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Sample records for invasora undaria pinnatifida

  1. Do native grazers from Patagonia, Argentina, consume the invasive kelp Undaria pinnatifida? ¿Pueden los pastoreadores nativos de Patagonia, Argentina, consumir al alga invasora Undaria pinnatifida?

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    S. Valeria Teso

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The invasive kelp Undaria pinnatifida (Phaeophyceae, Laminariales was first reported in Golfo Nuevo in 1992 and since then it has spread widely over more than 170 km, all along the northern Patagonian coast, Argentina. Field observations in the region have indicated the potential role of invertebrate grazers, like the sea urchins Arbacia dufresnii and Pseudechinus magellanicus and the gastropod Tegula patagonica, in controlling algal density. Laboratory experiments were conducted to ascertain whether, and if so, to what extent these grazers actually feed on the algae. The studied sea urchins fed on the alga, whereas the snail scraped off biofouling adhered to its surface. Higher densities of grazers were observed on the kelp during summer and might be attributed to increasing in metabolism with increasing temperature, and degradation of blades and sporophylls, which possibly increase their palatability.El alga invasora Undaria pinnatifida (Phaeophyceae, Laminariales fue reportada por primera vez en Golfo Nuevo en 1992, dispersándose ampliamente a lo largo de 170 km de costa en el norte de la Patagonia, Argentina. Observaciones de campo hechas en los erizos de mar Arbacia dufresnii y Pseudechinus magellanicus y en el gasterópodo Tegula patagonica evidenciaron que son posibles consumidores de Undaria pinnatifida en la población local. Se realizaron experimentos de laboratorio con el objetivo de probar si estos pastoreadores eran capaces de consumir el alga. Los erizos de mar estudiados consumen el alga, mientras que el gasterópodo ramonea los epibiontes presentes sobre su superficie. Altas densidades de ramoneadores fueron encontradas sobre el alga durante el verano y podrían ser atribuidas a un aumento del su metabolismo con el aumento de la temperatura y a la degradación de las láminas y esporofilos, lo cual posiblemente aumente la palatabilidad del alga.

  2. Efecto del alga invasora Undaria pinnatifida sobre la comunidad de peces de arrecife en los golfos Norpatagónicos

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    Irigoyen, A.J.

    2010-01-01

    This study investigates the impact of Undaria pinnatifida on the reef fish assemblage associated with the coastal rocky reefs of Golfo Nuevo in northern Patagonia, Argentina. Undaria pinnatifida is a laminarian kelp, indigenous to the temperate regions of Japan, China and Korea. It has spread around the world by international shipping and has also been introduced in some regions for mariculture. Its expansion into the northern Patagonian gulfs and Peninsula Valdes, a UNESCO Natural Heritage ...

  3. Adsorption of copper onto char derived macro alga, Undaria pinnatifida

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, Hye Jung; Ko, Jeong Huy; Heo, Hyeon Su; Park, Hye Jin; BAe, Yoon Ju; Kim, Jung Hwan; Park, Young-Kwon

    2010-01-01

    Full text: A release of heavy metals into the environment by industrial activities raises much environmental problems because they tend to remain indefinitely, circulating and eventually accumulating throughout the food chain. Copper is essential to human life and health but, like all heavy metals, is potentially toxic as well. The excessive intakes of copper result in its accumulation in the liver and produce gastrointestinal problems, kidney damage, anemia, and continued inhalation of copper-containing sprays is linked with an increase in lung cancer among exposed people. Consequently, we need to eliminate the copper in drinking water. Also, growth rates of marine macro algae far exceed those of terrestrial biomass, without water limitations, so annual primary production rates are higher for the major marine macro algae than for most terrestrial biomass. According to these reasons, we try to use the macro alga, Undaria pinnatifida. Adsorption of heavy metals is one of the possible technologies involved in the removal of toxic metals from industrial waste streams and mining waste water using low-cost adsorbents. In recent years, many low-cost adsorbents such as seaweeds, activated carbon, etc. have been investigated, but the char by macro alga, Undaria pinnatifida, have not proven to be the most effective and promising substrates. The aim of this study is to remove copper from its aqueous solution by Undaria pinnatifida char for various parameters like pH, contact time, and Cu(II) concentration. The adsorption capacity of Cu(II) by Undaria pinnatifida char was investigated as a function of pH, contact time, and Cu(II) concentration at room temperature. And it was verified using equilibrium studies. (author)

  4. Complete Plastid Genome Sequence of the Brown Alga Undaria pinnatifida.

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    Lei Zhang

    Full Text Available In this study, we fully sequenced the circular plastid genome of a brown alga, Undaria pinnatifida. The genome is 130,383 base pairs (bp in size; it contains a large single-copy (LSC, 76,598 bp and a small single-copy region (SSC, 42,977 bp, separated by two inverted repeats (IRa and IRb: 5,404 bp. The genome contains 139 protein-coding, 28 tRNA, and 6 rRNA genes; none of these genes contains introns. Organization and gene contents of the U. pinnatifida plastid genome were similar to those of Saccharina japonica. There is a co-linear relationship between the plastid genome of U. pinnatifida and that of three previously sequenced large brown algal species. Phylogenetic analyses of 43 taxa based on 23 plastid protein-coding genes grouped all plastids into a red or green lineage. In the large brown algae branch, U. pinnatifida and S. japonica formed a sister clade with much closer relationship to Ectocarpus siliculosus than to Fucus vesiculosus. For the first time, the start codon ATT was identified in the plastid genome of large brown algae, in the atpA gene of U. pinnatifida. In addition, we found a gene-length change induced by a 3-bp repetitive DNA in ycf35 and ilvB genes of the U. pinnatifida plastid genome.

  5. Extracts from New Zealand Undaria pinnatifida Containing Fucoxanthin as Potential Functional Biomaterials against Cancer in Vitro

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    Sheng Kelvin Wang

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This study tested extracts from New Zealand seaweed Undaria pinnatifida containing fucoxanthin, in parallel with pure fucoxanthin, in nine human cancer cell lines, for anticancer activity. Growth inhibition effects of extracts from Undaria pinnatifida were found in all types of cancer cell lines in dose- and time- dependent manners. Cytotoxicity of fucoxanthin in three human non-cancer cell lines was also tested. Compared with pure fucoxanthin, our extracts containing low level of fucoxanthin were found to be more effective in inhibiting the growth of lung carcinoma, colon adenocarcinoma and neuroblastoma. Our results suggest that fucoxanthin is a functional biomaterial that may be used as a chemopreventive phytochemical or in combination chemotherapy. Furthermore, we show for the first time that some unknown compounds with potential selective anti-cancer effects may exist in extracts of New Zealand Undaria pinnatifida, and New Zealand Undaria pinnatifida could be used as a source for either functional biomaterial extraction or production of functional food.

  6. Growth and reproductive patterns of Undaria pinnatifida sporophytes in a cultivation farm in Busan, Korea.

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    Choi, Han Gil; Kim, Young Sik; Lee, Soon Jeong; Nam, Ki Wan

    2007-04-01

    Monthly growth and reproduction of Undaria pinnatifida sporophytes were examined over a period of 5 months in a cultivation farm in Korea. A total of 11 characters of Undaria were measured to determine a reliable morphological character representing its growth and reproduction. Plant weight of Undaria sporophytes increased steadily over the experimental period, but it increased in four different ways. Undaria pinnatifida increased body weight by growth in length and width (October-early December), and by growth in width with the thickening of blade and stipe when sporophytes began to be fertile (December-January). In the middle of January, growth in length and width had almost stopped with the maturation of Undaria sporophytes. Finally, the weight of Undaria increased again by growth in width at the end of February. Present results indicate that Undaria sporophytes increase body weight by growth in length and width at different times, and the relationship between reproduction and vegetative growth is exclusive. Plant weight was positively correlated and fitted well with stipe width and blade width. The blade of Undaria was very thin (ca. 254 mum) and breakable by wave action, but its stipe was strong and relatively thick (ca. 8.7 mm). Furthermore, the fertility of U. pinnatifida was fitted better with stipe width than blade width. Thus, we suggest that the stipe width is the most feasible character with which to estimate the growth and reproduction of U. pinnatifida sporophytes in the cultivation farm.

  7. Isolation of protoplasts from undaria pinnatifida by alginate lyase digestion

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    Xiaoke, Hu; Xiaolu, Jiang; Huashi, Guan

    2003-04-01

    The aim of this study is to isolate protoplasts from Undaria pinnatifida. Protoplasts of the alga were isolated enzymatically by using alginate lyase, which was prepared by fermenting culture of a strain Vibrio sp. 510. Monofacterial method was applied for optimizing digestion condition. The optimum condition for protoplast preparation is enzymatic digestion at 28°C for 2h using alginate lyase at the concentration of 213.36 U (8 mL) every 0.5g fresh thalline with NaCl 50 and at the shaking speed of 150 r min-1 during digestion. The protoplast yield can reach 2.62±0.09 million per 0.5 g fresh leave under the optimum condition. The enzyme activity is inhibited by Ca2+ and slightly enhanced by Fe2+ and Mn2+ at concentrations of 0.05, 0.08 and 0.10 mol L-1.

  8. Potential Use of Polysaccharides from the Brown Alga Undaria pinnatifida as Anticoagulants

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    Caterina Faggio

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Undaria pinnatifida (U. pinnatifida is a highly invasive species and has caused concern all over the world because it has invaded coastal environments, has the potential to displace native species, significantly alters habitat for associated fauna, and disturbs navigation. Any attempt to eradicate it would be futile, owing to the elusive, microscopic gametophyte, and because the alga thrives in sites rich in anthropic activities. Venice Lagoon is the largest Mediterranean transitional environment and the spot of the highest introduction of non-indigenous species, including U. pinnatifida, which is removed as a waste. We demonstrated that polysaccharide extracts from U. pinnatifida have an anticoagulant effect on human blood in vitro and are not cytotoxic. The results obtained by PT (normal values 70-120% and APTT (normal values 28-40s assays were significantly prolonged by the polysaccharide extracts of U. pinnatifida, therefore algal extracts are ideal candidates as antithrombotic agents.

  9. Abundance and recruitment data for Undaria pinnatifida in Brest harbour, France: Model versus field results

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    James T. Murphy

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The data presented in this article are related to the research article entitled “A modelling approach to explore the critical environmental parameters influencing the growth and establishment of the invasive seaweed Undaria pinnatifida in Europe” [1]. This article describes raw simulation data output from a novel individual-based model of the invasive kelp species Undaria pinnatifida. It also includes field data of monthly abundance and recruitment values for a population of invasive U. pinnatifida (in Brest harbour, France that were used to validate the model. The raw model output and field data are made publicly available in order to enable critical analysis of the model predictions and to inform future modelling efforts of the study species.

  10. Biosorption of Heavy Metal Ions to Brown Algae, Macrocystis pyrifera, Kjellmaniella crassiforia, and Undaria pinnatifida

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    Seki, Hideshi; Suzuki, Akira

    1998-01-01

    A fundamental study of the application of brown algae to the aqueous-phase separation of toxic heavy metals was carried out. The biosorption characteristics of cadmium and lead ions were determined with brown algae, Macrocystis pyrifera, Kjellmaniella crassiforia, and Undaria pinnatifida. A metal binding model proposed by the authors was used for the description of metal binding data. The results showed that the biosorption of bivalent metal ions to brown algae was due to bivalent binding to ...

  11. Arsenic in the environment. Extraction of arsenic species from the brown alga Undaria Pinnatifida (Wakame); Arsen in der Umwelt. Extraktion von Arsenspezies aus der Braunalge Undaria Pinnatifida (Wakame)

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    Mattusch, Juergen [Helmholtz-Zentrum fuer Umweltforschung - UFZ, Leipzig (Germany). Dept. Analytik; Walter, Regina; Landsmann, Peggy [Fachhochschule Merseburg (Germany). Fachbereich Ingenieurwesen und Naturwissenschaft

    2009-09-15

    Arsenic occurs in nature ubiquitously. One finds it in the ground, in the water, in air and also in our food chain. Humans take up the largest quantities of arsenic by consumption of sea fruits and by contaminated drinking water. One estimates that more than 100 million humans on earth drink arsenic-loaded water. Sea fruits and fishes may exhibit a high arsenic content. Arsenic then occurs in the form of organic compounds which have a lower toxicity than inorganic arsenic compounds. Under this aspect, report the authors of the contribution under consideration report on an extraction of arsenic species in the brown alga Undaria Pinnatifida and on an identification of this species by means of HPLC ESI / mass spectrometry. High extraction yields are obtained. With an alkaline eluent and an anion exchanger column, high chromatography yields are obtained. An identification of arsenic species is possible.

  12. Introduced brown algae in the North East Atlantic, with particular respect to Undaria pinnatifida (Harvey) suringar

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    Fletcher, R. L.; Farrell, P.

    1998-09-01

    The recent introduction of the macroalga Undaria pinnatifida (Harvey) Suringar into the North Atlantic is the latest of a large number of introductions, which have occurred over many years. Some have been deliberate introductions for mariculture or research, while most have been accidental, via vectors such as shipping and shellfish imports. Not all newly recorded species are introductions; some are thought to be merely extensions of distribution, e.g. Laminaria ochroleuca, while others may have been overlooked previously, e.g. Scytosiphon dotyi. Subsequent to its accidental introduction into the waters around the Mediterranean French coast at Sete, most likely with imported oysters, Undaria was deliberately introduced into the North Atlantic, to Brittany, in 1983 by IFREMER for commercial exploitation. Undaria has since spread from the original sites in Brittany, and is now established at several sites on the south coast of England. This paper discusses the introduced brown algae in the North Atlantic and outlines the establishment of Undaria in the UK.

  13. Melanogenesis inhibitory activity of Korean Undaria pinnatifida in mouse B16 melanoma cells

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    Kim Min-Jin

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available A number of seaweed species are used as traditional foods and medicine in different parts of the world, including Asian countries. However, very few data on the anti-melanogenic effect of seaweed have been published. Undaria pinnatifida (Dolmiyeok, a brown alga, is a traditional food in Jeju Island, the southern regions of the Korea peninsula. In this study, ethylacetate extracts of U. pinnatifida (UPE were examined for their anti-melanogenic potentials. Our results supports the finding that UPE down-regulated melanin content in a dose-dependent pattern. To clarify the target of UPE action in melanogenesis, we performed Western blotting for tyrosinase and microphthalmia-associated transcription factor (MITF, which are key melanogenic enzymes. UPE inhibited tyrosinase and MITF expressions in a dose-dependent manner. These results indicate that treatment with UPE significantly inhibits the melanogenesis in B16 cells, and may be effective in the whitening agent for the skin

  14. New data about optic properties of biominerals from some brown algae Undaria pinnatifida and Laminaria japonica

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    Pamirsky, I. E.; Chung, G.; Gutnikov, S. A.; Golokhvast, K. S.

    2016-11-01

    For the first time we made an attempt to study morphological types of phytoliths in the same species of multicellular brown algae (Undaria pinnatifida, Laminaria japonica) growing in different locations. However, in all samples only shapeless silicon dioxide particles were found. Some of them had rough edges, the other had smooth edges. We assume that the rough-edged shapeless phytolithes were formed within cells and smooth-edged - in the intercellular space. Verification of this assumption needs confirmation by detection of similar structures in the tissues of live algae.

  15. Anticancer potential and content of fucoidan extracted from sporophyll of New Zealand Undaria pinnatifida

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    Wilfred eMak

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Undaria pinnatifida is a species of brown seaweed known to contain rich amounts of fucoidan, a sulphated polysaccharide known to possess various biological activities. We isolated crude fucoidan (F0 from the sporophylls of U. pinnatifida grown in the Marlborough Sounds, New Zealand. Sulphate content, uronic acid content and molecular weight of F0 were 15.02%, 1.24% and >150 kDa, respectively. F0 was fractionated to yield three further fractions: F1, F2 and F3. Cytotoxicity of two major fractions was determined by the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT assay. The algal fucoidans specifically suppressed the proliferation of three cancer cell lines with less cytotoxicity against the normal cells. Selective cytotoxicity could relate to the distinctive structures of each fucoidan fraction. Results from this study provide evidence that fucoidan, especially from U. pinnatifida grown in New Zealand, possesses great potential to be used as a functional food to reduce cancer risk or supplement cancer treatment.

  16. The invasive kelp Undaria pinnatifida (Laminariales, Ochrophyta) along the north coast of Portugal: distribution model versus field observations.

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    Veiga, P; Torres, A C; Rubal, M; Troncoso, J; Sousa-Pinto, I

    2014-07-15

    After the first report of Undaria pinnatifida in north Portugal (between 1999 and 2007), a rapid spread of this species could be expected due to the presence of a stable population and the favourable environmental conditions proposed by distribution models. However, field surveys showed that U. pinnatifida was not present in most of the rocky shores in north Portugal. It seems that U. pinnatifida cannot outcompete native species outside of marinas in north Portugal. The only population in natural rocky shores was found in Buarcos, where this species was frequent. This study provides density data of U. pinnatifida that will be useful in the future to monitor changes on its abundance and distribution in the centre and south of Portugal. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Evaluation of Marine Algae Wakame (Undaria pinnatifida and Kombu (Laminaria digitata japonica as Food Supplements

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    Luciana Vallorani

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Crude proteins and their amino acid composition, -carotene, vitamins B1, B2, B6, niacin and minerals were determined in two edible brown marine algae (Phaeophyceae, Wakame (Undaria pinnatifida and Kombu (Laminaria digitata japonica. The amino acid scores for five key essential amino acids, frequently deficient in mixed human diet, and essential amino acid index were calculated. The results have shown the presence of all essential amino acids. The values of essential amino acid ratios of analysed algae exceed the ratios of reference proteins suggested by FAO/WHO/UNU, except for tryptophan, the first limiting amino acid in both analysed algae. Iodine, the most important component of sea vegetables is present in high amounts as well as the vitamins B1, B2, B6, niacin and β-carotene. The content of minerals was found high, while the presence of heavy metals was negligible.

  18. Formosa undariae sp. nov., isolated from a reservoir containing the brown algae Undaria pinnatifida.

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    Park, Sooyeon; Lee, Jung-Sook; Lee, Keun-Chul; Yoon, Jung-Hoon

    2013-11-01

    A strain of Gram-staining-negative, aerobic, non-flagellated, non-gliding and rod-shaped bacteria, designated WS-MY3(T), was isolated from a brown algae reservoir in South Korea. Strain WS-MY3(T) grew optimally at 25 °C, at pH 7.0-8.0 and in the presence of 2.0-3.0 % (w/v) NaCl. Phylogenetic trees based on 16S rRNA gene sequences showed that strain WS-MY3(T) fell within the cluster comprising the type strains of species of the genus Formosa, clustering coherently with the type strains of Formosa agariphila and Formosa algae. It exhibited 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity values of 98.7, 97.9 and 96.8 % to the type strains of F. agariphila, F. algae and Formosa spongicola, respectively. Strain WS-MY3(T) contained MK-6 as the predominant menaquinone and iso-C15 : 0, iso-C16 : 0 3-OH, iso-C15 : 1 G and summed feature 3 (C16 : 1ω7c and/or C16 : 1ω6c) as the major fatty acids. The major polar lipids of strain WS-MY3(T) were phosphatidylethanolamine and two unidentified lipids. The DNA G+C content of strain WS-MY3(T) was 37.3 mol% and its DNA-DNA relatedness values with F. agariphila KCTC 12365(T) and F. algae KCTC 12364(T) were 23 % and 17 %, respectively. The phylogenetic and genetic distinctiveness and differential phenotypic properties revealed that strain WS-MY3(T) is separate from the three recognized species of the genus Formosa. On the basis of the data presented, strain WS-MY3(T) is considered to represent a novel species of the genus Formosa, for which the name Formosa undariae sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is WS-MY3(T) ( = KCTC 32328(T) = CECT 8286(T)).

  19. Production of the blood pressure lowing peptides from brown alga ( Undaria pinnatifida)

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    Minoru, Sato; Takashi, Oba; Takao, Hosokawa; Toshiyasu, Yamaguchi; Toshiki, Nakano; Tadao, Saito; Koji, Muramoto; Takashi, Kahara; Katsura, Funayama; Akio, Kobayashi; Takahisa, Nakano

    2005-07-01

    Brown alga ( Undaria pinnatifida) was treated with alginate lyase and hydrolyzed using 17 kinds of proteases and the inhibitory activity of the hydrolysates for the angiotensin-I-converting enzyme (ACE) was measured. Four hydrolysates with potent ACE-inhibitory activity were administered singly and orally to spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs). The systolic blood pressure of SHRs decreases significantly after single oral administration of the brown alga hydrolysates by protease S ‘Amano’ (from Bacillus stearothermophilus) at the concentration of 10 (mg protein) (kg body weight)-1. In the 17 weeks of feeding experiment, 7-week-old SHRs were fed standard diet supplemented with the brown alga hydrolysates for 10 weeks. In SHRs fed 1.0 and 0.1% brown alga hydrolysates, elevating of systolic bloodpressure was significantly suppressed for 7 weeks. To elucidate the active components, the brown alga hydrolysates were fractionated by 1-butanol extraction and HPLC on a reverse-phase column. Seven kinds of ACE-inhibitory peptides were isolated and identified by amino acid composition analysis, sequence analysis, and LC-MS with the results Val-Tyr, Ile-Tyr, Ala-Trp, Phe-Tyr, Val-Trp, Ile-Trp, and Leu-Trp. Each peptide was determined to have an antihypertensive effect after a single oral administration in SHRs. The brown alga hydrolysates were also confirmed to decrease the blood pressure in humans.

  20. Undaria pinnatifida soluble fiber regulates Angptl3-LPL pathway to lessen hyperlipidemia in mice.

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    Xiao, Hong-Bo; Lu, Xiang-Yang; Zhang, Heng-Bo; Sun, Zhi-Liang; Fang, Jun

    2013-12-01

    Angiopoietin-like protein 3 (Angptl3)-lipoprotein lipase (LPL) pathway may be a useful pharmacologic target for hyperlipidemia. The present study was conducted to test the effect of soluble fiber extracted from Undaria pinnatifida (UP), on hyperlipidemia in apolipoprotein E-deficient (ApoE(-/-)) mice. Forty mice were divided into four groups (n = 10): control group (C57BL/6J mice), ApoE(-/-) mice group, and two groups of ApoE(-/-) mice treated with UP fiber (5 or 10 % per day). UP soluble fiber treatment significantly decreased plasma and hepatic total cholesterol, triglycerides levels, plasma low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and malondialdehyde concentrations and increased plasma high-density lipoprotein cholesterol level and downregulated protein expression of Angptl3 concomitantly with upregulated protein expression of LPL. In addition, T0901317 caused elevated expression of hepatic Angptl3 protein, and the effect of T0901317 was also abrogated by UP soluble fiber in C57BL/6J mice. The present results suggest that the UP soluble fiber regulates Angptl3-LPL pathway to lessen hyperlipidemia in mice.

  1. Changes in total nitrogen and amino acid composition of New Zealand Undaria pinnatifida with growth, location and plant parts.

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    Zhou, April Yongdong; Robertson, John; Hamid, Nazimah; Ma, Qianli; Lu, Jun

    2015-11-01

    Undaria pinnatifida is known as unwanted organism in New Zealand. However, Wakame is a traditional food made of U. pinnatifida, which is now cultured extensively in East Asia. Therefore, it is important to examine this introduced alga as a potential source of dietary protein for human consumption in New Zealand. This study determined total nitrogen content and amino acid profile of New Zealand U. pinnatifida harvested from the Marlborough Sounds on a monthly basis from June to November 2011. Total average nitrogen content and crude protein content was 21.02 mg/g dry weight and 13.1% of dry weight, respectively. The three most abundant amino acids that contributed to flavour (glutamic acid, aspartic acid and alanine) were present and the most abundant essential amino acids were arginine, leucine, lysine and valine. The results showed that the amino acid content in blades from the exposed farm was significantly higher (P New Zealand influenced protein content and amino acid composition. Sporophyll, considered as a waste product by many, was found to be a potentially good source of protein. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Technical Report for a Study on the Improvement of Extraction Process and Physiological Activities of Polysaccharides from Undaria pinnatifida by Gamma Irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Jong Il; Lee, Ju Won; Kim, Jae Hun; Yoon, Yo Han; Song, Beom Seok; Yoon, Min Chul; Sung, Nak Yun; Lee, Hak Jyung

    2010-06-01

    By reason of Undaria pinnatifida growth is temperature dependent, U. pinnatifida produced in April and May are obtained as the main byproducts and it is normally wasted. The objective of the this study was investigated to the improvement of extraction process and physiological activities of polysaccharides from U. pinnatifida by gamma irradiation. The extraction yield of fucoidan and laminarrin was increased by gamma irradiation, and the molecular weight of extracted polysaccharides was decreased by irradiation. The effect of gamma irradiation on storage of U. pinnatifida was investigated. No viable cells were observed in samples irradiated at 3 and 5 kGy. Finally, fucoidan and laminarin were applied in the pork patty, and it was shown that lower lipid oxidation and positive effect on microbial stability and quality of the pork patty. These results will suggest that radiation technology can be applied for the extraction of functional materials and storages safe of the seaweeds

  3. Technical Report for a Study on the Improvement of Extraction Process and Physiological Activities of Polysaccharides from Undaria pinnatifida by Gamma Irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Jong Il; Lee, Ju Won; Kim, Jae Hun; Yoon, Yo Han; Song, Beom Seok; Yoon, Min Chul; Sung, Nak Yun; Lee, Hak Jyung

    2010-06-15

    By reason of Undaria pinnatifida growth is temperature dependent, U. pinnatifida produced in April and May are obtained as the main byproducts and it is normally wasted. The objective of the this study was investigated to the improvement of extraction process and physiological activities of polysaccharides from U. pinnatifida by gamma irradiation. The extraction yield of fucoidan and laminarrin was increased by gamma irradiation, and the molecular weight of extracted polysaccharides was decreased by irradiation. The effect of gamma irradiation on storage of U. pinnatifida was investigated. No viable cells were observed in samples irradiated at 3 and 5 kGy. Finally, fucoidan and laminarin were applied in the pork patty, and it was shown that lower lipid oxidation and positive effect on microbial stability and quality of the pork patty. These results will suggest that radiation technology can be applied for the extraction of functional materials and storages safe of the seaweeds

  4. Biosorption of chromium(III) by two Brown algae macrocystis pyrifera and undaria pinnatifida: equilibrium and kinetic study

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    Cazon, Josefina Plaza H.; Benitez, Leonardo; Donati, Edgardo; Viera, Marisa [Facultad de Ciencias Exactas, Universidad Nacional de La Plata, Calle 47 y 115 (1900) La Plata (Argentina)

    2012-02-15

    Two brown algae, Macrocystis pyrifera and Undaria pinnatifida, were employed to remove Cr(III) from aqueous solutions. Both seaweeds were characterized in terms of alginate yields. The alginate contents were 20 and 30% of the dry weight for M. pyrifera and U. pinnatifida, respectively. Kinetics experiments were carried out at different initial pH values. Cr(III) biosorption was affected by the solution pH. The highest metal uptake was found at pH 4 for both biosorbents. Different models were applied to elucidate the rate-controlling mechanism: pseudo-first-order, pseudo-second-order, external mass transfer and intra-particle diffusion. The application of Langmuir, Freundlich and Dubinin-Radushkevich models to the equilibrium data showed a better fitting to the first model. The maximum Cr(III) sorption capacity (q{sub m}) and the affinity coefficient (b) were very similar for both biosorbents: 0.77 mmol/g and 1.20 L/mmol for M. pyrifera and 0.74 mmol/g and 1.06 L/mmol for U. pinnatifida. The free energy of the sorption process was estimated using the Dubinin-Radushkevich isotherm. The values indicate that the processes are chemical sorptions. To evaluate the significance of the ion-exchange mechanism, the light metals (Ca{sup 2+}, Na{sup +}, Mg{sup 2+} and K{sup +}) and pH were measured during the experiments. (Copyright copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  5. Kinetics and molecular docking studies of fucosterol and fucoxanthin, BACE1 inhibitors from brown algae Undaria pinnatifida and Ecklonia stolonifera.

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    Jung, Hyun Ah; Ali, Md Yousof; Choi, Ran Joo; Jeong, Hyong Oh; Chung, Hae Young; Choi, Jae Sue

    2016-03-01

    Since the action of β-site amyloid precursor protein cleaving enzyme 1 (BACE1) is strongly correlated with the onset of Alzheimer's disease (AD), the development of BACE1 inhibitors as therapeutic agents is being vigorously pursued. In our ongoing research aimed at identifying anti-AD remedies derived from maritime plants, we evaluated the BACE1 inhibitory activities of fucosterol and fucoxanthin from Ecklonia stolonifera and Undaria pinnatifida. In vitro anti-AD activities were performed via BACE1 inhibition assays, as well as enzyme kinetic and molecular docking predictions. Based on enzyme-based assays, fucosterol and fucoxanthin showed noncompetitive and mixed-type inhibition, respectively, against BACE1. In addition, docking simulation results demonstrated that the Lys224 residue of BACE1 interacted with one hydroxyl group of fucosterol, while two additional BACE1 residues (Gly11 and Ala127) interacted with two hydroxyl groups of fucoxanthin. Moreover, the binding energy of fucosterol and fucoxanthin was negative (-10.1 and -7.0 kcal/mol), indicating that hydrogen bonding may stabilize the open form of the enzyme and potentiate tight binding of the active site of BACE1, resulting in more effective BACE1 inhibition. The results suggest that fucosterol and fucoxanthin may be used beneficially in the treatment of AD and provide potential guidelines for the design of new BACE1 inhibitors. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Spermatozoid life-span of two brown seaweeds, Saccharina japonica and Undaria pinnatifida, as measured by fertilization efficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jing; Pang, Shaojun; Liu, Feng; Shan, Tifeng; Gao, Suqin

    2013-07-01

    During sexual reproduction of seaweeds, spermatozoid (sperm) discharge is triggered by chemical messengers (pheromones) released by the female gametes. The chemotactic ability of the sperm ensures fertilization success. Using unialgal male and female gametophyte material under designated standard gametogenesis testing (SGT) conditions, the potential life-span of the sperm of two seaweeds, Saccharina japonica and Undaria pinnatifida, was assessed by their ability to fertilize eggs. Results show that within 20-30 min after being discharged, sperm of both species could complete fertilization without an apparent decline in fertilization rate. Although fertilization rate 60-120 min after sperm discharge dropped significantly in both species, some sperm were viable enough to fertilize the eggs. In S. japonica, at 12°C, some sperm were able to fertilize eggs up to 12 h after discharge. In both species, egg discharge rates (EDR) in the male and female mixed positive controls were significantly higher than those of all the sperm-testing groups. Doubling the seeded male gametophytes of S. japonica in the SGT tests significantly increased the EDR, further confirming the effect of the presence of the male on the female in terms of facilitating egg discharge from oogonia.

  7. Effects of Undaria pinnatifida, Himanthalia elongata and Porphyra umbilicalis extracts on in vitro α-glucosidase activity and glucose diffusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schultz Moreira, Adriana R; Garcimartín, Alba; Bastida, Sara; Jiménez-Escrig, Antonio; Rupérez, Pilar; Green, Brian D; Rafferty, Eamon; Sánchez-Muniz, Francisco J; Benedí, Juana

    2014-06-01

    Seaweeds are good sources of dietary fibre, which can influence glucose uptake and glycemic control. To investigate and compare the in vitro inhibitory activity of different extracts from Undaria pinnatifida (Wakame), Himanthalia elongata (Sea spaghetti) and Porphyra umbilicalis (Nori) on α-glucosidase activity and glucose diffusion. The in vitro effects Chloroform-, ethanol- and water-soluble extracts of the three algae were assayed on α- glucosidase activity and glucose diffusion through membrane. Principal Components Analysis (PCA) was applied to identify patterns in the data and to discriminate which extract will show the most proper effect. Only water extracts of Sea spaghetti possessed significant in vitro inhibitory effects on α-glucosidase activity (26.2% less mmol/L glucose production than control, p < 0.05) at 75 min. PCA distinguished Sea spaghetti effects, supporting that soluble fibre and polyphenols were involved. After 6 h, Ethanol-Sea spaghetti and water-Wakame extracts exerted the highest inhibitory effects on glucose diffusion (65.0% and 60.2% vs control, respectively). This extracts displayed the lowest slopes for glucose diffusion-time lineal adjustments (68.2% and 62.8% vs control, respectively). The seaweed hypoglycemic effects appear multi-faceted and not necessarily concatenated. According to present results, ethanol and water extracts of Sea spaghetti, and water extracts of Wakame could be useful for the development of functional foods with specific hypoglycemic properties. Copyright AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2014. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.

  8. Algibacter wandonensis sp. nov., isolated from sediment around a brown algae (Undaria pinnatifida) reservoir.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Jung-Hoon; Park, Sooyeon

    2013-12-01

    A Gram-stain-negative, non-flagellated, rod-shaped bacterial strain able to move by gliding, designated WS-MY22(T), was isolated from sediment around a brown algae reservoir located on Wando in South Korea. It grew optimally at 25 °C, at pH 7.0-8.0 and in the presence of 2.0 % (w/v) NaCl. Phylogenetic trees based on 16S rRNA gene sequences showed that strain WS-MY22(T) clustered coherently with the type strains of Algibacter lectus and Algibacter undariae. It exhibited sequence similarity of 99.4 and 98.9 % to the type strains of A. lectus and A. undariae, respectively, and of 95.1-96.6 % to those of the other species of the genus Algibacter. Strain WS-MY22(T) contained MK-6 as the predominant menaquinone and iso-C15 : 1 G and iso-C17 : 0 3-OH as the major fatty acids. The major polar lipids of strain WS-MY22(T) were phosphatidylethanolamine and two unidentified lipids. The DNA G+C content of strain WS-MY22(T) was 35.8 mol% and its DNA-DNA relatedness with A. lectus KCTC 12103(T) and A. undariae WS-MY9(T) was 31 and 19 %, respectively. The phylogenetic and genetic distinctiveness and differential phenotypic properties revealed that strain WS-MY22(T) is separate from other species of the genus Algibacter. On the basis of the data presented, strain WS-MY22(T) is considered to represent a novel species of the genus Algibacter, for which the name Algibacter wandonensis sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is WS-MY22(T) ( = KCTC 32381(T) = CECT 8301(T)).

  9. Anti-metastasis effect of fucoidan from Undaria pinnatifida sporophylls in mouse hepatocarcinoma Hca-F cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peisheng Wang

    Full Text Available Metastasis is one of the major causes of cancer-related death. It is a complex biological process involving multiple genes, steps, and phases. It is also closely connected to many biological activities of cancer cells, such as growth, invasion, adhesion, hematogenous metastasis, and lymphatic metastasis. Fucoidan derived from Undaria pinnatifida sporophylls (Ups-fucoidan is a sulfated polysaccharide with more biological activities than other fucoidans. However, there is no information on the effects of Ups-fucoidan on tumor invasion and metastasis. We used the mouse hepatocarcinoma Hca-F cell line, which has high invasive and lymphatic metastasis potential in vitro and in vivo, to examine the effect of Ups-fucoidan on cancer cell invasion and metastasis. Ups-fucoidan exerted a concentration- and time-dependent inhibitory effect on tumor metastasis in vivo and inhibited Hca-F cell growth, migration, invasion, and adhesion capabilities in vitro. Ups-fucoidan inhibited growth and metastasis by downregulating vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF C/VEGF receptor 3, hepatocyte growth factor/c-MET, cyclin D1, cyclin-dependent kinase 4, phosphorylated (p phosphoinositide 3-kinase, p-Akt, p-extracellular signal regulated kinase (ERK 1/2, and nuclear transcription factor-κB (NF-κB, and suppressed adhesion and invasion by downregulating L-Selectin, and upregulating protein levels of tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases (TIMPs. The results suggest that Ups-fucoidan suppresses Hca-F cell growth, adhesion, invasion, and metastasis capabilities and that these functions are mediated through the mechanism involving inactivation of the NF-κB pathway mediated by PI3K/Akt and ERK signaling pathways.

  10. Parts-per-trillion detection of harmala alkaloids in Undaria pinnatifida algae by on-line solid phase extraction capillary electrophoresis mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tascon, Marcos; Gagliardi, Leonardo G; Benavente, Fernando

    2017-02-15

    β-carboline alkaloids of the harmala group (HAlks)-a family of compounds with pharmacologic effects-can be found at trace levels (algae) in the edible invasive algae Undaria pinnatifida, known commonly as wakame. In this study, we present a simple and sensitive method to detect and quantify at low parts-per-trillion levels the six HAlks more frequently found in those plants. The method is based on on-line solid phase extraction capillary electrophoresis mass spectrometry using a C 18 sorbent. First, the methodology was optimized and validated with standard solutions through the use of ultraviolet (UV) and mass spectrometry (MS) detection. Second, the optimized method for MS detection was applied to an analysis of the HAlks in U. pinnatifida extracts. The method achieved limits of detection between 2 and 77 pg mL -1 for standards, producing an analyte preconcentration of about 1000-times in comparison to CE-MS. Some matrix effects were observed for the complex wakame extracts, especially for the most polar HAlks (harmol and harmalol), which bear aromatic hydroxyl groups. Harmine, harmaline, and norharmane were not detected in the algal extracts, whereas harmane was found at 70 pg mL -1 (70 ng kg -1 dry algae). The results underscored that C 18 -SPE-CE-MS may be considered as a powerful method to detect trace levels of alkaloids and other bioactive small molecules in complex plant extracts. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Influence of pyrolysis temperature on characteristics and phosphate adsorption capability of biochar derived from waste-marine macroalgae (Undaria pinnatifida roots).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Kyung-Won; Kim, Kipal; Jeong, Tae-Un; Ahn, Kyu-Hong

    2016-01-01

    The collected roots of Undaria pinnatifida, the main waste in farming sites, accounting for 40-60% of annual production, was pyrolyzed under temperature ranging from 200 to 800°C to evaluate the influence of pyrolysis temperature on biochar properties and phosphate adsorption capacity. It was confirmed that an increase in the pyrolysis temperature led to a decrease of the yield of biochar, while ash content remained almost due to carbonization followed by mineralization. Elemental analysis results indicated an increase in aromaticity and decreased polarity at a high pyrolysis temperature. When the pyrolysis temperature was increased up to 400°C, the phosphate adsorption capacity was enhanced, while a further increase in the pyrolysis temperature lowered the adsorption capacity due to blocked pores in the biochar during pyrolysis. Finally, a pot experiment revealed that biochar derived from waste-marine macroalgae is a potent and eco-friendly alternative material for fertilizer after phosphate adsorption. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Biología, distribución e integración del alga alóctona Undaria pinnatifida (Laminariales, Phaeophyta en las comunidades bentónicas de las costas de Galicia (NW de la Península Ibérica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cremades Ugarte, Javier

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Undaria pinnatifida is an Asian seaweed that is valuable as an edible species. This kelp was first reported for Spain in the 1980s on Galician coasts, where it is now widely distributed and incorporated into the native community. In Galicia, intertidal populations of the sporophytic phase typically inhabit sites under moderate wave-exposure in the early spring, albeit they can be found throughout the year as the species displays at least two recruitment periods per year. The morphology varies between individuals and depends strongly on the spatiotemporal pattern of environmental conditions. The chronology of the introduction of this species and the types of habitat where it is currently integrated on Galician coasts clearly reveal that the presence and local expansion of this kelp is influenced largely by human activities, mainly shellfish aquaculture and maritime traffic. U. pinnatifida has a slow natural expansion, limited aggressiveness and it temporarily fills empty niches; this kelp displays luxuriant growth only on artificial substrates or in otherwise disturbed communities.Undaria pinnatifida es una especie asiática de gran interés económico como alga alimentaria que en la década de los ochenta apareció por primera vez en España en las costas de Galicia, donde actualmente se encuentra ampliamente distribuida y naturalizada. Las poblaciones intermareales de los esporófitos de esta especie en la costa gallega son propias de localidades moderadamente expuestas a la acción del oleaje, siendo muy notorias a principios de primavera; aunque pueden encontrarse casi todoel año, al existir al menos dos períodos anuales de reclutamiento. La morfología de los ejemplares que las forman es muy variable y está fuertemente relacionada con las variaciones espaciotemporales de las condiciones ambientales. Analizando la cronología de su introducción en Galicia y los hábitats y tipos de comunidades en las que se integra, se observa claramente

  13. Structure and antitumour activity of fucoidan isolated from sporophyll of Korean brown seaweed Undaria pinnatifida

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Synytsya, A.; Kim, W. J.; Kim, S. M.; Pohl, Radek; Synytsya, Al.; Kvasnička, F.; Čopíková, J.; Park, Y. I.

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 81, č. 1 (2010), s. 41-48 ISSN 0144-8617 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40550506 Keywords : fucoidan from sporophyll Undaria pinnatifida * structure * antitumour activity Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry Impact factor: 3.463, year: 2010

  14. Winogradskyella undariae sp. nov., a member of the family Flavobacteriaceae isolated from a brown algae reservoir.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sooyeon; Yoon, Jung-Hoon

    2013-11-01

    A novel bacterial strain, designated WS-MY5(T), capable of degrading a variety of polysaccharides was isolated from a brown algae (Undaria pinnatifida) reservoir at Wando in the South Sea, South Korea. Strain WS-MY5(T) was found to grow optimally at 30 °C, at pH 7.0-7.5 and in the presence of 2 % (w/v) NaCl. A neighbour-joining phylogenetic tree based on 16S rRNA gene sequences showed that strain WS-MY5(T) falls within the clade comprising Winogradskyella species, clustering with the type strains of Winogradskyella pacifica, Winogradskyella arenosi, Winogradskyella rapida and Winogradskyella thalassocola, with which it exhibited 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity values of 97.3-98.8 %. It exhibited sequence similarity values of 93.0-96.2 % to the type strains of the other recognized Winogradskyella species. Strain WS-MY5(T) was found to contain MK-6 as the predominant menaquinone and anteiso-C15:0, iso-C15:0, iso-C15:0 3-OH, iso-C17:0 3-OH and iso-C15:1 G as the major fatty acids. The major polar lipids of strain WS-MY5(T) were identified as phosphatidylethanolamine, two unidentified lipids and two unidentified aminolipids. The DNA G+C content of strain WS-MY5(T) was determined to be 33.2 mol% and its DNA-DNA relatedness values with the type strains of W. pacifica, W. arenosi, W. rapida and W. thalassocola were in the range 16-28 %. Differential phenotypic properties, together with its phylogenetic and genetic distinctiveness, enabled strain WS-MY5(T) to be differentiated from the recognized Winogradskyella species. On the basis of the data presented here, strain WS-MY5(T) is considered to represent a novel species of the genus Winogradskyella, for which the name Winogradskyella undariae sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is WS-MY5(T) (=KCTC 32261(T)=CCUG 63832(T)).

  15. Isolation of cytotoxic compounds from the seeds of Crataegus pinnatifida.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ling-Zhi; Peng, Ying; Niu, Chao; Gao, Pin-Yi; Huang, Xiao-Xiao; Mao, Xin-Liang; Song, Shao-Jiang

    2013-07-01

    To study the chemical constituents and bioactivity of the seeds of Crataegus pinnatifida. The chemical constituents were isolated and purified by macroporous adsorptive resin D101, silica gel, and ODS column chromatography, and preparative HPLC. Their structures were elucidated on the basis of spectroscopic methods. In addition, the cytotoxic activities of compounds 1-4 were investigated on OPM2 and RPMI-8226 cells. Four compounds were obtained and their structures were identified as (7S, 8S)-4-[2-hydroxy-2-(4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl)-1-(hydroxymethyl)ethoxy]-3, 5-dimethoxybenzaldehyde (1), (+)-balanophonin (2), erythro-guaiacylglycerol-β-coniferyl aldehyde ether (3), buddlenol A (4). Compound 1 is a novel norlignan, while compounds 1-4 exhibited marginal inhibition on the proliferation of OPM2 and RPMI-8226 cells. Copyright © 2013 China Pharmaceutical University. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Compactação causada pelo manejo de plantas invasoras em latossolo vermelho-amarelo cultivado com cafeeiros

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula Sant'Anna Moreira Pais

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available O manejo de plantas invasoras é considerado uma das principais atividades que promovem degradação da estrutura do solo em lavouras cafeeiras, devido à compactação do solo causada pelas operações de controle de plantas invasoras. O objetivo deste estudo foi determinar o modelo de capacidade de suporte de carga para o manejo de plantas invasoras sem capina, bem como, utilizando esse modelo, qual manejo de plantas invasoras causa menor ou maior compactação do solo. Este estudo foi realizado em um Latossolo Vermelho-Amarelo (LVA cultivado com cafeeiros da cutivar Topázio MG 1190 desde 2006, localizado na Fazenda Experimental da EPAMIG, na comunidade Farias, em Lavras-MG. Os manejos de plantas invasoras avaliados foram: na linha de tráfego da entrelinha - grade de discos, herbicida de pós-emergência, herbicida de pré-emergência, roçadora e trincha; e no centro da entrelinha, onde não houve tráfego - amendoim forrageiro (Arachis pintoi, braquiária (Brachiaria decumbens, capina manual, crotalária (Crotalaria juncea e soja (Glicine max L. A amostragem consistiu de duas etapas: uma para determinar o modelo de capacidade de suporte de carga para o manejo de plantas invasoras sem capina; e outra para avaliar a compactação promovida pelos outros manejos de plantas invasoras. A fim de determinar o modelo de capacidade de suporte de carga para o manejo sem capina, foram coletadas no centro da entrelinha 20 amostras com estrutura indeformada nas profundidades de 0-3, 10-13 e 25-28 cm, totalizando 60 amostras. Essas amostras foram submetidas ao ensaio de compressão uniaxial para obter as pressões de pré-consolidação e as umidades volumétricas, que foram usadas para determinar o modelo de capacidade de suporte de carga. Para determinar a compactação causada pelos manejos de plantas invasoras, realizados por meio do controle mecânico, foram coletadas em janeiro de 2010, nas linhas de tráfego das entrelinhas, 180 amostras com

  17. Hair growth activity of Crataegus pinnatifida on C57BL/6 mouse model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Heon-Sub; Lee, Jung-Min; Park, Sang-Yong; Yang, Jung-Eun; Kim, Ju-Han; Yi, Tae-Hoo

    2013-09-01

    Crataegus pinnatifida has a long history of use in traditional oriental herbal medicine to stimulating digestion and improving blood circulation. Based on nutrition of hair, the present study was conducted to assess the effect of C. pinnatifida extract on hair growth using mouse model and its mechanisms of action. The C. pinnatifida extract containing the contents of total polyphenol of 5.88□0.82 g gallic acid/100 g extract and proanthocyanidin of 9.15□1.58 mg cyaniding chloride/100 g extract was orally administered daily at a dosage of 50 mg/kg weight to the 7-week-old C57BL/6 mice in telogen. The C. pinnatifida extract promoted hair growth by inducing anagen phase in mice in telogen, reflected by color of skin, thickness of hair shaft, and density of hair. The ratio of anagento telogen was determined by shape of hair follicles in vertically sectioned slide and increased by oral administration of C. pinnatifida extract. The number and the size of hair follicles were also enlarged, indicating anagen phase induction. The proliferation of human dermal papilla cells (hDPC) was accelerated by addition of C. pinnatifida extract, which activated the signaling of mitogen-activated protein kinases (Erk, p-38, and JNK) and Akt. Moreover, the ratio of Bcl-2/Bax as the determinant of cell fate was also raised in skin. These results suggest that the C. pinnatifida extract promotes hair growth by inducing anagen phase, which might be mediated by the activation of cellular signalings that enhance the survival of cultured hDPC and the increase of the ratio of Bcl-2 to Bax that protects cells against cell death. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  18. Polyphenolic Profile and Biological Activity of Chinese Hawthorn (Crataegus pinnatifida BUNGE Fruits

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    Tunde Jurikova

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Chinese hawthorn (Crataegus pinnatifida Bge. fruits are rich in polyphenols (e.g., epicatechin, procyanidin B2, procyanidin B5, procyanidin C1, hyperoside, isoquercitrin and chlorogenic acid—active compounds that exert beneficial effects. This review summarizes all information available on polyphenolic content and methods for their quantification in Chinese hawthorn berries and the relationships between individual polyphenolic compounds as well. The influence of species or cultivars, the locality of cultivation, the stage of maturity, and extract preparation conditions on the polyphenolic content were discussed as well. Currently, only fruits of C. pinnatifida and C. pinnatifida var. major are included in the Chinese Pharmacopoeia. Recent trials have demonstrated the efficacy of Chinese hawthorn fruit in lowering blood cholesterol and the risk of cardiovascular diseases. The fruit has also demonstrated anti-inflammatory and anti-tumour activities. This review deals mainly with the biological activity of the fruit related to its antioxidant properties.

  19. Els secrets per ser una espècie invasora d'èxit

    OpenAIRE

    Sol, Daniel

    2012-01-01

    Un estudi liderat per científics del CREAF, del CSIC (Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas) i de la UAB (Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona) ha desxifrat quines característiques té el cicle vital d’una espècie invasora d’èxit. Aquests investigadors han realitzat un estudi en el que afirmen que les espècies invasores que aconsegueixen colonitzar amb èxit un nou territori dediquen més temps a conèixer el nou entorn i són capaces d’adaptar el seu comportament a les noves condicions. Aq...

  20. Sulfitobacter undariae sp. nov., isolated from a brown algae reservoir.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sooyeon; Jung, Yong-Taek; Won, Sung-Min; Park, Ji-Min; Yoon, Jung-Hoon

    2015-05-01

    A Gram-stain-negative, aerobic, non-spore-forming, non-flagellated and coccoid, ovoid or rod-shaped bacterial strain, W-BA2(T), was isolated from a brown algae reservoir in Wando of South Korea. Strain W-BA2(T) grew optimally at 25 °C, at pH 7.0-8.0 and in the presence of approximately 2.0-3.0% (w/v) NaCl. Phylogenetic trees based on 16S rRNA gene sequences revealed that strain W-BA2(T) fell within the clade comprising the type strains of species of the genus Sulfitobacter , clustering coherently with the type strains of Sulfitobacter donghicola and Sulfitobacter guttiformis showing sequence similarity values of 98.0-98.1%. Sequence similarities to the type strains of the other species of the genus Sulfitobacter were 96.0-97.4%. Strain W-BA2(T) contained Q-10 as the predominant ubiquinone and C18 : 1ω7c as the major fatty acid. The major polar lipids of strain W-BA2(T) were phosphatidylcholine, phosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylethanolamine, one unidentified aminolipid and one unidentified lipid. The DNA G+C content of strain W-BA2(T) was 55.0 mol% and its DNA-DNA relatedness values with the type strains of Sulfitobacter donghicola , Sulfitobacter guttiformis and Sulfitobacter mediterraneus were 16-23%. The differential phenotypic properties, together with the phylogenetic and genetic distinctiveness, revealed that strain W-BA2(T) is separated from other species of the genus Sulfitobacter . On the basis of the data presented, strain W-BA2(T) is considered to represent a novel species of the genus Sulfitobacter, for which the name Sulfitobacter undariae sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is W-BA2(T) ( = KCTC 42200(T) = NBRC 110523(T)). © 2015 IUMS.

  1. Chromenes from leaves of Calea pinnatifida and evaluation of their leishmanicidal activity

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    Tamires C. Lima

    Full Text Available Calea pinnatifida (R. Br. Less., Asteraceae, is popularly known as “quebra-tudo”, “cipó-cruz” or “aruca”. This species is used in the folk medicine for the treatment of stomach pain, giardiasis and amoebiasis. The aim of this study was to isolate and identify chromenes from leaves of C. pinnatifida and evaluate their leishmanicidal activity. A fraction from leaves of C. pinnatifida was analyzed for their chemical constituents, resulting in the isolation and characterization of four known chromenes: 6-acetyl-7-hydroxy-2,2-dimethylchromene (1, 6-acetyl-7-methoxy-2,2-dimethylchromene (2, 6-(1-hydroxyethyl-7-methoxy-2,2-dimethylchromene (3 and 6-(1-ethoxyethyl-7-methoxy-2,2-dimethylchromene (4. Structure identification of isolated compounds involved analysis of spectral data of 1D and 2D-NMR. The isolated compounds are here reported for the first time in C. pinnatifida, and the chromenes 1 and 3 show a moderate leishmanicidal activity.

  2. Lacinutrix undariae sp. nov., isolated from a brown algae reservoir.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sooyeon; Park, Ji-Min; Jung, Yong-Taek; Kang, Chul-Hyung; Yoon, Jung-Hoon

    2015-08-01

    A Gram-stain-negative, aerobic, non-flagellated, non-gliding and ovoid or rod-shaped bacterium, designated strain W-BA8T, was isolated from a brown algae reservoir on the South Sea, South Korea, and subjected to a polyphasic taxonomic approach. Strain W-BA8T grew optimally at 25 °C, at pH 7.0-7.5 and in the presence of 1.0-2.0% (w/v) NaCl. Neighbour-joining and maximum-parsimony phylogenetic trees based on 16S rRNA gene sequences showed that strain W-BA8T clustered with the type strains of species of the genus Lacinutrix. Strain W-BA8T exhibited 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity values of 94.9-96.5% to the type strains of Lacinutrix species and of less than 95.8% to the type strains of other recognized species. Strain W-BA8T contained MK-6 as the predominant menaquinone and iso-C15 : 0, iso-C15 : 1 G, iso-C15 : 0 3-OH and iso-C17 : 0 3-OH as major fatty acids. The polar lipid profile of strain W-BA8T contained phosphatidylethanolamine, two unidentified lipids and one unidentified glycolipid as major components. The DNA G+C content of strain W-BA8T was 35 mol%. Differential phenotypic properties, together with phylogenetic distinctiveness, revealed that strain W-BA8T is separated from other species of the genus Lacinutrix. On the basis of the data presented, strain W-BA8T is considered to represent a novel species of the genus Lacinutrix, for which the name Lacinutrix undariae sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is W-BA8T ( = KCTC 42176T = CECT 8671T).

  3. Algibacter undariae sp. nov., isolated from a brown algae reservoir.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sooyeon; Lee, Jung-Sook; Lee, Keun-chul; Yoon, Jung-Hoon

    2013-10-01

    A Gram-stain-negative, non-flagellated, rod-shaped bacterial strain able to move by gliding, designated WS-MY9(T), was isolated from a brown algae reservoir in South Korea. Strain WS-MY9(T) grew optimally at 25 °C, at pH 7.0-8.0 and in the presence of 2 % (w/v) NaCl. A neighbour-joining phylogenetic tree based on 16S rRNA gene sequences showed that strain WS-MY9(T) clustered with the type strain of Algibacter lectus with a bootstrap resampling value of 100 %. Strain WS-MY9(T) exhibited 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity values of 98.5 and 96.7 % to the type strains of A. lectus and Algibacter mikhailovii, respectively, and less than 96.1 % sequence similarity to other members of the family Flavobacteriaceae. Strain WS-MY9(T) contained MK-6 as the predominant menaquinone and anteiso-C15 : 0, iso-C17 : 0 3-OH, iso-C15 : 1 G and iso-C15 : 0 as the major fatty acids. The major polar lipids of strain WS-MY9(T) were phosphatidylethanolamine and two unidentified lipids. The DNA G+C content of strain WS-MY9(T) was 35.0 mol% and its DNA-DNA relatedness value with A. lectus KCTC 12103(T) was 15 %. The phylogenetic and genetic distinctiveness and differential phenotypic properties revealed that strain WS-MY9(T) is separate from the two recognized species of the genus Algibacter. On the basis of the data presented, strain WS-MY9(T) represents a novel species of the genus Algibacter, for which the name Algibacter undariae sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is WS-MY9(T) ( = KCTC 32259(T) = CCUG 63684(T)).

  4. Leucaena allelopathy on weeds and soybean seed germination / Alelopatia de Leucena sobre soja e plantas invasoras

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    Raquel Leszczynski

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available With the advance of agriculture, there was consequent rising in environment degradation. Therefore, It is interesting the use of plants which have in their chemical composition substances capable of helping in the control of weeds to minimize the use of pesticides. Hence, the objective of this paper was to evaluate solutions of leucena extract on weeds that are frequent on soybean crop. The treatments were leucena extracts at 0, 20, 40, 60, 80 and 100% at room temperature water and water heated to 80°C. The extracts were obtained by crushing 200g of leucena leaves and mixing them with one liter of distilled water with the help of a blender. Seeds were kept in B.O.D. at a temperature of 25°C, with a photoperiod of 12 hours of light. Evaluations were done on a daily basis, from the first to the last day of the experiment, varying according to the species. Results show a negative interference of the extracts, both hot and cold, in the root length of Ipomoea grandifolia, in the percentage of germination and in the root length of Arrowleaf sida and Hair beggarticks. There was no negative interference in the analyzed parameters for soybean seeds. Thus, the results indicate allelopatic potential of Leucaena leuucocephala as an alternative for the management of weeds without interfering on the development of the soybean crop.Com o desenvolvimento da agricultura surgiram os conseqüentes aumentos na degradação ambiental. Assim, estuda-se a utilização de plantas que possuam em sua composição química substâncias capazes de auxiliar no controle de plantas invasoras, amenizando o uso de agrotóxicos. Desta forma, o objetivo do trabalho foi avaliar soluções de extratos de leucena sobre plantas invasoras que freqüentemente ocorrem na cultura da soja. Foram utilizados como tratamentos os seguintes extratos de leucena nas proporções de: 0, 20, 40, 60, 80 e 100% com água à temperatura ambiente e com água aquecida à 80°C. Os extratos foram

  5. Métodos para controle de plantas exóticas invasoras

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    Michele de Sá Dechoum

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/2175-7925.2013v26n1p69 Espécies exóticas invasoras são uma das maiores ameaças à conservação da biodiversidade e devem ser manejadas com base em métodos de controle adequados a condições ambientais locais ou regionais. Foram conduzidos experimentos de controle químico de dez espécies exóticas invasoras em Santa Catarina, incluindo as espécies arbóreas Casuarina equisetifolia, Hovenia dulcis, Psidium guajava, Syzygium cumini e Terminalia catappa, e as espécies herbáceas Furcraea foetida, Hedychium coronarium, Impatiens walleriana, Rubus fruticosus e Tradescantia zebrina. Para espécies arbóreas foram utilizados métodos de corte do tronco, cortes intercalados e anelamento associados à aplicação de herbicida e aspersão basal de herbicida. Já para espécies herbáceas foram utilizados a aspersão de herbicida em folhas e raízes, corte da parte aérea seguido de aplicação de herbicida e injeção de herbicida. Os princípios ativos testados foram Triclopir, Glifosato e Triclopir + Fluroxipir, em concentrações que variaram de 2 a 6%. O controle de todas as espécies arbóreas foi eficaz com corte e aplicação de herbicida nos tocos, enquanto os tratamentos de anelamento e cortes intercalados seguidos de aplicação de herbicida e aspersão basal de herbicida apresentaram resultados de eficácia diferenciados entre as espécies testadas. Para espécies herbáceas, o método mais eficaz foi aspersão foliar de herbicida.

  6. Decontamination treatments to eliminate problem biota from macroalgal tank cultures of Osmundea pinnatifida, Palmaria palmata and Ulva lactuca

    OpenAIRE

    Kerrison, Philip D.; Le, Hau Nhu; Twigg, Gail C.; Smallman, Duncan R.; MacPhee, Rory; Houston, Fiona A. B.; Hughes, Adam D.

    2016-01-01

    The effect of a range of chemical disinfectants at different concentration and exposure times was investigated on five macroalgal species and the marine gastropod Littorina spp. Palmaria palmata, Osmundea pinnatifida and Ulva lactuca are commercially valuable and are often cultivated in tanks for food or feed. Ectocarpus siliculosus and Ulva intestinalis are common epiphytes of P. palmata and O. pinnatifida cultures, whilst Littorina spp. are common herbivorous epibionts within U. lactuca cul...

  7. A study on the modulation of alpha-synuclein fibrillation by Scutellaria pinnatifida extracts and its neuroprotective properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sashourpour, Mahdyeh; Zahri, Saber; Radjabian, Tayebeh; Ruf, Viktoria; Pan-Montojo, Francisco

    2017-01-01

    Aggregation of alpha-synuclein (α-SN) is a key pathogenic event in Parkinson’s disease (PD) leading to dopaminergic degeneration. The identification of natural compounds inhibiting α-SN aggregation may have a major role in treating PD. Different Scutellaria species are known as valuable medicinal plants, primarily due to their high flavonoid levels. Scutellaria pinnatifida (S. pinnatifida) is endemic to Iran; however, the knowledge of its pharmaceutical properties is limited. Here we report that S. pinnatifida extracts have an anti-fibrillation effect on α-SN aggregation and neuroprotective properties on PC12 and primary dopaminergic neurons. Treatment during α-SN fibril formation with S. pinnatifida extracts showed that the extractions performed with dichloromethane (DCMEx) and n-butanol (BuOHEx) strongly inhibited α-SN fibrillation. TLC-based analysis revealed that S. pinnatifida contains a great amount of flavonoids with high antioxidant properties as shown using a radical scavenging assay. Further analysis using HPLC and Mass spectroscopy on the DCMEx revealed the presence of baicalein in this extract. We then selected the more efficient extracts based on cell viability and ROS scavenging on PC12 cells and tested their neuroprotective properties on primary dopaminergic neurons. Our results showed the extracts strongly protected against α-SN oligomers. Surprisingly, they also neutralized the severe toxicity of paraquat. Therefore, S. pinnatifida may be a potential valuable medicinal herb for further studies related to the treatment of PD. PMID:28957336

  8. Plantas palustres e aquáticas que se comportam como invasoras, no Estado de Minas Gerais

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    Mitzi Brandão

    1988-01-01

    Full Text Available Foram cadastradas as espécies palustres e aquáticas com comportamento de plantas invasoras, quando da obstrução de canais de irrigação e drenagem de lagos, represas, ou ainda como competidoras em culturas irrigadas. As plantas cadastradas no presente trabalho somam um total de 113 espécies, englobando 64 gêneros e 40 famílias.Are listed the boggy and aquatic plants that behave as weeds in the obstruction of drainage and irrigation canals, lakes, dams or irrigated crops, totalling 113 species, involving 64 genera and 40 families.

  9. Alterações nos atributos químicos de um latossolo pelo manejo de plantas invasoras em cafeeiros

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    Cezar Francisco Araujo-Junior

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available O controle de plantas invasoras é uma das práticas de manejo mais intensivas na condução de lavouras cafeeiras, o qual provoca alterações nos atributos químicos do solo. Diante disso, os objetivos deste estudo foram: avaliar os efeitos dos diferentes sistemas de manejo de plantas invasoras em uma lavoura cafeeira nos atributos químicos de um Latossolo Vermelho distroférrico em relação ao solo sob mata nativa (MATA; e verificar a relação entre o teor de C orgânico do solo (COS e a capacidade de troca de cátions efetiva (CTC a pH natural e a capacidade de troca de cátions a pH 7 (CTC a pH 7. O estudo foi realizado na fazenda experimental da Empresa de Pesquisa Agropecuária de Minas Gerais (EPAMIG, localizada no município de São Sebastião do Paraíso, Minas Gerais. A área experimental foi plantada com cafeeiros da cultivar Paraíso, e o experimento foi instalado em blocos casualizados, com sete manejos de plantas invasoras e três repetições. Os manejos de plantas invasoras avaliados foram: sem capina (SCAP; capina manual (CAPM; herbicida de pós-emergência (HPOS; roçadora (ROÇA; enxada rotativa (ENRT; grade (GRAD; e herbicida de pré-emergência (HPRE. Cada manejo de plantas invasoras nas entrelinhas dos cafeeiros vem sendo realizado há 30 anos em três ruas, com 36 m de comprimento cada. As amostras de solo foram coletadas no centro das entrelinhas dos cafeeiros em dezembro de 2007, com cinco amostras simples por parcela, que perfizeram uma amostra composta em três profundidades (0-3, 10-13 e 25-28 cm. As seguintes análises químicas foram realizadas nas amostras de solo: pH em água, cátions trocáveis (Ca, Mg, K e Al, C orgânico (COS, capacidade de troca de cátions efetiva ou a pH natural (CTC efetiva e capacidade de troca de cátions a pH 7. Os manejos apresentaram características contrastantes, variando desde métodos manuais até capinas químicas e mecânicas. Os resultados permitiram observar que a manuten

  10. Phenolic contents and cellular antioxidant activity of Chinese hawthorn "Crataegus pinnatifida".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Lingrong; Guo, Xingbo; Liu, Rui Hai; You, Lijun; Abbasi, Arshad Mehmood; Fu, Xiong

    2015-11-01

    It is evident from various epidemiological studies that consumption of fruits and vegetables is essential to maintain health and in the disease prevention. Present study was designed to examine phenolic contents and antioxidant properties of three varieties of Crataegus pinnatifida (Chinese hawthorn). Shanlihong variety exhibited elevated levels of total phenolics and flavonoid contents, including free and bond phenolics. Procyanidin B2 was most abundant phenolic compound in all samples, followed by epicatechin, chlorogenic acid, hyperoside, and isoquercitrin. The free ORAC values, and free hydro-PSC values were 398.3-555.8 μmol TE/g DW, and 299.1-370.9 μmol VCE/g DW, respectively. Moreover, the free cellular antioxidant activity (CAA) values were 678-1200 μmol of QE/100 g DW in the no PBS wash protocol, and 345.9-532.9 μmol of QE/100 g DW in the PBS wash protocol. C. pinnatifida fruit could be valuable to promote consumer health. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Decontamination treatments to eliminate problem biota from macroalgal tank cultures ofOsmundea pinnatifida,Palmaria palmataandUlva lactuca.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerrison, Philip D; Le, Hau Nhu; Twigg, Gail C; Smallman, Duncan R; MacPhee, Rory; Houston, Fiona A B; Hughes, Adam D

    2016-01-01

    The effect of a range of chemical disinfectants at different concentration and exposure times was investigated on five macroalgal species and the marine gastropod Littorina spp. Palmaria palmata , Osmundea pinnatifida and Ulva lactuca are commercially valuable and are often cultivated in tanks for food or feed. Ectocarpus siliculosus and Ulva intestinalis are common epiphytes of P. palmata and O. pinnatifida cultures, whilst Littorina spp. are common herbivorous epibionts within U. lactuca culture tanks. These contaminants reduce the productivity and quality of the culture as a food. Differential tolerance to the treatments was seen between the algal species using pulse-amplitude modulation (PAM) chlorophyll a fluorescence, a few hours and a week following treatment. We identified treatments that selectively damaged the epiphyte but not the basiphyte species. Ectocarpus siliculosus had a significantly lower tolerance to 1 % sodium hypochlorite than P. palmata , and to 25 % methanol than O. pinnatifida , with a 1-5 min exposure appearing most suitable. Ulva intestinalis had a significantly lower tolerance than P. palmata and O. pinnatifida to many disinfectants: 0.1-1 % sodium hypochlorite for 10 min, 0.5 % potassium iodide for up to 10 min, and 0.25 % Kick-start (a commercial aquaculture disinfectant solution) for 1-5 min. No treatment was able to kill the gastropod snails without also damaging U. lactuca , although agitation in freshwater for an hr may cause them to detach from the basiphyte, with little to no photophysiological impact seen to U. lactuca . This experiment forms the basis for more extended commercial trials.

  12. Agregação de um latossolo vermelho-amarelo submetido a métodos de controle de plantas invasoras na cultura do café

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    Raphael Henrique da Silva Siqueira

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available O controle de plantas daninhas em cultivos de cafeeiros tem expressivo efeito na qualidade física do solo, influenciando, entre outros atributos, na sua estabilidade estrutural. Neste trabalho, objetivou-se avaliar o estado de agregação das partículas primárias de um Latossolo Vermelho-Amarelo (LVA cultivado com cafeeiros, quando submetido a diversos métodos de controle de plantas invasoras. Os métodos de controle de plantas invasoras avaliados foram: manutenção da entrelinha coberta com amendoim-forrageiro (Arachis pintoi L. e capim-braquiária (Brachiaria decumbens; controle mecânico com grade, roçadora, trincha e capina manual; controle químico com herbicidas de pós e pré-emergência; e ausência de controle, mantendo a entrelinha sem capina. O delineamento experimental foi em blocos casualizados em um fatorial 9 × 2 em parcelas subdivididas, sendo nove métodos de controle e duas profundidades do solo (0-15 e 15-30 cm, com três repetições. Determinaram-se a estabilidade dos agregados em água, expressa pelo diâmetro médio geométrico, o potencial dispersivo da fração argila, estimado pelos teores de argila dispersa em água e do índice de floculação, além dos teores de matéria orgânica do solo. Os atributos avaliados foram influenciados pelos diferentes métodos de controle, contudo essa influência não foi dependente da camada de solo amostrada. A utilização contínua de grade e herbicida de pré-emergência no controle de invasoras na cultura do café diminuiu a agregação das partículas do solo, confirmado pelos menores valores de diâmetro médio geométrico. Os métodos biológicos de controle das invasoras mantiveram melhor estado de agregação das partículas do solo. O estado de agregação das partículas não mostrou-se associado à dispersibilidade da fração argila do solo.

  13. Plantas cultivadas e invasoras como habitat para predadores do gênero Orius(Wolff (Heteroptera: anthocoridae Crops and weeds as host plants Orius species (Heteroptera: anthocoridae

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    Luís Cláudio Paterno Silveira

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi registrar as espécies de Orius associadas a plantas cultivadas e invasoras presentes em uma localidade de Minas Gerais e três de São Paulo, nos anos de 1999 e 2000. As coletas foram realizadas através de batidas das plantas no interior de sacos plásticos para desalojar os insetos. Posteriormente, as espécies foram separadas em laboratório. O predador Orius insidiosus (Say foi coletado nas culturas de milho (Zea mays L., milheto (Pennisetum glaucum (L. R.Br., sorgo (Sorghum spp., feijão (Phaseolus vulgaris L., girassol (Helianthus annuus L., alfafa (Medicago sativa L., soja [Glycine max (L. Merr.], crisântemo (Chrysanthemum spp., tango (Solidago canadensis L. e cartamus (Carthamus tinctorius L. e nas plantas invasoras picão-preto (Bidens pilosa L., caruru (Amaranthus sp., losna-branca (Parthenium hysterophorus L. e apaga-fogo (Alternanthera ficoidea L.. Orius thyestes Herring foi encontrado nas plantas invasoras picão-preto, caruru e apaga-fogo. Orius perpunctatus (Reuter e Orius sp. foram coletados principalmente nas plantas invasoras picão-preto, caruru e apaga-fogo e no milho. Constatou-se que muitas dessas plantas são reservatórios naturais para esses predadores, em termos de habitat, abrigo, presas e pólen.The aim of this research was to record the Orius species present on some crops and weeds in areas located in the southeast region in Brazil, during 1999 and 2000. The insect collections were made through the tapping method to dislodge the insects from the plant into a plastic bag. The identifications of the specimens was done in the laboratory. Orius insidiosus (Say was collected on the following crops: corn (Zea mays L., pearl millet (Pennisetum glaucum (L. R.Br., sorghum (Sorghum spp., bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L., sunflower (Helianthus annuus L., alfalfa (Medicago sativa L., soybean (Glycine max (L. Merr., chrysanthemum (Chrysanthemum spp., tango (Solidago canadensis L. and carthamus

  14. Germinação de gramíneas nativas e invasoras do cerrado após exposição a pulsos de calor

    OpenAIRE

    Paredes, Marcus Vinicius Falcão

    2016-01-01

    O Cerrado é considerado uma savana tropical, onde o fogo geralmente é rápido e de superfície. De forma geral, estudos mostram que o fogo poderia beneficiar a germinação das sementes que apresentam dormência física, pois o calor pode danificar a proteção imposta pelos diversos envoltórios das sementes. Este trabalho teve como objetivo investigar a capacidade de germinação de nove espécies de gramíneas nativas e invasoras do Cerrado (Echinolaena inflexa (Poir.) Chase, Paspalum gardnerianum Nees...

  15. The Antioxidant and Tyrosinase-inhibiting Activities of 8-O-4′ N eolignans from Crataegus pinnatifida Seeds

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    Xiao-Xiao Huang

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Many tyrosinase inhibitors have been alleged to have serious side effects. To search for relatively mild and safe tyrosinase inhibitors, two new 8-O-4′ neolignans, named huangnin A (1 and B (2, and four known analogs (3-6 were isolated from the seeds of Crataegus pinnatifida. Their structures were elucidated by spectroscopic analyses (1D, 2D NMR, HRESIMS, CD and Rh 2(OCOCF 3 4-induced CD. In addition, the in vitro antioxidant and anti-tyrosinase activities of all isolates were evaluated. The results showed that compound 5 has good antioxidant and promising tyrosinase-inhibiting activities.

  16. Leucaena leucocephala (Lam. de Wit (Fabaceae: invasora ou ruderal? Leucaena leucocephala (Lam. de Wit (Fabaceae: invasive or ruderal?

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    José Nicola Martorano Neves da Costa

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available A utilização de espécies exóticas em plantios de recuperação de áreas degradadas tem sido condenada com base no argumento de que tais espécies podem se comportar como invasoras e contaminar os ecossistemas naturais ao redor das áreas onde forem plantadas. Leucaena leucocephala (leucena é espécie leguminosa exótica que tem sido frequentemente cultivada no Brasil para recuperação florestal, uma vez que apresenta simbiose com bactérias fixadoras de nitrogênio, melhorando a fertilidade dos solos. O potencial de invasão e persistência da leucena foi analisado a partir de um plantio misto, efetuado em 1983 em terreno com afloramento rochoso, parte do mosaico de uma paisagem dominada por matriz agrícola, com alguns fragmentos remanescentes de floresta estacional semidecidual e plantios arbóreos diversos. Em uma área de 200 ha, cada uma das 11 unidades do mosaico foi amostrada por meio de seis parcelas de 16 x 3 m (48 m², em que foram identificados e medidos (DAP todos os indivíduos de espécies arbóreas (altura mínima de 50 cm, para verificar se a área ocupada pela espécie está se expandindo. Na área em que foi utilizada leucena no plantio, analisou-se a estrutura da comunidade, com base na distribuição dos indivíduos em classes de tamanho, para verificar se a proporção da espécie exótica tende a aumentar com o tempo, configurando a persistência no ecossistema. Uma vez que nenhum indivíduo de L. leucocephala foi registrado entre os 4.599 amostrados além dos limites da área onde a espécie foi plantada, a conclusão é de que a espécie não está se comportando como invasora de ecossistemas naturais nessa condição ambiental, enquadrando-se melhor como ruderal. A análise da comunidade em regeneração sob as árvores plantadas evidenciou que a proporção da espécie exótica, que é intolerante à sombra, tende a diminuir com o tempo, ainda que lentamente, perdendo espaço para espécies nativas tolerantes

  17. Visitantes florais de plantas invasoras de áreas com fruteiras irrigadas Floral visitors of weed plants of irrigated orchard areas

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    Lúcia Helena Piedade Kiill

    2000-09-01

    Full Text Available As plantas invasoras afetam a produtividade das fruteiras irrigadas, sendo necessários estudos sobre sua ecologia, principalmente formas de reprodução e associação com insetos. O presente trabalho foi desenvolvido em Petrolina-PE, objetivando classificar os visitantes florais de plantas invasoras em polinizadores e pilhadores, de acordo com o comportamento apresentado. As observações foram feitas de maio a outubro de 1998, em 26 dias não consecutivos, no intervalo das 7h00 às 16h00. As invasoras foram classificadas em nectaríferas e poliníferas, quando visitadas para retirada exclusiva de néctar ou de pólen; e em mistas, quando visitadas para retirada dos dois recursos. Para a análise de freqüência foi adotado um sistema de notas: a- número de visitas >30, b- entre 10 e 30 e c- Weeds can impair yield of irrigated fruit crops, studies about their ecology being needed, especially ways of reproduction and association with insects. This work was carried out in Petrolina, PE, Brazil with the objective of identifying the floral visitors of weeds, and classifying them as pollinators and pollen and/or nectar thieves, according to their behavior. The observations were made between May and October of 1998, in 26 not consecutive days, between 7:00 am and 4:00 pm. The weeds were classified in nectariferous and polliniferous when these were visited exclusively for collection of nectar or pollen, and mixed when these were visited to collect both. A grade system was adopted for the frequency evaluation: a- number of visits >30, b - between 10 to 30, c - <10. Among the 24 weeds observed, 14 were classified as nectariferous, six as polliniferous and four were considered mixed. Among the floral visitors, the following bees were registered (Xylocopa grisescens, X. frontalis, Centris aff. perforator, Ptilotrix aff. plumata, Diadasina riparia, Apis mellifera, Trigona spinipes, Eulaema nigrita, butterflies (Ascia monuste, Papilio thoas brasiliensis

  18. Efeito do controle de invasoras em propriedades físicas e micropedológicas de um podzólico vermelho-amarelo

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    J. C. Faria

    1998-12-01

    Full Text Available Nos trópicos, o impacto das gotas de chuva é capaz de destruir agregados e a porosidade natural do solo, influenciando o montante de água infiltrada e sua redistribuição. Em tais condições, a cobertura vegetal produzida pelas plantas invasoras não pode ser vista, simplesmente, como competidora com a cultura de interesse. Este projeto de pesquisa foi concebido para examinar, em condições de campo, a influência de diferentes tipos de manejo de invasoras sobre a umidade, estrutura e selamento do solo, visando contribuir para o desenvolvimento de técnicas compatíveis com uma agricultura sustentada. Quatro tipos de manejo de invasoras (coberturas: capina, sem vegetação (aplicação combinada do herbicida de pré-emergência Arsenal-250® (Imazapir 2,0 L ha-1 e do herbicida sistêmico Gliz® (Glifosato 5,0 L ha-1, roçado e roçado + herbicida (herbicida sistêmico Gliz®(Glifosato 5,0 L ha-1, foram estudadas em um Podzólico Vermelho-Amarelo fase terraço em Minas Gerais. Nos períodos de elevada precipitação, as coberturas roçado e roçado + herbicida apresentaram maiores valores de umidade de solo quando comparados com capina e sem vegetação. Por outro lado, nos períodos secos, capina e sem vegetação apresentaram maiores valores de umidade de solo em relação as demais. Um selamento de aproximadamente 15 mm a partir da superfície do solo foi observado nas coberturas capina e sem vegetação, sendo particularmente bem estratificado na última. Postulou-se que processos microerosionais e microdeposicionais foram envolvidos no selamento observado na cobertura capina. Estes processos resultaram da quebra, e posterior rearranjo dos microagregados. Na cobertura sem vegetação, o selamento foi associado com alterações físicas na superfície do solo, devido ao impacto das gotas de chuva. As coberturas roçado e roçado + herbicida apresentaram grande desenvolvimento de algas, briófitas e atividade de minhocas na superf

  19. La problemática de las especies vegetales invasoras en las Antillas: el caso de Martinica

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    Jospeh Philippe

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available La introducción de plantas es un fenómeno antiguo y consustancial a la historia de la humanidad. Los viajes y las conquistas de nuevas tierras permitieron la diseminación de las especies a partir de su lugar de domesticación. La migración de algunos pueblos está estrechamente ligada a la de los vegetales que son necesarios para su supervivencia. La epopeya amerindia en la cuenca del Caribe que originó la introducción de numerosas especies vegetales útiles, es un ejemplo elocuente. En las Antillas Menores, desde el inicio de la colonización hasta nuestros días, a las especies exógenas se les agregaron diversos taxos pantropicales. Las introducciones sucesivas se debieron al aumento de los intercambios sobre todo agrícolas, a los intereses económicos crecientes relacionados con las producciones hortícolas, y a la recrudescencia de las colecciones de vegetales en los jardines botánicos así como en los conservatorios botánicos y en otros espacios verdes o paisajísticos. Al contrario de lo que sucede en algunas islas tropicales, donde las plantas introducidas ocasionan un verdadero desastre ecológico, las Antillas Menores, a pesar de una fuerte antropización y de importaciones de vegetales exógenos, parecen estar protegidas contra las invasiones florísticas. Pocas especies se lanzan a la aventura en el medio natural. Los motivos de esa aparente resistencia ecosistémica son desconocidos hoy en día. Por ser transitoria esta situación, resulta necesario considerar el riesgo ecológico acarreado por este proceso de invasión vegetal en esos espacios insulares exiguos. En este artículo, intentaremos echar las primeras bases para una comprensión de las relaciones existentes entre las especies introducidas, de las cuales algunas son potencialmente invasoras, y la vegetación natural.For many human communities, their migratory process depends heavily on food plants edible for the daily diet. The history of the Indians of America

  20. Impacto de la resistencia a antimicrobianos y de serotipos de Streptococcus pneumoniae en la mortalidad de niños menores de 5 años con enfermedad invasora

    OpenAIRE

    Ana María Ríos; Fernando de la Hoz; Aura Lucía Leal; Orlando Castillo; Elizabeth Castañeda

    1999-01-01

    Las enfermedades invasoras ocasionadas por Streptococcus pneumoniae han sido por mucho tiempo una causa importante de mortalidad. Si bien se sabe que la resistencia de S. pneumoniae a la penicilina y otros antimicrobianos se ha incrementado con el tiempo, aún no se ha esclarecido el efecto de este cambio sobre la mortalidad. Se desconoce igualmente el impacto de la virulencia de los tipos capsulares del microorganismo en la mortalidad. El objetivo de este estudio de cohorte retrospectivo fue ...

