. [ENEA, Divisione Biotecnologie e Agricoltura, Centro Ricerche Casaccia, Rome (Italy); Ariemma, S. [ENEA, Unita' Amministrazione, Finanza e Controllo, Centro Ricerche Casaccia, Rome (Italy)

    2001-07-01

    The aim of this work is to provide a comprehensive and consistent description of the complexity of laws regulating the field of biotechnology, mainly focusing on the definition of items to be patented, which is one of the most important and also controversial issues within the new 98/44/EC set of rules. As biotechnology is a specialist and multidisciplinary field, it has begun by giving a general description of the field, outlining the grounds for the new rules, and then thoroughly examined and evaluated previous national and international laws especially with regard to patenting. This was followed by an evaluation of what can be patented according to the new instructions by systematically assessing the section defining items to be patented in the field of biotechnology. It is used to be a matter of opinion whether biotechnological material was to be considered a discovery or an invention, the former being impatentable according to patenting laws. The new law pays particular attention to the question of patenting living matter and removes any pre-existing doubt about the patentibility of biotechnological inventions. The special patenting rules were also examined for the neighbouring fields of plant and animal species. In relation to the new patenting instructions, it was tried to establish how drastically the requirements and the premises of patenting, as generally described in the European Patenting Convention, should have been tailored by the authorities in order to reach a more general definition to fit industrial invention. Careful examination of these instructions led everyone to draw some conclusions: the 98/44/EC represents the first set of rules solving some of the problems related to applying patenting regulations in the field of biotechnology. Furthermore, it recognizes the particular characteristics and special requirements of this field and therefore the necessity for distinct indications. Uncertainty remains, however, as a result of some poorly defined

  10. The law aspects of biotechnology patenting. The living source between discovery and invention; Aspetti giuridici del brevetto biotecnologico. La materia vivente tra scoperta e invenzione

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fontanella, G; Cantale, C; Galeffi, P [ENEA, Divisione Biotecnologie e Agricoltura, Centro Ricerche Casaccia, Rome (Italy); Ariemma, S [ENEA, Unita' Amministrazione, Finanza e Controllo, Centro Ricerche Casaccia, Rome (Italy)

    2001-07-01

    The aim of this work is to provide a comprehensive and consistent description of the complexity of laws regulating the field of biotechnology, mainly focusing on the definition of items to be patented, which is one of the most important and also controversial issues within the new 98/44/EC set of rules. As biotechnology is a specialist and multidisciplinary field, it has begun by giving a general description of the field, outlining the grounds for the new rules, and then thoroughly examined and evaluated previous national and international laws especially with regard to patenting. This was followed by an evaluation of what can be patented according to the new instructions by systematically assessing the section defining items to be patented in the field of biotechnology. It is used to be a matter of opinion whether biotechnological material was to be considered a discovery or an invention, the former being impatentable according to patenting laws. The new law pays particular attention to the question of patenting living matter and removes any pre-existing doubt about the patentibility of biotechnological inventions. The special patenting rules were also examined for the neighbouring fields of plant and animal species. In relation to the new patenting instructions, it was tried to establish how drastically the requirements and the premises of patenting, as generally described in the European Patenting Convention, should have been tailored by the authorities in order to reach a more general definition to fit industrial invention. Careful examination of these instructions led everyone to draw some conclusions: the 98/44/EC represents the first set of rules solving some of the problems related to applying patenting regulations in the field of biotechnology. Furthermore, it recognizes the particular characteristics and special requirements of this field and therefore the necessity for distinct indications. Uncertainty remains, however, as a result of some poorly defined

  11. EPA-developed, patented technologies related to miscellaneous areas of environmental experties and invention that are available for licensing

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Under the Federal Technology Transfer Act (FTTA), Federal Agencies can patent inventions developed during the course of research. These technologies can then be...

  12. Making Patent Scopes Exceed the Technological Scopes of Scientific Inventions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beukel, Karin

    This paper presents the results of a grounded theory study of the transformation of scientific discoveries into patented inventions. Using an algebraic interpretive approach, the narratives collected during interviews are analyzed as Bayesian inferences and the developed theory is tested. The fin...... for searching in new directions for solutions if challenges of exploitation with regard to the scientific invention arise.......This paper presents the results of a grounded theory study of the transformation of scientific discoveries into patented inventions. Using an algebraic interpretive approach, the narratives collected during interviews are analyzed as Bayesian inferences and the developed theory is tested....... The findings recast the relationship between science and patents as a process in which the way the transformation of the scientific invention is handled has an effect on the breadth of the patent scope. Unleashing patent scope surplus is dependent on processes related to abstraction and cognitive variety...

  13. The Invention Notebook Challenge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roman, Harry T.

    2018-01-01

    Like scientists who keep lab notebooks detailing their experiments, inventors keep invention notebooks that chronologically detail the inception, development, and refinement of their inventions. These notebooks are legal documents that can help prove one inventor's precedent over another. Scenarios like these are very real, as the author has had…

  14. [Medical inventions: developments and approaches in employer-employee [correction of worker-employee] relations].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teff, Zvi

    2012-11-01

    The past twenty years have witnessed a huge increase in research activity on the government health system in Israel. Consequently, a number of questions of enhanced importance arise: to whom the resultant IP (intellectual property) belongs?--to the researcher or the employer? and what compensation should the researcher receive for his inventive efforts? The government found many cases where the IP was registered in the name of the inventor/researcher, thus denying the government ownership of the IP. In 2009, the government sued Omryx over ownership of such an IP. Following these developments, the government issued new rules for management of IP in the government health system. They came into effect in November 2010. In many respects, the new rules are more stringent than the Israeli Patent Law in respect of the inventor. However, the stipulation of awards to the inventor in the new rules is generous. In order for the new rules to be enforceable, the following guidelines are recommended: The new rules should be more aligned with the Patent Law and with the meaning given to the Law by the judicial system, and There is need for the assent and awareness of health system workers to the conditions set out in the new rules, preferably in the form of new work contracts that clearly and concurrently delineate the worker's duties, particularly those pertaining to IP.

  15. The Transformation of Science Into Patented Inventions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beukel, Karin

    This paper presents the results of a grounded theory study of the transformation of scientific discoveries into patented inventions. Using an algebraic interpretive approach, the narratives collected during interviews are analyzed as Bayesian inferences and the developed theory is tested. The fin......This paper presents the results of a grounded theory study of the transformation of scientific discoveries into patented inventions. Using an algebraic interpretive approach, the narratives collected during interviews are analyzed as Bayesian inferences and the developed theory is tested....... The findings recast the relationship between science and patents as a process in which the way the transformation of the scientific invention is handled has an effect on the breadth of the patent scope. Unleashing patent scope surplus is dependent on processes related to abstraction and cognitive variety......, which can be mobilized by patent experts with both an in-depth understanding of the scientific discovery, due to their educational background in the life sciences, and capabilities within the legal framework for patenting. More specifically, the findings reveal previously unreported aspects...

  16. Science of invention patent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Yeong Taek; Park, Su Dong

    1999-02-01

    This book tells science of invention patent about new way of invention and creative solution for problems, basic conception of TRIZ, resolution of physical contradictory and technical contradictory, development of system and types of evolution, change of thinking for solving the problems, analysis of structure for problem solution, problem solution using scientific phenomenon and effect, use of standard solution and algorithm of creative problem solution.

  17. From Invention to Innovation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rorke, M.

    2000-07-18

    The Inventions and Innovation Program, formerly known as ERIP (Energy-related Inventions Program), was established by the U.S. Congress in 1974. The program offers assistance to independent inventors and very small businesses engaged in developing new energy-saving technologies. The program remains clearly focused on energy generation and savings. The I&I Program funding is based on a competitive proposal process.

  18. Developing a new model for the invention and translation of neurotechnologies in academic neurosurgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leuthardt, Eric C

    2013-01-01

    There is currently an acceleration of new scientific and technical capabilities that create new opportunities for academic neurosurgery. To engage these changing dynamics, the Center for Innovation in Neuroscience and Technology (CINT) was created on the premise that successful innovation of device-related ideas relies on collaboration between multiple disciplines. The CINT has created a unique model that integrates scientific, medical, engineering, and legal/business experts to participate in the continuum from idea generation to translation. To detail the method by which this model has been implemented in the Department of Neurological Surgery at Washington University in St. Louis and the experience that has been accrued thus far. The workflow is structured to enable cross-disciplinary interaction, both intramurally and extramurally between academia and industry. This involves a structured method for generating, evaluating, and prototyping promising device concepts. The process begins with the "invention session," which consists of a structured exchange between inventors from diverse technical and medical backgrounds. Successful ideas, which pass a separate triage mechanism, are then sent to industry-sponsored multidisciplinary fellowships to create functioning prototypes. After 3 years, the CINT has engaged 32 clinical and nonclinical inventors, resulting in 47 ideas, 16 fellowships, and 12 patents, for which 7 have been licensed to industry. Financial models project that if commercially successful, device sales could have a notable impact on departmental revenue. The CINT is a model that supports an integrated approach from the time an idea is created through its translational development. To date, the approach has been successful in creating numerous concepts that have led to industry licenses. In the long term, this model will create a novel revenue stream to support the academic neurosurgical mission.

  19. The discovery and development of antiretroviral agents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lange, Joep M. A.; Ananworanich, Jintanat

    2014-01-01

    Since the discovery of HIV as the causative agent of AIDS in 1983/1984, remarkable progress has been made in finding antiretroviral drugs (ARVs) that are effective against it. A major breakthrough occurred in 1996 when it was found that triple drug therapy (HAART) could durably suppress viral

  20. How can I invent?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Yeon Jung

    2001-10-15

    This book gives descriptions of how to invent with various and useful tips. The contents of this book are set up the proper goal according to your condition, let's find the other use, change the order and put a replacement, search more convenience, have application of color characteristic, imitation is beginning of the invention, convert imitation into creation, look into the deserted idea, learn the basic science, catch the stream of times, try to study hard, have a big dream, change your way of thinking, develop the system, and throw away the stereotype.

  1. How can I invent?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Yeon Jung

    2001-10-01

    This book gives descriptions of how to invent with various and useful tips. The contents of this book are set up the proper goal according to your condition, let's find the other use, change the order and put a replacement, search more convenience, have application of color characteristic, imitation is beginning of the invention, convert imitation into creation, look into the deserted idea, learn the basic science, catch the stream of times, try to study hard, have a big dream, change your way of thinking, develop the system, and throw away the stereotype.

  2. Gas, gas, gas... discoveries and developments booming worldwide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maxwell, F.

    2000-01-01

    Deep water exploration is yielding more than billion barrel oil fields. Unocal's 3 May discovery of 2-3 Tcf of gas in its Kutei block of Indonesia marks the first major discovery of natural gas in the deep water frontier: Wildcats Gula and Gada were drilled in over 1800 m of water as part of an aggressive search for gas instigated by Unocal last year. The author makes a survey of gas exploration and development throughout the world. (author)

  3. Discovery and development of new antibacterial drugs: learning from experience?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Nicole; Czaplewski, Lloyd; Piddock, Laura J V

    2018-06-01

    Antibiotic (antibacterial) resistance is a serious global problem and the need for new treatments is urgent. The current antibiotic discovery model is not delivering new agents at a rate that is sufficient to combat present levels of antibiotic resistance. This has led to fears of the arrival of a 'post-antibiotic era'. Scientific difficulties, an unfavourable regulatory climate, multiple company mergers and the low financial returns associated with antibiotic drug development have led to the withdrawal of many pharmaceutical companies from the field. The regulatory climate has now begun to improve, but major scientific hurdles still impede the discovery and development of novel antibacterial agents. To facilitate discovery activities there must be increased understanding of the scientific problems experienced by pharmaceutical companies. This must be coupled with addressing the current antibiotic resistance crisis so that compounds and ultimately drugs are delivered to treat the most urgent clinical challenges. By understanding the causes of the failures and successes of the pharmaceutical industry's research history, duplication of discovery programmes will be reduced, increasing the productivity of the antibiotic drug discovery pipeline by academia and small companies. The most important scientific issues to address are getting molecules into the Gram-negative bacterial cell and avoiding their efflux. Hence screening programmes should focus their efforts on whole bacterial cells rather than cell-free systems. Despite falling out of favour with pharmaceutical companies, natural product research still holds promise for providing new molecules as a basis for discovery.

  4. Discovery and Development of Calcium Channel Blockers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Théophile Godfraind

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available In the mid 1960s, experimental work on molecules under screening as coronary dilators allowed the discovery of the mechanism of calcium entry blockade by drugs later named calcium channel blockers. This paper summarizes scientific research on these small molecules interacting directly with L-type voltage-operated calcium channels. It also reports on experimental approaches translated into understanding of their therapeutic actions. The importance of calcium in muscle contraction was discovered by Sidney Ringer who reported this fact in 1883. Interest in the intracellular role of calcium arose 60 years later out of Kamada (Japan and Heibrunn (USA experiments in the early 1940s. Studies on pharmacology of calcium function were initiated in the mid 1960s and their therapeutic applications globally occurred in the the 1980s. The first part of this report deals with basic pharmacology in the cardiovascular system particularly in isolated arteries. In the section entitled from calcium antagonists to calcium channel blockers, it is recalled that drugs of a series of diphenylpiperazines screened in vivo on coronary bed precontracted by angiotensin were initially named calcium antagonists on the basis of their effect in depolarized arteries contracted by calcium. Studies on arteries contracted by catecholamines showed that the vasorelaxation resulted from blockade of calcium entry. Radiochemical and electrophysiological studies performed with dihydropyridines allowed their cellular targets to be identified with L-type voltage-operated calcium channels. The modulated receptor theory helped the understanding of their variation in affinity dependent on arterial cell membrane potential and promoted the terminology calcium channel blocker (CCB of which the various chemical families are introduced in the paper. In the section entitled tissue selectivity of CCBs, it is shown that characteristics of the drug, properties of the tissue, and of the stimuli are

  5. Mathematical modeling for novel cancer drug discovery and development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ping; Brusic, Vladimir

    2014-10-01

    Mathematical modeling enables: the in silico classification of cancers, the prediction of disease outcomes, optimization of therapy, identification of promising drug targets and prediction of resistance to anticancer drugs. In silico pre-screened drug targets can be validated by a small number of carefully selected experiments. This review discusses the basics of mathematical modeling in cancer drug discovery and development. The topics include in silico discovery of novel molecular drug targets, optimization of immunotherapies, personalized medicine and guiding preclinical and clinical trials. Breast cancer has been used to demonstrate the applications of mathematical modeling in cancer diagnostics, the identification of high-risk population, cancer screening strategies, prediction of tumor growth and guiding cancer treatment. Mathematical models are the key components of the toolkit used in the fight against cancer. The combinatorial complexity of new drugs discovery is enormous, making systematic drug discovery, by experimentation, alone difficult if not impossible. The biggest challenges include seamless integration of growing data, information and knowledge, and making them available for a multiplicity of analyses. Mathematical models are essential for bringing cancer drug discovery into the era of Omics, Big Data and personalized medicine.

  6. Purinergic signalling: from discovery to current developments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burnstock, Geoffrey

    2014-01-01

    This lecture is about the history of the purinergic signalling concept. It begins with reference to the paper by Paton & Vane published in 1963, which identified non-cholinergic relaxation in response to vagal nerve stimulation in several species, although they suggested that it might be due to sympathetic adrenergic nerves in the vagal nerve trunk. Using the sucrose gap technique for simultaneous mechanical and electrical recordings in smooth muscle (developed while in Feldberg's department in the National Institute for Medical Research) of the guinea-pig taenia coli preparation (learned when working in Edith Bülbring's smooth muscle laboratory in Oxford Pharmacology), we showed that the hyperpolarizations recorded in the presence of antagonists to the classical autonomic neurotransmitters, acetylcholine and noradrenaline, were inhibitory junction potentials in response to non-adrenergic, non-cholinergic neurotransmission, mediated by intrinsic enteric nerves controlled by vagal and sacral parasympathetic nerves. We then showed that ATP satisfied the criteria needed to identify a neurotransmitter released by these nerves. Subsequently, it was shown that ATP is a cotransmitter in all nerves in the peripheral and central nervous systems. The receptors for purines and pyrimidines were cloned and characterized in the early 1990 s, and immunostaining showed that most non-neuronal cells as well as nerve cells expressed these receptors. The physiology and pathophysiology of purinergic signalling is discussed.

  7. Recent development of computational resources for new antibiotics discovery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kim, Hyun Uk; Blin, Kai; Lee, Sang Yup

    2017-01-01

    Understanding a complex working mechanism of biosynthetic gene clusters (BGCs) encoding secondary metabolites is a key to discovery of new antibiotics. Computational resources continue to be developed in order to better process increasing volumes of genome and chemistry data, and thereby better...

  8. Invention Zaman Barok dan Pengembangan Permainan Piano

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RIANTI MARDALENA PASARIBU

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Invention in Barok Era and The Development of Piano Lesson. In piano lesson, one material of parts towhich had been given is polyphony, which is an Invention from J.S. Invention is a basic fi nger-skill for pianist.Invention develops in the Baroque period. The baroque ideology is not only called as the reaction of Renaissance,but also as the continuing development from Renaissance. Invention is known in two forms. First is as a pianocomposition and second is as a piano play which can push a pianist to understand more about an arrangement thathe played and expressed.

  9. Integration of Antibody Array Technology into Drug Discovery and Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Wei; Whittaker, Kelly; Zhang, Huihua; Wu, Jian; Zhu, Si-Wei; Huang, Ruo-Pan

    Antibody arrays represent a high-throughput technique that enables the parallel detection of multiple proteins with minimal sample volume requirements. In recent years, antibody arrays have been widely used to identify new biomarkers for disease diagnosis or prognosis. Moreover, many academic research laboratories and commercial biotechnology companies are starting to apply antibody arrays in the field of drug discovery. In this review, some technical aspects of antibody array development and the various platforms currently available will be addressed; however, the main focus will be on the discussion of antibody array technologies and their applications in drug discovery. Aspects of the drug discovery process, including target identification, mechanisms of drug resistance, molecular mechanisms of drug action, drug side effects, and the application in clinical trials and in managing patient care, which have been investigated using antibody arrays in recent literature will be examined and the relevance of this technology in progressing this process will be discussed. Protein profiling with antibody array technology, in addition to other applications, has emerged as a successful, novel approach for drug discovery because of the well-known importance of proteins in cell events and disease development.

  10. From hero to Newcomen: the critical scientific and technological developments that led to the invention of the steam engine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitsikopoulos, Harry

    2013-09-01

    This essay provides an analytical account of the history of various steam devices by tracing the key technological and scientific developments culminating in the Savery and Newcomen models. It begins in antiquity with the writings of Hero of Alexandria, which were rediscovered and translated in Italy fourteen centuries later, followed by the construction of simple steam devices. The most decisive development comes in the middle of the seventeenth century with the overturning, through the experimental work of Torricelli, Pascal, and Guericke, of the Aristotelian dogma that no vacuum exists. The final stretch of this discovery process amounted to an Anglo-French race, with English inventors being more successful in the end.

  11. Accessing external innovation in drug discovery and development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tufféry, Pierre

    2015-06-01

    A decline in the productivity of the pharmaceutical industry research and development (R&D) pipeline has highlighted the need to reconsider the classical strategies of drug discovery and development, which are based on internal resources, and to identify new means to improve the drug discovery process. Accepting that the combination of internal and external ideas can improve innovation, ways to access external innovation, that is, opening projects to external contributions, have recently been sought. In this review, the authors look at a number of external innovation opportunities. These include increased interactions with academia via academic centers of excellence/innovation centers, better communication on projects using crowdsourcing or social media and new models centered on external providers such as built-to-buy startups or virtual pharmaceutical companies. The buzz for accessing external innovation relies on the pharmaceutical industry's major challenge to improve R&D productivity, a conjuncture favorable to increase interactions with academia and new business models supporting access to external innovation. So far, access to external innovation has mostly been considered during early stages of drug development, and there is room for enhancement. First outcomes suggest that external innovation should become part of drug development in the long term. However, the balance between internal and external developments in drug discovery can vary largely depending on the company strategies.

  12. How James Watt invented the copier forgotten inventions of our great scientists

    CERN Document Server

    Schils, René

    2012-01-01

    Features 25 different scientists and the ideas which may not have made them famous, but made history… Typically, we remember our greatest scientists from one single invention, one new formula or one incredible breakthrough. This narrow perspective does not give justice to the versatility of many scientists who also earned a reputation in other areas of science. James Watt, for instance, is known for inventing the steam engine, yet most people do not know that he also invented the copier. Alexander Graham Bell of course invented the telephone, but only few know that he invented artificial breathing equipment, a prototype of the ‘iron lung’. Edmond Halley, whose name is associated with the comet that visits Earth every 75 years, produced the first mortality tables, used for life insurances. This entertaining book is aimed at anyone who enjoys reading about inventions and discoveries by the most creative minds. Detailed illustrations of the forgotten designs and ideas enrich the work throughout.

  13. Natural product derived insecticides: discovery and development of spinetoram.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galm, Ute; Sparks, Thomas C

    2016-03-01

    This review highlights the importance of natural product research and industrial microbiology for product development in the agricultural industry, based on examples from Dow AgroSciences. It provides an overview of the discovery and development of spinetoram, a semisynthetic insecticide derived by a combination of a genetic block in a specific O-methylation of the rhamnose moiety of spinosad coupled with neural network-based QSAR and synthetic chemistry. It also emphasizes the key role that new technologies and multidisciplinary approaches play in the development of current spinetoram production strains.

  14. Development of Scientific Approach Based on Discovery Learning Module

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellizar, E.; Hardeli, H.; Beltris, S.; Suharni, R.

    2018-04-01

    Scientific Approach is a learning process, designed to make the students actively construct their own knowledge through stages of scientific method. The scientific approach in learning process can be done by using learning modules. One of the learning model is discovery based learning. Discovery learning is a learning model for the valuable things in learning through various activities, such as observation, experience, and reasoning. In fact, the students’ activity to construct their own knowledge were not optimal. It’s because the available learning modules were not in line with the scientific approach. The purpose of this study was to develop a scientific approach discovery based learning module on Acid Based, also on electrolyte and non-electrolyte solution. The developing process of this chemistry modules use the Plomp Model with three main stages. The stages are preliminary research, prototyping stage, and the assessment stage. The subject of this research was the 10th and 11th Grade of Senior High School students (SMAN 2 Padang). Validation were tested by the experts of Chemistry lecturers and teachers. Practicality of these modules had been tested through questionnaire. The effectiveness had been tested through experimental procedure by comparing student achievement between experiment and control groups. Based on the findings, it can be concluded that the developed scientific approach discovery based learning module significantly improve the students’ learning in Acid-based and Electrolyte solution. The result of the data analysis indicated that the chemistry module was valid in content, construct, and presentation. Chemistry module also has a good practicality level and also accordance with the available time. This chemistry module was also effective, because it can help the students to understand the content of the learning material. That’s proved by the result of learning student. Based on the result can conclude that chemistry module based on

  15. On teams, teamwork, and team performance: discoveries and developments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salas, Eduardo; Cooke, Nancy J; Rosen, Michael A

    2008-06-01

    We highlight some of the key discoveries and developments in the area of team performance over the past 50 years, especially as reflected in the pages of Human Factors. Teams increasingly have become a way of life in many organizations, and research has kept up with the pace. We have characterized progress in the field in terms of eight discoveries and five challenges. Discoveries pertain to the importance of shared cognition, the measurement of shared cognition, advances in team training, the use of synthetic task environments for research, factors influencing team effectiveness, models of team effectiveness, a multidisciplinary perspective, and training and technological interventions designed to improve team effectiveness. Challenges that are faced in the coming decades include an increased emphasis on team cognition; reconfigurable, adaptive teams; multicultural influences; and the need for naturalistic study and better measurement. Work in human factors has contributed significantly to the science and practice of teams, teamwork, and team performance. Future work must keep pace with the increasing use of teams in organizations. The science of teams contributes to team effectiveness in the same way that the science of individual performance contributes to individual effectiveness.

  16. Inventions leading to the development of the diagnostic test kit industry--from the modern pregnancy test to the sandwich assays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wide, Leif

    2005-01-01

    The universities are encouraged by the government nowadays to stimulate innovations and also to provide the proper machinery for assisting the protection and commercialisation of innovations. A better understanding of the innovation process may help to create an atmosphere suitable for inventions at the university. Examples can be taken from successful innovations previously made at the university. During the 1960's I made a series of inventions, which ultimately led to the development of the diagnostic test kit industry. The first, which I made as an undergraduate, was a simple and reliable test kit for diagnosis of pregnancy. This was followed by the solid phase radioimmunoassay and a solid phase assay for vitamin B12; next, the dual specific non-competitive sandwich assay and the in-vitro test for diagnosis of allergy, called RAST (Radioallergosorbent test). Organon in Holland with the pregnancy test kit, and Pharmacia in Sweden with test kits for radioimmunoassay, became pioneers among the diagnostic test kit industries. Pharmacia Diagnostics later became one of the leading diagnostic test kit companies in the world and has continued to be so in the field of allergy diagnosis. Each one of these inventions started with a few unique observations leading to a technical development. The pregnancy test as well as the allergy test emerged from the development of assay methods with unique qualities with the subsequent search for appropriate applications. The foreseeing of a commercial value on a future market was a very important step. This was followed by the search for a suitable industry interested to exploit the invention with its new business opportunity i.e. apply for a patent, produce and market the products, which in my case consisted of the necessary reagents and equipments for particular diagnostic tests. Finally, an agreement had to be settled between the entrepreneur and the inventors. This report describes these inventions and particularly discusses some

  17. Developing integrated crop knowledge networks to advance candidate gene discovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassani-Pak, Keywan; Castellote, Martin; Esch, Maria; Hindle, Matthew; Lysenko, Artem; Taubert, Jan; Rawlings, Christopher

    2016-12-01

    The chances of raising crop productivity to enhance global food security would be greatly improved if we had a complete understanding of all the biological mechanisms that underpinned traits such as crop yield, disease resistance or nutrient and water use efficiency. With more crop genomes emerging all the time, we are nearer having the basic information, at the gene-level, to begin assembling crop gene catalogues and using data from other plant species to understand how the genes function and how their interactions govern crop development and physiology. Unfortunately, the task of creating such a complete knowledge base of gene functions, interaction networks and trait biology is technically challenging because the relevant data are dispersed in myriad databases in a variety of data formats with variable quality and coverage. In this paper we present a general approach for building genome-scale knowledge networks that provide a unified representation of heterogeneous but interconnected datasets to enable effective knowledge mining and gene discovery. We describe the datasets and outline the methods, workflows and tools that we have developed for creating and visualising these networks for the major crop species, wheat and barley. We present the global characteristics of such knowledge networks and with an example linking a seed size phenotype to a barley WRKY transcription factor orthologous to TTG2 from Arabidopsis, we illustrate the value of integrated data in biological knowledge discovery. The software we have developed (www.ondex.org) and the knowledge resources (http://knetminer.rothamsted.ac.uk) we have created are all open-source and provide a first step towards systematic and evidence-based gene discovery in order to facilitate crop improvement.

  18. Patent Work: The Other Side of Invention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dillon, Tamara

    2009-01-01

    In popular culture, the inventor is often portrayed as a lone tinkerer who emerges from a workshop with some magnificent new device. In reality, most inventions are the collaborative effort of scientists and engineers--usually researchers affiliated with a college or corporation--that result in the discovery, creation, or improvement of either…

  19. Al Gore did Not Invent the Internet, Hans Christian Oersted did in 1820

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, James; Anand, Aman; Dahiya, Jai

    2009-04-01

    In this talk it will be shown how the simple process of a current in a wire producing ``action at a distance'' in a compass can lead to development of the telegraph, telephone, wireless communication and finally to the internet. This discovery led to the invention of a motor and an electric generator. Such simple discoveries often have profound effects on what we are able to do. A discussion of how activities based on this discovery are being used in the Regional Collaborative for Excellence in Science Teaching UNT to engage students and teachers in science activities. Hand out materials will be provided to the audience on these activities.

  20. Inventors and Inventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawson, Tom

    An 8-day unit introduces middle school students to American inventors and inventions. In separate lessons, students examine the patenting process, women inventors, minority inventors, Native American inventors, the airplane, Thomas Edison, and the impact of inventions on America's growth. A brief outline of daily lesson plans precedes a section of…

  1. Aristotle's "Rhetoric": Reinterpreting Invention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quandahl, Ellen

    1986-01-01

    Shows that Aristotle's common topics are part of a theory of interpretation rather than a collection of devices for invention. Argues that it is more Aristotelian and more useful to understand composing as interpretation and not invention. Uses scholarship to inform pedagogy and to reorient composing toward acts of reading. (EL)

  2. Leisure Time Invention

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Davis, Lee N.; Davis, Jerome D.; Hoisl, Karin

    2013-01-01

    the employee is away from the workplace. We build on existing theory in the fields of organizational creativity and knowledge recombination, especially work relating context to creativity. The paper’s main theoretical contribution is to extend our understanding of the boundaries of employee creativity......This paper studies the contextual factors that influence whether invention occurs during work time or leisure time. Leisure time invention, a potentially important but thus far largely unexplored source of employee creativity, refers to invention where the main underlying idea occurs while...... by adding to the discussion of how access to and exploitation of different types of resources—during work hours or during leisure time — may affect creativity. Based on survey data from more than 3,000 inventions from German employee inventors, we find that leisure time inventions are more frequently...

  3. Biomarkers as drug development tools: discovery, validation, qualification and use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraus, Virginia B

    2018-06-01

    The 21st Century Cures Act, approved in the USA in December 2016, has encouraged the establishment of the national Precision Medicine Initiative and the augmentation of efforts to address disease prevention, diagnosis and treatment on the basis of a molecular understanding of disease. The Act adopts into law the formal process, developed by the FDA, of qualification of drug development tools, including biomarkers and clinical outcome assessments, to increase the efficiency of clinical trials and encourage an era of molecular medicine. The FDA and European Medicines Agency (EMA) have developed similar processes for the qualification of biomarkers intended for use as companion diagnostics or for development and regulatory approval of a drug or therapeutic. Biomarkers that are used exclusively for the diagnosis, monitoring or stratification of patients in clinical trials are not subject to regulatory approval, although their qualification can facilitate the conduct of a trial. In this Review, the salient features of biomarker discovery, analytical validation, clinical qualification and utilization are described in order to provide an understanding of the process of biomarker development and, through this understanding, convey an appreciation of their potential advantages and limitations.

  4. Scenario Educational Software: Design and Development of Discovery Learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keegan, Mark

    This book shows how and why the computer is so well suited to producing discovery learning environments. An examination of the literature outlines four basic modes of instruction: didactic, Socratic, inquiry, and discovery. Research from the fields of education, psychology, and physiology is presented to demonstrate the many strengths of…

  5. 78 FR 31948 - Government-Owned Inventions; Availability for Licensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-28

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health Government-Owned Inventions... research and development. Foreign patent applications are filed on selected inventions to extend market... libraries Optimization assay to further develop potential drug candidates Competitive Advantages: Fast...

  6. Current Technology in the Discovery and Development of Novel Antibacterials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Pooi Yin

    2018-01-01

    Bacterial resistance to antibiotics is one of the most serious challenge to global public health. The introduction of new antibiotics in clinical settings, i.e. agents that belong to a new class of antibacterials, act on new targets or has a novel mechanisms of action, may not be sufficient to cope with the emergence of multidrug-resistant pathogens such as Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus pneumoniae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Acinetobacter baumannii and Escherichia coli, which are increasingly prevalent in healthcare settings in Europe, the USA and Asia. Hence, coordinated efforts in minimizing the risk of spread of resistant bacteria and renewing research efforts in the search for novel antibacterial agents are urgently needed to manage this global crisis. This review highlights the challenges and potential in using current technologies in the discovery and development of novel antibacterial agents to keep up with the constantly evolving resistance in bacteria. With the explosion of bacterial genomic data and rapid development of new sequencing technologies, the understanding of bacterial pathogenesis and identification of novel antibiotic targets have significantly improved. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  7. Drug discovery and development tomorrow -- changing the mindset.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coleman, Robert A

    2009-09-01

    Today's drug discovery and development paradigm is not working, and something needs to be done about it. There is good reason to believe that a move away from reliance on animal surrogates for human subjects in the Pharma Industry's R&D programmes could provide an important step forward. However, no serious move will be made in that direction until there is some hard evidence that it will be rewarded with improved productivity outcomes. The Safer Medicines Trust are proposing that a study be undertaken, involving a range of drugs that have been approved for human use, but have subsequently proved to have limitations in terms of safety and/or efficacy. The aim is to determine the efficiency of a battery of human-based test methods to identify a compound's safety and efficacy profiles, and to compare this with that of the more traditional, largely animal-based methods that were employed in their original development. Should such an approach prove more reliable, the authorities will be faced with important decisions relating to the role of human biological test data in regulatory submissions, while the Pharma Industry will be faced with the key logistical issue of how to acquire the human biomaterials necessary to make possible the routine application of such test methods. 2009 FRAME.

  8. Discovery, clinical development, and therapeutic uses of bisphosphonates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Licata, Angelo A

    2005-04-01

    To review the literature concerning the history, development, and therapeutic uses of bisphosphonates. English-language articles were identified through a search of MEDLINE (through December 2004) using the key word bisphosphonate. Reference lists of pivotal studies, reviews, and full prescribing information for the approved agents were also examined. Selected studies included those that discussed the discovery and initial applications of bisphosphonates, as well as their historical development, pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic properties, and current therapeutic uses. Bisphosphonates structurally resemble pyrophosphates (naturally occurring polyphosphates) and have demonstrated similar physicochemical effects to pyrophosphates. In addition, bisphosphonates reduce bone turnover and resist hydrolysis when administered orally. The information gained from initial work with etidronate generated a considerable scientific effort to design new and more effective bisphosphonates. The PCP moiety in the general bisphosphonate structure is essential for binding to hydroxyapatite and allows for a number of chemical variations by changing the 2 lateral side chains (designated R(1) and R(2)). The R(1) side chain determines binding affinity to hydroxyapatite, and the R(2) side chain determines antiresorptive potency. Accordingly, each bisphosphonate has its own characteristic profile of activity. The bisphosphonates reduce bone turnover, increase bone mass, and decrease fracture risk and therefore have a significant place in the management of skeletal disorders including osteoporosis, Paget's disease, bone metastases, osteogenesis imperfecta, and heterotopic ossification.

  9. Technology development for gene discovery and full-length sequencing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marcelo Bento Soares

    2004-07-19

    In previous years, with support from the U.S. Department of Energy, we developed methods for construction of normalized and subtracted cDNA libraries, and constructed hundreds of high-quality libraries for production of Expressed Sequence Tags (ESTs). Our clones were made widely available to the scientific community through the IMAGE Consortium, and millions of ESTs were produced from our libraries either by collaborators or by our own sequencing laboratory at the University of Iowa. During this grant period, we focused on (1) the development of a method for preferential cloning of tissue-specific and/or rare transcripts, (2) its utilization to expedite EST-based gene discovery for the NIH Mouse Brain Molecular Anatomy Project, (3) further development and optimization of a method for construction of full-length-enriched cDNA libraries, and (4) modification of a plasmid vector to maximize efficiency of full-length cDNA sequencing by the transposon-mediated approach. It is noteworthy that the technology developed for preferential cloning of rare mRNAs enabled identification of over 2,000 mouse transcripts differentially expressed in the hippocampus. In addition, the method that we optimized for construction of full-length-enriched cDNA libraries was successfully utilized for the production of approximately fifty libraries from the developing mouse nervous system, from which over 2,500 full-ORF-containing cDNAs have been identified and accurately sequenced in their entirety either by our group or by the NIH-Mammalian Gene Collection Program Sequencing Team.

  10. Neuroscience-driven discovery and development of sleep therapeutics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dresler, M.; Spoormaker, V.I.; Beitinger, P.; Czisch, M.; Kimura, M.; Steiger, A.; Holsboer, F.

    2014-01-01

    Until recently, neuroscience has given sleep research and discovery of better treatments of sleep disturbances little attention, despite the fact that disturbed sleep has overwhelming impact on human health. Sleep is a complex phenomenon in which specific psychological, electrophysiological,

  11. The discovery and development of uranium in Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glasson, K.R.

    1988-01-01

    The history of the discovery of Australia's uranium deposits is reviewed. The exploration can be conveniently divided into three periods - pre-1944, when the only significant discoveries were made by prospectors in South Australia at Radium Hill and Mount Painter; 1944-1960 and post-1967. The second period saw uranium discoveries in the Northern Territory and Queensland, most of which were made by prospectors using hand-held geiger counters and rewarded by the Australian Government. Since 1967 new deposits have been found in the Northern Territory, Queensland, South Australia and Western Australia by companies using maps, airborne radiometric surveys and sophisticated equipment. The step from the discovery of Mary Kathleen by prospectors to finding Roxby Downs by a combination of geophysical methods, geological concepts and deep drilling was a very big one

  12. L’invention instrumentale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacques Dewitte

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available L’instrument de musique n’a pas d’identité déterminée avant qu’il ne soit joué par un musicien concret, ou utilisé dans une œuvre singulière. Pour Stravinsky, l’instrument de musique « n’est rien en soi ». C’est l’œuvre, comme invention et création, qui donne à l’instrument son identité, sur la base de propriétés organologiques préexistantes. Les œuvres de Stravinsky pour petite formation illustrent cette idée d’une invention de l’instrument de musique par l’œuvre qu’il joue, ainsi que son amour pour des instruments nouveaux ou « nouveaux pour lui » (le cymbalum. L’invention instrumentale (qui n’est pas ici création d’un nouvel instrument consiste à faire sonner de manière neuve un instrument déjà existant. Cette invention suppose une « érotique » musicale, un amour spécifique pour les instruments et les altérités dont ils sont porteurs. Tout se passe alors comme si un a priori (une possibilité musicale enfouie dans l’instrumentA musical instrument has no specific identity until it is played by a concrete musician or used in a singular work. According to Stravinsky, a musical instrument is « nothing in itself ». Only a work, as a process of invention and creation, gives an instrument its identity on the basis of pre-existing organologic properties. Stravinsky’s works for small ensembles show how musical instruments may be invented by the work which they play, as well as the composer’s love for instruments that are new or “new for him” (such as the cymbalo. Musical invention (which does not mean here the creation of a new instrument consists in giving a new ring to an existing instrument. This kind of invention implies a notion of musical “eroticism”, that is a specific love for instruments and the otherness they may bear. Everything is happening as though an a priori quality (a musical possibility buried in the instrument appeared only a posteriori

  13. 75 FR 66766 - NIAID Blue Ribbon Panel Meeting on Adjuvant Discovery and Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-29

    ..., identifies gaps in knowledge and capabilities, and defines NIAID's goals for the continued discovery...), will convene a Blue Ribbon Panel to provide expertise in developing a strategic plan and research... vaccines. NIAID has developed a draft Strategic Plan and Research Agenda for Adjuvant Discovery and...

  14. Invention note and patent note

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, Sung Su

    1997-09-01

    This book deals with origin of invention and term related patent and invention, making idea, brain storming, 10 laws of invention skill, attitude of inventors, invention order, making good inventions, patent system, preparation of application, procedure and method of patent, management of patent, patent and trademark office, patent lawyer, copyright, new intellectual property right, industrial property right, trademark, invasion of industrial property right, patent, Judgment, preparation of items, application of industrial property right and effect of inventor and related people.

  15. Stem cell technology for drug discovery and development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hook, Lilian A

    2012-04-01

    Stem cells have enormous potential to revolutionise the drug discovery process at all stages, from target identification through to toxicology studies. Their ability to generate physiologically relevant cells in limitless supply makes them an attractive alternative to currently used recombinant cell lines or primary cells. However, realisation of the full potential of stem cells is currently hampered by the difficulty in routinely directing stem cell differentiation to reproducibly and cost effectively generate pure populations of specific cell types. In this article we discuss how stem cells have already been used in the drug discovery process and how novel technologies, particularly in relation to stem cell differentiation, can be applied to attain widespread adoption of stem cell technology by the pharmaceutical industry. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Fluoxetine: a case history of its discovery and preclinical development

    OpenAIRE

    Perez-Caballero, Laura; Torres-Sanchez, Sonia; Bravo, Lidia; Mico, Juan A.; Berrocoso, Esther

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Depression is a multifactorial mood disorder with a high prevalence worldwide. Until now, treatments for depression have focused on the inhibition of monoaminergic reuptake sites, which augment the bioavailability of monoamines in the CNS. Advances in drug discovery have widened the therapeutic options with the synthesis of so-called selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs), such as fluoxetine. Areas covered: The aim of this case history is to describe and discuss the ...

  17. Recent developments concerning the discovery of elements 101-111

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greenwood, N.N.

    1997-01-01

    The addition of eleven new elements (Z=101-111) to the Periodic Table during the past 40 years has involved outstanding feats of intellectual and experimental virtuosity. Some of the discoveries have been widely accepted but others have been hotly contested and this has led to distressingly persistent disagreements concerning priority. For this reason IUPAC and IUPAP (Physics) set up a joint Transfermium Working Group (TWG) in 1987 to recommend ''the criteria that must be satisfied for the discovery of a new element to be recognised'' and to apply these criteria to questions of priority in the discovery of the transfermium elements (Z > 100). After several years of detailed work the TWG published their extensive studies and conclusions, and these have been accepted by both IUPAC and IUPAP. Many subtle and difficult points were considered and these will be discussed in this lecture together with the TWG's final recommendations, which have been widely though not universally accepted by the scientific community. The separate question of names and symbols for the new elements with Z > 103 has not yet been finally resolved but will be briefly discussed. (Author)

  18. Multiple, connective intellection: the condition for invention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C S (Fanie de Beer

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Since this article involves invention, the conditions for inventiveness become the issue: assuming multiple reality; thinking in a special way; transgressing boundaries; acknowledging networks (in the terms of Michel Serres: communication, transduction, interference, distribution, passages between the sciences. There are, however, misplaced expectations: technology should work wonders in this regard while forgetting that humans, redefined though, remain the key to establish connections and networks between people, paradigms, disciplines, sciences and technologies. Against this background, Michel Serres’s emphasis on invention and “thinking as invention” and his a-critical anti-method – ‘connective, multiple intellection’ which is a special kind of thought – are desperately needed. Guattari’s articulation of the three ecologies and the ecosophic views he developed in this regard provides a significant amplification of the approach of ‘multiple connective intellection’. These insights can be enlightened and strongly driven home through the views of Latour with an anthropological and socio-dynamic perspective on the scientific endeavour with the articulation of the actor-network theory inherited from Serres. The thoughtful beyond-methodology of Edgar Morin with his strong noological position as the ultimate condition for inventiveness, and Gregory Ulmer with his special emphasis on invention and inventiveness, especially with the help and assistance of electronic means (video and internet, and with his work with the architect Bernard Tschumi on invention and inventiveness, are of special significance in the sphere of inventiveness, the real and final guarantee for a spirited re-enchantment of the world as well as the final demonstration that the battle for intelligence as opposed to ignorance, stupidity and barbarism can be fought with great hope to succeed.

  19. Mass spectrometry-driven drug discovery for development of herbal medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Aihua; Sun, Hui; Wang, Xijun

    2018-05-01

    Herbal medicine (HM) has made a major contribution to the drug discovery process with regard to identifying products compounds. Currently, more attention has been focused on drug discovery from natural compounds of HM. Despite the rapid advancement of modern analytical techniques, drug discovery is still a difficult and lengthy process. Fortunately, mass spectrometry (MS) can provide us with useful structural information for drug discovery, has been recognized as a sensitive, rapid, and high-throughput technology for advancing drug discovery from HM in the post-genomic era. It is essential to develop an efficient, high-quality, high-throughput screening method integrated with an MS platform for early screening of candidate drug molecules from natural products. We have developed a new chinmedomics strategy reliant on MS that is capable of capturing the candidate molecules, facilitating their identification of novel chemical structures in the early phase; chinmedomics-guided natural product discovery based on MS may provide an effective tool that addresses challenges in early screening of effective constituents of herbs against disease. This critical review covers the use of MS with related techniques and methodologies for natural product discovery, biomarker identification, and determination of mechanisms of action. It also highlights high-throughput chinmedomics screening methods suitable for lead compound discovery illustrated by recent successes. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Recent development in software and automation tools for high-throughput discovery bioanalysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shou, Wilson Z; Zhang, Jun

    2012-05-01

    Bioanalysis with LC-MS/MS has been established as the method of choice for quantitative determination of drug candidates in biological matrices in drug discovery and development. The LC-MS/MS bioanalytical support for drug discovery, especially for early discovery, often requires high-throughput (HT) analysis of large numbers of samples (hundreds to thousands per day) generated from many structurally diverse compounds (tens to hundreds per day) with a very quick turnaround time, in order to provide important activity and liability data to move discovery projects forward. Another important consideration for discovery bioanalysis is its fit-for-purpose quality requirement depending on the particular experiments being conducted at this stage, and it is usually not as stringent as those required in bioanalysis supporting drug development. These aforementioned attributes of HT discovery bioanalysis made it an ideal candidate for using software and automation tools to eliminate manual steps, remove bottlenecks, improve efficiency and reduce turnaround time while maintaining adequate quality. In this article we will review various recent developments that facilitate automation of individual bioanalytical procedures, such as sample preparation, MS/MS method development, sample analysis and data review, as well as fully integrated software tools that manage the entire bioanalytical workflow in HT discovery bioanalysis. In addition, software tools supporting the emerging high-resolution accurate MS bioanalytical approach are also discussed.

  1. Biomarker Discovery in Gulf War Veterans: Development of a War Illness Diagnostic Panel

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-12-01

    Award Number: W81XWH-12-1-0382 TITLE: Biomarker Discovery in Gulf War Veterans: Development of a War Illness Diagnostic Panel PRINCIPAL...SUBTITLE Biomarker Discovery in Gulf War Veterans: Development of a War Illness Diagnostic Panel 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER W81XWH-12-1-0382 5b. GRANT...of the 1990-1991 Gulf War are affected by Gulf War illness (GWI), the chronic condition currently defined only by veterans’ self-reported symptoms

  2. Common characteristics of open source software development and applicability for drug discovery: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ardal, Christine; Alstadsæter, Annette; Røttingen, John-Arne

    2011-09-28

    Innovation through an open source model has proven to be successful for software development. This success has led many to speculate if open source can be applied to other industries with similar success. We attempt to provide an understanding of open source software development characteristics for researchers, business leaders and government officials who may be interested in utilizing open source innovation in other contexts and with an emphasis on drug discovery. A systematic review was performed by searching relevant, multidisciplinary databases to extract empirical research regarding the common characteristics and barriers of initiating and maintaining an open source software development project. Common characteristics to open source software development pertinent to open source drug discovery were extracted. The characteristics were then grouped into the areas of participant attraction, management of volunteers, control mechanisms, legal framework and physical constraints. Lastly, their applicability to drug discovery was examined. We believe that the open source model is viable for drug discovery, although it is unlikely that it will exactly follow the form used in software development. Hybrids will likely develop that suit the unique characteristics of drug discovery. We suggest potential motivations for organizations to join an open source drug discovery project. We also examine specific differences between software and medicines, specifically how the need for laboratories and physical goods will impact the model as well as the effect of patents.

  3. Not-Invented-Here

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burcharth, Ana Luiza Lara de Araújo; Fosfuri, Andrea

    knowledge, the so-called Not-Invented-Here (NIH) syndrome. Drawing on multi-informant survey data of small and medium-sized Danish enterprises, the paper finds that socialization practices are an important driver of the NIH syndrome with such an effect being attenuated in technologically highly specialized......The management literature has highlighted several potential benefits of socialization practices within companies. By contrast, this paper posits that socialization practices, by fostering a higher degree of company identity, contribute to generate a greater reluctance to the adoption of external...

  4. I can invent

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Yeon Jung

    2001-10-15

    This book introduces the inventions which are unique and interesting. The titles of these are pots which boil very quick and safe, a desk with a pencil case, a scale which is not rusty, a book cover with a pocket, a skate with wax and mop, a seat belt airbag, a desk lamp which can control the light, a desk in the future, a recycling bin for cans, a blackboard eraser which erase very well, a useful crutches, swimming goggles attached convex lens, flower pots using waste tires, toilet paper holder with sawtooth, a brush which washes a flask, improved pump for petroleum.

  5. I can invent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Yeon Jung

    2001-10-01

    This book introduces the inventions which are unique and interesting. The titles of these are pots which boil very quick and safe, a desk with a pencil case, a scale which is not rusty, a book cover with a pocket, a skate with wax and mop, a seat belt airbag, a desk lamp which can control the light, a desk in the future, a recycling bin for cans, a blackboard eraser which erase very well, a useful crutches, swimming goggles attached convex lens, flower pots using waste tires, toilet paper holder with sawtooth, a brush which washes a flask, improved pump for petroleum.

  6. Re-Inventing Infectious Disease: Antibiotic Resistance and Drug Development at the Bayer Company 1945-80.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gradmann, Christoph

    2016-04-01

    This paper analyses how research on antibiotic resistance has been a driving force in the development of new antibiotics. Drug resistance, while being a problem for physicians and patients, offers attractive perspectives for those who research and develop new medicines. It imposes limits on the usability of older medicines and simultaneously modifies pathologies in a way that opens markets for new treatments. Studying resistance can thus be an important part of developing and marketing antibiotics. The chosen example is that of the German pharmaceutical company Bayer. Before World War Two, Bayer had pioneered the development of anti-infective chemotherapy, sulpha drugs in particular, but had missed the boat when it came to fungal antibiotics. Exacerbated by the effects of war, Bayer's world market presence, which had been considerable prior to the war, had plummeted. In this critical situation, the company opted for a development strategy that tried to capitalise on the problems created by the use of first-generation antibiotics. Part and parcel of this strategy was monitoring what can be called the structural change of infectious disease. In practice, this meant to focus on pathologies resulting from resistance and hospital infections. In addition, Bayer also focused on lifestyle pathologies such as athlete's foot. This paper will follow drug development and marketing at Bayer from 1945 to about 1980. In this period, Bayer managed to regain some of its previous standing in markets but could not escape from the overall crisis of anti-infective drug development from the 1970s on.

  7. New Generation Discovery: A Systematic View for Its Development, Issues and Future

    KAUST Repository

    Yu, Yi

    2012-11-01

    Collecting, storing, discovering, and locating are integral parts of the composition of the library. To fully utilize the library and achieve its ultimate value, the construction and production of discovery has always been a central part of the library’s practice and identity. That is the reason why the new generation (also called the next-generation discovery) discovery gets such striking effect since it came into library automation arena. However, when we talk about the new generation of discovery in the library domain, we should see it in the entirety of the library as one of its organic parts and consider its progress along with the evolution of the whole library world. We should have a deeper understanding about its relationship and interaction with the internet, the rapidly changing digital environment, and the elements and the chain of library services. To address above issues, this paper overviews the different versions of the definition for the new generation discovery by combining our own understanding. The paper also gives our own description for its properties and characteristics. The paper points out what challenges, which extends the technology domain to commercial interests and business strategy, are faced by the discovery applications, and how library and library professionals deal with those challenges. Finally, the paper elaborates on the promise brought by the new discovery development and what the next exploration might be for its future.

