WorldWideScience

Sample records for invent original high-functional

  1. Fiscal 1996 project on the R and D of industrial scientific technology under consignment from NEDO. Report on the results of the R and D of technologies to invent original high-functional materials; 1996 nendo sangyo kagaku gijutsu kenkyu kaihatsu jigyo Shin Energy Sangyo Gijutsu Kaihatsu Kiko itaku. Dokusoteki kokino zairyo sosei gijutsu no kenkyu kaihatsu seika hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    Technologies were described of creating original high-functional materials. The paper presented the following two as fields of technology on which importance is to be placed for the future R and D from technological and socioeconomic points of view. In the field of new materials of living organism imitation type, remarkably high-performance/high-functional new materials are invented by imitating the precise function manifestation mechanism of the ultimate living organism in which a great variety of matters are in harmony with each other and manifest complicated and high-level functions. In the field of structural control/synthesis process technology, the paper is aimed at manifestation of newer and higher functions/performance and innovation of the synthesis process, and also at developing technology to precisely control structure and process of materials including surface and interface in correspondence with atomic/molecular to macro levels. Up to the present, conducted were an examination of autonomous response materials (the subtheme is a R and D of polymer/composite multi-stimuli-responsive materials) and a R and D of precise polymerization (control) polymer materials. 239 refs., 129 figs., 49 tabs.

  2. Fiscal 1997 project on the R and D of industrial scientific technology under consignment from NEDO. Report on the results of the R and D of technologies to invent original high-functional materials (development of precise structure control materials for enhancement of oil refining); 1997 nendo sangyo kagaku gijutsu kenkyu kaihatsu jigyo Shin Energy Sangyo Gijutsu Sogo Kaihatsu Kiko itaku. Dokusoteki kokino zairyo sosei gijutsu no kenkyu kaihatsu (sekiyu seisei kodoka seimitsu kozo seigyo zairyo kaihatsu) seika hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    The paper described the R and D of technologies for creating original high-functional materials under the R and D system of industrial scientific technology. Japan chemical Innovation Institute (JCII) is conducting intensive joint researches under consignment from NEDO with private companies, universities and national research institutes. Among those, the paper reported the fiscal 1997 results of the following two researches conducted as development of precise structure control materials for enhancement of oil refining: precision catalytic polymerization and multi-dimensional space polymer. As to the precision catalytic polymerization, the paper is aimed at developing base technologies for the molecular weight and stereoregularity by which remarkable improvement in performance of addition polymerization type polymer can be expected, and on the development of a polymerization catalyst which arbitarily controls the primary structure such as end group structure and of a precision addition polymerization process. Subthemes are addition polymerization with limit and oriented catalytic polymerization. In relation to multi-dimensional space polymer, the paper is aimed at developing highly selective polymerization technology of aromatic compounds using enzyme related catalysts and synthesis technology of regular structure polymer, and synthesis technology of new polymer group having a new chain pattern except covalent bond/new polymer group having characteristics in three-dimensional space geometric structure. 244 refs,, 160 figs., 94 tabs.

  3. Measuring originality: common patterns of invention in research and technology organizations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tang, D.L.; Wiseman, E.; Keating, T.; Archambeault, J.

    2016-07-01

    The National Research Council of Canada (NRC) co-chairs an international working group on performance benchmarking and impact assessment of Research and Technology Organizations (RTO). The Knowledge Management branch of the NRC conducted the patent analysis portion of the benchmarking study. In this paper, we present a Weighted Originality index that can more accurately measure the spread of technological combinations in terms of hierarchical patent classifications. Using this patent indicator, we revealed a common pattern of distribution of invention originality in RTOs. Our work contributes to the methodological advancement of patent measures for the scientometric community. (Author)

  4. Invention/Re-invention

    OpenAIRE

    Mera, M.

    2009-01-01

    This article examines the relationship between texts that are re-invented for different media and/or contexts including: film remakes, prequels and sequels, video games that become films and vice versa, internet mashups, and television series that move across geographical borders. The article points to significant sources in this emerging field and presents some of the challenges that arise in relation to its study. In particular questions of originality, fidelity, repetition and difference a...

  5. Fiscal 1997 project on the R and D of industrial scientific technology under consignment from NEDO. Report on the results of the R and D of technologies to invent original high-functional materials (technical development of structure control materials / R and D of multi-stimuli-responsive materials); 1997 nendo sangyo kagaku gijutsu kenkyu kaihatsu jigyo Shin Energy Sangyo Gijutsu Sogo Kaihatsu Kiko itaku. Dokusoteki kokino zairyo sosei gijutsu no kenkyu kaihatsu (kozo seigyo zairyo gijutsu kaihatsu) kodo shigeki oto zairyo no kenkyu kaihatsu seika hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    The paper described multi-stimuli-responsive materials out of the technology developments for creating original high-functional materials under the system of R and D of industrial scientific technologies. These are materials which repeatedly reproduce functions such as separation, penetration and movement in response to stimuli by imitating living organisms. In relation to polymer multi-stimuli-responsive materials, various copolymers were synthesized using N-acetyl (meta) acrylamide, of which the synthesis method was established in the previous fiscal year, as a main component, and thermal responsive polymer with upper critical solution temperature which becomes a base of separation functional materials was searched for. By immobilizing it with molecular recognition ligand, measured was thermal dependence of affinity of the immobilized matter to albumin. Also studied were molecular recognition cell adhesion/separation functional materials. Concerning composite multi-stimuli-responsive materials, with the use of silica microcapsule surface-immobilized with silane coupling agent, studied were the optimum conditions for immobilizing thermo-responsive polymer to the surface of the capsule. Using motion functional materials by ion exchange resin, obtained was motion functionality which is satisfactory at the state of practical use. 94 refs., 82 figs., 16 tabs.

  6. Invention class

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Yeon Jung

    1990-03-01

    This book gives descriptions of whole conception of patent, which includes invention and human, the way to invent, ten commandments of invention, 50 well-known inventions and inventors, conception of industrial property right system, measures on industrial property right practice, measures on industrial property right invasion, the best 10 patent dispute in history, the best 10 real patent cases in history, field of patent invention, inventions and supporting system of technical development ; supporting by the patent and trademark office and the commerce-industry ministry.

  7. Invention note and patent note

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, Sung Su

    1997-09-01

    This book deals with origin of invention and term related patent and invention, making idea, brain storming, 10 laws of invention skill, attitude of inventors, invention order, making good inventions, patent system, preparation of application, procedure and method of patent, management of patent, patent and trademark office, patent lawyer, copyright, new intellectual property right, industrial property right, trademark, invasion of industrial property right, patent, Judgment, preparation of items, application of industrial property right and effect of inventor and related people.

  8. Fiscal 1997 project on the R and D of industrial scientific technology under consignment form NEDO. Report on the results of the R and D of technologies to invent original high-functional materials (technical development of structure control materials / R and D of molecular harmonized materials); 1997 nendo sangyo kagaku gijutsu kenkyu kaihatsu jigyo Shin Energy Sangyo Gijutsu Sogo Kaihatsu Kiko itaku. Dokusoteki kokino zairyo sosei gijutsu no kenkyu kaihatsu (kozo seigyo zairyo gijutsu kaihatsu) bunshi kyocho zairyo no kenkyu kaihatsu seika hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    By establishing microtechnology using molecular-level bottoming-up (molecular harmonization) by imitating the system of living organism, the paper described the R and D of molecular harmonized materials aiming at developing high-functional/high-performance materials such as high-performance catalyst, photo-information functional materials and sensing materials. Under consignment from NEDO, Japan Chemical innovation Institute started the 5-year plan in fiscal 1997. Self-assembled molecular films, in which organic molecules are orderly arranged by self-assembly, aim at developing new memory/optical/sensing materials. Mesophase materials which are such materials as liquid crystal showing the intermediate state between solid and liquid, develop optical/photoconductive materials using precise molecular orientation controllability. Macroporous materials are such substances as zeolite having molecular size micro pores. The paper aims at establishment of synthesis techniques of them and development of high-performance catalyst, etc. using them. In the comprehensive investigational research, conducted was a survey of the trend overseas in addition to a study of subjects in question. Further, the supporting basic study was reconsigned to universities, etc. 57 refs., 62 figs., 17 tabs.

  9. Overcome IMF crisis with idea and invention

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Yeon Jung

    1998-01-01

    This book introduces the invention as a tool to overcome IMF crisis. These are the titles of the way to create invention and idea : what is idea? everyone can create something, have a confidence, this is patent, replace or change something, invention is not logical, challenge the normal law, throw away stereotype, movement of idea, original imagination, there are a lot of solutions, there is no expert, have a positive thought, why does inventor invent? necessity is invention of mother, three stage of idea and invention and imitation for invention.

  10. Overcome IMF crisis with idea and invention

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Yeon Jung

    1998-01-15

    This book introduces the invention as a tool to overcome IMF crisis. These are the titles of the way to create invention and idea : what is idea? everyone can create something, have a confidence, this is patent, replace or change something, invention is not logical, challenge the normal law, throw away stereotype, movement of idea, original imagination, there are a lot of solutions, there is no expert, have a positive thought, why does inventor invent? necessity is invention of mother, three stage of idea and invention and imitation for invention.

  11. Original Inventions based on Chemical scaffolds and electro-physical activity-derived biosimilars interacting with specialties in biology yielding platforms for analysis in virology and antiviral compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yamaji N

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Original inventions in developing countries, in terms of number of patents filed, granted and that are taken to useful applications as well as in terms of publications of high impact remain relatively lower [1,2] compared to that of developed nations. The reasons could be attributed to lack of importance given to basic research in funding, the number of institutes involved, limited technical support or expertise available etc [1]. Though such initiatives may take a long time to yield fruits, one of the parallel steps we considered worth was to take the original inventions from Japan, born out of basic research in one field, taken through an application-oriented inter disciplinary interactive research in healthcare, thereby paving way for novel solutions. Thus was conceived, the Inventions- Inter-Disciplinary Interactions and Solutions (IIDIAS, an academic session as a part of the one-day International stem cell meet organized every year in the month of October by Nichi-In Centre for Regenerative Medicine (NCRM, an academic Institute based in Chennai, India. In the IIDIAS session, based on original invention(s presented as a prelude in brief, original interdisciplinary interactive research work based on the original invention by NCRM and/or its collaborators are presented by the faculty of the relevant institute. That will be followed by an interactive session in which the potential solutions based on the above accomplishments would be discussed. The IIDIAS session 2014 was based on the following two inventions: A bio-film-based biosimilar invented by an electro-physicist A unique polymer invented by a chemical engineer Inventions and Interdisciplinary Interactions: Invention –I: The bio-film-based biosimilar invented by an electro-physicist: An electro physicist with the Kyoto University, Japan, Dr Nobuyuki Yamaji observed during his experiments that plants and mammalian tissues secrete a layer of fluid after getting hit by

  12. Inventing Freud.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudnytsky, Peter L

    2008-06-01

    Written to commemorate the 150th anniversary of Freud's birth, this paper construes Nina Coltart's statement that "if Freud did not exist it would be necessary to invent him," with its implicit comparison of Freud to God, to refer to (a) the things that Freud taught that are incontrovertibly true; (b) the unavoidable subjectivity in all judgments of Freud; and (c) the resemblances between psychoanalysis and religion. This last comparison is likewise seen to have both positive and negative aspects. Freud's ideas have inspired many people, yet he unscientifically arrogated sovereign authority over psychoanalysis. Freud's admirers are reminded of his extreme difficulty in admitting he was wrong and changing his mind when he should have known better, while his detractors are encouraged to consider the evidence supporting many of Freud's core tenets and to recognize that his discovery of psychoanalysis is indeed one of the supreme achievements in human history.

  13. Inventors and Inventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawson, Tom

    An 8-day unit introduces middle school students to American inventors and inventions. In separate lessons, students examine the patenting process, women inventors, minority inventors, Native American inventors, the airplane, Thomas Edison, and the impact of inventions on America's growth. A brief outline of daily lesson plans precedes a section of…

  14. The Invention Notebook Challenge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roman, Harry T.

    2018-01-01

    Like scientists who keep lab notebooks detailing their experiments, inventors keep invention notebooks that chronologically detail the inception, development, and refinement of their inventions. These notebooks are legal documents that can help prove one inventor's precedent over another. Scenarios like these are very real, as the author has had…

  15. Aristotle's "Rhetoric": Reinterpreting Invention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quandahl, Ellen

    1986-01-01

    Shows that Aristotle's common topics are part of a theory of interpretation rather than a collection of devices for invention. Argues that it is more Aristotelian and more useful to understand composing as interpretation and not invention. Uses scholarship to inform pedagogy and to reorient composing toward acts of reading. (EL)

  16. Leisure Time Invention

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Davis, Lee N.; Davis, Jerome D.; Hoisl, Karin

    2013-01-01

    the employee is away from the workplace. We build on existing theory in the fields of organizational creativity and knowledge recombination, especially work relating context to creativity. The paper’s main theoretical contribution is to extend our understanding of the boundaries of employee creativity......This paper studies the contextual factors that influence whether invention occurs during work time or leisure time. Leisure time invention, a potentially important but thus far largely unexplored source of employee creativity, refers to invention where the main underlying idea occurs while...... by adding to the discussion of how access to and exploitation of different types of resources—during work hours or during leisure time — may affect creativity. Based on survey data from more than 3,000 inventions from German employee inventors, we find that leisure time inventions are more frequently...

  17. Sensational inventions by girls and boys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Yeon Jung

    1999-05-01

    This book introduces the interesting and original inventions invented by girls and boys. These are the titles of the inventions : an antenna ruler, muscular strength machine with spring, items to remove sticky matter for advertisement, chair ladder for the disabled, useful control box for feeding bees, a portable carriage for dogs, a lid of ashtray, hot-air balloon using solar power, toy cannon for reports, hard badminton racket, tv cable and a distributor which are easy to install, device for car automatic parking, a cleanser for vegetables.

  18. Sensational inventions by girls and boys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Yeon Jung

    1999-05-15

    This book introduces the interesting and original inventions invented by girls and boys. These are the titles of the inventions : an antenna ruler, muscular strength machine with spring, items to remove sticky matter for advertisement, chair ladder for the disabled, useful control box for feeding bees, a portable carriage for dogs, a lid of ashtray, hot-air balloon using solar power, toy cannon for reports, hard badminton racket, tv cable and a distributor which are easy to install, device for car automatic parking, a cleanser for vegetables.

  19. Science of invention patent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Yeong Taek; Park, Su Dong

    1999-02-01

    This book tells science of invention patent about new way of invention and creative solution for problems, basic conception of TRIZ, resolution of physical contradictory and technical contradictory, development of system and types of evolution, change of thinking for solving the problems, analysis of structure for problem solution, problem solution using scientific phenomenon and effect, use of standard solution and algorithm of creative problem solution.

  20. From Invention to Innovation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rorke, M.

    2000-07-18

    The Inventions and Innovation Program, formerly known as ERIP (Energy-related Inventions Program), was established by the U.S. Congress in 1974. The program offers assistance to independent inventors and very small businesses engaged in developing new energy-saving technologies. The program remains clearly focused on energy generation and savings. The I&I Program funding is based on a competitive proposal process.

  1. The Software Invention Cube: A classification scheme for software inventions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bergstra, J.A.; Klint, P.

    2008-01-01

    The patent system protects inventions. The requirement that a software invention should make ‘a technical contribution’ turns out to be untenable in practice and this raises the question, what constitutes an invention in the realm of software. The authors developed the Software Invention Cube

  2. L’invention instrumentale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacques Dewitte

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available L’instrument de musique n’a pas d’identité déterminée avant qu’il ne soit joué par un musicien concret, ou utilisé dans une œuvre singulière. Pour Stravinsky, l’instrument de musique « n’est rien en soi ». C’est l’œuvre, comme invention et création, qui donne à l’instrument son identité, sur la base de propriétés organologiques préexistantes. Les œuvres de Stravinsky pour petite formation illustrent cette idée d’une invention de l’instrument de musique par l’œuvre qu’il joue, ainsi que son amour pour des instruments nouveaux ou « nouveaux pour lui » (le cymbalum. L’invention instrumentale (qui n’est pas ici création d’un nouvel instrument consiste à faire sonner de manière neuve un instrument déjà existant. Cette invention suppose une « érotique » musicale, un amour spécifique pour les instruments et les altérités dont ils sont porteurs. Tout se passe alors comme si un a priori (une possibilité musicale enfouie dans l’instrumentA musical instrument has no specific identity until it is played by a concrete musician or used in a singular work. According to Stravinsky, a musical instrument is « nothing in itself ». Only a work, as a process of invention and creation, gives an instrument its identity on the basis of pre-existing organologic properties. Stravinsky’s works for small ensembles show how musical instruments may be invented by the work which they play, as well as the composer’s love for instruments that are new or “new for him” (such as the cymbalo. Musical invention (which does not mean here the creation of a new instrument consists in giving a new ring to an existing instrument. This kind of invention implies a notion of musical “eroticism”, that is a specific love for instruments and the otherness they may bear. Everything is happening as though an a priori quality (a musical possibility buried in the instrument appeared only a posteriori

  3. How can I invent?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Yeon Jung

    2001-10-15

    This book gives descriptions of how to invent with various and useful tips. The contents of this book are set up the proper goal according to your condition, let's find the other use, change the order and put a replacement, search more convenience, have application of color characteristic, imitation is beginning of the invention, convert imitation into creation, look into the deserted idea, learn the basic science, catch the stream of times, try to study hard, have a big dream, change your way of thinking, develop the system, and throw away the stereotype.

  4. How can I invent?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Yeon Jung

    2001-10-01

    This book gives descriptions of how to invent with various and useful tips. The contents of this book are set up the proper goal according to your condition, let's find the other use, change the order and put a replacement, search more convenience, have application of color characteristic, imitation is beginning of the invention, convert imitation into creation, look into the deserted idea, learn the basic science, catch the stream of times, try to study hard, have a big dream, change your way of thinking, develop the system, and throw away the stereotype.

  5. Invention party of students 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Yeon Jung

    2000-02-01

    The contents of this book are story about making a mistake by friends, o dear! my mistake, shower and platform for crocks of sauces and condiments, good thing and bad thing when it appears, dream and invention of JuMok, failure is another discovery, a certain goal, idea in a life, addition and subtraction, a little hint is a great invention, question : why? This book gives advices and encouragement how to invent and what to invent to students.

  6. Not-Invented-Here

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burcharth, Ana Luiza Lara de Araújo; Fosfuri, Andrea

    knowledge, the so-called Not-Invented-Here (NIH) syndrome. Drawing on multi-informant survey data of small and medium-sized Danish enterprises, the paper finds that socialization practices are an important driver of the NIH syndrome with such an effect being attenuated in technologically highly specialized......The management literature has highlighted several potential benefits of socialization practices within companies. By contrast, this paper posits that socialization practices, by fostering a higher degree of company identity, contribute to generate a greater reluctance to the adoption of external...

  7. I can invent

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Yeon Jung

    2001-10-15

    This book introduces the inventions which are unique and interesting. The titles of these are pots which boil very quick and safe, a desk with a pencil case, a scale which is not rusty, a book cover with a pocket, a skate with wax and mop, a seat belt airbag, a desk lamp which can control the light, a desk in the future, a recycling bin for cans, a blackboard eraser which erase very well, a useful crutches, swimming goggles attached convex lens, flower pots using waste tires, toilet paper holder with sawtooth, a brush which washes a flask, improved pump for petroleum.

  8. I can invent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Yeon Jung

    2001-10-01

    This book introduces the inventions which are unique and interesting. The titles of these are pots which boil very quick and safe, a desk with a pencil case, a scale which is not rusty, a book cover with a pocket, a skate with wax and mop, a seat belt airbag, a desk lamp which can control the light, a desk in the future, a recycling bin for cans, a blackboard eraser which erase very well, a useful crutches, swimming goggles attached convex lens, flower pots using waste tires, toilet paper holder with sawtooth, a brush which washes a flask, improved pump for petroleum.

  9. Secret of success for invention technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Gwan Hyeong

    1990-12-01

    This book deals with importance, meaning, history of invention technology, technique of invention technology, and invention in connection with the duties. It covers importance, meaning, flow of invention technology development, basis of invention technology development, development, development investment, development workforce of invention technology, and development of invention technology introduction. It also contains outline, research, management of technology development information, outline, research, management of patent information, and reality of invention technology research development.

  10. Origin,

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Artur de Vargas Giorgi

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available This essay tightens the “origin” concept, its manifestation through puzzles and their relationship to techniques of reproduction. Contrary to the hegemonic critique of aesthetic and cultural objects – critique that, settled on the appearance and notions of identity, tradition, canon, etc., undervalues the reproductions of "originals" –, the aim is to deliver these objects from formal hierarchization dispositives, that is, release them of what is ideal and positively imposed, so that the reproducibility is potentiated as producer of singularities, of apparitions. The effort is to keep the undecided character of puzzles (bodies, texts, images in which the origin is manifest, so that the logic of the spectacle is reverted into sense opening, instance in which the aesthetic becomes a “performance” before contemporary complexity. With the reproducibility, an origin survives in passage: continually restored, but incomplete, present in trace, in absence.

  11. Fuel on the Invention Funnel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leone, Maria Isabella; Reichstein, Toke; Boccardelli, Paolo

    In this paper, we examine the impact of technology licensing-in on firm invention performance. Studying a sample of 266 licensees and matched non-licensees using a two-part model specification, we find that licensees are more likely to introduce inventions than their non-licensee counterparts. Th...

  12. Invented genealogies as political mythologies: definitionand examples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filip-Lucian Iorga

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The genealogical imaginary is a subcategory of the imaginary referring to the origin and it comprises a wide range of genealogical myths: fictitious ancestors, whether divine or human, fabulous kinships, invented genealogies, descendancies which are impossible to certify with documents, erroneous interpretations of certain degrees of kinship, real genealogies that have received unexpected interpretations and historiographic clichés grown on more or less attestable genealogies. The case of the Balş family is one of the most interesting: trying to integrate in the political structures of the Austrian and Russian Empire, some members of this old Moldavian family invent a fictitious genealogy that links the French counts of Baux, the Balsa family, a Serbian medieval dynasty and the Balş family, Moldavian boyars.

  13. Invention through Form and Function Analogy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rule, Audrey C.

    2015-01-01

    "Invention through Form and Function Analogy" is an invention book for teachers and other leaders working with youth who are involving students in the invention process. The book consists of an introduction and set of nine learning cycle formatted lessons for teaching the principles of invention through the science and engineering design…

  14. How easy the invention is

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Yeon Jung

    2002-05-15

    This book deals with the inventions invented by kids such as a utility helmet, a useful drawing board, automatic safe device, telephone for the blind, a peaceful washboard, roly poly milk bottle, seat belt with height control, gas hose to prevent thief, portable magic soap, useful bus handle, convent desk, a paper cup attached a spoon, a useful washboard, dressing room using moveable small cymbals, fluorescent light which is easy to put in a new one, rods for night, curtain for cars, spray shampoo, and a good calendar.

  15. How easy the invention is

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Yeon Jung

    2002-05-01

    This book deals with the inventions invented by kids such as a utility helmet, a useful drawing board, automatic safe device, telephone for the blind, a peaceful washboard, roly poly milk bottle, seat belt with height control, gas hose to prevent thief, portable magic soap, useful bus handle, convent desk, a paper cup attached a spoon, a useful washboard, dressing room using moveable small cymbals, fluorescent light which is easy to put in a new one, rods for night, curtain for cars, spray shampoo, and a good calendar.

  16. Invention party of students 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Yeon Jung

    2000-02-01

    The contents of this book are lettuce and royal foxglove tree leaves, memory of summer sea, summer vacation of a freak, waste tires and a fishbowl, a spoon and a iron hand, a iron hand and emergency signal light, my friend is Macgyver, a merry cleaning time, Hojin's invention diary. I am a inventor, a happy winter vacation, the best from losing the draw. This book gives a descriptions of the cases of inventions which are made up through unique and brilliant idea.

  17. Humanisme : inventer l'avenir

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayor, Federico

    2014-06-01

    Humanism: inventing the future - Humanity is still confronted by the scourges of poverty, hunger, violence and inequality. If we are to invent a better future, we must first understand the past, recalling the missed opportunities of 1918, 1945 and 1989, at the end of two world wars and a cold war. This article summarises the proposals put forward by the author on several occasions during his career. He expresses a forceful confidence in humankind's ability to take control of its destiny and shake off government that puts economic interest before universal human values. The twenty-first century should be the era of rebellion in cyberspace, one in which more women and young people are involved in decision making, heralding a future of freedom and happiness for all.

  18. Inventions and developments of democracy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Uffe

    2010-01-01

    In traditional approaches to the history of political ideas, the history of democracy is uniformly studied concerning the point of departure, selection of canonical texts, etc. The paper introduces the Koselleckian conceptual history approach (Begriffsgeschichte) and the principle of a broader...... selection of texts than in the traditional history of ideas to provide a fuller account of usages of the concept, thereby opening up for alternative conceptions of the inventions and development of democracy....

  19. Was the Monetarist Tradition Invented?

    OpenAIRE

    George S. Tavlas

    1998-01-01

    In 1969, Harry Johnson charged that Milton Friedman 'invented' a Chicago oral quantity theory tradition, the idea being that in order to launch a monetarist counter-revolution, Friedman needed to establish a linkage with pre-Keynesian orthodoxy. This paper shows that there was a distinct pre-Keynesian Chicago quantity-theory tradition that advocated increased government expenditure during the Great Depression in order to put money directly into circulation. This policy stance distinguished th...

  20. Cooke and Wheatstone and the invention of the electric telegraph

    CERN Document Server

    Hubbard, Geoffrey

    2013-01-01

    Originally published in 1965. Charles Wheatstone collaborated with William Cooke in the invention and early exploitation of the Electric Telegraph. This was the first long distance, faster-than-a-horse messenger. This volume gives an account of the earlier work on which the English invention was founded, and the curious route by which it came to England. It discusses the way in which two such antagonistic men were driven into collaboration and sets out the history of the early telegraph lines, including work on the London and Birmingham Railway and the Great Western Railway.

  1. Simultaneous invention and the patent law

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Howells, John

    inventions they often find this to challenge the idea that patent law (which rewards only the first inventor with exclusive rights) is needed to encourage invention and innovation. We review the empirical evidence alleged to show that simultaneous invention is prevalent for important inventions. In general...... is typical of important pioneer inventions in both survey evidence and alleged illustrative cases of simultaneous invention. We show this in the cases of Edison, the Wright brothers, the Selden automobile patent vis a vis Ford, Watt and the steam engine. We then point out that patent law inherently ensures...... that patent protection is not extended to near simultaneous inventions. There remain a number of simultaneous inventions discovered through interference proceedings but we find the number too small to mount a serious challenge to the general operation of patent law....

  2. Scientific work on the level of inventions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piven' , G.I.; Pustovit, Yu.A.

    1980-06-01

    Describes the organizational scheme of the Ukrainian Research Scientific Coal-Chemical Institute patent department. The department evaluates new technological inventions patented abroad and associated with the coking industry, prepares information on new patents for the Institute's scientific staff. The department also helps employees of the Institute in formal patenting of their inventions. Inventions in the following fields are discussed: selective crushing of coal for coking, preheating of the coal charge, coal preparation (15 inventions) coal preparation before the coking process (45 inventions), modelling the optimum parameters of coking (6 inventions), production of formed coke (25 inventions) and smokeless and dustless charging of coal in coking ovens (6 invections). Twenty-one inventions are associated with using the waste products of coal preparation and coking, and environmental protection in conjunction with coking plants. (In Polish)

  3. Non-Intentional Invention: The Promethean, Trickster, and Improvisational Invention Heuristics of Academic Writers and Poets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wirtz, Jason

    2013-01-01

    This essay introduces a novel way to conceptualize writerly invention -- invention as adopting a non-intentional intellectual stance wherein heuristics are experienced as acting upon the writer as opposed to being enacted by the writer. This view of invention complicates and extends the traditional, Aristotelian view of invention as discreet…

  4. Invention Zaman Barok dan Pengembangan Permainan Piano

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RIANTI MARDALENA PASARIBU

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Invention in Barok Era and The Development of Piano Lesson. In piano lesson, one material of parts towhich had been given is polyphony, which is an Invention from J.S. Invention is a basic fi nger-skill for pianist.Invention develops in the Baroque period. The baroque ideology is not only called as the reaction of Renaissance,but also as the continuing development from Renaissance. Invention is known in two forms. First is as a pianocomposition and second is as a piano play which can push a pianist to understand more about an arrangement thathe played and expressed.

  5. Tree Ordination as Invented Tradition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Avery Morrow

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The symbolic ordination of trees as monks in Thailand is widely perceived in Western scholarship to be proof of the power of Buddhism to spur ecological thought. However, a closer analysis of tree ordination demonstrates that it is not primarily about Buddhist teaching, but rather is an invented tradition based on the sanctity of Thai Buddhist symbols as well as those of spirit worship and the monarchy. Tree ordinations performed by non-Buddhist minorities in Thailand do not demonstrate a religious commitment but rather a political one.

  6. Ghosts of inventions: Patent law's digital mediations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Hyo Yoon

    2018-04-01

    This article examines the shifts in the material ordering of inventions in patent law organization and their effects on the meaning and scope of inventions as intellectual property. Formats and media are constitutive of the establishment and stabilization of inventions as objects of intellectual property. Modern patent law's materiality had been dominated by paper documents but ever more consists of digital images, files, and networked data. The article traces and analyzes such effects of digital media on the meaning of intellectual/intangible property and argues that inventions increasingly matter as digital data in the legal realm.

  7. Another of CERN's many inventions!

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Bulletin

    2010-01-01

    CERN has often been the incubator for the development of innovative technologies but very few people know about the capacitive touch screens invented for the consoles of the SPS Control Room in 1973. The Bulletin interviewed their inventor, Bent Stumpe, who also developed the CERN tracker ball and the computer-programmable knob.   Bent Stumpe, inventor of the CERN touch screens, tracker ball and programmable knob. Here we see him with one the first touch screens developed in 1973.   A specific goal, a lot of motivation and the technical skills to do it: that’s all you need to create something nobody else has ever done before. Back in the 1970s, the SPS was being built and its control room required the installation of thousands of buttons, knobs, switches and oscilloscopes to operate the machine. Frank Beck, newly recruited from the DD Division to be in charge of the central control hub in the SPS control room, asked Bent Stumpe for solutions to the following problem: how to bui...

  8. Can Universities Profit from General Purpose Inventions?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barirani, Ahmad; Beaudry, Catherine; Agard, Bruno

    2017-01-01

    The lack of control over downstream assets can hinder universities’ ability to extract rents from their inventive activities. We explore this possibility by assessing the relationship between invention generality and renewal decisions for a sample of Canadian nanotechnology patents. Our results s...

  9. New Paradigms for Computer Aids to Invention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langston, M. Diane

    Many people are interested in computer aids to rhetorical invention and want to know how to evaluate an invention aid, what the criteria are for a good one, and how to assess the trade-offs involved in buying one product or another. The frame of reference for this evaluation is an "old paradigm," which treats the computer as if it were…

  10. Inventions for future sustainable development in agriculture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jacobsen, E.; Beers, P.J.; Fischer, A.R.H.

    2011-01-01

    This chapter is directed to the importance of different inventions as driver for sustainable development of agriculture. Inventions are defined as radical new ideas, perspectives and technologies that hold the potential to trigger a change in sustainable agriculture. Innovation is based on one or

  11. Multiple, connective intellection: the condition for invention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C S (Fanie de Beer

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Since this article involves invention, the conditions for inventiveness become the issue: assuming multiple reality; thinking in a special way; transgressing boundaries; acknowledging networks (in the terms of Michel Serres: communication, transduction, interference, distribution, passages between the sciences. There are, however, misplaced expectations: technology should work wonders in this regard while forgetting that humans, redefined though, remain the key to establish connections and networks between people, paradigms, disciplines, sciences and technologies. Against this background, Michel Serres’s emphasis on invention and “thinking as invention” and his a-critical anti-method – ‘connective, multiple intellection’ which is a special kind of thought – are desperately needed. Guattari’s articulation of the three ecologies and the ecosophic views he developed in this regard provides a significant amplification of the approach of ‘multiple connective intellection’. These insights can be enlightened and strongly driven home through the views of Latour with an anthropological and socio-dynamic perspective on the scientific endeavour with the articulation of the actor-network theory inherited from Serres. The thoughtful beyond-methodology of Edgar Morin with his strong noological position as the ultimate condition for inventiveness, and Gregory Ulmer with his special emphasis on invention and inventiveness, especially with the help and assistance of electronic means (video and internet, and with his work with the architect Bernard Tschumi on invention and inventiveness, are of special significance in the sphere of inventiveness, the real and final guarantee for a spirited re-enchantment of the world as well as the final demonstration that the battle for intelligence as opposed to ignorance, stupidity and barbarism can be fought with great hope to succeed.

  12. Ancient engineers' inventions precursors of the present

    CERN Document Server

    Rossi, Cesare

    2017-01-01

    This book describes the inventions and designs of ancient engineers who are the precursors of the present. The period ranges mainly from 300 B.C. to 1600 A.D. with several exceptions. Many of the oldest inventions are documented by archaeological finds, often very little known, mainly from Pompeii, Herculaneum and Stabiae and reveal a surprising modernity in their conception. Most of the inventions presented in the first four parts of the book were conceived up to the late Roman Empire and may be considered as milestones, each in their respective field. The fifth part concentrates on more recent centuries. The sixth part deals with some building construction techniques. Generally, for each of the presented inventions, three elements of research and reference are provided: written documents (the classics), iconic references (coins, bas-reliefs, etc.) and archaeological findings. The authors did not write this book for engineers only; hence they describe all the devices without assuming wide technical knowledge...

  13. The Invention Convention: Mind Meets Simple Machines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadi-Tabassum, Samina

    1997-01-01

    Describes an Earth Day celebration where students had to design an invention made of simple machines that could crush an empty aluminum can through 10 rapid mechanical movements using materials foraged from the students' homes. (JRH)

  14. How James Watt invented the copier forgotten inventions of our great scientists

    CERN Document Server

    Schils, René

    2012-01-01

    Features 25 different scientists and the ideas which may not have made them famous, but made history… Typically, we remember our greatest scientists from one single invention, one new formula or one incredible breakthrough. This narrow perspective does not give justice to the versatility of many scientists who also earned a reputation in other areas of science. James Watt, for instance, is known for inventing the steam engine, yet most people do not know that he also invented the copier. Alexander Graham Bell of course invented the telephone, but only few know that he invented artificial breathing equipment, a prototype of the ‘iron lung’. Edmond Halley, whose name is associated with the comet that visits Earth every 75 years, produced the first mortality tables, used for life insurances. This entertaining book is aimed at anyone who enjoys reading about inventions and discoveries by the most creative minds. Detailed illustrations of the forgotten designs and ideas enrich the work throughout.

  15. The Invention of Tradition: Illyrian Heraldry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandar Palavestra

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The "Illyrian heraldry", as a phenomenon of the invented tradition, encompasses the rolls of arms - armorials, which appear in Dalmatia, Italy, Spain and Austria at the end of the XVI and beginning of the XVII century. These armorials contained Serbian and other southern Slav monarchic, territorial and family coats of arms. The authenticity, heraldic sources and origins of these armorials are extremely complex problems that can be traced back to the medieval heraldic heritage of the Serbs, on the one hand, and reveal the intricate web of political circumstances in the XVI and XVII centuries. Illyrian heraldry is also closely linked to the personal and political ambitions of the Spanish admiral, Don Pedro Ohmučević Grgurić, from Slano near Dubrovnik. One cannot, however, link the entire Illyrian heraldry movement only to the daring ambitions of Petar Ohmučević Grgurić In in the XVI and XVII centuries historical constructions, inspired for the most part by sincere Slav patriotism, emerged that proved the unity of the Illyrians and the Slavs, revealed the alleged Slav origins of famous figures (Alexander the Great, Justinian, or simply extolled the splendor and magnitude of a lost Slav kingdom, that could be restored again. Much as it was developing within the spiritual scope of the Catholic church, this "Slovine" movement found its historical basis in the medieval statehood of Serbia and Bosnia, particularly in the powerful empire of Stephan Dushan (1331-55, in the Serbian potentates, heroes, their glitter and opulence, which used to glorify the Slav world. Since the XVII century till today, despite their doubtful authenticity, the Illyrian armorials have been considered important genealogical and heraldic documents. Many families relied on the information in Illyrian heraldic collections when claiming their true, or, more often purported, ancient hereditary rights, titles and lands. The Illyrian armorials were transcribed and reprinted in

  16. 45 CFR 650.19 - Electronic invention handling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Report or a Final Invention Statement and Certification. (b) Questions on use of iEdison and requests for... 45 Public Welfare 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Electronic invention handling. 650.19 Section 650... PATENTS § 650.19 Electronic invention handling. (a) Grantees must use the iEdison Invention Information...

  17. SCHOOL ECONOMY IN THE INVENTING EDUCATION PARADIGM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anatoliy Alexandrovich Lepeshev

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Requirements applied to specialists for working in the sixth wave of innovation, i.e. Industry 4.0, determines the necessity of education system improvement concerning training solution and, as a result, creation of inventive ideas. Today in our country this process is stimulated by various competitions, including financing for the implementation of results. In training programs knowledge approach still prevails. The corresponding methods, along with stimulation, are included into educational programs in leading foreign educational institutions, mostly at universities. If in previous decades mostly divergent methods were studied (morphological analysis, the focal objects method, synectics, etc., then now the leading place is taken by theory of inventive problem solving – TRIZ created in the former USSR by G.S. Altshuller in connection with the increasing leading corporations requirement for specialists in TRIZ. This fact gives Russia essential competitive advantages in the innovative way of development. For effective use of this advantage it is important to form the TRIZ-based innovative thinking beginning from school days. For this purpose authors developed new methods in TRIZ-pedagogics, uniting metasubject results (in higher education institutions – competences into the system of innovative thinking. As a result, both educational and economic effects are achieved: the intellectual property created in educational process. For schools it is the possibility of significant improvement of financing causing importance of new mechanisms of intellectual property fixation, protection and implementation. Recommendations about creation of such system are provided in the article. Purpose Defining the opportunities and ways of improving economic effectiveness of educational activities in the paradigm of inventive education. Tasks: – analysis of school education institutions experience in implementation of approaches preceding the inventing education

  18. Pulsed laser deposition—invention or discovery?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Venkatesan, T

    2014-01-01

    The evolution of pulsed laser deposition had been an exciting process of invention and discovery, with the development of high T c superconducting films as the main driver. It has become the method of choice in research and development for rapid prototyping of multicomponent inorganic materials for preparing a variety of thin films, heterostructures and atomically sharp interfaces, and has become an indispensable tool for advancing oxide electronics. In this paper I will give a personal account of the invention and development of this process at Bellcore/Rutgers, the opportunity, challenges and mostly the extraordinary excitement that was generated, typical of any disruptive technology. (paper)

  19. 76 FR 42684 - Statutory Invention Registration

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-19

    ... 3.00 Totals 8 10.00 There is annual (non-hour) cost burden in the way of filing fees associated with...) Filing fee $ cost burden (a) (b) (a x b) (c) Statutory Invention Registration (Requested prior to 2 $920...) respondent cost burden for this collection in the form of postage costs and filing fees will be $8,170. IV...

  20. Inventing Democracy: Future Alternatives for Social Action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deethardt, John F.

    1983-01-01

    Considers the rational basis for participatory democracy and six ideas designed to embody that conceptual basis. Contends that the mission of speech communication scholars to the civic culture should be an activation of civic competencies and an invention of new places to practice free speech skills. (PD)

  1. Patent Work: The Other Side of Invention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dillon, Tamara

    2009-01-01

    In popular culture, the inventor is often portrayed as a lone tinkerer who emerges from a workshop with some magnificent new device. In reality, most inventions are the collaborative effort of scientists and engineers--usually researchers affiliated with a college or corporation--that result in the discovery, creation, or improvement of either…

  2. Executive dysfunction in high functioning autism

    OpenAIRE

    Burnett, Hollie

    2017-01-01

    Background: There is presently a lack of consistency in research designed to measure executive functioning (EF) in autism that may be attributable to lack of homogeneity or comorbid conditions (i.e. learning disability or additional diagnosis) in test samples. Aim: A systematic review focused on a subset of EF (verbal fluency: VF) was conducted, using only studies of high-functioning individuals with autism (HFA) without an additional diagnosis or learning disability. An emp...

  3. Frederick Soddy's invention of isotopes in 1911

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Attas, M.

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes the history of the invention of isotopes by Frederick Soddy in 1911. The idea of the nucleus had been conceived by a physicist, Ernest Rutherford. But it took a chemist, Frederick Soddy, to make chemical sense of the zoo of recently discovered radioactive elements, by inventing the idea of isotopes. He showed how one radioactive substance transformed itself spontaneously into another, following mathematical laws of exponential growth and decay. In his book The Chemistry of the Radio-Elements, Soddy compiled complete descriptions of the physical and chemical properties of each of the radioactive substances. He organized their sequences of transmutations by the.similarities in their chemical properties, so that the emanations, for example, were all side-by-side in a chart.

  4. The story of global patent inventions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Yeun Jung

    1996-11-01

    This book introduces the global patent inventions, which are soap floating on the water, computer, radar, zipper, fuel cell, a raincoat, a pencil, a ball point pen, vitamin, an ice saw, a subway, post it, endoscope, ultrasonic detector, machine to pierce the hall, hair-restorer, a refrigerator, tricycle tractor of Benz steam engine of watt, carburettor, aluminum smelting process, video game, ice cream freezer, lead powder, piling system, burner using infrared rays, small projector, blender for recycling of resource, and artificial silk.

  5. The story of global patent inventions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Yeun Jung

    1996-11-15

    This book introduces the global patent inventions, which are soap floating on the water, computer, radar, zipper, fuel cell, a raincoat, a pencil, a ball point pen, vitamin, an ice saw, a subway, post it, endoscope, ultrasonic detector, machine to pierce the hall, hair-restorer, a refrigerator, tricycle tractor of Benz steam engine of watt, carburettor, aluminum smelting process, video game, ice cream freezer, lead powder, piling system, burner using infrared rays, small projector, blender for recycling of resource, and artificial silk.

  6. Review of The Invention of Enterprise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael E. Marotta

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The Invention of Enterprise: Entrepreneurship from Ancient Mesopotamia to Modern Times, David S. Landes, Joel Mokyr, and William J. Baumol, eds., Princeton University Press, 2010, is a dense anthology that provides an “orbital view” of the history of trade and commerce. The essays encompass several theoretic frameworks while following three themes: the creation of enterprises; the distinctions between creative and corrosive capitalism; and the societies that engender those different modes.

  7. Nanotechnological inventions considerably improve performance characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VLASOV Vladimir Alexeevich

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The invention «The method of production of carbon nanomaterial (RU 2509053» can be used as an additive for concretes and polymers which significantly improves their performance characteristics. The method of production of carbon nanomaterial consists of the following stages: preliminary preparation of sphagnous moss when it is refined from foreign admixtures, dried up to 10% humidity and ground, then ground material is exposed to pyrolysis under the temperature 850–950оC for 1–2 hours and cooled up to the environment temperature. After that amorphous carbon obtained in pyrolysis is treated with mechanical activation in the variable planetary mill for 7–10 hours. The invention makes it possible to provide increased outcome of nanotubes with high cleanliness. The invention «The method of production of nanodispersed metal powders and alloys of them (RU 2509626» relates to the powder metallurgy. Powder metal chloride or powder mixture at least of two metal chlorides is treated in the environment of the water steam which is supplied in reaction space at the rate of 50–100 ml/min at the temperature 400–800оC at the presence of absorbent carbon or introducing carbon oxide (II obtained during dissolution of formic acid HCOOH. The invention provides reliable production of nanodispersed metal powders and alloys of them from 3-d metal range: Ni, Co, Cu, Fe, Zn which can be used in powder metallurgy to improve baking process, in chemical industry as the fillers of polymers and reaction catalysts; as additives to anticorrosive covers, etc.