  1. Germinação de sementes de alface e de duas ervas invasoras com a aplicação de um novo análogo do estrigol, sintetizado a partir do safrol

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    Gabriel André José A.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available O estrigol é um sesquiterpeno natural que possui elevada atividade como estimulante da germinação, principalmente de sementes de espécies invasoras, pertencentes aos gêneros Striga e Orobanche. Soluções contendo 0,01; 0,1; 10 e 1000 mg/L de um novo análogo de estrigol, sintetizado a partir de um alilbenzeno natural, o safrol (isolado do óleo de sassafraz, foram aplicadas em sementes de alface e de Ipomoea grandifolia e Bidens pilosa. Observou-se que houve efeito estimulador na germinação das sementes das ervas invasoras, sem afetar a germinação da alface. Os resultados indicam que essa substância apresenta potencial de uso para estimular a germinação de sementes de ervas invasoras, que poderiam ser eliminadas do solo, antes do plantio de hortaliças como a alface.

  2. An extract of Crataegus pinnatifida fruit attenuates airway inflammation by modulation of matrix metalloproteinase-9 in ovalbumin induced asthma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    In Sik Shin

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Crataegus pinnatifida (Chinese hawthorn has long been used as a herbal medicine in Asia and Europe. It has been used for the treatment of various cardiovascular diseases such as myocardial weakness, tachycardia, hypertension and arteriosclerosis. In this study, we investigated the anti-inflammatory effects of Crataegus pinnatifida ethanolic extracts (CPEE on Th2-type cytokines, eosinophil infiltration, expression of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP-9, and other factors, using an ovalbumin (OVA-induced murine asthma model. METHODS/PRINCIPAL FINDING: Airways of OVA-sensitized mice exposed to OVA challenge developed eosinophilia, mucus hypersecretion and increased cytokine levels. CPEE was applied 1 h prior to OVA challenge. Mice were administered CPEE orally at doses of 100 and 200 mg/kg once daily on days 18-23. Bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF was collected 48 h after the final OVA challenge. Levels of interleukin (IL-4 and IL-5 in BALF were measured using enzyme-linked immunosorbent (ELISA assays. Lung tissue sections 4 µm in thickness were stained with Mayer's hematoxylin and eosin for assessment of cell infiltration and mucus production with PAS staining, in conjunction with ELISA, and Western blot analyses for the expression of MMP-9, intercellular adhesion molecule (ICAM-1 and vascular cell adhesion molecule (VCAM-1 protein expression. CPEE significantly decreased the Th2 cytokines including IL-4 and IL-5 levels, reduced the number of inflammatory cells in BALF and airway hyperresponsiveness, suppressed the infiltration of eosinophil-rich inflammatory cells and mucus hypersecretion and reduced the expression of ICAM-1, VCAM-1 and MMP-9 and the activity of MMP-9 in lung tissue of OVA-challenged mice. CONCLUSIONS: These results showed that CPEE can protect against allergic airway inflammation and can act as an MMP-9 modulator to induce a reduction in ICAM-1 and VCAM-1 expression. In conclusion, we strongly suggest the feasibility

  3. Invasive pneumococcal diseases among hospitalized children in Lima, Peru Enfermedades neumocócicas invasoras en niños hospitalizados en Lima, Perú

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    Theresa J. Ochoa

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To determine the epidemiology of invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD and the antibiotic susceptibility and serotype distribution of S. pneumoniae in pediatric patients in Lima, Peru. METHODS: A 2-year, multicenter, passive surveillance study conducted from May 2006- April 2008 in 11 public hospitals and five private laboratories in Lima, Peru, in patients less than 16 years of age with sterile site cultures yielding S. pneumoniae. Antibiotic susceptibility was performed by Etest® (AB Biodisk, Solna, Switzerland. Strains were serotyped by the Quellung reaction. RESULTS: In all, 101 IPD episodes were studied, 68.3% of which were among children less than 24 months of age. Diagnoses were: pneumonia (47.5%, meningitis (38.6%, and sepsis (7.9%. The overall case fatality rate was 22.0%; case fatality rate in meningitis was 32.4%. While 80.0% of fatal cases were in those less than 24 months of age, only 50.7% of non-fatal cases (P OBJETIVO: Determinar la epidemiología de la enfermedad neumocócica invasora y la sensibilidad a los antibióticos y la distribución de los serotipos de S. pneumoniae en pacientes pediátricos en Lima, Perú. MÉTODOS: Estudio multicéntrico de vigilancia pasiva durante dos años, entre mayo del 2006 y abril del 2008, en 11 hospitales públicos y 5 consultorios privados de Lima, en pacientes menores de 16 años con cultivos de sitios estériles positivos para S. pneumoniae. Se determinó la sensibilidad a los antibióticos mediante Etest® (AB Biodisk, Solna, Suiza. Se serotipificaron las cepas mediante la reacción de Quellung. RESULTADOS: En total, se estudiaron 101 episodios de enfermedad neumocócica invasora, 68,3% de ellos en niños menores de 24 meses, con los siguientes diagnósticos: neumonía (47,5%, meningitis (38,6% y septicemia (7,9%. La tasa de letalidad general fue de 22,0% y la tasa de letalidad por meningitis de 32,4%. Si bien 80,0% de los casos mortales ocurrió en menores de 24 meses, solo 50

  4. Diversidade genética de Begomovirus que infectam plantas invasoras na região nordeste Genetic diversity of Begomovirus infecting weeds in northeastern Brazil

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    I.P. Asssunção

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Os Begomovirus fazem parte de uma família numerosa de fitovírus denominada Geminiviridae. Eles infectam ampla gama de hospedeiras, incluindo muitas espécies cultivadas, como tomate (Lycopersicon esculentum, feijão (Phaseolus vulgaris, pimentão (Capsicum annuum, caupi (Vigna unguiculata, mandioca (Manihot esculenta etc., além de plantas invasoras de várias espécies. Em alguns casos, plantas invasoras podem funcionar como reservatórios desses vírus para plantas cultivadas, mediante transmissão pelo inseto-vetor. No presente trabalho, plantas invasoras com sintomas de mosaico amarelo, deformação do limbo foliar e redução do crescimento foram avaliadas no tocante à presença de Begomovirus mediante a técnica de PCR, empregando-se oligonucleotídeos universais para detecção desses vírus. Foram avaliadas 11 amostras, correspondendo a 10 espécies, coletadas em municípios dos Estados de Alagoas, Pernambuco e Bahia. Algumas, como Herissantia crispa, Waltheria indica e Triumfetta semitriloba, são relatadas pela primeira vez como espécies hospedeiras de Begomovirus. Para estimar a variabilidade genética dos Begomovirus detectados, o produto de amplificação dos diversos isolados foi clivado com as enzimas de restrição EcoRI, HinfI e TaqI. Confirmando resultados obtidos para plantas cultivadas por outros grupos de pesquisa, foram observados padrões distintos de clivagem para os isolados estudados, evidenciando a grande variabilidade genética desses vírus.Genus Begomovirus belong to the family Geminiviridae. Begomovirus is associated with a wide range of hosts, including many cultivated species such as tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum, dry beans (Phaseolus vulgaris, pepper (Capsicum annuum, cowpea (Vigna unguiculata, cassava (Manihot esculenta, etc., besides many weed species. It has been demonstrated that in some cases weeds act as virus reservoirs for cultivated plants. In the present work, weed samples presenting yellow

  5. Dez anos do informe brasileiro sobre espécies exóticas invasoras: avanços, lacunas e direções futuras

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    Rafael Dudeque Zenni

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/2175-7925.2016v29n1p133 Em 2004, o Ministério do Meio Ambiente contratou a elaboração do Informe Nacional sobre Espécies Exóticas Invasoras, cujos objetivos eram a coleta, a sistematização e a divulgação de informações no Brasil. Neste artigo, revisamos o que existia de conhecimento científico e normativas legais sobre invasões biológicas no Brasil antes do Informe, fazemos uma avaliação dos avanços e lacunas nos 10 anos pós-Informe e sugerimos direções futuras. Encontramos 143 artigos científicos e 65 marcos legais sobre espécies exóticas invasoras publicados entre 1999 e 2014. Os dados indicam que o Informe Nacional representa um divisor de águas para o tema no Brasil, a partir do qual aumentou a frequência da publicação de normas legais e pesquisas científicas. Identificamos avanços, ainda que aquém do necessário para considerar o tema consolidado no país. Os avanços obtidos se devem em parte à mobilização do terceiro setor e a grupos de pesquisa trabalhando separadamente. Para os próximos anos devem ser promovidos projetos de pesquisa, manejo e gestão mais ambiciosos e relevantes para fazer avançar o tema no país, contribuir para seu avanço em termos globais, embasar ações práticas de manejo e consolidar um arcabouço legal integrado que efetivamente permita-nos prevenir, manejar e controlar invasões biológicas.

  6. Hawthorn (Crataegus pinnatifida Bunge) leave flavonoids attenuate atherosclerosis development in apoE knock-out mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Pengzhi; Pan, Lanlan; Zhang, Xiting; Zhang, Wenwen; Wang, Xue; Jiang, Meixiu; Chen, Yuanli; Duan, Yajun; Wu, Honghua; Xu, Yantong; Zhang, Peng; Zhu, Yan

    2017-02-23

    Hawthorn (Crataegus pinnatifida Bunge) leave have been used to treat cardiovascular diseases in China and Europe. Hawthorn leave flavonoids (HLF) are the main part of extraction. Whether hawthorn leave flavonoids could attenuate the development of atherosclerosis and the possible mechanism remain unknown. High-fat diet (HFD) mixed with HLF at concentrations of 5mg/kg and 20mg/kg were administered to apolipoprotein E (apoE) knock out mice. 16 weeks later, mouse serum was collected to determine the lipid profile while the mouse aorta dissected was prepared to measure the lesion area. Hepatic mRNA of genes involved in lipid metabolism were determined. Peritoneal macrophages were collected to study the impact of HLF on cholesterol efflux, formation of foam cell and the expression of ATP binding cassette transporter A1 (ABCA1). Besides, in vivo reverse cholesterol transport (RCT) was conducted. HLF attenuated the development of atherosclerosis that the mean atherosclerotic lesion area in en face aortas was reduced by 23.1% (Pflavonoids can slow down the development of atherosclerosis in apoE knockout mice via induced expression of genes involved in antioxidant activities, inhibition of the foam cell formation and promotion of RCT in vivo, which implies the potential use in the prevention of atherosclerosis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Avaliação de métodos de controlo mecânicos e químicos da espécie invasora Hedychium gardnerianum Sheppard ex Ker Gawl. na ilha de São Miguel, Açores

    OpenAIRE

    Andrade, Rui César Almeida

    2015-01-01

    Dissertação de Mestrado, Gestão e Conservação da Natureza, 6 de Abril de 2015, Universidade dos Açores. Nos Açores, a planta invasora Hedychium gardnerianum Sheppard ex Ker Gawl. é considerada um dos maiores perigos para a floresta nativa, provocando um enorme impacte nos habitats e nas espécies nela presentes. Havendo uma necessidade de um controlo desta planta invasora cada vez mais eficaz e económico, esta tese pretende avaliar a eficácia de cinco métodos diferentes de controlo (cort...

  8. Efeito do espaçamento e do uso de leguminosas de cobertura no manejo de plantas invasoras em reflorestamento de Schizolobium amazonicum Huber ex. Ducke (paricá)

    OpenAIRE

    Alvino-Rayol, Fabrízia de Oliveira; Rosa, Leonilde dos Santos; Rayol, Breno Pinto

    2011-01-01

    A infestação crescente de plantas invasoras em áreas de cultivos é um dos fatores que mais afetam os reflorestamentos na Amazônia, causando decréscimos na produtividade devido à competição direta pelos fatores de produção. Tendo isso em vista, este trabalho objetivou avaliar o efeito de espaçamentos (4x2 m, 4x4 m e 4x6 m) e do uso de leguminosas de cobertura (Cajanus cajan e Canavalia ensiformis) no controle da matocompetição em plantio de Schizolobium amazonicum Huber ex. Ducke (paricá). As ...

  9. An Efficient Method for the Preparative Isolation and Purification of Flavonoids from Leaves of Crataegus pinnatifida by HSCCC and Pre-HPLC

    OpenAIRE

    Lei Wen; Yunliang Lin; Ruimin Lv; Huijiao Yan; Jinqian Yu; Hengqiang Zhao; Xiao Wang; Daijie Wang

    2017-01-01

    In this work, flavonoid fraction from the leaves of Crataegus pinnatifida was separated into its seven main constituents using a combination of HSCCC coupled with pre-HPLC. In the first step, the total flavonoid extract was subjected to HSCCC with a two-solvent system of chloroform/methanol/water/n-butanol (4:3:2:1.5, v/v), yielding four pure compounds, namely (–)-epicatechin (1), quercetin-3-O-(2,6-di-α-l-rhamnopyranosyl)-β-d-galactopyranoside (2), 4′′-O-glucosylvitexin (3) and 2′′-O-rhamnos...

  10. Métodos de controle de plantas invasoras na cultura do cafeeiro (Coffea arabica L. e componentes da acidez do solo Weed control methods and soil acidity components in coffee plantation (Coffea arabica L.

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    Elifas Nunes Alcântara

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Em lavouras perenes, como na cultura do cafeeiro, o controle de plantas invasoras tem sido feito por meio de métodos manuais, mecanizados, químicos e associações destes. De modo geral, têm-se avaliado os diferentes métodos sob o ponto de vista de eficiência e de custo no controle das plantas invasoras; no entanto, a influência deles sobre as condições químicas do solo, praticamente, não tem sido estudada, principalmente a longo prazo. O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar o efeito de diferentes métodos de controle de plantas invasoras na cultura do cafeeiro sobre os componentes da acidez de um Latossolo Vermelho distroférrico da região de São Sebastião do Paraíso, MG. Sete tratamentos de controle de plantas invasoras foram avaliados: roçadora (RÇ, grade (GR, enxada rotativa (RT, herbicida de pós-emergência (HC, herbicida de pré-emergência (HR, capina manual (CM e testemunha sem capina (SC, dispostos em blocos casualizados com três repetições. Amostras de solo, em cada tratamento, foram coletadas a cada dois anos, a partir de 1980, nas camadas de 0-0,15 e 0,15-0,30 m, para avaliação de pH, Al3+, acidez potencial (H + Al e saturação por Al3+ (m. O sistema HR aumentou o teor e a saturação por Al3+ e a acidez potencial e diminuiu o pH, quando comparado com os demais métodos de controle de plantas invasoras, principalmente com a testemunha (SC. O tratamento SC mostrou efeito contrário ao do HR, aumentando os valores de pH e diminuindo o teor de Al3+ e a saturação por Al3+, em ambas as camadas de solo. O RÇ foi o tratamento que mais se aproximou do SC, e os demais tratamentos, no geral, não apresentaram comportamento diferenciado.In perennial agriculture, such as coffee plantation, weeds are controlled by hand, mechanized, and chemical weeding and their combinations. Methods that differ in terms of efficiency and costs have been evaluated; however, the influence of these methods on the soil chemical conditions has

  11. Major triterpenoids in Chinese hawthorn "Crataegus pinnatifida" and their effects on cell proliferation and apoptosis induction in MDA-MB-231 cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Lingrong; Guo, Ruixue; You, Lijun; Abbasi, Arshad Mehmood; Li, Tong; Fu, Xiong; Liu, Rui Hai

    2017-02-01

    The cytotoxicity and antiproliferative effect of phytochemicals presenting in the fruits of Chinese hawthorn (Crataegus pinnatifida) were evaluated. Shanlihong (Crataegus pinnatifida Bge. var. major N.E.Br.) variety possessed significant levels of flavonoids and triterpenoids, and showed potent antiproliferative effect against HepG 2 , MCF-7 and MDA-MB- 231 human cancer cells lines. Triterpenoids-enriched fraction (S9) prepared by Semi-preparative HPLC, and its predominant ingredient ursolic acid (UA) demonstrated remarkably antiproliferative activities for all the tested cancer cell lines. DNA flow cytometric analysis showed that S9 fraction and UA significantly induced G1 arrest in MDA-MB-231 cells in a dose-dependent manner. Western blotting analysis revealed that S9 fraction and UA significantly induced PCNA, CDK4, and Cyclin D1 downregulation in MDA-MB-231 cells, followed by p21 Waf1/Cip1 up-regulation. Additionally, flow cytometer and DNA ladder assays indicated that S9 fraction and UA significantly induced MDA-MB-231 cells apoptosis. Mitochondrial death pathway was involved in this apoptosis as significantly induced caspase-9 and caspase-3 activation. These results suggested that triterpenoids-enriched fraction and UA exhibited antiproliferative activity through the cell cycle arrest and apoptosis induction, and was majorly responsible for the potent anticancer activity of Chinese hawthorn. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Food Byproducts as a New and Cheap Source of Bioactive Compounds: Lignans with Antioxidant and Anti-inflammatory Properties from Crataegus pinnatifida Seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Xiao-Xiao; Bai, Ming; Zhou, Le; Lou, Li-Li; Liu, Qing-Bo; Zhang, Yan; Li, Ling-Zhi; Song, Shao-Jiang

    2015-08-19

    During the process of manufacturing hawthorn (Crataegus pinnatifida) juice and jam, a significant quantity of byproducts (leaves, seeds) is generated. The antioxidant and anti-inflammatory bioassay-guided fractionation of the extract of hawthorn seeds has led to the isolation of eight new lignans, hawthornnins A-H (1-8), and seven known analogues (9-15). Their structures were elucidated by spectroscopic techniques, including 1D and 2D NMR and CD spectra. The radical-scavenging effects of all isolated compounds were investigated. 1-6 and 8 showed moderate activity against 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), whereas 1-6 and 14 displayed good 2,2'-azinobis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS) free radical-scavenging activities that were even more potent than that of trolox. In addition, all isolates were evaluated for their anti-inflammatory activities by detecting the nitric oxide (NO) and tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α) production by the LPS-induced murine macrophage cell line RAW264.7, and compounds 1-7, 13, and 14 exhibited potent inhibition of NO and TNF-α production. The structure-activity relationships of isolated lignans were also examined, and the results obtained show that C. pinnatifida seeds can be regarded as a potential new and cheap source of antioxidants and inflammation inhibitors.

  13. Structure and development of fruits and seeds of weed species of Euphorbiaceae Estrutura e desenvolvimento de frutos e sementes de espécies invasoras de Euphorbiaceae

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    Karina Bertechine Gagliardi

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Euphorbiaceae s.l. presents several morphological types of fruits, of which the schizocarp is the most common. The fruits of weed species of Euphorbia graminea Jacq., Euphorbia heterophylla L., Euphorbia hirta L. (= Chamaesyce hirta (L. Millsp. and Euphorbia prostrata Aiton (= Chamaesyce prostrata (Aiton Small are objects of this study. Inflorescences and fruits in development were collected on the campus of the State University of Maringa (UEM, Brazil, fixed in FAA 50 and glutaraldehyde, dehydrated and sectioned with a rotary microtome according to standard morphology and anatomy techniques. The species present several anatomical similarities, though there are some differences related to the outer epidermis of the ovaries, which is glabrous in E. graminea and hairy in the other species. The ripe fruits present a papilose exocarp and lack trichomes, except for E. hirta. The ovules are anatropous, bitegmic and crassinucellate; the seeds are exotegmic and the embryos are straight.Euphorbiaceae s.l. apresenta vários tipos morfológicos de frutos, sendo o mais comum o esquizocarpo. Os frutos das espécies invasoras Euphorbia graminea Jacq., Euphorbia heterophylla L., Euphorbia hirta L. (= Chamaesyce hirta (L. Millsp. and Euphorbia prostrata Aiton (= Chamaesyce prostrata (Aiton Small são objetos do presente estudo. As inflorescências e frutos em desenvolvimento foram coletados no campus da Universidade Estadual de Maringá (UEM, Brasil, fixados em FAA 50 e glutaraldeído, desidratados e secionados em micrótomo de rotação, de acordo com as técnicas usuais em anatomia. As espécies apresentam muitas semelhanças anatômicas, embora haja algumas diferenças relacionadas à epiderme externa do ovário, que é glabra em E. graminea e pilosa nas outras espécies. O fruto maduro apresenta exocarpo papiloso e desprovido de tricomas, com exceção de E. hirta. O óvulo é anátropo, bitegumentado e crassinucelado, e as sementes são exotégmicas com

  14. Enfermedad invasora por Haemophilus Influenzae antes y después de la campaña de vacunación en la población infantil de la Comunidad Valenciana (1996-2000

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    Goicoechea Sáez Mercedes

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Fundamento: La introducción de la vacuna conjugada anti Haemophilus influenzae tipo b (Hib en niños ha provocado un llamativo descenso de la incidencia de la enfermedad por H. influenzae. El objetivo de este estudio es analizar las características más relevantes de la enfermedad invasora por H. influenzae en cuanto a la epidemiología, clínica, evolución y estado de vacunación de la población infantil de la Comunidad Valenciana en el periodo 1996-2000. Método: Los datos se recogen de las historias clínicas de los niños menores de 15 años que hayan presentado síntomas y signos clínicos sugestivos de enfermedad invasora con aislamiento de Haemophilus influenzae y/o que cumple con los criterios de definición de caso establecidos, atendidos en todos los hospitales públicos de la Comunidad Valenciana entre 1996 y 2000. La evolución de la incidencia se valoró mediante tasas de incidencia. La clínica y su evolución (secuelas y letalidad mediante la frecuencia y distribución por edad. Resultados: Se registraron un total de 36 casos de enfermedad invasora por Haemophilus influenzae. La tasa de incidencia en niños menores de 15 años pasó de 3,56/10(5 en 1996 a 1,07/10(5 en 1997 (coincidiendo con la campaña de vacunación y la posterior inclusión de la vacuna conjugada anti Hib en el Calendario de Vacunaciones Sistemáticas de la Comunidad Valenciana y 0,30/10(5 en 1998, situación que se sigue manteniendo en los años posteriores. El 53% de los casos se dan en menores de 18 meses. Tanto las secuelas como los fallecimientos se producen en la época anterior a la aplicación rutinaria de la vacuna conjugada. Ningún niño vacunado correctamente falleció. Se registraron 2 casos de H. influenzae tipo no b en niños vacunados. Conclusiones: La incidencia de la infección por Haemophilus influenzae tipo b disminuyó drásticamente desde el inicio de la vacunación sistemática de la población infantil.

  15. ENFERMEDAD INVASORA POR HAEMOPHILUS INFLUENZAE ANTES Y DESPUÉS DE LA CAMPAÑA DE VACUNACIÓN EN LA POBLACIÓN INFANTIL DE LA COMUNIDAD VALENCIANA (1996-2000

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    Mercedes Goicoechea Sáez

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Fundamento: La introducción de la vacuna conjugada anti Haemophilus influenzae tipo b (Hib en niños ha provocado un llamativo descenso de la incidencia de la enfermedad por H. influenzae. El objetivo de este estudio es analizar las características más relevantes de la enfermedad invasora por H. influenzae en cuanto a la epidemiología, clínica, evolución y estado de vacunación de la población infantil de la Comunidad Valenciana en el periodo 1996-2000. Método: Los datos se recogen de las historias clínicas de los niños menores de 15 años que hayan presentado síntomas y signos clínicos sugestivos de enfermedad invasora con aislamiento de Haemophilus influenzae y/o que cumple con los criterios de definición de caso establecidos, atendidos en todos los hospitales públicos de la Comunidad Valenciana entre 1996 y 2000. La evolución de la incidencia se valoró mediante tasas de incidencia. La clínica y su evolución (secuelas y letalidad mediante la frecuencia y distribución por edad. Resultados: Se registraron un total de 36 casos de enfermedad invasora por Haemophilus influenzae. La tasa de incidencia en niños menores de 15 años pasó de 3,56/105 en 1996 a 1,07/105 en 1997 (coincidiendo con la campaña de vacunación y la posterior inclusión de la vacuna conjugada anti Hib en el Calendario de Vacunaciones Sistemáticas de la Comunidad Valenciana y 0,30/105 en 1998, situación que se sigue manteniendo en los años posteriores. El 53% de los casos se dan en menores de 18 meses. Tanto las secuelas como los fallecimientos se producen en la época anterior a la aplicación rutinaria de la vacuna conjugada. Ningún niño vacunado correctamente falleció. Se registraron 2 casos de H. influenzae tipo no b en niños vacunados. Conclusiones: La incidencia de la infección por Haemophilus influenzae tipo b disminuyó drásticamente desde el inicio de la vacunación sistemática de la población infantil.

  16. Padrões distintos de congruência climática em duas espécies invasoras de prosopis em zonas semi-áridas da América do Sul

    OpenAIRE

    Oliveira, Brunno Freire Dantas de

    2012-01-01

    Baseados nas informações climáticas e nos registros de ocorrência, modelos de nicho ecológico (MNE) são uma importante oportunidade de identificar áreas sob risco ou vulneráveis à invasão biológica. Estes modelos se apóiam na suposição de que existe congruência entre os climas das regiões nativa e invadida para prever a distribuição potencial de espécies exóticas. Utilizando métodos recentes para medir sobreposições entre MNE, escolhemos duas espécies invasoras bastante comuns em regiões semi...

  17. Effects of an aqueous extract of Crataegus pinnatifida Bge. var. major N.E.Br. fruit on experimental atherosclerosis in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jianyong; Liang, Rixin; Wang, Lan; Yan, Renyi; Hou, Rui; Gao, Shuangrong; Yang, Bin

    2013-07-09

    Atherosclerosis (AS) can result in severe cardiovascular diseases. Early indications of AS include disorders in lipid metabolism, inflammatory responses, and endothelial dysfunction. Statins are the preferred drugs for stabilizing atherosclerotic plaques because of their lipid-lowering, anti-inflammation and endothelial-protection activities. However, they can exhibit side effects and are effective in only one-third of patients. Many natural products (especially traditional Chinese medicines (TCMs)) possessing similar lipid-lowering, anti-inflammation and antioxidant activities are of interest in many studies exploring new AS drug therapy. The widely distributed hawthorn is used to prevent and cure heart disease not only in China but also in the United States and several European countries. For example, the fruit of Crataegus pinnatifida Bge. and Crataegus pinnatifida Bge. var. major N.E.Br. (a commonly used hawthorn fruit in China) is used in combination with other TCMs to treat AS. Studies have also shown that the water extracts of these two hawthorn fruits are effective against hyperlipidemia by lowering lipid levels, reducing endothelial dysfunction, and inhibiting inflammation. The aim of the study is to investigate the effect and possible mechanisms of the aqueous extract of Crataegus pinnatifida var. major on AS rats. The fruit of Crataegus pinnatifida var. major was extracted with 70% ethanol; the ethanol extract was chromatographed on a D101 macroporous resin to obtain a sugar-free aqueous extract (AECP). Atherosclerotic rats were fed a high-fat diet and injected with vitamin D3 and ovalbumin. Rats were divided into five groups: normal, model, model plus simvastatin, model plus low-dose AECP, and model plus high-dose AECP. AECP and simvastatin were administered (via the intragastric route) to AECP groups and the simvastatin group. For normal and model groups, water was given for 4 weeks. After 12 weeks, levels of total cholesterol (TC), triglyceride (TG

  18. Soil organic carbon stocks in coffee plantations under different weed control systemsEstoques de carbono orgânico do solo em cafezais sob diferentes sistemas de controle de plantas invasoras

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    Franciane Diniz Cogo

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Soil organic carbon (COS is an important indicator of soil quality, as its levels and stocks can change by soil preparation. This study aimed to evaluate COS stocks on a clayey Oxisol cultivated with coffee and subject to different weed control systems in southern Minas Gerais, Brazil. The experimental design was in randomized blocks, and weed control systems were: no weeding, manual weeding, pre-emergence herbicide, post-emergence herbicide, rotary tiller, rotary mowers and disk harrow. Undisturbed soil samples were collected at two positions in the coffee plantation (tire tracks and planting line, at depths of 0-3, 10-13, and 25-28 cm. A nearby native forest was sampled as a reference. A higher bulk density of soils under coffee plantations occurred compared to soil under the forest. There was little difference between COS concentrations in the plating line in relation to the native forest, but for the tire track position, the amount of COS was generally lower. After correction for soil compaction, it was estimated a loss of ca. 20% in SOC stock for te 0-30 cm depth for herbicide post-emergence, rotary tiller, manual weeding and disk barrow, and a 35% loss when using herbicide pre-emergence. SOC stocks under no weeding and rotary mowers did not differ from native forest (37 M-1g ha COS, indicating that the rotary mower, which allows temporary growth of weeds and does not disrupt soil structure, is the most appropriate weed control for the preservation of COS in coffee plantations.O carbono orgânico no solo (COS é um importante indicador da qualidade do solo, pois seus teores e estoques podem ser alterados conforme o sistema de preparo do solo. Objetivou-se neste trabalho avaliar os estoques de COS em um Latossolo Vermelho distroférrico argiloso cultivado com cafeeiros (Coffea arabica L e submetido a diferentes manejos de plantas invasoras no sul de Minas Gerais. O delineamento experimental foi em blocos ao acaso, sendo os tratamentos os

  19. Impacto de la resistencia a antimicrobianos y de serotipos de Streptococcus pneumoniae en la mortalidad de niños menores de 5 años con enfermedad invasora

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    Ana María Ríos

    1999-02-01

    Full Text Available Las enfermedades invasoras ocasionadas por Streptococcus pneumoniae han sido por mucho tiempo una causa importante de mortalidad. Si bien se sabe que la resistencia de S. pneumoniae a la penicilina y otros antimicrobianos se ha incrementado con el tiempo, aún no se ha esclarecido el efecto de este cambio sobre la mortalidad. Se desconoce igualmente el impacto de la virulencia de los tipos capsulares del microorganismo en la mortalidad. El objetivo de este estudio de cohorte retrospectivo fue determinar los factores de riesgo de mortalidad por enfermedad neumocócica en niños menores de 5 años. Durante un estudio de serotipificación de S. pneumoniae patrocinado por el Sistema Regional de Vacunas de la OPS se revisaron con este fin las fichas epidemiológicas de 245 pacientes de esa edad en quienes se diagnosticó enfermedad invasora por S. pneumoniae entre 1994 y 1996 en Colombia. De los 245 pacientes, 29 (11% fallecieron. En el análisis univariado no se establecieron diferencias significativas entre los pacientes que murieron y aquellos que sobrevivieron en cuanto a edad, sexo, procesos patológicos subyacentes al ingresar, o concordancia del tratamiento antimicrobiano recibido. Las variables que se asociaron con la mortalidad fueron un diagnóstico de meningitis; infección por S. pneumoniae resistente a la penicilina, trimetoprima-sulfametoxazol (TMS o eritromicina; multirresistencia, y los tipos capsulares 6, 23F, 7F, 8 y 35 B. En el análisis por regresión logística siguieron mostrando asociación con la mortalidad los tipos capsulares 7F (razón de posibilidades u odds ratio [OR] = 7,13; P = 0,04 y 8 (OR = 13,8; P = 0,07, la polipnea (OR = 2,74; P = 0,03, el diagnóstico de meningitis (OR = 5,02; P = 0,0001 y la resistencia a TMS (OR = 2,62; P = 0,02. En los casos de neumonía, el factor que más se asoció con la mortalidad fue el tipo capsular, mientras que en los casos de meningitis, dicho factor fue la resistencia a

  20. Especies vegetales exóticas invasoras (EEI en la Universidad de Ciencias Pedagógicas José Martí. Su empleo en la formación profesional.

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    Biofredis Castro Torres

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available RESUMEN La valoración de las especies cultivadas de porte arbóreo, arbustivo y herbáceo arroja la presencia de 59 especies de ellas el 96,7% exóticas, dos especies endémicas (Crescentia mirabilis y Cordia galeottiana . Según el porte el 71,2, % son árboles. Se determinaron los índices de diversidad de Shannon (2,22850, uniformidad (0,54653 y Simpson: 0,25674. La especie con mayor cantidad de individuos (48,4% es la Ixora coccinea. De acuerdo a las categorías establecidas en Cuba para las EEI, el 28,8% se encuentran entre las 100 especies invasoras más peligrosas para Cuba, la mayor cantidad de individuos de este categoría corresponden a Leucaena leucocephala ; como potencialmente invasoras se reporta el 32,2 % de las especies exóticas. Se discuten las vías para el tratamiento de estas especies en la formación profesional. EXOTIC INVASIVES SPECIES (EIS AT THE PEDAGOGICAL SCIENCE UNIVERSITY JOSÉ MARTÍ. UTILIZATION IN THE PROFESIONAL FORMATION. ABSTRACT The evaluation of the cultivated species of arboreal layer, shrub and herbaceous showed the 96,7 % the throws the presence of 61 species of them exotic, an two endemic species (Crescentia mirabilis and Cordia galeottiana. According to the layer 71,2 % is trees. Were determined the indexes of diversity of Shannon (2,22850, uniformity (0,54653; Simpson: 0,25674. Most of the individuals corresponds to species of freightage shrub (71,2 %. The species with major quantity of individuals (37,8 % is the Ixora coccinea. In accordance with the categories established in Cuba for the EIS, 28,8 % of the exotic species is invading, of them 42,1 % is between the 100 most dangerous invading species for Cuba, the biggest quantity of individuals of this one category they correspond to Leucaena leucocephala; since potentially invading there is brought 32,2 % of the exotic species. The routes are discussed for the treatment of these species in the professional training.

  1. A flórula invasora da cultura do café (Coffea arabica L. no Estado de Minas Gerais, Brasil Weeds in coffee (Coffea arabica L. plantations in the state of Minas Gerais, Brazil

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    Manuel Losada Gavilanes

    1988-01-01

    Full Text Available Nas áreas de cultura de café (Coffea arábica L., no Estado de Minas Gerais, foram coletadas e identificadas 388 espécies de plantas invasoras (= plantas daninhas, pertencentes a 51 famílias botânicas, representando 182 gêneros, sendo que as famílias Compositae, Gramineae, Leguminosae, Malvaceae, Solanaceae, Euphorbiaceae, Rubiaceae, Amaranthaceae, Convolvulaceae e Verbenaceae, são as mais importantes em relação à cultura. As plantas coletadas, devidamente etiquetadas e identificadas, foram anexadas, parte delas no PAMG (Herbário da EPAMIG, Belo Horizonte, MG e, a outra parte, no Herbarium ESAL (Herbário do Departamento de Biologia da Escola Superior de Agricultura de Lavras - ESAL, Lavras - MG.A survey in the cultivation area of coffee in the State of Minas Gerais, Brazil, has resulted in the determination of 388 weed species, of 182 genera belonging to 51 families; the families presenting a greater number of espécies are: Compositae, Leguminosae, Gramineae, Malvaceae, Solanaceae, Rubiaceae, Convolvulaceae, Euphorbiaceae, Amaranthaceae and Verbenaceae with 65, 48, 42, 30, 19, 17, 16, 14, 12, 10 species, respectively.

  2. Plantas invasoras em sistemas agroflorestais com cupuaçuzeiro no município de Presidente Figueiredo (Amazonas, Brasil Weedy plants in agroforestry systems with cupuassu in the municipality of Presidente Figueiredo (Amazonas, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gladys Ferreira de Sousa

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available A infestação crescente de plantas invasoras nos sistemas agrícolas causa prejuízos às lavouras, com decréscimos acentuados da produtividade, quer pela competição direta pelos fatores de produção, quer pelos compostos alelopáticos liberados. Este trabalho consistiu de um levantamento e análise fitossociológica de alguns aspectos de espécies de invasoras que ocorrem em sistemas agroflorestais com cupuaçuzeiro, em três arranjos de culturas (mandioca+fruteiras; anuais+fruteiras; maracujá+fruteiras, sob três sistemas de adubação (NPK+MO, adubação com Fósforo e Fósforo+leguminosa. As coletas das plantas invasoras feitas em seis amostras de 0,25 m² por parcela foram posteriormente levadas ao laboratório para identificação. As 55 espécies identificadas estavam distribuídas em 23 famílias botânicas, sendo 43 espécies de dicotiledôneas (78,2%, 11 de monocotiledôneas (20,0% e uma de pteridófita (1,8%. As famílias Poaceae (monocotiledônea e Asteraceae (dicotiledônea foram as mais freqüentes e com maior número de indivíduos. As espécies mais freqüentes e com maior número de plantas por m² foram Paspalum conjugatum P.J. Bergius (área A e Homolepis aturensis (Kunth Chase (área B, ambas da família Poaceae; Ageratum conyzoides L. da família Asteraceae, apresentou a maior densidade. Os coeficientes de similaridade variaram entre as áreas amostradas, sendo os maiores índices observados nos tratamentos que receberam adubação com matéria orgânica, particularmente nos sistemas mandioca+fruteiras. As práticas agrícolas e os sistemas de manejo do solo e das lavouras exerceram influência na composição florística e no tamanho das comunidades de plantas invasoras em cada local. O número de monocotiledôneas foi menor no tratamento com adubação NPK+MO.The increase of weed infestation on agricultural systems cause damages to the crops, decreasing plant productivity by the direct competition or by alelopathy

  3. An Efficient Method for the Preparative Isolation and Purification of Flavonoids from Leaves of Crataegus pinnatifida by HSCCC and Pre-HPLC

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    Lei Wen

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available In this work, flavonoid fraction from the leaves of Crataegus pinnatifida was separated into its seven main constituents using a combination of HSCCC coupled with pre-HPLC. In the first step, the total flavonoid extract was subjected to HSCCC with a two-solvent system of chloroform/methanol/water/n-butanol (4:3:2:1.5, v/v, yielding four pure compounds, namely (–-epicatechin (1, quercetin-3-O-(2,6-di-α-l-rhamnopyranosyl-β-d-galactopyranoside (2, 4′′-O-glucosylvitexin (3 and 2′′-O-rhamnosylvitexin (4 as well as a mixture of three further flavonoids. An extrusion mode was used to rapidly separate quercetin-3-O-(2,6-di-α-l-rhamnopyranosyl-β-d-galactopyranoside with a big KD-value. In the second step, the mixture that resulted from HSCCC was separated by pre-HPLC, resulting in three pure compounds including: vitexin (5, hyperoside (6 and isoquercitrin (7. The purities of the isolated compounds were established to be over 98%, as determined by HPLC. The structures of these seven flavonoids were elucidated by ESI-MS and NMR spectroscopic analyses.

  4. An Efficient Method for the Preparative Isolation and Purification of Flavonoids from Leaves of Crataegus pinnatifida by HSCCC and Pre-HPLC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Lei; Lin, Yunliang; Lv, Ruimin; Yan, Huijiao; Yu, Jinqian; Zhao, Hengqiang; Wang, Xiao; Wang, Daijie

    2017-05-09

    In this work, flavonoid fraction from the leaves of Crataegus pinnatifida was separated into its seven main constituents using a combination of HSCCC coupled with pre-HPLC. In the first step, the total flavonoid extract was subjected to HSCCC with a two-solvent system of chloroform/methanol/water/ n -butanol (4:3:2:1.5, v/v ), yielding four pure compounds, namely (-)-epicatechin ( 1 ), quercetin-3- O -(2,6-di-α-l-rhamnopyranosyl)-β-d-galactopyranoside ( 2 ), 4''- O -glucosylvitexin ( 3 ) and 2''- O -rhamnosylvitexin ( 4 ) as well as a mixture of three further flavonoids. An extrusion mode was used to rapidly separate quercetin-3- O -(2,6-di-α-l-rhamnopyranosyl)-β-d-galactopyranoside with a big K D -value. In the second step, the mixture that resulted from HSCCC was separated by pre-HPLC, resulting in three pure compounds including: vitexin ( 5 ), hyperoside ( 6 ) and isoquercitrin ( 7 ). The purities of the isolated compounds were established to be over 98%, as determined by HPLC. The structures of these seven flavonoids were elucidated by ESI-MS and NMR spectroscopic analyses.

  5. Vigilancia epidemiológica prospectiva de la enfermedad neumocócica invasora y de la neumonía en niños de San José, Costa Rica Prospective epidemiologic surveillance of invasive pneumococcal disease and pneumonia in children in San José, Costa Rica

    OpenAIRE

    Adriano Arguedas; Arturo Abdelnour; Carolina Soley; Elias Jimenez; Ana Laura Jimenez; Darmendra Ramcharran; Nurith Porat; Ron Dagan; Sharon Gray; Gail L Rodgers

    2012-01-01

    Justificación y objetivo: Streptococcus pneumoniae es globalmente la primera causa de muertes inmunoprevenibles en niños menores de 5 años. Métodos: entre 2007 y 2009 se realizó una vigilancia prospectiva con base poblacional en niños de 28 días a 36 meses en San José, Costa Rica. Se determinaron la incidencia de la enfermedad neumocócica invasora y de neumonía confirmada clínicamente y por radiografía, la distribución de serotipos y la sensibilidad a los antibióticos. Resultados: participaro...

  6. Diversidade da comunidade de plantas invasoras em sistemas agroflorestais com café em Turrialba, Costa Rica Diversity of weed community in agroforestry systems with coffee in Turrialba, Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta dos Santos Freire Ricci

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a diversidade de plantas invasoras, em sistemas agroflorestais com cafeeiros (Coffea arabica L. e em cafezal a pleno sol, sob manejo orgânico e convencional. Foram avaliados 20 tratamentos no delineamento de blocos ao acaso, em parcelas subdivididas no tempo, com três repetições. Os tratamentos corresponderam à combinação entre sistemas agroflorestais e quatro níveis de manejo, baseados na intensidade das práticas e aplicação de insumos: alto e médio convencional, médio e baixo orgânico. Em julho de 2002 e setembro de 2005 foi realizado o levantamento de plantas invasoras. Determinaram-se a riqueza, abundância, diversidade e eqüitabilidade. Observou-se redução nos valores médios de riqueza, abundância, diversidade e eqüitabilidade, em que os menores valores foram encontrados no tratamento com manejo alto convencional. Houve redução na freqüência das trepadeiras, ciperáceas e espécies de folhas estreitas (má cobertura, e aumento das espécies de folhas largas (boa cobertura e gramíneas. Nas duas épocas, os maiores percentuais de pontos com solo descoberto foram encontrados no tratamento alto convencional, e os menores percentuais foram encontrados em todos os tratamentos com manejo médio e baixo orgânico, e em três dos sete tratamentos com manejo médio convencional. Tais resultados demonstram que onde há aplicação freqüente de herbicida, a presença de árvores não evita exposição do solo.The objective of this work was to evaluate the floristic composition of spontaneous species in coffee (Coffea arabica L. cultivated in full sun and in agroforestry systems, under organic and conventional management. Twenty treatments were evaluated in a randomized complete block design, in a split plot in time, with three replicates. The treatments corresponded to combinations between types of agroforestry systems and four management system levels, based on practice intensity and

  7. Resistência à compactação de um Latossolo cultivado com cafeeiro, sob diferentes sistemas de manejo de plantas invasoras Resistance to soil compaction of an Oxisol cultivated with coffee plants under different weed Management systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cezar Francisco Araujo-Junior

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available O conhecimento dos níveis de pressão que podem ser aplicados aos solos submetidos a diferentes sistemas de manejo das plantas invasoras é essencial para adaptar o manejo de lavouras cafeeiras de forma sustentável. O objetivo deste estudo foi o de avaliar a influência dos diferentes sistemas de manejo de plantas invasoras sobre a resistência à compactação em três camadas de um Latossolo Vermelho-Amarelo (LVA, utilizando modelos de capacidade de suporte de carga (CSC. O estudo foi realizado na fazenda da Epamig, no município de Patrocínio-MG, em uma lavoura cafeeira implantada em fevereiro de 1999, com a cultivar Rubi 1192 no espaçamento de 3,8 x 0,7 m. Foram avaliados os efeitos de quatro sistemas de manejo de plantas invasoras: sem capina (SC; capina manual (CM; herbicida de pós-emergência (HPÓS (glyphosate; e herbicida de pré-emergência (HPRÉ (oxyfluofen. Em cada sistema de manejo, foram coletadas 15 amostras indeformadas, em julho de 2004, no centro das entrelinhas, nas camadas de 0-3, 10-13 e 25-28 cm, totalizando 180 amostras. As amostras indeformadas foram equilibradas em diferentes umidades e submetidas ao ensaio de compressão uniaxial, para obtenção dos modelos de CSC. Os resultados sugerem que, de maneira geral, a resistência à compactação avaliada através da CSC decresce no centro da entrelinha na seguinte ordem: HPRÉ na camada de 0-3 cm > CM na camada de 10-13 cm > SC nas camadas de 0-3, 10-13 e 25-28 cm = HPÓS nas camadas de 0-3, 10-13 e 25-28 cm = CM nas camadas de 0-3 e 25-28 cm = HPRÉ na camada de 10-13 cm > HPRÉ na camada de 25-28 cm. A camada que se mostrou mais suscetível à compactação foi a de 25-28 cm, do sistema de manejo HPRÉ, e a mais resistente foi a camada de 0-3 cm do sistema de manejo HPRÉ. Os sistemas de manejo SC e HPÓS nas camadas de 0-3, 10-13 e 25-28 cm, CM nas camadas de 0-3 e 25-28 cm e HPRÉ na camada de 10-13 cm apresentaram a mesma resistência à compacta

  8. Granulosicoccus undariae sp. nov., a member of the family Granulosicoccaceae isolated from a brown algae reservoir and emended description of the genus Granulosicoccus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sooyeon; Jung, Yong-Taek; Won, Sung-Min; Park, Ja-Min; Yoon, Jung-Hoon

    2014-11-01

    A Gram-stain-negative, aerobic, non-flagellated and coccoid bacterial strain, W-BA3(T), which was isolated from a brown algae reservoir in Wando of South Korea, was characterized taxonomically. Strain W-BA3(T) was found to grow optimally at 30 °C, at pH 7.0-8.0 and in presence of 2.0 % (w/v) NaCl. In the neighbour-joining phylogenetic tree based on 16S rRNA gene sequences, strain W-BA3(T) clustered with the type strains of Granulosicoccus antarcticus and Granulosicoccus coccoides, with which it exhibited sequence similarity values of 98.4-99.3 %. Sequence similarity values of strain W-BA3(T) to the type strains of the other recognized species were less than 90.2 %. Strain W-BA3(T) was found to contain Q-8 as the predominant ubiquinone and summed feature 3 (C16:1 ω7c and/or C16:1 ω6c), C18:1 ω7c and C16:0 as the major fatty acids. The major polar lipids of strain W-BA3(T), which were identified as phosphatidylethanolamine and phosphatidylglycerol, were similar to those of the type strains of G. antarcticus and G. coccoides. The DNA G+C content of strain W-BA3(T) was 56.0 mol % and its mean DNA-DNA relatedness values with the type strains of G. coccoides and G. antarcticus were 27 and 17 %, respectively. Differential phenotypic properties, together with the phylogenetic and genetic distinctiveness, demonstrated that strain W-BA3(T) is separated from the two Granulosicoccus species. On the basis of the data presented, strain W-BA3(T) is considered to represent a novel species of the genus Granulosicoccus, for which the name Granulosicoccus undariae sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is W-BA3(T) (=KCTC 42134(T) = NBRC 110411(T)). An emended description of the genus Granulosicoccus is also proposed.

  9. Caracterização morfológica das sementes e plântulas de seis espécies invasoras do gênero Solanum L Seed and seedling morphology of six weedy species of Solanum L

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    Doris Groth

    1989-07-01

    Full Text Available As sementes do gênero Solarium L. são relativamente muito semelhantes, no entanto, a associação de características morfológicas externas da semente com as características anatômicas, como a forma do hilo, a textura e o tipo de esculturas da superfície do tegumento, bem como a forma do embrião curvo (circulado ou espiralado, são características da maior importância na identificação taxonómica à nível de espécie. São apresentadas ilustrações, chaves dicotômicas e descrições morfológicas do gênero Solarium e descrição detalhada das plántulas e das sementes de Solanum aculeatissimum Jacq., S. americanum Mill., S, ciliatum Lam., S. sisymbriifolium Lam., S. sordidum Sendt. e S. viarum Dunal. São apresentados, também, o nome vulgar, o tipo de reprodução e disseminação, as culturas nas quais é considerada invasora e as sementes agrícolas onde ocorre como "impureza".Morphological caracterization of the seeds and seedlings of six weed especies of the genus Solanum L. The seeds of the genus Solanum are very similar, however, the association of their external characteristics with the anatomical features, such as hilum shape, the texture and the type of the seed coat sculptures, as well as the curved (circulated or coiled shape of the embryo, are parameters of great importance in the taxonomical identification at the species level. It is are presented the morphological descriptions of the genus Solanum and a more detailed description of each studied species in terms of seed and seedling structures, including illustrations and taxonomical keys for the identification of Solanum aculeatissimum Jacq., S. americanum Mill., S. ciliatum Lam., S. sisymbriifolium Lam., S. sordidum Sendt. e S. viarum Dunal. There are also indications of the common names, the type of reproduction and dispersion, the crops in which the species is considered as a weed and the agricultural seeds in which it is found as a weed seed.

  10. Mekabu fucoidan: Structural complexity and defensive effects against avian influenza A viruses

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Synytsya, A.; Bleha, R.; Synytsya, Al.; Pohl, Radek; Hayashi, K.; Yoshinaga, K.; Nakano, T.; Hayashi, T.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 111, Oct 13 (2014), s. 633-644 ISSN 0144-8617 Institutional support: RVO:61388963 Keywords : Mekabu fucoidan * sporophyll Undaria pinnatifida * spectroscopic methods * avian influenza A virus * immunostimulating effect Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry Impact factor: 4.074, year: 2014

  11. Physiological responses of two tropical weeds to shade: I. Growth and biomass allocation Respostas fisiológicas de duas plantas invasoras tropicais ao sombreamento: I. Crescimento e alocação de biomassa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moacyr Bernardino Dias-Filho

    1999-06-01

    Full Text Available Ipomoea asarifolia (Desr. Roem. & Schultz (Convolvulaceae and Stachytarpheta cayennensis (Rich Vahl. (Verbenaceae, two weeds found in pastures and crop areas in Brazilian Amazonia, were grown in controlled environment cabinets under high (800-1000 µmol m-² s-¹ and low (200-350 µmol m-² s-¹ light regimes during a 40-day period. For both species leaf dry mass and leaf area per total plant dry mass, and leaf area per leaf dry mass were higher for low-light plants, whereas root mass per total plant dry mass was higher for high-light plants. High-light S. cayennensis allocated significantly more biomass to reproductive tissue than low-light plants, suggesting a probably lower ability of this species to maintain itself under shaded conditions. Relative growth rate (RGR in I. asarifolia was initially higher for high-light grown plants and after 20 days started decreasing, becoming similar to low-light plants at the last two harvests (at 30 and 40 days. In S. cayennensis, RGR was also higher for high-light plants; however, this trend was not significant at the first and last harvest dates (10 and 40 days. These results are discussed in relation to their ecological and weed management implications.Ipomoea asarifolia (Desr. Roem. & Schultz (Convolvulaceae e Stachytarpheta cayennensis (Rich Vahl. (Verbenaceae, duas plantas invasoras encontradas em pastagens e áreas agrícolas da Amazônia brasileira, foram cultivadas durante 40 dias, em câmaras de crescimento sob alto (800-1000 µmol m-² s-¹, "sol" e baixo (200-350 µmol m-² s-¹, "sombra" regime de luz. Em ambas as espécies a razão de massa e de área foliar por unidade de massa total da planta, e a área foliar por unidade de massa foliar foram maiores na sombra, enquanto a proporção de biomassa alocada para as raízes foi maior nas plantas ao sol. Em S. cayennensis a alocação de biomassa para tecido reprodutivo foi maior nas plantas ao sol, sugerindo uma provável menor habilidade dessa

  12. Physiological responses of two tropical weeds to shade: II. Leaf gas exchange and nitrogen content Respostas fisiológicas de duas plantas invasoras tropicais ao sombreamento: II. Troca gasosa e conteúdo de nitrogênio foliar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moacyr Bernardino Dias-Filho

    1999-06-01

    Full Text Available Ipomoea asarifolia (Desr. Roem. & Schultz (Convolvulaceae and Stachytarpheta cayennensis (Rich Vahl. (Verbenaceae, two weeds found in pastures and crop areas in the Brazilian Amazonia, Brazil, were grown in controlled environment cabinets under high (800-1000 µmol m-² s-¹ and low (200-350 µmol m-² s-¹ light regimes during a 40-day period. The objective was to determine the effect of shade on photosynthetic features and leaf nitrogen content of I. asarifolia and S. cayennensis. High-irradiance grown I. asarifolia leaves had significantly higher dark respiration and light saturated rates of photosynthesis than low-irradiance leaves. No significant differences for these traits, between treatments, were observed in S. cayennensis. Low-irradiance leaves of both species displayed higher CO2 assimilation rates under low irradiance. High-irradiance grown leaves of both species had less nitrogen per unit of weight. Low-irradiance S. cayennensis had more nitrogen per unit of leaf area than high-irradiance plants; however, I. asarifolia showed no consistent pattern for this variable through time. For S. cayennensis, leaf nitrogen content and CO2 assimilation were inversely correlated to the amount of biomass allocated to developing reproductive structures. These results are discussed in relation to their ecological and weed management implications.Ipomoea asarifolia (Desr. Roem. & Schultz (Convolvulaceae e Stachytarpheta cayennensis (Rich Vahl. (Verbenaceae, duas plantas invasoras encontradas em pastagens e áreas agrícolas da Amazônia brasileira, foram cultivadas durante 40 dias, em câmaras de crescimento sob alto (800-1000 µmol m-² s-¹ e baixo (200-350 µmol m-² s-¹ regime de luz. O objetivo foi estudar o efeito do sombreamento nas características fotossintéticas e no teor de nitrogênio de I. asarifolia e S. cayennensis. As folhas de I. asarifolia cultivadas sob regime de luz alta apresentaram valores de respiração no escuro e taxa m

  13. A Herbal Formula HT048, Citrus unshiu and Crataegus pinnatifida, Prevents Obesity by Inhibiting Adipogenesis and Lipogenesis in 3T3-L1 Preadipocytes and HFD-Induced Obese Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoon Hee Lee

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available HT048 is a combination composed of Crataegus pinnatifida leaf and Citrus unshiu peel extracts. This study aimed to investigate potential anti-obesity effect of the combination. The 3T3-L1 adipocytes were treated with different doses of HT048 and triglyceride accumulation, glycerol release and adipogenesis-related genes were analyzed. For in vivo study, male Sprague Dawley rats were divided according to experimental diets: the chow diet group, the high-fat diet (HFD group, the HFD supplemented with orlistat group, the HFD supplemented with HT048 group (0.2% or 0.4% for 12 weeks. We measured the body weight, serum lipid levels and the expression of genes involved lipid metabolism. HT048 treatment dose-dependently suppressed adipocyte differentiation and stimulated glycerol release. The expressions of PPARγ and C/EBPα mRNA were decreased by HT048 treatment in adipocytes. HT048 supplementation significantly reduced the body and fat weights in vivo. Serum lipid levels were significantly lower in the HT048 supplemented groups than those of the HFD group. Expression of the hepatic lipogenesis-related genes were decreased and expression of the β-oxidation-related genes were increased in rats fed HT048 compared to that of animals fed HFD. These results suggest that HT048 has a potential benefit in preventing obesity through the inhibition of lipogenesis and adipogenesis.

  14. Caracterización molecular de Streptococcus pyogenes causantes de enfermedad invasora y síndrome de shock tóxico estreptocócico Molecular characterization of Streptococcus pyogenes from invasive disease and streptococcal toxic shock syndrome episodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Traverso

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Streptococcus pyogenes es el agente causal de varias enfermedades comunes entre las que se incluyen la faringoamigdalitis, la escarlatina y el impétigo. Sin embargo, en las últimas décadas se ha registrado mundialmente un resurgimiento de casos de enfermedad invasora y síndrome de shock tóxico estreptocócico (SSTE. El propósito del presente trabajo fue estudiar la diversidad genética, los factores de virulencia (genes spe, sme, ssa y la sensibilidad a los antibióticos de 10 cepas de S. pyogenes causantes de enfermedad invasora y SSTE. Los aislamientos fueron recuperados de hemocultivos de pacientes internados en el Hospital Santamarina y en la Nueva Clínica Chacabuco (Tandil, Argentina entre diciembre de 2000 y abril de 2005. Predominaron 2 patrones de electroforesis en campo pulsante. El más frecuente comprendió 5 aislamientos del tipo emm1-T1, con perfil de toxinas speA, speB, speF, speG y smeZ. El segundo patrón más frecuente incluyó 2 aislamientos tipo emm3-TNT (speB, speF, speG. Estos dos tipos (emm1 y emm3 fueron los prevalentes en las infecciones invasoras. Las otras tres cepas correspondieron a los tipos emm49-TNT (speB, speC, speF, speG, emm75-T25 (speB, speF, speG y emm83-TNT (speB, speF, speG, ssa, smeZ. Se encontró diversidad genética entre las cepas aisladas, pero todos los aislamientos fueron sensibles a penicilina, cefotaxima, eritromicina, clindamicina, cloranfenicol, tetraciclina y rifampicina. Por tal motivo, aún es válido el tratamiento empírico con penicilina asociada a clindamicina.Streptococcus pyogenes causes a variety of common human diseases, including pharyngitis, scarlet fever and impetigo. Nevertheless, the past decades have witnessed a worldwide resurgence in invasive disease and streptococcal toxic shock syndrome (STSS. The objective of the present study is to evaluate the genetic diversity, virulence gene distribution (spe, sme and ssa genes and susceptibility pattern of 10 S. pyogenes isolates

  15. Associação de Rhizoctonia solani Grupo de Anastomose 4 (AG-4 HGI e HGIII à espécies de plantas invasoras de área de cultivo de batata Rhizoctonia solani anastomosis group 4 (AG-4 HGI and HGIII associated with weed species from a potato cropping area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fátima Aparecida da Silva-Barreto

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Os grupos 3 e 4 de anastomose (AG-3 e AG-4 do fungo Rhizoctonia solani são importantes grupos associados à batata no mundo. No Brasil, o AG-3 é relatado afetando principalmente batata e fumo. Já o AG-4 causa perdas consideráveis em culturas de importância econômica, como a soja, o feijão e o amendoim, podendo ocorrer também em hortaliças como o espinafre, o pimentão, o brócolis, o tomate, a batata e frutíferas como o melão. Recentemente foi constatada, em Brasília-DF, a associação de R. solani a plantas invasoras em áreas de cultivo de batata. Entretanto, não há informação a respeito da etiologia do patógeno bem como do papel de espécies invasoras como outras hospedeiras no ciclo do patógeno. Objetivou-se com esse estudo caracterizar isolados de R. solani obtidos de batata e de outras três espécies de plantas invasoras associadas a áreas de cultivo da cultura: juá-de-capote [Nicandra physaloides (L. Pers., Solanaceae], beldroega (Portulaca oleracea L., Portulacaceae, e caruru (Amaranthus deflexus L., Amaranthaceae. Foi confirmada a hipótese de que os isolados obtidos de R. solani de beldroega, caruru e juá-de-capote pertencem ao grupo 4 de anastomose e são patogênicos à batata, exceto o isolado de beldroega. Estes isolados apresentaram patogenicidade cruzada às três espécies e também patogênicos à maria-pretinha (Solanum americanum Mill., uma outra espécie de Solanaceae invasora. A classificação dos isolados no grupo AG-4 HGI ou no grupo AG-4 HGIII (isolado de caruru foi confirmada através de características culturais e moleculares (seqüenciamento da região ITS-5.8S do rDNA. Os resultados deste trabalho trazem implicações importantes para o manejo das podridões radiculares de Rhizoctonia em batata.The anastomosis groups 3 and 4 (AG-3 and AG-4 of the fungus Rhizoctonia solani are important groups associated with potatoes worldwide. In Brazil, the AG-3 is reported affecting mainly potatoes and

  16. Seaweeds as source of the essential elements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Albuquerque, C.R.; Maihara, V.A.; Alves, C.B.L.; Silva, P.S.C., E-mail: calbuuquerque@gmail.com, E-mail: vmaihara@ipen.br, E-mail: cassiomen@hotmail.com, E-mail: pscsilva@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2017-07-01

    Overtime seaweeds have been used as a food mainly due to their high nutritional value. This type of food is considered as functional food and contributes to the nutritional human requirements, being beneficial to human health. In this study 13 edible seaweed samples acquired in the marked of São Paulo city were analyzed and the concentrations of elements Cl. K. Mg. Mn and Na were determined by Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA). The following edible seaweeds were analyzed: Nori (Porphyra umbilicates); Hijiki (Hijikia fusiforme); Kombu (Laminaria sp.) and Wakame (Undaria pinnatifida) species from China, USA, Japan and South Korea. The Undaria pinnatifida species presented the highest Na concentration and the lowest K level. The highest variation was obtained for Mn in the Porphyra umbilicates species. (author)

  17. Seaweeds as source of the essential elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Albuquerque, C.R.; Maihara, V.A.; Alves, C.B.L.; Silva, P.S.C.

    2017-01-01

    Overtime seaweeds have been used as a food mainly due to their high nutritional value. This type of food is considered as functional food and contributes to the nutritional human requirements, being beneficial to human health. In this study 13 edible seaweed samples acquired in the marked of São Paulo city were analyzed and the concentrations of elements Cl. K. Mg. Mn and Na were determined by Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA). The following edible seaweeds were analyzed: Nori (Porphyra umbilicates); Hijiki (Hijikia fusiforme); Kombu (Laminaria sp.) and Wakame (Undaria pinnatifida) species from China, USA, Japan and South Korea. The Undaria pinnatifida species presented the highest Na concentration and the lowest K level. The highest variation was obtained for Mn in the Porphyra umbilicates species. (author)

  18. First record of the invasive medusa Blackfordia virginica (Hydrozoa: Leptomedusae in the Río de la Plata estuary, Argentina-Uruguay Primer registro de la medusa invasora Blackfordia virginica (Hydrozoa: Leptomedusae en el estuario del Río de la Plata, Argentina-Uruguay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GABRIEL GENZANO

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Blackfordia virginica is a well-known invasive medusa inhabiting estuarine areas. It was recently detected in northern Argentina, constituting the first record of invasive hydromedusa for the Argentine Sea. In this work more than 1,500 plankton samples in the southwestern Atlantic Ocean (34-55º S from 1983 to 2000 were analyzed. More than 5,000 specimens per sample of B. virginica were found in Río de la Plata estuary for the first time in February 2000. This river is one of the large waterways of South America with an intense nautical traffic and several exotic species has been recorded here, mainly due to trans-oceanic shipping traffic. It is important to point out that we found medusae of both sexes (therefore this species could be introduced in either the medusa or the polyp stages or both, different size classes (including very small juveniles and maturation stages, and in such high numbers that would suggest local reproduction. For this reason the recent finding of this hydromedusa could represent the starting point of an successful introductionBlackfordia virginica es una medusa invasora reconocida por habitar áreas estuariales. Recientemente fue descubierta en el norte de Argentina, constituyendo el primer registro de una hidromedusa invasora para el mar argentino. En este trabajo se analizaron más de 1.500 muestras de plancton en el Océano Atlántico sudoccidental (34-55º S desde 1983 hasta el año 2000. Más de 5.000 especímenes por muestra fueron encontrados por primera vez en el estuario del Río de la Plata durante febrero del año 2000. Este río es una de las mayores vías de agua de América del Sur, posee un intenso tráfico náutico y varias especies exóticas se han registrado allí, principalmente debido al tráfico marítimo transoceánico. Es importante señalar que se encontraron medusas de ambos sexos (por lo tanto esta especie podría haber sido introducida en su estadio medusa, pólipo o ambos, con diferentes

  19. Inhibition of hemolysis activities by polysaccharides in the seaweed of Japan

    OpenAIRE

    前田, 陽一; 柴田, 潔; 長谷川, 和清; 荒井, 千明

    2014-01-01

    Hemolytic activities of crude extracts from 10 seaweed ( 2 green algae, 2 brown algae and 6 red algae ) were evaluated by the absorbance at 541nm on the spectrophotometric analysis. The activities of Eisenia bicyclis and Undaria pinnatifida showed without density-dependent. Quantitative Analysis of Polysaccharides in algae by phenol-sulfuric acid reaction ware carried out and revealed the inhibition of hemolysis activity ware increased by the quantity of Polysaccharides although not proportio...

  20. Is Gulf of Mannar heading for marine bioinvasion?

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Pereira, N.; Verlecar, X.N.

    o- ration of the botanical wealth of our country 8 . Uncontrolled scraping of bry o- phytic layer from Kumaon hills by co m- mercial exploi ters who indulge in this type of illegal business, tolerated by forest authorities, naturalists.... 8, 25 OCTOBER 2005 (IUCN) lists two algal species, viz. Caulerpa taxifolia and Undaria pinnatifida among the list of 100 most invasive species? 2 . Of late, an exotic marine algal species is on t he verge of becoming invasive...

  1. Molecular taxonomy of Plagioscion Heckel (Perciformes, Sciaenidae and evidence from mtDNA RFLP markers for an invasive species in the Paraná river, Southern Brazil Taxonomia molecular de Plagioscion Heckel (Perciformes, Sciaenidae e evidências de marcadores moleculares RFLPs de mtDNA para uma espécie invasora no rio Paraná, Sul do Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo A. Torres

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Mitochondrial RFLP markers were developed to examine whether Plagioscion squamosissimus (Heckel, 1840 is invasive in natural environments of the congener P. ternetzi in the Paraná river, in southern Brazil. Specimens of P. squamosissimus and of the putative P. ternetzi (Boulenger, 1895 were obtained from the Negro river (Manaus, Amazonas, Brazil and from Paraná river, respectively. Fragments of the cytochrome b gene (900bp were amplified by PCR and four restriction enzymes (Eco RI, Mbo I, Bam HI and Alu I yielded the mitochondrial markers. An additional RFLP analysis with a cytochrome b gene sequence of Plagioncion sp. from GeneBank was carried out to validate the prior analysis. No genetic differentiation was found among either sample. While molecular variation in the cytochrome b analysis was no substantial among individuals, the combined analysis was important for demonstrating that there is no evidence for differentiation of the putative sample P. ternetzi from that of P. squamosissimus. The ecological implications of the introduced occurrence of P. squamosissimus, as well as the role of molecular taxonomic approaches for biodiversity studies are discussed.Marcadores RFLPs mitocondriais foram desenvolvidos para verificar se Plagioscion squamosissimus (Heckel, 1840 é invasora nos ambientes naturais da espécie congênere P. ternetzi no rio Paraná, no sul do Brasil. Exemplares de Plagioscion squamosissimus e supostamente de P. ternetzi (Boulenger, 1895 foram obtidos, respectivamente, do rio Negro (Manaus, AM, Brasil e rio Paraná (Foz do Iguaçu, PR, Brasil. Foram amplificados, via PCR, fragmentos de cerca de 900pb do Citocromo b e foram utilizadas quatro enzimas de restrição (Eco RI, Mbo I, Bam HI e Alu I para os fins de geração dos marcadores moleculares. Foi desenvolvida, a partir de uma seqüência de Citocromo b de Plagioscion sp. (genebank, uma análise de RFLP adicional, objetivando validar a primeira análise acima mencionada

  2. Impacto de la resistencia a antimicrobianos y de serotipos de Streptococcus pneumoniae en la mortalidad de niños menores de 5 años con enfermedad invasora The impact of antimicrobial resistance and capsular type distribution on the mortality of children under 5 years of age with invasive disease caused by Streptococcus pneumoniae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana María Ríos

    1999-02-01

    Full Text Available Las enfermedades invasoras ocasionadas por Streptococcus pneumoniae han sido por mucho tiempo una causa importante de mortalidad. Si bien se sabe que la resistencia de S. pneumoniae a la penicilina y otros antimicrobianos se ha incrementado con el tiempo, aún no se ha esclarecido el efecto de este cambio sobre la mortalidad. Se desconoce igualmente el impacto de la virulencia de los tipos capsulares del microorganismo en la mortalidad. El objetivo de este estudio de cohorte retrospectivo fue determinar los factores de riesgo de mortalidad por enfermedad neumocócica en niños menores de 5 años. Durante un estudio de serotipificación de S. pneumoniae patrocinado por el Sistema Regional de Vacunas de la OPS se revisaron con este fin las fichas epidemiológicas de 245 pacientes de esa edad en quienes se diagnosticó enfermedad invasora por S. pneumoniae entre 1994 y 1996 en Colombia. De los 245 pacientes, 29 (11% fallecieron. En el análisis univariado no se establecieron diferencias significativas entre los pacientes que murieron y aquellos que sobrevivieron en cuanto a edad, sexo, procesos patológicos subyacentes al ingresar, o concordancia del tratamiento antimicrobiano recibido. Las variables que se asociaron con la mortalidad fueron un diagnóstico de meningitis; infección por S. pneumoniae resistente a la penicilina, trimetoprima-sulfametoxazol (TMS o eritromicina; multirresistencia, y los tipos capsulares 6, 23F, 7F, 8 y 35 B. En el análisis por regresión logística siguieron mostrando asociación con la mortalidad los tipos capsulares 7F (razón de posibilidades u odds ratio [OR] = 7,13; P = 0,04 y 8 (OR = 13,8; P = 0,07, la polipnea (OR = 2,74; P = 0,03, el diagnóstico de meningitis (OR = 5,02; P = 0,0001 y la resistencia a TMS (OR = 2,62; P = 0,02. En los casos de neumonía, el factor que más se asoció con la mortalidad fue el tipo capsular, mientras que en los casos de meningitis, dicho factor fue la resistencia a

  3. Seasonal variation of soluble carbohydrates and starch in Echinolaena inflexa, a native grass species from the Brazilian savanna, and in the invasive grass Melinis minutiflora Variações sazonais de carboidratos solúveis e amido em Echinolaena inflexa, uma espécie nativa do cerrado, e na gramínea invasora Melinis minutiflora

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Souza

    2010-05-01

    , a 5 e 130 m da borda da Reserva Biológica e Estação Experimental de Mogi-Guaçu, uma área restrita de cerrado (SP, Brasil. Os resultados mostraram que os carboidratos solúveis e o conteúdo de amido da parte aérea de ambas as espécies variaram de acordo com a época do ano, enquanto que nos órgãos subterrâneos as variações foram observadas principalmente em relação aos transectos. Diferenças marcantes no padrão de distribuição de biomassa aérea das duas espécies em relação à localização na reserva também foram observadas, com dois picos de produção da espécie invasora (em julho e janeiro na borda da reserva. As diferenças observadas no acúmulo de carboidratos, partição e composição dos açúcares em relação à época do ano e localização na reserva foram mais relacionadas ao ciclo anual de crescimento de ambas as espécies e possivelmente a respostas fisiológicas específicas de M. minutiflora a ambientes perturbados na borda da reserva.

  4. Volatile compounds and odour characteristics of seven species of dehydrated edible seaweeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Pérez, O; Picon, A; Nuñez, M

    2017-09-01

    The volatile fraction of dehydrated edible seaweeds belonging to seven species (Himanthalia elongata, Laminaria ochroleuca, Palmaria palmata, Porphyra umbilicalis, Saccharina latissima, Ulva lactuca and Undaria pinnatifida) was analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, after solid-phase microextraction of samples. Thirty-six hydrocarbons, 34 ketones, 28 aldehydes, 23 alcohols, 8 carboxylic acids, 6 halogenated compounds, 4 furans, 3 esters, 2 sulphur compounds, 2 pyrazines, 1 pyridine and 1 amine were detected among the 151 volatile compounds found in seaweeds. There were significant differences between seaweed species for all the volatile compounds. Hydrocarbons reached their highest levels in U. pinnatifida, ketones in P. umbilicalis, aldehydes in P. palmata and P. umbilicalis, alcohols in P. umbilicalis, carboxylic acids in S. latissima, and halogenated compounds in L. ochroleuca and S. latissima. Sensory analysis revealed that P. palmata, U. lactuca and H. elongata were the seaweeds showing the most potent seafood odour and seaweed odour characteristics. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Determination of rare earth elements, thorium and uranium in seaweed samples on the coast in Niigata Prefecture by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sakamoto, Nobuo [Graduate School of Science and Technology, Niigata University, Ikarashi 2-nocho 8050, Niigata (Japan); Kano, Naoki [Faculty of Engineering, Niigata University, Ikarashi 2-nocho 8050, Niigata (Japan)], E-mail: kano@eng.niigata-u.ac.jp; Imaizumi, Hiroshi [Faculty of Engineering, Niigata University, Ikarashi 2-nocho 8050, Niigata (Japan)

    2008-10-15

    The determination of rare earth elements (REEs), Th and U in seaweeds of various species and in ambient surface seawater were performed by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. The seaweeds and the seawater samples were collected at 10 different coastal areas of Niigata Prefecture in Japan twice a year (spring and autumn) in 2004 and 2005. Results showed that concentration of REEs in seaweed species from Niigata Prefecture were about 10{sup 3} times higher than those in seawater, and the enrichment factors of REEs were larger in heavy REE than light REE. A significant concentration difference of REEs, Th and U was found among species even in the same phylum. Undaria pinnatifida had the highest concentration of U. Considering that U. pinnatifida has low concentrations of REEs among typical brown algae, different REEs and U uptake mechanisms are suggested. The concentration of REEs, Th and U did not vary remarkably between sampling points and/or seasons.

  6. Natural Abundance 14C Content of Dibutyl Phthalate (DBP from Three Marine Algae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazuyo Ukai

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: Analysis of the natural abundance 14C content of dibutyl phthalate (DBP from two edible brown algae, Undaria pinnatifida and Laminaria japonica, and a green alga, Ulva sp., revealed that the DBP was naturally produced. The natural abundance 14C content of di-(2-ethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP obtained from the same algae was about 50-80% of the standard sample and the 14C content of the petrochemical (industrial products of DBP and DEHP were below the detection limit.

  7. Bioactivity of Phycocolloids against the Mediterranean Protozoan Leishmania infantum: An Inceptive Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simona Armeli Minicante

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Sulfated polysaccharides from marine macroalgae have been shown to possess a variety of biological activities against fungi, bacteria, viruses, and protozoa. In this study, the in vitro activity of algal polysaccharides against Leishmania infantum (Kinetoplastida: Trypanosomatidae was investigated. The polysaccharides were extracted from different macroalgae of the Mediterranean Sea: Chaetomorpha linum, Agardhiella subulata, Gracilaria viridis, Gracilaria bursa-pastoris, Hypnea cornuta, Sargassum muticum, and Undaria pinnatifida. Preliminary results showed a good anti-leishmanial activity of the investigated species, encouraging the focus on their use as natural resources in order to match integrated management strategies for the employment of local macroalgae.

  8. Consumo de algas marinas: su influencia en el valor nutritivo de la dieta y en diversos parámetros fisiológicos

    OpenAIRE

    Millán Lence, Rosendo

    2016-01-01

    En general, las algas marinas son una buena fuente de fibra al mismo tiempo que proporcionan vitaminas, minerales y nutracéuticos de interés para la alimentación humana. Por ello, en este estudio se analiza cómo influye la ingesta de las algas marinas Porphyra purpurea, Undaria pinnatifida, Himanthalia elongata, Ulva rigida y Codium tomentosum en la calidad nutritiva del alimento y en diversos parámetros hemáticos. Debido a que las enzimas implicadas en los procesos digestivos se adaptan a la...

  9. Composição das espécies de moluscos bentônicos nos reservatórios do baixo rio Tietê (São Paulo, Brasil com uma avaliação do impacto causado pelas espécies exóticas invasoras Species composition of benthic molluscs in the reservoirs of Low Tietê River (São Paulo, Brazil with an evaluation of the impact of exotic invader species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberta S. França

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available A composição taxonômica, a densidade e a distribuição espacial de moluscos bentônicos nos reservatórios do baixo rio Tietê (São Paulo foram analisadas. A amostragem dos moluscos foi realizada em novembro de 2002 e agosto de 2003. As características físicas e químicas dos reservatórios também foram avaliadas buscando-se correlacioná-las à composição taxonômica e à distribuição dos táxons através da Análise de Correspondência Canônica (ACC. A espécie exótica Melanoides tuberculata esteve distribuída em todas as porções amostradas e foi a espécie mais abundante, correspondendo a 65,9% ou mais da abundância total, sendo dominante em todos os reservatórios, com densidade máxima de 23753 ind.m-2 registrada na profundidade de 2 m da porção superior do reservatório de Nova Avanhandava. As demais espécies exóticas, Corbicula fluminea e Helisoma sp., foram bem menos abundantes e não foram registradas em todas as porções dos reservatórios. As espécies nativas foram Aylacostoma tenuilabris, Biomphalaria glabrata, B. intermedia, Physa cubensis e Pomacea canaliculata. Essas espécies representaram menos de 20% das espécies presentes nos reservatórios, ocorreram em abundância baixa e em densidades bem inferiores àquelas das espécies exóticas, principalmente em relação a M. tuberculata, podendo indicar o impacto das espécies exóticas invasoras sobre as populações nativas.The taxonomic composition, density and the spatial distribution of benthic molluscs in low Tietê, São Paulo reservoirs were analyzed in November 2002 and August 2003. The exotic species Melanoides tuberculata was distributed in all portions sampled and was the most abundant species, corresponding to 65.9% or more of the total abundance, being dominant in all reservoirs, with a maximum density of 23,753 ind.m-2 recorded in the depth of 2 m, at the superior portion of Nova Avanhandava reservoir.The other exotic species, Corbicula

  10. Arsenic Species in Edible Seaweeds Using In Vitro Biomimetic Digestion Determined by High-Performance Liquid Chromatography Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan-Fang Zhao

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Arsenite [As (III], arsenate [As (V], methylarsonate (MMA, and dimethylarsinate (DMA in five edible seaweeds (the brown algae Laminaria japonica, red algae Porphyra yezoensis, brown algae Undaria pinnatifida, brown algae Hizikia fusiformis, and green algae Enteromorpha prolifera were analyzed using in vitro digestion method determined by high-performance liquid chromatography inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. The results showed that DMA was found in the water extracts of all samples; As (III were detected in L. japonica and U. pinnatifida and about 23.0 and 0.15 mg/kg of As (V were found in H. fusiformis and E. prolifera respectively. However, after the gastrointestinal digestion, As (V was not detected in any of the five seaweeds. About 0.19 and 1.47 mg/kg of As (III was detected in the gastric extracts of L. japonica and H. fusiformis, respectively, and about 0.31 and 0.10 mg/kg of As (III were extracted from the intestinal extracts of Porphyra yezoensis and U. pinnatifida, respectively. The present results successfully reveal the differences of As species and levels in the water and biomimetic extracts of five edible seaweeds. The risk assessment of the inorganic arsenic in the five edible seaweeds based on present data showed almost no hazards to human health.

  11. Electrochemical behaviour at a liquid-organogel microinterface array of fucoidan extracted from algae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felisilda, Bren Mark B; Alvarez de Eulate, Eva; Stringer, Damien N; Fitton, J Helen; Arrigan, Damien W M

    2017-08-21

    Fucoidans are sulfated polysaccharides mostly derived from algae and used in a number of applications (e.g. nutrition, cosmetics, pharmaceuticals and biomaterials). In this study, the electrochemical behaviour of fucoidans extracted from two algal species (Undaria pinnatifida and Fucus vesiculosus) was assessed using voltammetry at an array of micro-interfaces formed between two immiscible electrolyte solutions (μITIES) in which the organic electrolyte phase was gelled. Cyclic voltammetry revealed an adsorption process when scanning to negative potentials, followed by a desorption peak at ca. -0.50 V on the reverse scan, indicating the electroactivity of both fucoidans. U. pinnatifida fucoidan showed a more intense voltammetric signal compared to F. vesiculosus fucoidan. In addition, use of tridodecylmethylammonium (TDMA + ) or tetradodecylammonium (TDDA + ) as the organic phase electrolyte cation provided improved detection of both fucoidans relative to the use of bis(triphenylphosphoranylidene)ammonium (BTPPA + ) cation. Application of adsorptive stripping voltammetry provided a linear response of current with fucoidan concentration in the range 2-20 μg mL -1 for U. pinnatifida fucoidan (with TDMA + ) and 10-100 μg mL -1 for F. vesiculosus fucoidan (with TDDA + ). The combination of TDMA + in the organic phase and adsorptive pre-concentration for 180 s afforded a detection limit of 1.8 μg mL -1 fucoidan (U. pinnatifida) in aqueous phase of 10 mM NaOH and 2.3 μg mL -1 in synthetic urine (pH adjusted). These investigations demonstrate the electroactivity of fucoidans at the μITIES array and provide scope for their detection at low μg mL -1 concentrations using this approach.

  12. Quantification and localization of fucoidan in Laminaria japonica using a novel antibody.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizuno, Masashi; Nishitani, Yosuke; Tanoue, Takeshi; Matoba, Yoshie; Ojima, Takao; Hashimoto, Takashi; Kanazawa, Kazuki

    2009-02-01

    The establishment of a simple technique to determine the concentration of fucoidan was developed by using a monoclonal antibody against fucoidan. This antibody reacted with fucoidans purified from Laminaria japonica Areschoug (Makombu in Japanese) and Kjellmaniella gyrate Miyabe (Gagome), but not with polysaccharides from Undaria pinnatifida Suringar (Wakame). Neither laminarin nor algenic acid, which are constituents in Laminaria japonica, were recognized by the prepared antibody. Application of the enzymed-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) inhibition assay increased the specificity of fucoidan in measuring the fucoidan contents. On the basis of these results, it was ascertained that the ELISA inhibition assay of using the anti-fucoidan monoclonal antibody was rapid, accurate, and sensitive in measuring the content of fucoidan. In addition, the localization of fucoidan in Laminaria japonica was investigated. This is the first report of fucoidan being restricted to the outer cortical layer.