  8. Discovery and development of tramadol for the treatment of pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bravo, Lidia; Mico, Juan Antonio; Berrocoso, Esther

    2017-12-01

    Tramadol is an opioid drug that, unlike classic opioids, also modulates the monoaminergic system by inhibiting noradrenergic and serotoninergic reuptake. For this reason, tramadol is considered an atypical opioid. These special pharmacological characteristics have made tramadol one of the most commonly prescribed analgesic drugs to treat moderate to severe pain. Areas covered: The aim of this review is to provide a historical description of the biochemistry, pharmacokinetics and particularly, the mechanisms of action of tramadol. In addition, a summary is offered of the analgesic effects of tramadol in a variety of animal models of acute and chronic pain. Finally, clinical studies that demonstrate the efficacy and safety of tramadol in the treatment of pain are also assessed. Expert opinion: The discovery that tramadol combines opioid and monoaminergic effects represented a milestone in the evolution of pain treatment. Given its 'mild effect' on opioid receptors, tramadol induces fewer side effects than classic opioids. Tramadol produces satisfactory analgesia against various types of pain and it is currently approved for the treatment of moderate to severe pain. Thus, the combination of monoamine and opioid mechanisms opens new avenues for the design of innovative analgesics.

  9. The development of high-content screening (HCS) technology and its importance to drug discovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraietta, Ivan; Gasparri, Fabio

    2016-01-01

    High-content screening (HCS) was introduced about twenty years ago as a promising analytical approach to facilitate some critical aspects of drug discovery. Its application has spread progressively within the pharmaceutical industry and academia to the point that it today represents a fundamental tool in supporting drug discovery and development. Here, the authors review some of significant progress in the HCS field in terms of biological models and assay readouts. They highlight the importance of high-content screening in drug discovery, as testified by its numerous applications in a variety of therapeutic areas: oncology, infective diseases, cardiovascular and neurodegenerative diseases. They also dissect the role of HCS technology in different phases of the drug discovery pipeline: target identification, primary compound screening, secondary assays, mechanism of action studies and in vitro toxicology. Recent advances in cellular assay technologies, such as the introduction of three-dimensional (3D) cultures, induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) and genome editing technologies (e.g., CRISPR/Cas9), have tremendously expanded the potential of high-content assays to contribute to the drug discovery process. Increasingly predictive cellular models and readouts, together with the development of more sophisticated and affordable HCS readers, will further consolidate the role of HCS technology in drug discovery.

  10. Discovery and Development of ATP-Competitive mTOR Inhibitors Using Computational Approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Yao; Wang, Ling

    2017-11-16

    The mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) is a central controller of cell growth, proliferation, metabolism, and angiogenesis. This protein is an attractive target for new anticancer drug development. Significant progress has been made in hit discovery, lead optimization, drug candidate development and determination of the three-dimensional (3D) structure of mTOR. Computational methods have been applied to accelerate the discovery and development of mTOR inhibitors helping to model the structure of mTOR, screen compound databases, uncover structure-activity relationship (SAR) and optimize the hits, mine the privileged fragments and design focused libraries. Besides, computational approaches were also applied to study protein-ligand interactions mechanisms and in natural product-driven drug discovery. Herein, we survey the most recent progress on the application of computational approaches to advance the discovery and development of compounds targeting mTOR. Future directions in the discovery of new mTOR inhibitors using computational methods are also discussed. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  11. Fuel on the Invention Funnel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leone, Maria Isabella; Reichstein, Toke; Boccardelli, Paolo

    In this paper, we examine the impact of technology licensing-in on firm invention performance. Studying a sample of 266 licensees and matched non-licensees using a two-part model specification, we find that licensees are more likely to introduce inventions than their non-licensee counterparts. Th...

  12. Discovery and Development of Therapeutic Drugs against Lethal Human RNA Viruses: a Multidisciplinary Assault.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-07-16

    AD-A239 742 AD GRANT NO: DAMD17-89-Z-9021 TITLE: DISCOVERY AND DEVELOPMENT OF THERAPEUTIC DRUGS AGAINST LETHAL HUMAN RNA VIRUSES: A MULTIDISCIPLINARY...62787A871 AB WrJDA317987 11. TITLE (Include Securty Classification) DISCOVERY AND DEVELOPMENT OF THERAPEUTIC DRUGS AGAINST LETHAL HUMAN RNA VIRUSES: A...G. R. Pettit, III, D.-S. Huang, and G. R. Pettit, 23rd Int’l. Horticulture Congress, Italy, 8/27 - 9/1/90. "Bryostatins Define the Role of Protein

  13. Preclinical experimental models of drug metabolism and disposition in drug discovery and development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donglu Zhang

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Drug discovery and development involve the utilization of in vitro and in vivo experimental models. Different models, ranging from test tube experiments to cell cultures, animals, healthy human subjects, and even small numbers of patients that are involved in clinical trials, are used at different stages of drug discovery and development for determination of efficacy and safety. The proper selection and applications of correct models, as well as appropriate data interpretation, are critically important in decision making and successful advancement of drug candidates. In this review, we discuss strategies in the applications of both in vitro and in vivo experimental models of drug metabolism and disposition.

  14. Mechanistic systems modeling to guide drug discovery and development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Brian J; Papin, Jason A; Musante, Cynthia J

    2013-02-01

    A crucial question that must be addressed in the drug development process is whether the proposed therapeutic target will yield the desired effect in the clinical population. Pharmaceutical and biotechnology companies place a large investment on research and development, long before confirmatory data are available from human trials. Basic science has greatly expanded the computable knowledge of disease processes, both through the generation of large omics data sets and a compendium of studies assessing cellular and systemic responses to physiologic and pathophysiologic stimuli. Given inherent uncertainties in drug development, mechanistic systems models can better inform target selection and the decision process for advancing compounds through preclinical and clinical research. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Commercial Research and Development: Power to Explore, Opportunities from Discovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casas, Joseph C.; Nall, Mark; Powers, C. Blake; Henderson, Robin N. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The technical and economic goals of commercial use of space are laudable, and are addressed as a high priority by almost every national space program and most major aerospace companies the world over. Yet, the focus of most organizational agendas and discussions tends to focus on one or two very narrow enabling aspects of this potentially large technological and economic opportunity. While government sponsored commercial launch activities and private space platforms are an integral part of efforts to leverage the commercial use of space, these activities are possibly one of the smallest parts of creating, a viable and sustainable market for the commercial use of space. Most of the current programs usually do not appropriately address some of the critical issues of the current, already interested, potential space user communities. Current programs place the focus of the majority of the user requirements on the vehicle payload weight and mass performance considerations as the primary payload economical factor in providing a commercial market with a stimulating price for gaining access to the space environment. The larger user challenges of transformation from Earth-based research and development approaches to space environment approaches are not addressed early enough in programs to impact the new business considerations of potential users. Currently, space-based research and development user activities require a large user investment in time, in development of new areas of support expertise, in development of new systems, in risk of schedule to completion, and in long term capital positioning. The larger opportunities for stimulating a strong market driven interest in commercial use of space that could result from the development of vehicle payload "leap ahead technologies" for users are being missed, and there is a real risk of limiting the potentially broader market base to support a more technologically advanced and economically lucrative outcome. A major driving

  16. Fragment-based drug discovery as alternative strategy to the drug development for neglected diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mello, Juliana da Fonseca Rezende E; Gomes, Renan Augusto; Vital-Fujii, Drielli Gomes; Ferreira, Glaucio Monteiro; Trossini, Gustavo Henrique Goulart

    2017-12-01

    Neglected diseases (NDs) affect large populations and almost whole continents, representing 12% of the global health burden. In contrast, the treatment available today is limited and sometimes ineffective. Under this scenery, the Fragment-Based Drug Discovery emerged as one of the most promising alternatives to the traditional methods of drug development. This method allows achieving new lead compounds with smaller size of fragment libraries. Even with the wide Fragment-Based Drug Discovery success resulting in new effective therapeutic agents against different diseases, until this moment few studies have been applied this approach for NDs area. In this article, we discuss the basic Fragment-Based Drug Discovery process, brief successful ideas of general applications and show a landscape of its use in NDs, encouraging the implementation of this strategy as an interesting way to optimize the development of new drugs to NDs. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  17. Discovery of x-rays and its impact on the development of physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sirdeshmukh, D.B.

    1996-01-01

    Roentgen's discovery of x-rays is discussed. Roentgen's discovery was important not only for the property of transmission of x-rays, which immediately resulted in the new field of radiology, but also because it led to several experiments which had a great impact on the development of physics. Laue's discovery of x-ray diffraction in turn led to the development of x-ray crystallography and x-ray spectroscopy. The contributions of Barkla, Moseley and Siegbahn are discussed. The experiments of Duane and Hunt on continuous x-rays and Compton on scattering of x-rays lent support to the photon nature of radiation. In recent times, the line-widths of x-ray emission lines have given information about the band structure of solids. (author). 21 refs., 6 figs

  18. The BRAIN Initiative: developing technology to catalyse neuroscience discovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jorgenson, Lyric A.; Newsome, William T.; Anderson, David J.; Bargmann, Cornelia I.; Brown, Emery N.; Deisseroth, Karl; Donoghue, John P.; Hudson, Kathy L.; Ling, Geoffrey S. F.; MacLeish, Peter R.; Marder, Eve; Normann, Richard A.; Sanes, Joshua R.; Schnitzer, Mark J.; Sejnowski, Terrence J.; Tank, David W.; Tsien, Roger Y.; Ugurbil, Kamil; Wingfield, John C.

    2015-01-01

    The evolution of the field of neuroscience has been propelled by the advent of novel technological capabilities, and the pace at which these capabilities are being developed has accelerated dramatically in the past decade. Capitalizing on this momentum, the United States launched the Brain Research through Advancing Innovative Neurotechnologies (BRAIN) Initiative to develop and apply new tools and technologies for revolutionizing our understanding of the brain. In this article, we review the scientific vision for this initiative set forth by the National Institutes of Health and discuss its implications for the future of neuroscience research. Particular emphasis is given to its potential impact on the mapping and study of neural circuits, and how this knowledge will transform our understanding of the complexity of the human brain and its diverse array of behaviours, perceptions, thoughts and emotions. PMID:25823863

  19. Atlas of Astronomical Discoveries

    CERN Document Server

    Schilling, Govert

    2011-01-01

    Four hundred years ago in Middelburg, in the Netherlands, the telescope was invented. The invention unleashed a revolution in the exploration of the universe. Galileo Galilei discovered mountains on the Moon, spots on the Sun, and moons around Jupiter. Christiaan Huygens saw details on Mars and rings around Saturn. William Herschel discovered a new planet and mapped binary stars and nebulae. Other astronomers determined the distances to stars, unraveled the structure of the Milky Way, and discovered the expansion of the universe. And, as telescopes became bigger and more powerful, astronomers delved deeper into the mysteries of the cosmos. In his Atlas of Astronomical Discoveries, astronomy journalist Govert Schilling tells the story of 400 years of telescopic astronomy. He looks at the 100 most important discoveries since the invention of the telescope. In his direct and accessible style, the author takes his readers on an exciting journey encompassing the highlights of four centuries of astronomy. Spectacul...

  20. Accelerating materials discovery through the development of polymer databases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Audus, Debra

    In our line of business we create chemical solutions for a wide range of applications, such as home and personal care, printing and packaging, automotive and structural coatings, and structural plastics and foams applications. In this environment, stable and highly automated workflows suitable to handle complex systems are a must. By satisfying these prerequisites, efficiency for the development of new materials can be significantly improved by combining modeling and experimental approaches. This is in fact in line with recent Materials Genome Initiative efforts sponsored by the US administration. From our experience, we know, that valuable contributions to product development are possible today by combining existing modeling techniques in an intelligent fashion, provided modeling and experiment work closely together. In my presentation I intend to review approaches to build and parameterize soft matter systems. As an example of our standard workflow, I will show a few applications, which include the design of a stabilizer molecule for dispersing polymer particles and the simulation of polystyrene dispersions.

  1. SCHOOL ECONOMY IN THE INVENTING EDUCATION PARADIGM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anatoliy Alexandrovich Lepeshev

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Requirements applied to specialists for working in the sixth wave of innovation, i.e. Industry 4.0, determines the necessity of education system improvement concerning training solution and, as a result, creation of inventive ideas. Today in our country this process is stimulated by various competitions, including financing for the implementation of results. In training programs knowledge approach still prevails. The corresponding methods, along with stimulation, are included into educational programs in leading foreign educational institutions, mostly at universities. If in previous decades mostly divergent methods were studied (morphological analysis, the focal objects method, synectics, etc., then now the leading place is taken by theory of inventive problem solving – TRIZ created in the former USSR by G.S. Altshuller in connection with the increasing leading corporations requirement for specialists in TRIZ. This fact gives Russia essential competitive advantages in the innovative way of development. For effective use of this advantage it is important to form the TRIZ-based innovative thinking beginning from school days. For this purpose authors developed new methods in TRIZ-pedagogics, uniting metasubject results (in higher education institutions – competences into the system of innovative thinking. As a result, both educational and economic effects are achieved: the intellectual property created in educational process. For schools it is the possibility of significant improvement of financing causing importance of new mechanisms of intellectual property fixation, protection and implementation. Recommendations about creation of such system are provided in the article. Purpose Defining the opportunities and ways of improving economic effectiveness of educational activities in the paradigm of inventive education. Tasks: – analysis of school education institutions experience in implementation of approaches preceding the inventing education

  2. Platelet-activating factor podoplanin: from discovery to drug development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takemoto, Ai; Miyata, Kenichi; Fujita, Naoya

    2017-06-01

    Tumor cell-induced platelet aggregation facilitates hematogenous metastasis by promoting tumor embolization, preventing immunological assaults and shear stress, and the platelet-releasing growth factors support tumor growth and invasion. Podoplanin, also known as Aggrus, is a type I transmembrane mucin-like glycoprotein and is expressed on wide range of tumor cells. Podoplanin has a role in platelet aggregation and metastasis formation through the binding to its platelet receptor, C-type lectin-like receptor 2 (CLEC-2). The podoplanin research was originally started from the cloning of highly metastatic NL-17 subclone from mouse colon 26 cancer cell line and from the establishment of 8F11 monoclonal antibody (mAb) that could neutralize NL-17-induced platelet aggregation and hematogenous metastasis. Later on, podoplanin was identified as the antigen of 8F11 mAb, and its ectopic expression brought to cells the platelet-aggregating abilities and hematogenous metastasis phenotypes. From the 8F11 mAb recognition epitopes, podoplanin is found to contain tandemly repeated, highly conserved motifs, designated platelet aggregation-stimulating (PLAG) domains. Series of analyses using the cells expressing the mutants and the established neutralizing anti-podoplanin mAbs uncovered that both PLAG3 and PLAG4 domains are associated with the CLEC-2 binding. The neutralizing mAbs targeting PLAG3 or PLAG4 could suppress podoplanin-induced platelet aggregation and hematogenous metastasis through inhibiting the podoplanin-CLEC-2 binding. Therefore, these domains are certainly functional in podoplanin-mediated metastasis through its platelet-aggregating activity. This review summarizes the platelet functions in metastasis formation, the role of platelet aggregation-inducing factor podoplanin in pathological and physiological situations, and the possibility to develop podoplanin-targeting drugs in the future.

  3. Application of PBPK modelling in drug discovery and development at Pfizer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Hannah M; Dickins, Maurice; Youdim, Kuresh; Gosset, James R; Attkins, Neil J; Hay, Tanya L; Gurrell, Ian K; Logan, Y Raj; Bungay, Peter J; Jones, Barry C; Gardner, Iain B

    2012-01-01

    Early prediction of human pharmacokinetics (PK) and drug-drug interactions (DDI) in drug discovery and development allows for more informed decision making. Physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) modelling can be used to answer a number of questions throughout the process of drug discovery and development and is thus becoming a very popular tool. PBPK models provide the opportunity to integrate key input parameters from different sources to not only estimate PK parameters and plasma concentration-time profiles, but also to gain mechanistic insight into compound properties. Using examples from the literature and our own company, we have shown how PBPK techniques can be utilized through the stages of drug discovery and development to increase efficiency, reduce the need for animal studies, replace clinical trials and to increase PK understanding. Given the mechanistic nature of these models, the future use of PBPK modelling in drug discovery and development is promising, however, some limitations need to be addressed to realize its application and utility more broadly.

  4. When fragments link : a bibliometric perspective on the development of fragment-based drug discovery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Romasanta, A.K.S.; van der Sijde, P.C.; Hellsten, I.; Hubbard, Roderick E.; Keseru, Gyorgy M.; van Muijlwijk-Koezen, Jacqueline E.; de Esch, I.J.P.

    2018-01-01

    Fragment-based drug discovery (FBDD) is a highly interdisciplinary field, rich in ideas integrated from pharmaceutical sciences, chemistry, biology, and physics, among others. To enrich our understanding of the development of the field, we used bibliometric techniques to analyze 3642 publications in

  5. Energy-Related Inventions Program: an overview of the evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soderstrom, E.J.; Bronfman, L.M.; Rorke, M.G.

    1983-09-01

    The Energy-Related Inventions Program (ERIP) is jointly administered by the US Departments of Energy and Commerce. Grants were awarded for 165 of 208 inventions recommended by the National Bureau of Standards (NBS). Of the 165 inventions, 46 have been able to acquire follow-on financing from a variety of sources. Further, 35 of the inventions have reached the marketplace, and their cumulative sales to date total $178 million. An additional 10 inventions are now starting into production. Jobs that have been created directly by production related to the inventions total 756; additional spin-off jobs attributable to the inventions include component and material suppliers, jobbers, franchisees, and distributors. The program was recently evaluated at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, with the following conclusions: (1) the evaluation process at NBS has been successful in identifying technically and economically feasible inventions, (2) the success rate for the program is about equivalent to the reported success rates of private venture capital firms, (3) the program is supporting inventions at a point in their development where they are supported by neither the venture capital community nor industry, and (4) the one-time DOE grants and the associated ERIP support to inventors have been successful in readying inventors for follow-on financing from the private sector.

  6. Beyond Discovery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Korsgaard, Steffen; Sassmannshausen, Sean Patrick

    2017-01-01

    In this chapter we explore four alternatives to the dominant discovery view of entrepreneurship; the development view, the construction view, the evolutionary view, and the Neo-Austrian view. We outline the main critique points of the discovery presented in these four alternatives, as well...

  7. 10 CFR 784.5 - Waiver of identified inventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... contractor has made or will make substantial investment of financial resources or technology developed at the contractor's private expense which will directly benefit the commercialization of the invention; (g) The... extent to which the Government has contributed to the field of technology of the invention; (e) The...

  8. 76 FR 18564 - Government-Owned Inventions; Availability for Licensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-04

    ... Antibiotics: Naturally-Occurring Chrysophaetins and Their Analogues Description of Invention: This invention... the very limited number of new antibiotics developed in recent decades and the increased epidemic of infectious diseases. In fact, infectious diseases are the leading cause of death worldwide. In the United...

  9. Another of CERN's many inventions!

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Bulletin

    2010-01-01

    CERN has often been the incubator for the development of innovative technologies but very few people know about the capacitive touch screens invented for the consoles of the SPS Control Room in 1973. The Bulletin interviewed their inventor, Bent Stumpe, who also developed the CERN tracker ball and the computer-programmable knob.   Bent Stumpe, inventor of the CERN touch screens, tracker ball and programmable knob. Here we see him with one the first touch screens developed in 1973.   A specific goal, a lot of motivation and the technical skills to do it: that’s all you need to create something nobody else has ever done before. Back in the 1970s, the SPS was being built and its control room required the installation of thousands of buttons, knobs, switches and oscilloscopes to operate the machine. Frank Beck, newly recruited from the DD Division to be in charge of the central control hub in the SPS control room, asked Bent Stumpe for solutions to the following problem: how to bui...

  10. Harvest: a web-based biomedical data discovery and reporting application development platform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Italia, Michael J; Pennington, Jeffrey W; Ruth, Byron; Wrazien, Stacey; Loutrel, Jennifer G; Crenshaw, E Bryan; Miller, Jeffrey; White, Peter S

    2013-01-01

    Biomedical researchers share a common challenge of making complex data understandable and accessible. This need is increasingly acute as investigators seek opportunities for discovery amidst an exponential growth in the volume and complexity of laboratory and clinical data. To address this need, we developed Harvest, an open source framework that provides a set of modular components to aid the rapid development and deployment of custom data discovery software applications. Harvest incorporates visual representations of multidimensional data types in an intuitive, web-based interface that promotes a real-time, iterative approach to exploring complex clinical and experimental data. The Harvest architecture capitalizes on standards-based, open source technologies to address multiple functional needs critical to a research and development environment, including domain-specific data modeling, abstraction of complex data models, and a customizable web client.

  11. OSIRIS, an entirely in-house developed drug discovery informatics system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sander, Thomas; Freyss, Joel; von Korff, Modest; Reich, Jacqueline Renée; Rufener, Christian

    2009-02-01

    We present OSIRIS, an entirely in-house developed drug discovery informatics system. Its components cover all information handling aspects from compound synthesis via biological testing to preclinical development. Its design principles are platform and vendor independence, a consistent look and feel, and complete coverage of the drug discovery process by custom tailored applications. These include electronic laboratory notebook applications for biology and chemistry, tools for high-throughput and secondary screening evaluation, chemistry-aware data visualization, physicochemical property prediction, 3D-pharmacophore comparisons, interactive modeling, computing grid based ligand-protein docking, and more. Most applications are developed in Java and are built on top of a Java library layer that provides reusable cheminformatics functionality and GUI components such as chemical editors, structure canonicalization, substructure search, combinatorial enumeration, enhanced stereo perception, force field minimization, and conformation generation.

  12. Web-scale discovery in an academic health sciences library: development and implementation of the EBSCO Discovery Service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Jolinda L; Obrig, Kathe S; Abate, Laura E

    2013-01-01

    Funds made available at the close of the 2010-11 fiscal year allowed purchase of the EBSCO Discovery Service (EDS) for a year-long trial. The appeal of this web-scale discovery product that offers a Google-like interface to library resources was counter-balanced by concerns about quality of search results in an academic health science setting and the challenge of configuring an interface that serves the needs of a diverse group of library users. After initial configuration, usability testing with library users revealed the need for further work before general release. Of greatest concern were continuing issues with the relevance of items retrieved, appropriateness of system-supplied facet terms, and user difficulties with navigating the interface. EBSCO has worked with the library to better understand and identify problems and solutions. External roll-out to users occurred in June 2012.

  13. The discovery, development and future of GMR: The Nobel Prize 2007

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thompson, Sarah M

    2008-01-01

    One hundred and one years after J J Thomson was awarded the Nobel Prize for the discovery of the electron, the 2007 Nobel Prize for Physics was awarded to Professors Peter Gruenberg and Albert Fert for the discovery of giant magnetoresistance (GMR) in which the spin as well as the charge of the electron is manipulated and exploited in nanoscale magnetic materials. The journey to GMR started with Lord Kelvin who 150 years ago in 1857 made the first observations of anisotropic magnetoresistance and includes Sir Neville Mott who in 1936 realized that electric current in metals could be considered as two independent spin channels. Modern technology also has a significant role to play in the award of this Nobel Prize: GMR is only manifest in nanoscale materials, and the development of nanotechnology growth techniques was a necessary pre-requisite; further, the considerable demands of the magnetic data storage industry to drive up the data density stored on a hard disk fuelled an enormous international research effort following the initial discovery with the result that more than 5 billion GMR read heads have been manufactured since 1997, ubiquitous in hard disks today. This technology drive continues to inspire exploration of the spin current in the field now known as spintronics, generating new ideas and applications. This review explores the science underpinning GMR and spintronics, the different routes to its discovery taken by Professors Gruenberg and Fert, the new science, materials and applications that the discovery has triggered and the considerable potential for the future. (topical review)

  14. The discovery, development and future of GMR: The Nobel Prize 2007

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thompson, Sarah M [Department of Physics, University of York, York, YO10 5DD (United Kingdom)

    2008-05-07

    One hundred and one years after J J Thomson was awarded the Nobel Prize for the discovery of the electron, the 2007 Nobel Prize for Physics was awarded to Professors Peter Gruenberg and Albert Fert for the discovery of giant magnetoresistance (GMR) in which the spin as well as the charge of the electron is manipulated and exploited in nanoscale magnetic materials. The journey to GMR started with Lord Kelvin who 150 years ago in 1857 made the first observations of anisotropic magnetoresistance and includes Sir Neville Mott who in 1936 realized that electric current in metals could be considered as two independent spin channels. Modern technology also has a significant role to play in the award of this Nobel Prize: GMR is only manifest in nanoscale materials, and the development of nanotechnology growth techniques was a necessary pre-requisite; further, the considerable demands of the magnetic data storage industry to drive up the data density stored on a hard disk fuelled an enormous international research effort following the initial discovery with the result that more than 5 billion GMR read heads have been manufactured since 1997, ubiquitous in hard disks today. This technology drive continues to inspire exploration of the spin current in the field now known as spintronics, generating new ideas and applications. This review explores the science underpinning GMR and spintronics, the different routes to its discovery taken by Professors Gruenberg and Fert, the new science, materials and applications that the discovery has triggered and the considerable potential for the future. (topical review)

  15. Discovery, characterization, and clinical development of the glucagon-like peptides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Drucker, Daniel J; Habener, Joel F; Holst, Jens Juul

    2017-01-01

    that GLP-2 promotes mucosal growth in the intestine is described, and key findings from both preclinical studies and the GLP-2 clinical development program for short bowel syndrome (SBS) are reviewed. Finally, we summarize recent progress in GLP biology, highlighting emerging concepts and scientific......The discovery, characterization, and clinical development of glucagon-like-peptide-1 (GLP-1) spans more than 30 years and includes contributions from multiple investigators, science recognized by the 2017 Harrington Award Prize for Innovation in Medicine. Herein, we provide perspectives...... on the historical events and key experimental findings establishing the biology of GLP-1 as an insulin-stimulating glucoregulatory hormone. Important attributes of GLP-1 action and enteroendocrine science are reviewed, with emphasis on mechanistic advances and clinical proof-of-concept studies. The discovery...

  16. Preparative Scale Resolution of Enantiomers Enables Accelerated Drug Discovery and Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanna Leek

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The provision of pure enantiomers is of increasing importance not only for the pharmaceutical industry but also for agro-chemistry and biotechnology. In drug discovery and development, the enantiomers of a chiral drug depict unique chemical and pharmacological behaviors in a chiral environment, such as the human body, in which the stereochemistry of the chiral drugs determines their pharmacokinetic, pharmacodynamic and toxicological properties. We present a number of challenging case studies of up-to-kilogram separations of racemic or enriched isomer mixtures using preparative liquid chromatography and super critical fluid chromatography to generate individual enantiomers that have enabled the development of new candidate drugs within AstraZeneca. The combination of chromatography and racemization as well as strategies on when to apply preparative chiral chromatography of enantiomers in a multi-step synthesis of a drug compound can further facilitate accelerated drug discovery and the early clinical evaluation of the drug candidates.

  17. Commercialising university inventions for sustainability : A case study of (non-)intermediating 'cleantech' at Aalto University

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kivimaa, Paula; Boon, Wouter; Antikainen, Riina

    2017-01-01

    The challenge to transform towards more sustainable societies requires action on multiple levels, including commercialisation of inventions created in universities. We examine intermediation in the pre-commercialisation phase of cleantech inventions developed at Aalto University, Finland, focusing

  18. Connecting research discovery with care delivery in dementia: the development of the Indianapolis Discovery Network for Dementia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boustani MA

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Malaz A Boustani,1–3 Amie Frame,1,2 Stephanie Munger,1,2 Patrick Healey,4 Jessie Westlund,5 Martin Farlow,6,7 Ann Hake,8 Mary Guerriero Austrom,6,9 Polly Shepard,10 Corby Bubp,10 Jose Azar,3 Arif Nazir,3 Nadia Adams,11 Noll L Campbell,1,2,12,13 Azita Chehresa,5 Paul Dexter2,31Indiana University Center for Aging Research, 2Regenstrief Institute, Inc, 3Department of Medicine, Indiana University School of Medicine (IUSM, 4St Vincent Health Network, 5Community Health Network, 6Indiana Alzheimer Disease Center, IUSM, 7Department of Neurology, IUSM, 8Eli Lilly and Company, 9Department of Psychiatry, IUSM, 10The Memory Clinic of Indianapolis, 11Indiana University Health, Indianapolis, IN, USA; 12Department of Pharmacy Practice, Purdue University College of Pharmacy, West Lafayette, IN, USA; 13Department of Pharmacy, Wishard Health Services, Indianapolis, IN, USABackground: The US Institute of Medicine has recommended an integrated, locally sensitive collaboration among the various members of the community, health care systems, and research organizations to improve dementia care and dementia research.Methods: Using complex adaptive system theory and reflective adaptive process, we developed a professional network called the “Indianapolis Discovery Network for Dementia” (IDND. The IDND facilitates effective and sustainable interactions among a local and diverse group of dementia researchers, clinical providers, and community advocates interested in improving care for dementia patients in Indianapolis, Indiana.Results: The IDND was established in February 2006 and now includes more than 250 members from more than 30 local (central Indiana organizations representing 20 disciplines. The network uses two types of communication to connect its members. The first is a 2-hour face-to-face bimonthly meeting open to all members. The second is a web-based resource center (http://www.indydiscoverynetwork.org. To date, the network has: (1 accomplished the

  19. Harvest: an open platform for developing web-based biomedical data discovery and reporting applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pennington, Jeffrey W; Ruth, Byron; Italia, Michael J; Miller, Jeffrey; Wrazien, Stacey; Loutrel, Jennifer G; Crenshaw, E Bryan; White, Peter S

    2014-01-01

    Biomedical researchers share a common challenge of making complex data understandable and accessible as they seek inherent relationships between attributes in disparate data types. Data discovery in this context is limited by a lack of query systems that efficiently show relationships between individual variables, but without the need to navigate underlying data models. We have addressed this need by developing Harvest, an open-source framework of modular components, and using it for the rapid development and deployment of custom data discovery software applications. Harvest incorporates visualizations of highly dimensional data in a web-based interface that promotes rapid exploration and export of any type of biomedical information, without exposing researchers to underlying data models. We evaluated Harvest with two cases: clinical data from pediatric cardiology and demonstration data from the OpenMRS project. Harvest's architecture and public open-source code offer a set of rapid application development tools to build data discovery applications for domain-specific biomedical data repositories. All resources, including the OpenMRS demonstration, can be found at http://harvest.research.chop.edu.

  20. In silico tools used for compound selection during target-based drug discovery and development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caldwell, Gary W

    2015-01-01

    The target-based drug discovery process, including target selection, screening, hit-to-lead (H2L) and lead optimization stage gates, is the most common approach used in drug development. The full integration of in vitro and/or in vivo data with in silico tools across the entire process would be beneficial to R&D productivity by developing effective selection criteria and drug-design optimization strategies. This review focuses on understanding the impact and extent in the past 5 years of in silico tools on the various stage gates of the target-based drug discovery approach. There are a large number of in silico tools available for establishing selection criteria and drug-design optimization strategies in the target-based approach. However, the inconsistent use of in vitro and/or in vivo data integrated with predictive in silico multiparameter models throughout the process is contributing to R&D productivity issues. In particular, the lack of reliable in silico tools at the H2L stage gate is contributing to the suboptimal selection of viable lead compounds. It is suggested that further development of in silico multiparameter models and organizing biologists, medicinal and computational chemists into one team with a single accountable objective to expand the utilization of in silico tools in all phases of drug discovery would improve R&D productivity.

  1. Drug Delivery Research: The Invention Cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Kinam

    2016-07-05

    Controlled drug delivery systems have been successful in introducing improved formulations for better use of existing drugs and novel delivery of biologicals. The initial success of producing many oral products and some injectable depot formulations, however, reached a plateau, and the progress over the past three decades has been slow. This is likely due to the difficulties of formulating hydrophilic, high molecular weight drugs, such as proteins and nucleic acids, for targeting specific cells, month-long sustained delivery, and pulsatile release. Since the approaches that have served well for delivery of small molecules are not applicable to large molecules, it is time to develop new methods for biologicals. The process of developing future drug delivery systems, termed as the invention cycle, is proposed, and it starts with clearly defining the problems for developing certain formulations. Once the problems are well-defined, creative imagination examines all potential options and selects the best answer and alternatives. Then, innovation takes over to generate unique solutions for developing new formulations that resolve the previously identified problems. Ultimately, the new delivery systems will have to go through a translational process to produce the final formulations for clinical use. The invention cycle also emphasizes examining the reasons for success of certain formulations, not just the reasons for failure of many systems. Implementation of the new invention cycle requires new mechanisms of funding the younger generation of scientists and a new way of identifying their achievements, thereby releasing them from the burden of short-termism.

  2. Invention through Form and Function Analogy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rule, Audrey C.

    2015-01-01

    "Invention through Form and Function Analogy" is an invention book for teachers and other leaders working with youth who are involving students in the invention process. The book consists of an introduction and set of nine learning cycle formatted lessons for teaching the principles of invention through the science and engineering design…

  3. Overcome IMF crisis with idea and invention

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Yeon Jung

    1998-01-01

    This book introduces the invention as a tool to overcome IMF crisis. These are the titles of the way to create invention and idea : what is idea? everyone can create something, have a confidence, this is patent, replace or change something, invention is not logical, challenge the normal law, throw away stereotype, movement of idea, original imagination, there are a lot of solutions, there is no expert, have a positive thought, why does inventor invent? necessity is invention of mother, three stage of idea and invention and imitation for invention.

  4. Overcome IMF crisis with idea and invention

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Yeon Jung

    1998-01-15

    This book introduces the invention as a tool to overcome IMF crisis. These are the titles of the way to create invention and idea : what is idea? everyone can create something, have a confidence, this is patent, replace or change something, invention is not logical, challenge the normal law, throw away stereotype, movement of idea, original imagination, there are a lot of solutions, there is no expert, have a positive thought, why does inventor invent? necessity is invention of mother, three stage of idea and invention and imitation for invention.

  5. How easy the invention is

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Yeon Jung

    2002-05-15

    This book deals with the inventions invented by kids such as a utility helmet, a useful drawing board, automatic safe device, telephone for the blind, a peaceful washboard, roly poly milk bottle, seat belt with height control, gas hose to prevent thief, portable magic soap, useful bus handle, convent desk, a paper cup attached a spoon, a useful washboard, dressing room using moveable small cymbals, fluorescent light which is easy to put in a new one, rods for night, curtain for cars, spray shampoo, and a good calendar.

  6. How easy the invention is

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Yeon Jung

    2002-05-01

    This book deals with the inventions invented by kids such as a utility helmet, a useful drawing board, automatic safe device, telephone for the blind, a peaceful washboard, roly poly milk bottle, seat belt with height control, gas hose to prevent thief, portable magic soap, useful bus handle, convent desk, a paper cup attached a spoon, a useful washboard, dressing room using moveable small cymbals, fluorescent light which is easy to put in a new one, rods for night, curtain for cars, spray shampoo, and a good calendar.

  7. Invention party of students 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Yeon Jung

    2000-02-01

    The contents of this book are lettuce and royal foxglove tree leaves, memory of summer sea, summer vacation of a freak, waste tires and a fishbowl, a spoon and a iron hand, a iron hand and emergency signal light, my friend is Macgyver, a merry cleaning time, Hojin's invention diary. I am a inventor, a happy winter vacation, the best from losing the draw. This book gives a descriptions of the cases of inventions which are made up through unique and brilliant idea.

  8. Stem cells: a model for screening, discovery and development of drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitambi, Satish Srinivas; Chandrasekar, Gayathri

    2011-01-01

    The identification of normal and cancerous stem cells and the recent advances made in isolation and culture of stem cells have rapidly gained attention in the field of drug discovery and regenerative medicine. The prospect of performing screens aimed at proliferation, directed differentiation, and toxicity and efficacy studies using stem cells offers a reliable platform for the drug discovery process. Advances made in the generation of induced pluripotent stem cells from normal or diseased tissue serves as a platform to perform drug screens aimed at developing cell-based therapies against conditions like Parkinson's disease and diabetes. This review discusses the application of stem cells and cancer stem cells in drug screening and their role in complementing, reducing, and replacing animal testing. In addition to this, target identification and major advances in the field of personalized medicine using induced pluripotent cells are also discussed.

  9. Software Infrastructure for Computer-aided Drug Discovery and Development, a Practical Example with Guidelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moretti, Loris; Sartori, Luca

    2016-09-01

    In the field of Computer-Aided Drug Discovery and Development (CADDD) the proper software infrastructure is essential for everyday investigations. The creation of such an environment should be carefully planned and implemented with certain features in order to be productive and efficient. Here we describe a solution to integrate standard computational services into a functional unit that empowers modelling applications for drug discovery. This system allows users with various level of expertise to run in silico experiments automatically and without the burden of file formatting for different software, managing the actual computation, keeping track of the activities and graphical rendering of the structural outcomes. To showcase the potential of this approach, performances of five different docking programs on an Hiv-1 protease test set are presented. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  10. User Driven Development of Software Tools for Open Data Discovery and Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlobinski, Sascha; Keppel, Frank; Dihe, Pascal; Boot, Gerben; Falkenroth, Esa

    2016-04-01

    The use of open data in research faces challenges not restricted to inherent properties such as data quality, resolution of open data sets. Often Open data is catalogued insufficiently or fragmented. Software tools that support the effective discovery including the assessment of the data's appropriateness for research have shortcomings such as the lack of essential functionalities like support for data provenance. We believe that one of the reasons is the neglect of real end users requirements in the development process of aforementioned software tools. In the context of the FP7 Switch-On project we have pro-actively engaged the relevant user user community to collaboratively develop a means to publish, find and bind open data relevant for hydrologic research. Implementing key concepts of data discovery and exploration we have used state of the art web technologies to provide an interactive software tool that is easy to use yet powerful enough to satisfy the data discovery and access requirements of the hydrological research community.

  11. 75 FR 58401 - Government-Owned Inventions; Availability for Licensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-24

    ..., attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), and schizophrenia. Development of selective pharmacological... bipolar disorder, attention deficit disorder (ADD), and autism. Applications Method of diagnosis and... Disorders Description of Invention: The inventors have isolated and characterized an alkaloid, phantasmidine...

  12. 76 FR 72207 - Government-Owned Inventions; Availability for Licensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-22

    ... Macular degeneration Diabetic retinopathy Retinal vein occlusion Competitive Advantages: Small sample... Vascular access devices Competitive Advantages: Non-degradable antimicrobial methods. Development Stage... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health Government-Owned Inventions...

  13. 78 FR 21614 - Government-Owned Inventions; Availability for Licensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-11

    ... useful in drug development. Competitive Advantages: The bioluminescent marker allows for effective...-related Macular Degeneration. Competitive Advantages: This technology is potentially a more sensitive... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health Government-Owned Inventions...

  14. 75 FR 58404 - Government-Owned Inventions; Availability for Licensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-24

    ... the indicated licensing contact at the Office of Technology Transfer, National Institutes of Health... disorders (see above Description of Invention). Please contact NHGRI Technology Development Coordinator... for alcohol and drug addiction. Neuropsychiatric disorders including, for example, mood, anxiety...

  15. Commercial progress and impacts of inventions and innovations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perlack, R.D.; Rizy, C.G.; Franchuk, C.A.; Cohn, S.M.

    1999-08-01

    This report presents the survey results from the 1997 inventions and innovations evaluation questionnaire. The evaluation impacts are based on responses from 136 out of 334 inventors sent the questionnaire. In 1996, there were 67 inventions identified that currently have direct, licensed, or spinoff sales. In total, the number of inventions and innovations with current sales and past sales (now retired from the market) is 144. This represents a commercial success rate of over 27%. For these grant-receiving inventions, the following performance metrics are of interest: (1) total cumulative direct and licensed sales through 1996 were $700 million (1995$), in addition, cumulative spinoff sales and royalties were $90 million and $20 million (1995$) through 1996, respectively; (2) employment sustained by direct and licensed sales was 1,189 full-time equivalents in 1996, employment attributable to technologies with no sales was 90 full-time equivalents, and the annual federal income taxes collected as a result of this employment was in excess of $6 million; and (3) energy savings attribute to supported inventions and innovations were estimated at 78 trillion Btu in 1996 with an estimated value of nearly $190 million (1995$), the associated reduction in carbon emissions was over 1.5 million metric tons. In terms of future commercialization progress and impacts, the 1997 survey revealed that 60% of the respondents are actively pursuing their invention, and nearly 50% of the inventions are in the prototype development, pre-production prototype testing, and pre-production development stages.

  16. On the cradle of CCM research: discovery, development, and challenges ahead.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaplan, Aaron

    2017-06-01

    Herein, 40 years after its discovery, I briefly and critically survey the development of ideas that propelled research on CO2-concentrating mechanisms (CCMs; a term proposed by Dean Price) of phytoplankton, mainly focusing on cyanobacteria. This is not a comprehensive review on CCM research, but a personal view on the past developments and challenges that lie ahead. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  17. Discovery and process development of a novel TACE inhibitor for the topical treatment of psoriasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boiteau, Jean-Guy; Ouvry, Gilles; Arlabosse, Jean-Marie; Astri, Stéphanie; Beillard, Audrey; Bhurruth-Alcor, Yushma; Bonnary, Laetitia; Bouix-Peter, Claire; Bouquet, Karine; Bourotte, Marilyne; Cardinaud, Isabelle; Comino, Catherine; Deprez, Benoît; Duvert, Denis; Féret, Angélique; Hacini-Rachinel, Feriel; Harris, Craig S; Luzy, Anne-Pascale; Mathieu, Arnaud; Millois, Corinne; Orsini, Nicolas; Pascau, Jonathan; Pinto, Artur; Piwnica, David; Polge, Gaëlle; Reitz, Arnaud; Reversé, Kevin; Rodeville, Nicolas; Rossio, Patricia; Spiesse, Delphine; Tabet, Samuel; Taquet, Nathalie; Tomas, Loïc; Vial, Emmanuel; Hennequin, Laurent F

    2018-02-15

    Targeting the TNFα pathway is a validated approach to the treatment of psoriasis. In this pathway, TACE stands out as a druggable target and has been the focus of in-house research programs. In this article, we present the discovery of clinical candidate 26a. Starting from hits plagued with poor solubility or genotoxicity, 26a was identified through thorough multiparameter optimisation. Showing robust in vivo activity in an oxazolone-mediated inflammation model, the compound was selected for development. Following a polymorph screen, the hydrochloride salt was selected and the synthesis was efficiently developed to yield the API in 47% overall yield. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  18. Examining the social and scientific roles of invention in science education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calabrese-Barton, Angela

    1998-03-01

    I have been drawn to the construct of “invention” and “inventive acts” because in my research involving how homeless children construct science and the self-in-science, an overwhelming theme has been the multiple ways in which self-identity in science has been described by the children through a language of invention. Using post-modern feminism and science and technologies studies, I examine the multiple uses and definitions of “invention” in science in order to develop a theory of invention and inventive acts around the themes: invention as a social act, invention as a recursive and socially linked process, and embodied agency. I use this framework to examine the construct of “invention” in two different case studies involving the science education of urban homeless children. Finally, I link this discussion of invention and inventive acts with current international reform initiatives revolving around constructivist science teaching and learning.

  19. Public and private sector contributions to the discovery and development of "impact" drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reichert, Janice M; Milne, Christopher-Paul

    2002-01-01

    Recently, well-publicized reports by Public Citizen and the Joint Economic Committee (JEC) of the US Congress questioned the role of the drug industry in the discovery and development of therapeutically important drugs. To gain a better understanding of the relative roles of the public and private sectors in pharmaceutic innovation, the Tufts Center for the Study of Drug Development evaluated the underlying National Institutes of Health (NIH) and academic research cited in the Public Citizen and JEC reports and performed its own assessment of the relationship between the private and public sectors in drug discovery and development of 21 "impact" drugs. We found that, ultimately, any attempt to measure the relative contribution of the public and private sectors to the research and development (R&D) of therapeutically important drugs by output alone, such as counting publications or even product approvals, is flawed. Several key factors (eg, degree of uncertainty, expected market value, potential social benefit) affect investment decisions and determine whether public or private sector funds, or both, are most appropriate. Because of the competitiveness and complexity of today's R&D environment, both sectors are increasingly challenged to show returns on their investment and the traditional boundaries separating the roles of the private and public research spheres have become increasingly blurred. What remains clear, however, is that the process still starts with good science and ends with good medicine.

  20. The importance of the discovery of the neutron by J. Chadwick to the development of nuclear physics and technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seeliger, D.

    1983-01-01

    The discovery of the neutron by J. Chadwick in 1932 was a milestone in the development of nuclear physics and technology. Apart from basic findings on the structure of atomic nuclei, this discovery has found various fields of application among which nuclear power technology is the most important. The relation between historical impact and topicality of certain objects of investigation in neutron physics is outlined on the basis of some lines of development. (author)

  1. A historical sketch of the discovery and development of HIV-1 integrase inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savarino, Andrea

    2006-12-01

    The long process of HIV-1 integrase inhibitor discovery and development can be attributed to both the complexity of HIV-1 integration and poor 'integration' of these researches into mainstream investigations on antiretroviral therapy in the mid-1990s. Of note, some fungal extracts investigated during this period contain the beta-hydroxyketo group, later recognised to be a key structural requirement for keto-enol acids (also referred to as diketo acids) and other integrase inhibitors. This review reconstructs (in the general context of the history of AIDS research) the principal steps that led to the integrase inhibitors currently in clinical trials, and discusses possible future directions.

  2. Evaluation of Energy-Related Inventions Program: An Empirical Analysis of 204 Inventions; TOPICAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, M.A.

    1987-01-01

    This report is an evaluation of the Energy-Related Inventions Program (ERIP). It assess the program's effectiveness and impacts, characterizes participating inventions and inventors, and identifies correlates of successful commercialization in order to suggest possible improvements. Seventy of the 204 ERIP inventions that were studied were successfully introduced into the market, accounting for more than$200M in sales from 1976 through 1984. During 1984, 921 full-time equivalent employees were supported directly by ERIP inventors or their licensees. (Estimates of indirect economic impacts are also contained in the report.) Data on patterns of fund raising clearly show a need for assistance by programs like ERIP. Commercially successful inventors shared several traits. They had less formal education, fewer patents, more work experience in small firms, more outside funding early in their work, more shared responsibility with others for invention development, more management experience, and greater previous experience with starting new businesses. Recommendations are made regarding: (1) priorities for allocating ERIP grants; (2) improved efficiency of the NBS/DOE operations; (3) delivery of technical and commercialization assistance to grant recipients; and (4) further evaluation research

  3. Institutional profile: the national Swedish academic drug discovery & development platform at SciLifeLab.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arvidsson, Per I; Sandberg, Kristian; Sakariassen, Kjell S

    2017-06-01

    The Science for Life Laboratory Drug Discovery and Development Platform (SciLifeLab DDD) was established in Stockholm and Uppsala, Sweden, in 2014. It is one of ten platforms of the Swedish national SciLifeLab which support projects run by Swedish academic researchers with large-scale technologies for molecular biosciences with a focus on health and environment. SciLifeLab was created by the coordinated effort of four universities in Stockholm and Uppsala: Stockholm University, Karolinska Institutet, KTH Royal Institute of Technology and Uppsala University, and has recently expanded to other Swedish university locations. The primary goal of the SciLifeLab DDD is to support selected academic discovery and development research projects with tools and resources to discover novel lead therapeutics, either molecules or human antibodies. Intellectual property developed with the help of SciLifeLab DDD is wholly owned by the academic research group. The bulk of SciLifeLab DDD's research and service activities are funded from the Swedish state, with only consumables paid by the academic research group through individual grants.

  4. Developing a distributed HTML5-based search engine for geospatial resource discovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    ZHOU, N.; XIA, J.; Nebert, D.; Yang, C.; Gui, Z.; Liu, K.

    2013-12-01

    With explosive growth of data, Geospatial Cyberinfrastructure(GCI) components are developed to manage geospatial resources, such as data discovery and data publishing. However, the efficiency of geospatial resources discovery is still challenging in that: (1) existing GCIs are usually developed for users of specific domains. Users may have to visit a number of GCIs to find appropriate resources; (2) The complexity of decentralized network environment usually results in slow response and pool user experience; (3) Users who use different browsers and devices may have very different user experiences because of the diversity of front-end platforms (e.g. Silverlight, Flash or HTML). To address these issues, we developed a distributed and HTML5-based search engine. Specifically, (1)the search engine adopts a brokering approach to retrieve geospatial metadata from various and distributed GCIs; (2) the asynchronous record retrieval mode enhances the search performance and user interactivity; (3) the search engine based on HTML5 is able to provide unified access capabilities for users with different devices (e.g. tablet and smartphone).

  5. Humanisme : inventer l'avenir

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayor, Federico

    2014-06-01

    Humanism: inventing the future - Humanity is still confronted by the scourges of poverty, hunger, violence and inequality. If we are to invent a better future, we must first understand the past, recalling the missed opportunities of 1918, 1945 and 1989, at the end of two world wars and a cold war. This article summarises the proposals put forward by the author on several occasions during his career. He expresses a forceful confidence in humankind's ability to take control of its destiny and shake off government that puts economic interest before universal human values. The twenty-first century should be the era of rebellion in cyberspace, one in which more women and young people are involved in decision making, heralding a future of freedom and happiness for all.

  6. Was the Monetarist Tradition Invented?

    OpenAIRE

    George S. Tavlas

    1998-01-01

    In 1969, Harry Johnson charged that Milton Friedman 'invented' a Chicago oral quantity theory tradition, the idea being that in order to launch a monetarist counter-revolution, Friedman needed to establish a linkage with pre-Keynesian orthodoxy. This paper shows that there was a distinct pre-Keynesian Chicago quantity-theory tradition that advocated increased government expenditure during the Great Depression in order to put money directly into circulation. This policy stance distinguished th...