  8. Deepening Learning through Learning-by-Inventing

    OpenAIRE

    Apiola, Mikko; Tedre, Matti

    2013-01-01

    It has been shown that deep approaches to learning, intrinsic motivation, and self-regulated learning have strong positive effects on learning. How those pedagogical theories can be integrated in computing curricula is, however, still lacking empirically grounded analyses. This study integrated, in a robotics-based programming class, a method of learning-by-inventing, and studied its qualitative effects on students’ learning through 144 interviews. Five findings were related with learning the...

  9. Drug Delivery Research: The Invention Cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Kinam

    2016-07-05

    Controlled drug delivery systems have been successful in introducing improved formulations for better use of existing drugs and novel delivery of biologicals. The initial success of producing many oral products and some injectable depot formulations, however, reached a plateau, and the progress over the past three decades has been slow. This is likely due to the difficulties of formulating hydrophilic, high molecular weight drugs, such as proteins and nucleic acids, for targeting specific cells, month-long sustained delivery, and pulsatile release. Since the approaches that have served well for delivery of small molecules are not applicable to large molecules, it is time to develop new methods for biologicals. The process of developing future drug delivery systems, termed as the invention cycle, is proposed, and it starts with clearly defining the problems for developing certain formulations. Once the problems are well-defined, creative imagination examines all potential options and selects the best answer and alternatives. Then, innovation takes over to generate unique solutions for developing new formulations that resolve the previously identified problems. Ultimately, the new delivery systems will have to go through a translational process to produce the final formulations for clinical use. The invention cycle also emphasizes examining the reasons for success of certain formulations, not just the reasons for failure of many systems. Implementation of the new invention cycle requires new mechanisms of funding the younger generation of scientists and a new way of identifying their achievements, thereby releasing them from the burden of short-termism.

  10. The Transformation of Science Into Patented Inventions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beukel, Karin

    This paper presents the results of a grounded theory study of the transformation of scientific discoveries into patented inventions. Using an algebraic interpretive approach, the narratives collected during interviews are analyzed as Bayesian inferences and the developed theory is tested. The fin......This paper presents the results of a grounded theory study of the transformation of scientific discoveries into patented inventions. Using an algebraic interpretive approach, the narratives collected during interviews are analyzed as Bayesian inferences and the developed theory is tested....... The findings recast the relationship between science and patents as a process in which the way the transformation of the scientific invention is handled has an effect on the breadth of the patent scope. Unleashing patent scope surplus is dependent on processes related to abstraction and cognitive variety......, which can be mobilized by patent experts with both an in-depth understanding of the scientific discovery, due to their educational background in the life sciences, and capabilities within the legal framework for patenting. More specifically, the findings reveal previously unreported aspects...

  11. 75 FR 54656 - Government-Owned Inventions, Available for Licensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-08

    ... availability of inventions for licensing. SUMMARY: Patent applications on the inventions listed below assigned..., Pasadena, CA 91109; telephone (818) 354-7770. NASA Case No.: NPO-46771-1: Diamond Heat-Spreader for...

  12. 78 FR 31948 - Government-Owned Inventions; Availability for Licensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-28

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health Government-Owned Inventions... research and development. Foreign patent applications are filed on selected inventions to extend market... libraries Optimization assay to further develop potential drug candidates Competitive Advantages: Fast...

  13. Economy and Transparency: The Model Invention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmud Hassan TALUKDAR

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Relation of Transparency and Economic growth is a long global debate in the society. Theoretically, policy makers, scholars and researchers argue that there is a close relation among these two variables. However, the quantitative relation and any global model is yet unrevealed. So, the main aim of this paper is to ascertain the nature, dimension and extent of the relationship between economy and Transparency as well as to invent a global model. This paper is useful for researchers, planners, policy makers and scholars who are directly or indirectly involved or willing to involve in the thrust for quantitative relation of these two variables. Literature review is the main source of information of this study. In introductory section, this paper briefly describes theoretical relationship of economy and Transparency as well as it also describes the proxy variables.GDP (2012 of different countries are used as proxy of Economy and Corruption Perception Index (CPI scores (2012 of different countries are used as proxy of level of Transparency. In methodology section this paper describes the detail methodology, sampling procedure and level of analysis. This study randomly selects 30 countries (10 from higher CPI scores+10 from moderate CPI scores+ 10 from lower CPI scores around the globe as sample. In the third section, this research presents the correlation value which divulge that there is a positive correlation (p=.047 with 95% confidence level. That reveals, if the level of transparency of any country increase, the GDP also increase accordingly. Then in this section two quantitative models are developed using linear regression analysis. First invented model is: Economy (GDP in billion US$ = [(8.983*Level of transparency -108.11]. This paper termed the first invented model as “Mahmud EcoT Model-1”. This model calibrates that one unit improvement of transparency leads 8.98 billion US$ improvement in the GDP of a country. Then taking this unit

  14. 76 FR 13193 - Government-Owned Inventions; Availability for Licensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-10

    ...-451-7533 for more information. Method for the Detection of a Subdural Hematoma Using a Handheld Hematoma Detector and Discriminator Description of Invention: The invention offered for licensing and... utilized to discriminate between subdural and epidural hematoma. The invention also discloses a novel...

  15. 75 FR 39544 - Government-Owned Inventions; Availability for Licensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-09

    ... inventions to extend market coverage for companies and may also be available for licensing. ADDRESSES... might be used as a basis for a potential new strategy in cancer therapeutics. The invention also might... novel way to target various cancers for treatment. This invention maybe also useful in regenerative...

  16. Identifying and Developing Inventive Talent in the Republic of Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Seungmo

    2016-01-01

    In the 21st century, the need to develop creative potential through education is more critical than ever. Invention-gifted education is one approach that can both foster creativity and develop inventive talent. Invention-gifted education in the Republic of Korea is distinctive in its systematic approach to talent identification and talent…

  17. 40 CFR 40.160-3 - Reporting of inventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... application. (b) A final invention report is required within 90 days after completion of the project period... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Reporting of inventions. 40.160-3... ASSISTANCE RESEARCH AND DEMONSTRATION GRANTS § 40.160-3 Reporting of inventions. As provided in appendix B of...

  18. 37 CFR 1.293 - Statutory invention registration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... the date of publication of the statutory invention registration; (2) The required fee for filing a request for publication of a statutory invention registration as provided for in § 1.17 (n) or (o); (3) A... application. (b) Any request for publication of a statutory invention registration must include the following...

  19. The mathematician's mind the psychology of invention in the mathematical field

    CERN Document Server

    Hadamard, Jacques

    1996-01-01

    Fifty years ago when Jacques Hadamard set out to explore how mathematicians invent new ideas, he considered the creative experiences of some of the greatest thinkers of his generation, such as George Polya, Claude Lévi-Strauss, and Albert Einstein. It appeared that inspiration could strike anytime, particularly after an individual had worked hard on a problem for days and then turned attention to another activity. In exploring this phenomenon, Hadamard produced one of the most famous and cogent cases for the existence of unconscious mental processes in mathematical invention and other forms of creativity. Written before the explosion of research in computers and cognitive science, his book, originally titled The Psychology of Invention in the Mathematical Field, remains an important tool for exploring the increasingly complex problem of mental life. The roots of creativity for Hadamard lie not in consciousness, but in the long unconscious work of incubation, and in the unconscious aesthetic selection of ide...

  20. Fiscal 1997 project on the R and D of industrial scientific technology under consignment from NEDO. Report on the results of the R and D of technologies to invent original high-functional materials (technical development of materials to heighten efficiency of power generation facilities); 1997 nendo sangyo kagaku gijutsu kenkyu kaihatsu jigyo Shin Energy Sangyo Gijutsu Sogo Kaihatsu Kiko itaku. Dokusoteki kokino zairyo sosei gijutsu no kenkyu kaihatsu (hatsuden shisetsuyo koseinoka zairyo gijutsu kaihatsu) seika hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    The paper described the fiscal 1997 results of the study of the condensation base precise structure control conducted as a technical development of materials to heighten efficiency of power generation facilities. Condensation base polymer is an important material which occupies most of the engineering plastics. The study is aimed at developing basic technologies on the molecular weight and regularity by which a remarkable improvement can be expected in performance of condensation polymerization/ring-opening polymerization polymer materials, polymerization catalyst which arbitarily controls the primary structure such as branch and end group structures, and development of the precision polymerization process. In the synthesis of ordered polymer by direct polycondensation, synthesis of ordered polyamide from asymmetric monomers is studied. In the synthesis of chemically selective polyamide by direct polymerization, polyamide with functional group is synthesized by polymerizing without protecting functional group the monomer with such functional group as causes side reaction in polymerization. In the synthesis of polyamide having the limited distribution of molecular weight, the molecular weight/distribution of polyamide are controlled by connectedly conducting polycondensation which is itself to be done successively. 91 refs., 72 figs., 43 tabs.

  1. Evaluation of Energy-Related Inventions Program: An Empirical Analysis of 204 Inventions; TOPICAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, M.A.

    1987-01-01

    This report is an evaluation of the Energy-Related Inventions Program (ERIP). It assess the program's effectiveness and impacts, characterizes participating inventions and inventors, and identifies correlates of successful commercialization in order to suggest possible improvements. Seventy of the 204 ERIP inventions that were studied were successfully introduced into the market, accounting for more than$200M in sales from 1976 through 1984. During 1984, 921 full-time equivalent employees were supported directly by ERIP inventors or their licensees. (Estimates of indirect economic impacts are also contained in the report.) Data on patterns of fund raising clearly show a need for assistance by programs like ERIP. Commercially successful inventors shared several traits. They had less formal education, fewer patents, more work experience in small firms, more outside funding early in their work, more shared responsibility with others for invention development, more management experience, and greater previous experience with starting new businesses. Recommendations are made regarding: (1) priorities for allocating ERIP grants; (2) improved efficiency of the NBS/DOE operations; (3) delivery of technical and commercialization assistance to grant recipients; and (4) further evaluation research

  2. The invention of the athletic body

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hortensia Moreno

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Based on two mythic figures − one belonging to classic Greece (the “Glowing Body”, and another to primitive Christianity (the “Heavenly Body” − I reflect on the symbolic logic of exclusion as enacted in four moments in the history of the Olympic Games. The first has to do with the invention of amateurism in the sporting philosophy of Coubertin, or the class exclusion. The second refers to the Anthropology Days held at the 1904 Olympic Games in Saint Louis (Missouri, or the ethnic/racial exclusion. The third is the Berlin Parade of Nations in 1936, or the national supremacy. The fourth explores the introduction of gender verification in Mexico City (1968, or the gender exclusion. In this fashion, we re-connect the imagined/imaginary configuration of the body with practices and politics which will result in an anthropological rationalization of discrimination.

  3. Physical tools for textile creativity and invention

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heimdal, Elisabeth Jacobsen; Lenau, Torben Anker

    2010-01-01

    Two textile research projects (one completed and one ongoing) are described, where physical inspirational tools are developed and tested with the aim of stimulating textile creativity and invention, i.e. the use of textile materials in new kinds of products, thus bringing textiles into new contexts....... The first research project (completed) concerns how textile designers use new responsive materials and technologies, whereas the second (ongoing) concerns how architects and design engineers can use textile materials. In both projects, the developed inspirational tool is tested through workshops...... with the mentioned stakeholders. In these workshops, new ways of disseminating the results from research in textiles and textile design are experimented with. The submitted contribution therefore mainly addresses the role of interdisciplinarity in textile design research as well as the impact of new materials...

  4. Singapore: The Politics of Inventing National Identity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephan Ortmann

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This study wants to shed new light on the politics of Singapore’s national identity invention. Since independence in 1965, the Singaporean government has tried to generate a sense of national identity in Singapore. While at first, the priority was on pragmatic values to promote the economic development, this changed in the late 1980s when the government became concerned with the widespread materialism within the society. As an alternative, so-called Asian values sought to provide an ideological alternative and a new basis for a stronger national identity. At the same time, average Singaporeans have developed their own unique conceptions of the city-state’s national identity, which sometimes contradict the official nation-building efforts and thus constitute a subtle form of opposition. Many Singaporeans demand greater participation in the negotiation of their Singaporean identity, which demonstrates the difficulty of constructing a sustainable authoritarian civic national identity.

  5. Consciousness and the Invention of Morel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lampros ePerogamvros

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available A scientific study of consciousness should take into consideration both objective and subjective measures of conscious experiences. To this date, very few studies have tried to integrate third-person data, or data about the neurophysiological correlates of conscious states, with first-person data, or data about subjective experience. Inspired by Morel’s invention (Casares, 1940, a literary machine capable of reproducing sensory-dependent external reality, this article suggests that combination of virtual reality techniques and brain reading technologies, that is, decoding of conscious states by brain activity alone, can offer this integration. It is also proposed that the multimodal, simulating and integrative capacities of the dreaming brain render it an 'endogenous' Morel's machine, which can potentially be used in studying consciousness, but not always in a reliable way. Both the literary machine and dreaming could contribute to a better understanding of conscious states.

  6. The Democratic Invention. A Reading of Lefort.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matías Sirczuk

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper I will present the way in which Lefort interprets modern democracy as a new form of society in regard to the sources of law and legitimacy. Lefort is a thinker who is difficult to place within the context of contemporary political theory: he not only defends democracy against Marxism but also thinks that this form of society cannot be circumscribed within the limits of the modern state, nor be understood through the categories that the tradition of political philosophy has developed to distinguish between political regimes. Lefort combines the defense of democracy with a radical critique of the established order. He identifies the democratic invention with the institution of a dynamic that makes, by right, the radical questioning of law the source of political legitimacy.

  7. How important are local inventive milieus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ejermo, Olof; Hansen, Høgni Kalsø

    2015-01-01

    positive effects are also evident from birthplace, whereas no consistent positive effect can be derived from individuals’ high school location. Therefore, the formative influences mainly deriving from family upbringing, birth region and from local milieu effects arising from a conscious choice to attend......Using data on the entire population in combination with data on almost all individuals in Sweden listed as inventors, we study how the probability of being listed on a patent as inventor is influenced by the density of other future inventors residing in the same region. In this process, we control...... for demographic and sector effects along with the educational characteristics of parents. This approach allows us to trace how location history influences individuals’ inventive capacity. We focus on three types of influences: (a) future inventors in the municipality around the time of birth, (b) future inventors...

  8. The electronics revolution inventing the future

    CERN Document Server

    Williams, J B

    2017-01-01

    This book is about how electronics, computing, and telecommunications have profoundly changed our lives – the way we work, live, and play. It covers a myriad of topics from the invention of the fundamental devices, and integrated circuits, through radio and television, to computers, mobile telephones and GPS. Today our lives are ruled by electronics as they control the home and computers dominate the workspace. We walk around with mobile phones and communicate by email. Electronics didn’t exist until into the twentieth century. The industrial revolution is the term usually applied to the coming of steam, railways and the factory system. In the twentieth century, it is electronics that has changed the way we gather our information, entertain ourselves, communicate and work. This book demonstrates that this is, in fact, another revolution. .

  9. Ethical limitations in patenting biotechnological inventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lugagnani, V

    1999-01-01

    In order to connect ethical considerations with practical limits to patentability, the moral judgement should possibly move from the exploitation of the invention to the nature and/or objectives of Research and Development (R&D) projects which have produced it: in other words, it appears quite reasonable and logical that Society is not rewarding unethical R&D activities by granting intellectual property rights. As far as biotechnology R&D is concerned, ethical guidance can be derived from the 1996 Council of EuropeOs OConvention for the protection of human rights and dignity of the human being with regard to the application of biology and medicineO, whose Chapter V - Scientific research - provides guidelines on: i. protection of persons undergoing research (e.g. informed consent); ii. protection of persons not able to consent to research; iii. research on embryos in vitro. As far as the specific point of patenting biotechnology inventions is concerned, the four exclusions prescribed by Directive 98/44/EC (i.e. human cloning, human germ-line gene therapy, use of human embryos for commercial purposes, unjustified animal suffering for medical purposes) are all we have in Europe in terms of ethical guidance to patentability. In Italy, in particular, we certainly need far more comprehensive legislation, expressing SocietyOs demand to provide ethical control of modern biotechnology. However it is quite difficult to claim that ethical concerns are being raised by currently awarded biotechnology patents related to living organisms and material thereof; they largely deal with the results of genomic R&D, purposely and usefully oriented toward improving health-care and agri-food processes, products and services. ONo patents on lifeOO can be an appealing slogan of militants against modern biotechnology, but it is far too much of an over-simplified abstraction to become the Eleventh Commandment our Society.

  10. Invention Development Program Helps Nurture NCI at Frederick Technologies | Poster

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Invention Development Fund (IDF) was piloted by the Technology Transfer Center (TTC) in 2014 to facilitate the commercial development of NCI technologies. The IDF received a second round of funding from the NCI Office of the Director and the Office of Budget and Management to establish the Invention Development Program (IDP) for fiscal year 2016. The IDP is using these funds to help advance a second set of inventions.

  11. Energy-Related Inventions Program: an overview of the evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soderstrom, E.J.; Bronfman, L.M.; Rorke, M.G.

    1983-09-01

    The Energy-Related Inventions Program (ERIP) is jointly administered by the US Departments of Energy and Commerce. Grants were awarded for 165 of 208 inventions recommended by the National Bureau of Standards (NBS). Of the 165 inventions, 46 have been able to acquire follow-on financing from a variety of sources. Further, 35 of the inventions have reached the marketplace, and their cumulative sales to date total $178 million. An additional 10 inventions are now starting into production. Jobs that have been created directly by production related to the inventions total 756; additional spin-off jobs attributable to the inventions include component and material suppliers, jobbers, franchisees, and distributors. The program was recently evaluated at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, with the following conclusions: (1) the evaluation process at NBS has been successful in identifying technically and economically feasible inventions, (2) the success rate for the program is about equivalent to the reported success rates of private venture capital firms, (3) the program is supporting inventions at a point in their development where they are supported by neither the venture capital community nor industry, and (4) the one-time DOE grants and the associated ERIP support to inventors have been successful in readying inventors for follow-on financing from the private sector.

  12. 7 CFR 1150.184 - Patents, copyrights, inventions and publications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Milk), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE DAIRY PROMOTION PROGRAM... the rental, sale, leasing, franchising, or other uses of such patents, copyrights, inventions, or...

  13. 7 CFR 1220.254 - Patents, copyrights, inventions, and publications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ...) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF..., franchising, or other uses of such patents, copyrights, inventions, or publications, inure to the benefit of...

  14. To succeed using patent and invention which are brillant idea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu, Jae Bok

    1999-07-01

    This book deals with what invention is, how we can be a inventor, how we apply inventions to intellectual property office, and other useful advice and lesson on patent. These are the titles of each part : trouble stories on success to invent, everybody can be a inventor, this is a invention. There is a problem when the idea is same or similar, preceding patent, where does it hide? database on patent, patent information, Let's go to Korean intellectual property office, patient application which we misses in our dream, and instructions of patent including various sides.

  15. The practical Einstein experiments, patents, inventions

    CERN Document Server

    Illy, József

    2012-01-01

    Albert Einstein may be best known as the wire-haired whacky physicist who gave us the theory of relativity, but that's just one facet of this genius' contribution to human knowledge and modern science. As Jozsef Illy expertly shows in this book, Einstein had an eminently practical side as well. As a youth, Einstein was an inveterate tinkerer in the electrical supply factory his father and uncle owned and operated. His first paid job was as a patent examiner. Later in life, Einstein contributed to many inventions, including refrigerators, microphones, and instruments for aviation. In published papers, Einstein often provided ways to test his theories and fundamental problems of the scientific community of his times. He delved deeply into a variety of technological innovations, most notably the gyrocompass, and consulted for industry in patent cases and on other legal matters. Einstein also provided explanations for common and mundane phenomena, such as the meandering of rivers. In these and other hands-on exam...

  16. Why Is Hard To Patent An Invention?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available When employed by a company, in almost all the cases a new employee has to sign an agreement giving the company exclusive rights to any intellectual property developed as part of their work assignments. This agreement could extend beyond a change of jobs and cause conflict of interests in new employment situations. A patent is a government-granted monopoly given to an inventor as both a reward for the intellectual and financial investment, and a stimulus to innovate. As a monopoly, the patent has legal power to exclude others from exploiting the invention in any way for a period of 20 years from the time the patent application has been filed. A trademark provides instant recognition of a product or company; a service mark provides instant recognition of a service. They both have unlimited lifetime. But the owner must renew or confirm continuous use at the end of five years, and every 10 years thereafter. A trade secret is information keep secret by the owner to give him advantage over competitors. Since it is secret, a trade secret protection has unlimited lifetime.

  17. CERN at the International Inventions Fair

    CERN Multimedia

    2007-01-01

    CERN is the guest of honour at the 35th International Inventions Fair, which will take place from 18th to 22nd April at Palexpo, in Geneva. CERN has been chosen as the guest of honour for its ability to develop new technologies and translate them for the benefit of society. For the Fair, CERN has teamed up with ten companies that have made use of technologies and ideas from the Laboratory. The CERN stand at the exhibition will be dedicated to a presentation of the Laboratory and the LHC. Each of the technologies featured will be highlighted on the stand, along with the companies that have put them into more general use. This will allow visitors to trace the path from basic research to practical application from start to finish. One example is Medipix, a particle detection technology that has found applications in medical imaging. Visitors to the Fair will be able to see a Medipix detector in action on the CERN stand, and use it to view the particles emitted by everyday objects.

  18. 75 FR 67985 - Government-Owned Inventions; Availability for Licensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-04

    ... . Inhibition of Cell Motility, Angiogenesis and Metastasis Description of Invention: The present invention... SH2 domain-mediated interactions in the metastatic process and support the potential efficacy of this... Modality: Inhibition of cell motility-dependent processes, including angiogenesis and metastasis, in...

  19. NIH Employee Invention Report (EIR) | NCI Technology Transfer Center | TTC

    Science.gov (United States)

    NIH researchers must immediately contact their Laboratory or Branch Chief and inform him or her of a possible invention, and then consult with your NCI TTC Technology Transfer Manager about submitting an Employee Invention Report (EIR) Form. | [google6f4cd5334ac394ab.html

  20. 10 CFR 784.5 - Waiver of identified inventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... contractor has made or will make substantial investment of financial resources or technology developed at the contractor's private expense which will directly benefit the commercialization of the invention; (g) The... extent to which the Government has contributed to the field of technology of the invention; (e) The...

  1. 76 FR 18564 - Government-Owned Inventions; Availability for Licensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-04

    ... Antibiotics: Naturally-Occurring Chrysophaetins and Their Analogues Description of Invention: This invention... the very limited number of new antibiotics developed in recent decades and the increased epidemic of infectious diseases. In fact, infectious diseases are the leading cause of death worldwide. In the United...

  2. Entrapment and Escape: Inventional Metaphors in Ronald Reagan's Economic Rhetoric.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aden, Roger C.

    1989-01-01

    Examines Ronald Reagan's use of inventional metaphors of entrapment and escape, language meshing with the American public's perception of the economy in the early 1980s. Notes that Reagan's reliance on inventional metaphors produced a rigidity in his approach to new situations, ultimately damaging his ability to lead the nation. (MM)

  3. 75 FR 44267 - Government-Owned Inventions; Availability for Licensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-28

    ... inventions to extend market coverage for companies and may also be available for licensing. ADDRESSES..., PhD, at 301-435-3121 or [email protected] for more information. Software for Accurate Segmentation of Cell Nuclei in Breast Tissue Description of Invention: Automatic segmentation of cell nuclei is...

  4. Playful Invention and Exploration. Final Evaluation Report: Executive Summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    St. John; Mark; Carroll, Becky; Helms, Jen; Smith, Anita

    2008-01-01

    PIE (Playful Invention and Exploration) is a unique approach to learning that centers on the use of technology and design challenges to create powerful learning experiences in informal education settings. The Playful Invention and Exploration (PIE) Institute project was funded in 2005 by the National Science Foundation (NSF). Overall, 150…

  5. Rhetorical Invention and Advanced Literacy: An Historical Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagaman, John

    Recent criticism of rhetorical invention faults the discipline for not promoting "advanced literacy," defined as the use of critical reading and writing abilities to serve social ends. Aristotle's vision of rhetoric has contributed significantly to a cognitive view of invention, but Aristotle also acknowledged the importance of social…

  6. Distant Recombination and the Creation of Basic Inventions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barirani, Ahmad; Beaudry, Catherine; Agard, Bruno

    2015-01-01

    This article explores whether the relationship between the breath of technological integration (recombination distance) and the breath of an invention׳s subsequent application (basicness) is moderated by the sector of activity (private or public), science-linkage strength and industry characteris...

  7. 43 CFR 6.2 - Report of invention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... official working hours, the extent use was made of government facilities, equipment, funds, material or... withhold the report until the process or device is completely reduced to practice, reduction to practice... the Government and of the inventor. If an invention is reduced to practice after the invention report...

  8. THE VALUE AND ECONOMIC EFFECTS OF UNAPPLIED INVENTIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raul Sorin V. FÂNTÂNĂ

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The accounting regulations, the guidelines for their application and other articles by accounting specialists argue that inventions created internally are not recognized as intangible assets. Only assets acquired separately can be measured reliably, based on the document justifying the purchase transaction. Other specialised papers show that it is difficult to establish the existence of this intangible asset and its credible cost. That is, it can give or calculate a value of the invention only if it can show the acceptable cost of achieving it. But all these works argue that the protection of inventions is profitable if it is the basis of a new business, if it promotes or protects the current activity. However, these papers elude - because it is uncomfortable - the situation where an invention created internally has a value only because it forecloses the market. It is curious that an invention has accounting value only when traded.

  9. Commercial progress and impacts of inventions and innovations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perlack, R.D.; Rizy, C.G.; Franchuk, C.A.; Cohn, S.M.

    1999-08-01

    This report presents the survey results from the 1997 inventions and innovations evaluation questionnaire. The evaluation impacts are based on responses from 136 out of 334 inventors sent the questionnaire. In 1996, there were 67 inventions identified that currently have direct, licensed, or spinoff sales. In total, the number of inventions and innovations with current sales and past sales (now retired from the market) is 144. This represents a commercial success rate of over 27%. For these grant-receiving inventions, the following performance metrics are of interest: (1) total cumulative direct and licensed sales through 1996 were $700 million (1995$), in addition, cumulative spinoff sales and royalties were $90 million and $20 million (1995$) through 1996, respectively; (2) employment sustained by direct and licensed sales was 1,189 full-time equivalents in 1996, employment attributable to technologies with no sales was 90 full-time equivalents, and the annual federal income taxes collected as a result of this employment was in excess of $6 million; and (3) energy savings attribute to supported inventions and innovations were estimated at 78 trillion Btu in 1996 with an estimated value of nearly $190 million (1995$), the associated reduction in carbon emissions was over 1.5 million metric tons. In terms of future commercialization progress and impacts, the 1997 survey revealed that 60% of the respondents are actively pursuing their invention, and nearly 50% of the inventions are in the prototype development, pre-production prototype testing, and pre-production development stages.

  10. 76 FR 55069 - Government-Owned Inventions; Availability for Licensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-06

    ... invention relates to an improved system for measuring bone mineral density (BMD). BMD measurement is an... vivo data available (animal) Inventors: Geraldo Kaplan (FDA), Krishnamurthy Konduru (FDA), et al...

  11. Making Patent Scopes Exceed the Technological Scopes of Scientific Inventions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beukel, Karin

    This paper presents the results of a grounded theory study of the transformation of scientific discoveries into patented inventions. Using an algebraic interpretive approach, the narratives collected during interviews are analyzed as Bayesian inferences and the developed theory is tested. The fin...... for searching in new directions for solutions if challenges of exploitation with regard to the scientific invention arise.......This paper presents the results of a grounded theory study of the transformation of scientific discoveries into patented inventions. Using an algebraic interpretive approach, the narratives collected during interviews are analyzed as Bayesian inferences and the developed theory is tested....... The findings recast the relationship between science and patents as a process in which the way the transformation of the scientific invention is handled has an effect on the breadth of the patent scope. Unleashing patent scope surplus is dependent on processes related to abstraction and cognitive variety...

  12. 78 FR 29386 - Government-Owned Inventions, Available for Licensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-20

    ... NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION [Notice (13-053)] Government-Owned Inventions, Available for Licensing AGENCY: National Aeronautics and Space Administration. ACTION: Notice of... N Channel JFET Based Digital Logic Gate Structure Using Resistive Level Shifters and Having Direct...

  13. 75 FR 58401 - Government-Owned Inventions; Availability for Licensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-24

    ..., attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), and schizophrenia. Development of selective pharmacological... bipolar disorder, attention deficit disorder (ADD), and autism. Applications Method of diagnosis and... Disorders Description of Invention: The inventors have isolated and characterized an alkaloid, phantasmidine...

  14. 78 FR 38352 - Government-Owned Inventions; Availability for Licensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-26

    ...). The invention rat is superior to AD mice models because the rat has a larger sized brain to.... Licensing Contact: Patrick McCue, Ph.D.; 301-435-5560; [email protected] . Collaborative Research...

  15. 75 FR 43992 - Government-Owned Inventions; Availability for Licensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-27

    ... immune system may play an important role. This invention discloses that patients with AMD gain additional... of age related macular degeneration. This is in light of new findings that immune mechanisms appear...

  16. 75 FR 44270 - Government-Owned Inventions; Availability for Licensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-28

    ... belongs to a group of disorders in which the immune system may play an important role. This invention... agents in the treatment of age related macular degeneration. This is in light of new findings that immune...

  17. Patentability of inventions under the Nigeria's patents and designs act

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Patentability of inventions under the Nigeria's patents and designs act: an examination. ... AFRICAN JOURNALS ONLINE (AJOL) · Journals · Advanced Search · USING ... The Nigerian Patent Registry refuses patent applications for Software or ...

  18. 77 FR 31859 - Government-Owned Inventions; Availability for Licensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-30

    ... inventions to extend market coverage for companies and may also be available for licensing. FOR FURTHER... three-dimensional segmentation approach for the quantitative interpretation of electron tomograms. IEEE...

  19. 7 CFR 1230.88 - Patents, copyrights, inventions, and publications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... provisions of this subpart shall be the property of the United States Government as represented by the Board..., leasing, franchising, or other uses of such patents, copyrights, inventions, or publications inure to the...

  20. 7 CFR 1160.505 - Patents, copyrights, inventions and publications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... funds collected under the provisions of this subpart are the property of the United States Government as... the rental, sale, leasing, franchising, or other uses of such patents, copyrights, inventions, or...

  1. 76 FR 72207 - Government-Owned Inventions; Availability for Licensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-22

    ... Macular degeneration Diabetic retinopathy Retinal vein occlusion Competitive Advantages: Small sample... Vascular access devices Competitive Advantages: Non-degradable antimicrobial methods. Development Stage... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health Government-Owned Inventions...

  2. 78 FR 21614 - Government-Owned Inventions; Availability for Licensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-11

    ... useful in drug development. Competitive Advantages: The bioluminescent marker allows for effective...-related Macular Degeneration. Competitive Advantages: This technology is potentially a more sensitive... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health Government-Owned Inventions...

  3. 75 FR 58404 - Government-Owned Inventions; Availability for Licensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-24

    ... the indicated licensing contact at the Office of Technology Transfer, National Institutes of Health... disorders (see above Description of Invention). Please contact NHGRI Technology Development Coordinator... for alcohol and drug addiction. Neuropsychiatric disorders including, for example, mood, anxiety...

  4. The Power of Individual-level Drivers of Inventive Performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zwick, Thomas; Frosch, Katharina; Hoisl, Karin

    2017-01-01

    (KSAO) model. We link survey information spanning the inventors’ entire careers and psychometric test evidence with patent history data for more than 1000 inventors. We also control for variables that have traditionally been used in studies of inventive performance including inventor age, applicant type......, technology, patent, and time information. We show that educational level, skills acquired during the career, personality traits, career motivation, cognitive ability, and cognitive problem-solving style are significantly related to inventive performance....

  5. Science, technology and inventions: Children draw their own visions

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Addezio, G.; Rubbia, G.; Marsili, A.

    2013-12-01

    Italian primary schools participated with enthusiasm to the drawing competition 'I'm a scientist too! Science and scientists from the children point of view' organized by the Laboratorio di Didattica e Divulgazione Scientifica of Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia (INGV) in Rome, Italy. The best drawings were awarded and published in the 2011 school calendar. Children were asked to realize a drawing, choosing among three suggestions: 1) How do you imagine a scientist, and how do you imagine the daily activities of a researcher? 2) What invention do you consider the most important among all those you know? 3) What would you invent? The topic 'invention' (#3) was the most successful. In fact, among the collected 1,000 drawings, 400 drawings depict scientists, nearly 150 depict scientists with their inventions, and other 350 depict inventions alone. A classification scheme was designed in order to synthetically describe this set of images and analyze it. The Draw-A-Scientist scheme, known from literature, was maintained but modified in order to characterize both inventors and inventions. A preliminary analysis about scientists reveals a persistent gender stereotype, since most of depicted persons were male and nearly half of girls draw men scientists. The image of 'mad scientist' is still present but it is mainly related to men. Women scientists are drawn by girls; they are represented as young, not crazy, usually good-looking. There are no particular differences between boys and girls in assigning research fields to scientists. Women scientists are often depicted as assistants, but when alone they are self-confident enough to give their name to an invention or to aspire for Nobel Prize. In this work we present the preliminary analysis performed on drawings containing inventions. What do girls and boys 6 to 11 years old invent? Robots, helping in housekeeping or in doing homework; rockets, space vehicles and time machines, but also fictional machines and

  6. Social networks in the history of innovation and invention

    CERN Document Server

    Moon, Francis C

    2014-01-01

    This book integrates history of science and technology with modern social network theory. Using examples from the history of machines, as well as case studies from wireless, radio and chaos theory, the author challenges the genius model of invention. Network analysis concepts are presented to demonstrate the societal nature of invention in areas such as steam power, internal combustion engines, early aviation, air conditioning and more. Using modern measures of network theory, the author demonstrates that the social networks of invention from the 19th and early 20th centuries have similar characteristics to modern 21st C networks such as the World Wide Web. The book provides evidence that exponential growth in technical innovation is linked to the growth of historical innovation networks.

  7. Original Researc Original Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    RAGHAVENDRA

    Practices. Problems. Supervision. Primary School. *Corresponding Author: Asrat Dagnew. E-mail: asratboza@yahoo.com tructional support. The relevant and ... vision is one of indispensable system pment. Supervision is a system of that directly concerned on the aff members in a school or other. Original Research ...

  8. Original Research Original Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    RAGHAVENDRA

    language in social interaction( Anto et al., 2012; Tessema et al., 2012). While such ..... 10 items on a five-point Likert scale originally developed by Benard et al. (2007). ..... self-confidence, and hold down their anxiety levels. In this study ...

  9. Summary Robert Noyce and the invention of Silicon Valley

    CERN Document Server

    2014-01-01

    This work offers a summary of the book "THE MAN BEHIND THE MICROCHIP: Robert Noyce and the Invention of Silicon Valley""by Leslie Berlin.The Man behind the Microchip is Leslie Berlin's first book. This author is project historian for the Silicon Valley Archives, a division of the Stanford University Department of Special Collections. This book tells the story of a giant of the high-tech industry: the multimillionaire Bob Noyce. This co-founder of Fairchild Semiconductor and Intel co-invented the integrated circuit which became the electronic heart of every modern computer, automobile, advance

  10. Reluctant genius Alexander Graham Bell and the passion for invention

    CERN Document Server

    Gray, Charlotte

    2011-01-01

    The popular image of Alexander Graham Bell is that of an elderly American patriarch, memorable only for his paunch, his Santa Claus beard, and the invention of the telephone. In this magisterial reassessment based on thorough new research, acclaimed biographer Charlotte Gray reveals Bell's wide-ranging passion for invention and delves into the private life that supported his genius. The child of a speech therapist and a deaf mother, and possessed of superbly acute hearing, Bell developed an early interest in sound. His understanding of how sound waves might relate to electrical waves enabled h

  11. User's guide to the radionuclide inventory and hazard code INVENT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nancarrow, D.J.; Thorne, M.C.

    1986-05-01

    This report constitutes the user's guide to the radionuclide inventory and hazard index code INVENT and provides an explanation of the mathematical basis of the code, the database used and operation of the code. INVENT was designed to facilitate the post-closure radiological assessment of land-based repositories for low and intermediate-level wastes. For those radionuclides identified to be of potential significance, it allows the calculation of time-dependent radionuclide activities, hazard indices for both inhalation and ingestion of activity, and photon spectra. (author)

  12. The invention of graphene electronics and the physics of epitaxial graphene on silicon carbide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Heer, Walt A

    2012-01-01

    Graphene electronics was officially invented at the Georgia Institute of Technology in 2003 after experimental and theoretical research on graphene properties starting from 2001. This paper focuses on the motivation and events leading to the invention of graphene electronics, as well as on recent developments. Graphene electronics was originally conceived as a new electronics paradigm to incorporate the room-temperature ballistic and coherent properties of carbon nanotubes in a patternable electronic material. Graphene on silicon carbide was chosen as the most suitable material. Other electronics schemes, involving transferred (exfoliated and chemical vapor deposition-produced) graphitic materials, that operate in the diffusive regime may not be competitive with standard methods and may therefore not significantly impact electronics. In recent years, epitaxial graphene has improved to the point where graphene electronics according to the original concept appears to be within reach. Beyond electronics, epitaxial graphene research has led to important developments in graphene physics in general and has become a leading platform for graphene science as well.

  13. 75 FR 12764 - Government-Owned Inventions; Availability for Licensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-17

    ..., lung, mammarys and kidney cancers. These mouse models serve as vehicles to test the efficacy of new... inventions to extend market coverage for companies and may also be available for licensing. ADDRESSES... applications. Spontaneously Transformed Mouse Epithelial Cancer Cell Lines Serving as Mouse Models: A New Model...

  14. 77 FR 32642 - Patents and Inventions; Delegation of Authority

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-01

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Patents and... Prevention (CDC), the Deputy Director, DLPP, LSPPPO, OSELS, CDC, and the Chief, Technology Management Branch... regarding the invention and patent program of CDC and the authority to make determinations of rights in...

  15. The laser and its uses: 50 years after its invention

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Besnard, P.; Favennec, P.N.

    2011-01-01

    The laser, 50 years after its invention, has become a major player in modern technologies with its efficient partner the optical fiber. This book reviews the numerous applications of laser in diverse fields such as telecommunication, metrology, optical radar, surface treatment, medicine. The last chapter is dedicated to inertial fusion through the presentation of the Megajoule laser (LMJ) project

  16. 76 FR 72713 - Government-Owned Inventions; Availability for Licensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-25

    ...; Availability for Licensing AGENCY: National Institutes of Health, Public Health Service, HHS. ACTION: Notice... are thought to play a central role in this process. The subject invention is a novel method of... (CTLA4IgG) fusion protein to salivary glands. The system effectively blocks CTLA4 ligand interactions with...

  17. 75 FR 12761 - Government-Owned Inventions; Availability for Licensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-17

    ... inventions to extend market coverage for companies and may also be available for licensing. ADDRESSES..., ADP-ribosylated HNP-1 and other defensins are degraded rapidly in vivo due to the susceptibility of... at the level of approximately $6 billion a year and is expected to grow to $13 billion by the year...

  18. 78 FR 29387 - Government-Owned Inventions, Available for Licensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-20

    ... NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION [Notice (13-056)] Government-Owned Inventions, Available for Licensing AGENCY: National Aeronautics and Space Administration. ACTION: Notice of... Method; NASA Case No.: MSC-25265-1: Device and Method and for Digital-to-Analog Transformation and...

  19. 75 FR 41501 - Government-Owned Inventions; Availability for Licensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-16

    ... applications. A Transgenic Model of Human Basal Triple Negative Breast Cancer [C3(l)- tag mice] Description of Invention: Basal triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) is a common form of human breast cancer for which..., causes a painful stimulation and incapacitates a person for only a brief period. This technology may...

  20. 10 CFR 603.860 - Rights to inventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... approved by assigned intellectual property counsel. (c) Taking past investments as an example, the... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (CONTINUED) ASSISTANCE REGULATIONS TECHNOLOGY INVESTMENT AGREEMENTS Award Terms Related to Other Administrative Matters Intellectual Property § 603.860 Rights to inventions. (a) The...

  1. 78 FR 78370 - Government-Owned Inventions; Availability for Licensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-26

    ... have developed a research tool, a murine cell line model (JygMC(A)) with a reporter construct, of... marrow transplantation, stem cell therapy, tissue regeneration) Competitive Advantages: Labeling markers... federally-funded research and development. Foreign patent applications are filed on selected inventions to...

  2. 78 FR 37554 - Government-Owned Inventions; Availability for Licensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-21

    ... generation of self-renewing cells with a high proliferative capacity. Induced pluripotent stem cells (iPS... invention relates to a method of using CD47-modulating compounds to induce multipotent stem cells without..., please contact Denise Crooks at [email protected] . Method of Inducing Pluripotent or Multipotent...

  3. 75 FR 39545 - Government-Owned Inventions; Availability for Licensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-09

    ... Virus Recombinant HA Proteins for Vaccine and Diagnostic Applications Description of Invention: Pandemic... are specific recombinant HA proteins from H1N1, H5N1, and other strains of influenza virus produced in... H5N1 peptides useful for assays to detect antibodies generated [[Page 39546

  4. Increasing Access to Patented Inventions by Post-grant Measures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schovsbo, Jens Hemmingsen

    2009-01-01

    " and the so called "tragedy of the anticommons". Next the paper discusses the use of (some) post grant measure to increase access to patented inventions. Traditionally patent law has not paid much attention to such measures. The paper argues that developments suggest that there is good reason to reconsider...

  5. Nobel physics prize to Charpak for inventing particle detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schwarzschild, B.

    1993-01-01

    This article describes the work of Georges Charpak of France leading to his receipt of the 1992 Nobel Prize in Physics. The Nobel Prize was awarded to Charpak open-quotes for his invention and development of particle detectors, in particular the multiwire proportional chamber.close quotes Historical aspects of Charpak's life and research are given

  6. Metaphor and the Rhetorical Invention of Cold War "Idealists."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivie, Robert L.

    1987-01-01

    Presents a procedure for identifying metaphorical concepts guiding the rhetorical invention of three Cold War "idealists": Henry Wallace, J. William Fulbright, and Helen Caldicott, whose collective failure to dispel threatening images of the Soviets is located in a recurrent system of metaphors that promotes a reversal of the enemy-image…

  7. 78 FR 73549 - Government-Owned Inventions; Availability for Licensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-06

    ... extend market coverage for companies and may also be available for licensing. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION... resistance due to the high sequence conservation of the target. More stable than thioesters. Development... makes this invention a novel and potential long-term therapeutic for restoration of exocrine gland...

  8. 78 FR 42527 - Government-Owned Inventions; Availability for Licensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-16

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health Government-Owned Inventions... (allowing high- throughput production with limited screening) Higher efficiency cloning of baculovirus... for this technology. Related Technology: HHS Reference No. E-164-2011--Combinatorial Cloning Platform...

  9. 78 FR 48692 - Government-Owned Inventions; Availability for Licensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-09

    ... federally-funded research and development. Foreign patent applications are filed on selected inventions to... disrupts lipid homeostasis in liver. J Biol Chem. 2010 Apr 2;285(14):10880-9. [PMID 20097939]. Intellectual Property: HHS Reference No. E-465-2013/0--Research Tool. Patent protection is not being pursued for this...