  13. Phenolic content and antioxidant capacity in algal food products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machu, Ludmila; Misurcova, Ladislava; Ambrozova, Jarmila Vavra; Orsavova, Jana; Mlcek, Jiri; Sochor, Jiri; Jurikova, Tunde

    2015-01-12

    The study objective was to investigate total phenolic content using Folin-Ciocalteu's method, to assess nine phenols by HPLC, to determine antioxidant capacity of the water soluble compounds (ACW) by a photochemiluminescence method, and to calculate the correlation coefficients in commercial algal food products from brown (Laminaria japonica, Eisenia bicyclis, Hizikia fusiformis, Undaria pinnatifida) and red (Porphyra tenera, Palmaria palmata) seaweed, green freshwater algae (Chlorella pyrenoidosa), and cyanobacteria (Spirulina platensis). HPLC analysis showed that the most abundant phenolic compound was epicatechin. From spectrophotometry and ACW determination it was evident that brown seaweed Eisenia bicyclis was the sample with the highest phenolic and ACW values (193 mg·g-1 GAE; 7.53 µmol AA·g-1, respectively). A linear relationship existed between ACW and phenolic contents (r = 0.99). Some algal products seem to be promising functional foods rich in polyphenols.

  14. Comparison of supercritical fluid extraction and Soxhlet extraction for the determination of aliphatic hydrocarbons in seaweed samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Punín Crespo, M O; Lage Yusty, M A

    2006-07-01

    Supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) and Soxhlet extraction methods were compared in a study of the aliphatic hydrocarbon profiles of seaweed samples. Method precision for Soxhlet extraction (Soxhlet extraction is a more suitable method. To evaluate the SFE and Soxhlet methods developed, three diverse Undaria pinnatifida samples collected at different dates and areas of the Galician coast were analyzed. n-Alkanes C18, C20, C22, C24, and C28 were found in all samples, with values lower than 7.9 microg g(-1) d.w. The total hydrocarbon content was within the range of 13.6-21.7 microg g(-1) d.w. C18 was found to be the most abundant.

  15. Brown seaweed pigment as a dye source for photoelectrochemical solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calogero, Giuseppe; Citro, Ilaria; Di Marco, Gaetano; Armeli Minicante, Simona; Morabito, Marina; Genovese, Giuseppa

    2014-01-01

    Chlorophylls based-dyes obtained from seaweeds represent attractive alternatives to the expensive and polluting pyridil based Ru complexes because of their abundance in nature. Another important characteristic is that the algae do not subtract either cropland or agricultural water, therefore do not conflict with agro-food sector. This pigment shows a typical intense absorption in the UV/blue (Soret band) and a less intense band in the red/near IR (Q band) spectral regions and for these reasons appear very promising as sensitizer dyes for DSSC. In the present study, we utilized chlorophylls from samples of the brown alga Undaria pinnatifida as sensitizer in DSSCs. The dye, extracted by frozen seaweeds and used without any chemical purification, showed a very good fill factor (0.69). Even the photelectrochemical parameters if compared with the existent literature are very interesting.

  16. Environmental behavior and impact assessment of radioactive materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, S.R.; Ryu, B.S.; Kim, K.C.; Lee, G.J.; Shim, A.R.; Park, H.K.

    1982-01-01

    It was studied to investigate the bioconcentration processes of strontium-90 in aquatic and terrestrial plants. The concentration and retention of strontium-90 from seawater by the seaweed Undaria pinnatifida varied depending on the plant part, exposure time, radionuclide concentration, salinity, contents of stable calcium and strontium, and presence of chelating agent in the seawater. The concentration factors attained at equilibrium were in the range of 50, and it was evident that the bioconcentration was largely due to the adsorption of the radionuclide on the surface of seaweed. In the foliar application of strontium-90 to a terrestrial plant soybean, Glycine max, only a portion of the radioactivity was translocated to other parts, and most of it remained in the applied leaves, causing soil contamination by falling. In the soil application of strontium-90 during the growth period of the plant, the radioactivity was absorbed through the root and translocated to other parts by different patterns according to the growth stage. (Author)

  17. Phenolic Content and Antioxidant Capacity in Algal Food Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ludmila Machu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The study objective was to investigate total phenolic content using Folin-Ciocalteu’s method, to assess nine phenols by HPLC, to determine antioxidant capacity of the water soluble compounds (ACW by a photochemiluminescence method, and to calculate the correlation coefficients in commercial algal food products from brown (Laminaria japonica, Eisenia bicyclis, Hizikia fusiformis, Undaria pinnatifida and red (Porphyra tenera, Palmaria palmata seaweed, green freshwater algae (Chlorella pyrenoidosa, and cyanobacteria (Spirulina platensis. HPLC analysis showed that the most abundant phenolic compound was epicatechin. From spectrophotometry and ACW determination it was evident that brown seaweed Eisenia bicyclis was the sample with the highest phenolic and ACW values (193 mg·g−1 GAE; 7.53 µmol AA·g−1, respectively. A linear relationship existed between ACW and phenolic contents (r = 0.99. Some algal products seem to be promising functional foods rich in polyphenols.

  18. Seaweed Bioactivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zaharudin, Nazikussabah Binti

    α-amylase and α-glucosidase were identified. The edible seaweeds that were showing high potential for inhibiting the enzymes were selected to investigate their effect on the postprandial blood glucose and insulin levels following a starch load in a human meal study. In vitro studies and a human...... postprandial blood glucose and insulin concentrations following a starch load in a human meal study. There was no significant effect in plasma glucose but both brown seaweeds lowered postprandial insulin response following consumption of Laminaria digitata or Undaria pinnatifida compared to the control meal....... Maintenance of normal plasma glucose concentration is essential for the human health. Diet and exercise play important role to control blood sugar level. Limiting intake of high Glycaemic Index (GI) foods as part of a balanced diet is known to be important. In addition, having the right food intake such ad...

  19. An improved method for karyotype analyses of marine algae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Juan; Dai, Jixun

    2008-05-01

    Modified carbol fuchsin staining method was successfully introduced into the karyotype analyses of marine algae, including Porphyra, Undaria pinnatifida and Laminaria japonica. Haploid chromosomes were numbered clearly in the vegetative, spermatangial and conchosporangial cells of P. haitanensis and P. yezoensis. Diploid chromosomes were observed and numbered in immature conchosporangial cells of P. haitanensis and P. yezoensis. Pit-connections of Porphyra were also clearly demonstrated. Prophase chromosomes of conchocelis cells were also clearly stained with modified carbol fuchsin. One molar per liter hydrochloric hydrolysis at 60°C for 7-8 min is necessary for getting transparent cytoplasm for conchosporangial karyotype analysis of Porphyra. Staining effects of the three methods using iron alum acetocarmine, aceto-iron-haematoxylin-chloral hydrate and modified carbol fuchsin were compared on the vegetative, spermatangial and conchosporangial cells of Porphyra and the gametophytes of U. pinnatifida and L. japonica. Among the three methods, the modified carbol fuchsin method gave the best result of deep staining and good contrast between nucleus and cytoplasm.

  20. Development of PCR-Based Markers to Determine the Sex of Kelps.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnieszka P Lipinska

    Full Text Available Sex discriminating genetic markers are commonly used to facilitate breeding programs in economically and ecologically important animal and plant species. However, despite their considerable economic and ecological value, the development of sex markers for kelp species has been very limited. In this study, we used the recently described sequence of the sex determining region (SDR of the brown algal model Ectocarpus to develop novel DNA-based sex-markers for three commercially relevant kelps: Laminaria digitata, Undaria pinnatifida and Macrocystis pyrifera. Markers were designed within nine protein coding genes of Ectocarpus male and female (U/V sex chromosomes and tested on gametophytes of the three kelp species. Seven primer pairs corresponding to three loci in the Ectocarpus SDR amplified sex-specific bands in the three kelp species, yielding at least one male and one female marker for each species. Our work has generated the first male sex-specific markers for L. digitata and U. pinnatifida, as well as the first sex markers developed for the genus Macrocystis. The markers and methodology presented here will not only facilitate seaweed breeding programs but also represent useful tools for population and demography studies and provide a means to investigate the evolution of sex determination across this largely understudied eukaryotic group.

  1. The fucoidans from brown algae of Far-Eastern seas: anti-tumor activity and structure-function relationship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vishchuk, Olesya S; Ermakova, Svetlana P; Zvyagintseva, Tatyana N

    2013-11-15

    The sulfated polysaccharides from brown algae - the fucoidans - are known to be a topic of numerous studies, due to their beneficial biological activities including anti-tumour activity. In this study the effect of fucoidans isolated from brown algae Saccharina cichorioides, Fucus evanescens, and Undaria pinnatifida on the proliferation, neoplastic transformation, and colony formation of mouse epidermal cells JB6 Cl41, human colon cancer DLD-1, breast cancer T-47D, and melanoma RPMI-7951 cell lines was investigated. The algal fucoidans specifically and markedly suppressed the proliferation of human cancer cells with less cytotoxic effects against normal mouse epidermal cells. The highly sulfated (1→3)-α-l-fucan from S. cichorioides was found to be vitally important in the inhibition of EGF-induced neoplastic transformation of JB6 Cl41 cells. In colony formation assay the fucoidans from different species of brown algae showed selective anti-tumour activity against different types of cancer, which depended on unique structures of the investigated polysaccharides. These results provide evidence for further exploring the use of the fucoidans from S. cichorioides, F. evanescens, and U. pinnatifida as novel chemotherapeutics against different types of cancer. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Anotrichium furcellatum (Ceramiaceae, Rhodophyta en Argentina: Una posible especie invasora Anotrichium furcellatum (Ceramiaceae, Rhodophyta in Argentina: A possible invasive species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alicia L. Boraso de Zaixso

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Se reporta la presencia de al menos dos poblaciones de Anotrichium en la costa argentina (provincias de Buenos Aires, Chubut y Santa Cruz. Las poblaciones submareales observadas estaban caracterizadas por una mayoría de talos en estado vegetativo. Solo las poblaciones intermareales mostraron tetrasporofitos con esporangios. Las poblaciones se identificaron provisionalmente de acuerdo a la morfología del talo y de los tetrasporangios como Anotrichium furcellatum (J. Agardh Baldock. Las características de los talos de las poblaciones estudiadas son comparadas con las de las especies de Anotrichium que poseen igualmente pocos tetrasporangios por célula. Se reportan arribazones inusualmente abundantes de esta especie ocurridas en la costa bonaerense en el año 2000.At least two populations of Anotrichium are reported from the coast of Argentina (Buenos Aires, Chubut, and Santa Cruz provinces. These populations have a majority of vegetative thalli. According with their morphological and tetrasporangial characteristics the populations are provisionally assigned to Anotrichium furcellatum (J. Agardh Baldock. The characteristics of the thalli of studied populations are compared with the species of Anotrichium having also a low number of tetrasporangia per cell. Extraordinary high quantities of cast ashore thalli of this species is reported along the Buenos Aires province coast in the year 2000.

  3. El pez león del Indo-Pacífico: Nueva especie invasora en Costa Rica

    OpenAIRE

    Molina Ureña, Helena

    2016-01-01

    “Pez león” es el nombre genérico de dos peces arrecifales venenosos emparentados: Pterois volitans y P. miles. Nativos del oceáno Indo-Pacífico, estos voraces depredadores aparecieron en aguas del Caribe Occidental desde 1992. La fuente probable es una liberación accidental o intencional causada por la destrucción de peceras por el huracán Andrew. El pez león ha invadido la costa este de Estados Unidos, Bermuda, Antillas Mayores, Caribe Mesoamericano, y las costas septentrionales de Sur Améri...

  4. Changes in physicochemical characteristics and free amino acids of hawthorn (Crataegus pinnatifida) fruits during maturation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wei-Qin; Hu, Qing-Ping; Xu, Jian-Guo

    2015-05-15

    In this study, changes in physicochemical characteristics associated with fruit quality and free amino acids were investigated during maturation of hawthorn fruits. Significant differences in these parameters were found during maturation. The color turned progressively from mature green to semi-red, to reach bright red; the shape changed gradually from oval to round or approached round; the size, weight, and edible part (flesh/core ratio) of hawthorns increased while the density of intact fruits did not change. The content of moisture, total soluble sugars, soluble pectin, reduced ascorbic acid, total ascorbic acid, fructose, and sucrose increased while crude protein content decreased significantly. The levels of starch, sucrose, titratable acidity, protopectin, pectin, total free amino acids, and total essential amino acids initially increased and then decreased gradually during maturation. The outcomes of this study provide additional and useful information for fresh consumption and processing as well as utilization of dropped unripe hawthorn fruits. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. The microbiota of eight species of dehydrated edible seaweeds from North West Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Olmo, Ana; Picon, Antonia; Nuñez, Manuel

    2018-04-01

    The microbiota of eight species (Chondrus crispus, Himanthalia elongata, Laminaria ochroleuca, Palmaria palmata, Porphyra umbilicalis, Saccharina latissima, Ulva lactuca and Undaria pinnatifida) of edible seaweeds collected in North West Spain, marketed as dehydrated product, was quantitatively determined on nine solid media. Representative colonies were selected from solid culture media. The isolated microorganisms were identified by means of morphological characteristics, 16S rDNA sequencing and biochemical tests. U. pinnatifida was the seaweed species showing the most abundant microbial population, with counts on Marine agar up to 7.7 log cfu/g in individual samples and 5.0 log cfu/g as the mean value, and counts of coliforms up to 4.6 log cfu/g in individual samples and 2.4 log cfu/g as the mean value. The 225 identified bacterial isolates belonged to 11 families, 27 genera and 56 species. Bacillaceae was the family accounting for the highest number of isolates (111) followed by Enterobacteriaceae (60), Bacillales Family XII Incertae Sedis (20), Planococcaceae (11), Moraxellaceae (7), Paenibacillaceae (5) and Pseudomonadaceae (5). Bacterial species showing the highest occurrence in dehydrated seaweeds were Bacillus megaterium, B. licheniformis, Pantoea sp. and termoresistant Pantoea sp. Four of the Bacillus species isolated from dehydrated seaweeds (B. cereus, B. licheniformis, B. pumilus and B. subtilis) are among those containing strains considered to be foodborne pathogens and nine of the isolated non-Bacillales bacterial species have been reported to contain human opportunistic pathogenic strains. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Edible seaweed as future functional food: Identification of α-glucosidase inhibitors by combined use of high-resolution α-glucosidase inhibition profiling and HPLC-HRMS-SPE-NMR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Bingrui; Kongstad, Kenneth T; Wiese, Stefanie; Jäger, Anna K; Staerk, Dan

    2016-07-15

    Crude chloroform, ethanol and acetone extracts of nineteen seaweed species were screened for their antioxidant and α-glucosidase inhibitory activity. Samples showing more than 60% α-glucosidase inhibitory activity, at a concentration of 1 mg/ml, were furthermore investigated using high-resolution α-glucosidase inhibition profiling combined with high-performance liquid chromatography-high-resolution mass spectrometry-solid-phase extraction-nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (HR-bioassay/HPLC-HRMS-SPE-NMR). The results showed Ascophyllum nodosum and Fucus vesicolosus to be rich in antioxidants, equaling a Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity of 135 and 108 mM Troloxmg(-1) extract, respectively. HR-bioassay/HPLC-HRMS-SPE-NMR showed the α-glucosidase inhibitory activity of A. nodosum, F. vesoculosus, Laminaria digitata, Laminaria japonica and Undaria pinnatifida to be caused by phlorotannins as well as fatty acids - with oleic acid, linoleic acid and eicosapentaenoic acid being the most potent with IC50 values of 0.069, 0.075 and 0.10 mM, respectively, and showing a mixed-type inhibition mode. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Understanding the association of Escherichia coli with diverse macroalgae in the lagoon of Venice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quero, Grazia M; Fasolato, Luca; Vignaroli, Carla; Luna, Gian Marco

    2015-06-04

    Recent studies provided evidence that the macroalga Cladopohora in lakes hosts associated Escherichia coli, with consequences on the environmental and human health. We expanded these investigations to other macroalgae (Ulva spp., Sargassum muticum and Undaria pinnatifida) widespread in the lagoon of Venice (Italy). Attached E. coli were abundant, accounting up to 3,250 CFU gram(-1) of alga. Macroalgal-associated isolates belonged to all E. coli phylogroups, including pathogenic ones, and to Escherichia cryptic clades. Attached E. coli showed potential to grow even at in situ temperature on macroalgal extracts as only source of carbon and nutrients, and ability to produce biofilm in vitro. The genotypic diversity of the attached isolates was high, with significant differences between algae and the overlying water. Our evidences suggest that attached populations consist of both resident and transient strains, likely resulting from the heterogeneous input of fecal bacteria from the city. We report that cosmopolitan and invasive macroalgae may serve as source of E. coli, including pathogenic genotypes, and that this habitat can potentially support their growth. Considering the global diffusion of the macroalgae here studied, this phenomenon is likely occurring in other coastal cities worldwide and deserves further investigations from either the sanitary and ecological perspectives.

  8. Development of an eco-protocol for seaweed chlorophylls extraction and possible applications in dye sensitized solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Armeli Minicante, S; Ambrosi, E; Back, M; Barichello, J; Cattaruzza, E; Gonella, F; Scantamburlo, E; Trave, E

    2016-01-01

    Seaweeds are a reserve of natural dyes (chlorophylls a , b and c ), characterized by low cost and easy supply, without potential environmental load in terms of land subtraction, and also complying with the requirements of an efficient waste management policy. In particular, the brown seaweed Undaria pinnatifida is a species largely present in the Venice Lagoon area, and for it a removal strategy is actually mandatory. In this paper, we set-up an eco-protocol for the best extraction and preparation procedures of the pigment, with the aim of finding an easy and affordable method for chlorophyll c extraction, exploring at the same time the possibility of using these algae within local sustainable management integrated strategies, among which the possible use of chlorophylls as a dye source in dye sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) is investigated. Experimental results suggest that the developed protocols are useful to optimize the chlorophyll c extraction, as shown by optical absorption spectroscopy measurements. The DSSCs built with the chlorophyll extracted by the proposed eco-protocol exhibit solar energy conversion efficiencies are similar to those obtained following extraction protocols with larger environmental impacts. (paper)

  9. Fucoxantin: A Treasure from the Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graziano Riccioni

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The World Health Organization (WHO estimates that 2.3 billion people will be overweight and 700 million obese in 2015. The reasons for this disastrous trend are attributed to the global tendency toward the reduced magnitude of exercise and physical activity and the increased dietary intake of fats, sugars and calories with reduced amount of vitamins and minerals. To prevent life-style-related diseases, like Metabolic Syndrome (MS, researchers’ attention is increasingly focusing on some of the so called “functional foods” which may be useful for their prevention and treatment. One of these functional ingredients is fucoxanthin (FX, a characteristic carotenoid present in edible brown seaweeds, such as Undaria pinnatifida (Wakame, Hijikia fusiformis (Hijiki, Laminaria japonica (Ma-Kombu and Sargassum fulvellum. The increasing popularity of this molecule is certainly due to its anti-obesity effect, primarily detected by murine studies. These works revealed FX mediated induction of uncoupling protein-1 (UCP-1 in abdominal white adipose tissue (WAT mitochondria, leading to the oxidation of fatty acids and heat production in WAT. Beyond this important role, in recent studies FX has shown a great antioxidant activity, anti-cancer, anti-diabetic and anti-photoaging properties. The aim of this review is to highlight the main effects of FX on human health.

  10. The concentrations of uranium in marine organisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuba, Mitsue; Ishii, Toshiaki; Nakahara, Motokazu; Nakamura, Ryoichi; Watabe, Teruhisa; Hirano, Shigeki

    2000-01-01

    Determination of uranium in sixty-one species of marine organisms was carried out by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry to obtain concentration factors and to estimate the internal radiation dose. The concentrations of uranium in soft tissues of marine animals were ranged from 0.077 to 5040 ng/g wet wt. Especially, the branchial heart of cephalopod molluscs showed the specific accumulation of uranium. The concentration factor of the branchial heart of Octopus vulgaris, which indicated the highest value, was calculated to be about 1.6 x 10 3 , comparing with that (3.1 ng/ml) in coastal seawaters of Japan. The concentrations of uranium in hard tissues of marine invertebrates such as clam and sea urchin were similar to those in soft tissues. In contrast, hard tissues like bone, scale, fin, etc. of fishes showed much higher concentrations of uranium than soft tissues like muscle. The concentrations of uranium of twenty-two species of algae were ranged from 2 to 310 ng/g wet wt. Particularly, the brown alga Undaria pinnatifida showed the highest value of the uranium content in the algae and its concentration factor was calculated to be 10 2 . (author)

  11. Nutritional and bioactive compounds of commercialized algae powders used as food supplements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Hernández, Ginés B; Castillejo, Noelia; Carrión-Monteagudo, María Del M; Artés, Francisco; Artés-Hernández, Francisco

    2018-03-01

    The main nutritional/bioactive compounds (protein; aminoacids, AA; fucose; minerals; vitamins B12 and C; and total phenolic content, TPC) of nine commercial algae powders, used as food supplements, were studied. Undaria pinnatifida showed the highest protein/aminoacid contents (51.6/54.4 g 100 g -1 ). Among brown macroalgae, Himanthalia elongata showed the highest fucose content (26.3 g kg -1 ) followed by Laminaria ochroleuca (22.5 g kg -1 ). Mineral contents of 15-24% were observed in the algae, being particularly excellent sources of iodine (69.0-472.0 mg kg -1 ). Porphyra spp. and Palmaria palmata showed the highest vitamin B12 contents (667-674 µg kg -1 ). Vitamin C ranged among 490.4-711.8 mg kg -1 . H. elongata showed the highest total phenolic content (14.0 g kg -1 ). In conclusion, the studied algae are excellent sources of protein, AA, minerals, vitamin C and some of them presented particularly high vitamin B12 and fucose contents, which may have a potential use as food supplements.

  12. Development of an eco-protocol for seaweed chlorophylls extraction and possible applications in dye sensitized solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armeli Minicante, S.; Ambrosi, E.; Back, M.; Barichello, J.; Cattaruzza, E.; Gonella, F.; Scantamburlo, E.; Trave, E.

    2016-07-01

    Seaweeds are a reserve of natural dyes (chlorophylls a, b and c), characterized by low cost and easy supply, without potential environmental load in terms of land subtraction, and also complying with the requirements of an efficient waste management policy. In particular, the brown seaweed Undaria pinnatifida is a species largely present in the Venice Lagoon area, and for it a removal strategy is actually mandatory. In this paper, we set-up an eco-protocol for the best extraction and preparation procedures of the pigment, with the aim of finding an easy and affordable method for chlorophyll c extraction, exploring at the same time the possibility of using these algae within local sustainable management integrated strategies, among which the possible use of chlorophylls as a dye source in dye sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) is investigated. Experimental results suggest that the developed protocols are useful to optimize the chlorophyll c extraction, as shown by optical absorption spectroscopy measurements. The DSSCs built with the chlorophyll extracted by the proposed eco-protocol exhibit solar energy conversion efficiencies are similar to those obtained following extraction protocols with larger environmental impacts.

  13. Brown algae hydrolysis in 1-n-butyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride with mineral acid catalyst system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malihan, Lenny B; Nisola, Grace M; Chung, Wook-Jin

    2012-08-01

    The amenability of three brown algal species, Sargassum fulvellum, Laminaria japonica and Undaria pinnatifida, to hydrolysis were investigated using the ionic liquid (IL), 1-n-butyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride ([BMIM]Cl). Compositional analyses of the brown algae reveal that sufficient amounts of sugars (15.5-29.4 wt.%) can be recovered. Results from hydrolysis experiments show that careful selection of the type of mineral acid as catalyst and control of acid loading could maximize the recovery of sugars. Optimal reaction time and temperature were determined from the kinetic studies on the sequential reducing sugar (TRS) formation and degradation. Optimal reaction times were determined based on the extent of furfurals formation as TRS degradation products. X-ray diffraction and environmental scanning electron microscopy confirmed the suitability of [BMIM]Cl as solvent for the hydrolysis of the three brown algae. Overall results show the potential of brown algae as renewable energy resources for the production of valuable chemicals and biofuels. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. The concentrations of uranium in marine organisms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsuba, Mitsue; Ishii, Toshiaki; Nakahara, Motokazu; Nakamura, Ryoichi; Watabe, Teruhisa; Hirano, Shigeki [National Inst. of Radiological Sciences, Hitachinaka, Ibaraki (Japan). Laboratory for Radioecology

    2000-07-01

    Determination of uranium in sixty-one species of marine organisms was carried out by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry to obtain concentration factors and to estimate the internal radiation dose. The concentrations of uranium in soft tissues of marine animals were ranged from 0.077 to 5040 ng/g wet wt. Especially, the branchial heart of cephalopod molluscs showed the specific accumulation of uranium. The concentration factor of the branchial heart of Octopus vulgaris, which indicated the highest value, was calculated to be about 1.6 x 10{sup 3}, comparing with that (3.1 ng/ml) in coastal seawaters of Japan. The concentrations of uranium in hard tissues of marine invertebrates such as clam and sea urchin were similar to those in soft tissues. In contrast, hard tissues like bone, scale, fin, etc. of fishes showed much higher concentrations of uranium than soft tissues like muscle. The concentrations of uranium of twenty-two species of algae were ranged from 2 to 310 ng/g wet wt. Particularly, the brown alga Undaria pinnatifida showed the highest value of the uranium content in the algae and its concentration factor was calculated to be 10{sup 2}. (author)

  15. Seamustard ( Improves Growth, Immunity, Fatty Acid Profile and Reduces Cholesterol in Hanwoo Steers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. A. Hwang

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The study was designed to evaluate the effect of 2% seamustard (Undaria pinnatifida by-product (SW on growth performance, immunity, carcass characteristics, cholesterol content and fatty acid profile in Hanwoo steers. A total of 20 Hanwoo steers (ave. 22 months old; 619 kg body weight were randomly assigned to control (basal diet and 2% SW supplemented diet. Dietary SW supplementation significantly (p<0.05 improved average daily gain and gain:feed ratio as well as serum immunoglobulin G concentration. Chemical composition and quality grade of meat and carcass yield grades evaluated at the end of the trial were found to be unaffected by SW supplementation. Dietary SW significantly reduced meat cholesterol concentration (p<0.05. Dietary SW supplementation significantly reduced the myristic acid (C14:0 and palmitoleic acid (C16:ln-7 concentration, while SW increased the concentration of stearic acid (C18:0 and linolenic acid (C18:3n-3 compared to control (p<0.05. Dietary SW supplementation had no effect on saturated fatty acids (SFA, unsaturated fatty acids, poly unsaturated fatty acid (PUFA or mono unsaturated fatty acid content in muscles. A reduced ratio of PUFA/SFA and n-6/n-3 were found in SW supplemented group (p<0.05. In conclusion, 2% SW supplementation was found to improve growth, immunity and fatty acid profile with significantly reduced cholesterol of beef.

  16. Angiosuppressive properties of marine-derived compounds-a mini review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yue, Patrick Y K; Leung, H M; Li, Adela J; Chan, Tracy N C; Lum, T S; Chung, Y L; Sung, Y H; Wong, M H; Leung, Kelvin S Y; Zeng, Eddy Y

    2017-04-01

    Angiogenesis, formation of new blood vessels from preexisting one, is a critical step of tumorgenesis of solid tumors. Therefore, antiangiogenic therapy is one of the promising approaches to control tumor growth. In the past 20 years, a lot of compounds have been tested for their antiangiogenic properties. Bevacizumab, Avastin ® , the first antiangiogenic drug approved by the US FDA, has been widely used in clinic for treating cancer. Indeed, many synthetic compounds are highly toxic and exert side effects even though they are effective in inhibiting neovessel formation and cancer cell growth. Using natural compounds or their derivatives is one of the ways to solve these problems. Sinomenine and ginsenosides are common antiangiogenic and anticancer compounds that are extracted from herbal medicines. Recent findings suggested that marine algae-derived natural pigments also possess similar activities. It has been reported that fucoxanthin from Undaria pinnatifida, Siphonaxanthin from Codium fragile, can inhibit angiogenesis and cancer growth effectively. In conclusion, natural compounds derived from marine algae could provide a novel and safe source for new drug development in anticancer and antiangiogenic properties in the future.

  17. Fucoxanthin Enhances Cisplatin-Induced Cytotoxicity via NFκB-Mediated Pathway and Downregulates DNA Repair Gene Expression in Human Hepatoma HepG2 Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng-Ling Liu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Cisplain, a platinum-containing anticancer drug, has been shown to enhance DNA repair and to inhibit cell apoptosis, leading to drug resistance. Thus, the combination of anticancer drugs with nutritional factors is a potential strategy for improving the efficacy of cisplatin chemotherapy. In this study, we investigated the anti-proliferative effects of a combination of fucoxanthin, the major non-provitamin A carotenoid found in Undaria Pinnatifida, and cisplatin in human hepatoma HepG2 cells. We found that fucoxanthin (1–10 μΜ pretreatment for 24 h followed by cisplatin (10 μΜ for 24 h significantly decreased cell proliferation, as compared with cisplatin treatment alone. Mechanistically, we showed that fucoxanthin attenuated cisplatin-induced NFκB expression and enhanced the NFκB-regulated Bax/Bcl-2 mRNA ratio. Cisplatin alone induced mRNA expression of excision repair cross complementation 1 (ERCC1 and thymidine phosphorylase (TP through phosphorylation of ERK, p38 and PI3K/AKT pathways. However, fucoxanthin pretreatment significantly attenuated cisplatin-induced ERCC1 and TP mRNA expression, leading to improvement of chemotherapeutic efficacy of cisplatin. The results suggest that a combined treatment with fucoxanthin and cisplatin could lead to a potentially important new therapeutic strategy against human hepatoma cells.

  18. Fucoidan Suppresses Hypoxia-Induced Lymphangiogenesis and Lymphatic Metastasis in Mouse Hepatocarcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongming Teng

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Metastasis, the greatest clinical challenge associated with cancer, is closely connected to multiple biological processes, including invasion and adhesion. The hypoxic environment in tumors is an important factor that causes tumor metastasis by activating HIF-1α. Fucoidan, extracted from brown algae, is a sulfated polysaccharide and, as a novel marine biological material, has been used to treat various disorders in China, Korea, Japan and other countries. In the present study, we demonstrated that fucoidan derived from Undaria pinnatifida sporophylls significantly inhibits the hypoxia-induced expression, nuclear translocation and activity of HIF-1α, the synthesis and secretion of VEGF-C and HGF, cell invasion and lymphatic metastasis in a mouse hepatocarcinoma Hca-F cell line. Fucoidan also suppressed lymphangiogenesis in vitro and in vivo. In addition, accompanied by a reduction in the HIF-1α nuclear translocation and activity, fucoidan significantly reduced the levels of p-PI3K, p-Akt, p-mTOR, p-ERK, NF-κB, MMP-2 and MMP-9, but increased TIMP-1 levels. These results indicate strongly that the anti-metastasis and anti-lymphangiogenesis activities of fucoidan are mediated by suppressing HIF-1α/VEGF-C, which attenuates the PI3K/Akt/mTOR signaling pathways.

  19. Effects of different algae in diet on growth and interleukin (IL-10 production of juvenile sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md Anisuzzaman

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of different algae in diet on growth, survival, and interleukin-10 productions of sea cucumber. At first, a 9-week feeding trail was conducted to evaluate the growth performance and survival of the sea cucumber fed one of the six experimental diets containing ST (Sargassum thunbergii, UL (Ulva lactuca, UP (Undaria pinnatifida, LJ (Laminaria japonica, SS (Schizochytrium sp., and NO (Nannochloropsis oculata in a recirculating aquaculture system. The result showed that survival was not significantly different among the dietary treatments, and the specific growth rate (SGR of sea cucumber fed the UL diet (1.58% d−1 was significantly higher than that of sea cucumber fed the other diets (P < 0.05, except for the LJ and NO diets. Secondly, interleukin (IL-10 gene expression was determined where mice splenocytes were stimulated with 10 μg ml−1 of sea cucumber extracts for 2 h. The result showed that IL-10 gene expression levels were significantly increased in UL, LJ, and NO diets fed sea cucumber extracts compared to other experimental diets. The results suggest that dietary inclusion with Ulva lactuca, Laminaria japonica, and Nannochloropsis oculata algae may improve the growth of juvenile sea cucumber and could upregulate IL-10 gene expression in mice splenocytes. Such detailed information could be helpful in further development of more appropriate diets for sea cucumber culture.

  20. Citeromyces matritensis M37 is a salt-tolerant yeast that produces ethanol from salted algae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okai, Masahiko; Betsuno, Ayako; Shirao, Ayaka; Obara, Nobuo; Suzuki, Kotaro; Takei, Toshinori; Takashio, Masachika; Ishida, Masami; Urano, Naoto

    2017-01-01

    Algae are referred to as a third-generation biomass for ethanol production. However, salinity treatment is a problem that needs to be solved, because algal hydrolysates often contain high salt. Here, we isolated the salt-tolerant ethanol-producing yeast Citeromyces matritensis M37 from the east coast of Miura Peninsula in Japan. This yeast grew under osmotic stress conditions (20% NaCl or 60% glucose). It produced 6.55 g/L ethanol from YPD medium containing 15% NaCl after 48 h, and the ethanol accumulation was observed even at 20% NaCl. Using salted Undaria pinnatifida (wakame), we obtained 6.33 g/L glucose from approx. 150 g/L of the salted wakame powder with acidic and heat pretreatment followed by enzymatic saccharification, and the ethanol production reached 2.58 g/L for C. matritensis M37. The ethanol concentration was 1.4 times higher compared with that using the salt-tolerant ethanol-producing yeast Zygosaccharomyces rouxii S11.

  1. Inhibitory effects of edible seaweeds, polyphenolics and alginates on the activities of porcine pancreatic α-amylase

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zaharudin, Nazikussabah Binti; Asunción Salmeán, Armando; Dragsted, Lars Ove

    2018-01-01

    Edible seaweeds are valuable because of their organoleptic properties and complex polysaccharide content. A study was conducted to investigate the potential of dried edible seaweed extracts, its potential phenolic compounds and alginates for α-amylase inhibitory effects. The kinetics of inhibitio...... information that crude extracts of brown edible seaweeds, phenolic compounds and alginates are potent α-amylase inhibitors, thereby potentially retarding glucose liberation from starches and alleviation of postprandial hyperglycaemia.......Edible seaweeds are valuable because of their organoleptic properties and complex polysaccharide content. A study was conducted to investigate the potential of dried edible seaweed extracts, its potential phenolic compounds and alginates for α-amylase inhibitory effects. The kinetics of inhibition...... was assessed in comparison with acarbose. The methanol extract of Laminaria digitata and the acetone extract of Undaria pinnatifida showed inhibitory activity against α-amylase, IC50 0.74 ± 0.02 mg/ml and 0.81 ± 0.03 mg/ml, respectively; both showed mixed-type inhibition. Phenolic compound, 2...

  2. Concentration of radioactive cobalt by seaweeds in the food chain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakahara, Motokazu; Koyanagi, Taku; Saiki, Masamichi

    1976-01-01

    On the pathway of radioactive substances in marine environments, seaweeds play an important role because of their higher concentration factors for many radionuclides and because they constitute a link of food chain in the sea. In the present work, uptake, distribution and excretion of radioactive cobalt were studied on several kinds of seaweeds by radioisotope tracer experiments under laboratory conditions and concentration factors were calculated. The concentration factors were also estimated from the results of stable cobalt determination by activation analysis or atomic absorption spectrometry on seaweeds and seawater, and compared with the results of tracer expts. The seaweeds showed the species specificity for the concentration of stable and radioactive cobalt with diverse values of concentration factors and biological half-lives. The transfer of radioactive cobalt in the food chain from contaminated seaweeds to mollusca was examined by feeding abalones, Haliotis discus, with four kinds of seaweed labelled with 60 Co and observing retention. Absorption rate for radioactive cobalt by abalones calculated at two days after feeding showed diverse values depending upon the species of seaweed, as follows: 47% through Laminaria japonica and Ulva pertusa, 31% through Undaria pinnatifida and 26 through Eisenia bicyclis, respectively. From the results, it was assumed that the accumulation of radioactive cobalt by mollusca is affected by the species of seaweeds as food. A very high concentration of ingested radioactive cobalt in the midgut gland was seen on the autoradiograph of abalone samples. (auth.)

  3. Concentration of radioactive cobalt by seaweeds in the food chain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakahara, M.; Koyanagi, T.; Saiki, M.

    1975-01-01

    On the pathway of radioactive substances in marine environments, seaweeds play an important role because of their higher concentration factors for many radionuclides and because they constitute a link in the food chain. In the present work, uptake, distribution and excretion of radioactive cobalt were studied on several kinds of seaweeds by radioisotope tracer experiments under laboratory conditions and concentration factors were calculated. The concentration factors were also estimated from the results of stable cobalt determination by activation analysis or atomic absorption spectrometry on seaweeds and seawater, and compared with the results of tracer experiments. The seaweeds showed the species specificity for the concentration of stable and radioactive cobalt with diverse values of concentration factors and biological half-lives. The transfer of radioactive cobalt in the food chain from contaminated seaweeds to mollusca was examined by feeding abalones, Haliotis discus, with four kinds of seaweed labelled with 60 Co and observing retention. Absorption rate for radioactive cobalt by abalones calculated at two days after feeding showed diverse values depending upon the species of seaweed, as follows: 47% through Laminaria japonica and Ulva pertusa, 31% through Undaria pinnatifida and 26% through Eisenia bicyclis, respectively. From the results, it was assumed that the accumulation of radioactive cobalt by mollusca is affected by the species of seaweeds as food. A very high concentration of ingested radioactive cobalt in the midgut gland was seen on the autoradiograph of abalone samples. (author)

  4. Heavy metals in edible seaweeds commercialised for human consumption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Besada, Victoria; Andrade, José Manuel; Schultze, Fernando; González, Juan José

    2009-01-01

    Though seaweed consumption is growing steadily across Europe, relatively few studies have reported on the quantities of heavy metals they contain and/or their potential effects on the population's health. This study focuses on the first topic and analyses the concentrations of six typical heavy metals (Cd, Pb, Hg, Cu, Zn, total As and inorganic As) in 52 samples from 11 algae-based products commercialised in Spain for direct human consumption ( Gelidium spp.; Eisenia bicyclis; Himanthalia elongata; Hizikia fusiforme; Laminaria spp.; Ulva rigida; Chondrus crispus; Porphyra umbilicales and Undaria pinnatifida). Samples were ground, homogenised and quantified by atomic absorption spectrometry (Cu and Zn by flame AAS; Cd, Pb and total As by electrothermal AAS; total mercury by the cold vapour technique; and inorganic As by flame-hydride generation). Accuracy was assessed by participation in periodic QUASIMEME (Quality Assurance of Information in Marine Environmental Monitoring in Europe) and IAEA (International Atomic Energy Agency) intercalibration exercises. To detect any objective differences existing between the seaweeds' metal concentrations, univariate and multivariate studies (principal component analysis, cluster analysis and linear discriminant analysis) were performed. It is concluded that the Hizikia fusiforme samples contained the highest values of total and inorganic As and that most Cd concentrations exceeded the French Legislation. The two harvesting areas (Atlantic and Pacific oceans) were differentiated using both univariate studies (for Cu, total As, Hg and Zn) and a multivariate discriminant function (which includes Zn, Cu and Pb).

  5. Development of a seaweed species-selection index for successful culture in a seaweed-based integrated aquaculture system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Yun Hee; Hwang, Jae Ran; Chung, Ik Kyo; Park, Sang Rul

    2013-03-01

    Integrated multi-trophic aquaculture (IMTA) has been proposed as a concept that combines the cultivation of fed aquaculture species ( e.g., finfish/shrimp) with extractive aquaculture species ( e.g., shellfish/seaweed). In seaweed-based integrated aquaculture, seaweeds have the capacity to reduce the environmental impact of nitrogen-rich effluents on coastal ecosystems. Thus, selection of optimal species for such aquaculture is of great importance. The present study aimed to develop a seaweed species-selection index for selecting suitable species in seaweed-based integrated aquaculture system. The index was synthesized using available literature-based information, reference data, and physiological seaweed experiments to identify and prioritize the desired species. Undaria pinnatifida, Porphyra yezoensis and Ulva compressa scored the highest according to a seaweed-based integrated aquaculture suitability index (SASI). Seaweed species with the highest scores were adjudged to fit the integrated aquaculture systems. Despite the application of this model limited by local aquaculture environment, it is considered to be a useful tool for selecting seaweed species in IMTA.

  6. Studies on rare earth elements in seawater and uptake by marine organisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, H.; Koyanagi, T.; Saiki, M.

    1975-01-01

    The contents of rare earth elements in marine environmental samples were determined by neutron activation analysis to examine the existing state in coastal seawater and the concentration by marine organisms of the elements. Seawater was filtered through a Millipore filter GS (pore size 0.22 μm), before the analysis. Some of the seawater was treated with HC1 solution before filtration and some after filtration. Certain marine organisms were also analysed for determination of rare earth elements. These were: flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus); yellowtails (Seriola quinqueradiata); immature anchovy (Engraulis japonica); clams (Meretrix lusoria); green algae (Ulva pertusa); brown algae (Hizikia fusiforme, Sargassum fulvellum, Undaria pinnatifida). In the seawater without HC1 treatment before filtration, considerable amounts of the elements existed in residue on the filter, whereas in the seawater treated with HC1 before filtration, the greater part remained in the dissolved state. Concentration factors calculated from the contents of stable elements, therefore, are affected remarkably by the existing state of the elements in seawater. If only the dissolved state is assumed available for marine organisms, values one order higher are attained compared with the case where total amounts of the elements were used for the calculation. However, the contribution of the insoluble state seems to be not negligible with some organisms. The higher concentration factors for immature anchovy and clams observed in this study were considered to be caused by surface adsorption of elements in particulate form and also ingested sediment with high element concentration. (author)

  7. Effect of Content of Sulfate Groups in Seaweed Polysaccharides on Antioxidant Activity and Repair Effect of Subcellular Organelles in Injured HK-2 Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-Tao Ma

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to investigate the repair effect of subcellular structure injuries of the HK-2 cells of four degraded seaweed polysaccharides (DSPs, namely, the degraded Porphyra yezoensis, Gracilaria lemaneiformis, Sargassum fusiform, and Undaria pinnatifida polysaccharides. The four DSPs have similar molecular weight, but with different content of sulfate groups (i.e., 17.9%, 13.3%, 8.2%, and 5.5%, resp.. The damaged model was established using 2.8 mmol/L oxalate to injure HK-2 cells, and 60 μg/mL of various DSPs was used to repair the damaged cells. With the increase of sulfate group content in DSPs, the scavenging activity of radicals and their reducing power were all improved. Four kinds of DSPs have repair effect on the subcellular organelles of damaged HK-2 cells. After being repaired by DSPs, the release amount of lactate dehydrogenase was decreased, the integrity of cell membrane and lysosome increased, the Δψm increased, the cell of G1 phase arrest was inhibited, the proportion of S phase increased, and cell apoptotic and necrosis rates were significantly reduced. The greater the content of sulfate group is, the stronger is the repair ability of the polysaccharide. These DSPs, particularly the polysaccharide with higher sulfate group content, may be a potential drug for the prevention and cure of kidney stones.

  8. Seaweed-derived heteroatom-doped highly porous carbon as an electrocatalyst for the oxygen reduction reaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Min Young; Park, Hyean Yeol; Yang, Dae-Soo; Bhattacharjya, Dhrubajyoti; Yu, Jong-Sung

    2014-06-01

    We report the template-free pyrolysis of easily available natural seaweed, Undaria pinnatifida, as a single precursor, which results in "seaweed carbon" (SCup). Interestingly, thus-obtained SCup not only contains heteroatoms such as nitrogen and sulfur in its framework, but it also possesses a well-developed porous structure with high surface area. The heteroatoms in SCup originate from the nitrogen- and sulfur-containing ingredients in seaweed, whereas the porosity is created by removal of salts inherently present in the seaweed. These essential and fundamental properties make seaweed a prime choice as a precursor for heteroatom-containing highly porous carbon as a metal-free efficient electrocatalyst. As-synthesized SCup showed excellent electrocatalytic activity in the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) in alkaline medium, which can be addressed in terms of the presence of the nitrogen and sulfur heteroatoms, the well-developed porosity, and the electrical conductivity in the carbon framework. The pyrolysis temperature was a key controlling parameter that determined the trade-off between heteroatom doping, surface properties, and electrical conductivity. In particular, SCup prepared at 1000 °C showed the best ORR performance. Additionally, SCup exhibited enhanced durability and methanol tolerance relative to the state of the art commercial Pt catalyst, which demonstrates that SCup is a promising alternative to costly Pt-based catalysts for the ORR. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  9. Estudio del placentoma de poblaciones de mabuya con énfasis en el análisis de células invasoras

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simón Halcón Vieira Samper

    2007-01-01

    células invasivas comparten rasgos ultraestructurales con las células del corion, pero con particularidades que les permiten cumplir funciones específicas. Prolongaciones de estas células entran en contacto con capilares uterinos y forman un extenso sistema de membranas dobles muy próximas entre sí, que encapsulan el capilar. Este hallazgo proporciona bases para proponer una nueva clasificación de la placenta de estas lagartijas al evidenciarse una relación muy estrecha entre los tejidos embrionarios y la circulación materna.

  10. Estudio poblacional del visón americano ("Mustela vison") en Cataluña: ecología y control de una especie invasora

    OpenAIRE

    Melero Cavero, Yolanda

    2007-01-01

    Desde la introducción del visón americano en Europa, esta especie se ha convertido en un problema ecológico que implica la necesidad de su control. Existen varios métodos de control; sin embargo, actualmente, la opción más práctica y factible de control es el trampeo, combinado con la monitorización de las poblaciones para conocer su estado y dinámica poblacional. De ahí, que el objetivo principal de este estudio es proporcionar estrategias eficaces para el control de la población en Cataluña...

  11. Modelação espacial da adequabilidade de habitat a espécies invasoras: o Carpobrotus Edulis em terreno não dunar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    César Capinha

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available SPATIAL MODELLING OF HABITAT SUITABILITY FOR INVASIVE SPECIES: THE CARPOBROTUS EDULIS IN A NON-DUNE AREA. The use of habitat modelling for exotic invasive species can be extremely useful for identifying their potential impacts and for assisting in the design of eradication strategies. Even though the latter builds on theoretical assumptions that are quite different from those involved in the modelling of the habitat of native species, these two modelling methods are in fact quite similar. This article presents a habitat suitability modelling framework for Carpobrotus edulis, an alien invader plant in Serra do Bouro, Portugal. Several land surveys have been carried out in the study area in order to record the presence of this plant. The criteria for recording a presence were that the plant did not show any signs of weakness and that there were mat formations covering at least 5m2. Pseudo-absences were also obtained in a completely random way. The model was calibrated using a binary logistic regression. The performance of this model usually considered superior to that of models that rely on presence data only. Additionally, an evaluation technique based on the minimum area of higher adequacy is also presented. This technique assumes that, for a given probability threshold, model performance is higher whenever it has the same number of correct presences for a smaller predicted area. Using a 0.7 probability threshold, the model correctly predicted 80% of the total presences using only 8% of the study area. The model suggests that the main factor contributing to the expansion of Carpobrotus edulis has been the abandonment of agriculture in the study area. In addition, proximity to the shoreline and above-average erosion potential in the study area both seem to benefit the plant’s expansion. Conversely, steeper and longer slopes, and greater distances from the shoreline, were found to be significant contributors to the plant’s absence.

  12. Caracterização e manejo da gramínea Melinis minutiflora P. Beauv. (Capim-Gordura) : uma espécie invasora do cerrado

    OpenAIRE

    Martins, Carlos Romero

    2006-01-01

    A invasão biológica por espécies exóticas é considerada uma das principais ameaças para a conservação da biodiversidade em áreas protegidas. A gramínea africana Melinis minutiflora P. Beauv. (capim-gordura) apresenta ampla distribuição geográfica, podendo ser encontrada em regiões tropicais e subtropicais. Devido à sua agressividade, o capimexótica gordura é considerado a gramínea que tem causado maior impacto sobre a flora do Parque Nacional de Brasília. Este estudo foi conduzido no Parque N...

  13. Effects of pretreatments on anthocyanin composition, phenolics contents and antioxidant capacities during fermentation of hawthorn (Crataegus pinnatifida) drink.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Suwen; Chang, Xuedong; Liu, Xiufeng; Shen, Zhanwei

    2016-12-01

    The effect of microwave and heat pretreatment on the content and composition of anthocyanins, phenolics, and the antioxidant capacity of hawthorn drink were studied. Nine anthocyanins were isolated by chromatographic separation from the Zirou hawthorn source and their structure identified using HPLC-DAD-ESI/MS analysis. Heat and microwave pretreatments had a significant impact on the relative contents of hawthorn anthocyanins, such as cyanidin-3-galactoside (82.9% and 76.9%, respectively) and cyanidin-3-glucoside (9.2% and 11.5%, respectively). Pretreatment had no significant effect on pH, total soluble solid or total acid. More anthocyanins remained after heat treatment than after microwaving (0.745mg/100mL), and were 52.4% higher than the control group after storage for 7days. The colour density of the heat treated group was higher than the control group (24.5%) after 12days of fermentation. The main antioxidant capacities of the hawthorn drinks came from total polyphenolics rather than total anthocyanins or total flavonoids. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Comparison of – Mixture and Minoxidil on Hair Growth Promoting Effect in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ki Soo Park

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundAlgae have traditionally been used for promotion of hair growth. Use of hair regrowth drugs, such as minoxidil, is limited due to side effects. The aim of this study was to examine a mixture of Saccharina japonica and Undaria pinnatifida (L-U mixture on hair growth and to compare the promoting effect of hair growth by a 3% minoxidil and a L-U mixture.MethodsTo evaluate the hair growth-promoting activity, saline, 50% ethanol, 3% minoxidil, and the L-U mixture were applied 2 times a day for a total of 14 days on the dorsal skin of C57BL/6 mice after depilation. Analysis was determined by using a high-resolution hair analysis system, real-time polymerase chain reaction, and H&E staining.ResultsOn day 14, the hair growth effect of the L-U mixture was the same as that of the 3% minoxidil treatment. The L-U mixture significantly (P<0.05 stimulated hair growth-promoting genes, as vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF and insulin-like growth factor -1. Increase of VEGF was observed in the L-U mixture group compared with minoxidil and the negative control. In contrast, the L-U mixture suppressed the expression of transforming growth factor-β1, which is the hair loss-related gene. In histological examination in the L-U mixture and minoxidil groups, the induction of an anagen stage of hair follicles was faster than that of control groups.ConclusionsThis study provides evidence that the L-U mixture can promote hair growth in mice, similar to the effect from minoxidil, and suggests that there is potential application for hair loss treatments.

  15. Fast determination of harmala alkaloids in edible algae by capillary electrophoresis mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tascon, Marcos; Benavente, Fernando; Sanz-Nebot, Victoria M; Gagliardi, Leonardo G

    2015-05-01

    The use of algae as a foodstuff is rapidly expanding worldwide from the East Asian countries, where they are also used for medical care. Harmala alkaloids (HAlk) are a family of bioactive compounds found in the extracts of some plants, including wakame (Undaria pinnatifida), an edible marine invasive algae. HAlks are based on a characteristic β-carboline structure with at least one amino ionizable group. In this work, we report the successful separation of a mixture of six HAlks (harmine, harmaline, harmol, harmalol, harmane, and norharmane) by capillary electrophoresis ion-trap mass spectrometry (CE-IT-MS) in less than 8 min. Optimum separation in fused-silica capillaries and detection sensitivity in positive-ion mode were achieved using a background electrolyte (BGE) with 25 mmol L(-1) ammonium acetate (pH 7.8) and 10% (v/v) methanol, and a sheath liquid with 60:40 (v/v) isopropanol-water and 0.05% (v/v) formic acid. The separation method was validated in terms of linearity, limits of detection and quantification, repeatability, and reproducibility. Later, a sample pretreatment was carefully optimized to determine HAlks in commercial wakame samples with excellent recovery and repeatability. For the complex wakame extracts, the MS-MS fragmentation patterns of the different HAlks were useful to ensure a reliable identification. The complete procedure was validated using the standard-addition calibration method, determining matrix effects on the studied compounds. Harmalol, harmine, and harmaline were naturally present in the samples and were quantified at very low concentrations, ranging from 7 to 24 μg kg(-1) dry algae.

  16. Development of new efficient method for isolation of phenolics from sea algae prior to their rapid resolution liquid chromatographic-tandem mass spectrometric determination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klejdus, Bořivoj; Plaza, Merichel; Šnóblová, Marie; Lojková, Lea

    2017-02-20

    The extraction of phenolic compounds from 4 different sea algae samples, three brown algae (Cystoseira abies-marina, C. abies-marina grinded under cryogenic conditions with liquid nitrogen, Undaria pinnatifida and Sargassum muticum) and one red algae (Chondrus crispus) via solid phase extraction using micro-elution solid-phase extraction (μ-SPE) plate method was studied. Prior to μ-SPE, 50mg of algae with 80% methanol mixture was extracted in hyphenated series by various extraction techniques, such as pressurized liquid extraction and Ika Ultra-Turrax ® Tube Drive, in combination with ultrasound assisted extraction. The μ-SPE plate technique reduced the time of sample pre-treatment thanks to higher sensitivity and pre-concentration effect. Selected groups of benzoic acid derivatives (p-hydroxybenzoic, protocatechuic, gallic, vanillic, and syringic acids), hydroxybenzaldehydes (4-hydroxybenzaldehyde, and 3,4-dihydroxybenzaldehyde), and cinnamic acid derivatives (p-coumaric, caffeic, ferulic, sinapic, and chlorogenic acids) were determined using rapid resolution liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry detection with negative ion electrospray ionization (RRLC-ESI-MS) using multiple reactions monitoring. LOQs of measured samples varied in the range 0.23-1.68ng/mL and LODs in the range 0.07-0.52ng/mL. The applied method allowed a simultaneous determination of phenolics (i.e. free, esters soluble in methanol, glycosides, and esters insoluble in methanol) in less than 5min (including alkaline or acidic hydrolysis of raw extracts) from sea algae extracts. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Influence of extractive solvents on lipid and fatty acids content of edible freshwater algal and seaweed products, the green Microalga Chlorella kessleri and the Cyanobacterium Spirulina platensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambrozova, Jarmila Vavra; Misurcova, Ladislava; Vicha, Robert; Machu, Ludmila; Samek, Dusan; Baron, Mojmir; Mlcek, Jiri; Sochor, Jiri; Jurikova, Tunde

    2014-02-21

    Total lipid contents of green (Chlorella pyrenoidosa, C), red (Porphyra tenera, N; Palmaria palmata, D), and brown (Laminaria japonica, K; Eisenia bicyclis, A; Undaria pinnatifida, W, WI; Hizikia fusiformis, H) commercial edible algal and cyanobacterial (Spirulina platensis, S) products, and autotrophically cultivated samples of the green microalga Chlorella kessleri (CK) and the cyanobacterium Spirulina platensis (SP) were determined using a solvent mixture of methanol/chloroform/water (1:2:1, v/v/v, solvent I) and n-hexane (solvent II). Total lipid contents ranged from 0.64% (II) to 18.02% (I) by dry weight and the highest total lipid content was observed in the autotrophically cultivated cyanobacterium Spirulina platensis. Solvent mixture I was found to be more effective than solvent II. Fatty acids were determined by gas chromatography of their methyl esters (% of total FAMEs). Generally, the predominant fatty acids (all results for extractions with solvent mixture I) were saturated palmitic acid (C16:0; 24.64%-65.49%), monounsaturated oleic acid (C18:1(n-9); 2.79%-26.45%), polyunsaturated linoleic acid (C18:2(n-6); 0.71%-36.38%), α-linolenic acid (C18:3(n-3); 0.00%-21.29%), γ-linolenic acid (C18:3(n-6); 1.94%-17.36%), and arachidonic acid (C20:4(n-6); 0.00%-15.37%). The highest content of ω-3 fatty acids (21.29%) was determined in Chlorella pyrenoidosa using solvent I, while conversely, the highest content of ω-6 fatty acids (41.42%) was observed in Chlorella kessleri using the same solvent.

  18. Influence of Extractive Solvents on Lipid and Fatty Acids Content of Edible Freshwater Algal and Seaweed Products, the Green Microalga Chlorella kessleri and the Cyanobacterium Spirulina platensis

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    Jarmila Vavra Ambrozova

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Total lipid contents of green (Chlorella pyrenoidosa, C, red (Porphyra tenera, N; Palmaria palmata, D, and brown (Laminaria japonica, K; Eisenia bicyclis, A; Undaria pinnatifida, W, WI; Hizikia fusiformis, H commercial edible algal and cyanobacterial (Spirulina platensis, S products, and autotrophically cultivated samples of the green microalga Chlorella kessleri (CK and the cyanobacterium Spirulina platensis (SP were determined using a solvent mixture of methanol/chloroform/water (1:2:1, v/v/v, solvent I and n-hexane (solvent II. Total lipid contents ranged from 0.64% (II to 18.02% (I by dry weight and the highest total lipid content was observed in the autotrophically cultivated cyanobacterium Spirulina platensis. Solvent mixture I was found to be more effective than solvent II. Fatty acids were determined by gas chromatography of their methyl esters (% of total FAMEs. Generally, the predominant fatty acids (all results for extractions with solvent mixture I were saturated palmitic acid (C16:0; 24.64%–65.49%, monounsaturated oleic acid (C18:1(n-9; 2.79%–26.45%, polyunsaturated linoleic acid (C18:2(n-6; 0.71%–36.38%, α-linolenic acid (C18:3(n-3; 0.00%–21.29%, γ-linolenic acid (C18:3(n-6; 1.94%–17.36%, and arachidonic acid (C20:4(n-6; 0.00%–15.37%. The highest content of ω-3 fatty acids (21.29% was determined in Chlorella pyrenoidosa using solvent I, while conversely, the highest content of ω-6 fatty acids (41.42% was observed in Chlorella kessleri using the same solvent.

  19. Arsenic metabolites in humans after ingestion of wakame seaweed

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    Hata A.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Seaweed contains large amounts of various arsenic compounds such as arsenosugars (AsSugs, but their relative toxicities have not yet been fully evaluated. A risk evaluation of dietary arsenic would be necessary. After developing an arsenic speciation analysis of wakame seaweed (Undaria pinnatifida, we conducted a wakame ingestion experiment using volunteers. Five volunteers ingested 300 g of commercial wakame after refraining from seafood for 5 days. Arsenic metabolites in the urine were monitored over a 5-day period after ingestion. Total arsenic concentration of the wakame seaweed was 34.3 ± 2.1 mg arsenic/kg (dry weight, n = 3. Two AsSugs, 3-[5′-deoxy-5′-(dimethyl-arsinoyl-β-ribofuranosyloxy]-propylene glycol (AsSug328 and 3-[5′-deoxy-5′-(dimethyl-arsinoyl-β- ribofuranosyl-oxy]-2-hydroxypropyl-2,3-dihydroxy-propyl phosphate (AsSug482 were detected, but arsenobetaine, dimethylarsinic acid (DMA, monomethylarsonic acid, and inorganic arsenics (iAs were not detected. The major peak was AsSug328, which comprised 89% of the total arsenic. Approximately 30% of the total arsenic ingested was excreted in the urine during the 5-day observation. Five arsenic compounds were detected in the urine after ingestion, the major one being DMA, which comprised 58.1 ± 5.0% of the total urinary arsenic excreted over the 5 days. DMA was believed to be metabolized not from iAs but from AsSugs, and its biological half-time was approximately 13 h.

  20. Repair Effect of Seaweed Polysaccharides with Different Contents of Sulfate Group and Molecular Weights on Damaged HK-2 Cells

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    Poonam Bhadja

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The structure–activity relationships and repair mechanism of six low-molecular-weight seaweed polysaccharides (SPSs on oxalate-induced damaged human kidney proximal tubular epithelial cells (HK-2 were investigated. These SPSs included Laminaria japonica polysaccharide, degraded Porphyra yezoensis polysaccharide, degraded Gracilaria lemaneiformis polysaccharide, degraded Sargassum fusiforme polysaccharide, Eucheuma gelatinae polysaccharide, and degraded Undaria pinnatifida polysaccharide. These SPSs have a narrow difference of molecular weight (from 1968 to 4020 Da after degradation by controlling H2O2 concentration. The sulfate group (–SO3H content of the six SPSs was 21.7%, 17.9%, 13.3%, 8.2%, 7.0%, and 5.5%, respectively, and the –COOH contents varied between 1.0% to 1.7%. After degradation, no significant difference was observed in the contents of characteristic –SO3H and –COOH groups of polysaccharides. The repair effect of polysaccharides was determined using cell-viability test by CCK-8 assay and cell-morphology test by hematoxylin-eosin staining. The results revealed that these SPSs within 0.1–100 μg/mL did not express cytotoxicity in HK-2 cells, and each polysaccharide had a repair effect on oxalate-induced damaged HK-2 cells. Simultaneously, the content of polysaccharide –SO3H was positively correlated with repair ability. Furthermore, the low-molecular-weight degraded polysaccharides showed better repair activity on damaged HK-2 cells than their undegraded counterpart. Our results can provide reference for inhibiting the formation of kidney stones and for developing original anti-stone polysaccharide drugs.

  1. [Studies on evaluation of natural products for antiviral effects and their applications].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayashi, Toshimitsu

    2008-01-01

    In the search for novel antiviral molecules from natural products, we have discovered various antiviral molecules with characteristic mechanisms of action. Scopadulciol (SDC), isolated from the tropical medicinal plant Scoparia dulcis L., showed stimulatory effects on the antiviral potency of acyclovir (ACV) or ganciclovir (GCV). This effect of SDC was exerted via the activation of viral thymidine kinase (HSV-1 TK) and, as a result, an increase in the cellular concentration of the active form of ACV/GCV, i.e., the triphosphate of ACV or GCV. On the basis of these experimental results, cancer gene therapy using the HSV-1 tk gene and ACV/GCV together with SDC was found to be effective in suppressing the growth of cancer cells in animals. Acidic polysaccharides such as calcium spirulan (Ca-SP) from Spirulina platensis, nostoflan from Nostoc flagelliforme, and a fucoidan from the sporophyll of Undaria pinnatifida (mekabu fucoidan) were also found to be potent inhibitors against several enveloped viruses. Their antiviral potency was dependent on molecular weight and content of the sulfate or carboxyl group as well as counterion species chelating with sulfate groups, indicating the importance of the three-dimensional structure of the molecules. In addition, unlike dextran sulfate, Ca-SP was shown to target not only viral absorption/penetration stages but also some replication stages of progeny viruses after penetration into cells. When mekabu fucoidan or nostoflan was administered with oseltamivir phosphate, their synergistic antiviral effects on influenza A virus were confirmed in vitro as well as in vivo.

  2. Comparative effects of hawthorn (Crataegus pinnatifida Bunge) pectin and pectin hydrolyzates on the cholesterol homeostasis of hamsters fed high-cholesterol diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Ru-Gang; Sun, Yan-Di; Li, Tuo-Ping; Chen, Gang; Peng, Xue; Duan, Wen-Bin; Zheng, Zheng-Zheng; Shi, Shu-Lei; Xu, Jing-Guo; Liu, Yan-Hua; Jin, Xiao-Yi

    2015-08-05

    This study aims to compare the effects of feeding haw pectin (HP), haw pectin hydrolyzates (HPH), and haw pectin pentasaccharide (HPPS) on the cholesterol metabolism of hypercholesterolemic hamsters induced by high-cholesterol diets. The animals were fed a standard diet (SD), high-cholesterol diet (HCD), or HCD plus HP, HPH, or HPPS at a dose of 300mg/kg body weight for 4weeks. Results showed that HPPS was more effective than HP and HPH in decreasing the body weight gain (by 38.2%), liver weight (by 16.4%), and plasma and hepatic total cholesterol (TC; by 23.6% and 27.3%, respectively) of hamsters. In addition, the bile acid levels in the feces were significantly higher by 39.8% and 132.8% in the HPH and HPPS groups than in the HCD group. Such changes were not noted in the HP group. However, the HP group had higher cholesterol excretion capacities than the HPH and HPPS groups by inhibiting cholesterol absorption in the diet, with a 21.7% increase in TC excretion and a 31.1% decrease in TC absorption. Thus, HPPS could be a promising anti-atherogenic dietary ingredient for the development of functional food to improve cholesterol metabolism. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Red Regional de Laboratorios para la Vigilancia de las Infecciones Fúngicas Invasoras y Susceptibilidad a los Antifúngicos Regional Laboratory Network for Surveillance of Invasive Fungal Infections and Antifungal Susceptibility in Latin America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Cuenca-Estrella

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available This article describes the general objectives of the Regional Laboratory Network for Surveillance of Invasive Fungal Infections and Antifungal Susceptibility in Latin America. Formation of the Network was coordinated by the Essential Medicines, Vaccines, and Health Technologies Unit of the Pan American Health Organization, with the technical and financial support of the National Center for Microbiology of the Carlos III Health Institute (Spain, and the technical support of the Microbiology Department of the Dr. C. Malbrán National Institute on Infectious Diseases (Argentina and the Microbiology Unit of the Parasitology Service of the Adolfo Lutz Institute (Brazil. The Network's principle objectives are epidemiological surveillance of invasive fungal infections through detection of antifungal resistance and identification of emergent, invasive fungal infections; establishment of norms and common protocols for early diagnosis of mycoses; and strengthening coordination, communications, and transference mechanisms among countries. The Network must be gradually implemented and must include staff training, a systematic process for sharing technology, evaluation of diagnostic techniques, identification of fungal species, and standardized tests for antifungal susceptibility.

  4. Composiçăo da entomofauna em povoamentos de Pinus taeda Linnaeus, com diferentes manejos de plantas invasoras, e efeito de temperatura no armazenamento de ovos de Cycloneda sanguinea (Linnaeus, 1763) (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) /

    OpenAIRE

    Silva, Venicio Borges da

    2005-01-01

    Orientadora : Lucia Massutti de Almeida Dissertaçăo (mestrado) - Universidade Federal do Paraná, Setor de Cięncias Biológicas, Programa de Pós-Graduaçăo em Ciencias Biológicas (Entomologia). Defesa: Curitiba, 2005 Inclui bibliografia Área de concentraçăo: Entomologia

  5. Didymosphenia geminata (Lyngbye) M. Schmidt en el área andina de la provincia de Chubut: taxonomía, diversidad morfológica y genética y origen del alga invasora

    OpenAIRE

    Uyua, Noelia Mariel

    2017-01-01

    La temática abordada en el presente trabajo está vinculada a los problemas que, a nivel mundial, causa Didymosphenia geminata (Lyngbye) Schmidt. Esta es una diatomea de agua dulce que puede formar proliferaciones masivas o floraciones. A diferencia de las floraciones algales planctónicas que están relacionadas con el aumento de las concentraciones de nitrógeno y fósforo, los crecimientos masivos de D. geminata, en general están asociados a ambientes pobres en nutrientes y en muchos casos prís...

  6. Insetos galhadores associados a duas espécies de plantas invasoras de áreas urbanas e peri-urbanas Galling insects associated with two species of ruderal plants in urban and peri urban areas

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    Genimar R. Julião

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Os insetos têm sido considerados importantes indicadores de mudanças ambientais e da qualidade de habitats. Apesar de seu hábito séssil, fácil visualização, abundância, e especificidade de hospedeiro, insetos indutores de galhas não têm sido utilizados em estudos desta natureza. Neste estudo foi investigado o uso potencial de insetos galhadores associados a duas espécies de plantas hospedeiras ruderais (Baccharis dracunculifolia e Vernonia polyanthes: Asteraceae como bioindicadores da qualidade de habitats. Procurou-se responder às seguintes questões: (i A diversidade de insetos galhadores é afetada pelo tipo de uso e ocupação da paisagem (solo?; (ii A resposta das comunidades de insetos galhadores difere entre as duas espécies de plantas hospedeiras?; (iii A diversidade de insetos galhadores é influenciada por características bióticas e físicas dos biótopo urbanos? Foram coletadas 6.226 galhas, pertinentes a 6 espécies de insetos galhadores associados à V. polyanthes e 11 espécies associadas à B. dracunculifolia. Não foi encontrada nenhuma diferença na riqueza de insetos galhadores entre os biótopos amostrados. No entanto, a abundância de insetos galhadores apresentou diferenças significativas quanto ao tipo de uso e ocupação da paisagem. As galhas foram mais numerosas em biótopos menos urbanizados, sendo observado uma relação forte e positiva com a porcentagem de cobertura vegetal do biótopo. As comunidades de insetos galhadores de ambas as espécies de plantas hospedeiras apresentaram respostas diferenciais quanto ao tipo de uso da paisagem. Os resultados sugerem três fatores que podem estar envolvidos com a diversidade de insetos galhadores em áreas urbanas: (i estrutura dos habitats num biótopo; (ii abundância e distribuição espacial do recurso planta hospedeira e; (iii freqüência e intensidade do manejo de reservas, parques, jardins e terrenos baldios de uma dada área urbana. Constatou-se ainda que áreas verdes em espaços urbanos são de fundamental importância na manutenção da diversidade de insetos.Insects have been considered as important bioindicators of environmental changes and habitat quality. In spite of its sessile habit, easy localization, abundance and host specificity, insects that induce galls have not been utilized in studies of this nature. It was investigated the suitability of gall-inducing insects associated to two ruderal host plant species (Baccharis dracunculifolia and Vernonia polyanthes: Asteraceae as bioindicators of habitat quality. The following questions were addressed: (i is gall-inducing insect diversity influenced by different types of land use?; (ii are the responses of galling insect communities different between host plants?; (iii how does the biotic and physical features of the biotope influence the gall-inducing insect diversity? It was found 6,226 galls, belonging to six galling insect species on V. polyanthes and 11 galling species on B. dracunculifolia. No difference was found in galling species richness among land use types. Nevertheless, gall-forming insect abundance was statistically different among the biotopes studied. Insect galls were more numerous in biotopes with lower urbanization levels. Gall abundance showed a strong and positive relationship with the percentage of vegetal cover. Gall-forming insect communities on both host species showed differential responses to the different land use types. The results suggest that three factors may be involved with galling insect diversity in urban areas: (i habitat structure in the biotope; (ii resource abundance (host plant abundance and distribution; and (iii frequency and intensity of management in reserves, parks, city squares, wastelands found at a given urban area.

  7. Caracterização morfológica das sementes e plântulas de seis espécies invasoras do gênero Solanum L

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    Groth,Doris

    1989-01-01

    As sementes do gênero Solarium L. são relativamente muito semelhantes, no entanto, a associação de características morfológicas externas da semente com as características anatômicas, como a forma do hilo, a textura e o tipo de esculturas da superfície do tegumento, bem como a forma do embrião curvo (circulado ou espiralado), são características da maior importância na identificação taxonómica à nível de espécie. São apresentadas ilustrações, chaves dicotômicas e descrições morfológicas do gên...

  8. Ocorrência de Calotropis procera (Ait. R. Br. (Apocynaceae como espécie invasora de restinga Occurrence of Calotropis procera (Ait. R. Br. (Apocynaceae as an invasive species in restinga vegetation

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    Elisangela de Sousa Rangel

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Apesar de possuírem grande importância ao nível de conservação ambiental, existe no Brasil uma acentuada escassez de trabalhos relacionados às invasões biológicas em ambientes terrestres. As restingas, sobretudo, são ambientes extremamente susceptíveis a este tipo de ameaça. Este estudo teve como objetivo avaliar a ocorrência e a estrutura populacional da espécie exótica Calotropis procera na Restinga do Xexé, Farol de São Thomé, Campos dos Goytacazes, RJ. Uma varredura que abrangeu uma área de 126 ha (1400m x 900m foi realizada, sendo amostrado um total de 475 indivíduos, ou seja, uma média de 3,8 indivíduos por hectare. Para a avaliação da distribuição dos indivíduos num gradiente interior-praia, foram alocados três transectos (300m x 10m nesta direção. A amostragem nos transectos indicou a ocorrência de 28 indivíduos com altura > 50 cm e nenhum com altura Although invasive species are one of the main reasons for the loss of biodiversity, in Brazil there is little information about biological invasions in terrestrial ecosystems. Sandy coastal plain forests (restinga and shrubby vegetation are places extremely susceptible to this kind of threat. The goal of this work was to evaluate the occurrence of the exotic species Calotropis procera in the Restinga do Xexé, Farol de São Tomé, Campos dos Goytacazes, RJ, Brazil. A survey covering an area of 126 ha (1400 m x 900 m was carried out, where a total of 475 individuals were sampled (mean of 3.8 indiv.ha-1. To assess the spatial distribution and population structure of this species, three transects (300 m x 10 m were created, which were perpendicular to the vegetation gradient from interior to shoreline, and all individuals of C. procera were sampled. A total of 28 individuals > 50 cm tall were sampled, and no individuals < 50 cm tall were found in the three transects. The plants were restricted to areas with vestiges of human disturbance. The absence of seedling samples within the transects is probably related to the fast growth of this species after germination. The results showed that C. procera has a great potential of invading disturbed areas in restinga vegetation. A plan to control and eradicate this species should be considered by the Brazilian environmental agency.

  9. Polyunsaturated fatty acids in various macroalgal species from North Atlantic and tropical seas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Ginneken, Vincent J T; Helsper, Johannes P F G; de Visser, Willem; van Keulen, Herman; Brandenburg, Willem A

    2011-06-22

    In this study the efficacy of using marine macroalgae as a source for polyunsaturated fatty acids, which are associated with the prevention of inflammation, cardiovascular diseases and mental disorders, was investigated. The fatty acid (FA) composition in lipids from seven sea weed species from the North Sea (Ulva lactuca, Chondrus crispus, Laminaria hyperborea, Fucus serratus, Undaria pinnatifida, Palmaria palmata, Ascophyllum nodosum) and two from tropical seas (Caulerpa taxifolia, Sargassum natans) was determined using GCMS. Four independent replicates were taken from each seaweed species. Omega-3 (n-3) and omega-6 (n-6) polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), were in the concentration range of 2-14 mg/g dry matter (DM), while total lipid content ranged from 7-45 mg/g DM. The n-9 FAs of the selected seaweeds accounted for 3%-56% of total FAs, n-6 FAs for 3%-32% and n-3 FAs for 8%-63%. Red and brown seaweeds contain arachidonic (C20:4, n-6) and/or eicosapentaenoic acids (EPA, C20:5, n-3), the latter being an important "fish" FA, as major PUFAs while in green seaweeds these values are low and mainly C16 FAs were found. A unique observation is the presence of another typical "fish" fatty acid, docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, C22:6, n-3) at ≈ 1 mg/g DM in S. natans. The n-6: n-3 ratio is in the range of 0.05-2.75 and in most cases below 1.0. Environmental effects on lipid-bound FA composition in seaweed species are discussed. Marine macroalgae form a good, durable and virtually inexhaustible source for polyunsaturated fatty acids with an (n-6) FA: (n-3) FA ratio of about 1.0. This ratio is recommended by the World Health Organization to be less than 10 in order to prevent inflammatory, cardiovascular and nervous system disorders. Some marine macroalgal species, like P. palmata, contain high proportions of the "fish fatty acid" eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, C20:5, n-3), while in S. natans also docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, C22:6, n-3) was detected.

  10. Genome-wide computational analysis of the secretome of brown algae (Phaeophyceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terauchi, Makoto; Yamagishi, Takahiro; Hanyuda, Takeaki; Kawai, Hiroshi

    2017-04-01

    Brown algae have evolved complex multicellularity in the heterokont lineage. They are phylogenetically distant to land plants, fungi and animals. Especially, the members of Laminariales (so-called kelps) have developed highly differentiated tissues. Extracellular matrix (ECM) plays pivotal roles in a number of essential processes in multicellular organisms, such as cell adhesion, cell and tissue differentiations, cell-to-cell communication, and responses to environmental stimuli. In these processes, a set of extracellular secreted proteins called the secretome operates remodeling of the physicochemical nature of ECM and signal transduction by interacting with cell surface proteins and signaling molecules. Characterization of the secretome is a critical step to clarify the contributions of ECM to the multicellularity of brown algae. However, the identity of the brown algal secretome has been poorly understood. In order to reveal the repertory of the brown algal secretome and its involvement in the evolution of Laminariales, we conducted a genome-wide analysis of the brown algal secretome utilizing the published complete genome data of Ectocarpus siliculosus and Saccharina japonica as well as newly obtained RNA-seq data of seven laminarialean species (Agarum clathratum, Alaria crassifolia, Aureophycus aleuticus, Costaria costata, Pseudochorda nagaii, Saccharina angustata and Undaria pinnatifida) largely covering the laminarialean families. We established the in silico pipeline to systematically and accurately detect the secretome by combining multiple prediction algorithms for the N-terminal signal peptide and transmembrane domain within the protein sequence. From 16,189 proteins of E. siliculosus and 18,733 proteins of S. japonica, 552 and 964 proteins respectively were predicted to be classified as the secretome. Conserved domain analysis showed that the domain repertory were very similar to each other, and that of the brown algal secretome was partially common

  11. Polyunsaturated fatty acids in various macroalgal species from north Atlantic and tropical seas

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    van Keulen Herman

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In this study the efficacy of using marine macroalgae as a source for polyunsaturated fatty acids, which are associated with the prevention of inflammation, cardiovascular diseases and mental disorders, was investigated. Methods The fatty acid (FA composition in lipids from seven sea weed species from the North Sea (Ulva lactuca, Chondrus crispus, Laminaria hyperborea, Fucus serratus, Undaria pinnatifida, Palmaria palmata, Ascophyllum nodosum and two from tropical seas (Caulerpa taxifolia, Sargassum natans was determined using GCMS. Four independent replicates were taken from each seaweed species. Results Omega-3 (n-3 and omega-6 (n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs, were in the concentration range of 2-14 mg/g dry matter (DM, while total lipid content ranged from 7-45 mg/g DM. The n-9 FAs of the selected seaweeds accounted for 3%-56% of total FAs, n-6 FAs for 3%-32% and n-3 FAs for 8%-63%. Red and brown seaweeds contain arachidonic (C20:4, n-6 and/or eicosapentaenoic acids (EPA, C20:5, n-3, the latter being an important "fish" FA, as major PUFAs while in green seaweeds these values are low and mainly C16 FAs were found. A unique observation is the presence of another typical "fish" fatty acid, docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, C22:6, n-3 at ≈ 1 mg/g DM in S. natans. The n-6: n-3 ratio is in the range of 0.05-2.75 and in most cases below 1.0. Environmental effects on lipid-bound FA composition in seaweed species are discussed. Conclusion Marine macroalgae form a good, durable and virtually inexhaustible source for polyunsaturated fatty acids with an (n-6 FA: (n-3 FA ratio of about 1.0. This ratio is recommended by the World Health Organization to be less than 10 in order to prevent inflammatory, cardiovascular and nervous system disorders. Some marine macroalgal species, like P. palmata, contain high proportions of the "fish fatty acid" eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, C20:5, n-3, while in S. natans also docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, C

  12. Revision of the genus Dasya (Ceramiales, Rhodophyta in Galicia (NW Spain and the addition of a new alien species Dasya sessilis Yamada for the European Atlantic coasts

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    Peña, Viviana

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available A revision of the genus Dasya in northwestern Iberian Peninsula is presented. Three species (Dasya hutchinsiae, D. ocellata and D. sessilis are confirmed whilst other three (Dasya corymbifera, D. punicea and D. rigidula are excluded from the Galician seaweeds flora. The alien species Dasya sessilis Yamada is a new record for the European Atlantic coasts. The study of the herbarium material reveals that D. sessilis was misidentified with other Dasyaceae species and that it has been collected on the Galician coasts for more than 16 years. Morphological and anatomical features of D. sessilis as well as its distribution and chronological data on the Galician coasts are provided. A comparison of the Iberian specimens with the Mediterranean and Asian plants is also included. Dasya sessilis was found growing on a wide range of substrata, from the lower intertidal to subtidal at moderate wave-exposed and sheltered areas. It is abundant in harbours and aquaculture areas together with other alien species such as Heterosiphonia japonica and Undaria pinnatifida. The comparative study between D. sessilis and similar European and Iberian Dasyaceae species is undertaken to prevent further misidentifications. Dasya sessilis is the largest Dasya species, with broader main axes (1-2 mm wide vs 200-500 µm in D. ocellata and 500-600 µm in D. hutchinsiae; pseudolaterals of D. sessilis are 3-5 times pseudodichotomously branched compared to 5-8 times in D. hutchinsiae and 4-5 times in D. ocellata; pseudolateral tips are broader in D. sessilis than in D. ocellata, but smaller than pseudolateral apices of D. hutchinsiae; tetrasporangial stichidium of Dasya sessilis has 6-7 periaxial cells (and 6-7 tetrasporangia per fertile whorl vs. 4-5 in the rest of the native species; and tetrasporangial stichidia of D. sessilis are longer and cystocarps broader than those in D. hutchinsiae. The alien Dasyaceae species Heterosiphonia japonica, similar in size to Dasya sessilis

  13. Caracterización de candida parapsilosis complex en el área hospitalaria del h.u. virgen del Rocío en el periodo 2003-2009

    OpenAIRE

    Toro Crespo, María de

    2011-01-01

    En los últimos años se ha observado un aumento en la incidencia de las infecciones invasoras por Candida spp, además de cambios temporales en las especies aisladas. También se ha registrado un aumento en la incidencia de enfermedad invasora por C. parapsilosis complex, ya que hay estudios que muestran que es la segunda especie de Candida más aislada en hemocultivos. Además la incidencia de Candidi asis invasora por C. parapsilosis complex varía geográficamente y en función de las característi...