  7. Applicability of bioanalysis of multiple analytes in drug discovery and development: review of select case studies including assay development considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srinivas, Nuggehally R

    2006-05-01

    The development of sound bioanalytical method(s) is of paramount importance during the process of drug discovery and development culminating in a marketing approval. Although the bioanalytical procedure(s) originally developed during the discovery stage may not necessarily be fit to support the drug development scenario, they may be suitably modified and validated, as deemed necessary. Several reviews have appeared over the years describing analytical approaches including various techniques, detection systems, automation tools that are available for an effective separation, enhanced selectivity and sensitivity for quantitation of many analytes. The intention of this review is to cover various key areas where analytical method development becomes necessary during different stages of drug discovery research and development process. The key areas covered in this article with relevant case studies include: (a) simultaneous assay for parent compound and metabolites that are purported to display pharmacological activity; (b) bioanalytical procedures for determination of multiple drugs in combating a disease; (c) analytical measurement of chirality aspects in the pharmacokinetics, metabolism and biotransformation investigations; (d) drug monitoring for therapeutic benefits and/or occupational hazard; (e) analysis of drugs from complex and/or less frequently used matrices; (f) analytical determination during in vitro experiments (metabolism and permeability related) and in situ intestinal perfusion experiments; (g) determination of a major metabolite as a surrogate for the parent molecule; (h) analytical approaches for universal determination of CYP450 probe substrates and metabolites; (i) analytical applicability to prodrug evaluations-simultaneous determination of prodrug, parent and metabolites; (j) quantitative determination of parent compound and/or phase II metabolite(s) via direct or indirect approaches; (k) applicability in analysis of multiple compounds in select

  8. Economy and Transparency: The Model Invention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmud Hassan TALUKDAR

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Relation of Transparency and Economic growth is a long global debate in the society. Theoretically, policy makers, scholars and researchers argue that there is a close relation among these two variables. However, the quantitative relation and any global model is yet unrevealed. So, the main aim of this paper is to ascertain the nature, dimension and extent of the relationship between economy and Transparency as well as to invent a global model. This paper is useful for researchers, planners, policy makers and scholars who are directly or indirectly involved or willing to involve in the thrust for quantitative relation of these two variables. Literature review is the main source of information of this study. In introductory section, this paper briefly describes theoretical relationship of economy and Transparency as well as it also describes the proxy variables.GDP (2012 of different countries are used as proxy of Economy and Corruption Perception Index (CPI scores (2012 of different countries are used as proxy of level of Transparency. In methodology section this paper describes the detail methodology, sampling procedure and level of analysis. This study randomly selects 30 countries (10 from higher CPI scores+10 from moderate CPI scores+ 10 from lower CPI scores around the globe as sample. In the third section, this research presents the correlation value which divulge that there is a positive correlation (p=.047 with 95% confidence level. That reveals, if the level of transparency of any country increase, the GDP also increase accordingly. Then in this section two quantitative models are developed using linear regression analysis. First invented model is: Economy (GDP in billion US$ = [(8.983*Level of transparency -108.11]. This paper termed the first invented model as “Mahmud EcoT Model-1”. This model calibrates that one unit improvement of transparency leads 8.98 billion US$ improvement in the GDP of a country. Then taking this unit

  9. Simultaneous invention and the patent law

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Howells, John

    inventions they often find this to challenge the idea that patent law (which rewards only the first inventor with exclusive rights) is needed to encourage invention and innovation. We review the empirical evidence alleged to show that simultaneous invention is prevalent for important inventions. In general...... is typical of important pioneer inventions in both survey evidence and alleged illustrative cases of simultaneous invention. We show this in the cases of Edison, the Wright brothers, the Selden automobile patent vis a vis Ford, Watt and the steam engine. We then point out that patent law inherently ensures...... that patent protection is not extended to near simultaneous inventions. There remain a number of simultaneous inventions discovered through interference proceedings but we find the number too small to mount a serious challenge to the general operation of patent law....

  10. Scientific work on the level of inventions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piven' , G.I.; Pustovit, Yu.A.

    1980-06-01

    Describes the organizational scheme of the Ukrainian Research Scientific Coal-Chemical Institute patent department. The department evaluates new technological inventions patented abroad and associated with the coking industry, prepares information on new patents for the Institute's scientific staff. The department also helps employees of the Institute in formal patenting of their inventions. Inventions in the following fields are discussed: selective crushing of coal for coking, preheating of the coal charge, coal preparation (15 inventions) coal preparation before the coking process (45 inventions), modelling the optimum parameters of coking (6 inventions), production of formed coke (25 inventions) and smokeless and dustless charging of coal in coking ovens (6 invections). Twenty-one inventions are associated with using the waste products of coal preparation and coking, and environmental protection in conjunction with coking plants. (In Polish)

  11. Stem cells: a model for screening, discovery and development of drugs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kitambi SS

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Satish Srinivas Kitambi1, Gayathri Chandrasekar21Department of Medical Biochemistry and Biophysics; 2Department of Biosciences, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, SwedenAbstract: The identification of normal and cancerous stem cells and the recent advances made in isolation and culture of stem cells have rapidly gained attention in the field of drug discovery and regenerative medicine. The prospect of performing screens aimed at proliferation, directed differentiation, and toxicity and efficacy studies using stem cells offers a reliable platform for the drug discovery process. Advances made in the generation of induced pluripotent stem cells from normal or diseased tissue serves as a platform to perform drug screens aimed at developing cell-based therapies against conditions like Parkinson's disease and diabetes. This review discusses the application of stem cells and cancer stem cells in drug screening and their role in complementing, reducing, and replacing animal testing. In addition to this, target identification and major advances in the field of personalized medicine using induced pluripotent cells are also discussed.Keywords: therapeutics, stem cells, cancer stem cells, screening models, drug development, high throughput screening

  12. DEVELOPING GUIDED DISCOVERY LEARNING MATERIALS USING MATHEMATICS MOBILE LEARNING APPLICATION AS AN ALTERNATIVE MEDIA FOR THE STUDENTS CALCULUS II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunismi .

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: The development research aims to develop guided-discovery learning materials of Calculus II by implementing Mathematics Mobile Learning (MML. The products to develop are MML media of Calculus II using guided discovery model for students and a guide book for lecturers. The study employed used 4-D development model consisting of define, design, develop, and disseminate. The draft of the learning materials was validated by experts and tried-out to a group of students. The data were analyzed qualitatively and quantitatively by using a descriptive technique and t-test. The findings of the research were appropriate to be used ad teaching media for the students. The students responded positively that the MML media of Calculus II using the guided-discovery model was interestingly structured, easily operated through handphones (all JAVA, android, and blackberry-based handphones to be used as their learning guide anytime. The result of the field testing showed that the guided-discovery learning materials of Calculus II using the Mathematics Mobile Learning (MML application was effective to adopt in learning Calculus II. Keywords: learning materials, guided-discovery, mathematics mobile learning (MML, calculus II PENGEMBANGAN BAHAN AJAR MODEL GUIDED DISCOVERY DENGAN APLIKASI MATHEMATICS MOBILE LEARNING SEBAGAI ALTERNATIF MEDIA PEMBELAJARAN MAHASISWA MATAKULIAH KALKULUS II Abstrak: Penelitian pengembangan ini bertujuan untuk mengembangkan bahan ajar matakuliah Kalkulus II model guided discovery dengan aplikasi Mathematics Mobile Learning (MML. Produk yang dikembangkan berupa media MML Kalkulus II dengan model guided discovery untuk mahasiswa dan buku panduan dosen. Model pengembangan menggunakan 4-D yang meliputi tahap define, design, develop, dan dissemination. Draf bahan ajar divalidasi oleh pakar dan diujicobakan kepada sejumlah mahasiswa. Data dianalisis secara kualitatif dan kuantitatif dengan teknik deskriptif dan uji t. Temuan penelitian

  13. Novel approaches to develop community-built biological network models for potential drug discovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talikka, Marja; Bukharov, Natalia; Hayes, William S; Hofmann-Apitius, Martin; Alexopoulos, Leonidas; Peitsch, Manuel C; Hoeng, Julia

    2017-08-01

    Hundreds of thousands of data points are now routinely generated in clinical trials by molecular profiling and NGS technologies. A true translation of this data into knowledge is not possible without analysis and interpretation in a well-defined biology context. Currently, there are many public and commercial pathway tools and network models that can facilitate such analysis. At the same time, insights and knowledge that can be gained is highly dependent on the underlying biological content of these resources. Crowdsourcing can be employed to guarantee the accuracy and transparency of the biological content underlining the tools used to interpret rich molecular data. Areas covered: In this review, the authors describe crowdsourcing in drug discovery. The focal point is the efforts that have successfully used the crowdsourcing approach to verify and augment pathway tools and biological network models. Technologies that enable the building of biological networks with the community are also described. Expert opinion: A crowd of experts can be leveraged for the entire development process of biological network models, from ontologies to the evaluation of their mechanistic completeness. The ultimate goal is to facilitate biomarker discovery and personalized medicine by mechanistically explaining patients' differences with respect to disease prevention, diagnosis, and therapy outcome.

  14. Communication in superconductivity research: A study of scientific discoveries with particular reference to a developing country

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chu, H.

    1991-01-01

    The main objective is to study the communications dimensions of China's contribution to the discovery of high-Tc superconductors. Chinese researchers of the field were compared with non-Chinese superconductivity scientists from developed countries to reveal similarities and differences in the formal as well as the informal domains of scholarly communication. 240 documents highly cited in a manually created Chinese data base and in Science Citation Index for the period of 1987-89 were examined to delineate the formal structure of communication in the area. Noteworthy similarities, e.g., similar cited cores, identical publication sources, and comparable intellectual structures of cocitation data, were found in formal communication between Chinese and non-Chinese scientists. Nevertheless, differences were also located in regard to citedness, timeliness and direction of communication. Findings reflect the role Chinese scientists played in the discovery of high-Tc superconductors. Chinese researchers overall did better in the formal domain than in the informal realm of scientific communication. Informal communication with scientists from advanced nations appears to be a very weak element in China's endeavors of searching for high-Tc superconductors

  15. Using insects for STEM outreach: Development and evaluation of the UA Insect Discovery Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beal, Benjamin D.

    Science and technology impact most aspects of modern daily life. It is therefore important to create a scientifically literate society. Since the majority of Americans do not take college-level science courses, strong K-12 science education is essential. At the K-5 level, however, many teachers lack the time, resources and background for effective science teaching. Elementary teachers and students may benefit from scientist-led outreach programs created by Cooperative Extension or other institutions. One example is the University of Arizona Insect Discovery Program, which provides short-duration programing that uses insects to support science content learning, teach critical thinking and spark interest in science. We conducted evaluations of the Insect Discovery programming to determine whether the activities offered were accomplishing program goals. Pre-post tests, post program questionnaires for teachers, and novel assessments of children's drawings were used as assessment tools. Assessments were complicated by the short duration of the program interactions with the children as well as their limited literacy. In spite of these difficulties, results of the pre-post tests indicated a significant impact on content knowledge and critical thinking skills. Based on post-program teacher questionnaires, positive impacts on interest in science learning were noted as much as a month after the children participated in the program. New programming and resources developed to widen the potential for impact are also described.

  16. Preclinical discovery and development of maraviroc for the treatment of HIV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veljkovic, Nevena; Vucicevic, Jelica; Tassini, Sabrina; Glisic, Sanja; Veljkovic, Veljko; Radi, Marco

    2015-06-01

    Maraviroc is a first-in-class antiretroviral (ARV) drug acting on a host cell target (CCR5), which blocks the entry of the HIV virus into the cell. Maraviroc is currently indicated for combination ARV treatment in adults infected only with CCR5-tropic HIV-1. This drug discovery case history focuses on the key studies that led to the discovery and approval of maraviroc, as well as on post-launch clinical reports. The article is based on the data reported in published preclinical and clinical studies, conference posters and on drug package data. The profound understanding of HIV's entry mechanisms has provided a strong biological rationale for targeting the chemokine receptor CCR5. The CCR5-antagonist mariviroc, with its unique mode of action and excellent safety profile, is an important therapeutic option for HIV patients. In general, the authors believe that targeting host factors is a useful approach for combating new and re-emerging transmissible diseases, as well as pathogens that easily become resistant to common antiviral drugs. Maraviroc, offering a potent and safe cellular receptor-mediated pharmacological response to HIV, has paved the way for the development of a new generation of host-targeting antivirals.

  17. Non-Intentional Invention: The Promethean, Trickster, and Improvisational Invention Heuristics of Academic Writers and Poets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wirtz, Jason

    2013-01-01

    This essay introduces a novel way to conceptualize writerly invention -- invention as adopting a non-intentional intellectual stance wherein heuristics are experienced as acting upon the writer as opposed to being enacted by the writer. This view of invention complicates and extends the traditional, Aristotelian view of invention as discreet…

  18. Tree Ordination as Invented Tradition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Avery Morrow

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The symbolic ordination of trees as monks in Thailand is widely perceived in Western scholarship to be proof of the power of Buddhism to spur ecological thought. However, a closer analysis of tree ordination demonstrates that it is not primarily about Buddhist teaching, but rather is an invented tradition based on the sanctity of Thai Buddhist symbols as well as those of spirit worship and the monarchy. Tree ordinations performed by non-Buddhist minorities in Thailand do not demonstrate a religious commitment but rather a political one.

  19. Engines of discovery a century of particle accelerators

    CERN Document Server

    Sessler, Andrew

    2014-01-01

    Particle accelerators exploit the cutting edge of every aspect of today's technology and have themselves contributed to many of these technologies. The largest accelerators have been constructed as research tools for nuclear and high energy physics and there is no doubt that it is this field that has sustained their development culminating in the Large Hadron Collider. An earlier book by the same authors, Engines of Discovery: A Century of Particle Accelerators chronicled the development of these large accelerators and colliders, emphasizing the critical discoveries in applied physics and engineering that drove the field. Particular attention was given to the key individuals who contributed, the methods they used to arrive at their particular discoveries and inventions, often recalling how their human strengths and attitudes may have contributed to their achievements. Much of this historical picture is also to be found, little changed, in Part A of this sequel. Since the first book was written it has become ...

  20. Know this today's most interesting and important scientific ideas, discoveries, and developments

    CERN Document Server

    2017-01-01

    Today's most visionary thinkers reveal the cutting-edge scientific ideas and breakthroughs you must understand. Scientific developments radically change and enlighten our understanding of the world -- whether it's advances in technology and medical research or the latest revelations of neuroscience, psychology, physics, economics, anthropology, climatology, or genetics. And yet amid the flood of information today, it's often difficult to recognize the truly revolutionary ideas that will have lasting impact. In the spirit of identifying the most significant new theories and discoveries, John Brockman, publisher of Edge.org ("The world's smartest website" -- The Guardian), asked 198 of the finest minds What do you consider the most interesting recent scientific news? What makes it important? Pulitzer Prize-winning author of Guns, Germs, and Steel Jared Diamond on the best way to understand complex problems * author of Seven Brief Lessons on Physics Carlo Rovelli on the mystery of black holes * Harvard psychol...

  1. Hit and lead criteria in drug discovery for infectious diseases of the developing world.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katsuno, Kei; Burrows, Jeremy N; Duncan, Ken; Hooft van Huijsduijnen, Rob; Kaneko, Takushi; Kita, Kiyoshi; Mowbray, Charles E; Schmatz, Dennis; Warner, Peter; Slingsby, B T

    2015-11-01

    Reducing the burden of infectious diseases that affect people in the developing world requires sustained collaborative drug discovery efforts. The quality of the chemical starting points for such projects is a key factor in improving the likelihood of clinical success, and so it is important to set clear go/no-go criteria for the progression of hit and lead compounds. With this in mind, the Japanese Global Health Innovative Technology (GHIT) Fund convened with experts from the Medicines for Malaria Venture, the Drugs for Neglected Diseases initiative and the TB Alliance, together with representatives from the Bill &Melinda Gates Foundation, to set disease-specific criteria for hits and leads for malaria, tuberculosis, visceral leishmaniasis and Chagas disease. Here, we present the agreed criteria and discuss the underlying rationale.

  2. When fragments link: a bibliometric perspective on the development of fragment-based drug discovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romasanta, Angelo K S; van der Sijde, Peter; Hellsten, Iina; Hubbard, Roderick E; Keseru, Gyorgy M; van Muijlwijk-Koezen, Jacqueline; de Esch, Iwan J P

    2018-05-05

    Fragment-based drug discovery (FBDD) is a highly interdisciplinary field, rich in ideas integrated from pharmaceutical sciences, chemistry, biology, and physics, among others. To enrich our understanding of the development of the field, we used bibliometric techniques to analyze 3642 publications in FBDD, complementing accounts by key practitioners. Mapping its core papers, we found the transfer of knowledge from academia to industry. Co-authorship analysis showed that university-industry collaboration has grown over time. Moreover, we show how ideas from other scientific disciplines have been integrated into the FBDD paradigm. Keyword analysis showed that the field is organized into four interconnected practices: library design, fragment screening, computational methods, and optimization. This study highlights the importance of interactions among various individuals and institutions from diverse disciplines in newly emerging scientific fields. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  3. Inventive activity of the Department of Protein Structure and Function of the Palladin Institute of Biochemistry of NAS of Ukraine. Part I. Development of the diagnostic methods for detection of hemostasis disorders and characterization of certain blood coagulation factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. M. Danilova

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The practical aspects of inventive activity of the Department of Protein Structure and Function of the Palladin Institute of Biochemistry, NAS of Ukraine are highlighted in this article. Through years of fundamental and applied researches of blood coagulation system proteins, initiated by luminaries of the world biochemistry O. V. Palladin and V. O. Belitser, the Department staff have developed a considerable number of methods, techniques and tests for the assessment of the state of the hemostasis system, which were approved in many clinics. In the first part of this work the authors describe the development of the diagnostic methods for identifying the homeostasis system disorders in detail, as well as characterize certain coagulation factors.

  4. Hydrogen deuterium exchange mass spectrometry in biopharmaceutical discovery and development – A review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deng, Bin, E-mail: dengbin@yorku.ca [Chemistry Department, York University, 4700 Keele Street, Toronto, ON, M3J 1P3 (Canada); The Centre for Research in Mass Spectrometry, York University, Toronto, ON, M3J1P3 (Canada); Lento, Cristina, E-mail: clento@yorku.ca [Chemistry Department, York University, 4700 Keele Street, Toronto, ON, M3J 1P3 (Canada); The Centre for Research in Mass Spectrometry, York University, Toronto, ON, M3J1P3 (Canada); Wilson, Derek J., E-mail: dkwilson@yorku.ca [Chemistry Department, York University, 4700 Keele Street, Toronto, ON, M3J 1P3 (Canada); The Centre for Research in Mass Spectrometry, York University, Toronto, ON, M3J1P3 (Canada)

    2016-10-12

    Protein therapeutics have emerged as a major class of biopharmaceuticals over the past several decades, a trend that has motivated the advancement of bioanalytical technologies for protein therapeutic characterization. Hydrogen deuterium exchange mass spectrometry (HDX-MS) is a powerful and sensitive technique that can probe the higher order structure of proteins and has been used in the assessment and development of monoclonal antibodies (mAbs), antibody-drug conjugates (ADCs) and biosimilar antibodies. It has also been used to quantify protein-ligand, protein-receptor and other protein-protein interactions involved in signaling pathways. In manufacturing and development, HDX-MS can validate storage formulations and manufacturing processes for various biotherapeutics. Currently, HDX-MS is being refined to provide additional coverage, sensitivity and structural specificity and implemented on the millisecond timescale to reveal residual structure and dynamics in disordered domains and intrinsically disordered proteins. - Highlights: • The pharmaceuticals industry is increasingly shifting to protein therapeutics. • Hydrogen deuterium exchange mass spectrometry is uniquely well suited to support biopharmaceutical development. • Applications for hydrogen deuterium exchange span drug discovery, development and manufacturing. • Future developments will allow improved sensitivity, structural resolution and a broader range of dynamics to be monitored.

  5. Hydrogen deuterium exchange mass spectrometry in biopharmaceutical discovery and development – A review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deng, Bin; Lento, Cristina; Wilson, Derek J.

    2016-01-01

    Protein therapeutics have emerged as a major class of biopharmaceuticals over the past several decades, a trend that has motivated the advancement of bioanalytical technologies for protein therapeutic characterization. Hydrogen deuterium exchange mass spectrometry (HDX-MS) is a powerful and sensitive technique that can probe the higher order structure of proteins and has been used in the assessment and development of monoclonal antibodies (mAbs), antibody-drug conjugates (ADCs) and biosimilar antibodies. It has also been used to quantify protein-ligand, protein-receptor and other protein-protein interactions involved in signaling pathways. In manufacturing and development, HDX-MS can validate storage formulations and manufacturing processes for various biotherapeutics. Currently, HDX-MS is being refined to provide additional coverage, sensitivity and structural specificity and implemented on the millisecond timescale to reveal residual structure and dynamics in disordered domains and intrinsically disordered proteins. - Highlights: • The pharmaceuticals industry is increasingly shifting to protein therapeutics. • Hydrogen deuterium exchange mass spectrometry is uniquely well suited to support biopharmaceutical development. • Applications for hydrogen deuterium exchange span drug discovery, development and manufacturing. • Future developments will allow improved sensitivity, structural resolution and a broader range of dynamics to be monitored.

  6. The birth and development of the DNA theory of inheritance: sixty years since the discovery of the structure of DNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Portin, Petter

    2014-04-01

    The development of the DNA theory of inheritance culminated in the publication of the molecular structure of DNA 60 years ago. This paper describes this development, beginning with the discovery of DNA as a chemical substance by Friedrich Miescher in 1869, followed by its basic chemical analysis and demonstration of its participation in the structure of chromosomes. Subsequently it was discovered by Oswald Avery in 1944 that DNA was the genetic material, and then Erwin Chargaff showed that the proportions of the bases included in the structure of DNA followed a certain law. These findings, in association with the biophysical studies of Maurice Wilkins and Rosalind Franklin with Raymond Gosling, led James Watson and Francis Crick to the discovery of the double-helical structure of DNA in 1953. The paper ends with a short description of the development of the DNA theory of inheritance after the discovery of the double helix.

  7. SNP Discovery and Development of a High-Density Genotyping Array for Sunflower

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachlava, Eleni; Taylor, Christopher A.; Tang, Shunxue; Bowers, John E.; Mandel, Jennifer R.; Burke, John M.; Knapp, Steven J.

    2012-01-01

    Recent advances in next-generation DNA sequencing technologies have made possible the development of high-throughput SNP genotyping platforms that allow for the simultaneous interrogation of thousands of single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). Such resources have the potential to facilitate the rapid development of high-density genetic maps, and to enable genome-wide association studies as well as molecular breeding approaches in a variety of taxa. Herein, we describe the development of a SNP genotyping resource for use in sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.). This work involved the development of a reference transcriptome assembly for sunflower, the discovery of thousands of high quality SNPs based on the generation and analysis of ca. 6 Gb of transcriptome re-sequencing data derived from multiple genotypes, the selection of 10,640 SNPs for inclusion in the genotyping array, and the use of the resulting array to screen a diverse panel of sunflower accessions as well as related wild species. The results of this work revealed a high frequency of polymorphic SNPs and relatively high level of cross-species transferability. Indeed, greater than 95% of successful SNP assays revealed polymorphism, and more than 90% of these assays could be successfully transferred to related wild species. Analysis of the polymorphism data revealed patterns of genetic differentiation that were largely congruent with the evolutionary history of sunflower, though the large number of markers allowed for finer resolution than has previously been possible. PMID:22238659

  8. Development of traditional Chinese medicine clinical data warehouse for medical knowledge discovery and decision support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Xuezhong; Chen, Shibo; Liu, Baoyan; Zhang, Runsun; Wang, Yinghui; Li, Ping; Guo, Yufeng; Zhang, Hua; Gao, Zhuye; Yan, Xiufeng

    2010-01-01

    Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) is a scientific discipline, which develops the related theories from the long-term clinical practices. The large-scale clinical data are the core empirical knowledge source for TCM research. This paper introduces a clinical data warehouse (CDW) system, which incorporates the structured electronic medical record (SEMR) data for medical knowledge discovery and TCM clinical decision support (CDS). We have developed the clinical reference information model (RIM) and physical data model to manage the various information entities and their relationships in TCM clinical data. An extraction-transformation-loading (ETL) tool is implemented to integrate and normalize the clinical data from different operational data sources. The CDW includes online analytical processing (OLAP) and complex network analysis (CNA) components to explore the various clinical relationships. Furthermore, the data mining and CNA methods are used to discover the valuable clinical knowledge from the data. The CDW has integrated 20,000 TCM inpatient data and 20,000 outpatient data, which contains manifestations (e.g. symptoms, physical examinations and laboratory test results), diagnoses and prescriptions as the main information components. We propose a practical solution to accomplish the large-scale clinical data integration and preprocessing tasks. Meanwhile, we have developed over 400 OLAP reports to enable the multidimensional analysis of clinical data and the case-based CDS. We have successfully conducted several interesting data mining applications. Particularly, we use various classification methods, namely support vector machine, decision tree and Bayesian network, to discover the knowledge of syndrome differentiation. Furthermore, we have applied association rule and CNA to extract the useful acupuncture point and herb combination patterns from the clinical prescriptions. A CDW system consisting of TCM clinical RIM, ETL, OLAP and data mining as the core

  9. Customer Discovery as the First Essential Step for Successful Health Information Technology System Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thamjamrassri, Punyotai; Song, YuJin; Tak, JaeHyun; Kang, HoYong; Kong, Hyoun-Joong; Hong, Jeeyoung

    2018-01-01

    Customer discovery (CD) is a method to determine if there are actual customers for a product/service and what they would want before actually developing the product/service. This concept, however, is rather new to health information technology (IT) systems. Therefore, the aim of this paper was to demonstrate how to use the CD method in developing a comprehensive health IT service for patients with knee/leg pain. We participated in a 6-week I-Corps program to perform CD, in which we interviewed 55 people in person, by phone, or by video conference within 6 weeks: 4 weeks in the United States and 2 weeks in Korea. The interviewees included orthopedic doctors, physical therapists, physical trainers, physicians, researchers, pharmacists, vendors, and patients. By analyzing the interview data, the aim was to revise our business model accordingly. Using the CD approach enabled us to understand the customer segments and identify value propositions. We concluded that a facilitating tele-rehabilitation system is needed the most and that the most suitable customer segment is early stage arthritis patients. We identified a new design concept for the customer segment. Furthermore, CD is required to identify value propositions in detail. CD is crucial to determine a more desirable direction in developing health IT systems, and it can be a powerful tool to increase the potential for successful commercialization in the health IT field.

  10. Phenotypic Screening Approaches to Develop Aurora Kinase Inhibitors: Drug Discovery Perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marugán, Carlos; Torres, Raquel; Lallena, María José

    2015-01-01

    Targeting mitotic regulators as a strategy to fight cancer implies the development of drugs against key proteins, such as Aurora-A and -B. Current drugs, which target mitosis through a general mechanism of action (stabilization/destabilization of microtubules), have several side effects (neutropenia, alopecia, and emesis). Pharmaceutical companies aim at avoiding these unwanted effects by generating improved and selective drugs that increase the quality of life of the patients. However, the development of these drugs is an ambitious task that involves testing thousands of compounds through biochemical and cell-based assays. In addition, molecules usually target complex biological processes, involving several proteins and different molecular pathways, further emphasizing the need for high-throughput screening techniques and multiplexing technologies in order to identify drugs with the desired phenotype. We will briefly describe two multiplexing technologies [high-content imaging (HCI) and flow cytometry] and two key processes for drug discovery research (assay development and validation) following our own published industry quality standards. We will further focus on HCI as a useful tool for phenotypic screening and will provide a concrete example of HCI assay to detect Aurora-A or -B selective inhibitors discriminating the off-target effects related to the inhibition of other cell cycle or non-cell cycle key regulators. Finally, we will describe other assays that can help to characterize the in vitro pharmacology of the inhibitors.

  11. Phenotypic screening approaches to develop Aurora kinase inhibitors: Drug Discovery perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos eMarugán

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Targeting mitotic regulators as a strategy to fight cancer implies the development of drugs against key proteins such as Aurora A and B. Current drugs which target mitosis through a general mechanism of action (stabilization/destabilization of microtubules, have several side effects (neutropenia, alopecia, emesis. Pharmaceutical companies aim at avoiding these unwanted effects by generating improved and selective drugs that increase the quality of life of the patients. However, the development of these drugs is an ambitious task that involves testing thousands of compounds through biochemical and cell-based assays. In addition, molecules usually target complex biological processes, involving several proteins and different molecular pathways, further emphasizing the need for high-throughput screening techniques and multiplexing technologies in order to identify drugs with the desired phenotype.We will briefly describe two multiplexing technologies (high-content imaging, microarrays and flow cytometry and two key processes for drug discovery research (assay development and validation following our own published industry quality standards. We will further focus on high-content imaging as a useful tool for phenotypic screening and will provide a concrete example of high-content imaging assay to detect Aurora A or B selective inhibitors discriminating the off-target effects related to inhibition of other cell cycle or non-cell cycle key regulators. Finally, we will describe other assays that can help to characterize the in vitro pharmacology of the inhibitors.

  12. Inventário de expectativas de resultados em usuários de maconha (IERUM: construção e validação Inventory of outcome expectancy in marijuana users (Inventário de Expectativas de Resultados em Usuários de Maconha, IERUM: development and validation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosemeri Siqueira Pedroso

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Introdução: Este estudo apresenta a construção e validação do Inventário de Expectativas de Resultados em Usuários de Maconha (IERUM, o qual avalia as expectativas de resultados em relação ao uso de maconha, podendo ser importante no tratamento e prognóstico dos dependentes químicos dessa substância. Método: O estudo foi realizado em uma amostra de 181 sujeitos usuários de maconha, homens (n = 145 e mulheres (n = 36, entre 18 e 55 anos (28,34±8,57; 118 estavam internados em unidade de dependência química, 23 em tratamento ambulatorial, 25 em grupo de autoajuda (narcóticos anônimos, alcoólatras anônimos e 15 não estavam em tratamento. A escala de 17 itens foi criada a partir da experiência em dependência química e em validação de escalas, sendo realizada primeiramente a validação semântica. Resultados: De acordo com a análise fatorial, o IERUM dividiu-se em cinco fatores (aspectos emocionais, percepção, craving, aspectos cognitivos e sexualidade que responderam por 60,18% da variância. Conclusão: O IERUM apresentou bons resultados psicométricos, podendo avaliar as expectativas de resultados relacionadas ao uso de maconha.Introduction: This study presents the development and validation of the Inventory of Outcome Expectancy in Marijuana Users (Inventário de Expectativas de Resultados em Usuários de Maconha, IERUM, which evaluates the outcome expectancy regarding marijuana use, and may be useful in the treatment and prognosis of marijuana-dependent individuals. Method: The sample comprised 181 male (n = 145 and female (n = 36 marijuana users. Their age ranged from 18 to 55 years old (28.34±8.57. One hundred and eighteen patients were hospitalized at a chemical dependency unit, 23 were being treated in an outpatient clinic, 25 were receiving treatment in a self-help group (drug addicts anonymous, alcoholic anonymous, and 15 were not being treated. The 17-item scale was developed based on the experience related

  13. A semiparametric modeling framework for potential biomarker discovery and the development of metabonomic profiles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dey Dipak K

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The discovery of biomarkers is an important step towards the development of criteria for early diagnosis of disease status. Recently electrospray ionization (ESI and matrix assisted laser desorption (MALDI time-of-flight (TOF mass spectrometry have been used to identify biomarkers both in proteomics and metabonomics studies. Data sets generated from such studies are generally very large in size and thus require the use of sophisticated statistical techniques to glean useful information. Most recent attempts to process these types of data model each compound's intensity either discretely by positional (mass to charge ratio clustering or through each compounds' own intensity distribution. Traditionally data processing steps such as noise removal, background elimination and m/z alignment, are generally carried out separately resulting in unsatisfactory propagation of signals in the final model. Results In the present study a novel semi-parametric approach has been developed to distinguish urinary metabolic profiles in a group of traumatic patients from those of a control group consisting of normal individuals. Data sets obtained from the replicates of a single subject were used to develop a functional profile through Dirichlet mixture of beta distribution. This functional profile is flexible enough to accommodate variability of the instrument and the inherent variability of each individual, thus simultaneously addressing different sources of systematic error. To address instrument variability, all data sets were analyzed in replicate, an important issue ignored by most studies in the past. Different model comparisons were performed to select the best model for each subject. The m/z values in the window of the irregular pattern are then further recommended for possible biomarker discovery. Conclusion To the best of our knowledge this is the very first attempt to model the physical process behind the time-of flight mass

  14. Ghosts of inventions: Patent law's digital mediations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Hyo Yoon

    2018-04-01

    This article examines the shifts in the material ordering of inventions in patent law organization and their effects on the meaning and scope of inventions as intellectual property. Formats and media are constitutive of the establishment and stabilization of inventions as objects of intellectual property. Modern patent law's materiality had been dominated by paper documents but ever more consists of digital images, files, and networked data. The article traces and analyzes such effects of digital media on the meaning of intellectual/intangible property and argues that inventions increasingly matter as digital data in the legal realm.

  15. Development and exploration of potential routes of discovery of new superconductors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, Xiao [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    2013-01-01

    This thesis summarizes our efforts to develop and explore potential routes for the discovery of new superconductors. The development of viable solutions for sulfur-bearing compounds is presented. It also provides the details of searching for quantum critical points (QCPs) and possible superconductors by suppressing ferromagnetic states via chemical substitution and the application of pressure. The ferromagnetism in La(VxCr1-x)Ge3 was successfully suppressed by pressure, and, in addition, a potential QCP at ambient pressure was discovered for x = 0.16. On the other hand, the La(VxCr1-x)Sb3 series is likely to evolve into new magnetic state with V-substitution with the Cr-based magnetism appearing to be more local-moment like than for the case of LaCrGe3. We also performed detailed characterization on BaSn5 superconductor, giving further understanding of its superconducting state, and on R3Ni2-xSn7 and RNi1-xBi2±y series putting to rest spurious claims of superconductivity.

  16. Discovery and Development of the Aryl O-Sulfamate Pharmacophore for Oncology and Women's Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Mark P; Potter, Barry V L

    2015-10-08

    In 1994, following work from this laboratory, it was reported that estrone-3-O-sulfamate irreversibly inhibits a new potential hormone-dependent cancer target steroid sulfatase (STS). Subsequent drug discovery projects were initiated to develop the core aryl O-sulfamate pharmacophore that, over some 20 years, have led to steroidal and nonsteroidal drugs in numerous preclinical and clinical trials, with promising results in oncology and women's health, including endometriosis. Drugs have been designed to inhibit STS, e.g., Irosustat, as innovative dual-targeting aromatase-steroid sulfatase inhibitors (DASIs) and as multitargeting agents for hormone-independent tumors, such as the steroidal STX140 and nonsteroidal counterparts, acting inter alia through microtubule disruption. The aryl sulfamate pharmacophore is highly versatile, operating via three distinct mechanisms of action, and imbues attractive pharmaceutical properties. This Perspective gives a personal view of the work leading both to the therapeutic concepts and these drugs, their current status, and how they might develop in the future.

  17. The discovery and development of omalizumab for the treatment of asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Licari, Amelia; Marseglia, GianLuigi; Castagnoli, Riccardo; Marseglia, Alessia; Ciprandi, Giorgio

    2015-01-01

    The evolution in immunological methods used to assess human allergic diseases has led to the identification of immunoglobulin E (IgE) as a diagnostic biomarker and a potential therapeutic target. Innovative technologies in molecular biology and immunogenetics contributed to the development of a selective blocking agent, disclosing new therapeutic perspectives in the treatment of allergic asthma. Omalizumab is the most advanced humanized anti-IgE monoclonal antibody that specifically binds serum-free IgE. Omalizumab also interrupts the allergic cascade by preventing binding of IgE with FcεRI receptors on mast cells, basophils, antigen-presenting cells and other inflammatory cells. This review discusses the discovery strategy and preclinical development of omalizumab. Furthermore, it also provides a clinical overview of the key trials leading to its launch and a detailed analysis of safety and post-marketing data. The clinical efficacy of omalizumab in allergic asthma has been well documented in clinical trials, involving adults, adolescents and children with moderate-to-severe and severe allergic asthma. To date, omalizumab has also been approved in chronic idiopathic urticaria for patients 12 years and older who remain symptomatic despite high dosages of H1 antihistamines. Omalizumab has also been investigated in many other different patient populations beyond allergic asthma and may yet have an application to other indications. While omalizumab is the only mAb available for treating allergic asthma, the authors anticipate that new mAbs will emerge in the future that overcome omalizumab's current limitations.

  18. Analyzing user-generated online content for drug discovery: development and use of MedCrawler.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helfenstein, Andreas; Tammela, Päivi

    2017-04-15

    Ethnopharmacology, or the scientific validation of traditional medicine, is a respected starting point in drug discovery. Home remedies and traditional use of plants are still widespread, also in Western societies. Instead of perusing ancient pharmacopeias, we developed MedCrawler, which we used to analyze blog posts for mentions of home remedies and their applications. This method is free and accessible from the office computer. We developed MedCrawler, a data mining tool for analyzing user-generated blog posts aiming to find modern 'traditional' medicine or home remedies. It searches user-generated blog posts and analyzes them for correlations between medically relevant terms. We also present examples and show that this method is capable of delivering both scientifically validated uses as well as not so well documented applications, which might serve as a starting point for follow-up research. Source code is available on GitHub at {{ https://github.com/a-hel/medcrawler }}. paivi.tammela@helsinki.fi. Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com

  19. Pharmacogenetics in diverse ethnic populations--implications for drug discovery and development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarthy, Linda C; Davies, Kirstie J; Campbell, David A

    2002-07-01

    It is widely acknowledged that the vast quantities of data now publicly available as a result of the human genome initiative have the potential to revolutionize the pharmaceutical industry. More tangibly to the drug development business, the dawn of the pharmacogenetics era has the potential to impact not only the discovery of new medicines but also the safety and efficacy of pharmaceutical agents. Coincident with these scientific advances is the emergence of new markets for pharmaceutical agents. Japan, which represents the world's second biggest market, is a good example. With the ICH E5 agreement in 1998 and a rapid change in the drug registration process in Japan, there are increasing opportunities to improve access to more medicines in all parts of the world. However, it is increasingly clear that significant genetic variation still exists between populations, with a host of data on interethnic variation in drug metabolizing enzyme and drug transporter activity. Evidence suggesting that this genetic variation may play an important role in defining some of the interethnic variation in drug response to currently marketed compounds is reviewed here, and future possibilities of using such information to better streamline the drug development process are discussed.

  20. Inhibitors of the Hydrolytic Enzyme Dimethylarginine Dimethylaminohydrolase (DDAH: Discovery, Synthesis and Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rhys B. Murphy

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Dimethylarginine dimethylaminohydrolase (DDAH is a highly conserved hydrolytic enzyme found in numerous species, including bacteria, rodents, and humans. In humans, the DDAH-1 isoform is known to metabolize endogenous asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA and monomethyl arginine (l-NMMA, with ADMA proposed to be a putative marker of cardiovascular disease. Current literature reports identify the DDAH family of enzymes as a potential therapeutic target in the regulation of nitric oxide (NO production, mediated via its biochemical interaction with the nitric oxide synthase (NOS family of enzymes. Increased DDAH expression and NO production have been linked to multiple pathological conditions, specifically, cancer, neurodegenerative disorders, and septic shock. As such, the discovery, chemical synthesis, and development of DDAH inhibitors as potential drug candidates represent a growing field of interest. This review article summarizes the current knowledge on DDAH inhibition and the derived pharmacokinetic parameters of the main DDAH inhibitors reported in the literature. Furthermore, current methods of development and chemical synthetic pathways are discussed.

  1. Physical tools for textile creativity and invention

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heimdal, Elisabeth Jacobsen; Lenau, Torben Anker

    2010-01-01

    Two textile research projects (one completed and one ongoing) are described, where physical inspirational tools are developed and tested with the aim of stimulating textile creativity and invention, i.e. the use of textile materials in new kinds of products, thus bringing textiles into new contexts....... The first research project (completed) concerns how textile designers use new responsive materials and technologies, whereas the second (ongoing) concerns how architects and design engineers can use textile materials. In both projects, the developed inspirational tool is tested through workshops...... with the mentioned stakeholders. In these workshops, new ways of disseminating the results from research in textiles and textile design are experimented with. The submitted contribution therefore mainly addresses the role of interdisciplinarity in textile design research as well as the impact of new materials...

  2. Singapore: The Politics of Inventing National Identity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephan Ortmann

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This study wants to shed new light on the politics of Singapore’s national identity invention. Since independence in 1965, the Singaporean government has tried to generate a sense of national identity in Singapore. While at first, the priority was on pragmatic values to promote the economic development, this changed in the late 1980s when the government became concerned with the widespread materialism within the society. As an alternative, so-called Asian values sought to provide an ideological alternative and a new basis for a stronger national identity. At the same time, average Singaporeans have developed their own unique conceptions of the city-state’s national identity, which sometimes contradict the official nation-building efforts and thus constitute a subtle form of opposition. Many Singaporeans demand greater participation in the negotiation of their Singaporean identity, which demonstrates the difficulty of constructing a sustainable authoritarian civic national identity.

  3. 78 FR 78370 - Government-Owned Inventions; Availability for Licensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-26

    ... have developed a research tool, a murine cell line model (JygMC(A)) with a reporter construct, of... marrow transplantation, stem cell therapy, tissue regeneration) Competitive Advantages: Labeling markers... federally-funded research and development. Foreign patent applications are filed on selected inventions to...

  4. New Generation Discovery: A Systematic View for Its Development, Issues and Future

    KAUST Repository

    Yu, Yi; Ali, Haider

    2012-01-01

    and interaction with the internet, the rapidly changing digital environment, and the elements and the chain of library services. To address above issues, this paper overviews the different versions of the definition for the new generation discovery by combining

  5. Discovery of serum biomarkers predicting development of a subsequent depressive episode in social anxiety disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gottschalk, M G; Cooper, J D; Chan, M K; Bot, M; Penninx, B W J H; Bahn, S

    2015-08-01

    Although social anxiety disorder (SAD) is strongly associated with the subsequent development of a depressive disorder (major depressive disorder or dysthymia), no underlying biological risk factors are known. We aimed to identify biomarkers which predict depressive episodes in SAD patients over a 2-year follow-up period. One hundred sixty-five multiplexed immunoassay analytes were investigated in blood serum of 143 SAD patients without co-morbid depressive disorders, recruited within the Netherlands Study of Depression and Anxiety (NESDA). Predictive performance of identified biomarkers, clinical variables and self-report inventories was assessed using receiver operating characteristics curves (ROC) and represented by the area under the ROC curve (AUC). Stepwise logistic regression resulted in the selection of four serum analytes (AXL receptor tyrosine kinase, vascular cell adhesion molecule 1, vitronectin, collagen IV) and four additional variables (Inventory of Depressive Symptomatology, Beck Anxiety Inventory somatic subscale, depressive disorder lifetime diagnosis, BMI) as optimal set of patient parameters. When combined, an AUC of 0.86 was achieved for the identification of SAD individuals who later developed a depressive disorder. Throughout our analyses, biomarkers yielded superior discriminative performance compared to clinical variables and self-report inventories alone. We report the discovery of a serum marker panel with good predictive performance to identify SAD individuals prone to develop subsequent depressive episodes in a naturalistic cohort design. Furthermore, we emphasise the importance to combine biological markers, clinical variables and self-report inventories for disease course predictions in psychiatry. Following replication in independent cohorts, validated biomarkers could help to identify SAD patients at risk of developing a depressive disorder, thus facilitating early intervention. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. The discovery and development of aclidinium bromide for the treatment of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malerba, Mario; Radaeli, Alessandro; Santini, Giuseppe; Morjaria, Jaymin; Mores, Nadia; Mondino, Chiara; Macis, Giuseppe; Montuschi, Paolo

    2018-06-01

    Bronchodilators, including long-acting muscarinic receptor antagonists (LAMAs), are a mainstay of the pharmacological treatment of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). LAMAs act as bronchodilators principally by antagonizing airway smooth muscle cells M 3 muscarinic receptors. Aclidinium bromide is a twice-daily LAMA which was developed to improve on the efficacy and/or safety of previous LAMAs. Area covered: Herein, the authors present the pharmacotherapeutic role of aclidinium in COPD and point out unmet need in this research area. The following aspects are covered: a) the discovery and medicinal chemistry of aclidinium bromide; b) an overview of the market; c) its mechanism of action; d) its pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic profile derived from pre-clinical studies; e) the clinical studies which led to its licensing; f) the evidence from meta-analyses; g) the aclidinium/formoterol fixed dose combination for COPD and h) priorities in this area of research. Expert opinion: Aclidinium bromide has the pharmacological properties, safety and efficacy profile and inhaler characteristics which makes it a valuable therapeutic option for pharmacological management of patients with COPD. Due to its rapid biotransformation into inactive metabolites, aclidinium is potentially one of the safest LAMAs. Further head-to-head randomized clinical trials are required to define efficacy and safety of aclidinium when compared to once-daily LAMAs. The clinical relevance of airway anti-remodeling effects of aclidinium has to be defined.

  7. Bridging gaps in discovery and development: chemical and biological sciences for affordable health, wellness and sustainability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chauhan, Prem Man Singh

    2011-05-01

    To commemorate 2011 as the International Year of Chemistry, the Indian Society of Chemists and Biologists organized its 15th International Conference on 'Bridging Gaps in Discovery and Development: Chemical and Biological Sciences for Affordable Health, Wellness and Sustainability' at Hotel Grand Bhagwati, in association with Saurashtra University, Rajkot, India. Anamik Shah, President of the Indian Society of Chemists and Biologists, was organizing secretary of the conference. Nicole Moreau, President of the International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry and Secretary General of the Comité National de la Chimie, National Centre for Scientific Research France, was chief guest of the function. The four-day scientific program included 52 plenary lectures, 24 invited lectures by eminent scientists in the field and 12 oral presentations. A total of 317 posters were presented by young scientists and PhD students in three different poster sessions. Approximately 750 delegates from India, the USA, UK, France, Switzerland, Germany, Austria, Belgium, Sweden, Japan and other countries attended the conference. The majority of the speakers gave presentations related to their current projects and areas of interest and many of the talks covered synthesis, structure-activity relationships, current trends in medicinal chemistry and drug research.

  8. The preclinical discovery and development of dolutegravir for the treatment of HIV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailly, Fabrice; Cotelle, Philippe

    2015-01-01

    Integration of the viral genome into the host cell chromatin is a central step in the replication cycle of HIV. Blocking the viral integrase (IN) enzyme therefore provides an attractive therapeutic strategy, as evidenced by the recent clinical approval of three IN strand transfer inhibitors. Dolutegravir is a therapy that is unique in its ability to evade HIV drug resistance in treatment-naïve patients. This review starts by providing a brief summary of the history of HIV-1 IN inhibitors. The authors follow this with details of the discovery and preclinical and clinical developments of dolutegravir. Finally, the authors provide details of dolutegravir's post-launch including the launch of the combination pill of dolutegravir, abacavir and lamivudine in August 2014. The launch of raltegravir, the first IN inhibitor from Merck & Co., has created new hopes for the patient. Indeed, pharmaceutical companies have not lost courage by attempting to address the major drawbacks of this first-in-class molecule. And while the drug elvitegravir has been inserted into a four-drug combination pill providing a once-daily dosing alternative, dolutegravir has demonstrated superiority in terms of its efficacy and resistance.

  9. The Democratic Invention. A Reading of Lefort.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matías Sirczuk

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper I will present the way in which Lefort interprets modern democracy as a new form of society in regard to the sources of law and legitimacy. Lefort is a thinker who is difficult to place within the context of contemporary political theory: he not only defends democracy against Marxism but also thinks that this form of society cannot be circumscribed within the limits of the modern state, nor be understood through the categories that the tradition of political philosophy has developed to distinguish between political regimes. Lefort combines the defense of democracy with a radical critique of the established order. He identifies the democratic invention with the institution of a dynamic that makes, by right, the radical questioning of law the source of political legitimacy.

  10. The Drug Discovery and Development Industry in India-Two Decades of Proprietary Small-Molecule R&D.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Differding, Edmond

    2017-06-07

    This review provides a comprehensive survey of proprietary drug discovery and development efforts performed by Indian companies between 1994 and mid-2016. It is based on the identification and detailed analysis of pharmaceutical, biotechnology, and contract research companies active in proprietary new chemical entity (NCE) research and development (R&D) in India. Information on preclinical and clinical development compounds was collected by company, therapeutic indication, mode of action, target class, and development status. The analysis focuses on the overall pipeline and its evolution over two decades, contributions by type of company, therapeutic focus, attrition rates, and contribution to Western pharmaceutical pipelines through licensing agreements. This comprehensive analysis is the first of its kind, and, in our view, represents a significant contribution to the understanding of the current state of the drug discovery and development industry in India. © 2017 The Author. Published by Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA.

  11. Can Universities Profit from General Purpose Inventions?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barirani, Ahmad; Beaudry, Catherine; Agard, Bruno

    2017-01-01

    The lack of control over downstream assets can hinder universities’ ability to extract rents from their inventive activities. We explore this possibility by assessing the relationship between invention generality and renewal decisions for a sample of Canadian nanotechnology patents. Our results s...

  12. New Paradigms for Computer Aids to Invention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langston, M. Diane

    Many people are interested in computer aids to rhetorical invention and want to know how to evaluate an invention aid, what the criteria are for a good one, and how to assess the trade-offs involved in buying one product or another. The frame of reference for this evaluation is an "old paradigm," which treats the computer as if it were…

  13. Reluctant genius Alexander Graham Bell and the passion for invention

    CERN Document Server

    Gray, Charlotte

    2011-01-01

    The popular image of Alexander Graham Bell is that of an elderly American patriarch, memorable only for his paunch, his Santa Claus beard, and the invention of the telephone. In this magisterial reassessment based on thorough new research, acclaimed biographer Charlotte Gray reveals Bell's wide-ranging passion for invention and delves into the private life that supported his genius. The child of a speech therapist and a deaf mother, and possessed of superbly acute hearing, Bell developed an early interest in sound. His understanding of how sound waves might relate to electrical waves enabled h

  14. How search in science impacts on the value of inventions at early and late stages in the R&D cycle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beukel, Karin; Valentin, Finn; Lund Jensen, Rasmus

    . The patents filed on these inventions offer, through their citations to prior art, a fine-grained view of the role of science along the R&D cycle. Applying a unique text-mining algorithm we categorize a set of 1,058 patens from Scandinavian drug discovery firms into six types of drug-related inventions. Tests...

  15. The value of banked samples for oncology drug discovery and development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, Peter M; Patterson, Scott D

    2011-01-01

    To gain insights into human biology and pathobiology, ready access to banked human tissue samples that encompass a representative cross section of the population is required. For optimal use, the banked human tissue needs to be appropriately consented, collected, annotated, and stored. If any of these elements are missing, the studies using these samples are compromised. These elements are critical whether the research is for academic or pharmaceutical industry purposes. An additional temporal element that adds enormous value to such banked samples is treatment and outcome information from the people who donated the tissue. To achieve these aims, many different groups have to work effectively together, not least of which are the individuals who donate their tissue with appropriate consent. Such research is unlikely to benefit the donors but others who succumb to the same disease. The development of a large accessible human tissue bank resource (National Cancer Institute's Cancer HUman Biobank [caHUB]) that provides an ongoing supply of human tissue for all working toward the common goal of understanding human health and disease has a number of advantages. These include, but are not limited to, access to a broad cross section of healthy and diseased populations beyond what individual collections may achieve for understanding disease pathobiology, therapeutic target discovery, as well as a source of material for diagnostic assay validation. Models will need to be developed to enable fair access to caHUB under terms that enable appropriate intellectual property protection and ultimate data sharing to ensure that the biobank successfully distributes samples to a broad range of researchers.

