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Sample records for invasora achatina fulica

  1. Espécie invasora em unidade de conservação: Achatina fulica (Bowdich, 1822 no Parque Estadual Carlos Botelho, Sete Barras, SP, Brasil (Nota Científica. Invasive species in conservation unit: Achatina fulica (Bowdich, 1822 in Carlos Botelho State Park, Sete Barras, SP, Brazil (Scientific Note.

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    Marilda Rapp de ESTON

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available O caramujo-gigante-africano, Achatinafulica (Mollusca-Achatinidae, considerado umadas cem piores espécies invasoras do mundo,causando sérios danos ambientais, é registrado pelaprimeira vez para o Parque Estadual CarlosBotelho, município de Sete Barras, Estado de SãoPaulo, Brasil.The Giant African Snail, Achatina fulica(Mollusca-Achatinidae, considered as one of ahundred worst world’s invasive species, causingserious environmental damages, is registered forthe first time for Carlos Botelho State Park, countyof Sete Barras, state of São Paulo, Brazil.

  2. Chemical composition of Achatina fulica

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    Aboua, F.

    1990-01-01

    Full Text Available Proximate composition and mineral content were determined in snail without and with shell and shell atone from Achatina fulica. This snail has high protein (above 40 %, low fat (less than 3 % and is a relatively good source of macrominerals, including calcium, phosphorus, magnesium, potassium and sodium. Achatina fulica is an excellent source of iron but is poor in copper, zinc and manganese. The snail is very rich in calcium but very poor in phosphorus, potassium and magnesium.

  3. Reações da espécie invasora Achatina fulica (Mollusca: Achatinidae à fatores abióticos: perspectivas para o manejo Reactions of the invasive alien species Achatina fulica to abiotic factors: perspectives for the management

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    Marta Luciane Fischer

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Achatina fulica Bowdich, 1822 is an african snail that is invasive in different parts of the world, being characterized mainly by its high adaptability. Our objective was to evaluate the influence of abiotic factors, such as temperature and substrate, on the egg eclosion, adult and juvenile reaction to different abiotics factors, and the resistance of A. fulica to popular methods of control. Three studies were made, including 19 laboratory experiments and observations of free animals in the municipal district of Guaraqueçaba, southern Brazil. Eggs were characterized as the most fragile phase, whereas the juveniles and adults were resistant to the immersion in fresh and salt water and little resistant to temperature variation and salt, using burying, aestivation, and muscular force as defense strategies. Those strategies should be considered in management actions and in orientating popular methods of control.

  4. Potentiality of Achatina fulica Bowdich, 1822 (Mollusca: Gastropoda) as intermediate host of the Angiostrongylus costaricensis Morera & Céspedes 1971

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    Carvalho, Omar dos Santos; Teles, Horácio MS; Mota, Ester Maria; Mendonça, Cristiane Lafetá Gomes Furtado de; Lenzi, Henrique Leonel

    2003-01-01

    Samples of Achatina fulica were experimentally infected with Angiostrongylus costaricensis larvae, etiological agent of abdominal angiostrongyliasis, showing that A. fulica is susceptible to the parasite. Achatina fulica may be a risk to urbanization of abdominal angiostrongyliasis presumably due to its high proliferation, continuous dispersion and remarkable adaptation in several Brazilian towns. Exemplares de Achatina fulica foram experimentalmente infectados com larvas de Angiostrongylu...

  5. Potentiality of Achatina fulica Bowdich, 1822 (Mollusca: Gastropoda as intermediate host of the Angiostrongylus costaricensis Morera & Céspedes 1971

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    Carvalho Omar dos Santos

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Samples of Achatina fulica were experimentally infected with Angiostrongylus costaricensis larvae, etiological agent of abdominal angiostrongyliasis, showing that A. fulica is susceptible to the parasite. Achatina fulica may be a risk to urbanization of abdominal angiostrongyliasis presumably due to its high proliferation, continuous dispersion and remarkable adaptation in several Brazilian towns.

  6. Potentiality of Achatina fulica Bowdich, 1822 (Mollusca: Gastropoda) as intermediate host of the Angiostrongylus costaricensis Morera & Céspedes 1971.

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    Carvalho, Omar dos Santos; Teles, Horácio M; Mota, Ester Maria; Lafetá, Cristiane; de Mendonça, Gomes Furtado; Lenzi, Henrique Leonel

    2003-01-01

    Samples of Achatina fulica were experimentally infected with Angiostrongylus costaricensis larvae, etiological agent of abdominal angiostrongyliasis, showing that A. fulica is susceptible to the parasite. Achatina fulica may be a risk to urbanization of abdominal angiostrongyliasis presumably due to its high proliferation, continuous dispersion and remarkable adaptation in several Brazilian towns.

  7. [Is it possible to train Achatina fulica using visual stimulation?].

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    Baĭkova, I B; Zhukov, V V

    2001-01-01

    The conditioned behavior to visual stimuli was obtained in Achatina fulica mollusk on the basis of its negative phototaxis. Directional moving of snails toward black cards was accompanied by the negative unconditioned stimulation (electric current). Learning was expressed in a statistically significant decrease in locomotor activity of animals and decrease in the rate of preference of sections with black cards. Learning developed within two daily training sessions with 30 trials in each of them. Learning traces were observed as defensive behavior at least during a month after reinforcement elimination.

  8. Potentiality of Achatina fulica Bowdich, 1822 (Mollusca: Gastropoda) as intermediate host of the Angiostrongylus costaricensis Morera & Céspedes 1971 Achatina fulica Bowdich, 1822 (Mollusca: Gastropoda) como hospedeiro intermediário potencial do Angiostrongylus costaricensis Morera & Céspedes 1971

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    Omar dos Santos Carvalho; Horácio MS Teles; Ester Maria Mota; Cristiane Lafetá Gomes Furtado de Mendonça; Henrique Leonel Lenzi

    2003-01-01

    Samples of Achatina fulica were experimentally infected with Angiostrongylus costaricensis larvae, etiological agent of abdominal angiostrongyliasis, showing that A. fulica is susceptible to the parasite. Achatina fulica may be a risk to urbanization of abdominal angiostrongyliasis presumably due to its high proliferation, continuous dispersion and remarkable adaptation in several Brazilian towns.Exemplares de Achatina fulica foram experimentalmente infectados com larvas de Angiostrongylus co...

  9. Nematodes from Achatina fulica Bowdich, 1822 (Mollusca: Gastropoda in Argentina

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    Valente R.

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to describe the nematode cysts and larvae found in Achatina fulica, the giant African snail, in the northeast of Argentina. A total of 373 snails were collected from the cities of Puerto Iguazú and Corrientes. Cysts (N= 2958 containing nematodes identified as L3 Strongyluris sp. were found in the mantle cavity of 87 snails from Puerto Iguazú City (Prevalence 23 %; Mean Intensity= 34; Mean Abundance= 8. The shell size correlated with prevalence, mean intensity and mean abundance (p < 0.05 indicating that there is an exposure-infection constant rather than an accidental one. In other hand, the absence of infection in the smallest shell size suggests a threshold of size to be infected. Taking into account that there exist records of A. fulica infected by nematodes of medical and veterinary importance such as Angiostrongylus and Aelurostrongylus in some Brazilian states near Puerto Iguazú, we emphasize the need for snail surveillance.

  10. [Investigation on snails Achatina fulica and Pomacea canaliculata infected with Angiostrongylus cantonensis in Panyu region of Guangzhou City].

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    Chen, Chu-Xuan; He, Hui-Fang; Yin, Zhu; Zhou, Jin-Huan; Li, Shi-Qun; Li, Fang-Hui; Chen, Jiong-Min; Zhu, Wei-Jin; Zhong, Xiu-Ming; Yang, Kai-Ying; Liu, Gui-Ping; Jia, Xun; Chen, Wan-Tong; Li, Xiao-Mei; Chen, Yu-Chang; Luo, Xiao-Dong; Chen, Dai-Xiong; Shen, Hao-Xian

    2012-06-01

    To understand the natural infection status of Angiostrongylus cantonensis in snails Achatina fulica and Pomacea canaliculata from Panyu region of Guangzhou City. The snails Achatina fulica and Pomacea canaliculata captured from the field were digested with the artificial stomach fluid. The third-stage larvae of A. cantonensis were examined and counted under a microscope. The collected third-stage larvae were used to infect SD rats. A total of 367 Achatina fulica and 357 Pomacea canaliculata were examined. The infection rate of A. cantonensis in Achatina fulica was 22.62%, with a mean intensity of 57.00 larvae per positive snail. The infection rate of A. cantonensis in Pomacea canaliculata was 3.08%, with a mean intensity of 1.64 larvae per positive snail. The infection rates of A. cantonensis in Achatina fulica from Dagang, Shiqi, Hualong, and Lanhe towns and Nansha District, were 13.33%, 15.00%, 20.93%, 73.68% and 8.41%, respectively. Those in Pomacea canaliculata were 5.88%, 2.88%, 1.89%, 0% and 3.96%, respectively. A. cantonensis infection exists in Achatina fulica and Pomacea canaliculata from Panyu region of Guangzhou City, and the infection in Achatina fulica is more serious than that in Pomacea canaliculata. The infection rates of the snails among five sites are different.

  11. [Occurrence of Achatina fulica Bowdich, 1822 (Mollusca, Gastropoda) in Brazil: intermediate snail host of angiostrongyliasis].

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    Teles, H M; Vaz, J F; Fontes, L R; Domingos, M de F

    1997-06-01

    Achatina fulica, the intermediate snail host of angiostrongyliasis and also an agricultural pest, is being bred in Brazil for human consumption as "escargot". The snail has escaped from its artificial breeding sites and its dispersal in Itariri country, State of S. Paulo, is reported here for the first time. A. fulica is a transmitter of the rat lungworm Angiostrongylus cantonensis, nematode which causes meningoencephalic angiostrongyliasis; the risks of human contamination are commented on.

  12. Occurrence of Aelurostrongylus abstrusus (Railliet, 1898 larvae (Nematoda: Metastrongylidae infecting Achatina (Lissachatina fulica Bowdich, 1822 (Mollusca: Gastropoda in the Amazon region Ocorrência de Aelurostrongylus abstrusus (Railliet, 1898 (Nematoda: Metastrongylidae infectando o Achatina (Lissachatina fulica Bowdich, 1822 (Mollusca: Gastropoda na região amazônica

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    Sanny Maria de Andrade-Porto

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Achatina fulica or "giant African snail" is an exotic species, considered to be one of the world's hundred most invasive species, causing serious environmental damages. In the present study we report, for the first time, the occurrence of Aelurostrongylus abstrusus infecting A.fulica in the Amazon region. This nematode is described parasitizing mainly the pulmonary system of felines, which causes "aelurostrongilose", also known as feline cardio-pulmonary strongyloidosis. New morphometric data of third stage larvae are presented herein. The present study demonstrated that 40% of all the snails were infected by A. abstrusus. Achatina fulica specimens were collected from three different areas in Manaus namely: rural; east and west areas. The east area presents the highest prevalence of 80%. The large number of A.fulica found in inhabited areas increases the chances of emergent zoonoses, which highlights the need of further studies so as to better control this disease.Achatina fulica ou "caramujo africano" é uma espécie exótica, considerada uma das cem piores espécies invasoras do mundo, causando sérios danos ambientais. No presente estudo foi registrado, pela primeira vez, a ocorrência do Aelurostrongylus abstrusus infectando o A.fulica na região amazônica. Esse nematóide é descrito parasitando principalmente o sistema pulmonar de felinos, causando a "aelurostrongilose", também conhecida como estrongiloidose cardio-pulmonar felina. Novos dados morfométricos de larvas de terceiro estágio são apresentados. Dos 45 caramujos coletados, 40% estavam infectados por larvas de A. abstrusus. Especimens de Achatina fulica foram coletados em três áreas da cidade de Manaus: rural, leste e oeste. A zona leste apresentou a maior prevalência de 80%. O grande número de A.fulica encontrado em áreas habitadas aumenta as chances de ocorrência de zoonoses emergentes e destaca a necessidade de mais estudos para o melhor controle da doença.

  13. Structural analysis of a homogeneous polysaccharide from Achatina fulica.

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    Liu, Jie; Shang, Feineng; Yang, Zengming; Wu, Mingyi; Zhao, Jinhua

    2017-05-01

    Edible snails have been widely used as a health food and medicine in many countries. In our study, a water-soluble polysaccharide (AF-1) was isolated and purified from Achatina fulica by papain enzymolysis, alcohol precipitation and strong anion exchange chromatography. Structureof the polysaccharide was analyzed and characterized by chemical and instrumental methods, such as Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, high performance liquid chromatography, analysis of monosaccharide composition, methylation analysis, and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy ( 1 H, 13 C, COSY, TOCSY, NOESY, HSQC and HMBC). Chemical composition analysis indicated that AF-1 is composed of glucose (Glc) and its average molecular weight is 1710kDa. Structural analysis suggested that AF-1 is mainly consisted of a linear repeating backbone of (1→4) linked α-d-Glc p residues with one branch, α-d-Glc p, attached to the main chain by (1→6) glycosidic bonds at every five main-chain units. Further studies on biological activities of the polysaccharide are currently in progress. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. THE PHYSICAL AND CHEMICAL MICROSTRUCTURE OF THE ACHATINA FULICA EPIPHRAGM.

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    Struthers, M.; Rosair, G.; Buckman, J.; Viney, C.

    2002-05-01

    Microstructural characterization of Achatina fulica Bowdich, 1822 epiphragms and mucus secretions was performed to address two questions: what are the structure and composition of the reinforcing inorganic phase in the epiphragms, and what enables a durable epiphragm to form quickly in comparison to other biomineralized materials? Characterization was performed by a combination of light microscopy (relying on a variety of contrast modes), wet chemical tests, environmental scanning electron microscopy (including the use of energy dispersive X-ray analysis to obtain compositional data), and X-ray diffraction. The morphology of the inorganic phase promotes mechanical interlocking and presents a large surface for binding to the organic matrix. Strong binding occurs between the organic and inorganic phases. The inorganic phase adopts the calcite structure; its composition is Ca(0.912) Mg(0.088) CO(3). Epiphragms can form quickly because pre-grown crystals of the inorganic reinforcing phase are co-deposited with the mucus matrix. Unlike other biomineralized material, the crystals are not solution-grown in situ on an organic template in the final product.

  15. [Dynamics of the dominance of identified cardioregulatory neurons in the snail Achatina fulica] .

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    Zhuravlev, V L; Bugaĭ, V V; Safronova, T A

    2000-08-01

    9 cardioregulating neurones belonging to 5 different functional groups were studied in visceral and right parietal ganglia of the Giant African snail Achatina fulica. The neuronal network included multimodal and multifunctional cells exerting short- or long-lasting chronoionotropic effects on the cardiac electro- and mechanograms. Mechanisms of the differences in the cardioregulating effectiveness of these groups were discussed.

  16. Nematode cysts and larvae found in Achatina fulica Bowdich, 1822.

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    Franco-Acuña, D O; Pinheiro, J; Torres, E J L; Lanfredi, R M; Brandolini, S V P B

    2009-02-01

    This study describes the morphology of the nematode cysts and larvae found in Achatina fulica (giant African snail) in Brazil. Sixty snails were collected in Mesquita, Rio de Janeiro State. Fourteen of the snails were naturally infected. The cysts were spherical, pink colored and measured 0.97 to 1.57 mm in diameter. In the majority of cases they had a single larvae involved in amorphous material. A total of 222 encysted larvae were recovered. Of these, 30 were utilized in the morphological study. The length of the larvae varied from 2.57 to 5.8 mm and they were classified as small--up to 3.5 mm; medium--from 3.53 to 4.5 mm; and large--greater than 4.52 mm. The average length of the larvae in the three groups was 2.85, 3.87 and 5.23 mm, respectively. The larval cuticle was white, shiny and transversally striated until the posterior end of the body. At the anterior end there is a mouth with three lips, with amphids and papillae, followed by a muscular esophagus with average length of 0.61 mm, terminating in an esophageal bulb and having a nerve ring in the middle third of the esophagus, and an intestine with an opening near the posterior end. The tail begins from this opening and has two types of ends: short and abrupt or long and gradually tapering. The difference in the tail end can suggest sexual dimorphism, although no primordial reproductive structures were observed. These characteristics were not sufficient to identify the larvae, so there is a need for further study.

  17. Susceptibility of the Giant African snail (Achatina fulica) exposed to the gastropod parasitic nematode Phasmarhabditis hermaphrodita.

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    Williams, A J; Rae, R

    2015-05-01

    The Giant African snail (Achatina fulica) is a major pest in tropical countries. Current control methods involve the use of slug pellets (metaldehyde) but they are ineffective, therefore new methods of control are needed. We investigated whether A. fulica is susceptible to the gastropod parasitic nematode Phasmarhabditis hermaphrodita, which has been developed as a biological control agent for slugs and snails in northern Europe. We exposed A. fulica to P. hermaphrodita applied at 30 and 150nematodes per cm(2) for 70days and also assessed feeding inhibition and changes in snail weight. We show that unlike the susceptible slug species Deroceras panormitanum, which is killed less than 30days of exposure to P. hermaphrodita, A. fulica is remarkably resistant to the nematode at both doses. Also P. hermaphrodita does not reduce feeding in A. fulica nor did it have any effect on weight gain over 70days. Upon dissection of infected A. fulica we found that hundreds of P. hermaphrodita had been encapsulated, trapped and killed in the snail's shell. We found that A. fulica is able to begin encapsulating P. hermaphrodita after just 3days of exposure and the numbers of nematodes encapsulated increased over time. Taken together, we have shown that A. fulica is highly resistant to P. hermaphrodita, which could be due to an immune response dependent on the snail shell to encapsulate and kill invading parasitic nematodes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Morfologfa conchffera, crecimiento, reproducción y letargo de los caracoles gigantes africanos : observaciones en laboratorio sobre Archachatina marginata suturalis, Achatina achatina y Achatina fulica'

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    Stiévenart, C.

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available hell Shape, Growth, Reproduction and Estivation in Giant African Landsnails : Observations in Laboratory on"Archachatina marginata suturalis, Achatina achatina and Achatina fulica". Commercial frog farms exist in several countries. It seems hopeless believing that frog leg consumption can be prohibited, and the solution is probably a very strict control of the origin of the legs sold and imported. Uncontrolled hunting-poaching of frogs should be replaced by sustainable and rational breeding of frogs for sale. A large frog farm located near Singapore is described with the infrastructure and the management of the production. The two species bred are the American and the Asian bull-frogs Rana catesbeiana and R. tigerina. It is also mentioned that appropriate slaughtering techniques exist for frogs based on same guidelines as for conventional farm animals.

  19. Fulicin regulates the female reproductive organs of the snail, Achatina fulica.

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    Fujisawa, Y; Masuda, K; Minakata, H

    2000-08-01

    Fulicin is a D-amino acid-containing neuropeptide that has been thought to control male copulatory behavior in the land snail, Achatina fulica. In the present study, we demonstrated that the vagina and the oviduct of Achatina were densely innervated by fulicin-like immunoreactive neuronal fibers. We confirmed that fulicin was actually present in the vagina by mass spectrometry. Furthermore, fulicin showed a profound excitatory effect on contractions of the vagina and the oviduct. These results suggest that fulicin controls female egg-laying behavior as an excitatory neuropeptide regulating the female reproductive organs of the snail.

  20. Expansion of Achatina fulica in Brazil and potential increased risk for angiostrongyliasis.

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    Graeff-Teixeira, Carlos

    2007-08-01

    The explosive introduction of the snail Achatina fulica in Brazil illustrates the current concern with global changes favouring dissemination of infectious diseases. The mollusc is an important host for Angiostrongylus cantonensis, which occurs in Asia and the Pacific Islands and is a causative agent for eosinophilic meningoencephalitis. In the Americas there is another metastrongylid worm, An. costaricensis, that causes abdominal disease and may also be transmitted by Ac. fulica. Although both infections may occur in focal outbreaks and with low morbidity, very severe complicated clinical courses pose a challenge for diagnosis and treatment. Data on abdominal angiostrongyliasis are briefly reviewed.

  1. [Achatina fulica Bowdich (1822) a new host of Cryptosporidium (Apicomplexa, Cryptosporidiidae) species].

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    Schiffler, Cinthia L; Gomes, Francimar F; Ederli, Nicole B; De Oliveira, Francisco Carlos R

    2008-09-01

    With the objective of isolate Cryptosporidium spp. in Achatina fulica s feces, 50 mollusks were collected in nine neighborhoods of the municipal of Campos dos Goytacazes, RJ to the observation of oocysts in feces. The snails were put in individuals containers and fed with water and green vegetables ad libitum until be collected a gram of feces per animal. The samples were conditioned in tubes with formalin 10% and later smear of feces were made and dyed by Ziechl-Neelsen modified technique. Of the 50 samples examined, 26 (52%) were positive for the presence of oocysts of Cryptosporidium spp. The morphology and morphometry of the oocysts showed that are a great morphologic variability. Considering the obtained results, the mollusk Achatina fulica is a host of Cryptosporidium species and can participate in the epidemic chain of the cryptosporidiosis.

  2. Aspectos macroscópicos da anatomia do sistema reprodutor de escargots: Achatina fulica e Achatina monochromatica

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    Dulcinéa Gonçalves Teixeira

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available The macro-anatomy of the reproductive system of both Achatina fulica and Achatina monochromatica was studied, by establishing the morphologic parameters of both species. Fifteen samples of each species with nearly twelve years old from the same family were used. The specimens were sacrificed by freezing (-2ºC. The collection of the reproductive system was made after the retreat from the shell and dissection of the animal. It was observed that even if the specimens have been maintained in the same environmental and alimentary conditions, as well as submitted to the same type of selection, the development of their reproductive organs show some variation. In both species, some segments of the reproductive system morphologic aspects differ macroscopically, although the disposition and the location of these segments are identical.

  3. Scientometrics of zoonoses transmitted by the giant African snail Achatina fulica Bowdich, 1822

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    Gilberto Cezar Pavanelli

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The dissemination of the giant African snail Achatina fulica in several countries has triggered a great number of studies on the mollusk, including those on zoonoses related to health in humans. The current research is a scientific survey on articles published in four databases, namely, PubMed, Bireme, Scielo and Lilacs. Results indicate that Brazil has a prominent position in international scientific production on this subject, with focus on Angiostrongylus cantonensis occurrences.

  4. Scientometrics of zoonoses transmitted by the giant African snail Achatina fulica Bowdich, 1822.

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    Pavanelli, Gilberto Cezar; Yamaguchi, Mirian Ueda; Calaça, Elaine Alves; Oda, Fabrício Hiroiuki

    2017-04-13

    The dissemination of the giant African snail Achatina fulica in several countries has triggered a great number of studies on the mollusk, including those on zoonoses related to health in humans. The current research is a scientific survey on articles published in four databases, namely, PubMed, Bireme, Scielo and Lilacs. Results indicate that Brazil has a prominent position in international scientific production on this subject, with focus on Angiostrongylus cantonensis occurrences.

  5. Scientometrics of zoonoses transmitted by the giant African snail Achatina fulica Bowdich, 1822

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    Pavanelli, Gilberto Cezar; Yamaguchi, Mirian Ueda; Calaça, Elaine Alves; Oda, Fabrício Hiroiuki

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT The dissemination of the giant African snail Achatina fulica in several countries has triggered a great number of studies on the mollusk, including those on zoonoses related to health in humans. The current research is a scientific survey on articles published in four databases, namely, PubMed, Bireme, Scielo and Lilacs. Results indicate that Brazil has a prominent position in international scientific production on this subject, with focus on Angiostrongylus cantonensis occurrences. PMID:28423090

  6. Effect of cadmium and zinc on antioxidant enzyme activity in the gastropod, Achatina fulica.

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    Chandran, Rashmi; Sivakumar, A A; Mohandass, S; Aruchami, M

    2005-01-01

    Heavy metal stress results in the production of O(2)(.-), H(2)O(2) and (.)OH, which affect various cellular processes, mostly the functioning of membrane systems. Cells are normally protected against free oxyradicals by the operation of intricate antioxidant systems. The aim of the present work is to examine the effect of CdCl(2) and ZnSO(4) on antioxidative enzyme activity in the gastropod, Achatina fulica. The concentrations of antioxidant enzymes--superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (Cat) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx)--and nonenzymatic antioxidants--glutathione and vitamin-C--were found to be decreased in both digestive gland and kidney of the gastropod, Achatina fulica treated with individual concentrations of 0.5 ppm and 1ppm of CdCl(2) and ZnSO(4), compared to that of control animals. Based on the above study, it is evident that Achatina fulica can be used as a bioindicator to monitor the environmental heavy metal pollution.

  7. PREPARATION OF CALCIUM OXIDE FROM Achatina fulica AS CATALYST FOR PRODUCTION OF BIODIESEL FROM WASTE COOKING OIL

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    Aldes Lesbani

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Preparation of calcium oxide from Achatina fulica shell has been carried out systematically by decomposition for 3 h at various temperatures i.e. 600, 700, 800 and 900 °C. Formation of calcium oxide was characterized using XR diffractometer. The calcium oxide obtained with the optimum temperature decomposition was characterized using FTIR spectroscopy to indicate the functional group in the calcium oxide. The results showed that XRD pattern of materials obtained from decomposition of Achatina fulica shell at 700 °C is similar with XRD pattern of calcium oxide standard from Joint Committee on Powder Diffraction Standards (JCPDS. The IR spectra of calcium oxide appear at wavenumber 362 cm-1 which is characteristic of CaO vibration. Application of calcium oxide from Achatina fulica shell for synthesis of biodiesel from waste cooking oil results in biodiesel with density are in the range of ASTM standard.

  8. Prevalence of Strongylida nematodes associated with African Snail, Achatina fulica, in Valle del Cauca, Colombia

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    Diego Córdoba-R

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. To establish the presence and prevalence of Strongylida nematode parasites in Achatina fulica in the Valle del Cauca, especially of nematodes that are potentially pathogenic for humans. Materials and methods. A. fulica individuals were collected in nine cities of the Valle del Cauca, Colombia. Direct visual examination was used to identify A. fulica parasites. Nematodes were separated from tissue or collected from mucus, washed in saline solution, and fixed in a hot AFA solution. Samples were mounted in glycerine and observed under the microscope. Results. The general nematode parasite prevalence was 35% in 2013. The city with highest prevalence during 2013 was Cartago (60%, following by Buenaventura (42.9% and Cali (33%, while during 2014 were Cali (30% and Buenaventura (30%. The Strongylida nematodes registered were classified in three genera: Angiostrongylus (14.7% prevalence, Aelurostrongylus (2.6%,and Strongyluris (2.6%. The city with highest positive records of Angiostrongylus was Cali during 2014 and Aelurostrongylus was Buenaventura during 2013. Strongyluris genus was recorded only in Cali during 2013, with a prevalence of 11%. Of the nine evaluated cities, five has presence of Angiostrongylus. Conclusions. Three genera of Strongylida nematode were recorded associated with A. fulicas specimens in the Valle del Cauca during 2013 and 2014. Therefore, the role that A. fulica and native mollusk species could be playing in the life cycle of these parasites at the local level should not underestimated.

  9. PREPARATION OF CALCIUM OXIDE FROM Achatina fulica AS CATALYST FOR PRODUCTION OF BIODIESEL FROM WASTE COOKING OIL

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    Lesbani, Aldes; Tamba, Palita; Mohadi, Risfidian; Fahmariyanti, Fahmariyanti

    2013-01-01

    Preparation of calcium oxide from Achatina fulica shell has been carried out systematically by decomposition for 3 h at various temperatures i.e. 600, 700, 800 and 900 °C. Formation of calcium oxide was characterized using XR diffractometer. The calcium oxide obtained with the optimum temperature decomposition was characterized using FTIR spectroscopy to indicate the functional group in the calcium oxide. The results showed that XRD pattern of materials obtained from decomposition of Achatina...

  10. [Occurrence of Achatina fulica in the Vale do Paraíba, Rio de Janeiro state, Brazil].

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    Vasconcellos, M C; Pile, E

    2001-12-01

    The first occurrence of the Achatina fulica, an intermediate host of Angiostrongylus cantonensis, the etiological agent of meningoencephalic angiostrongiliasis, is reported in Resende municipality, Brazil. In the five visited localities, snails were found living freely, and the larvae of this parasite was not seen in any of them. The finding of A. fulica in the area may be related to its commercialization as a food item and embodies the possibility of new focus.

  11. Antimicrobial proteins of Snail mucus (Achatina fulica against Streptococcus mutans and Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans

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    Herluinus Mafranenda DN

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Achasin and mytimacin-AF are proteins of snail mucus (Achatina fulica which have antimicrobial activity. Snail mucus is suspected to have other proteins which have antimicrobial activity against Streptococcus mutans and Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans the oral pathologic bacteria. Purpose: The study were aimed to characterize the proteins of snail mucus (Achatina fulica that have antimicrobial activities to Streptococcus mutans and Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans, and to compared the antimicrobial effect of achasin and mytimacin-AF. Methods: The sample of study was the mucus of snails which were taken from Yogyakarta Province. The isolation and characterization of protein were conducted by using SDS-PAGE method, electroelution, and dialysis. Nano drop test was conducted to determine protein concentration. The sensitivity test was conducted by using dilution test, and followed by spectrophotometry and paper disc diffusion tests. Results: The study showed that proteins successfully characterized from snail mucus (Achatina fulica were proteins with molecular weights of 83.67 kDa (achasin, 50.81 kDa, 15 kDa, 11.45 kDa (full amino acid sequence of mytimacin-AF and 9.7 kDa (mytimacin-AF. Based on the dilution test, Achasin had better antimicrobial activities against Streptococcus mutans, while mytimacin-AF had better antimicrobial activities against Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans. But the paper disc diffusion test result showed that Achasin had antimicrobial activities against Streptococcus mutans and Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans, while mytimacin-AF had no antimicrobial activities. Conclusion: The proteins with molecular weights of 50.81 kDa, 15 kDa, 11.45 kDa were considered as new antimicrobial proteins isolated from snail mucus. Achasin, had better antimicrobial activities against Streptococcus mutans, while mytimacin-AF had better antimicrobial activities against Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans

  12. Record of gut associated nemathelminth in the giant African snail Achatina fulica (Bowdich) from Bangalore, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayashankar, M; Murthy, G S S

    2015-06-01

    Prevalence of nematodes in Achatina fulica (Bowdich) sample collected from two different sites within Bangalore University Jnana Bharathi Campus viz., Dhanavanthari vana and Botany Department garden was 84 and 100 % respectively. However, the identity of the nemathelminth could not be established to the species level as it did not respond to the clearing agent and its genital organs were not located which is key character for taxonomic identification. Also, no Cercariae were recorded in the samples, perhaps the snail sample was non endemic for parasitic population. Helminthological prospection with regard to the giant African snail from the region has not been performed till date. The present work is a preliminary study in that direction intended to determine the nemathelminth fauna associated with A. fulica populations in Bangalore region laying emphasis on further studies to be undertaken in this regard.

  13. [Neuroeffector connections of multimodal neurons in the African snail (Achatina fulica)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bugaĭ, V V; Zhuravlev, V L; Safonova, T A

    2004-02-01

    Using a new method of animal preparation, the efferent connections of giant paired neurons on the dorsal surface of visceral and right parietal ganglia of snail, Achatina fulica, were examined. It was found that spikes in giant neurons d-VLN and d-RPLN evoke postjunctional potentials in different points of the snail body and viscerae (in the heart, in pericardium, in lung cavity and kidney walls, in mantle and body wall muscles, in tentacle retractors and in cephalic artery). The preliminary analysis of synaptic latency and facilitation suggests a direct connections between giant neurons and investigated efferents.

  14. Neuroeffector connections of giant multimodal neurons in the African snail Achatina fulica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bugai, V V; Zhuravlev, V L; Safonova, T A

    2005-07-01

    A new method of making preparations was used to analyse the neuroeffector connections of the paired giant neurons of the African snail Achatina fulica. These neurons were found to induce postsynaptic potentials in the muscles of the mantle, heart, the wall of the pulmonary cavity, and the muscular elements of the renal complex, the pericardium, the sexual apparatus, the walls of the cerebral arteries, the filaments of the columellar muscles, the wall of the abdomen, and the tentacle retractor muscles. Rhythmic neuron activity led to the development of marked facilitation and long-term potentiation of synaptic potentials. The possible significance of the multiple neuroeffector connections of giant neurons is discussed.

  15. [NADPH-diaphorase activity in digestive system of gastropod molluscs Achatina fulica and Littorina littorea].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaĭtseva, O V; Kuznetsova, T V; Markosova, T G

    2009-01-01

    Localization and peculiarities of NO-ergic elements were studied for he first time throughout the entire length of digestive tract of the marine gastropod mollusc Achatina fulica (Prosobranchia) and the terrestrial molusc Littorina littorea (Pulmonata) by using histochemical method of detection of NADPH-diaphorase (NADPHd). NO-ergic cells and fibers were revealed in all parts of the mollusc digestive tract beginning from pharynx. An intensive NADPHd activity was found in many intraepithelial cells of the open type and in their processes in intra- and subepithelial nerve plexuses, single subepithelial neurons, granular connective tissue cells, and numerous nerve fibers among muscle elements of he digestive tract wall as well as in nerves innervating the tract. NADPHd was also present in receptor cells of he oral area and in the central A. fulica ganglia participating in innervation of the digestive tract. The digestive tract NO-ergic system ofA. fulica has a more complex organization that that of L. littorea. In the A. fulica pharynx, stomach, and midgut, directly beneath epithelium, there is revealed a complex system of glomerular structures formed by thin NADPHd-positive nerve fibers coming from the side of epithelium. More superficially under the main groups of muscle elements, small agglomerations of NADPHd-positive neurons are seen, which could be considered as primitive, non-formed microganglia. Peculiarities of distribution and a possible functional role of NO-ergic elements in the digestive tract of molluscs are discussed as compared with other invertebrate and vertebrate animals.

  16. Assessment of acute toxicity of thiamethoxam (Actara® 25WG to Achatina fulica and its potential ecological applications

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    Maria Kim Feliz N. Abog

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Achatina fulica is considered as one of the world’s worst invasive species and is known to cause ecological disruption as well as agricultural and health problems in the Philippines. The study evaluated the use of the insecticide thiamethoxam (Actara® 25WG in the control of A. fulica populations. This was done by performing an acute toxicity test of thiamethoxam to A. fulica. Six individuals each were exposedto thiamethoxam concentrations of 0, 50, 100, 200, and 400 μg/L for 72 hours. The percent mortality was then determined after the exposure period. Probit analysis was used to determine the LD50 of thiamethoxam to A. fulica. The LD50 was found to be 662.95 ± 172.98 μg/L. Using the mean body weight of the snails, the LD50 per body weight of A. fulica was determined to be 90.09 ± 23.60 μg/kg. This is 70 times lower than the recommended application of thiamethoxam on field. Thus, normal application would eliminate A. fulica. However, because the LD50 to A. fulica is higher than that for other beneficial non-target species such as honey bees (0.03 μg/bee, the use of thiamethoxam in the control of A. fulica populations is only recommended when in conjunction with the control of target pest insects.