  14. Effects of pectin pentaoligosaccharide from Hawthorn ( Crataegus pinnatifida Bunge. var. Major) on the activity and mRNA levels of enzymes involved in fatty acid oxidation in the liver of mice fed a high-fat diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Tuo-Ping; Zhu, Ru-Gang; Dong, Yin-Ping; Liu, Yong-Hui; Li, Su-Hong; Chen, Gang

    2013-08-07

    The regulatory effects of haw pectin pentaoligosaccharide (HPPS) on fatty acid oxidation-related enzyme activities and mRNA levels were investigated in the liver of high fat diet induced hyperlipidemic mice. Results showed that HPPS (150 mg/kg for 10 weeks) significantly suppresses weight gain (32.3 ± 0.26 and 21.1 ± 0.14 g for high-fat diet and HPPS groups, respectively), decreases serum triacylglycerol levels (1.64 ± 0.09 and 0.91 ± 0.02 mmol/L, respectively), and increases lipid excretion in feces (55.7 ± 0.38 and 106.4 ± 0.57 mg/g for total lipid, respectively), compared to high-fat diet as control. HPPS significantly increased the hepatic fatty acid oxidation-related enzyme activities of acyl-CoA oxidase, carnitine palmitoyltransferase I, 3-ketoacyl-CoA thiolase, and 2,4-dienoyl-CoA reductase by 53.8, 74.2, 47.1, and 24.2%, respectively. Meanwhile, the corresponding mRNAs were up-regulated by 89.6, 85.8, 82.9, and 30.9%, respectively. Moreover, HPPS was able to up-regulate the gene and protein expressions of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α. Results suggest that continuous HPPS ingestion may be used as dietary therapy to prevent obesity and cardiovascular diseases.

  15. Distribución de serotipos de Streptococcus pneumoniae aislados de infecciones invasoras en el Hospital de Niños de Santa Fe Serotype distribution of Streptococcus pneumoniae isolated from invasive infections at the Hospital de Niños of Santa Fe.

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    C. Mayoral

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Con la introducción de vacunas conjugadas antineumocócicas se observó, en muchos países, disminución de aislamientos de Streptococcus pneumoniae del serotipo 14 y aumento de aislamientos correspondientes a serotipos no incluidos en esas vacunas. En 1993, el Hospital de Niños de Santa Fe comenzó la vigilancia de la distribución de serotipos de Streptococcus pneumoniae invasores. En este trabajo se estudió la correlación entre serotipo y a patología (neumonía/meningitis, b edad (menor o mayor de dos años, y c CIM de penicilina, para los serotipos aislados en el período 2003-2005. El serotipo predominante fue el 14, seguido del 1, 6B, 18C, 7F, 19F y 5. El serotipo 14 mostró asociación estadísticamente significativa con valores de CIM de penicilina entre 0,5 y 2 mg/l, no así con alguna patología, aunque se lo halló con mayor frecuencia en neumonías que en meningitis. Los serotipos 14 y 1 prevalecieron en niños menores y mayores de 2 años, respectivamente. La CIM de penicilina = 2 mg/l se observó más en neumonías que en meningitis. La frecuencia relativa de los diferentes serotipos hallados fue semejante a la observada en el período 1993-99; no obstante, los serotipos 18C, 4, 12F y 22F no se habían encontrado antes. La aparición de nuevos serotipos convierte en importante la vigilancia, dada la necesidad de formular vacunas que los incluyan y que efectivamente prevengan las infecciones neumocócicas más comunes.The serotype distribution of Streptococcus pneumoniae varies through time. The introduction of pneumococcal conjugate vaccines showed a decreased prevalence of pneumococcal invasive isolates belonging to serotype 14 and an increase of serotypes not therein included. In 1993, the Hospital de Niños of Santa Fe began surveillance of the serotype distribution of invasive S. pneumoniae disease. In the period 2003 - 2005, 76 isolates were analysed by studying the correlation between serotype and pathology, age and MIC of penicillin. Serotype 14 was the most frequent followed by serotypes 1, 6B, 18C, 7F, 19 F and 5. Serotype 14 showed a statistically significant correlation with MICs of penicillin ranging from 0,5 to 2 mg/l. Although this serotype was more frequently observed in pneumonia than in meningitis, there was not a significant association with any particular pathology. Serotypes 14 and 1, were prevalent among children under and over 2 years old, respectively. Most of these isolates with MICs of penicillin = 2 mg/l, were from patients with pneumonia and not with meningitis. The serotype distribution was similar to that during the period 1993-99, with the exception of serotypes 18C, 4, 12F and 22F which had never been found before. The emergence of these serotypes makes it essential to continue surveillance to determine which conjugated vaccine formulation would be suitable to prevent the most frequent pneumococcal invasive infections.

  16. Infestación de Megastigmus aculeatus (Hymenoptera: Chalcidoidea en las semillas de rosas exóticas invasoras de comunidades naturales de la Patagonia andina de Argentina Megastigmus aculeatus infestation on seeds of exotic roses invading wild communities of Andean Patagonia from Argentina

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    KAREN D LEDIUK

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Megastigmus aculeatus Swederus (Hymenoptera: Chalcidoidea infesta las semillas de especies de Rosa tanto en las áreas de origen como en las de invasión. La larva de la avispa se desarrolla consumiendo la totalidad de la semilla. Se analizó la infestación de M. aculeatus en diferentes poblaciones de Rosa rubiginosa L. y Rosa canina L. y en plantas aisladas de Rosa multiflora Thunb. en áreas naturales del Noroeste de la Patagonia, Argentina. En R. rubiginosa, la especie más abundante, estudiamos la prevalencia y éxito de infestación por la avispa y el posible efecto sobre el tamaño del fruto. En este trabajo se presentan los primeros registros de R. rubiginosa y R. canina como especies hospedadoras de M. aculeatus en Argentina y se verifica su ausencia en las semillas de R. multiflora. En R. canina, el porcentaje de frutos infestados por M. aculeatus fue bajo (0-1 % por sitio, no siendo probablemente un factor condicionante de la reducida distribución de la planta. En R. rubiginosa, ese porcentaje fue alto (31-75 % de frutos infestados por sitio, pero solo el 2-8 % de los aquenios estaban infestados. Considerando los sitios analizados, la distribución a nivel regional de la infestación por M. aculeatus en las especies de rosas estudiadas es reducida. El tamaño del fruto no es afectado por la infestación del insecto. Los resultados de este trabajo muestran un bajo impacto actual de M. aculeatus en el control natural de la invasión de las rosas en la región andina de Argentina. Sin embargo, dado que las poblaciones de M. aculeatus podrían ser afectadas por la temperatura, un cambio en esta variable podría incrementar la prevalencia de infestación de las semillas de estos arbustos a mediano y largo plazo.Megastigmus aculeatus Swederus (Hymenoptera: Chalcidoidea infest Rosa species seeds both at the origin and invasion areas. The wasp larvae develop by consuming the entire seed. The M. aculeatus infestation was analyzed at different Rosa canina L. and Rosa rubiginosa L. populations and at isolated plants of Rosa multiflora Thunb. at Norwestern Patagonian natural areas of Argentina. In R. rubiginosa, the most abundant species, we studied the wasp infestation prevalence and success and the possible infestation effect on fruit size. In this paper we registered the first records of R. canina and R. rubiginosa as host plants for M. aculeatus in wild areas of Argentina and we verified the absence of the wasp in R. multiflora fruits. In R. canina the percentage of infected fruits by M. aculeatus was low (0-1 % per site not being probably a conditioning factor of its actual reduced spread. In R. rubiginosa, the percentage was high (31-75 % of infested fruits per sites, but only the 2-8 % of achenes were infected. Considering the analyzed sites, the distribution of M. aculeatus infestation at regional level in rose studied species was reduced. The fruit size was not affected by the insect infestation. The results of this work show a low actual impact of M. aculeatus in the control of rose invasion at Andean region of Argentina. However, since M. aculeatus populations could be affect by the temperature, a change of this variable could increase the seeds infestation prevalence in the medium and long term.

  17. The problematic of the geographical expansion of invasive alien species. Analysis and distribution of two species in the province of Avila and initiatives for the minimization of their effects; La problematica de la expansion geografica de las especies exoticas invasoras. Analisis y distribucion de dos especies en la provincia de Avila e iniciativas para la minimizacion de sus efectos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia Quiroga, F.

    2012-07-01

    Invasive alien species currently constitute a serious threat for biodiversity and large economic losses. The risks associated to its introduction are in constant growth due to the increase of trade, tourism, transport and market globalization. Examples of these species can be found in the fauna such as the red swamp or Louisiana crawfish and in the flora as the ailanthus, which affect a great deal of the Spanish provinces, as that of Avila where they will be analyzed in greater detail. Because of it, the development of an effective action against its invasion through a series of measures, as well as the development and implementation of a legal framework, in addition to the information of the citizens are essential aspects for eradication or to mitigate its expansion. (Author)

  18. Suscetibilidade de cercas-vivas, quebra-ventos e plantas invasoras ao vírus da leprose e sua transmissão para laranjeiras por Brevipalpus phoenicis (Geijskes (Acari: Tenuipalpidae Infection in hedgerows, windbreaks and weeds by leprosies virus and its transmission to orange trees by Brevipalpus phoenicis (Geijskes (Acari: Tenuipalpidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ozana Maria de Andrade Maia

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se avaliar a potencialidade de algumas plantas freqüentes em pomares cítricos de hospedar o vírus da leprose, transmitido por Brevipalpus phoenicis (Geijskes. Foram utilizadas as seguintes plantas: Hibiscus sp. L., Malvaviscus mollis DC., Grevillea robusta A. Cunn., Mimosa caesalpiniaefolia Benth., Bixa orellana L., Commelina benghalensis L., Bidens pilosa L., Sida cordifolia L. e Ageratum conyzoides L.. Duas criações-estoque do ácaro foram realizadas, sendo uma sobre frutos com sintomas de leprose e outra sobre frutos sem sintomas. De cada planta hospedeira do ácaro, escolheram-se duas folhas, delimitando-se na face inferior de cada planta uma área, que recebeu ácaros criados sobre frutos com lesões de leprose, que aí permaneceram durante sete dias. Os ácaros foram em seguida transferidos para mudas cítricas das variedades Natal e Valência e mantidos em casa de vegetação. As folhas das diferentes espécies vegetais sobre as quais os ácaros estavam anteriormente, foram destacadas e conservadas em placas de Petri, sobre algodão e papel-filtro umedecido. Ácaros criados sobre frutos sem lesões de leprose foram mantidos por três dias sobre essas folhas e, posteriormente, transferidos para novas mudas cítricas, que também foram subseqüentemente mantidas em uma casa de vegetação. Após 60 dias, quantificou-se o número de lesões de leprose nas mudas cítricas. Os resultados evidenciaram que o ácaro não perdeu a capacidade de transmissão do vírus para mudas cítricas após acesso alimentar por sete dias sobre qualquer uma das plantas intermediárias consideradas no estudo. Ácaros provenientes de frutos sem lesões de leprose adquiriram o vírus da leprose e o transmitiram a mudas cítricas quando tiveram acesso alimentar a C. benghalensis, A. conyzoides, B. pilosa, S. cordifolia e B. orellana, onde, anteriormente, ácaros criados sobre frutos com lesões de leprose permaneceram por sete dias. Estes resultados evidenciam a potencialidade de estas plantas serem depositárias e fonte de transmissão do vírus para plantas cítricas suscetíveis.The objective was to evaluate the potential of some common plants in and around citrus orchards to host the leprosies virus, transmitted by the mite Brevipalpus phoenicis (Geijskes.It was used the following plants: Hibiscus sp. L., Malvaviscus mollis DC., Grevillea robusta A. Cunn., Mimosa caesalpiniaefolia Benth., Bixa orellana L., Commelina benghalensis L., Bidens pilosa L., Sida cordifolia L. and Ageratum conyzoides L.. Two stock colonies of the mite were set up; one on fruits with leprosies symptoms and other on fruits without symptoms. Two leaves were selected from each host plant, on which mites reared on fruits with leprosies lesions, and were confined during seven days. Subsequently, the mites were transferred to citrus seedlings variety Natal and Valencia and taken to a greenhouse. The leaves infested with mites were removed and placed on cotton and filter paper in Petri dishes. Mites reared on fruit without leprosies lesions were allowed to feed on the host plant leaves during three days, and were then transferred to citrus seedlings, which were taken to the greenhouse. After 60 days, the number of lesions on the citrus seedlings was counted. The mites continued to transmit the virus to citrus seedlings, even after seven days of feeding on the host plants. Mites reared on fruit without leprosies lesions, acquired the virus and transmitted it to citrus seedlings when kept on C. benghalensis, A. conyzoides, B. pilosa, S. cordifolia or B. orellana leaves on where mites from leprosies lesions had been previously reared. It was conclude that these plants can be depositories and sources for transmission of leprosies virus to susceptible citrus plants.

  19. Establishment of mixed reforestation with typical Atlantic forest species as a function of minimum or intensive soil cultivation and weed control; Estabelecimento de reflorestamentos mistos com especies tipicas da mata Atlantica, em funcao do cultivo minimo ou intensivo do solo e do controle de plantas invasoras

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goncalves, Jose Leonardo de Moraes; Gandara, Flavio [Sao Paulo Univ., Piracicaba, SP (Brazil). Escola Superior de Agricultura Luiz de Queiroz. Dept. de Ciencias Florestais]. E-mail: jlmgonca@carpa.ciagri.usp.br; Goncalves, Janio Carlos; Oliveira, Donizete Barbosa de; Simionato, Jose Luiz do Amaral [Companhia Energetica de Sao Paulo (CESP), SP (Brazil); Cenci, Silvia [Sao Paulo Univ., Piracicaba, SP (Brazil). Escola Superior de Agricultura Luiz de Queiroz (ESALQ)

    1999-07-15

    The objectives of this research were: to study the effect of different methods of site cleaning and soil preparation on the reforestation growths established with typical species of the Atlantic Forest; and to evaluate the efficiency of different methods of weed control from planting time to canopy closure. The trial was installed (from Feb to May 1995) around the reservoir of Mario Lopes Leao hydroelectric plant owned by the Electric Power of Sao Paulo (CESP), municipal district of Promissao, SP. The climate of the area is tropical with dry winter (Cwa, classification of Koeppen). The soil was characterized as an Red-Dark Latosol, medium texture. Six treatments arranged in a randomized block design with four replications were tested: 1) herbicide application over total area, planting in furrows (PF), manual weeding in the planting row (MWR) and herbicide application inter rows (HAI); 2) slashing in total area (STA), planting hole (Ph), MW R and slashing inter rows: 3) STA, slash burning (SB), heavy and light harrowing (HLH), PF, MWR and HAI; 4) STA, SB, PF, MWR and HAI; 5) STA, SB, PF, HLH, MWR and HAI; and 6) SAT, SB, two heavy harrowing, PH, selective weed control in the rows and inter rows. The plantation was accomplished with a composition of nine species: pioneers - Trema micrantha, Guazuma ulmifolia and Croton urucurana; secondary - Peltophorum dubium, Gallesia integrifolia and Ormosia arborea and climax - Tabebuia avellanedae, Hymenaea courbaril and Genipa americana. The pioneer and secondary species presented the highest results to the applied treatments. In all treatments where weed control was made with herbicide (glyphosate), the occurrence of Panicum maximum, common species in the area, was very restricted. The growth rates were intensified and the under story presented more diversified composition of weed species, with predominance of broad leaves. Opposite results were observed when weed controlled was manually or mechanically. The largest differences between the best and worst treatments were verified for root collar diameter (RCD) and crown projection diameter (CPD) parameters. These parameters were highly correlated to each other. Considering tree growth response together with the operational costs of establishment and maintenance, the best treatment was that in which weeds were controlled with herbicide on inter rows and soil preparations restricted to planting rows. No effect on tree growth or weed control was observed for burning vegetable residues on the ground after two years of planting time. (author)

  20. Estudo fitoquímico e avaliação alelopática de Memora peregrina - "ciganinha" - Bignoniaceae, uma espécie invasora de pastagens em Mato Grosso do Sul Phytochemical study and evaluation of allelopathy in Memora peregrina, 'ciganinha', Bignoniaceae, an invading species in pastures in Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafaela Ferreira Grassi

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Memora peregrina (local name: 'ciganinha' - Bignoniaceae is a weed that often invades pastures in the Brazilian state of Mato Grosso do Sul. From its leaves and subterranean parts, the following compounds were isolated: allantoin (20.7 w/w in subterranean parts, the iridoid 6beta-hydroxyipolamiide, hyperin, 3'-O-methylhyperin, 4-hydroxy-N-methylproline, beta-sitosterol, alpha-amirin and beta-amirin, and lupeol. Allantoin exhibited an activity of inducing germination in seeds of Lactuca sativa used as a biological model, and the iridoid showed moderate activity in the larval development of Anagasta kuehniella. These results, associated with this plant's behavior, are suggestive of the occurrence of adaptive and competitive strategies in relation to other plant species.

  1. Phyto chemical study and evaluation of allelopathy in Memora peregrina, 'ciganinha', Bignoniaceae, an invading species in pastures in Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil; Estudo fitoquimico e avaliacao alelopatica de Memora peregrina - 'ciganinha' - Bignoniaceae, uma especie invasora de pastagens em Mato Grosso do Sul

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grassi, Rafaela Ferreira [Mato Grosso do Sul Univ., Campo Grande, MS (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica; Resende, Ubirazilda Maria [Mato Grosso do Sul Univ., Campo Grande, MS (Brazil). Dept. de Biologia; Silva, Walciane da; Macedo, Maria Ligia Rodrigues [Mato Grosso do Sul Univ., Campo Grande, MS (Brazil). Dept. de Ciencias Naturais; Butera, Ana Paola; Tulli, Elayne de Oliveira; Saffran, Francis Paes; Siqueira, Joao Maximo de [Mato Grosso do Sul Univ., Campo Grande, MS (Brazil). Dept. de Farmacia-Bioquamica]. E-mail: jmaximo@nin.ufms.br

    2005-04-01

    Memora peregrina (local name: 'ciganinha' - Bignoniaceae) is a weed that often invades pastures in the Brazilian state of Mato Grosso do Sul. From its leaves and subterranean parts, the following compounds were isolated: allantoin (20.7 w/w in subterranean parts), the iridoid 6{beta}-hydroxyipolamiide, hyperin, 3'-O-methylhyperin, 4-hydroxy-N-methylproline, {beta}-sitosterol, {alpha}-amirin and {beta}-amirin, and lupeol. Allantoin exhibited an activity of inducing germination in seeds of Lactuca sativa used as a biological model, and the iridoid showed moderate activity in the larval development of Anagasta kuehniella. These results, associated with this plant's behavior, are suggestive of the occurrence of adaptive and competitive strategies in relation to other plant species. (author)

  2. Uso de cobertura morta vegetal no controle da umidade e temperatura do solo, na incidência de plantas invasoras e na produção da cenoura em cultivo de verão Efficiency of mulching on soil moisture and temperature, weed control and yield of carrot in summer season

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Vilela Resende

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available Avaliaram-se os efeitos de diferentes tipos de cobertura morta de solo de origem vegetal sobre o crescimento, controle de plantas daninhas, produtividade e regime hidrotérmico do solo no cultivo da cenoura, cultivar Brasília, em um experimento conduzido no período de setembro a dezembro de 1998, em Marília, SP. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi o de blocos casualizados, com cinco tratamentos e quatro repetições em parcelas de 2 m². Estudou-se os seguintes tipos de cobertura: serragem de madeira, casca de arroz, maravalha (raspa de madeira, capim seco (Cynodon spp. e controle (solo sem cobertura morta. A utilização da cobertura morta de solo mostrou-se como uma prática vantajosa para o cultivo de verão da cenoura, reduziu a temperatura em até 3,5ºC, aumentou a retenção de umidade do solo em até 2,3% em relação ao controle e melhorou o desenvolvimento das plantas de cenoura. Houve menor incidência de plantas daninhas com o uso de maravalha e capim seco que, juntamente com a serragem também aumentaram o número de plantas colhidas. Entre os tipos de cobertura morta utilizados, a casca de arroz e a maravalha se destacaram em relação ao solo descoberto como os materiais que proporcionaram maior produtividade (112,6 e 99,6 t/ha respectivamente. O uso de cobertura morta de solo mostrou-se vantajoso em vários aspectos para cultura da cenoura, sendo técnica e economicamente viável, principalmente, em pequenas áreas e em cultivos orgânicos.The effects of different mulches were evalueted on carrot culture, cultivar Brasilia, in a experiment carried out at Marilia, São Paulo State, Brazil, from september to december/1998. The experimental design was a randomized block with four replications and size plots of 2 m². Wood dust, wood chips, dry grass (Cynodon spp., rice straw and control (soil without cover were tested and their effects on the soil hidrothermal regime, weed control, growth and yield of carrot were determined. Mulching materials showed better carrots plants development, mild soil temperature (3,5°C less control trait and better soil moisture (2,3% high control trait. Dry grass and wood chips showed lower weed infestation and dry grass, wood chips and wood dust increased carrot stand. Mulches with rice straw and wood increased carrot yield (112,6 e 99,6 t/ha respectively. Mulching use is technically and economically viable for carrot growing, mainly in small areas and in organic farms.

  3. Alterações na dieta de Pterodoras granulosus (Valenciennes, 1833 (Osteichthyes, Doradidae devido a variação na abundância de uma espécie invasora de bivalve no reservatório de Itaipu, Brasil Alterations in the Pterodoras granulosus (Valenciennes, 1833 (Osteichthyes, Doradidae diet due to the abundance variation of a bivalve invader species in the Itaipu Reservoir, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angelo Antonio Agostinho

    2002-05-01

    Full Text Available Foram avaliadas as alterações na dieta de Pterodoras granulosus (Osteichthyes, Doradidae, no reservatório de Itaipu, no período de 1994 a 1998, associadas às alterações na abundância de um bivalve invasor, Corbicula fluminea, considerando-se dois eventos: (i a explosão de C. fluminea no reservatório a partir de 1994, e (ii a mortandade desse bivalvia em função das flutuações do nível de água a partir de julho/96. Os conteúdos estomacais, foram analisados pelos métodos de ocorrência e volumétrico, combinados no Índice Alimentar. A análise mostrou que C. fluminea foi o principal alimento nos anos de 94/95/96, representando aproximadamente 90% da dieta. Em 1997, houve uma queda no consumo de C. fluminea (39% da dieta, concomitante a um incremento no consumo de vegetal (26%, enquanto no ano de 98 a dieta foi composta basicamente por algas filamentosas (49% e vegetal superior (45. Estes resultados evidenciam a importância da flutuação do nível da água em reservatórios sobre a disponibilidade alimentar de P. granulosus.Variations in the diet of Pterodoras granulosus (Osteichthyes, Doradidae were evaluated from 1994 to 1998 taking into account two events that affected the abundance of an introduced bivalve Corbicula fluminae: (i the abundance explosion of the bivalve in the reservoir, started in 1994 and (ii the slaughter of the bivalve population due to fluctuations in water level, started in July 1996. Stomach contents were analyzed and results were shown considering the methods of frequency of occurrence and volumetric, combined in an alimentary index (AI. In 1994, 1995 and 1996 C. fluminae was the most consumed item, constituting about 90% of the diet. A decrease of this item intake (39% was verified in 1997, with an increase of the vascular plants intake (26%. The diet of P. granulosus changed drastically in 1998, when it became based on algae (49% and vascular plants (45. These results indicate the important role played by water level fluctuations in reservoirs, on the food availability for P. granulosus.

  4. Prevención de la neumonía adquirida en la comunidad PREVENTION OF COMMUNITY-ACQUIRED PNEUMONIA IN ADULTS

    OpenAIRE

    Manuel Barros M.; Claudia Cartagena S.; Luis Bavestrello F.

    2005-01-01

    La vacuna anti neumocóccica polivalente disponible desde 1983 incluye 23 serotipos de Streptococcus pneumoniae, que representan cerca de 90% de las cepas que ocasionan enfermedad neumocóccica invasora en adultos inmunocompetentes. La vacuna confiere protección contra la enfermedad neumocóccica invasora. Se recomienda vacunar a los adultos sanos sobre 65 años de edad, portadores de enfermedades crónicas (cardiopatías, EPOC, nefropatías, diabetes mellitus, cirrosis hepática, pérdida crónica de ...

  5. Medicinal compositae from Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferreira, Z.S.; Roque, N.F.; Gottlieb, O.R.; Oliveira, F.

    The family Compositae is one of the largest in the plant kingdom. Several species are used in popular medicin. Thus, the leaf extract of Calea pinnatifida Banks, known as aruca, is employed in the treatment of amoebiasis. A chemical study is carried out in order to discover the active principles of the species. (Author) [pt

  6. People’s Republic of China Scientific Abstracts, Number 199.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-09-06

    tung-ch’ing /Ilex pubessens Hook et Arn^ and Dioscorea batas Dene. Internally, a pulvis mix- ture of 30 percent of Dioscorea batas Dene, 20 percent...pinnatifida Bge., wheat straw, Dioscorea batatas Dene., Poria cocos (Shw.) Wolf), Plantago major, Atractylodes macrocephala Koidz, ginger, and Glycyrrhiza

  7. A malacofauna bentônica das represas do médio rio Tietê (São Paulo, Brasil e uma avaliação ecológica das espécies exóticas invasoras, Melanoides tuberculata (Müller e Corbicula fluminea (Müller Benthic malacofauna of the reservoirs of the Middle River Tietê (São Paulo, Brazil and an ecological evaluation of the invading exotic species, Melanoides tuberculata (Müller and Corbicula fluminea (Müller

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana L. Suriani

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho analisa a composição de espécies, a densidade e a distribuição espacial e temporal da malacofauna bentônica em três represas do médio rio Tietê. As coletas foram realizadas em dois períodos climáticos, o chuvoso em novembro de 2002 e o seco em agosto de 2003, amostrando-se três porções em cada represa (superior, mediana e barragem e seguindo uma varredura com seis pontos amostrais em cada transecto. Os dados limnológicos obtidos evidenciaram que as represas do médio rio Tietê encontram-se eutrofizadas com elevadas concentrações de nutrientes (totais e dissolvidos. Foram registradas oito espécies de moluscos sendo seis nativas e duas exóticas. Destas, a espécie dominante foi o molusco exótico e invasor Melanoides tuberculata (Müller, 1774, presente em todas as represas. A outra espécie exótica Corbicula fluminea (Müller, 1774, também esteve presente em todas as represas e em ambos os períodos de coleta (exceto na represa de Barra Bonita. Na represa de Barra Bonita só ocorreram as duas espécies exóticas, enquanto nas represas de Bariri e Ibitinga as espécies nativas Aylacostoma tenuilabris (Bernardi, 1856, Biomphalaria glabrata (Say, 1818, Biomphalaria intermedia (Paraense & Deslandes, 1962, Diplodon expansus (Küster, 1853, Physa cubensis (Pfeiffer, 1839 e Pomacea canaliculata (Lamarck, 1822 ocorreram em pelo menos um dos períodos amostrados. A ocupação generalizada de M. tuberculata e C. fluminea e as elevadas densidades destas espécies nas represas estudadas revelam o alto potencial invasor das mesmas e a provável competição com as espécies nativas.This study analyze the composition of species, the density and the spatial and temporal distribution of benthic malacofauna in three reservoirs of the Middle Tietê River. The samplings were carried out in two climatic periods, the rainy season in November 2002 and the dry season in August 2003, showing three portions in each reservoir (upper, middle and lower and following a sweeping with six sampling points in each transect. Based on the limnological data the reservoirs of the Middle Tietê River were eutrophied with high concentrations of nutrients (total and dissolved. Eight species of mollusks were registered, six natives and two exotics. Of these, the dominant species was the exotic and invading mollusk Melanoides tuberculata (Müller, 1774, found in all reservoirs. Another exotic specie Corbicula fluminea (Müller, 1774, was current in all the reservoirs in both periods of sampling (except in the Barra Bonita reservoir. In the Barra Bonita reservoir only the two exotic species occurred, while in the Bariri and Ibitinga the native species Aylacostoma tenuilabris (Bernardi, 1856, Biomphalaria glabrata (Say, 1818, Biomphalaria intermedia (Paraense & Deslandes, 1962, Diplodon expansus (Küster, 1853, Physa cubensis (Pfeiffer, 1839 and Pomacea canaliculata (Lamarck, 1822 occurred in at least one of the sampled periods. The generalized occupation of M. tuberculata and C. fluminea and the high densities of these species in the studied reservoirs reveal the invading potential of same and the probable competition with the native species.

  8. Correlación de los valores de pCO2 obtenidos por gasometría arterial y capnografía transcutánea

    OpenAIRE

    M.ªD. Moronta Martín; C. Gutiérrez Ortega

    2013-01-01

    Introducción: La gasometría arterial es el método habitual y más exacto, utilizado para la medición, entre otros, de los valores en sangre arterial de anhídrido carbónico (pCO2). Es una técnica invasora y dolorosa que provoca rechazo en muchos de los pacientes a los que se les solicita, periódicamente, en las revisiones ambulatorias de sus enfermedades respiratorias crónicas. Objetivo: Comprobar si los valores de pCO2 obtenidos por una prueba no invasora y bien tolerada, como es la capnografí...

  9. Estudio de la patogenicidad de Candida y de la actividad de los fármacos antifúngicos en un modelo animal en Caenorhabditis elegans

    OpenAIRE

    Ortega Riveros, Marcelo

    2016-01-01

    171 p. En el presente trabajo de Tesis Doctoral se ha desarrollo un modelo experimental de candidiasis invasora, mediante la infección del nematodo Caenorhabditis elegans con las especies de Candida que muestran mayor relevancia clínica: Candida albicans, Candida dubliniensis, Candida glabrata, Candida krusei y las especies integradas en el complejo Candida parapsilosis. Se ha estudiado la variabilidad en la virulencia de estas especies mediante análisis estadísticos de la supervivencia de...

  10. Nuevos registros de presencia para Arundo donax L. (Poaceae en Chile.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan Urrutia

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Arundo donax L. es una gramínea altamente invasora, originaria de Asia y que está presente en Chile. El presente trabajo reporta nuevos registros de presencia para la especie en las regiones de O´higgins, Maule y Biobío. Se incluye una descripción morfológica y del habitat de la planta.

  11. Biochar from commercially cultivated seaweed for soil amelioration

    OpenAIRE

    Roberts, David A.; Paul, Nicholas A.; Dworjanyn, Symon A.; Bird, Michael I.; de Nys, Rocky

    2015-01-01

    Seaweed cultivation is a high growth industry that is primarily targeted at human food and hydrocolloid markets. However, seaweed biomass also offers a feedstock for the production of nutrient-rich biochar for soil amelioration. We provide the first data of biochar yield and characteristics from intensively cultivated seaweeds (Saccharina, Undaria and Sargassum ? brown seaweeds, and Gracilaria, Kappaphycus and Eucheuma ? red seaweeds). While there is some variability in biochar properties as ...

  12. [Separation and purification technology of main active composition of Hongye Xingtong soft capsules with macroporous resin].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Lin; Wang, Yong-Lin; Wang, Ai-Min; Lan, Yan-Yu; Li, Yong-Jun; He, Xun; Huang, Yong

    2008-03-01

    To study the technical conditions of the extraction and purification of the active composition from Polygonum orientale and Crataegus pinnatifida Bge. in Hongye Xingtong soft capsules with the macroporous resin. The orientm, isorientm and hyperoside were used as index to screen the five kinds of resins. And the technical conditions of the enrichment and purification of D101 resin selected out of above were all-round studied. The D101 was fit for adsorbing orientm, isorientm and hyperoside. Under the optimal conditions, the transfer rate of orientm, isorientm and hyperoside was above 91%, and the total solid was cut down by more than 60%. The D101 is greatly effective for the enrichment and purification of the active composition of P. orientale and C. pinnatifida Bge.

  13. Genome Sequences of Three Apple chlorotic leaf spot virus Isolates from Hawthorns in China

    OpenAIRE

    Guo, Wei; Zheng, Wenyan; Wang, Mei; Li, Xiaohong; Ma, Yue; Dai, Hongyan

    2016-01-01

    The genome sequences of Apple chlorotic leaf spot virus (ACLSV) isolates from three accessions of hawthorns (Crataegus pinnatifida) grown at Shenyang Agricultural University were determined using Illumina RNA-seq. To confirm the assembly data from the de novo sequencing, two ACLSV genomic sequences (SY01 and SY02) were sequenced using the Sanger method. The SY01 and SY02 sequences obtained with the Sanger method showed 99.5% and 99.7% nucleotide identity with the transcriptome data, respectiv...

  14. Transcript Assembly and Quantification by RNA-Seq Reveals Differentially Expressed Genes between Soft-Endocarp and Hard-Endocarp Hawthorns

    OpenAIRE

    Dai, Hongyan; Han, Guofen; Yan, Yujiao; Zhang, Feng; Liu, Zhongchi; Li, Xiaoming; Li, Wenran; Ma, Yue; Li, He; Liu, Yuexue; Zhang, Zhihong

    2013-01-01

    Hawthorn (Crataegus spp.) is an important pome with a long history as a fruit, an ornamental, and a source of medicine. Fruits of hawthorn are marked by hard stony endocarps, but a hawthorn germplasm with soft and thin endocarp was found in Liaoning province of China. To elucidate the molecular mechanism underlying the soft endocarp of hawthorn, we conducted a de novo assembly of the fruit transcriptome of Crataegus pinnatifida and compared gene expression profiles between the soft-endocarp a...

  15. Desarrollo y evaluación de la tecnología de la pcr en tiempo real y detección de galactomanano de aspergillus, para el diagnóstico de la aspergilosis invasiva en pacientes oncohematológicos

    OpenAIRE

    Ramírez Arcos, Mercedes

    2008-01-01

    En las últimas décadas se ha producido un aumento importante de las infecciones fúngicas, fundamentalmente producido por el aumento de población susceptible, esto es, pacientes inmunodeprimidos. Existe un amplio espectro de agentes etiológicos implicados en la producción de este tipo de infecciones, aunque Candida albicans sigue siendo la primera cusa de infección fúngica invasora, el extendido uso de fluconazol como profilaxis en estos pacientes, ha hecho que se produzca un cambio importante...

  16. Efeito das condições de manejo nas características sensoriais de banana (Musa spp. cv. Pacovan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Sueli Francisco

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Estudou-se o efeito de quatro condições de manejo sobre a aceitação de banana 'Pacovan'. Os frutos foram colhidos no ponto de maturação fisiológica ideal para o armazenamento, em quatro propriedades rurais do município de Bananeiras - PB, seguindo-se delineamento inteiramente casualizado. Os tratamentos foram identificados como: P1: irrigação+adubação química e orgânica +controle químico de plantas invasoras; P2: controle manual de plantas invasoras; P3: irrigação+adubação química+controle manual de plantas invasoras; P4: controle manual e químico de plantas invasoras. Em cada propriedade, foram colhidos cinco cachos de banana que foram submetidos à climatização com carbureto de cálcio por 12 horas para uniformização da maturação. Após esse período, foram mantidos à temperatura ambiente até sua completa maturação. O painel sensorial foi composto por 62 julgadores não treinados, com idade média de 18 anos. Os atributos aroma, sabor, textura e cor da polpa foram avaliados por meio de teste de aceitação, utilizando-se de escala hedônica estruturada de 9 pontos. Para o teste de intenção de compra, foi utilizada escala estruturada de 5 pontos. As amostras foram apresentadas aos julgadores na forma de rodelas, com espessura aproximada de 1,5 cm. Os resultados foram submetidos à análise de variância (ANOVA, e as médias, comparadas pelo teste de Tukey, ao nível de 5% de probabilidade. Para todos os atributos avaliados,os valores situaram-se entre 7,34 e 7,68, posicionando-se na escala hedônica entre os termos 'gostei moderadamente' e 'gostei muito'. Para intenção de compra, o percentual de aceitação foi de 74,19; 72,58; 72,58 e 70,97%, respectivamente, para as amostras P1, P2, P3 e P4. O tipo de manejo não influenciou na aceitação da banana 'Pacovan', sendo os frutos considerados pelos julgadores como produto de boa aceitação.

  17. Avaliação do potencial alelopático dos extratos foliares brutos do capim-annoni-2 (Eragrostis plana Nees) e estudo do óleo essencial

    OpenAIRE

    Dalbosco, Talita

    2014-01-01

    O capim annoni-2, Eragrostis plana Nees, é uma espécie vegetal africana conhecida por sua capacidade invasora e, por este motivo, classificada como planta daninha, sendo considerada a mais agressiva e de mais difícil controle nos campos sulinos. Esta espécie ativa mecanismos de inibição de crescimento e germinação de outras espécies vizinhas no fenômeno denominado alelopatia. O estudo fitoquímico de E. plana Nees, justifica-se por se tratar de uma espécie com suposta atividade alelopática, be...

  18. Trait differences between naturalized and invasive plant species independent of residence time and phylogeny

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallagher, R V; Randall, R P; Leishman, M R

    2015-01-01

    inclusion of quantitative traits, in particular SLA, into the WRA schemes. Diferencia de Características entre Especies de Plantas Naturalizadas e Invasoras Independientes del Tiempo de Residencia y de la Filogenia Resumen La habilidad para predecir cuáles plantas exóticas harán la transición de naturalizadas a invasoras antes de su introducción a regiones nuevas es un objetivo clave para la conservación y tiene el potencial de incrementar la eficiencia de la evaluación de riesgo de hierbas (ERH). Sin embargo, múltiples factores contribuyen al éxito invasor de las plantas (p. ej.: características funcionales, características de cobertura, tiempo de residencia, filogenia) y todos deben considerarse simultáneamente para poder identificar correlaciones significativas del éxito invasor. Recopilamos en Australia 146 parejas de especies de plantas invasoras y naturalizadas emparejadas filogenéticamente (congéneres) y con tiempos de residencia mínima similares (es decir, el tiempo transcurrido desde su introducción en años). Estas parejas se usaron para probar diferencias en cinco características funcionales (duración de la floración, tamaño de la hoja, altura máxima, área específica de la hoja [AEH], masa de la semilla) y en tres características de cobertura nativa de las especies (ocupación de bioma, temperatura media anual y amplitud de pluviosidad) entre especies invasoras y naturalizadas. Las especies invasoras, en promedio, tuvieron una mayor AEH, periodos de floración más largos y fueron más altas que sus parientes congéneres naturalizadas. Las invasoras también exhibieron una mayor tolerancia a diferentes condiciones ambientales en su cobertura nativa, donde ocuparon más biomas y una mayor amplitud de pluviosidad y condiciones de temperatura que sus congéneres naturalizadas. Sin embargo, ni la masa de la semilla ni el tamaño de hoja difirieron entre las parejas de especies naturalizadas e invasoras. Un hallazgo relevante fue el papel de

  19. Primer registro de Vespula vulgaris (Hymenoptera: Vespidae) en la Argentina

    OpenAIRE

    Maité MASCIOCCHI; Jacqueline R. BEGGS; James M. CARPENTER; Juan C. CORLEY

    2010-01-01

    Vespula vulgaris (Linnaeus) es un véspido social nativo de la región Holártica. En este trabajo reportamos la primera detección de esta especie en Argentina. Obreras de esta avispa fueron capturadas cerca de la ciudad de San Carlos de Bariloche (Argentina) en Febrero de 2010, mientras se tomaban muestras de otra avispa invasora, Vespula germanica (Fabricius) o chaqueta amarilla, de morfología externa y hábitos similares a la anteriormente mencionada. Además, detallamos algunos caracteres de i...

  20. First record of Vespula vulgaris (Hymenoptera: Vespidae) in Argentina

    OpenAIRE

    Masciocchi, Maité; Beggs, Jacqueline R.; Carpenter, James M.; Corley, Juan Carlos

    2016-01-01

    Vespula vulgaris (Linnaeus) es un véspido social nativo de la región Holártica. En este trabajo reportamos la primera detección de esta especie en Argentina. Obreras de esta avispa fueron capturadas cerca de la ciudad de San Carlos de Bariloche (Argentina) en Febrero de 2010, mientras se tomaban muestras de otra avispa invasora, Vespula germanica (Fabricius) o chaqueta amarilla, de morfología externa y hábitos similares a la anteriormente mencionada. Además, detallamos algunos caracteres de i...

  1. Primer registro de Vespula vulgaris (Hymenoptera: Vespidae en la Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maité MASCIOCCHI

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Vespula vulgaris (Linnaeus es un véspido social nativo de la región Holártica. En este trabajo reportamos la primera detección de esta especie en Argentina. Obreras de esta avispa fueron capturadas cerca de la ciudad de San Carlos de Bariloche (Argentina en Febrero de 2010, mientras se tomaban muestras de otra avispa invasora, Vespula germanica (Fabricius o chaqueta amarilla, de morfología externa y hábitos similares a la anteriormente mencionada. Además, detallamos algunos caracteres de identificación y características biológicas.

  2. Implementación y puesta a punto de un microscopio fototérmico con detección piezoeléctrica

    OpenAIRE

    Cedeño Bernal, Ramón Enrique

    2015-01-01

    Durante el estudio o caracterización de las propiedades físicas de diversos materiales y la determinación de su calidad se busca la utilización de pruebas no destructivas que no alteren ni afecten las propiedades ni formas de los mismos. Esto es una gran oportunidad para el estudio y el desarrollo de nuevas técnicas que sean novedosas y que permitan determinar de manera eficiente las propiedades de dichos materiales. La microscopia fototérmica (MF) es una prueba no destructiva ni invasora ...

  3. Avaliação dos Efeitos Toxicológicos Decorrentes do Consumo Humano de Lagostim Vermelho da Louisiana (Procambarus clarkii)

    OpenAIRE

    Lages, Nuno Fernando Aroso Costa

    2008-01-01

    Monografia apresentada à Universidade Fernando Pessoa para obtenção do grau de Licenciado em Ciências Farmacêuticas O presente trabalho trata o consumo humano de crustáceos, e as consequências toxicológicas que decorrem da utilização destes recursos alimentares quando contaminados. Deu-se particular importância à análise do consumo do designado lagostim vermelho da Louisiana (Procambarus clarkii), uma espécie invasora não indígena que nos últimos anos assumiu um inusitado destaque no âmbit...

  4. Mecanismos de resistencia de Parthenium hysterophorus L. a glifosato, Valle del Cauca, Colombia / Glyphosate resistance mechanisms in Parthenium hysterophorus L. Valle del Cauca, Colombia

    OpenAIRE

    Gómez de Enciso, Clemencia

    2009-01-01

    Parthenium hysterophorus L. (Asteraceae) invasora o falsa marihuana es reconocida desde finales de 1970 como maleza muy nociva en Colombia. Por sus características, Roundup® (glifosato 480 LS) fue el herbicida de elección, muchas veces el único. Como era de esperarse la intensa presión de selección determinó la evolución de biotipos resistentes a las dosis usuales. En 2004 investigadores de la Universidad Nacional de Colombia comprobaron la presencia de biotipos resistentes denominados “Rioja...

  5. Efecto del volumen radicular sobre el crecimiento de Acacia dealbata Link. en vivero y en terreno en el secano de la Región del Biobío, Chile

    OpenAIRE

    Quiroz,Iván; Pincheira,Matías Patricio; Hernández,José Andrés; González,Marta; García,Edison; Soto,Hernán

    2014-01-01

    Entre las especies arbóreas cultivadas en Chile, Acacia dealbata Link. se destaca por su rápido crecimiento y supervivencia en climas con marcado déficit hídrico y suelos altamente degradados. Aun cuando proporciona múltiples productos y servicios, la mayor parte de la investigación se ha centrado caracterizar su capacidad invasora, y poco se conoce respecto a su crecimiento durante los primeros años en terreno, escaseando antecedentes respecto efecto de la modificación de las prácticas silví...

  6. Análisis del sector de producción de algas con fines alimentarios. Percepción del consumidor frente al consumo de algas

    OpenAIRE

    Balcazar Bañeras, Sara

    2014-01-01

    Algae are an important part of exploited marine resources of our planet. 21 million tons of fresh seaweed are collected each year in the world with a value of $ 5.5 trillion. 75% of this production takes place in Asian countries like China, Korea and Japan and is primarily based in food industry, the most common genera are Laminaria (Kombu), Undaria (Wakame) and Porphyra (Nori). However, in Spain is a nascent and immature industry, marked by a lack of technical and social knowledge of the pro...

  7. Is preemptive antifungal therapy a good alternative to empirical treatment in prolonged febrile neutropenia?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erica Koch

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available La neutropenia febril prolongada conlleva un alto riesgo de desarrollar infecciones fúngicas invasoras, por lo que habitualmente se administra terapia antifúngica empírica en estos casos. Sin embargo, esta se asocia a importantes efectos adversos, por lo que se ha propuesto como alternativa la estrategia "preemptive" o anticipada, es decir, la indicación de antifúngicos sólo ante la evidencia indirecta de infección fúngica invasora. Utilizando la base de datos Epistemonikos, la cual es mantenida mediante búsquedas en 30 bases de datos, identificamos tres revisiones sistemáticas que en conjunto incluyen doce estudios. Cuatro estudios aleatorizados evaluaron la pregunta abordada en este artículo. Realizamos un metanálisis y tablas de resumen de los resultados utilizando el método GRADE. Concluimos que no está claro si la estrategia "preemptive" tiene algún efecto sobre la mortalidad porque la certeza de la evidencia es muy baja, pero podría disminuir levemente el uso de antifúngicos en pacientes con neutropenia febril prolongada.

  8. Capacidade de suporte de carga e umidade crítica de um Latossolo induzida por diferentes manejos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cezar Francisco Araujo-Junior

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Os diferentes manejos de plantas invasoras em lavouras cafeeiras têm promovido alterações estruturais aos solos, comprometendo a sua qualidade física. Assim, o conhecimento da capacidade de suporte de carga do solo sob diferentes sistemas de manejo de plantas invasoras é essencial para o manejo sustentável do solo de lavouras cafeeiras. Os objetivos deste estudo foram: (a avaliar a influência da adoção, durante 30 anos, de diferentes sistemas de manejo de plantas invasoras na capacidade de suporte de carga de um Latossolo Vermelho distroférrico (LVdf cultivado com cafeeiros e localizado na Fazenda da Epamig em São Sebastião do Paraíso, MG (Latitude de 20 º 55 ' 00 " S e Longitude 47 º 07 ' 10 " W ; b determinar a tensão máxima (σmax aplicada ao solo por um trator; e c estabelecer as umidades volumétricas críticas (θcrítica para o tráfego de um trator. Os manejos de plantas invasoras avaliados foram: sem capina (SCAP; capina manual (CAPM; herbicida de pós-emergência (HPOS; roçadora (ROÇA; enxada rotativa (ENRT; grade (GRAD; e herbicida de pré-emergência (HPRE. Em cada sistema de manejo, 15 amostras indeformadas de solo foram coletadas aleatoriamente no centro das entrelinhas dos cafeeiros, nas profundidades de 0-3, 10-13 e 25-28 cm, totalizando 315 amostras. Em uma mata nativa (MATA sob LVdf, adjacente à área de estudo, foram coletadas 15 amostras adicionais por profundidade, as quais serviram de referência dos atributos avaliados. Os equipamentos utilizados no manejo da lavoura cafeeira foram tracionados por um trator cafeeiro Valmet® modelo 68. Para determinar a θcrítica para o tráfego do trator, foram consideradas apenas aquelas tensões que não excedem a resistência interna do solo expressa pela pressão de preconsolidação. As amostras indeformadas foram utilizadas para determinar a pressão de preconsolidação (σp em diferentes umidades volumétricas (θ e obtenção da densidade do solo (Ds. A

  9. Reciente invasión del Archipiélago de Tierra del Fuego por la avispa Vespula germanica (Hymenoptera: Vespidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco J. SOLA

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Vespula germanica es una especie invasora de nivel mundial que ha sido detectada en la Patagonia continental de la Argentina y Chile. En este trabajo, ampliamos el rango de distribución de este véspido de la Patagonia, al Archipiélago de Tierra del Fuego. Indicamos ubicación, año y ambiente de cada avistamiento y/o captura. El patrón de expansión indicaría que esta especie está bien establecida tanto en áreas naturales como antrópicas, y probablemente ha dependido del transporte humano para llegar desde el continente. Esta comunicación breve sirve también para tomar medidas prácticas de mitigación y control de esta especie, incluyendo información básica para que la ciudadanía tome conciencia sobre su presencia y esto ayude a evitar su transporte a nuevos lugares. Finalmente, se recomienda mayor investigación para el manejo y control de esta especie invasora en Tierra del Fuego.

  10. Producción de Bioetanol a partir de Elodea sp.

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    Tatiana Marulanda López

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available La dependencia de los países a los combustibles fósiles es cada vez mayor, pero estos no son renovables. Además, el uso de estos combustibles ha aumentado la emisión de gases de efecto invernadero. Colombia debe empezar a buscar otras alternativas que suplan la deficiencia en combustible, y cuya fuente de obtención sea renovable y no comprometa los recursos agrícolas usados como alimentos, tal es el caso de la caña de azúcar. Las plantas invasoras se caracterizan por producir eutrofización de las aguas, ocasionando problemas ambientales y de abastecimiento de agua a las ciudades. El manejo que se hace de esta planta es erradicarla usando diferentes métodos. En este artículo se muestra el aprovechamiento de la planta invasora de cuerpos acuosos, Elodea sp., para la obtención de bioetanol. Después de la hidrólisis de los carbohidratos, la detoxificación, y la fermentación, la planta mostró un alto rendimiento en la producción de bioetanol. Este trabajo es la base para el desarrollo del bioproceso, usando como sustrato el material lignocelulítico, y además, es una alternativa para el manejo de la planta Elodea sp. bomo fuente de energía carburante.

  11. Disruption of ecosystem processes in western North America by invasive species

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    Jeffrey S. Dukes

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Many ecosystems of western North America have been dramatically changed by non-native species. Here, we review ecological impacts of 56 plant, animal, fungus, and protist species that were brought to this region by humans. We discuss characteristics of invasive species that can lead to major ecosystem impacts, and explore how invasive species alter many different attributes of ecosystems. Specifically, we include examples of invasive species that affect geomorphology, fire regimes, hydrology, microclimate, atmospheric composition, nutrient cycling, and productivity. Finally, we review the direct consequences of biological invasions for some native species. We summarize examples from this paper in Appendix 1. Our examples illustrate how, as invasive species have become dominant across large areas of western North America's grassland, shrubland, dune, riparian, and estuarine ecosystems, the properties and functioning of these systems have changed. To date, some systems in this region, such as its forests, remain relatively unaffected by invasive species. However, recent attacks of forest pathogens highlight the potential vulnerability of these ecosystemsMuchos ecosistemas de Norteamérica occidental han cambiado dramáticamente a causa del efecto producido por especies no autóctonas. Aquí se muestra una revisión del impacto ecológico producido por 56 especies diferentes de plantas, animales y hongos, y especies de protistas que fueron traídos a esta región por humanos. Discutimos las características de las especies invasoras que pueden producir un gran impacto en el ecosistema, y exploramos cómo las especies invasoras pueden alterar de forma muy diferente los atributos de un ecosistema. Específicamente, incluimos ejemplos de especies invasoras que afectan a la geomorfología, a los regímenes del fuego, a la hidrología, al microclima, a la composición atmosférica, al ciclo de nutrientes, y a la productividad. Finalmente, revisamos las

  12. Flower colour variation and chromosome numbers in the north western distributional area of Turners sidoides (Turneraceae

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    Viviana G. Solís Neffa

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available In the context of the evolutionary studies that are being carried out in Turners sidoides autopolyploid complex (x= 7, a systematic survey was made in the northwestern area (Bolivia of its distribution. Six populations with salmon flowers and thirty five with yellow ones of the subsp. pinnatifida were found. The distribution of these populations is associated with climatic and spatial variables. The populations with salmon flowers live in the dry forests (Chaco Boreal Biogeographical Province, while yellow flowered populations occur in the inter-andean valleys (Boliviano-Tucumana Biogeographical Province. All the population studied are diploid. The results obtained support the allopatric diversification model of populations with yellow and salmon flowers at the diploid level, probably favoured by the orographic barriers and climatic changes that have arisen during the Andes development and Quaternary glaciations. Moreover, our analysis evidences that the north western area of T. sidoides constitutes an important centre of variation of the subsp. pinnatifida and the major centre of diploids hitherto detected

  13. The ecology of Egeria densa Planchón (Liliopsida: Alismatales: A wetland ecosystem engineer? La ecología de Egeria densa Planchón (Liliopsida: Alismatales: ¿Una especie ingeniera de humedales?

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    MATTHEW YARROW

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Egeria densa Planchón is considered an invasive species in continental aquatic systems in Chile. Its original geographical distribution was limited to the subtropical regions of Brazil, Argentina and Uruguay. Its fast growth and dense canopy-forming habit are associated with the clear water state of shallow water continental ecosystems. As a dominant species in many of the systems in which it occurs, E. densa behaves as an ecosystem engineer by preventing the re-suspension of sediments and controlling the growth of phytoplankton by removing nutrients from the water column. At the same time, this invasive species produces unwanted effects such as: (1 clogging waterways and hydroelectric turbines, (2 out-competing native vegetation, and (3 negatively affecting the sediment seed bank. Given its importance in the recent (2004 change of state of the Río Cruces wetland, Chile, we felt it appropriate to undertake a comprehensive literature review of this species. We conclude by discussing the role of E. densa as an ecosystem engineer while cautioning against the impression that E. densa is always a highly competitive invader.Egeria densa Planchón es considerada una especie invasora en los sistemas acuáticos de Chile. Su distribución geográfica original estaba limitada a regiones subtropicales de Brasil, Argentina y Uruguay. Su crecimiento rápido y su tendencia a formar densas coberturas suelen estar asociadas con el estado de aguas claras en ecosistemas acuáticos continentales de aguas someras. Su dominancia sugiere que E. densa puede comportarse como una especie ingeniera, previniendo la resuspensión de sedimentos y controlando el crecimiento del fitoplancton a través de la utilización de los nutrientes. Sin embargo, al mismo tiempo, como especie invasora produce efectos no deseados tales como: (1 no permitir el crecimiento de otras macrófitas nativas, (2 disminuir la diversidad en el banco de semillas, y (3 interferir con la navegación y

  14. A Manutenção de Mata Ciliar: Um Ativo Permanente

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    Joaquim Eduardo de Moura Nicácio

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available A manutenção de mata ciliar permite a condição de conectividade entre áreas específicas, além de manter a diversidade biológica e assegurar a conservação in situ da variedade genética existente. O controle da erosão laminar (e/ou eólica e genética, a preservação da qualidade das águas, a manutenção da biota do rio ou riacho, o controle de pragas e/ou de ervas invasoras, são algumas das vantagens existentes nessa manutenção, cuja classificação na Contabilidade Rural, compreende-se, deve ser no Ativo Permanente. Essa é a principal idéia deste Artigo.

  15. Invasão de nicho acústico e diversidade funcional acústica em ambientes invadidos pela rã-touro Lithobates catesbeianus

    OpenAIRE

    Camila Ineu Medeiros

    2015-01-01

    As invasões biológicas são consideradas a segunda maior causa de perda de biodiversidade, pois podem causar diversos impactos ecológicos. Recentemente foi chamado à atenção um novo mecanismo pelo qual espécies invasoras podem afetar as nativas: através da interferência no nicho acústico. O mascaramento dos sinais a partir de fontes de ruídos pode afetar diretamente a fisiologia reprodutiva ou o consumo de energia. A vocalização está diretamente ligada com a seleção sexual em anfíbios, aves, i...

  16. Avaliação do potencial alelopático de raízes de capim annoni-2 (Eragrostis plana Nees) e estudo fitoquímico

    OpenAIRE

    Silva, Mayara Gobetti Fernandes da

    2015-01-01

    O Capim Annoni-2 (Eragrostis plana Nees), considerado uma planta daninha invasora e de difícil erradicação, tem a capacidade de dominar o meio em que se encontra, sobrepondo-se a espécies nativas e agroeconômicas. Parte desta capacidade está relacionada a efeitos alelopáticos causados por aleloquímicos liberados por esta espécie. Assim, a identificação desses aleloquímicos pode ser uma boa alternativa para produção de bio-herbicidas. Neste estudo, determinou-se o potencial alelopático de extr...

  17. Primeros registros de la cotorra argentina (Myiopsitta monachus en el estado de Hidalgo, México

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    Iriana Zuria

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available La cotorra argentina (Myiopsitta monachus es una especie de ave exótica e invasora en México. En esta nota presentamos los primeros registros de esta especie en el estado de Hidalgo. Observamos individuos adultos y nidos activos desde 2011 en dos ciudades de la entidad: Huejutla y Pachuca. Los nidos en Huejutla los ubicamos tanto en una galera metálica como en una antena de telefonía, mientras que en Pachuca un nido estaba en una yuca dentro de un campo de golf. La presencia de nidos activos indica que la especie está en proceso de establecerse en la entidad. La distribución de la cotorra argentina se ha incrementado de manera significativa en México ya que actualmente se tienen registros en 23 entidades del país.

  18. Nova espécie de Dasineura Rondani, 1840 (Diptera, Cecidomyiidae em capítulos de Hypochaeris chillensis (Kunth Britton (Asteraceae para o Brasil

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    Alessandre Pereira-Colavite

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Uma nova espécie de Dasineura Rondani, 1840 (Diptera, Cecidomyiidae para o Brasil, Dasineura occulta sp. nov., é descrita associada a Hypochaeris chillensis (Kunth Britton (Asteraceae, uma espécie invasora e característica de ambientes antropizadas. Esta nova espécie foi encontrada ocupando capítulos e não há formação de galhas ou alterações no tecido das inflorescências que possam ser reconhecidas externamente. São apresentados desenhos de caracteres morfológicos de adultos (macho e fêmea, larva e pupa. Pranchas da ocupação do hospedeiro também são incluídas.

  19. ALELOPATIA DE CARQUEJA (Baccharis trimera Less) E AÇÃO DE FUNGOS EM CAPIM-ANNONI (Eragrostis plana Ness)

    OpenAIRE

    Carlos Eduardo Prates Gonçalves

    2014-01-01

    A pecuária na Região Sul do Brasil é sustentada, em grande parte, por pastagens nativas, que apresentam grande diversidade de espécies. Esse território faz parte do bioma Pampa. A espécie invasora capim-annoni ameaça essas pastagens. Torna-se necessário o desenvolvimento de métodos alternativos de controle dessa espécie, pois práticas convencionais de controle, embora relativamente eficientes, não tem a preservação da vegetação nativa como princípio. O presente trabalho teve por objetivo estu...

  20. Pla de gestió de l’illa de Portlligat i diagnosi de flora a la badia

    OpenAIRE

    Gómez Molina, Fran; Prunell i Comas, Sergi; Sabaté i Sabaté, Pau; Salvadó i Tarragó, Sílvia

    2010-01-01

    L’illa de Portlligat és un exemple de les conseqüències que la flora invasora pot comportar a primera línia de la costa. El gran recobriment que ocupa Carpobrotus sp. ha provocat una disminució de la riquesa i composició florística, posant en perill algunes espècies de gran interès. La redacció i aplicació d’una pla de gestió, ha de ser l’eina adequada per retornar l’espai al seu estat ecològic òptim. Paral.lelament, es realitza també una cartografia detallada sobre la distribució de la f...

  1. Os invasores:as ameaças que representam as migrações subsaariana na Espanha e haitiana no Brasil

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    Antônio Tadeu Ribeiro de Oliveira

    Full Text Available Este artigo apresenta os processos que envolvem a migração subsaariana para Espanha e a haitiana para o Brasil, passando pelos fatores que impulsionam os deslocamentos, as rotas migratórias utilizadas, a inserção social e laboral desses migrantes e o momento das políticas migratórias em cada um dos países de destino, ressaltando as semelhanças e algumas diferenças em cada um desses processos. O objetivo é demonstrar que longe de se constituírem numa ameaça invasora, mais bem são vítimas de um sistema que produz exclusão e exploração, que nos casos de subsaarianos e haitianos se amplifica pelos componentes da discriminação e racismo.

  2. Seleção de gramíneas nativas do cerrado para uso no manejo de melinis minutiflora : competição entre melinis minutiflora e paspalum stellatum

    OpenAIRE

    Aires, Stefano Salvo

    2013-01-01

    Trabalhos que elucidem o processo de competição entre espécies nativas e invasoras são necessários para estabelecer relações de resistência em ecossistemas invadidos, a fim de determinar formas de manejo e/ou controle em áreas naturais. O objetivo deste trabalho foi de caracterizar a germinação, a biologia de sementes, viabilidade das sementes após armazenamento, estabelecimento de plântulas e alocação inicial de recursos para 18 espécies de gramíneas nativas do Cerrado, com a finalidade de s...

  3. Geographic distribution and hosts of Zaprionus indianus (Diptera: Drosophilidae in North-Eastern Argentina

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    Nicolás J. LAVAGNINO

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available El primer registro publicado de la especie africana Zaprionus indianus Gupta 1970 en el continente Americano se refiere a individuos observados en frutos caídos de «caqui» ( Diospyros kaki Linnaei en la ciudad de São Paulo, (Brasil en Marzo de 1999. Desde esa fecha, esta especie ha colonizado ambientes naturales y perturbados en todo el continente. En el presente trabajo, confirmamos la presencia de Z. indianus en el noreste de Argentina y mostramos que, en algunas localidades, representa una alta proporción entre las especies de drosofílidos colectados. Nuestra investigación reveló que esta especie invasora es capaz de criarse y alimentarse en un amplio rango de plantas hospedadoras tanto nativas como cultivadas.

  4. Efeitos da invasão por Tradescantia zebrina Heynh. sobre regenerantes de plantas arbóreas em um fragmento de floresta estacional semidecidual secundária em Londrina (PR

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    Maurício Cruz Mantoani

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/2175-7925.2013v26n3p63 Consideradas atualmente como uma das principais causas de perda de biodiversidade no planeta, as espécies exóticas invasoras causam sérios problemas para os ecossistemas naturais, acarretando até mesmo extinções locais. Surpreendentemente, muitas invasões têm origens corriqueiras, como o cultivo de plantas ornamentais em jardins. Este estudo buscou verificar os impactos da invasão biológica pela herbácea exótica Tradescantia zebrina Heynh., sobre a regeneração em um fragmento de floresta secundária. Nesse fragmento, o sub-bosque é em parte dominado por T. zebrina e, para testar a hipótese de que a mesma é responsável pela limitação da regeneração de espécies arbóreas nativas, foram implantadas parcelas em áreas com e sem a presença da espécie invasora. Todos os indivíduos de espécies arbóreas com altura entre 10 cm e 1 m foram registrados. A composição de espécies e a estrutura da regeneração foram comparadas entre os tratamentos. Tradescantia zebrina mostrou-se uma forte competidora, afetando a abundância e riqueza de espécies. Embora já tenham sido reportadas na literatura iniciativas de controle com herbicidas não-seletivos, considera-se urgente a realização de mais estudos sobre possíveis formas de controle de T. zebrina, visando o restabelecimento da vegetação nativa.

  5. EMERGENCIA Y SOBREVIVENCIA DEL ZACATE ROSADO EN DIFERENTES SUELOS Y PATRONES DE HUMEDAD-SEQUÍA

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    Martha Balandrán Valladares

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Las plantas invasoras afectan la función y composición de los ecosistemas nativos. La gramínea zacate rosado [Melinis repens (Willd. Zizka] es una especie invasora introducida que ha ido incrementando su presencia en el estado de Chihuahua, México. Para determinar su posible propagación se evaluó en invernadero, la emergencia y sobrevivencia de M. repens en suelos provenientes de cuatro áreas con diferente tipo de vegetación y patrones de humedad-sequía (bajo, pobre, medio y alto más comunes durante el verano en Chihuahua. Los tipos de vegetación fueron matorral, pastizal mediano, pastizal halófito con suelo aluvial profundo y bosque con suelo coluvial. Los datos fueron analizados como categóricos y se realizó la comparación de medias mediante una prueba de proporciones en distribuciones normales. La semilla germinó en los suelos provenientes de las cuatro áreas con diferentes tipos de vegetación y patrones de humedad-sequía. La mayor emergencia, 92%, se presentó en el suelo aluvial profundo de pastizal mediano con una secuencia de humedad-sequía de 120 mm que representa una precipitación de 12 días al año (P < 0.0008. Las plantas sobrevivieron de 12 a 24 días sin riego, pero no a los 36 días. El pasto M. repens es capaz de germinar en cualquier suelo proveniente de las cuatro áreas con diferentes tipos de vegetación estudiados y la poca o abundante humedad no representa un impedimento para su emergencia.

  6. First record of the alien pest Rhaponticum repens (Compositae in the Iberian Peninsula

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    Martínez-Flores, F.

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available First record of the alien pest Rhaponticum repens (Compositae in the Iberian Peninsula.- Rhaponticum repens is reported for the first time for the flora of the Iberian Peninsula. The species is native from Central Asia and has become invasive in Argentina, Canada, Europe and the USA. It was detected for the first time in abandoned fields from Vilablareix, near the city of Girona (Catalonia, Spain and in the valley of the Vinalopó in Alicante (Valencia, Spain, where it was collected as early as in 1959 but misdentified. Molecular data, based on nrDNA region ITS, suggest that the reported populations may be closely related to plants from the United States. Due to the extremely noxious character of the species and the possible relationship of Spanish plants with the invasive American populations, some kind of monitoring is recommended.Rhaponticum repens (Compositae, una nueva planta alóctona para la Península Ibérica.- Se cita por primera vez la especie Rhaponticum repens para la flora de la Península Ibérica. Rhaponticum repens es una especie nativa de Asia central que actúa como invasora en diversos países como Argentina, Canadá o los Estados Unidos. Se ha encontrado por primera vez en campos de cultivo abandonados en el pueblo de Vilablareix, cerca de la ciudad de Girona (Cataluña, España y en el valle del Vinalopó (Valencia, España, donde fue recolectada y mal identificada en 1959. Los datos moleculares, obtenidos a partir de la región ITS del nrDNA, sugieren que estas poblaciones podrían estar relacionadas con plantas invasoras de Estados Unidos. Debido al carácter extremadamente invasor de la especie, y a su posible origen secundario a partir de las poblaciones norteamericanas, se recomienda el seguimiento de estas poblaciones.

  7. Hawthorn Fruit Extract Elevates Expression of Nrf2/HO-1 and Improves Lipid Profiles in Ovariectomized Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, Jeong-Hyun; Liu, Yanan; Kim, Hyun-Sook

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of hawthorn (Crataegus pinnatifida Bunge) extract on the lipid profiles and antioxidant properties in ovariectomized (OVX) rats. After ovariectomy, the rats were randomly divided into four groups: the non-OVX control (Sham), the OVX-control (OVX), the OVX + 100 mg/kg b.w. of hawthorn extract (OL), and the OVX + 200 mg/kg b.w. of hawthorn extract (OH). The final body weights of the OVX group were significantly increased, but the increment was significantly decreased in hawthorn groups (p hawthorn groups showed a significant decrease in these levels (p hawthorn groups compared with the OVX group (p hawthorn groups exhibited a significant increase in expression (p hawthorn extract reversed the suppression of protein levels. These results suggest that hawthorn extract could have protective effects in OVX rats by improving lipid profiles, decreasing oxidative stress, and improving the antioxidant defense system. PMID:27187458

  8. Molecular systematics of the genera Laurencia, Osmundea and Palisada (Rhodophyta from the Canary Islands - Analysis of rDNA and RUBISCO spacer sequences

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    Lewis, Sh.

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The molecular systematics of Laurencia, Osmundea and Palisada (Rhodomelaceae, Ceramiales species from the Canary Islands has been determined by analysis sequences of the ribulose,1-5, bisphosphate carboxylase (RUBISCO spacer from the plastid genome and the internal transcribed spacers (ITS1 and ITS2 and the rDNA 5.8S coding region from the nuclear genome. Comparison of sequence data showed an identity of 72-83 % between the species. Three taxonomic group were identified that correspond to established phylogenetic taxons. Phylogenetic trees using both parsimony and maximum-likelihood methods were derived from the sequence data; the trees indicate that O. pinnatifida appears to be the most distantly related species from the Laurencia and Palisada species. The exact phylogenetic position of Laurencia sp. A (“amarillaâ€� need additional studies.Se aportan datos filogenéticos de algunas especies de Laurencia, Osmundea y Palisada (Rhodomelaceae, Ceramiales de las Islas Canarias mediante el análisis de secuencias de la región espaciadora de ribulose,1-5, bisfosfato carboxilasa (RUBISCO del genoma plastídico y las regiones espaciadoras internas (ITS1, ITS2 y de la región codificadora del rDNA en el genoma nuclear. Los tres géneros analizados, Laurencia, Osmundea y Palisada muestran las correspondientes identidades moleculares con una identidad del 72-83% entre ellas. Empleando métodos de parsimonia y máxima similitud, los correspondientes árboles filogenéticos ponen de manifiesto que O. pinnatifida es el taxon más distante entre las especies de Laurencia y Palisada analizadas. La posición exacta del taxon mencionado como Laurencia sp. A “amarillaâ€� precisa de estudio adicional.

  9. Meeting the challenge: prevention of pneumococcal disease with conjugate vaccines Al encuentro del reto: prevención de la enfermedad neumocócica con vacunas conjugadas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irma Gabriela Echániz-Avilés

    2001-08-01

    Full Text Available Streptococcus pneumoniae is one of the leading causes of both invasive and noninvasive diseases in the pediatric population and continues to represent a significant public health burden worldwide. The increasing incidence of antibioticresistant strains of the pathogen has complicated treatment and management of the various pneumococcal disease manifestations. Thus, the best management strategy may be the prevention of pneumococcal diseases through vaccination. Although several pneumococcal conjugate vaccines have been clinically studied in infants and children, only a 7-valent conjugate vaccine (PNCRM7; Prevnar®/Prevenar® is currently approved for the prevention of invasive disease. Vaccination with PNCRM7 is safe and effective in infants and young children. Routine vaccination with the conjugate vaccine could improve outcomes by safeguarding against the development of antibiotic-resistant strains of S. pneumoniae, thus simplifying the management of pneumococcal disease. Additionally, the overall costs associated with the treatment of pneumococcal diseases could be substantially reduced, particularly in developing countries. The time has come for fully applying this new advancement against S. pneumoniae, to benefit the children of the world. The Spanish version of this paper is available at: http://www.insp.mx/salud/index.htmlStreptococcus pneumoniae es uno de los principales agentes causantes de enfermedades invasoras y no invasoras en la población pediátrica y sigue representando uno de los principales problemas de salud pública a nivel mundial. La incidencia creciente de cepas resistentes a diversos antimicrobianos ha complicado el tratamiento y manejo de varias de las manifestaciones de la enfermedad neumocócica. Con éstas consideraciones, la mejor estrategia de manejo es la prevención de éstas enfermedades a través de la vacunación. A pesar de que se han estudiado diversas vacunas neumocócicas conjugadas en niños, solo una

  10. First record of Caulerpa cylindracea (Caulerpaceae, Chlorophyta in Andalusia (Southern Spain

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    Altamirano, María

    2014-12-01

    representaría la cita más occidental de la variedad invasora en las costas mediterráneas europeas. Se realiza una completa identificación de esta alga invasora en el Sur de España mediante una descripción morfológica y filogenia molecular. Los datos obtenidos se discuten en relación a la composición de las comunidades receptoras, tales como fondos de maërl y bordes de Posidonia oceanica (Linnaeus Delile, y su ecología. Los resultados confirman la direccionalidad de la ruta invasora de la especie hacia el oeste en las proximidades del Estrecho de Gibraltar, principalmente debido a corrientes marinas y vectores de origen antropogénico.

  11. Threats to the Cerrado remnants of the state of São Paulo, Brazil Ameaças a fragmentos de Cerrado no estado de São Paulo, Brasil

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    Giselda Durigan

    2007-08-01

    ção no ecossistema e os tipos de uso da terra no seu entorno. Os usos mais freqüentes foram pastagens cultivadas (registradas em 78% das áreas, plantio de cana-de-açúcar (26%, rodovias (19%, reflorestamento (14% e culturas anuais (14%. As ameaças mais freqüentemente registradas foram gramíneas invasoras (35% das áreas parcial ou totalmente invadidas, presença de gado (32%, desmatamento (21% e fogo (21%. A análise da freqüência observada de cada tipo de impacto mediante a freqüência esperada caso não houvesse influência do uso da terra (qui-quadrado, mostrou que as ameaças dependem do uso da terra nas áreas ao redor dos fragmentos, exceto para o desmatamento, que tem ocorrido indiferentemente ao tipo de uso. Gramíneas invasoras e fogo são muito mais freqüentes na vizinhança de rodovias e zonas urbanas, enquanto que o plantio de cana-de-açúcar, silvicultura e fruticultura têm sido os usos da terra menos impactantes para a vegetação de Cerrado, considerando-se apenas a freqüência de ocorrência dos impactos. Esses cultivos envolvem o controle de plantas invasoras e a prevenção e controle de incêndios, e a eliminação do gado, com reflexos positivos para a conservação dos ecossistemas naturais.

  12. Impactos da invasão de Prosopis juliflora (sw. DC. (Fabaceae sobre o estrato arbustivo-arbóreo em áreas de Caatinga no Estado da Paraíba, Brasil - doi: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v32i3.4535 Impact of the invasion of Prosopis juliflora (Sw. DC. (Fabaceae in areas of Caatinga in the state of Paraiba, Brazil - doi: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v32i3.4535

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    Juliano Ricardo Fabricante

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Estima-se que as áreas invadidas por algaroba – Prosopis juliflora (Sw. DC. (Fabaceae no semi-árido nordestino já ultrapassam um milhão de hectares. O presente trabalho objetivou estudar os impactos da invasão de P. juliflora sobre a fitodiversidade e a estrutura do componente arbustivo-arbóreo, em remanescentes de caatinga no Estado da Paraíba. Usando-se o método de parcelas, foram amostrados quatro ambientes, nos quais os indivíduos de todas as espécies arbustivas e arbóreas foram inventariados e medidos, estimando-se os parâmetros estruturais das comunidades. Também foi calculada a diversidade, pelo índice de Shannon-Wiener (H’ e o índice de impacto ambiental de exóticas (IIAE. No total, foram amostradas 19 famílias, 35 gêneros e 39 espécies. A invasora foi responsável por mais de 70% de toda a estrutura dos ambientes inventariados. A baixa diversidade e o elevado valor de impacto ambiental obtidos para os ambientes invadidos revelaram, conjuntamente com os dados de estrutura das populações, os graves impactos que P. juliflora provoca nas comunidades invadidas. Evidencia-se com isso a formação de sistemas monodominados pela espécie invasora, o que revela a necessidade de controle efetivo de P. juliflora para se proteger o patrimônio genético autóctone.It is estimated that invader populations of algaroba Prosopis juliflora (Sw. DC. (Fabaceae in the northeastern semi-arid, Brazil, cover more than one million ha. This study aimed to study the impacts of P. juliflora invasion on phytodiversity and on the structure of the shrub-tree component in caatinga fragments in Paraiba state. Four environments were sampled by plots in which all shrub-tree individuals were surveyed and measured, estimating structural parameters of the communities. Diversity was estimated by the Shannon-Wiener index (H', and the index of environmental impacts of exotic species (IIAE was also calculated. A total of 19 families, 35 genera and 39

  13. Banco de sementes em cerrado sensu stricto sob queimada e sistemas de cultivo Seedbanks in cerrado sensu stricto under burning and cultivation system

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    Fernanda Satie Ikeda

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o efeito de queimada e de sistemas de cultivo sobre o banco de sementes em solo de Cerrado. Foi realizada amostragem em área sob cerrado sensu stricto queimada e não queimada, assim como em área de pastagem e lavoura com preparo convencional do solo. Não houve redução no banco de sementes, embora tenha havido menor número de espécies e de famílias, e dos índices de diversidade, com a queimada. Houve maior índice de valor de importância (IVI e número de espécies nativas, na área não queimada, e de espécies invasoras na área queimada. Na área de lavoura, houve maior densidade de sementes do que na área de pastagem e de cerrado. Asespécies com o maior IVI nas áreas foram aquelas consideradas invasoras e forrageiras. A área de lavoura apresentou menores IVI de espécies nativas, índices de diversidade (Shannon e Simpson e percentagem de espécies nativas do que as áreas de pastagem e cerrado. O cultivo com lavoura causa maior perturbação nas áreas do que a queimada.The objective of this work was to evaluate the burning and cultivation effects on soil seedbanks originally under cerrado vegetation. Two areas under cerrado sensu stricto were sampled, one burned and the other one not burned, as well as areas under tilled crop and pasture. There was no reduction on seedbank, although lower number of species and families and diversity index (Shannon and Simpson with burning were observed. There was also greater importance value index (IVI and number of native species, in the non burned area, and of weeds in the burned one. It was observed that the crop area had higher seed density than the pasture and cerrado areas. The species with the highest IVI in the areas were those considered as weeds and forages. The crop area presented lower IVI of native species than the pasture and cerrado areas; besides, it presented diversity indexes (Shannon and Simpson and native species percentage lower than

  14. Composición de especies leñosas en comunidades invadidas en montañas del centro de Argentina: su relación con factores ambientales locales

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    Sebastián R. Zeballos

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available En todo el mundo, las invasiones de especies leñosas exóticas están amenazando las funciones ecosistémicas. La dispersión y el subsecuente reemplazo de bosques de especies nativas por comunidades dominadas por exóticas es evidente, particularmente, en proximidad a centros urbanos donde la presión de propágulos de especies exóticas es alta. Sin embargo, existe una falta de información sobre los factores ambientales que subyacen este reemplazo. En este estudio nos propusimos responder las siguientes preguntas: (1 ¿se observa una segregación espacial a escala local entre especies leñosas exóticas y/o nativas dominantes?, y (2 si existe esa segregación, ¿está asociada a variables ambientales? En el 2010 se establecieron 31 parcelas distribuidas en 16 laderas en los bosques Chaqueños de las Sierras de Córdoba, en Argentina central. En cada uno de los sitios de muestreo se relevó la composición y abundancia de todas las especies leñosas con un diámetro a la altura de la base superior a 5cm. Para caracterizar el ambiente en cada una de las parcelas medimos la posición topográfica (pendiente y orientación y algunas propiedades asociadas con la física (densidad aparente y compactación, estructura (profundidad y textura y con la química (pH y el contenido de nutrientes y agua del suelo. A través, de un análisis jerárquico de agrupamiento, se identificaron cinco comunidades de leñosas coexistiendo: (1 Bosques dominados por Ligustrum lucidum, (2 Bosques mixtos dominados por Lithraea molleoides y Celtis australis, (3 Matorrales de Condalia buxifolia, (4 Matorrales de Cotoneaster glaucophyllus, y (5 Pajonales con emergentes de Pyracantha angustifolia. Estas comunidades se asociaron diferencialmente a las variables topográficas y edáficas locales. La segregación ambiental observada sugiere que las especies invasoras tienen una capacidad potencial para colonizar casi todos los ambientes en el área de estudio (variando la

  15. Monitoramento em longo prazo da contenção vegetativa em talude rodoviário de saprolito de gnaisse em Minas Gerais

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    Rosilene Einloft

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available A sucessão de eventos após a revegetação de uma área, em geral, não é estudada. Com o passar do tempo, um consórcio vegetal que se apresentou favorável na fase inicial pode não ser adequado no futuro, deixando a área com o solo descoberto e suscetível à ação dos fatores intempéricos. O objetivo deste trabalho foi monitorar características associadas à contenção vegetativa e, em longo prazo, o surgimento de novas formas de cobertura ou exposição do solo em resposta à revegetação com gramíneas e leguminosas em talude rodoviário de declividade acentuada. Após quatro anos, foi observada, nas parcelas experimentais, a presença de novas formas de cobertura ou exposição do solo, denominadas tipologias, como: cobertura de braquiária, leguminosa, capim-gordura, espécies invasoras, biomanta, resíduos em decomposição, crostas microfíticas, crosta física, solo exposto, erosão e afloramento de rochas. Essas tipologias foram quantificadas em dois levantamentos: antes e após o período chuvoso. Foram confeccionados mapas de cobertura para cada parcela experimental e analisadas a dinâmica, distribuição espacial, frequência e competição entre as tipologias encontradas nos dois levantamentos. Das 11 tipologias encontradas, as espécies vegetais e as crostas microfíticas foram as mais importantes no estádio primário da sucessão ecológica, resultando em rápida estabilização e recuperação da superfície degradada e favorecendo o aparecimento de espécies invasoras. A variação sazonal entre os dois levantamentos levou à diminuição da erosão e ao solo exposto, pelo incremento da cobertura vegetal e das crostas microfíticas.