  10. 76 FR 40381 - Government-Owned Inventions; Availability for Licensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-08

    ... inventions to extend market coverage for companies and may also be available for licensing. ADDRESSES... effective treatment option. EGFRvIII CARs can cross the blood-brain barrier, are expected to target only... squamous cell carcinomas. A personalized cancer treatment strategy for patients whose tumor cells express...

  11. 76 FR 49777 - Government-Owned Inventions; Availability for Licensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-11

    ... repress cell activation targets. Immunotherapy, although an effective treatment strategy, sometimes fails... inventions to extend market coverage for companies and may also be available for licensing. ADDRESSES... Target Validation Laboratory, DCTD, NCI, NIH, is seeking statements of capability or interest from...

  12. 76 FR 63309 - Government-Owned Inventions; Availability for Licensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-12

    ... applications, such as the characterization and study of glucocorticoid signaling in cancer, inflammation, and... is a need to track the spread of these viruses both in the animal and human populations to avert or.... SUMMARY: The inventions listed below are owned by an agency of the U.S. Government and are available for...

  13. Not invented here : managing corporate innovation in a new era

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vrande, van de V.J.A.

    2007-01-01

    Not Invented here: Managing Corporate Innovation in a New Era External technology sourcing as a means to develop new businesses is taking a more central role in established companies. Acquiring new technologies from outside the firm which speeds up the innovation process and complements internal R&D

  14. 78 FR 16690 - Government-Owned Inventions; Availability for Licensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-18

    ... Ionizing Radiation Description of Technology: The invention relates to methods of using ketogenic compounds to protect against the adverse effects of radiation exposure, including ionizing radiation tissue... therapeutic efficacy of radiation therapies by protecting non-target tissues from incidental radiation damage...

  15. 75 FR 21634 - Government-Owned Inventions; Availability for Licensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-26

    ... interventional devices for delivery of drugs, cells, energy, or sutures through complex trajectories of the body... Ligands for Live Cell Imaging Description of Invention: Recently-developed protein tags enable the..., to fusion proteins containing these tags. For example, SNAP and CLIP tags bind O\\6\\-benzylguanine...

  16. The Invention Studio: A University Maker Space and Culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forest, Craig R.; Moore, Roxanne A.; Jariwala, Amit S.; Fasse, Barbara Burks; Linsey, Julie; Newstetter, Wendy; Ngo, Peter; Quintero, Christopher

    2014-01-01

    Creativity, invention, and innovation are values championed as central pillars of engineering education. However, university environments that foster open-ended design-build projects are uncommon. Fabrication and prototyping spaces at universities are typically "machine shops" where students relinquish actual fabrication activities to…

  17. IVO`s CHP know-how: experience, inventions, patents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aeijaelae, M.; Ohtonen, V. [ed.

    1997-11-01

    IVO can justly claim mastery in the co-generation of district heat and electricity - CHP. As well as looking at the issue from the viewpoint of planners, builders and operators, IVO`s engineers also view power plants through the eyes of the product developer and inventor. This approach has resulted in successful power plant configurations, inventions and patents and visions

  18. 76 FR 55070 - Government-Owned Inventions; Availability for Licensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-06

    .... SUMMARY: The inventions listed below are owned by an agency of the U.S. Government and are available for..., 6011 Executive Boulevard, Suite 325, Rockville, Maryland 20852-3804; telephone: 301-496-7057; fax: 301... samples for anti- cancer immunotherapy by making use of gas permeable (GP) flasks. This advancement in...

  19. 75 FR 70010 - Government-Owned Inventions; Availability for Licensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-16

    ... Appella (NCI), John K. Inman (NIAID), Deyun Wang (NIDDK), Lisa M. Miller Jenkins (NCI), Ryo Hayashi (NCI). Publications: 1. Miller Jenkins LM, et al. Nature Chemical Biology, in press. 2. Miller Jenkins LM, et al..., evaluate, or commercialize this invention. Please contact Dr. Henry Eden at [email protected] for more...

  20. 75 FR 26258 - Government-Owned Inventions; Availability for Licensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-11

    ....gov for more information. Parvovirus B19 Codon Optimized Structural Proteins for Vaccine and Diagnostic Applications Description of Invention: Parvovirus B19 (B19V) is the only known pathogenic human parvovirus. Infection by this viral pathogen can cause transient aplastic crisis in individuals with high red...

  1. Fourth Graders Make Inventions Using SCAMPER and Animal Adaptation Ideas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussain, Mahjabeen; Carignan, Anastasia

    2016-01-01

    This study explores to what extent the SCAMPER (Substitute, Combine, Adapt, Modify, Put to another use, Eliminate, and Rearrange) technique combined with animal adaptation ideas learned through form and function analogy activities can help fourth graders generate creative ideas while augmenting their inventiveness. The sample consisted of 24…

  2. Differentiating High-Functioning Autism and Social Phobia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyson, Katherine E.; Cruess, Dean G.

    2012-01-01

    Both high-functioning autism (HFA) and social phobia (SP) involve profound social interaction deficits. Although these disorders share some similar symptoms, they are conceptualized as distinct. Because both HFA and SP are defined behaviorally, the degree of overlap between the two disorders may result in misinterpretation of symptoms. However,…

  3. Fluorination of some highly functionalized cycloalkanes: chemoselectivity and substrate dependence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Attila Márió Remete

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available A study exploring the chemical behavior of some dihydroxylated β-amino ester stereo- and regioisomers, derived from unsaturated cyclic β-amino acids is described. The nucleophilic fluorinations involving hydroxy–fluorine exchange of some highly functionalized alicyclic diol derivatives have been carried out in view of selective fluorination, investigating substrate dependence, neighboring group assistance and chemodifferentiation.

  4. Audiovisual Integration in High Functioning Adults with Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keane, Brian P.; Rosenthal, Orna; Chun, Nicole H.; Shams, Ladan

    2010-01-01

    Autism involves various perceptual benefits and deficits, but it is unclear if the disorder also involves anomalous audiovisual integration. To address this issue, we compared the performance of high-functioning adults with autism and matched controls on experiments investigating the audiovisual integration of speech, spatiotemporal relations, and…

  5. Who Are Most, Average, or High-Functioning Adults?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregg, Noel; Coleman, Chris; Lindstrom, Jennifer; Lee, Christopher

    2007-01-01

    The growing number of high-functioning adults seeking accommodations from testing agencies and postsecondary institutions presents an urgent need to ensure reliable and valid diagnostic decision making. The potential for this population to make significant contributions to society will be greater if we provide the learning and testing…

  6. Fluorination of some highly functionalized cycloalkanes: chemoselectivity and substrate dependence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Remete, Attila Márió; Nonn, Melinda; Fustero, Santos; Haukka, Matti; Fülöp, Ferenc; Kiss, Loránd

    2017-01-01

    A study exploring the chemical behavior of some dihydroxylated β-amino ester stereo- and regioisomers, derived from unsaturated cyclic β-amino acids is described. The nucleophilic fluorinations involving hydroxy-fluorine exchange of some highly functionalized alicyclic diol derivatives have been carried out in view of selective fluorination, investigating substrate dependence, neighboring group assistance and chemodifferentiation.

  7. Perceptions of the Invention Disclosure Process at a Federal Laboratory after the America Invents Act of 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice-Moore, Sharla V.

    The America Invents Act of 2011 reformed the patent process in the United States. This study focused on the effect of one provision which allows the first inventor to file the application of patent to become the owner of the intellectual property. Prior to this, the Patent and Trademark Act of 1980 allowed small businesses, universities, and non-profit institutions to pursue ownership of intellectual property developed from federally funded research. The new regulations could influence government employees' disclosure of invention and new technology. There is limited research on the disclosure of technology process for government employees. This study examined 1,389 invention disclosure forms from March 2009 to March 2015 during three phases of the law: before it was signed, before the implementation of the first inventor to file provision in 2013, and after full enactment. The reported State of Development showed significant changes prior to implementation for large companies. The findings reveal disclosures were filed at an earlier stage of development, but no change was noted in the significance of the technology. A survey was also distributed using the framework of Organizational Justice theory. The results showed the disclosure reporting process was fair and unbiased. The research supports the efforts of management to keep employees informed about the disclosure process and the importance of technology transfer of government developed innovation. Key words: America Invents Act, Organizational Justice, patent process.

  8. Flow Diode and Method for Controlling Fluid Flow Origin of the Invention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyson, Rodger W (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    A flow diode configured to permit fluid flow in a first direction while preventing fluid flow in a second direction opposite the first direction is disclosed. The flow diode prevents fluid flow without use of mechanical closures or moving parts. The flow diode utilizes a bypass flowline whereby all fluid flow in the second direction moves into the bypass flowline having a plurality of tortuous portions providing high fluidic resistance. The portions decrease in diameter such that debris in the fluid is trapped. As fluid only travels in one direction through the portions, the debris remains trapped in the portions.

  9. Temporal context memory in high-functioning autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gras-Vincendon, Agnès; Mottron, Laurent; Salamé, Pierre; Bursztejn, Claude; Danion, Jean-Marie

    2007-11-01

    Episodic memory, i.e. memory for specific episodes situated in space and time, seems impaired in individuals with autism. According to weak central coherence theory, individuals with autism have general difficulty connecting contextual and item information which then impairs their capacity to memorize information in context. This study investigated temporal context memory for visual information in individuals with autism. Eighteen adolescents and adults with high-functioning autism (HFA) or Asperger syndrome (AS) and age- and IQ-matched typically developing participants were tested using a recency judgement task. The performance of the autistic group did not differ from that of the control group, nor did the performance between the AS and HFA groups. We conclude that autism in high-functioning individuals does not impair temporal context memory as assessed on this task. We suggest that individuals with autism are as efficient on this task as typically developing subjects because contextual memory performance here involves more automatic than organizational processing.

  10. High functioning autism disorder: marital relationships and sexual offending

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clayton Peixoto

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective To describe the implications of social inability as a factor that can contribute to sexual abuse in the marriage relationship of people with high-functioning autism spectrum disorder (ASD. Case description A 30-year-old male sought medical attention complaining of being “very nervous” and have difficulties in family relationships. He was diagnosed with high-functioning ASD based on the DSM-5. Married for over 4 years with a woman diagnosed with histrionic personality disorder (HPD, he asked for her to accompany him in the sessions and help him describe difficulties they had during sexual intercourse. His wife reported feeling raped in all of her sexual relations with the patient, especially when he could not understand that she did not want sex. Comments The case study leads us to believe that the social and communicative disability is a complicating factor that can contributes to the occurrence of sexual abuse in marital relationships with individuals with ASD. Social skills training, psychotherapy, and traditional medical therapies should be considered to minimize the risk of occurrence of cases of sexual abuse by individuals with high-functioning ASD against the spouses themselves.

  11. Keys to Taking Your Nanotech Inventions to the Market

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rickert, Scott

    Although many scientists and engineers may wish to be an owner of something they invented, and then take that something to the market, there are many obstacles to do so. Many of these roadblocks are self-imposed, and many more are there because most of us are not aware of the very strict rules that exist in the world of marketing, selling, and manufacturing in the United States. This lecture will identify a small subset of these obstacles and discuss some ways to overcome them. Belief in your goals is most important, and this belief must be shared by others, or you cannot succeed. Believe it or not, no one wants to steal your ideas or inventions. They would much rather have you take it to market yourself. This really is a lecture about winning.

  12. Invented spelling – a window on early literacy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elżbieta Awramiuk

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A wide spectrum of research on preschool spelling development in different languages is presented. In Poland, children at kindergarten are usually at a stage of pre-literacy. Invented spelling means the writing produced by young children (aged 3–7 before they are formally taught reading and writing or are at the beginning of the learning process. Their writing is more spontaneous than learnt. The paper describes an investigation of the development of early literacy and factors influencing it, such as knowledge about orthography (spelling, early morphological awareness or teaching methods. Children’s early writing provides a window on their conceptualisation of the written language, illustrating the process of developing language awareness and spelling skills. Invented spelling, together with phonological abilities and letter knowledge is considered to be a strong predictor for later literacy skills.

  13. Invention activities as preparation for learning laboratory data handling skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Day, James

    2012-10-01

    Undergraduate physics laboratories are often driven by a mix of goals, and usually enough of them to cause cognitive overload for the student. Our recent findings align well with studies indicating that students often exit a physics lab without having properly learned how to handle real data. The value of having students explore the underlying structure of a problem before being able to solve it has been shown as an effective way to ready students for learning. Borrowing on findings from the fields of education and cognitive psychology, we use ``invention activities'' to precede direct instruction and bolster learning. In this talk I will show some of what we have learned about students' data handling skills, explain how an invention activity works, and share some observations of successful transfer.

  14. Invention of Lithium Ion Secondary Battery and Its Business Development

    OpenAIRE

    正本, 順三/米田,晴幸; 米田, 晴幸; MASAMOTO, Junzo; YONEDA, Haruyuki

    2010-01-01

    At present, mobile phones and laptop computers are essential items in our daily life. As a battery for such portable devices, the lithium ion secondary battery is used. The lithium ion secondary battery, which is used as a battery for such portable devices, was first invented by Dr. Yoshino at Asahi Kasei. In this paper, the authors describe how the lithium ion secondary battery was developed by the inventor. The authors also describe the battery separator, which is one of the key components ...

  15. Not invented here : managing corporate innovation in a new era

    OpenAIRE

    Vrande, van de, V.J.A.

    2007-01-01

    Not Invented here: Managing Corporate Innovation in a New Era External technology sourcing as a means to develop new businesses is taking a more central role in established companies. Acquiring new technologies from outside the firm which speeds up the innovation process and complements internal R&D is an important aspect of new business development within the paradigm of open innovation. It is becoming a requirement to create and sustain competitive advantage in different product markets, an...

  16. The Airplane as an Open-Source Invention

    OpenAIRE

    Peter B. Meyer

    2013-01-01

    Airplanes were invented after decades of experimentation in many countries through a process we can call open-source innovation. Experimenters, inventors, and writers contributed to the airplane’s development by sharing information in publications, in clubs, by writing letters and by visiting. The hundreds of aeronautical patents before 1900 were treated like publications, not like claims to intellectual property. Inventors of modern airplanes copied earlier designs, analogously to advances i...

  17. Commercialising university inventions for sustainability : A case study of (non-)intermediating 'cleantech' at Aalto University

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kivimaa, Paula; Boon, Wouter; Antikainen, Riina

    2017-01-01

    The challenge to transform towards more sustainable societies requires action on multiple levels, including commercialisation of inventions created in universities. We examine intermediation in the pre-commercialisation phase of cleantech inventions developed at Aalto University, Finland, focusing

  18. Examining the social and scientific roles of invention in science education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calabrese-Barton, Angela

    1998-03-01

    I have been drawn to the construct of “invention” and “inventive acts” because in my research involving how homeless children construct science and the self-in-science, an overwhelming theme has been the multiple ways in which self-identity in science has been described by the children through a language of invention. Using post-modern feminism and science and technologies studies, I examine the multiple uses and definitions of “invention” in science in order to develop a theory of invention and inventive acts around the themes: invention as a social act, invention as a recursive and socially linked process, and embodied agency. I use this framework to examine the construct of “invention” in two different case studies involving the science education of urban homeless children. Finally, I link this discussion of invention and inventive acts with current international reform initiatives revolving around constructivist science teaching and learning.

  19. Book Review: Inventing the Market: Smith, Hegel & Political Theory by Liza Herzog

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boscan, Luis

    2014-01-01

    Review of: Inventing the Market: Smith, Hegel & Political Theory. Liza Herzog. Oxford University Press. April 2013.......Review of: Inventing the Market: Smith, Hegel & Political Theory. Liza Herzog. Oxford University Press. April 2013....

  20. Nanotechnological Inventions and Nanomaterials Produce A Profound Effect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VLASOV Vladimir Alexeevich

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The inventions in the area of nanotechnologies and nanomaterials produce a profound effect in construction, housing and communal services and adjacent economic fields as they allow us: to increase mechanical strength, coefficient of elasticity, alkali resistance and temperature of products vitrification; to obtain nanostructured coatings with the property of shape memory on the steel; to raise the dynamics of coal burning and its full burnout in the boilers of thermoelectric power station; to produce metal nanopowders with increased stored energy 10–15% etc. For example, the invention «Epoxy composition for high strength, alkali resistant structures» refers to epoxy composition used as a binder for production of high strength, thermal- and alkali-resistant glass-fiber material which can be applied in the manufacture process of construction reinforcement to strengthen concrete structures. The invention «The method to produce nanostructured reaction foil» can be used to join different materials including metal alloys, ceramics, amorphous materials and elements of microelectronic devices that are sensible to the heating. This process provides decreased labour-output ratio and energy consumption as well as the condition to manufacture foil with specified stored energy and high mechanical properties. The invention «The method of intensification of burning lowreactionary coal in the boilers of thermoelectric power station» refers to the thermal energy and can be implemented at the thermal plants. The increased dynamics of inflaming and burning leads to full burnout of powdered-coal low-reactionary fuel and decreased mechanical underfiring. The specialists may be also interested in the following inventions: fine dispersed organic suspension of carbon metal-containing nanostructures and the method to produce it; the dispersion of carbon nanotubes; the composition for reinforcement of building structures; the reinforced plate element made of

  1. Para que servem os inventários de fauna?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luís Fábio Silveira

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Inventários de fauna acessam diretamente a diversidade de uma localidade, em um determinado espaço e tempo. Os dados primários gerados pelos inventários compõem uma das ferramentas mais importantes na tomada de decisões a respeito do manejo de áreas naturais. Entretanto, vários problemas têm sido observados em diversos níveis relacionados aos inventários de fauna no Brasil e vão desde a formação de recursos humanos até a ausência de padronização, de desenho experimental e de seleção de métodos inadequados. São apresentados estudos de caso com mamíferos, répteis, anfíbios e peixes, nos quais são discutidos problemas como variabilidade temporal e métodos para detecção de fauna terrestre, sugerindo que tanto os inventários quanto os programas de monitoramento devam se estender por prazos maiores e que os inventários devem incluir diferentes metodologias para que os seus objetivos sejam plenamente alcançados.Inventories of fauna directly access the diversity of a locality in a certain period of time. The primary data generated by these inventories comprise one of the most important steps in decisions making regarding the management of natural areas. However, several problems have been observed at different levels related to inventories of fauna in Brazil, and range from the training of humans to the lack of standardization of experimental design and selection of inappropriate methods. We present case studies of mammals, reptiles, amphibians and fishes, where they discussed issues such temporal variability and methods for detection of terrestrial fauna, suggesting that both inventories and monitoring programs should be extended for longer terms and that inventories should include different methodologies to ensure that their goals are fully achieved.

  2. Invented Spelling, Word Stress, and Phonological Awareness in Relation to Reading Difficulties in Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehta, Sheena

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of the current research is to assess the clinical utility of an invented spelling tool and determine whether invented spelling and word stress (supra-segmental level measures) can also be used to better identify reading difficulties. The proposed invented spelling tool incorporated linguistic manipulations to alter the difficulty…

  3. The asymmetry between discoveries and inventions in the Nobel Prize for Physics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bartneck, C.; Rauterberg, G.W.M.

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents an empirical study on the frequency of discoveries and inventions that were awarded with the. More than 70 per cent of all Nobel Prizes were given to discoveries. The majority of inventions were awarded at the beginning of the twentieth century and only three inventions had a

  4. 37 CFR 1.295 - Review of decision finally refusing to publish a statutory invention registration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... dissatisfied with the final refusal to publish a statutory invention registration for reasons other than... refunded if the final refusal to publish a statutory invention registration for reasons other than... refusing to publish a statutory invention registration. 1.295 Section 1.295 Patents, Trademarks, and...

  5. 45 CFR 7.1 - Duty of employee to report inventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Duty of employee to report inventions. 7.1 Section 7.1 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATION EMPLOYEE INVENTIONS § 7.1 Duty of employee to report inventions. Every Department employee is required to report to...

  6. The Role of the Popes in the Invention of Complementarity and the Anathematization of Gender

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary Anne Case

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This article examines the origins and uses by the Vatican of the theological anthropology of complementarity, arguing that the doctrine of complementarity, under which the sexes are essentially different though not unequal, is an invention of the twentieth century untraceable in earlier centuries, but developed by, among others, the Popes from Pius XII through Benedict XVI, in part as a response to feminist claims, including those recently anathematized by the Vatican under the term ‘gender.’ After exploring some difficulties with the application of the doctrine of complementarity as Catholic orthodoxy, the article concludes by compiling preliminary evidence as to the extent Pope Francis will continue his predecessors’ approach to complementarity.

  7. From ecological records to big data: the invention of global biodiversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devictor, Vincent; Bensaude-Vincent, Bernadette

    2016-12-01

    This paper is a critical assessment of the epistemological impact of the systematic quantification of nature with the accumulation of big datasets on the practice and orientation of ecological science. We examine the contents of big databases and argue that it is not just accumulated information; records are translated into digital data in a process that changes their meanings. In order to better understand what is at stake in the 'datafication' process, we explore the context for the emergence and quantification of biodiversity in the 1980s, along with the concept of the global environment. In tracing the origin and development of the global biodiversity information facility (GBIF) we describe big data biodiversity projects as a techno-political construction dedicated to monitoring a new object: the global diversity. We argue that, biodiversity big data became a powerful driver behind the invention of the concept of the global environment, and a way to embed ecological science in the political agenda.

  8. Inventive Activity of Researchers: Cross-Country Rating Assessments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatyana Ivanovna Volkova

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, the study of the research capacity of the country and regions has become more active not only from the point of view of their leading components (personnel, financial, information, organizational, material-and-technical ones but also from the perspective of the assessment of productivity and effectiveness of researchers’ work. In the cross-country analysis, the certain highly aggregative parameters, which values, as a rule, are not in favour of Russia, are used. At the same time, at profound studying of this topic, these estimates cannot represent correctly the real trends of inventive activity in the scientific and technological sphere of the country and its regions. Moreover, the measurement of the researchers’ creative potential realization is carried out mainly through the assessment systems of their printing activity. Little attention is paid to the problem of the rating assessments of the researchers’ inventive and patent activity and its products from a cross-country perspective (especially to the detailed ones as well as to its institutional determinants. Therefore, the authors have chosen this subject-matter of the research. Its empirical basis is the statistical materials of both the national database and those which are recognized by the world scientific community. This research has both theoretical and methodological orientations. The purpose is the development of methodological and methodical tools of the research and assessment of researchers’ inventive activity including methodological support of cross-country comparative assessments. The authors have based the hypothesis on their previous research: in the conditions of the decreasing level of financial security, continuous reduction of a number of researchers, institutional restrictions and contradictions, the inventive activity of national researchers is still exist, and in a number of its leading parameters is implemented at the level of the advanced

  9. Nanotechnologies and nanomaterials: review of inventions. Part 1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    IVANOV Leonid Alexeevich

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The new technical solutions including inventions in the area of nanotechnology and nanomaterials are efficiently applied in communal and housing services as well as in construction and other joint fields. The invention «Protection system of urban housing and the method to build it (RU 2604933» refers to construction including environmental structures and can be used to protect cities, objects of national economy from destruction, floods and other types of natural and antropogenic disasters. Reinforcement of basements of city buildings is performed with barrels with fillers and flexible dampener-ties that receive natural and antropogenic impacts thus providing safety, including ecological one, for urban housing. The system is equipped with solar accumulators that supply energy to people in case of emergencies and additional monitoring system to inform people about emergencies. Storm discharge facilities protect cities and towns from floods. All that provides safety of inhabitants’ lives and functioning of enterprises when natural and antropogenic disasters such as floods, mud-and-stone flows and other types occur. The specialists may be also interested in the following nanotechnological inventions: the method to produce hardening mortar (RU 2601885, increase of durability of basalt fiber concrete by nanostructural additives, the method to treat surface and underground waters from titanium and its compounds by means of carbon nanotubes and ultrasound (RU 2575029, material on polymer basis for combined radio- and radiation protection (RU 2605696, thermoelectric heat pump with nanofilm semiconductor sides (RU 2595911, polymer composite nanomaterial (RU 2605590, the method to produce compositions from polymer and nanosize fillers (RU 2586979, the method to produce complex nanodispersed additive for highstrength concrete (RU 2563264 et al.

  10. Inventing around Edison’s Incandescent Lamp Patent

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Howells, John; Katznelson, Ron D.

    ’s ‘898 patent. Third, by analysis of forward citation to these patents we show that regardless of these inventions’ commercial viability in the incandescent lamp market, some became important prior art for new technological fields and some laid the groundwork for the later successful substitute...... for Edison’s carbon filament. Fourthly, we show that the recent view that Edison’s patent gave the patent holder General Electric (GE) a dominant position in the incandescent lamp market is incorrect: we show that besides commercially-successful invention around the claims of this patent, data for GE...

  11. Inventing around Edison’s incandescent lamp patent

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Howells, John; Ron D, Katznelson

    ’s ‘898 patent. Third, by analysis of forward citation to these patents we show that regardless of these inventions’ commercial viability in the incandescent lamp market, some became important prior art for new technological fields and some laid the groundwork for the later successful substitute...... for Edison’s carbon filament. Fourthly, we show that the recent view that Edison’s patent gave the patent holder General Electric (GE) a dominant position in the incandescent lamp market is incorrect: we show that besides commercially-successful invention around the claims of this patent, data for GE...

  12. Sun, wave, earth, and wind. 50 energy machines already invented

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eriksen, B W

    1980-01-01

    This publication gives illustrated examples of issued patents showing what has already been invented, the aim being to avoid scarce resources of creativity and finance being wastefully expended on already existing solutions. Furthermore, it is the aim of this publication to direct the attention of experimenters, researchers and inventors working within the field of alternative energy sources to patent literature in order that they may use it as a basis for further development and thus avoid reinventing the wheel. The examples given are only illustrative. They do not represent a full survey of patent literature.

  13. The Invention of a Danish Well-being Tourism Region

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjalager, Anne Mette

    2011-01-01

    . Strategy is about expressing the direction and timing of development. In this particular regional setting, with numerous individual actors, it was not simple to reconcile the needs and objectives of those involved, but collaboration has nevertheless resulted in targeted fields of action. Substance...... a commitment for the future. Symbolic actions are fundamental parts of the substance or visual elements that happen to have an intrinsic communicative power. Symbolic actions addressed in the project included community based marketing and policy related extensions, etc. Inventing a regional product or brand...... requires a painstaking combination of strategy, substance, structure and symbolic action, and in Southern Denmark, the first steps have been taken....

  14. Marking time the epic quest to invent the perfect calendar

    CERN Document Server

    Steel, Duncan

    2001-01-01

    ""If you lie awake worrying about the overnight transition from December 31, 1 b.c., to January 1, a.d. 1 (there is no year zero), then you will enjoy Duncan Steel's Marking Time.""--American Scientist ""No book could serve as a better guide to the cumulative invention that defines the imaginary threshold to the new millennium.""--Booklist A Fascinating March through History and the Evolution of the Modern-Day Calendar . . . In this vivid, fast-moving narrative, you'll discover the surprising story of how our modern calendar came about and how it has changed dramatically through the years.

  15. Memory illusion in high-functioning autism and Asperger's disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamio, Yoko; Toichi, Motomi

    2007-05-01

    In this study, 13 individuals with high-functioning autism (HFA), 15 individuals with Asperger's disorder (AD), and age-, and IQ-matched controls were presented a list of sentences auditorily. Participants then evaluated semantically related but new sentences and reported whether they were old or new. The total rates of false recognition for semantically related sentences were similar among the three groups. Nevertheless, memory illusion on some aspects was reduced in HFA participants. These results suggest that HFA have difficulties in semantic association. Although individuals with AD showed no quantitative abnormalities of memory illusion, some contributing factors were atypical. These findings are discussed in terms of schema theory, enhanced perceptual processing hypothesis, and weak central coherence hypothesis.

  16. Answering Contextually Demanding Questions: Pragmatic Errors Produced by Children with Asperger Syndrome or High-Functioning Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loukusa, Soile; Leinonen, Eeva; Jussila, Katja; Mattila, Marja-Leena; Ryder, Nuala; Ebeling, Hanna; Moilanen, Irma

    2007-01-01

    This study examined irrelevant/incorrect answers produced by children with Asperger syndrome or high-functioning autism (7-9-year-olds and 10-12-year-olds) and normally developing children (7-9-year-olds). The errors produced were divided into three types: in Type 1, the child answered the original question incorrectly, in Type 2, the child gave a…

  17. The invention and early history of the CCD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, George E.

    2009-01-01

    As the first practical solid-state imaging device, the invention of the Charge Coupled Device has profoundly affected image sensing technology. They are used in a wide range of applications as both area and linear imaging devices starting with the replacement of imaging tubes used in commercial TV cameras and camcorders. The rapid increase of their use in digital cameras has initiated the demise of film photography and created vast new markets with great economic benefit for many. Other uses include a wide variety of scientific, surveillance and scanning applications. The inception of the device at Bell Labs by Willard S. Boyle and George E. Smith in 1969 was strongly influenced by several unique factors existing both within Bell Labs and the current world state of technology. These factors and their relevance will be discussed along with the train of thought leading to the invention. Early experimental devices and their initial applications were vigorously pursued and will be described. Current applications will be mentioned.

  18. An example of Vergil’s influence in the Persiles: the invention of Tile, hero’s hometown

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Alarcos Martínez

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available At the end of Persiles’ Book IV, Cervantes discovers identity and origin of the heroes, who have been known till then as Periandro and Auristela. According with this intention, the invention of a Nordic place, as Tile —Hero’s hometown—, has a special importance, because of its Vergilian roots on Thule’s imaginary, which appears in Georgics, I, vv. 29-31. A Vergil’s quotation, which is used by Serafido, when he explains what and where Tile is, gives us the evidence. Our purpose is studying the Cervantine reelaboration of such quotation and its aesthetic function in the romance.

  19. The nanotechnological inventions raise competitive ability of the products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VLASOV Vladimir Alexeevich

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available A brief description of the nanotechnological inventions is given. The inventions in the area of nanotechnologies and nanomaterials produce a profound effect in construction, housing and communal services and adjacent economic fields as they allow us: to obtain high strength and durability of surfaces of the details, to provide different materials with hydrophil properties, to increase efficiency of transformation of light energy into electrical one etc., and in general – to raise competitive ability of the products. For example, the method of production of solar element and a unit of solar elements (RU 2532137 comprises following stages: formation of pn-transfer in semiconductor base plate, formation of passivating layer on the light-receptive surface and/or non light-receptive surface of semiconductor base plate and formation of power robbing electrodes on the light-receptive surface and non light-receptive. A film of aluminium oxide is formed as passivating layer, its thickness is up to 40 nm, and lectrode is formed by baking conductive paste under the temperature 500–900ͦͦ°C for 1 second – 30 inutes with formation of sintered product. The sintered product penetrates through passivating layer setting electric contact between electrode and base plate. The formation of aluminium ide with specified thickness on the surface of base plate makes it possible to achieve good passivating characteristics and good electric contact between silica and electrode only by eans of baking conductive paste, that is standard technology. Moreover the baking stage which was necessary to get the effect of film passivation for aluminium oxide in the past now can be cancelled to decrease costs. The specialists may be also interested in the following nanotechnological inventions: reinforced flaked element made of natural or conglomerate stone and its multilayer protective coating (RU 2520193; fine organic suspension of carbon metal-containing nanostructures

  20. The Las Vegas Strip as a Genuinely Invented Global Landscape

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Ortega

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Las Vegas, Nevada, is typically recognised as a place via a single urban gesture, that gesture being Las Vegas Boulevard, which is more commonly referred to as "The Strip". In constructing a thesis around the theme, "Here or There? Interconnections between the Global and the Local", one cannot ignore the invitation to discuss globalisation and its effects on a particular local fabric. For the purpose of this text, globalisation can be thought of as what Carmona et al describe as an intricate series of events leading to the world "becoming increasingly interconnected, with centralised decision making exploiting economies of scale and standardisation" (2003: 101. The centralised decision-making process for The Strip is evident in the strategy to develop individually themed casino resorts along Las Vegas Boulevard that respond to a competitive economy, thus creating a newly standardised landscape. If we also understand that globalisation can be thought of as the development of an interconnected world where economic, political and cultural boundaries can be easily crossed, this work can begin to define how the Las Vegas Strip is a genuinely invented global landscape. This paper addresses the "here-ness" as well as the "there-ness" of The Strip, while offering a dialectical framework for establishing a meaning of place by having 'there' placed 'here'. By employing semiological interpretations of real landscapes from around the globe (for example, Venturi et al, 1972, The Strip becomes a newly invented landscape of "simulations" (Baudrillard, 1988. As such, The Strip acts as a narrative that forms a unique place, opening the door to questions of authenticity and identity. This paper concludes by focusing on the question of "Here or There?" as an appropriate deviation from the assumed role that the post-modern landscape of the Las Vegas Strip plays. This work is intended to be a point of departure from the frequent criticism of the Las Vegas Strip as

  1. Emotion regulation in Asperger's syndrome and high-functioning autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samson, Andrea C; Huber, Oswald; Gross, James J

    2012-08-01

    It is generally thought that individuals with Asperger's syndrome and high-functioning autism (AS/HFA) have deficits in theory of mind. These deficits have been previously linked to problems with social cognition. However, we reasoned that AS/HFA individuals' Theory of Mind deficits also might lead to problems with emotion regulation. To assess emotional functioning in AS/HFA, 27 AS/HFA adults (16 women) and 27 age-, gender-, and education-matched typically developing (TD) participants completed a battery of measures of emotion experience, labeling, and regulation. With respect to emotion experience, individuals with AS/HFA reported higher levels of negative emotions, but similar levels of positive emotions, compared with TD individuals. With respect to emotion labeling, individuals with AS/HFA had greater difficulties identifying and describing their emotions, with approximately two-thirds exceeding the cutoff for alexithymia. With respect to emotion regulation, individuals with AS/HFA used reappraisal less frequently than TD individuals and reported lower levels of reappraisal self-efficacy. Although AS/HFA individuals used suppression more frequently than TD individuals, no difference in suppression self-efficacy was found. It is important to note that these differences in emotion regulation were evident even when controlling for emotion experience and labeling. Implications of these deficits are discussed, and future research directions are proposed.

  2. Evolution of sequence-defined highly functionalized nucleic acid polymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhen; Lichtor, Phillip A.; Berliner, Adrian P.; Chen, Jonathan C.; Liu, David R.

    2018-03-01

    The evolution of sequence-defined synthetic polymers made of building blocks beyond those compatible with polymerase enzymes or the ribosome has the potential to generate new classes of receptors, catalysts and materials. Here we describe a ligase-mediated DNA-templated polymerization and in vitro selection system to evolve highly functionalized nucleic acid polymers (HFNAPs) made from 32 building blocks that contain eight chemically diverse side chains on a DNA backbone. Through iterated cycles of polymer translation, selection and reverse translation, we discovered HFNAPs that bind proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 (PCSK9) and interleukin-6, two protein targets implicated in human diseases. Mutation and reselection of an active PCSK9-binding polymer yielded evolved polymers with high affinity (KD = 3 nM). This evolved polymer potently inhibited the binding between PCSK9 and the low-density lipoprotein receptor. Structure-activity relationship studies revealed that specific side chains at defined positions in the polymers are required for binding to their respective targets. Our findings expand the chemical space of evolvable polymers to include densely functionalized nucleic acids with diverse, researcher-defined chemical repertoires.

  3. Private Finance 2 (PF2): Re-inventing the Wheel?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zawawi, N. A. W. A.; Abdul-Aziz, A. R.; Khamidi, M. F.; Othman, I.; Idrus, A.; Umar, A. A.

    2013-06-01

    The Procurement policy of any government is the most influential factor in determining the efficiency of infrastructure and service provision like roads, water supply and energy. The UK's HM Treasury released its new guidelines on private involvement in infrastructures provision and services towards reforming the popular Private Finance Initiatives (PFI) policy. This new approach, it now refers to as the Private Finance 2 (PF2) is meant to correct the imperfections which have bedeviled the older version-PFI. However, the 'new guidelines' contained nothing really new in the area of private financing and operation of public infrastructures, at best it is akin to 're-inventing the wheel' rather than being 'new'. While dwelling extensively on issues relating to cheaper financing sources, risks transfer, counterpart funding by government and improving public sector procurement skills, this paper argues that some countries in the developing world have long recognised these issues and taken practical steps to correct them.

  4. Japan's patent issues relating to life science therapeutic inventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tessensohn, John A

    2014-09-01

    Japan has made 'innovation in science and technology' as one of its central pillars to ensure high growth in its next stage of economic development and its life sciences market which hosts regenerative medicine was proclaimed to be 'the best market in the world right now.' Although life science therapeutic inventions are patentable subject matter under Japanese patent law, there are nuanced obviousness and enablement challenges under Japanese patent law that can be surmounted in view of some encouraging Japanese court developments in fostering a pro-patent applicant environment in the life sciences therapeutic patent field. Nevertheless, great care must be taken when drafting and prosecuting such patent applications in the world's second most important life sciences therapeutic market.

  5. Inventing the future: Energy and the CO2 "greenhouse" effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, E. E., Jr.

    Dennis Gabor, A winner of the Nobel Prize for Physics, once remarked that man cannot predict the future, but he can invent it. The point is that while we do not know with certainty how things will turn out, our own actions can play a powerful role in shaping the future. Naturally, Gabor had in mind the power of science and technology, and the model includes that of correction or feedback. It is an important: Man does not have the gift of prophecy. Any manager or government planner would err seriously by masterminding a plan based unalterably on some vision of the future, without provision for mid-course correction. It is also a comforting thought. With man's notorious inability to create reliable predictions about such matters as elections, stock markets, energy supply and demand, and, of course, the weather, it is a great consolation to feel that we can still retain some control of the future.

  6. Transmedia marketing and re-invention of public relations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jakus Dalibor

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Many concepts have been developed to describe the convergence of media, public relations and storytelling formats in contemporary media systems. This article presents a theoretical reflection on “transmedia storytelling” from a perspective of integration narrative in the context of the re-invention of public relations. The rapid evolution of digital media technology and the emergence of transmedia storytelling present foresight professionals with a powerful new approach for communicating about the future. A transmedia story unfolds across multiple media platforms with each new text making a distinctive and valuable contribution to the whole. Between other, this article also outlines some of the key principles and elements of transmedia storytelling in combination with modern public relations, in order to provide a basic framework that public relations practitioner can use when designing transmedia projects.

  7. From Hallucination to Fiction: The Invention of Meaning in Psychosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lippi, Silvia; Lehaire, Célia; Petit, Laetitia

    2016-12-01

    Taking their inspiration from a case history, the authors explore the effects of a writing workshop led by a professional writer for patients in a psychiatric hospital. This workshop allowed different modes of transference to unfold: transference to the analyst-therapist, transference to the writer who led the workshop, and transference to the other members of the group. The writing activity created conditions in which there could be a movement from hallucination to delusion-a delusion expressed in fiction through the act of writing. Psychotic patients "invent" a writing that remains unfinished and that relates to the experiences of persecution. Writing thus makes it possible for them to tolerate language, through its transformation into writing.

  8. The Invention of Infertility in the Classical Greek World:

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flemming, Rebecca

    2013-01-01

    Summary The article examines the understandings of, and responses to, reproductive failure in the classical Greek world. It discusses explanations and treatments for non-procreation in a range of ancient Greek medical texts, focusing on the writings of the Hippocratic Corpus, which devote considerable energy to matters of fertility and generation, and places them alongside the availability of a divine approach to dealing with reproductive disruption, the possibility of asking various deities, including the specialist healing god Asclepius, for assistance in having children. Though the relations between these options are complex, they combine to produce a rich remedial array for those struggling with childlessness, the possibility that any impediment to procreation can be removed. Classical Greece, rather than the nineteenth century, or even 1978, is thus the time when “infertility,” understood as an essentially reversible somatic state, was invented. PMID:24362276

  9. Art, Science and the Invention of Things That Last

    KAUST Repository

    Edwards, David

    2018-01-14

    Aesthetic creation involves a close collaboration between discovery, invention and cultural exhibition, as well as between learning and producing value. It is typified by the patterns of creative behavior in highly innovative communities like Silicon Valley (for IT) or Boston (for biotech) where cultures of learning, experimentation, and production or commercialization coexist, and where a high degree of interdisciplinary collaboration occurs. In this lecture, David Edwards will highlight the growing movement of aesthetic creation in the arts, sciences and engineering as a path for sustaining and improving the human condition in the longest term. He will highlight aesthetic creation in the light of the culture lab model of Le Laboratoire (Paris, Cambridge) and the new World Frontiers Forum with examples of learning, pubic experimentation and value creation particularly related to the future of sensory experience.

  10. Private Finance 2 (PF2): Re-inventing the Wheel?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zawawi, N A W A; Khamidi, M F; Othman, I; Umar, A A; Abdul-Aziz, A R; Idrus, A

    2013-01-01

    The Procurement policy of any government is the most influential factor in determining the efficiency of infrastructure and service provision like roads, water supply and energy. The UK's HM Treasury released its new guidelines on private involvement in infrastructures provision and services towards reforming the popular Private Finance Initiatives (PFI) policy. This new approach, it now refers to as the Private Finance 2 (PF2) is meant to correct the imperfections which have bedeviled the older version-PFI. However, the 'new guidelines' contained nothing really new in the area of private financing and operation of public infrastructures, at best it is akin to 're-inventing the wheel' rather than being 'new'. While dwelling extensively on issues relating to cheaper financing sources, risks transfer, counterpart funding by government and improving public sector procurement skills, this paper argues that some countries in the developing world have long recognised these issues and taken practical steps to correct them.

  11. Original Misunderstanding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holtzman, Alexander

    2009-01-01

    Humorist Josh Billings quipped, "About the most originality that any writer can hope to achieve honestly is to steal with good judgment." Billings was harsh in his view of originality, but his critique reveals a tension faced by students every time they write a history paper. Research is the essence of any history paper. Especially in high school,…

  12. 7 CFR 1280.231 - Patents, copyrights, inventions, product formulations, and publications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES... the rental, sale leasing, franchising, or other uses of such patents, copyrights, inventions, or...

  13. Original Article

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administratör

    Original Article. Prevalence of Gall Bladder Stones among Type 2 Diabetic ... Increasing age, female gender, overweight, familial history of the disease and type 2 diabetes mellitus is all associated ... GBS development in diabetics. An Italian ...

  14. ORIGINAL ARTICLE

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    UDS Publishers Limited All Right Reserved 2026-6294. ORIGINAL ... Reproductive development and function in human and other ... sulting solution was filtered and left to stand for three days to ..... male rat brain and pituitary. Brain Res 164,.

  15. Original pedagogues

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Christina Haandbæk

    Original pedagogues Distention between competences and originality By Christina Haandbæk Schmidt, ph. d. student Aarhus University, Denmark This presentation concerns a Ph.D. project (Sept. 2012 –Sept. 2015) about pedagogues in day care facilities and their struggles to develop and retain...... shall argue that it is necessary for the pedagogues to know how they are constituted by the regimes of power on one side and on the other side are forced to create themselves. This knowledge could transform pedagogues into what I suggest calling ‘original pedagogues’, who have an authentic, ethic...... and professional autonomy in exercising judgment concerning pedagogical situations. To understand how pedagogues can struggle the distention between being competent and being original the project draws on both Michel Foucault and Charles Taylor as two incompatible theories on modern identity. The study...