  16. Mandatory Reporting? Issues to consider when developing legislation and policy to improve discovery of child abuse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emma Davies

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Article by Dr Emma Davies (School of Law, Liverpool John Moores University, Associate Professor Ben Mathews (School of Law, Queensland University of Technology and Professor John Read (Institute of Psychology, Health and Society, University of Liverpool. In the United Kingdom, recent investigations into child sexual abuse occurring within schools, the Catholic Church and the British Broadcasting Corporation, have intensified debate on ways to improve the discovery of child sexual abuse, and child maltreatment generally. One approach adopted in other jurisdictions to better identify cases of severe child maltreatment is the introduction of some form of legislative mandatory reporting to require designated persons to report known and suspected cases. The debate in England has raised the prospect of whether adopting a strategy of some kind of mandatory reporting law is advisable. The purpose of this article is to add to this debate by identifying fundamental principles, issues and complexities underpinning policy and even legislative developments in the interests of children and society. The article will first highlight the data on the hidden nature of child maltreatment and the background to the debate. Secondly, it will identify some significant gaps in knowledge that need to be filled. Thirdly, the article will summarise the barriers to reporting abuse and neglect. Fourthly, we will identify a range of options for, and clarify the dilemmas in developing, legislative mandatory reporting, addressing two key issues: who should be mandated to report, and what types of child maltreatment should they be required to report? Finally, we draw attention to some inherently different goals and competing interests, both between and within the various institutions involved in the safeguarding of children and the criminal prosecution of some offenders. Based on this analysis we offer some concluding observations that we hope contribute to informed and careful

  17. The development of a valid discovery-based learning module to improve students' mathematical connection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuneni, Erna; Mardiyana, Pramudya, Ikrar

    2017-08-01

    Geometry is the most important branch in mathematics. The purpose of teaching this material is to develop students' level of thinking for a better understanding. Otherwise, geometry in particular, has contributed students' failure in mathematics examinations. This problem occurs due to special feature in geometry which has complexity of correlation among its concept. This relates to mathematical connection. It is still difficult for students to improve this ability. This is because teachers' lack in facilitating students towards it. Eventhough, facilitating students can be in the form of teaching material. A learning module can be a solution because it consists of series activities that should be taken by students to achieve a certain goal. A series activities in this case is adopted by the phases of discovery-based learning model. Through this module, students are facilitated to discover concept by deep instruction and guidance. It can build the mathematical habits of mind and also strengthen the mathematical connection. Method used in this research was ten stages of research and development proposed by Bord and Gall. The research purpose is to create a valid learning module to improve students' mathematical connection in teaching quadrilateral. The retrieved valid module based on media expert judgment is 2,43 for eligibility chart aspect, 2,60 for eligibility presentation aspect, and 3,00 for eligibility contents aspect. Then the retrieved valid module based on material expert judgment is 3,10 for eligibility content aspect, 2,87 for eligibility presentation aspect, and 2,80 for eligibility language and legibility aspect.

  18. Increasing Access to Patented Inventions by Post-grant Measures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schovsbo, Jens Hemmingsen

    2009-01-01

    " and the so called "tragedy of the anticommons". Next the paper discusses the use of (some) post grant measure to increase access to patented inventions. Traditionally patent law has not paid much attention to such measures. The paper argues that developments suggest that there is good reason to reconsider...

  19. Nobel physics prize to Charpak for inventing particle detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schwarzschild, B.

    1993-01-01

    This article describes the work of Georges Charpak of France leading to his receipt of the 1992 Nobel Prize in Physics. The Nobel Prize was awarded to Charpak open-quotes for his invention and development of particle detectors, in particular the multiwire proportional chamber.close quotes Historical aspects of Charpak's life and research are given

  20. 78 FR 73549 - Government-Owned Inventions; Availability for Licensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-06

    ... extend market coverage for companies and may also be available for licensing. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION... resistance due to the high sequence conservation of the target. More stable than thioesters. Development... makes this invention a novel and potential long-term therapeutic for restoration of exocrine gland...

  1. 78 FR 48692 - Government-Owned Inventions; Availability for Licensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-09

    ... federally-funded research and development. Foreign patent applications are filed on selected inventions to... disrupts lipid homeostasis in liver. J Biol Chem. 2010 Apr 2;285(14):10880-9. [PMID 20097939]. Intellectual Property: HHS Reference No. E-465-2013/0--Research Tool. Patent protection is not being pursued for this...

  2. Not invented here : managing corporate innovation in a new era

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vrande, van de V.J.A.

    2007-01-01

    Not Invented here: Managing Corporate Innovation in a New Era External technology sourcing as a means to develop new businesses is taking a more central role in established companies. Acquiring new technologies from outside the firm which speeds up the innovation process and complements internal R&D

  3. 75 FR 21634 - Government-Owned Inventions; Availability for Licensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-26

    ... interventional devices for delivery of drugs, cells, energy, or sutures through complex trajectories of the body... Ligands for Live Cell Imaging Description of Invention: Recently-developed protein tags enable the..., to fusion proteins containing these tags. For example, SNAP and CLIP tags bind O\\6\\-benzylguanine...

  4. IVO`s CHP know-how: experience, inventions, patents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aeijaelae, M.; Ohtonen, V. [ed.

    1997-11-01

    IVO can justly claim mastery in the co-generation of district heat and electricity - CHP. As well as looking at the issue from the viewpoint of planners, builders and operators, IVO`s engineers also view power plants through the eyes of the product developer and inventor. This approach has resulted in successful power plant configurations, inventions and patents and visions

  5. Ethical limitations in patenting biotechnological inventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lugagnani, V

    1999-01-01

    In order to connect ethical considerations with practical limits to patentability, the moral judgement should possibly move from the exploitation of the invention to the nature and/or objectives of Research and Development (R&D) projects which have produced it: in other words, it appears quite reasonable and logical that Society is not rewarding unethical R&D activities by granting intellectual property rights. As far as biotechnology R&D is concerned, ethical guidance can be derived from the 1996 Council of EuropeOs OConvention for the protection of human rights and dignity of the human being with regard to the application of biology and medicineO, whose Chapter V - Scientific research - provides guidelines on: i. protection of persons undergoing research (e.g. informed consent); ii. protection of persons not able to consent to research; iii. research on embryos in vitro. As far as the specific point of patenting biotechnology inventions is concerned, the four exclusions prescribed by Directive 98/44/EC (i.e. human cloning, human germ-line gene therapy, use of human embryos for commercial purposes, unjustified animal suffering for medical purposes) are all we have in Europe in terms of ethical guidance to patentability. In Italy, in particular, we certainly need far more comprehensive legislation, expressing SocietyOs demand to provide ethical control of modern biotechnology. However it is quite difficult to claim that ethical concerns are being raised by currently awarded biotechnology patents related to living organisms and material thereof; they largely deal with the results of genomic R&D, purposely and usefully oriented toward improving health-care and agri-food processes, products and services. ONo patents on lifeOO can be an appealing slogan of militants against modern biotechnology, but it is far too much of an over-simplified abstraction to become the Eleventh Commandment our Society.

  6. Western Regional Conference on Testing Problems (7th, Los Angeles, California, March 14, 1958). Testing for the Discovery and Development of Human Talent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Educational Testing Service, Los Angeles, CA.

    At the seventh Western Regional Conference on Testing Problems, the following speeches were given: (1) "A Guidance Person's Approach to Testing for the Discovery and Development of Human Talent" by Frances D. McGill; (2) "The Instructional Uses of Measurement in the Discovery and Development of Human Talent" by Roy P. Wahle; (3) "New Frontiers of…

  7. Influence networks based on coexpression improve drug target discovery for the development of novel cancer therapeutics

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background The demand for novel molecularly targeted drugs will continue to rise as we move forward toward the goal of personalizing cancer treatment to the molecular signature of individual tumors. However, the identification of targets and combinations of targets that can be safely and effectively modulated is one of the greatest challenges facing the drug discovery process. A promising approach is to use biological networks to prioritize targets based on their relative positions to one another, a property that affects their ability to maintain network integrity and propagate information-flow. Here, we introduce influence networks and demonstrate how they can be used to generate influence scores as a network-based metric to rank genes as potential drug targets. Results We use this approach to prioritize genes as drug target candidates in a set of ER + breast tumor samples collected during the course of neoadjuvant treatment with the aromatase inhibitor letrozole. We show that influential genes, those with high influence scores, tend to be essential and include a higher proportion of essential genes than those prioritized based on their position (i.e. hubs or bottlenecks) within the same network. Additionally, we show that influential genes represent novel biologically relevant drug targets for the treatment of ER + breast cancers. Moreover, we demonstrate that gene influence differs between untreated tumors and residual tumors that have adapted to drug treatment. In this way, influence scores capture the context-dependent functions of genes and present the opportunity to design combination treatment strategies that take advantage of the tumor adaptation process. Conclusions Influence networks efficiently find essential genes as promising drug targets and combinations of targets to inform the development of molecularly targeted drugs and their use. PMID:24495353

  8. Minipig and beagle animal model genomes aid species selection in pharmaceutical discovery and development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vamathevan, Jessica J., E-mail: jessica.j.vamathevan@gsk.com [Computational Biology, Quantitative Sciences, GlaxoSmithKline, Stevenage (United Kingdom); Hall, Matthew D.; Hasan, Samiul; Woollard, Peter M. [Computational Biology, Quantitative Sciences, GlaxoSmithKline, Stevenage (United Kingdom); Xu, Meng; Yang, Yulan; Li, Xin; Wang, Xiaoli [BGI-Shenzen, Shenzhen (China); Kenny, Steve [Safety Assessment, PTS, GlaxoSmithKline, Ware (United Kingdom); Brown, James R. [Computational Biology, Quantitative Sciences, GlaxoSmithKline, Collegeville, PA (United States); Huxley-Jones, Julie [UK Platform Technology Sciences (PTS) Operations and Planning, PTS, GlaxoSmithKline, Stevenage (United Kingdom); Lyon, Jon; Haselden, John [Safety Assessment, PTS, GlaxoSmithKline, Ware (United Kingdom); Min, Jiumeng [BGI-Shenzen, Shenzhen (China); Sanseau, Philippe [Computational Biology, Quantitative Sciences, GlaxoSmithKline, Stevenage (United Kingdom)

    2013-07-15

    Improving drug attrition remains a challenge in pharmaceutical discovery and development. A major cause of early attrition is the demonstration of safety signals which can negate any therapeutic index previously established. Safety attrition needs to be put in context of clinical translation (i.e. human relevance) and is negatively impacted by differences between animal models and human. In order to minimize such an impact, an earlier assessment of pharmacological target homology across animal model species will enhance understanding of the context of animal safety signals and aid species selection during later regulatory toxicology studies. Here we sequenced the genomes of the Sus scrofa Göttingen minipig and the Canis familiaris beagle, two widely used animal species in regulatory safety studies. Comparative analyses of these new genomes with other key model organisms, namely mouse, rat, cynomolgus macaque, rhesus macaque, two related breeds (S. scrofa Duroc and C. familiaris boxer) and human reveal considerable variation in gene content. Key genes in toxicology and metabolism studies, such as the UGT2 family, CYP2D6, and SLCO1A2, displayed unique duplication patterns. Comparisons of 317 known human drug targets revealed surprising variation such as species-specific positive selection, duplication and higher occurrences of pseudogenized targets in beagle (41 genes) relative to minipig (19 genes). These data will facilitate the more effective use of animals in biomedical research. - Highlights: • Genomes of the minipig and beagle dog, two species used in pharmaceutical studies. • First systematic comparative genome analysis of human and six experimental animals. • Key drug toxicology genes display unique duplication patterns across species. • Comparison of 317 drug targets show species-specific evolutionary patterns.

  9. Minipig and beagle animal model genomes aid species selection in pharmaceutical discovery and development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vamathevan, Jessica J.; Hall, Matthew D.; Hasan, Samiul; Woollard, Peter M.; Xu, Meng; Yang, Yulan; Li, Xin; Wang, Xiaoli; Kenny, Steve; Brown, James R.; Huxley-Jones, Julie; Lyon, Jon; Haselden, John; Min, Jiumeng; Sanseau, Philippe

    2013-01-01

    Improving drug attrition remains a challenge in pharmaceutical discovery and development. A major cause of early attrition is the demonstration of safety signals which can negate any therapeutic index previously established. Safety attrition needs to be put in context of clinical translation (i.e. human relevance) and is negatively impacted by differences between animal models and human. In order to minimize such an impact, an earlier assessment of pharmacological target homology across animal model species will enhance understanding of the context of animal safety signals and aid species selection during later regulatory toxicology studies. Here we sequenced the genomes of the Sus scrofa Göttingen minipig and the Canis familiaris beagle, two widely used animal species in regulatory safety studies. Comparative analyses of these new genomes with other key model organisms, namely mouse, rat, cynomolgus macaque, rhesus macaque, two related breeds (S. scrofa Duroc and C. familiaris boxer) and human reveal considerable variation in gene content. Key genes in toxicology and metabolism studies, such as the UGT2 family, CYP2D6, and SLCO1A2, displayed unique duplication patterns. Comparisons of 317 known human drug targets revealed surprising variation such as species-specific positive selection, duplication and higher occurrences of pseudogenized targets in beagle (41 genes) relative to minipig (19 genes). These data will facilitate the more effective use of animals in biomedical research. - Highlights: • Genomes of the minipig and beagle dog, two species used in pharmaceutical studies. • First systematic comparative genome analysis of human and six experimental animals. • Key drug toxicology genes display unique duplication patterns across species. • Comparison of 317 drug targets show species-specific evolutionary patterns

  10. Perceptions of the Invention Disclosure Process at a Federal Laboratory after the America Invents Act of 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice-Moore, Sharla V.

    The America Invents Act of 2011 reformed the patent process in the United States. This study focused on the effect of one provision which allows the first inventor to file the application of patent to become the owner of the intellectual property. Prior to this, the Patent and Trademark Act of 1980 allowed small businesses, universities, and non-profit institutions to pursue ownership of intellectual property developed from federally funded research. The new regulations could influence government employees' disclosure of invention and new technology. There is limited research on the disclosure of technology process for government employees. This study examined 1,389 invention disclosure forms from March 2009 to March 2015 during three phases of the law: before it was signed, before the implementation of the first inventor to file provision in 2013, and after full enactment. The reported State of Development showed significant changes prior to implementation for large companies. The findings reveal disclosures were filed at an earlier stage of development, but no change was noted in the significance of the technology. A survey was also distributed using the framework of Organizational Justice theory. The results showed the disclosure reporting process was fair and unbiased. The research supports the efforts of management to keep employees informed about the disclosure process and the importance of technology transfer of government developed innovation. Key words: America Invents Act, Organizational Justice, patent process.

  11. Knowledge discovery from models of soil properties developed through data mining

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bui, E.N.; Henderson, B.L.; Viergever, K.

    2006-01-01

    We modelled the distribution of soil properties across the agricultural zone on the Australian continent using data mining and knowledge discovery from databases (DM&KDD) tools. Piecewise linear tree models were built choosing from 19 climate variables, digital elevation model (DEM) and derived

  12. Space technology in the discovery and development of mineral and energy resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowman, P. D.

    1977-01-01

    Space technology, applied to the discovery and extraction of mineral and energy resources, is summarized. Orbital remote sensing for geological purposes has been widely applied through the use of LANDSAT satellites. These techniques also have been of value for protection against environmental hazards and for a better understanding of crustal structure.

  13. Lost in translation? Role of metabolomics in solving translational problems in drug discovery and development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Greef, J. van der; Adourian, A.; Muntendam, P.; McBurney, R.N.

    2006-01-01

    Too few drug discovery projects generate a marketed drug product, often because preclinical studies fail to predict the clinical experience with a drug candidate. Improving the success of preclinical-to-clinical translation is of paramount importance in optimizing the pharmaceutical value chain.

  14. Sensational inventions by girls and boys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Yeon Jung

    1999-05-01

    This book introduces the interesting and original inventions invented by girls and boys. These are the titles of the inventions : an antenna ruler, muscular strength machine with spring, items to remove sticky matter for advertisement, chair ladder for the disabled, useful control box for feeding bees, a portable carriage for dogs, a lid of ashtray, hot-air balloon using solar power, toy cannon for reports, hard badminton racket, tv cable and a distributor which are easy to install, device for car automatic parking, a cleanser for vegetables.

  15. Sensational inventions by girls and boys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Yeon Jung

    1999-05-15

    This book introduces the interesting and original inventions invented by girls and boys. These are the titles of the inventions : an antenna ruler, muscular strength machine with spring, items to remove sticky matter for advertisement, chair ladder for the disabled, useful control box for feeding bees, a portable carriage for dogs, a lid of ashtray, hot-air balloon using solar power, toy cannon for reports, hard badminton racket, tv cable and a distributor which are easy to install, device for car automatic parking, a cleanser for vegetables.

  16. Ancient engineers' inventions precursors of the present

    CERN Document Server

    Rossi, Cesare

    2017-01-01

    This book describes the inventions and designs of ancient engineers who are the precursors of the present. The period ranges mainly from 300 B.C. to 1600 A.D. with several exceptions. Many of the oldest inventions are documented by archaeological finds, often very little known, mainly from Pompeii, Herculaneum and Stabiae and reveal a surprising modernity in their conception. Most of the inventions presented in the first four parts of the book were conceived up to the late Roman Empire and may be considered as milestones, each in their respective field. The fifth part concentrates on more recent centuries. The sixth part deals with some building construction techniques. Generally, for each of the presented inventions, three elements of research and reference are provided: written documents (the classics), iconic references (coins, bas-reliefs, etc.) and archaeological findings. The authors did not write this book for engineers only; hence they describe all the devices without assuming wide technical knowledge...

  17. The Invention Convention: Mind Meets Simple Machines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadi-Tabassum, Samina

    1997-01-01

    Describes an Earth Day celebration where students had to design an invention made of simple machines that could crush an empty aluminum can through 10 rapid mechanical movements using materials foraged from the students' homes. (JRH)

  18. Invention of science a new history of the scientific revolution

    CERN Document Server

    Wootton, David

    2015-01-01

    We live in a world made by science. How and when did this happen? This book tells the story of the extraordinary intellectual and cultural revolution that gave birth to modern science, and mounts a major challenge to the prevailing orthodoxy of its history. Before 1492 it was assumed that all significant knowledge was already available; there was no concept of progress; people looked for understanding to the past not the future. This book argues that everything changed with the discovery of America, which demonstrated that new knowledge was possible: indeed it introduced the very concept of "discovery", and opened the way to the invention of science. The first crucial discovery was Tycho Brahe's nova of 1572: proof that there could be change in the heavens. The telescope (1610) rendered the old astronomy obsolete. Torricelli's experiment with the vacuum (1643) led directly to the triumph of the experimental method in the Royal Society of Boyle and Newton. By 1750 Newtonianism was being celebrated throughout E...

  19. Stem cells: a model for screening, discovery and development of drugs

    OpenAIRE

    Kitambi, Satish Srinivas; Chandrasekar, Gayathri

    2011-01-01

    Satish Srinivas Kitambi1, Gayathri Chandrasekar21Department of Medical Biochemistry and Biophysics; 2Department of Biosciences, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, SwedenAbstract: The identification of normal and cancerous stem cells and the recent advances made in isolation and culture of stem cells have rapidly gained attention in the field of drug discovery and regenerative medicine. The prospect of performing screens aimed at proliferation, directed differentiation, and toxicity and efficac...

  20. The discovery of human auditory-motor entrainment and its role in the development of neurologic music therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thaut, Michael H

    2015-01-01

    The discovery of rhythmic auditory-motor entrainment in clinical populations was a historical breakthrough in demonstrating for the first time a neurological mechanism linking music to retraining brain and behavioral functions. Early pilot studies from this research center were followed up by a systematic line of research studying rhythmic auditory stimulation on motor therapies for stroke, Parkinson's disease, traumatic brain injury, cerebral palsy, and other movement disorders. The comprehensive effects on improving multiple aspects of motor control established the first neuroscience-based clinical method in music, which became the bedrock for the later development of neurologic music therapy. The discovery of entrainment fundamentally shifted and extended the view of the therapeutic properties of music from a psychosocially dominated view to a view using the structural elements of music to retrain motor control, speech and language function, and cognitive functions such as attention and memory. © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Not invented here : managing corporate innovation in a new era

    OpenAIRE

    Vrande, van de, V.J.A.

    2007-01-01

    Not Invented here: Managing Corporate Innovation in a New Era External technology sourcing as a means to develop new businesses is taking a more central role in established companies. Acquiring new technologies from outside the firm which speeds up the innovation process and complements internal R&D is an important aspect of new business development within the paradigm of open innovation. It is becoming a requirement to create and sustain competitive advantage in different product markets, an...

  2. Volatility Discovery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dias, Gustavo Fruet; Scherrer, Cristina; Papailias, Fotis

    The price discovery literature investigates how homogenous securities traded on different markets incorporate information into prices. We take this literature one step further and investigate how these markets contribute to stochastic volatility (volatility discovery). We formally show...... that the realized measures from homogenous securities share a fractional stochastic trend, which is a combination of the price and volatility discovery measures. Furthermore, we show that volatility discovery is associated with the way that market participants process information arrival (market sensitivity......). Finally, we compute volatility discovery for 30 actively traded stocks in the U.S. and report that Nyse and Arca dominate Nasdaq....

  3. High-throughput materials discovery and development: breakthroughs and challenges in the mapping of the materials genome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buongiorno Nardelli, Marco

    High-Throughput Quantum-Mechanics computation of materials properties by ab initio methods has become the foundation of an effective approach to materials design, discovery and characterization. This data driven approach to materials science currently presents the most promising path to the development of advanced technological materials that could solve or mitigate important social and economic challenges of the 21st century. In particular, the rapid proliferation of computational data on materials properties presents the possibility to complement and extend materials property databases where the experimental data is lacking and difficult to obtain. Enhanced repositories such as AFLOWLIB open novel opportunities for structure discovery and optimization, including uncovering of unsuspected compounds, metastable structures and correlations between various properties. The practical realization of these opportunities depends almost exclusively on the the design of efficient algorithms for electronic structure simulations of realistic material systems beyond the limitations of the current standard theories. In this talk, I will review recent progress in theoretical and computational tools, and in particular, discuss the development and validation of novel functionals within Density Functional Theory and of local basis representations for effective ab-initio tight-binding schemes. Marco Buongiorno Nardelli is a pioneer in the development of computational platforms for theory/data/applications integration rooted in his profound and extensive expertise in the design of electronic structure codes and in his vision for sustainable and innovative software development for high-performance materials simulations. His research activities range from the design and discovery of novel materials for 21st century applications in renewable energy, environment, nano-electronics and devices, the development of advanced electronic structure theories and high-throughput techniques in

  4. Zavoisky and the Discovery of EPR

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    IAS Admin

    moved to Kazan. In 1926, after finishing the nine-year secondary ... year student, he got a patent for an invention. Zavoisky was ... Early Attempts at NMR and Interruption by World War II ... band modulation) and, in some cases, he did not even apply the constant ... was awarded the Lenin Prize for the discovery of EPR. In the.

  5. Art, Science and the Invention of Things That Last

    KAUST Repository

    Edwards, David

    2018-01-14

    Aesthetic creation involves a close collaboration between discovery, invention and cultural exhibition, as well as between learning and producing value. It is typified by the patterns of creative behavior in highly innovative communities like Silicon Valley (for IT) or Boston (for biotech) where cultures of learning, experimentation, and production or commercialization coexist, and where a high degree of interdisciplinary collaboration occurs. In this lecture, David Edwards will highlight the growing movement of aesthetic creation in the arts, sciences and engineering as a path for sustaining and improving the human condition in the longest term. He will highlight aesthetic creation in the light of the culture lab model of Le Laboratoire (Paris, Cambridge) and the new World Frontiers Forum with examples of learning, pubic experimentation and value creation particularly related to the future of sensory experience.

  6. CERN Library | Ted Wilson presents "Engines of discovery: a century of particle accelerators" (revised and expanded edition) | 22 July

    CERN Multimedia

    2014-01-01

    Particle accelerators exploit the cutting edge of every aspect of today's technology and have themselves contributed to many of these technologies. The largest accelerators have been constructed as research tools for nuclear and high energy physics and there is no doubt that it is this field that has sustained their development culminating in the Large Hadron Collider.   Engines of discovery: a century of particle accelerators (revised and expanded edition), by Andrew Sessler and Ted Wilson, World Scientific, 2014, ISBN 9789814417198. An earlier book by the same authors, Engines of Discovery: A Century of Particle Accelerators, chronicled the development of these large accelerators and colliders, emphasising the critical discoveries in applied physics and engineering that drove the field. Particular attention was given to the key individuals who contributed, the methods they used to arrive at their particular discoveries and inventions, often recalling how their human strengths and attit...

  7. Molecular property diagnostic suite (MPDS): Development of disease-specific open source web portals for drug discovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagamani, S; Gaur, A S; Tanneeru, K; Muneeswaran, G; Madugula, S S; Consortium, Mpds; Druzhilovskiy, D; Poroikov, V V; Sastry, G N

    2017-11-01

    Molecular property diagnostic suite (MPDS) is a Galaxy-based open source drug discovery and development platform. MPDS web portals are designed for several diseases, such as tuberculosis, diabetes mellitus, and other metabolic disorders, specifically aimed to evaluate and estimate the drug-likeness of a given molecule. MPDS consists of three modules, namely data libraries, data processing, and data analysis tools which are configured and interconnected to assist drug discovery for specific diseases. The data library module encompasses vast information on chemical space, wherein the MPDS compound library comprises 110.31 million unique molecules generated from public domain databases. Every molecule is assigned with a unique ID and card, which provides complete information for the molecule. Some of the modules in the MPDS are specific to the diseases, while others are non-specific. Importantly, a suitably altered protocol can be effectively generated for another disease-specific MPDS web portal by modifying some of the modules. Thus, the MPDS suite of web portals shows great promise to emerge as disease-specific portals of great value, integrating chemoinformatics, bioinformatics, molecular modelling, and structure- and analogue-based drug discovery approaches.

  8. Invented spelling – a window on early literacy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elżbieta Awramiuk

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A wide spectrum of research on preschool spelling development in different languages is presented. In Poland, children at kindergarten are usually at a stage of pre-literacy. Invented spelling means the writing produced by young children (aged 3–7 before they are formally taught reading and writing or are at the beginning of the learning process. Their writing is more spontaneous than learnt. The paper describes an investigation of the development of early literacy and factors influencing it, such as knowledge about orthography (spelling, early morphological awareness or teaching methods. Children’s early writing provides a window on their conceptualisation of the written language, illustrating the process of developing language awareness and spelling skills. Invented spelling, together with phonological abilities and letter knowledge is considered to be a strong predictor for later literacy skills.

  9. Why Is Hard To Patent An Invention?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available When employed by a company, in almost all the cases a new employee has to sign an agreement giving the company exclusive rights to any intellectual property developed as part of their work assignments. This agreement could extend beyond a change of jobs and cause conflict of interests in new employment situations. A patent is a government-granted monopoly given to an inventor as both a reward for the intellectual and financial investment, and a stimulus to innovate. As a monopoly, the patent has legal power to exclude others from exploiting the invention in any way for a period of 20 years from the time the patent application has been filed. A trademark provides instant recognition of a product or company; a service mark provides instant recognition of a service. They both have unlimited lifetime. But the owner must renew or confirm continuous use at the end of five years, and every 10 years thereafter. A trade secret is information keep secret by the owner to give him advantage over competitors. Since it is secret, a trade secret protection has unlimited lifetime.

  10. CERN at the International Inventions Fair

    CERN Multimedia

    2007-01-01

    CERN is the guest of honour at the 35th International Inventions Fair, which will take place from 18th to 22nd April at Palexpo, in Geneva. CERN has been chosen as the guest of honour for its ability to develop new technologies and translate them for the benefit of society. For the Fair, CERN has teamed up with ten companies that have made use of technologies and ideas from the Laboratory. The CERN stand at the exhibition will be dedicated to a presentation of the Laboratory and the LHC. Each of the technologies featured will be highlighted on the stand, along with the companies that have put them into more general use. This will allow visitors to trace the path from basic research to practical application from start to finish. One example is Medipix, a particle detection technology that has found applications in medical imaging. Visitors to the Fair will be able to see a Medipix detector in action on the CERN stand, and use it to view the particles emitted by everyday objects.

  11. Recent Advances in the Discovery and Development of Marine Natural Products with Cardiovascular Pharmacological Effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Jie-Bin; Luo, Rong; Zheng, Ying-Lin; Pang, Ji-Yan

    2018-01-01

    Numerous studies have indicated that marine natural products are one of the most important sources of the lead compounds in drug discovery for their unique structures, various bioactivities and less side effects. In this review, the marine natural products with cardiovascular pharmacological effects reported after 2000 will be presented. Their structural types, relevant biological activities, origin of isolation and information of strain species will be discussed in detail. Finally, by describing our studies as an example, we also discuss the chances and challenges for translating marine-derived compounds into preclinical or clinical trials. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  12. Developing computer-based training programs for basic mammalian histology: Didactic versus discovery-based design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabian, Henry Joel

    Educators have long tried to understand what stimulates students to learn. The Swiss psychologist and zoologist, Jean Claude Piaget, suggested that students are stimulated to learn when they attempt to resolve confusion. He reasoned that students try to explain the world with the knowledge they have acquired in life. When they find their own explanations to be inadequate to explain phenomena, students find themselves in a temporary state of confusion. This prompts students to seek more plausible explanations. At this point, students are primed for learning (Piaget 1964). The Piagetian approach described above is called learning by discovery. To promote discovery learning, a teacher must first allow the student to recognize his misconception and then provide a plausible explanation to replace that misconception (Chinn and Brewer 1993). One application of this method is found in the various learning cycles, which have been demonstrated to be effective means for teaching science (Renner and Lawson 1973, Lawson 1986, Marek and Methven 1991, and Glasson & Lalik 1993). In contrast to the learning cycle, tutorial computer programs are generally not designed to correct student misconceptions, but rather follow a passive, didactic method of teaching. In the didactic or expositional method, the student is told about a phenomenon, but is neither encouraged to explore it, nor explain it in his own terms (Schneider and Renner 1980).

  13. CTD² Dashboard: a searchable web interface to connect validated results from the Cancer Target Discovery and Development Network* | Office of Cancer Genomics

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Cancer Target Discovery and Development (CTD2) Network aims to use functional genomics to accelerate the translation of high-throughput and high-content genomic and small-molecule data towards use in precision oncology.

  14. 45 CFR 650.19 - Electronic invention handling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Report or a Final Invention Statement and Certification. (b) Questions on use of iEdison and requests for... 45 Public Welfare 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Electronic invention handling. 650.19 Section 650... PATENTS § 650.19 Electronic invention handling. (a) Grantees must use the iEdison Invention Information...

  15. The Airplane as an Open-Source Invention

    OpenAIRE

    Peter B. Meyer

    2013-01-01

    Airplanes were invented after decades of experimentation in many countries through a process we can call open-source innovation. Experimenters, inventors, and writers contributed to the airplane’s development by sharing information in publications, in clubs, by writing letters and by visiting. The hundreds of aeronautical patents before 1900 were treated like publications, not like claims to intellectual property. Inventors of modern airplanes copied earlier designs, analogously to advances i...

  16. Patenting Biotechnological Inventions in Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Raspor

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The patent system has been able to provide the protection for the achievements of different technologies and in that way it has supported further development and growth of the industry where those achievements were implemented. Modern technologies like information technology and biotechnology with genetic engineering that appeared in the 70s have overgrown the frames of the existing patent system because of their exponential development during the last thirty years. Industry that invests a huge amount of money in these technologies, especially in the field of biotechnology, where the results are very uncertain, has started to claim changes in the patent system.

  17. 24 CFR 180.500 - Discovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Discovery. 180.500 Section 180.500... OPPORTUNITY CONSOLIDATED HUD HEARING PROCEDURES FOR CIVIL RIGHTS MATTERS Discovery § 180.500 Discovery. (a) In general. This subpart governs discovery in aid of administrative proceedings under this part. Discovery in...

  18. β-thalassemias: paradigmatic diseases for scientific discoveries and development of innovative therapies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivella, Stefano

    2015-04-01

    β-thalassemias are monogenic disorders characterized by defective synthesis of the β-globin chain, one of the major components of adult hemoglobin. A large number of mutations in the β-globin gene or its regulatory elements have been associated with β-thalassemias. Due to the complexity of the regulation of the β-globin gene and the role of red cells in many physiological processes, patients can manifest a large spectrum of phenotypes, and clinical requirements vary from patient to patient. It is important to consider the major differences in the light of potential novel therapeutics. This review summarizes the main discoveries and mechanisms associated with the synthesis of β-globin and abnormal erythropoiesis, as well as current and novel therapies. Copyright© Ferrata Storti Foundation.

  19. The discovery, function and development of the variable number tandem repeats in different Mycobacterium species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Zhaogang; Li, Weimin; Xu, Shaofa; Huang, Hairong

    2016-09-01

    The method of genotyping by variable number tandem repeats (VNTRs) facilitates the epidemiological studies of different Mycobacterium species worldwide. Until now, the VNTR method is not fully understood, for example, its discovery, function and classification. The inconsistent nomenclature and terminology of VNTR is especially confusing. In this review, we first describe in detail the VNTRs in Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M. tuberculosis), as this pathogen resulted in more deaths than any other microbial pathogen as well as for which extensive studies of VNTRs were carried out, and then we outline the recent progress of the VNTR-related epidemiological research in several other Mycobacterium species, such as M. abscessus, M. africanum, M. avium, M. bovis, M. canettii, M. caprae, M. intracellulare, M. leprae, M. marinum, M. microti, M. pinnipedii and M. ulcerans from different countries and regions. This article is aimed mainly at the practical notes of VNTR to help the scientists in better understanding and performing this method.

  20. Energy-related inventions program invention 637. Final technical report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-07-31

    The final technical report for the Pegasus plow, a stalk and root embedding apparatus, describes progress from the development stage to the product support stage. The US Department of Agriculture - Agriculture Research Service (ARS) is now in the second year of a three year study comparing the Pegasus to conventional tillage. So far, no downside has been with the Pegasus and the following benefits have been documented: (1) Energy savings of 65.0 kilowatt hours per hectare over conventional tillage. This is when the Pegasus plow is used to bury whole stalks, and represents a 70% savings over conventional tillage (92.5 kilowatt hours per hectare). (2) Four to seven fewer passes of tillage, depending on the particular situation. This represents a substantial time savings to farmers. (3) So far, no differences in cotton yields. Recent cotton boll counts in one study indicate a higher yield potential with the Pegasus. (4) No disease problems. (5) Significantly higher levels of organic matter in the soil. A hypothesis of the study is that whole stalk burial may reduce plant disease problems. This hypothesis has not yet been proven. (6) Significantly higher levels of nitrate nitrogen. Total nitrogen and ammonia nitrogen trended higher but were not significantly different. This shows that whole stalk burial does not adversely affect the nitrogen cycle in the soil and may actually improve it. The marketing support stage of the project is also described in the report.

  1. A novel compact mass detection platform for the open access (OA) environment in drug discovery and early development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Junling; Ceglia, Scott S; Jones, Michael D; Simeone, Jennifer; Antwerp, John Van; Zhang, Li-Kang; Ross, Charles W; Helmy, Roy

    2016-04-15

    A new 'compact mass detector' co-developed with an instrument manufacturer (Waters Corporation) as an interface for liquid chromatography (LC), specifically Ultra-high performance LC(®) (UPLC(®) or UHPLC) analysis was evaluated as a potential new Open Access (OA) LC-MS platform in the Drug Discovery and Early Development space. This new compact mass detector based platform was envisioned to provide increased reliability and speed while exhibiting significant cost, noise, and footprint reductions. The new detector was evaluated in batch mode (typically 1-3 samples per run) to monitor reactions and check purity, as well as in High Throughput Screening (HTS) mode to run 24, 48, and 96 well plates. The latter workflows focused on screening catalysis conditions, process optimization, and library work. The objective of this investigation was to assess the performance, reliability, and flexibility of the compact mass detector in the OA setting for a variety of applications. The compact mass detector results were compared to those obtained by current OA LC-MS systems, and the capabilities and benefits of the compact mass detector in the open access setting for chemists in the drug discovery and development space are demonstrated. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. [Chapter 2. Transitions in drug-discovery technology and drug-development in Japan (1980-2010)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakakibara, Noriko; Yoshioka, Ryuzo; Matsumoto, Kazuo

    2014-01-01

    In 1970s, the material patent system was introduced in Japan. Since then, many Japanese pharmaceutical companies have endeavored to create original in-house products. From 1980s, many of the innovative products were small molecular drugs and were developed using powerful medicinal-chemical technologies. Among them were antibiotics and effective remedies for the digestive organs and circulatory organs. During this period, Japanese companies were able to launch some blockbuster drugs. At the same time, the pharmaceutical market, which had grown rapidly for two decades, was beginning to level off. From the late 1990s, drug development was slowing down due to the lack of expertise in biotechnology such as genetic engineering. In response to the circumstances, the research and development on biotechnology-based drugs such as antibody drugs have become more dynamic and popular at companies than small molecule drugs. In this paper, the writers reviewed in detail the transitions in drug discovery and development between 1980 and 2010.

  3. Invention Versus Direct Instruction: For Some Content, It's a Tie

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chase, Catherine C.; Klahr, David

    2017-12-01

    An important, but as yet unresolved pedagogical question is whether discovery-oriented or direct instruction methods lead to greater learning and transfer. We address this issue in a study with 101 fourth and fifth grade students that contrasts two distinct instructional methods. One is a blend of discovery and direct instruction called Invent-then-Tell (IT), and the other is a version of direct instruction called Tell-then-Practice (TP). The relative effectiveness of these methods is compared in the context of learning a critical inquiry skill—the control-of-variables strategy. Previous research has demonstrated the success of IT over TP for teaching deep domain structures, while other research has demonstrated the superiority of direct instruction for teaching simple experimental design, a domain-general inquiry skill. In the present study, students in both conditions made equally large gains on an immediate assessment of their application and conceptual understanding of experimental design, and they also performed similarly on a test of far transfer. These results were fairly consistent across school populations with various levels of prior achievement and socioeconomic status. Findings suggest that broad claims about the relative effectiveness of these two distinct methods should be conditionalized by particular instructional contexts, such as the type of knowledge being taught.

  4. Innovation and invention in Finland. Strategies for networking. An international evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zegveld, W.; McCarthy, S.; Lemola, T.

    1998-12-31

    The objective of the evaluation was to come up with recommendations on how the Finnish systems for promoting independent inventions and their commercialisation could be most appropriately developed. In practice, the evaluation was expected to address at least the following aspects of the promotion: The role of the public sector; The role of the private sector (inventors, financiers, companies); The evaluation of the Finnish Foundation for Inventions (FFI); The strengths and weaknesses of the present system for promoting inventions and their commercialisation. In effect, the evaluation proved to be the evaluation of a subsystem integrated within the overall Finnish National System of Innovation with its many players from the public and private sectors. An effort was made to evaluate the relationship between the different actors in this system and closer cooperation is recommended in many areas. Interviews were held with 130 individuals from 70 organisations. The evaluators address the following nine issues: (1) Improving the balance between r and d and the promotion of inventiveness/innovation; (2) Increased coherence between the different organisations; (3) The responsibility of inventors and research organisations in inventive activities and the role of support organisations; (4) A gradual shift towards private services; (5) The development of the role of FFI; (6) Improving the competence in the area of intellectual property rights; (7) Financial incentives for inventors; (8) Increasing the awareness on invention and innovation; (9) The requirement to broaden the concept of inventiveness and innovation. (orig.)

  5. Innovation and invention in Finland. Strategies for networking. An international evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zegveld, W; McCarthy, S; Lemola, T

    1999-12-31

    The objective of the evaluation was to come up with recommendations on how the Finnish systems for promoting independent inventions and their commercialisation could be most appropriately developed. In practice, the evaluation was expected to address at least the following aspects of the promotion: The role of the public sector; The role of the private sector (inventors, financiers, companies); The evaluation of the Finnish Foundation for Inventions (FFI); The strengths and weaknesses of the present system for promoting inventions and their commercialisation. In effect, the evaluation proved to be the evaluation of a subsystem integrated within the overall Finnish National System of Innovation with its many players from the public and private sectors. An effort was made to evaluate the relationship between the different actors in this system and closer cooperation is recommended in many areas. Interviews were held with 130 individuals from 70 organisations. The evaluators address the following nine issues: (1) Improving the balance between r and d and the promotion of inventiveness/innovation; (2) Increased coherence between the different organisations; (3) The responsibility of inventors and research organisations in inventive activities and the role of support organisations; (4) A gradual shift towards private services; (5) The development of the role of FFI; (6) Improving the competence in the area of intellectual property rights; (7) Financial incentives for inventors; (8) Increasing the awareness on invention and innovation; (9) The requirement to broaden the concept of inventiveness and innovation. (orig.)

  6. Chemical Discovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Herbert C.

    1974-01-01

    The role of discovery in the advance of the science of chemistry and the factors that are currently operating to handicap that function are considered. Examples are drawn from the author's work with boranes. The thesis that exploratory research and discovery should be encouraged is stressed. (DT)

  7. 76 FR 42684 - Statutory Invention Registration

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-19

    ... 3.00 Totals 8 10.00 There is annual (non-hour) cost burden in the way of filing fees associated with...) Filing fee $ cost burden (a) (b) (a x b) (c) Statutory Invention Registration (Requested prior to 2 $920...) respondent cost burden for this collection in the form of postage costs and filing fees will be $8,170. IV...

  8. Inventing Democracy: Future Alternatives for Social Action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deethardt, John F.

    1983-01-01

    Considers the rational basis for participatory democracy and six ideas designed to embody that conceptual basis. Contends that the mission of speech communication scholars to the civic culture should be an activation of civic competencies and an invention of new places to practice free speech skills. (PD)

  9. Small Molecules from Nature Targeting G-Protein Coupled Cannabinoid Receptors: Potential Leads for Drug Discovery and Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charu Sharma

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The cannabinoid molecules are derived from Cannabis sativa plant which acts on the cannabinoid receptors types 1 and 2 (CB1 and CB2 which have been explored as potential therapeutic targets for drug discovery and development. Currently, there are numerous cannabinoid based synthetic drugs used in clinical practice like the popular ones such as nabilone, dronabinol, and Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol mediates its action through CB1/CB2 receptors. However, these synthetic based Cannabis derived compounds are known to exert adverse psychiatric effect and have also been exploited for drug abuse. This encourages us to find out an alternative and safe drug with the least psychiatric adverse effects. In recent years, many phytocannabinoids have been isolated from plants other than Cannabis. Several studies have shown that these phytocannabinoids show affinity, potency, selectivity, and efficacy towards cannabinoid receptors and inhibit endocannabinoid metabolizing enzymes, thus reducing hyperactivity of endocannabinoid systems. Also, these naturally derived molecules possess the least adverse effects opposed to the synthetically derived cannabinoids. Therefore, the plant based cannabinoid molecules proved to be promising and emerging therapeutic alternative. The present review provides an overview of therapeutic potential of ligands and plants modulating cannabinoid receptors that may be of interest to pharmaceutical industry in search of new and safer drug discovery and development for future therapeutics.

  10. Discovery and Early Development of AVI-7537 and AVI-7288 for the Treatment of Ebola Virus and Marburg Virus Infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sina Bavari

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available There are no currently approved treatments for filovirus infections. In this study we report the discovery process which led to the development of antisense Phosphorodiamidate Morpholino Oligomers (PMOs AVI-6002 (composed of AVI-7357 and AVI-7539 and AVI-6003 (composed of AVI-7287 and AVI-7288 targeting Ebola virus and Marburg virus respectively. The discovery process involved identification of optimal transcript binding sites for PMO based RNA-therapeutics followed by screening for effective viral gene target in mouse and guinea pig models utilizing adapted viral isolates. An evolution of chemical modifications were tested, beginning with simple Phosphorodiamidate Morpholino Oligomers (PMO transitioning to cell penetrating peptide conjugated PMOs (PPMO and ending with PMOplus containing a limited number of positively charged linkages in the PMO structure. The initial lead compounds were combinations of two agents targeting separate genes. In the final analysis, a single agent for treatment of each virus was selected, AVI-7537 targeting the VP24 gene of Ebola virus and AVI-7288 targeting NP of Marburg virus, and are now progressing into late stage clinical development as the optimal therapeutic candidates.

  11. Discovery and early development of AVI-7537 and AVI-7288 for the treatment of Ebola virus and Marburg virus infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iversen, Patrick L; Warren, Travis K; Wells, Jay B; Garza, Nicole L; Mourich, Dan V; Welch, Lisa S; Panchal, Rekha G; Bavari, Sina

    2012-11-06

    There are no currently approved treatments for filovirus infections. In this study we report the discovery process which led to the development of antisense Phosphorodiamidate Morpholino Oligomers (PMOs) AVI-6002 (composed of AVI-7357 and AVI-7539) and AVI-6003 (composed of AVI-7287 and AVI-7288) targeting Ebola virus and Marburg virus respectively. The discovery process involved identification of optimal transcript binding sites for PMO based RNA-therapeutics followed by screening for effective viral gene target in mouse and guinea pig models utilizing adapted viral isolates. An evolution of chemical modifications were tested, beginning with simple Phosphorodiamidate Morpholino Oligomers (PMO) transitioning to cell penetrating peptide conjugated PMOs (PPMO) and ending with PMOplus containing a limited number of positively charged linkages in the PMO structure. The initial lead compounds were combinations of two agents targeting separate genes. In the final analysis, a single agent for treatment of each virus was selected, AVI-7537 targeting the VP24 gene of Ebola virus and AVI-7288 targeting NP of Marburg virus, and are now progressing into late stage clinical development as the optimal therapeutic candidates.

  12. They invent tomorrow's nuclear technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hurel, T.; Le Ngoc, B.

    2017-01-01

    3 leaders working in the nuclear industry for 3 different French entities: AREVA, EDF and CEA detail the role of innovation for tomorrow's nuclear energy. For AREVA, innovation is the response to the 4 challenges facing nuclear industry: improving the current business models, getting more modern and reliable plants, anticipating customers' wishes, and luring new young talents to ensure the future of the nuclear industry. As for EDF, innovation is the tool that will make nuclear energy absolutely necessary to counter-balance the intermittency of most renewable energies. EDF sees 3 main challenges to overcome: reactor safety, load following and developing a broader offer of reactors including small and modular reactors. For CEA, it is necessary to get a broad view of new nuclear systems and the nature of innovations can be very varied and for instance it can focus on a particular spot like fuel cladding or metal corrosion or on a complete new type of reactor. Innovation should also lead towards more predictive simulations. In all cases nuclear industry requires a better public financing for accelerating the implementation of innovations. (A.C.)

  13. Physicochemical Profiles of the Marketed Agrochemicals and Clues for Agrochemical Lead Discovery and Screening Library Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Hanbing; Huangfu, Changxin; Wang, Yanying; Wang, Xianxiang; Tang, Tiansheng; Zeng, Xianyin; Li, Zerong; Chen, Yuzong

    2015-05-01

    Combinatorial chemistry, high-throughput and virtual screening technologies have been extensively used for discovering agrochemical leads from chemical libraries. The knowledge of the physicochemical properties of the marketed agrochemicals is useful for guiding the design and selection of such libraries. Since the earlier profiling of marketed agrochemicals, the number and types of marketed agrochemicals have significantly increased. Recent studies have shown the change of some physicochemical properties of oral drugs with time. There is a need to also profile the physicochemical properties of the marketed agrochemicals. In this work, we analyzed the key physicochemical properties of 1751 marketed agrochemicals in comparison with the previously-analyzed herbicides and insecticides, 106 391 natural products and 57 548 diverse synthetic libraries compounds. Our study revealed the distribution profiles and evolution trend of different types of agrochemicals that in many respects are broadly similar to the reported profiles for oral drugs, with the most marked difference being that agrochemicals have a lower number of hydrogen bond donors. The derived distribution patterns provided the rule of thumb guidelines for selecting potential agrochemical leads and also provided clues for further improving the libraries for agrochemical lead discovery. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  14. Fateful discovery almost forgotten

    CERN Multimedia

    1989-01-01

    "The discovery of the fission of uranium exactly half a century ago is at risk of passing unremarked because of the general ambivalence towards the consequences of this development. Can that be wise?" (4 pages)

  15. Toxins and drug discovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey, Alan L

    2014-12-15

    Components from venoms have stimulated many drug discovery projects, with some notable successes. These are briefly reviewed, from captopril to ziconotide. However, there have been many more disappointments on the road from toxin discovery to approval of a new medicine. Drug discovery and development is an inherently risky business, and the main causes of failure during development programmes are outlined in order to highlight steps that might be taken to increase the chances of success with toxin-based drug discovery. These include having a clear focus on unmet therapeutic needs, concentrating on targets that are well-validated in terms of their relevance to the disease in question, making use of phenotypic screening rather than molecular-based assays, and working with development partners with the resources required for the long and expensive development process. Copyright © 2014 The Author. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  16. The mass-action law based algorithm for cost-effective approach for cancer drug discovery and development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chou, Ting-Chao

    2011-01-01

    The mass-action law based system analysis via mathematical induction and deduction lead to the generalized theory and algorithm that allows computerized simulation of dose-effect dynamics with small size experiments using a small number of data points in vitro, in animals, and in humans. The median-effect equation of the mass-action law deduced from over 300 mechanism specific-equations has been shown to be the unified theory that serves as the common-link for complicated biomedical systems. After using the median-effect principle as the common denominator, its applications are mechanism-independent, drug unit-independent, and dynamic order-independent; and can be used generally for single drug analysis or for multiple drug combinations in constant-ratio or non-constant ratios. Since the "median" is the common link and universal reference point in biological systems, these general enabling lead to computerized quantitative bio-informatics for econo-green bio-research in broad disciplines. Specific applications of the theory, especially relevant to drug discovery, drug combination, and clinical trials, have been cited or illustrated in terms of algorithms, experimental design and computerized simulation for data analysis. Lessons learned from cancer research during the past fifty years provide a valuable opportunity to reflect, and to improve the conventional divergent approach and to introduce a new convergent avenue, based on the mass-action law principle, for the efficient cancer drug discovery and the low-cost drug development.