  16. Invasão por espécies arbóreas exóticas em remanescentes florestais no Planalto Sul Catarinense

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    André Luiz Guidini

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo objetivou avaliar a invasão por espécies arbóreas exóticas em dois fragmentos (F1 e F2 de Floresta Ombrófila Mista (FOM em Lages, SC. Foram alocadas 25 parcelas por fragmento, distribuídas em cinco transeções de 20 x 100 m, perpendiculares às bordas e com distância de 100 m entre si, onde foram avaliados os indivíduos dos estratos adulto (DAP - diâmetro à altura do peito > 5 cm e regenerante (DAP 10 cm. Esses foram identificados e mensurados (circunferência e altura. Foi calculado, para as espécies de cada estrato e de cada fragmento, o Índice de Invasão Biológica (IIB. A relação entre o IIB e a distância da borda foi verificada por meio de regressões lineares simples. O agrupamento de espécies exóticas e nativas foi determinado por meio de correlações de Spearman e de dendrogramas. Foram amostrados 3.701 indivíduos distribuídos em 105 espécies, sendo cinco espécies invasoras. No F1 houve valores de IIB relativamente baixos (0,05 e 0,54, com Pinus taeda L., obtendo-se a maior participação na invasão, e esse esteve agrupado com espécies nativas pioneiras. Os IIB´s no F2 foram altos (0,61 e 1,96, principalmente pela elevada participação de Ligustrum lucidum W.T. Aiton., que ficou agrupado a espécies típicas da FOM. Não foi observada relação entre a distância da borda e a intensidade da invasão biológica. Os resultados indicaram que os fragmentos apresentaram diferentes padrões de invasão biológica, determinados pela natureza da matriz de entorno e pelas características ecológicas das espécies invasoras.

  17. Allelopathic evidence in Brachiaria decumbens and its potential to invade the Brazilian Cerrados

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    Elizabeth Gorgone Barbosa

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to look for evidence of allelochemicals in B. decumbens, in parts of the plant from where they could easily be released to the environment. The germination inhibition of Phalaris canariensis, Lactuca sativa (standard species and Melinis minutiflora, another invasive African grass, was tested using B. decumbens germinating seeds and aqueous leachates of the roots, green and senescent leaves, at 5, 10 and 20% w/v. Both the germinating seeds and the aqueous leachates of B. decumbens reduced the germination of the species tested; the effectiveness of the aqueous leachates increased according to concentration. Apparently, the competitive advantage of B. decumbens in the cerrados could be amplified via allelopathy.Invasão biológica é uma das maiores causas atuais da perda de biodiversidade. Várias espécies que se tornam invasoras produzem substâncias fitotóxicas que aumentam sua capacidade competitiva; assim, a alelopatia é uma estratégia capaz de potencializar o sucesso de invasão. Brachiaria decumbens, uma gramínea africana, invadiu os cerrados brasileiros e representa, atualmente, uma séria ameaça à biota regional. Neste ensaio, verificamos a presença de aleloquímicos em partes de B. decumbens das quais poderiam ser facilmente liberados para o ambiente. Testamos a inibição da germinação de Phalaris canariensis, Lactuca sativa (espécies padrão e Melinis minutiflora (outra gramínea africana invasora usando sementes de B. decumbens e soluções aquosas lixiviadas de suas raízes, folhas verdes e folhas senescentes, a 5, 10 e 20% de peso do material por volume de água. Tanto as sementes como as soluções lixiviadas de decumbens reduziram a germinação das outras espécies; a eficiência dos lixiviados aumentou de acordo com a concentração da solução. Acreditamos que a grande vantagem competitiva de B. decumbens no cerrado possa ser amplificada pela alelopatia.

  18. Algibacter miyuki sp. nov., a member of the family Flavobacteriaceae isolated from leachate of a brown algae reservoir.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sooyeon; Jung, Yong-Taek; Yoon, Jung-Hoon

    2013-08-01

    A Gram-negative, aerobic, non-flagellated, non-gliding and rod-shaped bacterial strain, designated WS-MY6(T), was isolated from a brown algae reservoir in South Korea. Strain WS-MY6(T) grew optimally at 25 °C, at pH 7.0-8.0 and in the presence of 2 % (w/v) NaCl. Neighbour-joining, maximum-likelihood and maximum-parsimony phylogenetic trees based on 16S rRNA gene sequences showed that strain WS-MY6(T) clustered with the type strains of Algibacter lectus and 'Algibacter undariae', showing 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity values of 98.1 and 98.4 %, respectively. It exhibited sequence similarities of 95.4-96.7 % to the type strains of the other Algibacter species, Pontirhabdus pectinovorans and Marinivirga aestuarii, whose reclassification into the genus Algibacter has been recently proposed. Strain WS-MY6(T) contained MK-6 as the predominant menaquinone and iso-C15:1 G, anteiso-C15:0 and iso-C17:0 3-OH as the major fatty acids. It contained phosphatidylethanolamine and two unidentified lipids as the major polar lipids. The DNA G + C content of strain WS-MY6(T) was 35.3 mol% and its DNA-DNA relatedness values with A. lectus KCTC 12103(T) and 'A. undariae' WS-MY9(T) was 21 and 13 %, respectively. The phylogenetic and genetic distinctiveness and differential phenotypic properties revealed that strain WS-MY6(T) is separate from existing Algibacter species. On the basis of the data presented, strain WS-MY6(T) is considered to represent a novel species of the genus Algibacter, for which the name Algibacter miyuki sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is WS-MY6(T) (=KCTC 32382(T) =CECT 8300(T)).

  19. Relación costo-efectividad de la vacuna contra Haemophilus influenzae tipo b en niños menores de dos años de edad en Colombia The cost-effectiveness of Haemophilus influenzae type b vaccine for children under 2 years of age in Colombia

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    Nelson Alvis Guzmán

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVOS: Las vacunas conjugadas contra Haemophilus influenzae tipo b (Hib son la herramienta más importante para prevenir la mayoría de las enfermedades invasoras producidas por dicho patógeno, pero debido a su costo, aún no se han introducido mundialmente de manera masiva. En el presente estudio se determinó la relación costo-efectividad de una vacuna contra Hib para prevenir la neumonía y la meningitis bacterianas en niños menores de 2 años en Colombia. MÉTODOS: Se estimaron los costos directos e indirectos de la neumonía y la meningitis hospitalaria y siguiendo las recomendaciones de la Organización Mundial de la Salud (OMS, la relación costo-efectividad de los programas de vacunación contra Hib. Se estimaron también las razones de costos por caso evitado de enfermedad invasora por Hib y el costo por año de vida salvado en dos situaciones hipotéticas: con vacunación contra Hib (cobertura vacunal: 90% y sin vacunación. RESULTADOS: El costo medio del tratamiento hospitalario de un caso de neumonía fue de 611,5 dólares estadounidenses (US$ (intervalo de confianza del 95% [IC95%]: 532,2 - 690,8, el costo medio del tratamiento hospitalario de un caso de meningitis fue de US$ 848,9 (IC95%: 716,8 - 981,0 y el costo por caso evitado de enfermedad invasora por Hib, de US$ 316,7 (IC95%: 294,2 - 339,2. La relación costo-efectividad en la hipótesis con vacunación fue de 2,38, frente a 3,81 en la hipótesis sin vacunación. CONCLUSIÓN: La aplicación de un programa adecuado de vacunación contra Hib en Colombia puede prevenir cerca de 25 000 casos de enfermedad invasora por año, lo que representa un ahorro de por lo menos US$ 15 millones anuales. Además, puede evitar cerca de 700 defunciones y salvar anualmente 44 054 años de vida.OBJECTIVE: Conjugate vaccines are the best public health tools available for preventing most invasive diseases caused by Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib, but the high cost of the vaccines has so

  20. ABUSO DEL DIAGNÓSTICO DE AMIBIASIS EN COLOMBIA

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    Ernesto Plata Rueda

    1983-09-01

    Full Text Available

    Se citan argumentos de la literatura nacional y de la práctica diaria según los cuales es patente que en Colombia se está abusando del diagnóstico de amibiasis, como salida fácil para tratar de solucionar los más variados problemas clínicos, tanto de la pediatría como de la medicina general. Los orígenes del abuso son, por una parte la real alta prevalencia de la parasitosis en Colombia, pero por sobre todo, el considerar enfermedad a la condición
    de portador, agravado por la circunstancia de ser evidente que hay fallas importantes en el entrenamiento de personal de laboratorio clínico para distinguir con razonable certeza la Entamoeba histolítica patógena, de otras especies no invasoras.

    El abuso tiene especial gravedad en el niño pequeño, quien, como consecuencia de él, es objeto de tratamientos agresivos y deja de recibir el manejo médico o quirúrgico que sí es adecuado. Se sugieren una serie de medidas educativas y técnicas para contrarrestar este problema.

  1. Cobertura morta do solo no cultivo de alface cv. Regina 2000, em Ji-Paraná/RO Mulching in lettuce cv. Regina 2000, in Ji-Paraná/RO

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    Jimmy Elizio de Carvalho

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Conduziu-se este estudo com o objetivo de avaliar o efeito de diferentes materiais de cobertura do solo na produtividade da alface (Lactuca sativa L. cv. Regina 2000. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi o de blocos casualizados, utilizando-se cinco tratamentos (palha de arroz, palha de café, Brachiaria brizantha L., serragem, testemunha sem cobertura morta e quatro repetições. A produtividade foi avaliada pelo número de folhas por planta, acúmulo de massa fresca e massa seca. Verificou-se que todos os materiais empregados como cobertura, controlaram a infestação de plantas invasoras. Entretanto, verificou-se uma grande infestação na testemunha promovendo redução de produtividade.The purpose of this research was to evaluate the effect of different mulching materials on lettuce (Lactuca sativa L. cv. Regina 2000 yield. The experimental design was randomized blocks, with five treatments (rice straw, coffee husk, Brachiaria brizantha L., sawing and control without mulching and four repetitions. The number of leaves per plant and the dry and fresh matter accumulation were evaluated. All materials used as mulching, controlled the weed infestation. However, weed population was greater in the control whit reduction yield in comparison to the others treatments.

  2. Banco de Sementes do Solo de Floresta Restaurada, Reserva Natural Vale, ES

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    Geanna Gonçalves de Souza Correia

    Full Text Available Visando comparar a composição e estrutura do banco de sementes do solo de uma Floresta em Restauração (FR e o de um Ecossistema de Referência (ER foi realizado este estudo, por meio de 60 amostras de 30 cm × 30 cm × 5 cm do solo superficial coletadas na Reserva Natural Vale, Linhares, Espírito Santo. Durante seis meses germinaram indivíduos de 25 espécies e 15 famílias botânicas. Constatou-se elevada densidade de Urochloa decumbens (brachiária na FR, espécie invasora e inibidora do processo de sucessão ecológica, o que representa um problema em casos de possíveis perturbações. Por outro lado, a presença de espécies facilitadoras de sucessão como Cecropia e Trema na FR caracteriza-se de forma positiva, visto que essas espécies são responsáveis pela regeneração florestal pós-distúrbios e não foram utilizadas durante o plantio na área, ou seja, a floresta em restauração está se comportando como um ecossistema que já apresenta resiliência a distúrbios como abertura de clareiras.

  3. Primer registro de Vespula vulgaris (Hymenoptera: Vespidae en la Argentina First record of Vespula vulgaris (Hymenoptera: Vespidae in Argentina

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    Maité Masciocchi

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Vespula vulgaris (Linnaeus es un véspido social nativo de la región Holártica. En este trabajo reportamos la primera detección de esta especie en Argentina. Obreras de esta avispa fueron capturadas cerca de la ciudad de San Carlos de Bariloche (Argentina en Febrero de 2010, mientras se tomaban muestras de otra avispa invasora, Vespula germanica (Fabricius o chaqueta amarilla, de morfología externa y hábitos similares a la anteriormente mencionada. Además, detallamos algunos caracteres de identificación y características biológicas.Vespula vulgaris (Linnaeus is a social vespid native to the Holarctic region. The first detection of this species in Argentina is here reported. Workers were captured close to San Carlos de Bariloche (Argentina during February 2010, while sampling for another successful invader, the German wasp or Yellowjacket, Vespula germanica (Fabricius. Both these wasp species are very similar morphologically and share a number of common habits. Also, some identification features and biological characters are here explained.

  4. Invasão da piranha Serrasalmus marginatus Valenciennes, 1847 no alto rio Paraná, Brasil (Osteichthyes, Serrasalmidae Observation of an invasion of the piranha Serrasalmus marginatus Valenciennes, 1847 (Osteichthyes, Serrasalmidae into the Upper Paraná River, Brazil

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    Horácio Ferreira Júlio Junior

    2002-05-01

    Full Text Available A construção da barragem de Itaipu, 150 km a jusante do salto de Sete Quedas, resultou no afogamento da barreira geográfica natural, com conseqüente mistura das ictiofaunas. Serrasalmus marginatus (Osteichthyes, Serrasalmidae, uma espécie que apresentava distribuição restrita ao segmento a jusante de Sete Quedas, invadiu o alto rio Paraná. A captura de Serrasalmus spilopleura, uma espécie residente, diminuiu drasticamente após a invasão, ao contrário de S. marginatus que aumentou em abundância. No rio Piquiri, onde a espécie invasora não ocorreu, a abundância de S. spilopleura permaneceu alta por causa das quedas de Nhá Bárbara e Apertado.The building of Itaipu Dam, 150 km downstream from Sete Quedas Falls, resulted in the natural geographical barrier drowning, with subsequent mixing of the fish faunas. Serrasalmus marginatus (Osteichthyes, Serrasalmidae, a species that had been restricted to the river segment downstream from Sete Quedas, invaded the Upper Paraná River. The catching of Serrasalmus spilopleura, a resident species, decreased drastically after the invasion, contrary to S. marginatus, which increased in abundance. In the Piquiri River, where the latter species does not occur, the abundance of S. spilopleura remained high, due to the presence of Nhá Bárbara and Apertado Falls.

  5. Conhecimento botânico medicinal sobre espécies vegetais nativas da caatinga e plantas espontâneas no agreste da Paraíba, Brasil

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    J.M.P. Cordeiro

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available O bioma Caatinga apresenta diversas espécies vegetais amplamente empregadas pelas populações rurais, especialmente na fitoterapia, abrangendo diversos usos no tratamento de determinadas enfermidades. As plantas espontâneas, apesar de serem entendidas como espécies daninhas ou invasoras, concomitantemente apresentam propriedades fitoquímicas que podem ser aproveitadas no âmbito medicinal. Nesta concepção, o referente trabalho tem como objetivo identificar espécies vegetais nativas da Caatinga, assim como plantas espontâneas, empregadas na medicina popular através de estudo etnobotânico desenvolvido na zona rural do município de Serra da Raiz, Agreste da Paraíba, Nordeste do Brasil. O levantamento das plantas de uso fitoterápico foi estabelecido através de questionamentos e entrevistas semiestruturadas com 57 famílias da região. Foram coletadas informações referentes a 55 espécies vegetais e seus empregos terapêuticos, destacando-se entre elas: Myracrodruom urundeuva Allemão (Aroeira, Genipa americana L. (Jenipapo, Solanum paniculatum L. (Jurubeba e Anadenanthera colubrina (Vell. Brenan (Angico por serem amplamente utilizadas no tratamento de diversas enfermidades pelos moradores locais.

  6. Efecto de un incendio sobre el ensamble de hormigas de la Reserva Natural Privada Paititi, Provincia de Buenos Aires, Argentina

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    Juan M. ARCUSA

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available La Reserva Natural Privada Paititi se encuentra dentro de las áreas valiosas de pastizales. La zona se caracteriza por sufrir frecuentemente incendios no controlados y actualmente un sector importante de la reserva se encuentra in- vadido por la exótica Acacia melanoxylon, la cual incrementa su área de cobertura año tras año. Se planteó como objetivo comparar la riqueza, abundancia y estruc- tura de dominancia del ensamble de hormigas antes y después de un incendio masivo en un sitio natural y otro invadido po r Acacia melanoxylon. El diseño de muestreo comprendió tres réplicas de 10 trampas tipo “ pitfall ” para cada ambiente, nativo e invadido. El fuego tuvo lugar durante el mes de Marzo (2015, se contó con los datos previos a la quema. Los ensambles de hormigas de ambos ambientes inicialmente diferían entre si (Sl=0,1% y posterior al incendio resultaron similares (Sl= 1,2%. Previo al incendio la similitud entre grupos funcionales resultó del 55% y posteriormente del 66%. De este trabajo se desprende que el uso controlado del fuego podría ser una buena herramienta para el control de la especie invasora Acacia melanoxylon, ya que luego del incendio la comunidad de hormigas retornó a un estado similar al presente en el ambiente nativo.

  7. Surgimiento y diseminación de Staphylococcus aureus meticilinorresistente Staphylococcus aureus methicillin-resistant: emergence and dissemination

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    Maria Elena Velázquez-Meza

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Las infecciones nosocomiales ocasionadas por cepas de Staphylococcus aureus meticilinorresistentes (SAMR son un problema de salud importante en todo el mundo. Este microorganismo produce una gran variedad de infecciones incluyendo osteomielitis, endocarditis invasora, artritis séptica y septicemia. La multirresistencia es un factor que influye en la persistencia de los SAMR dentro del ámbito hospitalario. La introducción de técnicas de tipificación molecular dentro de las investigaciones epidemiológicas ha provisto nuevas herramientas para conocer el origen y las vías de diseminación de este microorganismo. Una de las conclusiones importantes que han surgido de este tipo de estudios es que un número pequeño de clonas son las responsables de las infecciones estafilocócicas en todo el mundo.Nosocomial infections due to methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA is an important health problem worldwide. This microorganism causes a variety of clinical infections, including osteomyelitis, invasive endocarditis, septic arthritis and septicemia. Antimicrobial resistance is a factor that influences the persistence of MRSA in the hospital environment. The introduction of molecular typing techniques in epidemiological investigations has provided new tools for identifying the microorganism's origin and routes of dissemination. One of the most important conclusions that have resulted from these types of studies is that a small number of clones are responsible for most of the staphylococcal infections throughout the world.

  8. Lagarta- falsa-medideira, Pseudoplusia includens (WALKER, 1857, nova praga do maracujazeiro no Espírito Santo

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    Vera Lúcia Rodrigues Machado Benassi

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available A espécie Pseudoplusia includens (Walker (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae, lagarta-falsa-medideira, ataca diversas culturas de importância econômica, causando, na maioria das vezes, prejuízos consideráveis. Foram realizados levantamentos de todas as fases de desenvolvimento do inseto, no período de abril/2009 a abril/2010, em uma cultura de maracujá-azedo, Passifora edulis f. flavicarpa, no município de Linhares-ES, após ter sido constatada sua presença na área. A lagarta foi observada durante os meses de abril a novembro/2009 e de fevereiro a abril/2010, sendo constatados surtos mais severos nos meses de junho, setembro e novembro/2009, atingindo índices de até 80% de folhas danificadas. A planta invasora Solanum americanum (maria-pretinha, associada à cultura, é também hospedeira do inseto. Como inimigos naturais da lagarta, foram constatados o parasitoide Copidosoma truncatellum (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae e o entomopatógeno Baculovirus sp.. Este é o primeiro registro da ocorrência de P. includens na cultura de maracujá-azedo.

  9. Geographic distribution and hosts of Zaprionus indianus (Diptera: Drosophilidae in North-Eastern Argentina Distribución geográfica y hospedadores de Zaprionus indianus (Diptera: Drosophilidae en el noreste de Argentina

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    Nicolás J. Lavagnino

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The first published record of the African drosophilid Zaprionus indianus Gupta 1970 in the Americas refers to individuals observed on fallen persimmon (Diospyros kaki Linnaei, «caqui» fruits in São Paulo city (Brazil in March 1999. Since that date, this species colonized altered and natural environments across the continent. In the present work we report new records for Z. indianus in north eastern Argentina. Moreover, our results showed that this species represents a fairly high proportion among collected drosophilids in some sampling sites. Our survey also revealed that this invading species has the ability to breed and feed in a wide range of native and cultivated host-plants.El primer registro publicado de la especie africana Zaprionus indianus Gupta 1970 en el continente Americano se refiere a individuos observados en frutos caídos de «caqui» (Diospyros kaki Linnaei en la ciudad de São Paulo, (Brasil en Marzo de 1999. Desde esa fecha, esta especie ha colonizado ambientes naturales y perturbados en todo el continente. En el presente trabajo, confirmamos la presencia de Z. indianus en el noreste de Argentina y mostramos que, en algunas localidades, representa una alta proporción entre las especies de drosofílidos colectados. Nuestra investigación reveló que esta especie invasora es capaz de criarse y alimentarse en un amplio rango de plantas hospedadoras tanto nativas como cultivadas.

  10. Ethanol extract of Zhongtian hawthorn lowers serum cholesterol in mice by inhibiting transcription of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA reductase via nuclear factor-kappa B signal pathway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Hai-Jie; Dong, Qing-Qing; Mu, Ai; Shi, Guo-Long; Wang, Qiu-Tong; Chen, Xiao-Ying; Zhou, Hao; Zhang, Tong-Cun

    2016-01-01

    Hawthorn is a berry-like fruit from the species of Crataegus. In China, it has another more famous name, Shan-Zha, which has been used to improve digestion as a traditional Chinese medicine or food for thousands of years. Moreover, during the last decades, hawthorn has received more attention because of its potential to treat cardiovascular diseases. However, currently, only fruits of C. pinnatifida and C. pinnatifida var. major are included as Shan-Zha in the Chinese Pharmacopoeia. In this study, our results showed that the ethanol extract of Zhongtian hawthorn, a novel grafted cultivar of C. cuneata (wild Shan-Zha), could markedly reduce body weight and levels of serum total cholesterol, triglyceride, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and liver cholesterol of hyperlipidemia mice. It could suppress the stimulation effect of high-fat diet on the transcription of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA reductase (HMGCR) and p65, and counteract the downregulation of CYP7A1 and LDLR. In addition, the results of luciferase reporter assay and Western blot showed that the transcriptional activity of HMGCR promoter was inhibited by Zhongtian hawthorn ethanol extract in a dose-dependent manner, while overexpression of p65 could reverse this transcriptional repression effect. These results suggested that Zhongtian hawthorn could provide health benefits by counteracting the high-fat diet-induced hypercholesteolemic and hyperlipidemic effects in vivo, and the mechanism underlying this event was mainly dependent on the suppressive effect of Zhongtian hawthorn ethanol extract on the transcription of HMGCR via nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) signal pathway. Therefore, this novel cultivar of hawthorn cultivar which has much bigger fruits, early bearing, high yield, cold resistance, and drought resistance, might be considered as a good alternative to Shan-Zha and has great value in the food and medicine industry. In addition, to our best knowledge, this is also the first report that the

  11. Complete mitochondrial genome of Kjellmaniella crassifolia (Laminariaceae, Phaeophyceae): Laminaria and Saccharina are distinct genus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lei; Wang, Xumin; Liu, Tao; Wang, Guoliang; Chi, Shan; Liu, Cui; Wang, Haiyang

    2016-11-01

    The kelp Kjellmaniella crassifolia is one of the most important economic resources, which is widely distributed in Japan and has now been introduced to coastal areas in China's Shandong Province for cultivation. In this study, we present the complete mitochondrial genome of K. crassifolia. The genome is characterized as a circular molecule of 37,627 bp in length with an overall A + T content of 64.81%. The mitogenome contains three ribosomal RNA genes (rRNA), 24 transfer RNA genes (tRNA), 35 protein-coding genes, and three conserved open reading frames (ORFs). Most genes are encoded on the H-strand and 11 pairs of overlapping genes are identified with the overlap size from 1 to 16 bp. The gene content and organization of mitogenome for K. crassifolia is identical to those for Saccharina, Laminaria, Undaria, and Costaria. Phylogenetic analysis based on 35 mitochondrial protein-coding genes clearly proves that Laminaria and Saccharina are distinct genus identified by Kjellmaniella. The present study provides new molecular data for further studies on evolutionary relationship within Phaeophyceae.

  12. Metals in edible seaweed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubio, C; Napoleone, G; Luis-González, G; Gutiérrez, A J; González-Weller, D; Hardisson, A; Revert, C

    2017-04-01

    The concentration levels of 20 metals were analyzed by ICP-OES in edible seaweed (Chondrus, Eisenia, Gelidium, Himanthalia, Laminaria, Palmaria, Porphyra, Undaria), from two origins (Asia vs EU) according to their cultivation practices (conventional vs organic). Red seaweed showed higher concentrations of trace and toxic elements. Porphyra may be used as a potential bioindicator for metals. Significant differences were found between the Asian vs European mean contents. The mean Cd level from the conventional cultivation (0.28 mg/kg) was two points higher than the organic cultivation (0.13 mg/kg). A daily consumption of seaweed (4 g/day) contributes to the dietary intake of metals, mainly Mg and Cr. The average intakes of Al, Cd and Pb were 0.064, 0.001 and 0.0003 mg/day, respectively. Based on obtained results, this study suggests that exposure to the toxic metals analyzed (Al, Cd and Pb) through seaweed consumption does not raise serious health concerns, but other toxic metals should be monitored. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  13. Biochar from commercially cultivated seaweed for soil amelioration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, David A.; Paul, Nicholas A.; Dworjanyn, Symon A.; Bird, Michael I.; de Nys, Rocky

    2015-01-01

    Seaweed cultivation is a high growth industry that is primarily targeted at human food and hydrocolloid markets. However, seaweed biomass also offers a feedstock for the production of nutrient-rich biochar for soil amelioration. We provide the first data of biochar yield and characteristics from intensively cultivated seaweeds (Saccharina, Undaria and Sargassum – brown seaweeds, and Gracilaria, Kappaphycus and Eucheuma – red seaweeds). While there is some variability in biochar properties as a function of the origin of seaweed, there are several defining and consistent characteristics of seaweed biochar, in particular a relatively low C content and surface area but high yield, essential trace elements (N, P and K) and exchangeable cations (particularly K). The pH of seaweed biochar ranges from neutral (7) to alkaline (11), allowing for broad-spectrum applications in diverse soil types. We find that seaweed biochar is a unique material for soil amelioration that is consistently different to biochar derived from ligno-cellulosic feedstock. Blending of seaweed and ligno-cellulosic biochar could provide a soil ameliorant that combines a high fixed C content with a mineral-rich substrate to enhance crop productivity. PMID:25856799

  14. Biochar from commercially cultivated seaweed for soil amelioration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, David A.; Paul, Nicholas A.; Dworjanyn, Symon A.; Bird, Michael I.; de Nys, Rocky

    2015-04-01

    Seaweed cultivation is a high growth industry that is primarily targeted at human food and hydrocolloid markets. However, seaweed biomass also offers a feedstock for the production of nutrient-rich biochar for soil amelioration. We provide the first data of biochar yield and characteristics from intensively cultivated seaweeds (Saccharina, Undaria and Sargassum - brown seaweeds, and Gracilaria, Kappaphycus and Eucheuma - red seaweeds). While there is some variability in biochar properties as a function of the origin of seaweed, there are several defining and consistent characteristics of seaweed biochar, in particular a relatively low C content and surface area but high yield, essential trace elements (N, P and K) and exchangeable cations (particularly K). The pH of seaweed biochar ranges from neutral (7) to alkaline (11), allowing for broad-spectrum applications in diverse soil types. We find that seaweed biochar is a unique material for soil amelioration that is consistently different to biochar derived from ligno-cellulosic feedstock. Blending of seaweed and ligno-cellulosic biochar could provide a soil ameliorant that combines a high fixed C content with a mineral-rich substrate to enhance crop productivity.

  15. Biochar from commercially cultivated seaweed for soil amelioration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, David A; Paul, Nicholas A; Dworjanyn, Symon A; Bird, Michael I; de Nys, Rocky

    2015-04-09

    Seaweed cultivation is a high growth industry that is primarily targeted at human food and hydrocolloid markets. However, seaweed biomass also offers a feedstock for the production of nutrient-rich biochar for soil amelioration. We provide the first data of biochar yield and characteristics from intensively cultivated seaweeds (Saccharina, Undaria and Sargassum--brown seaweeds, and Gracilaria, Kappaphycus and Eucheuma--red seaweeds). While there is some variability in biochar properties as a function of the origin of seaweed, there are several defining and consistent characteristics of seaweed biochar, in particular a relatively low C content and surface area but high yield, essential trace elements (N, P and K) and exchangeable cations (particularly K). The pH of seaweed biochar ranges from neutral (7) to alkaline (11), allowing for broad-spectrum applications in diverse soil types. We find that seaweed biochar is a unique material for soil amelioration that is consistently different to biochar derived from ligno-cellulosic feedstock. Blending of seaweed and ligno-cellulosic biochar could provide a soil ameliorant that combines a high fixed C content with a mineral-rich substrate to enhance crop productivity.

  16. Antioxidant effects of 14 Chinese traditional medicinal herbs against human low-density lipoprotein oxidation

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    Hsin-Hung Lin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The relationship between the antioxidant activities and inhibitory effect of 14 Chinese medicinal herbs against oxidized low-density lipoprotein (LDL formation was evaluated. Prolongation of the lag phase of LDL oxidation depended on the concentration of the herbs. The concentration of each herb that was able to prolong the lag time by about two-fold was calculated and expressed as doubling-time concentration. The lower the doubling-time concentration, the stronger the inhibitory effect exhibited toward LDL oxidation. Among them, Chrysanthemi Flos (Chrysanthemum morifolium ramat; 甘菊花 gān jú huā, Crataegi Fructus (Crataegus pinnatifida Bge. var. major N.E.Br.; 山楂 shān zhā, and Roselle (Hibiscus sabdariffa Linn.; 洛神 luò shén showed significant inhibitory effects. Correlation coefficients between doubling-time concentration and radical-scavenging activities were high; the total phenolic content was also high. In conclusion, phenolic compounds contributed not only to antioxidant activities, but also to the inhibitory effect against LDL oxidation. Chrysanthemi Flos, Crataegi Fructus, and H. sabdariffa, with lower doubling-time concentrations, could be potent phytochemical agents to reduce LDL oxidation and prevent the progression of atherosclerosis.

  17. Antioxidant Capacities of Hot Water Extracts and Endopolysaccharides of Selected Chinese Medicinal Fruits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Sang Chul; Tulasi, Ratna; Koyyalamudi, Sundar Rao

    2016-03-09

    Fruits are a rich source of antioxidants and traditional Chinese fruits have been studied for their chemopreventive and chemotherapeutic properties against cancers and other diseases. The total phenol and flavonoid contents of eleven Chinese fruits extracts were determined. Total phenolic and flavonoid contents were estimated by both the Folin-Ciocalteau and aluminium chloride methods. The antioxidant activities were evaluated by four assays: a biological assay using Saccharomyces cerevisiae, DPPH radical scavenging activity, chelating ability for ferrous ions and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP). The phenols and flavonoids contents of the hot water extracts were in the range of 17.7 to 94.7 mg/g and 12.3 to 295.4 mg/g, whereas the endopolysaccharides lie in the range of 4.5 to 77.4 mg/g and 22.7 to 230.0 mg/g. Significant amounts of phenols and flavonoids were present in the majority of the fruit extracts and showed strong antioxidant activities. The antioxidant properties of the fruit extracts of Crataegus pinnatifida, Illicium verum, Ligustrum lucidum, Momordica grosvenori and Psoralea corylifolia as determined by the DPPH and FRAP methods, were significant compared to other fruit extracts. In the present study, we found that significant amounts of phenolic and flavonoid compounds were present in these fruit extracts and may contribute to in vitro antioxidant activities.

  18. Antioxidant Capacities of Hot Water Extracts and Endopolysaccharides of Selected Chinese Medicinal Fruits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sang Chul Jeong

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Fruits are a rich source of antioxidants and traditional Chinese fruits have been studied for their chemopreventive and chemotherapeutic properties against cancers and other diseases. The total phenol and flavonoid contents of eleven Chinese fruits extracts were determined. Total phenolic and flavonoid contents were estimated by both the Folin-Ciocalteau and aluminium chloride methods. The antioxidant activities were evaluated by four assays: a biological assay using Saccharomyces cerevisiae, DPPH radical scavenging activity, chelating ability for ferrous ions and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP. The phenols and flavonoids contents of the hot water extracts were in the range of 17.7 to 94.7 mg/g and 12.3 to 295.4 mg/g, whereas the endopolysaccharides lie in the range of 4.5 to 77.4 mg/g and 22.7 to 230.0 mg/g. Significant amounts of phenols and flavonoids were present in the majority of the fruit extracts and showed strong antioxidant activities. The antioxidant properties of the fruit extracts of Crataegus pinnatifida, Illicium verum, Ligustrum lucidum, Momordica grosvenori and Psoralea corylifolia as determined by the DPPH and FRAP methods, were significant compared to other fruit extracts. In the present study, we found that significant amounts of phenolic and flavonoid compounds were present in these fruit extracts and may contribute to in vitro antioxidant activities.

  19. Species diversity of the genus Osmundea (Ceramiales, Rhodophyta) in the Macaronesian region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machín-Sánchez, María; Rousseau, Florence; Le Gall, Line; Cassano, Valéria; Neto, Ana I; Sentíes, Abel; T Fujii, Mutue; Gil-Rodríguez, María Candelaria

    2016-08-01

    Species diversity within the genus Osmundea in the Macaronesian region was explored by conducting a comprehensive sampling in the Azores, the Canary, and the Madeira archipelagos. Toward identification, all specimens were first observed alive to verify the absence of corps en cerise, a diagnostic character for the genus and morphometric data were measured (thallus length and width, first-order branches length and width, branchlets length and width, cortical cell length and width in surface view, cortical cell length and width in transverse section). Specimens were sequenced for COI-5P (39 specimens) and three species delimitation methods (Generalized Mixed Yule Coalescent, Automatic Barcode Gap Discovery method, and Poisson Tree Processes) were used to assess the threshold between infra- and interspecific relationships. Subsequently, one or several sequences of plastid-encoded large subunit of RuBisCO (21 specimens) per delimited species were generated to assess the phylogenetic relationships among Macaronesian Osmundea. Moreover, for each delineated species, vegetative and reproductive anatomy was thoroughly documented and, when possible, specimens were either assigned to existing taxa or described as novel species. This integrative approach has provided data for (i) the presence of O. oederi, O. pinnatifida, and O. truncata in Macaronesia; (ii) the proposal of two novel species, O. prudhommevanreinei sp. nov. and O. silvae sp. nov.; and (iii) evidence of an additional species referred as "Osmundea sp.1," which is a sister taxon of O. hybrida. © 2016 Phycological Society of America.

  20. Vertical distribution and seasonality of peracarid crustaceans associated with intertidal macroalgae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerra-García, J. M.; Baeza-Rojano, E.; Cabezas, M. P.; García-Gómez, J. C.

    2011-02-01

    Spatial patterns and seasonal fluctuations of intertidal peracarids from Tarifa Island, Strait of Gibraltar, were studied over a two-year period (December 2005-December 2007). A total of 25,749 individuals were collected, comprising 46 species. Amphipods were best represented in the total number of species (32) and individuals (89% of numerical abundance) followed by isopods (12 species and 11% abundance) and tanaids (2 species and 1%). The highest number of species was registered in intermediate levels (1-1.5 m) dominated by Corallina elongata, although the highest abundances of peracarids were associated to seaweeds of lower levels (0-1 m) such as Gelidium corneum, Osmundea pinnatifida, Valonia utricularis and a turf of Caulacanthus ustulatus. The most abundant peracarids, Hyale stebbingi, H. schmidti, H. perieri, Stenothoe monoculoides, Caprella penantis, C. grandimana, Dynamene edwardsii and Ischyromene lacazei, were present throughout the whole year during 2006 and 2007. The highest peracarid densities were measured in April-August coinciding with the highest development of seaweeds, just before the maximum values of water temperature measured at the end of summer. Multivariate analyses confirmed a clear zonation of algae and associated peracarids in a vertical gradient, which was maintained stable during the two-year study. Several physical and biological factors may regulate such patterns of peracarid abundance and future experimental studies are necessary to explore the importance of factors such as competition, predation or weather conditions.

  1. Evidence of the occurrence of structural chromosome changes at the initial diploid diversification of the autopolyploid Turnera sidoides L. (Passifloraceae) complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roggero Luque, Juan M; Moreno, E M Sara; Kovalsky, I Evelin; Seijo, J Guillermo; Solís Neffa, Viviana G

    2016-02-01

    Turnera sidoides is an autopolyploid complex of obligate outcrossing perennial herbs. It includes five subspecies and five morphotypes in which diploid to octoploid cytotypes were found. Based on phenetic analyses of the complex and karyotype data of polyploid cytotypes, it has been hypothesized that morphological and chromosome differentiation of T. sidoides occurred at the diploid level. To test this hypothesis, we present the first detailed chromosome analysis of diploid populations of three subspecies and four morphotypes. CMA(+)/DAPI(-) bands were restricted to secondary constrictions (except in the andino morphotype) and varied in number and position among taxa. By contrast, DAPI staining was uniform in all the materials investigated. The number and position of 45S rDNA loci were coincident with the CMA(+)/DAPI(-) bands associated with secondary constrictions. Only one pair of 5S rDNA loci was detected in all the taxa (except in subsp. holosericea), but its position was variable. The identified chromosome markers varied among the three subspecies analyzed, but they were more conserved among the morphotypes of subsp. pinnatifida. Cluster analysis of these chromosome markers supports the current taxonomic arrangement of diploids and demonstrates that structural chromosome changes would have led or accompanied the initial differentiation of T. sidoides at the diploid level.

  2. Genome Sequences of Three Apple chlorotic leaf spot virus Isolates from Hawthorns in China.

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    Wei Guo

    Full Text Available The genome sequences of Apple chlorotic leaf spot virus (ACLSV isolates from three accessions of hawthorns (Crataegus pinnatifida grown at Shenyang Agricultural University were determined using Illumina RNA-seq. To confirm the assembly data from the de novo sequencing, two ACLSV genomic sequences (SY01 and SY02 were sequenced using the Sanger method. The SY01 and SY02 sequences obtained with the Sanger method showed 99.5% and 99.7% nucleotide identity with the transcriptome data, respectively. The genome sequences of the hawthorn isolates SY01, SY02 and SY03 (GenBank accession nos. KM207212, KU870524 and KU870525, respectively consisted of 7,543, 7,561 and 7,545 nucleotides, respectively, excluding poly-adenylated tails. Sequence analysis revealed that these hawthorn isolates shared an overall nucleotide identity of 82.8-92.1% and showed the highest identity of 90.3% for isolate YH (GenBank accession no. KC935955 from pear and the lowest identity of 67.7% for isolate TaTao5 (GenBank accession no. EU223295 from peach. Hawthorn isolate sequences were similar to those of 'B6 type' ACLSV. The relationship between ACLSV isolates largely depends upon the host species. This represents the first comparative study of the genome sequences of ACLSV isolates from hawthorns.

  3. Genome Sequences of Three Apple chlorotic leaf spot virus Isolates from Hawthorns in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Wei; Zheng, Wenyan; Wang, Mei; Li, Xiaohong; Ma, Yue; Dai, Hongyan

    2016-01-01

    The genome sequences of Apple chlorotic leaf spot virus (ACLSV) isolates from three accessions of hawthorns (Crataegus pinnatifida) grown at Shenyang Agricultural University were determined using Illumina RNA-seq. To confirm the assembly data from the de novo sequencing, two ACLSV genomic sequences (SY01 and SY02) were sequenced using the Sanger method. The SY01 and SY02 sequences obtained with the Sanger method showed 99.5% and 99.7% nucleotide identity with the transcriptome data, respectively. The genome sequences of the hawthorn isolates SY01, SY02 and SY03 (GenBank accession nos. KM207212, KU870524 and KU870525, respectively) consisted of 7,543, 7,561 and 7,545 nucleotides, respectively, excluding poly-adenylated tails. Sequence analysis revealed that these hawthorn isolates shared an overall nucleotide identity of 82.8-92.1% and showed the highest identity of 90.3% for isolate YH (GenBank accession no. KC935955) from pear and the lowest identity of 67.7% for isolate TaTao5 (GenBank accession no. EU223295) from peach. Hawthorn isolate sequences were similar to those of 'B6 type' ACLSV. The relationship between ACLSV isolates largely depends upon the host species. This represents the first comparative study of the genome sequences of ACLSV isolates from hawthorns.

  4. Different speciation for bromine in brown and red algae, revealed by in vivo X-ray absorption spectroscopic studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Küpper, Frithjof C; Leblanc, Catherine; Meyer-Klaucke, Wolfram; Potin, Philippe; Feiters, Martin C

    2014-08-01

    Members of various algal lineages are known to be strong producers of atmospherically relevant halogen emissions, that is a consequence of their capability to store and metabolize halogens. This study uses a noninvasive, synchrotron-based technique, X-ray absorption spectroscopy, for addressing in vivo bromine speciation in the brown algae Ectocarpus siliculosus, Ascophyllum nodosum, and Fucus serratus, the red algae Gracilaria dura, G. gracilis, Chondrus crispus, Osmundea pinnatifida, Asparagopsis armata, Polysiphonia elongata, and Corallina officinalis, the diatom Thalassiosira rotula, the dinoflagellate Lingulodinium polyedrum and a natural phytoplankton sample. The results highlight a diversity of fundamentally different bromine storage modes: while most of the stramenopile representatives and the dinoflagellate store mostly bromide, there is evidence for Br incorporated in nonaromatic hydrocarbons in Thalassiosira. Red algae operate various organic bromine stores - including a possible precursor (by the haloform reaction) for bromoform in Asparagopsis and aromatically bound Br in Polysiphonia and Corallina. Large fractions of the bromine in the red algae G. dura and C. crispus and the brown alga F. serratus are present as Br(-) defects in solid KCl, similar to what was reported earlier for Laminaria parts. These results are discussed according to different defensive strategies that are used within algal taxa to cope with biotic or abiotic stresses. © 2014 Phycological Society of America.

  5. Chlorophyll fluorescence ratio F685/F735 in brown algae and its variation under excitation by two types of light and dehydration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Baogan; Zang, Rubo

    1993-03-01

    Calculation and comparative study of the chlorophyll fluorescence ratio F685/F735 in brown alage ( Laminaria japonica, Underia pinnatifida and Padina crassa) excited by blue and green light showed that the fluorescence ratios were higher when the algae were excited by blue light (440 nm), but reduced obviously under green light (540 nm) excitation. The values also reduced under dehydration but could recover during rehydration if the stress was not serious. The variation of the fluorescence ratio under dehydration was mainly because changes in fluorescence emission at 735 nm were always sharper than those at 685 nm. The ratio was sensitive to stress and has potential as a stress indicator in phycological research. Measurement of the fluorescence excitation spectra showed that the only peak at 540 nm changed apparently during dehydration. It meant that the function of the Ch1 a/Fucoxanthin protein complex for energy transfer was easily inhibited by water stress. However, no variation of the ratio was found in green alga Ulva pertusa under dehydration. So it seemed to be something special for brown algae. The mechanism of this phenomenon is still unclear but may be related to the photosynthetic pigments and structural characteristics of brown algae.

  6. Ethnobotanical survey of antidiarrhoeal plants of Parinche valley, Pune district, Maharashtra, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tetali, P; Waghchaure, C; Daswani, P G; Antia, N H; Birdi, T J

    2009-06-22

    Maharashtra is the third largest state in India with a large tribal population. Documentation of traditional knowledge through ethnobotanical studies is important for conservation and utilization of indigenous knowledge. Diarrhoeal diseases are the second largest cause of morbidity in rural India. Medicinal plants given by the traditional healers of Parinche in Pune district, Maharashtra are known to be efficacious for many common ailments, including diarrhoeal diseases. Ethnobotanical survey of antidiarrhoeal plants from Parinche valley towards the documentation and conservation of traditional knowledge. Interviews and inquiries were conducted amongst traditional healers, indigenous communities and village elders. One hundred and eighty two plants used by tribes and natives for different ailments were documented of which 28 flowering plants were for diarrhoea. Leaf was the most preferred plant part. Amongst the 28 plants, antidiarrhoeal activity of five plants viz., Caesalpinia sepiaria, Dioscorea pentaphylla, Launaea pinnatifida, Syzygium rubicundum and Ziziphus jujuba has not been reported previously. Two species viz., Ziziphus xylopyra and Syzygium rubicundum are endemic to India. Parinche valley is an ethnobotanically rich area with abundant availability and knowledge of medicinal plants that can serve as a model for low cost health care.

  7. On the distribution and intraspecific taxonomy of Scrophularia olympica Boiss. (Scrophulariaceae

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    M. B. Sheludyakova

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the distribution and intraspecific systematics of Scrophularia olympica Boiss., one of taxonomically problematic species of figworts. The special attention is given to the record of thisspecies from the Crimea from where it had been reported based on the single herbarium specimen collected “infra Baidara” by F. J. Ruprecht in 1861. This collection was previously regarded as made near the village of Orlinoye (former Baydary in the vicinity of Sevastopol. Actually, the locality “infra Baidara” should be referred to the river Baydara in Georgia, and S. olympica should be excludedboth from the floras of the Crimea and Europe as a whole. Six varieties are recognized within the species; a key to their identification is proposed. Lectotypes of S. olympica var. integrifolia Freyn et Sint., S. olympica var. macrophylla Freyn et Sint., S. olympica var. pinnatifida Trautv. ex Grossh. and S. olympica var. platyloma Grossh. are designated. A new name, S. olympica var. bordzilowskii Sheludyakova, nom. nov. ≡ S. olympica var. integrifoliaBordz., non Freyn et Sint., is proposed.

  8. Breeding biology and microhabitat utilization of the intertidal isopod Idotea granulosa Rathke, in the Irish Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salemaa, Heikki

    1986-03-01

    The life history and distribution of the intertidal isopod Idotea granulosa were investigated at five rocky shore biotopes in the Isle of Man. I. granulosa breeds throughout the year in the Irish Sea. The breeding activity is highest in the early summer after the sexual maturation of the overwintered animals. At that period about 4% of the females were infested by Clypeoniscus sp. (Isopoda) which destroys the brood. A small proportion of the juveniles released in the early summer mature and breed in the autumn. In the winter Idotea populations consisted of juveniles, immature adults and old individuals which produce another brood. These large sized animals die off before the summer. Consequently, the age and size of the breeding I. granulosa fluctuates seasonally. The number of eggs is linearly related to the female length. The fecundity is highest in the spring and lowest in the autumn in all female size classes. I. granulosa inhabits an array of structurally different intertidal algae including the filamentous Cladophora rupestris, understory turfs Gigartina stellata, Laurencia pinnatifida and Corallina officinalis and the fucoids Fucus serratus and Ascophyllum nodosum. The distribution pattern of I. granulosa in examined intertidal communities is modified by the physiognomy of the algal microhabitats, by seasonal and spatial variation in wave agitation and by the breeding cycle of the population itself. Both the life history characteristics and distribution patterns are explained as adaptations to the spatially and temporally heterogeneous intertidal shores.

  9. Triterpenic Acids Present in Hawthorn Lower Plasma Cholesterol by Inhibiting Intestinal ACAT Activity in Hamsters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yuguang; Vermeer, Mario A; Trautwein, Elke A

    2011-01-01

    Hawthorn (Crataegus pinnatifida) is an edible fruit used in traditional Chinese medicine to lower plasma lipids. This study explored lipid-lowering compounds and underlying mechanisms of action of hawthorn. Hawthorn powder extracts inhibited acylCoA:cholesterol acyltransferase (ACAT) activity in Caco-2 cells. The inhibitory activity was positively associated with triterpenic acid (i.e., oleanolic acid (OA) and ursolic acid (UA)) contents in the extracts. Cholesterol lowering effects of hawthorn and its potential additive effect in combination with plant sterol esters (PSE) were further studied in hamsters. Animals were fed a semi-synthetic diet containing 0.08% (w/w) cholesterol (control) or the same diet supplemented with (i) 0.37% hawthorn dichloromethane extract, (ii) 0.24% PSE, (iii) hawthorn dichloromethane extract (0.37%) plus PSE (0.24%) or (iv) OA/UA mixture (0.01%) for 4 weeks. Compared to the control diet, hawthorn, PSE, hawthorn plus PSE and OA/UA significantly lowered plasma non-HDL (VLDL + LDL) cholesterol concentrations by 8%, 9%, 21% and 6% and decreased hepatic cholesterol ester content by 9%, 23%, 46% and 22%, respectively. The cholesterol lowering effects of these ingredients were conversely associated with their capacities in increasing fecal neutral sterol excretion. In conclusion, OA and UA are responsible for the cholesterol lowering effect of hawthorn by inhibiting intestinal ACAT activity. In addition, hawthorn and particularly its bioactive compounds (OA and UA) enhanced the cholesterol lowering effect of plant sterols.

  10. Triterpenic Acids Present in Hawthorn Lower Plasma Cholesterol by Inhibiting Intestinal ACAT Activity in Hamsters

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    Yuguang Lin

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Hawthorn (Crataegus pinnatifida is an edible fruit used in traditional Chinese medicine to lower plasma lipids. This study explored lipid-lowering compounds and underlying mechanisms of action of hawthorn. Hawthorn powder extracts inhibited acylCoA:cholesterol acyltransferase (ACAT activity in Caco-2 cells. The inhibitory activity was positively associated with triterpenic acid (i.e., oleanolic acid (OA and ursolic acid (UA contents in the extracts. Cholesterol lowering effects of hawthorn and its potential additive effect in combination with plant sterol esters (PSE were further studied in hamsters. Animals were fed a semi-synthetic diet containing 0.08% (w/w cholesterol (control or the same diet supplemented with (i 0.37% hawthorn dichloromethane extract, (ii 0.24% PSE, (iii hawthorn dichloromethane extract (0.37% plus PSE (0.24% or (iv OA/UA mixture (0.01% for 4 weeks. Compared to the control diet, hawthorn, PSE, hawthorn plus PSE and OA/UA significantly lowered plasma non-HDL (VLDL + LDL cholesterol concentrations by 8%, 9%, 21% and 6% and decreased hepatic cholesterol ester content by 9%, 23%, 46% and 22%, respectively. The cholesterol lowering effects of these ingredients were conversely associated with their capacities in increasing fecal neutral sterol excretion. In conclusion, OA and UA are responsible for the cholesterol lowering effect of hawthorn by inhibiting intestinal ACAT activity. In addition, hawthorn and particularly its bioactive compounds (OA and UA enhanced the cholesterol lowering effect of plant sterols.

  11. Evaluation of a Crataegus-Based Multiherb Formula for Dyslipidemia: A Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Clinical Trial

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    Miao Hu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. We for the first time examined the effects of a multiherb formula containing Crataegus pinnatifida (1 g daily, Alisma orientalis, Stigma maydis, Ganoderma lucidum, Polygonum multiflorum, and Morus alba on plasma lipid and glucose levels in Chinese patients with dyslipidemia. Methods. In this randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study, 42 patients were randomized at a ratio of 1 : 1 to receive the herbal formula or placebo for 12 weeks and 40 patients completed the study. Lipid profiles, glucose, glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c, and laboratory safety parameters were performed before and after treatment. Results. The difference in the changes in low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C levels between placebo and active treatment (−9% was significantly (P<0.05 better with active treatment. HbA1c levels significantly decreased by −3.9% in the active treatment group, but the change was not significantly different from that with placebo (−1.1% (P=0.098. There were no apparent adverse effects or changes in laboratory safety parameters with either treatment. Conclusions. The multiherb formula had mild beneficial effects on plasma LDL-C after 12-weeks treatment in subjects with dyslipidemia without any noticeable adverse effects.

  12. Use of Liquid Chromatography with Electrochemical Detection for the Determination of Antioxidants in Less Common Fruits

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    Zbynek Gazdik

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Neurodegenerative disorders (NDD have become the common global health burden over the last several decades. According to World Health Organization (WHO, a staggering 30 million people will be affected by Alzheimer’s disease in Europe and the USA by 2050. Effective therapies in this complex field considering the multitude of symptoms associated with NDD indications, have not been found yet. Based on the results of NDD related studies, prevention appears to be the promise alternative. Antioxidative and anti-inflammatory properties are hypothesized for natural phenolics, a group of plant secondary products that may positively impact neurodegenerative diseases. In these studies, phenolic-rich extracts from less common fruit species: Blue honeysuckle (Lonicera edulis, Turcz. ex. Freyn, Saskatoon berry (Amelanchier alnifolia Nutt., and Chinese hawthorn (Crateagus pinnatifida Bunge were obtained and analyzed to detect neuroprotective substances content and establish a potential therapeutic value. High performance liquid chromatography with electrochemical detection was optimized and further applied on analysis of the extracts of less common fruit species. It was observed that Chinese hawthorn and Blue honeysuckle extracts are potent source of neuroprotective phenolic antioxidants. In accordance the results, it appears that the fruit or formulated products may have the potential for the prevention of neurodegenerative diseases.

  13. EVOLUCIÓN DE LA ENFERMEDAD MENINGOCÓCICA EN LA POBLACIÓN INFANTIL DE LA COMUNIDAD VALENCIANA (1996-2000. EFECTIVIDAD DE LA VACUNACIÓN ANTIMENINGOCÓCICA A+B

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    Mercedes Goicoechea Sáez

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available por serogrupo C en la Comunidad Valenciana durante 1996-1997 motivó la realización de una campaña de vacunación antimeningocócica A+C en la población de 18 meses a 19 años de edad (entre septiembre y diciembre de 1997. El objetivo de este estudio es analizar el impacto de la campaña en cuanto a la epidemiología, clínica, evolución de la enfermedad meningocócica y estado de vacunación de la población infantil con el fin de valorar la efectividad vacunal. Métodos: Los datos se obtuvieron de las historias clínicas de los niños menores de 15 años, que presentaron síntomas y signos clínicos sugestivos de enfermedad invasora con aislamiento de Neisseria. meningitidis y/o que cumplían con los criterios de definición de caso establecidos, atendidos en todos los hospitales públicos de la Comunidad Valenciana entre 1996-2000. La evolución de la incidencia se valoró mediante tasas de incidencia. La clínica y su evolución (secuelas y letalidad mediante la frecuencia y distribución por serogrupo y edad. La efectividad vacunal se calculó según la fórmula de Orestein. Resultados: Se registró un total de 302 casos de enfermedad invasora por N. meningitidis. La tasa de incidencia por serogrupo C en niños menores de 15 años disminuyó tras la campaña de vacunación desde 5,82/105 habitantes en 1997 a 1,68/105 habitantes en 1998. Tres años después de la campaña se ha vuelto a tasas similares a la época prevacunal, con un aumento por serogrupo B en los 2 últimos años. El 61% de las secuelas se da en menores de 5 años. La letalidad fue más elevada para el serogrupo C. La efectividad vacunal al tercer año tras la campaña ha sido del 83,7% para el grupo de 5-14 años y del 69,1% para el grupo de 19 meses-4 años. Conclusión: La vacuna polisacarídica se mostró efectiva para interrumpir el brote. La disminución de la incidencia del serogrupo C es atribuible a la efectividad vacunal obtenida.

  14. Evolución de la enfermedad meningocócica en la población infantil de la Comunidad Valenciana (1996-2000: Efectividad de la vacunación antimeningocócica A+C

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    Goicoechea Sáez Mercedes

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Fundamento: El incremento de la enfermedad meningocócica por serogrupo C en la Comunidad Valenciana durante 1996-1997 motivó la realización de una campaña de vacunación antimeningocócica A+C en la población de 18 meses a 19 años de edad (entre septiembre y diciembre de 1997. El objetivo de este estudio es analizar el impacto de la campaña en cuanto a la epidemiología, clínica, evolución de la enfermedad meningocócica y estado de vacunación de la población infantil con el fin de valorar la efectividad vacunal. Métodos: Los datos se obtuvieron de las historias clínicas de los niños menores de 15 años, que presentaron síntomas y signos clínicos sugestivos de enfermedad invasora con aislamiento de Neisseria. meningitidis y/o que cumplían con los criterios de definición de caso establecidos, atendidos en todos los hospitales públicos de la Comunidad Valenciana entre 1996-2000. La evolución de la incidencia se valoró mediante tasas de incidencia. La clínica y su evolución (secuelas y letalidad mediante la frecuencia y distribución por serogrupo y edad. La efectividad vacunal se calculó según la fórmula de Orestein. Resultados: Se registró un total de 302 casos de enfermedad invasora por N. meningitidis. La tasa de incidencia por serogrupo C en niños menores de 15 años disminuyó tras la campaña de vacunación desde 5,82/10(5 habitantes en 1997 a 1,68/10(5 habitantes en 1998. Tres años después de la campaña se ha vuelto a tasas similares a la época prevacunal, con un aumento por serogrupo B en los 2 últimos años. El 61% de las secuelas se da en menores de 5 años. La letalidad fue más elevada para el serogrupo C. La efectividad vacunal al tercer año tras la campaña ha sido del 83,7% para el grupo de 5-14 años y del 69,1% para el grupo de 19 meses-4 años. Conclusión: La vacuna polisacarídica se mostró efectiva para interrumpir el brote. La disminución de la incidencia del serogrupo C es atribuible a la

  15. Estado de portador nasofaríngeo de Streptococcus pneumoniae en madres e hijos de la población indígena Panare del estado Bolívar, Venezuela Pneumococcal carriage in mothers and children of the Panare Amerindians from the State of Bolivar, Venezuela

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    T Bello González

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available En América del Norte, los grupos indígenas se han identificado como una población con un riesgo elevado de ser portadora de Streptococcus pneumoniae, así como de desarrollar enfermedad neumocócica invasora. Sin embargo, hay poca información con respecto a los indígenas de Latinoamérica. En el presente estudio se evaluó el estado de portador nasofaríngeo y la distribución de los serotipos de S. pneumoniae en madres e hijos de la población panare de Venezuela. Durante el mes de mayo de 2008 se obtuvieron 148 muestras nasofaríngeas de 64 madres y 84 niños menores de 5 años pertenecientes a 8 comunidades panare. Mediante procedimientos estándares se identificaron 65 cepas de S. pneumoniae. Dichas cepas fueron tipificadas por PCR múltiple, y sus patrones de sensibilidad a los antimicrobianos se determinaron por el método de difusión con discos. El 11% de las madres y el 69% de los niños eran portadores de S. pneumoniae. Los serotipos 6B (49%, 33F (21,5%, 6A (6%, 19A (3,1% y 23F (1,5% fueron los más frecuentes. El mismo serotipo se identificó en 3 de los 6 grupos madre-hijo/s colonizados. Todas las cepas fueron sensibles a la penicilina y el 13,7% fue resistente a los macrólidos. La elevada tasa de colonización en la población panare sugiere que los niños presentan un alto riesgo de desarrollar enfermedad invasora por S. pneumoniae; por lo tanto podrían beneficiarse de la vacunación. Cuatro serotipos de la vacuna conjugada (6B, 6A, 19A y 23F, que representaron el 58% de las cepas aisladas, estaban presentes en la población al momento del estudio. La resistencia a los antibióticos no se presenta como un problema dentro de esta población.In North America, the indigenous groups have been identified as a population with increased risk of pneumococcal colonization and pneumococcal invasive disease. However, little information is available from South American natives. In the present study we evaluated the nasopharyngeal

  16. Estimating the cost-effectiveness of pneumococcal conjugate vaccination in Brazil Cálculo de la relación costo-efectividad de la vacuna conjugada antineumocócica en Brasil

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    Glaucia Vespa

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To compare the costs and benefits of pneumococcal conjugate vaccination compared with no vaccination from the perspectives of the health care system and society. METHODS: Using data from established sources, we estimated the incidence and mortality due to invasive pneumococcal disease, pneumonia, and acute otitis media (AOM for a hypothetical birth cohort of children from birth to 5 years. RESULTS: A universal pneumococcal conjugate vaccination program was estimated capable of annually avoiding 1 047 cases of invasive disease, 58 226 cases of pneumonia, and 209 862 cases of AOM. When herd immunity effects were considered, the program prevented 1.3 million cases of pneumococcal disease and over 7 000 pneumococcal deaths. At a vaccination cost of R$ 51.12 (US$ 26.35 per dose, vaccination would cost annually R$ 4 289 (US$ 2,211 per disability-adjusted life years averted. This does not take into account herd immunity effects. CONCLUSIONS: At the current vaccine price, conjugate vaccination could be a cost-effective investment compared to other options to control childhood diseases. Further analysis is required to determine whether vaccination at the current price is affordable to Brazil.OBJETIVO: Comparar los costos y los beneficios de la aplicación de la vacuna conjugada antineumocócica en comparación con la no vacunación, desde las perspectivas del sistema de salud y la sociedad. MÉTODOS: A partir de fuentes reconocidas, se estimaron la incidencia y la mortalidad por enfermedad neumocócica invasora, neumonía y otitis media aguda (OMA para una cohorte hipotética de niños desde su nacimiento hasta los 5 años. RESULTADOS: Se estimó que un programa de vacunación universal con una vacuna conjugada antineumocócica sería capaz de evitar anualmente 1 047 casos de la enfermedad invasora, 58 226 casos de neumonía y 209 862 casos de OMA. Si se considera el efecto de la inmunidad de grupo, el programa evitaría 1,3 millones de casos

  17. Efeitos de diferentes substratos e da profundidade de semeadura na germinação de sementes de mata-pasto e malva Effects of different substrata and sowing depth o germination of mata-pasto and malva seeds

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    Antonio P. S. Souza Filho

    1998-06-01

    Full Text Available As flutuações na germinação de sementes no campo são governadas por um conjunto de fatores ambientais. No presente trabalho são analisados os efeitos do pH, da salinidade e do alumínio sobre a germinação de sementes, e da profundidade de semeadura sobre a taxa de emergência de plântulas das invasoras de pastagens mata-pasto (Cassia tora e malva (Urena lobata. À exceção dos estudos de profundidade de semeadura, que foram realizados em casa de vegetação, os demais foram realizados em laboratório. A germinação e a taxa de emergência de plântulas foram monitoradas em períodos de 15 e 20 dias, respectivamente. Os resultados obtidos mostraram que o pH na faixa de 3 a 11 e a concentração de alumínio de 0 a 2,0 meq/100 ml não afetaram a germinação das sementes das duas invasoras. Mata-pasto e malva responderam similarmente à salinidade até o nível de 150 mM. Entretanto, para a concentração de 300 mM, malva foi mais tolerante à salinidade do que o mata-pasto, cujas sementes não germinaram nesta concentração do sal. A relação entre taxa de emergência de plântulas e profundidade de semeadura foi quadrática para ambas as espécies. Mata-pasto, entretanto, evidenciou maior capacidade para emergir da profundidade de 8 cm do que a malva, que apresentou taxa de emergência zero, quando semeada nesta profundidade.The flotations in the germination of seeds in the field are governed by a group of environmental factors. In the present work it was analysed the effects of the pH, salinity and aluminium on the germination of seeds, and of the sowing depth on the rate of seedling emergency of the pasture weeds Cassia tora and Urena lobata. All studies were carried out in laboratory, excpet those of sowing depht which were accomplished at a greenhouse. The germination and the seedling emergency rate were monitored in period of 15 and 20 days, respectively. The results showed that the pH in the band from 3 to 11 and the

  18. Diferenças morfológicas entre Amaranthus cruentus, cv. BRS Alegria, e as plantas daninhas A. hybridus, A. retroflexus, A. viridis e A. spinosus Morphological differences between Amaranthus cruentus, cv. BRS Alegria, and the weed species A. hybridus, A. retroflexus, A. viridis and A. spinosus

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    C.R. Spehar

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available O pseudocereal amaranto, com as espécies Amaranthus caudatus, A. cruentus e A. hypochondriacus, domesticado pelas populações indígenas antes que a América fosse descoberta, tem se adaptado aos sistemas produtivos dos cerrados. A planta apresenta panículas apicais, divididas em pequenos ramos com frutos do tipo pixídio, com uma semente cada. Estas germinam rapidamente em presença de umidade, após atingirem a maturação fisiológica. No início da fase vegetativa, o amaranto cultivado pode confundir-se com espécies de plantas daninhas do mesmo gênero (A. hybridus, A. retroflexus, A. viridis e A. spinosus, as quais estão associadas à expansão agrícola. As diferenças morfológicas tornam-se mais visíveis após o florescimento: ramificações com flores axilares e terminais, em contraste com o amaranto, no qual a inflorescência (panícula é apical; as sementes claras das espécies cultivadas contrastam com as das invasoras, que são escuras. BRS Alegria (A. cruentus, cultivar pioneiro no Brasil, apresenta plantas com 180 cm, das quais a panícula ocupa 48 cm; maturação fisiológica aos 90 dias; resistência ao acamamento; e 0,68 g por 1.000 sementes, com produção de 2,3 t ha¹ (sementes e 5,6 t ha-1 (biomassa total. As sementes nas plantas daninhas são menores, germinam gradativamente e podem permanecer no solo por muitos anos, infestando as áreas. As diferenças morfológicas detectadas na experimentação demonstram que as espécies são distinguíveis; elas contribuem para orientar a produção de sementes e o cultivo comercial de amaranto, enfatizando as características de adaptação, em contraste com as das invasoras do mesmo gênero botânico.The pseudocereal grain amaranth, with the species Amaranthus caudatus, A. ruentus e A. hypochondriacus, domesticated by indigenous populations before America was discovered, has shown adaptability to production systems in the Brazilian savannah. The plants present apical

  19. Efeito alelopático de sabugueiro e capim-limão na germinação de picão-preto e soja = Allelophatic effect of Sambucus australis Cham. and Schltdl. and Cymbopogon citratus (DC Stapf. in the germination of Bidens pilosa L. and soybeans

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    Andréa Maria Teixeira Fortes

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available As plantas invasoras são constantes e diminuem a produtividade das culturas por competirem por espaço, nutrientes e água. Dessa forma, os agricultores adotam, em grande escala, produtos químicos eficientes no controle da lavoura e com alta toxicidade ao meioambiente. Existem, no entanto, formas alternativas para o controle de invasoras, por meio de aleloquímicos presentes em algumas plantas, dentre elas, as medicinais. Este trabalho tem como objetivo analisar as propriedades alelopáticas dos extratos das plantas medicinais Cymbopogon citratus (DC Stapf. e Sambucus australis Cham. and Schltdl. em inibir a germinação de Bidens pilosa L., sem interferir na germinação de Glycine max L. Merrill. Os extratos foram obtidos triturandose 200 g de folhas com 1 L de água destilada. As sementes foram mantidas em B.O.D. à temperatura de 25°C, com fotoperíodo de 12h de luz. Nas condições em que foram realizados os experimentos, constatou-se que o extrato de capim-limão inibiu a germinação de picão-preto sem que este inibisse a germinação da soja, enquanto o extrato de sabugueiro inibiu a germinação de picão-preto e a germinação da soja. Assim, indica-se a utilização do capim-limão, como um herbicida natural para o picão-preto.Agriculture has been suffering adaptations throughout time, from hard hand labor to the most advanced sowing and harvesting techniques. Invasive plants are a constant, diminishing productivity by competing for space, nutrients, and water. Therefore, farmers have adopted, on alarge scale, the use of efficient synthetic chemicals, which are highly toxic to the environment, in order to control plant production. However, there are other alternative means to control those competitors: using allelochemicals present in some plants, such as medicinal ones. The objective of this paper is to analyze allelophatic properties of the medicinal plants Cymbopogon citratus (DC Stapf. and Sambucus australis Cham. and Schltdl

  20. Capim - gordura (Melinis minutiflora P. Beauv., uma gramínea exótica que compromete a recuperação de áreas degradadas em unidades de conservação Molasses grass (Melinis minutiflora P. Beauv., an exotic species compromising the recuperation of degraded areas in conservation units

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    Carlos Romero Martins

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available O capim-gordura, Melinis minutiflora, é uma gramínea de origem africana que invade áreas degradadas da região do Cerrado em detrimento das espécies nativas. A interferência do capim-gordura no processo de sucessão e o efeito da queimada controlada sobre essa gramínea foram estudados em uma cascalheira localizada no Parque Nacional de Brasília. O estudo foi realizado numa área experimental em que, em 1993, havia sido implantado um experimento para avaliar o estabelecimento de gramíneas nativas pela técnica do "coquetel de sementes". Mesmo não estando entre as espécies semeadas, o capim-gordura estabeleceu-se nas parcelas experimentais, onde se incorporou torta de mamona ou turfa. Metade das parcelas que apresentaram os melhores índices de cobertura do solo foi queimada no final da estação seca, em setembro de 1998. Em maio de 1999, oito meses após a queimada verificou-se redução da cobertura do substrato superior a 50%, em comparação com a cobertura antes da queimada. Nos anos subseqüentes, o índice de cobertura do substrato voltou a crescer, atingindo, em maio de 2001, os valores observados antes da queimada. Durante esse período, notou-se, nas parcelas queimadas e nãoqueimadas, aumento na contribuição do capim-gordura para o índice total de cobertura do solo, em detrimento das espécies nativas. O uso do fogo não foi eficaz no controle dessa invasora. Assim, em programas de recuperação de áreas degradadas em áreas protegidas é necessário controlar as espécies invasoras exóticas para permitir o estabelecimento de um maior número de espécies nativas do Cerrado.Melinis minutiflora is an African grass that invades degraded areas in the cerrado endangering native species. The effects of this invasion and of burning on Melinis minutiflora propagation were investigated in a gravel-mining pit, within the National Park of Brasilia. This study was conducted in an area where an experimental field was set up in 1993

  1. Alienígenas na sala: o que fazer com espécies exóticas em trabalhos de taxonomia, florística e fitossociologia? Aliens in the room: what to do with exotic species in taxonomic, floristic and phytosociological studies?

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    Marcelo Freire Moro

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available A presença cada vez mais disseminada de organismos exóticos (muitos dos quais se tornam invasores nas diferentes regiões do planeta levou ao surgimento de uma linha de pesquisa na ecologia voltada às invasões biológicas. E para permitir a comunicação entre autores também foi desenvolvido um arcabouço terminológico. Mas, apesar disso, a terminologia relativa às bioinvasões tem sido ignorada por boa parte dos botânicos no Brasil. Há uma boa dose de confusão entre botânicos sobre o que seja uma espécie exótica, naturalizada, invasora, daninha e ruderal, levando ao uso inconsistente da terminologia. Além disso, diferentes autores têm adotado posturas praticamente opostas ao lidar com espécies exóticas em suas áreas de estudo, seja na preparação de tratamentos taxonômicos, seja na publicação de levantamentos florísticos e fitossociológicos. Enquanto alguns pesquisadores incluem em floras mesmo espécies cultivadas que não se reproduzem, outros excluem plantas invasoras comuns e conspícuas. Nós apresentamos aqui, em português, os principais conceitos relativos ao tema da bioinvasão e chamamos a atenção dos autores brasileiros para a necessidade de utilizar de modo consistente o arcabouço terminológico já existente na literatura. Também propomos a adoção de rótulos claros para informar quais espécies são exóticas na área estudada, diferenciando-as das nativas, e sugerimos critérios para ajudar botânicos a decidirem quando uma planta exótica deve ou não ser incluída em tratamentos taxonômicos ou levantamentos de florística.The ever-growing presence of exotic organisms (many of which become invasive throughout the planet has led to the emergence of biological invasions as a field of study within ecology. To enable communication between scientists in this field, a terminology has developed. However, this terminology has been ignored by many botanists in Brazil where there is confusion regarding

  2. Ursinia nana (Anthemideae, Asteraceae, an adventive from South Africa which is becoming naturalized in the NE Iberian Peninsula. Observations about its reproductive biology and fruit dispersal mechanisms

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    Molero Briones, J.

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The presence of Ursinia nana, an Anthemideae of South-African origin which has been introduced into the NE Iberian Peninsula, is reported for the first time in Europe. The data offered cover its precise location, morphology, chromosome number, ecology and a population census, as well as its life cycle, floral structure, reproductive biology and fruit dispersal mechanisms. Of special note are the clear predominance of autogamy (geitonogamy over xenogamy as a reproductive system and the large number of fruits produced with high and immediate germinative capacity. These characteristics permit rapid colonization by the introduced species, which can become invasive. However, fruit predation by the ant Messor barbarus points to a natural mechanism that helps regulate population growth and makes biological control possible. Finally its possibilities of expansion in the colonized area and of naturalization in the NE Iberian Peninsula are assessed.

    [es] Se indica por primera vez para el continente europeo la presencia de Ursinia nana, una Anthemideae de origen sudafricano introducida en el NE de la Península Ibérica. Además de su localización precisa, morfología, número cromosómico, ecología y de un censo de sus poblaciones, se ofrecen datos sobre el ciclo vital, estructura floral, biología reproductiva y dispersión de los frutos. Son remarcables el claro dominio de la autogamia (geitonogamia sobre la xenogamia como sistema reproductivo y la alta producción de frutos con elevada e inmediata capacidad germinativa, características que permiten una colonización rápida de esta especie introducida que pudiera devenir invasora. No obstante la predación de sus frutos por la hormiga Messor barbarus evidencian un mecanismo natural que interviene en la regulación del crecimiento de sus poblaciones, lo que puede permitir su control biológico. Finalmente se analizan las posibilidades de expansión en el

  3. Carbono, nitrogênio e fósforo microbiano do solo sob diferentes coberturas em pomar de produção orgânica de maçã no sul do Brasil Microbial carbon, nitrogen and phosphorus on soil under different mulchings in organic apple orchard in southern of Brazil

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    Denice Almeida

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available O uso de coberturas sobre o solo constitui-se em alternativa na prevenção de plantas invasoras nos plantios orgânicos que excluem a utilização de herbicidas. Entretanto, existem poucos estudos no sul do Brasil sobre a implicação da cobertura do solo em sua qualidade microbiológica. Assim, o objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar em duas épocas distintas o efeito de diferentes tipos de cobertura do solo nos atributos de carbono, nitrogênio e fósforo microbiano de um Latossolo com produção orgânica de maçã no sul do Brasil. O estudo foi realizado na Estação Experimental da Embrapa em Vacaria (RS em delineamento experimental de blocos ao acaso. As coberturas estudadas foram: acícula, serragem e plástico preto comparadas ao solo descoberto e com plantas invasoras. As amostras de solo foram coletadas em fevereiro (verão e agosto (inverno de 2006, sendo determinados atributos microbianos e químicos relacionados ao carbono, nitrogênio e fósforo. As coberturas orgânicas (acícula e serragem promoveram maior umidade e maiores teores de Cmic, Nmic, Corg, maior relação Cmic/Corg, Nmic/Ntotal e C/N microbiano. A cobertura com plástico preto e solo descoberto promoveu maior temperatura, nitrato, quociente metabólico e fósforo imobilizado na biomassa. Com base neste estudo e considerando a qualidade microbiana do solo as melhores coberturas foram as orgânicas.The use of soil mulching is an alternative in the prevention of weeds in organic orchard, which exclude the use of herbicides. However, there are few studies in southern Brazil on the impact of soil mulching in the soil microbiological quality. In this sense, the purpose of this study was to evaluate in two different seasons the effect of different types of soil mulching in the attributes of microbial carbon, nitrogen and phosphorus in a Typic Hapludox producing of organic apples in southern Brazil. The study was conducted at the Experimental Station of Embrapa in Vacaria, Rio

  4. O uso de técnicas de nucleação na restauração de áreas degradadas no Polo Centro Norte-APTA, Pindorama-SP e no IMES-Catanduva-SP

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    A. C. Bieras

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Nucleação é capacidade que algumas espécies têm de induzir a restauração ambiental por meio de técnicas nucleadoras oferecendo abrigo, alimentação e reprodução acelerando assim o processo sucessional e diversidade local. Para promover a restauração ambiental no Polo Centro Norte- APTA e do IMES- Catanduva, foram selecionadas três áreas degradas adjacentes à fragmentos florestais: cultura agrícola (1, pastagem (2 e área desprovida de vegetação (3, instalando em cada área diferentes técnicas nucleadoras: 4 poleiros artificiais, 4 núcleos de galharia, 8 plantio de mudas em grupo Anderson, banco de sementes do solo e chuva de sementes. Após 15 meses a área de pastagem (2, por ter proximidade com fragmento florestal rico em diversidade e sem invasoras apresentou melhor resultado. Na área sem vegetação (3, teve aumento lento de biodiversidade devido à proximidade a fragmentos pobres em diversidade. Na área agrícola (1, com presença de invasoras, apenas alguns núcleos tiveram sucesso como o plantio de mudas em grupo de “Anderson” e chuva ou banco de sementes germinadas em viveiro e mudas transplantadas após rustificação. Poleiro artificial, galharia e banco ou chuva de sementes direto no solo, não são recomendados, pois devido a mato-competição, as plântulas germinadas são abafadas e provavelmente não sobrevivem. The use of nucleation techniques in the restoration of degraded areas in the Polo Centro Norte-APTA, Pindorama-SP and in IMES-Catanduva-SP, Brazil  Abstract: Nucleation is the environmental restoration by several techniques that provides shelter, food and breeding accelerating the succession process and diversity. In order to promote environmental restoration in the Polo Centro Norte-APTA and in the IMES-Catanduva-SP, Brazil, three degraded areas next to forest remnants were selected: agriculture (1, pasture (2 and area without vegetation (3 where nucleation techniques were deployed in each

  5. Amebiasis: Epidemiología y Tratamiento

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    Alberto Albornoz Plata

    1986-08-01

    Full Text Available

    Introducción

    El concepto que se tenía hace varios años de “Enfermedades Tropicales” (se pensaba en un tipo de medicina exótica, como se llamaban en Europa, la malaria y amebiasis ha cambiado totalmente en la actualidad y específicamente para la amebiasis en el sentido de considerarla como enfermedad universal a la que puede ser susceptible cualquier ser humano que viva en cualquier sitio del mundo. Actualmente esta parasitosis cobra especial interés por los estudios inmunológicos, enzimáticos, epidemiológicos, metabólicos y terapéuticos que se desarrollan en centros muy especializados y se supone, con fundamento lógico, que no estará lejos el día en que se disponga de una vacuna eficaz contra esta enfermedad que ataca a muchas gentes, es causa de ausentismo al trabajo, incapacita por períodos largos a muchos pacientes por la complicación hepática y muchas veces es causa de mortalidad en los llamados casos de amebiasis invasora-fulminante.

    En este escrito solo se explicará lo referen te al aspecto epidemiológico y preventivo y, además, se hará énfasis para combatir ideas diagnósticas equivocadas con la entidad colon irritable.

    Al final se explicará el tratamiento actual de la amebiasis.

    Prevalencia y Susceptibilidad
    La amebiasis se considera como una enfermedad mundial, pero la mayor frecuencia es en aquellos lugares en donde las condiciones higiénicas ambientales son defectuosas, en especial lo referente al correcto suministro de agua potable, al buen tratamiento de las excretas y al control sanitario de los alimentos; por este motivo, en los países sub-desarrollados, o mejor subprivilegiados, y en las clases socio-económicas débiles, es donde más se encunetra esta enfermedad.

    Se ha calculado que en el mundo, el 20%de la población alberga la Endamoeba histolytica (l pero la gran mayoría no se consideran enfermos ya que son simplemente

  6. Forms of soil tillage and weed control in agronomic factors and production of cassavaFormas de preparo de solo e controle de plantas daninhas nos fatores agronômicos e de produção da mandioca

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    Auro Akio Otsubo

    2012-12-01

    ções. Os tratamentos testados correspondentes aos tipos de preparo do solo e sistemas de condução da lavoura foram os seguintes: T1- preparo convencional do solo na área em pousio e com controle de plantas daninhas (PC, T2 – Plantio direto sobre a palhada de aveia sem controle das plantas invasoras (PDsc e T3 – Plantio direto sobre a palhada de aveia com controle das plantas invasoras (PDcc. Para o tratamento correspondente ao preparo convencional (PC as parcelas experimentais foram preparadas com uma aração e uma gradagem niveladora. O plantio direto foi realizado utilizando plantadora mecanizada. A colheita foi realizada 14 meses após o plantio. Os maiores valores para altura de plantas e massa fresca da parte aérea foram observados nos tratamentos correspondentes ao sistema de plantio direto na palha (PD-sc e PD-cc. O maior número de raízes ha-1 foi obtido no tratamento PD-sc que diferiu somente do PC. Não foram observadas diferenças significativas para a produção de massa fresca de raízes entre os tratamentos testados. Quanto ao teor de amido das raízes o maior valor foi obtido no tratamento PD-cc.

  7. El efecto de las plantaciones forestales sobre el funcionamiento de los ecosistemas sudamericanos / The effect of tree plantations on south american ecosystems functioning

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    Germán Baldi

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available El establecimiento de plantaciones forestales sobre áreas bajo vegetaciónoriginal o uso agrícolo-ganadero se expande en la mayoría de los países de Sudamérica, incentivado por los altos rendimientos, el apoyo fi scal y por el inminente comercio de bonos de carbono. En este trabajo se evaluócómo esta transformación afecta la producción de biomasa y la dinámicadel agua sintetizando información preexistente y original. Mediciones satelitales muestran que el “Índice de Vegetación de DiferenciasNormalizadas” (NDVI de las plantaciones forestales superó a la dela matriz del paisaje agrícolo-ganadera en todos los países y regiones ecológicas analizadas y –con excepción de los bosques valdivianos- a todos los tipos de vegetación original. A escala regional, este aumento enla productividad fue acompañado en el litoral del Río Uruguay por una mayor evapotranspiración y un menor rendimiento hidrológico que redujoa la mitad el caudal de cuencas forestadas, en acuerdo con lo observado en pastizales forestados de la región. Es apremiante generar informaciónacerca de otros impactos de las forestaciones tales como cambios en la dinámica del fuego y el avance de especies invasoras. Reconocer integralmente la infl uencia de las forestaciones sobre la producción de servicios y bienes permitirá plantear sistemas y políticas forestales más sustentables y útiles para la sociedad.