  17. Evidence of the Presence of Thyroid Hormones in Achatina fulica Snails

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    DANILO LUSTRINO

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The objective of this study was to identify thyroid hormones and to examine their putative site of synthesis in Achatina fulica snails. For this purpose, radioimmunoassays were performed for T3 and T4 before and after long starvation with or without hemolymph deproteinization. Sodium/iodide symporter activity in vivo was analyzed through 125I administration with and without KClO4 pretreatment. Only T4 was detected, and its concentration decreased due to starvation or deproteinization. However, high-performance liquid chromatography analysis also showed the presence of T2 and T3 apart from T4, but rT3 was not detected in the A. fulica hemolymph. The sodium/iodide symporter activity was greater in cerebral ganglia than digestive gland, but KClO4 treatment did not inhibit iodide uptake in any of the tissues analyzed. Altogether, our data confirm for the first time the presence of thyroid hormones in A. fulica snails and suggest their participation in the metabolism control in this species, although the putative site of hormone biosynthesis remains to be elucidated.

  18. Evidence of the Presence of Thyroid Hormones in Achatina fulica Snails.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lustrino, Danilo; Silva, Alba C M; Araujo, Iracema G; Tunholi, Victor M; Tunholi-Alves, Vinícius M; Castro, Rosane N; Carvalho, Denise P; Pinheiro, Jairo; Marassi, Michelle P

    2017-01-01

    The objective of this study was to identify thyroid hormones and to examine their putative site of synthesis in Achatina fulica snails. For this purpose, radioimmunoassays were performed for T3 and T4 before and after long starvation with or without hemolymph deproteinization. Sodium/iodide symporter activity in vivo was analyzed through 125I administration with and without KClO4 pretreatment. Only T4 was detected, and its concentration decreased due to starvation or deproteinization. However, high-performance liquid chromatography analysis also showed the presence of T2 and T3 apart from T4, but rT3 was not detected in the A. fulica hemolymph. The sodium/iodide symporter activity was greater in cerebral ganglia than digestive gland, but KClO4 treatment did not inhibit iodide uptake in any of the tissues analyzed. Altogether, our data confirm for the first time the presence of thyroid hormones in A. fulica snails and suggest their participation in the metabolism control in this species, although the putative site of hormone biosynthesis remains to be elucidated.

  19. Natural infection of the feline lungworm Aelurostrongylus abstrusus in the invasive snail Achatina fulica from Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valente, Romina; Diaz, Julia Ines; Salomón, Oscar Daniel; Navone, Graciela Teresa

    2017-02-15

    The giant African snail Achatina fulica is an invasive mollusk native to Africa, the first record in Argentina was in Puerto Iguazú, in northeastern Argentina in 2010. Recently it was reported in Corrientes Province. This snail can act as an intermediate host of Metastrongyloidea nematodes of importance in public health as: Angiostrongylus cantonensis, Angiostrongylus costaricensis and Angiostrongylus vasorum. Taking into account the presence of A. fulica in Argentina, the objectives of this study is to assess the presence of Metastrongyloidea nematodes in this mollusk species in Puerto Iguazú, Misiones, close to the international border with Brazil and Paraguay. A total of 451 samples were collected from February 2014 to November 2015. The snails were processed using a digestion technique to recover the parasites. A total of 206 nematodes larvae were founded in the digestion solution of 10 hosts (P=2%; MA=0.5; MI=21). Third larval stage (L3) nematodes identified as Aelurostrongylus abstrusus were founded parasitizing the snails. No other larval stage was observed. This species has veterinary importance because it causes 'aelurostrongilosis', also known as feline strongyloidosis. This study constitutes the first record of a Metastrongyloidea nematode in A. fulica in Argentina and also highlights the susceptibility of this mollusk as intermediate host of other helminthes of health importance. The present study suggests that there is a need to establish an epidemiological monitoring system in order to prevent the possible installation of an infected mollusks focus. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Descrição histológica da via genital masculina e hermafrodita de escargots das espécies Achatina fulica e Achatina monochromatica

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    Dulcinéa Gonçalves Teixeira

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi descrever a histologia da via genital masculina e hermafrodita dos escargots das espécies Achatina fulica e Achatina monochromatica. Foram usados 10 exemplares adultos de cada espécie para análise histológica. Após o processo seletivo, pesagem e tomada das medidas da concha, os espécimes foram sacrificados por congelamento em freezer, a -2ºC por aproximadamente 10min. Para a exposição dos órgãos reprodutores foi efetuada uma incisão longitudinal iniciada na extremidade cranial e, acompanhando a torção do corpo, até a extremidade caudal. Cada animal foi dissecado, sobre uma placa de Petri, sob imersão em formol a 10% para melhor preservação dos tecidos. Foram coletados fragmentos representativos de cada segmento do sistema reprodutor e observou-se que a estrutura histológica dos mesmos não apresentou diferenças notórias, com exceção do ovotestis do Achatina fulica, no qual se constatou um número maior de células pigmentadas no epitélio germinativo do que, nesse mesmo epitélio, no Achatina monochromatica.

  1. Ocorrência de Achatina fulica no Vale do Paraíba, Estado do Rio de Janeiro, Brasil

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    Maurício Carvalho de Vasconcellos

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available Registrou-se no município de Resende, Estado do Rio de Janeiro, Brasil, a primeira ocorrência do molusco Achatina fulica hospedeiro intermediário de Angiostrongylus cantonensis, causador da angiostrongilíase meningoencefálica. Em cinco bairros visitados, foram encontrados moluscos vivendo livremente, e nenhum dos animais coletados apresentava a forma larvar do parasito. A presença de A. fulica pode estar relacionada à comercialização desse molusco como alimento, e representa possibilidade de instalação dessa zoonose na região.

  2. Toxic effect of single and binary treatments of synthetic and plant-derived molluscicides against Achatina fulica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, I G; Singh, D K

    2002-01-01

    The toxic effect of single and binary treatments of synthetic and plant-derived molluscicides was studied against the harmful terrestrial snail Achatina fulica. In single treatments, among the synthetic molluscicides Snail Kill and cypermethrin were potent, whereas Cedrus deodara oil was more toxic among molluscicides of plant origin against A. fulica. In binary treatments, a combination of Cedrusdeodara + Alliumsativum was more toxic. The toxicities of these single and binary treatments of synthetic and plant-derived molluscicides were dose and time dependent. Copyright 2002 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  3. Ocorrência de Achatina fulica no Vale do Paraíba, Estado do Rio de Janeiro, Brasil

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    Vasconcellos Maurício Carvalho de

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Registrou-se no município de Resende, Estado do Rio de Janeiro, Brasil, a primeira ocorrência do molusco Achatina fulica hospedeiro intermediário de Angiostrongylus cantonensis, causador da angiostrongilíase meningoencefálica. Em cinco bairros visitados, foram encontrados moluscos vivendo livremente, e nenhum dos animais coletados apresentava a forma larvar do parasito. A presença de A. fulica pode estar relacionada à comercialização desse molusco como alimento, e representa possibilidade de instalação dessa zoonose na região.

  4. Enrichment and identification of cellulolytic bacteria from the gastrointestinal tract of Giant African snail, Achatina fulica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pawar, Kiran D; Dar, Mudasir A; Rajput, Bharati P; Kulkarni, Girish J

    2015-02-01

    The cellulolytic bacterial community structure in gastrointestinal (GI) tract of Achatina fulica was studied using culture-independent and -dependent methods by enrichment in carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC). Culture-dependent method indicated that GI tract of snail was dominated by Enterobacteriaceae members. When tested for cellulase activities, all isolates obtained by culture-dependent method showed both or either of CMCase or avicelase activity. Isolate identified as Citrobacter freundii showed highest CMCase and medium avicelase activity. Sequencing of clones from the 16S rRNA gene clone library identified ten operational taxonomic units (OTUs), which were affiliated to Enterobacteriaceae of phylum Gammaproteobacteria. Of these ten OTUs, eight OTUs closely matched with Enterobacter and Klebsiella genera. The most abundant OTU allied to Klebsiella oxytoca accounted for 70 % of the total sequences. The members of Klebsiella and Enterobacter were observed by both methods indicating their dominance among the cellulolytic bacterial community in the GI tract of the snail.

  5. High molecular weight lectin isolated from the mucus of the giant African snail Achatina fulica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Shigeru; Shimizu, Masahiro; Nagatsuka, Maki; Kitajima, Seiji; Honda, Michiyo; Tsuchiya, Takahide; Kanzawa, Nobuyuki

    2011-01-01

    To understand better the host defense mechanisms of mollusks against pathogens, we examined the anti-microbial activity of mucus from the giant African snail Achatina fulica. Hemagglutination activity of the mucus secreted by the integument of snails inoculated with Escherichia coli was observed to increase and to cause hemagglutination of rabbit red blood cells. Purification of the snail mucus lectin by sequential column chromatography revealed that the relative molecular mass of the lectin was 350 kDa. The hemagglutination activity of the lectin was Ca(2+)-dependent and was inhibited by galactose. Growth arrest tests showed that the lectin did not inhibit bacterial growth, but did induce agglutination of gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria. Tissue distribution analyses using a polyclonal antibody revealed that the lectin was expressed in the tissues of the mantle collar. The lectin isolated from the mucus of the snail appeared to contribute to its innate immunity.

  6. Pharmacological activities of a new glycosaminoglycan, acharan sulfate isolated from the giant African snail Achatina fulica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shim, Jin Young; Lee, Yeon Sil; Jung, Sang Hoon; Choi, Hyung Seok; Shin, Kuk Hyun; Kim, Yeong Shik

    2002-12-01

    Acharan sulfate (AS) is a glycosaminoglycan (GAG) prepared from the giant African snail, Achatina fulica. In this study, some biological activities of AS were evaluated on the basis of structural similarities to heparin/heparan sulfate and the biological functions of GAGs. We demonstrated that it exhibited strong immunostimulating activities as measured by carbon clearance test in mice and in vivo phagocytosis. It also exhibited a significant hypoglycemic activity in epinephrine (EP)-induced hyperglycemia as well as antifatigue effects by weight-loaded forced swimming test. And it showed hypolipidemic activities in cholesterol-rich mixture induced hyperlipidemia in rats. The above results indicate that AS has diverse biological activities and suggest therapeutically important target molecules.

  7. Achatina fulica infected by Angiostrongylus cantonensis on beaches, in the west zone of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

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    André H. Bechara

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Angiostrongylus cantonensis is considered the main etiological agent of eosinophilic meningitis in humans. At present, this zoonosis is considered an emerging disease mainly in the Americas. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of Achatina fulica infected by Angiostrongylus cantonensis in restinga areas along beaches in the west zone of Rio de Janeiro city, Brazil. The study areas included the following beaches: Barra da Tijuca, Recreio dos Bandeirantes, Reserva, Prainha and Grumari. Ninety specimens of Achatina fulica were collected. Positive molluscs were found only in Barra da Tijuca. Infection prevalence was 5.5%. The presence of this parasite in the beachfront areas, in the west zone of Rio de Janeiro city demonstrates the potential risk of infection for visitors and the expansion of this helminth in the State of Rio de Janeiro.

  8. Achatina fulica infected by Angiostrongylus cantonensis on beaches, in the west zone of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bechara, André H; Simões, Raquel O; Faro, Marta Júlia; Garcia, Juberlan S

    2018-01-01

    Angiostrongylus cantonensis is considered the main etiological agent of eosinophilic meningitis in humans. At present, this zoonosis is considered an emerging disease mainly in the Americas. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of Achatina fulica infected by Angiostrongylus cantonensis in restinga areas along beaches in the west zone of Rio de Janeiro city, Brazil. The study areas included the following beaches: Barra da Tijuca, Recreio dos Bandeirantes, Reserva, Prainha and Grumari. Ninety specimens of Achatina fulica were collected. Positive molluscs were found only in Barra da Tijuca. Infection prevalence was 5.5%. The presence of this parasite in the beachfront areas, in the west zone of Rio de Janeiro city demonstrates the potential risk of infection for visitors and the expansion of this helminth in the State of Rio de Janeiro.

  9. Isolation of aerobic cultivable cellulolytic bacteria from different regions of the gastrointestinal tract of giant land snail Achatina fulica

    OpenAIRE

    Guilherme L. Pinheiro; Guilherme L. Pinheiro; Raquel eCorrea; Raquel eSoares; Alexander eCardoso; Catia eChaia; Mayssa M Clementino; Eloi eGarcia; Wanderley eDe Souza; Wanderley eDe Souza; Susana eFrases; Susana eFrases

    2015-01-01

    The enzymatic hydrolysis of cellulose by cellulases is one of the major limiting steps in the conversion of lignocellulosic biomass to yield bioethanol. To overcome this hindrance, significant efforts are underway to identify novel cellulases. The snail Achatina fulica is a gastropod with high cellulolytic activity, mainly due to the abundance of glycoside hydrolases produced by both the animal and its resident microbiota. In this study, we partially assessed the cellulolytic bacterial divers...

  10. Ocorrência de Achatina fulica no Vale do Paraíba, Estado do Rio de Janeiro, Brasil Occurrence of Achatina fulica in the Vale do Paraíba, Rio de Janeiro state, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maurício Carvalho de Vasconcellos

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available Registrou-se no município de Resende, Estado do Rio de Janeiro, Brasil, a primeira ocorrência do molusco Achatina fulica hospedeiro intermediário de Angiostrongylus cantonensis, causador da angiostrongilíase meningoencefálica. Em cinco bairros visitados, foram encontrados moluscos vivendo livremente, e nenhum dos animais coletados apresentava a forma larvar do parasito. A presença de A. fulica pode estar relacionada à comercialização desse molusco como alimento, e representa possibilidade de instalação dessa zoonose na região.The first occurrence of the Achatina fulica, an intermediate host of Angiostrongylus cantonensis, the etiological agent of meningoencephalic angiostrongiliasis, is reported in Resende municipality, Brazil. In the five visited localities, snails were found living freely, and the larvae of this parasite was not seen in any of them. The finding of A. fulica in the area may be related to its commercialization as a food item and embodies the possibility of new focus.

  11. Registro de Achatina fulica Bowdich, 1822 (Mollusca, Gastropoda no Brasil: caramujo hospedeiro intermediário da angiostrongilíase Occurrence of Achatina fulica Bowdich, 1822 (Mollusca, Gastropoda in Brazil: intermediate snail host of angiostrongyliasis

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    Horácio Manuel Santana Teles

    1997-06-01

    Full Text Available A introdução de Achatina fulica é assinalada em Itariri, SP, Brasil. Essa espécie de caramujo terrestre foi importada para cultivo, visando à comercialização para consumo humano como "escargot". O encontro de exemplares em vida livre mostra a dispersão de A. fulica e, conseqüentemente, o risco de transmissão de Angiostrongylus cantonensis, nematóide parasita do homem e de outros vertebrados. Além disso, o caramujo é uma praga importante da agricultura.Achatina fulica, the intermediate snail host of angiostrongyliasis and also an agricultural pest, is being bred in Brazil for human consumption as "escargot". The snail has escaped from its artificial breeding sites and its dispersal in Itariri county, State of S. Paulo, is reported here for the first time. A. fulica is a transmitter of the rat lungworm Angiostrongylus cantonensis, nematode which causes meningoencephalic angiostrongyliasis; the risks of human contamination are commented on.

  12. THE UTILIZATION OF ACHATINA FULICA MUCUS IN ALGINATE MEMBRANE AS WOUND HEALING ACCELERATOR AND ANTI- INFECTION MATERIAL

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    Fatkhunisa Rahmawati

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Wound should be covered with bandage that is called wound dressing. Most people use synthetic materials such as gauze dressing. Gauze has high absorption of NaCl, which is often used to cleanse the wound. However, discomfort and pain arise since the gauze becomes sticky on the wound. Therefore, we need other alternatives instead of gauze to cover wound. One such alternative is the alginate membrane. This study used alginate membrane with mixture of mucous of the snail Achatina fulica, which contain proteins such as proline, serine asparagine, glycosaminoglycan, hydroxylysine, trionin and so forth, to activate the growth factor. Alginate powder and carboxymethl cellulose (CMC was dissolved in distilled water mixed with mucus of the snail Achatina fulica in four variations (4:0; 4:1, 4:2, 4:3 through a magnetic stirrer, and casted on a baking sheet covered with sterile gauze. High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC test showed that the glycosaminoglycan content was found on the mucous of Achatina fulica. This was indicated by the appearance of peak at 325–350 second. The most optimum alginate and mucus composition was in ratio of 4:2. This ratio resulted in a wound dressing that was still able to absorb the exudate and optimally accelerated wound healing.

  13. Bacterial diversity in different regions of gastrointestinal tract of Giant African snail (Achatina fulica).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pawar, Kiran D; Banskar, Sunil; Rane, Shailendra D; Charan, Shakti S; Kulkarni, Girish J; Sawant, Shailesh S; Ghate, Hemant V; Patole, Milind S; Shouche, Yogesh S

    2012-12-01

    The gastrointestinal (GI) tract of invasive land snail Achatina fulica is known to harbor metabolically active bacterial communities. In this study, we assessed the bacterial diversity in the different regions of GI tract of Giant African snail, A. fulica by culture-independent and culture-dependent methods. Five 16S rRNA gene libraries from different regions of GI tract of active snails indicated that sequences affiliated to phylum γ-Proteobacteria dominated the esophagus, crop, intestine, and rectum libraries, whereas sequences affiliated to Tenericutes dominated the stomach library. On phylogenetic analysis, 30, 27, 9, 27, and 25 operational taxonomic units (OTUs) from esophagus, crop, stomach, intestine, and rectum libraries were identified, respectively. Estimations of the total bacterial diversity covered along with environmental cluster analysis showed highest bacterial diversity in the esophagus and lowest in the stomach. Thirty-three distinct bacterial isolates were obtained, which belonged to 12 genera of two major bacterial phyla namely γ-Proteobacteria and Firmicutes. Among these, Lactococcus lactis and Kurthia gibsonii were the dominant bacteria present in all GI tract regions. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) analysis indicated significant differences in bacterial load in different GI tract regions of active and estivating snails. The difference in the bacterial load between the intestines of active and estivating snail was maximum. Principal component analysis (PCA) of terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism suggested that bacterial community structure changes only in intestine when snail enters estivation state. © 2012 The Authors. Published by Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  14. Low susceptibility of Achatina fulica from Brazil to infection with Angiostrongylus costaricensis and A. cantonensis

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    Erli Neuhauss

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction of Achatina fulica in Brazil has led to serious concerns about its role as vector for metaIylid worms: AngioIylus costaricensis and A. cantonensis. Experimental infection with both parasites was performed to evaluate the potential risk for their transmission by the giant African snail. Groups of 5 animals, both wild and bred at captivity were exposed at different inocula: 1, 5, and 10 ´ 10³ L1 of A. costaricensis and A. cantonensis. In all groups, few snails got infected and parasitic burden was low. Two different ways of infection were tested: ingestion produced higher numbers of L3 than the inoculation through an artificial hole in the shell. We also report the parasitological examination of 6 batches of wild A. fulica from Florianópolis, state of Santa Catarina, Brazil: only 1 out of 244 animals were infected with metaIylid larvae. Taken together these data indicate that the giant African snail occurring in Southern Brazil is not a permissive host for both AngioIylus species and does not represent a significant risk for transmission of these parasites.

  15. Effect of single and binary combinations of plant-derived molluscicides on reproduction and survival of the snail Achatina fulica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, I G; Singh, D K

    2000-11-01

    The effects of sublethal treatments (20% and 60% of LC(50)/24 h) with plant-derived molluscicides on the reproduction of the giant African snail Achatina fulica were studied. Azadirachta indica oil, Cedrus deodara oil, Allium sativum bulb powder, and Nerium indicum bark powder singly and binary combinations on reproduction and survival of A. fulica were investigated. Repeated treatment occurred on day 0, day 15, and day 30. These plant-derived molluscicides significantly reduced fecundity, egg viability, and survival of A. fulica within 15 days. Discontinuation of the treatments after day 30 did not lead to a recovery trend in the next 30 days. Day 0 sublethal treatment of all the molluscicides caused a maximum reduction in protein, amino acid, DNA, RNA, and phospholipid levels and simultaneous increase in lipid peroxidation in the ovotestis of treated A. fulica. It is believed that sublethal exposure of these molluscicides on snail reproduction is a complex process, involving more than one factor in reducing the reproductive capacity of A. fulica.

  16. Distribution, feeding behavior and control strategies of the exotic land snail Achatina fulica (Gastropoda: Pulmonata in the northeast of Brazil Ecologia do caracol exótico Achatina fulica (Gastropoda:Pulmonata no nordeste do Brasil

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    FS. Albuquerque

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this study was to document the distribution and establishment A. fulica such as their feeding preference and behavior in situ. The study was carried out at the city of Lauro de Freitas, Bahia state, Brazil, between November 2001 and November 2002. We used catch per unit effort methods to determine abundance, distribution, habitat choice and food preferences. The abundance and distribution of A. fulica was most representative in urban area, mainly near to the coastline. Lots and house gardens were the most preferred sites during active hours. The results indicated that A. fulica started their activity at the end of the evening and stopped in mid-morning. Their preferred food were vascular plants such as Hibiscus syriacus, Ricinus communis, Carica papaya, Galinsonga coccinea, Lippia alba, Ixora coccinea, Musa parasidisiaca, Mentha spicata and Cymbopogon citrates. Our results indicate that A. fulica are well adapted and established in this city and modified environments facilitate their establishment and dispersion. However, human perturbation, such as clearance of lots could be limiting for the persistence of A. fulica populations.O objetivo deste estudo foi documentar a distribuição e o estabelecimento de Achatina fulica, assim como sua preferência alimentar e aspectos comportamentais in situ. Esta pesquisa foi desenvolvida na cidade de Lauro de Freitas, Estado da Bahia, Brasil, durante os meses de novembro de 2001 a novembro de 2002. Usamos o método de esforço de captura determinado por homem/hora para calcular a abundância e distribuição, habitats preferidos, além de preferência alimentar. Vimos que a abundância e distribuição de A. fulica foram mais representativas em áreas urbanas, sobretudo cerca da linha de costa. Os terrenos e jardins de casas foram os locais preferidos pelos caracóis quando estavam em atividade. Os resultados indicaram que os caracóis A. fulica iniciam sua atividade no final da tarde e hibernam

  17. Unveiling the oxidative metabolism of Achatina fulica (Mollusca: Gastropoda) experimentally infected to Angiostrongylus cantonensis (Nematoda: Metastrongylidae).

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    Tunholi-Alves, Vinícius Menezes; Tunholi, Victor Menezes; Garcia, Juberlan; Mota, Esther Maria; Castro, Rosane Nora; Pontes, Emerson Guedes; Pinheiro, Jairo

    2018-06-01

    For the first time, alterations in the oxidative metabolism of Achatina fulica experimentally infected with different parasite loads of Angiostrongylus cantonensis were determined. For this, the hemolymph activities of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and hexokinase and the glucose concentrations in the hemolymph, as well as the polysaccharide reserves in the digestive gland and cephalopedal mass, were assessed. Additionally, the contents of some carboxylic acids in the hemolymph of infected and uninfected snails were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), permitting a better understanding of the alterations related to the host's oxidative metabolism. As the main results, activation of oxidative pathways, such as the glycolytic pathway, was demonstrated in response to the increase in the activity of hexokinase. This tendency was confirmed by the decrease in the contents of glucose in the hemolymph of parasitized snails, indicating that the infection by A. cantonensis alters the host's metabolism, and that these changes are strongly influenced by the parasite load. This metabolic scenario was accompanied by activation of the anaerobic fermentative metabolism, indicated not only by an increase in the activity of (LDH), but also by a reduction of the content of pyruvic acid and accumulation of lactic acid in the hemolymph of parasitized snails. In this circumstance, maintenance of the host's redox balance occurs through activation of the fermentative pathways, and LDH plays a central role in this process. Together, the results indicate that A. cantonensis infection induces activation of the anaerobic metabolism of A. fulica, characterized not only by the accumulation of lactic acid, but also by a reduction in the pyruvic acid and oxalic acid contents in the hemolymph of the infected snails.

  18. Isolation of aerobic cultivable cellulolytic bacteria from different regions of the gastrointestinal tract of giant land snail Achatina fulica

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    Guilherme L. Pinheiro

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The enzymatic hydrolysis of cellulose by cellulases is one of the major limiting steps in the conversion of lignocellulosic biomass to yield bioethanol. To overcome this hindrance, significant efforts are underway to identify novel cellulases. The snail Achatina fulica is a gastropod with high cellulolytic activity, mainly due to the abundance of glycoside hydrolases produced by both the animal and its resident microbiota. In this study, we partially assessed the cellulolytic bacterial diversity inside the gastrointestinal tract of A. fulica by culture-dependent methods and evaluated the hydrolytic repertoire of the isolates. Forty bacterial isolates were recovered from distinct segments of the snail gut and identified to the genus level by 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis. Additional phenotypic characterization was performed using biochemical tests provided by the Vitek2 identification system. The overall enzymatic repertoire of the isolated strains was investigated by enzymatic plate assays, containing the following substrates: powdered sugarcane bagasse, carboxymethylcellulose (CMC, p-nitrophenyl-b-D-glucopyranoside (pNPG, p-nitrophenyl-b-D-cellobioside (pNPC, 4-methylumbelliferyl-b-D-glucopyranoside (MUG, 4-methylumbelliferyl-b-D-cellobioside (MUC and 4-methylumbelliferyl-b-D-xylopyranoside (MUX. Our results indicate that the snail Achatina fulica is an attractive source of cultivable bacteria that showed to be valuable resources for the production of different types of biomass-degrading enzymes.

  19. Giant multimodal heart motoneurons of Achatina fulica: a new cardioregulatory input in pulmonates.

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    Zhuravlev, V; Bugaj, V; Kodirov, S; Safonova, T; Staruschenko, A

    2001-08-01

    The regulation of the heartbeat by the two largest neurons, d-VLN and d-RPLN, on the dorsal surface of visceral and right parietal ganglia of Giant African snail, Achatina fulica, was examined. Using the new method of animal preparation, for the first time, discrete biphasic inhibitory-excitatory junction potentials (I-EJPs) in the heart and several muscles of the visceral sac were recorded. The duration of hyperpolarizing phase (H-phase) of biphasic I-EJPs was 269+/-5.6 ms (n=5), which is 2-3 times less than that of the cholinergic inhibitory JPs (682+/-68.5 ms, n=5). The H-phase of I-EJPs was not altered by the application of atropine, picrotoxine, succinylcholinchloride, D-tubocurarine and tetraethylammonium or substitution of Cl(-) ions. Even the low-frequency neuronal discharges (1-2 imp/s) evoked significant facilitation and potentiation of the H-phase. Between the multimodal neurons d-VLN/d-RPLN and mantle or visceral organs there is evidence of direct synaptic connections. These neurons were found to have no axonal branches in the intestinal nerve as once suspected but reach the heart through several other nerves. New giant heart motoneurons do not interact with previously identified cardioregulatory neurons.

  20. Structural characterization of a novel glucan from Achatina fulica and its antioxidant activity.

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    Liao, Ningbo; Chen, Shiguo; Ye, Xingqian; Zhong, Jianjun; Ye, Xuan; Yin, Xinzi; Tian, Jenny; Liu, Donghong

    2014-03-19

    A novel glucan designated AFPS-IB was purified from Achatina fulica (China white jade snail) by anion-exchange and gel-permeation chromatography. Chemical composition analysis indicated AFPS-IB was composed of glucose, fucose, rhamnose, mannose, and galactose in a molar ratio of 189:2:1:1:2 and with an average molecular weight of 128 kDa. Its structural characteristics were investigated by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC-MS), methylation analysis, nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy ((1)H,( 13)C, H-H COSY, HSQC, TOCSY, and NOESY), and atomic force microscopy (AFM). The glucan mainly consisted of a backbone of repeating (1→4)-α-d-glucose residues with (1→6)-β-d glucosyl branches at random points on the backbone glucose. Antioxidant studies revealed AFPS-IB showed significant DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl) radical, superoxide anion (O2(-)) scavenging activities and high reduction potential. This study suggested that AFPS-IB could be a new source of dietary antioxidants.

  1. Structural analysis and biological activity of a highly regular glycosaminoglycan from Achatina fulica.

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    Liu, Jie; Zhou, Lutan; He, Zhicheng; Gao, Na; Shang, Feineng; Xu, Jianping; Li, Zi; Yang, Zengming; Wu, Mingyi; Zhao, Jinhua

    2018-02-01

    Edible snails have been widely used as a health food and medicine in many countries. A unique glycosaminoglycan (AF-GAG) was purified from Achatina fulica. Its structure was analyzed and characterized by chemical and instrumental methods, such as Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, analysis of monosaccharide composition, and 1D/2D nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Chemical composition analysis indicated that AF-GAG is composed of iduronic acid (IdoA) and N-acetyl-glucosamine (GlcNAc) and its average molecular weight is 118kDa. Structural analysis clarified that the uronic acid unit in glycosaminoglycan (GAG) is the fully epimerized and the sequence of AF-GAG is →4)-α-GlcNAc (1→4)-α-IdoA2S (1→. Although its structure with a uniform repeating disaccharide is similar to those of heparin and heparan sulfate, this GAG is structurally highly regular and homogeneous. Anticoagulant activity assays indicated that AF-GAG exhibits no anticoagulant activities, but considering its structural characteristic, other bioactivities such as heparanase inhibition may be worthy of further study. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. A novel cysteine-rich antimicrobial peptide from the mucus of the snail of Achatina fulica.

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    Zhong, Jian; Wang, Wenhong; Yang, Xiaomei; Yan, Xiuwen; Liu, Rui

    2013-01-01

    Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) are important components of the innate immunity. Many antimicrobial peptides have been found from marine mollusks. Little information about AMPs of mollusks living on land is available. A novel cysteine-rich antimicrobial peptide (mytimacin-AF) belonging to the peptide family of mytimacins was purified and characterized from the mucus of the snail of Achatina fulica. Its cDNA was also cloned from the cDNA library. Mytimacin-AF is composed of 80 amino acid residues including 10 cysteines. Mytimacin-AF showed potent antimicrobial activity against Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria and the fungus Candida albicans. Among tested microorganisms, it exerted strongest antimicrobial activity against Staphylococcus aureus with a minimal peptide concentration (MIC) of 1.9 μg/ml. Mytimacin-AF had little hemolytic activity against human blood red cells. The current work confirmed the presence of mytimacin-like antimicrobial peptide in land-living mollusks. Crown Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. The complete mitochondrial genome of the giant African snail Achatina fulica (Mollusca: Achatinidae).

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    Yang, Huirong; Zhang, Jia-En; Guo, Jing; Deng, Zhixin; Luo, Hao; Luo, Mingzhu; Zhao, Benliang

    2016-05-01

    We present the complete mitochondrial genome of the Achatina fulica in this study. The results show that the mitochondrial genome is 15,057 bp in length, which is comprised of 13 protein-coding genes, 2 rRNA genes, 21 tRNA genes. The nucleotide compositions of the light strand are 35.47% of A, 27.97% of T 19.46% of C, and 17.10% of G. Except the ND3, 7 tRNA, ATP6, ATP8, COX3 and 12S-rRNA on the light strand, the rest are encoded on the heavy strand. Five types of inferred initiation codons are ATA (ND1, ND5), GTG (ND6), ATG (COX3, COX2), ATT (ND4) and TTG (COX1, ND2, ND3, ND4L, ATP6, ATP8, Cytb), and 3 types of inferred termination codons are T (COX3, ND2), TAA (ND1, ND4L, ND5, ND6, ATP6), and TAG (ND3, ND4, COX1, COX2, Cytb, ATP8). There are 24 intergenic spacers and 6 gene overlaps. The tandem repeat sequence (total 52 bp) of (AATAATT)n is observed in 16S-rRNA. Gene arrangement and distribution are inconsistent with the typical vertebrates.

  4. Characteristics of cholinoreceptors on identified TAN neurons of the ground snail Achatina fulica.

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    Stepanov, I I; Losev, N A

    2000-01-01

    The characteristics of cholinoreceptors located on neurons TAN1, TAN2, and TAN3 of the ground snail Achatina fulica were studied by incubation of the central ganglia in a bath with cholinotropic preparations during intracellular recording of background neuron spike activity. Acetylcholine, nicotine, the selective n-cholinoreceptor agonist suberyldicholine, and the selective n-cholinoreceptor agonist 5-methylfurmethide concentration-dependently inhibited background spike activity to the level of complete blockade at concentrations of 500 microM. The m-cholinoblocker metamizil (500 microM) completely prevented the inhibitory activity of concentrations of 5-methylfurmethide of up to 500 microM. The central n-cholinoblocker etherophen (500 microM) completely blocked the inhibitory activity of 500 microM suberyldicholine. However, metamizil and etherophen added separately only partially decreased the inhibitory effects of acetylcholine but could not completely block the effect of acetylcholine. At the same time, mixtures of metamizil and etherophen (500 microM each) completely blocked the inhibition of background spike activity induced by acetylcholine. These results show that both classes of cholinoreceptors act on TAN neurons in the same direction.

  5. Hsp70 in the atrial neuroendocrine units of the snail, Achatina fulica.

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    Martynova, M G; Bystrova, O A; Shabelnikov, S V; Margulis, B A; Prokofjeva, D S

    2007-04-01

    Heat shock proteins (Hsps) are evolutionary conserved peptides well known as molecular chaperones and stress proteins. Elevated levels of extracellular Hsps in blood plasma have been observed during the stress responses and some diseases. Information on the cellular sources of extracellular Hsps and mechanisms regulating their release is still scanty. Here we showed the presence and localization of Hsp70 in the neuroendocrine system in the atrium of the snail, Achatina fulica. The occurrence of the peptide in snail atrium lysate was detected by Western blot analysis. Immunoperoxidase and immunogold staining demonstrated that Hsp70-immunoreactivity is mainly confined to the peculiar atrial neuroendocrine units which are formed by nerve fibers tightly contacted with large granular cells. Immunolabelling intensity differed in morphologically distinct types of secretory granules in the granular cells. The pictures of exocytosis of Hsp70-immunolabeled granules from the granular cells were observed. In nerve bundles, axon profiles with Hsp70-immunoreactive and those with non-immunoreactive neurosecretory granules were found. In addition, Hsp70-like material was also revealed in the granules of glia-interstitial cells that accompanied nerve fibers. Our findings provide an immuno-morphological basis for a role of Hsp70 in the functioning of the neuroendocrine system in the snail heart, and show that the atrial granular cells are a probable source of extracellular Hsp70 in the snail hemolymph.

  6. [Effect of the population density on growth and regeneration in the snail Achatina fulica].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sidel'nikov, A P; Stepanov, I I

    2000-01-01

    In the laboratory, the growth rate of the giant African snail Achatina fulica, as estimated by the weight and shell length was shown to decrease when the population density increased from 10 to 60 snails/m2 of the total terrarium area for five months. In the second experiment, when the population density increased from 48 to 193 snails/m2, the growth rate had already decreased by six weeks. In the groups with a high population density the feeding behavior was weakened, expressed by a greater amount of nonconsumed food, according to visual observations, than in the groups with lower population densities. At the population density of 10 to 60 snails/m2, the proliferative activity in the course of the optic tentacle regeneration, as expressed by the mitotic index, did not differ reliably within five months. In the second experiment, the mitotic indices at the population densities of 96 and 193 snails/m2 within 1.5 months exceeded that of 48 snails/m2. Recommendations are given concerning the population density from the viewpoint of commercial growth of the snails. It was proposed that, based on the analysis of the mechanism underlying the inhibition of feeding behavior in populations with extra high densities, one may develop a new approach to the production of chemical agents to control land snails as agricultural pests.