  16. Investigational research on highly functional carbon and related materials (HF-CRMs); Tansokei kokino zairyo no chosa kenkyu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    The paper arranged a fiscal 1997 guiding study of highly functional carbon and related materials (HF-CRMs). In the material invention field, described were the composition by interatomic control technology and the characteristics of pure carbon nanotubes, carbynes, graphite, fullerene polymer, porous carbon, etc. Heteroelement substituted materials were also described. The paper also reported the application of HF-CRMs to the electric/chemical field, and arranged the basement technology and applicability of diamond in particular. The subjects are enhancement of composition technology and reduction of the price of processing technology. Especially, the control of impurities and defects is a must for the electric use. The application of HF-CRMs to the mechanical field was reported. Superlubricant, wear resistant and high temperature corrosion resistant materials were taken up, and were surveyed in terms of their use mostly to refuse incineration power generation boilers, and thermal power generation use turbines. In the development of mechanical materials, technologies were surveyed especially for large area/complex shape film formation to form films for various parts, functionally gradient film formation for relaxation of thermal stress and residual stress in the film, and high speed film formation for quantity production. 363 refs., 88 figs., 10 tabs.

  17. Wallace H. Coulter: decades of invention and discovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, J Paul

    2013-05-01

    Only a few inventors can be said to have made as great an impact on mankind as Wallace Coulter. His inquisitive mind and ability to see well beyond what existed served him well for 40 years of inventing. So many of the fundamental tools that exist today in the area of hematology were derived from or driven by Coulter's inventions that he could be called the most technological innovator in the field of modern hematology. In achieving these discoveries Wallace Coulter was clearly capable of visualizing future opportunities that few others recognized. His vision was combined with an uncanny ability to translate his ideas into products. He developed a large number of tools that shaped the fields of cytometry, image analysis, and industrial materials. His understanding of the future power of computation drove him to link these technologies in a unique way. In the end, Coulter shaped the technologies that ultimately drove hematology in a new direction, one that remains on a critical pathway linking technology innovation all the way to true translational impact. It was said of Henry Ford that "[h]e has no notion that wealth has made him great, and any one who is imprest merely by his wealth bores him. In his personal contacts he likes to dodge the subject. He would prefer to talk with a machinist about machinery, or with somebody who likes birds about birds. In these contacts, he asks no deference; and if he gets it, he suspects it is mere deference to wealth, and that ends his interest."(1) The same could be said of Wallace Coulter, who, like Ford, understood the concepts of mass production and customer service. Coulter had the ability to recognize the opportunity and fulfill the need for development of a blood-cell counter that could be placed in every pathology laboratory, and in so doing transformed a field from a qualitative to a quantitative environment. Every person who has ever entered a medical lab, hospital, or doctor's office has felt the impact of Coulter

  18. Challenges for females with high functioning autism in the workplace: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayward, Susan M; McVilly, Keith R; Stokes, Mark A

    2018-02-01

    Individuals with High Functioning Autism (HFA) experience high levels of underemployment and unemployment, resulting in negative economic, social, and health outcomes. Given what is known about labor market participation difficulties experienced by women generally, and the paucity of research concerning women with HFA, this systematic review synthesized what is known about the labor market experiences of women with HFA. A systematic review of the literature concerning adult females with HFA in relation to the workplace yielded 1947 results; 11 met inclusion criteria being based on original data, but not necessarily focusing solely on women. The total number participants with HFA across all studies was 731 (M = 66.45, SD = 95.44, Mdn = 18.00) aged between 18 and 70 years (M = 34.38, SD = 7.71); females represented 38% (n = 279) of those sampled. The principal challenges reported for individuals with HFA at work were communication, social interaction, and stress, together with negative mental and physical health. These results should be interpreted with caution. Of the studies found, 73% were qualitative and based on small samples. Only one paper differentiated female data in analyses. These factors combined suggest large-scale mixed method research focused on females with HFA is required to gain an accurate insight into the challenges faced in the workplace, to in turn inform intervention and support. However, implications for rehabilitation based on what is known are discussed. Implication for Rehabilitation Unemployment and underemployment of persons with High Functioning Autism (HFA) poses social, health and economic issues for both individuals and the wider community. Those with HFA have the intellectual capacity to make a substantial contribution to the workplace. Based on what is known, some of the challenges for females with HFA might be similar to those experienced by men with HFA, however it is possible that there are gender

  19. Expedited patent examination for green inventions: Developing countries' policy choices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu, Bingbin

    2013-01-01

    Innovation in green technology is important. Patent rights can provide incentives for green technology research and development. Expedited patent examination for green inventions has emerged as a policy instrument to provide such incentives. Developing countries were never opposed to patents for green technologies. China and Brazil have led the way by offering expedited examinations for green patent applications. More developing countries are expected to follow. Expedited examination for green technologies is consistent with the intellectual property system objectives and is justified by the clear social benefit from green technologies. Introducing such expedited programs in developing countries has sufficient advantages. Existing models of expedited programs for green technologies are analyzed to generalize key issues and to discern suitable policy choices for developing countries. When introducing such programs, a balanced definition for green technology is preferred; a special classification requirement is premature and is not recommended; a pre-examination search requirement is generally recommended to balance patent office workloads, and a green patent database is recommended. - Highlights: • There is no north–south divide in promoting green technologies. • Earlier issuance of green patents has its great social benefit. • Green patent application should receive expedited examination. • Developing countries should introduce such expedited programs. • A suitable approach for developing countries is searched and recommended

  20. Biography of louis braille and invention of the braille alphabet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez, Javier; Olea, Jesús; Torres, Jesús; Alonso, Inmaculada; Harder, Dirk; Fischer, Konstanze

    2009-01-01

    Louis Braille (1809-1852) was born in France. At the age of three, he wounded his right eye with a cobbler's tool while playing in his father's workshop. No medical knowledge could save his eyesight at that time. Louis's left eye became inflamed, apparently due to subsequent sympathetic ophthalmia, and he eventually lost the sight in that eye. At the age of five, Louis Braille was completely blind. He is considered to be the inventor of a writing system by touch that bears his name, the Braille system. This revolutionary system has allowed blind people to access written culture, and it can therefore be considered a major advance in the quality of life for the blind. The immediate precursor of the invention of the Braille system was the alphabet created by Charles Barbier de la Serre (1767-1841) who created a language by touch designed for military and secret use. Louis Braille modified this alphabet into the Braille alphabet, which is practically the same one that is currently used. It required time to be recognized and to be implemented as a reading and writing method for blind people throughout the world. In 1950, UNESCO effectively universalized the Braille alphabet, and in 2005 it recognized Braille system as a "vital language of communication, as legitimate as all other languages in the world."

  1. No wonder you wonder! great inventions and scientific mysteries

    CERN Document Server

    Phipps, Claude

    2016-01-01

    This book explores and explains scientific mysteries and principles, leavened with tongue-in-cheek humor and an abundance of illustrations. Chapters are short, but give an understanding of technology and science not available elsewhere. Questions include: • What holds a satellite up while it goes around the Earth? • Why is the sky (made out of clear air!) blue instead of green, or just black as night like the sky that high altitude jumper Felix Baumgartner saw? • How is laser light different from “normal” light? • Did Columbus really discover that the Earth is round? • Which one invention will assuredly survive our civilization? • Why can’t you travel back in time?  If you often feel embarrassed because you don’t have a clue about lasers, the difference between volts, amps and watts, or how jet planes really work – but you would like to understand the physical principles of our modern world, whether you’re a teen or a parent – this book is for you! To understand the basics of quantu...

  2. Invention Versus Direct Instruction: For Some Content, It's a Tie

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chase, Catherine C.; Klahr, David

    2017-12-01

    An important, but as yet unresolved pedagogical question is whether discovery-oriented or direct instruction methods lead to greater learning and transfer. We address this issue in a study with 101 fourth and fifth grade students that contrasts two distinct instructional methods. One is a blend of discovery and direct instruction called Invent-then-Tell (IT), and the other is a version of direct instruction called Tell-then-Practice (TP). The relative effectiveness of these methods is compared in the context of learning a critical inquiry skill—the control-of-variables strategy. Previous research has demonstrated the success of IT over TP for teaching deep domain structures, while other research has demonstrated the superiority of direct instruction for teaching simple experimental design, a domain-general inquiry skill. In the present study, students in both conditions made equally large gains on an immediate assessment of their application and conceptual understanding of experimental design, and they also performed similarly on a test of far transfer. These results were fairly consistent across school populations with various levels of prior achievement and socioeconomic status. Findings suggest that broad claims about the relative effectiveness of these two distinct methods should be conditionalized by particular instructional contexts, such as the type of knowledge being taught.

  3. Modelling Chemical Reasoning to Predict and Invent Reactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segler, Marwin H S; Waller, Mark P

    2017-05-02

    The ability to reason beyond established knowledge allows organic chemists to solve synthetic problems and invent novel transformations. Herein, we propose a model that mimics chemical reasoning, and formalises reaction prediction as finding missing links in a knowledge graph. We have constructed a knowledge graph containing 14.4 million molecules and 8.2 million binary reactions, which represents the bulk of all chemical reactions ever published in the scientific literature. Our model outperforms a rule-based expert system in the reaction prediction task for 180 000 randomly selected binary reactions. The data-driven model generalises even beyond known reaction types, and is thus capable of effectively (re-)discovering novel transformations (even including transition metal-catalysed reactions). Our model enables computers to infer hypotheses about reactivity and reactions by only considering the intrinsic local structure of the graph and because each single reaction prediction is typically achieved in a sub-second time frame, the model can be used as a high-throughput generator of reaction hypotheses for reaction discovery. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  4. Tradition and Agency. Tracing cultural continuity and invention

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tradition helps ensure continuity and stability in human affairs, signifying both the handing down of cultural heritage from one generation to the next, and the particular customs, beliefs and rituals being handed down. In the social sciences, tradition has been a central concept from the very st...... address the larger questions of cultural continuity, agency and the use of cultural resources. In the postscript, Terence Ranger offers a complementary perspective by tracing the effects of nationalism, imperialism and globalised exchange on tradition.......Tradition helps ensure continuity and stability in human affairs, signifying both the handing down of cultural heritage from one generation to the next, and the particular customs, beliefs and rituals being handed down. In the social sciences, tradition has been a central concept from the very...... revolutionize the understanding of tradition in anthropology, history and sociology, stimulating an enormous amount of research on invented and imagined traditions. However, most of this research has focussed on the cultural dynamics of specific local innovations and reactions to global developments...

  5. Invention of science a new history of the scientific revolution

    CERN Document Server

    Wootton, David

    2015-01-01

    We live in a world made by science. How and when did this happen? This book tells the story of the extraordinary intellectual and cultural revolution that gave birth to modern science, and mounts a major challenge to the prevailing orthodoxy of its history. Before 1492 it was assumed that all significant knowledge was already available; there was no concept of progress; people looked for understanding to the past not the future. This book argues that everything changed with the discovery of America, which demonstrated that new knowledge was possible: indeed it introduced the very concept of "discovery", and opened the way to the invention of science. The first crucial discovery was Tycho Brahe's nova of 1572: proof that there could be change in the heavens. The telescope (1610) rendered the old astronomy obsolete. Torricelli's experiment with the vacuum (1643) led directly to the triumph of the experimental method in the Royal Society of Boyle and Newton. By 1750 Newtonianism was being celebrated throughout E...

  6. 37 CFR 1.475 - Unity of invention before the International Searching Authority, the International Preliminary...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... general inventive concept (“requirement of unity of invention”). Where a group of inventions is claimed in... combinations of categories: (1) A product and a process specially adapted for the manufacture of said product; or (2) A product and a process of use of said product; or (3) A product, a process specially adapted...

  7. Girls & Young Women Inventing: Twenty True Stories about Inventors Plus How You Can Be One Yourself.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karnes, Frances A.; Bean, Suzanne M.

    This book presents first-person accounts of 20 young female inventors. Most have won prizes for their inventions; some have even obtained patents. Part 1 "Inventors and Their Inventions," focuses on the young inventors and their lives, how they came up with their ideas, who helped them, what problems they faced, and how they solved their problems.…

  8. Reflexivity and the Sociology of Science and Technology: The Invention of "Eryc" the Antibiotic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collyer, Fran

    2011-01-01

    Until recently, the social-technical process of invention has fallen between sociological investigation of the genesis of a new idea (an ideational phenomenon) and the production of a new technology (a material phenomenon). The advent of post-modernism and post-structuralism offered new avenues for theorising invention, accounting for, on the one…

  9. ORIGINAL ARTICLES

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ORIGINAL ARTICLES. Illnesses of Herod the Great. Francois P Retief, Johan F G Cilliers. Herod the Great, ldumean by birth, was king ofthe Jews from 40 to 4 BC. An able statesman, builder and warrior, he ruthlessly stamped out all perceived opposition to his rule. His last decade was characterised by vicious strife within ...

  10. ORIGINAL ARTICLES

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ORIGINAL ARTICLES. OCCUPATIONAL EXPOSURE OF. INTERNS TO BLOOD IN AN AREA. OF HIGH HIV SEROPREVALENCE. A S Karstaedt, L Pantanowitz. Objective. To determine the epidemiology of work-related exposure to blood among interns. Design. Interns were invited to complete anonymously a questionnaire ...

  11. ORIGINAL ARTICLES

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ORIGINAL ARTICLES. References. 1. McCarthy D, Amos A, Zimmet P. The rising global burden of diabetes and its complications: estimates and projections to the year 2010. Diabet Med 1997; 14: suppl 5, Sl-585. 2. Zgibor JC, Songer TJ, Kelsey SF, et al. The association of diabetes specialist care with health care practices ...

  12. ORIGINAL ARTICLES

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ORIGINAL ARTICLES. Cost to patients of obtaining treatment for HIV/AIDS in. South Africa. Sydney Rosen, Mpefe Ketlhapile, Ian Sanne, Mary Bachman DeSilva. Background. South Africa is providing antiretroviral (ARV) drugs for HIV I AIDS free of charge in order to increase access for poorer patients and promote ...

  13. ORIGINAL ARTICLES

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ORIGINAL ARTICLES could be chosen to link to action policy decisions. In the. Integrated Management of Childhood Illness (IMCI) programme, such a screening test would also remind the health provider to prescribe an iron tonic and to emphasise the importance of a balanced diet. A potential disadvantage of copper ...

  14. Original Article

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Arab Journal of Nephrology and Transplantation. 2013 Sep;6(3):153-60. Original Article. AJNT. Abstract. Introduction: Dense Deposit Disease (DDD) is a devastating renal disease that leads to renal failure within. 10 years of diagnosis in about half of affected patients. In this study, we evaluated the relative prevalence and.

  15. ORIGINAL ARTICLE

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    One of the concerns among mothers for delivery is labor pain. There are various ... Journal of Medical and Biomedical Sciences (2017) 6(2): 11-16. © UDS Publishers ... ORIGINAL ARTICLE ..... effective than a placebo during the first stage of.

  16. Original Article

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Pezhman Kharazm

    treatment in 32 patients who were admitted in Shohada-E-Tajrish hospital with final diagnosis of AMI from March 1996 to March 2002. ... of the patient and diagnostic studies and early surgical or non surgical intervention is the most ... operative diagnosis of etiology was based on presence of pulse at the origin of mesenteric.

  17. ORIGINAL ARTICLES

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ORIGINAL ARTICLES. References. 1. UNAIDS. Report on the Global HTV/AIDS Epidemic. Geneva: June 2000. 2. Connor E..\\1, Sperling RS, Gelber R. et al. Reduction of maternal-infant transmission of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 with zidovu dine treatment. N Eng! J Med 1994; 331:1173-1180. 3. Undegren ML ...

  18. Original Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A facility based comparative cross-sectional study ... Health care delivery should consider the desire for children by men and .... Socio-Demographic Characteristics of the .... For substitution, children are an important part of marriage, current child needs sibling, original desires .... does not, the only way to avoid the risk of.

  19. ORIGINAL ARTICLE

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    source of blood supply whilst in developed countries VNRDs are the major source. This study de- termined and ... UDS Publishers Limited All Right Reserved 2026-6294. ORIGINAL ..... ferral rate of females in comparison to males as pre- .... nors at blood bank of a medical college,. Australia. Med J Armed Forces 61: 131- 4.

  20. ORIGINAL ARTICLES

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    alternatives to conventional care (homoeopathy, chiropractic, acupuncture, etc.), and also recognise the groundswell of interest in and support for inclusion of benefits for services provided by traditional healers. The transition from the original, relatively restricted approach which was concerned with established, mainstream.

  1. Original contributions

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    hefere

    Original contributions ... Results suggest that there is a significant positive ... psychological abuse, including economic abuse, intimidation, harassment, stalking, damage ... or maintaining the structure and function of the African home (Alio et al., 2011; Jewkes,. Levin ... Revictimisation occurs due to emotional violence and.

  2. Original Copies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Tim Flohr

    2013-01-01

    of similarity by looking at artefactual similarity as the results of prototyping and as a production of simulacra. In this light, the concept of copying turns out to be more than simply a matter of trying to imitate an exotic or prestigious original, and it fundamentally raises the question how different a copy...

  3. ORIGINAL ARTICLE

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    there are racial and gender differences in the knowledge and awareness of HPV among Guyanese. The study aimed to ... UDS Publishers Limited All Right Reserved 2026-6294. ORIGINAL ... shown that, about 80.0% of women contracted HPV infection before ... 2010), age of initial sexual contact, and lack of symp- toms for ...

  4. Ethos et fable auctoriale dans les autofictions contemporaines ou comment s’inventer écrivain Ethos and authorial fable in contemporary autofictions, or the invention of the writer by himself

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sylvie Ducas

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Depuis les années 1980, la littérature française est le théâtre d’un retour en force de récits de filiation et d’autofictions dans lesquels se met en scène une figure d’auteur inédite qui se raconte. Fondée sur les œuvres de Pierre Michon et Jean Rouaud, cette étude s’inscrit dans une réflexion sur la construction identitaire de l’écrivain français dans son rapport à l’écriture et au champ littéraire contemporain. Elle vise à montrer pourquoi et comment l’ethos est une donnée fondamentale de la légitimation et de l’invention de soi comme écrivain.Since the 80’s, French literature has been the theater of a strong return of filiation and self-fiction stories, in which the original figure of an author is telling about himself. Based on the works of Pierre Michon and Jean Rouaud, this study is part of a reflection about the identity construction of the French author in his relation with writing and with the contemporary literary field. Its aim is to show why and how ethos is a fundamental constituent of the author’s legitimacy and self invention.

  5. Recent Inventions and Trends in Algal Biofuels Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karemore, Ankush; Nayak, Manoranjan; Sen, Ramkrishna

    2016-01-01

    In recent times, when energy crisis compounded by global warming and climate change is receiving worldwide attention, the emergence of algae, as a better feedstock for third-generation biofuels than energy crops or plants, holds great promise. As compared to conventional biofuels feedstocks, algae offer several advantages and can alone produce a significant amount of biofuels sustainably in a shorter period to fulfill the rising demand for energy. Towards commercialisation, there have been numerous efforts put for- ward for the development of algae-derived biofuel. This article reviews and summarizes the recent inventions and the current trends that are reported and captured in relevant patents pertaining to the novel methods of algae biomass cultivation and processing for biofuels and value-added products. In addition, the recent advancement in techniques and technologies for microalgal biofuel production has been highlighted. Various steps involved in the production of algal biofuels have been considered in this article. Moreover, the work that advances to improve the efficiency and cost-effectiveness of the processes for the manufacture of biofuels has been presented. Our survey was conducted in the patent databases: WIPO, Spacenet and USPTO. There are still some technological bottlenecks that could be overcome by designing advanced photobioreactor and raceway ponds, developing new and low cost technologies for biomass cultivation, harvesting, drying and extraction. Recent advancement in algae biofuels methods is directed toward developing efficient and integrated systems to produce biofuels by overcoming the current challenges. However, further research effort is required to scale-up and improve the efficiency of these methods in the upstream and downstream technologies to make the cost of biofuels competitive with petroleum fuels.

  6. Innovation and invention in Finland. Strategies for networking. An international evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zegveld, W.; McCarthy, S.; Lemola, T.

    1998-12-31

    The objective of the evaluation was to come up with recommendations on how the Finnish systems for promoting independent inventions and their commercialisation could be most appropriately developed. In practice, the evaluation was expected to address at least the following aspects of the promotion: The role of the public sector; The role of the private sector (inventors, financiers, companies); The evaluation of the Finnish Foundation for Inventions (FFI); The strengths and weaknesses of the present system for promoting inventions and their commercialisation. In effect, the evaluation proved to be the evaluation of a subsystem integrated within the overall Finnish National System of Innovation with its many players from the public and private sectors. An effort was made to evaluate the relationship between the different actors in this system and closer cooperation is recommended in many areas. Interviews were held with 130 individuals from 70 organisations. The evaluators address the following nine issues: (1) Improving the balance between r and d and the promotion of inventiveness/innovation; (2) Increased coherence between the different organisations; (3) The responsibility of inventors and research organisations in inventive activities and the role of support organisations; (4) A gradual shift towards private services; (5) The development of the role of FFI; (6) Improving the competence in the area of intellectual property rights; (7) Financial incentives for inventors; (8) Increasing the awareness on invention and innovation; (9) The requirement to broaden the concept of inventiveness and innovation. (orig.)

  7. Innovation and invention in Finland. Strategies for networking. An international evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zegveld, W; McCarthy, S; Lemola, T

    1999-12-31

    The objective of the evaluation was to come up with recommendations on how the Finnish systems for promoting independent inventions and their commercialisation could be most appropriately developed. In practice, the evaluation was expected to address at least the following aspects of the promotion: The role of the public sector; The role of the private sector (inventors, financiers, companies); The evaluation of the Finnish Foundation for Inventions (FFI); The strengths and weaknesses of the present system for promoting inventions and their commercialisation. In effect, the evaluation proved to be the evaluation of a subsystem integrated within the overall Finnish National System of Innovation with its many players from the public and private sectors. An effort was made to evaluate the relationship between the different actors in this system and closer cooperation is recommended in many areas. Interviews were held with 130 individuals from 70 organisations. The evaluators address the following nine issues: (1) Improving the balance between r and d and the promotion of inventiveness/innovation; (2) Increased coherence between the different organisations; (3) The responsibility of inventors and research organisations in inventive activities and the role of support organisations; (4) A gradual shift towards private services; (5) The development of the role of FFI; (6) Improving the competence in the area of intellectual property rights; (7) Financial incentives for inventors; (8) Increasing the awareness on invention and innovation; (9) The requirement to broaden the concept of inventiveness and innovation. (orig.)

  8. God particle and origin of mass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He Hongjian; Kuang Yuping

    2014-01-01

    The new Higgs boson discovered at the CERN LHC could be the God particle expected from the standard model. This revolutionary discovery opens up a new era of exploring the origin of masses for all elementary particles in the universe. It becomes a turning point of the particle physics in 21 th century. This article presents the following: (1) Scientific importance of searching and testing the God particle(s); (2) The history of studying the origin of mass, and why Newton mechanics and Einstein relativity could not resolve the origin of mass; (3) The mysterious vacuum and the mechanism of spontaneous symmetry breaking; (4) How the God particle was invented and how the LHC might have discovered it; (5) The perspective of seeking the origin of mass and new physics laws. (authors)

  9. To succeed with invention and patent which are my own idea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu, Jae Bok

    1999-07-01

    This book introduces how to invent through various way such as successful story about the effect to invent, conception like everyone can be a inventor and this is invention. This book also explains all of process of patent such as application of patent, patent in Korea, Japan, the U.S and other countries, what is patent information, how to hunt patent, intellectual property right, priority system, international patent application is possible in Korea, other common sense on patent application, patent as a great power and questions and answers on patent.

  10. 76 FR 59115 - Notice of Availability of Patent Fee Changes Under the Leahy-Smith America Invents Act

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-23

    ... Availability of Patent Fee Changes Under the Leahy- Smith America Invents Act AGENCY: United States Patent and... of the Leahy-Smith America Invents Act (i.e., September 26, 2011) by operation of the fifteen percent... in effect sixty days after the date of enactment of the Leahy-Smith America Invents Act (i.e...

  11. 77 FR 46615 - Changes To Implement Miscellaneous Post Patent Provisions of the Leahy-Smith America Invents Act

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-06

    ... the Leahy-Smith America Invents Act AGENCY: United States Patent and Trademark Office, Commerce. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: The Leahy-Smith America Invents Act (AIA) expands the scope of information... instituted. Section 6(a) and (d) of the Leahy-Smith American Invents Act also contains provisions (35 U.S.C...

  12. Original Thinking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashok Natarajan

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available History that comes to us as a chronology of events is really a collective existence that is evolving through several stages to develop Individuality in all members of the society. The human community, nation states, linguistic groups, local castes and classes, and families are the intermediate stages in development of the Individual. The social process moves through phases of survival, growth, development and evolution. In the process it organizes the consciousness of its members at successive levels from social external manners, formed behavior, value-based character and personality to culminate in the development of Individuality. Through this process, society evolves from physicality to Mentality. The power of accomplishment in society and its members develops progressively through stages of skill, capacity, talent, and ability. Original thinking is made possible by the prior development of thinking that organizes facts into information. The immediate result of the last world war was a shift in reliance from physical force and action to mental conception and mental activity on a global scale. At such times no problem need defy solution, if only humanity recognizes the occasion for thinking and Original Thinking. The apparently insoluble problems we confront are an opportunity to formulate a comprehensive theory of social evolution. The immediate possibility is to devise complete solutions to all existing problems, if only we use the right method of thought development.

  13. 75 FR 30779 - Notice of Jointly Owned Invention Available for Licensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-02

    ... indicated below. The invention available for licensing is: [NIST DOCKET NUMBER: 10-004] Title: Gradient.... Gebbie, Director, Physics Laboratory. [FR Doc. 2010-13200 Filed 6-1-10; 8:45 am] BILLING CODE 3510-13-P ...

  14. Privacy Act System of Records: Invention Reports Submitted to the EPA, EPA-38

    Science.gov (United States)

    Learn about the Invention Reports Submitted to the EPA System, including who is covered in the system, the purpose of data collection, routine uses for the system's records, and other security procedures.

  15. Is co-invention expediting technological catch up? A study of collaboration between emerging country firms

    OpenAIRE

    Giuliani, Elisa; Martinelli, Arianna; Rabellotti, Roberta

    2015-01-01

    Firms from emerging countries such as Brazil, India, and China (BIC) are going global, and Europe is attracting around one-third of their direct outward investments. Growing internationalization constitutes an opportunity for technological catch up. In this paper we analyze BIC firms' cross-border inventions with European Union (EU-27) actors, during the period 1990-2012. Our results suggest that cross-border inventions represent an opportunity for BIC firms to accumulate technological capabi...

  16. Children with High-Functioning Autism and Asperger's Syndrome: Can We Differentiate Their Cognitive Profiles?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Planche, Pascale; Lemonnier, Eric

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether children with high-functioning autism (HFA) and Asperger's syndrome (AS) can be differentiated from each other and from typically developing children on their cognitive profiles. The present study included a total of 45 participants: children with autism (high-functioning autism or Asperger's…

  17. Quench origins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Devred, A.

    1990-03-01

    In this paper, I shall discuss the quench origins. I shall first establish a method of classification and introduce the notions of conductor-limited and energy-deposited quenches. Next the paper will be devoted to the study of conductor-limited quenches, and I shall introduce the notions of plateau and of fraction of short sample. Also the paper will be devoted to the study of energy-deposited quenches, and I shall introduce the notions of training and of minimum energy deposit; I shall then review the possible causes of energy release. Lastly, I shall introduce the notion of operating margin, and I shall indicate how to optimize the operating margin in order to limit the risk of premature quenching. 112 refs., 14 figs

  18. Invention profiles and uneven growth in the field of emerging nano-energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guan, Jiancheng; Liu, Na

    2015-01-01

    This paper aims to synthetically investigate invention profiles and uneven growth of technological knowledge in the emerging nano-energy field, based on patents data extracted from the Derwent Innovation Index (DII) database during the time period 1991–2012. The trend analysis shows that invention in this field has experienced enormous growth and also diversification over the past 22 years. The co-occurrence network of burst technology domains reveals that technology domains constantly burst, and innovative progress in nanotechnology has tremendously contributed to energy production, storage, conversion and harvesting and so on. Nano-energy patented inventions mainly come from a combinatorial process with a very limited role of developing brand-new technological capabilities. Reusing existing technological capabilities including recombination reuse, recombination creation and single reuse is the primary source of inventions. For the impacts of technology networks' embeddedness, we find that network tie strength suppresses the growth of technological knowledge domains, and network status and convergence both facilitate the growth of technological knowledge domains. We expect that this study will provide some enlightenment for inventing or creating new knowledge in emerging fields in complex technological environment. - Highlights: • We define and utilize a unique dataset of nano-energy patents. • We identify and map the burst technological knowledge domains. • Quantitative argument is provided to prove the combinatorial invention. • Impacts of network embeddedness on growth of technology domain are examined. • Network characteristics affect the growth of technology domain

  19. The Energy-Related Inventions Program: A decade of commercial progress

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, M.A.; Franchuk, C.A. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Wilson, C.R. [Tennessee Univ., Knoxville, TN (United States)

    1991-12-01

    This report provides information on the recent commercial progress of inventions supported by the US Department of Energy`s Energy-Related Inventions Programs (ERIP). It describes the results of the latest in a series of ERIP evaluation projects that have been completed since 1980. It focuses on the economic impacts of the program, notably sales and employment benefits. The period of interest is 1980 through 1990. The evaluation is based on data collected through mail and telephone surveying of 143 participants in the Program. As of October 1989, a total of 486 inventions were recommended to DOE by the National Institute for Standards and Technology, which screens all submitted inventions in terms of technical merit, potential for commercial success, and potential energy impact. By the end of 1990, at least 109 of these inventions had entered the market, generating total cumulative sales of more than $500 million. With $25.7 million in grants awarded from 1975 through 1990, and $63.1 million in program appropriations over the same period, ERIP has generated a 20:1 return in terms of sales values to grants, and an 8:1 return in sales versus program appropriations. It is estimated that 25% of all ERIP inventions had achieved sales by the end of 1990. While it is difficult to make exact comparisons between these percentages and other indicators of the success rates of technological innovations as a whole, the ERIP figures remain impressive. The commercial progress of spin-off technologies is also documented.

  20. Teachers' learning on the workshop of STS approach as a way of enhancing inventive thinking skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngaewkoodrua, Nophakun; Yuenyong, Chokchai

    2018-01-01

    To improve science teachers to develop the STS lesson plans for enhancing the students' inventive thinking skills, the workshop of improving science teachers to develop the STS lesson plans for enhancing the Inventive thinking skills were organized. The paper aimed to clarify what teachers learn from the workshop. The goal of the activity of the workshop aimed to: 1) improve participants a better understanding of the relationship between the Inquiry based learning with STS approach, 2) understand the meaning and importance of the STS approach and identify the various stages of Yuenyong (2006) STS learning process, 3) discuss what they learned from the examples of Yuenyong (2006) lesson plan, 4) develop some activities for each stage of Yuenyong (2006) STS approach, and 5) ideas of providing STS approach activities for enhancing inventive thinking skills. Participants included 3 science teachers who work in Khon Kaen, Thailand. Methodology regarded interpretive paradigm. Teachers' learning about pedagogy of enhancing the students' inventive thinking skills will be interpreted through participant observation, teachers' tasks, and interview. The finding revealed that all participants could demonstrate their ideas how to generate the STS lesson plans as a way of enhancing inventive thinking skills. Teachers could mention some element of inventive thinking skills which could be generated on their STS learning activities.

  1. Design of slurry bubble column reactors: novel technique for optimum catalyst size selection contractual origin of the invention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamwo, Isaac K [Murrysville, PA; Gidaspow, Dimitri [Northbrook, IL; Jung, Jonghwun [Naperville, IL

    2009-11-17

    A method for determining optimum catalyst particle size for a gas-solid, liquid-solid, or gas-liquid-solid fluidized bed reactor such as a slurry bubble column reactor (SBCR) for converting synthesis gas into liquid fuels considers the complete granular temperature balance based on the kinetic theory of granular flow, the effect of a volumetric mass transfer coefficient between the liquid and the gas, and the water gas shift reaction. The granular temperature of the catalyst particles representing the kinetic energy of the catalyst particles is measured and the volumetric mass transfer coefficient between the gas and liquid phases is calculated using the granular temperature. Catalyst particle size is varied from 20 .mu.m to 120 .mu.m and a maximum mass transfer coefficient corresponding to optimum liquid hydrocarbon fuel production is determined. Optimum catalyst particle size for maximum methanol production in a SBCR was determined to be in the range of 60-70 .mu.m.

  2. Unpacking the invisible knapsack: The invention of white privilege pedagogy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leslie Margolin

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This article uses Ricoeur’s hermeneutics of suspicion, an interpretive strategy directed to the hidden or repressed meanings behind texts, to examine the origins of white privilege pedagogy, in particular their foundational technique, “unpacking the invisible knapsack.” This article’s chief finding is that this pedagogy, though designed to fight racism, has the unintended effect of supporting white privilege. Teaching whites to “unpack their invisible knapsack” does not make them more willing to take action against racial inequality. On the contrary, it makes them more complacent, more at home in an unjust world, and more comfortable with their whiteness. White privilege pedagogy does this by focusing on personal identity (whites’ personal identity over institutional structures, by paying more attention to whites’ experiences than to blacks’, by falsely claiming that the confession of white privileges leads to social action beneficial to blacks, and by restoring and expanding whites’ sense of moral rightness.

  3. Foreign bodies; or, how did Darwin invent the symptom?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowlinson, Matthew

    2010-01-01

    Beginning with a discussion of the sources in Darwin's writing for Freud's theory of the hysterical symptom, this essay proceeds to a symptomatic reading of Darwin himself. With reference to "The Origin of Species," "The Descent of Man," and "The Expression of the Emotions," this essay shows that Darwin's theories of involuntary expressive behavior and of aesthetic preference in sexual selection are linked by their role in his understanding of racial difference and also by their reliance on the idea that learned habits can be inherited as instincts, a view often identified with Lamarck. They are thus at once theories of the foreign body and theories that appear as foreigners within the body of Darwin's work.

  4. Re-inventing the fiber-optic textbook: a proposal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hecht, Jeff; Hecht, Deborah; Chowdary, Ahsan; Massa, Nicholas

    2016-09-01

    It's time to reinvent the textbook to meet the needs of today's students, educators, and self-study readers. Students aren't buying them, and authors and publishers have slowed or stopped revising them keep up with new technology and new pedagogy. We want to demonstrate new possibilities by completely overhauling Understanding Fiber Optics, an introduction to fiber optics originally written by J.H. for self-study and later republished as a textbook for technician training. After five editions that sold over 100,000 copies, its page count nearly doubled and its price soared more than tenfold from its original $16.95. We envision a modular structure to meet the needs of students and instructors. Basic concepts will be covered at an introductory level in a "core book" of some 200-250 pages, suitable for self-study, STEM programs at the high school level, and technician training. Additional separate modules primarily intended for instructors will cover details, such as how to install connectors. All materials will be distributed electronically at low cost, and will include interactive demonstrations, animations, simulations, and audio and video supplements explaining key concepts. Our goal is to keep the best aspects of a well-written and well-illustrated textbook, take advantage of new tools for presenting material to students, and make the whole package readily accessible and affordable to students, instructors, and anyone else wanting a working knowledge of fiber optics. We are developing a proposal to achieve these goals, and looking for partners to help us develop, test and evaluate instructional materials.

  5. Inventário e patrimônio cultural no Brasil Inventory and cultural patrimony in the Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Gilberto Ramos Nogueira

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available A desmaterialização do patrimônio cultural recolocou a necessidade dos inventários como instrumentos de reconhecimento da diversidade cultural e ponto de partida para as políticas públicas de patrimônio. Assim, refazer a trajetória de Mário de Andrade na constituição do Inventário dos Sentidos é buscar as origens da formulação de uma noção de patrimônio e de uma concepção de preservação que coloque o inventário no centro da prática preservacionista (principalmente quando se trata de patrimônio não tangível legitimando-o como instrumento de preservação em si e não apenas como ferramenta de gestão para bens já tombados. Signo das narrativas modernistas de construção da brasilidade, está em sua gênese, articulada às "viagens de (redescoberta do Brasil" (1924, 1927 e 19281929 e posteriormente objetivada nas ações do Departamento de Cultura de São Paulo (1935-1938.The dematerialization of cultural patrimony has brought back the necessity of inventories as tools for the recognition of cultural diversity and the starting point for public policies of patrimony. Thus, retracing the trajectory of Mario de Andrade in the constitution of the Inventory of the Senses means searching for the origins of the formulation of a notion of patrimony and of a conception of preservation which puts the inventory in the center of a preservation practice (especially with regards to non-tangible patrimony legitimizing it as a tool for preservation itself and not only as a managing tool for assets already registered. Signal of the modernist narrative of the construction of a "Brazilianness", it is in its genesis, articulated to the "re-discovery travels to Brazil (1924, 1927, and 1928/1929 and, later on, objectified in the actions of the Culture Bureau of São Paulo (1935-1938.

  6. Health-Related Quality of Life in Children with High-Functioning Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potvin, Marie-Christine; Snider, Laurie; Prelock, Patricia A.; Wood-Dauphinee, Sharon; Kehayia, Eva

    2015-01-01

    The health-related quality of life of school-aged children with high-functioning autism is poorly understood. The objectives of this study were to compare the health-related quality of life of children with high-functioning autism to that of typically developing peers and to compare child-self and parent-proxy reports of health-related quality of…

  7. Swords into plowshares: the 'invention' of peaceful nuclear explosions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Findlay, T.

    1986-11-01

    This paper examines the early history of so-called peaceful nuclear explosions or PNEs: the proposed use of nuclear explosives for non-military purposes such as digging canals, building harbours, mining precious metals and increasing the flow of oil wells and natural gas deposits. It traces the origins of the United States PNE program, Project Plowshare, with particular focus on the role of Edward Teller and the Lawrence Livermore Laboratory. The paper also deals with the relationship between Plowshare and the 1958-61 nuclear test moratorium and the nuclear fallout controversy during that period. A key question addressed is whether Project Plowshare was simply a 'political' ploy designed to advance the anti-moratorium, anti-test ban and pro-nuclear weapon cause or whether its roots are to be found in the almost manic enthusiasm of the time for exploiting the 'peaceful atom'. The paper concludes that peaceful nuclear explosions were indeed largely a product of the same 1950s' ethos that gave the world such atomic-age 'white elephants' as the nuclear powered rocket, the nuclear-powered aircraft and the plutonium pacemaker

  8. The Montgolfier Brothers and the Invention of Aviation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Charles B.

    The first hot air balloon ascension over Paris in September 1783 has been described so many times that it and its passengers—the sheep, the rooster, and the duck—have joined Benjamin Franklin and his kite in the folklore of our culture. Not so well known is the earlier history of ballooning; that the brothers Montgolfier had demonstrated their hot air balloons repeatedly for several months prior to the ascent over Paris; or that the physicist Charles, urged onward and financed by an enthusiast, Barthélemy Faujas de Saint-Fond, launched successfully the first fabric balloon filled with hydrogen over Paris more than 3 weeks prior to the memorable ascent of the sheep, and rooster, and the duck.For all of its well-documented detail, the book is readable and enjoyable. It is a well-written but complex book in which Professor Gillispie develops a number of subjects to recreate the era in perspective. The origins and the disposition of the Montgolfiers, the industry of the period, the idea of capturing heated air are all reported in detail. The attempts to obtain government funding and the promotional activities in Paris were forerunners of the modern techniques for obtaining support of research activities.

  9. Health-related quality of life in children with high-functioning autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potvin, Marie-Christine; Snider, Laurie; Prelock, Patricia A; Wood-Dauphinee, Sharon; Kehayia, Eva

    2015-01-01

    The health-related quality of life of school-aged children with high-functioning autism is poorly understood. The objectives of this study were to compare the health-related quality of life of children with high-functioning autism to that of typically developing peers and to compare child-self and parent-proxy reports of health-related quality of life of children. A cross-sectional study of children with high-functioning autism (n = 30) and peers (n = 31) was conducted using the Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory 4.0 Generic Core Scales. Children with high-functioning autism had significantly poorer health-related quality of life than peers whether reported by themselves (p children and parental scores suggested variance in points of view. This study specifically investigated health-related quality of life in children with high-functioning autism as compared to a sample of peers, from the child's perspective. It strengthens earlier findings that children with high-functioning autism experience poorer health-related quality of life than those without this disorder and points to the importance of clinicians working with families to identify areas in a child's life that promote or hinder their sense of well-being. © The Author(s) 2013.

  10. Rapid, global demographic expansions after the origins of agriculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gignoux, Christopher R; Henn, Brenna M; Mountain, Joanna L

    2011-04-12

    The invention of agriculture is widely assumed to have driven recent human population growth. However, direct genetic evidence for population growth after independent agricultural origins has been elusive. We estimated population sizes through time from a set of globally distributed whole mitochondrial genomes, after separating lineages associated with agricultural populations from those associated with hunter-gatherers. The coalescent-based analysis revealed strong evidence for distinct demographic expansions in Europe, southeastern Asia, and sub-Saharan Africa within the past 10,000 y. Estimates of the timing of population growth based on genetic data correspond neatly to dates for the initial origins of agriculture derived from archaeological evidence. Comparisons of rates of population growth through time reveal that the invention of agriculture facilitated a fivefold increase in population growth relative to more ancient expansions of hunter-gatherers.

  11. Using History to Teach Invention and Design: The Case of the Telephone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorman, Michael E.; Robinson, J. Kirby

    This paper shows how a historical case, the invention of the telephone, can be used to teach invention and design in a way that combines engineering, social sciences, and humanities. The historical problem of transmitting speech was turned into an active learning module, in which students sought to improve patents obtained by early telephone inventors like Alexander Graham Bell and Elisha Gray, using equipment similar to what was available at the time. The result was a collaborative learning environment in which students from a wide range of majors worked in teams, eventually producing a patent application. As part of the project, they were allowed to search historical materials like the Bell notebooks, which were made available on line. This experience gave them a better understanding of the invention and design process.

  12. Technological Innovation and Beyond: Exploring Public Value of University Inventions Based on Contingent Effectiveness Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Milana, Evita; Li-Ying, Jason; Faria, Lourenco

    2017-01-01

    University inventions are traditionally seen as significant input into development of new technologies and innovations in the market as they generate growth and regional development. (REF) Yet, these inventions developed into new technologies can simultaneously create public values such as those...... that are related with sustainability goals. In this paper, we apply the Contingent Effectiveness Model by Bozeman et.al. (2015) as a framework to consider the effectiveness of technology transfer from university to industry via licensing, and examine what values derive during the commercialization process...... of university inventions. We define four main values: technological, economic, social and environmental, and place the latter two under the concept of public value. The aim of this paper is to expand the understanding of public value and incorporate it into technology transfer literature. We assign...

  13. Patentna zaštita poverljivih pronalazaka / Patent protection of classified invention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Obrad T. Čabarkapa

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Svaki pronalazak za koji se utvrdi da je značajan za odbranu i bezbednost Republike Srbije smatra se poverljivim. Za patentnu zaštitu poverljivih pronalazaka podnosi se prijava organu nadležnom za poslove odbrane, koji ima isključivo pravo da raspolaže poverljivim pronalascima1. U organizacijskoj jedinici nadležnoj za poslove naučne i inovacione delatnosti2 realizuje postupak ispitivanja poverljivih prijava patenata. Da bi se donela ocena o poverljivosti prijavljenog pronalaska neophodno je realizovati određene faze u postupku ispitivanja prijave. Poverljivi pronalazak se ne objavljuje, a pronalazač, nakon priznavanja patenta, u skladu sa zakonskim propisima, ima određena moralna i materijalna prava. / Every invention established to be of significance for defense or security of the Republic of Serbia is considered to be a classified invention. For the purpose of patent protection of classified inventions, a confidential application must be submitted to a relevant defense authority having the exclusive right to deal with classified inventions3. An organizational unit competent for scientific and innovation issues carries out the examination of classified patent applications. In order to evaluate classification of the submitted invention, regarding its significance for defense or security of the country as well as to make the final decision on the application, the examination procedure should be carried out through several phases. A classified invention is not to be published and once the patent has been approved, the inventor enjoys moral and material rights in accordance with law.