  17. Perspective directions in the development of architecture of the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The museums of science and technology (or polytechnic) highlight the process of the innovational development of the society and have their own place in the system of school-science-industry-technical culture. The innovational activity of certain regions, states or groups of states is comprised of inventions, discoveries, new ...

  18. SWATHtoMRM: Development of High-Coverage Targeted Metabolomics Method Using SWATH Technology for Biomarker Discovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zha, Haihong; Cai, Yuping; Yin, Yandong; Wang, Zhuozhong; Li, Kang; Zhu, Zheng-Jiang

    2018-03-20

    The complexity of metabolome presents a great analytical challenge for quantitative metabolite profiling, and restricts the application of metabolomics in biomarker discovery. Targeted metabolomics using multiple-reaction monitoring (MRM) technique has excellent capability for quantitative analysis, but suffers from the limited metabolite coverage. To address this challenge, we developed a new strategy, namely, SWATHtoMRM, which utilizes the broad coverage of SWATH-MS technology to develop high-coverage targeted metabolomics method. Specifically, SWATH-MS technique was first utilized to untargeted profile one pooled biological sample and to acquire the MS 2 spectra for all metabolites. Then, SWATHtoMRM was used to extract the large-scale MRM transitions for targeted analysis with coverage as high as 1000-2000 metabolites. Then, we demonstrated the advantages of SWATHtoMRM method in quantitative analysis such as coverage, reproducibility, sensitivity, and dynamic range. Finally, we applied our SWATHtoMRM approach to discover potential metabolite biomarkers for colorectal cancer (CRC) diagnosis. A high-coverage targeted metabolomics method with 1303 metabolites in one injection was developed to profile colorectal cancer tissues from CRC patients. A total of 20 potential metabolite biomarkers were discovered and validated for CRC diagnosis. In plasma samples from CRC patients, 17 out of 20 potential biomarkers were further validated to be associated with tumor resection, which may have a great potential in assessing the prognosis of CRC patients after tumor resection. Together, the SWATHtoMRM strategy provides a new way to develop high-coverage targeted metabolomics method, and facilitates the application of targeted metabolomics in disease biomarker discovery. The SWATHtoMRM program is freely available on the Internet ( http://www.zhulab.cn/software.php ).

  19. Drug discovery and the impact of the safe harbor provision of the Hatch- Waxman Act.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodson, Susanne H

    2010-01-01

    Many facets of drug discovery involve the use of patented materials and methods, subjecting the researcher to potential liability from infringement of the underlying patents. Enacted in 1984, the Hatch-Waxman Act established a “safe harbor” for activities that would otherwise constitute infringement of a patented invention, if those activities were “solely for uses reasonably related to the development and submission of information under a Federal law which regulates the manufacture, use, or sale of drugs or veterinary biological products”. This article examines the major court decisions interpreting the scope of the safe harbor and their application to various activities in drug development.

  20. Higgs Discovery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sannino, Francesco

    2013-01-01

    has been challenged by the discovery of a not-so-heavy Higgs-like state. I will therefore review the recent discovery \\cite{Foadi:2012bb} that the standard model top-induced radiative corrections naturally reduce the intrinsic non-perturbative mass of the composite Higgs state towards the desired...... via first principle lattice simulations with encouraging results. The new findings show that the recent naive claims made about new strong dynamics at the electroweak scale being disfavoured by the discovery of a not-so-heavy composite Higgs are unwarranted. I will then introduce the more speculative......I discuss the impact of the discovery of a Higgs-like state on composite dynamics starting by critically examining the reasons in favour of either an elementary or composite nature of this state. Accepting the standard model interpretation I re-address the standard model vacuum stability within...

  1. The discovery and development of proteomic safety biomarkers for the detection of drug-induced liver toxicity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amacher, David E.

    2010-01-01

    Biomarkers are biometric measurements that provide critical quantitative information about the biological condition of the animal or individual being tested. In drug safety studies, established toxicity biomarkers are used along with other conventional study data to determine dose-limiting organ toxicity, and to define species sensitivity for new chemical entities intended for possible use as human medicines. A continuing goal of drug safety scientists in the pharmaceutical industry is to discover and develop better trans-species biomarkers that can be used to determine target organ toxicities for preclinical species in short-term studies at dose levels that are some multiple of the intended human dose and again later in full development for monitoring clinical trials at lower therapeutic doses. Of particular value are early, predictive, noninvasive biomarkers that have in vitro, in vivo, and clinical transferability. Such translational biomarkers bridge animal testing used in preclinical science and human studies that are part of subsequent clinical testing. Although suitable for in vivo preclinical regulatory studies, conventional hepatic safety biomarkers are basically confirmatory markers because they signal organ toxicity after some pathological damage has occurred, and are therefore not well-suited for short-term, predictive screening assays early in the discovery-to-development progression of new chemical entities (NCEs) available in limited quantities. Efforts between regulatory agencies and the pharmaceutical industry are underway for the coordinated discovery, qualification, verification and validation of early predictive toxicity biomarkers. Early predictive safety biomarkers are those that are detectable and quantifiable prior to the onset of irreversible tissue injury and which are associated with a mechanism of action relevant to a specific type of potential hepatic injury. Potential drug toxicity biomarkers are typically endogenous macromolecules in

  2. Frederick Soddy's invention of isotopes in 1911

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Attas, M.

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes the history of the invention of isotopes by Frederick Soddy in 1911. The idea of the nucleus had been conceived by a physicist, Ernest Rutherford. But it took a chemist, Frederick Soddy, to make chemical sense of the zoo of recently discovered radioactive elements, by inventing the idea of isotopes. He showed how one radioactive substance transformed itself spontaneously into another, following mathematical laws of exponential growth and decay. In his book The Chemistry of the Radio-Elements, Soddy compiled complete descriptions of the physical and chemical properties of each of the radioactive substances. He organized their sequences of transmutations by the.similarities in their chemical properties, so that the emanations, for example, were all side-by-side in a chart.

  3. Invented genealogies as political mythologies: definitionand examples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filip-Lucian Iorga

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The genealogical imaginary is a subcategory of the imaginary referring to the origin and it comprises a wide range of genealogical myths: fictitious ancestors, whether divine or human, fabulous kinships, invented genealogies, descendancies which are impossible to certify with documents, erroneous interpretations of certain degrees of kinship, real genealogies that have received unexpected interpretations and historiographic clichés grown on more or less attestable genealogies. The case of the Balş family is one of the most interesting: trying to integrate in the political structures of the Austrian and Russian Empire, some members of this old Moldavian family invent a fictitious genealogy that links the French counts of Baux, the Balsa family, a Serbian medieval dynasty and the Balş family, Moldavian boyars.

  4. The story of global patent inventions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Yeun Jung

    1996-11-01

    This book introduces the global patent inventions, which are soap floating on the water, computer, radar, zipper, fuel cell, a raincoat, a pencil, a ball point pen, vitamin, an ice saw, a subway, post it, endoscope, ultrasonic detector, machine to pierce the hall, hair-restorer, a refrigerator, tricycle tractor of Benz steam engine of watt, carburettor, aluminum smelting process, video game, ice cream freezer, lead powder, piling system, burner using infrared rays, small projector, blender for recycling of resource, and artificial silk.

  5. The story of global patent inventions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Yeun Jung

    1996-11-15

    This book introduces the global patent inventions, which are soap floating on the water, computer, radar, zipper, fuel cell, a raincoat, a pencil, a ball point pen, vitamin, an ice saw, a subway, post it, endoscope, ultrasonic detector, machine to pierce the hall, hair-restorer, a refrigerator, tricycle tractor of Benz steam engine of watt, carburettor, aluminum smelting process, video game, ice cream freezer, lead powder, piling system, burner using infrared rays, small projector, blender for recycling of resource, and artificial silk.

  6. Review of The Invention of Enterprise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael E. Marotta

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The Invention of Enterprise: Entrepreneurship from Ancient Mesopotamia to Modern Times, David S. Landes, Joel Mokyr, and William J. Baumol, eds., Princeton University Press, 2010, is a dense anthology that provides an “orbital view” of the history of trade and commerce. The essays encompass several theoretic frameworks while following three themes: the creation of enterprises; the distinctions between creative and corrosive capitalism; and the societies that engender those different modes.

  7. Nanotechnological inventions considerably improve performance characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VLASOV Vladimir Alexeevich

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The invention «The method of production of carbon nanomaterial (RU 2509053» can be used as an additive for concretes and polymers which significantly improves their performance characteristics. The method of production of carbon nanomaterial consists of the following stages: preliminary preparation of sphagnous moss when it is refined from foreign admixtures, dried up to 10% humidity and ground, then ground material is exposed to pyrolysis under the temperature 850–950оC for 1–2 hours and cooled up to the environment temperature. After that amorphous carbon obtained in pyrolysis is treated with mechanical activation in the variable planetary mill for 7–10 hours. The invention makes it possible to provide increased outcome of nanotubes with high cleanliness. The invention «The method of production of nanodispersed metal powders and alloys of them (RU 2509626» relates to the powder metallurgy. Powder metal chloride or powder mixture at least of two metal chlorides is treated in the environment of the water steam which is supplied in reaction space at the rate of 50–100 ml/min at the temperature 400–800оC at the presence of absorbent carbon or introducing carbon oxide (II obtained during dissolution of formic acid HCOOH. The invention provides reliable production of nanodispersed metal powders and alloys of them from 3-d metal range: Ni, Co, Cu, Fe, Zn which can be used in powder metallurgy to improve baking process, in chemical industry as the fillers of polymers and reaction catalysts; as additives to anticorrosive covers, etc.

  8. Deepening Learning through Learning-by-Inventing

    OpenAIRE

    Apiola, Mikko; Tedre, Matti

    2013-01-01

    It has been shown that deep approaches to learning, intrinsic motivation, and self-regulated learning have strong positive effects on learning. How those pedagogical theories can be integrated in computing curricula is, however, still lacking empirically grounded analyses. This study integrated, in a robotics-based programming class, a method of learning-by-inventing, and studied its qualitative effects on students’ learning through 144 interviews. Five findings were related with learning the...

  9. Teachers' learning on the workshop of STS approach as a way of enhancing inventive thinking skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngaewkoodrua, Nophakun; Yuenyong, Chokchai

    2018-01-01

    To improve science teachers to develop the STS lesson plans for enhancing the students' inventive thinking skills, the workshop of improving science teachers to develop the STS lesson plans for enhancing the Inventive thinking skills were organized. The paper aimed to clarify what teachers learn from the workshop. The goal of the activity of the workshop aimed to: 1) improve participants a better understanding of the relationship between the Inquiry based learning with STS approach, 2) understand the meaning and importance of the STS approach and identify the various stages of Yuenyong (2006) STS learning process, 3) discuss what they learned from the examples of Yuenyong (2006) lesson plan, 4) develop some activities for each stage of Yuenyong (2006) STS approach, and 5) ideas of providing STS approach activities for enhancing inventive thinking skills. Participants included 3 science teachers who work in Khon Kaen, Thailand. Methodology regarded interpretive paradigm. Teachers' learning about pedagogy of enhancing the students' inventive thinking skills will be interpreted through participant observation, teachers' tasks, and interview. The finding revealed that all participants could demonstrate their ideas how to generate the STS lesson plans as a way of enhancing inventive thinking skills. Teachers could mention some element of inventive thinking skills which could be generated on their STS learning activities.

  10. The Invention of Tradition: Illyrian Heraldry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandar Palavestra

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The "Illyrian heraldry", as a phenomenon of the invented tradition, encompasses the rolls of arms - armorials, which appear in Dalmatia, Italy, Spain and Austria at the end of the XVI and beginning of the XVII century. These armorials contained Serbian and other southern Slav monarchic, territorial and family coats of arms. The authenticity, heraldic sources and origins of these armorials are extremely complex problems that can be traced back to the medieval heraldic heritage of the Serbs, on the one hand, and reveal the intricate web of political circumstances in the XVI and XVII centuries. Illyrian heraldry is also closely linked to the personal and political ambitions of the Spanish admiral, Don Pedro Ohmučević Grgurić, from Slano near Dubrovnik. One cannot, however, link the entire Illyrian heraldry movement only to the daring ambitions of Petar Ohmučević Grgurić In in the XVI and XVII centuries historical constructions, inspired for the most part by sincere Slav patriotism, emerged that proved the unity of the Illyrians and the Slavs, revealed the alleged Slav origins of famous figures (Alexander the Great, Justinian, or simply extolled the splendor and magnitude of a lost Slav kingdom, that could be restored again. Much as it was developing within the spiritual scope of the Catholic church, this "Slovine" movement found its historical basis in the medieval statehood of Serbia and Bosnia, particularly in the powerful empire of Stephan Dushan (1331-55, in the Serbian potentates, heroes, their glitter and opulence, which used to glorify the Slav world. Since the XVII century till today, despite their doubtful authenticity, the Illyrian armorials have been considered important genealogical and heraldic documents. Many families relied on the information in Illyrian heraldic collections when claiming their true, or, more often purported, ancient hereditary rights, titles and lands. The Illyrian armorials were transcribed and reprinted in

  11. 75 FR 54656 - Government-Owned Inventions, Available for Licensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-08

    ... availability of inventions for licensing. SUMMARY: Patent applications on the inventions listed below assigned..., Pasadena, CA 91109; telephone (818) 354-7770. NASA Case No.: NPO-46771-1: Diamond Heat-Spreader for...

  12. 76 FR 13193 - Government-Owned Inventions; Availability for Licensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-10

    ...-451-7533 for more information. Method for the Detection of a Subdural Hematoma Using a Handheld Hematoma Detector and Discriminator Description of Invention: The invention offered for licensing and... utilized to discriminate between subdural and epidural hematoma. The invention also discloses a novel...

  13. 75 FR 39544 - Government-Owned Inventions; Availability for Licensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-09

    ... inventions to extend market coverage for companies and may also be available for licensing. ADDRESSES... might be used as a basis for a potential new strategy in cancer therapeutics. The invention also might... novel way to target various cancers for treatment. This invention maybe also useful in regenerative...

  14. 40 CFR 40.160-3 - Reporting of inventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... application. (b) A final invention report is required within 90 days after completion of the project period... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Reporting of inventions. 40.160-3... ASSISTANCE RESEARCH AND DEMONSTRATION GRANTS § 40.160-3 Reporting of inventions. As provided in appendix B of...

  15. 37 CFR 1.293 - Statutory invention registration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... the date of publication of the statutory invention registration; (2) The required fee for filing a request for publication of a statutory invention registration as provided for in § 1.17 (n) or (o); (3) A... application. (b) Any request for publication of a statutory invention registration must include the following...

  16. Micro reactor and flow chemistry for industrial applications in drug discovery and development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tambarussi Baraldi, P.; Hessel, V.

    2012-01-01

    In this review, case studies focused on syntheses of active pharmaceutical ingredients, intermediates and lead compounds are reported employing micro reactors and continuous flow technology in areas such as medicinal chemistry, chemical development and manufacturing. The advantages of flow

  17. Significance of investigating allelopathic interactions of marine organisms in the discovery and development of cytotoxic compounds

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Singh, A.; Thakur, N.L.

    like (1) growth interactions (e.g. overgrowth by corals) [27], (2) aggressive behaviour (e.g., induced development of sweeper tentacles by bryozoans [28], (3) feeding interactions (e.g., extracoelenteric digestion via mesenteries filaments...

  18. Global Vaccine and Immunization Research Forum: Opportunities and challenges in vaccine discovery, development, and delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ford, Andrew Q; Touchette, Nancy; Hall, B Fenton; Hwang, Angela; Hombach, Joachim

    2016-03-18

    The World Health Organization, the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, part of the National Institutes of Health, and the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation convened the first Global Vaccine and Immunization Research Forum (GVIRF) in March 2014. This first GVIRF aimed to track recent progress of the Global Vaccine Action Plan research and development agenda, identify opportunities and challenges, promote partnerships in vaccine research, and facilitate the inclusion of all stakeholders in vaccine research and development. Leading scientists, vaccine developers, and public health officials from around the world discussed scientific and technical challenges in vaccine development, research to improve the impact of immunization, and regulatory issues. This report summarizes the discussions and conclusions from the forum participants. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  19. Discovery and development of inhibitors selective for human constitutive proteasome and immunoproteasome active sites

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Xin, B.

    2017-01-01

    This thesis describes the design and development of subunit‐selective inhibitors of particular catalytically active subunits of human constitutive proteasomes and immunoproteasomes. Most existing proteasome inhibitors are oligopeptides composed of 2‐4 amino acid residues, N‐terminally

  20. Computational methods in drug discovery

    OpenAIRE

    Sumudu P. Leelananda; Steffen Lindert

    2016-01-01

    The process for drug discovery and development is challenging, time consuming and expensive. Computer-aided drug discovery (CADD) tools can act as a virtual shortcut, assisting in the expedition of this long process and potentially reducing the cost of research and development. Today CADD has become an effective and indispensable tool in therapeutic development. The human genome project has made available a substantial amount of sequence data that can be used in various drug discovery project...

  1. Sun, wave, earth, and wind. 50 energy machines already invented

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eriksen, B W

    1980-01-01

    This publication gives illustrated examples of issued patents showing what has already been invented, the aim being to avoid scarce resources of creativity and finance being wastefully expended on already existing solutions. Furthermore, it is the aim of this publication to direct the attention of experimenters, researchers and inventors working within the field of alternative energy sources to patent literature in order that they may use it as a basis for further development and thus avoid reinventing the wheel. The examples given are only illustrative. They do not represent a full survey of patent literature.

  2. The Invention of a Danish Well-being Tourism Region

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjalager, Anne Mette

    2011-01-01

    . Strategy is about expressing the direction and timing of development. In this particular regional setting, with numerous individual actors, it was not simple to reconcile the needs and objectives of those involved, but collaboration has nevertheless resulted in targeted fields of action. Substance...... a commitment for the future. Symbolic actions are fundamental parts of the substance or visual elements that happen to have an intrinsic communicative power. Symbolic actions addressed in the project included community based marketing and policy related extensions, etc. Inventing a regional product or brand...... requires a painstaking combination of strategy, substance, structure and symbolic action, and in Southern Denmark, the first steps have been taken....

  3. Spatial repellents: from discovery and development to evidence-based validation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Achee Nicole L

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract International public health workers are challenged by a burden of arthropod-borne disease that remains elevated despite best efforts in control programmes. With this challenge comes the opportunity to develop novel vector control paradigms to guide product development and programme implementation. The role of vector behaviour modification in disease control was first highlighted several decades ago but has received limited attention within the public health community. This paper presents current evidence highlighting the value of sub-lethal agents, specifically spatial repellents, and their use in global health, and identifies the primary challenges towards establishing a clearly defined and recommended role for spatial repellent products in disease control.

  4. 75 FR 10280 - Government-Owned Inventions; Availability for Licensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-05

    ... has been demonstrated for this technology in dog and guinea pig models. Potential Applications and... effects in dogs and guinea pigs. J Clin Invest. 2009 Aug;119(8):2271-2280. [PubMed: 19620788] Patent.... Development of an siRNA-based therapy for ovarian cancer. Development Status: Discovery stage. Market: Ovarian...

  5. Incentivising innovation in antibiotic drug discovery and development: progress, challenges and next steps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpkin, Victoria L; Renwick, Matthew J; Kelly, Ruth; Mossialos, Elias

    2017-12-01

    Political momentum and funding for combatting antimicrobial resistance (AMR) continues to build. Numerous major international and national initiatives aimed at financially incentivising the research and development (R&D) of antibiotics have been implemented. However, it remains unclear how to effectively strengthen the current set of incentive programmes to further accelerate antibiotic innovation. Based on a literature review and expert input, this study first identifies and assesses the major international, European Union, US and UK antibiotic R&D funding programmes. These programmes are then evaluated across market and public health criteria necessary for comprehensively improving the antibiotic market. The current set of incentive programmes are an important initial step to improving the economic feasibility of antibiotic development. However, there appears to be a lack of global coordination across all initiatives, which risks duplicating efforts, leaving funding gaps in the value chain and overlooking important AMR goals. This study finds that incentive programmes are overly committed to early-stage push funding of basic science and preclinical research, while there is limited late-stage push funding of clinical development. Moreover, there are almost no pull incentives to facilitate transition of antibiotic products from early clinical phases to commercialisation, focus developer concentration on the highest priority antibiotics and attract large pharmaceutical companies to invest in the market. Finally, it seems that antibiotic sustainability and patient access requirements are poorly integrated into the array of incentive mechanisms.

  6. The Discovery of the Future: The Ways Science Fiction Developed. Miscellaneous Publication 13.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunn, James

    This booklet discusses the development of science fiction, tracing its origins to the time of the industrial revolution. Many of the people of this time realized that life was changing and would continue to change, that there were new forces at work in the world, and that humankind should exercise some forethought about the direction in which…

  7. Development of a Suite of Analytical Tools for Energy and Water Infrastructure Knowledge Discovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morton, A.; Piburn, J.; Stewart, R.; Chandola, V.

    2017-12-01

    Energy and water generation and delivery systems are inherently interconnected. With demand for energy growing, the energy sector is experiencing increasing competition for water. With increasing population and changing environmental, socioeconomic, and demographic scenarios, new technology and investment decisions must be made for optimized and sustainable energy-water resource management. This also requires novel scientific insights into the complex interdependencies of energy-water infrastructures across multiple space and time scales. To address this need, we've developed a suite of analytical tools to support an integrated data driven modeling, analysis, and visualization capability for understanding, designing, and developing efficient local and regional practices related to the energy-water nexus. This work reviews the analytical capabilities available along with a series of case studies designed to demonstrate the potential of these tools for illuminating energy-water nexus solutions and supporting strategic (federal) policy decisions.

  8. Development of an agricultural biotechnology crop product: testing from discovery to commercialization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Privalle, Laura S; Chen, Jingwen; Clapper, Gina; Hunst, Penny; Spiegelhalter, Frank; Zhong, Cathy X

    2012-10-17

    "Genetically modified" (GM) or "biotech" crops have been the most rapidly adopted agricultural technology in recent years. The development of a GM crop encompasses trait identification, gene isolation, plant cell transformation, plant regeneration, efficacy evaluation, commercial event identification, safety evaluation, and finally commercial authorization. This is a lengthy, complex, and resource-intensive process. Crops produced through biotechnology are the most highly studied food or food component consumed. Before commercialization, these products are shown to be as safe as conventional crops with respect to feed, food, and the environment. This paper describes this global process and the various analytical tests that must accompany the product during the course of development, throughout its market life, and beyond.

  9. Inventive Activity of Researchers: Cross-Country Rating Assessments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatyana Ivanovna Volkova

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, the study of the research capacity of the country and regions has become more active not only from the point of view of their leading components (personnel, financial, information, organizational, material-and-technical ones but also from the perspective of the assessment of productivity and effectiveness of researchers’ work. In the cross-country analysis, the certain highly aggregative parameters, which values, as a rule, are not in favour of Russia, are used. At the same time, at profound studying of this topic, these estimates cannot represent correctly the real trends of inventive activity in the scientific and technological sphere of the country and its regions. Moreover, the measurement of the researchers’ creative potential realization is carried out mainly through the assessment systems of their printing activity. Little attention is paid to the problem of the rating assessments of the researchers’ inventive and patent activity and its products from a cross-country perspective (especially to the detailed ones as well as to its institutional determinants. Therefore, the authors have chosen this subject-matter of the research. Its empirical basis is the statistical materials of both the national database and those which are recognized by the world scientific community. This research has both theoretical and methodological orientations. The purpose is the development of methodological and methodical tools of the research and assessment of researchers’ inventive activity including methodological support of cross-country comparative assessments. The authors have based the hypothesis on their previous research: in the conditions of the decreasing level of financial security, continuous reduction of a number of researchers, institutional restrictions and contradictions, the inventive activity of national researchers is still exist, and in a number of its leading parameters is implemented at the level of the advanced

  10. Contemporary developments in the discovery of selective factor Xa inhibitors: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Nirav R; Patel, Dushyant V; Murumkar, Prashant R; Yadav, Mange Ram

    2016-10-04

    Thrombosis is a leading cause of death in cardiovascular diseases such as myocardial infarction (MI), unstable angina and acute coronary syndrome (ACS) in the industrialized world. Venous thromboembolism is observed in about 1 million people every year in United States causing significant morbidity and mortality. Conventional antithrombotic therapy has been reported to have several disadvantages and limitations like inconvenience in oral administration, bleeding risks (heparin analogs), narrow therapeutic window and undesirable interactions with food and drugs (vitamin K antagonist-warfarin). The unmet medical demand for orally active safe anticoagulants has generated widespread interest among the medicinal chemists engaged in this field. To modulate blood coagulation, various enzymes involved in the coagulation process have received great attention as potential targets by various research groups for the development of oral anticoagulants. Among these enzymes, factor Xa (FXa) has remained the centre of attention in the last decade. Intensive research efforts have been made by various research groups for the development of small, safe and orally bioavailable FXa inhibitors. This review is an attempt to compile the research work of various researchers in the direction of development of FXa inhibitors reported since 2010 onward. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  11. Optimizing real time fMRI neurofeedback for therapeutic discovery and development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoeckel, L.E.; Garrison, K.A.; Ghosh, S.; Wighton, P.; Hanlon, C.A.; Gilman, J.M.; Greer, S.; Turk-Browne, N.B.; deBettencourt, M.T.; Scheinost, D.; Craddock, C.; Thompson, T.; Calderon, V.; Bauer, C.C.; George, M.; Breiter, H.C.; Whitfield-Gabrieli, S.; Gabrieli, J.D.; LaConte, S.M.; Hirshberg, L.; Brewer, J.A.; Hampson, M.; Van Der Kouwe, A.; Mackey, S.; Evins, A.E.

    2014-01-01

    While reducing the burden of brain disorders remains a top priority of organizations like the World Health Organization and National Institutes of Health, the development of novel, safe and effective treatments for brain disorders has been slow. In this paper, we describe the state of the science for an emerging technology, real time functional magnetic resonance imaging (rtfMRI) neurofeedback, in clinical neurotherapeutics. We review the scientific potential of rtfMRI and outline research strategies to optimize the development and application of rtfMRI neurofeedback as a next generation therapeutic tool. We propose that rtfMRI can be used to address a broad range of clinical problems by improving our understanding of brain–behavior relationships in order to develop more specific and effective interventions for individuals with brain disorders. We focus on the use of rtfMRI neurofeedback as a clinical neurotherapeutic tool to drive plasticity in brain function, cognition, and behavior. Our overall goal is for rtfMRI to advance personalized assessment and intervention approaches to enhance resilience and reduce morbidity by correcting maladaptive patterns of brain function in those with brain disorders. PMID:25161891

  12. Invention profiles and uneven growth in the field of emerging nano-energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guan, Jiancheng; Liu, Na

    2015-01-01

    This paper aims to synthetically investigate invention profiles and uneven growth of technological knowledge in the emerging nano-energy field, based on patents data extracted from the Derwent Innovation Index (DII) database during the time period 1991–2012. The trend analysis shows that invention in this field has experienced enormous growth and also diversification over the past 22 years. The co-occurrence network of burst technology domains reveals that technology domains constantly burst, and innovative progress in nanotechnology has tremendously contributed to energy production, storage, conversion and harvesting and so on. Nano-energy patented inventions mainly come from a combinatorial process with a very limited role of developing brand-new technological capabilities. Reusing existing technological capabilities including recombination reuse, recombination creation and single reuse is the primary source of inventions. For the impacts of technology networks' embeddedness, we find that network tie strength suppresses the growth of technological knowledge domains, and network status and convergence both facilitate the growth of technological knowledge domains. We expect that this study will provide some enlightenment for inventing or creating new knowledge in emerging fields in complex technological environment. - Highlights: • We define and utilize a unique dataset of nano-energy patents. • We identify and map the burst technological knowledge domains. • Quantitative argument is provided to prove the combinatorial invention. • Impacts of network embeddedness on growth of technology domain are examined. • Network characteristics affect the growth of technology domain

  13. 24 CFR 26.18 - Discovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Discovery. 26.18 Section 26.18... PROCEDURES Hearings Before Hearing Officers Discovery § 26.18 Discovery. (a) General. The parties are encouraged to engage in voluntary discovery procedures, which may commence at any time after an answer has...

  14. 24 CFR 26.42 - Discovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Discovery. 26.42 Section 26.42... PROCEDURES Hearings Pursuant to the Administrative Procedure Act Discovery § 26.42 Discovery. (a) General. The parties are encouraged to engage in voluntary discovery procedures, which may commence at any time...

  15. Invention and Transfer of Climate Change Mitigation Technologies on a Global Scale: A Study Drawing on Patent Data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dechezlepretre, A.; Glachant, M.; Hascic, I.; Johnstone, N.; Meniere, Y.

    2010-01-01

    This paper uses the EPO/OECD World Patent Statistical Database (PATSTAT) to provide a quantitative description of the geographic distribution of inventions in thirteen climate mitigation technologies since 1978 and their international diffusion on a global scale. Statistics suggest that innovation has mostly been driven by energy prices until 1990. Since then, environmental policies, and climate policies more recently, have accelerated the pace of innovation. Innovation is highly concentrated in three countries - Japan, Germany and the USA - which account for 60% of total innovations. Surprisingly, the innovation performance of emerging economies is far from being negligible as China and South Korea together represent about 15% of total inventions. However, they export much less inventions than industrialized countries, suggesting their inventions have less value. More generally, international transfers mostly occur between developed countries (73% of exported inventions). Exports from developed countries to emerging economies are still limited (22%) but are growing rapidly, especially to China. (authors)

  16. Expanding Role of Data Science and Bioinformatics in Drug Discovery and Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fingert, Howard J

    2018-01-01

    Numerous barriers have been identified which detract from successful applications of clinical trial data and platforms. Despite the challenges, opportunities are growing to advance compliance, quality, and practical applications through top-down establishment of guiding principles, coupled with bottom-up approaches to promote data science competencies among data producers. Recent examples of successful applications include modern treatments for hematologic malignancies, developed with support from public-private partnerships, guiding principles for data-sharing, standards for protocol designs and data management, digital technologies, and quality analytics. © 2017 American Society for Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics.

  17. Modelling Chemical Reasoning to Predict and Invent Reactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segler, Marwin H S; Waller, Mark P

    2017-05-02

    The ability to reason beyond established knowledge allows organic chemists to solve synthetic problems and invent novel transformations. Herein, we propose a model that mimics chemical reasoning, and formalises reaction prediction as finding missing links in a knowledge graph. We have constructed a knowledge graph containing 14.4 million molecules and 8.2 million binary reactions, which represents the bulk of all chemical reactions ever published in the scientific literature. Our model outperforms a rule-based expert system in the reaction prediction task for 180 000 randomly selected binary reactions. The data-driven model generalises even beyond known reaction types, and is thus capable of effectively (re-)discovering novel transformations (even including transition metal-catalysed reactions). Our model enables computers to infer hypotheses about reactivity and reactions by only considering the intrinsic local structure of the graph and because each single reaction prediction is typically achieved in a sub-second time frame, the model can be used as a high-throughput generator of reaction hypotheses for reaction discovery. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  18. Review disorders of sex development: The evolving role of genomics in diagnosis and gene discovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Croft, Brittany; Ayers, Katie; Sinclair, Andrew; Ohnesorg, Thomas

    2016-12-01

    Disorders of Sex Development (DSDs) are a major paediatric concern and are estimated to occur in around 1.7% of all live births (Fausto-Sterling, Sexing the Body: Gender Politics and the Construction of Sexuality, Basic Books, New York, 2000). They are often caused by the breakdown in the complex genetic mechanisms that underlie gonadal development and differentiation. Having a genetic diagnosis can be important for patients with a DSD: it can increase acceptance of a disorder often surrounded by stigma, alter clinical management and it can assist in reproductive planning. While Massively Parallel Sequencing (MPS) is advancing the genetic diagnosis of rare Mendelian disorders, it is not yet clear which MPS assay is best suited for the clinical diagnosis of DSD patients and to what extent other established methods are still relevant. To complicate matters, DSDs represent a wide spectrum of disorders caused by an array of different genetic changes, many of which are yet unknown. Here we discuss the different genetic lesions that are known to contribute to different DSDs, and review the utility of a range of MPS approaches for diagnosing DSD patients. Birth Defects Research (Part C) 108:337-350, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. A quark is born: discovery and theory development in high-energy physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Edge, D.O.

    1979-04-01

    The aim was to gather empirical data on the social construction of the technical core of scientific culture and to contribute to sociological theory through an analysis of these data. The development of high energy physics between 1974 and 1977, specifically the production of experimental and theoretical knowledge on a family of 'new particles', was studied. By the end of this period theoretical consensus on the nature of these particles had been achieved. Methods of investigation included a literature survey and the collection of archival material and of opinions and recollections of important personalities involved. The work of R.K. Merton and his followers was used as a basis for investigating the sociology of scientific communities; also the work of T.S. Kuhn. A brief summary of the sociological analysis of the empirical data is given. (author)

  20. Discovery and Development of the Anti-Human Immunodeficiency Virus Drug, Emtricitabine (Emtriva, FTC).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liotta, Dennis C; Painter, George R

    2016-01-01

    The HIV/AIDS epidemic, which was first reported on in 1981, progressed in just 10 years to a disease afflicting 10 million people worldwide including 1 million in the US. In 1987, AZT was approved for treating HIV/AIDS. Unfortunately, its clinical usefullness was severly limited by associated toxicities and the emergence of resistance. Three other drugs that were approved in the early 1990s suffered from similar liabilities. In 1990, the Liotta group at Emory University developed a highly diastereoselective synthesis of racemic 3'-thia-2',3'-dideoxycytidine and 3'-thia-2',3'-5-fluorodideoxycytidine and demonstrated that these compounds exhibited excellent anti-HIV activity with no apparent cytotoxicity. Subsequently, the enantiomers of these compounds were separated using enzyme-mediated kinetic resolutions and their (-)-enantiomers (3TC and FTC, respectively) were found to have exceptionally attractive preclinical profiles. In addition to their anti-HIV activity, 3TC and FTC potently inhibit the replication of hepatitis B virus. The development of FTC, which was being carried out by Burroughs Wellcome, had many remarkable starts and stops. For example, passage studies indicated that the compound rapidly selected for a single resistant mutant, M184V, and that this strain was 500-1000-fold less sensitive to FTC than was wild-type virus. Fortunately, it was found that combinations of AZT with either 3TC or FTC were synergistic. The effectiveness of AZT-3TC combination therapy was subsequently demonstrated in four independent clinical trials, and in 1997, the FDA approved Combivir, a fixed dose combination of AZT and 3TC. In phase 1 clinical trials, FTC was well tolerated by all subjects with no adverse events observed. However, the development of FTC was halted by the aquistition of Wellcome PLC by Glaxo PLC in January 1995. In 1996, Triangle Pharmaceuticals licensed FTC from Emory and initiated a series of phase I/II clinical studies that demonstrated the safety and

  1. Developments on drug discovery and on new therapeutics: highly diluted tinctures act as biological response modifiers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira, Carolina C; Abud, Ana Paula R; de Oliveira, Simone M; Guimarães, Fernando de S F; de Andrade, Lucas F; Di Bernardi, Raffaello P; Coletto, Ediely L de O; Kuczera, Diogo; Da Lozzo, Eneida J; Gonçalves, Jenifer P; Trindade, Edvaldo da S; Buchi, Dorly de F

    2011-10-26

    In the search for new therapies novel drugs and medications are being discovered, developed and tested in laboratories. Highly diluted substances are intended to enhance immune system responses resulting in reduced frequency of various diseases, and often present no risk of serious side-effects due to its low toxicity. Over the past years our research group has been investigating the action of highly diluted substances and tinctures on cells from the immune system. We have developed and tested several highly diluted tinctures and here we describe the biological activity of M1, M2, and M8 both in vitro in immune cells from mice and human, and in vivo in mice. Cytotoxicity, cytokines released and NF-κB activation were determined after in vitro treatment. Cell viability, oxidative response, lipid peroxidation, bone marrow and lymph node cells immunophenotyping were accessed after mice in vivo treatment. None of the highly diluted tinctures tested were cytotoxic to macrophages or K562. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated macrophages treated with all highly diluted tinctures decreased tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) release and M1, and M8 decreased IFN-γ production. M1 has decreased NF-κB activity on TNF-α stimulated reporter cell line. In vivo treatment lead to a decrease in reactive oxygen species (ROS), nitric oxide (NO) production was increased by M1, and M8, and lipid peroxidation was induced by M1, and M2. All compounds enhanced the innate immunity, but M1 also augmented acquired immunity and M2 diminished B lymphocytes, responsible to acquired immunity. Based on the results presented here, these highly diluted tinctures were shown to modulate immune responses. Even though further investigation is needed there is an indication that these highly diluted tinctures could be used as therapeutic interventions in disorders where the immune system is compromised.

  2. Hot spot analysis for driving the development of hits into leads in fragment based drug discovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, David R.; Ngan, Chi Ho; Zerbe, Brandon S.; Kozakov, Dima; Vajda, Sandor

    2011-01-01

    Fragment based drug design (FBDD) starts with finding fragment-sized compounds that are highly ligand efficient and can serve as a core moiety for developing high affinity leads. Although the core-bound structure of a protein facilitates the construction of leads, effective design is far from straightforward. We show that protein mapping, a computational method developed to find binding hot spots and implemented as the FTMap server, provides information that complements the fragment screening results and can drive the evolution of core fragments into larger leads with a minimal loss or, in some cases, even a gain in ligand efficiency. The method places small molecular probes, the size of organic solvents, on a dense grid around the protein, and identifies the hot spots as consensus clusters formed by clusters of several probes. The hot spots are ranked based on the number of probe clusters, which predicts the binding propensity of the subsites and hence their importance for drug design. Accordingly, with a single exception the main hot spot identified by FTMap binds the core compound found by fragment screening. The most useful information is provided by the neighboring secondary hot spots, indicating the regions where the core can be extended to increase its affinity. To quantify this information, we calculate the density of probes from mapping, which describes the binding propensity at each point, and show that the change in the correlation between a ligand position and the probe density upon extending or repositioning the core moiety predicts the expected change in ligand efficiency. PMID:22145575

  3. Developments on drug discovery and on new therapeutics: highly diluted tinctures act as biological response modifiers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    de Oliveira Carolina C

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In the search for new therapies novel drugs and medications are being discovered, developed and tested in laboratories. Highly diluted substances are intended to enhance immune system responses resulting in reduced frequency of various diseases, and often present no risk of serious side-effects due to its low toxicity. Over the past years our research group has been investigating the action of highly diluted substances and tinctures on cells from the immune system. Methods We have developed and tested several highly diluted tinctures and here we describe the biological activity of M1, M2, and M8 both in vitro in immune cells from mice and human, and in vivo in mice. Cytotoxicity, cytokines released and NF-κB activation were determined after in vitro treatment. Cell viability, oxidative response, lipid peroxidation, bone marrow and lymph node cells immunophenotyping were accessed after mice in vivo treatment. Results None of the highly diluted tinctures tested were cytotoxic to macrophages or K562. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS-stimulated macrophages treated with all highly diluted tinctures decreased tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α release and M1, and M8 decreased IFN-γ production. M1 has decreased NF-κB activity on TNF-α stimulated reporter cell line. In vivo treatment lead to a decrease in reactive oxygen species (ROS, nitric oxide (NO production was increased by M1, and M8, and lipid peroxidation was induced by M1, and M2. All compounds enhanced the innate immunity, but M1 also augmented acquired immunity and M2 diminished B lymphocytes, responsible to acquired immunity. Conclusions Based on the results presented here, these highly diluted tinctures were shown to modulate immune responses. Even though further investigation is needed there is an indication that these highly diluted tinctures could be used as therapeutic interventions in disorders where the immune system is compromised.

  4. Advancing Drug Discovery and Development from Active Constituents of Yinchenhao Tang, a Famous Traditional Chinese Medicine Formula

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aihua Zhang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM formula has been playing a very important role in health protection and disease control for thousands of years. Guided by TCM syndrome theories, formula are designed to contain a combination of various kinds of crude drugs that, when combined, will achieve synergistic efficacy. However, the precise mechanism of synergistic action remains poorly understood. One example is a famous TCM formula Yinchenhao Tang (YCHT, whose efficacy in treating hepatic injury (HI and Jaundice syndrome, has recently been well established as a case study. We also conducted a systematic analysis of synergistic effects of the principal compound using biochemistry, pharmacokinetics and systems biology, to explore the key molecular mechanisms. We had found that the three component (6,7-dimethylesculetin (D, geniposide (G, and rhein (R combination exerts a more robust synergistic effect than any one or two of the three individual compounds by hitting multiple targets. They can regulate molecular networks through activating both intrinsic and extrinsic pathways to synergistically cause intensified therapeutic effects. This paper provides an overview of the recent and potential developments of chemical fingerprinting coupled with systems biology advancing drug discovery towards more agile development of targeted combination therapies for the YCHT.

  5. [Development of Human Health Discoveries. 10 years results of Young Innovative Company incubation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsac, Jean

    2014-01-01

    Medicine is evolving every day in its operating procedures and the services offered to patients, emphasizing personalized medicine, safety and medical benefits. The individual patient is more than ever the hub of healthcare organization. Medical innovation is thus a public health priority. However it requires an accurate assessment of medical utility and risk-benefit ratios, and in-depth analysis of economic and organizational impacts. Ten years of experience in the Paris Biotech Santé company incubator has identified key actions for effective support of research projects and the success of innovative companies. Strong expertise is needed to prepare development plans, ensure compliance with regulatory requirements and obtain research funding. During its first decade, this incubator has created 87 innovative companies employing 1500 people, raised more than 90 million euros of funding, and reached a cumulative company value of 1200 million euros. Key factors of success have been identified, but an analysis of the causes of failure shows that operational adjustments are mandatory, particularly a strong commitment from medical experts, in order to promote access to new and useful products for patients while at the same time assessing their social impact.

  6. The Role of Natural Products in Drug Discovery and Development against Neglected Tropical Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Mubanga Cheuka

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Endemic in 149 tropical and subtropical countries, neglected tropical diseases (NTDs affect more than 1 billion people annually, including 875 million children in developing economies. These diseases are also responsible for over 500,000 deaths per year and are characterized by long-term disability and severe pain. The impact of the combined NTDs closely rivals that of malaria and tuberculosis. Current treatment options are associated with various limitations including widespread drug resistance, severe adverse effects, lengthy treatment duration, unfavorable toxicity profiles, and complicated drug administration procedures. Natural products have been a valuable source of drug regimens that form the cornerstone of modern pharmaceutical care. In this review, we highlight the potential that remains untapped in natural products as drug leads for NTDs. We cover natural products from plant, marine, and microbial sources including natural-product-inspired semi-synthetic derivatives which have been evaluated against the various causative agents of NTDs. Our coverage is limited to four major NTDs which include human African trypanosomiasis (sleeping sickness, leishmaniasis, schistosomiasis and lymphatic filariasis.

  7. Discovery and Development of Synthetic and Natural Biomaterials for Protein Therapeutics and Medical Device Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keefe, Andrew J.

    nonfouling peptides can be genetically engineered onto a protein to form recombinant protein-polymer conjugates. This technique avoids the need to post-modify proteins, that is often expensive and time consuming in protein manufacturing. Finally, we have developed two new peptide screening methods that were able to select for nonfouling peptide sequences. The selection for nonfouling sequences is not possible using traditional methods (phage display, yeast display, bacterial display and resin display) due to the presence of background interference. In our first nonfouling peptide screening method, we measured the fouling properties of peptides that were immobilized on the surface of solid glass beads. Peptides first needed to be rationally designed, and then subsequently evaluated for protein binding. Using this method, we were able to screen of 10's of sequences. Our second nonfouling peptide screening method is able to screen thousands of peptide sequences using a combinatorially generated peptide library. This was accomplished using controlled pore glass (CPG) beads as substrates to develop one-bead-one-compound (OBOC) peptide libraries. The choice of a porous substrate made it possible to synthesize enough peptide material to allow for peptide sequencing from a single bead using mass spectrometry techniques.

  8. Integrating scientific data for drug discovery and development using the Life Sciences Grid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dow, Ernst R; Hughes, James B; Stephens, Susie M; Narayan, Vaibhav A; Bishop, Richard W

    2009-06-01

    There are many daunting challenges for companies who wish to bring novel drugs to market. The information complexity around potential drug targets has increased greatly with the introduction of microarrays, high-throughput screening and other technological advances over the past decade, but has not yet fundamentally increased our understanding of how to modify a disease with pharmaceuticals. Further, the bar has been raised in getting a successful drug to market as just being new is no longer enough: the drug must demonstrate improved performance compared with the ever increasing generic pharmacopeia to gain support from payers and government authorities. In addition, partly as a consequence of a climate of concern regarding the safety of drugs, regulatory authorities have approved fewer new molecular entities compared to historical norms over the past few years. To overcome these challenges, the pharmaceutical industry must fully embrace information technology to bring better understood compounds to market. An important first step in addressing an unmet medical need is in understanding the disease and identifying the physiological target(s) to be modulated by the drug. Deciding which targets to pursue for a given disease requires a multidisciplinary effort that integrates heterogeneous data from many sources, including genetic variations of populations, changes in gene expression and biochemical assays. The Life Science Grid was developed to provide a flexible framework to integrate such diverse biological, chemical and disease information to help scientists make better-informed decisions. The Life Science Grid has been used to rapidly and effectively integrate scientific information in the pharmaceutical industry and has been placed in the open source community to foster collaboration in the life sciences community.

  9. Drug safety is a barrier to the discovery and development of new androgen receptor antagonists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, William R; Car, Bruce D; Shi, Hong; Levesque, Paul C; Obermeier, Mary T; Gan, Jinping; Arezzo, Joseph C; Powlin, Stephanie S; Dinchuk, Joseph E; Balog, Aaron; Salvati, Mark E; Attar, Ricardo M; Gottardis, Marco M

    2011-04-01

    Androgen receptor (AR) antagonists are part of the standard of care for prostate cancer. Despite the almost inevitable development of resistance in prostate tumors to AR antagonists, no new AR antagonists have been approved for over a decade. Treatment failure is due in part to mutations that increase activity of AR in response to lower ligand concentrations as well as to mutations that result in AR response to a broader range of ligands. The failure to discover new AR antagonists has occurred in the face of continued research; to enable progress, a clear understanding of the reasons for failure is required. Non-clinical drug safety studies and safety pharmacology assays were performed on previously approved AR antagonists (bicalutamide, flutamide, nilutamide), next generation antagonists in clinical testing (MDV3100, BMS-641988), and a pre-clinical drug candidate (BMS-501949). In addition, non-clinical studies with AR mutant mice, and EEG recordings in rats were performed. Non-clinical findings are compared to disclosures of clinical trial results. As a drug class, AR antagonists cause seizure in animals by an off-target mechanism and are found in vitro to inhibit GABA-A currents. Clinical trials of candidate next generation AR antagonists identify seizure as a clinical safety risk. Non-clinical drug safety profiles of the AR antagonist drug class create a significant barrier to the identification of next generation AR antagonists. GABA-A inhibition is a common off-target activity of approved and next generation AR antagonists potentially explaining some side effects and safety hazards of this class of drugs. Copyright © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  10. MEDICI: Mining Essentiality Data to Identify Critical Interactions for Cancer Drug Target Discovery and Development | Office of Cancer Genomics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Protein-protein interactions (PPIs) mediate the transmission and regulation of oncogenic signals that are essential to cellular proliferation and survival, and thus represent potential targets for anti-cancer therapeutic discovery. Despite their significance, there is no method to experimentally disrupt and interrogate the essentiality of individual endogenous PPIs. The ability to computationally predict or infer PPI essentiality would help prioritize PPIs for drug discovery and help advance understanding of cancer biology.

  11. Discovery, Development, and Evaluation of a Horn Fly-Isolated (Diptera: Muscidae) Beauveria bassiana (Hypocreales: Cordyciptaceae) Strain From Florida, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holderman, Christopher J.; Wood, Lois A.; Geden, Christopher J.

    2017-01-01

    The horn fly, Haematobia irritans (L.) is an important cattle pest and traditionally has been managed using insecticides; however, many horn fly populations are insecticide-resistant in United States. Use of alternative control techniques has been limited because of the challenges of managing a fly pest on pastured cattle. After the discovery of a wild horn fly infected with Beauveria bassiana in Florida, the fungus was cultured and evaluated for efficacy against laboratory-reared horn flies. This fungal strain was selected for increased virulence by passage through laboratory-reared horn fly hosts to shorten interval from infection to fly death and subsequent conidia formation, properties important to future use of the fungus as a biological control agent against horn flies. After seven passages through horn fly hosts, fly mortality was not significantly accelerated as evaluated through LT50 values, but conidia were readily produced from these killed flies. Although further development is needed to improve fungal efficacy, this fungal strain holds promise as a biological control agent for inclusion in horn fly integrated pest management programs. PMID:28423414

  12. Novel CNS drug discovery and development approach: model-based integration to predict neuro-pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Lange, Elizabeth C M; van den Brink, Willem; Yamamoto, Yumi; de Witte, Wilhelmus E A; Wong, Yin Cheong

    2017-12-01

    CNS drug development has been hampered by inadequate consideration of CNS pharmacokinetic (PK), pharmacodynamics (PD) and disease complexity (reductionist approach). Improvement is required via integrative model-based approaches. Areas covered: The authors summarize factors that have played a role in the high attrition rate of CNS compounds. Recent advances in CNS research and drug discovery are presented, especially with regard to assessment of relevant neuro-PK parameters. Suggestions for further improvements are also discussed. Expert opinion: Understanding time- and condition dependent interrelationships between neuro-PK and neuro-PD processes is key to predictions in different conditions. As a first screen, it is suggested to use in silico/in vitro derived molecular properties of candidate compounds and predict concentration-time profiles of compounds in multiple compartments of the human CNS, using time-course based physiology-based (PB) PK models. Then, for selected compounds, one can include in vitro drug-target binding kinetics to predict target occupancy (TO)-time profiles in humans. This will improve neuro-PD prediction. Furthermore, a pharmaco-omics approach is suggested, providing multilevel and paralleled data on systems processes from individuals in a systems-wide manner. Thus, clinical trials will be better informed, using fewer animals, while also, needing fewer individuals and samples per individual for proof of concept in humans.