  7. Model studies of the effect of aerosol wastewater emissions on terrestrial mollusks Achatina fulica

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    Kamardin Nikolaj Nikolaevich

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The laboratory experiments were carried on using the juvenile mollusk Achatina fulica as a bioindicator of soil contamination and air pollution. It is shown that when experimental animals breathed and had dermal contact with the aerosols prepared from the wastewater and those prepared from two solutions of Ni in distilled water at two concentrations they weighed significantly less than controls . According to the results of AAS, heavy metals (HM, in particular Cd, Cu, Ni of sewage accumulated in the digestive gland of the shell. In model experiments mollusks were contained in the chamber periodically (2 hours of input and 2 hours of pause filled with aerosol containing Ni at concentrations of 30 and 50 mg / dm3 nickel for two weeks It resulted in accumulation of Ni in the digestive gland of mollusks with concentrations 6 to 10 times exceeding controls, respectively. At that the experimental animals gained weight reliably slower than the controls contained in aquatic aerosol without Ni. The subsequent one week exposure of shells in aerosol, prepared from the distilled water without Ni reduced the concentration of nickel in the tissue of the digestive gland. Thus, bioavailability of HM and nickel solutions prepared from untreated wastewaters in breathing aerosol and possibly by skin contact was demonstrated. The toxicant delivery seems to occur apart from food intake.

  8. PEMANFAATAN KITOSAN DARI LIMBAH CANGKANG BEKICOT (ACHATINA FULICA SEBAGAI ADSORBEN LOGAM BERAT SENG (ZN

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    Stevano Victor Marangratu

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstrak- Telah dilakukan pemanfaatan cangkang bekicot (Achatina fulica sebagai adsorben logam berat seng (Zn. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui jumlah kitosan yang didapat dari cangkang bekicot, dan mengetahui kemampuan adsorben kitosan dalam uji adsorpsi yang menggunakan sampel air yang tercemar seng (Zn. Pembuatan kitosan dari cangkang bekicot dilakukan dengan dua tahap yaitu tahap pembuatan kitosan dengan variasi ukuran kitosan 250 micron dan 355 micron. Tahap pembuatan kitosan terdiri dari pembuatan serbuk cangkang bekicot, deproteinasi, demineralisasi, depigmentasi dan deasetilasi. Tahap ke dua yaitu uji penyerapan kitosan terhadap logam berat seng (Zn dengan variasi jumlah massa kitosan yang digunakan yaitu: 1 gram, 3 gram, 6 gram dan 9 gram. Sampel tersebut diuji dengan menggunakan Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometric (AAS untuk mengetahui konsentrasi logam berat seng (Zn yang terkandung di dalamnya. Hasil penelitian menunjukan bahwa kitosan yang didapat dari cangkang bekicot untuk ukuran 250 micron yang sebesar 95,27%, dan untuk ukuran 355 micron yaitu sebesar 96,18%. Daya serap optimum kitosan didapat pada kitosan berukuran 250 micron dengan massa kitosan 9 gram.

  9. Isolation, purification and characterization of collagenase from hepatopancreas of the land snail Achatina fulica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Indra, D; Ramalingam, K; Babu, Mary

    2005-09-01

    Collagenase (matrix metalloproteinase-1, EC:3.4.24.7) was isolated from the hepatopancreas of Achatina fulica and characterized for its enzymatic activity and immunological properties. Procollagenase was isolated using ammonium sulphate precipitation and gel filtration, followed by purification by reverse-phase high performance liquid chromatography in the presence of trifluoroacetic acid and by dialysis in neutral buffer. In the presence of SDS and beta-mercaptoethanol, the procollagenase resolved into two subunits with molecular masses of 63 and 28 kDa, respectively. The 63 kDa fragment retained its ability to bind and degrade gelatin, but the 28 kDa was inactive. Analysis by 2D gel electrophoresis revealed that the 63 kDa fragment was basic (pIs 7.6, 7.8 and 8.15), while the 28 kDa fragment was acidic (pI 4.7 and 5.1). Western blot analysis confirmed the identity of collagenase, as only matrix metalloproteinase-1 rabbit antibodies against human matrix metalloproteinase-1 (N-terminal region) recognized both the isolated procollagenase and the 63 kDa fragment.

  10. PEMANFAATAN KITOSAN DARI LIMBAH CANGKANG BEKICOT (ACHATINA FULICA SEBAGAI ADSORBEN LOGAM BERAT SENG (ZN

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    Stevano Victor Marangratu

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The used of snail shell (Achatina fulica as adsorbent of heavy metals zinc (Zn. This study aims to determine the amount of chitosan derived from snail shells, and knowing the ability of chitosan adsorbent in adsorption tests using water samples were contaminated zinc (Zn. Preparation of chitosan from the shells of snails be done in two phases: the manufacture of chitosan with chitosan size variation of 250 micron and 355 micron. Production stage consists of the manufacture of chitosan powder snail shells, deproteinization, demineralization, depigmentasi and deacetylation. The second phase of the test chitosan absorption of heavy metals zinc (Zn with a variation of the mass amount of chitosan that is used as follows: 1 gram, 3 grams, 6 grams and 9 grams. The sample is tested by using Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometric (AAS to determine the concentration of heavy metals zinc (Zn contained in it. The result showed that chitosan is obtained from the snail shell to the size of 250 microns, which equal to 95.27%, and for the size of 355 microns that is equal to 96.18%. Optimum absorption of chitosan obtained at chitosan measure 250 microns with a mass of 9 grams of chitosan.

  11. Activation of professional antigen presenting cells by acharan sulfate isolated from giant African snail, Achatina fulica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyun-Sun; Lee, Young-Hee; Lee, Young-Ran; Im, Sun-A; Lee, Jae-Kwon; Kim, Yeong Shik; Sim, Joon-Soo; Choi, Hyung Seok; Lee, Chong-Kil

    2007-07-01

    Acharan sulfate isolated from the giant African snail, Achatina fulica, has been reported to have antitumor activity in vivo. In an effort to determine the mechanisms of its antitumor activity, we examined the effects of acharan sulfate on professional antigen presenting cells (APCs). Acharan sulfate increased the phagocytic activity, the production of cytokines such as TNF-alpha and IL-1beta, and the release of nitric oxide on a macrophage cell line, Raw 264.7 cells. In addition, acharan sulfate induced phenotypic and functional maturation of immature dendritic cells (DCs). Immature DCs cultured with acharan sulfate expressed higher levels of class II MHC molecules and major co-stimulatory molecules such as B7-1, B7-2, and CD40. Functional maturation of immature DCs cultured in the presence of acharan sulfate was confirmed by the increased allostimulatory capacity and IL-12 production. These results suggest that the antitumor activity of acharan sulfate is partly due to the activation of professional antigen presenting cells.

  12. Localization and characterization of acharan sulfate in the body of the giant African snail Achatina fulica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, J; Toida, T; Muneta, Y; Kosiishi, I; Imanari, T; Linhardt, R J; Choi, H S; Wu, S J; Kim, Y S

    2001-12-01

    Acharan sulfate is a glycosaminoglycan (GAG), having the structure -->4)-2-acetamido-2-deoxy-alpha-D-glucopyranose(1-->4)-2-sulfo-alpha-L-idopyranosyluronic acid (1-->, isolated from the body of the giant African snail Achatina fulica. This GAG represents 3-5% of the dry weight of this snail's soft body tissues. Frozen sections and polyester wax sections of the snail's body were stained by Alcian blue-periodic acid-Schiff's reagent (PAS) to localize acharan sulfate. Alcian blue staining indicated that GAG was mainly secreted into the outer surface of the body from internal granules. A highly mucous material was collected and treated and the acharan sulfate was recovered by ethanol and cetyl pyridinium chloride precipitation. Crude acharan sulfate was purified by DEAE-Sephacel ion-exchange chromatography. Depolymerization of intact mucus and purified acharan sulfate fractions by heparin lyase II (heparitinase I) from Flavobacterium heparinum produced an unsaturated disaccharide as a major product, establishing the repeating unit of acharan sulfate. These results demonstrate that mucus in the granule and secreted to the outside of the body is composed entirely of acharan sulfate.

  13. Suppression of tumor growth by a new glycosaminoglycan isolated from the African giant snail Achatina fulica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yeon Sil; Yang, Hyun Ok; Shin, Kuk Hyun; Choi, Hyung Seok; Jung, Sang Hoon; Kim, Yong Man; Oh, Deok Kun; Linhardt, Robert J; Kim, Yeong Shik

    2003-03-28

    Acharan sulfate is a new type of glycosaminoglycan from the giant African snail, Achatina fulica. Acharan sulfate, which has a primary repeating disaccharide structure of alpha-D-N-acetylglucosaminyl-2-O-sulfo-alpha-L-iduronic acid, was studied as a potential antitumor agent in both in vivo and in vitro assays. The antiangiogenic activity of acharan sulfate was evaluated in the chorioallantoic membrane assay and by measuring its effect on the proliferation of calf pulmonary artery endothelial cells. In vivo, a matrigel plug assay showed that acharan sulfate suppressed basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF)-stimulated angiogenesis and lowered the hemoglobin (Hb) content inside the plug. Acharan sulfate was administered s.c. at two doses for 15 days to C57BL/6 mice implanted with murine Lewis lung carcinoma in the back. It was also administered i.p. to ICR mice bearing sarcoma 180 at a dose of 30 mg/kg. Subcutaneous injection of acharan sulfate at doses of 10 and 30 mg/kg decreased tumor weight and tumor volume by 40% without toxicity or resistance. Intraperitoneal injection of acharan sulfate also decreased tumor weight and volume by 40% in sarcoma 180-bearing mice. These results suggest that the antitumor activity of acharan sulfate may be related to the inhibition of angiogenesis.

  14. Further characterization of the cold agglutinin from the snail Achatina fulica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitra, D; Sarkar, M; Allen, A K

    1987-01-01

    The cold agglutinin from the albumin gland of the snail Achatina fulica was purified to homogeneity by using sheep gastric mucin-Sepharose 4B as affinity column followed by gel filtration on Bio-Gel P-300. The homogeneity was checked by alkaline gel electrophoresis, immunodiffusion and immunoelectrophoresis. The purified cold agglutinin is a glycoprotein of native M2 220,000 consisting of three non-covalently bound subunits of Mr 84,000, 74,000 and 62,000 and having a pI value of 4.5. The predominant amino acids are aspartic acid and glutamic acid (or amides) and serine, which account for 39% of the residues. About 3% of the residues are half-cystine. The lectin is a glycoprotein with about 30.7% carbohydrate, the most abundant sugars being galactose, N-acetylgalactosamine and N-acetylglucosamine. Mannose, xylose and fucose are also present. The inhibition of agglutination of human umbilical-cord erythrocytes by the cold agglutinin is specific for methyl beta-D-galactoside and also for glycolipids present on cord erythrocytes. The c.d. data show only negative ellipticity values in the far-u.v. region for the protein at various concentrations and temperatures and also in the presence of the hapten lactose (at different concentrations), indicating the presence of a random-coil conformation in the agglutinin that varies according to temperature. Images Fig. 2. Fig. 3. Fig. 5. Fig. 6. PMID:3593252

  15. Effects of procaine on a central neuron of the snail, Achatina fulica Ferussac.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Chia-Hsien; Tsai, Ming-Cheng

    2005-02-18

    Effects of procaine on a central neuron (RP1) of the giant African snail (Achatina fulica Ferussac) were studied pharmacologically. The RP1 neuron showed spontaneous firing of action potential. Extra-cellular application of procaine (10 mM) reversibly elicited bursts of potential. The bursts of potential elicited by procaine were not blocked after administration of (1) prazosin, propranolol, atropine, d-tubocurarine, (2) calcium-free solution, (3) ryanodine (4) pretreatment with KT-5720 or chelerythrine. The bursts of potential elicited by procaine were blocked by adding U73122 (10 microM) and the bursts of potential were decreased if physiological sodium ion was replaced with lithium ion or incubated with either neomycin (3.5 mM) or high magnesium solution (30 mM). Preatment with U73122 (10 microM) blocked the initiation of bursts of potential. Ruthenium red (100 microM) or caffeine (10 mM) facilitated the procaine-elicited bursts of potential. It is concluded that procaine reversibly elicits bursts of potential in the central snail neuron. This effect was not directly related to (1) the extra-cellular calcium ion fluxes, (2) the ryanodine sensitive calcium channels in the neuron, or (3) the PKC or PKA related messenger systems. The procaine-elicited bursts of potential were associated with the phospholipase activity and the calcium mobilization in the neuron.

  16. [Age factor in eye regeneration of the gastropod mollusk Achatina fulica].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tartakovskaia, O S; Borisenko, S L; Zhukov, V V

    2003-01-01

    The dependence of the ability to regenerate the eye on the age of experimental animals was studied in the snail Achatina fulica. The degree of regeneration was estimated by light-microscopic and electrophysiological methods and by analyzing the motor response to visual stimuli. In older age groups, the number of regenerated eye-bearing tentacles decreased, whereas the period of regeneration increased. The regenerated eyes of the snails operated at the age of more than two months remained smaller than normal eyes even after six months. Regeneration of the distal part of the optic nerve was observed, and the regenerated eyes recovered the ability to respond to stimulation by light. In the electroretinogram, the responses of the regenerated eye, compared to the control, were characterised by a lower amplitude and longer repolarization and refractory periods. Manifestations of the motor response to visual stimuli in the young snails with regenerating eyes could be regarded as evidence for the recovery of connection between the organ of sight and the central ganglia.

  17. Current distribution of Achatina fulica, in the state of São Paulo including records of Aelurostrongylus abstrusus (Nematoda) larvae infestation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohlweiler, Fernanda Pires; Guimarães, Marisa Cristina de Almeida; Takahashi, Fernanda Yoshika; Eduardo, Juliana Manas

    2010-01-01

    The currently known distribution range of Achatina fulica Bowdich, 1822, in the state of São Paulo, Brazil, is presented. The record of A. fulica naturally infested with Aelurostrongylus abstrusus larvae (Railliet, 1898) (Nematoda: Metastrongylidae) can be found in the city of Guaratinguetá. It was found A. fulica with Metastrongylidae larvae without known medical and veterinary importance in the cities of Carapicuíba, Embu-Guaçu, Itapevi, São Caetano do Sul, São Paulo and Taboão da Serra.

  18. Prediction of anticancer peptides against MCF-7 breast cancer cells from the peptidomes of Achatina fulica mucus fractions

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    Teerasak E-kobon

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Several reports have shown antimicrobial and anticancer activities of mucous glycoproteins extracted from the giant African snail Achatina fulica. Anticancer properties of the snail mucous peptides remain incompletely revealed. The aim of this study was to predict anticancer peptides from A. fulica mucus. Two of HPLC-separated mucous fractions (F2 and F5 showed in vitro cytotoxicity against the breast cancer cell line (MCF-7 and normal epithelium cell line (Vero. According to the mass spectrometric analysis, 404 and 424 peptides from the F2 and F5 fractions were identified. Our comprehensive bioinformatics workflow predicted 16 putative cationic and amphipathic anticancer peptides with diverse structures from these two peptidome data. These peptides would be promising molecules for new anti-breast cancer drug development.

  19. Prediction of anticancer peptides against MCF-7 breast cancer cells from the peptidomes of Achatina fulica mucus fractions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    E-Kobon, Teerasak; Thongararm, Pennapa; Roytrakul, Sittiruk; Meesuk, Ladda; Chumnanpuen, Pramote

    2016-01-01

    Several reports have shown antimicrobial and anticancer activities of mucous glycoproteins extracted from the giant African snail Achatina fulica. Anticancer properties of the snail mucous peptides remain incompletely revealed. The aim of this study was to predict anticancer peptides from A. fulica mucus. Two of HPLC-separated mucous fractions (F2 and F5) showed in vitro cytotoxicity against the breast cancer cell line (MCF-7) and normal epithelium cell line (Vero). According to the mass spectrometric analysis, 404 and 424 peptides from the F2 and F5 fractions were identified. Our comprehensive bioinformatics workflow predicted 16 putative cationic and amphipathic anticancer peptides with diverse structures from these two peptidome data. These peptides would be promising molecules for new anti-breast cancer drug development.

  20. Development of ten microsatellite loci in the invasive giant African land snail, Achatina (=Lissachatina) fulica Bowdich, 1822

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, Cheryl L.; Springmann, Marcus J.; Iwanowicz, Deborah D.; Wade, Christopher M.

    2015-01-01

    A suite of tetra-nucleotide microsatellite loci were developed for the invasive giant African land snail, Achatina (=Lissachatina) fulica Bowdich, 1822, from Ion Torrent next-generation sequencing data. Ten of the 96 primer sets tested amplified consistently in 30 snails from Miami, Florida, plus 12 individuals representative of their native East Africa, Indian and Pacific Ocean regions. The loci displayed moderate levels of allelic diversity (average 5.6 alleles/locus) and heterozygosity (average 42 %). Levels of genetic diversity were sufficient to produce unique multi-locus genotypes and detect phylogeographic structuring among regional samples. The invasive A. fulica can cause extensive damage to important food crops and natural resources, including native flora and fauna. The loci characterized here will be useful for determining the origins and tracking the spread of invasions, detecting fine-scale spatial structuring and estimating demographic parameters.

  1. [Localization of substance P- and FMRFamide-like immunoreactivity in the atrium of the snail Achatina fulica].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shabel'nikov, S V; Bystrova, O A; Martynova, M G

    2008-01-01

    By immunohistochemical and immunocytochemical methods localization of Substanse P (SP) and FMRFamide in the atrium of the snail Achatina fulica was investigated. Nerve fibers innervating the snail atrium contact tightly with the granular cells (GC) situated between muscle and endocardial cells, forming neuroendocrine units. Both neuromediators were found in the cells of the neuroendocrine units. By immunohistochemistry SP- and FMRFamide-immunoreactive material was revealed in the granules of the atrial GC. Elecrtonmicroscopical immunocytochemistry has confirmed the presence of SP- and FMRFamide-immunoreactive material in the granules of the GC and shown their presence in the neurosecretory granules of the nerve endings contacting both the atrial GC and cardiomyocytes.

  2. Low cost heterogenous catalyst from (Achatina Fulica) snail shell and its application for biodiesel conversion via microwave irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fatimah, Is; Kurniastuti, E. A.; Basthiani, I. A.; Fakhri, A.

    2017-11-01

    Research on preparation of heterogenous catalyst from Achatina Fulica snail shell and its application biodiesel conversion has been investigation. Research aimed to obtain low cost and reusable catalyst for biodiesel production. The catalyst was prepared by grinding and calcining the snail shell at 900°C for 2 hours. The obtained solid was analysed by using XRD, SEM-EDX. FTIR, and also basicity measurement. Catalyst was used in the cenvertion of rice bran oil transesterification at varied volume of oil methanol ratio of 20-80 under microwave and reflux methode. The transesterification result were analyzed by using GCMS.

  3. Identification of Angiostrongylus cantonensis and other nematodes using the SSU rDNA in Achatina fulica populations of Metro Manila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Constantino-Santos, M A; Basiao, Z U; Wade, C M; Santos, B S; Fontanilla I, K C

    2014-06-01

    Angiostrongylus cantonensis is a parasitic nematode that causes eosinophilic meningitis in humans. Accidental infection occurs by consumption of contaminated intermediates, such as the giant African land snail, Achatina fulica. This study surveyed the presence of A. cantonensis juveniles in A. fulica populations from 12 sites in Metropolitan Manila, Philippines using the SSU rDNA. Fourteen distinct sequences from 226 nematodes were obtained; of these, two matched A. cantonensis and Ancylostoma caninum, respectively, with 100% identity. Exact identities of the remaining twelve sequences could not be determined due to low percent similarities. Of the sequenced nematodes, A. cantonensis occurred with the highest frequency (139 out of 226). Most of these (131 out of 139) were collected in just one area in Quezon City. Nematode infection of A. fulica in this area and two others from Makati and another area in Quezon City, respectively, were highest, combining for 95% of the total infection. Ancylostoma caninum, on the other hand, was detected in four different sites. A. caninum is a canine parasite, and this is the first report of the nematode in A. fulica. These results cause public health concerns as both A. cantonensis and A. caninum are zoonotic to humans.

  4. Do climate variables and human density affect Achatina fulica (Bowditch) (Gastropoda: Pulmonata) shell length, total weight and condition factor?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albuquerque, F S; Peso-Aguiar, M C; Assunção-Albuquerque, M J T; Gálvez, L

    2009-08-01

    The length-weight relationship and condition factor have been broadly investigated in snails to obtain the index of physical condition of populations and evaluate habitat quality. Herein, our goal was to describe the best predictors that explain Achatina fulica biometrical parameters and well being in a recently introduced population. From November 2001 to November 2002, monthly snail samples were collected in Lauro de Freitas City, Bahia, Brazil. Shell length and total weight were measured in the laboratory and the potential curve and condition factor were calculated. Five environmental variables were considered: temperature range, mean temperature, humidity, precipitation and human density. Multiple regressions were used to generate models including multiple predictors, via model selection approach, and then ranked with AIC criteria. Partial regressions were used to obtain the separated coefficients of determination of climate and human density models. A total of 1.460 individuals were collected, presenting a shell length range between 4.8 to 102.5 mm (mean: 42.18 mm). The relationship between total length and total weight revealed that Achatina fulica presented a negative allometric growth. Simple regression indicated that humidity has a significant influence on A. fulica total length and weight. Temperature range was the main variable that influenced the condition factor. Multiple regressions showed that climatic and human variables explain a small proportion of the variance in shell length and total weight, but may explain up to 55.7% of the condition factor variance. Consequently, we believe that the well being and biometric parameters of A. fulica can be influenced by climatic and human density factors.

  5. Do climate variables and human density affect Achatina fulica (Bowditch (Gastropoda: Pulmonata shell length, total weight and condition factor?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FS. Albuquerque

    Full Text Available The length-weight relationship and condition factor have been broadly investigated in snails to obtain the index of physical condition of populations and evaluate habitat quality. Herein, our goal was to describe the best predictors that explain Achatina fulica biometrical parameters and well being in a recently introduced population. From November 2001 to November 2002, monthly snail samples were collected in Lauro de Freitas City, Bahia, Brazil. Shell length and total weight were measured in the laboratory and the potential curve and condition factor were calculated. Five environmental variables were considered: temperature range, mean temperature, humidity, precipitation and human density. Multiple regressions were used to generate models including multiple predictors, via model selection approach, and then ranked with AIC criteria. Partial regressions were used to obtain the separated coefficients of determination of climate and human density models. A total of 1.460 individuals were collected, presenting a shell length range between 4.8 to 102.5 mm (mean: 42.18 mm. The relationship between total length and total weight revealed that Achatina fulica presented a negative allometric growth. Simple regression indicated that humidity has a significant influence on A. fulica total length and weight. Temperature range was the main variable that influenced the condition factor. Multiple regressions showed that climatic and human variables explain a small proportion of the variance in shell length and total weight, but may explain up to 55.7% of the condition factor variance. Consequently, we believe that the well being and biometric parameters of A. fulica can be influenced by climatic and human density factors.

  6. Exigência de proteína para o caracol gigante (Achatina fulica em fase de crescimento Protein requirements for giant snail (Achatina fulica during the growth phase

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    Giovani Sampaio Gonçalves

    1999-11-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de determinar a exigência de proteína bruta (PB em dietas para o caracol gigante, 480 animais, com peso inicial médio de 4,05±0,04g, foram distribuídos em um delineamento inteiramente casualizado com quatro tratamentos (12,00%, 15,00%, 18,00% e 21,00% de PB e três repetições de 40 animais por unidade experimental, durante um período de 90 dias. Foi observado efeito quadrático (P Achatina fulica é de 18,28%.Aiming to determine the requirements of crude protein (CP in diets for giant snail, 480 animals, with 4.05±0.04g initial mean weight were used, and distributed in a completely randomized design with four treatments (12.00%, 15.00%, 18.00% and 21.00% CP, three replications of 40 animals per experimental unit, during a period of 90 days. A quadratic effect (P Achatina fulica is 18.28%.

  7. Identification of a phenoloxidase- and melanin-dependent defence mechanism in Achatina fulica infected with Angiostrongylus vasorum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coaglio, Aytube Lucas; Ferreira, Mônica Alves Neves Diniz; Dos Santos Lima, Walter; de Jesus Pereira, Cíntia Aparecida

    2018-02-27

    Angiostrongylus vasorum has different freshwater aquatic and terrestrial gastropod molluscs as an intermediate host, e.g. Arion spp. The mollusc Achatina fulica is a danger to public health, given the large diversity of nematodes utilizing it as an intermediate host, such as the parasites of the genus Angiostrongylus, of importance in human and veterinary medicine. Achatina fulica has been shown to have an excellent capacity for maintaining outbreaks and natural infections with A. cantonensis in Asia. Within the mollusc, the nematode parasites activate haemocytes and/or haemolymph factors and in some invertebrates, phenoloxidase (PO), that induces the release of toxic elements and eliminates the parasites. Despite the importance of A. fulica in the life-cycle of nematodes, little is known regarding the defence mechanisms involving PO in molluscs infected with nematodes. Here, the presence of PO and nitric oxide (NO) in the haemolymph and haemocytes of A. fulica infected with first-stage (L1) larvae of Angiostrongylus vasorum was evaluated, together with the presence of melanin in the cephalopod mollusc tissue. An increase in PO at one day post infection (dpi), in comparison with the control using the substrates L-tyrosine (F (4,90)  = 6.73, P = 0.00006), L-DOPA (F (4,90)  = 22.67, P = 0.02) and p-phenylenediamine (PPD) (F (4,90)  = 27.58, P = 0.0019), was observed. PO increase coincided with the presence of melanin in the cephalopodal tissue. At 8 dpi, PO activity, compared to L-DOPA (F (4,90)  = 22.67, P = 0.00002) and PPD (F (4,90)  = 27.58, P = 0.079) decreased, while melanin increased. At 13 dpi, PO decreased with PPD (F (4,90)  = 27.58, P = 0.000015) and also the amount of melanin observed in histology. At 30 dpi, PO increased along with the substrates L-DOPA and PPD, while melanin decreased. NO levels increased until 8 dpi, and decreased after 13 dpi. To our knowledge, this is the first study that

  8. Angiostrongylus cantonensis in the vector snails Pomacea canaliculata and Achatina fulica in China: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Langui; Wang, Xiaowen; Yang, Zi; Lv, Zhiyue; Wu, Zhongdao

    2016-03-01

    Angiostrongyliasis is a food-borne parasitic disease induced by the nematode Angiostrongylus cantonensis, and has been recognized as the main cause leading to human eosinophilic meningitis. Humans usually acquire infection by digestion of infected Pomacea canaliculata and Achatina fulica, the most predominant intermediate hosts found in China. This meta-analysis was aimed to assess the prevalence of A. cantonensis infection among these two snails in China in the past 10 years. Data were systematically collected in electronic databases such as PubMed, Web of Science, ScienceDirect, CNKI, SinoMed, VIP, CSCD, and Wanfang from 2005 to 2015. Thirty-eight studies with a total of 41,299 P. canaliculata and 21,138 Ac. fulica were included in the present study. The overall infection rate of A. cantonensis in China was estimated to be 7.6 % (95 % confidential interval (CI) = 0.063 to 0.090) in P. canaliculata and 21.5 % in Ac. fulica (95 % CI = 0.184 to 0.245), respectively. No significant difference was observed in prevalence rates among publication year and sample size for both snails. Also, it was found that the prevalence in Ac. fulica is significantly higher than that in P. canaliculata (odds ratio (OR) = 3.946, 95 % CI = 3.070 to 5.073). The present study reveals that snail infection with A. cantonensis is clearly prevalent in China. Further studies are required to improve strategies for control of infections of snails, particularly those of Ac. fulica, and to detect further factors and conditions such as geographic region, temperatures, and diagnosis method.

  9. First record of a nematode Metastrongyloidea (Aelurostrongylus abstrusus larvae) in Achatina (Lissachatina) fulica (Mollusca, Achatinidae) in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiengo, Silvana C; Fernandez, Monica A; Torres, Eduardo J L; Coelho, Pablo M; Lanfredi, Reinalda M

    2008-05-01

    Achatina (Lissachatina) fulica was introduced in Brazil in the 1980s for commercial purposes ("escargot" farming) and nowadays, mainly by human activity, it is widespread in at least 23 out of 26 Brazilian states and Brasília, including the Amazonian region and natural reserves, where besides a general nuisance for people it is a pest and also a public health concern, since it is one of the natural intermediate host of Angiostrongylus cantonensis, ethiological agent of the meningoencephalitis in Asia. As Brazil is experiencing the explosive phase of the invasion, the Laboratório de Malacologia do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz/Fiocruz has been receiving samples of these molluscs for identification and search for Angiostrongylus cantonensis and Angiostrongylus costaricensis larvae. While examining samples of A. fulica different nematode larvae were obtained, including Aelurostrongylus, whose different species are parasites of felids, dogs, primates, and badger. Morphological and morphometric analyses presented herein indicated the species Aelurostrongylus abstrusus, as well as the occurrence of other nematode larvae (Strongyluris-like) found in the interior of the pallial cavity of A. fulica. This is the first report in Brazil of the development of A. abstrusus infective larvae in A. fulica evidencing the veterinary importance of this mollusc in the transmission of A. abstrusus to domestic cats. Since the spread of A. fulica is pointed out in the literature as one of the main causative spread of the meningoencephalitis caused by A. cantonensis the authors emphasize the need of sanitary vigilance of snails and rats from vulnerable areas for A. cantonensis introduction as the port side areas.

  10. The giant African snail Achatina fulica as natural intermediate host of Angiostrongylus cantonensis in Pernambuco, northeast Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiengo, S C; Maldonado, A; Mota, E M; Torres, E J L; Caldeira, R; Carvalho, O S; Oliveira, A P M; Simões, R O; Fernandez, M A; Lanfredi, R M

    2010-09-01

    The human cases of eosinophilic meningitis recently reported from Brazil have focused the attention of the public health agencies on the role the introduced snail Achatina fulica plays as hosts of the metastrongylid nematodes. Determining the potential of this snail to host and develop infective larval stages of metastrongylids in the wild and identify the species harbored by them is crucial for designing effective control measures. Here we assess if A. fulica may act as intermediate host of A. cantonensis at the peridomiciliary areas of a patient's house from state of Pernambuco (PE), who was diagnosed with eosinophilic meningitis and a history of ingesting raw molluscs. Larvae obtained from naturally infected A. fulica were orally administered to Rattus norvegicus. The worms were collected from the pulmonary artery and brain, and were morphologically characterized and compared to the Japan isolate of A. cantonensis. Adult worms and infective L(3) larvae (PE isolate) recovered from A. fulica specimens were also analyzed by polymerase chain reaction and restriction fragment length polymorphism of ITS2 region from rDNA and compared to A. cantonensis (ES isolate), A. vasorum (MG isolate) and A. costaricensis (RS isolate). The large size of the spicules (greater than those observed in other species of Angiostrongylus) and the pattern of the bursal rays agree with the original species description by Chen (1935). Furthermore, the morphology of the PE isolate was similar to that of Japan isolate. The PCR-RFLP profiles obtained were distinctive among species and no variation in patterns was detected among adult individuals from A. cantonensis isolates from PE and ES. The importance of A. fulica as an intermediate host of eosinophilic menigoencepahlitis in Brazil is emphasized. 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. C-reactive protein in the hemolymph of Achatina fulica: interrelationship with sex steroids and metallothionein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bose, R; Bhattacharya, S

    2000-04-01

    C-reactive protein in Achatina fulica (ACRP) is a normal component of the hemolymph. Its concentration varied from 1mg/ml in the newly hatched male, 3-5 mg/ml in the most active hermaphrodite and 1.5-2.8 mg/ml in the sedentary female showing a direct relationship of the protein with the active phase of the animal. ACRP has a molecular mass of 400 kDa and showed high absorbance in the region of 200-230 nm. It has four subunits with relative molecular masses of 110, 90, 62 and 60 kDa, respectively. Interestingly, rat platelet aggregation in vitro was significantly enhanced by ACRP in presence of 10 microM ADP and 2 mM Ca(2+) suggesting a probable role of ACRP in the aggregation of amoebocytes during the formation of plug in injured tissue. Like other vertebrate CRPs, ACRP also acts as a scavenger of chromatin fragments as evidenced by its binding to poly-L-arginine. Among the sex steroids, 4-androstenedione induces ACRP synthesis in the newly hatched male reaching the level found in the most active hermaphrodite phase (4 mg/ml). A very high molar ratio (5) of mercury binding to ACRP confirmed its sequestration property of heavy metals as observed in vertebrates. The level of metallothionein (MT) in the hemolymph gradually increased from the male to the hermaphrodite to the female, a pattern distinctly different from that of the ACRP titer. Since both MT and ACRP can sequester inorganic mercury, the high level of MT compensates functionally for the low titer of ACRP in the sedentary female.