  8. Ojo de buey en tomografía hepática.

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    Jorge Alberto Cortés

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available Las infecciones micóticas invasoras se presentan con mayor frecuencia en pacientes con neutropenia posterior al uso de quimioterapia para el tratamiento del cáncer. Se presenta una paciente de 4 años con diagnóstico de leucemia linfoide aguda, quien, luego de la quimioterapia, desarrolló neutropenia febril y diarrea. Recibió tratamiento antibiótico y antimicótico de amplio espectro. Se aisló Candida albicans y se observaron trofozoítos de Entamoeba histolytica en la materia fecal. La paciente desarrolló candidiosis crónica diseminada que fue tratada con anfotericina B y, posteriormente, con fluconazol. Se ilustra la imagen tomográfica conocida como 'ojo de buey' y su correspondiente estudio histopatológico. Candida spp. es la levadura más común en pacientes inmunosuprimidos con tumores hematológicos que reciben quimioterapia. La candidiosis diseminada que se presenta en estos pacientes persiste y se hace evidente clínicamente una vez se resuelve la neutropenia; se denomina candidiosis crónica diseminada. En la paciente se presentaron varios factores de riesgo, como el tratamiento previo con antibióticos de amplio espectro, la colonización del tracto gastrointestinal por Candida y la neutropenia prolongada. El diagnóstico por imagen se hace principalmente por ecografía, tomografía axial computarizada y resonancia magnética. Se han descrito cuatro patrones tanto ecográficos como tomográficos, de los cuales se destacan el tipo 1 ('ruedas entre ruedas' y el tipo 2 ('ojo de buey', que son característicos de

  9. Teor de nitrogênio em Ischaemum rugosum sob três níveis de sombreamento Nitrogen concentration in Ischaemum rugosum under three levels of shading

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    M.R.M. Silva

    2001-04-01

    Full Text Available Ishaemum rugosum é uma das invasoras mais importantes na cultura do arroz irrigado no Estado do Maranhão. O objetivo deste trabalho foi quantificar o teor de nitrogênio em folhas, colmos e raízes de I. rugosum sob três níveis de sombreamento (10, 60 e 70%, determinados aos 91 e 112 dias após emergência (DAE e, nas panículas, aos 133 DAE. O teor de nitrogênio em folhas, colmos, raízes e panículas foram mais elevados no tratamento sob 70% de sombreamento do que naqueles submetidos a 60 e 10% de sombreamento. Todavia, nas partes vegetativas, o maior teor de nitrogênio foi verificado nas plantas coletadas aos 91 DAE. Concluiu-se que de sombreamento aumentou o teor de nitrogênio na planta.Ishaemum rugosum is one of the most important weeds in irrigated rice in the state of Maranhão, Brazil. An experiment was conducted to evaluate the nitrogen content in the leaf, stem and root of I. rugosum under three levels of shading (10, 60 and 70% at 91 and 112 days after emergence and in the panicle at 133 DAE. Nitrogen levels were greater in the leaf, stem, roots and panicles at 70% of shading compared to either 60 or 10% shading. However, vegetative parts of the rice plants showed greater nitrogen content at 91 DAE. It was concluded that shading increased nitrogen content of plants os I. rugosum.

  10. Intoxicação experimental por Indigofera suffruticosa em caprinos e ovinos

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    Anna P.M. de Figueiredo

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Indigofera suffruticosa é uma planta invasora, ção. Em um caprino e um ovino foram realizados os testes que causa anemia hemolítica com hemoglobinúria em bo-de fragilidade osmótica, determinação de hemoglobina e vinos e, experimentalmente, anemia sem hemoglobinúria metemoglobina e pesquisa de corpúsculos de Heinz. Foi em cobaios. O objetivo deste trabalho foi determinar a comprovado que em caprinos e ovinos, I. suffruticosa cautoxicidade de I. suffruticosa para caprinos e ovinos. Par-sa anemia hemolítica sem hemoglobinúria com formação tes aéreas da planta foram administradas a seis caprinos de corpúsculos de Heinz. Os animais recuperaram-se da e quatro ovinos em doses diárias de 10, 20 e 40g por kg anemia, total ou parcialmente, mesmo com a continuidade de peso vivo, durante períodos de 2 a 24 dias. Foram ava-da administração da planta. Oito a 12 horas após a coleliados os parâmetros hematológicos (hematócrito, níveis ta observa-se pigmento azulado na urina. Sugere-se que o de hemoglobina e contagem de hemácias e foi coletada pigmento seja anilina ou algum metabolito dessa substânurina para urinálise e observação de variações na coloracia e que a anilina seja o princípio ativo responsável pela hemólise causada por I. suffruticosa.

  11. Especies del género Tamarix (Tamaricaceae invadiendo ambientes naturales y seminaturales en Argentina Tamarix species (Tamaricaceae invading natural and seminatural habitats in Argentina

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    E. S. Natale

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available El género Tamarix incluye especies con antecedentes como invasores agresivos en ambientes naturales de Estados Unidos, México y Australia. Su presencia en Argentina es conocida desde hace mucho tiempo, cultivado como ornamental, cortina corta-vientos o para sombra o creciendo de manera espontánea. Estudios previos citan un número variable de especies del género como cultivadas en el país, este trabajo aclara confusiones relacionadas con sinonimias, confirmando la presencia de cuatro especies en el país: T. gallica, T. ramosissima, T. chinensis y T. parviflora, las tres primeras registradas colonizando ambientes naturales o seminaturales. Se describen las especies del género citadas para Argentina y se provee una clave para su identificación. Se presenta la distribución conocida hasta el momento del género y se incluyen mapas con la ubicación de poblaciones establecidas e invasoras de cada especie a nivel nacional.The genus Tamarix includes species behaving as aggressive invaders in the USA, México and Australia. Previous studies report a variable number of species of this genus cultivated in Argentina as ornamentals, wind-break or for shadow, or growing spontaneously. This work makes clear some confusion related to synonyms and confirms the presence of four species in our country: T. gallica, T. ramosissima, T. chinensis and T. parviflora, the former three recorded colonizing natural and semi-natural habitats. A description of these species is given, together with a key for their identification, and information of their geographical distribution in Argentina, including maps showing the occurrence of established and invasive populations.

  12. A casual alien plant new to Mediterranean Europe: Ceiba speciosa (Malvaceae in the suburban area of Palermo (NW Sicily, Italy

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    Pasta, Salvatore

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The abiotic and biotic characteristics of the first sites where floss silk tree behaves as a casual alien plant in the Mediterranean Europe are described. The species was probably first planted in botanical gardens of southern France few decades before mid XIX century. It was introduced in Palermo in 1896, a city which appears to match very well its climatic requirements. According to the available information on its biology and ecology in both its original and secondary range, the floss silk tree should not become an invasive alien plant in the Mediterranean. Nevertheless, several gaps need to be filled in order to increase our understanding of future trends of Ceiba speciosa in southern Europe, in particular, the eventual role of pollinators and seed dispersers outside the species’ natural range.Se describen las caracteristicas abióticas y bióticas de los primeros sitios del mediterráneo europeo donde el árbol palo borracho se encuentra creciendo como especie alóctona casual. Con respecto a la historia de su introducción, esta especie fue probablemente plantada en los jardines botánicos del sur de Francia unos pocos decenios antes de la mitad del siglo XIX. En 1896, sin embargo, fue introducida en Palermo, ciudad que parece satisfacer muy bien sus requerimientos climáticos. De acuerdo con la información disponible, tanto dentro como fuera de su área de distribución natural, el palo borracho no debería convertirse en planta invasora en el mediterráneo. Sin embargo, algunos vacíos de información deben ser completados antes de establecer su potencial invasor de una manera definitiva, particularmente, el posible papel de agentes polinizadores y dispersores fuera del área de distribución natural de la especie.

  13. The influence of light intensity on anatomical structure and pigment contents of Tradescantia pallida (Rose Hunt. cv. purpurea Boom (Commelinaceae leaves

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    Élder Antonio Sousa Paiva

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to study the effects of five different light intensities on the anatomical structure and on the pigment contents in leaves of Tradescantia pallida cv. purpurea. Once light intensity became lower, the thickness of leaf lamina and mesophyll were reduced. Adjustments in light-harvesting antenna size were observed: an increase in chlorophyll a + b/carotenoids ratio at low-light growth conditions. There was a strong positive linear correlation between the light intensity values and anthocyanin contents. Hence, T. pallida cv. purpurea acclimation to distinct environmental conditions might be related to its capacity of altering structurally and physiologically its phenotype.As espécies de Tradescantia colonizam uma ampla faixa de ambientes, desde aqueles completamente expostos a luz até aqueles caracteristicamente sombreados. Suas estratégias adaptativas e eficiência como invasoras de culturas estão provavelmente associadas a sua adaptação a intensidades luminosas distintas. Este trabalho mostra os efeitos de cinco diferentes intensidades luminosas na estrutura anatômica e no teor de pigmentos em folhas de Tradescantia pallida. As espessuras da lâmina foliar e do mesofilo foram alteradas, tornando-se mais delgadas à medida que a intensidade luminosa diminuiu. Observou-se um ajuste nos pigmentos fotossintéticos caracterizado por aumentos na razão clorofilas/carotenóides sob condições de baixa intensidade luminosa. Houve uma forte correlação linear positiva entre os valores de intensidade luminosa e teores de antocianinas. Deste modo, pode-se concluir que a aclimatação da espécie aos diferentes habitats está relacionada a alterações estruturais e fotossintéticas.

  14. Biomasa aérea, cantidad y calidad de semilla de Melinis repens (Willd. Zizka, en Aguascalientes, México

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    Abraham Díaz Romo

    2012-01-01

    manualmente forraje y semilla. Se determinó la producción de forraje, producción de espiguillas y número de semillas por metro cuadrado. Se valoró la viabilidad, germinación y latencia de la semilla a diferentes tiempos después de la cosecha. La producción de biomasa aérea difirió (P<0.05 con promedios de 2913 a 1736 kg MS ha-1 en 2008 y de 1488 a 707 kg MS ha-1 en 2009 (menos lluvioso, con mayor producción en Calvillo. La producción de semillas varió (P<0.05 de 1,239 a 2,401 semillas m2 en 2008 y de 1,452 a 3,906 semillas m2 en 2009. La viabilidad en la semilla fue de 32 a 54 %, sin diferencias significativas. Calvillo presentó mayor germinación (25 %, la cual fue aumentando y a los 18 meses casi toda la semilla viable germinó (43 %. En El Llano la germinación fue menor (2 % debido a la latencia, con poco aumento aún después de 24 meses, llegando a 15 %. Este pasto presentó niveles altos de producción de biomasa aérea y semilla, lo que puede favorecer su capacidad invasora, aunque también puede ser una ventaja para la conservación de suelos. La semilla presentó mayor producción y latencia en condiciones de escasez de agua.

  15. Caracterización molecular de aislamientos invasores colombianos de Streptococcus pneumoniae serotipo 5 recuperados entre 1994 y 2004.

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    Carolina Firacative

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Introducción. Streptococcus pneumoniae serotipo 5 es causa importante de enfermedad invasora en Colombia, donde se ha demostrado la circulación del clon 19-Colombia(5 susceptible a penicilina pero resistente a tetraciclina y a cloranfenicol. Objetivo. Establecer las relaciones genéticas de aislamientos invasores colombianos de S. pneumoniae serotipo 5 recuperados entre 1994 y 2004 con el clon 19-Colombia(5. Materiales y métodos. Se estudiaron 83 aislamientos que tenían datos de susceptibilidad a penicilina, vancomicina, ceftriaxona, eritromicina, trimetoprim sulfametoxazol, cloranfenicol y tetraciclina, de los cuales 29 fueron obtenidos de niños menores de cinco años. El patrón de restricción del ADN se determinó por electroforesis en gel de campo pulsado, usando la enzima Sma I. La similitud genética entre los aislamientos y el clon se estableció según los criterios de Tenover y utilizando el programa Fingerprinting II. Resultados. Todos los aislamientos se relacionaron con el clon 19-Colombia5 y se agruparon en el patrón electroforético A con 17 subtipos. El patrón A se estableció en 32 aislamientos (38,6%, el A8 en 18 (21,7% y el A5 en 10 (12%, los 15 patrones restantes agruparon los otros 23 aislamientos. Los 34 aislamientos resistentes a tetraciclina y cloranfenicol mostraron relación con los patrones electroforéticos A (n = 32, A16 (n = 1 y A28 (n = 1, caracterizados, al igual que el clon, por presentar una banda de 340 Kb. Conclusión. Estos resultados muestran la circulación continua en el país de aislamientos de S. pneumoniae serotipo 5 genéticamente relacionados con el clon 19-Colombia(5.

  16. Phylogeny and revision of Erpobdelliformes (Annelida, Arhynchobdellida from Mexico based on nuclear and mithochondrial gene sequences. Filogenia y revisión de los Erpobdelliformes (Annelida, Arhynchobdellida de México, con base en secuencias de ADN nuclear y mitocondrial

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    Alejandro Oceguera-Figueroa

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available The phylogenetic relationships of the suborder Erpobdelliformes, a group of non-sanguivorous leeches, were investigated with the use of mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I, mitochondrial 12S rDNA and nuclear 18S rDNA. The resulting hypothesis indicates that Erpobdellidae and Salifidae are monophyletic and each other closest relatives. We detect, for first time in leeches, intra-specific variation of similar amount than inter-specific variation. We formally resurrect the name Erpobdella mexicana, proposed by Dugès for Mexican specimens, and recommend the use of the name Erpobdella ochoterenai rather than Erpobdella microstoma for Mexican specimens. We record an invasive species of the family Salifidae: Barbronia arcana in Mexico, representing the first record of the species outside Australia, first record of the family in Mexico and third in the New World.Se estudian las relaciones filogenéticas del suborden Erpobdelliformes, un grupo de sanguijuelas no hematófagas de vertebrados, con base en secuencias de la subunidad I del citocromo c oxidasa del ADN mitocondrial, 12S ADNr del ADN mitocondrial y 18S ADNr del ADN nuclear. La hipótesis resultante señala que las familias Salifidae y Erpobdellidae son monofiléticas y hermanas entre sí. Se detecta por primera vez en sanguijuelas variación interespecífica de magnitud similar a la variación interespecífica. Formalmente se reslece el nombre empleado por Dugès: Erpobdella mexicana para las formas mexicanas, así como se argumenta sobre el uso del nombre Erpobdella ochoterenai en lugar de Erpobdella microstoma para las formas mexicanas. Se registra a una especie invasora de la familia Salifidae en México: Barbronia arcana, el cual constituye el primer registro de la especie fuera de Australia, primer registro de la familia en México y tercero en el continente americano.

  17. GENETIC STATUS, SOURCE AND ESTABLISHMENT RISK OF THE GIANT TIGER SHRIMP (PENAEIDAE: Penaeus monodon, AN INVASIVE SPECIES IN COLOMBIAN CARIBBEAN WATERS

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    J.C. AGUIRRE-PABÓN

    2015-01-01

    El camarón tigre (Penaeus monodon es una especie del Indo-Pacífico. Su producción mundial entre 1970 y 1980 superó todas las otras especies de camarón, lo que favoreció su introducción y cultivo fuera del área de distribución natural en varios países de África, Europa, EE.UU. y América del Sur. Actualmente se encuentra en la costa del Océano Atlántico (México, Estados Unidos, Puerto Rico, Brasil, Guyana, Venezuela y Colombia. A pesar del riesgo que implica, no se han realizado estudios para evaluar su impacto como posible especie invasora y su condición genética. Este estudio evaluó el estado genético y el origen de la población de P. monodon en el norte del Caribe colombiano, analizando la región control del ADN mitocondrial (ADNmt-CR. 16 individuos fueron recolectados al azar del Golfo de Salamanca y 342 secuencias originales de muestras del Indo- Pacífico fueron obtenidas de GenBank. Se analizaron los parámetros de diversidad genética y las relaciones genéticas. Se analizaron un total de 358 secuencias y se identificaron 303 haplotipos. En la población de Colombia se identificaron tres haplotipos, mostrando una baja diversidad genética en comparación con las poblaciones del Indo-Pacífico. Estos haplotipos se encontraron cercanamente relacionados con secuencias obtenidas de muestras de Filipinas y Taiwán, principalmente. Se discute la necesidad de crear una red regional para caracterizar las poblaciones establecidas en el Gran Caribe, con el propósito de inferir los procesos de colonización y el establecimiento de medidas de manejo

  18. Increase in quantity and quality of suitable areas for invasive species as climate changes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertelsmeier, Cleo; Luque, Gloria M; Courchamp, Franck

    2013-12-01

    As climatically suitable range projections become increasingly used to assess distributions of species, we recommend systematic assessments of the quality of habitat in addition to the classical binary classification of habitat. We devised a method to assess occurrence probability, captured by a climatic suitability index, through which we could determine variations in the quality of potential habitat. This relative risk assessment circumvents the use of an arbitrary suitability threshold. We illustrated our method with 2 case studies on invasive ant species. We estimated invasion potential of the destroyer ant (Monomorium destructor) and the European fire ant (Myrmica rubra) on a global scale currently and by 2080 with climate change. We found that 21.1% of the world's landmass currently has a suitable climate for the destroyer ant and 16% has a suitable climate for European fire ant. Our climatic suitability index showed that both ant species would benefit from climate change, but in different ways. The size of the potential distribution increased by 35.8% for the destroyer ant. Meanwhile, the total area of potential distribution remained the same for the European fire ant (>0.05%), but the level of climatic suitability within this range increased greatly and led to an improvement in habitat quality (i.e., of invasive species' establishment likelihood). Either through quantity or quality of suitable areas, both invasive ant species are likely to increase the extent of their invasion in the future, following global climate change. Our results show that species may increase their range if either more areas become suitable or if the available areas present improved suitability. Studies in which an arbitrary suitability threshold was used may overlook changes in area quality within climatically suitable areas and as a result reach incorrect predictions. Incremento de la Cantidad y Calidad de Áreas Idóneas para Especies Invasoras a Medida que Cambia el Clima.

  19. Alelopatia de Camelina sativa Boiss. (Brassicaceae sobre a germinação e desenvolvimento inicial de Bidens pilosa (L. e Glycine max (L. Merr

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    Jéssica da Silva

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/2175-7925.2011v24n4p17 O presente trabalho buscou avaliar a possível presença de potencial alelopático na camelina, bem como o seu efeito sobre a germinação e o desenvolvimento inicial de plântulas de soja e picão-preto, a fim de verificar a possibilidade do cultivo dela com a soja no sistema de rotação de culturas e de seu uso como herbicida. Os experimentos foram realizados no Laboratório de Fisiologia Vegetal da Universidade Estadual do Oeste do Paraná, Cascavel, Paraná. O delineamento foi inteiramente casualizado e as avaliações realizadas diariamente. Os parâmetros avaliados foram: porcentagem de germinação, tempo e velocidade média de germinação e comprimento médio de raiz. Os dados obtidos foram submetidos ao Teste F e as médias comparadas pelo Teste de Tukey, a 5% de probabilidade. Os resultados obtidos comprovam a presença de potencial alelopático na camelina. Foi verificado que esta espécie pode ser considerada uma opção para o cultivo com a soja devido à interferência alelopática positiva provocada na cultura e ainda, que ela apresenta capacidade para utilização no controle de plantas invasoras como o picão-preto, já que atuou atrasando o desenvolvimento das plântulas testadas.

  20. Uso de fotografias aéreas coloridas 35 mm na avaliação de produtividade de grãos Use of color aerial photos 35 mm on grain yield estimation

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    João C. de Araújo

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho foi realizado em duas lavouras monitoradas intensivamente como áreas- piloto de agricultura de precisão. Vários dados estão sendo obtidos como mapeamento de produtividade, levantamentos de propriedades físicas e químicas do solo, pragas, doenças e plantas invasoras, bem como fotografias aéreas coloridas no formato 35 mm. As fotografias receberam orientação por bandeiras georreferenciadas em solo com DGPS para a correção geométrica das imagens e, após selecionadas, foram digitalizadas por meio de scanner. Foram, então, analisados os coeficientes de determinação entre o valor digital das imagens e a produtividade. Os coeficientes de determinação para as duas áreas, em todos os períodos analisados, apresentaram valores baixos, não havendo correspondência entre os valores digitais das imagens e as produtividades.Precision Agriculture is being used as an alternative for improving production in developed countries. In Brazil it is just starting and research contribution is fundamental in the process of its adoption. This work aimed to study the potential use of 35 mm color aerial photos to predict yield in grain crops. Some fields are been intensivelly monitored and data are been taken, like yield maps, physical and chemical soil properties, weeds, diseases and pests and also 35 mm color aerial photos. The photos were georeferenced by ground flags located with DGPS. After selecting the best photos, they were scanned. The images and yield maps were processed and the regressions between images and yield were analized. Low determination coefficients were obtained in all cases, showing little potential for this kind of information on predicting yield variability in the field.

  1. Candidiasis hepatoesplénica en un paciente con leucemia mieloide aguda Hepatosplenic candidiasis in acute myeloid leukemia

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    A. Larregina

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available La candidiasis diseminada crónica, principalmente en su variedad hepatoesplénica, es una de las formas clínicas más características de infección invasora por Candida en pacientes hematológicos. Se presenta el caso clínico de un varón de 31 años, con leucemia mieloide aguda (LMA M2, internado en el Servicio de Clínica Médica del hospital, que luego del tratamiento quimioterápico de inducción y consolidación presentó neutropenia febril leve. La candidiasis hepatoesplénica fue diagnosticada por tomografía axial computada (TAC y biopsia hepática. El enfermo fue tratado con anfotericina B, seguida de la forma liposomal hasta completar los 4 g. Se le dió el alta en espera de transplante de médula ósea. En este paciente se demostró que la sospecha temprana de candidiasis hepatoesplénica ayudó en la elección de un método de diagnóstico precoz y a su correcto tratamiento.Chronic diseminated candidiasis - mainly its hepatosplenic form- is one of the most characteristic invasive infection due to Candida in haematological patients. A case is presented of a 31 year old man admitted to the Clinical Department with acute mieloid leukosis M2, showing febrile neutropenia after induction and consolidation chemotherapy. Hepatoesplenic candidiasis was diagnosed and confirmed by computered axial tomography (CAT and hepatic biopsy; amphotericin B followed by liposome encapsuled amphotericin B up to complete a total dose of 4 g was used for treatment. The patient was discharged waiting for bone marrow transplantation. Early suspicion of hepatosplenic candidiasis helps to select a rapid diagnosis method and an effective treatment.

  2. Utilização de um veículo aéreo não-tripulado em atividades de imageamento georeferenciado On the use of unmanned aerial vehicle for acquisition of georrefecend image data

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    Fabrício Ardais Medeiros

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho teve por objetivo desenvolver subsídios para propor um procedimento alternativo para aquisição de dados, telemetria, monitoramento e georeferenciamento das atividades agrícolas, por meio da acoplagem de equipamentos eletrônicos a um Veículo Aéreo Não-Tripulado (VANT. Para tal, foi desenvolvido um VANT na Universidade Federal de Santa Maria, no qual foram acoplados equipamentos para a coleta de imagens e a aquisição de pontos de referência. O equipamento desenvolvido mostrou imenso potencial para ser utilizado como ferramenta auxiliar na localização de áreas com falhas de germinação, na infestação de invasoras e no mapeamento de área. O maior entrave a um melhor emprego deste equipamento refere-se à baixa qualidade das imagens geradas, mostrando a necessidade de reavaliações do aparato utilizado.The aim of this study consisted in developing and testing an alternative procedure for data acquisition, telemetry, monitoring and geo-referencing in agricultural fields. The proposed approach was implemented by placing dedicated electronic gear onboard Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAV. For this purpose an UAV was assembled at the Federal University in Santa Maria, Brazil and equipped with the required hardware for image and control points acquisition. Tests have shown that the proposed approach can be regarded as a valuable tool to detect areas affected by faulty germination, weed infestation and mapping in general. The tests have also shown that poor quality of the acquired image data was the main drawback in the equipment onboard the UAV, pointing to the need to reevaluate the system with regard to this particular aspect.

  3. Variação química no óleo essencial das folhas de seis indivíduos de Duguetia furfuracea (Annonaceae

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    Janaina L. Valter

    Full Text Available Duguetia furfuracea, Annonaceae, uma invasora de pastagens, é também usada na medicina tradicional em diversos estados no Brasil. Devido à significante diferença de odor entre dois grupos de indivíduos desta planta em um remanescente de cerrado em Campo Grande, Mato Grosso do Sul, seis amostras foram selecionadas de acordo com a intensidade de odor em suas folhas: In-01, In-03 e In-05: odor pronunciado (Perfil A; In-02, In-04 e In-06: odor fraco ou ausência de odor (Perfil B. As folhas foram coletadas e submetidas a hidrodestilação para obtenção dos óleos essenciais, os quais foram analisados por CG/EM. Uma boa compatibilidade foi encontrada entre os resultados obtidos por CG/EM e a análise olfativa adotada para as amostras: espécimes odor pronunciado apresentaram uma alta porcentagem de monoterpenos e alguns sesquiterpenos: In-01 (β-felandreno, 42,2%; mirceno, 6,8%; α-felandreno, 4,6%; In-03 (terpin-4-ol, 21,6%; sabineno, 17,3%; p-cimeno, 5,6%; In-05 (sabineno, 25,1%; terpin-4-ol, 16,2%; p-cimeno, 8,3%. Apenas sesquiterpenos foram encontrados nos espécimes que apresentaram odor fraco ou ausência do mesmo (com constituinte majoritário biciclogermacreno: 21,4%, 24,0%, and 29,1%, respectivamente, para os In-02, In-04 e In-06.

  4. Familias de la proteína de superficie PspA de Streptococcus pneumoniae: Relación con serotipos y localización

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    Clara Mayoral

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available PspA, proteína de superficie de Streptococcus pneumoniae es un factor de virulencia, fuertemente inmunogénica y común a todos los serotipos. Aunque el gen que codifica para esta proteína presenta una marcada heterogeneidad en la región correspondiente al N-terminal, la PspA contiene epitopes conservados de manera tal que la inmunización genera protección contra neumococos pertenecientes a diversos tipos capsulares y con distintas PspA. A pesar del marcado polimorfismo del gen pspA es posible agrupar las distintas variantes en 3 familias mayoritarias. Estas propiedades las convierten en candidatas ideales para elaborar vacunas. Debido a que la mayoría de los trabajos sobre identificación de familias fueron realizados sobre serotipos frecuentes en otros países, el objetivo fue identificar las familias de PspA de aislamientos de pacientes de nuestra región y relacionarlas con los serotipos prevalentes y patologías. Se estudiaron 70 aislamientos, provenientes de niños con infecciones invasoras. Se aplicó una PCR utilizando cebadores específicos de cada familia. El 60% fueron familia 1 y 34% familia 2. En un 6% no se identificó ninguna de las familias de PspA. Los serotipos 1 y 5 presentaron familia 1 únicamente; los serotipos 14, 6B, 19F y 18C mostraron genes de ambas familias. La familia 1 se observó en 60% de las neumonías y 50% de las meningitis. La familia 2 en 33% de neumonías y 50% de meningitis. Esta información podría ser un valioso aporte para la formulación de una vacuna regional efectiva utilizando PspA recombinante como inmunógeno.

  5. New habitats, new menaces: Centaurea x kleinii (C. moncktonii x C. solstitialis, a new hybrid species between two alien weeds

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    Susanna, A.

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Anthropic alteration of habitat opens the door to the cohabitation of imported species that in their native range would never coexist. Centaurea solstitialis and Centaurea moncktonii are two invasive species whose natural distributions in Eurasia do not overlap. After introduction in North America, invasive spread led to overlapping distributions. Although the environmental requirements differ between the two species, the close proximity of diverse habitats (within pollinator range has resulted in several cases of natural hybridization between the two. The result of the cross between these two distantly related species is a sterile perennial. Many of its characteristics are intermediate between its parents, but morphologically it is closer to Centaurea moncktonii (probably the maternal parent, and itself of hybrid origin. The plant could possibly become an invasive weed through clonal reproduction. The apparent maternal parent, which the hybrid may more closely resemble physiologically as well as morphologically, is a wellknown creeping weed in alpine pastures throughout Europe.La alteración antrópica del hábitat da paso a la cohabitación de especies importadas que nunca coexistirían en su ámbito natural. Centaurea solstitialis y Centaurea moncktonii son dos especies invasoras cuyas distribuciones en Eurasia apenas se solapan. Después de su introducción en Norteamérica, la expansión invasiva condujo a distribuciones superpuestas. Aunque los requerimientos ambientales de las dos especies son distintos, la proximidad de hábitats diversos (dentro del alcance de los polinizadores ha dado lugar a varios casos de hibridación natural entre ambas. El cruce resultante entre dos especies lejanamente emparentadas es una planta perenne estéril. Muchos de los caracteres del híbrido son intermedios entre sus especies parentales, pero morfológicamente es más parecida a Centaurea moncktonii (probablemente la especie materna y a su vez ya de

  6. Recurrencia histórica de peces invasores en la Reserva de la Biósfera Sierra de Huautla, México Historical presence of invasive fish in the Biosphere Reserve Sierra de Huautla, Mexico

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    Humberto Mejía-Mojica

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Los efectos de las especies invasoras en los ecosistemas nativos son variados, y estos se han vinculado con la desaparición o disminución de la fauna nativa, cambios en la estructura de la comunidad, modificación de los ecosistemas y como vectores de nuevas enfermedades y parásitos. El desarrollo del comercio de especies para uso ornamental ha contribuido significativamente a la importación e introducción de peces invasores en algunas áreas importantes para la conservación de la biodiversidad en México, pero la presencia de estas especies está escasamente documentada. En este estudio se analiza la comunidad de peces en la reserva de Biosfera Sierra de Huautla, registrando los cambios en la diversidad en los últimos 100 años. Con bases de datos de registros históricos y recientes colecciones para cinco sitios en el río Amacuzac, que cruza la zona de reserva de la Biosfera, se comparan los valores de similitud (índice de Jaccard entre cinco series de tiempo (1898-1901, 1945-1953, 1971-1980, 1994-1995 y 2008-2009, así mismo, obtuvimos los valores de similitud (Bray-Curtis entre los cinco sitios analizados. En total hemos reconocido 19 especies para el área, diez nativas y nueve no nativas, de las cuales tres están extirpadas para el área, los valores de similitud entre los primeros registros y los actuales son muy bajos (0.27, los principales cambios en la composición de la fauna se han producido en los últimos 20 años. Los valores de abundancia, diversidad y similitud entre los sitios de muestreo, indican el predominio de especies no nativas. Discutimos el papel del comercio de peces ornamentales de la región como la principal causa de introducción de invasoras en el ecosistema, y los posibles efectos negativos que han tenido al menos cuatro especies en la fauna nativa y el ecosistema (Oreochromis mossambicus, Amatitlania nigrofasciata, Pterygoplichthys disjunctivus y P. pardalis, se hace notar la ausencia de programas de

  7. Invasive vertebrate species in Chile and their control and monitoring by governmental agencies Especies de vertebrados invasores en Chile y su control y monitoreo por agencias gubernamentales

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    J. AGUSTÍN IRIARTE

    2005-03-01

    Entregamos una revisión del estado actual de las especies de vertebrados invasores en Chile, actualizando información sobre las especies exóticas terrestres y documentando la situación de las especies exóticas de peces dulceacuícolas. Además, revisamos la legislación pertinente y los programas que el gobierno chileno ha implementado para limitar la entrada de especies exóticas al país o para minimizar su impacto sobre la flora y fauna nativas y los ecosistemas naturales. Documentamos lo que se conoce sobre la introducción de 26 especies exóticas de peces a las aguas continentales de Chile, discutiendo la distribución y efectos putativos de 11 especies que pueden considerarse invasivas. De la lista previa de 24 especies invasoras de vertebrados terrestres, nosotros retiramos la tortuga argentina (Chelonoidis chilensis, el reno (Rangifer tarandus y el muflón (Ovis ammon, porque no hay evidencias de que hayan logrado asilvestrarse. Por otra parte, agregamos la tortuga dulceacuícola de orejas rojas (Trachemys scripta, la cotorra argentina (Myiopsitta monachus y el cardenal de cresta roja (Paraoria coronata, manteniéndose así el total de invasoras constante en 24 especies. La principal agencia a cargo de implementar las leyes y regulaciones existentes con respecto a la importación de especies exóticas de peces es el Servicio Nacional de Pesca (SERNAPESCA, una dependencia del Ministerio de Economía. La principal agencia a cargo de aplicar las leyes y regulaciones vigentes sobre la importación de especies exóticas terrestres a Chile es el Servicio Agrícola y Ganadero (SAG, una dependencia del Ministerio de Agricultura. Actualmente, el SAG no solo controla los pasos fronterizos, puertos y aeropuertos de Chile, sino también financia estudios para monitorear y controlar los invasores ya presentes en el país. Además, la Corporación Nacional Forestal (CONAF también se involucra con especies invasoras, pero solo si ellas entran al Sistema Nacional de

  8. Analysis of iodine content in seaweed by GC-ECD and estimation of iodine intake

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    Tai Sheng Yeh

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Edible seaweed products have been consumed in many Asian countries. Edible seaweeds accumulate iodine from seawater, and are therefore a good dietary source of iodine. An adequate consumption of seaweed can eliminate iodine deficiency disorders, but excessive iodine intake is not good for health. The recommended dietary reference intake of 0.15 mg/d and 0.14 mg/d for iodine has been established in the United States and Taiwan, respectively. In this study, 30 samples of seaweed were surveyed for iodine content. The samples included 10 nori (Porphyra, 10 wakame (Undaria, and 10 kombu (Laminaria products. The iodine in seaweed was derivatized with 3-pentanone and detected by gas chromatography-electron capture detector (GC-ECD. The method detection limit was 0.5 mg/kg. The iodine content surveyed for nori was 29.3–45.8 mg/kg, for wakame 93.9–185.1 mg/kg, and for kombu 241–4921 mg/kg. Kombu has the highest average iodine content 2523.5 mg/kg, followed by wakame (139.7 mg/kg and nori (36.9 mg/kg. The GC-ECD method developed in this study is a low-cost alternative to inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectroscopy for iodine detection in seaweeds. The iodine intake from seaweed in the current survey was calculated and compared with the iodine dietary reference intake of Taiwan. The risk and benefit of seaweed consumption is also discussed.

  9. Feasibility study on application of bio-accumulation radionuclides as a countermeasure to restoration of contaminated environments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watabe, Teruhisa; Hirano, Shigeki; Nakamura, Ryoichi [National Inst. of Radiological Sciences, Hitachinaka, Ibaraki (Japan). Lab. for Radioecology] [and others

    2001-12-01

    Phenomena of bio-accumulation of radionuclides was reviewed in order to know whether or not it was useful and effective to apply as a countermeasure to restoration of contaminated area, and to examine the extent of removal of radioactive contaminants from the environment. Special attention was directed to the technique, ''phytoremediation'' in which plants that hyperaccumulated heavy metals were cultivated on the contaminated lands for removing them. Plant species recognized as ''hyperaccumulator'' were searched in the literature and listed for providing a botanical and taxonomical prospect. On the other hand, a screening analysis was carried out for determining the elemental concentrations in sea weeds in order to find species with a high affinity for the specific elements. Of 30 species of sea weeds, the highest concentration of iron, iodine, strontium, and uranium was observed in Ulva sp., Laminaria sp., Corallina sp. and Undaria sp., respectively, although there were no species having the elemental concentration 100 times higher than those for so called ''reference plant''. Brown algae generally showed relatively higher concentrations for almost all elements of interest. It could be concluded that brown algae might be effective to use for phytoremediation because of their high affinity for many elements along with their high biomass in a possible case of radioactive contamination in the marine environment. Phytoremediation would be more advantageous not only from an economical viewpoint, but from the viewpoint of preservation of the environments than other possible remedial procedures, such as acid leaching of contaminants, excavation and storage of the soil, physical separation of the pollutants, and so on. This technique has been put into practical use and would gain much more support of the public in the future, however it needs more detailed information to establish as a sound and reliable

  10. Feasibility study on application of bio-accumulation radionuclides as a countermeasure to restoration of contaminated environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watabe, Teruhisa; Hirano, Shigeki; Nakamura, Ryoichi

    2001-01-01

    Phenomena of bio-accumulation of radionuclides was reviewed in order to know whether or not it was useful and effective to apply as a countermeasure to restoration of contaminated area, and to examine the extent of removal of radioactive contaminants from the environment. Special attention was directed to the technique, ''phytoremediation'' in which plants that hyperaccumulated heavy metals were cultivated on the contaminated lands for removing them. Plant species recognized as ''hyperaccumulator'' were searched in the literature and listed for providing a botanical and taxonomical prospect. On the other hand, a screening analysis was carried out for determining the elemental concentrations in sea weeds in order to find species with a high affinity for the specific elements. Of 30 species of sea weeds, the highest concentration of iron, iodine, strontium, and uranium was observed in Ulva sp., Laminaria sp., Corallina sp. and Undaria sp., respectively, although there were no species having the elemental concentration 100 times higher than those for so called ''reference plant''. Brown algae generally showed relatively higher concentrations for almost all elements of interest. It could be concluded that brown algae might be effective to use for phytoremediation because of their high affinity for many elements along with their high biomass in a possible case of radioactive contamination in the marine environment. Phytoremediation would be more advantageous not only from an economical viewpoint, but from the viewpoint of preservation of the environments than other possible remedial procedures, such as acid leaching of contaminants, excavation and storage of the soil, physical separation of the pollutants, and so on. This technique has been put into practical use and would gain much more support of the public in the future, however it needs more detailed information to establish as a sound and reliable methodology. (author)

  11. Studies on uptake and loss of radionuclides by marine organisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koyanagi, Taku; Suzuki, Hamaji; Hirano, Shigeki; Nakahara, Motokazu; Ishii, Toshiaki

    1978-01-01

    Uptake and loss of 137 Cs, 95 Zr- 95 Nb and 59 fe by marine fishes were observed by the radio-isotope tracer experiments under laboratory conditions and concentration factors and biological half-lives for these radionuclides by the fishes were estimated. Concentration factors of 137 Cs by fish muscles calculated at 200th day as 17.5 - 27.5 were lower than the values obtained by the field survey on stable or radioactive cesium suggesting slow turnover in fish muscles and contribution of food to the accumulation of the nuclide. Transfer of radionuclides associated with sediment to marine benthic organisms was examined by rearing the organisms in contaminated sediment or administering the sediment orally to the organisms. The transfer ratios of the nuclides from sediment to organisms were less than the concentration factors based on seawater by the factors ranging from around 100 to about 5,000 depending on the species of organisms or radionuclides. Accumulation of radionuclides through food chain in marine ecosystem was studied by feeding shellfishes with labelled phytoplankton and seaweeds by feeding fishes with assorted feeds labelled by radioisotopes. Absorption of 60 Co by abalones was affected by the species of the seaweeds as food and 47% of the administered dose was retained through Laminaria japonica, whereas 31% through Undaria and 26% through Eisenia. Absorption of the radionuclides by the fishes fed with labelled feeds was most significant in the case of 137 Cs and 65 Zn and transfer rate showed the maximum values at 48 hours after feeding as 100 and 24%, respectively. About 45% of the former distributed in muscle and 52% of the latter in digestive tract and blood of the fishes. (author)

  12. [Melanin Synthesis was Affected by Extracts of 22 Kinds Chinese Herbs of Acid Taste: an Experi- mental Study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Li-ping; Liang, Juan; Chen, Bin; Wang, Ying-hao

    2015-05-01

    To confirm the inhibitory effect of Chinese herbs of acid taste on melanin synthesis. Active ingredients of 22 kinds Chinese herbs of acid tastes were extracted by alkali extraction and acid precipitation, alcohol extraction, and water extraction, respectively, which was then dispensed into 25.00, 12.50, and 6.25 g/L suspension. Their effects on activities of tyrosinase were detected using mushroom-tyrosinase-DOPA speed oxidation. Their inhibition rates on activities of tyrosinase were respectively compared with inhibition rates of 1.0, 0.5, and 0.1 mmol/L arbutin. The 22 kinds Chinese herbs of acid taste included Cornus Officinalis, Crataegus pinnatifida, dark plum fruit, Schisandra Chinensis, Chaenomeles sinensis Koehne, Reynoutria japonica Houtt, Achyranthes Bidentata, Sanguisorba officinalis L., Semen Ziziphi Spinosae, Herba Ecliptae, blueberry, immature bitter orange, submature bitter orange, Prunus mume Var, Hovenia acerba Lindl., Fructus Mori, Pomegranate Rind, white paeony root, Rosa laevigata Michx., Portulaca oleracea L, Terminalia chebula Retz, Rhus chinensis Mill. Their alkaline extractions showed inhibition to activities of tyrosinase to different degrees except Herba Ecliptae. Of them, the highest inhibition rate (88.49% ± 9.98%) was got by dark plum fruit at 25 g/L, while the lowest inhibition rate (11.22% ± 3.36%) was got by immature bitter orange at 6.25 g/L. Their alcohol extractions showed inhibition to activities of tyrosinase to different degrees except Herba Ecliptae. Of them, the highest inhibition rate (75.92% ± 5.57%) was got by Hovenia acerba Lindl. at 25 g/L, while the lowest inhibition rate (9.60% ± 1.15%) was got by submature bitter orange at 6.25 g/L. Their water extractions all had inhibition on activities of tyrosinase. Of them, the highest inhibition rate (54.23% ± 3.56%) was got by Fructus Mori at 25 g/L, while the lowest inhibition rate (10.25% ± 1.83%) was got by Semen Ziziphi Spinosae at 6.25 g/L. Compared with 1 mmol

  13. Transcript assembly and quantification by RNA-Seq reveals differentially expressed genes between soft-endocarp and hard-endocarp hawthorns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Hongyan; Han, Guofen; Yan, Yujiao; Zhang, Feng; Liu, Zhongchi; Li, Xiaoming; Li, Wenran; Ma, Yue; Li, He; Liu, Yuexue; Zhang, Zhihong

    2013-01-01

    Hawthorn (Crataegus spp.) is an important pome with a long history as a fruit, an ornamental, and a source of medicine. Fruits of hawthorn are marked by hard stony endocarps, but a hawthorn germplasm with soft and thin endocarp was found in Liaoning province of China. To elucidate the molecular mechanism underlying the soft endocarp of hawthorn, we conducted a de novo assembly of the fruit transcriptome of Crataegus pinnatifida and compared gene expression profiles between the soft-endocarp and the hard-endocarp hawthorn varieties. De novo assembly yielded 52,673 putative unigenes, 20.4% of which are longer than 1,000 bp. Among the high-quality unique sequences, 35,979 (68.3%) had at least one significant match to an existing gene model. A total of 1,218 genes, represented 2.31% total putative unigenes, were differentially expressed between the soft-endocarp hawthorn and the hard-endocarp hawthorn. Among these differentially expressed genes, a number of lignin biosynthetic pathway genes were down-regulated while almost all the flavonoid biosynthetic pathway genes were strongly up-regulated, concomitant with the formation of soft endocarp. In addition, we have identified some MYB and NAC transcription factors that could potentially control lignin and flavonoid biosynthesis. The altered expression levels of the genes encoding lignin biosynthetic enzymes, MYB and NAC transcription factors were confirmed by quantitative RT-PCR. This is the first transcriptome analysis of Crataegus genus. The high quality ESTs generated in this study will aid future gene cloning from hawthorn. Our study provides important insights into the molecular mechanisms underlying soft endocarp formation in hawthorn.

  14. Transcript assembly and quantification by RNA-Seq reveals differentially expressed genes between soft-endocarp and hard-endocarp hawthorns.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongyan Dai

    Full Text Available Hawthorn (Crataegus spp. is an important pome with a long history as a fruit, an ornamental, and a source of medicine. Fruits of hawthorn are marked by hard stony endocarps, but a hawthorn germplasm with soft and thin endocarp was found in Liaoning province of China. To elucidate the molecular mechanism underlying the soft endocarp of hawthorn, we conducted a de novo assembly of the fruit transcriptome of Crataegus pinnatifida and compared gene expression profiles between the soft-endocarp and the hard-endocarp hawthorn varieties. De novo assembly yielded 52,673 putative unigenes, 20.4% of which are longer than 1,000 bp. Among the high-quality unique sequences, 35,979 (68.3% had at least one significant match to an existing gene model. A total of 1,218 genes, represented 2.31% total putative unigenes, were differentially expressed between the soft-endocarp hawthorn and the hard-endocarp hawthorn. Among these differentially expressed genes, a number of lignin biosynthetic pathway genes were down-regulated while almost all the flavonoid biosynthetic pathway genes were strongly up-regulated, concomitant with the formation of soft endocarp. In addition, we have identified some MYB and NAC transcription factors that could potentially control lignin and flavonoid biosynthesis. The altered expression levels of the genes encoding lignin biosynthetic enzymes, MYB and NAC transcription factors were confirmed by quantitative RT-PCR. This is the first transcriptome analysis of Crataegus genus. The high quality ESTs generated in this study will aid future gene cloning from hawthorn. Our study provides important insights into the molecular mechanisms underlying soft endocarp formation in hawthorn.

  15. Species-Specific Morphological and Physiological Responses of Four Korean Native Trees Species under Elevated CO2 Concentration using Open Top Chamber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, W.; Byeon, S.; Lee, H.; Lee, M.; Lim, H.; Kim, H. S.

    2017-12-01

    For the last three years, studies on the morphological and physiological characteristics were carried out for four tree species (Pinus densiflora, Quercus acutissima, Sorbus alnifolia and Fraxinus rhynchophylla) which are representative native species of Korea. We used a control site and three open top chambers (con, chamber 1, 2, and 3) which were exposed to ambient and two elevated CO2 concentration ([CO2]); the concentration were the ambient (400ppm) for control and chamber 1 and 1.4 times (560ppm) and 1.8 times (720 ppm) of the atmosphere for chamber 2 and 3, respectively. Leaf mass per area (LMA), stomatal size, density and area were examined to investigate the morphological changes of the trees. Among four species, F. rhynchophylla increased their LMA with increase of CO2 concentration. In addition, F. rhynchophylla showed the decrease of stomatal density significantly (p-value=0.02), while there was no difference in stoma size. These findings resulted in 25.5% and 38.7% decrease of stomata area per unit leaf area calculated by multiplying the size and density of the stomata. On the other hand, all 4 tree species were significantly increased in height and diameter growth with the elevated CO2. However, in the case of Q. acutissima, the increase in height growth was prominent. For physiological characteristics, the maximum photosynthetic rate was faster in the chambers exposed to high [CO2] than that in the control. However the rate of carboxylation and the electron transfer rate showed no particular tendency. The measurement of hydraulic conductivity (Ks, kg/m/s/Mpa) for Crataegus pinnatifida, increased as the [CO2] in the atmosphere increased, and the 50% Loss Conductance (Mpa) tended to increase slightly with the [CO2]. The correlation analysis between hydraulic conductivity and vulnerability to cavitation showed a strong negative correlation (P <0.05), which was unlike the general tendency.

  16. Herbal Formula HT048 Attenuates Diet-Induced Obesity by Improving Hepatic Lipid Metabolism and Insulin Resistance in Obese Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoon Hee Lee

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available It is well established that obesity causes a variety of chronic diseases such as cardiovascular diseases and diabetes. Despite the diligent scientific efforts to find effective ways to lower the level of obesity, the size of obese population grows continuously around the world. Here we present the results that show feeding diet containing HT048, a mixture of the extracts of Crataegus pinnatifida leaves and Citrus unshiu peel, two of the well-known traditional herbal medicines in Eastern Asia, decreases obesity in rats. We fed rats with five different diets for 10 weeks: chow diet (STD, high-fat diet (HFD, high-fat diet with 0.04% orlistat, a drug to treat obesity (HFD + Orlistat, high-fat diet with 0.2% HT048 (w/w; HFD + 0.2% HT048, and high-fat diet with 0.6% HT048 (w/w; HFD + 0.6% HT048. It was found that both body and total white adipose tissue weight of HT048 groups significantly decreased compared to those of the HFD group. Moreover, HT048 decreased serum insulin levels in HFD-fed obese rats. At the molecular level, HT048 supplementation downregulated genes involved in lipogenesis, gluconeogenesis, and adipogenesis, while the expression level of β-oxidation genes was increased. Supplementation-drug interactions are not likely as HFD and HT048-containing diet did not significantly induce genes encoding CYPs. Collectively, this study suggests that HT048 taken as dietary supplement helps to decrease obesity and insulin resistance in HFD-fed obese rats.

  17. Sphingosine Kinase-1 Involves the Inhibitory Action of HIF-1α by Chlorogenic Acid in Hypoxic DU145 Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Myoung-Sun Lee

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Hypoxia enhances cancer development in a solid tumor. Hypoxia-inducible factor-1 α (HIF-1α is a transcription factor that is dominantly expressed under hypoxia in solid tumor cells and is a key factor that regulates tumor. HIF-1α regulates several target genes involved in many aspects of cancer progression, including angiogenesis, metastasis, anti-apoptosis and cell proliferation as well as imparts resistance to cancer treatment. In this study, we assessed Crataegus Pinnatifida Bunge var. typical Schneider ethanol extract (CPE for its anti-cancer effects in hypoxia-induced DU145 human prostate cancer cell line. CPE decreased the abundance of HIF-1α and sphingosine kinase-1 (SPHK-1 in hypoxia-induced prostate cancer DU145 cells. CPE decreased HIF-1α and SPHK-1 as well as SPHK-1 activity. Chlorogenic acid (CA is one of four major compounds of CPE. Compared to CPE, CA significantly decreased the expression of HIF-1α and SPHK-1 as well as SPHK-1 activity in hypoxia-induced DU145 cells. Furthermore, CA decreased phosphorylation AKT and GSK-3β, which are associated with HIF-1α stabilization and affected SPHK-1 in a concentration-dependent manner. We confirmed the mechanism of CA-induced inhibition of HIF-1α by SPHK-1 signaling pathway using SPHK-1 siRNA and SPHK inhibitor (SKI. CA decreased the secretion and cellular expression of VEGF, thus inhibiting hypoxia-induced angiogenesis. Treatment of DU145cells with SPHK1 siRNA and CA for 48 h decreased cancer cell growth, and the inhibitory action of SPHK siRNA and CA on cell growth was confirmed by decrease in the abundance of Proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA.

  18. Electrochemical Determination of the Antioxidant Potential of Some Less Common Fruit Species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boris Krska

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Various berries and fruit types of less common fruit species are known to contain antioxidants. Consumption of high amounts of antioxidant flavonoids, which display a variety of biological properties, including antiproliferative and anti-inflammatory activity, may have a positive impact on human health, particularly for the prevention of cancer and other inflammatory diseases. In these studies, based on the hypothesis that the fruit extract with the highest content would possess significantly higher health benefits, flavonoid-rich extracts were obtained from some less common fruit species – Blue Honeysuckles (Lonicera Kamtschatica and Lonicera edulis, Turcz. ex. Freyn, Saskatoon berry (Amelanchier alnifolia Nutt. and Chinese Hawthorn (Crataegus pinnatifida BUNGE – grown from germplasm held at the Mendel University of Agriculture and Forestry in Brno, Czech Republic and then characterized in terms of biological value based on the results from a relative antioxidant capacity assessment. The antioxidant content evaluation was based on the total flavonoid amount, determined by liquid chromatography with electrochemical detection (HPLC-ED. A DPPH• test was applied as a reference. The antioxidant content measured in Chinese Hawthorn fruit extract identified it as a potent source of flavonoid antioxidants, with a content 9-fold higher than that seen in Amelanchier fruit. The multifunctional HPLC-ED array method coupled with a DPPH• reference appears to be the optimal analytical progress, accurately reflecting the nutritivetherapeutic properties of a fruit.

  19. Sementes de Cássia tora L: estudo da germinação visando o controle em áreas cultivadas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Andreani Junior

    1987-12-01

    Full Text Available O trabalho é um estudo das condições de germinação das sementes de Cassia tora L., planta invasora das culturas em geral e, principalmente, da cultura da soja. Nesta pesquisa, estudou se a quebra da dormência, o efeito da profundidade de semeadura sobre a emergência de plântulas e o potencial de armazenamento, considerando o envelhecimento natural e precoce com o objetivo de um controle mais racional desta espécie. As profundidades de semeadura de 4 a 6 cm apresentaram as porcentagens mais altas de emergência das plântulas. A porcentagem de germinação de sementes, logo após a colheita, encontra-se próxima de 42%, decrescendo para 40%, 39% e 30%, aproximadamente, nos períodos de armazenamento por 90, 180 e 270 dias, respectivamente, evidenciando uma porcentagem média de germinação próxima de 38% nos períodos considerados. O processo de escarificação mecânica mostrou-se o mais eficiente para quebra da dormência das sementesThe objective of the present research was to study the germination of Cassia tora L. seeds, which is known to be a weed mainly at soybean plantations and other general crops. This work should verify the effect of planting seeds on different depths on seedling emergence, the potential of seed storage related to natural and accelerated aging and the dormancy breaking process, in order to obtain a more rational control of this species. Seeds which were planted 4 and 6 cm deep gave best seedling emergence percentagens. After harvest the percentage seed germination of which about 42%, decreased to 40%, 39% and 30% on storage periods of 90, 180 and 270 days respectively, showing an average of 38% of germination. The best treatment dormancy breaking of there seeds was found to be mechanical scarification

  20. Plesiomonas shigelloides: um enteropatógeno emergente?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. P. FALCãO

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available

    Plesiomonas shigelloides é um bacilo Gram-negativo, pertencente à família Enterobacteriaceae, isolado de água doce e salgada, de peixes de água doce, mariscos e de inúmeros tipos de animais. Suspeita-se que a maioria das infecções humanas causadas por P. shigelloides, seja veiculada pela água, pois a bactéria está presente em águas não tratadas que são usadas para beber, águas recreacionais ou água para lavar alimentos que são consumidos sem cozimento ou aquecimento. A ingestão de P. shigelloides não causa sempre doença no animal hospedeiro, mas o microrganismo pode permanecer temporariamente como membro transitório não infeccioso da microbiota intestinal. A bactéria é isolada de fezes de pacientes com diarréia, mas algumas vezes também de fezes de indivíduos sem sintomas. A doença causada por P. shigelloides é a gastrenterite, que normalmente é auto-limitante, com febre, calafrio, dor abdominal, náusea, diarréia ou vômito. Em casos graves, as fezes diarréicas podem ser verde-amareladas, espumosas e com presença de sangue. A bactéria pode também causar infecções extra-intestinais. Ademais, pode produzir toxinas e ser invasora. As características utilizadas para considerar P. shigelloides como um enteropatógeno não são totalmente convincentes. Embora seja isolada de pacientes com diarréia e incriminada em vários surtos epidêmicos envolvendo água e alimentos contaminados, não foi possível identificar em muitas amostras de P. shigelloides, associadas com infecções gastrintestinais, um mecanismo de virulência definitivo. Palavras-chave: P. shigelloides; enteropatógeno; gastrenterite; diarréia; infecções extra-intestinais.

  1. IMPACT OF THE INVASION FROM NILE TILAPIA ON NATIVES CICHLIDAE SPECIES IN TRIBUTARY OF AMAZONAS RIVER, BRAZIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luana Silva Bittencourt

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo providenciou a primeira investigação sobre impacto causado pela invasão da Oreochromis niloticus sobre a população de Cichlidae nativos da bacia hidrográfica Igarapé Fortaleza, um tributário do Rio Amazonas no estado do Amapá, no Norte do Brasil. Como uma consequência de escapes e/ou liberações intencionais de O. niloticus de pisciculturas, houve a invasão e estabelecimento dessa espécie de peixe exótico no ecossistema natural, especialmente em área de refúgio, alimentação e reprodução das espécies de ciclídeos nativos.  Os fatores que contribuíram para essa invasão e estabelecimento foram aqui discutidos. A invasão de O. niloticus está causando pressão sobre as populações de ciclídeos nativos, os quais encontram-se em baixa densidade populacional, pois 72,7% da biomassa dos ciclídeos (nativos e não nativos está constituída por O. niloticus. Consequentemente, a CPUE (2,489 kg.h-1 para essa tilápia invasora é muito superior aos valores da CPUE (0,641 kg.h-1 de todas as 16 espécies de ciclídeos nativos juntos. Os resultados indicam uma necessidade de plano de manejo para controle desse peixe invasor, evitando assim a extinção de espécies de ciclídeos nativos. Além disso, serão úteis também para a tomada de decisão crítica de instituições governamentais (estadual e federal quanto à aprovação da introdução de peixes não nativos na Amazônia ou qualquer outra região do país. Palavras-chaves: Amazônia, peixe exótico, Oreochromis niloticus, crescimento. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.18561/2179-5746/biotaamazonia.v4n3p88-94

  2. ACTIVIDAD REPRODUCTIVA Y DIETA DE HEMIDACTYLUS FRENATUS (SAURIA: GEKKONIDAE EN EL NORTE DE COLOMBIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JORGE A. DÍAZ-PÉREZ

    Full Text Available RESUMEN A pesar de su éxito como especie invasora, existe poca información sobre los aspectos ecológicos del gecónido Hemidactylus frenatus en Colombia. En el presente estudio se determinó el tamaño de madurez, dimorfismo sexual, actividad reproductiva y composición de la dieta de una población de esta especie en una localidad urbana del Norte de Colombia. Se realizaron once muestreos desde septiembre de 2011 hasta agosto de 2012 en edificaciones del municipio de Sincelejo. Se capturaron 264 ejemplares, 133 machos adultos, 112 hembras adultas y 19 juveniles. Los machos alcanzaron la madurez sexual a un tamaño (longitud hocico-cloaca menor (35.7 mm que las hembras (42.7 mm, además alcanzan mayor tamaño y tienen cabezas y bocas proporcionalmente más grandes que éstas. Los machos fueron reproductivos durante todo el año; aunque el volumen testicular varió significativamente entre los muestreos, esta variación no estuvo asociada con el tamaño corporal ni con la precipitación en el área de estudio. Durante todos los muestreos se encontraron hembras adultas reproductivas. Las hembras tienen un tamaño de nidada invariable de dos huevos y no existen diferencias entre oviductos respecto al diámetro y peso de los huevos. La dieta de H. frenatus es variada, siendo los dípteros, hemípteros y formícidos las presas de mayor importancia relativa. Los adultos de ambos sexos consumen un volumen y número similar de presas. Así, la población de H. frenatus estudiada tiene una actividad reproductiva continua y un comportamiento dietario generalista y oportunista. Las condiciones climáticas, la disponibilidad ambiental de presas en el área de estudio y las características intrínsecas de esta especie parecen ser responsables de su abundancia y éxito colonizador en esta y otras localidades.

  3. Efecto del volumen radicular sobre el crecimiento de Acacia dealbata Link. en vivero y en terreno en el secano de la Región del Biobío, Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iván Quiroz

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Entre las especies arbóreas cultivadas en Chile, Acacia dealbata Link. se destaca por su rápido crecimiento y supervivencia en climas con marcado déficit hídrico y suelos altamente degradados. Aun cuando proporciona múltiples productos y servicios, la mayor parte de la investigación se ha centrado caracterizar su capacidad invasora, y poco se conoce respecto a su crecimiento durante los primeros años en terreno, escaseando antecedentes respecto efecto de la modificación de las prácticas silvícolas durante la producción y establecimiento de plantas. Por ello, este estudio analiza el efecto de la modificación del volumen radicular sobre el crecimiento durante la viverización, y la supervivencia y crecimiento culminadas la primera y segunda temporada en terreno. Finalizada la viverización resultó significativo el efecto del volumen radicular sobre el DAC y la altura total (P<0,05, los mayores valores se obtuvieron en plantas producidas con volumen de 100 cm³. Los volúmenes más altos presentaron los mayores índices de esbeltez y de Dickson (P<0.05, mientras que los mejores índices tallo/raíz se observaron con los volúmenes de 56 y 24 cm³ (P<0,05. Culminadas la primera y segunda temporada de crecimiento el efecto del volumen sobre la supervivencia resultó no significativo. Luego de la segunda temporada, se destacó el mayor incremento corriente anual en DAC del tratamiento de 24 cm³ (5,53 ± 1,63 mm. Luego de ambas temporadas se destacó una tendencia a la igualación en altura entre los tratamientos de 100, 80 y 24 cm³, el mayor crecimiento absoluto y relativo se observó en el tratamiento de 24 cm³.

  4. Biomass and nutrient accumulation of leguminous green manure species in the Jaguaribe-Apodi region, Ceará, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natanael Santiago Pereira

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The ability of leguminous green manure to incorporate significant amounts of nutrientes into the soil makes them excellent alternatives for the region agriculture systems. This study aimed to evaluate the potential use of six leguminous species (Crotalaria juncea, Canavalia ensiformes, Cajanus cajan, Crotalaria spectabilis, Dolichos lab lab and  Mucuna deeringiana as green manure in an area of the Jaguaribe-Apodi agricultural region, CE, Brazil. The experiments were carried out under field conditions in a randomized block design with five replications. Sampling of biomass of shoots was carried out 78 days after sowing on each plot. It was determined the total biomass and nutrients accumulation in the plants that grew in the plots (leguminous and weeds. We concluded that the use of Crotalaria juncea showed up as the most promising treatment in terms of biomass production and nutrient accumulation.Biomassa e acúmulo de nutrients por espécies de leguminosas utilizadas como adubo verde na região do Jaguaribe-Apodi, Ceará, BrasilResumo: A habilidade de espécies de leguminosas utilizadas como adubos verdes em incorporar quantidades significativas de nutrientes no solo fazem destas excelentes alternativas para as regiões agrícolas. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o potencial de utilização de seis espécies leguminosas (Crotalaria juncea; Canavalia ensiformes - feijão-de-porco; Cajanus cajan - Guandu anão; Crotalaria spectabilis; Dolichos lab lab - Labe-labe; e Mucuna deeringiana - Mucuna anã como adubo verde em uma área no Agropólo Jaguaribe-Apodi, CE, Brasil. Os experimentos foram desenvolvidos em condições de campo, em blocos casualizados com cinco repetições. Foram amostradas as partes aéreas das plantas aos 78 dias após a semeadura em cada parcela. Foram determinadas a biomassa e o acúmulo totais de nutrientes das plantas que cresceram na parcela (leguminosas e invasoras. Nas condições edafoclimáticas em que o

  5. Circulation of Streptococcus pneumoniae clone Colombia5 ST289 in nine Latin American countries Circulación de Streptococcus pneumoniae clon Colombia5 ST289 en nueve países de América Latina

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    Carolina Firacative

    2009-04-01

    (A5, A6, A8, A13 y A27 constituyeron 61,4% de los aislamientos. CONCLUSIONES: El clon Colombia5 ST289 está diseminado por América Latina. Esto es importante ya que S. pneumoniae serotipo 5 es causa frecuente de enfermedades invasoras en la Región y está asociado con la resistencia a trimetoprim-sulfametoxazol.

  6. Presencia de los géneros invasores Mus y Rattus en áreas naturales de Chile: un riesgo ambiental y epidemiológico Presence of the invasive genera Mus and Rattus in natural areas in Chile: an environmental and epidemiological risk

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    GABRIEL LOBOS

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Realizamos un estudio que incluyó muestreos y prospecciones en un gradiente latitudinal en Chile continental para determinar la presencia y ausencia de roedores murinos introducidos, particularmente Mus musculus, Rattus rattus y R. norvegicus en áreas naturales o silvestres a lo largo de Chile. Además se analizó el riesgo epidemiológico que representan estas especies en el marco de un estudio sobre el virus Hanta. Los resultados mostraron que M. musculus rara vez es recolectado en áreas naturales. Sin embargo, las dos especies de Rattus han invadido ampliamente la región mediterránea chilena. Las regiones desérticas, los ambientes de alturas y las regiones australes, serían biótopos restringidos para estos invasores. Desde una perspectiva epidemiológica, la presencia del virus Hanta (variedades Andes y Seoul en Rattus es un elemento que demuestra que las especies invasoras además de generar impactos ecológicos, pueden ocasionar problemas económicos y de salud pública. La fragilidad de los ecosistemas mediterráneos determina que la presencia de especies exóticas constituya un elemento de alto riesgo para la conservación del patrimonio natural del país. Probablemente, la conservación de áreas naturales constituye la mejor herramienta para enfrentar a estas especies exóticasWe conducted a latitudinal study in natural areas of continental Chile to evaluate the occurrence of the introduced murine rodents Mus musculus, Rattus rattus and R. norvegicus. Furthermore, we evaluated the epidemiological risk of these species as part of an ongoing study on Hantavirus. The results allowed us to conclude that M. musculus occurs rarely in natural environments. However, the two species of Rattus have widely invaded the mediterranean region of Chile. Desert, altitudinal and high latitude regions seem to be restricted areas for these invasive rodents. From an epidemiological perspective, the occurrence of Hantavirus in Rattus (Andes and Seoul

  7. Grateloupia lanceola versus Grateloupia turuturu (Gigartinales, Rhodophyta: en la Península Ibérica

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    Bárbara, Ignacio

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Grateloupia lanceola was originally described from the southern Iberian Peninsula and northwestern Africa coasts. Its current Iberian distribution only includes some localities in NW (La Coruña and SE (Málaga Spain. The closely related invasive species Grateloupia turuturu is present in Galicia (NW Spain since 1991 and in northern Portugal since 1997. Galicia is the only area in Europe where both especies are sympatric. This paper presents a comparative study of G. lanceola and G. turuturu along the Iberian Peninsula coast. The blade of G. lanceola is purplish red with a characteristic emerald green colour to the base, and usually has scattered paler spots. Moreover, it is 200-450 µm thick, has a sort stipe, and marginal proliferations developed usually only in eroded areas. The lamina of G. turuturu is red or pink through, without paler spots or green areas. It is thinner (130-250 µm, has a long stipe, and frequent congenital marginal proliferations.Grateloupia lanceola, especie descrita de las costas del sur de la Península Ibérica y del noroeste de África, sólo se conoce actualmente de las costas peninsulares en algunas localidades atlánticas del noroeste (La Coruña y mediterráneas del suroeste (Málaga. Por otro lado, la invasora y muy afín Grateloupia turuturu está presente en las costas de Galicia desde 1991 y en el norte de Portugal desde 1997. Galicia es la única región en Europa donde ambas especies conviven, por lo que ha sido posible realizar un estudio comparado que muestra claras diferencias entre ellas. Las láminas de Grateloupia lanceola son de color rojo púrpura, frecuentemente con motas más pálidas en superficie y un característico color verde esmeralda en su base. Estas láminas, de 200-450 µm de grosor, tienen un corto estipe y suelen desarrollar proliferaciones marginales sólo en las zonas erosionadas. Por el contrario, las láminas de G. turuturu son de color rojo más o menos rosado, sin motas

  8. Amaranto BRS Alegria: alternativa para diversificar os sistemas de produção Amaranth BRS Alegria: alternative for diversification of cropping systems

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    Carlos Roberto Spehar

    2003-05-01

    Full Text Available A diversificação do sistema produtivo depende de espécies com rápido crescimento, tolerância ao déficit hídrico, produção de biomassa, ciclagem de nutrientes e utilização humana e animal. As espécies Amaranthus caudatus, A. cruentus e A. hypochondriacus apresentam essas características e sementes claras, sem dormência. Distinguem-se das invasoras A. spinosus, A. hybridus, A. blitum e A. viridis, com sementes escuras e dormentes. Os grãos, com excelente qualidade protéica, atendem à demanda por dietas especiais, livres de glúten e podem ser usados na alimentação animal. O A. cruentus BRS Alegria, primeira recomendação ao cultivo granífero no Brasil, originou-se da variedade AM 5189, dos Estados Unidos, na qual realizou-se seleção massal. Em sucessão à soja, apresentou produção média de 2.359 kg ha-1 de grãos e 5.650 kg ha-1 de biomassa total em apenas 90 dias de ciclo.Diversification of production systems depends on rapid growth, tolerance to hydric stress, biomass production, nutrient cycling and human and animal utilization. The grain amaranth species Amaranthus caudatus, A. cruentus and A. hypochondriacus, with light seed colour and no dormancy, present these characteristics. They are distinguishable from the weeds A. spinosus, A. hybridus, A. blitum and A. viridis, with dark and dormant seeds. Their grains, with excellent protein quality, can be used in gluten-free special diets and livestock feed. The A. cruentus BRS Alegria, the first recommendation for grain production systems in Brazil, originated from mass selection in the variety AM 5189 of the United States. In double-cropping, after soybeans, it showed average yield of 2,359 kg ha-1 for grain and of 5,650 kg ha-1 for total biomass, in 90 days from emergence to maturity.

  9. Quantificação do banco de sementes sob diferentes usos do solo em área de domínio ciliar Evaluation of seed bank under different soil uses

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    Dálgima Gasparino

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Neste trabalho, avaliaram-se o número de plântulas e a composição do banco de sementes do solo em áreas de domínio ciliar com remanescentes florestais ou utilizadas para agricultura ou pastagem. As amostras foram coletadas em três épocas do ano. O número médio de indivíduos encontrados nas áreas com remanescentes florestais, agricultura e pasto foi de 551,68; 451,36; e 452,48 sementes viáveis por metro quadrado, respectivamente. O maior número de espécies por metro quadrado foi observado na coleta de verão, com 46,72 espécies. No total, foram identificadas 37 famílias e 81 espécies. Das espécies identificadas, 65,4% foram consideradas como invasoras, 7,41% como gramíneas e 27,19% como arbóreas. Dentre as espécies arbóreas foram identificadas 19 famílias com Ulmaceae, Cecropiacea e Euphorbiaceae, apresentando-se com maior número de plântulas. O maior número de espécies arbóreas foi encontrado em amostras de solo de áreas com remanescentes florestais.The objective of this study was to evaluate the seed bank of areas under different uses (forest patches, agriculture and pasture. Soil was sampled during three seasons. Mean number of individuals in forest patches, agriculture and pasture areas were of 551.68; 451.36; and 452.48 species per square meter, respectively. The largest mean number of species was collected in the summer sampling with 46.72 species per square meter. Among the identified species, 65.4% were classified as weeds, 7.41% as grasses, and 27.19% as arboreal species. Among the arboreal species 19 families were identified as Ulmaceae, Cecropiaceae and Euphorbiaceae, yielding the highest number of seedlings. Areas with forest patches presented the highest number of arboreal species.

  10. Interferência do arroz vermelho no rendimento de engenho de cultivares de arroz irrigado Red rice interference on milling yield of irrigated rice cultivars

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    Valmir Gaedke Menezes

    1997-03-01

    Full Text Available O arroz vermelho é considerado a planta daninha que mais danos causa a orizicultura gaúcha. A presença dos grãos desta invasora junto aos grãos das cultivares de arroz contribui para a diminuição da qualidade física do arroz, na medida em que diminui o rendimento de engenho, aumenta o número de grãos rojados, com centro branco e gessados. Este trabalho foi desenvolvido com o objetivo de determinar o efeito de diferentes quantidades de arroz vermelho na amostra de arroz sobre a renda do beneficio e sobre o rendimento de grãos inteiros e de quebrados em três cultivares de arroz irrigado (BR-IRGA 410, IRGA 416 e IRGA 417 com classe de grão longo fino. Os tratamentos constaram de diferentes proporções na amostra (0, 5, 10, 15, 20, 25, 50, 75 e 100% de grãos de arroz vermelho. Os resultados evidenciaram que, para todas as cultivares, à medida que aumentou a presença de grãos de arroz vermelho na amostra no processo de beneficiamento, o rendimento de grãos inteiros e a renda do beneficio diminuíram linearmente, enquanto o rendimento de grãos quebrados aumentou linearmente.Red rice is considered the weed that cause the most significam damage to rice fields in the State of Rio Grande does Soul, Brazil. The presence of red rice grains associated with the grains of the commercial rice cultivars contribute to reduce the physical quality of the rice because reduce the milling yield and increase the number of grains chalky and with white pearly. This experiment was developed with the purpose of determining the effect of different quantities of retrace in the sample on the milling yield of three cultivars of irrigated rice with grains fine long class. The treatments consisted of different proportions in the samples (0, 5, 10, 15, 20, 25, 50, 75 and 100% of grains red rice and grains of the rice cultivars BR-JRGA 410, IRGA 416 and IRGA 417. As the quantity of grains of red rice increased in the sample in the milling process, the whole

  11. Environmental variables and tree population structures in deciduous forests of central Brazil with different levels of logging

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    Daniel Luis Mascia Vieira

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Population structures of six tree species in three fragments of intact seasonal deciduous forest and three fragments disturbed by logging were studied in the northeastern Goiás. Forty random 400 m² plots were allocated in each fragment to survey plant population structures, number of stumps, cattle feces, burnt logs, and canopy openness. Soil cover by life forms was estimated in 1m² sub-plots. Lianas were abundant in intermediately logged fragments and invasive herbs in the most disturbed fragment. Cattle avoided dense herbaceous strata, such as liana tangles. Cavanillesia arborea, Eugenia dysenterica and Swartzia multijuga trees occurred at very low densities in all the fragments and their seedlings were practically absent, which might endanger their future populations in these fragments. Myracrodruon urundeuva, Tabebuia impetiginosa and Astronium fraxinifolium, the most logged species, had high density of seedlings in all the fragments. However, the highest density of saplings and juvenile individuals occurred in the most disturbed fragment.As estruturas populacionais de seis espécies de árvores foram estudadas em três fragmentos de floresta estacional decidual intactos e três fragmentos impactados pela exploração seletiva de madeira no nordeste goiano. Quarenta parcelas de 400m² foram estabelecidas em cada fragmento para a amostragem de populações, número de tocos, fezes de gado, troncos queimados e abertura de dossel. A cobertura do solo por formas de vida foi estimada em sub-parcelas de 1m². Lianas foram mais abundantes em fragmentos com perturbação intermediária, enquanto herbáceas invasoras no fragmento mais perturbado. Cavanillesia arborea, Eugenia dysenterica e Swartzia multijuga ocorreram em densidades muito baixas em todos os fragmentos e plântulas foram praticamente ausentes, o que pode ameaçar o futuro de suas populações. Myracrodruon urundeuva, Tabebuia impetiginosa e Astronium fraxinifolium, as espécies mais

  12. Palinomorfos e partículas de carvões nos sedimentos holocênicos na região do alto rio Paraná e sua aplicação nas reconstruções paleoambientais e paleoclimáticas = Palynomorphs and charcoal particles in Holocene sediments of the upper Paraná river area: paleoenvironmental and paleoclimatic reconstruction

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    Svetlana Medeanik

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Foram analisadas as amostras de dois perfis num horizonte de paleossolo da planície de inundação do rio Paraná, sendo processada uma datação pelo método 14C na profundidade de 1,95 m, atingindo idade de 1.700 ± 70 anos AP. Foram avaliados pólen e esporos de plantas terrestres juntamente com as partículas de carvão. Dois estágios, no desenvolvimento paleoambiental, foram estabelecidos com respeito ao desenvolvimento da vegetação. Um estágio mais antigo é caracterizado pela distribuição limitada das florestas ripárias e predomínio de campo nas condições de clima mais seco. Quantidade notável de partículas de carvão encontradas nas amostras deste estágio sugere ocorrência de queimadas locais ou regionais durante um clima seco. No estágio mais novo, a expansão das ripárias emresposta ao aumento das precipitações atmosféricas ocorreu. Pólen de plantas cultivadas, daninhas e invasoras, encontrado nos sedimentos, indica o desenvolvimento da agricultura neste estágio. Maior freqüência de partículas de carvão em mesmos sedimentos provavelmenteindique ocorrência de queimadas locais associadas ao desmatamento da região. The samples from two profiles of flood plain deposits of the Paraná River were studied. One sample at the depth of 1.95 m was dated by 14C as 1,700 ± 70 yr BP. Palynological data and charcoal particles were obtained from fluvial sediments and paleosoil. Two principal stages in paleoenvironmental development were established. The early stage is characterized by the limited distribution of riparian forests and predominance of mesophyllous grassland under a condition of relatively dry climate. The deposition of charcoal particles in such predominant quantity was the result of local or regional burns.During the more recent stage, a natural enlargement of riparian forests occurred in conjunction with an increase in rainfall. Land use of that region may be confirmed by relatively frequent presence of

  13. Palinomorfos e partículas de carvões nos sedimentos holocênicos na região do alto rio Paraná e sua aplicação nas reconstruções paleoambientais e paleoclimáticas - DOI: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v30i4.5864 Palynomorphs and charcoal particles in Holocene sediments of the upper Paraná river area: paleoenvironmental and paleoclimatic reconstruction - DOI: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v30i4.5864

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    José Cândido Stevaux

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Foram analisadas as amostras de dois perfis num horizonte de paleossolo da planície de inundação do rio Paraná, sendo processada uma datação pelo método 14C na profundidade de 1,95 m, atingindo idade de 1.700 ± 70 anos AP. Foram avaliados pólen e esporos de plantas terrestres juntamente com as partículas de carvão. Dois estágios, no desenvolvimento paleoambiental, foram estabelecidos com respeito ao desenvolvimento da vegetação. Um estágio mais antigo é caracterizado pela distribuição limitada das florestas ripárias e predomínio de campo nas condições de clima mais seco. Quantidade notável de partículas de carvão encontradas nas amostras deste estágio sugere ocorrência de queimadas locais ou regionais durante um clima seco. No estágio mais novo, a expansão das ripárias em resposta ao aumento das precipitações atmosféricas ocorreu. Pólen de plantas cultivadas, daninhas e invasoras, encontrado nos sedimentos, indica o desenvolvimento da agricultura neste estágio. Maior freqüência de partículas de carvão em mesmos sedimentos provavelmente indique ocorrência de queimadas locais associadas ao desmatamento da região.The samples from two profiles of flood plain deposits of the Paraná River were studied. One sample at the depth of 1.95 m was dated by 14C as 1,700 ± 70 yr BP. Palynological data and charcoal particles were obtained from fluvial sediments and paleosoil. Two principal stages in paleoenvironmental development were established. The early stage is characterized by the limited distribution of riparian forests and predominance of mesophyllous grassland under a condition of relatively dry climate. The deposition of charcoal particles in such predominant quantity was the result of local or regional burns. During the more recent stage, a natural enlargement of riparian forests occurred in conjunction with an increase in rainfall. Land use of that region may be confirmed by relatively frequent presence of

  14. Desenvolvimento de espécies arbóreas nativas em uma área reflorestada do corredor de biodiversidade Santa Maria - PR

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    Rosimeri de Oliveira Fragoso

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se avaliar um plantio de enriquecimento com 12 espécies arbóreas nativas da região, em uma área reflorestada do Corredor de Biodiversidade Santa Maria, localizado entre os Municípios de Santa Terezinha de Itaipu e São Miguel do Iguaçu, no Paraná. Objetivou-se, também, avaliar a persistência da espécie invasora Megathyrsus maximus (Jacq. B. K. Simon & S. W. L. Jacobs, conhecido como capim-colonião, e alterações nas características físicas e químicas do solo. As avaliações consistiram no acompanhamento mensal da mortalidade e desenvolvimento das mudas e da massa de matéria seca obtida no manejo do capim-colonião. As alterações promovidas no solo foram verificadas por meio de três coletas de solo ao longo do experimento. A mortalidade alcançou 24,38%, sendo mais acentuada nos dois primeiros meses, janeiro (11,88% e fevereiro (5,63%. Em relação ao desenvolvimento das mudas, destacaram-se as espécies Aloysia virgata (Ruiz & Pav. Juss. (lixeira e Ceiba speciosa (A. St.-Hil. Ravenna (paineira, com acréscimos mensais em diâmetro de 0,80 mm e 0,60 mm e em altura de 5,80 cm e 1,74 cm, respectivamente. O controle do capim-colonião pela metodologia aplicada foi eficiente, não havendo reincidência considerável ao longo dos meses. Por meio das análises de solo, foi possível observar que a recuperação da área, mesmo que por período curto, mostrou-se eficiente na alteração das características físicas e químicas do solo, podendo ainda levar a novas modificações em decorrência do desenvolvimento das mudas.

  15. Patrones de colonización y ecología de poblaciones de dos bivalvos invasores (mejillón cebra Dreissena polymorpha Pallas, 1771 y almeja asiática Corbicula fluminea Müller, 1774 en un tramo lótico del Ebro medio (Castejón, Navarra.