  13. Thoughtflow: Standards and Tools for Provenance Capture and Workflow Definition to Support Model-Informed Drug Discovery and Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkins, J J; Chan, Pls; Chard, J; Smith, G; Smith, M K; Beer, M; Dunn, A; Flandorfer, C; Franklin, C; Gomeni, R; Harnisch, L; Kaye, R; Moodie, S; Sardu, M L; Wang, E; Watson, E; Wolstencroft, K; Cheung, Sya

    2017-05-01

    Pharmacometric analyses are complex and multifactorial. It is essential to check, track, and document the vast amounts of data and metadata that are generated during these analyses (and the relationships between them) in order to comply with regulations, support quality control, auditing, and reporting. It is, however, challenging, tedious, error-prone, and time-consuming, and diverts pharmacometricians from the more useful business of doing science. Automating this process would save time, reduce transcriptional errors, support the retention and transfer of knowledge, encourage good practice, and help ensure that pharmacometric analyses appropriately impact decisions. The ability to document, communicate, and reconstruct a complete pharmacometric analysis using an open standard would have considerable benefits. In this article, the Innovative Medicines Initiative (IMI) Drug Disease Model Resources (DDMoRe) consortium proposes a set of standards to facilitate the capture, storage, and reporting of knowledge (including assumptions and decisions) in the context of model-informed drug discovery and development (MID3), as well as to support reproducibility: "Thoughtflow." A prototype software implementation is provided. © 2017 The Authors CPT: Pharmacometrics & Systems Pharmacology published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of American Society for Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics.

  14. Technological Innovation and Beyond: Exploring Public Value of University Inventions Based on Contingent Effectiveness Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Milana, Evita; Li-Ying, Jason; Faria, Lourenco

    2017-01-01

    University inventions are traditionally seen as significant input into development of new technologies and innovations in the market as they generate growth and regional development. (REF) Yet, these inventions developed into new technologies can simultaneously create public values such as those...... that are related with sustainability goals. In this paper, we apply the Contingent Effectiveness Model by Bozeman et.al. (2015) as a framework to consider the effectiveness of technology transfer from university to industry via licensing, and examine what values derive during the commercialization process...... of university inventions. We define four main values: technological, economic, social and environmental, and place the latter two under the concept of public value. The aim of this paper is to expand the understanding of public value and incorporate it into technology transfer literature. We assign...

  15. The invention of the athletic body

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hortensia Moreno

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Based on two mythic figures − one belonging to classic Greece (the “Glowing Body”, and another to primitive Christianity (the “Heavenly Body” − I reflect on the symbolic logic of exclusion as enacted in four moments in the history of the Olympic Games. The first has to do with the invention of amateurism in the sporting philosophy of Coubertin, or the class exclusion. The second refers to the Anthropology Days held at the 1904 Olympic Games in Saint Louis (Missouri, or the ethnic/racial exclusion. The third is the Berlin Parade of Nations in 1936, or the national supremacy. The fourth explores the introduction of gender verification in Mexico City (1968, or the gender exclusion. In this fashion, we re-connect the imagined/imaginary configuration of the body with practices and politics which will result in an anthropological rationalization of discrimination.

  16. Consciousness and the Invention of Morel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lampros ePerogamvros

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available A scientific study of consciousness should take into consideration both objective and subjective measures of conscious experiences. To this date, very few studies have tried to integrate third-person data, or data about the neurophysiological correlates of conscious states, with first-person data, or data about subjective experience. Inspired by Morel’s invention (Casares, 1940, a literary machine capable of reproducing sensory-dependent external reality, this article suggests that combination of virtual reality techniques and brain reading technologies, that is, decoding of conscious states by brain activity alone, can offer this integration. It is also proposed that the multimodal, simulating and integrative capacities of the dreaming brain render it an 'endogenous' Morel's machine, which can potentially be used in studying consciousness, but not always in a reliable way. Both the literary machine and dreaming could contribute to a better understanding of conscious states.

  17. How important are local inventive milieus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ejermo, Olof; Hansen, Høgni Kalsø

    2015-01-01

    positive effects are also evident from birthplace, whereas no consistent positive effect can be derived from individuals’ high school location. Therefore, the formative influences mainly deriving from family upbringing, birth region and from local milieu effects arising from a conscious choice to attend......Using data on the entire population in combination with data on almost all individuals in Sweden listed as inventors, we study how the probability of being listed on a patent as inventor is influenced by the density of other future inventors residing in the same region. In this process, we control...... for demographic and sector effects along with the educational characteristics of parents. This approach allows us to trace how location history influences individuals’ inventive capacity. We focus on three types of influences: (a) future inventors in the municipality around the time of birth, (b) future inventors...

  18. The electronics revolution inventing the future

    CERN Document Server

    Williams, J B

    2017-01-01

    This book is about how electronics, computing, and telecommunications have profoundly changed our lives – the way we work, live, and play. It covers a myriad of topics from the invention of the fundamental devices, and integrated circuits, through radio and television, to computers, mobile telephones and GPS. Today our lives are ruled by electronics as they control the home and computers dominate the workspace. We walk around with mobile phones and communicate by email. Electronics didn’t exist until into the twentieth century. The industrial revolution is the term usually applied to the coming of steam, railways and the factory system. In the twentieth century, it is electronics that has changed the way we gather our information, entertain ourselves, communicate and work. This book demonstrates that this is, in fact, another revolution. .

  19. Projecting ADME Behavior and Drug-Drug Interactions in Early Discovery and Development: Application of the Extended Clearance Classification System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Kattan, Ayman F; Varma, Manthena V; Steyn, Stefan J; Scott, Dennis O; Maurer, Tristan S; Bergman, Arthur

    2016-12-01

    To assess the utility of Extended Clearance Classification System (ECCS) in understanding absorption, distribution, metabolism, and elimination (ADME) attributes and enabling victim drug-drug interaction (DDI) predictions. A database of 368 drugs with relevant ADME parameters, main metabolizing enzymes, uptake transporters, efflux transporters, and highest change in exposure (%AUC) in presence of inhibitors was developed using published literature. Drugs were characterized according to ECCS using ionization, molecular weight and estimated permeability. Analyses suggested that ECCS class 1A drugs are well absorbed and systemic clearance is determined by metabolism mediated by CYP2C, esterases, and UGTs. For class 1B drugs, oral absorption is high and the predominant clearance mechanism is hepatic uptake mediated by OATP transporters. High permeability neutral/basic drugs (class 2) showed high oral absorption, with metabolism mediated generally by CYP3A, CYP2D6 and UGTs as the predominant clearance mechanism. Class 3A/4 drugs showed moderate absorption with dominant renal clearance involving OAT/OCT2 transporters. Class 3B drugs showed low to moderate absorption with hepatic uptake (OATPs) and/or renal clearance as primary clearance mechanisms. The highest DDI risk is typically seen with class 2/1B/3B compounds manifested by inhibition of either CYP metabolism or active hepatic uptake. Class 2 showed a wider range in AUC change likely due to a variety of enzymes involved. DDI risk for class 3A/4 is small and associated with inhibition of renal transporters. ECCS provides a framework to project ADME profiles and further enables prediction of victim DDI liabilities in drug discovery and development.

  20. Developing a Data Discovery Tool for Interdisciplinary Science: Leveraging a Web-based Mapping Application and Geosemantic Searching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albeke, S. E.; Perkins, D. G.; Ewers, S. L.; Ewers, B. E.; Holbrook, W. S.; Miller, S. N.

    2015-12-01

    The sharing of data and results is paramount for advancing scientific research. The Wyoming Center for Environmental Hydrology and Geophysics (WyCEHG) is a multidisciplinary group that is driving scientific breakthroughs to help manage water resources in the Western United States. WyCEHG is mandated by the National Science Foundation (NSF) to share their data. However, the infrastructure from which to share such diverse, complex and massive amounts of data did not exist within the University of Wyoming. We developed an innovative framework to meet the data organization, sharing, and discovery requirements of WyCEHG by integrating both open and closed source software, embedded metadata tags, semantic web technologies, and a web-mapping application. The infrastructure uses a Relational Database Management System as the foundation, providing a versatile platform to store, organize, and query myriad datasets, taking advantage of both structured and unstructured formats. Detailed metadata are fundamental to the utility of datasets. We tag data with Uniform Resource Identifiers (URI's) to specify concepts with formal descriptions (i.e. semantic ontologies), thus allowing users the ability to search metadata based on the intended context rather than conventional keyword searches. Additionally, WyCEHG data are geographically referenced. Using the ArcGIS API for Javascript, we developed a web mapping application leveraging database-linked spatial data services, providing a means to visualize and spatially query available data in an intuitive map environment. Using server-side scripting (PHP), the mapping application, in conjunction with semantic search modules, dynamically communicates with the database and file system, providing access to available datasets. Our approach provides a flexible, comprehensive infrastructure from which to store and serve WyCEHG's highly diverse research-based data. This framework has not only allowed WyCEHG to meet its data stewardship

  1. 100th anniversary of the discovery of cosmic radiation: the role of Günther and Tegetmeyer in the development of the necessary instrumentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. G. A. Fricke

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The year 2012 marks the 100th anniversary of the discovery of cosmic radiation by the Austrian physicist Victor Franz Hess (1883–1964, obtained onboard manned balloons, one of them launched up to an altitude of 5.3 km. His discovery earned him the Nobel Prize in 1936. The discovery follows in the context of the investigation of atmospheric electricity and of the newly discovered radioactivity, in particular with respect to γ rays. Starting from simple ionization chambers, the instruments were developed during an interplay between functional requirements, scientific progress and available manufacturing technologies.

    The authors of this contribution take this anniversary as an opportunity to describe the instrumentation used by Hess, as well as further developments in the instrumentation which took place in the decades following Hess' discovery. This manuscript also discusses details of the company who manufactured Hess' instrument, ''Günther & Tegetmeyer'' based in Braunschweig, Germany. This company did not only build instruments for Hess and the research on cosmic rays, but also for other scientific disciplines and for well-known researchers and discoverers.

  2. 7 CFR 1150.184 - Patents, copyrights, inventions and publications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Milk), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE DAIRY PROMOTION PROGRAM... the rental, sale, leasing, franchising, or other uses of such patents, copyrights, inventions, or...

  3. 7 CFR 1220.254 - Patents, copyrights, inventions, and publications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ...) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF..., franchising, or other uses of such patents, copyrights, inventions, or publications, inure to the benefit of...

  4. To succeed using patent and invention which are brillant idea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu, Jae Bok

    1999-07-01

    This book deals with what invention is, how we can be a inventor, how we apply inventions to intellectual property office, and other useful advice and lesson on patent. These are the titles of each part : trouble stories on success to invent, everybody can be a inventor, this is a invention. There is a problem when the idea is same or similar, preceding patent, where does it hide? database on patent, patent information, Let's go to Korean intellectual property office, patient application which we misses in our dream, and instructions of patent including various sides.

  5. The University of New Mexico Center for Molecular Discovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Bruce S.; Gouveia, Kristine; Oprea, Tudor I.; Sklar, Larry A.

    2015-01-01

    The University of New Mexico Center for Molecular Discovery (UNMCMD) is an academic research center that specializes in discovery using high throughput flow cytometry (HTFC) integrated with virtual screening, as well as knowledge mining and drug informatics. With a primary focus on identifying small molecules that can be used as chemical probes and as leads for drug discovery, it is a central core resource for research and translational activities at UNM that supports implementation and management of funded screening projects as well as “up-front” services such as consulting for project design and implementation, assistance in assay development and generation of preliminary data for pilot projects in support of competitive grant applications. The HTFC platform in current use represents advanced, proprietary technology developed at UNM that is now routinely capable of processing bioassays arrayed in 96-, 384- and 1536-well formats at throughputs of 60,000 or more wells per day. Key programs at UNMCMD include screening of research targets submitted by the international community through NIH’s Molecular Libraries Program; a multi-year effort involving translational partnerships at UNM directed towards drug repurposing - identifying new uses for clinically approved drugs; and a recently established personalized medicine initiative for advancing cancer therapy by the application of “smart” oncology drugs in selected patients based on response patterns of their cancer cells in vitro. UNMCMD discoveries, innovation, and translation have contributed to a wealth of inventions, patents, licenses and publications, as well as startup companies, clinical trials and a multiplicity of domestic and international collaborative partnerships to further the research enterprise. PMID:24409953

  6. Japan's patent issues relating to life science therapeutic inventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tessensohn, John A

    2014-09-01

    Japan has made 'innovation in science and technology' as one of its central pillars to ensure high growth in its next stage of economic development and its life sciences market which hosts regenerative medicine was proclaimed to be 'the best market in the world right now.' Although life science therapeutic inventions are patentable subject matter under Japanese patent law, there are nuanced obviousness and enablement challenges under Japanese patent law that can be surmounted in view of some encouraging Japanese court developments in fostering a pro-patent applicant environment in the life sciences therapeutic patent field. Nevertheless, great care must be taken when drafting and prosecuting such patent applications in the world's second most important life sciences therapeutic market.

  7. Gene discovery and molecular marker development, based on high-throughput transcript sequencing of Paspalum dilatatum Poir.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Giordano

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Paspalum dilatatum Poir. (common name dallisgrass is a native grass species of South America, with special relevance to dairy and red meat production. P. dilatatum exhibits higher forage quality than other C4 forage grasses and is tolerant to frost and water stress. This species is predominantly cultivated in an apomictic monoculture, with an inherent high risk that biotic and abiotic stresses could potentially devastate productivity. Therefore, advanced breeding strategies that characterise and use available genetic diversity, or assess germplasm collections effectively are required to deliver advanced cultivars for production systems. However, there are limited genomic resources available for this forage grass species. RESULTS: Transcriptome sequencing using second-generation sequencing platforms has been employed using pooled RNA from different tissues (stems, roots, leaves and inflorescences at the final reproductive stage of P. dilatatum cultivar Primo. A total of 324,695 sequence reads were obtained, corresponding to c. 102 Mbp. The sequences were assembled, generating 20,169 contigs of a combined length of 9,336,138 nucleotides. The contigs were BLAST analysed against the fully sequenced grass species of Oryza sativa subsp. japonica, Brachypodium distachyon, the closely related Sorghum bicolor and foxtail millet (Setaria italica genomes as well as against the UniRef 90 protein database allowing a comprehensive gene ontology analysis to be performed. The contigs generated from the transcript sequencing were also analysed for the presence of simple sequence repeats (SSRs. A total of 2,339 SSR motifs were identified within 1,989 contigs and corresponding primer pairs were designed. Empirical validation of a cohort of 96 SSRs was performed, with 34% being polymorphic between sexual and apomictic biotypes. CONCLUSIONS: The development of genetic and genomic resources for P. dilatatum will contribute to gene discovery and expression

  8. Drawbacks and benefits associated with inter-organizational collaboration along the discovery-development-delivery continuum: a cancer research network case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Jenine K; Provan, Keith G; Johnson, Kimberly J; Leischow, Scott J

    2012-07-25

    The scientific process around cancer research begins with scientific discovery, followed by development of interventions, and finally delivery of needed interventions to people with cancer. Numerous studies have identified substantial gaps between discovery and delivery in health research. Team science has been identified as a possible solution for closing the discovery to delivery gap; however, little is known about effective ways of collaborating within teams and across organizations. The purpose of this study was to determine benefits and drawbacks associated with organizational collaboration across the discovery-development-delivery research continuum. Representatives of organizations working on cancer research across a state answered a survey about how they collaborated with other cancer research organizations in the state and what benefits and drawbacks they experienced while collaborating. We used exponential random graph modeling to determine the association between these benefits and drawbacks and the presence of a collaboration tie between any two network members. Different drawbacks and benefits were associated with discovery, development, and delivery collaborations. The only consistent association across all three was with the drawback of difficulty due to geographic differences, which was negatively associated with collaboration, indicating that those organizations that had collaborated were less likely to perceive a barrier related to geography. The benefit, enhanced access to other knowledge, was positive and significant in the development and delivery networks, indicating that collaborating organizations viewed improved knowledge exchange as a benefit of collaboration. 'Acquisition of additional funding or other resources' and 'development of new tools and methods' were negatively significantly related to collaboration in these networks. So, although improved knowledge access was an outcome of collaboration, more tangible outcomes were not being

  9. Bridging the Gap in Neurotherapeutic Discovery and Development: The Role of the National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke in Translational Neuroscience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mott, Meghan; Koroshetz, Walter

    2015-07-01

    The mission of the National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke (NINDS) is to seek fundamental knowledge about the brain and nervous system and to use that knowledge to reduce the burden of neurological disease. NINDS supports early- and late-stage therapy development funding programs to accelerate preclinical discovery and the development of new therapeutic interventions for neurological disorders. The NINDS Office of Translational Research facilitates and funds the movement of discoveries from the laboratory to patients. Its grantees include academics, often with partnerships with the private sector, as well as small businesses, which, by Congressional mandate, receive > 3% of the NINDS budget for small business innovation research. This article provides an overview of NINDS-funded therapy development programs offered by the NINDS Office of Translational Research.

  10. Comparative Study of the Role of Institutions in Shaping Inventive Activity in Mid-Range Emerging Economies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ervits Irina

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this paper is to investigate the effects of institutions on national rates of inventive activity. Invention, part of the innovation process, is acknowledged as one of the driving forces behind economic growth, and patent statistics are frequently used as a measurable indicator of inventive output. Thus this paper explores the relationship between national patent statistics and measures of institutional quality. As a result of our research, the effect of the “threshold of inventive activity” was observed. This effect demonstrates that when countries reach a certain level of institutional development and attain a general institutional climate conducive to inventive activity, the number of patent applications begins to sharply increase. The paper contributes to the body of evidence that confirms that a combination of fundamental institutions like the rule of law or freedom of expression, which are not necessarily aimed at boosting innovation, create an overall environment conducive to patenting. We demonstrate that “mid-range emerging economies”,2 including those in Central and Eastern Europe3 (CEE, where the quality of institutions is lagging behind more developed counterparts and/or their influence is weak or sporadic, have not yet reached the threshold of inventive activity yet. However, those CEE countries that have acceded to the European Union first have made visible progress with respect to institutional quality and invention.

  11. Discovery Mondays

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    Many people don't realise quite how much is going on at CERN. Would you like to gain first-hand knowledge of CERN's scientific and technological activities and their many applications? Try out some experiments for yourself, or pick the brains of the people in charge? If so, then the «Lundis Découverte» or Discovery Mondays, will be right up your street. Starting on May 5th, on every first Monday of the month you will be introduced to a different facet of the Laboratory. CERN staff, non-scientists, and members of the general public, everyone is welcome. So tell your friends and neighbours and make sure you don't miss this opportunity to satisfy your curiosity and enjoy yourself at the same time. You won't have to listen to a lecture, as the idea is to have open exchange with the expert in question and for each subject to be illustrated with experiments and demonstrations. There's no need to book, as Microcosm, CERN's interactive museum, will be open non-stop from 7.30 p.m. to 9 p.m. On the first Discovery M...

  12. The Las Vegas Strip as a Genuinely Invented Global Landscape

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Ortega

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Las Vegas, Nevada, is typically recognised as a place via a single urban gesture, that gesture being Las Vegas Boulevard, which is more commonly referred to as "The Strip". In constructing a thesis around the theme, "Here or There? Interconnections between the Global and the Local", one cannot ignore the invitation to discuss globalisation and its effects on a particular local fabric. For the purpose of this text, globalisation can be thought of as what Carmona et al describe as an intricate series of events leading to the world "becoming increasingly interconnected, with centralised decision making exploiting economies of scale and standardisation" (2003: 101. The centralised decision-making process for The Strip is evident in the strategy to develop individually themed casino resorts along Las Vegas Boulevard that respond to a competitive economy, thus creating a newly standardised landscape. If we also understand that globalisation can be thought of as the development of an interconnected world where economic, political and cultural boundaries can be easily crossed, this work can begin to define how the Las Vegas Strip is a genuinely invented global landscape. This paper addresses the "here-ness" as well as the "there-ness" of The Strip, while offering a dialectical framework for establishing a meaning of place by having 'there' placed 'here'. By employing semiological interpretations of real landscapes from around the globe (for example, Venturi et al, 1972, The Strip becomes a newly invented landscape of "simulations" (Baudrillard, 1988. As such, The Strip acts as a narrative that forms a unique place, opening the door to questions of authenticity and identity. This paper concludes by focusing on the question of "Here or There?" as an appropriate deviation from the assumed role that the post-modern landscape of the Las Vegas Strip plays. This work is intended to be a point of departure from the frequent criticism of the Las Vegas Strip as

  13. Private Finance 2 (PF2): Re-inventing the Wheel?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zawawi, N. A. W. A.; Abdul-Aziz, A. R.; Khamidi, M. F.; Othman, I.; Idrus, A.; Umar, A. A.

    2013-06-01

    The Procurement policy of any government is the most influential factor in determining the efficiency of infrastructure and service provision like roads, water supply and energy. The UK's HM Treasury released its new guidelines on private involvement in infrastructures provision and services towards reforming the popular Private Finance Initiatives (PFI) policy. This new approach, it now refers to as the Private Finance 2 (PF2) is meant to correct the imperfections which have bedeviled the older version-PFI. However, the 'new guidelines' contained nothing really new in the area of private financing and operation of public infrastructures, at best it is akin to 're-inventing the wheel' rather than being 'new'. While dwelling extensively on issues relating to cheaper financing sources, risks transfer, counterpart funding by government and improving public sector procurement skills, this paper argues that some countries in the developing world have long recognised these issues and taken practical steps to correct them.

  14. Transmedia marketing and re-invention of public relations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jakus Dalibor

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Many concepts have been developed to describe the convergence of media, public relations and storytelling formats in contemporary media systems. This article presents a theoretical reflection on “transmedia storytelling” from a perspective of integration narrative in the context of the re-invention of public relations. The rapid evolution of digital media technology and the emergence of transmedia storytelling present foresight professionals with a powerful new approach for communicating about the future. A transmedia story unfolds across multiple media platforms with each new text making a distinctive and valuable contribution to the whole. Between other, this article also outlines some of the key principles and elements of transmedia storytelling in combination with modern public relations, in order to provide a basic framework that public relations practitioner can use when designing transmedia projects.

  15. Private Finance 2 (PF2): Re-inventing the Wheel?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zawawi, N A W A; Khamidi, M F; Othman, I; Umar, A A; Abdul-Aziz, A R; Idrus, A

    2013-01-01

    The Procurement policy of any government is the most influential factor in determining the efficiency of infrastructure and service provision like roads, water supply and energy. The UK's HM Treasury released its new guidelines on private involvement in infrastructures provision and services towards reforming the popular Private Finance Initiatives (PFI) policy. This new approach, it now refers to as the Private Finance 2 (PF2) is meant to correct the imperfections which have bedeviled the older version-PFI. However, the 'new guidelines' contained nothing really new in the area of private financing and operation of public infrastructures, at best it is akin to 're-inventing the wheel' rather than being 'new'. While dwelling extensively on issues relating to cheaper financing sources, risks transfer, counterpart funding by government and improving public sector procurement skills, this paper argues that some countries in the developing world have long recognised these issues and taken practical steps to correct them.

  16. The practical Einstein experiments, patents, inventions

    CERN Document Server

    Illy, József

    2012-01-01

    Albert Einstein may be best known as the wire-haired whacky physicist who gave us the theory of relativity, but that's just one facet of this genius' contribution to human knowledge and modern science. As Jozsef Illy expertly shows in this book, Einstein had an eminently practical side as well. As a youth, Einstein was an inveterate tinkerer in the electrical supply factory his father and uncle owned and operated. His first paid job was as a patent examiner. Later in life, Einstein contributed to many inventions, including refrigerators, microphones, and instruments for aviation. In published papers, Einstein often provided ways to test his theories and fundamental problems of the scientific community of his times. He delved deeply into a variety of technological innovations, most notably the gyrocompass, and consulted for industry in patent cases and on other legal matters. Einstein also provided explanations for common and mundane phenomena, such as the meandering of rivers. In these and other hands-on exam...

  17. 75 FR 67985 - Government-Owned Inventions; Availability for Licensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-04

    ... . Inhibition of Cell Motility, Angiogenesis and Metastasis Description of Invention: The present invention... SH2 domain-mediated interactions in the metastatic process and support the potential efficacy of this... Modality: Inhibition of cell motility-dependent processes, including angiogenesis and metastasis, in...

  18. NIH Employee Invention Report (EIR) | NCI Technology Transfer Center | TTC

    Science.gov (United States)

    NIH researchers must immediately contact their Laboratory or Branch Chief and inform him or her of a possible invention, and then consult with your NCI TTC Technology Transfer Manager about submitting an Employee Invention Report (EIR) Form. | [google6f4cd5334ac394ab.html

  19. Entrapment and Escape: Inventional Metaphors in Ronald Reagan's Economic Rhetoric.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aden, Roger C.

    1989-01-01

    Examines Ronald Reagan's use of inventional metaphors of entrapment and escape, language meshing with the American public's perception of the economy in the early 1980s. Notes that Reagan's reliance on inventional metaphors produced a rigidity in his approach to new situations, ultimately damaging his ability to lead the nation. (MM)

  20. 75 FR 44267 - Government-Owned Inventions; Availability for Licensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-28

    ... inventions to extend market coverage for companies and may also be available for licensing. ADDRESSES..., PhD, at 301-435-3121 or [email protected] for more information. Software for Accurate Segmentation of Cell Nuclei in Breast Tissue Description of Invention: Automatic segmentation of cell nuclei is...

  1. Playful Invention and Exploration. Final Evaluation Report: Executive Summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    St. John; Mark; Carroll, Becky; Helms, Jen; Smith, Anita

    2008-01-01

    PIE (Playful Invention and Exploration) is a unique approach to learning that centers on the use of technology and design challenges to create powerful learning experiences in informal education settings. The Playful Invention and Exploration (PIE) Institute project was funded in 2005 by the National Science Foundation (NSF). Overall, 150…

  2. Rhetorical Invention and Advanced Literacy: An Historical Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagaman, John

    Recent criticism of rhetorical invention faults the discipline for not promoting "advanced literacy," defined as the use of critical reading and writing abilities to serve social ends. Aristotle's vision of rhetoric has contributed significantly to a cognitive view of invention, but Aristotle also acknowledged the importance of social…

  3. Distant Recombination and the Creation of Basic Inventions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barirani, Ahmad; Beaudry, Catherine; Agard, Bruno

    2015-01-01

    This article explores whether the relationship between the breath of technological integration (recombination distance) and the breath of an invention׳s subsequent application (basicness) is moderated by the sector of activity (private or public), science-linkage strength and industry characteris...

  4. 43 CFR 6.2 - Report of invention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... official working hours, the extent use was made of government facilities, equipment, funds, material or... withhold the report until the process or device is completely reduced to practice, reduction to practice... the Government and of the inventor. If an invention is reduced to practice after the invention report...

  5. Custom database development and biomarker discovery methods for MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry-based identification of high-consequence bacterial pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tracz, Dobryan M; Tyler, Andrea D; Cunningham, Ian; Antonation, Kym S; Corbett, Cindi R

    2017-03-01

    A high-quality custom database of MALDI-TOF mass spectral profiles was developed with the goal of improving clinical diagnostic identification of high-consequence bacterial pathogens. A biomarker discovery method is presented for identifying and evaluating MALDI-TOF MS spectra to potentially differentiate biothreat bacteria from less-pathogenic near-neighbour species. Crown Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Background story of the invention of efficient blue InGaN light emitting diodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakamura, Shuji [University of California, Santa Barbara, CA (United States)

    2015-06-15

    Shuji Nakamura discovered p-type doping in Gallium Nitride (GaN) and developed blue, green, and white InGaN based light emitting diodes (LEDs) and blue laser diodes (LDs). His inventions made possible energy efficient, solid-state lighting systems and enabled the next generation of optical storage. Together with Isamu Akasaki and Hiroshi Amano, he is one of the three recipients of the 2014 Nobel Prize in Physics. In his Nobel lecture, Shuji Nakamura gives an overview of this research and the story of his inventions. (copyright 2015 by WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  7. The future of drug discovery: enabling technologies for enhancing lead characterization and profiling therapeutic potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janero, David R

    2014-08-01

    Technology often serves as a handmaiden and catalyst of invention. The discovery of safe, effective medications depends critically upon experimental approaches capable of providing high-impact information on the biological effects of drug candidates early in the discovery pipeline. This information can enable reliable lead identification, pharmacological compound differentiation and successful translation of research output into clinically useful therapeutics. The shallow preclinical profiling of candidate compounds promulgates a minimalistic understanding of their biological effects and undermines the level of value creation necessary for finding quality leads worth moving forward within the development pipeline with efficiency and prognostic reliability sufficient to help remediate the current pharma-industry productivity drought. Three specific technologies discussed herein, in addition to experimental areas intimately associated with contemporary drug discovery, appear to hold particular promise for strengthening the preclinical valuation of drug candidates by deepening lead characterization. These are: i) hydrogen-deuterium exchange mass spectrometry for characterizing structural and ligand-interaction dynamics of disease-relevant proteins; ii) activity-based chemoproteomics for profiling the functional diversity of mammalian proteomes; and iii) nuclease-mediated precision gene editing for developing more translatable cellular and in vivo models of human diseases. When applied in an informed manner congruent with the clinical understanding of disease processes, technologies such as these that span levels of biological organization can serve as valuable enablers of drug discovery and potentially contribute to reducing the current, unacceptably high rates of compound clinical failure.

  8. Development of a New Structural Class of Broadly Acting HCV Non-Nucleoside Inhibitors Leading to the Discovery of MK-8876

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McComas, Casey C.; Palani, Anandan; Chang, Wei; Holloway, M. Katharine; Lesburg, Charles A.; Li, Peng; Liverton, Nigel; Meinke, Peter T.; Olsen, David B.; Peng, Xuanjia; Soll, Richard M.; Ummat, Ajay; Wu, Jie; Wu, Jin; Zorn, Nicolas; Ludmerer, Steven W. (Merck); (WuXi App Tec)

    2017-07-25

    Studies directed at developing a broadly acting non-nucleoside inhibitor of HCV NS5B led to the discovery of a novel structural class of 5-aryl benzofurans that simultaneously interact with both the palm I and palm II binding regions. An initial candidate was potent in vitro against HCV GT1a and GT1b replicons, and induced multi-log reductions in HCV viral load when orally dosed to chronic GT1 infected chimpanzees. However, in vitro potency losses against clinically relevant GT1a variants prompted a further effort to develop compounds with sustained potency across a broader array of HCV genotypes and mutants. Ultimately, a biology and medicinal chemistry collaboration led to the discovery of the development candidate MK-8876. MK-8876 demonstrated a pan-genotypic potency profile and maintained potency against clinically relevant mutants. It demonstrated moderate bioavailability in rats and dogs, but showed low plasma clearance characteristics consistent with once-daily dosing. Herein we describe the efforts which led to the discovery of MK-8876, which advanced into Phase 1 monotherapy studies for evaluation and characterization as a component of an all-oral direct-acting drug regimen for the treatment of chronic HCV infection.

  9. THE VALUE AND ECONOMIC EFFECTS OF UNAPPLIED INVENTIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raul Sorin V. FÂNTÂNĂ

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The accounting regulations, the guidelines for their application and other articles by accounting specialists argue that inventions created internally are not recognized as intangible assets. Only assets acquired separately can be measured reliably, based on the document justifying the purchase transaction. Other specialised papers show that it is difficult to establish the existence of this intangible asset and its credible cost. That is, it can give or calculate a value of the invention only if it can show the acceptable cost of achieving it. But all these works argue that the protection of inventions is profitable if it is the basis of a new business, if it promotes or protects the current activity. However, these papers elude - because it is uncomfortable - the situation where an invention created internally has a value only because it forecloses the market. It is curious that an invention has accounting value only when traded.

  10. NMR approaches in structure-based lead discovery: recent developments and new frontiers for targeting multi-protein complexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dias, David M; Ciulli, Alessio

    2014-01-01

    Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy is a pivotal method for structure-based and fragment-based lead discovery because it is one of the most robust techniques to provide information on protein structure, dynamics and interaction at an atomic level in solution. Nowadays, in most ligand screening cascades, NMR-based methods are applied to identify and structurally validate small molecule binding. These can be high-throughput and are often used synergistically with other biophysical assays. Here, we describe current state-of-the-art in the portfolio of available NMR-based experiments that are used to aid early-stage lead discovery. We then focus on multi-protein complexes as targets and how NMR spectroscopy allows studying of interactions within the high molecular weight assemblies that make up a vast fraction of the yet untargeted proteome. Finally, we give our perspective on how currently available methods could build an improved strategy for drug discovery against such challenging targets. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  11. Skin too thin? The developing utility of zebrafish skin (neuro)pharmacology for CNS drug discovery research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Michael; Poudel, Manoj K; Stewart, Adam Michael; Kalueff, Allan V

    2013-09-01

    Skin coloration can be affected by many genetic, environmental and pharmacological factors. Zebrafish (Danio rerio) are a useful and versatile model organism in biomedical research due to their genetic tractability, physiological homology to mammals, low cost, reproducibility and high throughput. Zebrafish coloration is mediated by chromatophores - the skin color pigment cells largely controlled by endocrine and neural mechanisms. The characteristic darkening of zebrafish skin is caused by the dispersion (and paling - by aggregation) of melanosomes (pigment-containing organelles), which show high homology to mammalian structures. Various pharmacological agents potently affect zebrafish coloration - the phenotype that often accompanies behavioral effects of the drugs, and may be used for drug discovery. Although zebrafish behavior and skin responses are usually not directly related, they share common regulatory (neural, endocrine) mechanisms, and therefore may be assessed in parallel during psychotropic drug screening. For example, some psychoactive drugs can potently affect zebrafish skin coloration. Can we use this knowledge to refine phenotype-driven psychotropic drug discovery? Here, we present current models using zebrafish skin coloration assays, and discuss how these models may be applied to enhance in vivo CNS drug discovery. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. The first set of EST resource for gene discovery and marker development in pigeonpea (Cajanus cajan L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Byregowda Munishamappa

    2010-03-01

    .8% in molecular function. Further, 19 genes were identified differentially expressed between FW- responsive genotypes and 20 between SMD- responsive genotypes. Generated ESTs were compiled together with 908 ESTs available in public domain, at the time of analysis, and a set of 5,085 unigenes were defined that were used for identification of molecular markers in pigeonpea. For instance, 3,583 simple sequence repeat (SSR motifs were identified in 1,365 unigenes and 383 primer pairs were designed. Assessment of a set of 84 primer pairs on 40 elite pigeonpea lines showed polymorphism with 15 (28.8% markers with an average of four alleles per marker and an average polymorphic information content (PIC value of 0.40. Similarly, in silico mining of 133 contigs with ≥ 5 sequences detected 102 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs in 37 contigs. As an example, a set of 10 contigs were used for confirming in silico predicted SNPs in a set of four genotypes using wet lab experiments. Occurrence of SNPs were confirmed for all the 6 contigs for which scorable and sequenceable amplicons were generated. PCR amplicons were not obtained in case of 4 contigs. Recognition sites for restriction enzymes were identified for 102 SNPs in 37 contigs that indicates possibility of assaying SNPs in 37 genes using cleaved amplified polymorphic sequences (CAPS assay. Conclusion The pigeonpea EST dataset generated here provides a transcriptomic resource for gene discovery and development of functional markers associated with biotic stress resistance. Sequence analyses of this dataset have showed conservation of a considerable number of pigeonpea transcripts across legume and model plant species analysed as well as some putative pigeonpea specific genes. Validation of identified biotic stress responsive genes should provide candidate genes for allele mining as well as candidate markers for molecular breeding.

  13. Discovery or invention? The difference between art and communication according to Ernst Gombrich

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiziana Migliore

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper sets out to explore the boundaries between artworks and advertising works in line with the thinking of Ernst Gombrich. His distinction between art and other forms of communication emphasises the importance of ‘discovery’ as opposed to mere ‘invention’. What are the symptoms of an artwork according to Gombrich? The difference with advertising is not ontological at all: anything that comes out of the artist’s top hat and is traded between dealers, gallery owners and collectors is art, whereas any graphic work produced for communication purposes and conveyed by the media is propaganda. Ultimately the most valid distinction lies in the modality and the internal dynamics of the artwork itself. By re-examining some examples provided by Gombrich – from the colour of light in John Constable to Giulio Romano’s Palazzo Te, from Raphael’s Madonna della sedia to Saul Steinberg’s work – this paper delves further into an issue not comprehensively dealt with by Gombrich and whose importance is still underestimated.

  14. Biomimicry as a basis for drug discovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolb, V M

    1998-01-01

    Selected works are discussed which clearly demonstrate that mimicking various aspects of the process by which natural products evolved is becoming a powerful tool in contemporary drug discovery. Natural products are an established and rich source of drugs. The term "natural product" is often used synonymously with "secondary metabolite." Knowledge of genetics and molecular evolution helps us understand how biosynthesis of many classes of secondary metabolites evolved. One proposed hypothesis is termed "inventive evolution." It invokes duplication of genes, and mutation of the gene copies, among other genetic events. The modified duplicate genes, per se or in conjunction with other genetic events, may give rise to new enzymes, which, in turn, may generate new products, some of which may be selected for. Steps of the inventive evolution can be mimicked in several ways for purpose of drug discovery. For example, libraries of chemical compounds of any imaginable structure may be produced by combinatorial synthesis. Out of these libraries new active compounds can be selected. In another example, genetic system can be manipulated to produce modified natural products ("unnatural natural products"), from which new drugs can be selected. In some instances, similar natural products turn up in species that are not direct descendants of each other. This is presumably due to a horizontal gene transfer. The mechanism of this inter-species gene transfer can be mimicked in therapeutic gene delivery. Mimicking specifics or principles of chemical evolution including experimental and test-tube evolution also provides leads for new drug discovery.

  15. 45 CFR 99.23 - Discovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Discovery. 99.23 Section 99.23 Public Welfare... DEVELOPMENT FUND Hearing Procedures § 99.23 Discovery. The Department, the Lead Agency, and any individuals or groups recognized as parties shall have the right to conduct discovery (including depositions) against...

  16. RAS - Screens & Assays - Drug Discovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    The RAS Drug Discovery group aims to develop assays that will reveal aspects of RAS biology upon which cancer cells depend. Successful assay formats are made available for high-throughput screening programs to yield potentially effective drug compounds.

  17. Discoveries of isotopes by fission

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    country of discovery as well as the production mechanism used to produce the isotopes. ... the disintegration products of bombarded uranium, as a consequence of a ..... advanced accelerator and newly developed separation and detection ...

  18. The discovery of 'heavy light'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1983-01-01

    The history of the discoveries of fundamental quanta is described starting from Maxwell's theory of electromagnetism up to the development of a theory of weak interaction and the detection of the W and Z bosons. (HSI).

  19. Mathematical Discovery: Hadamard Resurected

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liljedahl, Peter

    2004-01-01

    In 1943 Jacques Hadamard gave a series of lectures on mathematical invention at the Ecole Libre des Hautes Etudes in New York City. These talks were subsequently published as The Psychology of Mathematical Invention in the Mathematical Field (Hadamard, 1945). In this article I present a study that mirrors the work of Hadamard. Results both…

  20. The needs analysis of learning Inventive Problem Solving for technical and vocational students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sai'en, Shanty; Tze Kiong, Tee; Yunos, Jailani Md; Foong, Lee Ming; Heong, Yee Mei; Mohaffyza Mohamad, Mimi

    2017-08-01

    Malaysian Ministry of Education highlighted in their National Higher Education Strategic plan that higher education’s need to focus adopting 21st century skills in order to increase a graduate’s employability. Current research indicates that most graduate lack of problem solving skills to help them securing the job. Realising the important of this skill hence an alternative way suggested as an option for high institution’s student to solve their problem. This study was undertaken to measure the level of problem solving skills, identify the needs of learning inventive problem solving skills and the needs of developing an Inventive problem solving module. Using a questionnaire, the study sampled 132 students from Faculty of Technical and Vocational Education. Findings indicated that majority of the students fail to define what is an inventive problem and the root cause of a problem. They also unable to state the objectives and goal thus fail to solve the problem. As a result, the students agreed on the developing Inventive Problem Solving Module to assist them.

  1. Newly invented biobased materials from low-carbon, diverted waste fibers: research methods, testing, and full-scale application in a case study structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Julee A Herdt; John Hunt; Kellen Schauermann

    2016-01-01

    This project demonstrates newly invented, biobased construction materials developed by applying lowcarbon, biomass waste sources through the Authors’ engineered fiber processes and technology. If manufactured and applied large-scale the project inventions can divert large volumes of cellulose waste into high-performance, low embodied energy, environmental construction...

  2. Fateful discovery almost forgotten

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1989-01-01

    The paper reviews the discovery of the fission of uranium, which took place fifty years ago. A description is given of the work of Meitner and Frisch in interpreting the Fermi data on the bombardment of uranium nuclei with neutrons, i.e. proposing fission. The historical events associated with the development and exploitation of uranium fission are described, including the Manhattan Project, Hiroshima and Nagasaki, Shippingport, and Chernobyl. (U.K.)

  3. The principle of safety evaluation in medicinal drug - how can toxicology contribute to drug discovery and development as a multidisciplinary science?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horii, Ikuo

    2016-01-01

    Pharmaceutical (drug) safety assessment covers a diverse science-field in the drug discovery and development including the post-approval and post-marketing phases in order to evaluate safety and risk management. The principle in toxicological science is to be placed on both of pure and applied sciences that are derived from past/present scientific knowledge and coming new science and technology. In general, adverse drug reactions are presented as "biological responses to foreign substances." This is the basic concept of thinking about the manifestation of adverse drug reactions. Whether or not toxic expressions are extensions of the pharmacological effect, adverse drug reactions as seen from molecular targets are captured in the category of "on-target" or "off-target", and are normally expressed as a biological defense reaction. Accordingly, reactions induced by pharmaceuticals can be broadly said to be defensive reactions. Recent molecular biological conception is in line with the new, remarkable scientific and technological developments in the medical and pharmaceutical areas, and the viewpoints in the field of toxicology have shown that they are approaching toward the same direction as well. This paper refers to the basic concept of pharmaceutical toxicology, the differences for safety assessment in each stage of drug discovery and development, regulatory submission, and the concept of scientific considerations for risk assessment and management from the viewpoint of "how can multidisciplinary toxicology contribute to innovative drug discovery and development?" And also realistic translational research from preclinical to clinical application is required to have a significant risk management in post market by utilizing whole scientific data derived from basic and applied scientific research works. In addition, the significance for employing the systems toxicology based on AOP (Adverse Outcome Pathway) analysis is introduced, and coming challenges on precision

  4. 76 FR 55069 - Government-Owned Inventions; Availability for Licensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-06

    ... invention relates to an improved system for measuring bone mineral density (BMD). BMD measurement is an... vivo data available (animal) Inventors: Geraldo Kaplan (FDA), Krishnamurthy Konduru (FDA), et al...

  5. 78 FR 29386 - Government-Owned Inventions, Available for Licensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-20

    ... NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION [Notice (13-053)] Government-Owned Inventions, Available for Licensing AGENCY: National Aeronautics and Space Administration. ACTION: Notice of... N Channel JFET Based Digital Logic Gate Structure Using Resistive Level Shifters and Having Direct...

  6. 78 FR 38352 - Government-Owned Inventions; Availability for Licensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-26

    ...). The invention rat is superior to AD mice models because the rat has a larger sized brain to.... Licensing Contact: Patrick McCue, Ph.D.; 301-435-5560; [email protected] . Collaborative Research...

  7. 75 FR 43992 - Government-Owned Inventions; Availability for Licensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-27

    ... immune system may play an important role. This invention discloses that patients with AMD gain additional... of age related macular degeneration. This is in light of new findings that immune mechanisms appear...

  8. 75 FR 44270 - Government-Owned Inventions; Availability for Licensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-28

    ... belongs to a group of disorders in which the immune system may play an important role. This invention... agents in the treatment of age related macular degeneration. This is in light of new findings that immune...

  9. Patentability of inventions under the Nigeria's patents and designs act

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Patentability of inventions under the Nigeria's patents and designs act: an examination. ... AFRICAN JOURNALS ONLINE (AJOL) · Journals · Advanced Search · USING ... The Nigerian Patent Registry refuses patent applications for Software or ...

  10. 77 FR 31859 - Government-Owned Inventions; Availability for Licensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-30

    ... inventions to extend market coverage for companies and may also be available for licensing. FOR FURTHER... three-dimensional segmentation approach for the quantitative interpretation of electron tomograms. IEEE...

  11. 7 CFR 1230.88 - Patents, copyrights, inventions, and publications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... provisions of this subpart shall be the property of the United States Government as represented by the Board..., leasing, franchising, or other uses of such patents, copyrights, inventions, or publications inure to the...

  12. 7 CFR 1160.505 - Patents, copyrights, inventions and publications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... funds collected under the provisions of this subpart are the property of the United States Government as... the rental, sale, leasing, franchising, or other uses of such patents, copyrights, inventions, or...

  13. The Power of Individual-level Drivers of Inventive Performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zwick, Thomas; Frosch, Katharina; Hoisl, Karin

    2017-01-01

    (KSAO) model. We link survey information spanning the inventors’ entire careers and psychometric test evidence with patent history data for more than 1000 inventors. We also control for variables that have traditionally been used in studies of inventive performance including inventor age, applicant type......, technology, patent, and time information. We show that educational level, skills acquired during the career, personality traits, career motivation, cognitive ability, and cognitive problem-solving style are significantly related to inventive performance....

  14. Predicting future discoveries from current scientific literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrič, Ingrid; Cestnik, Bojan

    2014-01-01

    Knowledge discovery in biomedicine is a time-consuming process starting from the basic research, through preclinical testing, towards possible clinical applications. Crossing of conceptual boundaries is often needed for groundbreaking biomedical research that generates highly inventive discoveries. We demonstrate the ability of a creative literature mining method to advance valuable new discoveries based on rare ideas from existing literature. When emerging ideas from scientific literature are put together as fragments of knowledge in a systematic way, they may lead to original, sometimes surprising, research findings. If enough scientific evidence is already published for the association of such findings, they can be considered as scientific hypotheses. In this chapter, we describe a method for the computer-aided generation of such hypotheses based on the existing scientific literature. Our literature-based discovery of NF-kappaB with its possible connections to autism was recently approved by scientific community, which confirms the ability of our literature mining methodology to accelerate future discoveries based on rare ideas from existing literature.

  15. Pinyin Invented Spelling in Mandarin Chinese-Speaking Children With and Without Reading Difficulties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Yi; Liu, Ru-De; McBride, Catherine; Zhang, Dake

    2015-01-01

    This study examined analytical pinyin (a phonological coding system for teaching pronunciation and lexical tones of Chinese characters) skills in 54 Mandarin-speaking fourth graders by using an invented spelling instrument that tapped into syllable awareness, phoneme awareness, lexical tones, and tone sandhi in Chinese. Pinyin invented spelling was significantly correlated with Chinese character recognition and Chinese phonological awareness (i.e., syllable deletion and phoneme deletion). In comparison to good and average readers, poor readers performed significantly worse on the invented spelling task, and a difference was also found between average and good readers. To differentiate readers at different levels, the pinyin invented spelling task, which examined both segmental and suprasegmental elements, was superior to the typical phonological awareness task, which examined segments only. Within this new task, items involving tone sandhi (Chinese language changes in which the tones of words alter according to predetermined rules) were more difficult to manipulate than were those without tone sandhi. The findings suggest that this newly developed task may be optimal for tapping unique phonological and linguistic features in reading of Chinese and examining particular tonal difficulties in struggling Chinese readers. In addition, the results suggest that phonics manipulations within tasks of phonological and tonal awareness can alter their difficulty levels. © Hammill Institute on Disabilities 2014.

  16. Challenges in the development of an M4 PAM in vivo tool compound: The discovery of VU0467154 and unexpected DMPK profiles of close analogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Michael R; Noetzel, Meredith J; Poslusney, Michael S; Melancon, Bruce J; Tarr, James C; Lamsal, Atin; Chang, Sichen; Luscombe, Vincent B; Weiner, Rebecca L; Cho, Hyekyung P; Bubser, Michael; Jones, Carrie K; Niswender, Colleen M; Wood, Michael W; Engers, Darren W; Brandon, Nicholas J; Duggan, Mark E; Conn, P Jeffrey; Bridges, Thomas M; Lindsley, Craig W

    2017-01-15

    This letter describes the chemical optimization of a novel series of M 4 positive allosteric modulators (PAMs) based on a 5-amino-thieno[2,3-c]pyridazine core, developed via iterative parallel synthesis, and culminating in the highly utilized rodent in vivo tool compound, VU0467154 (5). This is the first report of the optimization campaign (SAR and DMPK profiling) that led to the discovery of VU0467154, and details all of the challenges faced in allosteric modulator programs (steep SAR, species differences in PAM pharmacology and subtle structural changes affecting CNS penetration). Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Computational methods in drug discovery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sumudu P. Leelananda

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The process for drug discovery and development is challenging, time consuming and expensive. Computer-aided drug discovery (CADD tools can act as a virtual shortcut, assisting in the expedition of this long process and potentially reducing the cost of research and development. Today CADD has become an effective and indispensable tool in therapeutic development. The human genome project has made available a substantial amount of sequence data that can be used in various drug discovery projects. Additionally, increasing knowledge of biological structures, as well as increasing computer power have made it possible to use computational methods effectively in various phases of the drug discovery and development pipeline. The importance of in silico tools is greater than ever before and has advanced pharmaceutical research. Here we present an overview of computational methods used in different facets of drug discovery and highlight some of the recent successes. In this review, both structure-based and ligand-based drug discovery methods are discussed. Advances in virtual high-throughput screening, protein structure prediction methods, protein–ligand docking, pharmacophore modeling and QSAR techniques are reviewed.

  18. [Inventive activity of the Department of Molecular Immunology of the Palladin Institute of Biochemistry of NAS of Ukraine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danilova, V M; Vynogradova, R P; Torkhova, S G

    2016-01-01

    The article is devoted to the inventive activity of the Department of Molecular Immunology of the Palladin Institute of Biochemistry of NAS of Ukraine in the context of the history of its inception, development and in the context of scholarly and organizational activities of Sergii Vasyl’ovych Komisarenko. This autumn marks 50th anniversary since young Sergii Komisarenko (now – Academician of NAS and NAMS of Ukraine, Dr. Biol. Sci., Professor) has joined the Palladin Institute of Biochemistry, has completed all stages of the academic carrier from PhD student to Head of the Institute. He is the first in Ukraine who started the new branch of research – molecular immunology, created a strong scientific school, which earned worldwide acclaim and made significant contribution to finding solutions to current problems in human health sciences. S.V. Komisarenko was among those, who were first in the USSR to use immunoenzyme and flow cytofluometric assays, hybridoma technology for producing monoclonal antibodies and immunochemical assay of proteins, which became the basis for development of highly sensitive and highly specific immunodiagnostic systems, which are of high necessity in medicine, veterinary, development of immunotechnologies, environment monitoring, etc. Under his leadership the Department has made a series of important discoveries and developments including relating to antitumour immunotoxins, effects of low dose radiation on the immune system of Chernobyl liquidators, immunochemical structure of neurotoxin apamine, cytochrom c, fibrinogen and fibrin molecules at different stages of polymerization, diphtheria toxin and its receptor, tuberculosis causing micobacterium, roles of protease-activated receptors (PARs) and nicotinic acetylcholine receptors of lymphocytes, nature of polyreactive immunoglobulins (PRIGs), among other important scientific contributions. S.V. Komisarenko and his colleagues also hold numerous (more than 80) author’s certificates

  19. Discovery as a process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loehle, C.

    1994-05-01

    The three great myths, which form a sort of triumvirate of misunderstanding, are the Eureka! myth, the hypothesis myth, and the measurement myth. These myths are prevalent among scientists as well as among observers of science. The Eureka! myth asserts that discovery occurs as a flash of insight, and as such is not subject to investigation. This leads to the perception that discovery or deriving a hypothesis is a moment or event rather than a process. Events are singular and not subject to description. The hypothesis myth asserts that proper science is motivated by testing hypotheses, and that if something is not experimentally testable then it is not scientific. This myth leads to absurd posturing by some workers conducting empirical descriptive studies, who dress up their study with a ``hypothesis`` to obtain funding or get it published. Methods papers are often rejected because they do not address a specific scientific problem. The fact is that many of the great breakthroughs in silence involve methods and not hypotheses or arise from largely descriptive studies. Those captured by this myth also try to block funding for those developing methods. The third myth is the measurement myth, which holds that determining what to measure is straightforward, so one doesn`t need a lot of introspection to do science. As one ecologist put it to me ``Don`t give me any of that philosophy junk, just let me out in the field. I know what to measure.`` These myths lead to difficulties for scientists who must face peer review to obtain funding and to get published. These myths also inhibit the study of science as a process. Finally, these myths inhibit creativity and suppress innovation. In this paper I first explore these myths in more detail and then propose a new model of discovery that opens the supposedly miraculous process of discovery to doser scrutiny.