  12. Studies on chemical modification of cold agglutinin from the snail Achatina fulica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarkar, M; Mitra, D; Sen, A K

    1987-01-01

    The cold agglutinin isolated from the albumin gland of the snail Achatina fulica was modified with various chemical reagents in order to detect the amino acids and/or carbohydrate residues present in its carbohydrate-binding sites. Treatment with reagents considered specific for modification of lysine, arginine and tryptophan residues of the cold agglutinin did not affect the carbohydrate-binding activity of the agglutinin. Modification of tyrosine residues showed some change. However, modification with carbodiimide followed by alpha-aminobutyric acid methyl ester causes almost complete loss of its binding activity, indicating the involvement of aspartic acid and glutamic acid in its carbohydrate-binding activity. The carbohydrate residues of the cold agglutinin were removed by beta-elimination reaction, indicating that the sugars are O-glycosidically linked to protein part of the molecule. Removal of galactose residues from the cold agglutinin by the action of beta-galactosidase indicated that the galactose molecules are beta-linked. These carbohydrate-modified glycoproteins showed a marked change in agglutination property, i.e. they agglutinated rabbit erythrocytes at both 10 degrees C and 25 degrees C, indicating that the galactose residues of the glycoprotein play an important role in the cold-agglutination property of the glycoprotein. The c.d. data showed the presence of an almost identical type of random-coil conformation in the native cold agglutinin at 10 degrees C and in the carbohydrate-modified glycoprotein at 10 degrees C and 25 degrees C. This particular random-coil conformation is essential for carbohydrate-binding property of the agglutinin. Images Fig. 1. PMID:3118867

  13. Differential bioaccumulation patterns of nanosized and dissolved silver in a land snail Achatina fulica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yuanzhen; Si, Youbin; Zhou, Dongmei; Dang, Fei

    2017-03-01

    With the increasing application in antimicrobial products, silver nanoparticles (AgNP) are inevitably released into the terrestrial environment, and pose potential risks to invertebrates such as land snails Achatina fulica, which take up AgNP from food and water. Here we differentiate Ag uptake biodynamic between Ag forms (i.e., PVP-AgNP vs. AgNO 3 ) and between exposure pathways. Snails assimilated Ag efficiently from lettuce leaves pre-exposed to AgNP, with assimilation efficiencies (AEs) averaging 62-85% and food ingestion rates of 0.11 ± 0.03 g g -1  d -1 . Dietary Ag bioavailability was independent on Ag forms, as revealed by comparable AEs between AgNP and AgNO 3 . However, the uptake rate constant from water was much lower for AgNP relative to AgNO 3 (2 × 10 -4 vs. 0.12 L g -1  d -1 ). The elimination rate constants were 0.0093 ± 0.0037 d -1 for AgNP and 0.019 ± 0.0077 d -1 for AgNO 3 . Biodynamic modeling further showed that dietary exposure was the dominant uptake pathway for AgNP in most circumstances, while for AgNO 3 the relative importance of waterborne and dietary exposure depended on Ag concentrations in food and water. Our findings highlight the importance of dietary uptake of AgNP during bioaccumulation, which should be considered in the risk assessment of these nanoparticles. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Students' knowledge on the African giant mollusk Achatina fulica in a public school in the Recife metropolitan region

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    Marcos Souto Alves

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available The African giant mollusk Achatina fulica Bowdich, 1822 was introduced into Brazil in 1988 as a substitute for the European escargot Helix sp. This action did not induce the expected results and the gastropod has become an invasive species according to records in 23 Brazilian states. The presence of A. fulica has been reported to many towns in the state of Pernambuco. This work was carried out in order to evaluate, from an ethnoscientific approach, student knowledge about this giant African mollusk in a public school of Cabo de Santo Agostinho (Pernambuco. The Collective Subject Discourse (CSD technique was applied to the data obtained. The pupils' discourse revealed the existence of previous knowledge about A. fulica, especially on the following issues: disease transmission, taxonomy, environmental impacts brought about by the introduction of exotic species, and the process of ingress and growth of the mollusk in the human body. The authors emphasize the need of considering students' previous knowledge in order to plan and implement educational strategies related to wildlife conservation and exotic species management.

  15. Isolation of aerobic cultivable cellulolytic bacteria from different regions of the gastrointestinal tract of giant land snail Achatina fulica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinheiro, Guilherme L; Correa, Raquel F; Cunha, Raquel S; Cardoso, Alexander M; Chaia, Catia; Clementino, Maysa M; Garcia, Eloi S; de Souza, Wanderley; Frasés, Susana

    2015-01-01

    The enzymatic hydrolysis of cellulose by cellulases is one of the major limiting steps in the conversion of lignocellulosic biomass to yield bioethanol. To overcome this hindrance, significant efforts are underway to identify novel cellulases. The snail Achatina fulica is a gastropod with high cellulolytic activity, mainly due to the abundance of glycoside hydrolases produced by both the animal and its resident microbiota. In this study, we partially assessed the cellulolytic aerobic bacterial diversity inside the gastrointestinal tract of A. fulica by culture-dependent methods and evaluated the hydrolytic repertoire of the isolates. Forty bacterial isolates were recovered from distinct segments of the snail gut and identified to the genus level by 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis. Additional phenotypic characterization was performed using biochemical tests provided by the Vitek2 identification system. The overall enzymatic repertoire of the isolated strains was investigated by enzymatic plate assays, containing the following substrates: powdered sugarcane bagasse, carboxymethylcellulose (CMC), p-nitrophenyl-β-D-glucopyranoside (pNPG), p-nitrophenyl-β-D-cellobioside (pNPC), 4-methylumbelliferyl-β-D-glucopyranoside (MUG), 4-methylumbelliferyl-β-D-cellobioside (MUC), and 4-methylumbelliferyl-β-D-xylopyranoside (MUX). Our results indicate that the snail A. fulica is an attractive source of cultivable bacteria that showed to be valuable resources for the production of different types of biomass-degrading enzymes.

  16. Popular knowledge: impacts and methods for controlling Achatina fulica in Valença – RJ, Brazil

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    Evelyn Durço

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to check the incidence of the African snail Achatina fulica in the Cambota neighborhood, Valença, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, and investigate control strategies adopted by the population. Epidemiological questionnaires applied to 105 inhabitants evaluated the existence of their contact to the animal, the risk of infection by parasites, due to hygiene behaviors, and the control methods adopted. The presence of mollusks was reported in 52.5% of visited households. Out of these, 51.4% had rodents. Collected mollusks were analyzed with regard to the presence of nematodes. In the households with a positive result for the presence of A. fulica, direct contact to the mollusks was reported (21.9% by handling (often inappropriate or intake. All respondents said to use some technique for food hygiene and 67.6% said to know angiostrongyliasis. All respondents said to practice extermination of mollusks, 28.5% of them by breaking the shell. Despite the high incidence of A. fulica, larvae of Angiostrongylus sp. or other nematodes of medico-veterinary importance weren’t found in the analyzed specimens.

  17. Registro de Achatina fulica Bowdich, 1822 (Mollusca, Gastropoda no Brasil: caramujo hospedeiro intermediário da angiostrongilíase

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    Horácio Manuel Santana Teles

    1997-06-01

    Full Text Available A introdução de Achatina fulica é assinalada em Itariri, SP, Brasil. Essa espécie de caramujo terrestre foi importada para cultivo, visando à comercialização para consumo humano como "escargot". O encontro de exemplares em vida livre mostra a dispersão de A. fulica e, conseqüentemente, o risco de transmissão de Angiostrongylus cantonensis, nematóide parasita do homem e de outros vertebrados. Além disso, o caramujo é uma praga importante da agricultura.

  18. Registro de Achatina fulica Bowdich, 1822 (Mollusca, Gastropoda no Brasil: caramujo hospedeiro intermediário da angiostrongilíase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santana Teles Horácio Manuel

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available A introdução de Achatina fulica é assinalada em Itariri, SP, Brasil. Essa espécie de caramujo terrestre foi importada para cultivo, visando à comercialização para consumo humano como "escargot". O encontro de exemplares em vida livre mostra a dispersão de A. fulica e, conseqüentemente, o risco de transmissão de Angiostrongylus cantonensis, nematóide parasita do homem e de outros vertebrados. Além disso, o caramujo é uma praga importante da agricultura.

  19. [The characteristics of the cholinoreceptors on the identified TAN neuron of the giant African snail Achatina fulica].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stepanov, I I; Losev, N A

    1999-04-01

    Acetylcholine, nicotine, a selective agonist of N-cholinoreceptors suberildicholine dibromide, as well as a selective agonist of M-cholinoreceptors 5-methylfurmethide inhibited spike discharges in a dose-dependent manner up to a complete ceasing of the firing in cholinoreceptors situated on the identified neurone TAN of African giant snail Achatina fulica. M-cholinoblocker metamizylum completely prevented the inhibitory effect of methylfurmethide. Central cholinoblocker aetherophen completely prevented the inhibitory effect of suberildicholine dibromide. Metamizylum or aetherophen used alone were only able to decrease the inhibitory effect of acetylcholine, whereas a mixture of these agents suppressed completely the acetylcholine-induced inhibition. The findings suggest that, on the TAN membrane, nicotinic and muscarinic cholinoreceptors co-exist and function in one and the same direction.

  20. Copper sulphate (CuSO4) toxicity on tissue phosphatases activity and carbohydrates turnover in Achatina fulica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramalingam, K; Indra, D

    2002-04-01

    A time course study on the sublethal toxicity of CuSO4 on tissue carbohydrate metabolites level and their phosphatases activity in Achatina fulica revealed differential response. The levels of total carbohydrates and glycogen in the body mass muscle, foot muscle and hemolymph revealed their involvement in the endogenous derivation of energy during stress. The same metabolites in digestive gland revealed its importance to reproduction and development. The lactate accumulated in all the tissues implied the mechanism of CuSO4 toxicosis in the metabolic acidosis. The decrease of pyruvate in foot muscle, body mass muscle and hemolymph inferred the preponderance of glycolysis in energy derivation. In contrast, the pyruvate concentration in digestive gland revealed its differential response in the stress metabolic sequence of changes, as a unique tissue. The lactate/pyruvate ratio and the calcium content in tissues constitute direct evidences for the snails adaptation to toxic stress.

  1. Alimentation à base de produits du papayer et maturation ovocytaire chez Achatina fulica (Bowdich, 1820 en Côte d'Ivoire

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    N'Da, K.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Diets Based on Papaya and Oocyte Ripening by Achatina fulica (Bowdich, 1820 in Ivory Coast. The gardens snail, Achatina fulica (Bowdich, 1820 is a species recently introduced in Ivory Coast but of which the crop (the collection and consequently, its consumption is growing within the population. Its breeding becomes imperative. In experimental breeding condition out of the ground diets based on papaya (R1: leave; R2: fruit; R3: leave + fruit are (quantity of laid eggs and tiny (presence in more or less larger number of ripe oocytes in the ovotestis observations show that R3 regime is the most appropriate. It could be then recommended as diet to those who would like to breed this species.

  2. Effect of single and binary combinations of plant-derived molluscicides on different enzyme activities in the nervous tissue of Achatina fulica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, I G; Singh, Amrita; Singh, V K; Singh, D K

    2003-01-01

    Effect of single and binary treatments of plant-derived molluscicides on different enzymes--acetylcholinesterase (AChE), lactic dehydrogenase (LDH) and acid/alkaline phosphatase (ACP/ALP)--in the nervous tissue of the harmful terrestrial snail Achatina fulica were studied. Sublethal in vivo 24-h exposure to 40% and 80% LC(50) of Azadirachta indica oil, Cedrus deodara oil, Allium sativum bulb powder, Nerium indicum bark powder and binary combinations of A. sativum (AS) + C. deodara (CD) and CD + A. indica (AI) oils significantly altered the activity of these enzymes in the nervous tissue of Achatina fulica. The binary treatment of AS + CD was more effective against AChE, LDH, and ALP than the single ones. However, binary treatment of AI + CD was more effective against ALP. Copyright 2003 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  3. Neutral N-glycan patterns of the gastropods Limax maximus, Cepaea hortensis, Planorbarius corneus, Arianta arbustorum and Achatina fulica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutternigg, Martin; Bürgmayr, Sabine; Pöltl, Gerald; Rudolf, Judith; Staudacher, Erika

    2007-11-01

    The N-glycosylation potentials of Limax maximus, Cepaea hortensis, Planorbarius corneus, Arianta arbustorum and Achatina fulica were analysed by investigation of the N-glycan structures of the skin and viscera glycoproteins by a combination of HPLC and mass-spectrometry methods. It is one of the first steps to enlarge the knowledge on the glycosylation abilities of gastropods, which may help to establish new cell culture systems, to uncover new means for pest control for some species, and to identify carbohydrate-epitopes which may be relevant for immune response. All snails analysed contained mainly oligomannosidic and small paucimannosidic structures, often terminated with 3-O-methylated mannoses. The truncated structures carried modifications by beta1-2-linked xylose to the beta-mannose residue, and/or an alpha-fucosylation, mainly alpha1,6-linked to the innermost N-acetylglucosaminyl residue of the core. Many of these structures were missing the terminal N-acetylglucosamine, which has been shown to be a prerequisite for processing to complex N-glycans in the Golgi. In some species (Planorbarius corneus and Achatina fulica) traces of large structures, terminated by 3-O-methylated galactoses and carrying xylose and/or fucose residues, were also detected. In Planorbarius viscera low amounts of terminal alpha1-2-fucosylation were determined. Combining these results, gastropods seem to be capable to produce all kinds of structures ranging from those typical in mammals through to structures similar to those found in plants, insects or nematodes. The detailed knowledge of this very complex glycosylation system of the gastropods will be a valuable tool to understand the principle rules of glycosylation in all organisms.

  4. Screening Cellulolytic Bacteria from the Digestive Tract Snail (Achatina fulica and Test the Ability of Cellulase Activity

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    Wijanarka Wijanarka

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available On the research of enzyme production levels observed cellulase produced by bacteria in the digestive tract of the isolation of the Snail (Achatina fulica. Isolation of bacteria based on the ability of bacteria to grow on CMC media. The purpose of this study was to determine cellulase activity by cellulolytic bacteria. Some bacterial isolates were identified as cellulolytic bacteria, they were KE-B1, KE-B2, KE-B3, KE-B4, KE-B5, and KE-B6. Isolates KE-B6 was the best isolates. Furthermore KE-B6 isolates were grown on media production to determine the pattern of growth and enzyme activity. Measurement of cell growth was conducted by inoculating starter aged 22 hours at CMC production of liquid medium. Cellulase enzyme activity measurements was performed by the DNS method. The results showed that the highest activity by new isolate bacteria KE-B6 and its value of the activity of 0.4539 U/mL, growth rate (µ 0.377/hour and generation time (g 1.84 hour. This research expected cellulase of producing bacteria were easy, inexpensive and efficient. This enzyme can be used as an enzyme biolytic once expected to replace expensive commercial enzyme. The biotylic enzyme can be applied to strains improvement (protoplast fusion.How to CiteWijanarka, W., Kusdiyantini, E. & Parman, S. (2016. Screening Cellulolytic Bacteria from the Digestive Tract Snail (Achatina fulica and Test the Ability of Cellulase Activity. Biosaintifika: Journal of Biology & Biology Education, 8(3, 386-392. 

  5. Avaliação dos problemas enfrentados no manejo do caramujo gigante africano Achatina fulica (Gastropoda: Pulmonata no Brasil Evaluation of the problems faced in the management of the giant African snail Achatina fulica (Gastropoda: Pulmonata in Brazil

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    Eduardo Colley

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The giant African snail Achatina fulica Bowdich, 1822 was introduced into Paraná, Brazil, in the 1980s. Since then, it has spread across the country, despite its known invasive status on a global scale. The main objective of this study was to assess the problems faced in the management of the giant African snail. To accomplish that, we gathered and analyzed information available on the internet, scientific databases, field studies, as well as interviews and consultations with official agencies, NGOs, museums, the scientific community and people that coexist with the species. Despite the fact that extensive information has been generated regarding A. fulica (1,340 articles, 65 summaries in national annals, 40,700 pages on the internet, essential to promote control measures to hinder the propagation of this species, the majority of the available information remains inaccessible to the world at large. Moreover, the environmental, economic and health impacts of this species remain unclear, which may contribute to discouraging the initiation of management actions. Finally, control measures are still inefficient due to the generalist profile of this species and the lack of knowledge concerning its biology and ecology. Thus, in conclusion, even though A. fulica has been an invasive species for over a century in many other countries, it is difficult to find evidence supporting the need to subsidize its management. This may be an indication that many other, poorly known exotic species will have time and the proper conditions to become established and cause problems before they come to be recognized as invasive.

  6. Current distribution of Achatina fulica, in the State of São Paulo including records of Aelurostrongylus abstrusus (Nematoda larvae infestation Distribuição atual de Achatina fulica Bowdich, 1822 no Estado de São Paulo com registro de infestação por larvas de Aelurostrongylus abstrusus (Nematoda

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    Fernanda Pires Ohlweiler

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available The currently known distribution range of Achatina fulica Bowdich, 1822, in the state of São Paulo, Brazil, is presented. The record of A. fulica naturally infested with Aelurostrongylus abstrusus larvae (Railliet, 1898 (Nematoda: Metastrongylidae can be found in the city of Guaratinguetá. It was found A. fulica with Metastrongylidae larvae without known medical and veterinary importance in the cities of Carapicuíba, Embu-Guaçu, Itapevi, São Caetano do Sul, São Paulo and Taboão da Serra.É apresentada a distribuição de Achatina fulica Bowdich, 1822 no Estado de São Paulo, Brasil. É fornecido o registro de A. fulica naturalmente infestada por larvas de Aelurostrongylus abstrusus (Railliet, 1898 (Nematoda: Metastrongylidae no município de Guaratinguetá. Foi encontrada A. fulica portando larvas de Metastrongylidae sem importância médica e veterinária conhecida nos municípios de Carapicuíba, Embu Guaçu, Itapevi, São Caetano do Sul, São Paulo e Taboão da Serra.

  7. The role of amoebocytes in endotoxin-mediated coagulation in the innate immunity of Achatina fulica snails.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biswas, C; Mandal, C

    1999-02-01

    Achatina amoebocyte lysate (AAL) derived from amoebocytes of Achatina fulica was activated by Gram-negative bacterial endotoxins in a time-dependent manner resulting in gel formation/coagulation. The activation and maximum proliferation of amoebocytes was observed 40 min after intramuscular injection (20 microg/snail) of endotoxin. Endotoxin-mediated proteolytic activity of AAL towards a serine-protease-specific chromogenic substrate was maximum at pH 8.0, 37 degrees C and within 15 min in a divalent-cation-dependent manner. The AAL activity induced by the endotoxin was directly dependent on the endotoxin concentration, showed a high specificity and saturated at higher endotoxin concentrations. An endotoxin-sensitive factor (ESF) was purified from AAL to apparent homogeneity by single-step affinity chromatography on a heparin-Sepharose 4B column. Native ESF of molecular weight 140 000 was composed of two identical subunits of molecular weight 70 000 attached through non-covalent association. A strong binding to endotoxin (Escherichia coli 055:B5) was exhibited by ESF with a 40-fold higher biological activity than AAL. The ESF was shown to have a unique Phe-Ile active site with regard to its alternate activation by alpha-chymotrypsin instead of endotoxin. The ESF was characterized as a serine protease type as evidenced by potent inhibition with specific inhibitors.

  8. Atrial granular cells of the snail Achatina fulica release proteins into hemolymph after stimulation of the heart nerve.

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    Shabelnikov, Sergej V; Bystrova, Olga A; Ivanov, Vadim A; Margulis, Boris A; Martynova, Marina

    2009-10-01

    The atrium of the gastropod mollusc Achatina fulica receives rich innervation and contains numerous granular cells (GCs). We studied the atrial innervation and discovered that axon profiles typical in appearance of peptidergic neurons form close unspecialized membrane contacts with GCs. Then, we investigated, at both morphological and biochemical levels, the effect of electrical stimulation of the heart nerve on GCs of Achatina heart perfused in situ. The ultrastructural study demonstrated changes in granule morphology consistent with secretion. These events included alteration of granule content, intracellular granule fusion and formation of complex degranulation channels, within which the granule matrix solubilized. It was shown that electrical stimulation resulted in a significant increase of the total protein concentration in the perfusate. Furthermore, SDS-PAGE analysis of the perfusate revealed three new proteins with molecular masses of 16, 22, and 57 kDa. Affinity-purified polyclonal antibodies against the 16 kDa protein were obtained; the whole-mount immunofluorescence technique revealed the presence of this protein in the granules of atrial GCs. In GCs of the stimulated atrium, a progressive loss of their granular content was observed. The results suggest that the central nervous system can modulate the secretory activity of the atrial GCs through non-synaptic pathways.

  9. Rapid upregulation of heart antioxidant enzymes during arousal from estivation in the Giant African snail (Achatina fulica).

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    Salway, Kurtis D; Tattersall, Glenn J; Stuart, Jeffrey A

    2010-11-01

    Estivation is an adaptive response to environments characterized by elevated temperatures and desiccative stress, as may occur during summer dry seasons. Similar to diapause and hibernation, it is characterized by low levels of activity, a drastically suppressed metabolic rate and enhanced stress resistance. We tested the hypothesis that Achatina fulica, a pulmonate land snail, enhances stress resistance during estivation and/or arousal by upregulating intracellular antioxidant defenses in the heart, kidney, hepatopancreas and foot tissues. No statistically significant changes in mitochondrial or cytosolic superoxide dismutase levels or activities, or glutathione peroxidase, glutathione reductase or catalase activities were associated with estivation in any tissue, however. In contrast, during arousal from estivation, activities of several antioxidant enzymes increased in heart, hepatopancreas and foot. In heart, a rapid increase in MnSOD protein levels was observed that peaked at 2h post arousal, but no such change was observed in CuZnSOD protein levels. Glutathione peroxidase activity was upregulated at 1h post arousal and remained elevated until 8h post arousal in heart tissue. Glutathione peroxidase was also upregulated at 24h post arousal in foot tissue. Glutathione reductase activity was upregulated at 4h post arousal in heart and foot tissues whereas catalase activity showed no changes. Markers of lipid peroxidation and protein damage revealed no significant increases during estivation or arousal. Therefore, antioxidant enzymes may play a role in oxidative stress defense specifically during arousal from estivation in A. fulica. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Ecological studies on the breeding of Aedes aegypti and other mosquitos in shells of the giant African snail Achatina fulica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trpis, Milan

    1973-01-01

    The breeding of larvae of Aedes aegypti, Aedes simpsoni, and Eretmapodites quinquevittatus in empty shells of Achatina fulica was studied in the coastal zone of Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. The average density of shells was estimated to be 228 per ha. From 11 to 35% were positive for mosquito larvae. A. aegypti were found in 82-84% of positive shells; A. simpsoni in 8-13%. On Msasani peninsula, during the 3-month rainy season April—June 1970, the larval density of A. aegypti in shells was estimated at 1 100 per ha, that of A. simpsoni and E. quinquevittatus being estimated at 60 and 280 larvae per ha, respectively. Empty shells of A. fulica may contain up to 250 ml of water (average: 56.5 ml). The number of larvae per shell varies from 1 to 35 (average: 8.4) and it was estimated that, depending on the availability of food, and other factors, approximately 10 ml of water are required per larva. Viable eggs of A. aegypti were still to be found in 4% of the shells at the end of the dry season. PMID:4148745

  11. Evidence for a possible role for nitric oxide in the modulation of heart activity in Achatina fulica and Helix aspersa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, A R; Curtis, S A; Walker, R J

    2004-02-01

    The effects of nitric oxide (NO) donors, S-nitroso-N-acetylpenicillamine, S-nitroso-l-glutathione, sodium nitroprusside and sodium nitrite were investigated on the activity of the isolated hearts of Achatina fulica and Helix aspersa. NO donors inhibited heart activity in a concentration-dependent manner. The only exception was sodium nitroprusside, which excited H. aspersa heart. The inhibitory effects of these NO donors were reduced by the NO scavenger, methylene blue, the guanylyl cyclase inhibitor, 1H-(1,2,4) Oxadiazolo(4,3-a)quinoxalin-1-one (ODQ), and potentiated by 8-Br-cGMP and the phosphodiesterase inhibitor 3-isobutyl-1-methylxanthine (IBMX). Acetylcholine also inhibited the heart activity, and this inhibition was reduced by methylene blue and ODQ. Positive NADPH-diaphorase staining was located in the outer pericardial layer of the heart of A. fulica. The present results provide evidence that NO may modulate the activity of gastropod hearts, and this modulation may modify the inhibitory action of acetylcholine on heart activity.

  12. Low susceptibility of Achatina fulica from Brazil to infection with AngioIylus costaricensis and A. cantonensis.

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    Neuhauss, Erli; Fitarelli, Monaliza; Romanzini, Juliano; Graeff-Teixeira, Carlos

    2007-02-01

    Introduction of Achatina fulica in Brazil has led to serious concerns about its role as vector for metaIylid worms: AngioIylus costaricensis and A. cantonensis. Experimental infection with both parasites was performed to evaluate the potential risk for their transmission by the giant African snail. Groups of 5 animals, both wild and bred at captivity were exposed at different inocula: 1, 5, and 10 x 10(3) L1 of A. costaricensis and A. cantonensis. In all groups, few snails got infected and parasitic burden was low. Two different ways of infection were tested: ingestion produced higher numbers of L3 than the inoculation through an artificial hole in the shell. We also report the parasitological examination of 6 batches of wild A. fulica from Florianópolis, state of Santa Catarina, Brazil: only 1 out of 244 animals were infected with metaIylid larvae. Taken together these data indicate that the giant African snail occurring in Southern Brazil is not a permissive host for both AngioIylus species and does not represent a significant risk for transmission of these parasites.

  13. First report of Angiostrongylus cantonensis (Nematoda: Metastrongylidae in Achatina fulica (Mollusca: Gastropoda from Southeast and South Brazil

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    Arnaldo Maldonado Júnior

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available The rat lungworm Angiostrongylus cantonensis is a worldwide-distributed zoonotic nematode that can cause human eosinophilic meningoencephalitis. Here, for the first time, we report the isolation of A. cantonensis from Achatina fulica from two Brazilian states: Rio de Janeiro (specifically the municipalities of Barra do Piraí, situated at the Paraiba River Valley region and São Gonçalo, situated at the edge of Guanabara Bay and Santa Catarina (in municipality of Joinville. The lungworms were identified by comparing morphological and morphometrical data obtained from adult worms to values obtained from experimental infections of A. cantonensis from Pernambuco, Brazil, and Akita, Japan. Only a few minor morphological differences that were determined to represent intra-specific variation were observed. This report of A. cantonensis in South and Southeast Brazil, together with the recent report of the zoonosis and parasite-infected molluscs in Northeast Brazil, provide evidence of the wide distribution of A. cantonensis in the country. The need for efforts to better understand the role of A. fulica in the transmission of meningoencephalitis in Brazil and the surveillance of molluscs and rodents, particularly in ports, is emphasized.

  14. Specific detection of Angiostrongylus cantonensis in the snail Achatina fulica using a loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chun-Yan; Song, Hui-Qun; Zhang, Ren-Li; Chen, Mu-Xin; Xu, Min-Jun; Ai, Lin; Chen, Xiao-Guang; Zhan, Xi-Mei; Liang, Shao-Hui; Yuan, Zi-Guo; Lin, Rui-Qing; Zhu, Xing-Quan

    2011-08-01

    Angiostrongylus cantonensis, a rat lungworm, can cause eosinophilic meningitis and angiostrongyliasis in humans following ingestion of contaminated foods or intermediate/paratenic hosts with infective larvae. The snail Achatina fulica is one of the important intermediate hosts of A. cantonensis and is commonly eaten by humans in some countries. In the present study, we developed a loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) method for the specific detection of A. cantonensis in Ac. fulica. Primers for LAMP were designed based on the first internal transcribed spacer (ITS-1) of nuclear ribosomal DNA (rDNA) of A. cantonensis. Specificity tests showed that only the products of A. cantonensis were detected when DNA samples of A. cantonensis and the heterologous control samples Anisakis simplex s.s, Trichuris trichiura, Toxocara canis, Trichinella spiralis and Ascaris lumbricoides were amplified by LAMP. Sensitivity evaluation indicated that the LAMP assay is 10 times more sensitive than the conventional polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay. The established LAMP assay is rapid, inexpensive and easy to be performed. It can be used in clinical applications for rapid and sensitive detection of A. cantonensis in snails, which has implications for the effective control of angiostrongyliasis. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. First report of Angiostrongylus cantonensis (Nematoda: Metastrongylidae) in Achatina fulica (Mollusca: Gastropoda) from Southeast and South Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maldonado, Arnaldo; Simões, Raquel O; Oliveira, Ana Paula M; Motta, Esther M; Fernandez, Mônica A; Pereira, Zilene M; Monteiro, Simone S; Torres, Eduardo J Lopes; Thiengo, Silvana Carvalho

    2010-11-01

    The rat lungworm Angiostrongylus cantonensis is a worldwide-distributed zoonotic nematode that can cause human eosinophilic meningoencephalitis. Here, for the first time, we report the isolation of A. cantonensis from Achatina fulica from two Brazilian states: Rio de Janeiro (specifically the municipalities of Barra do Piraí, situated at the Paraiba River Valley region and São Gonçalo, situated at the edge of Guanabara Bay) and Santa Catarina (in municipality of Joinville). The lungworms were identified by comparing morphological and morphometrical data obtained from adult worms to values obtained from experimental infections of A. cantonensis from Pernambuco, Brazil, and Akita, Japan. Only a few minor morphological differences that were determined to represent intra-specific variation were observed. This report of A. cantonensis in South and Southeast Brazil, together with the recent report of the zoonosis and parasite-infected molluscs in Northeast Brazil, provide evidence of the wide distribution of A. cantonensis in the country. The need for efforts to better understand the role of A. fulica in the transmission of meningoencephalitis in Brazil and the surveillance of molluscs and rodents, particularly in ports, is emphasized.

  16. First report of Angiostrongylus cantonensis in the giant African land snail Achatina fulica in French Polynesia detected using the SSU rRNA gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontanilla I, K C; Wade, C M

    2012-12-01

    The 5' end of the small subunit ribosomal RNA gene was used to determine whether 3rd larval stage Angiostrongylus cantonensis are present in populations of the giant African land snail Achatina fulica from French Polynesia. Two populations, one from Moaroa Valley, Tahiti (n=5) and the other from Haapiti Valley, Moorea (n=10), were examined. All snails from Tahiti were infected with nematodes, with parasite load ranging from 12 to 28. A total of 92 nematodes were found, of which 91 were positively identified as A. cantonensis. No nematodes were found in the snails from Moorea. We report for the first time the presence of A. cantonensis in A. fulica snails from French Polynesia, indicating a viable route of human infection of A. cantonensis in the region through the handling of A. fulica or consumption of the snail or contaminated food crops associated with the snail.

  17. Gut bacterial communities in the giant land snail Achatina fulica and their modification by sugarcane-based diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardoso, Alexander M; Cavalcante, Janaína J V; Vieira, Ricardo P; Lima, Joyce L; Grieco, Maria Angela B; Clementino, Maysa M; Vasconcelos, Ana Tereza R; Garcia, Eloi S; de Souza, Wanderley; Albano, Rodolpho M; Martins, Orlando B

    2012-01-01

    The invasive land snail Achatina fulica is one of the most damaging agricultural pests worldwide representing a potentially serious threat to natural ecosystems and human health. This species is known to carry parasites and harbors a dense and metabolically active microbial community; however, little is known about its diversity and composition. Here, we assessed for the first time the complexity of bacterial communities occurring in the digestive tracts of field-collected snails (FC) by using culture-independent molecular analysis. Crop and intestinal bacteria in FC were then compared to those from groups of snails that were reared in the laboratory (RL) on a sugarcane-based diet. Most of the sequences recovered were novel and related to those reported for herbivorous gut. Changes in the relative abundance of Bacteroidetes and Firmicutes were observed when the snails were fed a high-sugar diet, suggesting that the snail gut microbiota can influence the energy balance equation. Furthermore, this study represents a first step in gaining a better understanding of land snail gut microbiota and shows that this is a complex holobiont system containing diverse, abundant and active microbial communities.

  18. Effect of Climate Change on Invasion Risk of Giant African Snail (Achatina fulica Férussac, 1821: Achatinidae in India.

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    Roshmi Rekha Sarma

    Full Text Available The Giant African Snail (Achatina fulica is considered to be one the world's 100 worst invasive alien species. The snail has an impact on native biodiversity, and on agricultural and horticultural crops. In India, it is known to feed on more than fifty species of native plants and agricultural crops and also outcompetes the native snails. It was introduced into India in 1847 and since then it has spread all across the country. In this paper, we use ecological niche modeling (ENM to assess the distribution pattern of Giant African Snail (GAS under different climate change scenarios. The niche modeling results indicate that under the current climate scenario, Eastern India, peninsular India and the Andaman and Nicobar Islands are at high risk of invasion. The three different future climate scenarios show that there is no significant change in the geographical distribution of invasion prone areas. However, certain currently invaded areas will be more prone to invasion in the future. These regions include parts of Bihar, Southern Karnataka, parts of Gujarat and Assam. The Andaman and Nicobar and Lakshadweep Islands are highly vulnerable to invasion under changed climate. The Central Indian region is at low risk due to high temperature and low rainfall. An understanding of the invasion pattern can help in better management of this invasive species and also in formulating policies for its control.

  19. Biochemical profile of Achatina fulica (Mollusca: Gastropoda) after infection by different parasitic loads of Angiostrongylus cantonensis (Nematoda, Metastrongylidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tunholi-Alves, Vinícius Menezes; Tunholi, Victor Menezes; Amaral, Ludimila Santos; Mota, Esther Maria; Maldonado Júnior, Arnaldo; Pinheiro, Jairo; Garcia, Juberlan

    2015-01-01

    The effect of experimental infection by different parasitic loads of Angiostrongylus cantonensis (Nematode, Metastrongylidae) on the activities of the aminotransferases and concentration of total proteins, uric acid and urea in the hemolymph of Achatina fulica (Mollusca, Gastropoda) were investigated. There was a significant decrease in the concentration of total proteins in the exposed snails to 5000 or more larvae. This change was accompanied by an increase in the concentrations of urea and uric acid in the hemolymph, suggesting a higher rate of deamination of the amino acids. Besides this, variations in the activities of the aminotransferases were also observed, with the highest values recorded in the groups exposed to greater parasite load. These results suggest an increase in the use of total proteins, since there was increased formation of nitrogenous catabolites, in conformity with an increase in the aminotransferase activities. Infection was verified by the fact that L3 larvae recovered from the snails was proportion to the exposure dose of L1 larvae. Histopathological results also indicated presence of an inflammatory cell infiltrate, favoring an increase of both transaminases. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Effect of Climate Change on Invasion Risk of Giant African Snail (Achatina fulica Férussac, 1821: Achatinidae) in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarma, Roshmi Rekha; Munsi, Madhushree; Ananthram, Aravind Neelavara

    2015-01-01

    The Giant African Snail (Achatina fulica) is considered to be one the world's 100 worst invasive alien species. The snail has an impact on native biodiversity, and on agricultural and horticultural crops. In India, it is known to feed on more than fifty species of native plants and agricultural crops and also outcompetes the native snails. It was introduced into India in 1847 and since then it has spread all across the country. In this paper, we use ecological niche modeling (ENM) to assess the distribution pattern of Giant African Snail (GAS) under different climate change scenarios. The niche modeling results indicate that under the current climate scenario, Eastern India, peninsular India and the Andaman and Nicobar Islands are at high risk of invasion. The three different future climate scenarios show that there is no significant change in the geographical distribution of invasion prone areas. However, certain currently invaded areas will be more prone to invasion in the future. These regions include parts of Bihar, Southern Karnataka, parts of Gujarat and Assam. The Andaman and Nicobar and Lakshadweep Islands are highly vulnerable to invasion under changed climate. The Central Indian region is at low risk due to high temperature and low rainfall. An understanding of the invasion pattern can help in better management of this invasive species and also in formulating policies for its control.

  1. Gut bacterial communities in the giant land snail Achatina fulica and their modification by sugarcane-based diet.

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    Alexander M Cardoso

    Full Text Available The invasive land snail Achatina fulica is one of the most damaging agricultural pests worldwide representing a potentially serious threat to natural ecosystems and human health. This species is known to carry parasites and harbors a dense and metabolically active microbial community; however, little is known about its diversity and composition. Here, we assessed for the first time the complexity of bacterial communities occurring in the digestive tracts of field-collected snails (FC by using culture-independent molecular analysis. Crop and intestinal bacteria in FC were then compared to those from groups of snails that were reared in the laboratory (RL on a sugarcane-based diet. Most of the sequences recovered were novel and related to those reported for herbivorous gut. Changes in the relative abundance of Bacteroidetes and Firmicutes were observed when the snails were fed a high-sugar diet, suggesting that the snail gut microbiota can influence the energy balance equation. Furthermore, this study represents a first step in gaining a better understanding of land snail gut microbiota and shows that this is a complex holobiont system containing diverse, abundant and active microbial communities.