  14. The Energy-Related Inventions Program: A decade of commercial progress

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, M.A.; Franchuk, C.A. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)); Wilson, C.R. (Tennessee Univ., Knoxville, TN (United States))

    1991-12-01

    This report provides information on the recent commercial progress of inventions supported by the US Department of Energy's Energy-Related Inventions Programs (ERIP). It describes the results of the latest in a series of ERIP evaluation projects that have been completed since 1980. It focuses on the economic impacts of the program, notably sales and employment benefits. The period of interest is 1980 through 1990. The evaluation is based on data collected through mail and telephone surveying of 143 participants in the Program. As of October 1989, a total of 486 inventions were recommended to DOE by the National Institute for Standards and Technology, which screens all submitted inventions in terms of technical merit, potential for commercial success, and potential energy impact. By the end of 1990, at least 109 of these inventions had entered the market, generating total cumulative sales of more than $500 million. With $25.7 million in grants awarded from 1975 through 1990, and $63.1 million in program appropriations over the same period, ERIP has generated a 20:1 return in terms of sales values to grants, and an 8:1 return in sales versus program appropriations. It is estimated that 25% of all ERIP inventions had achieved sales by the end of 1990. While it is difficult to make exact comparisons between these percentages and other indicators of the success rates of technological innovations as a whole, the ERIP figures remain impressive. The commercial progress of spin-off technologies is also documented.

  15. A Patient-Invented Maneuver to Alleviate Freezing of Gait Using a Foot Loop Band

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasuyuki Okuma

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Freezing of gait (FOG is a disabling gait disorder in parkinsonian patients characterized by the inability to initiate or continue locomotion. I herein present a 65-year-old man with Parkinson's disease who invented a unique method (foot loop band to alleviate FOG, which has not been previously described in the literature. The mechanisms to alleviate FOG include not only facilitating mechanical weight shift, but also restoring internal cueing and driving motor commands for gait initiation. This patient-invented maneuver may be recommended for patients having intractable FOG, because it is portable, cheap and safe.

  16. Assessing the Inventiveness of Bio-Pharmaceuticals under European and US Patent Law

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Minssen, Timo

    , is utterly wrong, since any DNA and the information it contains is the embodiment of the code of life and should be regarded part of the common heritage of mankind. Some patent opponents go even further and argue for a prohibition of patents on proteins. Others, and in particular the life science industry...... specifically, it investigates how the European and US patent systems interpret and apply the so called "inventive step" (Europe) or "non-obviousness" requirement (U.S.) vis-à-vis bio-pharmaceutical technology with a special emphasis on DNA-and protein related inventions. In addition to evaluating the de lata...

  17. Background story of the invention of efficient blue InGaN light emitting diodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakamura, Shuji [University of California, Santa Barbara, CA (United States)

    2015-06-15

    Shuji Nakamura discovered p-type doping in Gallium Nitride (GaN) and developed blue, green, and white InGaN based light emitting diodes (LEDs) and blue laser diodes (LDs). His inventions made possible energy efficient, solid-state lighting systems and enabled the next generation of optical storage. Together with Isamu Akasaki and Hiroshi Amano, he is one of the three recipients of the 2014 Nobel Prize in Physics. In his Nobel lecture, Shuji Nakamura gives an overview of this research and the story of his inventions. (copyright 2015 by WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  18. The economic, energy, and environmental impacts of the Energy-Related Inventions Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, M.A.; Wilson, C.R.; Franchuk, C.A.; Cohn, S.M.; Jones, D.

    1994-07-01

    This report provides information on the economic, energy, and environmental impacts of inventions supported by the Energy-Related Inventions Program (ERIP) -- a program jointly operated by the US Department of Energy and the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST). It describes the results of the latest in a series of ERIP evaluation projects that have been completed since 1980. The period of interest is 1980 through 1992. The evaluation is based on data collected in 1993 through mail and telephone surveys of 253 program participants, and historical data collected during previous evaluations for an additional 189 participants

  19. The economic, energy, and environmental impacts of the Energy-Related Inventions Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, M.A.; Wilson, C.R.; Franchuk, C.A.; Cohn, S.M.; Jones, D.

    1994-07-01

    This report provides information on the economic, energy, and environmental impacts of inventions supported by the Energy-Related Inventions Program (ERIP) -- a program jointly operated by the US Department of Energy and the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST). It describes the results of the latest in a series of ERIP evaluation projects that have been completed since 1980. The period of interest is 1980 through 1992. The evaluation is based on data collected in 1993 through mail and telephone surveys of 253 program participants, and historical data collected during previous evaluations for an additional 189 participants.

  20. Comparison of Spontaneously Elicited Language Patterns in Specific Language Impairment and High-Functioning Autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craig, Megan; Trauner, Doris

    2018-02-01

    We aimed to characterize differences in the use of language in children with specific language impairment and high-functioning autism by analyzing verbal responses on standardized tests. The overall goal was to provide clinicians with additional tools with which to aid in distinguishing the two neurodevelopmental disorders. This study included 16 children with specific language impairment, 28 children with high-functioning autism, and 52 typically developing participants between the ages of six and 14. Groups were matched for age, and specific language impairment and high-functioning autism groups were matched on verbal and performance IQ. Responses from standardized tests were examined for response length, grammatical errors, filler words, perseverations, revisions (repeated attempts to begin or continue a sentence), off-topic attention shifts (lapses in attention to the task), and rambling. Data were analyzed using parametric and nonparametric methods. Specific language impairment responses were longer and contained more filler words than did those of the other two groups, whereas high-functioning autism responses exhibited more grammatical errors, off-topic attention shifts, and rambling. Specific language impairment and high-functioning autism responses showed higher rates of perseveration compared with controls. There were no significant differences in revisions among the three groups. Differences in language patterns of participants with specific language impairment and high-functioning autism may be useful to the clinician in helping to differentiate isolated language impairment from high-functioning autism. The results also support the conclusion that the two conditions are separable, and each exhibits a different pattern of language dysfunction. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Adaptação transcultural Portugal-Brasil do Inventário de Burnout de Maslach para estudantes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Alvares Duarte Bonini Campos

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Realizar a adaptação transcultural da versão em português do Inventário de Burnout de Maslach para estudantes e investigar sua confiabilidade, validade e invariância transcultural. MÉTODOS: A validação de face envolveu participação de equipe multidisciplinar. Foi realizada validação de conteúdo. A versão em português foi preenchida em 2009, pela internet, por 958 estudantes universitários brasileiros e 556 portugueses da zona urbana. Realizou-se análise fatorial confirmatória utilizando-se como índices de ajustamento o χ²/df, o comparative fit index (CFI, goodness of fit index (GFI e o root mean square error of approximation (RMSEA. Para verificação da estabilidade da solução fatorial conforme a versão original em inglês, realizou-se validação cruzada em 2/3 da amostra total e replicada no 1/3 restante. A validade convergente foi estimada pela variância extraída média e confiabilidade composta. Avaliou-se a validade discriminante e a consistência interna foi estimada pelo coeficiente alfa de Cronbach. A validade concorrente foi estimada por análise correlacional da versão em português e dos escores médios do Inventário de Burnout de Copenhague; a divergente foi comparada à Escala de Depressão de Beck. Foi avaliada a invariância do modelo entre a amostra brasileira e a portuguesa. RESULTADOS: O modelo trifatorial de Exaustão, Descrença e Eficácia apresentou ajustamento adequado (χ²/df = 8,498; CFI = 0,916; GFI = 0,902; RMSEA = 0,086. A estrutura fatorial foi estável (λ: χ²dif = 11,383, p = 0,50; Cov: χ²dif = 6,479, p = 0,372; Resíduos: χ²dif = 21,514, p = 0,121. Observou-se adequada validade convergente (VEM = 0,45;0,64, CC = 0,82;0,88, discriminante (ρ² = 0,06;0,33 e consistência interna (α = 0,83;0,88. A validade concorrente da versão em português com o Inventário de Copenhague foi adequada (r = 0,21;0,74. A avaliação da validade divergente do instrumento foi prejudicada

  2. Children's Invented Notations and Verbal Responses to a Piano Work by Claude Debussy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elkoshi, Rivka

    2015-01-01

    This study considers the way children listen to classical music composed for them and the effect of age on their spontaneous invented notations and verbal responses. The musical selection is a piano piece for children by Claude Debussy:"'Jimbo's Lullaby" from "Children's Corner". Two hundred and nine children 4-9.5-years-old…

  3. Visual Invention and the Composition of Scientific Research Graphics: A Topological Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Lynda

    2018-01-01

    This report details the second phase of an ongoing research project investigating the visual invention and composition processes of scientific researchers. In this phase, four academic researchers completed think-aloud protocols as they composed graphics for research presentations; they also answered follow-up questions about their visual…

  4. 76 FR 31307 - Notice of Intent To License Government-Owned Inventions; Intent To License Exclusively

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-31

    ... DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Department of the Army Notice of Intent To License Government-Owned Inventions; Intent To License Exclusively AGENCY: Department of the Army, DoD. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The... Army. The US Army Edgewood Chemical Biological Center and the US Army Research Laboratory intend to...

  5. 76 FR 17840 - Notice of Intent To License Government-Owned Inventions; Intent To License Exclusively

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-31

    ... DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Department of the Army Notice of Intent To License Government-Owned Inventions; Intent To License Exclusively AGENCY: Department of the Army, DoD. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The... McGill telephone: 410-436-8467, [email protected]us.army.mil , U.S. Army Edgewood Chemical Biological Center...

  6. Cryoballoon ablation of atrial fibrillation: state of the art 10 years after its invention.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sorgente, A.; Chierchia, G.B.; Asmundis, C. de; Capulzini, L.; Sarkozy, A.; Brugada, P.

    2010-01-01

    The present review will discuss the technical aspects of a new patent invented in 1999 which allows cryoballoon ablation, an emerging technology used for the non pharmacological treatment of paroxysmal atrial fibrillation. A general evaluation of the safety and the reliability of the technique will

  7. Toward a Reconception of Absence in the School Workplace: Teacher Absenteeism as Invention and Social Exchange.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobson, Stephen L.; And Others

    Findings of a study that formulated and tested new ways of thinking about teacher absence are presented in this paper, which is based on the premise that teacher absenteeism is a social invention that must be studied within the context of the work site and understood as a function of the social exchange that occurs therein. Prior research has used…

  8. 76 FR 30322 - Notice of Availability of Government-Owned Inventions; Available for Licensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-25

    ... DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Department of the Navy Notice of Availability of Government-Owned Inventions... below are assigned to the United States Government as represented by the Secretary of the Navy. U.S...'' issued on February 16, 2010; U.S. Patent Number 6,600,694 entitled ``Digital Signal Processor Based...

  9. 78 FR 22529 - Notice of Availability of Government-Owned Inventions; Available for Licensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-16

    ... DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Department of the Navy Notice of Availability of Government-Owned Inventions... below are assigned to the United States Government as represented by the Secretary of the Navy and are...: ANALYTICAL RECONSTRUCTION OF DIGITAL SIGNALS VIA STITCHED POLYNOMIAL FITTING//Navy Case No. 101761: APPARATUS...

  10. Promoting Early Literacy via Practicing Invented Spelling: A Comparison of Different Mediation Routines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levin, Iris; Aram, Dorit

    2013-01-01

    The present study compared the effects of different mediation routines provided to kindergartners from families of low socioeconomic status on the students' invented spelling attempts and on their gains obtained on spelling and other early literacy skills (letter naming, sounds of letters, word segmentation, and word decoding). The effects of the…

  11. 37 CFR 1.488 - Determination of unity of invention before the International Preliminary Examining Authority.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ..., and Copyrights UNITED STATES PATENT AND TRADEMARK OFFICE, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE GENERAL RULES OF... International Searching Authority, or (3) If applicant fails to restrict the claims or pay additional fees... common inventive concept. In such a case the International Preliminary Examining Authority may raise the...

  12. Pinyin Invented Spelling in Mandarin Chinese-Speaking Children With and Without Reading Difficulties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Yi; Liu, Ru-De; McBride, Catherine; Zhang, Dake

    2015-01-01

    This study examined analytical pinyin (a phonological coding system for teaching pronunciation and lexical tones of Chinese characters) skills in 54 Mandarin-speaking fourth graders by using an invented spelling instrument that tapped into syllable awareness, phoneme awareness, lexical tones, and tone sandhi in Chinese. Pinyin invented spelling was significantly correlated with Chinese character recognition and Chinese phonological awareness (i.e., syllable deletion and phoneme deletion). In comparison to good and average readers, poor readers performed significantly worse on the invented spelling task, and a difference was also found between average and good readers. To differentiate readers at different levels, the pinyin invented spelling task, which examined both segmental and suprasegmental elements, was superior to the typical phonological awareness task, which examined segments only. Within this new task, items involving tone sandhi (Chinese language changes in which the tones of words alter according to predetermined rules) were more difficult to manipulate than were those without tone sandhi. The findings suggest that this newly developed task may be optimal for tapping unique phonological and linguistic features in reading of Chinese and examining particular tonal difficulties in struggling Chinese readers. In addition, the results suggest that phonics manipulations within tasks of phonological and tonal awareness can alter their difficulty levels. © Hammill Institute on Disabilities 2014.

  13. Invented Spelling Activities in Small Groups and Early Spelling and Reading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, Margarida Alves; Salvador, Liliana; Albuquerque, Ana; Silva, Cristina

    2016-01-01

    Our aim was to assess the impact of an invented spelling programme conducted in small groups on children's written language acquisition in Portuguese. We expected the experimental group to have better post-test results than the control group in spelling and reading. Participants were 160 preschool-age children who were randomly divided into an…

  14. Group Playing by Ear in Higher Education: The Processes That Support Imitation, Invention and Group Improvisation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varvarigou, Maria

    2017-01-01

    This article explores how group playing by ear (GEP) through imitation of recorded material and opportunities for inventive work during peer interaction was used to support first year undergraduate western classical music students' aural, group creativity and improvisation skills. The framework that emerged from the analysis of the data describes…

  15. 76 FR 37795 - Notice of Availability of Government-Owned Inventions; Available for Licensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-28

    ... DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Department of the Navy Notice of Availability of Government-Owned Inventions....S. Patent No. 7,316,194: Rudders for High-Speed Ships//U.S. Patent No. 7,322,786: Mobile Loader for Transfer of Containers Between Delivery Vehicles and Marine Terminal Cranes//U.S. Patent No. 7,324,016...

  16. Inventing Citizens During World War I: Suffrage Cartoons in "The Woman Citizen."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramsey, E. Michele

    2000-01-01

    Contributes to scholarship advancing the understanding of human communication by examining the rhetorical invention strategies of suffrage rhetoric in the cultural context of World War I. Shows how the political cartoons published in the mainstream Suffrage Movement's "The Woman Citizen" constructed women as strong, competent, and…

  17. How Emotional Stability and Openness to Experience Support Invention: A Study with German Independent Inventors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mieg, Harald A.; Bedenk, Stephan J.; Braun, Anna; Neyer, Franz J.

    2012-01-01

    How does invention depend on personality? Do inventors differ from noninventors? This study investigated the personal factors influencing a sample of independent inventors in Germany (N = 69). Standardized psychological questionnaires were employed to assess the Big Five personality dimensions, willingness to take risks, self-concept, and…

  18. Re-Presenting Subversive Songs: Applying Strategies for Invention and Arrangement to Nontraditional Speech Texts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charlesworth, Dacia

    2010-01-01

    Invention deals with the content of a speech, arrangement involves placing the content in an order that is most strategic, style focuses on selecting linguistic devices, such as metaphor, to make the message more appealing, memory assists the speaker in delivering the message correctly, and delivery ideally enables great reception of the message.…

  19. 77 FR 7095 - Transitional Program for Covered Business Method Patents-Definition of Technological Invention

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-10

    ... 0651-AC75 Transitional Program for Covered Business Method Patents-- Definition of Technological... definition of technological invention that the Board will use in conducting transitional covered business... definition for covered business method patent in proposed Sec. 42.301(a). Additionally, the Office in a...

  20. 77 FR 54647 - Culturally Significant Objects Imported for Exhibition Determinations: “Sicily: Art and Invention...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-05

    ... exhibition ``Sicily: Art and Invention Between Greece and Rome,'' imported from abroad for temporary... exhibit objects at The J. Paul Getty Museum in Los Angeles, California from on or about April 3, 2013, until on or about August 19, 2013; and then at the Cleveland Museum of Art in Cleveland, Ohio from...

  1. Connect the Book. Always Inventing: A Photobiography of Alexander Graham Bell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brodie, Carolyn S.

    2004-01-01

    Cell phones, video phones, voice messaging?one wonders what Alexander Graham Bell would have thought about the many venues today for electronic communication with one another. Bell's March 10, 1876 invention is now 128 years old, but there is no doubt that Bell's "talking machine" changed the world. This article presents a brief review of the…

  2. A Spiritual Contact Zone: Re-Inventing Ritual Space in The Netherlands' Afrika Museum

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kleuskens, E.; School, F.; Thijs, S.; Westendorp, M.F.; Venbrux, H.J.M.

    2010-01-01

    The research project Holy Ground, led by Paul Post and Arie Molendijk, has drawn attention to the process of 're-inventing ritual space in modern Western culture' by examining various places, such as 'rooms of silence and memorial shrines for victims of disease and violence'. Here we want to address

  3. Tracking the internationalization of multinational corporate inventive activity : National and sectoral characteristics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alkemade, Floortje; Heimeriks, Gaston; Schoen, Antoine; Villard, Lionel; Laurens, Patricia

    2015-01-01

    This paper introduces a unique database, the Corporate Invention Board (CIB). The CIB combines patent data from the PATSTAT database with financial data from the ORBIS database about the 2289 companies with the largest R&D investments. We illustrate the database by showing a comprehensive overview

  4. Tracking the internationalization of multinational corporate inventive activity : national and sectoral characteristics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alkemade, F.; Heimeriks, G.; Schoen, A.; Villard, L.; Laurens, P.

    2015-01-01

    This paper introduces a unique database, the Corporate Invention Board (CIB). The CIB combines patent data from the PATSTAT database with financial data from the ORBIS database about the 2289 companies with the largest R&D investments. We illustrate the database by showing a comprehensive overview

  5. Thomas Edison's Inventions in the 1900s and Today: From "New" to You! [Lesson Plan].

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002

    The purpose of this lesson is to familiarize students with life and technology around 1900 so that they can better understand how Thomas Edison and his many inventions influenced both. Without some understanding of Edison's time, it is unclear just how significant an impact Edison had on the world, both then and now. While the incandescent light…

  6. Collective invention during the British Industrial Revolution : the case of the Cornish pumping engine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nuvolari, A.

    2004-01-01

    In this paper we argue that what Robert Allen has termed as collective invention settings (that is settings in which competing firms share technological knowledge) were a crucial source of innovation during the early phases of industrialization. Until now this has been very little considered in the

  7. Collective invention during the British industrial revolution : the case of the Cornish pumping engine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nuvolari, A.

    2004-01-01

    This paper argues that what Robert Allen has termed collective invention settings (that is, settings in which competing firms share technological knowledge) were a crucial source of innovation during the early phases of industrialisation. Until now this has been very little considered in the

  8. 48 CFR 1852.227-85 - Invention reporting and rights-Foreign.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... and complete technical information concerning the invention as is necessary to enable an understanding of the nature and operation thereof. (c) The Contractor hereby grants to the Government of the United... the State in which this contract is to be performed. As to such State, Contractor hereby grants to the...

  9. 28 CFR 345.73 - Procedures for granting awards for suggestions or inventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Procedures for granting awards for suggestions or inventions. 345.73 Section 345.73 Judicial Administration FEDERAL PRISON INDUSTRIES, INC., DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE FEDERAL PRISON INDUSTRIES (FPI) INMATE WORK PROGRAMS Awards Program § 345.73 Procedures...

  10. The needs analysis of learning Inventive Problem Solving for technical and vocational students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sai'en, Shanty; Tze Kiong, Tee; Yunos, Jailani Md; Foong, Lee Ming; Heong, Yee Mei; Mohaffyza Mohamad, Mimi

    2017-08-01

    Malaysian Ministry of Education highlighted in their National Higher Education Strategic plan that higher education’s need to focus adopting 21st century skills in order to increase a graduate’s employability. Current research indicates that most graduate lack of problem solving skills to help them securing the job. Realising the important of this skill hence an alternative way suggested as an option for high institution’s student to solve their problem. This study was undertaken to measure the level of problem solving skills, identify the needs of learning inventive problem solving skills and the needs of developing an Inventive problem solving module. Using a questionnaire, the study sampled 132 students from Faculty of Technical and Vocational Education. Findings indicated that majority of the students fail to define what is an inventive problem and the root cause of a problem. They also unable to state the objectives and goal thus fail to solve the problem. As a result, the students agreed on the developing Inventive Problem Solving Module to assist them.

  11. Gaze recognition in high-functioning autistic patients. Evidence from functional MRI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takebayashi, Hiroko; Ogai, Masahiro; Matsumoto, Hideo

    2006-01-01

    We examined whether patients with high-functioning autistic disorder (AD) would exhibit abnormal activation in brain regions implicated in the functioning of theory of mind (TOM) during gaze recognition. We investigated brain activity during gaze recognition in 5 patients with high-functioning AD and 9 normal subjects, using functional magnetic resonance imaging. On the gaze task, more activation was found in the left middle frontal gyrus, the right intraparietal sulcus, and the precentral and inferior parietal gyri bilaterally in controls than in AD patients, whereas the patient group showed more powerful signal changes in the left superior temporal gyrus, the right insula, and the right medial frontal gyrus. These results suggest that high-functioning AD patients have functional abnormalities not only in TOM-related brain regions, but also in widely distributed brain regions that are not normally activated upon the processing of information from another person's gaze. (author)

  12. The energy-related inventions program: Continuing benefits to the inventor community

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Braid, R.B. Jr.; Brown, M.A.; Wilson, C.R.; Franchuk, C.A.; Rizy, C.G.

    1996-10-01

    This report provides information on the economic, energy, and environmental impacts of inventions supported by the Energy-Related Inventions Program (ERIP) - a technology commercialization program jointly operated by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST). It describes the results of the latest in a series of ERIP evaluation projects that have been completed since 1980. The period of interest is 1980 through 1994. The evaluation is based on data collected in 1995 through mail and telephone surveys of 211 program participants, and historical data collected during previous evaluations for an additional 253 participants. As of September 1993, a total of 609 inventions had been recommended to DOE by NIST, which screens all submitted inventions for technical merit, potential for commercial success, and potential energy impact. By the end of 1994, at least 144 (or 24%) of these inventions had entered the market, generating total cumulative sales of $961 million (in 19944). It is estimated that in 1994 ERIP inventors earned royalties of $2.3 million, and over the lifetime of the program, royalties total $28.2 million. With $47.5 million in grants awarded from 1975 through 1994 and $124 million in program appropriations over the same period, ERIP has generated a 20:1 return in terms of sales values to grants, and an 8:1 return in sales versus program appropriations. Further, it is estimated that at least 757 job-years of employment were supported by ERIP technologies in 1994, and that this resulted in a return of approximately $3.4 million in individual income taxes to the U.S. Treasury. Finally, approximately $334 million of energy expenditures were saved in 1994 as a result of the commercial success of five ERIP projects. These energy savings resulted in reduced emissions of 2.1 million metric tons of carbon in 1994 alone.

  13. Human origins: Out of Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tattersall, Ian

    2009-01-01

    Our species, Homo sapiens, is highly autapomorphic (uniquely derived) among hominids in the structure of its skull and postcranial skeleton. It is also sharply distinguished from other organisms by its unique symbolic mode of cognition. The fossil and archaeological records combine to show fairly clearly that our physical and cognitive attributes both first appeared in Africa, but at different times. Essentially modern bony conformation was established in that continent by the 200–150 Ka range (a dating in good agreement with dates for the origin of H. sapiens derived from modern molecular diversity). The event concerned was apparently short-term because it is essentially unanticipated in the fossil record. In contrast, the first convincing stirrings of symbolic behavior are not currently detectable until (possibly well) after 100 Ka. The radical reorganization of gene expression that underwrote the distinctive physical appearance of H. sapiens was probably also responsible for the neural substrate that permits symbolic cognition. This exaptively acquired potential lay unexploited until it was “discovered” via a cultural stimulus, plausibly the invention of language. Modern humans appear to have definitively exited Africa to populate the rest of the globe only after both their physical and cognitive peculiarities had been acquired within that continent. PMID:19805256

  14. 77 FR 442 - Changes To Implement Miscellaneous Post Patent Provisions of the Leahy-Smith America Invents Act

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-05

    ...-2011-0072] RIN 0651-AC66 Changes To Implement Miscellaneous Post Patent Provisions of the Leahy-Smith... proposed rulemaking. SUMMARY: The Leahy-Smith America Invents Act expands the scope of information that any... partes review, and post grant review. The Leahy-Smith America Invents Act also provides for an estoppel...

  15. 77 FR 48827 - Changes To Implement the Supplemental Examination Provisions of the Leahy-Smith America Invents...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-14

    ... Office 37 CFR Part 1 Changes To Implement the Supplemental Examination Provisions of the Leahy-Smith... Changes To Implement the Supplemental Examination Provisions of the Leahy-Smith America Invents Act and To... patent cases to implement the supplemental examination provisions of the Leahy-Smith America Invents Act...

  16. 76 FR 13135 - Intent To Grant an Exclusive License for a U.S. Government-Owned Invention

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-10

    ... DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Department of the Army Intent To Grant an Exclusive License for a U.S. Government-Owned Invention AGENCY: Department of the Army, DoD. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: In accordance with... intent to grant an exclusive, revocable license for the invention claimed in the patent application PCT...

  17. Brain resting-state networks in adolescents with high-functioning autism: Analysis of spatial connectivity and temporal neurodynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernas, Antoine; Barendse, Evelien M; Aldenkamp, Albert P; Backes, Walter H; Hofman, Paul A M; Hendriks, Marc P H; Kessels, Roy P C; Willems, Frans M J; de With, Peter H N; Zinger, Svitlana; Jansen, Jacobus F A

    2018-02-01

    Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is mainly characterized by functional and communication impairments as well as restrictive and repetitive behavior. The leading hypothesis for the neural basis of autism postulates globally abnormal brain connectivity, which can be assessed using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Even in the absence of a task, the brain exhibits a high degree of functional connectivity, known as intrinsic, or resting-state, connectivity. Global default connectivity in individuals with autism versus controls is not well characterized, especially for a high-functioning young population. The aim of this study is to test whether high-functioning adolescents with ASD (HFA) have an abnormal resting-state functional connectivity. We performed spatial and temporal analyses on resting-state networks (RSNs) in 13 HFA adolescents and 13 IQ- and age-matched controls. For the spatial analysis, we used probabilistic independent component analysis (ICA) and a permutation statistical method to reveal the RSN differences between the groups. For the temporal analysis, we applied Granger causality to find differences in temporal neurodynamics. Controls and HFA display very similar patterns and strengths of resting-state connectivity. We do not find any significant differences between HFA adolescents and controls in the spatial resting-state connectivity. However, in the temporal dynamics of this connectivity, we did find differences in the causal effect properties of RSNs originating in temporal and prefrontal cortices. The results show a difference between HFA and controls in the temporal neurodynamics from the ventral attention network to the salience-executive network: a pathway involving cognitive, executive, and emotion-related cortices. We hypothesized that this weaker dynamic pathway is due to a subtle trigger challenging the cognitive state prior to the resting state.

  18. Invention and Transfer of Climate Change Mitigation Technologies on a Global Scale: A Study Drawing on Patent Data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dechezlepretre, A.; Glachant, M.; Hascic, I.; Johnstone, N.; Meniere, Y.

    2010-01-01

    This paper uses the EPO/OECD World Patent Statistical Database (PATSTAT) to provide a quantitative description of the geographic distribution of inventions in thirteen climate mitigation technologies since 1978 and their international diffusion on a global scale. Statistics suggest that innovation has mostly been driven by energy prices until 1990. Since then, environmental policies, and climate policies more recently, have accelerated the pace of innovation. Innovation is highly concentrated in three countries - Japan, Germany and the USA - which account for 60% of total innovations. Surprisingly, the innovation performance of emerging economies is far from being negligible as China and South Korea together represent about 15% of total inventions. However, they export much less inventions than industrialized countries, suggesting their inventions have less value. More generally, international transfers mostly occur between developed countries (73% of exported inventions). Exports from developed countries to emerging economies are still limited (22%) but are growing rapidly, especially to China. (authors)

  19. Social Skills Training for Adolescents with Asperger Syndrome and High-Functioning Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tse, Jeanie; Strulovitch, Jack; Tagalakis, Vicki; Meng, Linyan; Fombonne, Eric

    2007-01-01

    The effectiveness of a social skills training group for adolescents with Asperger syndrome and high-functioning autism (AS/HFA) was evaluated. Parents of six groups of adolescents (n = 46, 61% male, mean age 14.6) completed questionnaires immediately before and after the 12-week group. Parents and adolescents were surveyed regarding their…

  20. Facial Emotion Recognition in Children with High Functioning Autism and Children with Social Phobia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Nina; Beidel, Deborah C.; Sarver, Dustin E.; Sims, Valerie

    2012-01-01

    Recognizing facial affect is essential for effective social functioning. This study examines emotion recognition abilities in children aged 7-13 years with High Functioning Autism (HFA = 19), Social Phobia (SP = 17), or typical development (TD = 21). Findings indicate that all children identified certain emotions more quickly (e.g., happy [less…

  1. Participation in Daily Activities of Young Adults with High Functioning Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCollum, Mary; LaVesser, Patti; Berg, Christine

    2016-01-01

    Young adults with an autism spectrum disorder (ASD) struggle to assume adult roles. This research assessed the feasibility of using the Adolescent and Young Adult Activity Card Sort (AYA-ACS) with emerging adults with high functioning ASD. Two phases were utilized during this research: (1) comparing the activity participation reported by emerging…

  2. How Stimulus and Task Complexity Affect Monitoring in High-Functioning Adults with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koolen, S.; Vissers, C.T.W.M.; Egger, J.I.M.; Verhoeven, L.T.W.

    2014-01-01

    The present study examined whether individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) are able to update and monitor working memory representations of visual input, and whether performance is influenced by stimulus and task complexity. 15 high-functioning adults with ASD and 15 controls were asked to

  3. Binding of Multiple Features in Memory by High-Functioning Adults with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowler, Dermot M.; Gaigg, Sebastian B.; Gardiner, John M.

    2014-01-01

    Diminished episodic memory and diminished use of semantic information to aid recall by individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) are both thought to result from diminished relational binding of elements of complex stimuli. To test this hypothesis, we asked high-functioning adults with ASD and typical comparison participants to study grids in…

  4. Preparing Transition-Age Students with High-Functioning Autism Spectrum Disorders for Meaningful Work

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Gloria K.; Carter, Erik W.

    2012-01-01

    This article provides an overview of promising essential elements for fostering vocational success among students with high-functioning autism spectrum disorders (HFASDs) by drawing literature from the fields of school-to-work transition for post-secondary students and vocational rehabilitation for individuals with disabilities. We highlight seven…

  5. Brief report: Inhibitory control of socially relevant stimuli in children with high functioning autism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geurts, H.M.; Begeer, S.; Stockman, L.

    2009-01-01

    The current study explored whether inhibitory control deficits in high functioning autism (HFA) emerged when socially relevant stimuli were used and whether arousal level affected the performance. A Go/NoGo paradigm, with socially relevant stimuli and varying presentation rates, was applied in 18

  6. Attention and Written Expression in School-Aged, High-Functioning Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zajic, Matthew C.; McIntyre, Nancy; Swain-Lerro, Lindsay; Novotny, Stephanie; Oswald, Tasha; Mundy, Peter

    2016-01-01

    High-functioning children with autism spectrum disorders often find writing challenging. These writing difficulties may be specific to autism spectrum disorder or to a more general clinical effect of attention disturbance, as these children are often comorbid for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptomatology (and children with…

  7. Metaphor Comprehension in Autistic Spectrum Disorders: Case Studies of Two High-Functioning Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melogno, Sergio; D'Ardia, Caterina; Pinto, Maria Antonietta; Levi, Gabriel

    2012-01-01

    This article presents case studies on metaphor comprehension in two boys with high-functioning autistic spectrum disorder, aged 9;1 (9 years, 1 month) and 8;11. The participants were assessed twice, before and after an intervention program aimed at improving their social skills. The focus of the article is on the specific patterns exhibited by…

  8. Avoidant Attachment Style Indicates Job Adaptation of People with High Functional Autistic Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yokotani, Kenji

    2011-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate whether or not the avoidant attachment style indicates job adaptation of people with High Functional Autistic Spectrum Disorders (HFASD). HFASD are groups of developmental disorders characterized by impairment of social interaction and normal level of intelligence. Twenty-two people with HFASD…

  9. The Use of Grammatical Morphemes by Mandarin-Speaking Children with High Functioning Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Peng; Crain, Stephen; Gao, Liqun; Tang, Ye; Jia, Meixiang

    2015-01-01

    The present study investigated the production of grammatical morphemes by Mandarin-speaking children with high functioning autism. Previous research found that a subgroup of English-speaking children with autism exhibit deficits in the use of grammatical morphemes that mark tense. In order to see whether this impairment in grammatical morphology…

  10. Social Competence Intervention for Elementary Students with Aspergers Syndrome and High Functioning Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stichter, Janine P.; O'Connor, Karen V.; Herzog, Melissa J.; Lierheimer, Kristin; McGhee, Stephanie D.

    2012-01-01

    Despite frequent reports of academic success, individuals with high functioning autism or Aspergers Syndrome (HFA/AS) often manifest deficits in social abilities. These deficits can lead to daily difficulties, and negative long-term outcomes. Deficits in social competency are evident in this population from an early age, as children with HFA/AS…

  11. Do Social Attribution Skills Improve with Age in Children with High Functioning Autism Spectrum Disorders?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bal, Elgiz; Yerys, Benjamin E.; Sokoloff, Jennifer L.; Celano, Mark J.; Kenworthy, Lauren; Giedd, Jay N.; Wallace, Gregory L.

    2013-01-01

    Age-related changes in social attribution skills were assessed using the "Triangles Playing Tricks" task in 7-17 year old high functioning children with ASDs (n = 41) and in typically developing (TD) children (n = 58) matched on age, IQ, and sex ratio. Children with ASDs gave responses that received lower intentionality and appropriateness ratings…

  12. Theory of Mind and Central Coherence in Adults with High-Functioning Autism or Asperger Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaumont, Renae; Newcombe, Peter

    2006-01-01

    The study investigated theory of mind and central coherence abilities in adults with high-functioning autism (HFA) or Asperger syndrome (AS) using naturalistic tasks. Twenty adults with HFA/AS correctly answered significantly fewer theory of mind questions than 20 controls on a forced-choice response task. On a narrative task, there were no…

  13. High-Functional Autism: An Overview of Characteristics and Related Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Ann X.; Wheeler, John J.

    2006-01-01

    Individuals with high-functioning autism are characterized by almost normal language ability and intelligence as well as social, pragmatic impairments. Before the 1980s, limited research was focused on this disorder. This paper reviews previous research on this underserved population with a hope that we are able to gain some insights from existing…

  14. Pragmatic Inferences in High-Functioning Adults with Autism and Asperger Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pijnacker, Judith; Hagoort, Peter; Buitelaar, Jan; Teunisse, Jan-Pieter; Geurts, Bart

    2009-01-01

    Although people with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) often have severe problems with pragmatic aspects of language, little is known about their pragmatic reasoning. We carried out a behavioral study on high-functioning adults with autistic disorder (n = 11) and Asperger syndrome (n = 17) and matched controls (n = 28) to investigate whether they…

  15. Narrative Discourse in Adults with High-Functioning Autism or Asperger Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colle, Livia; Baron-Cohen, Simon; Wheelwright, Sally; van der Lely, Heather K. J.

    2008-01-01

    We report a study comparing the narrative abilities of 12 adults with high-functioning autism (HFA) or Asperger Syndrome (AS) versus 12 matched controls. The study focuses on the use of referential expressions (temporal expressions and anaphoric pronouns) during a story-telling task. The aim was to assess pragmatics skills in people with HFA/AS in…

  16. Pragmatic Inference Abilities in Individuals with Asperger Syndrome or High-Functioning Autism. A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loukusa, Soile; Moilanen, Irma

    2009-01-01

    This review summarizes studies involving pragmatic language comprehension and inference abilities in individuals with Asperger syndrome or high-functioning autism. Systematic searches of three electronic databases, selected journals, and reference lists identified 20 studies meeting the inclusion criteria. These studies were evaluated in terms of:…

  17. WISC-IV and WIAT-II Profiles in Children with High-Functioning Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayes, Susan Dickerson; Calhoun, Susan L.

    2008-01-01

    Children with high-functioning autism earned above normal scores on the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Fourth Edition (WISC-IV) Perceptual Reasoning and Verbal Comprehension Indexes and below normal scores on the Working Memory and Processing Speed Indexes and Wechsler Individual Achievement Test-Second Edition (WIAT-II) Written…

  18. Virtual Reality Social Cognition Training for Young Adults with High-Functioning Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kandalaft, Michelle R.; Didehbani, Nyaz; Krawczyk, Daniel C.; Allen, Tandra T.; Chapman, Sandra B.

    2013-01-01

    Few evidence-based social interventions exist for young adults with high-functioning autism, many of whom encounter significant challenges during the transition into adulthood. The current study investigated the feasibility of an engaging Virtual Reality Social Cognition Training intervention focused on enhancing social skills, social cognition,…

  19. Virtual-Reality-Based Social Interaction Training for Children with High-Functioning Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ke, Fengfeng; Im, Tami

    2013-01-01

    Employing the multiple-baseline across-subjects design, the authors examined the implementation and potential effect of a virtual-reality-based social interaction program on the interaction and communication performance of children with high functioning autism. The data were collected via behavior observation and analysis, questionnaires, and…

  20. Effects of Observing Eye Contact on Gaze Following in High-Functioning Autism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Böckler, A.; Timmermans, B.; Sebanz, N.; Vogeley, K.; Schilbach, L.

    2014-01-01

    Observing eye contact between others enhances the tendency to subsequently follow their gaze and has been suggested to function as a social signal that adds meaning to an upcoming action or event. The present study investigated effects of observed eye contact in high-functioning autism (HFA). Two

  1. Atypical Visual Orienting to Gaze- and Arrow-Cues in Adults with High Functioning Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vlamings, Petra H. J. M.; Stauder, Johannes E. A.; van Son, Ilona A. M.; Mottron, Laurent

    2005-01-01

    The present study investigates visual orienting to directional cues (arrow or eyes) in adults with high functioning autism (n = 19) and age matched controls (n = 19). A choice reaction time paradigm is used in which eye-or arrow direction correctly (congruent) or incorrectly (incongruent) cues target location. In typically developing participants,…

  2. Computer-mediated communication in adults with high-functioning autism spectrum disorders and controls

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Aa, Christine; Pollmann, Monique; Plaat, Aske; van der Gaag, Rutger Jan

    2016-01-01

    It has been suggested that people with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) are attracted to computer-mediated communication (CMC). In this study, we compare CMC use in adults with high-functioning ASD (N = 113) and a control group (N = 72). We find that people with ASD spend more time on CMC than

  3. Inclusion for Students with High-Functioning Autism Spectrum Disorders: Definitions and Decision Making

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sansosti, Jenine M.; Sansosti, Frank J.

    2012-01-01

    General education placements are believed to offer numerous benefits for students with high-functioning autism spectrum disorders (HFASDs), yet decisions about including students with HFASDs remain controversial. This article presents data from a qualitative analysis of definitions and decision making considerations for a school district with a…

  4. Superior Nonverbal Intelligence in Children with High-Functioning Autism or Asperger's Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Fei; Planche, Pascale; Lemonnier, Eric

    2010-01-01

    Some early studies showed discordance in cognitive strengths and weaknesses in individuals with high-functioning autism (HFA) or Asperger's syndrome (AS). The present study administered the French version of Colored Raven's Progressive Matrices in 14 children with HFA/AS and in 26 chronological age matched peers with typical development. We found…

  5. An Examination of Handedness and Footedness in Children with High Functioning Autism and Asperger Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markoulakis, R.; Scharoun, S. M.; Bryden, P. J.; Fletcher, P. C.

    2012-01-01

    Motor control deficits have been documented in children with high functioning autism and Asperger syndrome (HFA/AS), but the extent to which these disorders affect the children's footedness must be delineated. Twelve typically developing (TD) children and 12 children with HFA/AS, ages 6-9 years, were recruited. Motor control skills were assessed…

  6. Attentional Blink in Young People with High-Functioning Autism and Asperger's Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rinehart, Nicole; Tonge, Bruce; Brereton, Avril; Bradshaw, John

    2010-01-01

    The aim of the study was to examine the temporal characteristics of information processing in individuals with high-functioning autism and Asperger's disorder using a rapid serial visual presentation paradigm. The results clearly showed that such people demonstrate an attentional blink of similar magnitude to comparison groups. This supports the…

  7. Lexical Processing in Individuals with High-Functioning Autism and Asperger's Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Speirs, Samantha; Yelland, Greg; Rinehart, Nicole; Tonge, Bruce

    2011-01-01

    The presence or absence of clinically delayed language development prior to 3 years of age is a key, but contentious, clinical feature distinguishing autism from Asperger's disorder. The aim of this study was to examine language processing in children with high-functioning autism (HFA) and Asperger's disorder (AD) using a task which taps lexical…

  8. Cognitive Differences in Pictorial Reasoning between High-Functioning Autism and Asperger's Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahyoun, Cherif P.; Soulieres, Isabelle; Belliveau, John W.; Mottron, Laurent; Mody, Maria

    2009-01-01

    We investigated linguistic and visuospatial processing during pictorial reasoning in high-functioning autism (HFA), Asperger's syndrome (ASP), and age and IQ-matched typically developing participants (CTRL), using three conditions designed to differentially engage linguistic mediation or visuospatial processing (visuospatial, V; semantic, S;…

  9. Mathematics Interventions for Students with High Functioning Autism/Asperger's Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donaldson, Jeffrey B.; Zager, Dianne

    2010-01-01

    Teachers are often at a loss when considering how to address mathematics difficulties for students with high functioning autism/Asperger's syndrome (HFA/AS). Students may show difficulty remembering operations throughout an equation, organizing information on the page, and comprehending the language in instructions of word problems. These…

  10. Social Development in Individuals with High Functioning Autism and Asperger Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koegel, Robert L.

    2007-01-01

    Until recently, and even in many current research circles, social behavior in individuals with autism spectrum disorders (including those with high functioning autism or Asperger disorder) was considered to be unmodifiable. Mundy, Henderson, Inge, and Coman and McGee and Daly shed new light on this concept of intractability, suggesting that…

  11. Challenging Stereotypes: Sexual Functioning of Single Adults with High Functioning Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byers, E. Sandra; Nichols, Shana; Voyer, Susan D.