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    MORALES, J., FLECHOSO, F., LIZANA, M., NEGRO, A.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Los bivalvos dulceacuícolas son un componente importante de la ecología fluvial, fundamentalmente por el papel que desempeñan como organismos filtradores y de remoción del sedimento. Además son un grupo zoológico diverso y amenazado a escala global, en el que se incluyen algunas de las especies invasoras más dañinas. El estudio de sus poblaciones es imprescindible para conocer el estado de conservación de las comunidades bentónicas. Para esto se prospectaron 17 parcelas vadeables y 7 escolleras a lo largo de 7,38 km de meandros del río Ebro en Castejón (Navarra, tanto el cauce principal como en brazos secundarios de corriente permanente y/o temporal. El mejillón cebra Dreissena polymorpha Pallas, 1771 se encontró en 7 escolleras y 6 parcelas. El sustrato preferente fueron rocas (85%, donde la densidad resultó 0,31-5,45 mejillones/m2; el 2,6% se hallaron sobre plásticos agrícolas abandonados. En las escolleras sólo el 3,6% de los ejemplares eran juveniles y un 33% tenían una edad > 4 años. La almeja asiática Corbicula fluminea Müller, 1774 se encontró en todas las parcelas. La densidad resultó muy diferente en los tres tipos de ambientes fluviales con valores máximos de 15.100 almejas/m2, lo que constituye un nuevo máximo fluvial en Europa. Se encontraron subpoblaciones de almeja asiática con diferentes estructuras de edad según los ambientes fluviales, además de poblaciones menos numerosas en el brazo principal del río que en los otros tipos. Los resultados muestran que junto a estas especies alóctonas en expansión, con altas tasas de reclutamiento, se encuentra una estructura poblacional muy precaria para las autóctonas, de las cuales únicamente se localizaron 12 náyades vivas y ningún esférido.

  16. Transferências de plantas em uma perspectiva histórica: o estado da discussão*

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    William Beinart

    Full Text Available Este artigo explora algumas rotas dentro da história da transferência de plantas, especialmente durante o período do imperialismo europeu. Tenta extrair conhecimento de diferentes campos de pesquisa, que geralmente não estão justapostos, tecendo em conjunto perspectivas advindas de disciplinas contrastantes. Não pretende oferecer uma história completa, pois tal seria uma tarefa muito mais complexa. Tentamos incluir deliberadamente plantas cultivadas para a agricultura, plantas de jardim, ervas daninhas e plantas invasoras na mesma estrutura de análise, pois é difícil definir algumas espécies apenas dentro de uma dessas categorias culturalmente construídas. O artigo desenvolve três pontos principais. Primeiramente, ele levanta questões sobre o padrão assimétrico de transferência de plantas durante o período imperialista, consequentemente desafiando algumas das proposições presentes no livro Ecological imperialism, de Alfred Crosby. Em segundo lugar, avaliamos a literatura recente com relação à história da botânica e das instituições botânicas e sugerimos que uma área mais ampla de atuação humana necessita ser considerada, assim como as transferências acidentais, se quisermos mapear e compreender os movimentos globais das espécies de plantas. Em terceiro lugar, argumentamos que, na busca de generalizações sobre os padrões de transferência, os cientistas têm se concentrado em demasia nas propriedades das plantas e os historiadores, no entendimento das instituições políticas e econômicas. A construção de uma história global, assim como de histórias de plantas específicas, requer uma combinação de percepções e pesquisas advindas das ciências exatas, sociais e humanas.

  17. Influência de sistemas de produção sobre a ocorrência de inimigos naturais de afídeos em pomares de pessegueiros em Araucária-PR Influence of systems of production on the occurrence of natural enemies of aphids on orchards of peach trees in Araucaria-PR

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    Joselia Maria Schuber

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available A pressão da sociedade tem forçado a adoção de sistemas de produção de frutas mais sustentáveis e de menor impacto ambiental. O objetivo deste trabalho foi verificar a influência dos sistemas de produção de Boas Práticas Agrícolas (BPA e Convencional (PC sobre a diversidade de inimigos naturais de afídeos presentes em seis pomares de pessegueiros no município de Araucária-PR, de julho de 2005 a setembro de 2006. O levantamento do número de inimigos naturais foi realizado por meio de cinco métodos de amostragens: visual em plantas de pessegueiros e em plantas invasoras; armadilhas Möericke; funil e adesivas. No sistema BPA, foram coletados mais espécimes de inimigos naturais (53%, em relação aos pomares PCs (46%, havendo a ocorrência, em ambos, de predadores das famílias Syrphidae, Coccinellidae e Chrysopidae e parasitóides da ordem Hymenoptera. Do total de inimigos naturais coletados, verificou-se a ocorrência de maior quantidade de predadores de afídeos.The pressure of the society has forced the adoption of more sustainable fruit production systems and with less environmental impact. The objective of this work was to verify the influence of production systems of Good Agricultural Practices (GAP and Conventional Production (CP, about the diversity of natural enemies of aphids present on six orchards of peach trees in the city of Araucaria, PR, from July 2005 to September 2006. The evaluation of the number of natural enemies of aphid's species was made by means of five sampling methods: visual in plants of peach trees; visual in invading plants; yellow water traps of Möericke type; funnel and adhesive traps. In the system GPA, more specimens of natural enemies had been collected (53% in relation to orchards CP (46%, having the occurrence, in both orchards, of predators of the Syrphidae, Coccinellidae and Chrysopidae family and parasitoids of Hymenoptera order. Concerning the total of collected natural enemies, it was

  18. Reproductive biology in species of Bidens L. (Asteraceae Biologia reprodutiva em espécies de Bidens L. (Asteraceae

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    Maria Tereza Grombone-Guaratini

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available Studies about reproductive biology of weed species can have implications on the establishment of controlling practices that minimize the effects of these weed populations on agricultural fields. The pollination biology of Bidens alba (L. DC., B. pilosa L., and Bidens subalternans DC., was studied at different sites and climatic seasons. Bidens pilosa and B. subalternans are widely distributed in agricultural areas, in disturbed habitats, and along road sides. Bidens alba occur only along the coast. The three species are self-compatible and non agamospermous. The composition of the pollinator community changes during the year and between sites. Hymenopterans and lepidopterans are the most frequent visitors to Bidens species in both areas studied. Although the species are self-compatible, the presence of pollinators may affect the levels of inbreeding. The attraction of insects by Bidens species may be benefical to agricultural crop and may also have important implications for conservation biology.Estudos de biologia reprodutiva de espécies invasoras podem ter implicações sobre o estabelecimento de práticas de controle que minimizem o efeito das populações destas espécies em áreas agrícolas. A biologia da polinização de Bidens alba (L. DC., B. pilosa L. e Bidens subalternans DC. foi estudada em diferentes locais e estações climáticas. Bidens pilosa e B. subalternans são espécies amplamente distribuídas em áreas agrícolas, em habitats perturbados e em margens de estradas. Bidens alba ocorre somente em regiões litorâneas. As três espécies são auto-compatíveis e não são agamospérmicas. A composição da comunidade de polinizadores apresenta diferenças durante o ano e entre locais. Himenópteros e lepidópteros são os visitantes mais freqüentes nas espécies de Bidens. Embora as espécies sejam auto compatíveis, a presença de polinizadores pode afetar os níveis de endocruzamento. A atração de insetos por esp

  19. Community structures of soil animals and survival of land snails on an island of the Ogasawara Archipelago Estruturas de comunidades de animais de solo e sobrevivência dos caracóis terrestres numa ilha do Arquipélago Ogasawara

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    Motohiro Hasegawa

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available On Chichijima, one of the Ogasawara (Bonin Islands located in the Western Pacific Ocean, land snails have declined, the suggested cause being predation pressure by an invasive flatworm (Platydemus manokwari. Soil fauna were investigated in areas where the snail survives, and where it has become extinct. Much of the fauna, dominated by introduced earthworms and ants, was undiminished, however, one undescribed but endemic carabid (Badister sp., which selectively feeds on land snails, was absent in snail-extinct areas. The invasive flatworm P. manokwari has been reported to feed also on the carcasses of earthworms, as well as on live snails, and is therefore expected to occur in most parts of Chichijima Island. Among other groups, the density of isopods (also dominated by exotic species was very low, in comparison with the reported ones 30 years ago. Community structure is currently reflected by dominance of earthworms and ants, decline of endemic isopods, and a high frequency of introduced or alien species.Em Chichijima, uma das ilhas do Arquipélago Ogasawara (Bonin, localizado no Oceano Pacífico Ocidental, o número de caracóis terrestres diminuiu, e a causa provável é a predação por uma planária invasora (Platydemus manokwari. A fauna edáfica foi avaliada nas áreas onde o caracol sobreviveu e onde se extinguiu. Grande parte da fauna, dominada inicialmente por minhocas e formigas, não diminuiu; contudo, um carabídeo endêmico e não descrito (Badister sp., que se alimenta de caracóis terrestres, não estava presente nas áreas em que o caracol foi extinto. Sabe-se que a planária invasiva P. manokwari se alimenta não só das carcaças das minhocas, mas também de caracóis vivos, e por isso habita a maior parte da Ilha Chichijima. Entre outros grupos, a densidade de isópodos (também dominados por espécies exóticas foi muita baixa, em comparação aos relatos feitos 30 anos antes. A estrutura da comunidade é refletida atualmente

  20. Crescimento e acúmulo de nutrientes por plantas espontâneas e por leguminosas utilizadas para adubação verde

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    C. Favero

    2000-03-01

    Full Text Available As espécies vegetais espontâneas, nas áreas de cultivo agrícola, têm sido tratadas como "plantas daninhas", "ervas invasoras", "inços" e outras denominações, do ponto de vista dos prejuízos que podem acarretar às espécies cultivadas. No entanto, as espontâneas podem promover os mesmos efeitos de proteção do solo e ciclagem de nutrientes que espécies cultivadas ou introduzidas para adubação verde. O crescimento e o acúmulo de nutrientes pela parte aérea de espontâneas e de leguminosas utilizadas como adubos verdes foram medidos em um experimento de campo em Sete Lagoas (MG, na Embrapa Milho e Sorgo. O experimento consistiu de cinco espécies de leguminosas (feijão-de-porco, feijão-bravo do Ceará, mucuna-preta, lab-lab e guandu, submetidas a duas condições de manejo (com e sem capina, e uma testemunha (somente espontâneas. No florescimento das leguminosas, foram obtidos a massa da matéria seca e o teor de nutrientes da parte aérea de cada espécie de leguminosa e das espontâneas presentes nas parcelas. O sistema com apenas as espontâneas produziu menos biomassa e acumulou menos nutrientes que os sistemas com leguminosas. Foram poucas as espontâneas que apresentaram teores de carbono, cálcio e nitrogênio próximos ou superiores aos das leguminosas. No entanto, para potássio, magnésio e fósforo, ocorreu o inverso. A maioria das espontâneas apresentou teores de potássio, magnésio e de fósforo superiores aos das leguminosas, destacando-se: Portulaca oleracea, Euphorbia heterophylla, Bidens pilosa, Commelina benghalensis e Melanpodium perfoliatum.

  1. Distribución del género Diplodon (Mollusca: Bivalvia: Hyriidae en territorio Argentino mediante el uso de Colecciones Biológicas

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    Santiago Hernán Torres

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Los bivalvos nacaríferos dulciacuícolas (“náyades”, son especies infaunales, endémicas de la RegiónNeotropical, pertenecientes a las familias Hyriidae (Swaison, 1840 y Etheriidae (Swaison, 1840. La alteración del ambiente y la competencia con especies invasoras como Corbicula fluminea (Müller, 1774 y Limnoperna fortunei (Dunker, 1857, impactan sobre las poblaciones naturales. En esta comunicación, se presenta el inicio de un Proyecto de investigación sobre la distribución geográfica de las especies del género Diplodon en la Argentina. Estas especies son un componente importante de la infauna de los cuerpos lóticos y lénticos, viviendo en fondos limosos, limo-arenosos, excepcionalmente en sustratos duros, con un régimen nutricio filtrador, teniendo un papel importante como recicladores de materia orgánica. Conocer la distribución de los bivalvos pertenecientes al género Diplodon en el territorio Argentino permitirá el reconocimiento de potenciales áreas prioritarias para su conservación. Sobre la base de la bibliografía disponible y los ejemplares de las especies del genero Diplodon depositados en la Colección Malacológica del Museo de La Plata (FCNyM-UNLP, se confeccionó una matriz de datos que incluye la identificación del ejemplar, la colección en que se encuentra depositado, el número de catálogo, la localidad y la fecha de colecta. Cada localidad fue ubicada mediante el uso de cartas geográficas de Argentina y revisiones bibliográficas en imágenes satelitales de GoogleEarth, asignando las coordenadas para cada punto. Como resultado del trabajo se obtiene la distribución de estas especies nativas y se discute el grado de solapamiento con las dos especies de bivalvos invasores y el impacto de actividades humanas. 

  2. Toxicity of neem's oil, a potential biocide against the invasive mussel Limnoperna fortunei (Dunker 1857

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    Patricio J. Pereyra

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The golden mussel Limnoperna fortunei (Dunker 1857 is one of the most distributed Nuisance Invasive Species (NIS in South America, and a threat of great concern for the industry of the area. In this study, we carried out toxicity tests made with a Neem's oil solution with L. fortunei larvae and benthonic adults (7, 13 and 19 ± 1 mm. Tests with non-target species (Daphnia magna, Lactuca sativa and Cnesterodon decemmculatus were also made with the aim to evaluate the potential toxicity of the Neem's solution in the environment. The LC100 of Neem's solution obtained for larvae was 500 µl/L, a value much higher than the one obtained for D. magna and C. decemmaculatus. Thus, we recommend that it should not be used in open waters. However, since the adults were killed in 72 h and the larvae in 24 h, this product can be used in closed systems, in man-made facilities.O Mexilhão dourado Limnoperna fortunei (Dunker 1857 é uma das espécies invasoras melhor distribuídas na América do Sul, sendo motivo de grande preocupação para a indústria local. Neste estudo, nós realizamos ensaios de toxicidade de soluções de Óleo de Neem em larvas e adultos bentônicos de L. fortune (7, 13 e 19 ± 1 mm. Com o objetivo de avaliar o potencial tóxico do Óleo de Neem no ambiente também foram realizados testes com organismos não alvo (Daphnia magna, Lactuca sativa e Cnesterodon decemmculatus. A LC100 da solução de Neem para larvas foi 500 µl/L, um valor muito superior ao obtido para D. magna e C. decemmaculatus. Desta forma, nossa recomendação é que este óleo não deve ser utilizado em ambientes naturais abertos. No entanto, uma vez que os adultos morreram em 72h e as larvas em 24h, este produto pode ser utilizado em sistemas fechados construídos pelo homem.

  3. Occurrence of Aelurostrongylus abstrusus (Railliet, 1898 larvae (Nematoda: Metastrongylidae infecting Achatina (Lissachatina fulica Bowdich, 1822 (Mollusca: Gastropoda in the Amazon region Ocorrência de Aelurostrongylus abstrusus (Railliet, 1898 (Nematoda: Metastrongylidae infectando o Achatina (Lissachatina fulica Bowdich, 1822 (Mollusca: Gastropoda na região amazônica

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    Sanny Maria de Andrade-Porto

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Achatina fulica or "giant African snail" is an exotic species, considered to be one of the world's hundred most invasive species, causing serious environmental damages. In the present study we report, for the first time, the occurrence of Aelurostrongylus abstrusus infecting A.fulica in the Amazon region. This nematode is described parasitizing mainly the pulmonary system of felines, which causes "aelurostrongilose", also known as feline cardio-pulmonary strongyloidosis. New morphometric data of third stage larvae are presented herein. The present study demonstrated that 40% of all the snails were infected by A. abstrusus. Achatina fulica specimens were collected from three different areas in Manaus namely: rural; east and west areas. The east area presents the highest prevalence of 80%. The large number of A.fulica found in inhabited areas increases the chances of emergent zoonoses, which highlights the need of further studies so as to better control this disease.Achatina fulica ou "caramujo africano" é uma espécie exótica, considerada uma das cem piores espécies invasoras do mundo, causando sérios danos ambientais. No presente estudo foi registrado, pela primeira vez, a ocorrência do Aelurostrongylus abstrusus infectando o A.fulica na região amazônica. Esse nematóide é descrito parasitando principalmente o sistema pulmonar de felinos, causando a "aelurostrongilose", também conhecida como estrongiloidose cardio-pulmonar felina. Novos dados morfométricos de larvas de terceiro estágio são apresentados. Dos 45 caramujos coletados, 40% estavam infectados por larvas de A. abstrusus. Especimens de Achatina fulica foram coletados em três áreas da cidade de Manaus: rural, leste e oeste. A zona leste apresentou a maior prevalência de 80%. O grande número de A.fulica encontrado em áreas habitadas aumenta as chances de ocorrência de zoonoses emergentes e destaca a necessidade de mais estudos para o melhor controle da doença.

  4. Bioensaios de atividade alelopática dos esteroides espinasterol, espinasterona e glicopiranosil espinasterol Bioassays of allelopathic activity of the steroids spinasterol, spinasterone, and spinasterol glicopyranosyl

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    H.S. Ripardo Filho

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Três esteroides (espinasterol, espinasterona e glicopiranosil espinasterol foram isolados do caule de Moutabea guianensis, planta de origem amazônica. Suas estruturas foram determinadas a partir das análises de RMN e por comparação com dados espectroscópicos da literatura. Foram avaliadas as atividades alelopáticas das três substâncias em duas plantas invasoras de pastagens comuns da região amazônica: Mimosa pudica (malícia e Senna obtusifolia (mata-pasto. A substância glicopiranosil espinasterol foi mais ativa no ensaio de desenvolvimento da radícula, inibindo a espécie Senna obtusifolia em 75%; o espinasterol inibiu em 22% o desenvolvimento do hipocótilo de Senna obtusifolia; e no bioensaio de germinação de sementes as substâncias espinasterol e espinasterona proporcionaram 10% de inibição em Mimosa pudica. A partir desses resultados, observou-se que a diferença de substituintes observada na posição-3 dos esteroides é capaz de alterar a atividade alelopática. O grupo glicosil na posição-3 elevou a atividade alelopática de forma mais expressiva no bioensaio de desenvolvimento de radícula da espécie malícia, quando comparado aos esteroides hidroxilado e carbonilado. Este é o primeiro estudo químico e alelopático do gênero Moutabea.Three steroids (spinasterol, spinasterone, and spinasterol glucopyranosyl were isolated from the stem of the Amazonian plant Moutabea guianensis. Their structures were determined on the basis of NMR analysis and by comparison with spectroscopic data found in the literature. The allelopathic activities of the three substances were evaluated against two common weeds of the Amazon region, Mimosa pudica ('malicia' and Senna obtusifolia ('mata-pasto'. The substance spinasterol glucopyranosyl was the most active in the radicle growth bioassay, inhibiting Senna obtusifolia in 75%; spinasterol inhibited the development of hypocotyl of Senna obtusifolia in 22%, and spinasterone and

  5. Efeito do metribuzin no controle das plantas daninhas e na produção de grãos em Glycine max (L merrill Effect of metribuzin in weed control and yield of Glycine max (L. merrill

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    J. P. Silva Neto

    1991-01-01

    Full Text Available No ano agrícola 1985/ 86, em Viçosa-MG, foi instalado um ensaio de campo em solo Pdzólico Vermelho-Amarelo argiloso e com 2,9% de matéria orgânica, objetivando estudar o efeito das doses de metribuzin (0,0; 0,35; 0,70 e 1,05 kg i.a.ha-1 no controle de plantas daninhas e na produtividade da soja (Geycine max (L. Merri ll, cv. 'Uber aba'. A maioria das monocotiledôneas que ocorreram na area experimental foi represent ada por Cyperus rotundus L., Brachiaria plantaginea (Link Hitch. e Cynodon dactylon (L. Pers., tendo-se verificado somente redução em Brachiaria planta taginea em virtude do aumento das doses de metribuzin, ocorrendo o mesmo com relação às dicotiledôneas que se fizerem presentes no experimento, com exceção de Oxalis Oxyptera Prop., que não foi controlada nas doses utilizadas. A densidade total médias das invasoras, menos Cyperus rotundus , Oxalis oxyptera e Cynodon dactylon, foi de 141; 124; 62 e 59 plantas . m-2, respectivamente, para as doses de 0,0; 0,35 ; 0,70 e 1,05 kg i.a.ha-1 de metribuzin. A dose de 0,35 kg i.a. de metribuzin.ha-1 foi suficiente para promover a redução da matéria seca da parte aérea das plantas daninhas com a mesma eficiência de controle da dose de 1,05 kg i.a .ha-1 Entretanto, a densidade total médil das invasoras foi reduzida sig nificativamente nas doses de 0,70 e 1,05 kg i.a. de metribuzin.ha-l. O efeito do metribuzin na soja foi evidenciado somente na dose de 1,05 kg i.a.ha-1, com injúria foliar (clorose leve ocorrida até 25 dias, aproximadamente, apôs a emergência das plântulas. Após esse período, houve total recuperação de todas as plantas de soja submetidas a essa dose. A produção de grão se o índice de colheita não foram influencia dos significativamente pelas doses de metribuzin.In order to test doses of metribu zin (0,0; 0,35; 0,70 and 1,05 kg a.i.ha ¹ in weed control and yield of soybe an (Glycine max (L. Merri ll, Uberaba, an experiment was conducted under

  6. Impact of the invasive plant Syzigium jambos (Myrtaceae on patterns of understory seedling abundance in a Tropical Premontane Forest, Costa Rica

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    Gerardo Avalos

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Habitat fragmentation, along with other human-induced disturbances, increase the vulnerability of native habitats to be invaded by aggressive, ecologically released, exotic species. Syzigium jambos (L. Alston (Myrtaceae, Rose Apple is an important invader still spreading throughout Hawaii, the Antilles, Central and South America. This study examines the effects of S. jambos on plant understory diversity in a 25 ha Tropical Premontane Moist Forest in Atenas, Alajuela, Costa Rica, a protected watershed that supplies drinking water for several human communities. Our final objective is to develop a management strategy combining water protection with the preservation of a representative sample of the original plant diversity in the area. Thirty 2 X 2 m plots were distributed throughout the Municipal Forest maintaining a minimum of 10 m between plots, and 2 m from trails, to sample all understory seedlings and saplings of S. jambos, Coffea arabica (coffee and tree seedlings. We found a clear dominance of S. jambos over all other understory plants. Of the total 1 285 sampled plants, S. jambos comprised 51%, coffee seedlings represented 14,78%, being the rest tree seedlings. Syzigium jambos had the highest density (5.46 plants/m2, S.D. = 6.44 compared to tree (3.67 plants/ m2, S.D. = 3.44 and coffee seedlings (1.58 plants/ m2, S.D. = 2.13. There was a highly significant negative relationship between the relative abundance of S. jambos and tree (r2 = 0.52, p La fragmentación del hábitat, junto con otros disturbios antropogénicos, aumentan la vulnerabilidad de los ambientes nativos a la invasión por especies exóticas, agresivas y sin controles ecológicos. Syzigium jambos (L. Alston (Myrtaceae, Manzana Rosa es una invasora importante que todavía está extendiendose en Hawaii, Las Antillas, Centro y Suramérica. Este estudio examina los efectos de S. jambos sobre la diversidad de plantas del sotobosque en un Bosque Húmedo Premontano de 25 ha en

  7. The role of macrophytes in habitat structuring in aquatic ecosystems: methods of measurement, causes and consequences on animal assemblages' composition and biodiversity O papel das macrófitas na estruturação de habitat em ambientes aquáticos: métodos de medida, causas e consequências para a composição das assembléias animais e biodiversidade

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    Sidinei Magela Thomaz

    2010-06-01

    structure and thus influence associated organisms. In this sense, they are suitable as the main focus of management strategies aimed at biodiversity restoration and conservation.Macrófitas aquáticas têm um importante papel na estruturação de comunidades em ambientes aquáticos. Essas plantas proporcionam estrutura física, aumentam a complexidade e a heterogeneidade de habitats e afetam vários grupos de organismos como invertebrados, peixes e aves aquáticas. A complexidade proporcionada pelas macrófitas tem sido exaustivamente estudada, porém, a mesma raramente tem sido medida de forma padronizada, dificultando comparações entre estudos e o estabelecimento de conclusões gerais. Com o objetivo de endereçar esse assunto, a presente revisão enfoca questões relacionadas à complexidade estrutural de habitats proporcionada por essas plantas e explora: i como a complexidade tem sido enfocada pelos ecólogos, com ênfase em estudos com macrófitas; ii os prós e contras de vários métodos usados para quantificar a complexidade; iii as consequências da estruturação de habitats proporcionada pelas macrófitas sobre invertebrados e peixes, assim como as possíveis causas, mediadas pela complexidade de habitats, que levam a alterações nas assembléias desses animais; iv os impactos potenciais de espécies exóticas invasoras de macrófitas sobre a complexidade de habitats e v a importância da estrutura fornecida por macrófitas em estratégias de manejo visando à conservação da biodiversidade. Nós examinamos a literatura produzida tanto em regiões temperadas como tropicais, mas priorizamos essa última. Os principais resultados dessa revisão são resumidos a seguir. Houve grande variedade de medidas da complexidade de habitats em macrófitas que visam compreender sua influência sobre as assembléias de animais associadas a essas plantas. No entanto, a falta de padronização (considerando uma extensa variação de técnicas e escalas de resolu

  8. Meningitis and pneumonia in Guatemalan children: the importance of Haemophilus influenzae type b and Streptococcus pneumoniae Meningitis y neumonía en niños guatemaltecos: importancia de Haemophilus influenzae tipo b y de Streptococcus pneumoniae

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    Edwin J. Asturias

    2003-12-01

    meningitis and help estimate the burden of bacterial meningitis in Guatemala and other developing countries.OBJETIVO: Determinar las características epidemiológicas de las infecciones invasoras por Haemophilus influenzae tipo b (Hib y Streptococcus pneumoniae en niños hospitalizados en Guatemala. La importancia de este tema radica en que la vacunación contra Hib no ha sido incorporada a los programas de inmunización establecidos en Guatemala y en que los registros hospitalarios de 1995 indicaban una baja incidencia de meningitis e infecciones invasoras causadas por Hib y S. pneumoniae. MÉTODOS: Los niños hospitalizados en la Ciudad de Guatemala con signos clínicos de infección bacteriana se estudiaron en busca de indicios de infección por Hib o S. pneumoniae. Se cultivaron líquidos corporales normalmente estériles y se hicieron pruebas de detección de antígenos en líquidos cefalorraquídeo (LCR y pleural. RESULTADOS: De los 1 203 niños de 1 a 59 meses de edad hospitalizados en un período de 28 meses, 725 (60,3% tenían un diagnóstico primario de neumonía, 357 (29,7% de meningitis, 60 (5,0% de celulitis y 61 (5,1% de sepsis u otras afecciones. En 20,0% de los niños con meningitis se detectó Hib y en 12,9% S. pneumoniae. La incidencia media anual de meningitis por Hib fue de 13,8 casos por 100 000 niños menores de 5 años de edad; 32,4% de los casos de meningitis causados por Hib y 58,7% de los causados por S. pneumoniae ocurrieron en niños menores de 6 meses de edad. La tasa de letalidad fue de 14,1%, 37,0% y 18,0%, respectivamente, para los casos de meningitis por Hib, por S. pneumoniae y con resultados negativos tanto en el cultivo como en las pruebas de detección de antígeno. El tratamiento previo con antibióticos fue frecuente y se vio asociado con una reducción significativa de resultados positivos en el cultivo de LCR en los niños que presentaban otros signos de meningitis por Hib o S. pneumoniae. CONCLUSIONES: El perfeccionamiento de la

  9. Impacto de la vacuna conjugada en la incidencia de meningitis por Haemophilus influenzae en el Distrito Federal de Brasil: resultados de tres años de seguimiento Impact of anti-Hib conjugate vaccine on the incidence of Haemophilus influenzae meningitis in Brazil's Federal District: results of a three-year follow-up

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    Helen Selma de Abreu Freitas

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCCIÓN: Haemophilus influenzae del serotipo b (Hib es todavía un importante agente causal de procesos infecciosos. Su variante encapsulada es la causa de formas invasoras de enfermedad. En algunas poblaciones aborígenes, la incidencia de enfermedades causadas por Hib es mayor de 400 por 100 000 niños menores de 5 años. En los decenios de 1970 y 1980, tras la identificación de anticuerpos protectores contra la cápsula de Hib, se desarrollaron vacunas contra este microorganismo. OBJETIVO: Estimar el impacto que ha tenido desde su introducción, en marzo de 1998, la vacunación contra Hib en el Distrito Federal de Brasil. MÉTODO: Con los datos de base poblacional del Sistema de Vigilancia de la Secretaría de Salud del Distrito Federal de Brasil, se compararon las tasas de incidencia de meningitis correspondientes a los tres años anteriores y posteriores a la introducción de la vacuna. Se compararon también los cambios en su tendencia. RESULTADOS: Al comparar los dos períodos se advierte una reducción de aproximadamente 90% en la incidencia de meningitis por Hib, cambio que no ocurre en el caso de las meningitis ocasionadas por otros agentes bacterianos. Se registró un aumento proporcional de los casos entre los niños de 6 meses de edad y menores, debido a la reducción de la incidencia entre los mayores de esa edad. CONCLUSIÓN: La introducción de la vacuna conjugada en el Distrito Federal de Brasil redujo de 168 por 100 000 (1995-1997 a 15 por 100 000 (1999-2001 la incidencia de meningitis por Hib entre niños de 7 a 35 meses. Esto representa una reducción de 91,1%.INTRODUCTION: Type b Haemophilus influenzae (Hib continues to be an important causative agent of various infectious processes, and its encapsulated strains cause invasive disease. In some aboriginal populations, the incidence of Hib infections in children under five is greater than 400 per 100 000. In the seventies and eighties, vaccines against Hib were

  10. MODIFICAÇÕES FLORÍSTICO-ESTRUTURAIS DE UM REMANESCENTE DE FLORESTA OMBRÓFILA MISTA MONTANA NO PERÍODO ENTRE 1979 E 2000

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    Solon Jonas Longhi

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de estudar as alterações florísticas e estruturais ocorridas em uma Floresta Ombrófila Mista, localizada na Estação Experimental da UFPR (São João do Triunfo-PR, nove parcelas de 1 ha cada, avaliadas inicialmente em 1979, foram remedidas em 2000. Em 1979, todos os indivíduos arbóreos com DAP igual ou superior a 20 cm foram identificados e etiquetados e tiveram as suas alturas total e comercial e o diâmetro medidos. Em 2000, usando os mesmos critérios de inclusão, os indivíduos que não haviam sido computados em 1979 foram considerados como ingressos e os não-encontrados como mortos. Em 1979, foram encontradas 2.133 indivíduos, 51 espécies e 29 famílias. No levantamento realizado em 2000, foram encontradas 2.202 indivíduos, 55 espécies e 31 famílias. As famílias Araucariaceae, Aquifoliaceae, Lauraceae, Sapindaceae, Myrtaceae e Canellaceae foram as mais expressivas em termos de quantidade de indivíduos em ambos os levantamentos. Embora nas duas ocasiões, houvesse mais que cinquenta espécies, apenas sete espécies (Araucaria angustifolia, Ilex dumosa, Matayba elaeagnoides, Ocotea porosa, Capsicodendron dinisii, Nectandra grandiflora e Campomanesia xanthocarpa representavam 80,4% dos indivíduos em 1979 e, no ano 2000, as mesmas sete espécies acrescidas de Ocotea corymbosa responderam por 80,9% do número total de indivíduos. Hovenia dulcis (uva-do-japão, espécie exótica, pelo número de indivíduos adultos e de regeneração, passou a configurar como uma invasora importante do ecossistema. Todos os indicadores estruturais analisados mostraram que a comunidade amadureceu no período estudado e que Araucaria angustifolia acentuou sua dominância. Houve um aumento sensível no grau de ocupação, indicado pela dominância absoluta que passou de 23,52 m2/ha, em 1979, para 28,53 m2/ha em 2000, ou seja, houve um aumento de 21,3%. Isso indica que essa comunidade está em processo de desenvolvimento, ainda n

  11. Vigilancia de los serotipos y susceptibilidad antimicrobiana de Haemophilus influenzae en Colombia, 1994-2002.

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    María Victoria Ovalle

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available La enfermedad invasora causada por Haemophilus influenzae, serotipo b, ha sido una de las mayores causas de morbilidad y mortalidad en la población infantil; afortunadamente, en algunos países con amplia cobertura de la vacuna conjugada esta situación ha cambiado. En 1994 se inició en el Grupo de Microbiología un programa de vigilancia de la susceptibilidad antimicrobiana y de los serotipos de aislamientos invasores de H. influenzae, remitidos por los hospitales y Laboratorios de Salud Pública del país como componente de los programas de vigilancia en red de infección respiratoria aguda y meningitis bacteriana aguda. El objetivo de este trabajo fue determinar la evolución de los serotipos y los patrones de susceptibilidad antimicrobiana de los aislamientos invasores de H. influenzae obtenidos de 1994 al 2002 y realizar un nuevo análisis sobre el impacto de la vacuna conjugada de H. influenzae, serotipo b, en Colombia. De 1994 a 2002 se han estudiado 683 aislamientos; 379 (55,5% de pacientes del género masculino; 370 (54,2% de menores de 1 año; 227 (33,2% de 1 a 5 años; 19 (2,8% de 6 a 14 años; 38 (5,6% de mayores de 14 años, y de 29 (4,2% no se tenía el dato de la edad; 493 (72,2% fueron recuperados de pacientes con meningitis, 181 (26,5% de neumonía y 9 (0,9% de otras enfermedades. El 85,1% de los aislamientos fueron H. influenzae, serotipo b, 12,9% no capsulares y 2,0% de otros serotipos (10 a, 1 d, 1 e y 2 f. Del total de aislamientos, 12% fueron productores de beta-lactamasa; 13,9%, resistentes a ampicilina; 12,7%, a trimetoprim sulfametoxazol (SXT; 5,4%, a cloranfenicol, y 1% a cefuroxima; todos fueron sensibles a ceftriaxona. Durante este período se observó un incremento en la resistencia de los aislamientos a SXT (5% al 13%, pero la diferencia no fue estadísticamente significativa (p=0,1. Con la vigilancia se pudo determinar una disminución significativa de los casos de meningitis en los menores de 1 año y en el

  12. El fuego favorece la invasión de Teline monspessulana (Fabaceae al aumentar su germinación Fire promotes Teline monspessulana (Fabaceae invasion by increasing its germination

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    RAFAEL A GARCÍA

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available A nivel mundial, se ha reportado que las especies invasoras y el fuego pueden interactuar positivamente modificando la dinámica del paisaje y los ciclos ecosistémicos. Este trabajo tiene por objetivo estudiar el efecto de los incendios forestales sobre el banco de semillas de Teline monspessulana (L. K. Koch (Retamilla y sus implicancias para la invasión de la especie en la zona mediterránea del centro-sur de Chile. Para cumplir con este objetivo, muestras del banco de semillas fueron sometidas a diferentes tratamientos que simulan las condiciones de un incendio, a través de quemas controladas. Además, para semillas tomadas desde plantas adultas se estimó el rango óptimo de temperaturas a las que ocurre la germinación. Los resultados muestran que después de un incendio forestal la germinación de T. monspessulana aumenta significativamente, siendo el calentamiento de las semillas el factor que gatilla este aumento. Por otro lado, se determinó que las semillas alcanzan su máxima tasa de germinación cuando son precalentadas entre 80 y 120 °C por 10 minutos, produciéndose la muerte del 100 % de las semillas a los 140 °C. Durante un incendio las temperaturas óptimas para la germinación al interior del suelo se alcanzaron cerca de los 2 cm de profundidad o bien en zonas donde la acumulación de combustible superficial (biomasa no supera las 5 ton ha4. La pequeña porción del banco de semillas que logra ser estimulada se compensa con la gran cantidad de semillas presente en los bancos que puede superar las 8000 semillas nr². Este estudio demuestra que el fuego, fenómeno común en zonas mediterráneas y crecientemente frecuente en Chile central, estaría favoreciendo la permanencia de T. monspessulana en áreas con alto grado de intervención antrópica.Worldwide, it has been reported that invasive species and fire can interact positively changing landscape dynamics and ecosystem cycles. This work aims to study the effect of forest

  13. Diarreia em caprinos associada ao consumo de Arrabidaea corallina (Bignoniaceae Diarrhea in goats associated with the ingestion of Arrabidaea corallina (Bignoniaceae

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    Clarice R.M. Pessoa

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Descreve-se um surto de intoxicação natural por Arrabidaea corallina (Jacq. Sandw. (fam. Bignoniaceae em caprinos no Município de Boqueirão, semiárido da Paraíba, durante a estação seca. De um rebanho de 550 caprinos maiores de um ano foram afetados 56 (10% e morreram 6 (1%, com sinais clínicos de diarreia, aumento dos movimentos ruminais e depressão. Os demais animais se recuperaram após serem retirados da pastagem. O rebanho alimentava-se de pastagem nativa e nesse período dispunham de pouca forragem. Todavia, A. corallina era a única planta invasora que se mantinha verde e existia em grande quantidade. Um caprino afetado foi necropsiado. O intestino delgado apresentava conteúdo liquefeito, fétido e enegrecido e alterações de enterite catarral. Ao exame histológico observou-se enterite aguda, difusa e moderada, ocasionalmente com presença de Eimeria sp. Não foram observadas lesões macroscópicas ou microscópicas significativas em outros órgãos. A doença foi reproduzida experimentalmente em 4 caprinos após administração das folhas frescas de A. corallina em 3-6 doses diárias de 15g por kg de peso animal. Os caprinos apresentaram diarreia 3-4 dias após o início da ingestão e se recuperaram 5-6 dias após o final da administração. Conclui-se que o consumo de A. corallina é responsável pela ocorrência da doença em caprinos a campo. No entanto outras doenças como a infestação parasitária e a desnutrição podem contribuir para causar a morte dos animais. Recomenda-se a retirada de caprinos de áreas invadidas por A. corallina quando, em consequência de estiagem, não houver outra forragem disponível.An outbreak of poisoning by Arrabidaea corallina (Jacq. Sandw. (Fam. Bignoniaceae in goats is reported, which occurred in the municipality of Boqueirão, semiarid of Paraíba, during the dry season. In a flock of 550 goats, older than one year of age, 56 (10% were affected and 6 (1% died. Clinical signs were

  14. Evaluation of prevention and control measures for ventilator-associated pneumonia Evaluación de las medidas de prevención y control de neumonía asociada a ventilación mecánica Avaliação das medidas de prevenção e controle de pneumonia associada à ventilação mecânica

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    Leandra Terezinha Roncolato da Silva

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to evaluate the quality of health care delivered in an Intensive Care Unit, concerning the use of pneumonia prevention and control measures in high-risk patients on mechanical ventilation. In this descriptive and exploratory research, 839 observations of patients under invasive ventilation care were carried out, between November 2009 and January 2010, using the Indicator of Evaluation of Adherence to Prevention and Control Measures in High-risk Patients (IRPR. Some isolated measures that compose the mentioned indicator reached rates close to 100%, but the general compliance rate with all prevention and control measures of ventilator-associated pneumonia was 26.94%. It is concluded that, although the evaluated practices are accomplished at the unit, systematic evaluations of the interventions is needed so as to permit the discussion and practice of other educational strategies by the health team.Este estudio objetivó evaluar la calidad de la asistencia a la salud prestada en una Unidad de Terapia Intensiva, en lo que se refiere al uso de medidas de prevención y control de neumonía en pacientes de alto riesgo sometidos a ventilación mecánica. Se trató de una investigación descriptiva exploratoria en la cual fueron realizadas 839 observaciones de pacientes en asistencia ventilatoria invasora, en el período de noviembre de 2009 a enero de 2010, utilizando el Indicador de Evaluación de la Adhesión a las Medidas de Prevención y Control de Neumonía en Pacientes de Alto Riesgo (IRPR. Algunas medidas aisladas que componen el Indicador alcanzaron índices próximos a 100%, sin embargo el índice de la conformidad general en todas las medidas de prevención y control de neumonía asociada a la ventilación mecánica correspondió a 26,94%. Se concluye que a pesar de que estas prácticas evaluadas estuviesen instituidas en la unidad, hay necesidad de realizar evaluaciones sistemáticas de las intervenciones para que otras

  15. Intra-regional transportation of a tugboat fouling community between the ports of recife and natal, northeast Brazil

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    Cristiane Maria Rocha Farrapeira

    2010-06-01

    , Herdmania pallida, Microscosmus exasperatus, Symplegma rubra e três como invasoras (Mytilopsis leucophaeta, Amphibalanus reticulatus e Striatobalanus amaryllis. A presença de M. leucophaeata, Amphibalanus eburneus e A. reticulatus no casco da embarcação, propiciou sua introdução na costa de Natal. A ocorrência de grande número de espécies de tunicados em Natal refletiu a biodiversidade bêntica da área portuária e facilitou a inclusão de dois bivalves, Musculus lateralis e Sphenia fragilis, encontrados em seus sifões e nos interstícios entre colônias ou indivíduos, respectivamente. Os dados obtidos indicam que a incrustação em cascos de embarcações tem um papel preponderante na introdução de espécies exóticas, e que o Porto do Recife atuou como fonte de algumas destas espécies.

  16. Eficácia de herbicidas no controle de amarelinho (Tecoma stans em pastagem Herbicides efficiency on trumpetflower (Tecoma stans

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    Telma Passini

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available Amarelinho (Tecoma stans é um arbusto exótico que foi observado como espécie invasora de past os degradados do Estado do Paraná-Brasil. A população dessa espécie forma um dossel denso sob o qual as forrageiras não se desenvolvem. Visando encontrar uma alternativa de controle químico, testou-se a eficiência da formulação comercial de 2,4-D + picloram e tebuthiuron, em experimentos separados. Com a formulação comercial de 2, 4-D + picloram preparou-se uma solução em água e em óleo lubrificante usado, nas concentrações de 4% e 10%. As soluções a 4% foram pinceladas no toco, imediatamente após o tronco ter sido cortado rente ao solo e, aquelas a 10%, pinceladas em tronco ferido com facão na base do tronco, sem eliminar a parte aérea. Tebuthiuron, em formulação granulada, foi aplicado nas doses de 2, 4, 6, 8, 10 e 20 g/ planta, sem eliminar a parte aérea. A formulação de 2,4 -D + picloram não matou as plantas de amarelinho que, aos cinco meses após tratadas, apresentavam brotações com 0, 74 a 1, 21 m de altura. A menor do sede tebuthiuron foi suficiente para matar as plantas num período de nove meses após a aplicação do herbicida.Trumpet flower (Tecoma stans is na exotic woody shrub observed as an invader of degraded pastures in the State of Parana - Brazil. The canopy of trumpetflower is so dense that no forage plants growunderneath. The chemical control of this weed was tested in two experiments, using the commercial formulation of 2,4-D + picloram and tebuthiuron. The former was prepared as a solution into water or lubricative used oil, at the concentrations of 4 and 10%. The solutions at 4% were used for painting the stumps immediatly after trunks had being cut off, close to the ground level. The solutions at 10% were used for painting the basal portion of the trunks, immediatly after damaging it with a machete close to the ground level. Tebuthiuron was used granulated at doses of 2, 4, 6, 8, 10 e 20 g

  17. Further molecular characterization of weed-associated begomoviruses in Brazil with an emphasis on Sida spp Caracterização molecular adicional de begomovírus associados a plantas daninhas no Brasil, com ênfase em Sida spp

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    S.S. Tavares

    2012-06-01

    única espécie viral, Blainvillea yellow spot virus (BlYSV, sugerindo que o BlYSV pode ser o único begomovírus presente nesta espécie de planta invasora. Quatro isolados representam espécies novas, para as quais os seguintes nomes são propostos: Sida yellow blotch virus (SiYBV, Sida yellow net virus (SiYNV, Sida mottle Alagoas virus (SiMoAV e Sida yellow mosaic Alagoas virus (SiYMAV. Eventos de recombinação foram detectados entre isolados de SiYBV e no isolado de SiYNV. Estes resultados constituem uma evidência adicional da alta diversidade de espécies de begomovírus em Sida spp. Contudo, o possível papel dessas plantas daninhas como fonte de begomovírus para plantas cultivadas ainda permanece indeterminado.

  18. Surtos populacionais de Bemisia tabaci no estado de São Paulo Outbreaks of Bemisia tabaci in the São Paulo State, Brazil

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    André Luiz Lourenção

    1994-01-01

    Full Text Available A partir de 1991, tem sido observada a presença da mosca-branca Bemisia tabaci (Genn. (Homoptera: Aleyrodidae em altas populações em hortaliças e orna-mentais nos municípios paulistas de Paulínia, Holambra, Jaguariúna e Artur Nogueira. Foram constatadas infestações severas em tomateiro, brócolos, berinjela e aboboreira; nesta última, o sintoma observado em plantas infestadas pela mosca-branca é o prateamento da face superior das folhas, em conjunto com queda drástica da produção. Uma lavoura de tomate severamente infestada por B. tabaci apresentava o sintoma referido colo amadurecimento irregular dos frutos do tomateiro; plantas invasoras presentes nessa área também foram intensamente colonizadas, principalmente Sida rhombifolia L., Sonchus oleraceus L., Solanum viarum Dun. e Ipomoea acuminata Roem. & Schult. Em Holambra, verificaram-se ataques intensos em plantas ornamentais, principalmente crisântemo (Chrysantemum morifolium Ramat. e bico-de-papagaio (Euphorbia pulcherrima Willd.; roseiras foral pouco colonizadas. Nessas hortaliças e nas ornamentais, a aplicação quase diária de inseticidas não reduziu a infestação do inseto. Além dessas plantas, campos de algodão, em Holambra, e de feijão, em Paulínia, também foram infestados por B. tabaci. Nos E.U.A., a capacidade de certas populações de B. tabaci de induzir o prateamento da folha em aboboreira e de colonizar intensamente E. pulcherrima, entre outros fatores, têm levado à distinção do biótipo "B" ou "poinsétia", nome vulgar dessa euforbiácea; todavia, estudos recentes na Califórnia (E.U.A. mostram a possibilidade de se tratar de duas espécies distintas. Dada a similaridade entre as infestações associadas a B. tabaci que vêm ocorrendo naquele país e, mais recentemente, no Brasil, é provável que o biótipo B ou essa nova espécie tenha sido aqui introduzido.Since 1991, an increase in the populations of the whitefly Bemisia tabaci (Genn. (Homoptera

  19. Fitossociologia do estrato arbóreo e arbustivo em sub-bosque de talhões de Pinus elliottii e Eucalyptus maculata/citriodora na Estação Experimental de Tupi, Piracicaba – SP. Phytosociology of the arboreal and arbustive stratum in understory of Pinus elliottii and Eucalyptus maculata/citriodora at Estação Experimental de Tupi, Piracicaba – SP.

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    Rosa Maria Galera GONÇALVES

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available A Estação Experimental de Tupi – EET, Piracicaba–SP, é uma unidade do Instituto Florestal com 198 ha, onde a maior parte foi reflorestada com espécies dos gêneros Pinus e Eucalyptus entre as décadas de 1950 e 1980. Neste estudo se fez o levantamento fitossociológico do sub-bosque em talhão de Pinus elliottii – TP e de Eucalyptus maculata/citriodora – TE. Foram instaladas 30 parcelas com 100 m2 (10 m x 10 m em cada ambiente, de onde foram amostrados todos os indivíduos arbustivos e arbóreos com diâmetro 3,0 cm, e altura 1,0 m. No talhão de Pinus foram identificadas 26 famílias e 63 espécies e no talhão de Eucalyptus foram 20 famílias e 57 espécies. A família Fabaceae ocorreu com a maior riqueza, com 25 espécies quando somados os dois ambientes. As espécies com maior densidade em cada ambiente foram: Piper arboreum com 115 ind. ha-1 (TP e Melia azedarach com 173,3 ind. ha-1 (TE. Essas apresentaram comportamento de invasoras. A espécie M. azedarach teve também o maior Índice de Valor de Importância nos dois ambientes (IVI = 34,4 em TP e 47,8 em TE, devido à sua elevada densidade. Por outro lado, as espécies raras somaram 45,5 e 27,5% do IVI total em TP e em TE, respectivamente. As comunidades vegetais estudadas mostraram alta riqueza de espécies, porém ocorreram muitas espécies raras. Os resultados obtidos demonstraram que as espécies exóticas estudadas (Pinus e Eucalyptus podem ser utilizadas como pioneiras no processo de recuperação de áreas degradadas. No entanto, para se obter comunidades vegetais com alta diversidade são necessárias intervenções de manejo visando controlar a densidade das espécies dominantes. Palavras-chave: reflorestamento; restabelecimento; floresta estacional semidecidual; manejo florestal.The Estação Experimental de Tupi in Piracicaba, SP, is one of the Forest Institute units mostly of its 198 ha was recovered with the genera Pinus and Eucalyptus species between the decades

  20. The inverted trophic cascade in tropical plankton communities: impacts of exotic fish in the Middle Rio Doce lake district, Minas Gerais, Brazil A cascata trófica invertida em comunidades planctônicas tropicais: impactos da introdução de peixes exóticos no distrito de lagos do médio rio Doce, MG

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    RM. Pinto-Coelho

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available The present study deals with the ecological impacts of the introduction of two alien species of piscivorous fish in several lakes of the Middle Rio Doce lake district in Minas Gerais, Brazil. It was demonstrated that these effects were not restricted only to the fish community. The introduction of the predatory red piranha Pygocentrus nattereri and the tucunaré Cichla cf. ocellaris caused not only a sharp decrease in the number of native fish species, but also major shifts in other trophic levels. Just after the fish were introduced, most lakes began to show conspicuous changes in phytoplankton species composition, in which Cyanophyceae gradually came to dominate. The zooplankton community lost several species, and in some cases, such as Lake Carioca, all the cladoceran species disappeared. On the other hand, invertebrate predators, represented by the dipteran Chaoboridae, boomed in the lake, with higher densities of exotic species, probably as a result of the "ecological release" by reduction of the original fish fauna. There was a general trend of species loss in different trophic levels. All these changes are apparently associated with decreases in water quality. The present situation in these lakes demands new approaches to the management and conservation of these ecosystems.O presente estudo trata dos impactos ecológicos da introdução de duas espécies invasoras de peixes piscívoros em diversos lagos da região lacustre do médio rio Doce em Minas Gerais, Brasil. Demonstrou-se que estes efeitos não se restringiram às comunidade de peixes. A introdução dos predadores Pygocentrus nattereri (piranha-vermelha e Cichla cf. ocelaris (tucunaré não só causou uma forte redução no número de espécies de peixes nativos, como também mudanças nos níveis tróficos inferiores. Pouco depois das introduções, a maioria dos lagos começou a mostrar alterações na comunidade fitoplanctônica, tais como o aparecimento da dominância de

  1. The invasion of five alien species in the Delta do Parnaíba Environmental Protection Area, Northeastern Brazil

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    Daniel Loebmann

    2010-09-01

    redlip blenny Ophioblennius atlanticus and other fishes, such as the frillfin goby Bathigobius soporator. Some immediate remedial measures to prevent further introductions from ballast water and shrimp farm ponds should be: (i to prevent the release of ballast water by ship/vessels in the region; (ii to reroute all effluent waters from shrimp rearing facilities through an underground or above-ground dry well; (iii to install adequate sand and gravel filter which will allow passage of water but not livestock; (iv outdoor shrimp pounds located on floodable land should be diked, and; (v to promote environmental awareness of those directly involved with ballast water (crews of ship/vessels and shrimp farms in the region. Rev. Biol. Trop. 58 (3: 909-923. Epub 2010 September 01.En el Área de Protección Ambiental del Delta Del Río Parnaíba, noreste de Brasil fueron detectadas cinco especies acuáticas invasoras (un molusco, tres crustáceos y un pez: la ostra de dos colores Isognomon bicolor, el camarón patiblanco Litopenaeus vannamei, el camarón gigante de río Macrobrachium rosenbergii, el cangrejo nadador del Indo-Pacifico Charybdis hellerii y el blenio hocicudo Omobranchus punctatus. El agua de lastre (I. bicolor, C. hellerii, y O. punctatus y la acuicultura (L. vannamei y M. rosenbergii en áreas adyacentes son los vectores de introducción más probables. Todas las especies exóticas encontradas son potencialmente riesgosas para el ambiente ya que son aptas para competir con las nativas por recursos como alimento y hábitat. Charybdis hellerii también podría causar impacto en el recurso pesquero local, al reducir las poblaciones de cangrejos portúnidos nativos, comercializados en el área de estudio.

  2. Avaliação do efeito de borda da Reserva Biológica de Pindorama, SP

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    M. T. V. N. Abdo

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Caracterizou dois fragmentos de floresta estacional semidecidual da Reserva Biológica de Pindorama, SP. Em 65 parcelas de 400 m2 avaliou-se: grau de infestação na parcela, distância da borda, altura, área basal e grau de infestação das quatro maiores árvores e num quadrante sorteado avaliou-se solo, a altitude, o número de espécies, o número, a área basal e a altura de todos indivíduos arbóreos com diâmetro a altura do peito (DAP ≥ a 5 cm e a fitossociologia. O agrupamento hierárquico dividiu as parcelas em dois grupos onde determinou-se valores médios das variáveis, Índices de diversidade de espécies (H’ e Coeficiente de equabilidade (J e a similaridade entre os grupos com o Índice de similaridade de Jaccard (ISJ. O agrupamento hierárquico, k-médias e componentes principais caracterizaram grupos de parcelas semelhantes e as variáveis com maior poder de discriminação foram: altura das quatro maiores árvores, número de indivíduos por parcelas, área basal total, infestação por parcelas, número de espécies. No Grupo 2 houve maior infestação de plantas invasoras e lianas nas quatro maiores árvores e menor distância das parcelas da borda com mais parcelas sob efeito de borda (31,75%. O Grupo 1  teve menor porcentagem  de parcelas sob efeito de borda (22,22%. Edge effect evaluation of Pindorama Biological Reserve-SPAbstract: Edge effect evaluation in two forest remnants in the Biological Reserve Pindorama, SP, in 65 plots of 400 m2, using data of: degree of infestation in the plot, distance from edge, height, basal area and degree of infestation of the four largest trees. In a random quadrant were evaluated soil and altitude, species number, number, basal area and height of trees with diameter at breast height (DBH ≥ 5 cm and phytosociological describers: density absolute and relative, relative dominancy, frequency relative and absolute , importance value, species diversity index (H ', evenness

  3. Efeito da palha e da mistura atrazine e metolachlor no controle de plantas daninhas na cultura do milho, em sistema de plantio direto Effect of corn plant residue and mixture of atrazine plus metolachlor on the weeds control in no-till corn system

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    Maurílio Fernandes de Oliveira

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi estudar o efeito de níveis de palha de milho e da mistura formulada atrazine e metolachlor no controle de plantas daninhas na cultura de milho, em sistema de plantio direto. O ensaio foi realizado num Latossolo Vermelho distrófico, argiloso, fase cerrado, sendo a dessecação do mato feita com glyphosate, 15 dias antes do plantio. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi o de blocos ao acaso, com parcelas subdivididas e com três repetições. Antes do plantio do milho, distribuíram-se cinco níveis de palha de milho (0, 3, 6, 9 e 12 tha-1, nas parcelas, de modo uniforme. Nas subparcelas, após o plantio, foram considerados dois tratamentos referentes a herbicida: ausência de herbicida ou a dose de 6,0 Lha-1 de atrazine, e metolachlor (1.200+ 1.800gha-1. Avaliou-se o número das plantas daninhas, por espécie, aos 26 e 41 dias após o plantio. O número total de plantas daninhas foi reduzido significativamente pelos níveis de palha, independentemente da presença do herbicida e da época de avaliação. O herbicida não apresentou efeito significativo na primeira época de avaliação; entretanto, na segunda, a redução no número total de plantas daninhas foi de, aproximadamente, 53% em relação às parcelas que não o receberam. A população total de planta daninha foi significativamente superior na segunda avaliação, na ausência do herbicida. Na presença do herbicida, não houve diferença significativa na população total de invasoras entre as duas épocas de avaliação.The objective of this work was to study the effect of corn plant residue and mixture of atrazine plus metolachlor on weed control in no-till corn system. This experiment was performed in an Oxisol, and the weed desiccation was done using glyphosate, 15 days before planting. The experimental design was a randomized block, with three replications. Before corn planting, five levels of corn plant residues (0, 3, 6, 9 e 12tha-1 were

  4. First Occurrence of Ceratitis capitata (Wied. in the State of Roraima, Brazil = Primeira ocorrência de Ceratitis capitata (Wied. no Estado de Roraima, Brasil

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    Luciana Baú Trassato

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Due to its cosmopolitan and invasive characteristics, the Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata (Wied., is considered to be the most harmful tephritide to global fruit farming, causing greater losses in production than any other species of the same family. In Brazil, it was first detected in 1901 in the state of São Paulo, and was present in 22 of the 27 federated states by 2014. Because of its economic importance and the continual entry of hosts into the state, the hypothesis of this work was that the Mediterranean fruit fly [Ceratitis capitata (Wied.] is already present in the State of Roraima. Weekly collections of potential host fruits were carried out in October 2014 in urban areas of the city of Boa Vista, Roraima. The collected fruit was taken to the Entomology Laboratory of the Federal University of Roraima, where they were weighed, counted and packed under controlled conditions of temperature and humidity in order to obtain pupae. After emergence, the flies were fed on water with 25% honey for two days, fixed in 70% alcohol and sent for identification to the Department of Entomology Research of the Amazon National Research Institute (INPA in Manaus. In this way, Specimens of Ceratitis capitata (Wied. (Diptera: Thephritidae were detected in fruit of the guava (Psidium guajava L., validating the hypothesis that the pest is already present in Roraima. The first record of the occurrence of Ceratitis capitata (Wied. in the state of Roraima is therefore reported here. = A mosca-do-mediterrâneo, Ceratitis capitata (Wied., por apresentar características cosmopolita e invasora, é considerada o tefritideo mais nocivo à fruticultura mundial, causando perdas produtivas superiores a qualquer outra espécie da sua família. No Brasil, foi primeiramente detectada em 1901 no estado de São Paulo, e estava presente em 22 das 27 unidades federativas até o ano de 2014. Em razão da sua importância econômica e da constante entrada de

  5. Prevalence and antimicrobial resistance of Salmonella in chicken carcasses at retail in 15 Brazilian cities Prevalencia y resistencia a los antimicrobianos de Salmonella en pollos congelados de venta al por menor en 15 ciudades del Brasil

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    Marcelo Augusto Nunes Medeiros

    2011-12-01

    Prevalencia de la Resistencia Bacteriana en el Pollo (PREBAF. Durante el programa se recolectaron canales de pollo en 15 capitales estatales del Brasil, en las cinco regiones geográficas del país. Para aislar Salmonella spp. e identificar los serotipos, se usaron las técnicas convencionales. Para evaluar la resistencia frente a 18 antibióticos, se usó el método de la concentración inhibitoria mínima. RESULTADOS: En las 2 679 canales de pollo examinadas, la prevalencia de Salmonella spp. fue de 2,7% (amplitud, 0,0%-8,9%. El 50,6% de las muestras positivas provinieron del estado de São Paulo. Se identificaron 18 serotipos. Los más frecuentes fueron Salmonella Enteritidis (48,8%, Salmonella Infantis (7,6%, Salmonella Typhimurium (7,2% y Salmonella Heidelberg (6,4%. Las 250 cepas evaluadas fueron resistentes a uno o más antibióticos, y 133 (53,2% fueron multirresistentes (≥ 3 clases de antibióticos. Salmonella Heidelberg fue resistente a la ceftriaxona (75,0% y al ceftiofur (43,8%. CONCLUSIONES: La prevalencia de Salmonella spp. en este estudio fue relativamente baja. Sin embargo, hubo una proporción elevada de cepas multirresistentes, inclusive a las cefalosporinas de tercera generación usadas para tratar la salmonelosis invasora. Los resultados confirman la relevancia del programa PREBAF, el cual se recomienda mejorar, por ejemplo, mediante un análisis oportuno de los datos. También es necesario revisar los límites permitidos de Salmonella spp. en el pollo que se vende al por menor en el Brasil.

  6. Resistencia a antibióticos no betalactámicos de aislamientos invasores de Streptococcus pneumoniae en niños latinoamericanos: SIREVA II, 2000-2005 Resistance to non-beta-lactam antibiotics in the clinical isolates of Streptococcus pneumoniae of children in Latin America: SIREVA II, 2000-2005

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    Clara Inés Agudelo

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO:Determinar la evolución de la resistencia a la eritromicina, el cloranfenicol, el trimetoprim-sulfametozaxol (SXT y la vancomicina de aislamientos invasores de Streptococcus pneumoniae obtenidos de niños de 10 países de América Latina y del Caribe en seis años de vigilancia. MÉTODOS: Se analizaron 8 993 aislamientos de S. pneumoniae recuperados entre 2000 y 2005 de niños menores de 6 años con infecciones invasoras, procedentes de Argentina, Brasil, Chile, Colombia, Cuba, México, Paraguay, República Dominicana, Uruguay y Venezuela. La sensibilidad a los antibióticos se determinó mediante los métodos establecidos y estandarizados en el proyecto SIREVA. La resistencia a múltiples antibióticos se definió como la resistencia a tres o más familias de antibióticos, de los no betalactámicos analizados en este estudio o de los betalactámicos evaluados en un estudio previo en el que 37,8% de estos aislamientos presentaron sensibilidad disminuida a la penicilina. RESULTADOS: Se encontró algún grado de resistencia al SXT y la eritromicina (56,4% y 15,4% de los aislamientos estudiados, respectivamente y 4,6% presentó alta resistencia al cloranfenicol. Todos los aislamientos fueron sensibles a la vancomicina. Se observó la mayor frecuencia de resistencia al SXT en los aislamientos de neumonía y a la eritromicina en los casos de sepsis (61,6% y 25,5%, respectivamente; P OBJECTIVE: To examine the development of resistance to erythromycin, chloramphenicol, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (TMP-SMZ, and vancomycin of the invasive isolates of Streptococcus pneumoniae obtained from children in 10 Latin American/Caribbean countries during six years of surveillance. METHODS: Analysis of 8 993 isolates of S. pneumoniae recovered in 2000-2005 from children with invasive infections, who were less than 6 years of age, and from Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Cuba, Dominican Republic, Mexico, Paraguay, Uruguay, or Venezuela. Antibiotic

  7. Bacterial pathogens associated with bloody diarrhea in Uruguayan children Patógenos bacterianos asociados a diarrea con sangre en niños uruguayos

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    M. I. Mota

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Diarrheal disease continues to be a serious health problem, especially in developing countries. Bloody diarrhea represents approximately 20-30% of all cases and has higher morbidity and mortality. Treatment with antibiotics is beneficial in cases of Shigella, Campylobacter, Yersinia and Salmonella infection, principally in those children with a higher risk of invasive disease. The aims of this study were to detect the bacterial agents associated with bloody diarrhea in children and to determine their antimicrobial susceptibility patterns. Between June 2001 and January 2008, 249 children with bloody diarrhea were studied. Shigella and Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC were recovered from 48 (19.3% and 3 (1.2% of the total of cases, respectively. In 49 out of 249 children, in whom other enteropathogens were investigated, we recovered Campylobacter jejuni from 7 children (14.3%, Salmonella spp. from 2 (4.1% and Aeromonas spp. from 1 (2% in addition to Shigella from 7 children (14.3%. Thirty-four (70% Shigella isolates showed resistance to ampicillin and 13 (27% to trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole. All Shigella isolates were susceptible to nalidixic acid, ciprofloxacin and ceftriaxone. Salmonella and STEC isolates were susceptible to all antibiotics assayed. Thus, the use of trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole or ampicillin would not be appropriate for the empirical treatment of Shigella - associated diarrhea.La enfermedad diarreica es un problema de salud importante, especialmente en los países en desarrollo. La diarrea sanguinolenta representa el 20-30% del total de casos y determina una mayor morbimortalidad. La antibioticoterapia es beneficiosa en casos de infección por Shigella, Campylobacter, Yersinia y Salmonella, principalmente en niños con riesgo elevado de enfermedad invasora. Los objetivos del presente trabajo fueron conocer las bacterias asociadas a diarrea sanguinolenta y determinar su patrón de sensibilidad a los antimicrobianos

  8. Species composition and flight periods of horntail wasps (Hymenoptera: Siricidae within Basque Country pine forests, with the confirmation of establishment of the exotic species Urocerus albicornis

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    Goldarazena, A.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Species composition and flight periods of horntails wasps in Basque Country pine forests in northern Spain are studied in order to determine if alien invasive species have been introduced and established. Panel traps baited with Contech Inc. Sirex noctilio lures were erected at sites in six distinct Basque Country forest regions (Menagarai and Gordoa forests in Alava Province, Orio and Zegama forests in Gipuzkoa province and Carranza and Muxika forests in Bizkaia province. Traps were monitored throughout 2011 and 2012. At the same time in January, ten dead logs with oviposition holes from the same localities were collected and reared in emergence cages for wasp collection. In the pheromone traps three autochthonous, Palaearctic species were found: Sirex noctilio Fabricius, 1773, and Urocerus gigas (Linnaeus, 1758, and one exotic species Urocerus albicornis (Fabricius, 1781 was detected. From logs, the same three species plus U. augur (Klug, 1803 were obtained with a collection of parasitoids. Sirex noctilio, Urocerus gigas and Urocerus albicornis were found in all provinces of the Basque Country. Trapping results show flight occurs from late June to September. The establishment of U. albicornis, an exotic species from North America, is confirmed in northern Spain.El objetivo de este estudio fue determinar la composición de especies y el periodo de vuelo de las avispas de la madera en los bosques de coníferas del País Vasco (norte de España, para conocer si especies invasoras previamente introducidas se habían establecido. Trampas de interceptación tipo Panel cebadas con dispositivos Contech específicos para Sirex noctilio fueron colocadas en seis diferentes areas forestales del País Vasco (Menagarai y Gordoa en la provincial de Álava, Orio y Zegama en Gipuzkoa y Carranza y Muxika en Bizkaia. Las trampas fueron monitoreadas a lo largo de 2011 y 2012. Al mismo tiempo en enero, se recogieron de las mismas localidades 10 trozas con agujeros

  9. Ecología y distribución de Senecio pterophorus (Compositae en la Península Ibérica

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    Chamorro, Lourdes

    2006-06-01

    ógica en relación con el hábitat, de modo que en ambientes riparios y ruderales los individuos desarrollan un porte esférico, de menor tamaño, y unas hojas más pequeñas que en ambientes forestales, donde el porte de las plantas es más alargado y el tamaño de las hojas mucho mayor. Esta especie, en creciente expansión, debe ser considerada una planta invasora en la Península Ibérica, ya que ha aumentado considerablemente el número de sus poblaciones en un período relativamente corto. Además, se sugiere que S. pterophorus puede llegar a ser una amenaza para la conservación de la diversidad de especies y de hábitats naturales autóctonos, como ocurre en Australia, donde desplaza a las especies nativas e incluso se hibrida con otras especies de Senecio.

  10. Qualidade de frutos de laranjeira Valência cultivada sob sistema tecnificado Quality of Valencia orange fruits cultivated under technified system

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    Regina K. Grizotto

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Estudou-se, neste estudo, o efeito de um pacote tecnológico implementado no pomar laranjeira Valência em comparação com o sistema convencional tendo-se por base a produção e a qualidade dos frutos colhidos. As tecnologias praticadas constam de adensamento, adubação na implantação e formação, tratamento fitossanitário, manejo de plantas invasoras, irrigação e poda de formação. Os resultados obtidos dos frutos da primeira colheita mostraram que o sistema tecnificado com irrigação (ST + I promoveu aumento significativo no rendimento de colheita, o qual foi maior em pomares com maior adensamento de 727 plantas ha-1 (espaçamento 5,5 x 2,5 m ou 667 plantas ha-1 (espaçamento 6,0 x 2,5 m. A irrigação em sistema tecnificado resultou em frutos com maior tamanho e, consequentemente, menor número de frutos para compor uma caixa padrão, menores teores de sólidos solúveis e acidez titulável. Não houve variação no rendimento em suco, independente do sistema de produção ou espaçamento utilizado. Conclui-se que, nesta primeira avaliação, a implementação de sistema tecnificado de manejo de pomar concomitante à irrigação (ST + I é interessante, uma vez que promove maior rendimento de colheita em comparação ao sistema convencional.The effect of a technological package implemented in a Valencia orange orchard was studied and compared with the conventional system, based on the production and quality of the fruits harvested. The technologies implemented included the densification, fertilization during implantation and training, phytosanitary treatment, weed management, irrigation and pruning. The results for the fruits from the first harvest showed that the Technified System and Irrigation (TS + I resulted in significant increase in crop yield. This increase was higher in orchards with a higher density of 727 plants ha-1 (5.5 x 2.5 m spacing or 667 plants ha-1 (6.0 x 2.5 m spacing. In general, irrigation concomitant with TS

  11. Invasion by Ligustrum lucidum (Oleaceae in NW Argentina: early stage characteristics in different habitat types

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    Roxana Aragón

    2003-03-01

    vulnerabilities that could be targets of control measures.Las invasiones biológicas son consideradas actualmente uno de los problemas de conservación más serios. Ligustrum lucidum es el árbol exótico mas abundante en los bosques secundarios del NO de Argentina. Estudiamos llegada de semillas, germinación, reclutamiento y crecimiento de renovales en claros, bordes e interior del bosque La llegada de semillas también se estudió bajo perchas y en sitios abiertos. La supervivencia y el crecimiento de renovales de L. lucidum fueron comparados con los de las especies nativas mas abundantes. El arribo de semillas fue estacional y los bordes mostraron una tendencia a recibir mas semillas dispersadas. La presencia de perchas aumentó la llegada de semillas. Dentro del bosque, las semillas germinaron mas en claros y bordes, pero no hubo diferencia en sobrevivencia. La germinación y la supervivencia fue baja en sitios abiertos. El reclutamiento y crecimiento de renovales no difirió entre claros e interior del bosque. Los renovales de L. lucidum crecieron mas que los renovales de las especies nativas mas comunes. L. lucidum se establece y sobrevive en un amplio rango de condiciones, es relativamente tolerante a la sombra y tiene una rápida tasa de crecimiento. Estas características indican su capacidad invasora, y señalan escasas vulnerabilidades que puedan ser usadas para su control.

  12. Comparación de la flora exótica vascular en sistemas de islas continentales: Cerdeña (Italia y Baleares (España

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    Podda, Lina

    2010-12-01

    familias, y Fabaceae es la más rica (49 táxones, seguida por Poaceae (33 y Asteraceae (31, frente a 90 familias para las Baleares, con predominio de Fabaceae (32, Asteraceae (31 y Poaceae (27. Se han encontrado diferencias respecto a los tipos biológicos, con un predominio de los fanerófitos en Cerdeña y de los terófitos en las Baleares. Un análisis detallado muestra que buena parte de estos táxones (246 son compartidos por ambos territorios, así como una dominancia de los neófitos frente a los arqueófitos. Respecto al origen geográfico, ambos territorios presentan una preeminencia del elemento americano sobre el mediterráneo. En referencia a las vías de introducción, la mayor parte de los táxones ha sido introducida por parte del hombre de forma intencionada (76% SA, 77% BL en particular para uso ornamental (43% SA, 45% BL. Los hábitats más afectados son los seminaturales, agrícolas y sinantrópicos en ambos territorios, aunque atendiendo a la flora invasora, son los litorales los más sensibles en Cerdeña y los humedales en Baleares. Una parte del trabajo aborda las causas de la fragilidad y baja resiliencia de los diferentes hábitats.

  13. Análise de crescimento em amendoinzeiro (Arachis hypogaea L. submetido à matocompetição Analysis of peanut growth under a weed control

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    Luiz Mauro Barbosa

    1995-07-01

    Full Text Available Foram verificados os efeitos de diferentes períodos de controle e convivência de plantas daninhas (0; 14; 28; 42; 56; 70; 84 e 98 dias na cultura do amendoinzeiro (Arachis hypogaea L. em Moji-Guaçu (SP. As principais espécies invasoras da área experimental foram: Acanthospermum australe (Loef. O. Kuntz, Waltheria indica L., Borreria alata DC., Richardia scabra L., Rhynchelytrum repens (Nees Stapf. et Hubb. e Diodia teres Walt. De maneira geral, durante quase todo o ciclo, a espécie de maior importância relativa foi A. australe, sendo suplantada por outras espécies apenas na colheita, quando já estava encerrando seu ciclo de desenvolvimento. O período inicial de controle das plantas daninhas, além de reduzir a densidade da comunidade infestante, diminuiu sua riqueza em espécies e alterou a importância relativa das populações. A matocompetição resultou na redução do crescimento do amendoinzeiro, principalmente a partir de 42 dias de convivência, afetando a altura das plantas, a área foliar, o índice de área foliar e o acúmulo epígeo de matéria seca. Não foram afetados os números de ramos e de folíolos por planta, nem a qualidade dos grãos e o vigor das sementes do amendoim. A produção de frutos foi reduzida ao redor de 31,5% em decorrência da interferência das plantas daninhas. O período total de prevenção da interferência na produção foi de 14 dias e o período anterior à interferência foi de 70 dias.Effects of different periods (0-14-28-42-56-70-84 and 98 days of weed control in peanut plants (Arachis hypogaea L. were studied in Moji-Guaçu region (State of São Paulo. The main weed species in the experimental area were: Acanthospermum australe (Loef. O. Kuntz, Waltheria indica L.; Borreria alata D.C.; Richardia scabra L.; Rhynchelytrum repens (Ness Stapf. et Hubb and Diodia teres Walt. During the whole peanut life cycle, except at harvest time, the most important weed species was A. australe. The

  14. Avaliação de espécies leguminosas na formação de cafezais no segmento da agricultura familiar no Acre Evaluation of legume species for coffee plants formation in the segment of family farms in Acre

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    Celso Luis Bergo

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Leguminosas quando consorciadas com o café e usadas como adubação verde podem contribuir fornecendo nitrogênio e proteção ao solo pela adição de matéria orgânica. O trabalho foi conduzido com o objetivo de avaliar o efeito do uso de leguminosas no sistema de produção de café, no segmento de agricultura familiar, visando promover a implantação e a manutenção dos cafezais de forma técnica e economicamente sustentável. O experimento foi conduzido no período de novembro de 2000 a abril de 2003, em delineamento experimental de blocos ao acaso em esquema de parcelas subdivididas, com quatro repetições. Os tratamentos utilizados nas parcelas foram as leguminosas (Stizolobium atterrimum, Cajanus cajan, Canavalia endiformis e Flemingia congesta e a testemunha (sem leguminosa e, nas subparcelas, duas doses de N (0 e 22 g de N por cova. A Flemingia congesta e a Mucuna aterrima foram as leguminosas que mais influenciaram positivamente a produtividade dos cafeeiros, independente da adubação nitrogenada. Em relação à testemunha, o aumento em produção foi de 109% quando utilizou-se a Flemingia congesta e 52% com a Mucuna aterrima. A Flemingia congesta foi também a leguminosa que melhor controlou as invasoras, dado o volume de fitomassa produzida e a possibilidade de 2 cortes durante um período de doze meses, evidenciando o potencial desta leguminosa na formação de novos cafezais no Acre. Por outro lado, a Canavalia ensiformis, leguminosa que é normalmente utilizada nas entrelinhas dos cafeeiros pelos cafeicultores, do Acre e de outras regiões produtoras, neste trabalho influenciou negativamente a altura das plantas, diâmetro da copa e crescimento dos cafeeiros.Legumes, when associated with coffee crop and used as green manure can contribute with nitrogen and protect the soil by addition of organic matter. The effect of the use legume species in the coffee production system of family farms, was evaluated in order to promote

  15. Familias de la proteína de superficie PspA de Streptococcus pneumoniae: Relación con serotipos y localización Pneumococcal surface protein A (PspA families: Relation with serotypes and clinical site of infection

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    Clara Mayoral

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available PspA, proteína de superficie de Streptococcus pneumoniae es un factor de virulencia, fuertemente inmunogénica y común a todos los serotipos. Aunque el gen que codifica para esta proteína presenta una marcada heterogeneidad en la región correspondiente al N-terminal, la PspA contiene epitopes conservados de manera tal que la inmunización genera protección contra neumococos pertenecientes a diversos tipos capsulares y con distintas PspA. A pesar del marcado polimorfismo del gen pspA es posible agrupar las distintas variantes en 3 familias mayoritarias. Estas propiedades las convierten en candidatas ideales para elaborar vacunas. Debido a que la mayoría de los trabajos sobre identificación de familias fueron realizados sobre serotipos frecuentes en otros países, el objetivo fue identificar las familias de PspA de aislamientos de pacientes de nuestra región y relacionarlas con los serotipos prevalentes y patologías. Se estudiaron 70 aislamientos, provenientes de niños con infecciones invasoras. Se aplicó una PCR utilizando cebadores específicos de cada familia. El 60% fueron familia 1 y 34% familia 2. En un 6% no se identificó ninguna de las familias de PspA. Los serotipos 1 y 5 presentaron familia 1 únicamente; los serotipos 14, 6B, 19F y 18C mostraron genes de ambas familias. La familia 1 se observó en 60% de las neumonías y 50% de las meningitis. La familia 2 en 33% de neumonías y 50% de meningitis. Esta información podría ser un valioso aporte para la formulación de una vacuna regional efectiva utilizando PspA recombinante como inmunógeno.PspA, a pneumococcal surface protein, is highly immunogenic and common to all serotypes. Although pspA gene shows a great heterogeneity at the N-terminal region, PspA protein has conserved epytopes which are able to elicit protective cross-reaction against various serotypes presenting different PspA. In spite of the high polimorfism of the PspA, three majority families can be identified

  16. Efeitos da cobertura do solo com filme de polietileno azul no consumo de água da cultura da alface cultivada em estufa Effects of the soil covering with blue colored polyethylene film on lettuce crop consumptive water-use in a gree

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    Alexandre O. Gonçalves

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available A cobertura do solo é uma prática agrícola que visa, principalmente, a controlar as plantas invasoras, a diminuir as perdas de água por evaporação do solo e a facilitar a colheita e a comercialização, uma vez que o produto se torna mais limpo e sadio. Porém, ao se cobrir o solo, também são alterados parâmetros importantes do microclima e, conseqüentemente, a germinação das sementes, o crescimento das raízes, a absorção de água e nutrientes, a atividade metabólica das plantas e o armazenamento de carboidratos. O objetivo do presente trabalho foi avaliar o efeito da cobertura do solo com filme de polietileno azul no consumo de água da cultura da alface (Lactuca sativa L.. O experimento foi instalado em uma estufa convencional, no município de Araras - SP, e conduzido durante o período de 22-3-2001 a 1º-5-2001. O consumo de água foi medido em dois lisímetros de pesagem instalados no interior da estufa. O espaçamento da cultura foi de 0,25 m x 0,25 m. Também foi avaliado o índice de área foliar (IAF em seis épocas distintas e determinada a eficiência do uso de água (EU ao final do ciclo da cultura. O delineamento estatístico foi o de blocos inteiramente casualizados, com dois tratamentos, "solo descoberto" e "solo coberto". O consumo médio de água foi de 4,17 mm dia-1 para o tratamento "solo descoberto" e de 3,11 mm dia-1 para o tratamento "solo coberto". O índice médio de área foliar não diferiu estatisticamente entre os tratamentos.The covering of the soil is an agricultural practice that intends to control the harmful herbs, to reduce the losses of water by evaporation of the soil, and to facilitate the harvest and the commercialization, once the product is cleaner and healthier. However, when the soil is covered important microclimatic parameters are also altered, and consequently the germination of seeds, the growth of roots, the absorption of water and nutrients, the metabolic activity of the plants and

  17. Avaliação de técnica de tomaticultura em gramado (TEG na amazônia oriental Evaluation of TEG (grassland tomato cropping technique in Eastern Amazon, Brazil

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    Simon S. Cheng

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available No Brasil, o tomateiro é cultivado principalmente em época de baixa precipitação e temperaturas amenas como as regiões Sudeste, Nordeste e Centro Oeste. Na Amazônia Oriental, uma região tropical úmida de baixa altitude, com temperatura elevada, a cultura do tomateiro enfrenta muitas dificuldades. A baixa produtividade e a mortalidade das plantas têm reduzido o número de produtores desta hortaliça, com a produção local de tomate inferior a 0,1% do volume comercializado anualmente. A técnica de Tomaticultura Em Gramado (TEG foi concebida em 1997 e aperfeiçoada em 1998, para solucionar os problemas da tomaticultura sob clima quente e chuvoso da Amazônia, usando dois principais mecanismos: 1. Campo gramado para controlar a proliferação de doenças, pragas, plantas invasoras, erosão e lixiviação de nutrientes. 2. Queima de descarte de madeira na área de cultivo para eliminar a grama e reduzir a acidez e pobreza do solo. O presente trabalho apresenta resultados preliminares de tomaticultura sob essa nova técnica, com avaliação de produtividade, ciclo da planta e peso médio do fruto. A nova técnica de cultivo permitiu a produtividade de 5,6 ± 0,2 kg por planta, sendo o período de colheita de 60 a 80 dias. A TEG demonstrou ser uma alternativa promissora para o sistema de produção de tomate na região quente e chuvosa, usando a gramínea como protetora e limpadora do solo.In Brazil, tomatoes are cultivated principally in seasons with low precipitation and cool temperature such as in regions of Southeast, Northeast and Central west. In East Amazon, a humid tropical region of low altitude with high temperature, tomato cropping faces many difficulties. Low yield and plant mortality had reduced the number of tomato growers, with annual local production less than 0.1% of total volume commercialized. The grassland tomato cropping technique (TEG was elaborated in 1997 and improved in 1998 to solve the problems of tomato production

  18. Efeitos de extratos aquosos de assa-peixe sobre a germinação de três espécies de braquiária Effects of aqueous extracts of "assa-peixe" on germination and radicle elongation of three brachiaria species

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    A.P. da S. Souza Filho

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available Examinou-se o potencial alelopático da planta invasora de pastagem assa-peixe (Vernonia polyanthes, através dos efeitos dos extratos aquosos (concentração de 10% da parte aérea, de raízes e de sementes sobre a germinação (porcentagem e velocidade e o alongamento da radícula das gramíneas forrageiras Brachiaria humidicola, Brachiaria decumbens e Brachiaria brizantha cv. Marandu. O pH, a condutividade e o potencial osmótico foram determinados em cada extrato. A contribuição do potencial osmótico foi isolada através de cálculo, tendo por base os potenciais osmóticos dos extratos e da água e a equação de regressão que se ajustou a cada parâmetros, em função da variação do potencial osmótico na faixa de 0,0 a 0,4 MPa. Os bioensaios foram desenvolvidos em câmaras do tipo BOD, com temperatura controlada para 35/15oC (diurna/noturna e fotoperíodo de 12 horas-luz (bioensaios de germinação, e temperatura constante de 35oC e fotoperíodo de 24 horas-luz (bioensaios de alongamento da radícula. Os resultados indicaram que tanto o pH como a concentração de cátions não contribuíram para os resultados encontrado. O assa-peixe evidenciou potencialidade alelopáticas que variaram em função da espécie receptora e da parte da planta doadora do extrato. A velocidade de germinação foi o indicador mais sensível aos efeitos dos extratos aquosos da assa-peixe.The allelopathic potential of pasture weed assa-peixe (Vernonia polyanthes Less. over the forage grasses Brachiaria humidicola. Brachiaria decumbens e Brachiaria brizantha cv. Marandu was investigated. The effect of aqueous shoot, roots and seeds extracts (in a concentratrion of 10% on germination (% and speed and radicle elongation of the grasses were studied. The pH, conductivity and osmotic potential were analysed in each extract. The contribution of the osmotic potential was isolated considering the osmotic potencial of the extracts and the water, and the regression

  19. Código de barras del ADN y sus posibles aplicaciones en el campo de la Entomología DNA barcoding and its possible applications to the field of Entomology

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    Analía A. Lanteri

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available En este artículo se abordan algunos aspectos de la controversia sobre la iniciativa «Código de barras del ADN», y se hace hincapié en sus potenciales aplicaciones en Entomología. Esta iniciativa propone emplear información dentro de una misma región génica (gen mitocondrial de la Citocromo c Oxidasa I = COI, en todas las especies vivientes y con condiciones de secuenciación universalmente aceptadas y estandarizadas. En la actualidad, no pretende sustituir la taxonomía alfa y la filogenia sino agilizar las tareas de identificación, especialmente en el campo de la Biomedicina (identificación de patógenos, parásitos y vectores, el control de plagas (intercepción de especies invasoras, cualquiera sea su estado de desarrollo ontogenético y los estudios sobre conservación de la biodiversidad. Para arribar a una correcta delimitación de las especies biológicas es preciso contar con las secuencias de COI de numerosos individuos a lo largo de todo su rango geográfico y además, secuencias de genes nucleares e información morfológica y biológica detallada. Las «Unidades Evolutivas Significativas», identificadas sobre la base del «código de barras», podrían corresponder tanto a morfoespecies como a especies crípticas y a subespecies o linajes con diferentes preferencias de huéspedes. La integración del «código de barras del ADN», el trabajo de campo, las colecciones de museos y la investigación científica resultan imprescindibles para que esta herramienta redunde en avances significativos en el campo de la Sistemática Entomológica.This article deals with some of the most controversial issues of the DNA barcode initiative, focusing on its potential applications to Entomology. The barcoding proposes using information within the same gene region (Cytocrome c Oxidase I= COI mitochondrial gene, in all living species and under standard conditions of sequencing. At present, it does not attempt to replace alpha taxonomy or

  20. WEED INTERFERENCE IN TRANSPLANTED CABBAGE INTERFERÊNCIA DE PLANTAS DANINHAS NA CULTURA DE REPOLHO TRANSPLANTADO

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    Natan Fontoura da Silva

    2007-09-01

    comportamento produtivo da cultura de repolho híbrido Fuyotoyo, foi avaliado em Goiânia, no período de 17 de maio a 22 de agosto de 2002. O delineamento experimental foi em blocos ao acaso com quatro repetições, utilizando-se os seguintes tratamentos: sem capina após o transplante; uma capina um mês depois; uma capina dois meses depois; e duas capinas, um e dois meses depois do transplante. Quanto à produtividade (kg.ha-1, número de cabeças comercializáveis e peso médio da cabeça, os tratamentos com capina foram semelhantes entre si, mas significantemente superiores à testemunha. As plantas das parcelas capinadas uma vez, um mês após o transplante, e duas vezes (um e dois meses após o transplante foram mais precoces que as das parcelas capinadas apenas uma vez, dois meses após o transplante, ou sem capina. A razão entre largura e altura da cabeça e o índice de concentração de colheita não foram influenciados pelos tratamentos.