  2. Effects of penicillin on procaine-elicited bursts of potential in central neuron of snail, Achatina fulica.

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    Chen, Yi-Hung; Lu, Kuan-Ling; Hsiao, Ru-Wan; Lee, Ya-Ling; Tsai, Hong-Chieh; Lin, Chia Hsien; Tsai, Ming-Cheng

    2008-08-01

    Effects of penicillin on changes in procaine-elicited bursts of potential (BoP) were studied in a central neuron (RP4) of snail, Achatina fulica Ferussac. Procaine elicited BoP in the RP4 neuron while penicillin elicited depolarization of the neuron. Penicillin decreased the BoP elicited by procaine in a concentration-dependent manner. The effect of penicillin on the procaine-elicited BoP was not altered in the preparations treated with ascorbate or L-NAME (N-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester). However, the inhibitory effect of penicillin on the procaine-elicited BoP was enhanced with a decrease in extracellular sodium ion. Sodium ion was one of the important ions contributing to the action potential of the neuron. Two-electrode voltage-clamp studies revealed that penicillin decreased the fast sodium inward current of the neuron. It is concluded that penicillin inhibited the BoP elicited by procaine and sodium ion altered the effect of penicillin on procaine-elicited BoP.

  3. Variation of acharan sulfate and monosaccharide composition and analysis of neutral N-glycans in African giant snail (Achatina fulica).

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    Park, Youmie; Zhang, Zhenqing; Laremore, Tatiana N; Li, Boyangzi; Sim, Joon-Soo; Im, A-Rang; Ahn, Mi Young; Kim, Yeong Shik; Linhardt, Robert J

    2008-12-01

    Acharan sulfate content from African giant snail (Achatina fulica) was compared in eggs and snails of different ages. Acharan sulfate was not found in egg. Acharan sulfate disaccharide -->4)-alpha-D-GlcNpAc (1-->4)-alpha-L-IdoAp2S(1-->, analyzed by SAX (strong-anion exchange)-HPLC was observed soon after hatching and increases as the snails grow. Monosaccharide compositional analysis showed that mole % of glucosamine, a major monosaccharide of acharan sulfate, increased with age while mole % of galactose decreased with age. These results suggest that galactans represent a major energy source during development, while acharan sulfate appearing immediately after hatching, is essential for the snail growth. The structures of neutral N-glycans released from eggs by peptide N-glycosidase F (PNGase F), were next elucidated using ESI-MS/MS, MALDI-MS/MS, enzyme digestion, and monosaccharide composition analysis. Three types of neutral N-glycan structures were observed, truncated (Hex(2-4)-HexNAc(2)), high mannose (Hex(5-9)-HexNAc(2)), and complex (Hex(3)-HexNAc(2-10)) types. None showed core fucosylation.

  4. Philippine Survey of Nematode Parasite Infection and Load in the Giant African Snail Achatina fulica indicate Angiostrongylus cantonensis infection in Mindanao

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    Daisy May A. Constantino-Santos

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Achatina fulica is a ubiquitous land snail commonly found throughout the Philippines. As a generalist feeder and being able to survive in a wide range of habitat types and conditions, the snail can easily establish itself in a new area after introduction. It also acts as host to a variety of parasites, including nematodes, which may accidentally infect humans. In this study, A. fulica individuals from 13 areas in the Philippines were sampled and analyzed for nematode infection rate and load. Of the 393 individuals sampled, 80 (20% were found to be infected, with 5049 nematodes isolated. The infection rates and parasite load were highly variable. Overall, the parasite load ranges from 1 to 867 per snail. Representative nematodes from A. fulica from Plaridel (n=8 and Davao City (n=26 in Mindanao were subjected to DNA extraction, PCR amplification, and sequencing of the SSU rRNA gene, which is the universal barcode for nematodes. Sequences successfully matched with the dog lungworm Oslerus osleri for the Plaridel nematodes and the rat lungworm Angiostrongylus cantonensis for the Davao City nematodes, respectively. The latter is known to infect humans and can cause eosinophilic meningoencephalitis. This study presents the first report of A. cantonensis in A. fulica from Mindanao and raises a public health concern.

  5. Investigation on interaction of Achatinin, a 9-O-acetyl sialic acid-binding lectin, with lipopolysaccharide in the innate immunity of Achatina fulica snails.

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    Biswas, C; Sinha, D; Mandal, C

    2000-01-01

    Achatinin, a 9-O-acetyl sialic acid (9-O-AcSA) binding lectin, has been demonstrated to be synthesized in amoebocytes of Achatina fulica snails. This lectin was affinity-purified from Achatina amoebocytes lysate (AAL); it appeared as a single band on native polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE) and showed 16 identical subunits of M.W. 15 kDa on sodium dodecyl sulphate (SDS)-PAGE. It was found to be homologous with an earlier reported lectin, Achatinin-H, derived from hemolymph of A. fulica snails (Sen, G., Mandal, C., 1995. The specificity of the binding site of Achatinin-H, a sialic-acid binding lectin from Achantia fulica. Carbohydr. Res., 268, 115-125). Homology between both lectins was confirmed by their similar electrophoretic mobilities, carbohydrate specificity and cross reactivity on immunodiffusion. Achatinin showed in vitro calcium dependent binding to two 9-O-acetylated sialoglyoconjugates (9-O-AcSG) on lipopolysaccharide (LPS) (Escherichia coli 055: B5) of M.W. 40 kDa and 27.5 kDa, which was abolished following de-O-acetylation. Based on the previously defined narrow sugar specificity of Achatinin towards 9-O-AcSAalpha2-->6GalNAc [Sen, G., Mandal, C., 1995. The specificity of the binding site of Achatinin-H, a sialic-acid binding lectin from Achatina fulica. Carbohydr. Res., 268, 115-125], we conclude that LPS contains this lectinogenic epitope at the terminal sugar moiety. The Achatinin-mediated hemagglutination inhibition of rabbit erythrocytes by LPS further confirmed it. The lectin exhibited bacteriostatic effect on Gram-negative bacteria E. coli, DH5alpha and C600. AAL was earlier reported to undergo coagulation in presence of pg level of LPS (Biswas, C., Mandal, C., 1999. The role of amoebocytes in the endotoxin-mediated coagulation in the innate immunity of Achatina fulica snail, Scand. J. Immunol. 49, 131-138). We now demonstrate that Achatinin participates in LPS-mediated coagulation of AAL as indicated by enhanced release of Achatinin from

  6. The Giant Snail Achatina fulica as a Candidate Species for Advanced Bioregenerative Life Support Systems

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    Verbitskaya, Olga; Manukovsky, Nickolay; Kovalev, Vladimir

    Maintenance of crew health is of paramount importance for long duration space missions. Weight loss, bone and calcium loss, increased exposure to radiation and oxidative stress are critical concerns that need to be alleviated. Rational nutrition is a resource for mitigating the influence of unfavorable conditions. The insufficiency of vegetarian diet has been examined by the Japanese, Chinese and U.S. developers of bioregenerative life support systems (BLSS). Hence, inclusion of animals such as silkworm in BLSS looks justified. The giant snail is currently under studying as a source of animal food and a species of reducing waste in BLSS. An experimental system to conduct cultivation of giant snail was developed. It was established that there are some reasons to use the giant snails in BLSS. It could be a source of delicious meat. A. fulica is capable of consuming a wide range of feedstuffs including plant residues. Cultivation of snail in the limited volume does not demand the big expenditures of labor. The production of crude edible biomass and protein of A. fulica was 60±15 g and 7±1.8 g respectively per 1 kg of consumed forage (fresh salad leaves, root and leafy tops of carrot). To satisfy daily animal protein needs (30-35 g) a crewman has to consume 260-300 g of snail meat. To produce such amount of snail protein it takes to use 4.3-5.0 kg of plant forage daily. The nutritional composition of A. fulica whole bodies (without shell) and a meal prepared in various ways was quantitatively determined. Protein, carbohydrate, fat acid and ash content percentages were different among samples prepared in various ways. The protein content was highest (68 %) in the dry sample washed with CH3 COOH solution. Taking into consideration the experimental results a conceptual configuration of BLSS with inclusion of giant snail was developed and mass flow rates between compartments were calculated. Keywords: animal food; protein; giant snail; BLSS; conceptual configuration.

  7. Cytotoxic effect of achatinin(H) (lectin) from Achatina fulica against a human mammary carcinoma cell line (MCF7).

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    Dharmu, Indra; Ramamurty, N; Kannan, Ramalingam; Babu, Mary

    2007-01-01

    The hemolymph-derived achatinin(H) (lectin) from Achatina fulica showed a marked cytotoxic effect on MCF7, a human mammary carcinoma cell line. IC(50) values as measured by the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay for achatinin(H) ranged from 6 to 10 microg/ml in the MCF7 cells. MCF7 cells showed significant morphological changes leading to cell death. The above cell death was observed after 48 h of treatment with 8 microg/ml when compared to untreated cells. Alterations in the tumor marker enzymes, as well as in antioxidant enzymes, were observed after achatinin(H) treatment. The specificity and purity of the achatinin(H) was confirmed by the Western blot assay. Achatinin(H) binding to MCF7 cells was detected by anti-achatinin(H), and visualization of the achatinin(H) binding sites on confluent MCF7 cells was confirmed by flourescein isothiocyanate conjugated secondary antibody. MCF7-treated cells fluoresced, indicating the presence of achatinin(H) binding sites. Fluorescence-activated cell sorting analysis of the cell cycle showed a significant increase in S-phase in MCF7 cells after 48 h of achatinin(H) treatment. The cells were arrested in G(2)/M phase of the cell cycle after 48 h with significant changes in cell viability. Cellular damage was confirmed by agarose gel electrophoresis with the characteristic appearance of a DNA streak in treated MCF7 cells indicating the ongoing apoptosis.

  8. Intrapopulational genic variation of the giant African Snail (Achatina fulica in the Valle del Cauca

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    Angie Patiño-Montoya

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To evaluate the intrapopulation genetic variation of A. fulica in the Valle del Cauca. Materials and methods. Ten microsatellite loci from specimens collected at eight municipalities in the Valle del Cauca Department were amplified. Allelic frequencies and descriptors of intrapopulation genetic diversity were estimated. Bayesian analysis was used to estimate the number of groups present in the study area. Results. Two groups were identified in the Valle del Cauca (p > 50%: one group comprised individuals from the north and center of the department, and one group comprised individuals from the south and west of the department. These groups were genetically different from each other (FST 0.16; p<0.05. Isolation by distance was confirmed (Mantel p 0.01; R2 0.06, and a high level of endogamy was detected through a deficit of heterozygotes in the evaluated loci (FIS 0.45. Conclusions. We suggest that the A. fulica population present in the Valle del Cauca could have been introduced at more than one location, or that there could have been more than one wave of invasion. The high level of endogamy is probably the result of control activities that eliminated adult individuals in the population, which has led to an enhanced founder effect.

  9. Lipids analysis in hemolymph of African giant Achatina fulica (Bowdich, 1822) exposed to different photoperiods.

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    Lustrino, D; Tunholi-Alves, V M; Tunholi, V M; Marassi, M P; Pinheiro, J

    2010-02-01

    The influence of different photophases (0, 6, 12, 18 and 24 hours) on the triglycerides and total cholesterol contents in the hemolymph of A. fulica was evaluated, since there is no information in the literature about the influence of this factor on lipids metabolism in mollusks. After 2 and 4 weeks of exposure the snails were dissected. The cholesterol content at the 2nd and 4th weeks post exposure only varied significantly in the groups exposed at 24 hours and 0 hour of photophase, respectively. Probably, such increase may be a result of a rise in cholesterol biosynthesis and/or remodelling of cell membranes. There were no significant differences among the content of triglycerides in the snails exposed to 6, 12, 18 and 24 hours of photophase during two weeks. The snails exposed to intermediate photophase (6 and 12 hours) had the triglycerides content increased, ranging over values near to those observed in the group exposed to 0 hour. Results showed that triglycerides metabolism in A. fulica are more influenced by photoperiod than cholesterol metabolism. A negative relation is maintained between the triglycerides content in the hemolymph and the different photophases, with lower mobilisation of triglycerides under shorter photophases.

  10. Lipids analysis in hemolymph of African giant Achatina fulica (Bowdich, 1822 exposed to different photoperiods

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    D. Lustrino

    Full Text Available The influence of different photophases (0, 6, 12, 18 and 24 hours on the triglycerides and total cholesterol contents in the hemolymph of A. fulica was evaluated, since there is no information in the literature about the influence of this factor on lipids metabolism in mollusks. After 2 and 4 weeks of exposure the snails were dissected. The cholesterol content at the 2nd and 4th weeks post exposure only varied significantly in the groups exposed at 24 hours and 0 hour of photophase, respectively. Probably, such increase may be a result of a rise in cholesterol biosynthesis and/or remodelling of cell membranes. There were no significant differences among the content of triglycerides in the snails exposed to 6, 12, 18 and 24 hours of photophase during two weeks. The snails exposed to intermediate photophase (6 and 12 hours had the triglycerides content increased, ranging over values near to those observed in the group exposed to 0 hour. Results showed that triglycerides metabolism in A. fulica are more influenced by photoperiod than cholesterol metabolism. A negative relation is maintained between the triglycerides content in the hemolymph and the different photophases, with lower mobilisation of triglycerides under shorter photophases.

  11. [RNA polymerase II and pre-mRNA splicing factors in diplotene oocyte nuclei of the giant African gastropod Achatina fulica].

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    Stepanova, I S; Bogoliubov, D S

    2003-01-01

    The nuclear distribution of pre-mRNA splicing factors (snRNPs and SR-protein SC35) and unphosphorylated from of RNA polymerase II (Pol II) was studied using fluorescent and immunoelectron cytochemistry in diplotene oocytes of the gastropod Achatina fulica. Association of Pol II and splicing factors with oocyte nuclear structures was analysed. The antibodies against splicing factors and Pol II were shown to label perichromatin fibrils at the periphery of condensed chromatin blocks as well as those in interchromatin regions of nucleoplasm. The revealed character of distribution of snRNPs, SC35 protein, and Pol II, together with the decondensed chromatin and absence of karyosphere, enable us to suggest that oocyte chromosomes maintain their transcriptional activity at the diplotene stage of oogenesis. In A. fulica oocytes, sparse nuclear bodies (NBs) of a complex morphological structure were revealed. These NBs contain snRNPs rather than SC35 protein. NBs are associated with a fibrogranular material (FGM), which contains SC35 protein. No snRNPs were revealed in this material. Homology of A. fulica oocyte nuclear structures to Cajal bodies and interchromatin granule clusters is discussed.

  12. Endemic angiostrongyliasis in the Brazilian Amazon: natural parasitism of Angiostrongylus cantonensis in Rattus rattus and R. norvegicus, and sympatric giant African land snails, Achatina fulica.

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    Moreira, V L C; Giese, E G; Melo, F T V; Simões, R O; Thiengo, S C; Maldonado, A; Santos, J N

    2013-01-01

    Angiostrongylus cantonensis, the rat lungworm, is one etiological agent of eosinophilic meningoencephalitis in humans. This zoonosis is frequently found in Asia and, more recently, in North America, Caribbean Island and northeastern of South America. Until now, research of A. cantonensis in southern, southeastern and northeastern regions of Brazil has been found natural infections only terrestrial and freshwater intermediate snail hosts (Achatina fulica, Sarasinula marginata, Subulina octona, Bradybaena similaris and Pomacea lineate). In this study, we examined the occurrence of helminthes in the synantropic rodents Rattus rattus and Rattus norvegicus in northern Brazil, focusing on the role of these species as vertebrate hosts of A. cantonensis and A. fulica as intermediate host have found natural. Thirty specimens of R. rattus and twelve of R. norvegicus were collected in the Guamá and Jurunas neighborhoods of the city of Belém, in the Brazilian state of Pará, of which almost 10% harbored adult worms in their pulmonary arteries. Sympatric A. fulica were found to be infected by L(3) larvae, which experimental infection confirmed to be A. cantonensis. Natural infection of snails and rodents with A. cantonensis was confirmed through morphological and morphometrical analyses of adults and larvae using light microscopy, scanning electron microscopy and molecular sequences of partial Cytochrome Oxidase subunit I. Phylogenetic analyses showed that A. cantonensis isolated from Pará, Brazil is similar to Japan isolate; once these specimens produced a single haplotype with high bootstrap support with Rio de Janeiro isolate. This study confirms that A. cantonensis is now endemic in northern Brazil, and that R. rattus and R. norvegicus act as natural definitive hosts, and A. fulica as the intermediate host of the parasite in this region. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Caracterización físico-química y actividad antimicrobiana de la secreción mucosa de Achatina fulica

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    Andrés E Pereira P

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Introducción: El caracol gigante africano Achatina fulica es reconocido como una plaga que afecta la biodiversidad, la Salud Pública y la productividad. Sin embargo, se ha demostrado que su secreción mucosa tiene propiedades cosméticas, cicatrizantes y antimicrobianas. Objetivo: Determinar las características físico-químicas y evaluar la actividad antimicrobiana de la secreción mucosa de Achatina fulica. Metodología: Se hicieron pruebas bioquímicas para la determinación cualitativa y cuantitativa de glúcidos, proteínas y lípidos. Se determinó el contenido de Calcio, Potasio, cloruros, Sodio y Magnesio. Se midieron los parámetros de conductividad eléctrica, potencial óxido-reducción, saturación de oxígeno, oxígeno total disuelto, pH, sólidos disueltos totales. Se realizó un ensayo de actividad antibacteriana por la técnica de microdilución en caldo. Resultados: Se encontraron glúcidos en concentraciones de 582 μg/mL en la fracción soluble y de 62.1 μg/mL en la fracción de mucinas, y proteínas en concentraciones de 836 μg/mL en la fracción soluble y de 1413 μg/mL en la fracción de mucinas. Se observó actividad antimicrobiana frente a las tres cepas ensayadas. Streptococcus agalactiae alcanzó un MIC90 a una concentración de 3,6 mg/mL con la fracción de mucinas; Staphylococcus aureus resistente a meticilina tuvo un MIC50 de 3,3 mg/mL y Escherichia coli un MIC 70 de 3.8 mg/mL. Conclusiones: Se reportan por primera vez las características físicas y los oligoelementos presente en la secreción de Achatina fulica. La actividad antibacteriana obtenida frente a cepas Gram positivas y Gram negativas plantea la necesidad de realizar estudios para purificar las moléculas con dicha actividad, conocer los mecanismos de acción y establecer la inocuidad, entre otros.

  14. The modulation effects of d-amphetamine and procaine on the spontaneously generated action potentials in the central neuron of snail, Achatina fulica Ferussac.

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    Lin, Chia-Hsien; Tsai, Ming-Cheng

    2005-05-01

    The modulation effects of d-amphetamine and procaine on the spontaneously generated action potentials were studied on the RP1 central neuron of giant African snails (Achatina fulica Ferussac). Extra-cellular application of d-amphetamine or procaine reversibly elicited bursts of potential (BoP). Prazosin, propranolol, atropine or d-tubocurarine did not alter the BoP elicited by either d-amphetamine or procaine. KT-5720 or H89 (protein kinase A inhibitors) blocked d-amphetamine-elicited BoP, whereas they did not block the procaine-elicited BoP. U73122, neomycin (phospholipase C inhibitors) blocked the procaine-elicited BoP, whereas they did not block the d-amphetamine-elicited BoP in the same neuron. These results suggest that BoP elicited by d-amphetamine or procaine were associated with protein kinase A and phospholipase C activity in the neuron.

  15. Complete mitochondrial genome of the giant African snail, Achatina fulica (Mollusca: Achatinidae): a novel location of putative control regions (CR) in the mitogenome within Pulmonate species.

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    He, Zhang-Ping; Dai, Xia-Bin; Zhang, Shuai; Zhi, Ting-Ting; Lun, Zhao-Rong; Wu, Zhong-Dao; Yang, Ting-Bao

    2016-01-01

    The whole sequence (15,057 bp) of the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) of the terrestrial snail Achatina fulica (order Stylommatophora) was determined. The mitogenome, as the typical metazoan mtDNA, contains 13 protein-coding genes (PCG), 2 ribosomal RNA genes (rRNA) and 22 transfer RNA genes (tRNA). The tRNA genes include two trnS without standard secondary structure. Interestingly, among the known mitogenomes of Pulmonata species, we firstly characterized an unassigned lengthy sequence (551 bp) between the cox1 and the trnV which may be the CR for the sake of its AT bases usage bias (65.70%) and potential hairpin structure.

  16. Prevalence and distribution of Angiostrongylus cantonensis (Nematoda, Angiostrongylidae in Achatina fulica (Mollusca, Gastropoda in Baixada Santista, São Paulo, Brazil

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    Laura Rocha Guerino

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT INTRODUCTION Angiostrongylus cantonensis is causes eosinophilic meningoencephalitis in humans. Worldwide expansion of this nematode is linked to the dispersion of their hosts. This study aimed to determine the prevalence of A. cantonensis infection in Achatina fulica in the nine municipalities that make up Baixada Santista, São Paulo, Brazil. METHODS Angiostrongylus cantonensis larvae were analyzed using optical microscopy. We performed polymerase chain reaction and restriction fragment length polymorphism using restriction endonuclease ClaI, directed to the internal transcribed spacer region 2 of A. cantonensis larval DNA. RESULTS Of the 540 snails analyzed, 117 (21.7% were infected by A. cantonensis. For morphological and morphometric analyses, 60 larvae were used. Second-stage larvae were, on average, 358.2µm long and 26.4µm wide, while third-stage larvae were, on average, 450µm long and 21.12µm wide. The tails of the larvae ended in a fine tip. CONCLUSIONS All municipalities comprising Baixada Santista had A. fulica that were naturally infected with A. cantonensis. All of the observed characteristics were typical of the species.

  17. Prevalence and distribution of Angiostrongylus cantonensis (Nematoda, Angiostrongylidae) in Achatina fulica (Mollusca, Gastropoda) in Baixada Santista, São Paulo, Brazil.

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    Guerino, Laura Rocha; Pecora, Iracy Lea; Miranda, Marcel Sabino; Aguiar-Silva, Cryslaine; Carvalho, Omar Dos Santos; Caldeira, Roberta Lima; Silva, Reinaldo José da

    2017-01-01

    Angiostrongylus cantonensis is causes eosinophilic meningoencephalitis in humans. Worldwide expansion of this nematode is linked to the dispersion of their hosts. This study aimed to determine the prevalence of A. cantonensis infection in Achatina fulica in the nine municipalities that make up Baixada Santista, São Paulo, Brazil. Angiostrongylus cantonensis larvae were analyzed using optical microscopy. We performed polymerase chain reaction and restriction fragment length polymorphism using restriction endonuclease ClaI, directed to the internal transcribed spacer region 2 of A. cantonensis larval DNA. Of the 540 snails analyzed, 117 (21.7%) were infected by A. cantonensis. For morphological and morphometric analyses, 60 larvae were used. Second-stage larvae were, on average, 358.2µm long and 26.4µm wide, while third-stage larvae were, on average, 450µm long and 21.12µm wide. The tails of the larvae ended in a fine tip. All municipalities comprising Baixada Santista had A. fulica that were naturally infected with A. cantonensis. All of the observed characteristics were typical of the species.

  18. Conhecimento popular: impactos e métodos de controle de Achatina fulica em Valença – RJ, Brasil

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    Evelyn Chicarino Durço

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/2175-7925.2013v26n1p189 O objetivo deste estudo foi verificar a incidência do caramujo africano Achatina fulica no bairro Cambota, Valença-RJ, Brasil, e investigar as estratégias de controle adotadas pela população. Questionários epidemiológicos aplicados a 105 moradores averiguaram a existência de contato deles com o animal, o risco de contágio por parasitos, por conta dos hábitos de higiene, e os métodos de controle adotados. A presença dos moluscos foi relatada em 52,5% das residências visitadas. Dessas, 51,4% apresentaram roedores. Moluscos coletados foram analisados quanto à presença de nematoides. Nas residências positivas para a presença de A. fulica foi relatado contato direto com os moluscos (21,9% por manuseio (muitas vezes inadequado ou por ingestão. Todos os entrevistados disseram utilizar alguma técnica para higienização dos alimentos e 67,6% relataram conhecer a angiostrongilíase. Todos os entrevistados disseram praticar o extermínio dos moluscos, 28,5% desses efetuando a quebra da concha. Apesar da alta incidência de A. fulica, não foram encontradas larvas de Angiostrongylus sp. ou de outros nematoides de importância médico-veterinária nos espécimes analisados.

  19. Angiostrongylus cantonensis infection in molluscs in the municipality of São Gonçalo, a metropolitan area of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil: role of the invasive species Achatina fulica in parasite transmission dynamics.

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    Oliveira, Ana P M; Gentile, Rosana; Maldonado Júnior, Arnaldo; Lopes Torres, Eduardo J; Thiengo, Silvana C

    2015-09-01

    The aim of this study was to analyse the infection dynamics of Angiostrongylus cantonensisin its possible intermediate hosts over two years in an urban area in the state of Rio de Janeiro where the presence ofA. cantonensis had been previously recorded in molluscs. Four of the seven mollusc species found in the study were exotic.Bradybaena similaris was the most abundant, followed by Achatina fulica, Streptaxis sp., Subulina octona, Bulimulus tenuissimus, Sarasinula linguaeformis and Leptinaria unilamellata. Only A. fulica and B. similaris were parasitised by A. cantonensis and both presented co-infection with other helminths. The prevalence of A. cantonensis in A. fulica was more than 50% throughout the study. There was an inverse correlation between the population size ofA. fulica and the prevalence of A. cantonensis and abundance of the latter was negatively related to rainfall. The overall prevalence of A. cantonensis in B. similaris was 24.6%. A. fulica was the most important intermediary host of A. cantonensis in the studied area and B. similaris was secondary in importance for A. cantonensis transmission dynamics.

  20. Distribution, feeding behavior and control strategies of the exotic land snail Achatina fulica (Gastropoda: Pulmonata) in the northeast of Brazil.

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    Albuquerque, F S; Peso-Aguiar, M C; Assunção-Albuquerque, M J T

    2008-11-01

    The goal of this study was to document the distribution and establishment A. fulica such as their feeding preference and behavior in situ. The study was carried out at the city of Lauro de Freitas, Bahia state, Brazil, between November 2001 and November 2002. We used catch per unit effort methods to determine abundance, distribution, habitat choice and food preferences. The abundance and distribution of A. fulica was most representative in urban area, mainly near to the coastline. Lots and house gardens were the most preferred sites during active hours. The results indicated that A. fulica started their activity at the end of the evening and stopped in mid-morning. Their preferred food were vascular plants such as Hibiscus syriacus, Ricinus communis, Carica papaya, Galinsonga coccinea, Lippia alba, Ixora coccinea, Musa parasidisiaca, Mentha spicata and Cymbopogon citrates. Our results indicate that A. fulica are well adapted and established in this city and modified environments facilitate their establishment and dispersion. However, human perturbation, such as clearance of lots could be limiting for the persistence of A. fulica populations.

  1. Purification and characterization of a novel endo-β-1,4-glucanases , AfEG22, from the giant snail, Achatina fulica frussac.

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    Teng, Yigang; Yin, Qiuyu; ding, Ming; Zhao, Fukun

    2010-10-01

    In this study, we confirmed that at least three endo-β-1,4-glucanases existed in the digestive juice of the giant snail, Achatina fulica ferussac, by Congo red staining assay. One of these enzymes, a novel endo-β-1,4-glucanase (AfEG22), was purified 29.5-fold by gel filtration, anion exchange, and hydrophobic interaction chromatography. The carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) hydrolytic activity of the purified enzyme was 12.3 U/mg protein. The molecular mass of AfEG22 was 22081 Da determined by MALDI-TOF. N-terminal amino acid sequencing revealed a sequence of EQRCTNQGGILKYYNT, which did not have significant homology with any proteins in BLAST database. The optimal pH and temperature for hydrolytic activity toward CMC were pH 4.0 and 50°C, respectively. AfEG22 was stable between pH 3.0 and pH 12.0 when incubated at 4°C for 3 h or at 37°C for 1 h. The enzyme remained more than 80% activity between pH 4.5 and pH 7.0 after incubation at 50°C for 1 h. AfEG22 possessed excellent thermostability as more than 70% activity was remained after incubation at 60°C for 3 h. Substrate specific analysis revealed that AfEG22 was a typical endo-β-1,4-glucanase. This is the first time to report a novel endo-β-1,4-glucanase with high stability from the digestive juice of A. fulica.

  2. Giant african snail, Achatina fulica (Férussac, 1821: an environmental and public health problem in the northwestern of Paraná State, Brazil

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    Márcia Aparecida Andreazzi

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Achatina fulica, known as Giant African Snail (GAS, was introduced in Brazil as a substitute for the European escargot, Helix aspersa maxima. However, its cultivation was abandoned and the mollusk became an invasive species, found throughout Brazil and causing damage to health and the environment. In this context, this study analyzed the knowledge of the population about the damage caused by GAS, seeking to reveal a regional scenario on this issue. This exploratory and cross-sectional study was conducted by means of a questionnaire applied to 150 people, which obtained sociodemographic characteristics of respondents and specific responses about the knowledge and handling of GAS. The results showed that most of the respondents know the snail and are concerned about the transmission of diseases and losses in agricultural crops, but few recognize this pest as the basis of environmental imbalance. It is suggested to implement actions seeking the dissemination of such knowledge and the awareness of the population about the impact of this mollusk on the environment.

  3. PROCESSAMENTO E AVALIAÇÃO SENSORIAL DA CARNE DOS MOLUSCOS ESCARGOT (Achatina fulica E ARUÁ (Pomacea lineata

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    S. H. R. BARBOZA

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available

    O presente trabalho foi desenvolvido com o objetivo de avaliar sensorialmente os produtos do processamento da carne dos moluscos escargot (Achatina fulica e aruá (Pomacea lineata. Foram realizados dois processamentos em conserva (enlatado: triturada e defumada. Na avaliação sensorial da carne triturada observou-se diferença significativa entre os produtos, favorável ao escargot com valor médio de aceitação igual a 5,35 e 4,76 para o aruá. Para os produtos elaborados defumados observou-se uma aceitação igual para as duas espécies (escargot = 4,82 e aruá = 4,49. Esses resultados de aceitação nos permitem admitir que os produtos são tecnicamente e sensorialmente viáveis para consumo (aceitação acima de 60% para os dois casos, mas com tendências ligeiramente favoráveis de preferência para os produtos elaborados com carne de escargot.

  4. The effects of aromatic amino acid derivatives on the excitability of an identifiable giant neurone of the African giant snail (Achatina fulica Férussac).

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    Takeuchi, H.; Tamura, H.

    1980-01-01

    1 The effects of derivatives of aromatic amino acids on the excitability of an identifiable giant neurone (TAN, tonically autoactive neurone) of the African giant snail (Achatina fulica Férussac) were examined. 2 The following substances had marked inhibitory effects on TAN using bath application: N-beta-phenylpropionyl-L-Tyr and N-beta-phenylpropionyl-L-Trp (critical concentration, 3 x 10(-7) M), N-beta-phenylpropionyl-L-Phe, N-cinnamoyl-DL-Trp and N-phenoxyacetyl-L-Trp (critical concentration, 10(-5) to 3 x 10(-5) M). However, N-beta-phenylpropionyl-D-Tyr and N-beta-phenylpropionyl tyramine had no effect. 3 Microdrop (150 micrometers in diameter) application of N-beta-phenylpropionyl-L-Tyr or N-beta-phenylpropionyl-l-trp containing about 100 pg resulted in marked inhibitory effects on TAN. The effect was observed in Ca2+-free, Mg2+-rich (24 mM) solution. Substitution of Cl- by acetate did not alter the response. This indicates that the two substances act directly on the TAN membrane and not via synaptic influences, and that the inhibition produced by the two substances is not due to the permeability increase of the TAN membrane to Cl-. PMID:7378654

  5. Restricted genetic variation in populations of Achatina (Lissachatina) fulica outside of East Africa and the Indian Ocean Islands points to the Indian Ocean Islands as the earliest known common source.

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    Fontanilla, Ian Kendrich C; Sta Maria, Inna Mikaella P; Garcia, James Rainier M; Ghate, Hemant; Naggs, Fred; Wade, Christopher M

    2014-01-01

    The Giant African Land Snail, Achatina ( =  Lissachatina) fulica Bowdich, 1822, is a tropical crop pest species with a widespread distribution across East Africa, the Indian subcontinent, Southeast Asia, the Pacific, the Caribbean, and North and South America. Its current distribution is attributed primarily to the introduction of the snail to new areas by Man within the last 200 years. This study determined the extent of genetic diversity in global A. fulica populations using the mitochondrial 16S ribosomal RNA gene. A total of 560 individuals were evaluated from 39 global populations obtained from 26 territories. Results reveal 18 distinct A. fulica haplotypes; 14 are found in East Africa and the Indian Ocean islands, but only two haplotypes from the Indian Ocean islands emerged from this region, the C haplotype, now distributed across the tropics, and the D haplotype in Ecuador and Bolivia. Haplotype E from the Philippines, F from New Caledonia and Barbados, O from India and Q from Ecuador are variants of the emergent C haplotype. For the non-native populations, the lack of genetic variation points to founder effects due to the lack of multiple introductions from the native range. Our current data could only point with certainty to the Indian Ocean islands as the earliest known common source of A. fulica across the globe, which necessitates further sampling in East Africa to determine the source populations of the emergent haplotypes.

  6. Restricted genetic variation in populations of Achatina (Lissachatina fulica outside of East Africa and the Indian Ocean Islands points to the Indian Ocean Islands as the earliest known common source.

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    Ian Kendrich C Fontanilla

    Full Text Available The Giant African Land Snail, Achatina ( =  Lissachatina fulica Bowdich, 1822, is a tropical crop pest species with a widespread distribution across East Africa, the Indian subcontinent, Southeast Asia, the Pacific, the Caribbean, and North and South America. Its current distribution is attributed primarily to the introduction of the snail to new areas by Man within the last 200 years. This study determined the extent of genetic diversity in global A. fulica populations using the mitochondrial 16S ribosomal RNA gene. A total of 560 individuals were evaluated from 39 global populations obtained from 26 territories. Results reveal 18 distinct A. fulica haplotypes; 14 are found in East Africa and the Indian Ocean islands, but only two haplotypes from the Indian Ocean islands emerged from this region, the C haplotype, now distributed across the tropics, and the D haplotype in Ecuador and Bolivia. Haplotype E from the Philippines, F from New Caledonia and Barbados, O from India and Q from Ecuador are variants of the emergent C haplotype. For the non-native populations, the lack of genetic variation points to founder effects due to the lack of multiple introductions from the native range. Our current data could only point with certainty to the Indian Ocean islands as the earliest known common source of A. fulica across the globe, which necessitates further sampling in East Africa to determine the source populations of the emergent haplotypes.