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the sexual functioning of single adults (61 men, 68 women) with high functioning autism and Asperger syndrome living in the community with and without prior relationship experience. Participants completed an on-line questionnaire assessing autism symptoms, psychological functioning, and various aspects of sexual functioning. In…

  12. Parents' Criticisms and Attributions about Their Adult Children with High Functioning Autism or Schizophrenia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wasserman, Stephanie; Weisman de Mamani, Amy; Mundy, Peter

    2010-01-01

    The current study examined the criticism component of expressed emotion (EE) and attributions in parents of adults diagnosed with schizophrenia/schizoaffective disorder (S/SA) or high functioning autism/Asperger's. Consistent with study hypotheses, parents of adults diagnosed with autism/Asperger's disorder exhibited lower levels of high…

  13. Do Adults with High Functioning Autism or Asperger Syndrome Differ in Empathy and Emotion Recognition?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montgomery, Charlotte B.; Allison, Carrie; Lai, Meng-Chuan; Cassidy, Sarah; Langdon, Peter E.; Baron-Cohen, Simon

    2016-01-01

    The present study examined whether adults with high functioning autism (HFA) showed greater difficulties in (1) their self-reported ability to empathise with others and/or (2) their ability to read mental states in others' eyes than adults with Asperger syndrome (AS). The Empathy Quotient (EQ) and "Reading the Mind in the Eyes" Test…

  14. Linguistic Characteristics of Individuals with High Functioning Autism and Asperger Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seung, Hye Kyeung

    2007-01-01

    This study examined the linguistic characteristics of high functioning individuals with autism and Asperger syndrome. Each group consisted of 10 participants who were matched on sex, chronological age, and intelligence scores. Participants generated a narrative after watching a brief video segment of the Social Attribution Task video. Each…

  15. Pragmatic Inferences in High-Functioning Adults with Autism and Asperger Syndrome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pijnacker, J.; Hagoort, P.; Buitelaar, J.K.; Teunisse, J.P.W.M.; Geurts, L.B.W.

    2009-01-01

    Although people with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) often have severe problems with pragmatic aspects of language, little is known about their pragmatic reasoning. We carried out a behavioral study on high-functioning adults with autistic disorder (n = 11) and Asperger syndrome (n = 17) and matched

  16. Pragmatic inferences in high-functioning adults with autism and Asperger syndrome.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pijnacker, J.; Hagoort, P.; Buitelaar, J.K.; Teunisse, J.P.W.M.; Geurts, B.

    2009-01-01

    Although people with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) often have severe problems with pragmatic aspects of language, little is known about their pragmatic reasoning. We carried out a behavioral study on high-functioning adults with autistic disorder (n = 11) and Asperger syndrome (n = 17) and matched

  17. Distinct Patterns of Grey Matter Abnormality in High-Functioning Autism and Asperger's Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAlonan, Grainne M.; Suckling, John; Wong, Naikei; Cheung, Vinci; Lienenkaemper, Nina; Cheung, Charlton; Chua, Siew E.

    2008-01-01

    Background: Autism exists across a wide spectrum and there is considerable debate as to whether children with Asperger's syndrome, who have normal language milestones, should be considered to comprise a subgroup distinct other from high-functioning children with autism (HFA), who have a history of delayed language development. Magnetic resonance…

  18. The neuropsychology of male adults with high-functioning autism or Asperger syndrome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wilson, C.E.; Happé, F.; Wheelwright, S.J.; Ecker, C.; Lombardo, M.V.; Johnston, P.; Daly, E.; Murphy, C.M.; Spain, D.; Lai, M-C.; Chakrabarti, B; Sauter, D.A.; MRC AIMS Consortium, [Unknown; Baron-Cohen, S.; Murphy, D.G.M.

    2014-01-01

    Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) is diagnosed on the basis of behavioral symptoms, but cognitive abilities may also be useful in characterizing individuals with ASD. One hundred seventy-eight high-functioning male adults, half with ASD and half without, completed tasks assessing IQ, a broad range of

  19. Reading Comprehension Profiles of High-Functioning Students on the Autism Spectrum: A Grounded Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williamson, Pamela; Carnahan, Christina R.; Jacobs, Jennifer A.

    2012-01-01

    Using a constructivist grounded theory approach, this study sought to understand what influences reading comprehension and how meaning is made from text among high-functioning individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Using a think-aloud procedure, 13 individuals ages 7-13 with ASD read 16 passages at their instructional reading level.…

  20. Investigating Multitasking in High-Functioning Adolescents with Autism Spectrum Disorders Using the Virtual Errands Task

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajendran, Gnanathusharan; Law, Anna S.; Logie, Robert H.; van der Meulen, Marian; Fraser, Diane; Corley, Martin

    2011-01-01

    Using a modified version of the Virtual Errands Task (VET; McGeorge et al. in "Presence-Teleop Virtual Environ" 10(4):375-383, 2001), we investigated the executive ability of multitasking in 18 high-functioning adolescents with ASD and 18 typically developing adolescents. The VET requires multitasking (Law et al. in "Acta Psychol" 122(1):27-44,…

  1. High Functioning Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder: A Novel Test of Multitasking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackinlay, Rachael; Charman, Tony; Karmiloff-Smith, Annette

    2006-01-01

    High functioning children with a diagnosis of autism or Asperger's syndrome (HF-ASD) often experience difficulties organising goal-directed actions in their day-to-day lives, requiring support to schedule daily activities. This study aimed to capture these everyday difficulties experimentally using multitasking, a methodology that taps into the…

  2. Brief Report: Bullying and Anxiety in High-Functioning Adolescents with ASD

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Schalkwyk, Gerrit; Smith, Isaac C.; Silverman, Wendy K.; Volkmar, Fred R.

    2018-01-01

    Youth with ASD are more likely to experience bullying than their typically developing peers. This risk has not been studied in youth with ASD transitioning to college. We examined the occurrence of bullying in 35 high functioning youth with ASD who were preparing to attend college. We also examined youth anxiety and ASD symptoms. Fifty-one percent…

  3. Key Components of Successful Sexuality Education for High Functioning Students with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greiert, Brittany Sovran

    2016-01-01

    To date, there is very little existing research on the sexuality education of high functioning adolescents with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) even though current research suggests that 1 in 68 children are diagnosed with ASD (CDC, 2014). Through group consensus of experts in ASD representing families, school-based professionals, and researchers,…

  4. Attention and Written Expression in School-Age, High-Functioning Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zajic, Matthew C.; McIntyre, Nancy; Swain-Lerro, Lindsay; Novotny, Stephanie; Oswald, Tasha; Mundy, Peter

    2018-01-01

    High-functioning children with autism spectrum disorders often find writing challenging. These writing difficulties may be specific to autism spectrum disorder or to a more general clinical effect of attention disturbance, as these children are often comorbid for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptomatology (and children with…

  5. Self-Management for Children with High-Functioning Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkinson, Lee A.

    2008-01-01

    Supporting children with autism spectrum disorders in the general education classroom presents a unique challenge to the teachers and schools that serve them. This article addresses the utility of self-management as a proactive strategy for increasing the task engagement and compliant behavior of high-functioning students with autism. The author…

  6. Teaching Organizational Skills to Children with High Functioning Autism and Asperger's Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorminy, Kimberly Powers; Luscre, Deanna; Gast, David L.

    2009-01-01

    A multiple baseline design across participants was used to evaluate the effectiveness of a file box system plus self-monitoring on the organizational skills of four fourth and fifth grade students with high functioning autism (HFA) and Asperger's Syndrome (AS). Instruction took place in general education classrooms and consisted of teaching…

  7. Measuring Reciprocity in High Functioning Children and Adolescents with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Ommeren, Tineke Backer; Begeer, Sander; Scheeren, Anke M.; Koot, Hans M.

    2012-01-01

    Few instruments have been developed that measure impairments in reciprocity, a defining feature of autism. We introduce a new test assessing the quality of reciprocal behaviour: the interactive drawing test (IDT). Children and adolescents (n = 49) with and without high functioning autism spectrum disorders (HFASD) were invited to collaborate with…

  8. Cultivation of Empathy in Individuals with High-Functioning Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaarsma, Pier

    2013-01-01

    High-functioning individuals with autism spectrum disorder (HF-ASD) typically lack cognitive empathy, compromising their moral agency from both a Kantian and a Humean perspective. Nevertheless, they are capable of exhibiting moral behavior, and sometimes, they exhibit what may be deemed "super-moral" behavior. The empathy deficit poses,…

  9. ASD, a Psychiatric Disorder, or Both? Psychiatric Diagnoses in Adolescents with High-Functioning ASD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazefsky, Carla A.; Oswald, Donald P.; Day, Taylor N.; Eack, Shaun M.; Minshew, Nancy J.; Lainhart, Janet E.

    2012-01-01

    Varied presentations of emotion dysregulation in autism complicate diagnostic decision making and may lead to inaccurate psychiatric diagnoses or delayed autism diagnosis for high-functioning children. This pilot study aimed to determine the concordance between prior psychiatric diagnoses and the results of an autism-specific psychiatric interview…

  10. From the birth of the smokers’ clinic to the invention of Nicorette: Problematizing smoking as addiction in Sweden 1955–1971

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elam Mark

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available AIM - To discuss how scientific confirmation of cigarette smoking as a major contemporary drug problem during the 1980s was preceded by a rising tide of clinical and pharmaceutical innovation dedicated to treating smoking as a problem of addiction. BACKGROUND - This current of innovation, commencing already in the 1950s, carried the smokers’ clinic and nicotine replacement therapies (NRTs into the world, both of which were originally invented and pioneered in Sweden. It is argued that both of these inventions were vital for advancing the problematization of smoking as a matter of nicotine addiction. While the British doctor Lennox Johnston is well-known for his early attempts to demonstrate the reality of smoking as nicotine addiction through auto-experimentation, the historical significance of Börje Ejrup’s founding of the first smokers’ clinics in Stockholm in the late 1950s has not been widely commented upon. Attempting to remedy this situation, the rise and fall of Ejrup’s clinics deploying lobeline substitution therapy as a cure for ‘nicotinism’ is outlined in the main body of the paper. FINDINGS - Although the clinical treatment of smoking as addiction lost momentum during the 1960s, the invention of Nicorette gum in southern Sweden at the end of the decade provided renewed impetus. Commencing in Helsingborg and Lund in 1970, the smokers’ clinic and NRTs entered into the long-term service of each other; a new combination that in just over a decade would succeed in propagating the reality of smoking as nicotine addiction on to a global stage.

  11. Inventing Memories

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandvik, Kjetil; Christensen, Dorthe Refslund

    .0 marks a social turn in digitally mediated communication and culture, placing the media user in the role as co-producer, innovator and participant which accentuates the impact of media on today's society and culture. The term covers a variety of interactive systems which among other things facilitates...... media have on life practices such as grieving and morning becomes evident when it comes to a website like mindet.dk and that parallels may be drawn to other mediatized ritualistic practices such as the aesthetical staging of Danish children's burial sites. In the 1990'ies ‘new media' was seen...... sphere with a totally different set of social rules and matrices but displays the same wide range of performative, social and communicative aspects as do the offline world. That being said, at the same time, performing your grief online, apparently offers you a media and a technology that you...

  12. Inventing Racism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuriff, G. E.

    2002-01-01

    Discusses the form racism takes in the United States, highlighting three types of racism that social scientists and scholars find to be pervasive today (modern racism, aversive racism, and implicit stereotypes). All three depart from traditional understandings of racism by being found not in overt actions and expressions but in political opinion,…

  13. The industrial application requirement for biotech inventions in light of recent EPO & UK case law:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Minssen, Timo; Nilsson, David

    2012-01-01

    In this study we illuminate and discuss the most recent developments in respect of the interpretation of the “industrial application” requirement with respect to gene and protein related inventions in Europe. The analysis will focus on the relevant provisions of the EPC and decisional practice from...... the European Patent Organisation (“EPO”), particularly decisions from the Technical Board of Appeal 3.3.08 (the “Board”). To get a glimpse of the national dimension, we will also look at the first patent judgment from the "new" UK Supreme Court, i.e. the groundbreaking decision in HGS v Eli Lilly, In the final...... discussion, we will elaborate on two issues in particular; (i) determine which types of qualities an invention should have in order to meet the industrial application requirement in the first place; and (ii) what type of evidence an applicant is expected to present in respect of (potential) applications...

  14. Ormiaochracea as a Model Organism in Sound Localization Experiments and in Inventing Hearing Aids.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    - -

    1998-09-01

    Full Text Available Hearing aid prescription for patients suffering hearing loss has always been one of the main concerns of the audiologists. Thanks to technology that has provided Hearing aids with digital and computerized systems which has improved the quality of sound heard by hearing aids. Though we can learn from nature in inventing such instruments as in the current article that has been channeled to a kind of fruit fly. Ormiaochracea is a small yellow nocturnal fly, a parasitoid of crickets. It is notable because of its exceptionally acute directional hearing. In the current article we will discuss how it has become a model organism in sound localization experiments and in inventing hearing aids.

  15. The Fictional Black Blues Figure: Blues Music and the Art of Narrative Self-Invention

    OpenAIRE

    Mack, Kimberly

    2015-01-01

    The Fictional Black Blues Figure: Blues Music and the Art of Narrative Self-Invention, Kimberly MackMy dissertation examines representations of black American blues musicians in contemporary American fiction, drama, and popular music, and it argues that blues music can be examined as a narrative art rooted in the tradition of fictionalized autobiographical self-fashioning. I contend that the contemporary, multi-racial, literary and musical characters in my project who participate in so-called...

  16. Inventing and naming America:  Place and Place Names in Vladimir Nabokov’s Lolita

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monica Manolescu-Oancea

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available In the afterword to Lolita, Nabokov claimed that in this book he had to invent both Lolita and America after having invented Europe in his previous fiction. This paper focuses precisely on the various ways in which Nabokov “invented” America in his best-known novel. This invention is first of all the result of the author’s evolving stance on the complexity of what he called “average ‘reality’” in his works. Through a survey of Nabokov’s statements on the choice and role of place in the forewords to his Russian works and in his critical texts, I show that Lolita is indeed considered by Nabokov to be a “recreation” of American reality, to a much greater extent than his Russian works had been recreations of a given milieu. I take the metaphor of the “crazy quilt” mentioned in Lolita to suggest complexity, chromatic exuberance, hybridity. The invention of America is also the result of a process of naming. Place names will be examined, not only those which make up Quilty’s “cryptogrammic paperchase”, but also Humbert’s choice of place names. The problem of referentiality is discussed and the way recent criticism has dealt with it. Finally, the interplay between one and many is emphasized, the way in which the diversity of the “crazy quilt” is counterbalanced by the uniqueness of the mastermind having produced it. The American motto “From many make one” could be reinterpreted as “From one make many”.

  17. "Inventing Hysteria" An Investigation on How Social Constructivism Uses Technology to Define Reality

    OpenAIRE

    Stadler, Doris

    2016-01-01

    In my paper I want to focus on the social constructivists and their approach of using technology to define (constructed) reality. Based on this, constructivists argue that technology can be a means to define social roles. Furthermore, I want to analyze this theory on the practical example of the photographs of women in different phases of hysteria, based on Georges Didi-Huberman’s book Invention of Hysteria (1982)

  18. Re-Inventing Teachers' Competences at Early Childhood Education in Building Characters Needed for Global Competition

    OpenAIRE

    Machmud, Karmila

    2015-01-01

    The goal of this paper is to elaborate and to re-invent the competencies needed by early childhood education teachers. Building children’s character from an early age is significant, but the main problem that is often overlooked is the contribution of Early Childhood Education teachers. Children’s character formation is largely determined by the quality of early childhood teachers. So if we want to instill character values required by our nations, the improvement of the quality of early child...

  19. Invented Spelling, Word Stress, and Syllable Awareness in Relation to Reading Difficulties in Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehta, Sheena; Ding, Yi; Ness, Molly; Chen, Eric C

    2018-06-01

    The study assessed the clinical utility of an invented spelling tool and determined whether invented spelling with linguistic manipulation at segmental and supra-segmental levels can be used to better identify reading difficulties. We conducted linguistic manipulation by using real and nonreal words, incorporating word stress, alternating the order of consonants and vowels, and alternating the number of syllables. We recruited 60 third-grade students, of which half were typical readers and half were poor readers. The invented spelling task consistently differentiated those with reading difficulties from typical readers. It explained unique variance in conventional spelling, but not in word reading. Word stress explained unique variance in both word reading and conventional spelling, highlighting the importance of addressing phonological awareness at the supra-segmental level. Poor readers had poorer performance when spelling both real and nonreal words and demonstrated substantial difficulty in detecting word stress. Poor readers struggled with spelling words with double consonants at the beginning and ending of words, and performed worse on spelling two- and three-syllable words than typical readers. Practical implications for early identification and instruction are discussed.

  20. The theory of inventive problem solving integrated to the cleaner production: theoretical approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flávio Issao Kubota

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Efforts towards to reduction of environmental impact by enterprises are a solving problem process, which often need inventive solutions that generate environmental, technical and economic benefits. Hence, this research aimed to verify, through literature, and discuss the Theory of Inventive Problem Solving (TRIZ integration to cleaner production (CP strategies, in order to structure a new methodology for inventive solutions focused on reduction of effluents, waste and emissions. To perform this study, we proceeded a qualitative and descriptive research, with documentary data collection strategy. The results show predominance of CP level 1 researches, with greater focus on product improvement, a smaller quantity of process modification studies (level 1 and internal recycling (level 2, and no evidence of TRIZ utilization was obtained on level 3 (external recycling and biogenic cycles. The proposed integration is promising, since both methodologies aim ideal situation and problems’ reduction. At the end, opportunities were detected for application of TRIZ in production processes, by means of functional analysis and Ideal Final Result (IFR, being possible to direct teams towards optimization of technical systems.

  1. The myth of DSM's invention of new categories of disorder: Houts's diagnostic discontinuity thesis disconfirmed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wakefield, J C

    2001-05-01

    Houts (2001) argues that increases in DSM diagnostic categories are due to the invention of new disorders that are discontinuous with old conceptions of disorder and would not have been previously diagnosed. He maintains that DSM category increases are not comparable in nature to ICD category increases, which are mainly refinements of recognized disorders. I survey categories of disorder introduced after DSM-II and assess whether they are discontinuous with old concepts and categories of disorder. Candidate categories are identified from: Houts and Follette (1998), Mentalism, mechanisms, and medical analogues: Reply to Wakefield. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology; Kutchins and Kirk (1997) Making us crazy: DSM: The psychiatric bible and the creation of mental disorders. New York: Free Press; and my own list. The result is that virtually none of the candidate categories are invented, discontinuous categories. In almost every case, the newly labeled conditions were considered disorders at the time of DSM-II and would have been diagnosed under DSM-II categories. I also reexamine DSM-IV sleep disorder categories, which Houts claims are discontinuous with past diagnostic conceptions. The result is that all DSM-IV sleep disorders were recognized as disorders at the time of DSM-II, and most were recognized as mental disorders. I conclude that DSM category increases are comparable in nature to ICD category increases, and that the invention-of-disorder account cannot explain the vast majority of such increases.

  2. IMPROVING PATENT PROTECTION OF INVENTIVE ACTIVITY IN THE CONTEXT OF EU LEGISLATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nataliya Philyk

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: clarify legal nature of relations emerging in connection with registration of patent law objects. In this article the authors research special features of legal regulation of inventive activity. In particular, they consider several issues of patenting the patent law objects and clarify legal nature of relations arose during registration of the rights to the patent law objects. Methods: formal legal and case-study methods together with inductive reasoning, and comparison were used to analyse the legislation in the area of jurisdiction inventive activity Results: during the research the authors focus their attention to the drawbacks of the effective legislation and form the main directions of the effective legislation improvement in accordance with international law in the context of the patent law objects protection. Special attention is devoted to analysis of the main threats of the patent law violations and ways to overcome them. Conclusions: the results confirming improving the efficiency of the system of intellectual property protection through institutional changes and changes in the legal regulation of inventive activity and results will have a positive impact on the reform of the system of intellectual property protection in Ukraine.

  3. Comparative Study of the Role of Institutions in Shaping Inventive Activity in Mid-Range Emerging Economies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ervits Irina

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this paper is to investigate the effects of institutions on national rates of inventive activity. Invention, part of the innovation process, is acknowledged as one of the driving forces behind economic growth, and patent statistics are frequently used as a measurable indicator of inventive output. Thus this paper explores the relationship between national patent statistics and measures of institutional quality. As a result of our research, the effect of the “threshold of inventive activity” was observed. This effect demonstrates that when countries reach a certain level of institutional development and attain a general institutional climate conducive to inventive activity, the number of patent applications begins to sharply increase. The paper contributes to the body of evidence that confirms that a combination of fundamental institutions like the rule of law or freedom of expression, which are not necessarily aimed at boosting innovation, create an overall environment conducive to patenting. We demonstrate that “mid-range emerging economies”,2 including those in Central and Eastern Europe3 (CEE, where the quality of institutions is lagging behind more developed counterparts and/or their influence is weak or sporadic, have not yet reached the threshold of inventive activity yet. However, those CEE countries that have acceded to the European Union first have made visible progress with respect to institutional quality and invention.

  4. MRI measurements of the brain stem and cerebellum in high functioning autistic children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hashimoto, Toshiaki; Tayama, Masanobu; Miyazaki, Masahito; Murakawa, Kazuyoshi; Kuroda, Yasuhiro

    1994-01-01

    To determine involvements of the brain stem and/or cerebellum in autism, we compared midsagittal magnetic resonance images of the brains of high functioning autistic children with those of normal controls. We found that the midbrain and medulla oblongata were significantly smaller in these autistic children than in the control children. The pons area did not differ between the two groups, nor was there any difference in the cerebellar vermis area. The ratio of the brain stem and cerebellum to the posterior fossa area did not differ significantly between the high functioning autistic and the control children. The development of the cerebellar vermis area was delayed in autistic children as compared with that in the control children. Thus, it was suggested that significant anatomical changes in the midbrain and medulla oblongata existed in the autistic children. (author)

  5. MRI measurements of the brain stem and cerebellum in high functioning autistic children

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hashimoto, Toshiaki; Tayama, Masanobu; Miyazaki, Masahito; Murakawa, Kazuyoshi; Kuroda, Yasuhiro [Tokushima Univ. (Japan). School of Medicine

    1994-01-01

    To determine involvements of the brain stem and/or cerebellum in autism, we compared midsagittal magnetic resonance images of the brains of high functioning autistic children with those of normal controls. We found that the midbrain and medulla oblongata were significantly smaller in these autistic children than in the control children. The pons area did not differ between the two groups, nor was there any difference in the cerebellar vermis area. The ratio of the brain stem and cerebellum to the posterior fossa area did not differ significantly between the high functioning autistic and the control children. The development of the cerebellar vermis area was delayed in autistic children as compared with that in the control children. Thus, it was suggested that significant anatomical changes in the midbrain and medulla oblongata existed in the autistic children. (author).

  6. Challenging stereotypes: sexual functioning of single adults with high functioning autism spectrum disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byers, E Sandra; Nichols, Shana; Voyer, Susan D

    2013-11-01

    This study examined the sexual functioning of single adults (61 men, 68 women) with high functioning autism and Asperger syndrome living in the community with and without prior relationship experience. Participants completed an on-line questionnaire assessing autism symptoms, psychological functioning, and various aspects of sexual functioning. In general participants reported positive sexual functioning. Participants without prior relationship experience were significantly younger and more likely to be male and identify as heterosexual. They reported significantly higher sexual anxiety, lower sexual arousability, lower dyadic desire, and fewer positive sexual cognitions. The men reported better sexual function than did the women in a number of areas. These results counter negative societal perceptions about the sexuality of high functioning individuals on the autism spectrum.

  7. Behavioral measures of implicit theory of mind in adults with high functioning autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deschrijver, Eliane; Bardi, Lara; Wiersema, Jan R; Brass, Marcel

    2016-01-01

    Theory of mind (ToM) research has shown that adults with high functioning autism (HFA) demonstrate typical performance on tasks that require explicit belief reasoning, despite clear social difficulties in everyday life situations. In the current study, we used implicit belief manipulations that are task-irrelevant and therefore less susceptible to strategies. In a ball-detection task, it was shown that neurotypical individuals detect a ball faster if an agent believed the ball was present. We predicted that adults with high functioning autism (HFA) would not show this effect. While we found a numerical difference in the hypothesized direction, we did not find a reliable group effect. Interestingly, the implicit ToM-index showed a strong negative correlation with both self-reported and observational measures of social difficulties in the HFA group. This suggests that the relationship between implicit ToM reasoning and the symptomatology of HFA might be subtler than assumed.

  8. Judicial Perceptions of Media Portrayals of Offenders with High Functioning Autistic Spectrum Disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Berryessa, Colleen M.

    2014-01-01

    In recent years, sensational media reporting focusing on crimes committed by those diagnosed with or thought to have High Functioning Autistic Spectrum Disorders (hfASDs) has caused societal speculation that there is a link between the disorder and violent criminality. No research exists on how and if the judiciary understands and is affected by this coverage. Therefore this study aims to examine how judges perceive and are influenced by media attention surrounding hfASDs and criminality. Sem...

  9. Awareness of single and multiple emotions in high-functioning childeren with autism

    OpenAIRE

    Rieffe, C.J.; Meerum Terwogt, M.; Kotronopoulo, K.

    2007-01-01

    This study examined emotional awareness in children with autism. Twenty-two high functioning children with autism (mean age 10 years and 2 months) and 22 typically developing children, matched for age and gender, were presented with the four basic emotions (happiness, anger, sadness and fear) in single and multiple emotion tasks. Findings suggest that children with autism have difficulties identifying their own emotions and less developed emotion concepts (which causes an impaired capacity to...

  10. Binding of multiple features in memory by high-functioning adults with autism spectrum disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Bowler, D. M.; Gaigg, S. B.; Gardiner, J. M.

    2014-01-01

    Diminished episodic memory and diminished use of semantic information to aid recall by individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) are both thought to result from diminished relational binding of elements of complex stimuli. To test this hypothesis, we asked high-functioning adults with ASD and typical comparison participants to study grids in which some cells contained drawings of objects in non-canonical colours. Participants were told at study which features (colour, item, location) wo...

  11. Social Anxiety in High-Functioning Children and Adolescents with Autism and Asperger Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuusikko, Sanna; Pollock-Wurman, Rachel; Jussila, Katja; Carter, Alice S.; Mattila, Marja-Leena; Ebeling, Hanna; Pauls, David L.; Moilanen, Irma

    2008-01-01

    We examined social anxiety and internalizing symptoms using the Social Phobia and Anxiety Inventory for Children (SPAI-C), the Social Anxiety Scale for Children -Revised (SASC-R), and the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL) in a sample of fifty-four high-functioning subjects with autism or Asperger syndrome (HFA/AS) (M = 11.2 plus or minus 1.7 years)…

  12. Clinical Trial of a Comprehensive Treatment for High Functioning Children with ASD

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-07-01

    prior to the initiation of actual coding and each remained naïve to the treatment condition of the children in the recordings. Per the SOW, the...communication skills and ASD symptoms of children with HFASD may impact future adaptive functioning, and allow career- and vocational- development programs...Skillstreaming Checklist for high- functioning children with ASD. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders. doi: 10.1007/s10803-017-3189-y 1 23 Journal

  13. Promoting social behavior with oxytocin in high-functioning autism spectrum disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Andari, Elissar; Duhamel, Jean-René; Zalla, Tiziana; Herbrecht, Evelyn; Leboyer, Marion; Sirigu, Angela

    2010-01-01

    Social adaptation requires specific cognitive and emotional competences. Individuals with high-functioning autism or with Asperger syndrome cannot understand or engage in social situations despite preserved intellectual abilities. Recently, it has been suggested that oxytocin, a hormone known to promote mother-infant bonds, may be implicated in the social deficit of autism. We investigated the behavioral effects of oxytocin in 13 subjects with autism. In a simulated ball game where participan...

  14. The inventions in the area of nanotechnologies and nanomaterials. Part 1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VLASOV Vladimir Alexeevich

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The inventions in the area of nanotechnologies and nanomaterials produce a profound effect in construction, housing and communal services and adjacent economic fields. The invention «Raw material mixture for high strength fiber concrete (RU 2569140» refers to the industry of building materials and can be used for production of concrete units in civil, industrial and road construction including ones with the use of nanotechnologies. The technical result of the invention is that it increases bending and compressive strength, corrosion resistance of fiber concrete, decreases the consumption of silica-containing component introduced into raw material mixture to increase the corrosion resistance of the basalt fiber. The invention «The device to form nanostructured shape memory coatings on the surface of the hollow details (RU 2569871» refers to engineering and metallurgy. The device contains technological unit for ion purification of the surface of the treated detail by creating glow discharge in vacuum chamber. The source of metal ion implantation is installed at the frame of vacuum chamber and is connected with control block. On the lid of vacuum chamber there is a device round the upper end of the tube with the detail. The device is for surface plastic deformation of the applied coating to obtain nanostructured shape memory layer. All that increases strength characteristics, coating reliability as well as convertible deformation and wear resistance. The specialists may be also interested in the following nanotechnological inventions: the method to produce complex nanodispersed additive for high strength concrete (RU 2563264; the method to produce graphene nanocomposite and tungsten carbide (RU 2570691; the method of ultrasound final polishing for details from constructional and tool steels and the equipment for its implementation (RU 2530678; the method to produce nanodispersed powders and the equipment for its implementation (RU 2533580; the

  15. EPA-developed, patented technologies related to miscellaneous areas of environmental experties and invention that are available for licensing

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Under the Federal Technology Transfer Act (FTTA), Federal Agencies can patent inventions developed during the course of research. These technologies can then be...

  16. Pinyin and English Invented Spelling in Chinese-Speaking Students Who Speak English as a Second Language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Yi; Liu, Ru-De; McBride, Catherine A; Fan, Chung-Hau; Xu, Le; Wang, Jia

    2018-05-07

    This study examined pinyin (the official phonetic system that transcribes the lexical tones and pronunciation of Chinese characters) invented spelling and English invented spelling in 72 Mandarin-speaking 6th graders who learned English as their second language. The pinyin invented spelling task measured segmental-level awareness including syllable and phoneme awareness, and suprasegmental-level awareness including lexical tones and tone sandhi in Chinese Mandarin. The English invented spelling task manipulated segmental-level awareness including syllable awareness and phoneme awareness, and suprasegmental-level awareness including word stress. This pinyin task outperformed a traditional phonological awareness task that only measured segmental-level awareness and may have optimal utility to measure unique phonological and linguistic features in Chinese reading. The pinyin invented spelling uniquely explained variance in Chinese conventional spelling and word reading in both languages. The English invented spelling uniquely explained variance in conventional spelling and word reading in both languages. Our findings appear to support the role of phonological activation in Chinese reading. Our experimental linguistic manipulations altered the phonological awareness item difficulties.

  17. Inventions in the nanotechnological area considerably increase wear- and chemical resistance of construction products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VLASOV Vladimir Alexeevich

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The invention «Reinforced flaked element made of natural or conglomerate stone and its multilayer protective coating (RU 2520193» is referred to construction materials. Reinforced flaked element made of natural or conglomerate stone consists of: natural or conglomerate materials as the basis; multilayer coating which protects the mentioned basis from chemical substances and wearing mechanical factors influencing on this element where the multilayer coating includes at least three layers formed by one or many film-forming compositions which comprise top layer with scratch-resistant nanoparticles and encircled with polyester, melamine, phenolic, acryl or epoxy resin (or any combination of them which provides protection against scratches; damper intermediate layer made of epoxy and/or acryl resin which provides impact resistant; lower layer adjoining to the basis and containing particles of Al2O3 or silicon carbide plus acryl polymer and providing resistance to abrasive wear. Technical result is increased wear- and chemical resistance of flaked elements from natural or conglomerate materials. The invention «Fine organic suspension of carbon metal-containing nanostructures and the method to produce it (RU 2515858» is referred to the area of physical and colloid chemistry and can be used to obtain polymer compositions. Fine organic suspension of carbon metal-containing nanostructures is produced by interaction between nanostructures and polyethylenepolyamine. At first the powder of carbon metalcontaining nanostructures (which are nanoparticles of 3d-metal such as copper, cobalt, nickel stabilized in carbon nanostructures is mechanically milled, then it is mechanically ground with polyethylenepolyamine introduced portionally unless and until the content of nanostructures is less 1 g/ml. The invention results in decreased power inputs as the obtained fine organic suspension of carbon and metal-containing nanostructures is able to recover due to

  18. The Effects of Instruction of Creative Invention on Students' Situational Interest in Physics Lesson

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, Tim

    There are a few empirical studies (Palmer, 2008; Dohn, 2010) or intervention programs (Hidi & Harackiewicz, 2000) about students' situational interest in physics lessons, although the declining interest in physics among students has been well documented in the research literature (Gardner, 1998 ; International Bureau for Education, 2001; European Commission, 2007; Oon & Subramaniam, 2011). Even in the research area of science education, yet little is known about how to trigger students' catching and holding situational interest in a physics lesson. In this study, five intervention lessons of creative invention were developed. Each lesson consists of three parts including Eberle's (1971, 1972) SCAMPER technique on the creative thinking, knowledge and concepts of physics curriculum, hands-on activities related to both SCAMPER technique and physics concepts. Two surveys were developed and used to measure the situational interest and individual interest of students in physics lessons. Qualitative conversational interviews were used to interpret the sources of situational interest of students in physics lessons. Results in this study indicate that new inventive products and television programs or films related to SCAMPER can trigger the catching interest in physics lessons. Meaningful hands-on activities related to both SCAMPER technique and physics concepts can trigger the holding interest in physics lessons. There is no significant difference in situational interest among students with different academic abilities except in the topic related to electronic components. The students with lower academic ability have greater situational interest than the students with higher academic ability in learning the topic related to electronic components. There is no significant difference in situational interest between boys and girls except in the topic related to revolving paper lantern. Girls have higher situational interest than boys in learning the topic related to revolving

  19. Al Gore did Not Invent the Internet, Hans Christian Oersted did in 1820

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, James; Anand, Aman; Dahiya, Jai

    2009-04-01

    In this talk it will be shown how the simple process of a current in a wire producing ``action at a distance'' in a compass can lead to development of the telegraph, telephone, wireless communication and finally to the internet. This discovery led to the invention of a motor and an electric generator. Such simple discoveries often have profound effects on what we are able to do. A discussion of how activities based on this discovery are being used in the Regional Collaborative for Excellence in Science Teaching UNT to engage students and teachers in science activities. Hand out materials will be provided to the audience on these activities.

  20. Invention of a tunable damper for use with an acoustic waveguide in hostile environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rogers, S.C.

    1984-06-01

    A damper was invented to remove undesirable stress pulses from an acoustic waveguide. Designed to be tunable, the damper was constructed to withstand a corrosive or otherwise hostile environment. It serves to simplify the design and enhance the performance of a water-level measurement system, of which the damper and acoustic waveguide are integral parts. An experimental damper was constructed and applied to an existing level probe and measurement system. The resulting damper, properly tuned, causes acoustic stress pulses that pass into it along the waveguide to be attenuated

  1. Impact of the energy-related inventions program on the national economy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, M.A.; Morell, J.A.; Snell, S.A.; Kerley, C.R.

    1987-01-01

    The market entry, sales, and employment data presented in this paper suggest that ERIP has been able to efficiently produce positive economic impacts. It is likely that the documented successes of ERIP's inventors will be even greater as their projects mature and more current commercialization information is collected. Survey data presented elsewhere indicate that the ERIP financial support, endorsement, encouragement, and commercialization education are viewed by participants as the most important benefits of the program (Brown, Morell, Snell, Soderstrom, and Friggle, 1987). Other federal, state, and local programs might profit substantially from modelling the composition and delivery of their assistance after the Energy-Related Inventions Program.

  2. Um método de inventário do ciclo de processo de manufatura

    OpenAIRE

    Rossato, Ivete de Fatima

    2002-01-01

    Tese (doutorado) - Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, Centro Tecnológico. Programa de Pós-Graduação em Engenharia de Produção. A crescente preocupação com os impactos ambientais gerados pelo fornecimento de bens e serviços tem despertado na sociedade um interesse pelo desenvolvimento de novas ferramentas e métodos que auxiliem na compreensão, controle e redução desses impactos. Este trabalho apresenta uma proposta de um método para realizar o inventário do ciclo de vida de um proces...

  3. Inventering av Suldalslågen. Produksjonspotensial for sjøvandrende laksefisk

    OpenAIRE

    Foldvik, Anders; Pettersen, Oskar

    2017-01-01

    Foldvik, A. & Pettersen, O. 2017. Inventering av Suldalslågen. Produksjonspotensial for sjøvandrende laksefisk. - NINA Kortrapport 75, 18 s. Reguleringen av Suldalslågen til kraftproduksjon har hatt negative effekter for habitat for laksefisk, blant annet i form av sedimentering og begroing av substratet. Disse prosessene har blitt forsøkt motvirket ved å ha en serie med spyleflommer på over 200 m3/s om høsten. På oppdrag fra Statkraft inverterte NINA oppvekst- og gyteforhold for laks i Su...

  4. Electronic inventions and discoveries electronics from its earliest beginnings to the present day

    CERN Document Server

    Dummer, G W A

    1983-01-01

    Electronic Inventions and Discoveries: Electronics from Its Earliest Beginnings to the Present Day provides a summary of the development of the whole field of electronics. Organized into 13 chapters, the book covers and reviews the history of electronics as a whole and its aspects. The opening chapter covers the beginnings of electronics, while the next chapter discusses the development of components, transistors, and integrated circuits. The third chapter tackles the expansion of electronics and its effects on industry. The succeeding chapters discuss the history of the aspects of electronics

  5. A Comparative Study of the Spontaneous Social Interactions of Children with High-Functioning Autism and Children with Asperger's Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macintosh, Kathleen; Dissanayake, Cheryl

    2006-01-01

    A comparative observational study was undertaken of the spontaneous social interactions of children with high-functioning autism and Asperger's disorder. The sample comprised 20 children with high-functioning autism, 19 children with Asperger's disorder and 17 typically developing children matched on chronological age and overall mental age. A…

  6. Social Skills and Problem Behaviours in School Aged Children with High-Functioning Autism and Asperger's Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macintosh, Kathleen; Dissanayake, Cheryl

    2006-01-01

    The social skills and problem behaviours of children with high-functioning autism and Asperger's Disorder were compared using parent and teacher reports on the Social Skills Rating System. The participants were 20 children with high-functioning autism, 19 children with Asperger's Disorder, and 17 typically developing children, matched on…

  7. Neuropsychological presentation and adaptive skills in high-functioning adolescents with visual impairment: A preliminary investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenaway, R; Pring, L; Schepers, A; Isaacs, D P; Dale, N J

    2017-01-01

    Studies in infants and young children with congenital visual impairment (VI) have indicated early developmental vulnerabilities, conversely research with older children and adults have highlighted areas of cognitive strength. A minimal amount is known, however, about the possible combination of strengths and weaknesses in adolescence, and this present study therefore aims to explore the neuropsychological presentation and adaptive behavior profile in high-functioning adolescents with congenital VI. Participants completed a battery of commonly used neuropsychological measures assessing memory, executive function, and attention. The measures utilized focused on auditory neuropsychological function, because only subtests that could be completed with auditory administration were suitable for this sample. Parents completed standardized measures of adaptive behavior, executive function, and social communication. Compared to aged-based norms for normal sight, adolescents with VI demonstrated strengths in aspects of working memory and verbal memory. Furthermore, performance across the neuropsychological battery was within or above the average range for the majority of the sample. In contrast, parent-report measures indicated areas of weakness in adaptive functioning, social communication, and behavioral executive functioning. Overall, this study provides preliminary evidence that relative to fully sighted peers, high-functioning adolescents with VI present with an uneven profile of cognitive and adaptive skills, which has important implications for assessment and intervention.

  8. Sleep Patterns in Adults with a Diagnosis of High-Functioning Autism Spectrum Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Emma K; Richdale, Amanda L

    2015-11-01

    To examine sleep patterns and sleep problems and their relationship with daytime functioning in adults with a diagnosis of an autism spectrum disorder and no comorbid intellectual disability (high-functioning autism spectrum disorder [HFASD]) compared to neurotypical (NT) adults. Cross-sectional. Home-based study. 36 adults with HFASD and 36 age-, intelligence quotient- and sex-matched NT adults. Participants completed an online questionnaire battery including the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI), a 14-d sleep wake diary and 14-d actigraphy data collection. Adults with HFASD had significantly more general sleep disturbances and higher scores on the PSQI, longer sleep onset latencies (actigraphy), and poorer sleep efficiency (diary) and these results remained significant after accounting for the False Discovery Rate. Those adults with HFASD who did not have a comorbid diagnosis of anxiety/depression had significantly shorter total sleep time (diary and actigraphy) compared to NT adults. Compared to NT adults, the HFASD group self-reported significantly poorer refreshment scores upon waking in the morning and higher scores on the daytime dysfunction due to sleepiness subscale of the PSQI. These findings support the notion that problems related to sleep, in particular insomnia, continue into adulthood in individuals with high-functioning autism spectrum disorder. © 2015 Associated Professional Sleep Societies, LLC.

  9. Reincarnation Type Presentations of Children with High-Functioning Autism in Sri Lanka.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandradasa, Miyuru; Champika, Layani

    2018-03-01

    Autism is characterised by impaired social communication and restricted repetitive behaviours. However, language and intelligence are spared in high-functioning individuals. The symptomatology is complex and culturally diverse. Buddhists and Hindus believe in rebirth and reincarnation type presentations in children are frequently seen among these populations. Here we describe three children from Sri Lanka claiming memories of their past lives and later diagnosed to have high-functioning autism. The first, a seven-year-old Buddhist believes he was killed by terrorists as a soldier in his previous life and attributed his birthmark to be an injury which caused death. The second, a five-year-old Catholic girl suffering from asthma claiming she died of breathing difficulties in her previous life where she was a Buddhist grandmother. The third, an eight-year-old academically superior child claims he was a monk in his previous life and demands parents to allow him to enter the priesthood. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Heterogeneity in Perceptual Category Learning by High Functioning Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo eMercado

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Previous research suggests that high functioning children with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD sometimes have problems learning categories, but often appear to perform normally in categorization tasks. The deficits that individuals with ASD show when learning categories have been attributed to executive dysfunction, general deficits in implicit learning, atypical cognitive strategies, or abnormal perceptual biases and abilities. Several of these psychological explanations for category learning deficits have been associated with neural abnormalities such as cortical underconnectivity. The present study evaluated how well existing neurally-based theories account for atypical perceptual category learning shown by high functioning children with ASD across multiple category learning tasks involving novel, abstract shapes. Consistent with earlier results, children’s performances revealed two distinct patterns of learning and generalization associated with ASD: one was indistinguishable from performance in typically developing children; the other revealed dramatic impairments. These two patterns were evident regardless of training regimen or stimulus set. Surprisingly, some children with ASD showed both patterns. Simulations of perceptual category learning could account for the two observed patterns in terms of differences in neural plasticity. However, no current psychological or neural theory adequately explains why a child with ASD might show such large fluctuations in category learning ability across training conditions or stimulus sets.

  11. Group social skills interventions for adults with high-functioning autism spectrum disorders: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spain, Debbie; Blainey, Sarah H

    2015-10-01

    Autism spectrum disorders are characterised by impairments in communication and social interaction. Social skills interventions have been found to ameliorate socio-communication deficits in children and adolescents with autism spectrum disorders. Little is known about the effectiveness of social skills interventions for adults with high-functioning autism spectrum disorders (hf-ASD) - a clinical population who can present with more subtle core deficits, but comparable levels of impairment and secondary difficulties. A systematic review was undertaken to investigate the effectiveness of social skills interventions for adults with high-functioning autism spectrum disorders. Five studies met the pre-specified review inclusion criteria: two quasi-experimental comparative trials and three single-arm interventions. There was a degree of variation in the structure, duration and content of the social skills interventions delivered, as well as several methodological limitations associated with included studies. Nevertheless, narrative analysis tentatively indicates that group social skills interventions may be effective for enhancing social knowledge and understanding, improving social functioning, reducing loneliness and potentially alleviating co-morbid psychiatric symptoms. © The Author(s) 2015.