    PALAVRAS-CHAVE: Brassica oleracea; produtividade; precocidade; concentração de colheita; plantas invasoras.

  1. Rhizobacteria able to produce phytotoxic metabolites Rizobactérias produtoras de substâncias fitotóxicas

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    Daniel D.C. Carvalho

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available To contribute for the development of environmental friendly methods for weed control, a selection of rhizobacteria able to produce phytotoxic substances was carried out. Initially, 35 strains previously isolated from plants in the south of Minas Gerais State (Brazil were grown in tryptic soy broth. After removal of bacterial cells, the resulting liquids were freeze-dried and extracted with methanol/ethyl acetate (1:1. The extracts were concentrated under vacuum and dissolved in water to be submitted to a lettuce (Lactuca sativa L. seed assay. Metabolites produced by five strains reduced the number of normal seedlings to values statistically bellow the one observed for the negative control, being the most expressive results obtained with Bacillus cereus Frankland and Frankland, isolated from Ricinus communis L., which was able to cause rotted rootlets to 82.4% of seedlings. The bacterium metabolites also avoided germination of 52% Brachiaria decumbens Stapf seeds and the remaining 48% resulted in abnormal seedlings. Metabolites from B. cereus were submitted to a purification process guided by the lettuce seed assay. As a consequence, one substance causing rotted rootlets to all lettuce seedlings during the seed assay at 0.057 g/L was isolated and will be identified in future studies.Com vistas a contribuir para o desenvolvimento de métodos não agressivos ao meio ambiente, para o controle de plantas invasoras, buscou-se selecionar rizobactérias produtoras de substâncias fitotóxicas. Inicialmente, 35 culturas previamente isoladas de plantas da região sul do Estado de Minas Gerais (Brasil foram cultivadas em caldo soja tripticaseína. Após remoção das células bacterianas, os líquidos resultantes foram liofilizados e extraídos com metanol/acetato de etila (1:1. Os extratos foram concentrados sob vácuo e submetidos a testes com sementes de alface (Lactuca sativa L.. Os metabólitos produzidos por cinco isolados bacterianos reduziram o n

  2. Jardines Ornamentales Urbanos Contemporáneos: Transnacionalización, Paisajismo y Biodiversidad. Un Estudio Exploratorio en Medellín, Colombia / Contemporary Ornamental Gardens: Trans-Nationalisation, Landscaping and Biodiversity. An Exploratory Study i

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    Luis Anibal Vélez Restrepo

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Resumen. La incorporación de especies vegetales ornamentalesen los espacios públicos verdes constituye un elementofundamental del paisaje urbano, en sus procesos de renovacióny expansión. En países en desarrollo, como Colombia, se carecede estudios orientados a analizar el conjunto de especiesutilizadas en la jardinería urbana, la procedencia de éstas y susposibles implicaciones ambientales. Se analizó la vegetaciónornamental no arbórea contenida en jardines públicos, asociadosa residencias, vías, parques, instituciones y empresas privadas dela zona suroriental de Medellín. Mediante muestreo estadístico sedeterminó la composición florística y las características paisajísticasde la vegetación. En 143 espacios analizados, se encontró unpredominio de especies introducidas: de un total de 198 especies,158 son exóticas; de éstas, 68 son introducidas en los últimos 10años. Del total, 93 se reportan en la literatura como especies conalgún riesgo potencial, ya sea como invasora, urticante o tóxica.Los resultados permitieron cuestionar la práctica paisajística enrelación con el material vegetal utilizado, y evidencian la debilidado ineficacia de la política pública ambiental respecto a los criteriosy mecanismos de control de ingreso y propagación de especiesornamentales en viveros. Dejando ver así mismo la necesidadde avanzar en investigaciones sobre especies nativas y exóticasecológicamente funcionales en la ciudad. / Abstract. The incorporation of ornamental vegetal species intopublic green areas is an important feature within the renewaland spreading processes in the urban landscape. In developingcountries such as Colombia, there is a lack of studies aimed atanalyzing the set of species used in the urban gardening, wheredo these species come from and their potential environmentalimpacts. The non-arboreal ornamental vegetation found in publicgardens such as: medians, front gardens, parks, public institutionsand

  3. Carbon storage of Mediterranean grasslands

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    Corona, Piermaria

    2016-06-01

    mauritanicus e Hyparrhenia hirta y otra exótica e invasora (Pennisetum setaceum. Ampelodesmos mauritanicus es muy común en toda la cuenca mediterránea, sobre todo en pendientes orientadas al norte, Hyparrhenia hirta es característica de pastizales termo-xerófilos, mientras que Pennisetum setaceum es una especie exótica que se está extendiendo rápidamente a lo largo de las zonas costeras. Se consideraron los caracteres morfométricos de plantas individuales como factores de predicción potenciales. Los resultados han corroborado la capacidad de los modelos establecidos para predecir la biomasa aérea total de A. mauritanicus y P. setaceum. También se ha medido y evaluado la biomasa total por hectárea de cada especie: la mayor fue la que correspondía a A. mauritanicus, mientras que la H. hirta fue mayor que la de P. setaceum. Así pues, la substitución de H. hirta por P. setaceum puede reducir el carbono almacenado en el ecosistema, sin embargo, P. setaceum asigna más recursos a las raíces, lo que implica un almacenaje de carbono más estable y duradero.

  4. Diet of the American mink Mustela vison and its potential impact on the native fauna of Navarino Island, Cape Horn Biosphere Reserve, Chile Dieta del visón norteamericano Mustela vison y su impacto potencial sobre la fauna nativa de Isla Navarino, Reserva de Biosfera Cabo de Hornos, Chile

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    ELKE SCHÜTTLER

    2008-12-01

    ás austral del mundo. Para estudiar su impacto potencial sobre la fauna nativa, estimamos su dieta en Isla Navarino como parte de un programa de control de especies invasoras. Durante tres años (2005-2007 colectamos 512 fecas en diversos habitats semiacuáticos: costa marina, riberas de ríos y lagos. La dieta consistió principalmente en mamíferos (37 % biomasa, aves (36 % y peces (24 %. Durante la primavera y el verano el visón consumió significativamente más aves, sin embargo los mamíferos constituyeron la presa principal durante el otoño y el invierno, cuando las aves migratorias han abandonado la region. La depredación sobre aves afectó principalmente a Passeriformes adultos, seguidos por Anseriformes y Pelecaniformes que fueron capturados como polluelos. Respecto a los mamíferos, un roedor exótico, la rata almizclera (Ondatra zibethicus, fue la presa principal y junto al roedor nativo Abrothrix xanthorhinus constituyó el 78 % de la biomasa de presas de mamíferos. Para un manejo integral de especies de mamíferos exóticos invasores en Isla Navarino y la Reserva de Biosfera Cabo de Hornos es importante desarrollar investigación sobre las interacciones entre los mamíferos introducidos e iniciar un control inmediato de la población de visones en su estado inicial de invasión.

  5. Influência das variacões estacionais e profundidade de sementes no solo na dormência e germinação em Rumex crispus L. The effects of seasonality and burial depth of seeds in the soil on the dormancy and germination of Rumex crispus L.

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    Ricardo Carmona

    1993-01-01

    Full Text Available Sementes de Rumex cripus L. foram enterradas às profundidades de 1 e 10 cm no solo e coletadas a intervalos regulares durante dois anos. As sementes coletadas foram testadas a 10 e 20oC no escuro; a 5/25oC (16/8 horas com 10mM de nitrato de potássio e luz; e num regime de temperatura alternadas correspondendo às mínimas e máximas médias do solo (MMTS, a profundidade de 1 cm durante 6 dias anteriores a cada coleta. Os tratamentos MMTS foram executados no escuro com 1 mM de nitrato de potássio ou uma mistura de estimulantes de germinação consistindo de nitrato de potássio, tiuréia, etefon, azida de sódio e peróxido de hidrogênio. A perda de viabilidade das sementes no solo durante o período estudado foi praticamente desprezível. As sementes mostraram ciclos de dormência ao longo do ano, quando as baixas temperaturas do solo superaram a dormência primária e paralelamente induziram dormência secundária, a qual por sua vez era superada pela elevação da temperatura. A dormência decresceu no segundo ano. O ambiente a 10 cm favoreceu a perda de dormência, entretanto o decréscimo de sementes devido à germinação in situ foi mais acentuado a 1cm de profundidade. A mistura química foi mais eficiente quando a dormência era mínima e as temperaturas do solo eram mais promotivas, o que correspondeu ao período quente do ano (da primavera ao outono. Discutem-se as implicações destes resultados na interpretação do comportamento ecológico da espécie e na adoção de práticas de manejo de bancos de sementes da invasora no solo.Rumex crispus L. seeds were buried at 1 and 10 cm depth in the soil and retrieved at regular intervals during two years. Retrieved seeds were tested at 10o and 20o in darkness; at 5/25oC (16/8 hours with 10 mM potassium nitrate and light; and at an alternating temperature regime corresponding to the minimum and maximum soil temperatures (MMTS at a depth of 1 cm during the six days prior to each retrieval

  6. Comportamiento de la poblacion de Avena fatua tratada con graminicidas postemergentes Effect of post-emergence graminicides on the control of Avena fatua

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    V.F. Juan

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available En el sudoeste bonaerense de la República Argentina, avena fatua es una maleza que ocupa una significativa proporción del banco de semillas presentes en el suelo, causando severas pérdidas de rendimiento en los cultivos de trigo, lo cuál la caracteriza como una maleza invasora. A pesar de que en los cultivos, se utilizan normalmente prácticas de control com graminicidas selectivos, se observa una alta incidencia de la población de Avena fatua a través de la determinación del número de panojas y semillas por metro cuadrado remanentes de las plantas que escapan al control y que alcanzan el estado reproductivo antes de la cosecha del cereal. El objetivo de este estudio fue evaluar el efecto de varios graminicidas postemergentes selectivos para el cultivo de trigo sobre el crecimiento de la población de Avena fatua por metro cuadrado en un diseño estadístico de bloques al azar con cuatro repeticiones. Los tratamientos fueron los siguientes: testigo sin control, tralkoxydim (150 y 200 g/ha, fenoxaprop-p-etil (69 y 83 g/ha, pirifenop-n-butil (50 y 55 g/ha y diclofop metil (510 y 570 g/ha. En la primer campaña, con una baja infestación de la maleza (153 plantas/m2, todos los herbicidas y dosis probadas ejercieron una drástica reducción de los parámetros evaluados, no detectándose diferenciais significativas entre sí al evaluar el control por medio del número de panojas y semillas producidas por las plantas que escaparon al control. En cambio en la Segunda campaña com 285 plantas/m2 y habiéndoses realizado la aplicación delos avenicidas en un estado fenológico de la maleza más avanzado, el número de semilhas por metro quadradofue reducido a niveles que oscilaron entre un 60% y un 95% respecto del testigo sin control, detectándose diferencias entre los tratamientos. No obstante la reducción lograda, se comprobó en ciertos casos, un importante aporte de semillas que anualmente retornan al suelo, lo que podría significar sino

  7. Conteúdo de carbono orgânico em planossolo háplico sob sistemas de manejo do arroz irrigado

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    Carla Machado da Rosa

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Nos solos de várzea da região Sul do Rio Grande do Sul, onde um milhão de hectares são cultivados com arroz irrigado por alagamento em diferentes sistemas de manejo, a influência da condição de má drenagem e alternância entre ciclos de oxidação e redução sobre o conteúdo de C orgânico do solo (COS é pouco conhecida. Este estudo foi realizado em um experimento de longa duração (21 anos, localizado no município do Capão do Leão, RS, com o objetivo de avaliar o efeito de sistemas de manejo do arroz irrigado sobre os estoques de COS e das frações físicas da matéria orgânica em um Planossolo Háplico. O fracionamento físico da matéria orgânica do solo foi realizado pelo método densimétrico, em amostras de solo coletadas das camadas de 0-0,025; 0,025-0,05; 0,05-0,10; e 0,10-0,20 m, nos tratamentos: ST- Sistema tradicional de cultivo um ano com arroz (preparo convencional e dois anos com pousio; APC- Sistema de cultivo contínuo de arroz (preparo convencional e controle de invasoras com herbicida; APD- Sucessão azevém/arroz (plantio direto; e SN- Solo mantido com vegetação natural (campo nativo. O sistema com arroz/azevém em plantio direto APD foi mais eficiente em manter os estoques de COS e da fração leve livre até 0,05 m de profundidade, em comparação com o ST e APC. A fração leve oclusa não se mostrou sensível aos efeitos dos diferentes sistemas de manejo, sugerindo para o solo de várzea baixa eficiência da proteção física da MOS por oclusão em agregados, o que pode estar relacionado aos efeitos da condição de má drenagem no processo de agregação. A umidade excessiva no inverno e o alagamento durante os cultivos de arroz estariam proporcionando agregação transitória entre cultivos. A quantidade de CO nesse Planossolo, tanto entre os sistemas de cultivo quanto em profundidade, deve-se principalmente à fração pesada, que é a fração mais estável e mais difícil de ser degradada.

  8. Intoxicação por Sorhgum halepense (Poaceae em bovinos no semi-árido Poisoning by Sorghum halepense (Poaceae in cattle in the Brazilian semiarid

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    J. Escarião da Nóbrega Jr

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Descreve-se um surto de intoxicação por Sorghum halepense (L. Pers. no município de Santa Luzia, semi-árido da Paraíba. Nove bovinos foram colocados numa pastagem com S. halepense em fase de rebrota, com 25-30cm de altura, 15 dias após as primeiras chuvas. Sinais clínicos de dispnéia, ansiedade, tremores musculares e incoordenação apareceram 10-15 minutos após a ingestão. Dois animais morreram em um período aproximado de 3 horas. Na necropsia observaram-se congestão e cianose das mucosas, musculatura escura, pulmão com pontos hemorrágicos e edema, além de folhas da planta no rúmen. A planta foi positiva no teste do papel picrosódico. Mudas de S. halepense coletadas no Município de Currais Novos, Rio Grande do Norte, onde havia históricos de uma intoxicação semelhante, foram plantadas em vasos e realizado o teste de papel picrosódico a cada 15 dias. A planta foi positiva para HCN durante todos os estágios, sendo que nos primeiros 45 dias a reação ocorreu dentro de 1 minuto e, posteriormente, em até 3 minutos. Trinta dias após ter sido plantada, a planta de um dos vasos foi administrada a um caprino causando sinais característicos de intoxicação cianídrica na dose de 11,8g/kg de peso do animal. O caprino se recuperou após tratamento com uma solução de tiossulfato de sódio a 20% na dose de 5mL/10kg. No semi-árido, S. halepense é freqüentemente encontrado como invasora em beiras de açudes e culturas irrigadas, sendo utilizado como forrageira, na época seca, em áreas de vazante.An outbreak of poisoning by Sorghum halepense (L. Pers. in cattle in the Brazilian semiarid is reported. Nine cattle were introduced 15 days after the first rains into a paddock where the plant was sprouting and had 25-30cm high. Clinical signs of dyspnea, anxiety, muscular tremors and incoordination appeared 15 minutes after the animals began to graze. Two of them died within about 3 hours. The others recovered. Cyanotic mucosa, dark

  9. La comunidad orquideológica en la Reserva de la Biosfera Sierra del Rosario, Cuba

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    Alfredo García-González

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Teniendo en cuenta la escasez de estudios previos que permitan apreciar el efecto de la antropización sobre las comunidades de orquídeas en la Reserva de la Biosfera Sierra del Rosario, al occidente de Cuba; se procedió a realizar un estudio comparativo entre un hábitat conservado (El Salón; ES y uno antropizado (El Taburete; ET y se encontraron en total 27 especies de forófitos, 20 especies presentes en ET (98 forófitos y 16 especies en ES (76 forófitos. Por lo tanto se identificaron 22 géneros de orquídeas, 26 especies y 8 326 plantas. En ES fueron 15 géneros, 18 especies y 3 251 plantas, en ET, 17 géneros, 18 especies y 5 075 plantas. Oeceoclades maculata, una especie invasora, fue la más abundante. Ambas localidades tienen una similaridad de especies de 57.14%. Las especies más dominantes fueron: Microchilus plantagineus en ES y O. maculata en ET. La dominancia en ES es de 69.27% y en ET de 81.79%. Es importante elaborar planes de manejo enfocados a controlar O. maculata en ambas áreas, y en restablecer el estrato arbóreo original de la zona antropizada.The orchid community in the Biosphere Reserve Sierra del Rosario, Cuba. The Biosphere Reserve Sierra del Rosario is located in Western Cuba and two different areas can be characterized: one for tourism and forestry activities, El Taburete (ET, and the other for conservation and research, El Salón (ES. With the aim to know the effect of visitation activities on the orchid community in the Reserve, a comparative study between the disturbed area and the preserved one was undertaken. The field work, held between 2004-2005, consisted on four transects in each locality (10x100m, 0.1ha. For each transect, the existing orchid species (terrestrial and epiphytic, kind of phorophytes, and level of occupation were identified. Different analysis were considered: dominance-diversity, Sorensen similarity, the dominance index and the relative abundance of the most abundant species. Our

  10. Variabilidade genética em biotipos de leiteiro de Londrina/PR Genetic variability among Euphorbia heterophylla

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    Maria José V. de Vasconcelos

    2000-08-01

    Full Text Available Euphorbia heterophylla, também conhecida como amendoim-bravo ou leiteira, é considerada planta invasora importante em mais de 56 países, inclusive no Brasil, tendo acarretado perdas de até 33 % na cultura da soja. Fenotipicamente, é uma espécie de características variáveis, especialmente em relação ao formato do limbo foliar. Esta variabilidade fenotípica tem sido utilizada para diferenciar e classificar as plantas, sugerindo a vários autores que a leiteira seria, de fato, constituída por diferentes espécies. Para estudar a variabilidade genética a nível de DNA entre plantas de Euphorbia heterophylla, que apresentam folhas morfologicamente diferentes, foram analisadas dez plantas diferentes coletadas em campos de soja, em Londrina/PR. As plantas foram transplantadas para casa-devegetação e o DNA das folhas foi extraído para análise pela técnica de RAPD. Vinte seis diferentes "primers", de dez nucleotídeos de sequência aleatória, geraram total de 102 bandas de DNA, sendo 38 delas polimórficas. A distância genética entre os indivíduos foi calculada em função da presença e da ausência das bandas, variando de 1 a 39% entre plantas. A análise de agrupamento dividiu as plantas em dois grupos, considerando limite de distância relativa de 22%. Os grupos gerados separaram nitidamente as plantas quanto ao formato do limbo foliar (estreito ou arredondado e quanto á ramificação (densa ou normal.Euphorbia heterophylla is an important weed affecting the performance of annual and perennial crops. It is native from tropical and subtropical regions in the American continent, and has been detected at high densities in 20 different countries worldwide, and at low densities in other 40 countries. In Brazil, it has been inclued among the ten most important weeds affecting different crops, causing yield losses up to 33% in soybean fields. Phenotypically, this species is extremely variable, especially in relation to leaf shape and

  11. Ship hull fouling in the port of Recife, Pernambuco

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    Cristiane Maria Rocha Farrapeira

    2007-09-01

    associados, sendo: 28 espécies incrustantes, destacando-se os Cirripedia Balanomorpha e Lepadomorpha, como dominantes, 8 sedentárias, destacando-se os Mytillidae e Dreissenidae e 23 vágeis, sendo os principais: Caprellidae, Gammaridae, Tanaidacea, Turbellaria, Nemertea e Polychaeta. A primeira citação de Conchoderma virgatum foi registrada com localização exata para o litoral brasileiro, e Conchoderma auritum, Amphibalanus subalbidus e Haliplanella lineata foram registradas pela primeira vez para o litoral do estado de Pernambuco. O meio de dispersão foi confirmado para Amphibalanus reticulatus e Mytilopsis leucophaeta, espécies invasoras da área estuarina da Cidade do Recife. Megabalanus coccopoma foi considerada como espécie em risco de invasão para a região.

  12. Contaminação do solo e da água pelo uso de agrotóxicos

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    Gerusa Pauli Kist Steffen

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available O aumento da população mundial e a necessidade de elevar a produção de alimentos revolucionaram as técnicas utilizadas na agricultura. Uma das mais importantes mudanças que ocorreram na forma e nos meios de produção agrícola foi a utilização de agrotóxicos, produtos estes utilizados para o controle de insetos, doenças e plantas invasoras que prejudicam o desenvolvimento das culturas. No entanto, a intensa aplicação destes insumos nas áreas agrícolas tem ocasionado a contaminação e poluição do solo, da água e do ar, recursos estes indispensáveis para a sobrevivência humana e animal no Planeta. Nas últimas décadas, verificou-se um aumento da preocupação mundial a respeito do impacto que determinadas práticas causam ao meio ambiente, dentre elas o uso abusivo de agrotóxicos. Estes quando aplicados nas culturas, normalmente atingem o solo e, dependendo das características edáficas, do produto utilizado e das condições ambientais, podem provocar a contaminação do ecossistema. Nesta revisão são abordados aspectos referentes à contaminação do solo e das águas superficiais e subterrâneas pelo decorrente uso de agrotóxicos nos sistemas agrícolas, bem como práticas e formas de manejo que visam a preservação do meio ambiente.Abstract The increase of the world population and the need to elevate food production improved the agriculture used techniques. One of the most important change that happened in the form and in the mean of agricultural production was pesticides. These products are used to control of insects, diseases and weeds that damage the cultures development. However, the intense application of these in the agricultural areas has been causing the contamination and pollution of the soil, water and air. These resources are indispensable for the human and animal survival in the Planet. In the last decades an increase of the world concern was verified regarding the impact that certain practices cause to

  13. Produtividade de grãos da soja em função do manejo de herbicida e fungicidas Soybean grain yield in response to herbicide and fungicides

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    Marcos Paulo Ludwig

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Com a introdução da soja resistente ao glifosato, ocorreu mudança no manejo da cultura, principalmente com relação ao manejo das plantas invasoras. Este trabalho foi desenvolvido com o objetivo de avaliar os efeitos da aplicação de diferentes manejos de herbicidas e fungicidas sobre o rendimento de grãos e os componentes do rendimento da soja. O experimento foi conduzido no ano agrícola 2006/2007, na área experimental do Departamento de Fitotecnia da Universidade Federal de Santa Maria. Foram utilizadas quatro cultivares de soja Roundup ReadyTM ('NK Mireya 4.2 RR', 'Fundacep 55 RR', 'NK Mágica 7.3 RR' e 'A 8100 RG', dois manejos de herbicida (Clethodim + Bentazon e outro com glifosato, dois manejos de doenças constituídos com a aplicação de fungicida (Tebuconazole + Tiofanato Metílico e sem o tratamento. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi o de blocos ao acaso com parcela subsubdivididas, com quatro repetições. Foram avaliados o rendimento de grãos e os componentes do rendimento. As cultivares responderam diferentemente ao manejo de herbicidas e fungicidas para produção de grãos; as cultivares que foram afetadas pelo manejo de herbicida obtiveram maior produtividade com a aplicação de glifosato, efeito que também foi observado com a aplicação de fungicida. As cultivares mais e menos produtivas apresentaram o maior e o menor peso de grãos, respectivamente. A aplicação de fungicida aumentou o índice de colheita.With the introduction of the resistant soybeans to the glyphosate changed the management of the culture, mainly for management of the weed. This work was developed with the objective of evaluate the effect of the different management systems of herbicides and fungicides in grain yield and yield components of the soybean. The experiment was carried in the agricultural year of 2006/2007, at the Experimental Area of Department of Phytotecny of the Santa Maria Federal University. It was used, four soybean

  14. Aleloquímico produzido pela gramínea forrageira Brachiaria humidicola Allelochemical produced by the forage grass Brachiaria humidicola

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    A.P.S. Souza Filho

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Os métodos usuais de controle de plantas daninhas não atendem mais as atuais e futuras exigências da sociedade em relação à preservação dos recursos naturais e da qualidade de vida. Uma alternativa para essa questão seriam os metabólitos secundários produzidos pelas plantas, que apresentam pouco risco para o ambiente e para os interesses da sociedade. Os objetivos deste trabalho foram isolar, identificar e caracterizar a atividade alelopática de substâncias químicas produzidas pela gramínea forrageira Brachiaria humidicola. Analisaram-se os efeitos alelopáticos dos extratos, frações e substâncias isoladas sobre a germinação e o desenvolvimento da radícula das invasoras malícia, fedegoso e mata-pasto, em bioensaios monitorados em períodos de 10 dias, em condições de 25 ºC e fotoperíodo de 12 horas, para a germinação, e 24 horas, para o desenvolvimento da radícula. A partir do extrato hidrometanólico, foi isolado e identificado o ácido p-cumárico. Os efeitos alelopáticos estiveram positivamente relacionados à concentração do ácido, à espécie de planta daninha e à característica da espécie analisada. Comparativamente, fedegoso e malícia se mostraram mais sensíveis aos efeitos alelopáticos. A germinação e o desenvolvimento da radícula do mata-pasto não foram afetados pelo ácido p-cumárico nas concentrações de 1,0 a 8,0 mg L¹. O alongamento da radícula se mostrou mais sensível aos efeitos alelopáticos do ácido pcumárico do que a germinação das sementes.The traditional methods of weed control in cultivated pasture do not meet society's present and future needs of protecting natural resources and life quality. An alternative to this problem could be the use of secondary metabolites produced by plants. These products present few risks to the environment and meet society interests. Therefore, this research was carried out to isolate, identify and characterize the allelopathic activity of

  15. Seletividade de herbicidas sobre Myracrodruon urundeuva (Aroeira Selectivity of herbicides upon Myracrodruon urundeuva (Aroeira

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    N.F. Duarte

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi verificar a seletividade de herbicidas utilizados em áreas de eucalipto sobreo crescimento de Myracrodruon urundeuva. O experimento foi conduzido em casa de vegetação em duas épocas diferentes (2002 e 2003, em delineamento inteiramente casualizado, arranjado em esquema fatorial (5x4, sendo cinco herbicidas em quatro doses, com seis repetições. Os tratamentos, com as doses, foram: haloxyfop-methyl (0,00, 120, 240 e 480 g ha-1, sulfentrazone (0,00, 300, 600 e 1.200 g ha-1, isoxaflutole (0,00, 150, 300 e 600 g ha-1, oxyfluorfen (0,00, 720, 1.440 e 2.880 g ha-1; e glyphosate (0,00, 720, 1.440 e 2.880 g ha-1. Em ambos os experimentos foram avaliados: efeitos fitotóxicos do produto, número de folíolos, altura de plantas; no segundo, foi feita ainda a análise de clorofila a e b e de carotenóides. O herbicida que apresentou maior fitoxicidade e que comprometeu o desenvolvimento da aroeira foi o glyphosate, sendo, portanto, não recomendado para o controle de invasoras em áreas de plantio de aroeira. Os outros herbicidas não comprometeram o desenvolvimento desta planta, apresentando, por isso, potencial para uso no manejo de plantas daninhas no cultivo desta espécie.The objective of this work was to verify the selectivity of herbicides applied in eucalyptus areas upon the growth of Myracrodruon urundeuva.. The experiment was carried out under greenhouse conditions during two seasons (2002 and 2003, in a completely randomized experimental design with five herbicides in four doses arranged in a factorial design 5x4, and six replicates. The treatments were: haloxyfop-methyl at the doses (0.00, 120, 240 and 480 g ha-1; sulfentrazone (0.00, 300, 600 and 1.200 g ha-1, isoxaflutole (0.00, 150, 300 and 600 g ha-1; oxyfluoren (0.00, 720, 1.440 and 2.880 g ha-1 and glyphosate (0.00, 720, 1.440 and 2.880 g ha-1 plant toxicity effects, number of leaflets and plant height were evaluated in both experiments and analyses of

  16. Consumo e eficiência do uso da água e componentes do rendimento do arroz irrigado Water use ifficiency, water consumiption and rice yield components

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    Marcos Gregório Ramos Hernandez

    1997-08-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar o efeito de dois níveis de manejo da água, preparo do solo e de herbicidas no rendimento de grãos, consumo de água, eficiência do uso da água e nos componentes do rendimento do arroz irrigado. O experimento foi conduzido no ano agrícola 1993/1994 em área da Universidade Federal de Santa Maria, Santa Maria, RS. A cultivar de arroz BR-IRGA-414 foi semeada em linhas, em 22 de dezembro de 1993. O delineamento experimental foi de blocos ao acaso, trifatorial (2³, constituído de duas épocas do início da irrigação (15 e 30 dias após a emergência - DAE, dois sistemas de preparo do solo (preparo convencional e cultivo mínimo e controle de plantas invasoras (com e sem uso de herbicidas. Os resultados demonstraram que o consumo de água não diferiu significativamente entre os tratamentos. A associação entre o início da irrigação aos 30 DAE e o cultivo mínimo promoveu menor eficiência do uso da água. O inicio da irrigação aos 15 DAE proporcionou maior índice de colheita com maior número de panículas por metro quadrado e também menor esterilidade de espiguetas em relação à irrigação com início aos 30 DAE.The objective of this experiment was to study the effect oftwo water managments, tiliage systems and weed contral on rice yield, water use and water use efficiency and crop yield components. The experiment was conducted in 1993/94 crop growing season in the experimental field ofthe Federal University of Santa Maria, Santa Maria - RS. Rice cultivar BR-IRGA-414 was sowed in rows in December 22, 1993. A factorial (23 experiment in a completely randomized block design was used wiih two irrigation dates (15 and 30 days after emergency - DAE, two soil tillage system (minimum and conventional and two weed control leveis (with and withoul herbicide appiication. The results indicate that the water consumption was similar among ali treatments. The interaction between irrigation at 30 DAE

  17. Crescimento e produtividade do inhame cultivado entre faixas de guandu em sistema orgânico Growth and productivity of the taro intercropped with pigeon pea hedgerows in organic system

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    Fábio Luiz de Oliveira

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Foi conduzido um experimento no município de Bom Jardim, Região Serrana do estado do Rio de Janeiro, visando a avaliar o crescimento e produtividade do inhame cultivado entre faixas de guandu, no sistema orgânico de produção. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi de blocos ao acaso, com quatro repetições e três tratamentos, que consistiram em cultivo entre faixas sem realização de poda; cultivo entre faixas com poda, com a biomassa mantida em cobertura do solo; e cultivo entre faixas com poda, com a biomassa removida da área. O sistema de cultivo entre faixas de guandu não podadas revelou-se promissor por promover proteção das plantas de inhame contra queimaduras foliares pela radiação solar, mantendo a mesma produtividade do sistema com faixas podadas. Além disso, revelou-se um método eficaz e de baixo custo para controle alternativo de plantas invasoras, prescindindo-se das capinas que oneram a produção orgânica do inhame, na qual o emprego de herbicidas não é admitido. A poda da faixa de guandu contribui para a melhoria da fertilidade do solo, pelo aporte de 6,58 t ha-1 de biomassa seca e 159 kg ha-1 de N e ainda a ciclagem de 20 kg ha-1 de P, 136 kg ha-1 de K, 64 kg ha-1 de Ca e 16 kg ha-1 de Mg.Growth and productivity of taro intercropped with pigeon pea hedgerows in organic system under different management was tested in Bom Jardim, upland region of Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil. A completely randomized block design was used with four replicates. The treatments consisted of unpruned hedgerows; hedgerows pruned with the biomass maintained on the soil surface; and hedgerows pruned with the biomass removed from the experimental area. The unpruned hedgerows system was shown to be advantageous by protecting taro leaves against sun burning and keeping the same productivity of the hedgerows pruned system. In addition, it represented an effective way to control weeds, reducing manual labor and costs of organic taro

  18. Grazing management strategies for massaigrass-forage peanut pastures: 1. dynamics of sward condition and botanical composition Estratégias de manejo do pastejo para pastos consorciados de capim-massai e amendoim forrageiro: 1. dinâmica da condição do pasto e da composição botânica

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    Carlos Mauricio Soares de Andrade

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out from October 2002 to December 2003 to evaluate the dynamics of sward condition and botanical composition of a mixed massaigrass (Panicum maximum x P. infestum, cv. Massai and forage peanut (Arachis pintoi Ac 01 pasture, intermittently stocked at three daily herbage allowance levels (9.0, 14.5 and 18.4% live weight. Sward condition was characterized in each grazing cycle in terms of the pre and post-grazing sward height, forage mass and percentage of bare ground. Botanical composition (grass, legume and weeds was evaluated before each grazing period. Sward height and forage mass increased linearly with increasing herbage allowance (HA levels, and higher values were observed during the rainy season. Percentage of bare ground increased primarily at the lowest HA level. Percentage of forage peanut increased throughout the experimental period, primarily in the barest and shortest swards, under the lowest HA level. In the last quarter of 2003 the legume constituted 23.5, 10.6 and 6.4% of the pasture forage mass, respectively, from the lowest to the highest HA level. These results suggest that forage peanut can be successfully associated with massaigrass, as long as the pre-grazing sward height is maintained shorter than 65-70 cm, which will prevent excessive shading to the legume.Este estudo foi realizado com o objetivo de avaliar a dinâmica e a composição botânica de uma pastagem consorciada de capim-massai (Panicum maximum x P. infestum, cv. Massai e amendoim forrageiro (Arachis pintoi Ac 01, manejada sob lotação rotacionada em três níveis de oferta diária de forragem (9,0; 14,5 e 18,4% do peso vivo. A condição da pastagem foi caracterizada em cada ciclo de pastejo, em termos de altura, massa de forragem e porcentagem de solo descoberto (pré e pós-pastejo. A composição botânica da pastagem (gramínea, leguminosa e invasoras foi monitorada antes de cada período de ocupação. Houve aumento linear da altura

  19. Disponibilidade de nitrogênio e fluxos de N2O a partir de solo sob pastagem após aplicação de herbicida Nitrogen availability and N2O fluxes from pasture soil after herbicide application

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    Janaina Braga do Carmo

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available O óxido nitroso (N2O é um importante gás do efeito estufa, com um alto potencial de provocar o aquecimento global e de vida longa na atmosfera. Grande parte dos fluxos naturais de N2O ocorre a partir dos oceanos, enquanto o restante é resultado principalmente da contribuição de processos microbiológicos (nitrificação e desnitrificação ocorridos em solos de regiões tropicais. A disponibilidade de N para processos metabólicos dos microrganismos pode ser um importante fator no controle das emissões de N2O nesses solos. O presente trabalho foi realizado com o objetivo de melhorar a compreensão acerca dos controles sobre os fluxos de N2O a partir de solos com pastagem na Amazônia. Foram investigados os efeitos da disponibilidade de N, C e umidade na emissão de N2O a partir do solo de uma pastagem submetida ou não a práticas para recuperação de sua produtividade. O estudo foi realizado em condições de laboratório, incubando o solo coletado nas seguintes situações: (a Controle - solo com pastagem estabelecida em 1983 e com manejo tradicional, constituída de uma mistura de Brachiaria brinzantha e Panicum maximum, além da presença de uma variedade de plantas invasoras, e (b Herbicida - dessecação total das plantas da pastagem estabelecida em 1983, para o plantio direto de arroz e posterior ressemeadura de braquiária. É oportuno ressaltar que as amostras de solo (camada de 0-5 cm das áreas foram coletadas no terceiro dia após a aplicação do agroquímico. Para o estabelecimento das comparações e compreensão dos controles nos fluxos de N2O do solo, foram adicionados ao solo para incubação: nitrato, dextrose e água; além do uso de acetileno para bloquear a oxidação do N2O a N2, estimando, assim, a proporção de N2 que foi emitido do solo. Os maiores fluxos foram observados quando o nitrato foi acrescentado ao solo sob condições de alta umidade. A adição de dextrose (fonte de C elevou os fluxos de forma mais

  20. Influência de variáveis químicas e estruturais do dossel sobre a taxa de ingestão instantânea em bovinos manejados em pastagens tropicais Influence of structural characteristics and chemical composition of tropical grasses on the instantaneous forage intake rate

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    Fabíola Cristine de Almeida Rego

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Avaliou-se a taxa de ingestão (TI em bovinos em pastagens exclusivas de Brachiaria brizantha, Panicum maximum cv. Tanzânia, Arachis pintoi e uma consorciação de Brachiaria brizantha com Arachis pintoi com o objetivo de selecionar as características estruturais e qualitativas da planta, de maior importância para estimativa da taxa de ingestão dos animais. Os animais pastejavam em pares, passando por todas as alturas e espécies em dias sucessivos. Após jejum de três horas, permaneciam por 60 minutos na área experimental, onde foram quantificados o tempo efetivo de pastejo e o número de bocados. A quantidade de forragem ingerida foi estimada pela técnica de dupla pesagem. As características estruturais da pastagem utilizadas na equação para determinar a TI foram altura média da pastagem (cm, proporção dos componentes morfológicos (%, massa dos componentes morfológicos (t MS/ha e densidade de matéria seca dos componentes morfológicos (kg MS/ha/cm. As características qualitativas foram expressas em termos de PB e de FDN. As variáveis da pastagem foram selecionadas pelo procedimento estatístico stepwise. As equações das TI, definidas a partir das características estudadas, foram: capim-marandu: TI = 59,8980 + 0,7299 LV + 3,5777 MF - 1,2459 FDNL + 0,2882 ALT (LV - proporção de lâminas verdes, MF - massa de forragem, FDNL - FDN de lâminas, ALT - altura média da pastagem. Capim-tanzânia: TI = 111,762 - 4,1532 PBL + 0,3469 LV - 0,5207 FDNL (PB de lâminas, LV - proporção de lâminas verdes, FDNL - FDN de lâminas. Amendoim forrageiro: TI = -196,589 + 12,1978 PBH + 8,3406 MF + 1,1060 HV + 17,3669 MLV (PBH - PB de HASTEs, MF - massa de forragem, DLV - massa de lâminas verdes. Consorciação: TI = -7,25 + 1,15ALTA - 0,22ALTI + 18,49MA - 9,88MLM + 0,49ALTM + 1,00PBL (ALTA - altura amendoim forrageiro, ALTI - altura de invasoras, MA - massa de amendoim forrageiro, MLM - massa de lâminas verdes de capim-marandu, ALTM

  1. Impacto de Streptococcus pneumoniae en las neumonías del niño latinoamericano Impact of Streptococcus pneumoniae in pneumonias of Latin American children

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    María Hortal

    2000-09-01

    Full Text Available La neumonía adquirida en la comunidad es una de las principales causas de morbilidad y mortalidad en la infancia. Estudios realizados en países en desarrollo indican que los cuadros de neumonía más graves se asocian a causas bacterianas, con predominio de Streptococcus pneumoniae, seguido por Haemophilus influenzae tipo b. El manejo de esas infecciones en los menores de 2 años se ve dificultado por la carencia de vacunas apropiadas y por la disminución de la susceptibilidad de S. pneumoniae a la penicilina y a otros antibióticos. En 1993, por iniciativa del Sistema Regional de Vacunas (SIREVA de la Organización Panamericana de la Salud y con la financiación de la Agencia Canadiense para el Desarrollo Internacional (Canadian International Development Agency: CIDA, se diseñó un estudio para identificar los tipos capsulares de S. pneumoniae que causan enfermedad invasora en los niños latinoamericanos menores de 5 años, con el propósito de determinar tanto la composición ideal de una vacuna conjugada que pudiera emplearse en la Región como la susceptibilidad a la penicilina de los aislados de S. pneumoniae. La iniciativa fue aceptada por Argentina, Brasil, Colombia, Chile, México y Uruguay. En este informe se analiza la información sobre la neumonía por S. pneumoniae generada en los países participantes. Se captaron 3 393 niños con infecciones sistémicas por S. pneumoniae, de las cuales 1 578 correspondían a neumonías. El análisis se concentró en los 1 409 casos de neumonía de Argentina, Brasil, Colombia, México y Uruguay. La distribución por edades evidenció un franco predominio de los menores de 2 años (63,8%. Se identificaron 12 tipos capsulares prevalentes, de los cuales los serotipos 14, 5 y 1 ocuparon los tres primeros lugares en la mayoría de los países. En el período 1993-1998, la resistencia a la penicilina aumentó en los cinco países; al comienzo del estudio, los mayores porcentajes correspondieron a M

  2. Pneumococcal disease and vaccination in the Americas: an agenda for accelerated vaccine introduction Enfermedad neumocócica y vacunación antineumocócica en las Américas: programa de acción para la introducción acelerada de una vacuna

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    Salvador Garcia

    2006-05-01

    Organización Panamericana de la Salud (OPS y el Plan para el Desarrollo Acelerado y la Introducción de Vacunas Antineumocócicas (PneumoADIP, por Pneumococcal Vaccines and Accelerated Development and Introduction Plan de la Alianza Mundial para Vacunas e Inmunización (GAVI, por Global Alliance for Vaccines and Immunization. Las personas que participaron en la reunión revisaron el estado de la vigilancia de las enfermedades neumocócicas en la Región de las Américas, así como cálculos de la carga de enfermedades neumocócicas, la distribución de serotipos de Streptococcus pneumoniae que provocan enfermedad invasora, el estado de la introducción de vacunas antineumocócicas, análisis económicos sanitarios, y aspectos económicos de la introducción de la vacuna. Los participantes de la reunión también se dedicaron a identificar los próximos pasos necesarios para generar la información esencial que hace falta para facilitar la toma de decisiones en torno a la introducción de una vacuna antineumocócica. La vigilancia coordinada de las enfermedades neumocócicas en la Región de las Américas se remonta a 1993, cuando la OPS estableció el proyecto conocido por Sistema Regional de Vacunas (SRV, dedicado a la vigilancia de la meningitis y la neumonía por bacterias, incluido el neumococo. Los datos obtenidos mediante las actividades de vigilancia del SRV indican que la distribución de los principales serotipos en las Américas ha sido estable a lo largo del tiempo (pero que la resistencia a los antibióticos va en aumento, siendo el serotipo 14 el que más se aísla en la mayoría de los países que participan en el SRV. Según se deduce de los datos sobre serotipos procedentes de seis de los países abarcados por el SRV (Argentina, Brasil, Chile, Colombia, México y Uruguay, la vacuna septavalente cubriría a alrededor de 65% de los serotipos, la nonavalente cubriría a más de 77% y la undecavalente cubriría a más de 83%.

  3. Intoxicação por Vernonia rubricaulis em bovinos no Mato Grosso do Sul Intoxication by Vernonia rubricaulis in cattle in Mato Grosso do Sul

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    Karine Bonucielli Brum

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available Descrevem-se surtos de intoxica��ão por Vernonia rubricaulis em bovinos em nove fazendas no Estado de Mato Grosso do Sul, entre setembro de 1999 e maio de 2001. No total morreram pelo menos 954 animais. Alguns fatores foram aparentemente importantes para a ocorrência da intoxicação: a utilização de técnicas que favorecem a brotação da planta incluindo a utilização da roçadeira ("trilho" para o controle de plantas invasoras, assim como a queima ou o desmatamento do campo; o transporte de animais procedentes de outras fazendas ou de outros piquetes da mesma fazenda, com ou sem manejo de animais no curral; e a superlotação de piquetes. O curso clínico variou de 12 a 48 horas. Os sinais clínicos foram, principalmente, agressividade ou depressão, salivação, cegueira, gemidos, incoordenação, retração de abdômen, fezes ressecadas com muco e estrias de sangue, focinho seco e decúbito. A letalidade foi de 100%. Os principais achados de necropsia foram observados no fígado. As lesões hepáticas variavam num mesmo animal e entre diferentes animais. Áreas focais vermelhas de hemorragias com tamanhos variando entre 1mm e 25cm, foram observadas em meio ao tecido hepático amarelado em alguns casos. Fígados inteiros ou áreas hepáticas com aspecto de noz-moscada e fígados difusamente amarelados com ou sem hemorragias petequiais, também foram observados. Ocorriam, também, hemorragias em diferentes tecidos e órgãos. As principais alterações histológicas caracterizaram-se por necrose centrolobular com vacuolização dos hepatócitos das áreas periportais e intermediárias ou necrose massiva e vacuolização difusa dos hepatócitos. A intoxicação foi reproduzida experimentalmente em três bovinos. A menor dose que causou morte foi de 3g/kg da planta verde fresca em fase de brotação. Os sinais clínicos e as lesões macro e microscópicas observadas foram semelhantes às apresentadas pelos animais intoxicados

  4. Levantamento de espécies de cobertura vegetal nativas e exóticas encontradas no campus oeste da Universidade Federal Rural do Semi-Árido

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    L. V. Sousa

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Desmatamento é o processo de desaparecimento de massas florestais, fundamentalmente causadas pela atividade humana, com a retirada da cobertura vegetal em determinada área para utilização comercial de madeira, implantação de projetos agropecuários e também na expansão urbana. Como em qualquer área que necessite de uma cobertura vegetal, a UFERSA também enfrenta uma problemática frequente, a replantação de árvores exóticas invasoras, ao invés de nativas da região. Dessa forma o presente trabalho tem como objetivo não somente avaliar e mapear a densidade da flora do local, mas também evidenciar possíveis problemas e disponibilizar soluções. Procurou-se dividir a vegetação em dois grupos: as nativas e as exóticas. Foi realizada a demarcação dos pontos de acordo com a localização das espécies, com a finalidade de identificar e quantificar as espécies de plantas nativas e exóticas. Dentre todas as espécies amostradas, 24 espécies (25,3% são representantes de espécies nativas e 71 espécies (74,7% são exóticas. A arborização da UFERSA segue o padrão observado na maioria das áreas verdes públicas das cidades brasileiras, com grande número de espécies exóticas em relação às nativas. Em vista de uma melhor estrutura física fica evidente a necessidade de uma maior arborização, tendo como incentivo o plantio de espécies nativas, que proporcionem sombra, alimento e sirvam de abrigo para a fauna local, não apenas na UFERSA, mas em toda a região que vem perdendo sua flora natural em favor de plantas exóticas. Survey of species of native and exotic vegetation coverage found in the campus of Federal Rural University west of the Semi-arid regionAbstract: Deforestation is the process of disappearance of forest masses, basically caused by human activity, with the withdrawal of the vegetation cover in particular area for commercial use of wood, deployment of agricultural projects and also in urban expansion

  5. Knowing for controlling: ecological effects of invasive vertebrates in Tierra del Fuego Conocer para controlar: efectos ecológicos de vertebrados invasores en Tierra del Fuego

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    CLAUDIA A SILVA

    2008-03-01

    freshwater systems, vegetation, soil and ground nesting birds. Regarding management, interactions between invaders must be considered. Whether the TDF archipelago is especially vulnerable to biological invasions remains to be proven, however, future introductions should be carefully weighedEl archipiélago de Tierra del Fuego (TDF ha sido reconocido como parte de los últimos lugares del planeta que aún pueden considerarse silvestres. Sin embargo, esta condición puede verse amenazada por el gran número de especies invasoras presentes en el archipiélago. Estas especies pueden tener efectos significativos sobre la ecología del sistema invadido, tanto a nivel genético como poblacional, comunitario y ecosistémico. El objetivo de este estudio es, mediante una revisión bibliográfica, sistematizar la información acerca del impacto ecológico que estas especies tienen sobre el archipiélago de TDF y detectar vacíos de información, para orientar la investigación futura y planes efectivos de manejo de estas especies. Restringimos nuestra revisión a invasores vertebrados no marinos. Determinamos cuáles especies han invadido TDF, describimos sus impactos sobre el archipiélago y evaluamos sus impactos potenciales, ésto último mendiante una revisión de los impactos que estas especies han tenido en otras zonas geográficas. Nuestros resultados indican que, al menos, nueve especies de vertebrados (Salmo trutta, Salvelinus fontinalis, Oncorhynchus mykiss, Castor canadensis, Ondatra zibethicus, Oryctolagus cuniculus, Pseudalopex griseus, Mustela vison y Sus scrofa cuentan con poblaciones silvestres establecidas, lejanas a zonas pobladas en TDF. Solo para cinco de éstas existe evidencia científica sobre sus impactos ecológicos en el área, siendo el castor americano (Castor canadensis la especie que acapara la mayor cantidad de estudios. Estos resultados contrastan con el reconocimiento, tanto en TDF como a nivel mundial, del potencial de estas especies de provocar

  6. Susceptibilidad a antimicrobianos en aislamientos de Streptococcus pneumoniae invasor en Colombia Susceptibility to antimicrobial agents in isolates of invasive Streptococcus pneumoniae in Colombia

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    Aura Lucía Leal

    1999-03-01

    Full Text Available Se realizó un estudio para determinar los patrones de susceptibilidad a los antimicrobianos de los aislamientos de Streptococcus pneumoniae causante de enfermedad invasora diagnosticada en Colombia en niños menores de 5 años entre 1994 y 1996 y para establecer la distribución de los tipos capsulares de los aislamientos resistentes. Se analizaron 324 aislamientos recuperados durante la ejecución del Protocolo Nacional de Serotipificación de S. pneumoniae realizado en Santa Fe de Bogotá, Medellín y Cali, Colombia, entre julio de 1994 y marzo de 1996. Se observó que 119 de todos los aislamientos (36,7% presentaban susceptibilidad disminuida por lo menos a un antimicrobiano, que 39 (12% presentaban susceptibilidad disminuida a la penicilina y que de estos últimos aislamientos, 29 presentaban resistencia intermedia y 10 resistencia alta. Nueve aislamientos (2,8% presentaban resistencia a la ceftriaxona, 80 (24,7% a la combinación de trimetoprima y sulfametoxazol (TMS, 49 (15,1% al cloranfenicol y 31 (9,6% a la eritromicina. Se observó resistencia a dos antimicrobianos en 31 aislamientos (9,6% y multirresistencia en 22 (6,7%. Estos 22 aislamientos mostraron resistencia al TMS. Las asociaciones más frecuentes fueron penicilina, TMS y eritromicina en 5 casos; penicilina, cloranfenicol, TMS y eritromicina en 4; penicilina, ceftriaxona, cloranfenicol y TMS en 3; y penicilina, ceftriaxona, cloranfenicol, TMS y eritromicina en 3 casos. Los serotipos más frecuentes en los aislamientos resistentes a la penicilina fueron: 23F (53,8%, 14 (25,6%, 6B (7,7%, 9V (5,1%, 19F (5,1% y 34 (2,6%. Los serotipos más frecuentes en los aislamientos resistentes a antimicrobianos distintos de la penicilina fueron: 5 (37,5%, 23F (7,5%, 14 (18,8% y 6B (13,8%. Esta diferencia en la distribución de los serotipos fue estadísticamente significativa (P A study was done to determine the patterns of susceptibility to antimicrobial agents in isolates of Streptococcus

  7. Stigma, discrimination, and HIV/AIDS knowledge among physicians in Barbados Estigma, discriminación y conocimientos sobre el VIH/sida entre los médicos en Barbados

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    Ernest Massiah

    2004-12-01

    tuvieran que realizar una intervención invasora a un paciente de una población de alto riesgo, como las de homosexuales y trabajadores de la industria sexual. Solo 53% de los médicos habían participado en programas de adiestramiento en el servicio entre 1995 y 1999. CONCLUSIONES: Es preciso que la formación médica en Barbados comprenda la atención de pacientes con infección por VIH o sida, incluidos todos los aspectos, tanto clínicos como afectivos. Para los médicos del sector público debe ser obligatorio asistir a ese tipo de adiestramiento; además, es necesario examinar los planes de estudio de las escuelas de medicina para cerciorarse de que sean completos y actualizados.

  8. Organic and conventional tomato cropping systems Sistemas de cultivo orgânico e convencional de tomateiro

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    Wagner Bettiol

    2004-06-01

    ência de manchas foliares causadas por Septoria lycopersici e Xanthomonas vesicatoria, entretanto a pinta preta e a podridão de frutos causados por Alternaria solani ocorreram em maiores proporções. Não foram observadas diferenças quanto às comunidades de fungos e bactérias do filoplano e quanto à ocorrência de plantas invasoras.

  9. Malacología Latinoamericana: Moluscos de agua dulce de Argentina

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    Alejandra Rumi

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Se presenta un estado de situación y una lista actualizada y comentada sobre las especies de moluscos de agua dulce de la República Argentina. Se aborda en Gastropoda y Bivalvia la distribución a nivel de familias; las entidades endémicas, exóticas, invasoras y de importancia sanitaria. Los moluscos relacionados a la cuenca del Plata presentan la mayor riqueza específica. Base de datos: 4 500 registros relevados de las tres colecciones más importantes de la Argentina: MLP, MACN y FML. Además, se incluye información de recolecciones actuales y localidades citadas por otros autores. Hasta el presente han sido descritas 166 especies. De ellas 101 pertenecen a 10 familias de Gastropoda y 65 a 7 de Bivalvia. Las familias que presentan mayor riqueza específica son Lithoglyphidae (22 y Sphaeriidae (25, respectivamente. Sphaeriidae, Cochliopidae, Chilinidae y Lymnaeidae se distribuyen prácticamente en todo el país. Erodonidae y Solecurtidae se registran en ambientes mixohalinos de la provincia de Buenos Aires. Thiaridae y Glacidorbiidae presentan una distribución muy restringida. Especies endémicas de la Argentina: Gastropoda: Ampullariidae (1, Cochliopidae (10, Lithoglyphidae (11, Thiariidae (3, Chilinidae (11, Lymnaeidae (2 y Physidae (2?; Bivalvia: Hyriidae (1?; Etheriidae (1? y Sphaeriidae (10. Especies de interés sanitario: propagadoras de: Esquistosomiasis, Biomphalaria peregrina, B. straminea y B. tenagophila (Planorbidae; Fasciolasis, Lymnaea viatrix y L. columnella (Lymnaeidae; y dermatitis esquistosómicas, Chilina gibbosa y C. fluminea (Chilinidae. Especies de origen asiático: Corbicula fluminea (Corbiculidae y Limnoperna fortunei (Mytilidae. Es prioritaria la formación de áreas protegidas para la conservación de especies endémicas, especialmente de la Mesopotamia Argentina.Latin American Malacology. Freshwater Mollusks from Argentina. A report and an updated list with comments on the species of freshwater molluscs of

  10. Historical land-cover/use in different slope and riparian buffer zones in watersheds of the state of São Paulo, Brazil Cobertura vegetal em diferentes usos do solo e declividades do terreno em bacias hidrográficas do estado de São Paulo, Brasil

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    Alexandre Marco da Silva

    2007-08-01

    relação entre a cobertura do solo e a declividade do terreno também foram investigadas. Um segundo objetivo foi estimar a proporção relativa de vegetação ripária considerando-se uma faixa de 30 metros em relação às margens dos corpos d'água. As três principais questões científicas deste artigo foram: i Qual é a cobertura dominante do solo nas bacias hidrográficas abordadas? ii As vegetações ripárias encontram-se bem preservadas ripária nas faixas dos 30 metros? Em caso negativo, iii Qual é a cobertura do solo dominante nessas áreas? A cobertura do solo predominante nas bacias hidrográficas são as pastagens, ocorrendo em quase 50% de toda a área investigada. Seguem-se as plantações de cana-de-açúcar (14% como sendo as coberturas do solo mais importantes. Aproximadamente metade da área das sete bacias foi considerada plana (40% ou suavemente ondulada (10%. A área ripária considerando-se uma largura de 30 metros em relação às margens dos corpos d'água ocupa uma área aproximada de 6.200 km². Deste total, somente 25% encontram-se bem preservadas. Dentre as culturas, as pastagens ocupam a maior área na zona ripária. Nas bacias dos rios Moji-Guaçu e Piracicaba a cana-de-açúcar é a principal cultura invasora da zona ripária.

  11. The distribution of seagrasses in Dominica, Lesser Antilles

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    S.C.C Steiner

    2010-10-01

    wrightii creció en las costad del norte y oeste, en profundidades de 1 a 14m en áreas de perturbaciones recientes o crónicas. Su morfología delicada y su baja cobertura béntica (<0.1% no constituyeron pastos. Halophila decipiens creció en los márgenes profundos, llanos y laterales de pastos dominados por S. filiforme, pero también en forma mono-específica entre 3 y 24m. Halophila stipulacea, una especie invasora, se encontró comúnmente a lo largo de 45km de la costa del oeste en profundidades entre 5 y 24m. Ambas especies de Halophila formaron pastos extensos en profudidades mayores al límite de este estudio y puden ser importantes en la recolonización de áreas llanas después de tormentas destructivas. H. decipiens y H. stipulacea ahora son las especies más comunes después de S. filiforme, a pesar de su ausencia en la costa del norte. T. testudinum, sólo creció en la costa del norte, encima de áreas arrecifales con un pormedio de cobertura béntica entre 2 y 76%, en aguas con 1m o menos de profundidad. Crecieron mono-específicamente en áreas de turbulencia máxima y mínima, pero entre S. filiforme en áreas de turbulencia moderada. Oleaje fuerte en la costa del oeste (octubre 16, asociado con el Huracán Omar, causó la erosión y el enterramiento variado de las márgenes llanas de pastos marinos, particularmente entre 2 y 10m de profundidad. Este evento demostró la dinámica en las márgenes llanas de pastos marinos de Dominica y el nivel de resistencia a perturbaciones de pastos individuales.

  12. La búsqueda del centro de origen en Biogeografía Histórica

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    López-Martínez, Nieves

    2003-12-01

    fragmentation of the area.

    En este trabajo se estudia la aplicación del concepto de centro de origen de un taxón en Biogeografía Histórica a través de dos predicciones de un modelo biogeográfico frecuentemente usado, que denominamos “modelo simétrico”: 1º aparición local de las nuevas especies, seguida de 2º expansión gradual de su área inicial de distribución. La primera predicción sólo se cumple en especies insulares: a la aparición local de nuevas especies no ha sido observada hasta ahora en regiones no insulares; b el centro de origen de especies no insulares no ha podido ser localizado con precisión, y c los criterios para inferirlo no convergen. La segunda predicción se cumple en especies invasoras, que tras franquear barreras preexistentes expanden el área linealmente, a velocidad aproximadamente constante, mostrando para ello una capacidad intrínseca no ligada a factores externos. El modelo simétrico asume una dinámica biogeográfica simétrica en el tiempo: 1º origen local, 2º expansión gradual, 3º estasis, 4º contracción gradual, y 5º extinción. Diversos datos refutan el modelo simétrico: a las especies endémicas, únicas que muestran una distribución localizada, no muestran capacidad de expansión; b el “ciclo del taxón” en especies insulares muestra que el área de la especie colonizadora tiende siempre a reducirse según va diferenciándose; c las entradas y salidas de especies-guías del registro fósil son asimétricas, con pautas de aparición muy rápida a escala regional (cuasi-sincrónica, y de extinción muy lenta y diacrónica a lo largo de su área de distribución; y d la historia paleobiogeográfica de muchos taxones es asimétrica, con una amplia área de distribución inicial y una tendencia lenta a su contracción y fragmentación antes de la extinción. Por tanto, los datos refutan la aplicabilidad del modelo simétrico y del concepto de centro de origen, y apuntan a un modelo de dinámica biogeogr

  13. Aspectos biológicos de Chrysoperla externa (Hagen, 1861 (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae alimentada com Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius, 1889 biótipo B (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae criada em três hospedeiros Biological aspects of Chrysoperla externa (Hagen, 1861 (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae fed on Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius, 1889 biotype B (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae reared in three hosts

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    Cláudio Gonçalves Silva

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available Estudaram-se alguns aspectos biológicos de adultos de Chrysoperla externa (Hagen oriundos de larvas alimentadas com ninfas da mosca-branca Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius biótipo B, criadas em folhas de pepino (Cucumis sativus var. caipira, couve (Brassica oleraceae var. acephala e na planta invasora leiteiro (Euphorbia heterophylla. Discos foliares dos hospedeiros contendo ninfas de terceiro e quarto estádios da mosca-branca foram acondicionados em placas de Petri contendo ágar-água a 1%. Em cada placa foi colocada uma larva de C. externa recém-eclodida, onde permaneceram até a emergência dos adultos. Foram avaliados o peso logo após a emergência, os períodos de pré-oviposição, oviposição, efetivo de oviposição, pós-oviposição, número total de ovos produzidos por fêmea e longevidade. Avaliaram-se, também, o período embrionário e a viabilidade dos ovos, coletando-se, uma vez por semana, uma amostra de 10% do total de ovos produzidos no dia, ao longo de todo o período reprodutivo. O peso de machos e fêmeas não diferiu significativamente em função do hospedeiro da presa, sendo em média de 4,7 mg. De maneira geral, adultos de C. externa oriundos de larvas alimentadas com ninfas de B. tabaci biótipo B criadas em leiteiro apresentaram performance inferior em relação àqueles oriundos do pepino e da couve. O período de oviposição foi, em média, de 49,5 dias para o pepino e a couve, e de 31,6 dias para o leiteiro. A produção de ovos foi reduzida em aproximadamente 50% em leiteiro, sendo de 293,8 ovos; no pepino e couve, a média foi de 591,3 ovos. Ninfas de B. tabaci biótipo B criadas em leiteiro causaram uma redução da viabilidade dos ovos de C. externa, que foi 62,8% e 57,7% inferior ao verificado para o pepino e a couve, respectivamente.The aim was to study some biological aspects of adults of Chrysoperla externa (Hagen, from larvae fed on nymphs of third and fourth stages of Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius biotype B

  14. Carcinoma de cérvix en mujeres menores de 25 años Cervical cancer in women 25 year old or younger

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    Isabel C. Ruiz

    1993-02-01

    Full Text Available Se realizó un trabajo descriptivo y retrospectivo que abarcó el período 1970-1991, en 129 pacientes menores de 25 años con diagnóstico confirmado de cáncer cervical, registradas en el Grupo de Oncologra Ginecológica de la Facultad de Medicina de la Universidad de Antioquia que funciona en las dependencias del Hospital Universitario San Vicente de Paúl, de Medellín. Se encontraron 81 pacientes con NIC III (62.8% y 48 con cáncer cervical Invasor (37.2%. Hubo 122 pacientes (94.6% entre 21 y 25 años y siete menores de 20. La más joven con NIC II1 tenía 14 años y la más joven con cáncer Invasor, estadio II b, 16. De las 48 pacientes con cáncer invasor 29 (60.4% estaban en los estadios 118 o 1118. El tratamiento de las lesiones Invasoras fue quirúrgico en las 6 pacientes con lesiones del estadio IA y en 10 de las 11 con e118; se hizo radioterapia en 27 de las pacientes con lesiones en los demás estadios. Cuatro pacientes, de los estadios 118 O 1118, rehusaron la radioterapIa y no recibieron ningún tratamiento. El tratamiento para la NIC III fue quirúrgico (Conización o hlsterectomía en 68 pacientes (84% lo que demuestra la necesidad de recurrir con mayor frecuencia a alternativas conservadoras en pacientes que no han completado su función reproductiva. Se logró hacer seguimiento por períodos hasta de 50 meses en 82 pacientes (63.6% y superiores a ese lapso en las 47 restantes (36.4% Incluyendo 4 pacientes seguidas por más de 51 meses. En el momento de la revisión se encontraban en buenas condiciones 50 de las 81 pacientes con NIC III (61.7% y 12 (25% de las 48 con cáncer Invasor para un total de 62 pacientes (48.1%; 50 (38.8% pacientes no habrán acudido al seguimiento y 17 (13.2% habían muerto. Las complicaciones derivadas del tratamiento con radioterapia, realizado en 28 de las pacientes con cáncer Invasor, fueron: cistitis, dolor pélvico y fístula vesical en dos casos cada uno e hidronefrosis en un caso; una

  15. Uso e disponibilidade de recursos medicinais no município de Ouro Verde de Goiás, GO, Brasil Use and availability of medicinal resources in Ouro Verde de Goiás, Goiás State, Brazil

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    Cristiane Soares Pereira da Silva

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo do presente estudo foi realizar um levantamento etnobotânico das plantas medicinais usadas por comunidades rurais e urbanas no município de Ouro Verde de Goiás, situado na mesorregião do mato grosso goiano; eleger espécies nativas do bioma Cerrado potenciais para estudos farmacológicos com base na concordância de uso popular corrigida (CUPc; e avaliar se o conhecimento botânico e o cultivo de espécies medicinais em quintais podem ser afetados por classes de idade, gênero, escolaridade, local de nascimento e procedência rural/urbana do informante pelos testes Kruskal-Wallis (H e Qui-quadrado (χ2. Foram selecionados 84 informantes por meio de amostragens aleatórias, sendo efetuadas entrevistas estruturadas. As fontes disponíveis de recursos medicinais foram: quintais, áreas antrópicas, matas de galeria e remanescentes de florestas estacionais. Foram registradas 98 espécies distribuídas em 45 famílias destacando-se em número as exóticas cultivadas. Nos quintais, foram catalogadas 78 espécies cultivadas, sendo 39,7% para remédios, e demais associações com a alimentação (39,7% e a ornamentação (20,5%. Vinte espécies são adquiridas pelo extrativismo na vegetação do entorno, sendo todas nativas do bioma Cerrado, com exceção de Senna occidentalis, que é invasora. Duas espécies de florestas estacionais (Forsteronia refracta e Celtis iguanaea apresentaram a CUPc > 50%, evidenciando consensos de uso popular. Verificou-se que 41% dos informantes da zona rural recorrem ao extrativismo na vegetação nativa, procura que é consideravelmente maior em relação aos informantes da zona urbana (16,7%. A quantidade de espécies citadas foi significativamente maior entre os informantes que tinham quintal. O número de espécies citadas e a presença de quintal independem do grau de escolaridade, gênero, local de nascimento, idade e zona de procedência rural ou urbana do informante.The goal of this study was to

  16. Remarks on the biogeography of land invasions Consideraciones biogeográficas sobre las invasiones terrestres

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    EDUARDO H. RAPOPORT

    2000-06-01

    times, agricultural insects 26 times and phytopathogens 37 times more cosmopolitan than, say, common mammals, taken as an example for comparison. Finally, although animals (invertebrates plus vertebrates show a higher mean dispersal rate than plants (field observations plus ancient pollen registers, it seems that animals are better colonizers of pristine or scarcely disturbed communities, while plants are more successful in anthropic habitatsSe analiza el porcentaje de especies de plantas exóticas (PES a escala macrogeográfica en forma de mapas políticos (Texas y América del Norte y mapas de isolíneas (Gran Bretaña. En estos últimos se observa mayor concentración del PES en puertos y áreas urbanas e industriales más que en áreas agrícolas. En consecuencia, es predecible que la razón entre ruderales y arvenses siga aumentando en el futuro. Sobre la base de un censo de 200 floras del mundo se hace un análisis de regresión múltiple para determinar la importancia de factores que contribuyen a la variación en el PES (disturbios 55 %, riqueza de especies 14%, insularidad 9% y latitud 2%. Precipitación y temperatura media anual no contribuyen significativamente en la varianza. La predominancia de Europa como principal distribuidora mundial de malezas ha sido atribuida a su geopolítica imperialista y construcción de la primera flota marina internacional. A ello, sin embargo, debió contribuir también el tamaño de Eurasia. Ya que varios autores hallaron una débil correlación positiva entre la tasa de dispersión y el éxito invasor en plantas, se hizo una comparación entre taxones mediante 153 datos colectados. Las tasas lineales de dispersión, en km/año, fueron 64,2 en microorganismos, 48,5 en invertebrados, 17,2 en vertebrados, 6,9 en plantas y 0,19 en registros palinológicos. Otra manera de comparar la capacidad invasora, especialmente, en plagas agrícolas, es a través del índice de cosmopolitismo (C*, que resultó ser 0,642 para fitopat

  17. Recovery of degraded pasture in Rondônia: macronutrients and productivity of brachiaria brizantha Recuperação de pastagem degradada em Rondônia: macronutrientes e produtividade da brachiaria brizantha

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norberto Cornejo Noronha

    2010-10-01

    utilização do pasto, a gramínea perde o vigor e reduz a produtividade, caracterizando algum estado de degradação. Entre as principais causas de degradação estão a falta de manutenção do pasto e consequente infestação de plantas invasoras, a escolha de espécies forrageiras inadequadas à região e o pastejo excessivo. O objetivo principal desta pesquisa foi avaliar o impacto de diferentes manejos de recuperação sobre os atributos químicos do solo e a produtividade da gramínea numa pastagem degradada em Rondônia. Para atingir esse objetivo, foi instalado, em outubro de 2001, um experimento composto de 5 tratamentos: T = testemunha (controle; G = gradagem + NPK + micronutrientes; H = herbicida + NK + micronutrientes; A = plantio direto de arroz + NPK + micronutrientes; e S = Plantio direto de soja + PK+ micronutrientes. As seguintes fontes de N, P e K foram utilizadas: sulfato de amônio para N, termofosfato para o P e cloreto de potássio para o K. O delineamento experimental foi em blocos ao acaso, com quatro repetições. A produção de matéria seca da parte área da gramínea foi analisada a partir do trigésimo quinto mês de experimentação, englobando um período seco e outro úmido. A adubação fosfatada propiciou incrementos significativos de Ca2+ e Mg2+ e tendência de aumento de P na camada superficial do solo nos primeiros meses de condução do experimento nos tratamentos G e S e incrementos de Ca2+ e P (tendência no tratamento A. A produtividade acumulada de Brachiaria brizantha, obtida entre os meses de set/2004 e mar/2005, foi de 30.025, 28.267 e 27.735 kg ha-1 de matéria seca da parte aérea, nos tratamentos G, A e S, respectivamente, as quais diferiram significativamente dos tratamentos T e H: 17.040 e 17.057 kg ha-1, respectivamente. Concluiu-se que a adubação fosfatada, associada à reforma da pastagem, foi efetiva no incremento de produção da matéria seca de Brachiaria brizantha. O plantio direto do arroz ou da soja

  18. The acquisition of inorganic carbon by four red macroalgae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, A M; Maberly, S C; Raven, J A

    1992-12-01

    Photosynthesis was studied in four species of red marine macroalgae: Palmaria palmata, Laurencia pinnatifida, Lomentaria articulata and Delesseria sanguinea. The rate of O 2 evolution for submersed photosynthesis was measured as a function of incident photon flux density at normal pH and inorganic carbon concentration (pH 8.0, 2 mol m -3 ), and as a function of inorganic carbon concentration at pH 8.0 at saturating and at limiting photon flux density. The rate of CO 2 uptake was measured for emersed photosynthesis as a function of CO 2 partial pressure at saturating photon flux density. Previous pH-drift results suggest that Palmaria and Laurencia are able to use HCO inf3 sup- as well as CO 2 whereas Lomentaria and Delesseria are restricted to CO 2 . None of the algae are saturated by 2 mol m -3 inorganic carbon at high light (400 μmol m -2 s -1 ) but are saturated at low light (35 μmol m -2 s -1 ). The inorganic C concentration at which half the light-saturated rate of O 2 evolution is achieved is higher for Palmaria and Laurencia (1.51 and 1.85 mol m -3 ) than for Lomentaria and Delesseria (0.772 and 0.841 mol m -3 ). The lower values for the latter two species could reflect their putative restriction to CO 2 . If expressed in terms of CO 2 , the half-saturation values yield 7.2 and 7.8 mmol m -3 respectively, which are very similar to values obtained previously during pH-drift experiments but at lower concentrations of HCO inf3 sup- , consistent with restriction to CO 2 . The photosynthetic conductance (m s -1 ), calculated from the initial slope for photosynthesis at low concentrations of inorganic carbon, correlates with the suggested ability to extract inorganic carbon based on pH-drift results. Calculations made assuming that CO 2 is the only species diffusing across the boundary layer are consistent with boundary layer thicknesses of 20 and 19 μm for Lomentaria and Delesseria respectively, which is feasible given the rapid water movement in the

  19. Generic boundaries and evolution of characters in the Arctium group: a nuclear and chloroplast DNA analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susanna, A.

    2003-12-01

    of new species of Cousinia subg. Hypacanthodes.

    Definir los límites genéricos en el grupo Arctium (Compositae, Carduceae-Carduinae, formado por los géneros Arctium, Cousinia, Hypacanthium y Schamalhausenia, ha resultado ser una tarea muy complicada. Concretamente, la separación precisa de Arctium y Cousinia es muy difícil de establecer. En consecuencia, hemos analizado las secuencias del DNA de dos regiones, el gen cloroplástico matK y los espaciadores ITS 1 y 2 del DNA ribosómico-nuclear de una amplia representación de todos los géneros del grupo: en el caso de Cousinia, centrándonos en las especies más obviamente relacionadas con Arctiium, hemos encontrado una correlación exacta entre filogenia molecular y dos caracteres fundamentales, el tipo de polen y el número cromosómico: todas las especies estudiadas que tienen el tipo de polen Arctiastrum y el número x= 18, característicos de Arctium sensu stricto, forman un clado monofilético, hermano de del clado monofilético formado por las especies de Cousinia sensu suicto. Sin embargo. el ciado "Arctioide" no se puede definir con caracteres morfológicos macroscópicos: el carácter que separa Arctium y Cousinia son las hojas espinoso·pinnatifidas o pinnatisectas de Cousinia, que es adaptativo y tiene poca relevancia taxonómica. Según nuestros resultados, las espinas habrían aparecido en dos linajes diferentes: en Cousinia, por una parte, y en Hypacanthium y Schamalhausenia, que son espinosos y morfológicamente más próximos a Cousinia, pero que están sin duda más relacionados con Arctium, inerme. Evaluamos también las implicaciones de esta incongruencia entre morfología, por un lado, y datos moleculares, palinológicos y cariológicos, por otro. Proponemos algunas soluciones, pero ninguna es totalmente satisfactoria: se necesitan m

  20. Early detection of cervical cancer with visual inspection methods: a summary of completed and on-going studies in India Detección oportuna de cáncer cervical con métodos de inspección visual: un resumen de estudios en India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Sankaranarayanan

    2003-01-01

    , VIAM y VILI son frecuentemente investigados en estudios de corte transversal multicéntricos (sin verificación de sesgo, en los que se evalúan simultáneamente la citología y las pruebas del VPH; los resultados de esas investigaciones estarán disponibles próximamente. Estos estudios proveerán información valiosa sobre el desarrollo de pruebas comparativas para detectar lesiones de alto grado precursoras de neoplasia cervical, y cáncer invasor. Los resultados de los análisis de los datos de dos estudios previos indicaron una sensibilidad aproximada de 93.4% y una especificidad de 85.1% para VIA en la detección de CIN 2-3 o lesiones invasoras, comparadas con las de citología con 72.1% y 91.6% de sensibilidad y especificidad, respectivamente. La eficacia de VIA para la reducción de la incidencia y la mortalidad de cáncer cervical y su costo-efectividad están siendo actualmente investigadas en dos ensayos de intervención aleatorizados controlados en población de la India. Uno de esos estudios es un ensayo con cuatro brazos que establece la eficacia comparativa de VIA, citología y tamizaje primario, con pruebas de ADN del VPH. Este ensayo proveerá información valiosa sobre la detección comparativa de tasas de lesiones de CIN 2-3 que podrá ser utilizada para guiar el desarrollo de las políticas en salud pública sobre prevención del cáncer cervical en países con diferentes niveles socioeconómicos y abrir nuevos caminos de investigación.

  1. Biodiversidad y cambio climático

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilfredo Bulege Gutiérrez

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available La rica variedad de vida en la Tierra estuvo siempre expuesta a un clima cambiante. La necesidad de adaptarse a los nuevos patrones de temperatura y de precipitaciones tiene una influencia importante en los cambios evolutivos de las especies de plantas y animales. El cambio climático plantea ahora una de las amenazas principales para la diversidad biológica, esta entendida como variabilidad de organismos vivos de cualquier fuente (1, por ello se prevé que la diversidad biológica en las próximas décadas se convertirá en una fuerza cada vez más importante del cambio (2. Son diversas las razones por las cuales las plantas y animales resultan menos capaces de adaptarse a la actual fase de calentamiento global. Una de ellas es el rápido ritmo que tiene el cambio. Durante el próximo siglo, según estimaciones científicas, el ascenso de la media de la temperatura global será más rápido de lo experimentado en por lo menos 10 mil años. Numerosas especies simplemente no podrán adaptarse con suficiente rapidez a las nuevas condiciones o desplazarse a regiones más adecuadas para su supervivencia. También son preocupantes los enormes cambios al paisaje que han hecho los seres humanos, las cuencas fluviales y los océanos, bloqueando las opciones de supervivencia previamente disponibles para especies que ya estaban bajo la presión de un clima cambiante. Asimismo hay otros factores inducidos por el hombre. La contaminación proveniente de los nutrientes, como el nitrógeno, la introducción de especies exóticas invasoras y la captura excesiva de animales silvestres, mediante la caza o la pesca, pueden reducir la resistencia de los ecosistemas y, por lo tanto, la probabilidad de su natural adaptación al cambio climático. Esto tiene importantes consecuencias, no solo para la variedad de vida en nuestro planeta, sino también para el sustento del hombre en todo el mundo. Como la Evaluación de los Ecosistemas del Milenio demostró, los