  20. Tradition and Agency. Tracing cultural continuity and invention

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tradition helps ensure continuity and stability in human affairs, signifying both the handing down of cultural heritage from one generation to the next, and the particular customs, beliefs and rituals being handed down. In the social sciences, tradition has been a central concept from the very st...... address the larger questions of cultural continuity, agency and the use of cultural resources. In the postscript, Terence Ranger offers a complementary perspective by tracing the effects of nationalism, imperialism and globalised exchange on tradition.......Tradition helps ensure continuity and stability in human affairs, signifying both the handing down of cultural heritage from one generation to the next, and the particular customs, beliefs and rituals being handed down. In the social sciences, tradition has been a central concept from the very...... revolutionize the understanding of tradition in anthropology, history and sociology, stimulating an enormous amount of research on invented and imagined traditions. However, most of this research has focussed on the cultural dynamics of specific local innovations and reactions to global developments...

  1. Antibody informatics for drug discovery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shirai, Hiroki; Prades, Catherine; Vita, Randi

    2014-01-01

    to the antibody science in every project in antibody drug discovery. Recent experimental technologies allow for the rapid generation of large-scale data on antibody sequences, affinity, potency, structures, and biological functions; this should accelerate drug discovery research. Therefore, a robust bioinformatic...... infrastructure for these large data sets has become necessary. In this article, we first identify and discuss the typical obstacles faced during the antibody drug discovery process. We then summarize the current status of three sub-fields of antibody informatics as follows: (i) recent progress in technologies...... for antibody rational design using computational approaches to affinity and stability improvement, as well as ab-initio and homology-based antibody modeling; (ii) resources for antibody sequences, structures, and immune epitopes and open drug discovery resources for development of antibody drugs; and (iii...

  2. Development of a universal metabolome-standard method for long-term LC-MS metabolome profiling and its application for bladder cancer urine-metabolite-biomarker discovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Jun; Chen, Yi-Ting; Chen, Chien-Lun; Li, Liang

    2014-07-01

    Large-scale metabolomics study requires a quantitative method to generate metabolome data over an extended period with high technical reproducibility. We report a universal metabolome-standard (UMS) method, in conjunction with chemical isotope labeling liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS), to provide long-term analytical reproducibility and facilitate metabolome comparison among different data sets. In this method, UMS of a specific type of sample labeled by an isotope reagent is prepared a priori. The UMS is spiked into any individual samples labeled by another form of the isotope reagent in a metabolomics study. The resultant mixture is analyzed by LC-MS to provide relative quantification of the individual sample metabolome to UMS. UMS is independent of a study undertaking as well as the time of analysis and useful for profiling the same type of samples in multiple studies. In this work, the UMS method was developed and applied for a urine metabolomics study of bladder cancer. UMS of human urine was prepared by (13)C2-dansyl labeling of a pooled sample from 20 healthy individuals. This method was first used to profile the discovery samples to generate a list of putative biomarkers potentially useful for bladder cancer detection and then used to analyze the verification samples about one year later. Within the discovery sample set, three-month technical reproducibility was examined using a quality control sample and found a mean CV of 13.9% and median CV of 9.4% for all the quantified metabolites. Statistical analysis of the urine metabolome data showed a clear separation between the bladder cancer group and the control group from the discovery samples, which was confirmed by the verification samples. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) test showed that the area under the curve (AUC) was 0.956 in the discovery data set and 0.935 in the verification data set. These results demonstrated the utility of the UMS method for long-term metabolomics and

  3. Instruments for radiation measurement in life sciences (4). 7. Application of accelerator mass spectrometry for drug development. Human mass balance studies at discovery stage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyaoka, Teiji

    2005-01-01

    Following the recent trend of Position Paper issued from European Agency for the Evaluation of Medicinal Products on the non-clinical safety studies to support clinical trials with a single micro dose, human mass balance studies at discovery stages were made with special interest in using AMS (accelerator mass spectrometry) with a small amount of hot (radioisotope-labeled) drug. This method was found to be effective for the purpose of screening in the clinical study for pharmaceutical development. To show an example of the test, 5, 50, 500μg/body of C14-ARA (α1A adrenoreceptor antagonist, 50 nCi or 1.85 kBq/body/dose) were given (cross over) to several persons to be inspected and C14-quantity in the blood plasma or urine was determined with AMS until after 168 hours or so. The results of the present experiment demonstrate that human mass balance study at discovery stages is possible with ultra high sensitive measuring systems such as AMS and PET (positron emission tomography). (S. Ohno)

  4. MLViS: A Web Tool for Machine Learning-Based Virtual Screening in Early-Phase of Drug Discovery and Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korkmaz, Selcuk; Zararsiz, Gokmen; Goksuluk, Dincer

    2015-01-01

    Virtual screening is an important step in early-phase of drug discovery process. Since there are thousands of compounds, this step should be both fast and effective in order to distinguish drug-like and nondrug-like molecules. Statistical machine learning methods are widely used in drug discovery studies for classification purpose. Here, we aim to develop a new tool, which can classify molecules as drug-like and nondrug-like based on various machine learning methods, including discriminant, tree-based, kernel-based, ensemble and other algorithms. To construct this tool, first, performances of twenty-three different machine learning algorithms are compared by ten different measures, then, ten best performing algorithms have been selected based on principal component and hierarchical cluster analysis results. Besides classification, this application has also ability to create heat map and dendrogram for visual inspection of the molecules through hierarchical cluster analysis. Moreover, users can connect the PubChem database to download molecular information and to create two-dimensional structures of compounds. This application is freely available through www.biosoft.hacettepe.edu.tr/MLViS/.

  5. Recent Inventions and Trends in Algal Biofuels Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karemore, Ankush; Nayak, Manoranjan; Sen, Ramkrishna

    2016-01-01

    In recent times, when energy crisis compounded by global warming and climate change is receiving worldwide attention, the emergence of algae, as a better feedstock for third-generation biofuels than energy crops or plants, holds great promise. As compared to conventional biofuels feedstocks, algae offer several advantages and can alone produce a significant amount of biofuels sustainably in a shorter period to fulfill the rising demand for energy. Towards commercialisation, there have been numerous efforts put for- ward for the development of algae-derived biofuel. This article reviews and summarizes the recent inventions and the current trends that are reported and captured in relevant patents pertaining to the novel methods of algae biomass cultivation and processing for biofuels and value-added products. In addition, the recent advancement in techniques and technologies for microalgal biofuel production has been highlighted. Various steps involved in the production of algal biofuels have been considered in this article. Moreover, the work that advances to improve the efficiency and cost-effectiveness of the processes for the manufacture of biofuels has been presented. Our survey was conducted in the patent databases: WIPO, Spacenet and USPTO. There are still some technological bottlenecks that could be overcome by designing advanced photobioreactor and raceway ponds, developing new and low cost technologies for biomass cultivation, harvesting, drying and extraction. Recent advancement in algae biofuels methods is directed toward developing efficient and integrated systems to produce biofuels by overcoming the current challenges. However, further research effort is required to scale-up and improve the efficiency of these methods in the upstream and downstream technologies to make the cost of biofuels competitive with petroleum fuels.

  6. Science, technology and inventions: Children draw their own visions

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Addezio, G.; Rubbia, G.; Marsili, A.

    2013-12-01

    Italian primary schools participated with enthusiasm to the drawing competition 'I'm a scientist too! Science and scientists from the children point of view' organized by the Laboratorio di Didattica e Divulgazione Scientifica of Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia (INGV) in Rome, Italy. The best drawings were awarded and published in the 2011 school calendar. Children were asked to realize a drawing, choosing among three suggestions: 1) How do you imagine a scientist, and how do you imagine the daily activities of a researcher? 2) What invention do you consider the most important among all those you know? 3) What would you invent? The topic 'invention' (#3) was the most successful. In fact, among the collected 1,000 drawings, 400 drawings depict scientists, nearly 150 depict scientists with their inventions, and other 350 depict inventions alone. A classification scheme was designed in order to synthetically describe this set of images and analyze it. The Draw-A-Scientist scheme, known from literature, was maintained but modified in order to characterize both inventors and inventions. A preliminary analysis about scientists reveals a persistent gender stereotype, since most of depicted persons were male and nearly half of girls draw men scientists. The image of 'mad scientist' is still present but it is mainly related to men. Women scientists are drawn by girls; they are represented as young, not crazy, usually good-looking. There are no particular differences between boys and girls in assigning research fields to scientists. Women scientists are often depicted as assistants, but when alone they are self-confident enough to give their name to an invention or to aspire for Nobel Prize. In this work we present the preliminary analysis performed on drawings containing inventions. What do girls and boys 6 to 11 years old invent? Robots, helping in housekeeping or in doing homework; rockets, space vehicles and time machines, but also fictional machines and

  7. Social networks in the history of innovation and invention

    CERN Document Server

    Moon, Francis C

    2014-01-01

    This book integrates history of science and technology with modern social network theory. Using examples from the history of machines, as well as case studies from wireless, radio and chaos theory, the author challenges the genius model of invention. Network analysis concepts are presented to demonstrate the societal nature of invention in areas such as steam power, internal combustion engines, early aviation, air conditioning and more. Using modern measures of network theory, the author demonstrates that the social networks of invention from the 19th and early 20th centuries have similar characteristics to modern 21st C networks such as the World Wide Web. The book provides evidence that exponential growth in technical innovation is linked to the growth of historical innovation networks.

  8. Recent advances in discovery and development of natural products as source for anti-Parkinson's disease lead compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hongjia; Bai, Lan; He, Jun; Zhong, Lei; Duan, Xingmei; Ouyang, Liang; Zhu, Yuxuan; Wang, Ting; Zhang, Yiwen; Shi, Jianyou

    2017-12-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is a common chronic degenerative disease of the central nervous system. Although the cause remains unknown, several pathological processes and central factors such as oxidative stress, mitochondrial injury, inflammatory reactions, abnormal deposition of α-synuclein, and cell apoptosis have been reported. Currently, anti-PD drugs are classified into two major groups: drugs that affect dopaminergic neurons and anti-cholinergic drugs. Unfortunately, the existing conventional strategies against PD are with numerous side effects, and cannot fundamentally improve the degenerative process of dopaminergic neurons. Therefore, novel therapeutic approaches which have a novel structure, high efficiency, and fewer side effects are needed. For many years, natural products have provided an efficient resource for the discovery of potential therapeutic agents. Among them, many natural products possess anti-PD properties as a result of not only their wellrecognized anti-oxidative and anti-inflammatory activities but also their inhibitory roles regarding protein misfolding and the regulatory effects of PD related pathways. Indeed, with the steady improvement in the technologies for the isolation and purification of natural products and the in-depth studies on the pathogenic mechanisms of PD, many monomer components of natural products that have anti-PD effects have been gradually discovered. In this article, we reviewed the research status of 37 natural products that have been discovered to have significant anti-PD effects as well as their mode of action. Overall, this review may guide the design of novel therapeutic drugs in PD. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  9. Discovery of transcription factors and regulatory regions driving in vivo tumor development by ATAC-seq and FAIRE-seq open chromatin profiling.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristofer Davie

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Genomic enhancers regulate spatio-temporal gene expression by recruiting specific combinations of transcription factors (TFs. When TFs are bound to active regulatory regions, they displace canonical nucleosomes, making these regions biochemically detectable as nucleosome-depleted regions or accessible/open chromatin. Here we ask whether open chromatin profiling can be used to identify the entire repertoire of active promoters and enhancers underlying tissue-specific gene expression during normal development and oncogenesis in vivo. To this end, we first compare two different approaches to detect open chromatin in vivo using the Drosophila eye primordium as a model system: FAIRE-seq, based on physical separation of open versus closed chromatin; and ATAC-seq, based on preferential integration of a transposon into open chromatin. We find that both methods reproducibly capture the tissue-specific chromatin activity of regulatory regions, including promoters, enhancers, and insulators. Using both techniques, we screened for regulatory regions that become ectopically active during Ras-dependent oncogenesis, and identified 3778 regions that become (over-activated during tumor development. Next, we applied motif discovery to search for candidate transcription factors that could bind these regions and identified AP-1 and Stat92E as key regulators. We validated the importance of Stat92E in the development of the tumors by introducing a loss of function Stat92E mutant, which was sufficient to rescue the tumor phenotype. Additionally we tested if the predicted Stat92E responsive regulatory regions are genuine, using ectopic induction of JAK/STAT signaling in developing eye discs, and observed that similar chromatin changes indeed occurred. Finally, we determine that these are functionally significant regulatory changes, as nearby target genes are up- or down-regulated. In conclusion, we show that FAIRE-seq and ATAC-seq based open chromatin profiling

  10. Inventing urine incontinence devices for women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pieper, B; Cleland, V; Johnson, D E; O'Reilly, J L

    1989-01-01

    Nurses have long been aware of the devastating effects of urinary incontinence on women. Although women may find diapers, pads and protective clothing valuable protection, there are few options for a continuous wear, external urine incontinence device (EUID). Inventors have attempted to develop an EUID since ancient times; the first United States patent for an EUID was awarded in 1949. The purpose of this paper is to review technological considerations for development of an external urinary incontinence device for women. Patents and products illustrate the considerations.

  11. Summary Robert Noyce and the invention of Silicon Valley

    CERN Document Server

    2014-01-01

    This work offers a summary of the book "THE MAN BEHIND THE MICROCHIP: Robert Noyce and the Invention of Silicon Valley""by Leslie Berlin.The Man behind the Microchip is Leslie Berlin's first book. This author is project historian for the Silicon Valley Archives, a division of the Stanford University Department of Special Collections. This book tells the story of a giant of the high-tech industry: the multimillionaire Bob Noyce. This co-founder of Fairchild Semiconductor and Intel co-invented the integrated circuit which became the electronic heart of every modern computer, automobile, advance

  12. Cooke and Wheatstone and the invention of the electric telegraph

    CERN Document Server

    Hubbard, Geoffrey

    2013-01-01

    Originally published in 1965. Charles Wheatstone collaborated with William Cooke in the invention and early exploitation of the Electric Telegraph. This was the first long distance, faster-than-a-horse messenger. This volume gives an account of the earlier work on which the English invention was founded, and the curious route by which it came to England. It discusses the way in which two such antagonistic men were driven into collaboration and sets out the history of the early telegraph lines, including work on the London and Birmingham Railway and the Great Western Railway.

  13. User's guide to the radionuclide inventory and hazard code INVENT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nancarrow, D.J.; Thorne, M.C.

    1986-05-01

    This report constitutes the user's guide to the radionuclide inventory and hazard index code INVENT and provides an explanation of the mathematical basis of the code, the database used and operation of the code. INVENT was designed to facilitate the post-closure radiological assessment of land-based repositories for low and intermediate-level wastes. For those radionuclides identified to be of potential significance, it allows the calculation of time-dependent radionuclide activities, hazard indices for both inhalation and ingestion of activity, and photon spectra. (author)

  14. The Invention of the Wireless Communication Engine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Kooij, B.J.G.

    2017-01-01

    Wireless technology, taken for granted today, was once an innovative wonder that would forever change how the world communicates. Developed by Guglielmo Marconi in the latter half of the nineteenth century, wireless telegraphy combined advancements made by Samuel Morse, William Cooke, Charles

  15. Usability of Discovery Portals

    OpenAIRE

    Bulens, J.D.; Vullings, L.A.E.; Houtkamp, J.M.; Vanmeulebrouk, B.

    2013-01-01

    As INSPIRE progresses to be implemented in the EU, many new discovery portals are built to facilitate finding spatial data. Currently the structure of the discovery portals is determined by the way spatial data experts like to work. However, we argue that the main target group for discovery portals are not spatial data experts but professionals with limited spatial knowledge, and a focus outside the spatial domain. An exploratory usability experiment was carried out in which three discovery p...

  16. The industrial application requirement for biotech inventions in light of recent EPO & UK case law:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Minssen, Timo; Nilsson, David

    2012-01-01

    In this study we illuminate and discuss the most recent developments in respect of the interpretation of the “industrial application” requirement with respect to gene and protein related inventions in Europe. The analysis will focus on the relevant provisions of the EPC and decisional practice from...... the European Patent Organisation (“EPO”), particularly decisions from the Technical Board of Appeal 3.3.08 (the “Board”). To get a glimpse of the national dimension, we will also look at the first patent judgment from the "new" UK Supreme Court, i.e. the groundbreaking decision in HGS v Eli Lilly, In the final...... discussion, we will elaborate on two issues in particular; (i) determine which types of qualities an invention should have in order to meet the industrial application requirement in the first place; and (ii) what type of evidence an applicant is expected to present in respect of (potential) applications...

  17. Usability of Discovery Portals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bulens, J.D.; Vullings, L.A.E.; Houtkamp, J.M.; Vanmeulebrouk, B.

    2013-01-01

    As INSPIRE progresses to be implemented in the EU, many new discovery portals are built to facilitate finding spatial data. Currently the structure of the discovery portals is determined by the way spatial data experts like to work. However, we argue that the main target group for discovery portals

  18. Discovery and the atom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-01-01

    ''Discovery and the Atom'' tells the story of the founding of nuclear physics. This programme looks at nuclear physics up to the discovery of the neutron in 1932. Animation explains the science of the classic experiments, such as the scattering of alpha particles by Rutherford and the discovery of the nucleus. Archive film shows the people: Lord Rutherford, James Chadwick, Marie Curie. (author)

  19. The invention that is shaping Linac4

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Bulletin

    2010-01-01

    Accelerator experts are no strangers to innovative optimizations of existing techniques and to the development of novel solutions. Sometimes, they even come up with ideas that have the potential to revolutionize the field. This is the case with the Tolerance Aligned Cantilever Mounting (TACM) system, a completely new way of supporting the drift tubes, one of the core elements of linear accelerators. The new, patent-pending technique will be implemented at Linac4.   Drift tubes in a prototype for Linac4, assembled using the new TACM technology. “Assemble and adjust” – that was the technique used to build drift-tube linacs before the arrival of the TACM. Now, the inventors’ motto has become ‘adjust and assemble’. The inversion of these two words represents a real revolution for people working in the field. “The drift tubes are a critical element of Linac4 and they have to satisfy several requirements: they have to be mechanically ...

  20. 75 FR 12764 - Government-Owned Inventions; Availability for Licensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-17

    ..., lung, mammarys and kidney cancers. These mouse models serve as vehicles to test the efficacy of new... inventions to extend market coverage for companies and may also be available for licensing. ADDRESSES... applications. Spontaneously Transformed Mouse Epithelial Cancer Cell Lines Serving as Mouse Models: A New Model...

  1. 77 FR 32642 - Patents and Inventions; Delegation of Authority

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-01

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Patents and... Prevention (CDC), the Deputy Director, DLPP, LSPPPO, OSELS, CDC, and the Chief, Technology Management Branch... regarding the invention and patent program of CDC and the authority to make determinations of rights in...

  2. The laser and its uses: 50 years after its invention

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Besnard, P.; Favennec, P.N.

    2011-01-01

    The laser, 50 years after its invention, has become a major player in modern technologies with its efficient partner the optical fiber. This book reviews the numerous applications of laser in diverse fields such as telecommunication, metrology, optical radar, surface treatment, medicine. The last chapter is dedicated to inertial fusion through the presentation of the Megajoule laser (LMJ) project

  3. 76 FR 72713 - Government-Owned Inventions; Availability for Licensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-25

    ...; Availability for Licensing AGENCY: National Institutes of Health, Public Health Service, HHS. ACTION: Notice... are thought to play a central role in this process. The subject invention is a novel method of... (CTLA4IgG) fusion protein to salivary glands. The system effectively blocks CTLA4 ligand interactions with...

  4. 75 FR 12761 - Government-Owned Inventions; Availability for Licensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-17

    ... inventions to extend market coverage for companies and may also be available for licensing. ADDRESSES..., ADP-ribosylated HNP-1 and other defensins are degraded rapidly in vivo due to the susceptibility of... at the level of approximately $6 billion a year and is expected to grow to $13 billion by the year...

  5. 78 FR 29387 - Government-Owned Inventions, Available for Licensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-20

    ... NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION [Notice (13-056)] Government-Owned Inventions, Available for Licensing AGENCY: National Aeronautics and Space Administration. ACTION: Notice of... Method; NASA Case No.: MSC-25265-1: Device and Method and for Digital-to-Analog Transformation and...

  6. 75 FR 41501 - Government-Owned Inventions; Availability for Licensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-16

    ... applications. A Transgenic Model of Human Basal Triple Negative Breast Cancer [C3(l)- tag mice] Description of Invention: Basal triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) is a common form of human breast cancer for which..., causes a painful stimulation and incapacitates a person for only a brief period. This technology may...

  7. 10 CFR 603.860 - Rights to inventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... approved by assigned intellectual property counsel. (c) Taking past investments as an example, the... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (CONTINUED) ASSISTANCE REGULATIONS TECHNOLOGY INVESTMENT AGREEMENTS Award Terms Related to Other Administrative Matters Intellectual Property § 603.860 Rights to inventions. (a) The...

  8. 78 FR 37554 - Government-Owned Inventions; Availability for Licensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-21

    ... generation of self-renewing cells with a high proliferative capacity. Induced pluripotent stem cells (iPS... invention relates to a method of using CD47-modulating compounds to induce multipotent stem cells without..., please contact Denise Crooks at [email protected] . Method of Inducing Pluripotent or Multipotent...

  9. 75 FR 39545 - Government-Owned Inventions; Availability for Licensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-09

    ... Virus Recombinant HA Proteins for Vaccine and Diagnostic Applications Description of Invention: Pandemic... are specific recombinant HA proteins from H1N1, H5N1, and other strains of influenza virus produced in... H5N1 peptides useful for assays to detect antibodies generated [[Page 39546

  10. Metaphor and the Rhetorical Invention of Cold War "Idealists."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivie, Robert L.

    1987-01-01

    Presents a procedure for identifying metaphorical concepts guiding the rhetorical invention of three Cold War "idealists": Henry Wallace, J. William Fulbright, and Helen Caldicott, whose collective failure to dispel threatening images of the Soviets is located in a recurrent system of metaphors that promotes a reversal of the enemy-image…

  11. 78 FR 42527 - Government-Owned Inventions; Availability for Licensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-16

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health Government-Owned Inventions... (allowing high- throughput production with limited screening) Higher efficiency cloning of baculovirus... for this technology. Related Technology: HHS Reference No. E-164-2011--Combinatorial Cloning Platform...

  12. 76 FR 40381 - Government-Owned Inventions; Availability for Licensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-08

    ... inventions to extend market coverage for companies and may also be available for licensing. ADDRESSES... effective treatment option. EGFRvIII CARs can cross the blood-brain barrier, are expected to target only... squamous cell carcinomas. A personalized cancer treatment strategy for patients whose tumor cells express...

  13. 76 FR 49777 - Government-Owned Inventions; Availability for Licensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-11

    ... repress cell activation targets. Immunotherapy, although an effective treatment strategy, sometimes fails... inventions to extend market coverage for companies and may also be available for licensing. ADDRESSES... Target Validation Laboratory, DCTD, NCI, NIH, is seeking statements of capability or interest from...

  14. 76 FR 63309 - Government-Owned Inventions; Availability for Licensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-12

    ... applications, such as the characterization and study of glucocorticoid signaling in cancer, inflammation, and... is a need to track the spread of these viruses both in the animal and human populations to avert or.... SUMMARY: The inventions listed below are owned by an agency of the U.S. Government and are available for...

  15. 78 FR 16690 - Government-Owned Inventions; Availability for Licensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-18

    ... Ionizing Radiation Description of Technology: The invention relates to methods of using ketogenic compounds to protect against the adverse effects of radiation exposure, including ionizing radiation tissue... therapeutic efficacy of radiation therapies by protecting non-target tissues from incidental radiation damage...

  16. The Invention Studio: A University Maker Space and Culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forest, Craig R.; Moore, Roxanne A.; Jariwala, Amit S.; Fasse, Barbara Burks; Linsey, Julie; Newstetter, Wendy; Ngo, Peter; Quintero, Christopher

    2014-01-01

    Creativity, invention, and innovation are values championed as central pillars of engineering education. However, university environments that foster open-ended design-build projects are uncommon. Fabrication and prototyping spaces at universities are typically "machine shops" where students relinquish actual fabrication activities to…

  17. 76 FR 55070 - Government-Owned Inventions; Availability for Licensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-06

    .... SUMMARY: The inventions listed below are owned by an agency of the U.S. Government and are available for..., 6011 Executive Boulevard, Suite 325, Rockville, Maryland 20852-3804; telephone: 301-496-7057; fax: 301... samples for anti- cancer immunotherapy by making use of gas permeable (GP) flasks. This advancement in...

  18. 75 FR 70010 - Government-Owned Inventions; Availability for Licensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-16

    ... Appella (NCI), John K. Inman (NIAID), Deyun Wang (NIDDK), Lisa M. Miller Jenkins (NCI), Ryo Hayashi (NCI). Publications: 1. Miller Jenkins LM, et al. Nature Chemical Biology, in press. 2. Miller Jenkins LM, et al..., evaluate, or commercialize this invention. Please contact Dr. Henry Eden at [email protected] for more...

  19. 75 FR 26258 - Government-Owned Inventions; Availability for Licensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-11

    ....gov for more information. Parvovirus B19 Codon Optimized Structural Proteins for Vaccine and Diagnostic Applications Description of Invention: Parvovirus B19 (B19V) is the only known pathogenic human parvovirus. Infection by this viral pathogen can cause transient aplastic crisis in individuals with high red...

  20. Fourth Graders Make Inventions Using SCAMPER and Animal Adaptation Ideas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussain, Mahjabeen; Carignan, Anastasia

    2016-01-01

    This study explores to what extent the SCAMPER (Substitute, Combine, Adapt, Modify, Put to another use, Eliminate, and Rearrange) technique combined with animal adaptation ideas learned through form and function analogy activities can help fourth graders generate creative ideas while augmenting their inventiveness. The sample consisted of 24…

  1. Exploring Natural Products from the Biodiversity of Pakistan for Computational Drug Discovery Studies: Collection, Optimization, Design and Development of A Chemical Database (ChemDP).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirza, Shaher Bano; Bokhari, Habib; Fatmi, Muhammad Qaiser

    2015-01-01

    Pakistan possesses a rich and vast source of natural products (NPs). Some of these secondary metabolites have been identified as potent therapeutic agents. However, the medicinal usage of most of these compounds has not yet been fully explored. The discoveries for new scaffolds of NPs as inhibitors of certain enzymes or receptors using advanced computational drug discovery approaches are also limited due to the unavailability of accurate 3D structures of NPs. An organized database incorporating all relevant information, therefore, can facilitate to explore the medicinal importance of the metabolites from Pakistani Biodiversity. The Chemical Database of Pakistan (ChemDP; release 01) is a fully-referenced, evolving, web-based, virtual database which has been designed and developed to introduce natural products (NPs) and their derivatives from the biodiversity of Pakistan to Global scientific communities. The prime aim is to provide quality structures of compounds with relevant information for computer-aided drug discovery studies. For this purpose, over 1000 NPs have been identified from more than 400 published articles, for which 2D and 3D molecular structures have been generated with a special focus on their stereochemistry, where applicable. The PM7 semiempirical quantum chemistry method has been used to energy optimize the 3D structure of NPs. The 2D and 3D structures can be downloaded as .sdf, .mol, .sybyl, .mol2, and .pdb files - readable formats by many chemoinformatics/bioinformatics software packages. Each entry in ChemDP contains over 100 data fields representing various molecular, biological, physico-chemical and pharmacological properties, which have been properly documented in the database for end users. These pieces of information have been either manually extracted from the literatures or computationally calculated using various computational tools. Cross referencing to a major data repository i.e. ChemSpider has been made available for overlapping

  2. The discovery of the periodic table as a case of simultaneous discovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scerri, Eric

    2015-03-13

    The article examines the question of priority and simultaneous discovery in the context of the discovery of the periodic system. It is argued that rather than being anomalous, simultaneous discovery is the rule. Moreover, I argue that the discovery of the periodic system by at least six authors in over a period of 7 years represents one of the best examples of a multiple discovery. This notion is supported by a new view of the evolutionary development of science through a mechanism that is dubbed Sci-Gaia by analogy with Lovelock's Gaia hypothesis. © 2015 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.

  3. Discovery and profiling of novel and conserved microRNAs during flower development in Carya cathayensis via deep sequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zheng Jia; Huang, Jian Qin; Huang, You Jun; Li, Zheng; Zheng, Bing Song

    2012-08-01

    Hickory (Carya cathayensis Sarg.) is an economically important woody plant in China, but its long juvenile phase delays yield. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are critical regulators of genes and important for normal plant development and physiology, including flower development. We used Solexa technology to sequence two small RNA libraries from two floral differentiation stages in hickory to identify miRNAs related to flower development. We identified 39 conserved miRNA sequences from 114 loci belonging to 23 families as well as two novel and ten potential novel miRNAs belonging to nine families. Moreover, 35 conserved miRNA*s and two novel miRNA*s were detected. Twenty miRNA sequences from 49 loci belonging to 11 families were differentially expressed; all were up-regulated at the later stage of flower development in hickory. Quantitative real-time PCR of 12 conserved miRNA sequences, five novel miRNA families, and two novel miRNA*s validated that all were expressed during hickory flower development, and the expression patterns were similar to those detected with Solexa sequencing. Finally, a total of 146 targets of the novel and conserved miRNAs were predicted. This study identified a diverse set of miRNAs that were closely related to hickory flower development and that could help in plant floral induction.

  4. Topology Discovery Using Cisco Discovery Protocol

    OpenAIRE

    Rodriguez, Sergio R.

    2009-01-01

    In this paper we address the problem of discovering network topology in proprietary networks. Namely, we investigate topology discovery in Cisco-based networks. Cisco devices run Cisco Discovery Protocol (CDP) which holds information about these devices. We first compare properties of topologies that can be obtained from networks deploying CDP versus Spanning Tree Protocol (STP) and Management Information Base (MIB) Forwarding Database (FDB). Then we describe a method of discovering topology ...

  5. Enlisting User Community Perspectives to Inform Development of a Semantic Web Application for Discovery of Cross-Institutional Research Information and Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johns, E. M.; Mayernik, M. S.; Boler, F. M.; Corson-Rikert, J.; Daniels, M. D.; Gross, M. B.; Khan, H.; Maull, K. E.; Rowan, L. R.; Stott, D.; Williams, S.; Krafft, D. B.

    2015-12-01

    Researchers seek information and data through a variety of avenues: published literature, search engines, repositories, colleagues, etc. In order to build a web application that leverages linked open data to enable multiple paths for information discovery, the EarthCollab project has surveyed two geoscience user communities to consider how researchers find and share scholarly output. EarthCollab, a cross-institutional, EarthCube funded project partnering UCAR, Cornell University, and UNAVCO, is employing the open-source semantic web software, VIVO, as the underlying technology to connect the people and resources of virtual research communities. This study will present an analysis of survey responses from members of the two case study communities: (1) the Bering Sea Project, an interdisciplinary field program whose data archive is hosted by NCAR's Earth Observing Laboratory (EOL), and (2) UNAVCO, a geodetic facility and consortium that supports diverse research projects informed by geodesy. The survey results illustrate the types of research products that respondents indicate should be discoverable within a digital platform and the current methods used to find publications, data, personnel, tools, and instrumentation. The responses showed that scientists rely heavily on general purpose search engines, such as Google, to find information, but that data center websites and the published literature were also critical sources for finding collaborators, data, and research tools.The survey participants also identify additional features of interest for an information platform such as search engine indexing, connection to institutional web pages, generation of bibliographies and CVs, and outward linking to social media. Through the survey, the user communities prioritized the type of information that is most important to display and describe their work within a research profile. The analysis of this survey will inform our further development of a platform that will

  6. Grid-based Continual Analysis of Molecular Interior for Drug Discovery, QSAR and QSPR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potemkin, Andrey V; Grishina, Maria A; Potemkin, Vladimir A

    2017-01-01

    In 1979, R.D.Cramer and M.Milne made a first realization of 3D comparison of molecules by aligning them in space and by mapping their molecular fields to a 3D grid. Further, this approach was developed as the DYLOMMS (Dynamic Lattice- Oriented Molecular Modelling System) approach. In 1984, H.Wold and S.Wold proposed the use of partial least squares (PLS) analysis, instead of principal component analysis, to correlate the field values with biological activities. Then, in 1988, the method which was called CoMFA (Comparative Molecular Field Analysis) was introduced and the appropriate software became commercially available. Since 1988, a lot of 3D QSAR methods, algorithms and their modifications are introduced for solving of virtual drug discovery problems (e.g., CoMSIA, CoMMA, HINT, HASL, GOLPE, GRID, PARM, Raptor, BiS, CiS, ConGO,). All the methods can be divided into two groups (classes):1. Methods studying the exterior of molecules; 2) Methods studying the interior of molecules. A series of grid-based computational technologies for Continual Molecular Interior analysis (CoMIn) are invented in the current paper. The grid-based analysis is fulfilled by means of a lattice construction analogously to many other grid-based methods. The further continual elucidation of molecular structure is performed in various ways. (i) In terms of intermolecular interactions potentials. This can be represented as a superposition of Coulomb, Van der Waals interactions and hydrogen bonds. All the potentials are well known continual functions and their values can be determined in all lattice points for a molecule. (ii) In the terms of quantum functions such as electron density distribution, Laplacian and Hamiltonian of electron density distribution, potential energy distribution, the highest occupied and the lowest unoccupied molecular orbitals distribution and their superposition. To reduce time of calculations using quantum methods based on the first principles, an original quantum

  7. Causality discovery technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, M.; Ertl, T.; Jirotka, M.; Trefethen, A.; Schmidt, A.; Coecke, B.; Bañares-Alcántara, R.

    2012-11-01

    Causality is the fabric of our dynamic world. We all make frequent attempts to reason causation relationships of everyday events (e.g., what was the cause of my headache, or what has upset Alice?). We attempt to manage causality all the time through planning and scheduling. The greatest scientific discoveries are usually about causality (e.g., Newton found the cause for an apple to fall, and Darwin discovered natural selection). Meanwhile, we continue to seek a comprehensive understanding about the causes of numerous complex phenomena, such as social divisions, economic crisis, global warming, home-grown terrorism, etc. Humans analyse and reason causality based on observation, experimentation and acquired a priori knowledge. Today's technologies enable us to make observations and carry out experiments in an unprecedented scale that has created data mountains everywhere. Whereas there are exciting opportunities to discover new causation relationships, there are also unparalleled challenges to benefit from such data mountains. In this article, we present a case for developing a new piece of ICT, called Causality Discovery Technology. We reason about the necessity, feasibility and potential impact of such a technology.

  8. Automated Supernova Discovery (Abstract)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Post, R. S.

    2015-12-01

    (Abstract only) We are developing a system of robotic telescopes for automatic recognition of Supernovas as well as other transient events in collaboration with the Puckett Supernova Search Team. At the SAS2014 meeting, the discovery program, SNARE, was first described. Since then, it has been continuously improved to handle searches under a wide variety of atmospheric conditions. Currently, two telescopes are used to build a reference library while searching for PSN with a partial library. Since data is taken every night without clouds, we must deal with varying atmospheric and high background illumination from the moon. Software is configured to identify a PSN, reshoot for verification with options to change the run plan to acquire photometric or spectrographic data. The telescopes are 24-inch CDK24, with Alta U230 cameras, one in CA and one in NM. Images and run plans are sent between sites so the CA telescope can search while photometry is done in NM. Our goal is to find bright PSNs with magnitude 17.5 or less which is the limit of our planned spectroscopy. We present results from our first automated PSN discoveries and plans for PSN data acquisition.

  9. Discovery of massive neutral vector mesons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1976-01-01

    Personal accounts of the discovery of massive neutral vector mesons (psi particles) are given by researchers S. Ting, G. Goldhaber, and B. Richter. The double-arm spectrometer and the Cherenkov effect are explained in a technical note, and the solenoidal magnetic detector is discussed in an explanatory note for nonspecialists. Reprints of three papers in Physical Review Letters which announced the discovery of the particles are given: Experimental observation of a heavy particle J, Discovery of a narrow resonance in e + e - annihilation, and Discovery of a second narrow resonance in e + e - annihilation. A discussion of subsequent developments and scientific biographies of the three authors are also presented. 25 figures

  10. 78 FR 24758 - Government-Owned Inventions; Availability for Licensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-26

    ... metabolites in the urine of mice strongly correlated with tumor formation and reflected the progressive... special significance in a wide variety of biological and biomedical fields, which could lead the discovery... protein was recently shown to be encoded by the clag3 gene. This discovery opens the possibility of...

  11. The discovery of subatomic particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weinberg, S.

    1984-01-01

    This book developed from a course for students with no prior training in mathematics of physics to learn about the achievements of 20th century physics and classical physics. It covers the discovery of fundamental particles of ordinary atoms: the electron, the proton, and the neutron. The general outline is historical and it is for readers unfamiliar with classical physics who wish to understand the ideas and experiments that make up the history of 20th century physics. Contents include: A world of particles, the discovery of the electron, the atomic scale, the nucleus, more particles

  12. Bioinformatics in translational drug discovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wooller, Sarah K; Benstead-Hume, Graeme; Chen, Xiangrong; Ali, Yusuf; Pearl, Frances M G

    2017-08-31

    Bioinformatics approaches are becoming ever more essential in translational drug discovery both in academia and within the pharmaceutical industry. Computational exploitation of the increasing volumes of data generated during all phases of drug discovery is enabling key challenges of the process to be addressed. Here, we highlight some of the areas in which bioinformatics resources and methods are being developed to support the drug discovery pipeline. These include the creation of large data warehouses, bioinformatics algorithms to analyse 'big data' that identify novel drug targets and/or biomarkers, programs to assess the tractability of targets, and prediction of repositioning opportunities that use licensed drugs to treat additional indications. © 2017 The Author(s).

  13. Translational medicine and drug discovery

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Littman, Bruce H; Krishna, Rajesh

    2011-01-01

    ..., and examples of their application to real-life drug discovery and development. The latest thinking is presented by researchers from many of the world's leading pharmaceutical companies, including Pfizer, Merck, Eli Lilly, Abbott, and Novartis, as well as from academic institutions and public- private partnerships that support translational research...

  14. Discovery of Human IgGs against α-Cobratoxin for Development of Recombinant Antibody-based Antivenom

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laustsen, Andreas Hougaard; Engmark, Mikael; Redsted Rasmussen, Arne

    , in which large mammals (typically horses) are immunized with snake venom and antiserum is derived from the animals blood. The incompatibility with the human immune system of these animal derived antivenoms leads to a range of side effects,such as serum sickness, anaphylaxis, and sometimes even death......More than 5.5 million people are bitten by venomous snakes per year on a global basis. This leads to approx. 125,000 deaths and 3 times as many amputations. Particularly Sub-Saharan Africa is affected by the problem. Current antivenoms are still being produced by a method developed in the 1890’s...

  15. Discovery of the B_{c}(2S) Meson and Development of Pixel Detectors for Future Particle Collider Experiments

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Rui

    This work involves an analysis of data recorded at the Large Hadron Collider combined with a program to develop detectors for future collider experiments. Using the full 4.9 fb$^{-1}$ of 7 \\TeV~data collected in 2011 and the 19.2 fb$^{-1}$ of 8 \\TeV~data collected in 2012, the $\\Bc(2S)$ meson has been observed with the ATLAS detector in the hadronic decay mode $\\Bc(2S)\\rightarrow \\Bc\\pi^{+}\\pi^{-}$, $\\Bc\\rightarrow J/\\psi\\pi$. This new state has been found in the mass difference distribution with invariant mass $6842 \\pm 7_{stat.} \\pm 4_{syst.}$ \\MeV. To prepare for the high radiation environment at the High Luminosity LHC, diamond sensors are being developed. Their leakage current and resistivity are measured at fluences and temperatures relevant to the ATLAS upgrade. No evidence of dependence of the resistivity on fluence or temperature has been observed for the ranges [-10 $^\\circ$C, +20 $^\\circ$C] and [0, $1.0\\times10^{16} \\rm{n_{eq}/cm^2}$]. To study the radiation damage of the sensors in the ATLAS Pixel...

  16. Transcriptome discovery in non-model wild fish species for the development of quantitative transcript abundance assays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hahn, Cassidy M.; Iwanowicz, Luke R.; Cornman, Robert S.; Mazik, Patricia M.; Blazer, Vicki S.

    2016-01-01

    Environmental studies increasingly identify the presence of both contaminants of emerging concern (CECs) and legacy contaminants in aquatic environments; however, the biological effects of these compounds on resident fishes remain largely unknown. High throughput methodologies were employed to establish partial transcriptomes for three wild-caught, non-model fish species; smallmouth bass (Micropterus dolomieu), white sucker (Catostomus commersonii) and brown bullhead (Ameiurus nebulosus). Sequences from these transcriptome databases were utilized in the development of a custom nCounter CodeSet that allowed for direct multiplexed measurement of 50 transcript abundance endpoints in liver tissue. Sequence information was also utilized in the development of quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) primers. Cross-species hybridization allowed the smallmouth bass nCounter CodeSet to be used for quantitative transcript abundance analysis of an additional non-model species, largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides). We validated the nCounter analysis data system with qPCR for a subset of genes and confirmed concordant results. Changes in transcript abundance biomarkers between sexes and seasons were evaluated to provide baseline data on transcript modulation for each species of interest.

  17. Transcriptome discovery in non-model wild fish species for the development of quantitative transcript abundance assays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hahn, Cassidy M; Iwanowicz, Luke R; Cornman, Robert S; Mazik, Patricia M; Blazer, Vicki S

    2016-12-01

    Environmental studies increasingly identify the presence of both contaminants of emerging concern (CECs) and legacy contaminants in aquatic environments; however, the biological effects of these compounds on resident fishes remain largely unknown. High throughput methodologies were employed to establish partial transcriptomes for three wild-caught, non-model fish species; smallmouth bass (Micropterus dolomieu), white sucker (Catostomus commersonii) and brown bullhead (Ameiurus nebulosus). Sequences from these transcriptome databases were utilized in the development of a custom nCounter CodeSet that allowed for direct multiplexed measurement of 50 transcript abundance endpoints in liver tissue. Sequence information was also utilized in the development of quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) primers. Cross-species hybridization allowed the smallmouth bass nCounter CodeSet to be used for quantitative transcript abundance analysis of an additional non-model species, largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides). We validated the nCounter analysis data system with qPCR for a subset of genes and confirmed concordant results. Changes in transcript abundance biomarkers between sexes and seasons were evaluated to provide baseline data on transcript modulation for each species of interest. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  18. Keys to Taking Your Nanotech Inventions to the Market

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rickert, Scott

    Although many scientists and engineers may wish to be an owner of something they invented, and then take that something to the market, there are many obstacles to do so. Many of these roadblocks are self-imposed, and many more are there because most of us are not aware of the very strict rules that exist in the world of marketing, selling, and manufacturing in the United States. This lecture will identify a small subset of these obstacles and discuss some ways to overcome them. Belief in your goals is most important, and this belief must be shared by others, or you cannot succeed. Believe it or not, no one wants to steal your ideas or inventions. They would much rather have you take it to market yourself. This really is a lecture about winning.

  19. Invention activities as preparation for learning laboratory data handling skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Day, James

    2012-10-01

    Undergraduate physics laboratories are often driven by a mix of goals, and usually enough of them to cause cognitive overload for the student. Our recent findings align well with studies indicating that students often exit a physics lab without having properly learned how to handle real data. The value of having students explore the underlying structure of a problem before being able to solve it has been shown as an effective way to ready students for learning. Borrowing on findings from the fields of education and cognitive psychology, we use ``invention activities'' to precede direct instruction and bolster learning. In this talk I will show some of what we have learned about students' data handling skills, explain how an invention activity works, and share some observations of successful transfer.

  20. Fuzzy Cognitive Map-based selection of TRIZ (Theory of Inventive Problem Solving) trends for eco-innovation of ceramic industry products

    OpenAIRE

    Vidal, Rosario; Salmerón, José Luís; Mena Nieto, Angel Isidro; Chulvi Ramos, Vicente

    2015-01-01

    Several studies have been developed implementing TRIZ (Russian acronym of Theory of Inventive Problem Solving) for eco-innovative design tasks, es- tablishing a link between eco-efficiency and the Inventive Principles and the Contradiction Matrix. However, very few works have linked TRIZ evolution trends and eco-design. This paper presents an innovative methodology to help designers to pre- dict technological evolutions for more environmentally friendly products. The main novelty of our pr...

  1. Celebrating Two Centuries since the Invention of the Stethoscope. René Théophile Hyacinthe Laënnec (1781-1826).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomos, Ioannis; Karakatsani, Anna; Manali, Effrosyni D; Papiris, Spyros A

    2016-10-01

    René Théophile Hyacinthe Laënnec (1781-1826), a French physician, is considered one of the pioneers of respiratory medicine. His contribution to the invention of the stethoscope and to the development of clinical auscultation played a key role in the progress of the diagnosis of chest diseases. Almost two centuries after his invention of the stethoscope, his achievements continue to be widely appreciated and used by modern physicians in current pulmonology.

  2. The Discovery of the Regular Movements of Celestial Bodies and the Development of Monotheism in the Ancient Near East

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanfranchi, G. B.

    2011-06-01

    For Ancient Mesopotamians, astronomical phenomena were signs signifying the gods' judgment on human behaviour. Mesopotamian scholars studied celestial phenomena for understanding the gods' will, and strongly developed astrology. From the 8th to the 6th century BC Assyrian and Babylonian astronomers achieved the ability to predict solar and lunar eclipses, and the planets' movements through mathematical calculations. Predictability of astral phenomena solicited the awareness that they are all regular, and that the universe is governed by an eternal, immutable order fixed at its very beginning. This finally favoured the idea that the cosmic order depended on the will of one god only, displacing polytheism in favour of monotheism; and astrology lost its religious importance as a mean to know the divine will.

  3. Disseminating research in rural Yup’ik communities: challenges and ethical considerations in moving from discovery to intervention development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inna Rivkin

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Background. The native people of Alaska have experienced historical trauma and rapid changes in culture and lifestyle patterns. As a consequence, these populations shoulder a disproportionately high burden of psychological stress. The Yup’ik Experiences of Stress and Coping project originated from rural Yup’ik communities’ concerns about stress and its effects on health. It aimed to understand the stressful experiences that affect Yup’ik communities, to identify coping strategies used to deal with these stressors and to inform culturally responsive interventions. Objectives. Here, we examine the process of moving from research (gaining understanding to disseminating project findings to translation into intervention priorities. We highlight the importance of community participation and discuss challenges encountered, strategies to address these challenges and ethical considerations for responsible intervention research with indigenous communities that reflect their unique historical and current socio-cultural realities. Design. Community-wide presentations and discussions of research findings on stress and coping were followed by smaller Community Planning Group meetings. During these meetings, community members contextualized project findings and discussed implications for interventions. This process placed priority on community expertise in interpreting findings and translating results and community priorities into grant applications focused on intervention development and evaluation. Results. Challenges included translation between English and Yup’ik, funding limitations and uncertainties, and the long timelines involved in moving from formative research to intervention in the face of urgent and evolving community needs. The lack of congruence between institutional and community worldviews in the intervention research enterprise highlights the need for “principled cultural sensitivity”. Conclusions. Cultural sensitivity requires

  4. Applied metabolomics in drug discovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuperlovic-Culf, M; Culf, A S

    2016-08-01

    The metabolic profile is a direct signature of phenotype and biochemical activity following any perturbation. Metabolites are small molecules present in a biological system including natural products as well as drugs and their metabolism by-products depending on the biological system studied. Metabolomics can provide activity information about possible novel drugs and drug scaffolds, indicate interesting targets for drug development and suggest binding partners of compounds. Furthermore, metabolomics can be used for the discovery of novel natural products and in drug development. Metabolomics can enhance the discovery and testing of new drugs and provide insight into the on- and off-target effects of drugs. This review focuses primarily on the application of metabolomics in the discovery of active drugs from natural products and the analysis of chemical libraries and the computational analysis of metabolic networks. Metabolomics methodology, both experimental and analytical is fast developing. At the same time, databases of compounds are ever growing with the inclusion of more molecular and spectral information. An increasing number of systems are being represented by very detailed metabolic network models. Combining these experimental and computational tools with high throughput drug testing and drug discovery techniques can provide new promising compounds and leads.