  12. In search of joy in practice: a report of 23 high-functioning primary care practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinsky, Christine A; Willard-Grace, Rachel; Schutzbank, Andrew M; Sinsky, Thomas A; Margolius, David; Bodenheimer, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    We highlight primary care innovations gathered from high-functioning primary care practices, innovations we believe can facilitate joy in practice and mitigate physician burnout. To do so, we made site visits to 23 high-performing primary care practices and focused on how these practices distribute functions among the team, use technology to their advantage, improve outcomes with data, and make the job of primary care feasible and enjoyable as a life's vocation. Innovations identified include (1) proactive planned care, with previsit planning and previsit laboratory tests; (2) sharing clinical care among a team, with expanded rooming protocols, standing orders, and panel management; (3) sharing clerical tasks with collaborative documentation (scribing), nonphysician order entry, and streamlined prescription management; (4) improving communication by verbal messaging and in-box management; and (5) improving team functioning through co-location, team meetings, and work flow mapping. Our observations suggest that a shift from a physician-centric model of work distribution and responsibility to a shared-care model, with a higher level of clinical support staff per physician and frequent forums for communication, can result in high-functioning teams, improved professional satisfaction, and greater joy in practice.

  13. The Neuropsychology of Male Adults With High-Functioning Autism or Asperger Syndrome†

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, C Ellie; Happé, Francesca; Wheelwright, Sally J; Ecker, Christine; Lombardo, Michael V; Johnston, Patrick; Daly, Eileen; Murphy, Clodagh M; Spain, Debbie; Lai, Meng-Chuan; Chakrabarti, Bhismadev; Sauter, Disa A; Baron-Cohen, Simon; Murphy, Declan G M

    2014-01-01

    Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) is diagnosed on the basis of behavioral symptoms, but cognitive abilities may also be useful in characterizing individuals with ASD. One hundred seventy-eight high-functioning male adults, half with ASD and half without, completed tasks assessing IQ, a broad range of cognitive skills, and autistic and comorbid symptomatology. The aims of the study were, first, to determine whether significant differences existed between cases and controls on cognitive tasks, and whether cognitive profiles, derived using a multivariate classification method with data from multiple cognitive tasks, could distinguish between the two groups. Second, to establish whether cognitive skill level was correlated with degree of autistic symptom severity, and third, whether cognitive skill level was correlated with degree of comorbid psychopathology. Fourth, cognitive characteristics of individuals with Asperger Syndrome (AS) and high-functioning autism (HFA) were compared. After controlling for IQ, ASD and control groups scored significantly differently on tasks of social cognition, motor performance, and executive function (P's Autism Res 2014, 7: 568–581. © 2014 International Society for Autism Research, Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:24903974

  14. The neuropsychology of male adults with high-functioning autism or asperger syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, C Ellie; Happé, Francesca; Wheelwright, Sally J; Ecker, Christine; Lombardo, Michael V; Johnston, Patrick; Daly, Eileen; Murphy, Clodagh M; Spain, Debbie; Lai, Meng-Chuan; Chakrabarti, Bhismadev; Sauter, Disa A; Baron-Cohen, Simon; Murphy, Declan G M

    2014-10-01

    Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) is diagnosed on the basis of behavioral symptoms, but cognitive abilities may also be useful in characterizing individuals with ASD. One hundred seventy-eight high-functioning male adults, half with ASD and half without, completed tasks assessing IQ, a broad range of cognitive skills, and autistic and comorbid symptomatology. The aims of the study were, first, to determine whether significant differences existed between cases and controls on cognitive tasks, and whether cognitive profiles, derived using a multivariate classification method with data from multiple cognitive tasks, could distinguish between the two groups. Second, to establish whether cognitive skill level was correlated with degree of autistic symptom severity, and third, whether cognitive skill level was correlated with degree of comorbid psychopathology. Fourth, cognitive characteristics of individuals with Asperger Syndrome (AS) and high-functioning autism (HFA) were compared. After controlling for IQ, ASD and control groups scored significantly differently on tasks of social cognition, motor performance, and executive function (P's Autism Research, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Do Social Attribution Skills Improve with Age in Children with High Functioning Autism Spectrum Disorders?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bal, Elgiz; Yerys, Benjamin E; Sokoloff, Jennifer L; Celano, Mark J; Kenworthy, Lauren; Giedd, Jay N; Wallace, Gregory L

    2013-01-01

    Age-related changes in social attribution skills were assessed using the "Triangles Playing Tricks" task in 7-17 year old high functioning children with ASDs (n=41) and in typically developing (TD) children (n=58) matched on age, IQ, and sex ratio. Children with ASDs gave responses that received lower intentionality and appropriateness ratings than did TD children in both the goal-directed and theory of mind (ToM) conditions. Results remained unchanged when the effects of verbal output (i.e., number of clause produced) and verbal IQ were included as covariates in the analyses. Whereas age was highly associated with ToM performance in the TD children, this relationship was not as strong among children with ASDs. These results indicate not only a diminished tendency among high functioning children with ASDs to attribute social meaning and intentionality to ambiguous visual displays of interactive forms but also an aberrant developmental trajectory. That is, children with ASDs may fall further behind their typically developing peers in social attribution abilities as they get older.

  16. The Origin of Language

    OpenAIRE

    Araki,Naoki

    2018-01-01

    There have been a lot of discussions of the origin of language. Some people think that the origin of words is onomatopoeias. Meanwhile, according to expressive theories, the origin of words and language is the innate cries of pain or pleasure produced by nonhuman animals. Others insist that language originated as a means of communication. Another theory holds that a learned vocalization systems, more like birdsong than innate calls, formed a middle term in language evolution. Others claim tha...

  17. Inventário masculino dos esquemas de gênero do autoconceito (IMEGA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Giavoni

    Full Text Available O propósito deste artigo foi elaborar e validar o Inventário Masculino dos Esquemas de Gênero do Autoconceito (IMEGA. Baseado nas estruturas fatoriais das escalas masculina e feminina do Inventário dos Esquemas de Gênero do Autoconceito (IEGA, este instrumento avalia os esquemas masculino e feminino do autoconceito dos homens. A amostra utilizada foi composta por estudantes universitários do sexo masculino. Para a validade de construto do IMEGA, foram realizadas análises fatoriais (Principal Axis Factoring - PAF, com rotações oblíquas e ortogonais, para ambas as escalas e análise da consistência interna dos fatores (alfa de Cronbach. Os resultados demonstram que ambas as escalas são compostas por estruturas multifatoriais que se assemelham às estruturas fatoriais do IEGA. Devidamente validado, o IMEGA pode ser utilizado para avaliar os esquemas masculino e feminino do autoconceito de indivíduos do sexo masculino.

  18. EkSTEMiT Learning Module and Inculcation of Inventive Thinking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norhaslinda Abdul Samad

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The young generation of today must be prepared with the knowledge and skills necessary to be able to compete globally thus boosting economic growth and prosperity. Therefore, students should not only be equipped with knowledge but they are in need of the “21st century skills”, which is the top priority and one of the main education agenda goals today. As one of the domains in the 21st century skills, inventive thinking includes elements of flexibility, self-regulation, curiosity, creativity, risk taking, higher order thinking and reasoning. In order to inculcate inventive thinking for students, the EkSTEMiT Learning Module was developed for the topic Electrochemistry; one of the most difficult topics to learn among students. EkSTEMiT Learning Module was developed based on the STEM (Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics integrated model. Thus, this paper will discuss the conceptual framework underlying the development of EkSTEMiT Learning Module with descriptions of learning activities designed for Electrochemistry.

  19. Maladaptive cognitive appraisals in children with high-functioning autism: associations with fear, anxiety and theory of mind.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Shilpi; Woolfson, Lisa M; Hunter, Simon C

    2014-04-01

    Despite the well-documented success of cognitive restructuring techniques in the treatment of anxiety disorders, there is still little clarity on which cognitions underpin fear and anxiety in children with high-functioning autism spectrum disorder. This study examined whether certain cognitive appraisals, known to be associated with fear and anxiety in typically developing groups, may help explain these emotions in children with high-functioning autism spectrum disorder. It also investigated relations between these cognitive appraisals and theory of mind. Appraisals, fear and anxiety were assessed using a vignette approach in 22 children with high-functioning autism spectrum disorders and 22 typically developing children. The two groups differed significantly on all four appraisal types. Anxiety was negatively correlated with future expectancy and positively with problem-focused coping potential in the high-functioning autism spectrum disorder group but was not correlated with appraisals in the typically developing group. The two appraisals associated with fear were emotion-focused coping potential (in the high-functioning autism spectrum disorder group only) and self-accountability (in the typically developing group only). Linear regression analysis found that appraisals of emotion-focused coping potential, problem-focused coping potential and future expectancy were significant predictors of theory-of-mind ability in the high-functioning autism spectrum disorders group. These findings indicate that specific, problematic patterns of appraisal may characterise children with high-functioning autism spectrum disorders.

  20. Preserved Imitation of Known Gestures in Children with High-Functioning Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carmo, Joana C.; Rumiati, Raffaella I.; Siugzdaite, Roma; Brambilla, Paolo

    2013-01-01

    It has been suggested that children with autism are particularly deficient at imitating novel gestures or gestures without goals. In the present study, we asked high-functioning autistic children and age-matched typically developing children to imitate several types of gestures that could be either already known or novel to them. Known gestures either conveyed a communicative meaning (i.e., intransitive) or involved the use of objects (i.e., transitive). We observed a significant interaction between gesture type and group of participants, with children with autism performing known gestures better than novel gestures. However, imitation of intransitive and transitive gestures did not differ across groups. These findings are discussed in light of a dual-route model for action imitation. PMID:24062956

  1. Metacognition of agency and theory of mind in adults with high functioning autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zalla, Tiziana; Miele, David; Leboyer, Marion; Metcalfe, Janet

    2015-01-01

    We investigated metacognition of agency in adults with high functioning autism or Asperger Syndrome (HFA/AS) using a computer task in which participants moved the mouse to get the cursor to touch the downward moving X's and avoid the O's. They were then asked to make judgments of performance and judgments of agency. Objective control was either undistorted, or distorted by adding turbulence (i.e., random noise) or a time Lag between the mouse and cursor movements. Participants with HFA/AS used sensorimotor cues available in the turbulence and lag conditions to a lesser extent than control participants in making their judgments of agency. Furthermore, the failure to use these internal diagnostic cues to their own agency was correlated with decrements in a theory of mind task. These findings suggest that a reduced sensitivity to veridical internal cues about the sense of agency is related to mentalizing impairments in autism. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Risk Factors for Depression in Children and Adolescents with High Functioning Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    De-la-Iglesia, Myriam; Olivar, José-Sixto

    2015-01-01

    The objective of our study was to examine, discuss, and provide proposals on diagnostic comorbidity of depression in children and adolescents with high functioning autism spectrum disorder (HFASD) in the following aspects. (1) Prevalence. It was concluded that there are an elevated depression rate and the need for longitudinal studies to determine prevalence and incidence based on functioning level, autistic symptoms, gender, age, type of depression, prognosis, duration, and treatment. (2) Explicative Hypotheses and Vulnerability. The factors that present the greatest specific risk are higher cognitive functioning, self-awareness of deficit, capacity for introspection, stressful life events, adolescence, quality of social relationships, and alexithymia. (3) Risk of Suicide. The need for control and detection of suicidal tendencies and bullying is emphasised. (4) Depressive Symptoms. Indicators for early detection are proposed and their overlap with HFASD is analysed, examining the assessment techniques used and arguing that specific adapted tests are needed. PMID:26413564

  3. Emotion perception in music in high-functioning adolescents with Autism Spectrum Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quintin, Eve-Marie; Bhatara, Anjali; Poissant, Hélène; Fombonne, Eric; Levitin, Daniel J

    2011-09-01

    Individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) succeed at a range of musical tasks. The ability to recognize musical emotion as belonging to one of four categories (happy, sad, scared or peaceful) was assessed in high-functioning adolescents with ASD (N = 26) and adolescents with typical development (TD, N = 26) with comparable performance IQ, auditory working memory, and musical training and experience. When verbal IQ was controlled for, there was no significant effect of diagnostic group. Adolescents with ASD rated the intensity of the emotions similarly to adolescents with TD and reported greater confidence in their responses when they had correctly (vs. incorrectly) recognized the emotions. These findings are reviewed within the context of the amygdala theory of autism.

  4. Social anxiety in high-functioning children and adolescents with Autism and Asperger syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuusikko, Sanna; Pollock-Wurman, Rachel; Jussila, Katja; Carter, Alice S; Mattila, Marja-Leena; Ebeling, Hanna; Pauls, David L; Moilanen, Irma

    2008-10-01

    We examined social anxiety and internalizing symptoms using the Social Phobia and Anxiety Inventory for Children (SPAI-C), the Social Anxiety Scale for Children -Revised (SASC-R), and the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL) in a sample of fifty-four high-functioning subjects with autism or Asperger syndrome (HFA/AS) (M = 11.2 +/- 1.7 years) and 305 community subjects (M = 12.2 +/- 2.2 years). Children and adolescents completed the SPAI-C and SASC-R, and their parents completed the CBCL Internalizing scale. Adolescents with HFA/AS scored higher than the community sample on all measures. Behavioural avoidance and evaluative social anxiety increased by age within the HFA/AS group, whereas behavioural avoidance decreased by age in control participants. Data support that HFA/AS in adolescents may be associated with clinically relevant social anxiety symptoms.

  5. Autobiographical accounts of sensing in Asperger syndrome and high-functioning autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elwin, Marie; Ek, Lena; Schröder, Agneta; Kjellin, Lars

    2012-10-01

    Sensory experiences in Asperger syndrome (AS) or high-functioning autism (HFA) were explored by qualitative content analysis of autobiographical texts by persons with AS/HFA. Predetermined categories of hyper- and hyposensitivity were applied to texts. Hypersensitivity consists of strong reactions and heightened apprehension in reaction to external stimuli, sometimes together with overfocused or unselective attention. It was common in vision, hearing, and touch. In contrast, hyposensitivity was frequent in reaction to internal and body stimuli such as interoception, proprioception, and pain. It consists of less registration, discrimination, and recognition of stimuli as well as cravings for specific stimuli. Awareness of the strong impact of sensitivity is essential for creating good environments and encounters in the context of psychiatric and other health care. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Social competence intervention for youth with Asperger Syndrome and high-functioning autism: an initial investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stichter, Janine P; Herzog, Melissa J; Visovsky, Karen; Schmidt, Carla; Randolph, Jena; Schultz, Tia; Gage, Nicholas

    2010-09-01

    Individuals with high functioning autism (HFA) or Asperger Syndrome (AS) exhibit difficulties in the knowledge or correct performance of social skills. This subgroup's social difficulties appear to be associated with deficits in three social cognition processes: theory of mind, emotion recognition and executive functioning. The current study outlines the development and initial administration of the group-based Social Competence Intervention (SCI), which targeted these deficits using cognitive behavioral principles. Across 27 students age 11-14 with a HFA/AS diagnosis, results indicated significant improvement on parent reports of social skills and executive functioning. Participants evidenced significant growth on direct assessments measuring facial expression recognition, theory of mind and problem solving. SCI appears promising, however, larger samples and application in naturalistic settings are warranted.

  7. Psychiatric comorbidities in asperger syndrome and high functioning autism: diagnostic challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mazzone Luigi

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Several psychiatric conditions, both internalizing and externalizing, have been documented in comorbidity with Asperger Syndrome (AS and High Functioning Autism (HFA. In this review we examine the interplay between psychiatric comorbidities and AS/HFA. In particular, we will focus our attention on three main issues. First, we examine which psychiatric disorders are more frequently associated with AS/HFA. Second, we review which diagnostic tools are currently available for clinicians to investigate and diagnose the associated psychiatric disorders in individuals with AS/HFA. Third, we discuss the challenges that clinicians and researchers face in trying to determine whether the psychiatric symptoms are phenotypic manifestations of AS/HFA or rather they are the expression of a distinct, though comorbid, disorder. We will also consider the role played by the environment in the manifestation and interpretation of these symptoms. Finally, we will propose some strategies to try to address these issues, and we will discuss therapeutic implications.

  8. Disembedding performance in children and adolescents with Asperger syndrome or high-functioning autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaland, Nils; Mortensen, Erik Lykke; Smith, Lars

    2007-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to assess the findings, reported in earlier studies, that individuals with autism spectrum disorders process visuo-spatial tasks faster than typically developing control persons. The participants in the present study were children and adolescents with Asperger syndrome (AS) or high-functioning autism (HFA) (N = 13), and a matched group of typically developing children and adolescents (N = 13). The results showed that the participants in the clinical group performed marginally less well than those in the control group on both the Block Design Test and the Embedded Figures Test, but the differences were not statistically significant. Thus, earlier findings suggesting that individuals with autism spectrum disorders solve non-social cognitive tasks faster than typically developing control persons were not replicated. The results are discussed with special reference to the hypothesis of weak central coherence.

  9. Psychiatric comorbidities in asperger syndrome and high functioning autism: diagnostic challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Several psychiatric conditions, both internalizing and externalizing, have been documented in comorbidity with Asperger Syndrome (AS) and High Functioning Autism (HFA). In this review we examine the interplay between psychiatric comorbidities and AS/HFA. In particular, we will focus our attention on three main issues. First, we examine which psychiatric disorders are more frequently associated with AS/HFA. Second, we review which diagnostic tools are currently available for clinicians to investigate and diagnose the associated psychiatric disorders in individuals with AS/HFA. Third, we discuss the challenges that clinicians and researchers face in trying to determine whether the psychiatric symptoms are phenotypic manifestations of AS/HFA or rather they are the expression of a distinct, though comorbid, disorder. We will also consider the role played by the environment in the manifestation and interpretation of these symptoms. Finally, we will propose some strategies to try to address these issues, and we will discuss therapeutic implications. PMID:22731684

  10. Pragmatic inferences in high-functioning adults with autism and Asperger syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pijnacker, Judith; Hagoort, Peter; Buitelaar, Jan; Teunisse, Jan-Pieter; Geurts, Bart

    2009-04-01

    Although people with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) often have severe problems with pragmatic aspects of language, little is known about their pragmatic reasoning. We carried out a behavioral study on high-functioning adults with autistic disorder (n = 11) and Asperger syndrome (n = 17) and matched controls (n = 28) to investigate whether they are capable of deriving scalar implicatures, which are generally considered to be pragmatic inferences. Participants were presented with underinformative sentences like "Some sparrows are birds". This sentence is logically true, but pragmatically inappropriate if the scalar implicature "Not all sparrows are birds" is derived. The present findings indicate that the combined ASD group was just as likely as controls to derive scalar implicatures, yet there was a difference between participants with autistic disorder and Asperger syndrome, suggesting a potential differentiation between these disorders in pragmatic reasoning. Moreover, our results suggest that verbal intelligence is a constraint for task performance in autistic disorder but not in Asperger syndrome.

  11. Testing a mobile digital cognitive support system for high functioning adolescents with ASD

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gyori, Miklos; Aagaard, Morten; Kanizsai-Nagy, Ildiko

    HANDS Project is aimed at developing a cognitive support system for high functioning (HF) adolescents with ASD, running on smartphones and PDAs, complemented by a webbased management system. It is designed to teach/facilitate adaptive social behaviours and daily living skills, and is based...... on a detailed understanding of the cognitiveprofile of ASD, and on evidence‐based intervention techniques. Development of the system was based on recurrent interactions of expert groups from persuasive design, child psychiatry,cognitive psychology, (special) education, software development, and intended users...... clinical trial, with a total sample of 54 HF adolescents with ASD (27 test & 27 matched control subjects) in 4 test‐sites, internationally. Results In preliminary analysis, SRS measurements did not yield overall conclusive results on the efficiency of the system. E‐T testing was done and analysed on a semi...

  12. Green Imidazolium Ionics-From Truly Sustainable Reagents to Highly Functional Ionic Liquids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tröger-Müller, Steffen; Brandt, Jessica; Antonietti, Markus; Liedel, Clemens

    2017-09-04

    We report the synthesis of task-specific imidazolium ionic compounds and ionic liquids with key functionalities of organic molecules from electro-, polymer-, and coordination chemistry. Such products are highly functional and potentially suitable for technology applications even though they are formed without elaborate reactions and from cheap and potentially green reagents. We further demonstrate the versatility of the used synthetic approach by introducing different functional and green counterions to the formed ionic liquids directly during the synthesis or after metathesis reactions. The influence of different cation structures and different anions on the thermal and electrochemical properties of the resulting ionic liquids is discussed. Our goal is to make progress towards economically competitive and sustainable task-specific ionic liquids. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  13. Increased premotor cortex activation in high functioning autism during action observation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perkins, Tom J; Bittar, Richard G; McGillivray, Jane A; Cox, Ivanna I; Stokes, Mark A

    2015-04-01

    The mirror neuron (MN) hypothesis of autism has received considerable attention, but to date has produced inconsistent findings. Using functional MRI, participants with high functioning autism or Asperger's syndrome were compared to typically developing individuals (n=12 in each group). Participants passively observed hand gestures that included waving, pointing, and grasping. Concerning the MN network, both groups activated similar regions including prefrontal, inferior parietal and superior temporal regions, with the autism group demonstrating significantly greater activation in the dorsal premotor cortex. Concerning other regions, participants with autism demonstrated increased activity in the anterior cingulate and medial frontal gyrus, and reduced activation in calcarine, cuneus, and middle temporal gyrus. These results suggest that during observation of hand gestures, frontal cortex activation is affected in autism, which we suggest may be linked to abnormal functioning of the MN system. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Binding of multiple features in memory by high-functioning adults with autism spectrum disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowler, Dermot M; Gaigg, Sebastian B; Gardiner, John M

    2014-09-01

    Diminished episodic memory and diminished use of semantic information to aid recall by individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) are both thought to result from diminished relational binding of elements of complex stimuli. To test this hypothesis, we asked high-functioning adults with ASD and typical comparison participants to study grids in which some cells contained drawings of objects in non-canonical colours. Participants were told at study which features (colour, item, location) would be tested in a later memory test. In a second experiment, participants studied similar grids and were told that they would be tested on object-location or object-colour combinations. Recognition of combinations was significantly diminished in ASD, which survived covarying performance on the Color Trails Test (D'Elia et al. Color trails test. Professional manual. Psychological Assessment Resources, Lutz, 1996), a test of executive difficulties. The findings raise the possibility that medial temporal as well as frontal lobe processes are dysfunctional in ASD.

  15. Promoting social behavior with oxytocin in high-functioning autism spectrum disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andari, Elissar; Duhamel, Jean-René; Zalla, Tiziana; Herbrecht, Evelyn; Leboyer, Marion; Sirigu, Angela

    2010-03-02

    Social adaptation requires specific cognitive and emotional competences. Individuals with high-functioning autism or with Asperger syndrome cannot understand or engage in social situations despite preserved intellectual abilities. Recently, it has been suggested that oxytocin, a hormone known to promote mother-infant bonds, may be implicated in the social deficit of autism. We investigated the behavioral effects of oxytocin in 13 subjects with autism. In a simulated ball game where participants interacted with fictitious partners, we found that after oxytocin inhalation, patients exhibited stronger interactions with the most socially cooperative partner and reported enhanced feelings of trust and preference. Also, during free viewing of pictures of faces, oxytocin selectively increased patients' gazing time on the socially informative region of the face, namely the eyes. Thus, under oxytocin, patients respond more strongly to others and exhibit more appropriate social behavior and affect, suggesting a therapeutic potential of oxytocin through its action on a core dimension of autism.

  16. Conversational Repair in School-Aged Children with High-Functioning Autism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pei-Mei Lu

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of this study was to investigate the conversational repair skills of Mandarin Chinese-speaking children with high-functioning autism (HFA as compared with those of typically developing children (TD. Ten school-aged children (age 9 to 12 with HFA were recruited and matched against ten TD children in the control group based on age, gender, and verbal intelligence level. During three different conversation situations (free talk, story picture description, play, an examiner engineered 9 episodes of communicative breakdowns. Each consisted of a stacked series of three prompts for responding to requests for clarification (RQCLs (i.e.‘What?’, ‘I don’t understand’, ‘I still don’t know’. Verbal responses to each RQCL were then coded for further analyses. The results showed that (1 In response to the stacked series RQCLs, children with HFA were similar to the control group children in evidencing repetition, revision, and addition types of repair. Furthermore, children with HFA showed fewer cue type of repair and more inappropriate type of repair than TD group. (2For both groups, the pattern of responding over the series of RQCLs was similar in varying the repetition and revision types of repair strategies. However, the pattern in the addition, cue, and inappropriate types of repair strategies were different. Children with HFA were significantly more likely to respond to an RQCL with an inappropriate response than the language and age-matched controls. It is suggested that teachers and parents could facilitate the conversational repair skills of children with high-functioning autism by offering them opportunities to manage different types of communicative breakdowns.

  17. Insomnia in school-age children with Asperger syndrome or high-functioning autism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smedje Hans

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Asperger syndrome (AS and high-functioning autism (HFA are pervasive developmental disorders (PDD in individuals of normal intelligence. Childhood AS/HFA is considered to be often associated with disturbed sleep, in particular with difficulties initiating and/or maintaining sleep (insomnia. However, studies about the topic are still scarce. The present study investigated childhood AS/HFA regarding a wide range of parent reported sleep-wake behaviour, with a particular focus on insomnia. Methods Thirty-two 8–12 yr old children with AS/HFA were compared with 32 age and gender matched typically developing children regarding sleep and associated behavioural characteristics. Several aspects of sleep-wake behaviour including insomnia were surveyed using a structured paediatric sleep questionnaire in which parents reported their children's sleep patterns for the previous six months. Recent sleep patterns were monitored by use of a one-week sleep diary and actigraphy. Behavioural characteristics were surveyed by use of information gleaned from parent and teacher-ratings in the High-Functioning Autism Spectrum Screening Questionnaire, and in the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire. Results Parent-reported difficulties initiating sleep and daytime sleepiness were more common in children with AS/HFA than in controls, and 10/32 children with AS/HFA (31.2% but none of the controls fulfilled our definition of paediatric insomnia. The parent-reported insomnia corresponded to the findings obtained by actigraphy. Children with insomnia had also more parent-reported autistic and emotional symptoms, and more teacher-reported emotional and hyperactivity symptoms than those children without insomnia. Conclusion Parental reports indicate that in childhood AS/HFA insomnia is a common and distressing symptom which is frequently associated with coexistent behaviour problems. Identification and treatment of sleep problems need to be a routine

  18. Speech discrimination difficulties in High-Functioning Autism Spectrum Disorder are likely independent of auditory hypersensitivity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William Andrew Dunlop

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD, characterised by impaired communication skills and repetitive behaviours, can also result in differences in sensory perception. Individuals with ASD often perform normally in simple auditory tasks but poorly compared to typically developed (TD individuals on complex auditory tasks like discriminating speech from complex background noise. A common trait of individuals with ASD is hypersensitivity to auditory stimulation. No studies to our knowledge consider whether hypersensitivity to sounds is related to differences in speech-in-noise discrimination. We provide novel evidence that individuals with high-functioning ASD show poor performance compared to TD individuals in a speech-in-noise discrimination task with an attentionally demanding background noise, but not in a purely energetic noise. Further, we demonstrate in our small sample that speech-hypersensitivity does not appear to predict performance in the speech-in-noise task. The findings support the argument that an attentional deficit, rather than a perceptual deficit, affects the ability of individuals with ASD to discriminate speech from background noise. Finally, we piloted a novel questionnaire that measures difficulty hearing in noisy environments, and sensitivity to non-verbal and verbal sounds. Psychometric analysis using 128 TD participants provided novel evidence for a difference in sensitivity to non-verbal and verbal sounds, and these findings were reinforced by participants with ASD who also completed the questionnaire. The study was limited by a small and high-functioning sample of participants with ASD. Future work could test larger sample sizes and include lower-functioning ASD participants.

  19. Cognitive Shifting as a Predictor of Progress in Social Understanding in High-Functioning Adolescents with Autism: A Prospective Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, Hans J. C.; And Others

    1993-01-01

    This prospective study of 17 high-functioning residentially treated adolescents with autism found that cognitive shifting, as measured by card sorting tests, was the only significant factor in predicting progress in social understanding. (Author/JDD)

  20. Innovative method by design-around concepts with integrating the algorithm for inventive problem solving

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Wang Chih; Chen Jahau Lewis

    2014-01-01

    The work proposes a new design tool that integrates design-around concepts with the algorithm for inventive problem solving (Russian acronym: ARIZ). ARIZ includes a complete procedure for analyzing problems and related resource, resolving conflicts and generating solutions. The combination of ARIZ and design-around concepts and understanding identified principles that govern patent infringements can prevent patent infringements whenever designers innovate, greatly reducing the cost and time associated with the product design stage. The presented tool is developed from an engineering perspective rather than a legal perspective, and so can help designers easily to prevent patent infringements and succeed in innovating by designing around. An example is used to demonstrate the proposed method.

  1. Technological Monitoring Study Based on Invention Patents of Omeprazoleand Derivatives with Pharmaceutical Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leandra Guimarães de Oliveira

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available The current study intends to present the relevance of omeprazole, esomeprazole, rabeprazole, pantoprazole and lansoprazole by means of the technological foresight study, through invention patent documents from Brazilian applicants as indicators of innovation. The European database of patents (Espacenet, Word Patent Index (DERWENT and the Brazilian Patent Base of INPI were used, combining keywords and International Patent Classifications. The major applicants, countries of publication and claims categories were mapped. The 212 patent requests collected are mainly distributed in Chemistry, Pharmacy and Pharmacology areas. The results obtained revealed that the US was the main country with studies directed to this technological area (59 patent applications and the major applicant was the company Astrazeneca AB. Therefore, we can understand that this is a promising technology that may reflect in an increase of R&D activities and patent applications in this area.

  2. The invention of infertility in the classical Greek world: medicine, divinity, and gender.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flemming, Rebecca

    2013-01-01

    The article examines the understandings of, and responses to, reproductive failure in the classical Greek world. It discusses explanations and treatments for non-procreation in a range of ancient Greek medical texts, focusing on the writings of the Hippocratic Corpus, which devote considerable energy to matters of fertility and generation, and places them alongside the availability of a divine approach to dealing with reproductive disruption, the possibility of asking various deities, including the specialist healing god Asclepius, for assistance in having children. Though the relations between these options are complex, they combine to produce a rich remedial array for those struggling with childlessness, the possibility that any impediment to procreation can be removed. Classical Greece, rather than the nineteenth century, or even 1978, is thus the time when "infertility," understood as an essentially reversible somatic state, was invented.

  3. From invention to innovation: Commercialization of new technology by independent and small business inventors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1989-05-15

    This handbook emerged from the commitment of Energy-Related Inventions Program personnel to supporting the commercialization efforts of independent and small business inventors with new technologies. As you read this document, you will face questions that may seem far removed from technological concerns--questions about the market, your competition, your business structure, and about legal and regulatory requirements. These may seem peripheral to your present and future work. But, make no mistake, you must carefully and honestly consider and answer these if you expect to penetrate the market in sustained way and profit from your work. Over four hundred of your peers--some by success, others by failure--have shown us the lessons incorporated in this volume. By using it, and by commenting on it, you benefit from their collective experience, and make invaluable additions to it. 4 figs., 3 tabs.

  4. Patent border wars: defining the boundary between scientific discoveries and patentable inventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holman, Christopher M

    2007-12-01

    Drawing an appropriate boundary between unpatentable natural phenomena and patentable inventions is crucial in preventing the patent laws from unduly restricting access to fundamental scientific discoveries. Some would argue that, particularly in the U.S., patents are being issued that purport to claim a novel product or process but that, in effect, encompass any practical application of a fundamental biological principle. Examples include gene patents, which Congress is considering banning, and patents relating to biological correlations and pathways, such as the patents at issue in the headline-grabbing LabCorp v. Metabolite and Ariad v. Eli Lilly litigations. In view of the mounting concern, it seems likely that Congress and/or the courts will address the issue, and perhaps substantially shift the boundary.

  5. SIA - Sistema de Inventário Automatizado para as bibliotecas do SIBi/USP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosa Maria Fischi Zani

    Full Text Available Descreve a criação e implantação do Sistema de Inventário Automatizado - SAI - para o Sistema Integrado de Bibliotecas da Universidade de São Paulo - SIBi/USP -, ressaltando as vantagens do emprego da tecnologia para tornar mais ágil, eficaz e confiável o processo. O modelo mostrou-se flexível às particularidades dos acervos e das bibliotecas. Enumera os principais requisitos para automação do procedimento, bem como as tecnologias envolvidas e disponíveis no mercado. Após aplicação de teste piloto, o modelo foi aprovado pelas bibliotecas da USP.

  6. The Astronomical Instrument, So-Gahui Invented During King Sejong Period

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yong-Sam Lee; Kim, Sang-Hyuk

    2002-09-01

    So-ganui, namely small simplified armillary sphere, was invented as an astronomical instrument by Lee Cheon, Jeong Cho, Jung In-Ji under 16 years' rule of King Sejong. We collect records and observed data on So-ganui. It is designed to measure position of celestial sphere and to determine time. It also can be transformed equatorial to horizontal, and horizontal to equatorial coordinate. It can measure the right ascension, declination, altitude and azimuth. It is composed of Sayu-hwan (Four displacements), Jeokdo-hwan (Equatorial dial), Baekgak-hwan (Ring with one hundred-interval quarters), Gyuhyeong (Sighting aliadade), Yongju (Dragon-pillar) and Bu (Stand). So-ganui was used conveniently portable surveying as well as astronomical instrument and possible to determine time during day and night.

  7. Re-Inventing Teachers’ Competences at Early Childhood Education in Building Characters Needed for Global Competition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karmila Machmud

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this paper is to elaborate and to re-invent the competencies needed by early childhood education teachers. Building children’s character from an early age is significant, but the main problem that is often overlooked is the contribution of Early Childhood Education teachers. Children’s character formation is largely determined by the quality of early childhood teachers. So if we want to instill character values required by our nations, the improvement of the quality of early childhood teachers is very significant. In terms of shaping children’s character, they should be equipped with some important skills and competences, because they have a significant role in building the Indonesian Children’s characters needed in global competition without abandoning their identity as a dignified Indonesian.

  8. Inventing a space mission the story of the Herschel space observatory

    CERN Document Server

    Minier, Vincent; Bontems, Vincent; de Graauw, Thijs; Griffin, Matt; Helmich, Frank; Pilbratt, Göran; Volonte, Sergio

    2017-01-01

    This book describes prominent technological achievements within a very successful space science mission: the Herschel space observatory. Focusing on the various processes of innovation it offers an analysis and discussion of the social, technological and scientific context of the mission that paved the way to its development. It addresses the key question raised by these processes in our modern society, i.e.: how knowledge management of innovation set the conditions for inventing the future? In that respect the book is based on a transdisciplinary analysis of the programmatic complexity of Herschel, with inputs from space scientists, managers, philosophers, and engineers. This book is addressed to decision makers, not only in space science, but also in other industries and sciences using or building large machines. It is also addressed to space engineers and scientists as well as students in science and management.

  9. Choosing the Right Path: Image Schema Theory as a Foundation for Concept Invention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hedblom, Maria M.; Kutz, Oliver; Neuhaus, Fabian

    2015-12-01

    Image schemas are recognised as a fundamental ingredient in human cognition and creative thought. They have been studied extensively in areas such as cognitive linguistics. With the goal of exploring their potential role in computational creative systems, we here study the viability of the idea to formalise image schemas as a set of interlinked theories. We discuss in particular a selection of image schemas related to the notion of `path', and show how they can be mapped to a formalised family of microtheories reflecting the different aspects of path following. Finally, we illustrate the potential of this approach in the area of concept invention, namely by providing several examples illustrating in detail in what way formalised image schema families support the computational modelling of conceptual blending.

  10. Tactile drawings, ethics, and a sanctuary: metaphoric devices invented by a blind woman.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, John M

    2013-01-01

    Until the last two decades, indications that blind people would understand and create pictures were sparse. EW, a totally blind adult, who began making raised-line drawings in her thirties, created a portfolio of several hundred sketches in nine years. She selects her own topics and invents her treatments of the subjects. What is of special interest here is that two of her drawings, shown in the present paper, depict places but also use devices to indicate one is a sanctuary and the other concerns a tragic era, using metaphor. Lightness of line in a forest drawing indicates it is out of reality, enchanted, and a sanctuary. A tilted grid in a drawing of a Holocaust memorial shows the events at issue were twisted and crooked. The devices are metaphoric and novel. The drawings deal with an ontological category--values--for which metaphorical devices in raised-line depictions have not previously been considered.

  11. Generalizing, optimizing, and inventing numerical algorithms for the fractional Fourier, Fresnel, and linear canonical transforms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hennelly, Bryan M.; Sheridan, John T.

    2005-05-01

    By use of matrix-based techniques it is shown how the space-bandwidth product (SBP) of a signal, as indicated by the location of the signal energy in the Wigner distribution function, can be tracked through any quadratic-phase optical system whose operation is described by the linear canonical transform. Then, applying the regular uniform sampling criteria imposed by the SBP and linking the criteria explicitly to a decomposition of the optical matrix of the system, it is shown how numerical algorithms (employing interpolation and decimation), which exhibit both invertibility and additivity, can be implemented. Algorithms appearing in the literature for a variety of transforms (Fresnel, fractional Fourier) are shown to be special cases of our general approach. The method is shown to allow the existing algorithms to be optimized and is also shown to permit the invention of many new algorithms.

  12. Problem-based learning for technical students on the base TRIZ (theory of inventive problem solving

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Babenko Oksana

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The basis of modern educational technology in teaching is problem-based learning through the use of educational technologies Powerful Thinking - Theory of Inventive Problem Solving (TRIZ, including a systematic approach to the complex organization of independent work of search and research character. Developed by systemic administration of the physical features workshops on the basis TRIZ in the cycle of the natural sciences with the implementation of all aspects of the educational activities - substantive, procedural and motivational. A new model of the physical design of the workshop and its form of organization, which is based on problem-based learning with the use of TRIZ Interactive form of organization of the workshop allows you to get high-quality substantive and personality of the students who have a significant role in the formation of professional competencies and affect the quality of produce practice-oriented specialists.

  13. Patents and Publics: Engaging Museum Audiences with Issues of Ownership and Invention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James F. Stark

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available It is all very well to note the hyperbole about patents and ‘intellectual property’ in the recent battles between technology companies such as Apple, Samsung and HTC. But how can museums productively use collection items marked with a patent beyond workaday tasks of identification and cataloguing? We argue that information on patents can enhance visitors’ critical engagement with museum displays; complex ownership claims and counter-claims in patent disputes can underpin lively narratives based around museum objects. Asking why some objects and not others were patented, and how historical consumers responded to that status of ‘patented’ enables us to look at these objects afresh. In particular we analyse the responses of public consultation groups to patenting in the medical trade, as well as the engagement of museum staff with these issues. Such consultation processes offer information that can be used to enhance museum displays with engaging narratives of ownership and invention.

  14. Made in Denmark, sold in Germany - zur Verwendung des Country-of-Origin-Prinzips im dänisch-deutschen Kontext

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Martin

    2005-01-01

    The Country-of-Origin principle has been known for quite some time. Originally invented to warn against and to stigmatize foreign products, today its purpose is much more one of promoting and recommending products that originate from a specific country. Although globalization and convergence of m...... companies in respect of the promotional effect of the "Made in Denmark" label is critically reviewed. Attempts to culturally explain this phenomenon conclude this paper....

  15. Stressors, coping, and emotional and behavioural problems in high-functioning adolescents with ASD: a preliminary approach using EMA

    OpenAIRE

    Khor, Angela Stewart

    2017-01-01

    Behaviour and emotional problems are common in individuals with high-functioning autism and Asperger’s Disorder (High-Functioning Autism Spectrum Disorders, HFASD), with onset frequently occurring during adolescence. Stressful experiences and coping are important predictors of mental health outcome in nonclinical populations, yet few studies have investigated these relationships in individuals with HFASD. One methodology used to assess coping in typically developing individuals is Ecological ...

  16. Early Nineteenth-Century New Yorkers and the Invention of New York City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    François WEIL

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Cet article s’intéresse à l’« invention » de New York, dans la période antérieure à la Guerre de Sécession, et aux formes ou aux procédés qui suscitèrent l’émergence d’une nouvelle conscience de soi dans la ville. Il évoque d’abord les facteurs contradictoires qui contribuèrent au développement d’une culture littéraire et artistique. Il tente ensuite de montrer comment les new-yorkais traduisirent leur fierté ancestrale et leurs sentiments identitaires sous forme de recherches historiques et généalogiques. Enfin, il montre la manière dont certains ouvrages élaborèrent une nouvelle grammaire, une nouvelle image, afin d’esquisser les contours géographiques et sociologiques de la métropole naissante.This essay explores the « invention » of New York City in the antebellum era, or the parallel forms of cultural processes and elaborations that led to the emergence of a new sense of self-awareness in the city. It first evokes the contradictory ways in which a literary and artistic culture developed. It then attempts to reveal how New Yorkers translated their ancestral pride and identity feelings into historical and genealogical pursuits. It finally explores the way in which some works contributed to the creation of a new grammar, a new image, in order to draw the contours of the geography and sociology of the new metropolis.

  17. Essentials of the successful drafting of invention applications on nuclear technology in the view of patent examination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhai Chenyang

    2010-01-01

    Up to now, there has been a comparatively low ratio of domestic authorization in terms of invention applications in the field of nuclear technology. In this paper, the main reasons according to my experience in the patent examination are revealed in the following three aspects: (1) there is a lack of novelty or inventive step; (2) the scope of some claims is not clearly defined; (3) the description is improperly drafting. Common problems are shown and analyzed. Suggestion for avoiding the problems and corresponding solutions are given. (author)

  18. Accounting for Fetal Origins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalgaard, Carl-Johan Lars; Hansen, Casper Worm; Strulik, Holger

    2017-01-01

    The Fetal Origins hypothesis has received considerable empirical support, both within epidemiology and economics. The present study compares the ability of two rival theoretical frameworks in accounting for the kind of path dependence implied by the Fetal Origins Hypothesis. We argue that while...

  19. Local and global processing of music in high-functioning persons with autism: beyond central coherence?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mottron, L; Peretz, I; Ménard, E

    2000-11-01

    A multi-modal abnormality in the integration of parts and whole has been proposed to account for a bias toward local stimuli in individuals with autism (Frith, 1989; Mottron & Belleville, 1993). In the current experiment, we examined the utility of hierarchical models in characterising musical information processing in autistic individuals. Participants were 13 high-functioning individuals with autism and 13 individuals of normal intelligence matched on chronological age, nonverbal IQ, and laterality, and without musical experience. The task consisted of same-different judgements of pairs of melodies. Differential local and global processing was assessed by manipulating the level, local or global, at which modifications occurred. No deficit was found in the two measures of global processing. In contrast, the clinical group performed better than the comparison group in the detection of change in nontransposed, contour-preserved melodies that tap local processing. These findings confirm the existence of a "local bias" in music perception in individuals with autism, but challenge the notion that it is accounted for by a deficit in global music processing. The present study suggests that enhanced processing of elementary physical properties of incoming stimuli, as found previously in the visual modality, may also exist in the auditory modality.

  20. Work performance evaluation and QoL of adults with High Functioning Autism Spectrum Disorders (HFASD).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katz, Noomi; Dejak, Ifat; Gal, Eynat

    2015-01-01

    Studies suggest that adults with High Functioning Autism Spectrum Disorders (HFASD) are reliant on others for support in functioning in everyday life and employment. This study followed a work placement program for people with HFASD over a nine months period. It aimed to measure the trajectory of their work performance and Quality of life on jobs in the open market. Twenty-six participants with HFASD ages 18-40 underwent extensive evaluation and based on it were placed in various jobs on the open market. Participants were followed for nine months at their work place at four different time points. QoL was self-assessed in addition to work performance (WPE) which was assessed both by first-hand and team member's accounts. Team members are health professional who accompany and support the participants in the transition to their jobs. All 26 participants were able to maintain their jobs during the nine months of follow-up. WPE was perceived as high to start with, and its scores slightly improved by both people with HFASD and team members. Self-report suggests a significant change in the quality of life of the participants, specifically in their evaluations of self-competency. This study enhances the importance of providing people with HFASD with work placing programs and following up during actual work performance.