  7. Acharan sulfate, the new glycosaminoglycan from Achatina fulica Bowdich 1822. Structural heterogeneity, metabolic labeling and localization in the body, mucus and the organic shell matrix.

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    Vieira, Tuane C R G; Costa-Filho, Adilson; Salgado, Norma C; Allodi, Silvana; Valente, Ana-Paula; Nasciutti, Luiz E; Silva, Luiz-Claudio F

    2004-02-01

    Acharan sulfate, a recently discovered glycosaminoglycan isolated from Achatina fulica, has a major disaccharide repeating unit of -->4)-2-acetyl,2-deoxy-alpha-d-glucopyranose(1-->4)-2-sulfo-alpha-l-idopyranosyluronic acid (1-->, making it structurally related to both heparin and heparan sulfate. It has been suggested that this glycosaminoglycan is polydisperse, with an average molecular mass of 29 kDa and known minor disaccharide sequence variants containing unsulfated iduronic acid. Acharan sulfate was found to be located in the body of this species using alcian blue staining and it was suggested to be the main constituent of the mucus. In the present work, we provide further information on the structure and compartmental distribution of acharan sulfate in the snail body. Different populations of acharan sulfate presenting charge and/or molecular mass heterogeneities were isolated from the whole body, as well as from mucus and from the organic shell matrix. A minor glycosaminoglycan fraction susceptible to degradation by nitrous acid was also purified from the snail body, suggesting the presence of N-sulfated glycosaminoglycan molecules. In addition, we demonstrate the in vivo metabolic labeling of acharan sulfate in the snail body after a meal supplemented with [35S]free sulfate. This simple approach might be applied to the study of acharan sulfate biosynthesis. Finally, we developed histochemical assays to localize acharan sulfate in the snail body by metachromatic staining and by histoautoradiography following metabolic radiolabeling with [35S]sulfate. Our results show that acharan sulfate is widely distributed among several organs.

  8. Chemical-modification studies of a unique sialic acid-binding lectin from the snail Achatina fulica. Involvement of tryptophan and histidine residues in biological activity.

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    Basu, S; Mandal, C; Allen, A K

    1988-01-01

    A unique sialic acid-binding lectin, achatininH (ATNH) was purified in single step from the haemolymph of the snail Achatina fulica by affinity chromatography on sheep submaxillary-gland mucin coupled to Sepharose 4B. The homogeneity was checked by alkaline gel electrophoresis, immunodiffusion and immunoelectrophoresis. Amino acid analysis showed that the lectin has a fairly high content of acidic amino acid residues (22% of the total). About 1.3% of the residues are half-cystine. The glycoprotein contains 21% carbohydrate. The unusually high content of xylose (6%) and fucose (2.7%) in this snail lectin is quite interesting. The protein was subjected to various chemical modifications in order to detect the amino acid residues and carbohydrate residues present in its binding sites. Modification of tyrosine and arginine residues did not affect the binding activity of ATNH; however, modification of tryptophan and histidine residues led to a complete loss of its biological activity. A marked decrease in the fluorescence emission was found as the tryptophan residues of ATNH were modified. The c.d. data showed the presence of an identical type of conformation in the native and modified agglutinin. The modification of lysine and carboxy residues partially diminished the biological activity. The activity was completely lost after a beta-elimination reaction, indicating that the sugars are O-glycosidically linked to the glycoprotein's protein moiety. This result confirms that the carbohydrate moiety also plays an important role in the agglutination property of this lectin. Images Fig. 3. PMID:3140796

  9. Evaluation of haplotype diversity of Achatina fulica (Lissachatina) [Bowdich] from Indian sub-continent by means of 16S rDNA sequence and its phylogenetic relationships with other global populations.

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    Ayyagari, Vijaya Sai; Sreerama, Krupanidhi

    2017-08-01

    Achatina fulica (Lissachatina fulica) is one of the most invasive species found across the globe causing a significant damage to crops, vegetables, and horticultural plants. This terrestrial snail is native to east Africa and spread to different parts of the world by introductions. India, a hot spot for biodiversity of several endemic gastropods, has witnessed an outburst of this snail population in several parts of the country posing a serious threat to crop loss and also to human health. With an objective to evaluate the genetic diversity of this snail, we have sampled this snail from different parts of India and analyzed its haplotype diversity by means of 16S rDNA sequence information. Apart from this, we have studied the phylogenetic relationships of the isolates sequenced in the present study in relation with other global populations by Bayesian and Maximum-likelihood approaches. Of the isolates sequenced, haplotype 'C' is the predominant one. A new haplotype 'S' from the state of Odisha was observed. The isolates sequenced in the present study clustered with its conspecifics from the Indian sub-continent. Haplotype network analyses were also carried out for studying the evolution of different haplotypes. It was observed that haplotype 'S' was associated with a Mauritius haplotype 'H', indicating the possibility of multiple introductions of A. fulica to India.

  10. Distribution of cysts of Strongyluris sp. (Nematoda) in the pallial system of Achatina fulica Bowdich, 1822 from Vila Dois Rios and Vila do Abraão, Ilha Grande, Angra dos Reis, Rio de Janeiro.

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    Oliveira, J L; Santos, S B

    2018-04-19

    This work aimed to assessing Strongyluris sp. cysts distribution pattern in the several inner organs from pallial system of Achatina fulica Bowdich, 1822. Also we verified if there is a relationship between the mollusk size and the number of specimens from parasites collected from two touristic villages in Ilha Grande (Angra dos Reis, Rio de Janeiro state): Vila Dois Rios (VDR) and Vila do Abraão (ABR). The samples were obtained through a field work conducted bimonthly during 2007, 2008, 2010, and 2011, at both locations. Height and width were measured from shells collected, and the all specimens were classified in different classes: class 1 - biomass and a larger area of the pallial system, allowing an efficient parasite colonization. Other possible explanation could be the long exposure of the molluscs of class 3 to the parasites, which allowed a longer time to the larvae to allocate themselves.

  11. Considerações estatísticas sobre os valores métricos dos segmentos corpóreos do sistema reprodutor dos escargots das espécies Achatina fulica e Monochromatica

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    Dulcinéa Gonçalves Teixeira

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to perform a metric study of the reproductive system of the species Achantina fulica and Achatina monochromatica , establishing comparative parameters between both, to improve the knowledge of the species. After the selective process, weighting and measures of the shell, the specimens were frozen in freezer to -2(0C for approximately 10min as a sacrificing form. For each segments the measures proceeded after the retrieval of the reproductive system through a longitudinal incision. The statistical analysis showed that, in spite of the specimens be maintained under the same environmental and alimentary conditions and submitted to the same selection type, variations happened in the development and size of the reproductive organs. The morphologic aspect of the reproductive system in both species differs macroscopically in several segments; however, the disposition and the location of those segments are identical.

  12. Increases in urea synthesis and the ornithine-urea cycle capacity in the giant African snail, Achatina fulica, during fasting or aestivation, or after the injection with ammonium chloride.

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    Hiong, Kum Chew; Loong, Ai May; Chew, Shit Fun; Ip, Yuen Kwong

    2005-12-01

    The objectives of this study are to determine whether a full complement of ornithine-urea cycle (OUC) enzymes is present in the hepatopancreas of the giant African snail Achatina fulica, and to investigate whether the rate of urea synthesis and the OUC capacity can be up-regulated during 23 days of fasting or aestivation, or 24 hr post-injection with NH(4)Cl (10 micromol g(-1) snail) into the foot muscle. A. fulica is ureotelic and a full complement of OUC enzymes, including carbamoyl phosphate synthetase III (CPS III), was detected from its hepatopancreas. There were significant increases in the excretion of NH(4)(+), NH(3) and urea in fasting A. fulica. Fasting had no significant effect on the tissue ammonia contents, but led to a progressive accumulation of urea, which was associated with an 18-fold increase in the rate of urea synthesis. Because fasting took place in the presence of water and because there was no change in water contents in the foot muscle and hepatopancreas, it can be concluded that the function of urea accumulation in fasting A. fulica was unrelated to water retention. Aestivation in arid conditions led to a non-progressive accumulation of urea in A. fulica. During the first 4 days and the last 3 days of the 23-day aestivation period, experimental snails exhibited significantly greater rates of urea synthesis compared with fasted snails. These increases were associated with significant increases in activities of various OUC enzymes, except CPS III, in the hepatopancreas. However, the overall urea accumulation in snails aestivated and snails fasted for 23 days were comparable. Therefore, the classical hypothesis that urea accumulation occurred to prevent water loss through evaporation during aestivation in terrestrial pulmonates may not be valid. Surprisingly, there were no accumulations of ammonia in the foot muscle and hepatopancreas of A. fulica 12 or 24 hr after NH(4)Cl was injected into the foot muscle. In contrast, the urea content in

  13. MOLECULAR PHYLOGENY OF THREE SPECIES OF LAND SNAILS (STYLOMMATOPHORA AND ACHATINIDAE, ARCHACHATINA MARGINATA (SWAINSON, 1821, ACHATINA ACHATINA (LINNAEUS, 1758, AND ACHATINA FULICA (BOWDICH, 1822 IN SOME SOUTHERN STATES AND NORTH CENTRAL STATES IN NIGERIA

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    Michael Olufemi AWODIRAN

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Partial sequences of mitochondrial gene cytochrome oxidase sub unit 1 (CO1 and ribosomal RNA 18S nuclear encoding gene of 43 individuals belonging to two genera in order Stylommatophora and the family Achatinidae (Archachatina and Achatina were obtained to investigate molecular phylogeny in the family. The CO1 was found to be highly variable while the 18S was found to be highly conserved yielding invariable sequences. Several primers were also tested both for the mitochondrial and nuclear genomes but CO1 produced the best results giving single and clear bands. Four main genetic phylogroups/clades were identified within the Bayesian tree constructed and all the four clades were supported by bootstrap values of 100% and also were supported by bootstrap values above 79% in the NJ. Two unidentified species used in the analysis were found in the basal clade which may mean that they were of ancient origin. This study provides preliminary and novel insights on the molecular phylogeny of the snails’ species, though there is still a need to collect samples of other species in this family to provide a more robust phylogenetic relationship of achatinid snails in Nigeria.

  14. Effects of glutamic acid analogues on identifiable giant neurones, sensitive to beta-hydroxy-L-glutamic acid, of an African giant snail (Achatina fulica Férussac).

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    Nakajima, T.; Nomoto, K.; Ohfune, Y.; Shiratori, Y.; Takemoto, T.; Takeuchi, H.; Watanabe, K.

    1985-01-01

    The effects of the seven glutamic acid analogues, alpha-kainic acid, alpha-allo-kainic acid, domoic acid, erythro-L-tricholomic acid, DL-ibotenic acid, L-quisqualic acid and allo-gamma-hydroxy-L-glutamic acid were examined on six identifiable giant neurones of an African giant snail (Achatina fulica Férussac). The neurones studied were: PON (periodically oscillating neurone), d-RPLN (dorsal-right parietal large neurone), VIN (visceral intermittently firing neurone), RAPN (right anterior pallial neurone), FAN (frequently autoactive neurone) and v-RCDN (ventral-right cerebral distinct neurone). Of these, d-RPLN and RAPN were excited by the two isomers (erythro- and threo-) of beta-hydroxy-L-glutamic acid (L-BHGA), whereas PON, VIN, FAN and v-RCDN were inhibited. L-Glutamic acid (L-Glu) had virtually no effect on these neurones. alpha-Kainic acid and domoic acid showed marked excitatory effects, similar to those of L-BHGA, on d-RPLN and RAPN. Their effective potency quotients (EPQs), relative to the more effective isomer of L-BHGA were: 0.3 for both substances on d-RPLN, and 1 for alpha-kainic acid and 3-1 for domoic acid on RAPN. alpha-Kainic acid also had excitatory effects on FAN and v-RCDN (EPQ for both: 0.3), which were inhibited by L-BHGA but excited by gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA). Erythro-L-tricholomic acid showed marked effects, similar to those of L-BHGA, on VIN (EPQ: 0.3) and RAPN (EPQ: 3-1), but produced weaker effects on PON and d-RPLN (EPQ: 0.1). DL-Ibotenic acid produced marked effects, similar to those of L-BHGA, on PON, VIN (EPQ for both: 1) and RAPN (EPQ: 1-0.3), but had weak effects on d-RPLN (EPQ: less than 0.1) and FAN (EPQ: 0.1). It had excitatory effects on v-RCDN (EPQ: 0.1). This neurone was inhibited by L-BHGA but excited by GABA. L-Quisqualic acid showed the same effects as L-BHGA on all of the neurones examined (EPQ range 30-0.1). It was the most potent of the compounds tested on RAPN (EPQ: 30-10), FAN (EPQ: 30) and v-RCDN (EPQ: 3). alpha

  15. Angiostrongylus cantonensis infection in molluscs in the municipality of São Gonçalo, a metropolitan area of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil: role of the invasive species Achatina fulica in parasite transmission dynamics

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    Ana PM Oliveira

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to analyse the infection dynamics ofAngiostrongylus cantonensisin its possible intermediate hosts over two years in an urban area in the state of Rio de Janeiro where the presence ofA. cantonensis had been previously recorded in molluscs. Four of the seven mollusc species found in the study were exotic.Bradybaena similariswas the most abundant, followed byAchatina fulica, Streptaxissp., Subulina octona, Bulimulus tenuissimus, Sarasinula linguaeformisand Leptinaria unilamellata. Only A. fulicaand B. similariswere parasitised by A. cantonensis and both presented co-infection with other helminths. The prevalence of A. cantonensisin A. fulicawas more than 50% throughout the study. There was an inverse correlation between the population size ofA. fulicaand the prevalence of A. cantonensisand abundance of the latter was negatively related to rainfall. The overall prevalence of A. cantonensisin B. similariswas 24.6%. A. fulicawas the most important intermediary host of A. cantonensisin the studied area andB. similariswas secondary in importance for A. cantonensistransmission dynamics.

  16. AKTIVITAS ENZIM KOMERSIAL, EKSTRAK KASAR ENZIM DARI VISCERA KEONG MAS (Pila polita, ABALON (Haliotis asinina, DAN BEKICOT (Achatina fulica UNTUK LISIS JARINGAN RUMPUT LAUT Kappaphycus alvarezii PADA KULTUR PROTOPLAS

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    Sri Redjeki Hesti Mulyaningrum

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Dalam usaha perbaikan kualitas bibit rumput laut Kappaphycus alvarezii dilakukan kultur protoplas dengan isolasi protoplas menggunakan enzim. Untuk mendapatkan sumber enzim yang ekonomis sebagai alternatif pengganti enzim komersial dan untuk mengetahui perbandingan konsentrasi enzim komersial yang optimum agar menghasilkan jumlah protoplas yang maksimum, dilakukan karakterisasi terhadap enzim dari berbagai sumber. Aktivitas ekstrak kasar enzim dari viscera bekicot (Achatina fulica tidak berbeda nyata dengan enzim komersial (P>0,05 dengan aktivitas sebesar 0,729 unit/mL; enzim komersial 0,354 unit/mL; ekstrak kasar enzim dari viscera keong mas (Pila polita 0,048 unit/mL; dan ekstrak kasar enzim dari viscera abalon (Haliotis asinina 0,014 unit/mL. Perbandingan enzim komersial yang optimum adalah 2:1 menghasilkan protoplas sebanyak 1,26 x 108 sel/mL; kemudian 1:2 dengan jumlah protoplas 1,22 x 108 sel/mL; perbandingan 1:1 menghasilkan protoplas sebanyak 8,36 x 107 sel/mL; perbandingan 0:1 menghasilkan protoplas sebanyak 6,33 x 107 sel/mL; dan perbandingan 1:0 menghasilkan protoplas sebanyak 9,55 x 106 sel/mL. Rumput laut asal Takalar memiliki protoplas dengan kepadatan tertinggi sebesar 3,7 x 108 sel/mL. Effort to improve the quality of seaweed seed Kappaphycus alvarezii has been done by protoplast culture with protoplast isolation using enzyme. To find out economical enzyme sources as alternatives to substitute the expensive commercial enzyme and to determine the optimum concentration ratio of commercial enzyme to produce maximum amount of protoplast, characterization was executed to several potential sources. Activity of crude extract enzyme from viscera of garden snail (Achatina fulica was not significantly different with commercial enzyme (P>0.05 it was 0.729 unit/mL, commercial enzyme 0.354 unit/mL activity; crude extract enzyme from viscera of golden snail (Pila polita 0.048 unit/mL activity and crude extract enzyme from viscera of abalone

  17. Avaliação macro e microscópica da cicatrização de lesões experimentalmente provocadas em pele de coelhos tratadas com secreção mucoglicoproteica do escargot Achatina fulica

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    Maria de Fátima Martins

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Os escargots são animais capazes de produzir através de glândulas localizadas em toda superfície do seu corpo, uma secreção glicoproteica com um poder antibacteriano que participa na própria imunidade inata¹. O poder antimicrobiano de determinadas substâncias pode auxiliar nos processos de reparação de feridas de origens diversas. Desta forma, o objetivo do presente trabalho foi o de avaliar macroscopicamente e histologicamente, os efeitos reparadores do muco do escargot Achatina fulica, em lesões provocadas por instrumento cortante na pele de coelhos. Incisões de 10cm de comprimento foram realizadas na pele de 15 coelhos. Estes foram divididos em três grupos e submetidos aos respectivos tratamentos: 1 tratamento com o muco na forma pura, 2 tratamento com o muco sob a forma de pomada e 3 um grupo sem receber o tratamento (controle. As características macroscópicas da lesão foram registradas diariamente e para a análise histológica, uma biópsia foi realizada após 72 horas de tratamento. Os fragmentos processados rotineiramente e corados com Tricrômio de Masson. Histologicamente, a epiderme dos coelhos tratados mostrou uma camada basal de células cúbicas, enquanto os do grupo controle apresentaram uma camada basal de células cilíndricas com áreas desorganizadas e a derme apresentou um estágio mais avançado no processo de reparo quando comparado ao controle. A evolução macroscópica no processo de cicatrização ocorreu num menor espaço de tempo nos coelhos do grupo pomada, em relação aos demais tratamentos.

  18. Structure-activity relationships of N-beta-phenylpropionyl-L-tyrosine and its derivatives on the inhibition of an identifiable giant neurone of an African giant snail (Achatina fulica Férussac).

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    Ariyoshi, Y.; Takeuchi, H.

    1982-01-01

    1 Inhibitory effects of N-beta-phenylpropionyl-L-tyrosine, N-beta-phenylpropionyl-L-tryptophan and their derivatives on an identifiable giant neurone, TAN (tonically autoactive neurone) of an African giant snail (Achatina fulica Férussac) were examined in an attempt to elucidate which structural features are necessary to produce the effect. 2 Of the compounds examined, N-beta-cyclohexylpropionyl-L-tyrosine showed the strongest effect. Its critical concentration (c.c.) was 3 X 10(-8)-10(-7)M, about ten times lower than that of N-beta-phenylpropionyl-L-tyrosine (c.c., 3 X 10(-7)-10(-6)M). N-beta-cyclohexylpropionyl-L-tryptophan (c.c., 10(-6)M) had an effect almost similar to that of N-beta-phenylpropionyl-L-tryptophan (c.c., 10(-6)M). 3 N-beta-Phenylpropionyl-N-methyl-L-tyrosine had no effect at a high concentration. 4 Effects of N-beta-phenylpropionyl-L-tyrosine amide (c.c., 3 X 10(-7)-10(-6)M) and N-beta-phenylpropionyl-L-tryptophan amide (c.c., 10(-6)M) were very similar to those of N-beta-phenylpropionyl-L-tyrosine and N-beta-phenylpropionyl-L-tryptophan respectively. 5 N-beta-Phenylpropionyl-p-amino-L-phenylalanine (c.c., 3 X 10(-5)-10(-4)M) and N-beta-phenylpropionyl-p-chloro-L-phenylalanine (c.c., 10(-4)M) had only a weak effect. 6 It is proposed that the structural features producing the effect are as follows: the active compound has a phenyl or a cyclohexyl group (hydrophobic binding group), after a suitable distance a peptide bond (proton donor and proton acceptor), adjacently a carbonyl group (proton acceptor), and a phenolic hydroxyl or an indolyl imino group (proton donor) in the molecule. PMID:7150871

  19. Utilization of Snail (Achatina fulica Shell Waste for Synthesis of Calcium Tartrate Tetrahydrate (CaC4H4O6.4H2O Single Crystals in Silica Gel

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    Imam Sakdi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Snail (Achatina fulica shell waste is massively produced by many home industries in Indonesia, especially in East Java. The snail shell is known for high calcium; therefore it is potential to be used as calcium source of supernatant in the synthesis of piezoeletric material, such as single crystal of calcium tartrate tetrahydrate (CaTT. The aim of this research is to study the synthesis and characterization of CaTT or CaC4H4O6.4H2O from snail shell waste in silica gel. Supernatant solution of CaCl2 was prepared from CaO, which previously made by calcinating the shell at 1000°C, and then reacted with HCl 1,5M. Synthesis of CaTT was conducted in a single-tube reaction at room temperature in which silica gel was used as growth medium with gelling time of 10 days and growth time of 2 weeks. The pH of gel and CaCl2 concentration were varied, 3.00; 3.50; 4.00; 4.50; 5.00; and 0.27; 0.36; 0.45; 0.54 M respectively, in order to obtain optimum condition of the synthesis, which is indicated from crystal yields. The synthesized crystals were characterized by atomic adsorption spectrophotometry (AAS, infrared spectroscopy (IR and powder X-ray diffraction (XRD. Experimental data shows that optimum condition was obtained at pH of 3.50 and [CaCl2] of 0.45M with yield of 69.37%. The obtained single crystal has clear color and octahedral-like shape with size ranged between 4 – 9 mm. Analysis data by FTIR and powder XRD confirmed that the obtained crystal was CaTT single crystals with crystal system of orthorhombic.

  20. Análise colorimétrica e espectroscópica do muco de caracóis terrestres Achatina sp alimentados com ração diferenciada Colorimetric and spectroscopic analysis of mucus of Achatina sp terrestrial snails fed in differentiated diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Tarlá Lorenzi

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Foram estudados os efeitos da adição de plantas medicinais de princípios cicatrizantes (Centelha asiática, Papaína e Confrei na ração controle de caracóis terrestres, para se avaliar a interferência destas plantas na composiç��o do muco glicoprotéico. Foram utilizados 80 caracóis terrestres Achatina sp, baseados em um peso homogêneo (49 e 40 g e idade média de 10 e 19 meses para Achatina fulica e Achatina monochromatica, respectivamente. Os animais foram distribuídos aleatoriamente em oito grupos experimentais: controle Achatina fulica (FC e Achatina monochromatica (MC, centelha asiática Achatina fulica (FCe e Achatina monochromatica (MCe, papaína Achatina fulica (FPa e Achatina monochromatica (MPa e confrei Achatina fulica (FCo e Achatina monochromatica (MCo. Água e ração foram fornecidos ad libitum. Ao final de 150 dias de tratamento, os animais foram submetidos à técnica de extração do muco glicoprotéico, por meio do estímulo manual da glândula podal, responsável pela secreção deste muco. Esta metodologia considerou o bem-estar dos animais, uma vez que os mesmos não foram sacrificados e retornaram ao seu sistema de criação. Os mucos foram analisados por meio de testes colorimétricos e espectroscópicos, que constataram alterações semelhantes, porém apresentaram variação significativa em sua composição glicoprotéica.The effects of adding medicinal plants with healing properties (Centelha asiatica, Papaína and Confrei in the control diet of land snails were studied to evaluate the effect of these plants on the mucus glicoproteic composition. Eighty Achatina sp snails, based on a homogeneous weight (49 and 40 g and averaging 10 and 19 months of age for Achatina fulica and Achatina monochromatica, respectively. The animals were randomly allotted to eight experimental groups: Achatina fulica (FC and Achatina monochromatica (MC control, Asian Achatina fulica (FCe and Achatina monochromatica (MCe

  1. Toward an Ethnoarchaeomalacology of Achatina in East Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan Walz

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Land snail shell is a material commonly identified in the Late Holocene archaeological record of eastern Africa. Typically, archaeologists designate land snail shell as a natural occurrence or as debris produced from human subsistence. Ethnographic observations in lowland northeastern Tanzania show that contemporary communities employ the soft parts and shells of land snails, particularly Achatina fulica, for a range of everyday and special purposes. The array of land snail uses by mixed subsistence farmers and agropastoralists in the area documents the significance of A. fulica and other robust land snail species. Present uses of land snails observed in Tanzania offer a set of analogies that, when critically applied, can enrich archaeologists’ interpretations of land snail debris in antiquity.

  2. Análise colorimétrica e espectroscópica do muco de caracóis terrestres Achatina sp alimentados com ração diferenciada Colorimetric and spectroscopic analysis of mucus of Achatina sp terrestrial snails fed in differentiated diet

    OpenAIRE

    Adriana Tarlá Lorenzi; Maria de Fátima Martins

    2008-01-01

    Foram estudados os efeitos da adição de plantas medicinais de princípios cicatrizantes (Centelha asiática, Papaína e Confrei) na ração controle de caracóis terrestres, para se avaliar a interferência destas plantas na composiç��o do muco glicoprotéico. Foram utilizados 80 caracóis terrestres Achatina sp, baseados em um peso homogêneo (49 e 40 g e idade média de 10 e 19 meses para Achatina fulica e Achatina monochromatica, respectivamente). Os animais foram distribuídos aleatoriamente em oito ...

  3. Análise colorimétrica e espectroscópica do muco de caracóis terrestres Achatina sp alimentados com ração diferenciada

    OpenAIRE

    Lorenzi,Adriana Tarlá; Martins,Maria de Fátima

    2008-01-01

    Foram estudados os efeitos da adição de plantas medicinais de princípios cicatrizantes (Centelha asiática, Papaína e Confrei) na ração controle de caracóis terrestres, para se avaliar a interferência destas plantas na composição do muco glicoprotéico. Foram utilizados 80 caracóis terrestres Achatina sp, baseados em um peso homogêneo (49 e 40 g e idade média de 10 e 19 meses para Achatina fulica e Achatina monochromatica, respectivamente). Os animais foram distribuídos aleatoriamente em oito g...

  4. Anti-bacterial activity of Achatina CRP and its mechanism of action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukherjee, Sandip; Barman, Soma; Mandal, Narayan Chandra; Bhattacharya, Shelley

    2014-07-01

    The physiological role of C-reactive protein (CRP), the classical acute-phase protein, is not well documented, despite many reports on biological effects of CRP in vitro and in model systems in vivo. It has been suggested that CRP protects mice against lethal toxicity of bacterial infections by implementing immunological responses. In Achatina fulica CRP is a constitutive multifunctional protein in haemolymph and considered responsible for their survival in the environment for millions of years. The efficacy of Achatina CRP (ACRP) was tested against both Salmonella typhimurium and Bacillus subtilis infections in mice where endogenous CRP level is negligible even after inflammatory stimulus. Further, growth curves of the bacteria revealed that ACRP (50 microg/mL) is bacteriostatic against gram negative salmonellae and bactericidal against gram positive bacilli. ACRP induced energy crises in bacterial cells, inhibited key carbohydrate metabolic enzymes such as phosphofructokinase in glycolysis, isocitrate dehydrogenase in TCA cycle, isocitrate lyase in glyoxylate cycle and fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase in gluconeogenesis. ACRP disturbed the homeostasis of cellular redox potential as well as reduced glutathione status, which is accompanied by an enhanced rate of lipid peroxidation. Annexin V-Cy3/CFDA dual staining clearly showed ACRP induced apoptosis-like death in bacterial cell population. Moreover, immunoblot analyses also indicated apoptosis-like death in ACRP treated bacterial cells, where activation of poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase-1 (PARP) and caspase-3 was noteworthy. It is concluded that metabolic impairment by ACRP in bacterial cells is primarily due to generation of reactive oxygen species and ACRP induced anti-bacterial effect is mediated by metabolic impairment leading to apoptosis-like death in bacterial cells.

  5. Utilisation of Giant African snail (Achatina fulica) meal as protein source by laying hens

    OpenAIRE

    Diarra, Siaka Seriba; Kant, Rashmi; Tanhimana, Jemarlyn; Lela, Patrick

    2015-01-01

    A 12-week experiment was carried out to investigate the effects of substituting Giant African snail meal for fish meal in laying hens diet. Four diets were formulated to contain snail meal as replacement for fish meal at 0 (control), 33, 67 and 100%. A total of 120 Shaver Brown pullets aged 18 weeks were allocated to the dietary treatments in a randomised design. Each treatment consisted of three replicates and ten birds per replicate. Feed intake increased only for the 33% treatment as compa...

  6. FRACTIONATION OF FATTY ACID OMEGA 3, 6 AND 9 FROM SNAIL (Achatina fulica USING COLOUM CHROMATOGRAPHY

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    Winarto Haryadi

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The extraction of fat from snail has been carried out by Soxhlet extractor with petroleum ether solvent. Fatty product from extraction was transesterificated in BF3/methanol solvent for an hour by reflux procedure, then extracted by n-hexane to produce methyl ester fatty acid. Free water fatty acid methyl ester was analyzed by Gas Chromatography-Mass spectrometer (GC-MS. Fatty acid ester was separated from its fractions use column chromatography in n-hexane, n-hexane:dietil eter (2:1 v/v, dietil eter, aseton, ethanol and methanol. This fractions wer also analized by GC-MS. From GC-MS data sheet can be obtained 5 fractions which details are; fraction 1 contains omega 3: 27.54 %, omega 6: 15.40 % and omega 9: 6.77 %. Fraction 2 contains omega 3: 3.08 %, omega 6: 15.62 % and omega 9: 10.72 %. Fraction 3 contains omega 6: 3.57 %, omega 9: 7.02 % and none omega 3 inside it. Omega 3, 6 and 9 can't be identification in fraction 4 and 5.   Keywords: extraction, transesterification, column chromatography, GC-MS

  7. Utilisation of Giant African snail (Achatina fulica meal as protein source for laying hens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siaka Seriba Diarra

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available A 12-week experiment was carried out to investigate the effects of substituting Giant African snail meal for fish meal in laying hens diet. Four diets were formulated to contain snail meal as replacement for fish meal at 0 (control, 33, 67 and 100 %. A total of 120 Shaver Brown pullets aged 18 weeks were allocated to the dietary treatments in a randomised design. Each treatment consisted of three replicates and ten birds per replicate. Feed intake increased only for the 33% treatment as compared to the 67% replacement diet but did not differ from the other treatments. There were no significant treatment effects on egg performance parameters observed (egg production, egg weight, total egg mass, feed conversion ratio and percent shell. The overall feed cost of egg production reduced on the snail mealbased diets. The organoleptic evaluation of boiled eggs revealed no difference between the treatments. Based on these results it was concluded that total replacement of fish meal with cooked snail meat meal does not compromise laying performance or egg quality. The substitution is beneficial in terms of production cost reduction and the reduction of snails will have a beneficial impact especially where these snails are a serious agricultural pest. The manual collection and processing of snails can also become a source of rural income.

  8. Identification of characteristic aroma compounds in raw and thermally processed African giant snail (Achatina fulica).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lasekan, Ola; Muniady, Megala; Lin, Mee; Dabaj, Fatma

    2018-04-24

    Food flavor appreciation is one of the first signals along with food appearance and texture encountered by consumers during eating of food. Also, it is well known that flavor can strongly influence consumer's acceptability judgment. The increase in the consumption of snail meat across the world calls for the need to research into the aroma compounds responsible for the distinctive aroma notes of processed snail meat. The odorants responsible for the unique aroma notes in thermally processed giant African snail meats were evaluated by means of aroma extract dilution analysis (AEDA), gas chromatography-olfactometry (GC-O) and odor activity values (OAVs) respectively. Results revealed significant differences in the aroma profiles of the raw and thermally processed snail meats. Whilst the aroma profile of the raw snail meat was dominated with the floral-like β-ionone and β-iso-methyl ionone, sweaty/cheesy-like butanoic acid, and the mushroom-like 1-octen-3-one, the boiled and fried samples were dominated with the thermally generated odorants like 2-methylpyrazine, 2,5-dimethylpyrazine, 2-acetylthiazole and 2-acetylpyridine. Finally, results have shown that sotolon, 2-acetyl-1-pyrroline, 2-furanmethanethiol, 2-methylbutanal, 1-octen-3-one, octanal, furanone, 2-methoxyphenol, 2-acetylpyridine, 2-acetylthiazole, and 2-methylpyrazine contributed to the overall aroma of the thermally processed snail meat.

  9. Electrospining method to synthesize compositebased on alginate-polyvinyl alcohol with addition of snail (Achatina fulica)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meilanny DKP; Pranjono; Dyah Hikmawati

    2015-01-01

    Many materials that can be used as wound coverings, one is alginate. Alginate has a high absorption capacity and has a role as a gelling agent which has hemostatic properties. Rigid and brittle nature is weakness of alginate and to improve the properties of the alginate can be mixed with the vinyl polymers are compatible and flexible. PVA is a water-soluble polymer, has a good ability to form fibers, biocompatible, has a chemical resistance, and biodegradable. For further improve the quality of wound closure, this research used the method electrospining . This experiment was carried out at a distance of 8 cm with a voltage of 17 kV, 20 kV, 23 kV, 25 kV and 27 kV. Testing is done using FTIR test to determine functional groups which is formed and analysis of the microstructure using SEM. FTIR test results showed that with the addition of lendr snail does not produce new functional groups. At a voltage of 23 kV can produce a fibers with micro size with nano fiber produced is also very continuous. (author)

  10. Effects of lead pollution at industrial contaminated sites on sentinel juvenile Achatina achatina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebenso, I E; Ologhobo, A D

    2009-01-01

    We investigated juvenile Achatina achatina snails exposed as sentinels in plastic cages for 12 weeks to compare lead pollution at dump sites of abandoned battery factory (Niger Delta, Nigeria). Results indicated 0.56, 20.37, 200.42 and 1200.30 microg/g soil lead at control, storage, dried effluent and waste dump sites, respectively. There were significant (p lead pollution. Snails were tolerant of all levels of lead pollution with no mortalities. This novel approach provides a basis for use of snail data in environmental pollution assessment of industrial sites.

  11. Anthelmintic Effect of Moringa oleifera Lam. in Wild- caught Achatina ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    This study assessed the anthelmintic effect of Moringa oleifera in A. achatina. Using dissecting and microscopic ..... Ecosystems and Sustainable Tourism. Available: ... commercially in Australia: a report for the Rural. Industries Research and ...

  12. [SPECTRAL AND ACID-BASE PROPERTIES OF HEMOLYMPH PLASMA AND ITS FRACTIONS FROM GASTROPOD PULMONATE MOLLUSC ACHATINA FULICA].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrova, T A; Lianguzov, A Yu; Malygina, N M

    2016-01-01

    The set of normal biochemical indicators of the hemolymph plasma of gastropod pulmonate mollusc Achatinafulica is described. Comparative analysis of the whole plasma and its subfractions enriched and depleted of oxygen-carrying protein hemocyanin was performed by spectrophotometry and spectrofluorimetry methods. Individual features of the absorption spectra were analyzed using fourth derivatives. The optimum method for estimating protein concentration was chosen. To characterize acid-base properties of plasma hemolymph and its sub-fractions we calculated buffer capacity, equivalence points and pK values of dominant buffer groups. It is shown that the major role in maintaining the buffer capacity of hemolymph belongs to the bicarbonate system. These results are compared with data for Helix pomatia available in literature. In the future the indicators studied in this work will be used to develop ecotoxicological criteria for the environmental assessment.