  5. Development and application of a 6.5 million feature Affymetrix Genechip® for massively parallel discovery of single position polymorphisms in lettuce (Lactuca spp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stoffel Kevin

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background High-resolution genetic maps are needed in many crops to help characterize the genetic diversity that determines agriculturally important traits. Hybridization to microarrays to detect single feature polymorphisms is a powerful technique for marker discovery and genotyping because of its highly parallel nature. However, microarrays designed for gene expression analysis rarely provide sufficient gene coverage for optimal detection of nucleotide polymorphisms, which limits utility in species with low rates of polymorphism such as lettuce (Lactuca sativa. Results We developed a 6.5 million feature Affymetrix GeneChip® for efficient polymorphism discovery and genotyping, as well as for analysis of gene expression in lettuce. Probes on the microarray were designed from 26,809 unigenes from cultivated lettuce and an additional 8,819 unigenes from four related species (L. serriola, L. saligna, L. virosa and L. perennis. Where possible, probes were tiled with a 2 bp stagger, alternating on each DNA strand; providing an average of 187 probes covering approximately 600 bp for each of over 35,000 unigenes; resulting in up to 13 fold redundancy in coverage per nucleotide. We developed protocols for hybridization of genomic DNA to the GeneChip® and refined custom algorithms that utilized coverage from multiple, high quality probes to detect single position polymorphisms in 2 bp sliding windows across each unigene. This allowed us to detect greater than 18,000 polymorphisms between the parental lines of our core mapping population, as well as numerous polymorphisms between cultivated lettuce and wild species in the lettuce genepool. Using marker data from our diversity panel comprised of 52 accessions from the five species listed above, we were able to separate accessions by species using both phylogenetic and principal component analyses. Additionally, we estimated the diversity between different types of cultivated lettuce and

  6. Development and application of a 6.5 million feature Affymetrix Genechip® for massively parallel discovery of single position polymorphisms in lettuce (Lactuca spp.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoffel, Kevin; van Leeuwen, Hans; Kozik, Alexander; Caldwell, David; Ashrafi, Hamid; Cui, Xinping; Tan, Xiaoping; Hill, Theresa; Reyes-Chin-Wo, Sebastian; Truco, Maria-Jose; Michelmore, Richard W; Van Deynze, Allen

    2012-05-14

    High-resolution genetic maps are needed in many crops to help characterize the genetic diversity that determines agriculturally important traits. Hybridization to microarrays to detect single feature polymorphisms is a powerful technique for marker discovery and genotyping because of its highly parallel nature. However, microarrays designed for gene expression analysis rarely provide sufficient gene coverage for optimal detection of nucleotide polymorphisms, which limits utility in species with low rates of polymorphism such as lettuce (Lactuca sativa). We developed a 6.5 million feature Affymetrix GeneChip® for efficient polymorphism discovery and genotyping, as well as for analysis of gene expression in lettuce. Probes on the microarray were designed from 26,809 unigenes from cultivated lettuce and an additional 8,819 unigenes from four related species (L. serriola, L. saligna, L. virosa and L. perennis). Where possible, probes were tiled with a 2 bp stagger, alternating on each DNA strand; providing an average of 187 probes covering approximately 600 bp for each of over 35,000 unigenes; resulting in up to 13 fold redundancy in coverage per nucleotide. We developed protocols for hybridization of genomic DNA to the GeneChip® and refined custom algorithms that utilized coverage from multiple, high quality probes to detect single position polymorphisms in 2 bp sliding windows across each unigene. This allowed us to detect greater than 18,000 polymorphisms between the parental lines of our core mapping population, as well as numerous polymorphisms between cultivated lettuce and wild species in the lettuce genepool. Using marker data from our diversity panel comprised of 52 accessions from the five species listed above, we were able to separate accessions by species using both phylogenetic and principal component analyses. Additionally, we estimated the diversity between different types of cultivated lettuce and distinguished morphological types. By hybridizing

  7. Discovery, research, and development of new antibiotics: the WHO priority list of antibiotic-resistant bacteria and tuberculosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tacconelli, Evelina; Carrara, Elena; Savoldi, Alessia; Harbarth, Stephan; Mendelson, Marc; Monnet, Dominique L; Pulcini, Céline; Kahlmeter, Gunnar; Kluytmans, Jan; Carmeli, Yehuda; Ouellette, Marc; Outterson, Kevin; Patel, Jean; Cavaleri, Marco; Cox, Edward M; Houchens, Chris R; Grayson, M Lindsay; Hansen, Paul; Singh, Nalini; Theuretzbacher, Ursula; Magrini, Nicola

    2018-03-01

    The spread of antibiotic-resistant bacteria poses a substantial threat to morbidity and mortality worldwide. Due to its large public health and societal implications, multidrug-resistant tuberculosis has been long regarded by WHO as a global priority for investment in new drugs. In 2016, WHO was requested by member states to create a priority list of other antibiotic-resistant bacteria to support research and development of effective drugs. We used a multicriteria decision analysis method to prioritise antibiotic-resistant bacteria; this method involved the identification of relevant criteria to assess priority against which each antibiotic-resistant bacterium was rated. The final priority ranking of the antibiotic-resistant bacteria was established after a preference-based survey was used to obtain expert weighting of criteria. We selected 20 bacterial species with 25 patterns of acquired resistance and ten criteria to assess priority: mortality, health-care burden, community burden, prevalence of resistance, 10-year trend of resistance, transmissibility, preventability in the community setting, preventability in the health-care setting, treatability, and pipeline. We stratified the priority list into three tiers (critical, high, and medium priority), using the 33rd percentile of the bacterium's total scores as the cutoff. Critical-priority bacteria included carbapenem-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii and Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and carbapenem-resistant and third-generation cephalosporin-resistant Enterobacteriaceae. The highest ranked Gram-positive bacteria (high priority) were vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium and meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. Of the bacteria typically responsible for community-acquired infections, clarithromycin-resistant Helicobacter pylori, and fluoroquinolone-resistant Campylobacter spp, Neisseria gonorrhoeae, and Salmonella typhi were included in the high-priority tier. Future development strategies should focus on

  8. Synopsis on Managment Strategies for Neurodegenerative Disorders: Challenges from Bench to Bedside in Successful Drug Discovery and Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhat, Sheraz Ahmad; Kamal, Mohammad Amjad; Yarla, Nagendra Sastry; Ashraf, Ghulam Md

    2017-01-01

    The maintenance of health requires successful cell functioning, which in turn depends upon the proper and active conformation of proteins besides other biomolecules. However, occasionally these proteins may misfold and lead to the appearance and progression of protein conformational diseases. These diseases apart from others include several neurodegenerative disorders (NDDs) such as Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson disease, Huntington's disease, multiple sclerosis, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, and other lesser known diseases. Although much knowledge has been gained, these NDDs still warrant advance research in the elucidation of their mechanisms as well as effective therapeutic interventions and proper management. There is an ever-growing and urgent need to improve the diagnosis and management of NDDs due to their devastating nature, serious social impact and neuropsychiatric symptoms. It is also envisioned that we may be able to encourage, develop, and strengthen the cell defenses against amyloid toxicity and prevent neuronal destruction and consequently neurodegeneration. In this review, the implications of protein misfolding and aggregation in NDDs are discussed along with some of the most recent findings on the curative and beneficial effects of natural molecules such as polyphenols. This paper also reviews the anti-aggregation and protective effects of some organic and peptidic compounds duly supported experimentally, as prospective future therapeutics for NDDs. The synopses presented in this review shall prove helpful in further understanding of the causes, cures and management of lethal NDDs. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  9. Metformin - a Future Therapy for Neurodegenerative Diseases : Theme: Drug Discovery, Development and Delivery in Alzheimer's Disease Guest Editor: Davide Brambilla.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markowicz-Piasecka, Magdalena; Sikora, Joanna; Szydłowska, Aleksandra; Skupień, Agata; Mikiciuk-Olasik, Elżbieta; Huttunen, Kristiina M

    2017-12-01

    Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is a complex, chronic and progressive metabolic disease, which is characterized by relative insulin deficiency, insulin resistance, and high glucose levels in blood. Esteemed published articles and epidemiological data exhibit an increased risk of developing Alzheimer's disease (AD) in diabetic pateints. Metformin is the most frequently used oral anti-diabetic drug, which apart from hypoglycaemic activity, improves serum lipid profiles, positively influences the process of haemostasis, and possesses anti-inflammatory properties. Recently, scientists have put their efforts in establishing metformin's role in the treatment of neurodegenerative diseases, such as AD, amnestic mild cognitive impairment and Parkinson's disease. Results of several clinical studies confirm that long term use of metformin in diabetic patients contributes to better cognitive function, compared to participants using other anti-diabetic drugs. The exact mechanism of metformin's advantageous activity in AD is not fully understood, but scientists claim that activation of AMPK-dependent pathways in human neural stem cells might be responsible for the neuroprotective activity of metformin. Metformin was also found to markedly decease Beta-secretase 1 (BACE1) protein expression and activity in cell culture models and in vivo, thereby reducing BACE1 cleavage products and the production of Aβ (β-amyloid). Furthermore, there is also some evidence that metformin decreases the activity of acetylcholinesterase (AChE), which is responsible for the degradation of acetylcholine (Ach), a neurotransmitter involved in the process of learning and memory. In regard to the beneficial effects of metformin, its anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidative properties cannot be omitted. Numerous in vitro and in vivo studies have confirmed that metformin ameliorates oxidative damage.

  10. Development of a Knowledgebase (MetRxn) of Metabolites, Reactions and Atom Mappings to Accelerate Discovery and Redesign

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maranas, Costas D. [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States)

    2017-12-11

    With advances in DNA sequencing and genome annotation techniques, the breadth of metabolic knowledge across all kingdoms of life is increasing. The construction of genome-scale models (GSMs) facilitates this distillation of knowledge by systematically accounting for reaction stoichiometry and directionality, gene to protein to reaction relationships, reaction localization among cellular organelles, metabolite transport costs and routes, transcriptional regulation, and biomass composition. Genome-scale reconstructions available now span across all kingdoms of life, from microbes to whole-plant models, and have become indispensable for driving informed metabolic designs and interventions. A key barrier to the pace of this development is our inability to utilize metabolite/reaction information from databases such as BRENDA [1], KEGG [2], MetaCyc [3], etc. due to incompatibilities of representation, duplications, and errors. Duplicate entries constitute a major impediment, where the same metabolite is found with multiple names across databases and models, which significantly slows downs the collating of information from multiple data sources. This can also lead to serious modeling errors such as charge/mass imbalances [4,5] which can thwart model predictive abilities such as identifying synthetic lethal gene pairs and quantifying metabolic flows. Hence, we created the MetRxn database [6] that takes the next step in integrating data from multiple sources and formats to automatically create a standardized knowledgebase. We subsequently deployed this resource to bring about new paradigms in genome-scale metabolic model reconstruction, metabolic flux elucidation through MFA, modeling of microbial communities, and pathway prospecting. This research has enabled the PI’s group to continue building upon research milestones and reach new ones (see list of MetRxn-related publications below).

  11. Book Review: Inventing the Market: Smith, Hegel & Political Theory by Liza Herzog

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boscan, Luis

    2014-01-01

    Review of: Inventing the Market: Smith, Hegel & Political Theory. Liza Herzog. Oxford University Press. April 2013.......Review of: Inventing the Market: Smith, Hegel & Political Theory. Liza Herzog. Oxford University Press. April 2013....

  12. Nanotechnological Inventions and Nanomaterials Produce A Profound Effect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VLASOV Vladimir Alexeevich

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The inventions in the area of nanotechnologies and nanomaterials produce a profound effect in construction, housing and communal services and adjacent economic fields as they allow us: to increase mechanical strength, coefficient of elasticity, alkali resistance and temperature of products vitrification; to obtain nanostructured coatings with the property of shape memory on the steel; to raise the dynamics of coal burning and its full burnout in the boilers of thermoelectric power station; to produce metal nanopowders with increased stored energy 10–15% etc. For example, the invention «Epoxy composition for high strength, alkali resistant structures» refers to epoxy composition used as a binder for production of high strength, thermal- and alkali-resistant glass-fiber material which can be applied in the manufacture process of construction reinforcement to strengthen concrete structures. The invention «The method to produce nanostructured reaction foil» can be used to join different materials including metal alloys, ceramics, amorphous materials and elements of microelectronic devices that are sensible to the heating. This process provides decreased labour-output ratio and energy consumption as well as the condition to manufacture foil with specified stored energy and high mechanical properties. The invention «The method of intensification of burning lowreactionary coal in the boilers of thermoelectric power station» refers to the thermal energy and can be implemented at the thermal plants. The increased dynamics of inflaming and burning leads to full burnout of powdered-coal low-reactionary fuel and decreased mechanical underfiring. The specialists may be also interested in the following inventions: fine dispersed organic suspension of carbon metal-containing nanostructures and the method to produce it; the dispersion of carbon nanotubes; the composition for reinforcement of building structures; the reinforced plate element made of

  13. Para que servem os inventários de fauna?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luís Fábio Silveira

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Inventários de fauna acessam diretamente a diversidade de uma localidade, em um determinado espaço e tempo. Os dados primários gerados pelos inventários compõem uma das ferramentas mais importantes na tomada de decisões a respeito do manejo de áreas naturais. Entretanto, vários problemas têm sido observados em diversos níveis relacionados aos inventários de fauna no Brasil e vão desde a formação de recursos humanos até a ausência de padronização, de desenho experimental e de seleção de métodos inadequados. São apresentados estudos de caso com mamíferos, répteis, anfíbios e peixes, nos quais são discutidos problemas como variabilidade temporal e métodos para detecção de fauna terrestre, sugerindo que tanto os inventários quanto os programas de monitoramento devam se estender por prazos maiores e que os inventários devem incluir diferentes metodologias para que os seus objetivos sejam plenamente alcançados.Inventories of fauna directly access the diversity of a locality in a certain period of time. The primary data generated by these inventories comprise one of the most important steps in decisions making regarding the management of natural areas. However, several problems have been observed at different levels related to inventories of fauna in Brazil, and range from the training of humans to the lack of standardization of experimental design and selection of inappropriate methods. We present case studies of mammals, reptiles, amphibians and fishes, where they discussed issues such temporal variability and methods for detection of terrestrial fauna, suggesting that both inventories and monitoring programs should be extended for longer terms and that inventories should include different methodologies to ensure that their goals are fully achieved.

  14. Discovery Mondays - 'Eureka! Meet the inventors'

    CERN Document Server

    2006-01-01

    Fabio Sauli, the inventor of the GEM detector. Do you imagine an invention as a spontaneous brainchild emergi from the convoluted mind of some scatterbrained and dishevelled scientist? If so, you are mistaken! Join us at Microcosm for the next Discovery Monday at which inventors will be the guests of honour. There you will meet scientists who, thanks to their creativity, have made technological progress possible. By constantly rising to new scientific and technological challenges, CERN has delivered numerous innovations, particularly in the medical field. Members of the Crystal Clear collaboration and the inventor of the GEM detector will give talks about their innovations and their applications, in particular for medical purposes. You will also be able to speak to members of the Medipix collaboration, which is working on improvements to X-ray and gamma ray imaging techniques. The event will be conducted in French. Come to Microcosm, (Reception Building 33, Meyrin site), on Monday 6 February from 7.30 p...

  15. [Artificial Intelligence in Drug Discovery].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujiwara, Takeshi; Kamada, Mayumi; Okuno, Yasushi

    2018-04-01

    According to the increase of data generated from analytical instruments, application of artificial intelligence(AI)technology in medical field is indispensable. In particular, practical application of AI technology is strongly required in "genomic medicine" and "genomic drug discovery" that conduct medical practice and novel drug development based on individual genomic information. In our laboratory, we have been developing a database to integrate genome data and clinical information obtained by clinical genome analysis and a computational support system for clinical interpretation of variants using AI. In addition, with the aim of creating new therapeutic targets in genomic drug discovery, we have been also working on the development of a binding affinity prediction system for mutated proteins and drugs by molecular dynamics simulation using supercomputer "Kei". We also have tackled for problems in a drug virtual screening. Our developed AI technology has successfully generated virtual compound library, and deep learning method has enabled us to predict interaction between compound and target protein.

  16. Development of novel, 384-well high-throughput assay panels for human drug transporters: drug interaction and safety assessment in support of discovery research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Huaping; Shen, Ding Ren; Han, Yong-Hae; Kong, Yan; Balimane, Praveen; Marino, Anthony; Gao, Mian; Wu, Sophie; Xie, Dianlin; Soars, Matthew G; O'Connell, Jonathan C; Rodrigues, A David; Zhang, Litao; Cvijic, Mary Ellen

    2013-10-01

    Transporter proteins are known to play a critical role in affecting the overall absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion characteristics of drug candidates. In addition to efflux transporters (P-gp, BCRP, MRP2, etc.) that limit absorption, there has been a renewed interest in influx transporters at the renal (OATs, OCTs) and hepatic (OATPs, BSEP, NTCP, etc.) organ level that can cause significant clinical drug-drug interactions (DDIs). Several of these transporters are also critical for hepatobiliary disposition of bilirubin and bile acid/salts, and their inhibition is directly implicated in hepatic toxicities. Regulatory agencies took action to address transporter-mediated DDI with the goal of ensuring drug safety in the clinic and on the market. To meet regulatory requirements, advanced bioassay technology and automation solutions were implemented for high-throughput transporter screening to provide structure-activity relationship within lead optimization. To enhance capacity, several functional assay formats were miniaturized to 384-well throughput including novel fluorescence-based uptake and efflux inhibition assays using high-content image analysis as well as cell-based radioactive uptake and vesicle-based efflux inhibition assays. This high-throughput capability enabled a paradigm shift from studying transporter-related issues in the development space to identifying and dialing out these concerns early on in discovery for enhanced mechanism-based efficacy while circumventing DDIs and transporter toxicities.

  17. Invented Spelling, Word Stress, and Phonological Awareness in Relation to Reading Difficulties in Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehta, Sheena

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of the current research is to assess the clinical utility of an invented spelling tool and determine whether invented spelling and word stress (supra-segmental level measures) can also be used to better identify reading difficulties. The proposed invented spelling tool incorporated linguistic manipulations to alter the difficulty…

  18. 37 CFR 1.295 - Review of decision finally refusing to publish a statutory invention registration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... dissatisfied with the final refusal to publish a statutory invention registration for reasons other than... refunded if the final refusal to publish a statutory invention registration for reasons other than... refusing to publish a statutory invention registration. 1.295 Section 1.295 Patents, Trademarks, and...

  19. 45 CFR 7.1 - Duty of employee to report inventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Duty of employee to report inventions. 7.1 Section 7.1 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATION EMPLOYEE INVENTIONS § 7.1 Duty of employee to report inventions. Every Department employee is required to report to...

  20. Service Discovery At Home

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sundramoorthy, V.; Scholten, Johan; Jansen, P.G.; Hartel, Pieter H.

    Service discovery is a fady new field that kicked off since the advent of ubiquitous computing and has been found essential in the making of intelligent networks by implementing automated discovery and remote control between deviies. This paper provides an ovewiew and comparison of several prominent

  1. Academic Drug Discovery Centres

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirkegaard, Henriette Schultz; Valentin, Finn

    2014-01-01

    Academic drug discovery centres (ADDCs) are seen as one of the solutions to fill the innovation gap in early drug discovery, which has proven challenging for previous organisational models. Prior studies of ADDCs have identified the need to analyse them from the angle of their economic...

  2. Decades of Discovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-01

    For the past two-and-a-half decades, the Office of Science at the U.S. Department of Energy has been at the forefront of scientific discovery. Over 100 important discoveries supported by the Office of Science are represented in this document.

  3. Service discovery at home

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sundramoorthy, V.; Scholten, Johan; Jansen, P.G.; Hartel, Pieter H.

    2003-01-01

    Service discovery is a fairly new field that kicked off since the advent of ubiquitous computing and has been found essential in the making of intelligent networks by implementing automated discovery and remote control between devices. This paper provides an overview and comparison of several

  4. "Eureka, Eureka!" Discoveries in Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agarwal, Pankaj

    2011-01-01

    Accidental discoveries have been of significant value in the progress of science. Although accidental discoveries are more common in pharmacology and chemistry, other branches of science have also benefited from such discoveries. While most discoveries are the result of persistent research, famous accidental discoveries provide a fascinating…

  5. The Effects of Instruction of Creative Invention on Students' Situational Interest in Physics Lesson

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, Tim

    There are a few empirical studies (Palmer, 2008; Dohn, 2010) or intervention programs (Hidi & Harackiewicz, 2000) about students' situational interest in physics lessons, although the declining interest in physics among students has been well documented in the research literature (Gardner, 1998 ; International Bureau for Education, 2001; European Commission, 2007; Oon & Subramaniam, 2011). Even in the research area of science education, yet little is known about how to trigger students' catching and holding situational interest in a physics lesson. In this study, five intervention lessons of creative invention were developed. Each lesson consists of three parts including Eberle's (1971, 1972) SCAMPER technique on the creative thinking, knowledge and concepts of physics curriculum, hands-on activities related to both SCAMPER technique and physics concepts. Two surveys were developed and used to measure the situational interest and individual interest of students in physics lessons. Qualitative conversational interviews were used to interpret the sources of situational interest of students in physics lessons. Results in this study indicate that new inventive products and television programs or films related to SCAMPER can trigger the catching interest in physics lessons. Meaningful hands-on activities related to both SCAMPER technique and physics concepts can trigger the holding interest in physics lessons. There is no significant difference in situational interest among students with different academic abilities except in the topic related to electronic components. The students with lower academic ability have greater situational interest than the students with higher academic ability in learning the topic related to electronic components. There is no significant difference in situational interest between boys and girls except in the topic related to revolving paper lantern. Girls have higher situational interest than boys in learning the topic related to revolving

  6. On the threshold of discovery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cherenkov, P.A.

    1986-01-01

    The author, the discoverer of the Cherenkov radiation, recalls some interesting circumstances of his discoery 50 years ago and puts it into the context of the knowledge of the period. The discovery of Cherenkov radiation which today is in practice used especially for the detection of charged particles, was correctly understood and appreciated somewhat belatedly. At first the discovery was met with distrust and the original article announcing it was rejected by the magazine Nature. In effect, the discovery was not the result of any planned experiment but was the by-product of another research. It was, of course, allowed by previous achievements in various fields of physics, namely progress reached in the study of luminescence by S.I. Vavilov and his pupils. The discovery was made during an experimental study of luminescence induced in liquids by the β and γ radiations of uranyl salts. During his attempts to suppress the background radiation from vessel walls the autor found a ''background'' from pure solvent which differed from luminescence by being independent of the concentration, temperature and viscosity of the liquid. A closer examination of the phenomenon more or less by accident revealed its marked spatial asymmetry which had major importance for the development of the theory of the new phenomenon by I.V. Tamm and I.M. Frank. (A.K.)

  7. Nanotechnologies and nanomaterials: review of inventions. Part 1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    IVANOV Leonid Alexeevich

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The new technical solutions including inventions in the area of nanotechnology and nanomaterials are efficiently applied in communal and housing services as well as in construction and other joint fields. The invention «Protection system of urban housing and the method to build it (RU 2604933» refers to construction including environmental structures and can be used to protect cities, objects of national economy from destruction, floods and other types of natural and antropogenic disasters. Reinforcement of basements of city buildings is performed with barrels with fillers and flexible dampener-ties that receive natural and antropogenic impacts thus providing safety, including ecological one, for urban housing. The system is equipped with solar accumulators that supply energy to people in case of emergencies and additional monitoring system to inform people about emergencies. Storm discharge facilities protect cities and towns from floods. All that provides safety of inhabitants’ lives and functioning of enterprises when natural and antropogenic disasters such as floods, mud-and-stone flows and other types occur. The specialists may be also interested in the following nanotechnological inventions: the method to produce hardening mortar (RU 2601885, increase of durability of basalt fiber concrete by nanostructural additives, the method to treat surface and underground waters from titanium and its compounds by means of carbon nanotubes and ultrasound (RU 2575029, material on polymer basis for combined radio- and radiation protection (RU 2605696, thermoelectric heat pump with nanofilm semiconductor sides (RU 2595911, polymer composite nanomaterial (RU 2605590, the method to produce compositions from polymer and nanosize fillers (RU 2586979, the method to produce complex nanodispersed additive for highstrength concrete (RU 2563264 et al.

  8. Inventing around Edison’s Incandescent Lamp Patent

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Howells, John; Katznelson, Ron D.

    ’s ‘898 patent. Third, by analysis of forward citation to these patents we show that regardless of these inventions’ commercial viability in the incandescent lamp market, some became important prior art for new technological fields and some laid the groundwork for the later successful substitute...... for Edison’s carbon filament. Fourthly, we show that the recent view that Edison’s patent gave the patent holder General Electric (GE) a dominant position in the incandescent lamp market is incorrect: we show that besides commercially-successful invention around the claims of this patent, data for GE...

  9. Inventing around Edison’s incandescent lamp patent

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Howells, John; Ron D, Katznelson

    ’s ‘898 patent. Third, by analysis of forward citation to these patents we show that regardless of these inventions’ commercial viability in the incandescent lamp market, some became important prior art for new technological fields and some laid the groundwork for the later successful substitute...... for Edison’s carbon filament. Fourthly, we show that the recent view that Edison’s patent gave the patent holder General Electric (GE) a dominant position in the incandescent lamp market is incorrect: we show that besides commercially-successful invention around the claims of this patent, data for GE...

  10. Marking time the epic quest to invent the perfect calendar

    CERN Document Server

    Steel, Duncan

    2001-01-01

    ""If you lie awake worrying about the overnight transition from December 31, 1 b.c., to January 1, a.d. 1 (there is no year zero), then you will enjoy Duncan Steel's Marking Time.""--American Scientist ""No book could serve as a better guide to the cumulative invention that defines the imaginary threshold to the new millennium.""--Booklist A Fascinating March through History and the Evolution of the Modern-Day Calendar . . . In this vivid, fast-moving narrative, you'll discover the surprising story of how our modern calendar came about and how it has changed dramatically through the years.

  11. Automated discovery systems and the inductivist controversy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giza, Piotr

    2017-09-01

    The paper explores possible influences that some developments in the field of branches of AI, called automated discovery and machine learning systems, might have upon some aspects of the old debate between Francis Bacon's inductivism and Karl Popper's falsificationism. Donald Gillies facetiously calls this controversy 'the duel of two English knights', and claims, after some analysis of historical cases of discovery, that Baconian induction had been used in science very rarely, or not at all, although he argues that the situation has changed with the advent of machine learning systems. (Some clarification of terms machine learning and automated discovery is required here. The key idea of machine learning is that, given data with associated outcomes, software can be trained to make those associations in future cases which typically amounts to inducing some rules from individual cases classified by the experts. Automated discovery (also called machine discovery) deals with uncovering new knowledge that is valuable for human beings, and its key idea is that discovery is like other intellectual tasks and that the general idea of heuristic search in problem spaces applies also to discovery tasks. However, since machine learning systems discover (very low-level) regularities in data, throughout this paper I use the generic term automated discovery for both kinds of systems. I will elaborate on this later on). Gillies's line of argument can be generalised: thanks to automated discovery systems, philosophers of science have at their disposal a new tool for empirically testing their philosophical hypotheses. Accordingly, in the paper, I will address the question, which of the two philosophical conceptions of scientific method is better vindicated in view of the successes and failures of systems developed within three major research programmes in the field: machine learning systems in the Turing tradition, normative theory of scientific discovery formulated by Herbert Simon

  12. Literature in Focus: Engines of Discovery Meet the author Ted Wilson

    CERN Multimedia

    2007-01-01

    Ted Wilson is a world-renowned expert on particle accelerators and a brilliant speaker. He came to CERN in 1967, where he worked on the SPS and collaborated closely with John Adams, taking part in the design and commissioning of the accelerator. In 1980, he joined the PS and worked on the antiproton accumulator. In 1991, he became a member of the LHC Committee and was entrusted with the task of writing a report on the design of the future accelerator. This book for the first time chronicles the development of particle accelerators from the invention of electrostatic accelerators, linear accelerators and the cyclotron to the colliders of today. It also addresses accelerators used as sources of x-rays, for medical purposes and in industrial applications. The book identifies the crucial discoveries in applied physics and engineering that have driven the field and gives the reader insight into the people who made these discoveries as well as the methods they used. Come a...

  13. EkSTEMiT Learning Module and Inculcation of Inventive Thinking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norhaslinda Abdul Samad

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The young generation of today must be prepared with the knowledge and skills necessary to be able to compete globally thus boosting economic growth and prosperity. Therefore, students should not only be equipped with knowledge but they are in need of the “21st century skills”, which is the top priority and one of the main education agenda goals today. As one of the domains in the 21st century skills, inventive thinking includes elements of flexibility, self-regulation, curiosity, creativity, risk taking, higher order thinking and reasoning. In order to inculcate inventive thinking for students, the EkSTEMiT Learning Module was developed for the topic Electrochemistry; one of the most difficult topics to learn among students. EkSTEMiT Learning Module was developed based on the STEM (Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics integrated model. Thus, this paper will discuss the conceptual framework underlying the development of EkSTEMiT Learning Module with descriptions of learning activities designed for Electrochemistry.

  14. The Greatest Mathematical Discovery?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bailey, David H.; Borwein, Jonathan M.

    2010-05-12

    What mathematical discovery more than 1500 years ago: (1) Is one of the greatest, if not the greatest, single discovery in the field of mathematics? (2) Involved three subtle ideas that eluded the greatest minds of antiquity, even geniuses such as Archimedes? (3) Was fiercely resisted in Europe for hundreds of years after its discovery? (4) Even today, in historical treatments of mathematics, is often dismissed with scant mention, or else is ascribed to the wrong source? Answer: Our modern system of positional decimal notation with zero, together with the basic arithmetic computational schemes, which were discovered in India about 500 CE.

  15. Brittany invents the cantonal methanation; La Bretagne invente la methanisation cantonale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    2003-05-01

    In the canton of Lannilis (Finistere, Brittany, France), a methanation unit will be built for the valorization of the organic wastes from local animal husbandry and food industries. The amount of wastes to be processed represents about 100000 tons/year, i.e. two thirds of the organic matter in excess of the canton. The natural methanation process developed by Schwarting Umwelt company (Germany) will be used in association with a complementary biological process for nitrogen developed by Zenon company (Canada). This paper details the organization of wastes collection and the different steps of the methanation process (mesophilic digestion (37 deg. C), thermophilic digestion (55 deg. C)). The biogas is transformed into electricity and hot water through a cogeneration unit. (J.S.)

  16. Development of a Schistosoma mansoni shotgun O-glycan microarray and application to the discovery of new antigenic schistosome glycan motifs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Diepen, Angela; van der Plas, Arend-Jan; Kozak, Radoslaw P; Royle, Louise; Dunne, David W; Hokke, Cornelis H

    2015-06-01

    Upon infection with Schistosoma, antibody responses are mounted that are largely directed against glycans. Over the last few years significant progress has been made in characterising the antigenic properties of N-glycans of Schistosoma mansoni. Despite also being abundantly expressed by schistosomes, much less is understood about O-glycans and antibody responses to these have not yet been systematically analysed. Antibody binding to schistosome glycans can be analysed efficiently and quantitatively using glycan microarrays, but O-glycan array construction and exploration is lagging behind because no universal O-glycanase is available, and release of O-glycans has been dependent on chemical methods. Recently, a modified hydrazinolysis method has been developed that allows the release of O-glycans with free reducing termini and limited degradation, and we applied this method to obtain O-glycans from different S. mansoni life stages. Two-dimensional HPLC separation of 2-aminobenzoic acid-labelled O-glycans generated 362 O-glycan-containing fractions that were printed on an epoxide-modified glass slide, thereby generating the first shotgun O-glycan microarray containing naturally occurring schistosome O-glycans. Monoclonal antibodies and mass spectrometry showed that the O-glycan microarray contains well-known antigenic glycan motifs as well as numerous other, potentially novel, antibody targets. Incubations of the microarrays with sera from Schistosoma-infected humans showed substantial antibody responses to O-glycans in addition to those observed to the previously investigated N- and glycosphingolipid glycans. This underlines the importance of the inclusion of these often schistosome-specific O-glycans in glycan antigen studies and indicates that O-glycans contain novel antigenic motifs that have potential for use in diagnostic methods and studies aiming at the discovery of vaccine targets. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights

  17. Sustainable Outreach: Lessons Learned from Space Update and Discovery Dome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reiff, P. H.; Sumners, C.; Law, C. C.

    2009-12-01

    A sustainable program lives on past its initial funding cycle, and develops a network of users that ensures continued life, either by fees, advertising revenue, or by making the program more successful in later sponsored grants. Teachers like free things, so having a sponsor for products such as lithographs or CD-Roms is key to wide distribution. In 1994 we developed “Space Update®”, under the NASA “Public Use of the Internet” program. It has new editions annually, with over 40,000 distributed so far (many purchased but most free at teacher and student workshops). In 1996 we created a special edition “Space Weather®”, which includes the space weather module from Space Update plus other resources. Initially developed with funding from the IMAGE mission, it is now sponsored by Cluster and MMS. A new edition is published annually and distributed in the “Sun-Earth Day” packet; total distribution now exceeds 180,000. “Earth Update” was created in 1999 under cooperative agreement “Museums Teaching Planet Earth”. It now has a total distribution of over 20,000. Both Earth Update and Space Update were developed to be museum kiosk software, and more than 15 museums have them on display. Over 4,000 users are active in our e-Teacher network and 577 in our museum educator network. Although these can certainly be considered successful because of their longevity and user base, we have had a far more dramatic sustainable program arise in the last six years… the “Discovery Dome®”. Invented at HMNS and developed under NASA Cooperative Agreement “Immersive Earth”, this dome was the first digital portable planetarium that also showed fulldome movies with an interactive interface (first shown to the public at the Dec 2003 AGU meeting). The Discovery Dome network (tinyurl.com/DiscDome) has spun those initial 6 NASA-funded domes into over 90 installations in 22 states and 23 countries. Creating high quality content is quite expensive and so needs

  18. The invention and early history of the CCD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, George E.

    2009-01-01

    As the first practical solid-state imaging device, the invention of the Charge Coupled Device has profoundly affected image sensing technology. They are used in a wide range of applications as both area and linear imaging devices starting with the replacement of imaging tubes used in commercial TV cameras and camcorders. The rapid increase of their use in digital cameras has initiated the demise of film photography and created vast new markets with great economic benefit for many. Other uses include a wide variety of scientific, surveillance and scanning applications. The inception of the device at Bell Labs by Willard S. Boyle and George E. Smith in 1969 was strongly influenced by several unique factors existing both within Bell Labs and the current world state of technology. These factors and their relevance will be discussed along with the train of thought leading to the invention. Early experimental devices and their initial applications were vigorously pursued and will be described. Current applications will be mentioned.

  19. Older, sociable capuchins (Cebus capucinus) invent more social behaviors, but younger monkeys innovate more in other contexts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, Susan E.; Godoy, Irene

    2017-01-01

    An important extension to our understanding of evolutionary processes has been the discovery of the roles that individual and social learning play in creating recurring phenotypes on which selection can act. Cultural change occurs chiefly through invention of new behavioral variants combined with social transmission of the novel behaviors to new practitioners. Therefore, understanding what makes some individuals more likely to innovate and/or transmit new behaviors is critical for creating realistic models of culture change. The difficulty in identifying what behaviors qualify as new in wild animal populations has inhibited researchers from understanding the characteristics of behavioral innovations and innovators. Here, we present the findings of a long-term, systematic study of innovation (10 y, 10 groups, and 234 individuals) in wild capuchin monkeys (Cebus capucinus) in Lomas Barbudal, Costa Rica. Our methodology explicitly seeks novel behaviors, requiring their absence during the first 5 y of the study to qualify as novel in the second 5 y of the study. Only about 20% of 187 innovations identified were retained in innovators’ individual behavioral repertoires, and 22% were subsequently seen in other group members. Older, more social monkeys were more likely to invent new forms of social interaction, whereas younger monkeys were more likely to innovate in other behavioral domains (foraging, investigative, and self-directed behaviors). Sex and rank had little effect on innovative tendencies. Relative to apes, capuchins devote more of their innovations repertoire to investigative behaviors and social bonding behaviors and less to foraging and comfort behaviors. PMID:28739946

  20. Multidimensional process discovery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ribeiro, J.T.S.

    2013-01-01

    Typically represented in event logs, business process data describe the execution of process events over time. Business process intelligence (BPI) techniques such as process mining can be applied to get strategic insight into business processes. Process discovery, conformance checking and

  1. The invention of graphene electronics and the physics of epitaxial graphene on silicon carbide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Heer, Walt A

    2012-01-01

    Graphene electronics was officially invented at the Georgia Institute of Technology in 2003 after experimental and theoretical research on graphene properties starting from 2001. This paper focuses on the motivation and events leading to the invention of graphene electronics, as well as on recent developments. Graphene electronics was originally conceived as a new electronics paradigm to incorporate the room-temperature ballistic and coherent properties of carbon nanotubes in a patternable electronic material. Graphene on silicon carbide was chosen as the most suitable material. Other electronics schemes, involving transferred (exfoliated and chemical vapor deposition-produced) graphitic materials, that operate in the diffusive regime may not be competitive with standard methods and may therefore not significantly impact electronics. In recent years, epitaxial graphene has improved to the point where graphene electronics according to the original concept appears to be within reach. Beyond electronics, epitaxial graphene research has led to important developments in graphene physics in general and has become a leading platform for graphene science as well.

  2. Defining Creativity with Discovery

    OpenAIRE

    Wilson, Nicholas Charles; Martin, Lee

    2017-01-01

    The standard definition of creativity has enabled significant empirical and theoretical advances, yet contains philosophical conundrums concerning the nature of novelty and the role of recognition and values. In this work we offer an act of conceptual valeting that addresses these issues and in doing so, argue that creativity definitions can be extended through the use of discovery. Drawing on dispositional realist philosophy we outline why adding the discovery and bringing into being of new ...

  3. On the antiproton discovery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piccioni, O.

    1989-01-01

    The author of this article describes his own role in the discovery of the antiproton. Although Segre and Chamberlain received the Nobel Prize in 1959 for its discovery, the author claims that their experimental method was his idea which he communicated to them informally in December 1954. He describes how his application for citizenship (he was Italian), and other scientists' manipulation, prevented him from being at Berkeley to work on the experiment himself. (UK)

  4. Discovery Driven Growth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bukh, Per Nikolaj

    2009-01-01

    Anmeldelse af Discovery Driven Growh : A breakthrough process to reduce risk and seize opportunity, af Rita G. McGrath & Ian C. MacMillan, Boston: Harvard Business Press. Udgivelsesdato: 14 august......Anmeldelse af Discovery Driven Growh : A breakthrough process to reduce risk and seize opportunity, af Rita G. McGrath & Ian C. MacMillan, Boston: Harvard Business Press. Udgivelsesdato: 14 august...

  5. The π discovery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fowler, P.H.

    1988-01-01

    The paper traces the discovery of the Π meson. The discovery was made by exposure of nuclear emulsions to cosmic radiation at high altitudes, with subsequent scanning of the emulsions for meson tracks. Disintegration of nuclei by a negative meson, and the decay of a Π meson were both observed. Further measurements revealed the mass of the meson. The studies carried out on the origin of the Π-mesons, and their mode of decay, are both described. (U.K.)

  6. Development and application of a 6.5 million feature affymetrix genechip® for massively parallel discovery of single position polymorphisms in lettuce (Lactuca spp.)

    OpenAIRE

    Stoffel, Kevin; van Leeuwen, Hans; Kozik, Alexander; Caldwell, David; Ashrafi, Hamid; Cui, Xinping; Tan, Xiaoping; Hill, Theresa; Reyes-Chin-Wo, Sebastian; Truco, Maria-Jose; Michelmore, Richard W; Van Deynze, Allen

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background High-resolution genetic maps are needed in many crops to help characterize the genetic diversity that determines agriculturally important traits. Hybridization to microarrays to detect single feature polymorphisms is a powerful technique for marker discovery and genotyping because of its highly parallel nature. However, microarrays designed for gene expression analysis rarely provide sufficient gene coverage for optimal detection o...

  7. The development of biomedical engineering as experienced by one biomedical engineer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newell, Jonathan C

    2012-12-12

    This personal essay described the development of the field of Biomedical Engineering from its early days, from the perspective of one who lived through that development. It describes the making of a major invention using data that had been rejected by other scientists, the re-discovery of an obscure fact of physiology and its use in developing a major medical instrument, the development of a new medical imaging modality, and the near-death rescue of a research project. The essay concludes with comments about the development and present status of impedance imaging, and recent changes in the evolution of biomedical engineering as a field.

  8. Gene discovery from Jatropha curcas by sequencing of ESTs from normalized and full-length enriched cDNA library from developing seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sugantham Priyanka Annabel

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Jatropha curcas L. is promoted as an important non-edible biodiesel crop worldwide. Jatropha oil, which is a triacylglycerol, can be directly blended with petro-diesel or transesterified with methanol and used as biodiesel. Genetic improvement in jatropha is needed to increase the seed yield, oil content, drought and pest resistance, and to modify oil composition so that it becomes a technically and economically preferred source for biodiesel production. However, genetic improvement efforts in jatropha could not take advantage of genetic engineering methods due to lack of cloned genes from this species. To overcome this hurdle, the current gene discovery project was initiated with an objective of isolating as many functional genes as possible from J. curcas by large scale sequencing of expressed sequence tags (ESTs. Results A normalized and full-length enriched cDNA library was constructed from developing seeds of J. curcas. The cDNA library contained about 1 × 106 clones and average insert size of the clones was 2.1 kb. Totally 12,084 ESTs were sequenced to average high quality read length of 576 bp. Contig analysis revealed 2258 contigs and 4751 singletons. Contig size ranged from 2-23 and there were 7333 ESTs in the contigs. This resulted in 7009 unigenes which were annotated by BLASTX. It showed 3982 unigenes with significant similarity to known genes and 2836 unigenes with significant similarity to genes of unknown, hypothetical and putative proteins. The remaining 191 unigenes which did not show similarity with any genes in the public database may encode for unique genes. Functional classification revealed unigenes related to broad range of cellular, molecular and biological functions. Among the 7009 unigenes, 6233 unigenes were identified to be potential full-length genes. Conclusions The high quality normalized cDNA library was constructed from developing seeds of J. curcas for the first time and 7009 unigenes coding

  9. 75 FR 51823 - Government-Owned Inventions; Availability for Licensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-23

    ...: Licensing information and copies of the U.S. patent applications listed below may be obtained by writing to.../402-0220. A signed Confidential Disclosure Agreement will be required to receive copies of the patent... infertility and irregular menstrual periods than in healthy women. The discovery of MATER as an important...

  10. Teaching Standard Deviation by Building from Student Invention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Day, James; Nakahara, Hiroko; Bonn, Doug

    2010-01-01

    First-year physics laboratories are often driven by a mix of goals that includes the illustration or discovery of basic physics principles and a myriad of technical skills involving specific equipment, data analysis, and report writing. The sheer number of such goals seems guaranteed to produce cognitive overload, even when highly detailed…

  11. The nanotechnological inventions raise competitive ability of the products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VLASOV Vladimir Alexeevich

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available A brief description of the nanotechnological inventions is given. The inventions in the area of nanotechnologies and nanomaterials produce a profound effect in construction, housing and communal services and adjacent economic fields as they allow us: to obtain high strength and durability of surfaces of the details, to provide different materials with hydrophil properties, to increase efficiency of transformation of light energy into electrical one etc., and in general – to raise competitive ability of the products. For example, the method of production of solar element and a unit of solar elements (RU 2532137 comprises following stages: formation of pn-transfer in semiconductor base plate, formation of passivating layer on the light-receptive surface and/or non light-receptive surface of semiconductor base plate and formation of power robbing electrodes on the light-receptive surface and non light-receptive. A film of aluminium oxide is formed as passivating layer, its thickness is up to 40 nm, and lectrode is formed by baking conductive paste under the temperature 500–900ͦͦ°C for 1 second – 30 inutes with formation of sintered product. The sintered product penetrates through passivating layer setting electric contact between electrode and base plate. The formation of aluminium ide with specified thickness on the surface of base plate makes it possible to achieve good passivating characteristics and good electric contact between silica and electrode only by eans of baking conductive paste, that is standard technology. Moreover the baking stage which was necessary to get the effect of film passivation for aluminium oxide in the past now can be cancelled to decrease costs. The specialists may be also interested in the following nanotechnological inventions: reinforced flaked element made of natural or conglomerate stone and its multilayer protective coating (RU 2520193; fine organic suspension of carbon metal-containing nanostructures

  12. Ibuprofen: from invention to an OTC therapeutic mainstay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rainsford, K D

    2013-01-01

    The discovery of ibuprofen's anti-inflammatory activity by Dr (now Professor) Stewart Adams and colleagues (Boots Pure Chemical Company Ltd, Nottingham, UK) 50 years ago represented a milestone in the development of anti-inflammatory analgesics. Subsequent clinical studies were the basis for ibuprofen being widely accepted for treating painful conditions at high anti-rheumatic doses (≤ 2400 mg/d), with lower doses (≤ 1200 mg/d for ≤ 10 days) for mild-moderate acute pain (e.g. dental pain, headache, dysmenorrhoea, respiratory symptoms and acute injury). The early observations have since been verified in studies comparing ibuprofen with newer cyclo-oxygenase-2 selective inhibitors ('coxibs'), paracetamol and other non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). The use of the low-dose, non-prescription, over-the-counter (OTC) drug was based on marketing approval in 1983 (UK) and 1984 (USA); and it is now available in over 80 countries. The relative safety of OTC ibuprofen has been supported by large-scale controlled studies. It has the same low gastro-intestinal (GI) effects as paracetamol (acetaminophen) and fewer GI effects than aspirin. Ibuprofen is a racemate. Its physicochemical properties and the short plasma-elimination half-life of the R(-) isomer, together with its limited ability to inhibit cyclo-oxygenase-1 (COX-1) and thus prostaglandin (PG) synthesis, compared with that of S(+)-ibuprofen, are responsible for the relatively low GI toxicity. The R(-) isomer is then converted in the body to the S(+) isomer after absorption in the GI tract. Ex vivo inhibition of COX-1 (thromboxane A(2)) and COX-2 (PGE(2)) at the plasma concentrations of S(+)-ibuprofen corresponding to those found in the plasma following ingestion of 400 mg ibuprofen in dental and other inflammatory pain models provides evidence of the anti-inflammatory mechanism at OTC dosages. R(-)-ibuprofen has effects on leucocytes, suggesting that ibuprofen has anti-leucocyte effects, which

  13. Fission and the discovery of isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thoennessen, M.

    2014-01-01

    The discovery of new isotopes requires new developments in accelerator and detector technology. The new RI Beam Factory at RIKEN and the future projects FAIR at GSI and FRIB at MSU promise to expand the nuclear horizon even further. In the talk a short history of the role that fission played in the discovery of isotopes will be presented and future perspectives will be discussed

  14. Inventing the future: Energy and the CO2 "greenhouse" effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, E. E., Jr.

    Dennis Gabor, A winner of the Nobel Prize for Physics, once remarked that man cannot predict the future, but he can invent it. The point is that while we do not know with certainty how things will turn out, our own actions can play a powerful role in shaping the future. Naturally, Gabor had in mind the power of science and technology, and the model includes that of correction or feedback. It is an important: Man does not have the gift of prophecy. Any manager or government planner would err seriously by masterminding a plan based unalterably on some vision of the future, without provision for mid-course correction. It is also a comforting thought. With man's notorious inability to create reliable predictions about such matters as elections, stock markets, energy supply and demand, and, of course, the weather, it is a great consolation to feel that we can still retain some control of the future.

  15. From Hallucination to Fiction: The Invention of Meaning in Psychosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lippi, Silvia; Lehaire, Célia; Petit, Laetitia

    2016-12-01

    Taking their inspiration from a case history, the authors explore the effects of a writing workshop led by a professional writer for patients in a psychiatric hospital. This workshop allowed different modes of transference to unfold: transference to the analyst-therapist, transference to the writer who led the workshop, and transference to the other members of the group. The writing activity created conditions in which there could be a movement from hallucination to delusion-a delusion expressed in fiction through the act of writing. Psychotic patients "invent" a writing that remains unfinished and that relates to the experiences of persecution. Writing thus makes it possible for them to tolerate language, through its transformation into writing.

  16. The Invention of Infertility in the Classical Greek World:

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flemming, Rebecca

    2013-01-01

    Summary The article examines the understandings of, and responses to, reproductive failure in the classical Greek world. It discusses explanations and treatments for non-procreation in a range of ancient Greek medical texts, focusing on the writings of the Hippocratic Corpus, which devote considerable energy to matters of fertility and generation, and places them alongside the availability of a divine approach to dealing with reproductive disruption, the possibility of asking various deities, including the specialist healing god Asclepius, for assistance in having children. Though the relations between these options are complex, they combine to produce a rich remedial array for those struggling with childlessness, the possibility that any impediment to procreation can be removed. Classical Greece, rather than the nineteenth century, or even 1978, is thus the time when “infertility,” understood as an essentially reversible somatic state, was invented. PMID:24362276

  17. Discovery of natural resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guild, P.W.

    1976-01-01

    Mankind will continue to need ores of more or less the types and grades used today to supply its needs for new mineral raw materials, at least until fusion or some other relatively cheap, inexhaustible energy source is developed. Most deposits being mined today were exposed at the surface or found by relatively simple geophysical or other prospecting techniques, but many of these will be depleted in the foreseeable future. The discovery of deeper or less obvious deposits to replace them will require the conjunction of science and technology to deduce the laws that governed the concentration of elements into ores and to detect and evaluate the evidence of their whereabouts. Great theoretical advances are being made to explain the origins of ore deposits and understand the general reasons for their localization. These advances have unquestionable value for exploration. Even a large deposit is, however, very small, and, with few exceptions, it was formed under conditions that have long since ceased to exist. The explorationist must suppress a great deal of "noise" to read and interpret correctly the "signals" that can define targets and guide the drilling required to find it. Is enough being done to ensure the long-term availability of mineral raw materials? The answer is probably no, in view of the expanding consumption and the difficulty of finding new deposits, but ingenuity, persistence, and continued development of new methods and tools to add to those already at hand should put off the day of "doing without" for many years. The possibility of resource exhaustion, especially in view of the long and increasing lead time needed to carry out basic field and laboratory studies in geology, geophysics, and geochemistry and to synthesize and analyze the information gained from them counsels against any letting down of our guard, however (17). Research and exploration by government, academia, and industry must be supported and encouraged; we cannot wait until an eleventh

  18. Development and application of a 6.5 million feature Affymetrix Genechip® for massively parallel discovery of single position polymorphisms in lettuce (Lactuca spp.)

    OpenAIRE

    Stoffel, Kevin; Kozik, Alexander; Ashrafi, Hamid; Cui, Xinping; Tan, Xiaoping; Hill, Theresa; Reyes-Chin-Wo, Sebastian; Truco, Maria-Jose; Michelmore, Richard W; Van Deynze, Allen

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background High-resolution genetic maps are needed in many crops to help characterize the genetic diversity that determines agriculturally important traits. Hybridization to microarrays to detect single feature polymorphisms is a powerful technique for marker discovery and genotyping because of its highly parallel nature. However, microarrays designed for gene expression analysis rarely provide sufficient gene coverage for optimal detection of nucleotide polymorphisms, which limits u...

  19. 7 CFR 1280.231 - Patents, copyrights, inventions, product formulations, and publications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES... the rental, sale leasing, franchising, or other uses of such patents, copyrights, inventions, or...

  20. A System Designed for Rice? Materiality and the Invention/Discovery of the System of Rice Intensification

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Glover, D.

    2011-01-01

    The System of Rice Intensification (SRI) is a novel approach to rice cultivation that is claimed to be both more productive and more sustainable than conventional methods. It is said to have been discovered by a French Jesuit missionary working in Madagascar during the 1970s and 1980s. The system