  1. Research study on highly functional carbon related materials; Tansokei kokino zairyo no chosa kenkyu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-03-01

    The study results on highly functional carbon related materials are reported as a part of the leading research in fiscal 1996. Synthesis of these novel materials is outlined, and R & D results on the following materials are described: diamond, hetero-diamond, graphite, amorphous carbon, carbyne, fullerences, carbon nitride and chemically modified carbon materials. Their issues, future possibility and market in 2010 are also described. The markets are predicted of such electronic materials as electronic emitter, sensor, solid device and heat sink, such optical materials as X-ray lithography, and such chemical materials as electrode and catalyst. Promising characteristics of light-weight and high-hardness machine materials are presented, and some issues such as material synthesis, and intensive machining and application technologies are described. The future markets are predicted of their applications to tools, dies, information equipment, glass, automobiles, aircraft, spacecraft and industrial machines. Problems and their break through techniques of these novel materials are also presented. 220 refs., 68 figs., 16 tabs.

  2. Judicial Perceptions of Media Portrayals of Offenders with High Functioning Autistic Spectrum Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berryessa, Colleen M

    In recent years, sensational media reporting focusing on crimes committed by those diagnosed with or thought to have High Functioning Autistic Spectrum Disorders (hfASDs) has caused societal speculation that there is a link between the disorder and violent criminality. No research exists on how and if the judiciary understands and is affected by this coverage. Therefore this study aims to examine how judges perceive and are influenced by media attention surrounding hfASDs and criminality. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 21 California Superior Court Judges, including questions on media portrayal. Judges perceived general media portrayals of hfASDs in both positive and negative ways. However, almost all judges who had experienced media coverage surrounding hfASDs and criminality identified it as misleading and harmful to public perceptions of the disorder. These findings suggest judges are not exempt from media attention surrounding violence and hfASDs, and they recognize the potential adverse effects of this negative coverage. Although judges' report their opinions are not affected, the results demonstrate that judges are worried that the public and potentially other criminal justice actors are adversely affected and will continue to be moving forward.

  3. Using Multitouch Collaboration Technology to Enhance Social Interaction of Children with High-Functioning Autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gal, Eynat; Lamash, Liron; Bauminger-Zviely, Nirit; Zancanaro, Massimo; Weiss, Patrice L Tamar

    2016-01-01

    Children with high-functioning Autism Spectrum Disorder (HFASD) have major difficulties in social communication skills, which may impact their performance and participation in everyday life. The goal of this study was to examine whether the StoryTable, an intervention paradigm based on a collaborative narrative, multitouch tabletop interface, enhanced social interaction for children with HFASD, and to determine whether the acquired abilities were transferred to behaviors during other tasks. Fourteen boys with HFASD, aged 7-12 years, participated in a 3-week, 11-session intervention. Social interactions during two nonintervention tasks were videotaped at three points in time, one prior to the intervention (pre), a second immediately following the intervention (post) and a third three weeks after the intervention (follow-up). The video-recorded files were coded using the Friendship Observation Scale to ascertain the frequencies of positive and negative social interactions and collaborative play. Differences in these behaviors were tested for significance using nonparametric statistical tests. There were significantly higher rates of positive social interactions and collaborative play, and lower rates of negative social interactions following the intervention suggesting generalization of the social skills learned during the intervention. Improvement was maintained when tested three weeks later. These findings provide support for the use of collaborative technology-based interventions within educational settings to enhance social interaction of children with HFASD.

  4. Heterogeneity in perceptual category learning by high functioning children with autism spectrum disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mercado, Eduardo; Church, Barbara A; Coutinho, Mariana V C; Dovgopoly, Alexander; Lopata, Christopher J; Toomey, Jennifer A; Thomeer, Marcus L

    2015-01-01

    Previous research suggests that high functioning (HF) children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) sometimes have problems learning categories, but often appear to perform normally in categorization tasks. The deficits that individuals with ASD show when learning categories have been attributed to executive dysfunction, general deficits in implicit learning, atypical cognitive strategies, or abnormal perceptual biases and abilities. Several of these psychological explanations for category learning deficits have been associated with neural abnormalities such as cortical underconnectivity. The present study evaluated how well existing neurally based theories account for atypical perceptual category learning shown by HF children with ASD across multiple category learning tasks involving novel, abstract shapes. Consistent with earlier results, children's performances revealed two distinct patterns of learning and generalization associated with ASD: one was indistinguishable from performance in typically developing children; the other revealed dramatic impairments. These two patterns were evident regardless of training regimen or stimulus set. Surprisingly, some children with ASD showed both patterns. Simulations of perceptual category learning could account for the two observed patterns in terms of differences in neural plasticity. However, no current psychological or neural theory adequately explains why a child with ASD might show such large fluctuations in category learning ability across training conditions or stimulus sets.

  5. Selective impairment of cognitive empathy for moral judgment in adults with high functioning autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gleichgerrcht, Ezequiel; Torralva, Teresa; Rattazzi, Alexia; Marenco, Victoria; Roca, María; Manes, Facundo

    2013-10-01

    Faced with a moral dilemma, conflict arises between a cognitive controlled response aimed at maximizing welfare, i.e. the utilitarian judgment, and an emotional aversion to harm, i.e. the deontological judgment. In the present study, we investigated moral judgment in adult individuals with high functioning autism/Asperger syndrome (HFA/AS), a clinical population characterized by impairments in prosocial emotions and social cognition. In Experiment 1, we compared the response patterns of HFA/AS participants and neurotypical controls to moral dilemmas with low and high emotional saliency. We found that HFA/AS participants more frequently delivered the utilitarian judgment. Their perception of appropriateness of moral transgression was similar to that of controls, but HFA/AS participants reported decreased levels of emotional reaction to the dilemma. In Experiment 2, we explored the way in which demographic, clinical and social cognition variables including emotional and cognitive aspects of empathy and theory of mind influenced moral judgment. We found that utilitarian HFA/AS participants showed a decreased ability to infer other people's thoughts and to understand their intentions, as measured both by performance on neuropsychological tests and through dispositional measures. We conclude that greater prevalence of utilitarianism in HFA/AS is associated with difficulties in specific aspects of social cognition.

  6. A connectionist model of category learning by individuals with high-functioning autism spectrum disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dovgopoly, Alexander; Mercado, Eduardo

    2013-06-01

    Individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) show atypical patterns of learning and generalization. We explored the possible impacts of autism-related neural abnormalities on perceptual category learning using a neural network model of visual cortical processing. When applied to experiments in which children or adults were trained to classify complex two-dimensional images, the model can account for atypical patterns of perceptual generalization. This is only possible, however, when individual differences in learning are taken into account. In particular, analyses performed with a self-organizing map suggested that individuals with high-functioning ASD show two distinct generalization patterns: one that is comparable to typical patterns, and a second in which there is almost no generalization. The model leads to novel predictions about how individuals will generalize when trained with simplified input sets and can explain why some researchers have failed to detect learning or generalization deficits in prior studies of category learning by individuals with autism. On the basis of these simulations, we propose that deficits in basic neural plasticity mechanisms may be sufficient to account for the atypical patterns of perceptual category learning and generalization associated with autism, but they do not account for why only a subset of individuals with autism would show such deficits. If variations in performance across subgroups reflect heterogeneous neural abnormalities, then future behavioral and neuroimaging studies of individuals with ASD will need to account for such disparities.

  7. Decreased Modulation of EEG Oscillations in High-Functioning Autism During a Motor Control Task

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshua Benjamin Ewen

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Autism spectrum disorders (ASD are thought to result in part from altered cortical excitatory-inhibitory balance; this pathophysiology may impact the generation of oscillations on EEG. We investigated premotor-parietal cortical physiology associated with praxis, which has strong theoretical and empirical associations with ASD symptomatology. 25 children with high-functioning ASD (HFA and 33 controls performed a praxis task involving the pantomiming of tool use, while EEG was recorded. We assessed task-related modulation of signal power in alpha and beta frequency bands. Compared with controls, subjects with HFA showed 27% less left central (motor/premotor beta (18-22 Hz event-related desynchronization (ERD (p = 0.030, as well as 24% less left parietal alpha (7-13 Hz ERD (p = 0.046. Within the HFA group, blunting of central ERD attenuation was associated with impairments in clinical measures of praxis imitation (r = -0.4; p = 0.04 and increased autism severity (r = 0.48; p = 0.016. The modulation of central beta activity is associated, among other things, with motor imagery, which may be necessary for imitation. Impaired imitation has been associated with core features of ASD. Altered modulation of oscillatory activity may be mechanistically involved in those aspects of motor network function that relate to the core symptoms of ASD.

  8. New biobased high functionality polyols and their use in polyurethane coatings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Xiao; Webster, Dean C

    2012-02-13

    High-functionality polyols for application in polyurethanes (PUs) were prepared by epoxide ring-opening reactions from epoxidized sucrose esters of soybean oil-epoxidized sucrose soyates-in which secondary hydroxyl groups were generated from epoxides on fatty acid chains. Ester polyols were prepared by using a base-catalyzed acid-epoxy reaction with carboxylic acids (e.g., acetic acid); ether polyols were prepared by using an acid-catalyzed alcohol-epoxy reaction with monoalcohols (e.g., methanol). The polyols were characterized by using gel permeation chromatography, FTIR spectroscopy, (1)H NMR spectroscopy, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), and viscosity measurements. PU thermosets were prepared by using aliphatic polyisocyanates based on isophorone diisocyanate and hexamethylene diisocyanate. The properties of the PUs were studied by performing tensile testing, dynamic mechanical analysis, DSC, and thermogravimetric analysis. The properties of PU coatings on steel substrates were evaluated by using ASTM methods to determine coating hardness, adhesion, solvent resistance, and ductility. Compared to a soy triglyceride polyol, sucrose soyate polyols provide greater hardness and range of cross-link density to PU thermosets because of the unique structure of these macromolecules: well-defined compact structures with a rigid sucrose core coupled with high hydroxyl group functionality. Copyright © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  9. Executive Functions and Prosodic Abilities in Children With High-Functioning Autism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marisa G. Filipe

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Little is known about the relationship between prosodic abilities and executive function skills. As deficits in executive functions (EFs and prosodic impairments are characteristics of autism, we examined how EFs are related to prosodic performance in children with high-functioning autism (HFA. Fifteen children with HFA (M = 7.4 years; SD = 1.12, matched to 15 typically developing peers on age, gender, and non-verbal intelligence participated in the study. The Profiling Elements of Prosody in Speech-Communication (PEPS-C was used to assess prosodic performance. The Children’s Color Trails Test (CCTT-1, CCTT-2, and CCTT Interference Index was used as an indicator of executive control abilities. Our findings suggest no relation between prosodic abilities and visual search and processing speed (assessed by CCTT-1, but a significant link between prosodic skills and divided attention, working memory/sequencing, set-switching, and inhibition (assessed by CCTT-2 and CCTT Interference Index. These findings may be of clinical relevance since difficulties in EFs and prosodic deficits are characteristic of many neurodevelopmental disorders. Future studies are needed to further investigate the nature of the relationship between impaired prosody and executive (dysfunction.

  10. EEG study of the mirror neuron system in children with high functioning autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raymaekers, Ruth; Wiersema, Jan Roelf; Roeyers, Herbert

    2009-12-22

    Individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) are characterised by an impaired imitation, thought to be critical for early affective, social and communicative development. One neurological system proposed to underlie this function is the mirror neuron system (MNS) and previous research has suggested a dysfunctional MNS in ASD. The EEG mu frequency, more precisely the reduction of the mu power, is considered to be an index for mirror neuron functioning. In this work, EEG registrations are used to evaluate the mirror neuron functioning of twenty children with high functioning autism (HFA) between 8 and 13 years. Their mu suppression to self-executed and observed movement is compared to typically developing peers and related to age, intelligence and symptom severity. Both groups show significant mu suppression to both self and observed hand movements. No group differences are found in either condition. These results do not support the hypothesis that HFA is associated with a dysfunctional MNS. The discrepancy with previous research is discussed in light of the heterogeneity of the ASD population.

  11. High-functionalization of fiber-forming materials. Polymer membrane as separation media

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kamide, Kenji; Iijima, Hideki (Asahi Chemical Industry Co. Ltd., Osaka, (Japan))

    1989-07-05

    For obtaining higher functions by donating specific functions to the fiber, it is effective to change its structure. Various separating films which is known as an example of the high-functionalization of the fiber materials is an example of the fiber structure conversion from the view-point of substance-permeating function. This report firstly describes the features and types of the film separation method and the production of films, and then on the correlation between the structure and functions of the fibers, the correlation of the structure and the separating characteristics of the films, and the mechanism of the emergence of the film structure. Finally, applied examples of the film separating method in the medical field are described. In the medical liquid film separation, blood or plasma are the object of the separation. Blood has various components whose concentration and particle size are multiplicated, and yet requires a tremendous separating accuracy when compared with the industrial separation. Examples are a blood dialyzer film and an ultrafiltration film (film for plasma separation and virus separation), etc.. 28 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs.

  12. Social problem-solving in high-functioning schizophrenia: specific deficits in sending skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaskinn, Anja; Sundet, Kjetil; Hultman, Christina M; Friis, Svein; Andreassen, Ole A

    2009-02-28

    This study examined social problem-solving performance in high-functioning schizophrenia (n=26) and its relation to neurocognition. Ten healthy controls were used as a comparison group. Social problem-solving was assessed with the Assessment of Interpersonal Problem Solving Skills (AIPSS) method. The schizophrenia group was outperformed by healthy controls on all AIPSS measures, reaching statistical significance for sending skills. Exploration of the internal relationship between different aspects of social problem-solving showed that identification of an interpersonal problem (a receiving skill) was not correlated with formulating solutions to the problem (processing skills) or successfully role-playing solutions (interpersonal sending skills). Non-verbal performance in the role-play (an interpersonal sending skill) was not significantly correlated with identification of an interpersonal problem or the generation of solutions. This suggests a dissociation of social problem-solving processes. Social problem-solving was significantly associated with psychomotor speed, verbal learning, semantic fluency and cognitive flexibility. Clinical implications are that remediation of social problem-solving skills should focus on role-playing (nonverbal) interpersonal behaviors, rather than on verbally analyzing an interpersonal problem and clarifying alternative solutions.

  13. Marxismo original e Utopia

    OpenAIRE

    Nildo Viana

    2016-01-01

    O marxismo original – desenvolvido por Marx e Engels – geralmente é contraposto ao socialismo utópico como se fosse uma recusa absoluta e total. O objetivo do artigo é discutir a relação entre o marxismo original e o socialismo utópico e com a utopia. A tese defendida no artigo é a de que o caráter antiutópico do marxismo original é uma simplificação, pois o que ele realiza é uma suplantação do utopismo, o que significa manter os seus elementos positivos e negar os seus elementos negativos. P...

  14. 77 FR 71404 - Notice of Intent to License Government-Owned Inventions; Intent to License on a Partially...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-30

    ... DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Department of the Army Notice of Intent to License Government-Owned Inventions; Intent to License on a Partially-Exclusive Basis AGENCY: Department of the Army, DoD. ACTION... by the Secretary of the Army. The US Army Edgewood Chemical Biological Center intends to license...

  15. 78 FR 11023 - Changes To Implement the First Inventor To File Provisions of the Leahy-Smith America Invents Act

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-14

    ... which the patent or application, as the case may be, names another inventor and was effectively filed... publication derived the claimed invention from the inventor or a joint inventor named in the application or... filed not later than twelve months (six months in the case of a design application) after the date on...

  16. The Associations among Preschool Children's Growth in Early Reading, Executive Function, and Invented Spelling Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chenyi; Bingham, Gary E.; Quinn, Margaret F.

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to examine associations among children's emergent literacy (early reading), language, executive function (EF), and invented spelling skills across prekindergarten. Participants included 123, primarily African American, 4-year-old children enrolled in a variety of prekindergarten settings. In addition to…

  17. A study of inventiveness among Society of Interventional Radiology members and the impact of their social networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Kieran J; Elias, Gavin; Jaffer, Hussein; Mandani, Rashesh

    2013-07-01

    To investigate the nature of inventiveness among members of the Society of Interventional Radiology (SIR) and learn what influenced the inventors and assisted their creativity. The membership directory of the SIR was cross-referenced with filings at the United States Patent and Trademark Organization (USPTO) and the Patent Cooperation Treaty (PCT). The inventors were queried with an online survey to illuminate their institutions of training and practice as well as enabling or inhibiting factors to their inventiveness. Responses were analyzed through the construction of social network maps and thematic and graphical analysis. It was found that 457 members of the SIR held 2,492 patents or patent filings. After 1986, there was a marked and sustained increase in patent filings. The online survey was completed by 73 inventors holding 470 patents and patent filings. The social network maps show the key role of large academic interventional radiology departments and individual inventors in the formation of interconnectivity among inventors and the creation of the intellectual property (IP). Key inhibitors of the inventive process include lack of mentorship, of industry contacts, and of legal advice. Key enablers include mentorship, motivation, and industry contacts. Creativity and inventiveness in SIR members stem from institutions that are hubs of innovation and networks of key innovators; inventors are facilitated by personal motivation, mentorship, and strong industry contacts. Copyright © 2013 SIR. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Examining the Relationship between Emergent Literacy Skills and Invented Spelling in Prekindergarten Spanish-Speaking Dual Language Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pendergast, Meghan; Bingham, Gary; Patton-Terry, Nicole

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to examine associations among English and Spanish emergent literacy skills of prekindergarten (pre-K) Spanish-speaking dual language learners in relation to their English invented spelling. Study participants included 141 Spanish-speaking 4-year-old children enrolled in state-funded pre-K programs in a large…

  19. 78 FR 16182 - Changes To Implement the First Inventor To File Provisions of the Leahy-Smith America Invents Act...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-14

    ...-2012-0015] RIN 0651-AC77 Changes To Implement the First Inventor To File Provisions of the Leahy-Smith... inventor to file provisions of the Leahy-Smith America Invents Act (AIA) (First Inventor to File Final Rule... provisions of the AIA. See Changes To Implement the First Inventor To File Provisions of the Leahy-Smith...

  20. 78 FR 17871 - Changes To Implement the Technical Corrections to the Leahy-Smith America Invents Act as to Inter...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-25

    ... Business Method Patents--Definition of Technological Invention, 77 FR 48734 (Aug. 14, 2012) (final rule... Inter Partes Review AGENCY: United States Patent and Trademark Office, Commerce. ACTION: Final rule..., United States Code (``AIA Technical Corrections Act''). Consistent with the statutory changes, this final...

  1. 76 FR 6456 - Intent To Grant an Exclusive License for a U.S. Government-Owned Invention

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-04

    ... DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Department of the Army Intent To Grant an Exclusive License for a U.S. Government-Owned Invention AGENCY: Department of the Army, DoD. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: In accordance with 35 U.S.C. 209(e), and 37 CFR 404.7(a)(1)(i), announcement is made of the intent to grant an exclusive...

  2. Heightened brain response to pain anticipation in high-functioning adults with autism spectrum disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Xiaosi; Zhou, Thomas J; Anagnostou, Evdokia; Soorya, Latha; Kolevzon, Alexander; Hof, Patrick R; Fan, Jin

    2018-03-01

    Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is marked by both socio-communicative difficulties and abnormalities in sensory processing. Much of the work on sensory deficits in ASD has focused on tactile sensations and the perceptual aspects of somatosensation, such as encoding of stimulus intensity and location. Although aberrant pain processing has often been noted in clinical observations of patients with ASD, it remains largely uninvestigated. Importantly, the neural mechanism underlying higher order cognitive aspects of pain processing such as pain anticipation also remains unknown. Here we examined both pain perception and anticipation in high-functioning adults with ASD and matched healthy controls (HC) using an anticipatory pain paradigm in combination with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and concurrent skin conductance response (SCR) recording. Participants were asked to choose a level of electrical stimulation that would feel moderately painful to them. Compared to HC group, ASD group chose a lower level of stimulation prior to fMRI. However, ASD participants showed greater activation in both rostral and dorsal anterior cingulate cortex during the anticipation of stimulation, but not during stimulation delivery. There was no significant group difference in insular activation during either pain anticipation or perception. However, activity in the left anterior insula correlated with SCR during pain anticipation. Taken together, these results suggest that ASD is marked with aberrantly higher level of sensitivity to upcoming aversive stimuli, which may reflect abnormal attentional orientation to nociceptive signals and a failure in interoceptive inference. © 2017 Federation of European Neuroscience Societies and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Abstract analogical reasoning in high-functioning children with autism spectrum disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Adam E; Kenworthy, Lauren; Mosner, Maya G; Gallagher, Natalie M; Fearon, Edward W; Balhana, Carlos D; Yerys, Benjamin E

    2014-12-01

    Children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) exhibit a deficit in spontaneously recognizing abstract similarities that are crucial for generalizing learning to new situations. This may contribute to deficits in the development of appropriate schemas for navigating novel situations, including social interactions. Analogical reasoning is the central cognitive mechanism that enables typically developing children to understand abstract similarities between different situations. Intriguingly, studies of high-functioning children with ASD point to a relative cognitive strength in basic, nonabstract forms of analogical reasoning. If this analogical reasoning ability extends to abstract analogical reasoning (i.e., between superficially dissimilar situations), it may provide a bridge between a cognitive capability and core ASD deficits in areas such as generalization and categorization. This study tested whether preserved analogical reasoning abilities in ASD can be extended to abstract analogical reasoning, using photographs of real-world items and situations. Abstractness of the analogies was determined via a quantitative measure of semantic distance derived from latent semantic analysis. Children with ASD performed as well as typically developing children at identifying abstract analogical similarities when explicitly instructed to apply analogical reasoning. Individual differences in abstract analogical reasoning ability predicted individual differences in a measure of social function in the ASD group. Preliminary analyses indicated that children with ASD, but not typically developing children, showed an effect of age on abstract analogical reasoning. These results provide new evidence that children with ASD are capable of identifying abstract similarities through analogical reasoning, pointing to abstract analogical reasoning as a potential lever for improving generalization skills and social function in ASD. © 2014 International Society for Autism Research, Wiley

  4. Impaired theory of mind for moral judgment in high-functioning autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moran, Joseph M; Young, Liane L; Saxe, Rebecca; Lee, Su Mei; O'Young, Daniel; Mavros, Penelope L; Gabrieli, John D

    2011-02-15

    High-functioning autism (ASD) is characterized by real-life difficulties in social interaction; however, these individuals often succeed on laboratory tests that require an understanding of another person's beliefs and intentions. This paradox suggests a theory of mind (ToM) deficit in adults with ASD that has yet to be demonstrated in an experimental task eliciting ToM judgments. We tested whether ASD adults would show atypical moral judgments when they need to consider both the intentions (based on ToM) and outcomes of a person's actions. In experiment 1, ASD and neurotypical (NT) participants performed a ToM task designed to test false belief understanding. In experiment 2, the same ASD participants and a new group of NT participants judged the moral permissibility of actions, in a 2 (intention: neutral/negative) × 2 (outcome: neutral/negative) design. Though there was no difference between groups on the false belief task, there was a selective difference in the moral judgment task for judgments of accidental harms, but not neutral acts, attempted harms, or intentional harms. Unlike the NT group, which judged accidental harms less morally wrong than attempted harms, the ASD group did not reliably judge accidental and attempted harms as morally different. In judging accidental harms, ASD participants appeared to show an underreliance on information about a person's innocent intention and, as a direct result, an overreliance on the action's negative outcome. These findings reveal impairments in integrating mental state information (e.g., beliefs, intentions) for moral judgment.

  5. Dohsa Training and Theory of Mind in High Functioning Autistic Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Naderi

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The theory of mind hypothesis states that children with autism are impaired in the development of the ability to appreciate their own and other people's mental states. The people with Autism Spectrum Disorder needs treatment approach which to strengthen their movement, focus of attention, eye contact and relaxation. "Dohsa-hou" is a Japanese psycho-rehabilitation method by motor training, that many of researches investigated its effectiveness on many aspects of autism spectrum disorders The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of Dohsa training on theory of mind in high-functioning autistic children. Methods: In a quasi-experimental study with pre-test, post-test designs without control group, 6 children with Autistic Spectrum Disorder participated in the study Pre-test was administered for all participants by theory of mind questionnaire. Participants were given Dohsa training for a period of 4 weeks, 3 sessions of one hour a week. At the end of training, the post test was done by the same questionnaire. In the study, two tools for measuring the effect were used Autism Spectrum Screening Questionnaire and Theory of mind Questionnaire. Results: The results showed that there were significant differences between the subjects participated in treatment before and after the intervention, and indicated that in the subjects after the 2 weeks of enforcement of treatment and one month after performing the post-test there was no significant difference. Discussion: As data showed, Dohsa training was an effective treatment for autistic children and movement has very important role in cognition, learning and cognition performance, especially theory of mind because movement and rhythm stimulate the brain. Together these findings suggest that it may be the autistic children motivation to move in ways they have not tried before that led their improvement during this psycho-rehabilitative program which affect their cognition and theory of

  6. Imaging derived cortical thickness reduction in high-functioning autism: key regions and temporal slope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheel, Christian; Rotarska-Jagiela, Anna; Schilbach, Leonhard; Lehnhardt, Fritz G; Krug, Barbara; Vogeley, Kai; Tepest, Ralf

    2011-09-15

    Cortical thickness (CT) changes possibly contribute to the complex symptomatology of autism. The aberrant developmental trajectories underlying such differences in certain brain regions and their continuation in adulthood are a matter of intense debate. We studied 28 adults with high-functioning autism (HFA) and 28 control subjects matched for age, gender, IQ and handedness. A surface-based whole brain analysis utilizing FreeSurfer was employed to detect CT differences between the two diagnostic groups and to investigate the time course of age-related changes. Direct comparison with control subjects revealed thinner cortex in HFA in the posterior superior temporal sulcus (pSTS) of the left hemisphere. Considering the time course of CT development we found clusters around the pSTS and cuneus in the left and the paracentral lobule in the right hemisphere to be thinner in HFA with comparable age-related slopes in patients and controls. Conversely, we found clusters around the supramarginal gyrus and inferior parietal lobule (IPL) in the left and the precentral and postcentral gyrus in the right hemisphere to be thinner in HFA, but with different age-related slopes in patients and controls. In the latter regions CT showed a steady decrease in controls but no analogous thinning in HFA. CT analyses contribute in characterizing neuroanatomical correlates of HFA. Reduced CT is present in brain regions involved in social cognition. Furthermore, our results demonstrate that aberrant brain development leading to such differences is proceeding throughout adulthood. Discrepancies in prior morphometric studies may be induced by the complex time course of cortical changes. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. A behavioral comparison of male and female adults with high functioning autism spectrum conditions.

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    Meng-Chuan Lai

    Full Text Available Autism spectrum conditions (ASC affect more males than females in the general population. However, within ASC it is unclear if there are phenotypic sex differences. Testing for similarities and differences between the sexes is important not only for clinical assessment but also has implications for theories of typical sex differences and of autism. Using cognitive and behavioral measures, we investigated similarities and differences between the sexes in age- and IQ-matched adults with ASC (high-functioning autism or Asperger syndrome. Of the 83 (45 males and 38 females participants, 62 (33 males and 29 females met Autism Diagnostic Interview-Revised (ADI-R cut-off criteria for autism in childhood and were included in all subsequent analyses. The severity of childhood core autism symptoms did not differ between the sexes. Males and females also did not differ in self-reported empathy, systemizing, anxiety, depression, and obsessive-compulsive traits/symptoms or mentalizing performance. However, adult females with ASC showed more lifetime sensory symptoms (p = 0.036, fewer current socio-communication difficulties (p = 0.001, and more self-reported autistic traits (p = 0.012 than males. In addition, females with ASC who also had developmental language delay had lower current performance IQ than those without developmental language delay (p<0.001, a pattern not seen in males. The absence of typical sex differences in empathizing-systemizing profiles within the autism spectrum confirms a prediction from the extreme male brain theory. Behavioral sex differences within ASC may also reflect different developmental mechanisms between males and females with ASC. We discuss the importance of the superficially better socio-communication ability in adult females with ASC in terms of why females with ASC may more often go under-recognized, and receive their diagnosis later, than males.

  8. The integration of prosodic speech in high functioning autism: a preliminary FMRI study.

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    Isabelle Hesling

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Autism is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by a specific triad of symptoms such as abnormalities in social interaction, abnormalities in communication and restricted activities and interests. While verbal autistic subjects may present a correct mastery of the formal aspects of speech, they have difficulties in prosody (music of speech, leading to communication disorders. Few behavioural studies have revealed a prosodic impairment in children with autism, and among the few fMRI studies aiming at assessing the neural network involved in language, none has specifically studied prosodic speech. The aim of the present study was to characterize specific prosodic components such as linguistic prosody (intonation, rhythm and emphasis and emotional prosody and to correlate them with the neural network underlying them.We used a behavioural test (Profiling Elements of the Prosodic System, PEPS and fMRI to characterize prosodic deficits and investigate the neural network underlying prosodic processing. Results revealed the existence of a link between perceptive and productive prosodic deficits for some prosodic components (rhythm, emphasis and affect in HFA and also revealed that the neural network involved in prosodic speech perception exhibits abnormal activation in the left SMG as compared to controls (activation positively correlated with intonation and emphasis and an absence of deactivation patterns in regions involved in the default mode.These prosodic impairments could not only result from activation patterns abnormalities but also from an inability to adequately use the strategy of the default network inhibition, both mechanisms that have to be considered for decreasing task performance in High Functioning Autism.

  9. Feelings of regret and disappointment in adults with high-functioning autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zalla, Tiziana; Sirigu, Angela; Robic, Suzanne; Chaste, Pauline; Leboyer, Marion; Coricelli, Giorgio

    2014-09-01

    Impairments in emotional processing in Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASDs) can be characterised by failure to generate and recognize self-reflective, cognitive-based emotions, such as pride, embarrassment and shame. Among this type of emotions, regret and disappointment, as well as their positive counterparts, result from a counterfactual comparison, that is the comparison between an actual value ("what is") and a fictive value ("what might have been"). However, while disappointment is experienced when the obtained outcome is worse than the expected outcome that might have occurred from the same choice, regret occurs when one experiences an outcome that is worse than the outcome of foregone choices. By manipulating a simple gambling task, we examined subjective reports on the intensity of negative and positive emotions in a group of adults with High-Functioning Autism or Asperger syndrome (HFA/AS), and a control group matched for age, gender and educational level. Participants were asked to choose between two lotteries with different levels of risk under two conditions of outcome feedback: (i) Partial, in which only the outcome of the chosen lottery was visible, (ii) Complete, in which the outcomes of the two lotteries were simultaneously visible. By comparing partial and complete conditions, we aimed to investigate the differential effect between disappointment and regret, as well as between their positive counterparts. Relative to the control participants (CP), the group with HFA/AS reported reduced regret and no difference between regret and disappointment, along with a preserved ability to use counterfactual thinking and similar choice behaviour. Difficulties to distinguish the feeling of regret in participants with HFA/AS can be explained by diminished emotional awareness, likely associated with an abnormal fronto-limbic connectivity. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Study the Relationship of Executive Functions with Behavioral Symptoms in Children with High-Functioning Autism

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    Vali Shiri

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The relation between autism disorder’s symptoms and cognitive capabilities can help with a better phenotype description of this disorder and can facilitate its pathological evaluation and treatment. Destruction of executive functions seems to be one of the cognitive reasons of potential phenotype in autism disorder. Thus, the present paper aims to study the relationship between executive dysfunction and autism disorder’s symptoms. Materials & Methods: In this cross-sectional research, 50 children with high-functioning autism were selected using convenience sampling method from Behara, Tehranpars and Roshd centers. Then, the GARS test and Autism Spectrum Screening Questionnaire was completed by therapists and neuropsychological tests of Strop and continuous performance test and shift attention were taken by the subjects. Pearson correlation coefficient and multi-variant regression were used for data analysis. Results: There is a significant positive relationship between selective attention with communicative and social interaction symptoms, sustained attention with social interaction symptoms and repetitive behaviors, shifting attention with communicative, social interaction and repetitive behavior symptoms (P<0.001 (P<0.01 (P<0.05. In addition, the results of regression analysis also revealed that selective attention and shifting attention can predict communication, and sustained attention can predict social interaction and repetitive behaviors symptoms (P<0.01 (P<0.05. Conclusion: The results obtained by this study indicate the significant role of executive functions in autistic symptoms. Thus, it is recommended to consider new treatment interventions in repairing executive functions for treatment of children with autistic disorder.

  11. Functional over-redundancy and high functional vulnerability in global fish faunas on tropical reefs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mouillot, David; Villéger, Sébastien; Parravicini, Valeriano; Kulbicki, Michel; Arias-González, Jesus Ernesto; Bender, Mariana; Chabanet, Pascale; Floeter, Sergio R; Friedlander, Alan; Vigliola, Laurent; Bellwood, David R

    2014-09-23

    When tropical systems lose species, they are often assumed to be buffered against declines in functional diversity by the ability of the species-rich biota to display high functional redundancy: i.e., a high number of species performing similar functions. We tested this hypothesis using a ninefold richness gradient in global fish faunas on tropical reefs encompassing 6,316 species distributed among 646 functional entities (FEs): i.e., unique combinations of functional traits. We found that the highest functional redundancy is located in the Central Indo-Pacific with a mean of 7.9 species per FE. However, this overall level of redundancy is disproportionately packed into few FEs, a pattern termed functional over-redundancy (FOR). For instance, the most speciose FE in the Central Indo-Pacific contains 222 species (out of 3,689) whereas 38% of FEs (180 out of 468) have no functional insurance with only one species. Surprisingly, the level of FOR is consistent across the six fish faunas, meaning that, whatever the richness, over a third of the species may still be in overrepresented FEs whereas more than one third of the FEs are left without insurance, these levels all being significantly higher than expected by chance. Thus, our study shows that, even in high-diversity systems, such as tropical reefs, functional diversity remains highly vulnerable to species loss. Although further investigations are needed to specifically address the influence of redundant vs. vulnerable FEs on ecosystem functioning, our results suggest that the promised benefits from tropical biodiversity may not be as strong as previously thought.

  12. O inventário de recursos do ambiente familiar The home environment resources scale

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    Edna Maria Marturano

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste artigo é descrever o desenvolvimento do RAF - Inventário de Recursos do Ambiente Familiar. Baseado na concepção ecológica do desenvolvimento, o RAF avalia recursos do ambiente familiar que podem contribuir para o aprendizado acadêmico nos anos do ensino fundamental, em três domínios: recursos que promovem processos proximais; atividades que sinalizam estabilidade na vida familiar; práticas parentais que promovem a ligação família-escola. Uma revisão de pesquisas que utilizaram o RAF indica índices aceitáveis de consistência interna, bem como associação entre escores no RAF e indicadores de desempenho escolar e ajustamento. Passeios, brinquedos e livros, bem como oportunidades de interação com os pais em casa, foram recursos relacionados a indicadores de bom desempenho escolar e ajustamento. Embora ainda sejam necessários estudos de validação e fidedignidade, o inventário tem sido uma ferramenta útil para pesquisadores e pode ser usado por profissionais que trabalham em contexto clínico ou educacional.The aim of this article is to describe the development of the HERS - Home Environment Resources Scale. The HERS is based on an ecological view of development. It assesses support resources available to the child at home, which can contribute for school achievement. These resources relate to three domains: resources that promote proximal processes; activities that signal stability in family processes; parental practices that promote a home-school linkage. Previous research using the HERS has indicated acceptable indexes of internal consistency, as well as significant associations between HERS scores and measures of academic achievement and adjustment. Leisure activities, toys, books, and opportunities for the child to interact with parents at home were all related to child achievement and adjustment. Although further studies are needed to secure its reliability and validity, the instrument has proven to be a

  13. Libertarianism and Original Appropriation

    OpenAIRE

    Dominiak, Łukasz

    2017-01-01

    The article is devoted to the problem of the structure of libertarian theory of justice. It tries to present a map of the main concepts and principles of this theory and to investigate its possible justifications. It explains such fundamental concepts as original appropriation, homesteading, labour theory of property or first possession theory of original appropriation. The article shows merits and drawbacks of alternative libertarian principles of justice in first acquisition and proposes a ...

  14. A play´s libretto “Sami”. The invention of evil. A Halloween tale

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    Carlos Bernardo González León

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available In an atmosphere of comedy, satire and play, we go through the most significant celestial event in the Western religious view on the myth of creation of the Universe, and the celestial battle between Luzbel who, out of pride, rebelled against God, desiring to be like him, and was expelled from heaven by the Archangel Michael as a punishment, along with the army of rebellious angels who were dragged by him (a group of innocent cherubim, being known from that time as the Fallen Angel: Bearer of Light; this is, the logos (who delivers the wisdom and the fire to men; but also becomes the supreme archetype of the Rebel, the first universal separatist and autonomist, for the sake of freedom and anarchy. And is in this polarisation of the medieval mind that appears what we know as evil: an invention of human culture. Here the classic characters of the Middle Ages are reinterpreted: God, the Death, demons, angels and cherubim, are mixed with classic Celtic spirits, fairies, witches, and Merlin, coinciding with the naturalistic and ecological spirit of the ";;new age” in a fun recreation of this ultimate contradiction.

  15. From Bilski back to Benson: preemption, inventing around, and the case of genetic diagnostics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dreyfuss, Rochelle; Evans, James P

    2011-06-01

    The long-anticipated decision in Bilski v. Kappos was supposed to end uncertainty regarding the patentability of process claims (or, at the least, business method claims). Instead, the opinion featured a series of anomalies: The Court emphasized strict construction of the Patent Act, but acknowledged three judge-made exceptions to patentability. It disapproved State Street, the Federal Circuit case that had upheld business method patents, but could muster only four votes for the proposition that business methods are in fact unpatentable. But even though the Court upheld business method patents, it invalidated all of Bilski's hedging claims. And while the Justices agreed on one thing - a patent that "preempts" something (a mathematical formula, an approach, a commonly used idea, a wide swath of technological developments, the public's access) is bad - they failed to operationalize the concept. That problem had plagued the law prior to State Street; in the interest of preventing the same set of problems from recurring, this Article uses recent empirical studies on gene patents to tease out indicia ("clues") to supplement the machine-or-transformation test for determining when a claim is preemptive and therefore invalid. Chief among these clues is the inability to invent around claims that cover broad prospects.

  16. PENGEMBANGAN DESAIN STARTING BLOCK KOLAM RENANG DENGAN MENGGUNAKAN THEORY OF INVENTIVE PROBLEM SOLVING (TRIZ

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    Denny Nurkertamanda

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Swimmingpool starting block is one of swimming equiptment that must be used in swimming sport competition.It used not only by senior athlete but also the beginner. In addition, it used not only in one swimmingpool butalso another pool which has different height of watersurface and swimmingpoll wallside.Now, the condition of starting block only fit with some of athlete. The other athlete had difficulties when use it.Because of that, design improvement need to be done for starting block to be adaptable for all athlete in anyage and adaptable for the condition of watersurface.Adaptability fitur improvement for starting block makes fitur stabilition of product composition getting worse,and those things is unwanted. So that Theory of Inventive Problem Solving (TRIZ method is needed to solvethe problem technical contradiction so the ideal final output can be reached.Adaptable starting block design can be reached after solve the technical contradiction happened when solvingthe problems used TRIZ. Reducing the parameters which had disadvantages for the ideal final product suchas: weight of the moving object, quantity of the material used, dangerous factor of the object, and dangerousfactors from environtment.

  17. Roger Hayward and the Invention of the Two-Mirror Schmidt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, T. E.

    2005-12-01

    Roger Hayward (1899-1979), now virtually unknown, was a multitalented architect, scientific illustrator, and optical inventor. Remembered primarily for illustrating Scientific American magazine's Amateur Scientist column between 1949 and 1974, he also illustrated more than a dozen textbooks in optics, physics, geology, oceanography, and chemistry, several of which became classics in their fields. He designed façades with astronomical themes for major buildings in Los Angeles, California, and sculpted mammoth, realistic models of the moon for Griffith Observatory, Adler Planetarium, and Disneyland. Throughout his life, he recreationally painted watercolors and oils that at least one critic likened to the work of John Singer Sargent. Hayward is least known as an optical designer, yet he made significant contributions to the DU spectrophotometer that established the multimillion-dollar company Beckman Instruments. During the pre-radar days of World War II at Mount Wilson Observatory, Hayward invented a classified Cassegrain version of the Schmidt telescope especially adapted for nighttime infrared aerial photography, plus extraordinarily simple machines that allowed inexperienced soldiers to grind, polish, and test accurate aspheric Schmidt correcting plates at speeds compatible with mass production - and later received U.S. patents for them all. This paper, drawn in part from unpublished letters between Hayward and Albert G. Ingalls, will feature little-known images of Hayward's work.

  18. Inventário dos esquemas de gênero do autoconceito (IEGA

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    Adriana Giavoni

    Full Text Available Este trabalho apresenta a construção e validação do Inventário dos Esquemas de Gênero do Autoconceito (IEGA. Este instrumento avalia dois componentes do autoconceito - os esquemas masculino e feminino. Na etapa de construção foram levantadas e analisadas estatisticamente, características designadas à masculinidade e à feminilidade. Na etapa de validação, estas características passaram a compor as escalas masculina e feminina do IEGA. Em ambas as etapas, as amostras utilizadas foram compostas por estudantes universitários. Para a validade de construto foram realizadas análises fatoriais para ambas as escalas e análises da consistência interna dos fatores. Através do método Principal Axis Factoring (PAF e rotações oblíquas, as escalas masculina e feminina apresentaram estruturas multidimensionais. Devidamente validado, o IEGA pode ser utilizado para avaliar os esquemas masculino e feminino do autoconceito.

  19. The self invented personality? Reflections on authenticity and writing analytic papers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Astor, James

    2005-09-01

    One of the great themes of American literature is the self-invented personality, whether it is Scott Fitzgerald's Gatsby or one of Philip Roth's alter egos, such as Nathaniel Zuckerman. This is just one of several approaches which novelists employ. They take a problem from life, perhaps their own, and then embark on solving the problem of the book-which is how to write about this. Sometimes, as in Tobias Wolff's novel Old School, the personality of the narrator is woven into an exploration of the creative process itself. Wolff's novel concerns itself not just with writing but with how to become a writer. I explore how this process is similar to both writing about analysis and becoming an analyst. In doing this I discuss issues of authenticity, fiction, art, the effects of identification, the power of the super-ego, supervision and learning, integrity of life and work, envy and the xenocidal impulse, the regulation of our profession and the loss of trust, and in so doing join in discussion with Plaut, Wharton, Tuckett and others about professional communications, the internal world and the mysteriousness of our relation to our internal objects.

  20. [Medical inventions: developments and approaches in employer-employee [correction of worker-employee] relations].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teff, Zvi

    2012-11-01

    The past twenty years have witnessed a huge increase in research activity on the government health system in Israel. Consequently, a number of questions of enhanced importance arise: to whom the resultant IP (intellectual property) belongs?--to the researcher or the employer? and what compensation should the researcher receive for his inventive efforts? The government found many cases where the IP was registered in the name of the inventor/researcher, thus denying the government ownership of the IP. In 2009, the government sued Omryx over ownership of such an IP. Following these developments, the government issued new rules for management of IP in the government health system. They came into effect in November 2010. In many respects, the new rules are more stringent than the Israeli Patent Law in respect of the inventor. However, the stipulation of awards to the inventor in the new rules is generous. In order for the new rules to be enforceable, the following guidelines are recommended: The new rules should be more aligned with the Patent Law and with the meaning given to the Law by the judicial system, and There is need for the assent and awareness of health system workers to the conditions set out in the new rules, preferably in the form of new work contracts that clearly and concurrently delineate the worker's duties, particularly those pertaining to IP.