  13. Pengaruh Lendir Bekicot (Achatina fulica terhadap Jumlah Sel Fibroblas pada Penyembuhan Luka Sayat Studi Eksperimental pada Kulit Mencit (Mus musculus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Perez Wahyu Purnasari

    2012-12-01

    Design and methods: The study is an experimental research with post test only randomized control group design. The subjects were 18 Mus musculus strain mice that were divided into 3 groups. 1st group as a control group of untreated, 2nd group was given povidone iodine 10%, and 3rd group was given land snails’ mucus during 5th days. On the 6th day the mices were killed for histological study. Results: The data showed that average number of fibroblast in 1st group is 93,85; 2nd group is 126,37; and 3rd is group 217,5. The results of one way anova statistical test showed significant difference among the three groups p = 0,000. The results of post hoc test showed significant difference in all groups (p < 0,05. Conclusion: The mucus of land snail is influence the number of fibroblast in healing cuts (Sains Medika, 4(2:195-203.

  14. [Distribution of acetylcholinesterase activity in the digestive system of the gastropod molluscs Littorina littorea and Achatina fulica].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaĭtseva, O V; Kuznetsova, T V

    2008-01-01

    With the use of the histochemical procedure for the demonstration of acetylcholinesterase (AchE) activity, the distribution cholinergic regulatory elements was studied in the esophagus, the pharynx, the stomach, the liver (the digestive gland) and the intestine in sea and terrestrial gastropod molluscs that differed in their general organization level, lifestyle, habitat and feeding type. In both molluscs, all the parts of the digestive tract contained the significant amount of intraepithelial AchE-positive cells of the open type, single subepithelial neurons and the nervous fibers localized among the muscle cells of the wall of the organs. The basal processes of the AchE-positive intraepithelial cells were shown to form the intraepithelial nerve plexus and to pass under the epithelium. The peculiarities and common principles in the distribution of the nervous elements detected, their possible function and the regulatory role in the digestion in gastropod molluscs and other animals are discussed.

  15. Eco-physiological adaptation of the land snail Achatina achatina (Gastropoda: Pulmonata in tropical agro-ecosystem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian O. Chukwuka

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The survival of land snails in an adverse environmental condition depends on the integral physiological, morphological and behavioural adaptations. These adaptations are essential in understanding the species-specific habitat requirements and in predicting their environmental responses. In this study, the monthly and the periodic patterns of eco-physiological adaptation of land snail, Achatina achatina in Nsukka tropical agro-ecosystem were assessed from December 2012 to July 2013. Standard methods were employed in sampling the land snail and determination of the water content, biochemical fuel reserves and enzyme concentrations of the samples. The present results showed that lipids were high at the beginning of aestivation and depleted as the aestivation progressed. Glycogen was significantly low throughout the aestivation months (December–March and increased in the active months (April–July. Protein content recorded a definite pattern all through the months studied. Catabolism of lactate and a decrease in activity of LDH during aestivation and substantial increase upon activation were observed. Data showed that transaminase and aspartate enzymes depleted during the aestivation months indicating that the snails may have developed potential cell injury due to oxidative stress and thermal heat. A disassociation between the physiological responses and climatic data was recorded. The physiological adaptation of A. achatina ensures regular adjustment under extreme conditions and compensates for its metabolic regulation in the tropics. It is concluded that survival of A. achatina is not environmentally predicted; rather it depends on the species-specific inherent process in predicting responses for survival.

  16. Possible control of introduced giant African land snails (Achatina spp. by the reintroduced endemic skink Leiolopisma telfairii, Ile aux Aigrettes, Mauritius

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jamie A. COPSEY

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The giant African land snail (Achatina fulica is one of the world’s worst invasive species, out‐competing endemic snails, consuming native vegetation and potentially altering nutrient cycles. Attempts to eradicate the snail from islands have only been successful with incipient populations. We present correlative evidence that native island predators may act as an effective control agent for the snail. In 2000 a population of between 37,300 and 45,100 African land snails was estimated on the 26ha nature reserve island of Ile aux Aigrette, Mauritius. Between 2006 and 2007, 260 endemic Telfair’s skink Leiolopisma telfairii were reintroduced to the reserve. Snail population surveys in 2008 and 2009 showed that the introduced snail population had declined to 5,569 (± 3,630 and 6,871 (±5,379, respectively. Previous studies showed that the introduced snails were selective over other invertebrate prey items. We suggest that predation by the endemic skink has been an important causal factor behind the snail population decline.

  17. Compactação causada pelo manejo de plantas invasoras em latossolo vermelho-amarelo cultivado com cafeeiros

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula Sant'Anna Moreira Pais

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available O manejo de plantas invasoras é considerado uma das principais atividades que promovem degradação da estrutura do solo em lavouras cafeeiras, devido à compactação do solo causada pelas operações de controle de plantas invasoras. O objetivo deste estudo foi determinar o modelo de capacidade de suporte de carga para o manejo de plantas invasoras sem capina, bem como, utilizando esse modelo, qual manejo de plantas invasoras causa menor ou maior compactação do solo. Este estudo foi realizado em um Latossolo Vermelho-Amarelo (LVA cultivado com cafeeiros da cutivar Topázio MG 1190 desde 2006, localizado na Fazenda Experimental da EPAMIG, na comunidade Farias, em Lavras-MG. Os manejos de plantas invasoras avaliados foram: na linha de tráfego da entrelinha - grade de discos, herbicida de pós-emergência, herbicida de pré-emergência, roçadora e trincha; e no centro da entrelinha, onde não houve tráfego - amendoim forrageiro (Arachis pintoi, braquiária (Brachiaria decumbens, capina manual, crotalária (Crotalaria juncea e soja (Glicine max L. A amostragem consistiu de duas etapas: uma para determinar o modelo de capacidade de suporte de carga para o manejo de plantas invasoras sem capina; e outra para avaliar a compactação promovida pelos outros manejos de plantas invasoras. A fim de determinar o modelo de capacidade de suporte de carga para o manejo sem capina, foram coletadas no centro da entrelinha 20 amostras com estrutura indeformada nas profundidades de 0-3, 10-13 e 25-28 cm, totalizando 60 amostras. Essas amostras foram submetidas ao ensaio de compressão uniaxial para obter as pressões de pré-consolidação e as umidades volumétricas, que foram usadas para determinar o modelo de capacidade de suporte de carga. Para determinar a compactação causada pelos manejos de plantas invasoras, realizados por meio do controle mecânico, foram coletadas em janeiro de 2010, nas linhas de tráfego das entrelinhas, 180 amostras com

  18. Plantas Invasoras

    OpenAIRE

    Díaz Varela, Ramón Alberto

    2009-01-01

    Enxeñaría Técnica Agricola. Especialidade en Hortofruticultura e Xardinaría As invasións biolóxicas constitúen unha das ameazas máis serias para a conservación da biodiversidade no ámbito do cambio global que está a experimentar o planeta. A introdución e aclimatación de especies en territorios alleos non é unha novidade na historia, xa que tivo lugar polo menos dende os comezos da agricultura. Estes procesos presentaron máximos de ocorrencia en determinados momentos da historia, como p...

  19. Leucaena allelopathy on weeds and soybean seed germination / Alelopatia de Leucena sobre soja e plantas invasoras

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raquel Leszczynski

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available With the advance of agriculture, there was consequent rising in environment degradation. Therefore, It is interesting the use of plants which have in their chemical composition substances capable of helping in the control of weeds to minimize the use of pesticides. Hence, the objective of this paper was to evaluate solutions of leucena extract on weeds that are frequent on soybean crop. The treatments were leucena extracts at 0, 20, 40, 60, 80 and 100% at room temperature water and water heated to 80°C. The extracts were obtained by crushing 200g of leucena leaves and mixing them with one liter of distilled water with the help of a blender. Seeds were kept in B.O.D. at a temperature of 25°C, with a photoperiod of 12 hours of light. Evaluations were done on a daily basis, from the first to the last day of the experiment, varying according to the species. Results show a negative interference of the extracts, both hot and cold, in the root length of Ipomoea grandifolia, in the percentage of germination and in the root length of Arrowleaf sida and Hair beggarticks. There was no negative interference in the analyzed parameters for soybean seeds. Thus, the results indicate allelopatic potential of Leucaena leuucocephala as an alternative for the management of weeds without interfering on the development of the soybean crop.Com o desenvolvimento da agricultura surgiram os conseqüentes aumentos na degradação ambiental. Assim, estuda-se a utilização de plantas que possuam em sua composição química substâncias capazes de auxiliar no controle de plantas invasoras, amenizando o uso de agrotóxicos. Desta forma, o objetivo do trabalho foi avaliar soluções de extratos de leucena sobre plantas invasoras que freqüentemente ocorrem na cultura da soja. Foram utilizados como tratamentos os seguintes extratos de leucena nas proporções de: 0, 20, 40, 60, 80 e 100% com água à temperatura ambiente e com água aquecida à 80°C. Os extratos foram

  20. Swimming black-crowned night-herons (Nycticorax nycticorax) Kleptoparasitize American coots (Fulica americana)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Graves, Gary R.

    2015-01-01

    I observed black-crowned night-herons (Nycticorax nycticorax) swimming and kleptoparasitizing American coots (Fulica americana) at an artificial lake in Pinal County, Arizona. This appears to be the first record of interspecific kleptoparasitism by a swimming ardeid.......I observed black-crowned night-herons (Nycticorax nycticorax) swimming and kleptoparasitizing American coots (Fulica americana) at an artificial lake in Pinal County, Arizona. This appears to be the first record of interspecific kleptoparasitism by a swimming ardeid....

  1. Plantas invasoras da cultura do feijoeiro (Phaseolus vulgaris L. no Estado de Minas Gerais

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julio Pedro Laca-Buendia

    1989-01-01

    Full Text Available Nas áreas de cultura do feijoeiro (Phaseolus vulgaris L., no Estado de Minas Gerais, foram coletadas e identificadas 222 espécies de plantas invasoras (= plantas daninhas, pertencentes a 35 famílias botânias, representando 118 gêneros, sendo que as famílias Compositae, Leguminosae, Gramineae, Malvaceae, Convolvulaceae, Rubiaceae, Euphorbiaceae, Amaranthaceae, Cyperaceae e Solanaceae, são as mais importantes em relação à cultura. As plantas coletadas, devidamente etiquetadas e identificadas, foram anexadas no PAMG (Herbário da Empresa de Pesquisa Agropecuária de Minas Gerais, Belo Horizonte - (MG..A survey in the cultivation area of bean in the state of Minas Gerais, Brazil, resulted in the determination of 222 weeds species, of 118 genera belonging to 35 families presenting a greater number of species areas: Compositae, Leguminosae, Gramineae, Malvaceae, Convolvulaceae, Rubiaceae, Euphorbiaceae, Amaranthaceae, Cyperaceae and Solanaceae, with 33, 30, 25, 21, 12, 10. 10, 10, 9. 8 species respectively.

  2. Distribution of 137Cs in the American Coot (Fulica americana)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Potter, C.M.; Brisbin, I.L. Jr.; McDowell, S.G.; Whicker, F.W.

    1989-01-01

    Caesium-137 concentrations were determined for major tissue and organ components of Americal Coots (Fulica americana) wintering on two contaminated reactor cooling reservoirs on the US Department of Energy's Savannah River Plant. Concentrations reflected the relative contamination levels of the two reservoirs. A low ratio of 137 Cs in gut contents to that in muscle indicated that the coots used in the study were established winter residents and tissue 137 Cs had probably reached equilibrium with intake. The contributions of each component to the whole body weight and total 137 Cs body burden were calculated. Skeletal muscle exhibited the highest 137 Cs concentrations and comprised 35% of the total 137 Cs body burden. Gut contents represented 17% of the total body burden. Various other organs were intermediate and bone exhibited the lowest 137 Cs concentrations. Linear regressions were determined for 137 Cs concentrations in skeletal muscle, liver, kidney, gastrointestinal (GI) tract tissue and gut contents, as functions of whole-body concentrations. (author)

  3. Plantas palustres e aquáticas que se comportam como invasoras, no Estado de Minas Gerais

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitzi Brandão

    1988-01-01

    Full Text Available Foram cadastradas as espécies palustres e aquáticas com comportamento de plantas invasoras, quando da obstrução de canais de irrigação e drenagem de lagos, represas, ou ainda como competidoras em culturas irrigadas. As plantas cadastradas no presente trabalho somam um total de 113 espécies, englobando 64 gêneros e 40 famílias.Are listed the boggy and aquatic plants that behave as weeds in the obstruction of drainage and irrigation canals, lakes, dams or irrigated crops, totalling 113 species, involving 64 genera and 40 families.

  4. Integration and impacts of invasive plants on plant-pollination networks Integración e impactos de las plantas invasoras sobre las redes de plantas y polinizadores /

    OpenAIRE

    Bartomeus Roig, Ignacio

    2008-01-01

    Consultable des del TDX Text en anglès i castellà Títol obtingut de la portada digitalitzada Nota: el text d'aquesta tesi és en anglès i castellà Las especies invasoras son aquellas que transportadas e introducidas por el ser humano en lugares fuera de su área de distribución natural, han conseguido establecerse y dispersarse en la región de destino. Las especies invasoras pueden producir cambios en las poblaciones de las especies nativas e incluso conducir a su extinción local. Las ...

  5. Flora invasora de cultivos de aveia-preta, milho e sorgo em região de cerrado do Estado de Mato Grosso do Sul, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Guglieri-Caporal

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Cerca de 3 milhões de hectares de solos de cerrado no Estado do Mato Grosso do Sul são ocupados por lavouras anuais como aveia-preta, milho e sorgo, nas quais ocorrem plantas invasoras. O primeiro requisito para o manejo e controle de plantas invasoras é a correta identificação. O presente trabalho teve como objetivo realizar o estudo florístico das espécies invasoras de cultivos de aveia-preta, milho e sorgo, em áreas de cerrado do Estado de Mato Grosso do Sul, para conhecimento sobre a diversidade em cada cultivo e a similaridade florística entre elas. Nos três cultivos estudados foi constatado o total de 14 famílias, 47 gêneros e 66 espécies invasoras. No cultivo de aveia-preta observou-se o maior número de espécies (43, seguido pelos de milho (39 e sorgo (29. As principais famílias em número de espécies foram Fabaceae (16, Poaceae (13 e Asteraceae (10. A maior similaridade florística ocorreu entre os cultivos de milho e sorgo (0,588.

  6. RENDIMENTO DE CARCAÇA E COMPOSIÇÃO CENTESIMAL DO MÚSCULO DOS MOLUSCOS ESCARGOT (Achatina fulica E ARUÁ (Pomacea lineata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. H. R. BARBOZA

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available

    O presente trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar a composição corporal (rendimento de carcaça e a composição centesimal do músculo dos moluscos escargot e aruá. As avaliações foram realizadas comparando-se 6 grupos de animais de pesos e idades diferentes (3 de escargot e 3 de aruá com um grupo controle (escargot, animais estes com 4 meses de idade e peso entre 20 e 25g (considerados pela Escargoteria animais padrão de abate. De interesse industrial, o rendimento em carne observado no lote de escargot de peso inferior (14,08 a 19,98g ao lote controle, mostra que podemos aproveitá-los para a comercialização, pois podem ser abatidos antes dos 4 meses de idade, pelo menor custo de produção. Já os lotes de aruá (espécie selvagem apresentaram discrepâncias quando comparado ao lote controle o que sugerem estudos zootécnicos para melhorar o rendimento em carne. Na composição centesimal da carne 02 lotes de escargot (1 e 2 e 02 lotes de aruá (4 e 5 são estatisticamente igual ao lote controle indicando o potencial nutricional da espécie aruá.

  7. ESTUDO DO APROVEITAMENTO DAS VÍSCERAS DOS MOLUSCOS ESCARGOT (Achatina fulica) E ARUÁ (Pomacea lineata) PARA INCORPORAÇÃO EM RAÇÃO ANIMAL

    OpenAIRE

    S. E. R. BARBOZA; P. F. ROMANELLI

    2008-01-01

    O objetivo deste trabalho foi estudar o aproveitamento das vísceras - subprodutos, dos moluscos escargot e aruá. As vísceras foram processadas na forma de farinha e suas características físico-químicas (composição centesimal, cálcio, fósforo, digestibilidade em pepsina, índice de acidez) e microbiológicas (Salmonella sp) foram comparadas aos padrões de qualidades exi...

  8. RENDIMENTO DE CARCAÇA E COMPOSIÇÃO CENTESIMAL DO MÚSCULO DOS MOLUSCOS ESCARGOT (Achatina fulica) E ARUÁ (Pomacea lineata)

    OpenAIRE

    S. H. R. BARBOZA; P. F. ROMANELLI

    2008-01-01

    O presente trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar a composição corporal (rendimento de carcaça) e a composição centesimal do músculo dos moluscos escargot e aruá. As avaliações foram realizadas comparando-se 6 grupos de animais de pesos e idades diferentes (3 de escargot e 3 de aruá) com um grupo controle (escargot), animais estes com 4 meses de idade e peso entre 20 e ...

  9. Timing of reproduction and fledging success in the coot Fulica atra : evidence for a causal relationship

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brinkhof, Martin W.G.; Cavé, Anton J.; Hage, Fred J.; Verhulst, Simon

    1993-01-01

    1. We investigated the relationship between hatching date and fledging success in the European coot (Fulica atra). 2. The production of fledglings per brood increased in the first half of the season and decreased in the second half, independent of clutch size or egg size. We tested experimentally

  10. Plantas cultivadas e invasoras como habitat para predadores do gênero Orius(Wolff (Heteroptera: anthocoridae Crops and weeds as host plants Orius species (Heteroptera: anthocoridae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luís Cláudio Paterno Silveira

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi registrar as espécies de Orius associadas a plantas cultivadas e invasoras presentes em uma localidade de Minas Gerais e três de São Paulo, nos anos de 1999 e 2000. As coletas foram realizadas através de batidas das plantas no interior de sacos plásticos para desalojar os insetos. Posteriormente, as espécies foram separadas em laboratório. O predador Orius insidiosus (Say foi coletado nas culturas de milho (Zea mays L., milheto (Pennisetum glaucum (L. R.Br., sorgo (Sorghum spp., feijão (Phaseolus vulgaris L., girassol (Helianthus annuus L., alfafa (Medicago sativa L., soja [Glycine max (L. Merr.], crisântemo (Chrysanthemum spp., tango (Solidago canadensis L. e cartamus (Carthamus tinctorius L. e nas plantas invasoras picão-preto (Bidens pilosa L., caruru (Amaranthus sp., losna-branca (Parthenium hysterophorus L. e apaga-fogo (Alternanthera ficoidea L.. Orius thyestes Herring foi encontrado nas plantas invasoras picão-preto, caruru e apaga-fogo. Orius perpunctatus (Reuter e Orius sp. foram coletados principalmente nas plantas invasoras picão-preto, caruru e apaga-fogo e no milho. Constatou-se que muitas dessas plantas são reservatórios naturais para esses predadores, em termos de habitat, abrigo, presas e pólen.The aim of this research was to record the Orius species present on some crops and weeds in areas located in the southeast region in Brazil, during 1999 and 2000. The insect collections were made through the tapping method to dislodge the insects from the plant into a plastic bag. The identifications of the specimens was done in the laboratory. Orius insidiosus (Say was collected on the following crops: corn (Zea mays L., pearl millet (Pennisetum glaucum (L. R.Br., sorghum (Sorghum spp., bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L., sunflower (Helianthus annuus L., alfalfa (Medicago sativa L., soybean (Glycine max (L. Merr., chrysanthemum (Chrysanthemum spp., tango (Solidago canadensis L. and carthamus

  11. Agregação de um latossolo vermelho-amarelo submetido a métodos de controle de plantas invasoras na cultura do café

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    Raphael Henrique da Silva Siqueira

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available O controle de plantas daninhas em cultivos de cafeeiros tem expressivo efeito na qualidade física do solo, influenciando, entre outros atributos, na sua estabilidade estrutural. Neste trabalho, objetivou-se avaliar o estado de agregação das partículas primárias de um Latossolo Vermelho-Amarelo (LVA cultivado com cafeeiros, quando submetido a diversos métodos de controle de plantas invasoras. Os métodos de controle de plantas invasoras avaliados foram: manutenção da entrelinha coberta com amendoim-forrageiro (Arachis pintoi L. e capim-braquiária (Brachiaria decumbens; controle mecânico com grade, roçadora, trincha e capina manual; controle químico com herbicidas de pós e pré-emergência; e ausência de controle, mantendo a entrelinha sem capina. O delineamento experimental foi em blocos casualizados em um fatorial 9 × 2 em parcelas subdivididas, sendo nove métodos de controle e duas profundidades do solo (0-15 e 15-30 cm, com três repetições. Determinaram-se a estabilidade dos agregados em água, expressa pelo diâmetro médio geométrico, o potencial dispersivo da fração argila, estimado pelos teores de argila dispersa em água e do índice de floculação, além dos teores de matéria orgânica do solo. Os atributos avaliados foram influenciados pelos diferentes métodos de controle, contudo essa influência não foi dependente da camada de solo amostrada. A utilização contínua de grade e herbicida de pré-emergência no controle de invasoras na cultura do café diminuiu a agregação das partículas do solo, confirmado pelos menores valores de diâmetro médio geométrico. Os métodos biológicos de controle das invasoras mantiveram melhor estado de agregação das partículas do solo. O estado de agregação das partículas não mostrou-se associado à dispersibilidade da fração argila do solo.

  12. Actualización en Aspergilosis con énfasis en Aspergilosis invasora Aspergillosis update with focus in invasive aspergillosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonia Isabel Cuervo-Maldonado

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available El género Aspergillus es ubicuo en la naturaleza y de distribución universal. Por esta razón, el contacto con este hongo incluye hospederos inmunocompetentes e inmunosuprimidos. La vía aérea es la forma más frecuente de adquirir este hongo y sus manifestaciones clínicas y localización topográfica se relacionan con la interacción del hongo y la capacidad inmunológica del hospedero. La principal manifestación clínica de este hongo es a nivel respiratorio, con un impacto muy importante en mortalidad y morbilidad, especialmente en el paciente inmunosuprimido. Los pacientes con tumores hematológicos, trasplantes de corazón, pulmón y con sida son más susceptibles de presentar invasión tisular y vascular por este hongo, que en tales casos se manifiesta como Aspergilosis Invasora (AI. La AI ofrece dificultades diagnósticas en el hospedero inmunosuprimido por lo que en este grupo de pacientes el uso de métodos de diagnóstico no invasores permite guiar el abordaje terapéutico. En la actualidad se dispone de medicamentos antifúngicos del grupo de los azoles (voriconazol y de las equinocandinas (caspofungina que han mejorado el resultado de la AI. En este artículo se actualiza la literatura en cuanto al diagnóstico y tratamiento de la AI.The genus Aspergillus is ubiquitous in nature and has universal distribution; for this reason contact with this fungus includes immunocompetent and non-immunocompetent hosts. The most common form of acquiring this fungus is through air, and its clinical manifestations and topographic location correspond to the interaction of the fungus and its host's immune capacity. The main clinical manifestation of this fungus is a breathing condition and has a very significant impact on mortality and morbidity, especially in non-immunocompetent patients. Patients with haematological malignancies, heart or lung transplant surgeries, and AIDS are the most susceptible to present tissue and vascular invasion by this

  13. Leucaena leucocephala (Lam. de Wit (Fabaceae: invasora ou ruderal? Leucaena leucocephala (Lam. de Wit (Fabaceae: invasive or ruderal?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Nicola Martorano Neves da Costa

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available A utilização de espécies exóticas em plantios de recuperação de áreas degradadas tem sido condenada com base no argumento de que tais espécies podem se comportar como invasoras e contaminar os ecossistemas naturais ao redor das áreas onde forem plantadas. Leucaena leucocephala (leucena é espécie leguminosa exótica que tem sido frequentemente cultivada no Brasil para recuperação florestal, uma vez que apresenta simbiose com bactérias fixadoras de nitrogênio, melhorando a fertilidade dos solos. O potencial de invasão e persistência da leucena foi analisado a partir de um plantio misto, efetuado em 1983 em terreno com afloramento rochoso, parte do mosaico de uma paisagem dominada por matriz agrícola, com alguns fragmentos remanescentes de floresta estacional semidecidual e plantios arbóreos diversos. Em uma área de 200 ha, cada uma das 11 unidades do mosaico foi amostrada por meio de seis parcelas de 16 x 3 m (48 m², em que foram identificados e medidos (DAP todos os indivíduos de espécies arbóreas (altura mínima de 50 cm, para verificar se a área ocupada pela espécie está se expandindo. Na área em que foi utilizada leucena no plantio, analisou-se a estrutura da comunidade, com base na distribuição dos indivíduos em classes de tamanho, para verificar se a proporção da espécie exótica tende a aumentar com o tempo, configurando a persistência no ecossistema. Uma vez que nenhum indivíduo de L. leucocephala foi registrado entre os 4.599 amostrados além dos limites da área onde a espécie foi plantada, a conclusão é de que a espécie não está se comportando como invasora de ecossistemas naturais nessa condição ambiental, enquadrando-se melhor como ruderal. A análise da comunidade em regeneração sob as árvores plantadas evidenciou que a proporção da espécie exótica, que é intolerante à sombra, tende a diminuir com o tempo, ainda que lentamente, perdendo espaço para espécies nativas tolerantes

  14. Visitantes florais de plantas invasoras de áreas com fruteiras irrigadas Floral visitors of weed plants of irrigated orchard areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lúcia Helena Piedade Kiill

    2000-09-01

    Full Text Available As plantas invasoras afetam a produtividade das fruteiras irrigadas, sendo necessários estudos sobre sua ecologia, principalmente formas de reprodução e associação com insetos. O presente trabalho foi desenvolvido em Petrolina-PE, objetivando classificar os visitantes florais de plantas invasoras em polinizadores e pilhadores, de acordo com o comportamento apresentado. As observações foram feitas de maio a outubro de 1998, em 26 dias não consecutivos, no intervalo das 7h00 às 16h00. As invasoras foram classificadas em nectaríferas e poliníferas, quando visitadas para retirada exclusiva de néctar ou de pólen; e em mistas, quando visitadas para retirada dos dois recursos. Para a análise de freqüência foi adotado um sistema de notas: a- número de visitas >30, b- entre 10 e 30 e c- Weeds can impair yield of irrigated fruit crops, studies about their ecology being needed, especially ways of reproduction and association with insects. This work was carried out in Petrolina, PE, Brazil with the objective of identifying the floral visitors of weeds, and classifying them as pollinators and pollen and/or nectar thieves, according to their behavior. The observations were made between May and October of 1998, in 26 not consecutive days, between 7:00 am and 4:00 pm. The weeds were classified in nectariferous and polliniferous when these were visited exclusively for collection of nectar or pollen, and mixed when these were visited to collect both. A grade system was adopted for the frequency evaluation: a- number of visits >30, b - between 10 to 30, c - <10. Among the 24 weeds observed, 14 were classified as nectariferous, six as polliniferous and four were considered mixed. Among the floral visitors, the following bees were registered (Xylocopa grisescens, X. frontalis, Centris aff. perforator, Ptilotrix aff. plumata, Diadasina riparia, Apis mellifera, Trigona spinipes, Eulaema nigrita, butterflies (Ascia monuste, Papilio thoas brasiliensis

  15. Terapia anticipada de Aspergilosis Invasora en pacientes oncohematológicos de alto riesgo mediante el uso de PCR para la detección precoz de Aspergillus. Estudio de los polimorfismos genéticos de la vía NFKB y su implicación en las Arpergilosis Invasora

    OpenAIRE

    Villaescusa de la Rosa, María Teresa

    2016-01-01

    [ES] La aspergilosis invasora (AI) es un problema fundamental en el manejo de muchos pacientes hematológicos, por lo que es esencial un diagnóstico precoz que permita instaurar un tratamiento adecuado lo antes posible con el fin de disminuir la morbimortalidad de esta complicación. Nuestra hipótesis es que la asociación del galactomanano con una técnica de detección del ADN de aspergillus, como es la PCR de aspergillus, podría reducir la incidencia de AI probable o probada según los criterios...

  16. La problemática de las especies vegetales invasoras en las Antillas: el caso de Martinica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jospeh Philippe

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available La introducción de plantas es un fenómeno antiguo y consustancial a la historia de la humanidad. Los viajes y las conquistas de nuevas tierras permitieron la diseminación de las especies a partir de su lugar de domesticación. La migración de algunos pueblos está estrechamente ligada a la de los vegetales que son necesarios para su supervivencia. La epopeya amerindia en la cuenca del Caribe que originó la introducción de numerosas especies vegetales útiles, es un ejemplo elocuente. En las Antillas Menores, desde el inicio de la colonización hasta nuestros días, a las especies exógenas se les agregaron diversos taxos pantropicales. Las introducciones sucesivas se debieron al aumento de los intercambios sobre todo agrícolas, a los intereses económicos crecientes relacionados con las producciones hortícolas, y a la recrudescencia de las colecciones de vegetales en los jardines botánicos así como en los conservatorios botánicos y en otros espacios verdes o paisajísticos. Al contrario de lo que sucede en algunas islas tropicales, donde las plantas introducidas ocasionan un verdadero desastre ecológico, las Antillas Menores, a pesar de una fuerte antropización y de importaciones de vegetales exógenos, parecen estar protegidas contra las invasiones florísticas. Pocas especies se lanzan a la aventura en el medio natural. Los motivos de esa aparente resistencia ecosistémica son desconocidos hoy en día. Por ser transitoria esta situación, resulta necesario considerar el riesgo ecológico acarreado por este proceso de invasión vegetal en esos espacios insulares exiguos. En este artículo, intentaremos echar las primeras bases para una comprensión de las relaciones existentes entre las especies introducidas, de las cuales algunas son potencialmente invasoras, y la vegetación natural.For many human communities, their migratory process depends heavily on food plants edible for the daily diet. The history of the Indians of America

  17. Composition, Enzymes Analysis and Retraction Time of Columellar ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    With the aid of columellar muscle, snails retract the soft part into the shell when disturbed. The response time of three Giant African Land Snail (GALS) species: Archachatina marginata, Achatina achatina and Achatina fulica to touch and sodium chloride (NaCl) solution was examined. Chemical composition (protein, glucose ...

  18. Germinação de sementes de alface e de duas ervas invasoras com a aplicação de um novo análogo do estrigol, sintetizado a partir do safrol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel André José A.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available O estrigol é um sesquiterpeno natural que possui elevada atividade como estimulante da germinação, principalmente de sementes de espécies invasoras, pertencentes aos gêneros Striga e Orobanche. Soluções contendo 0,01; 0,1; 10 e 1000 mg/L de um novo análogo de estrigol, sintetizado a partir de um alilbenzeno natural, o safrol (isolado do óleo de sassafraz, foram aplicadas em sementes de alface e de Ipomoea grandifolia e Bidens pilosa. Observou-se que houve efeito estimulador na germinação das sementes das ervas invasoras, sem afetar a germinação da alface. Os resultados indicam que essa substância apresenta potencial de uso para estimular a germinação de sementes de ervas invasoras, que poderiam ser eliminadas do solo, antes do plantio de hortaliças como a alface.

  19. Invasive pneumococcal diseases among hospitalized children in Lima, Peru Enfermedades neumocócicas invasoras en niños hospitalizados en Lima, Perú

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Theresa J. Ochoa

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To determine the epidemiology of invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD and the antibiotic susceptibility and serotype distribution of S. pneumoniae in pediatric patients in Lima, Peru. METHODS: A 2-year, multicenter, passive surveillance study conducted from May 2006- April 2008 in 11 public hospitals and five private laboratories in Lima, Peru, in patients less than 16 years of age with sterile site cultures yielding S. pneumoniae. Antibiotic susceptibility was performed by Etest® (AB Biodisk, Solna, Switzerland. Strains were serotyped by the Quellung reaction. RESULTS: In all, 101 IPD episodes were studied, 68.3% of which were among children less than 24 months of age. Diagnoses were: pneumonia (47.5%, meningitis (38.6%, and sepsis (7.9%. The overall case fatality rate was 22.0%; case fatality rate in meningitis was 32.4%. While 80.0% of fatal cases were in those less than 24 months of age, only 50.7% of non-fatal cases (P OBJETIVO: Determinar la epidemiología de la enfermedad neumocócica invasora y la sensibilidad a los antibióticos y la distribución de los serotipos de S. pneumoniae en pacientes pediátricos en Lima, Perú. MÉTODOS: Estudio multicéntrico de vigilancia pasiva durante dos años, entre mayo del 2006 y abril del 2008, en 11 hospitales públicos y 5 consultorios privados de Lima, en pacientes menores de 16 años con cultivos de sitios estériles positivos para S. pneumoniae. Se determinó la sensibilidad a los antibióticos mediante Etest® (AB Biodisk, Solna, Suiza. Se serotipificaron las cepas mediante la reacción de Quellung. RESULTADOS: En total, se estudiaron 101 episodios de enfermedad neumocócica invasora, 68,3% de ellos en niños menores de 24 meses, con los siguientes diagnósticos: neumonía (47,5%, meningitis (38,6% y septicemia (7,9%. La tasa de letalidad general fue de 22,0% y la tasa de letalidad por meningitis de 32,4%. Si bien 80,0% de los casos mortales ocurrió en menores de 24 meses, solo 50

  20. Diversidade genética de Begomovirus que infectam plantas invasoras na região nordeste Genetic diversity of Begomovirus infecting weeds in northeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.P. Asssunção

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Os Begomovirus fazem parte de uma família numerosa de fitovírus denominada Geminiviridae. Eles infectam ampla gama de hospedeiras, incluindo muitas espécies cultivadas, como tomate (Lycopersicon esculentum, feijão (Phaseolus vulgaris, pimentão (Capsicum annuum, caupi (Vigna unguiculata, mandioca (Manihot esculenta etc., além de plantas invasoras de várias espécies. Em alguns casos, plantas invasoras podem funcionar como reservatórios desses vírus para plantas cultivadas, mediante transmissão pelo inseto-vetor. No presente trabalho, plantas invasoras com sintomas de mosaico amarelo, deformação do limbo foliar e redução do crescimento foram avaliadas no tocante à presença de Begomovirus mediante a técnica de PCR, empregando-se oligonucleotídeos universais para detecção desses vírus. Foram avaliadas 11 amostras, correspondendo a 10 espécies, coletadas em municípios dos Estados de Alagoas, Pernambuco e Bahia. Algumas, como Herissantia crispa, Waltheria indica e Triumfetta semitriloba, são relatadas pela primeira vez como espécies hospedeiras de Begomovirus. Para estimar a variabilidade genética dos Begomovirus detectados, o produto de amplificação dos diversos isolados foi clivado com as enzimas de restrição EcoRI, HinfI e TaqI. Confirmando resultados obtidos para plantas cultivadas por outros grupos de pesquisa, foram observados padrões distintos de clivagem para os isolados estudados, evidenciando a grande variabilidade genética desses vírus.Genus Begomovirus belong to the family Geminiviridae. Begomovirus is associated with a wide range of hosts, including many cultivated species such as tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum, dry beans (Phaseolus vulgaris, pepper (Capsicum annuum, cowpea (Vigna unguiculata, cassava (Manihot esculenta, etc., besides many weed species. It has been demonstrated that in some cases weeds act as virus reservoirs for cultivated plants. In the present work, weed samples presenting yellow

  1. Two radioecological surveys in the high background radiation are of Yangjiang, Guangdong Province, China: Contents of natural radionuclides in a certain snail (Achatina Fulica) and Cassava, and their transfer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu, H.; Huang, X.; Song, H.; Li, J.; Zhang, J.

    1993-01-01

    The determined results showed that the radioactivity concentrations of 226 Ra, 228 Ra, 210 Pb and 210 Po in the snail meat and cassava root were of the order of 10 0 -10 1 Bq.kg -1 , but those of natural U and Th were of the order of 10 -6 -10 -5 g.kg -1 . The 228 Ra concentrations in both were more than their 226 Ra concentrations. U contents in soil, lived on by the snail and nurturing the cassava, were 17.7 and 3.2 mg.kg -1 respectively; but the Th contents in the soil were 39.1 and 10.5 mg.kg -1 respectively. According to the Annual Limit of Ingestion of 228 Ra, limited consumption of the snail meat should be equal to 67 g per day. For the cassava root, critical nuclide is 210 Pb; the limited consumption is estimated to be 324 g per day 12 refs, 10 tabs

  2. A comparative study of the use of radiation and other preservatives for the preservation of fresh snails (Achatina achatina and archachatina marginita)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nyoagbe, L. A.

    2012-01-01

    The consumption of African Giant Snails is a delicacy in Ghana and some parts of West Africa, however there are problems associated with the preparation and preservation of the meat. Using two species (Achatina and Archachatina), an investigation was carried out with the objective of exploiting packaging, irradiation, refrigeration and the use of other preservatives to extend the shelf life of snail meat. A market survey identified shelling, slime removal, contamination, packaging and pricing as the major challenges associated with the utilisation of the meat. The microbial load of snails from the market and the farm for the two species were determined. The total viable count of snails from the farm and market sources ranged from 8.29 log 10 cfu/g ± 1.02 log 10 cfu/g to 6.61 log 10 cfu/g ± 1.25 log 10 cfu/g. The coliform count ranged from 8.26 log 10 cfu/g ± 0.56 log 10 cfu/g to 6.7 ± 1.9 log 10 cfu/g. Staphylococcus, bacillus and pseudomonas counts ranged from 7.68 ± 1.40 to 2.66 ± 2.99; 4.90 ± 1.07 to 1.53 ± 1.68 and 6.13 ± 0.34 to 3.97 ± 0.74 log 10 cfu/g respectively. The efficacy of irradiation (0, 2, 4 and 6 kGy); vinegar + salt (15 mins and 30 mins dipping time); lemon juice (400ml and 600ml) and blanching (10 sec and 15 sec) in removing slime from the snail meat and their effect on the microbial load were studied . The most effective treatment was vinegar + salt which achieved a total mean weight loss of -144.7± 12.7 for 15 mins dipping time and -122.6 ± 12.7 for 30 mins dipping time. This was followed by irradiation which achieved -113.8 ± 1.27, -124.5 ± 1.27 and, -114.3 ± 1.27 mean weight loss for 2kGy, 4kGy and 6kGy respectively. The least effective treatment was blanching achieving a -39.3 ± 12.7 for 15 sec and -48.2 ± 12.7 for 10 sec for A. achatina and a weight gain of 16.0 ± 9.48 for 15 secs and 17.5 ± 9.48 for 10 sec for A. marginita. Irradiation was most effective in reducing the TVC and coliform counts in snail samples after

  3. Efeito do espaçamento e do uso de leguminosas de cobertura no manejo de plantas invasoras em reflorestamento de Schizolobium amazonicum Huber ex. Ducke (paricá

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabrízia de Oliveira Alvino-Rayol

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available A infestação crescente de plantas invasoras em áreas de cultivos é um dos fatores que mais afetam os reflorestamentos na Amazônia, causando decréscimos na produtividade devido à competição direta pelos fatores de produção. Tendo isso em vista, este trabalho objetivou avaliar o efeito de espaçamentos (4x2 m, 4x4 m e 4x6 m e do uso de leguminosas de cobertura (Cajanus cajan e Canavalia ensiformis no controle da matocompetição em plantio de Schizolobium amazonicum Huber ex. Ducke (paricá. As coletas das plantas invasoras foram feitas aos 30 e 90 dias após a semeadura das leguminosas de cobertura. Posteriormente foram levadas para herbários para identificação. Foram identificadas 24 espécies distribuídas em 13 famílias botânicas. No que se refere à infestação, diversidade e riqueza de plantas daninhas, os melhores resultados foram encontrados nos tratamentos com C. ensiformis. Esta leguminosa influenciou a composição florística e a estrutura das comunidades de plantas invasoras. O espaçamento 4m x 2m contribuiu para menor diversidade e riqueza dessa plantas. As espécies de ervas daninhas mais frequentes em todos os tratamentos foram Spermacoce capitata e Brachiaria brizantha.

  4. Do native grazers from Patagonia, Argentina, consume the invasive kelp Undaria pinnatifida? ¿Pueden los pastoreadores nativos de Patagonia, Argentina, consumir al alga invasora Undaria pinnatifida?

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    S. Valeria Teso

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The invasive kelp Undaria pinnatifida (Phaeophyceae, Laminariales was first reported in Golfo Nuevo in 1992 and since then it has spread widely over more than 170 km, all along the northern Patagonian coast, Argentina. Field observations in the region have indicated the potential role of invertebrate grazers, like the sea urchins Arbacia dufresnii and Pseudechinus magellanicus and the gastropod Tegula patagonica, in controlling algal density. Laboratory experiments were conducted to ascertain whether, and if so, to what extent these grazers actually feed on the algae. The studied sea urchins fed on the alga, whereas the snail scraped off biofouling adhered to its surface. Higher densities of grazers were observed on the kelp during summer and might be attributed to increasing in metabolism with increasing temperature, and degradation of blades and sporophylls, which possibly increase their palatability.El alga invasora Undaria pinnatifida (Phaeophyceae, Laminariales fue reportada por primera vez en Golfo Nuevo en 1992, dispersándose ampliamente a lo largo de 170 km de costa en el norte de la Patagonia, Argentina. Observaciones de campo hechas en los erizos de mar Arbacia dufresnii y Pseudechinus magellanicus y en el gasterópodo Tegula patagonica evidenciaron que son posibles consumidores de Undaria pinnatifida en la población local. Se realizaron experimentos de laboratorio con el objetivo de probar si estos pastoreadores eran capaces de consumir el alga. Los erizos de mar estudiados consumen el alga, mientras que el gasterópodo ramonea los epibiontes presentes sobre su superficie. Altas densidades de ramoneadores fueron encontradas sobre el alga durante el verano y podrían ser atribuidas a un aumento del su metabolismo con el aumento de la temperatura y a la degradación de las láminas y esporofilos, lo cual posiblemente aumente la palatabilidad del alga.

  5. Eficacia terapèutica de diferentes regímenes de administración de la anfotericina B liposomal en un modelo animal experimental de aspergilosis pulmonar invasora

    OpenAIRE

    Martín Gómez, Mª Teresa

    2008-01-01

    Consultable des del TDX Títol obtingut de la portada digitalitzada A pesar de los avances producidos en los últimos años, las pautas actualmente recomendadas para el tratamiento de la aspergilosis pulmonar invasora siguen presentando tasas de éxito inferiores a lo deseable, remarcando la necesidad de nuevos tratamientos más eficaces. A la espera de nuevos fármacos más activos, una posible estrategia para aumentar la eficacia el la basada en el diseño de nuevas pautas de administración d...

  6. PENGGUNAAN KITOSAN CANGKANG BEKICOT (ACHANTINA FULICA UNTUK BAHAN PENGAWET ALAMI BERBAGAI JENIS SAYURAN SEBAGAI SUMBER BELAJAR DALAM PERENCANAAN PEMBELAJARAN BIOTEKNOLOGI

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    Nur Aisyah

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui perbedaan kandungan vitamin C dan pH dalam sayuran bunga kol, kubis dan buncis yang diawetkan dengan kitosan cangkang bekicot selama proses penyimpanan dan untuk mengetahui berapakah konsentrasi kitosan cangkang bekicot yang paling efektif sebagai bahan pengawet sayuran tersebut. Kegiatan penelitian dilakukan melalui True Experimental Research. Tempat dan waktu penelitian dilaksanakan di Laboratorium Kimia Universitas Muhammadiyah Malang yang berlangsung pada tanggal 23 Juni – 6 Juli 2014. Rancangan penelitian yang digunakan adalah Rancangan Acak Kelompok (RAK dengan 6 perlakuan dan 4 kali ulangan pada bunga kol, kubis dan buncis yaitu C0, K0 dan B0 (Kontrol, C1, K1 dan B1 (0,5%, C2, K2 dan B2 (1%, C3, K3 dan B3(1,5%l, C4, K4 dan B4 (2%, C5, K5 dan B5 (2,5%, Analisis data menggunakan analisis varians satu arah dan uji beda jarak nyata Duncan pada taraf signifikansi 0,05. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan ada pengaruh pemberian konsentrasi kitosan cangkang bekicot (Achantina fulica terhadap perbedaan kandungan vitamin C sayuran bunga kol, kubis dan buncis dari hari per hari selama penyimpanan. Perubahan kandungan vitamin C paling kecil terjadi pada perlakuan 1,5% dan paling besar pada perlakuan kontrol. Pemberian konsentrasi kitosan cangkang bekicot (Achantina fulica 1,5% adalah yang paling efektif mempengaruhi kandungan fitamin C sayuran bunga kol, kubis dan buncis. Hasil penelitian diaplikasikan pada perencanaan pembelajaran SMA kelas XII materi bioteknologi

  7. Nucleolin: acharan sulfate-binding protein on the surface of cancer cells.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Joo, E.J.; Dam, G.B. ten; Kuppevelt, A.H.M.S.M. van; Toida, T.; Linhardt, R.J.; Kim, Y.

    2005-01-01

    Glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) are complex polysaccharides that participate in the regulation of physiological processes through the interactions with a wide variety of proteins. Acharan sulfate (AS), isolated from the giant African snail Achatina fulica, primarily consists of the repeating disaccharide

  8. Métodos de controle de plantas invasoras na cultura do cafeeiro (Coffea arabica L. e componentes da acidez do solo Weed control methods and soil acidity components in coffee plantation (Coffea arabica L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elifas Nunes Alcântara

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Em lavouras perenes, como na cultura do cafeeiro, o controle de plantas invasoras tem sido feito por meio de métodos manuais, mecanizados, químicos e associações destes. De modo geral, têm-se avaliado os diferentes métodos sob o ponto de vista de eficiência e de custo no controle das plantas invasoras; no entanto, a influência deles sobre as condições químicas do solo, praticamente, não tem sido estudada, principalmente a longo prazo. O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar o efeito de diferentes métodos de controle de plantas invasoras na cultura do cafeeiro sobre os componentes da acidez de um Latossolo Vermelho distroférrico da região de São Sebastião do Paraíso, MG. Sete tratamentos de controle de plantas invasoras foram avaliados: roçadora (RÇ, grade (GR, enxada rotativa (RT, herbicida de pós-emergência (HC, herbicida de pré-emergência (HR, capina manual (CM e testemunha sem capina (SC, dispostos em blocos casualizados com três repetições. Amostras de solo, em cada tratamento, foram coletadas a cada dois anos, a partir de 1980, nas camadas de 0-0,15 e 0,15-0,30 m, para avaliação de pH, Al3+, acidez potencial (H + Al e saturação por Al3+ (m. O sistema HR aumentou o teor e a saturação por Al3+ e a acidez potencial e diminuiu o pH, quando comparado com os demais métodos de controle de plantas invasoras, principalmente com a testemunha (SC. O tratamento SC mostrou efeito contrário ao do HR, aumentando os valores de pH e diminuindo o teor de Al3+ e a saturação por Al3+, em ambas as camadas de solo. O RÇ foi o tratamento que mais se aproximou do SC, e os demais tratamentos, no geral, não apresentaram comportamento diferenciado.In perennial agriculture, such as coffee plantation, weeds are controlled by hand, mechanized, and chemical weeding and their combinations. Methods that differ in terms of efficiency and costs have been evaluated; however, the influence of these methods on the soil chemical conditions has

  9. Enfermedad invasora por Staphylococcus aureus meticilino resistente adquirida en la comunidad Community-acquired methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus disseminated disease

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    Clarisa Brezzo

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Se presenta un caso de enfermedad invasora por Staphylococcus aureus meticilino resistente (SAMR adquirido en la comunidad (SAMR-c. Paciente varón de 21 años, previamente sano, que consultó por nódulos subcutáneos compatibles con gomas. La ultrasonografía reveló múltiples abscesos subcutáneos e imágenes consistentes con piomiositis, además de derrame pleural y pericárdico. En el cultivo del material purulento obtenido por punción-aspiración con aguja fina de las lesiones se aisló S. aureus. El antibiograma por difusión mostró resistencia a cefalotina, eritromicina y clindamicina, y sensibilidad a trimetroprima-sulfametoxazol, ciprofloxacina y rifampicina. La meticilino resistencia se confirmó por aglutinación con partículas de látex sensibilizadas con anticuerpos monoclonales dirigidos contra la proteína ligadora de penicilina 2A. El paciente fue tratado con ciprofloxacina y rifampicina durante cuatro semanas, con evolución favorable. La frecuencia de infecciones por SAMR-c está en aumento, observándose en personas sin factores de riesgo aparentes. Esto llevaría a fracaso en el tratamiento empírico para infecciones de la comunidad en los que se presume etiología estafilocócica.A 21 year old man, previously healthy, presented with subcutaneous nodes consistent with gummas. Ultrasonography disclosed multiple subcutaneous abscesses and images suitable with piomiositis, pleural and pericardium effusion. A puncture-aspirate with fine-needle was performed and produced purulent material, with isolate of Staphylococcus aureus. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing by disk diffusion showed resistant to cefalotin, erythromycin and clindamycin, and susceptibility to trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, ciprofloxacin and rifampicin. Methicilin-resistance was confirmed by Staphyslide agglutination testing (Biomérieux. The patient was treated with ciprofloxacin and rifampicin during four weeks, with a good clinical response. The

  10. Aspectos estructurales y cuantitativos del ovario de Fulica armillata (Aves: Rallidae

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    Mirian Bulfon

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Se estudiaron los aspectos morfohistológicos y cuantitativos del ovario de Fulica armillata durante la fase de recrudescencia gonadal. Se utilizaron 5 hembras adultas. El análisis morfohistológico reveló la presencia de numerosos folículos en diferentes estadios de desarrollo y regresión. El epitelio simple de células granulosas caracterizó a los ovocitos primordiales y el pseudoestratificado a los folículos previtelogénicos, ambos tipos foliculares exhibieron un notorio cuerpo de Balbiani. En los folículos vitelogénicos blancos y amarillos (> de 1 mm se evidenció una compleja pared folicular formada por la zona radiada, el epitelio folicular estratificado y las envolturas tecales bien delimitadas, mientras que, en los vitelogénicos amarillos (> de 3 mm fue observado un epitelio simple con células cúbicas muy basófilas. Se identificaron dos tipos de atresia folicular: 1 pared folicular intacta o no bursting, la involución se realiza en el interior del folículo, comprende a la atresia lipoidal (Ovocitos primordiales y lipoglandular (folículos previtelogénicos y vitelogénicos pequeños y 2 atresia por ruptura de la pared o bursting con extrusión del contenido ovoplásmico (folículos vitelogénicos > 1 mm. El análisis cuantitativo reveló una diferencia significativa (p <0,05, entre los folículos en desarrollo (< de 2 mm y los folículos mayores e idéntica diferencia entre lo folículos atrésicos pequeños (lipoidales y lipoglandulares y los folículos bursting. Los procesos de crecimiento y diferenciación (foliculogénesis y vitelogénesis y el de atresia folicular se desarrollan normalmente durante la fase de recrudescencia gonadal, contribuyendo a la homeostasis del ovario de esta ave.

  11. ENFERMEDAD INVASORA POR HAEMOPHILUS INFLUENZAE ANTES Y DESPUÉS DE LA CAMPAÑA DE VACUNACIÓN EN LA POBLACIÓN INFANTIL DE LA COMUNIDAD VALENCIANA (1996-2000

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    Mercedes Goicoechea Sáez

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Fundamento: La introducción de la vacuna conjugada anti Haemophilus influenzae tipo b (Hib en niños ha provocado un llamativo descenso de la incidencia de la enfermedad por H. influenzae. El objetivo de este estudio es analizar las características más relevantes de la enfermedad invasora por H. influenzae en cuanto a la epidemiología, clínica, evolución y estado de vacunación de la población infantil de la Comunidad Valenciana en el periodo 1996-2000. Método: Los datos se recogen de las historias clínicas de los niños menores de 15 años que hayan presentado síntomas y signos clínicos sugestivos de enfermedad invasora con aislamiento de Haemophilus influenzae y/o que cumple con los criterios de definición de caso establecidos, atendidos en todos los hospitales públicos de la Comunidad Valenciana entre 1996 y 2000. La evolución de la incidencia se valoró mediante tasas de incidencia. La clínica y su evolución (secuelas y letalidad mediante la frecuencia y distribución por edad. Resultados: Se registraron un total de 36 casos de enfermedad invasora por Haemophilus influenzae. La tasa de incidencia en niños menores de 15 años pasó de 3,56/105 en 1996 a 1,07/105 en 1997 (coincidiendo con la campaña de vacunación y la posterior inclusión de la vacuna conjugada anti Hib en el Calendario de Vacunaciones Sistemáticas de la Comunidad Valenciana y 0,30/105 en 1998, situación que se sigue manteniendo en los años posteriores. El 53% de los casos se dan en menores de 18 meses. Tanto las secuelas como los fallecimientos se producen en la época anterior a la aplicación rutinaria de la vacuna conjugada. Ningún niño vacunado correctamente falleció. Se registraron 2 casos de H. influenzae tipo no b en niños vacunados. Conclusiones: La incidencia de la infección por Haemophilus influenzae tipo b disminuyó drásticamente desde el inicio de la vacunación sistemática de la población infantil.

  12. Enfermedad invasora por Haemophilus Influenzae antes y después de la campaña de vacunación en la población infantil de la Comunidad Valenciana (1996-2000

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    Goicoechea Sáez Mercedes

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Fundamento: La introducción de la vacuna conjugada anti Haemophilus influenzae tipo b (Hib en niños ha provocado un llamativo descenso de la incidencia de la enfermedad por H. influenzae. El objetivo de este estudio es analizar las características más relevantes de la enfermedad invasora por H. influenzae en cuanto a la epidemiología, clínica, evolución y estado de vacunación de la población infantil de la Comunidad Valenciana en el periodo 1996-2000. Método: Los datos se recogen de las historias clínicas de los niños menores de 15 años que hayan presentado síntomas y signos clínicos sugestivos de enfermedad invasora con aislamiento de Haemophilus influenzae y/o que cumple con los criterios de definición de caso establecidos, atendidos en todos los hospitales públicos de la Comunidad Valenciana entre 1996 y 2000. La evolución de la incidencia se valoró mediante tasas de incidencia. La clínica y su evolución (secuelas y letalidad mediante la frecuencia y distribución por edad. Resultados: Se registraron un total de 36 casos de enfermedad invasora por Haemophilus influenzae. La tasa de incidencia en niños menores de 15 años pasó de 3,56/10(5 en 1996 a 1,07/10(5 en 1997 (coincidiendo con la campaña de vacunación y la posterior inclusión de la vacuna conjugada anti Hib en el Calendario de Vacunaciones Sistemáticas de la Comunidad Valenciana y 0,30/10(5 en 1998, situación que se sigue manteniendo en los años posteriores. El 53% de los casos se dan en menores de 18 meses. Tanto las secuelas como los fallecimientos se producen en la época anterior a la aplicación rutinaria de la vacuna conjugada. Ningún niño vacunado correctamente falleció. Se registraron 2 casos de H. influenzae tipo no b en niños vacunados. Conclusiones: La incidencia de la infección por Haemophilus influenzae tipo b disminuyó drásticamente desde el inicio de la vacunación sistemática de la población infantil.

  13. Biological Responses of the American Coot (Fulica americana), in wetlands with contrasting environmental conditions (Basin of México).

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Islas, María Eugenia; Ibarra-Meza, Itzel; Ortiz-Ordóñez, Esperanza; Favari, Liliana; Elías Sedeño-Díaz, J; López-López, Eugenia

    2017-01-01

    Wetland ecosystems are subject to severe impacts (physical and chemical) and to the input of various xenobiotics that provoke toxicological consequences. Waterbirds are potential sentinel species of these environments. To analyze how habitat conditions affect the health of Fulica americana, early-warning biomarkers, histopathology, somatic indices, and water quality were examined in two wetlands of the Basin of Mexico: Xochimilco, an urban wetland highly eutrophic with a mixture of pollutants, and Tecocomulco (the reference site), a rural wetland with hunting migratory birds in winter, and with some agricultural contaminants. Coots were collected over 1 year, and the birds were aged, eviscerated, and weighed. Liver samples were analyzed biochemically and histologically. Biomarkers revealed that coots displayed higher lipid peroxidation and elevated activities of gamma-glutamyl transferase and alanine aminotransferase, suggesting hepatic damage during autumn and winter. In Tecocomulco, coots during winter has the highest thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (as a measure of oxidative stress), which may be associated with the presence of predators. In Tecocomulco, the higher gonadosomatic index was detected in spring and summer, while in Xochimilco it was elevated in summer, indicating a delayed egg laying and reproduction in coots from the latter study site. In both wetlands, leukocyte infiltration, alone or combined with vasocongestion, reflected alterations in the inflammatory processes in liver throughout the annual cycle and thus potentially altered hepatic function and organism survival. In both wetlands, coots were permanent residents and chronically exposed to different stressors, suggesting damage may be irreversible with potentially adversely reproductive consequences.

  14. Spread of the Rat Lungworm (Angiostrongylus cantonensis) in Giant African Land Snails (Lissachatina fulica) in Florida, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwanowicz, Deborah D; Sanders, Lakyn R; Schill, W Bane; Xayavong, Maniphet V; da Silva, Alexandre J; Qvarnstrom, Yvonne; Smith, Trevor

    2015-07-01

    The rat lungworm (Angiostrongylus cantonensis) is a parasitic nematode that causes rat lungworm disease. It is the leading cause of eosinophilic meningitis and is a zoonotic health risk. We confirmed the presence of A. cantonensis using species-specific, quantitative PCR in 18 of 50 (36%) giant African land snails (Lissachatina fulica) collected from Miami, Florida, US in May 2013. These snails were collected from seven of 21 core areas that the Florida Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services monitor weekly. Rat lungworms have not previously been identified in these areas. Duplicate DNA extractions of foot muscle tissue from each snail were tested. Of the seven core areas we examined, six were positive for A. cantonensis and prevalence of infection ranged from 27% to 100%. Of the 18 positive snails, only five were positive in both extractions. Our results confirm an increase in the range and prevalence of rat lungworm infection in Miami. We also emphasize the importance of extracting sufficient host tissue to minimize false negatives.

  15. Soil organic carbon stocks in coffee plantations under different weed control systemsEstoques de carbono orgânico do solo em cafezais sob diferentes sistemas de controle de plantas invasoras

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franciane Diniz Cogo

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Soil organic carbon (COS is an important indicator of soil quality, as its levels and stocks can change by soil preparation. This study aimed to evaluate COS stocks on a clayey Oxisol cultivated with coffee and subject to different weed control systems in southern Minas Gerais, Brazil. The experimental design was in randomized blocks, and weed control systems were: no weeding, manual weeding, pre-emergence herbicide, post-emergence herbicide, rotary tiller, rotary mowers and disk harrow. Undisturbed soil samples were collected at two positions in the coffee plantation (tire tracks and planting line, at depths of 0-3, 10-13, and 25-28 cm. A nearby native forest was sampled as a reference. A higher bulk density of soils under coffee plantations occurred compared to soil under the forest. There was little difference between COS concentrations in the plating line in relation to the native forest, but for the tire track position, the amount of COS was generally lower. After correction for soil compaction, it was estimated a loss of ca. 20% in SOC stock for te 0-30 cm depth for herbicide post-emergence, rotary tiller, manual weeding and disk barrow, and a 35% loss when using herbicide pre-emergence. SOC stocks under no weeding and rotary mowers did not differ from native forest (37 M-1g ha COS, indicating that the rotary mower, which allows temporary growth of weeds and does not disrupt soil structure, is the most appropriate weed control for the preservation of COS in coffee plantations.O carbono orgânico no solo (COS é um importante indicador da qualidade do solo, pois seus teores e estoques podem ser alterados conforme o sistema de preparo do solo. Objetivou-se neste trabalho avaliar os estoques de COS em um Latossolo Vermelho distroférrico argiloso cultivado com cafeeiros (Coffea arabica L e submetido a diferentes manejos de plantas invasoras no sul de Minas Gerais. O delineamento experimental foi em blocos ao acaso, sendo os tratamentos os

  16. Impacto de la resistencia a antimicrobianos y de serotipos de Streptococcus pneumoniae en la mortalidad de niños menores de 5 años con enfermedad invasora

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ríos Ana María

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Las enfermedades invasoras ocasionadas por Streptococcus pneumoniae han sido por mucho tiempo una causa importante de mortalidad. Si bien se sabe que la resistencia de S. pneumoniae a la penicilina y otros antimicrobianos se ha incrementado con el tiempo, aún no se ha esclarecido el efecto de este cambio sobre la mortalidad. Se desconoce igualmente el impacto de la virulencia de los tipos capsulares del microorganismo en la mortalidad. El objetivo de este estudio de cohorte retrospectivo fue determinar los factores de riesgo de mortalidad por enfermedad neumocócica en niños menores de 5 años. Durante un estudio de serotipificación de S. pneumoniae patrocinado por el Sistema Regional de Vacunas de la OPS se revisaron con este fin las fichas epidemiológicas de 245 pacientes de esa edad en quienes se diagnosticó enfermedad invasora por S. pneumoniae entre 1994 y 1996 en Colombia. De los 245 pacientes, 29 (11% fallecieron. En el análisis univariado no se establecieron diferencias significativas entre los pacientes que murieron y aquellos que sobrevivieron en cuanto a edad, sexo, procesos patológicos subyacentes al ingresar, o concordancia del tratamiento antimicrobiano recibido. Las variables que se asociaron con la mortalidad fueron un diagnóstico de meningitis; infección por S. pneumoniae resistente a la penicilina, trimetoprima-sulfametoxazol (TMS o eritromicina; multirresistencia, y los tipos capsulares 6, 23F, 7F, 8 y 35 B. En el análisis por regresión logística siguieron mostrando asociación con la mortalidad los tipos capsulares 7F (razón de posibilidades u odds ratio [OR] = 7,13; P = 0,04 y 8 (OR = 13,8; P = 0,07, la polipnea (OR = 2,74; P = 0,03, el diagnóstico de meningitis (OR = 5,02; P = 0,0001 y la resistencia a TMS (OR = 2,62; P = 0,02. En los casos de neumonía, el factor que más se asoció con la mortalidad fue el tipo capsular, mientras que en los casos de meningitis, dicho factor fue la resistencia a

  17. Impacto de la resistencia a antimicrobianos y de serotipos de Streptococcus pneumoniae en la mortalidad de niños menores de 5 años con enfermedad invasora

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana María Ríos

    1999-02-01

    Full Text Available Las enfermedades invasoras ocasionadas por Streptococcus pneumoniae han sido por mucho tiempo una causa importante de mortalidad. Si bien se sabe que la resistencia de S. pneumoniae a la penicilina y otros antimicrobianos se ha incrementado con el tiempo, aún no se ha esclarecido el efecto de este cambio sobre la mortalidad. Se desconoce igualmente el impacto de la virulencia de los tipos capsulares del microorganismo en la mortalidad. El objetivo de este estudio de cohorte retrospectivo fue determinar los factores de riesgo de mortalidad por enfermedad neumocócica en niños menores de 5 años. Durante un estudio de serotipificación de S. pneumoniae patrocinado por el Sistema Regional de Vacunas de la OPS se revisaron con este fin las fichas epidemiológicas de 245 pacientes de esa edad en quienes se diagnosticó enfermedad invasora por S. pneumoniae entre 1994 y 1996 en Colombia. De los 245 pacientes, 29 (11% fallecieron. En el análisis univariado no se establecieron diferencias significativas entre los pacientes que murieron y aquellos que sobrevivieron en cuanto a edad, sexo, procesos patológicos subyacentes al ingresar, o concordancia del tratamiento antimicrobiano recibido. Las variables que se asociaron con la mortalidad fueron un diagnóstico de meningitis; infección por S. pneumoniae resistente a la penicilina, trimetoprima-sulfametoxazol (TMS o eritromicina; multirresistencia, y los tipos capsulares 6, 23F, 7F, 8 y 35 B. En el análisis por regresión logística siguieron mostrando asociación con la mortalidad los tipos capsulares 7F (razón de posibilidades u odds ratio [OR] = 7,13; P = 0,04 y 8 (OR = 13,8; P = 0,07, la polipnea (OR = 2,74; P = 0,03, el diagnóstico de meningitis (OR = 5,02; P = 0,0001 y la resistencia a TMS (OR = 2,62; P = 0,02. En los casos de neumonía, el factor que más se asoció con la mortalidad fue el tipo capsular, mientras que en los casos de meningitis, dicho factor fue la resistencia a

  18. Condições microbiológicas e de ocorrência do caramujo terrestre africano na cidade de Araguaína no Estado do Tocantins

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    Lilyan Luizaga Monteiro

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Com base na grande incidência da espécie invasora de caramujo africano, Achatina fulica, na cidade de Araguaína, objetivamos investigar a relação existente entre as condições microbiológicas do caramujo e a ocorrência deste nas hortas domésticas na cidade. Foram seguidas metodologias laboratoriais na determinação de presença/ausência de microrganismos na superfície do caramujo, assim como de fungos filamentosos. Para complementar o trabalho foram entrevistados cento e um (101 moradores domiciliados em dezenove setores de Araguaína. Os resultados microbiológicos da superfície do caramujo apresentam valores acima de 1,2x105 UFC/g de bactérias heterotróficas, foram também isolados fungos dos gêneros Aspergillus, Penicillum, Trichophyton e Cryptococcus. No levantamento por entrevista, 86% dos entrevistados relataram uma alta incidência do caramujo nos seus domicílios no período chuvoso e 50% deles afirmaram ter algum tipo de canteiro em casa, porém 85% desconhecem as doenças que poderiam ser transmitidas por este caramujo. Concluímos que existe uma elevada contaminação microbiológica na superfície dos caramujos analisados, o que combinado com a preferencia pelos produtos de hortas domesticas desconhecendo os riscos que a invasão por caramujos pode acarretar, indicam a necessidade de ampliar o conhecimento sobre a determinação das condições de risco inerentes a A. fulica, assim como sua divulgação na sociedade araguaínense sobre seus efeitos, não somente na saúde das pessoas mas também na produtividade da agricultura artesanal.

  19. A flórula invasora da cultura do café (Coffea arabica L. no Estado de Minas Gerais, Brasil Weeds in coffee (Coffea arabica L. plantations in the state of Minas Gerais, Brazil

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    Manuel Losada Gavilanes

    1988-01-01

    Full Text Available Nas áreas de cultura de café (Coffea arábica L., no Estado de Minas Gerais, foram coletadas e identificadas 388 espécies de plantas invasoras (= plantas daninhas, pertencentes a 51 famílias botânicas, representando 182 gêneros, sendo que as famílias Compositae, Gramineae, Leguminosae, Malvaceae, Solanaceae, Euphorbiaceae, Rubiaceae, Amaranthaceae, Convolvulaceae e Verbenaceae, são as mais importantes em relação à cultura. As plantas coletadas, devidamente etiquetadas e identificadas, foram anexadas, parte delas no PAMG (Herbário da EPAMIG, Belo Horizonte, MG e, a outra parte, no Herbarium ESAL (Herbário do Departamento de Biologia da Escola Superior de Agricultura de Lavras - ESAL, Lavras - MG.A survey in the cultivation area of coffee in the State of Minas Gerais, Brazil, has resulted in the determination of 388 weed species, of 182 genera belonging to 51 families; the families presenting a greater number of espécies are: Compositae, Leguminosae, Gramineae, Malvaceae, Solanaceae, Rubiaceae, Convolvulaceae, Euphorbiaceae, Amaranthaceae and Verbenaceae with 65, 48, 42, 30, 19, 17, 16, 14, 12, 10 species, respectively.

  20. Plantas invasoras em sistemas agroflorestais com cupuaçuzeiro no município de Presidente Figueiredo (Amazonas, Brasil Weedy plants in agroforestry systems with cupuassu in the municipality of Presidente Figueiredo (Amazonas, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gladys Ferreira de Sousa

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available A infestação crescente de plantas invasoras nos sistemas agrícolas causa prejuízos às lavouras, com decréscimos acentuados da produtividade, quer pela competição direta pelos fatores de produção, quer pelos compostos alelopáticos liberados. Este trabalho consistiu de um levantamento e análise fitossociológica de alguns aspectos de espécies de invasoras que ocorrem em sistemas agroflorestais com cupuaçuzeiro, em três arranjos de culturas (mandioca+fruteiras; anuais+fruteiras; maracujá+fruteiras, sob três sistemas de adubação (NPK+MO, adubação com Fósforo e Fósforo+leguminosa. As coletas das plantas invasoras feitas em seis amostras de 0,25 m² por parcela foram posteriormente levadas ao laboratório para identificação. As 55 espécies identificadas estavam distribuídas em 23 famílias botânicas, sendo 43 espécies de dicotiledôneas (78,2%, 11 de monocotiledôneas (20,0% e uma de pteridófita (1,8%. As famílias Poaceae (monocotiledônea e Asteraceae (dicotiledônea foram as mais freqüentes e com maior número de indivíduos. As espécies mais freqüentes e com maior número de plantas por m² foram Paspalum conjugatum P.J. Bergius (área A e Homolepis aturensis (Kunth Chase (área B, ambas da família Poaceae; Ageratum conyzoides L. da família Asteraceae, apresentou a maior densidade. Os coeficientes de similaridade variaram entre as áreas amostradas, sendo os maiores índices observados nos tratamentos que receberam adubação com matéria orgânica, particularmente nos sistemas mandioca+fruteiras. As práticas agrícolas e os sistemas de manejo do solo e das lavouras exerceram influência na composição florística e no tamanho das comunidades de plantas invasoras em cada local. O número de monocotiledôneas foi menor no tratamento com adubação NPK+MO.The increase of weed infestation on agricultural systems cause damages to the crops, decreasing plant productivity by the direct competition or by alelopathy

  1. Diversidade da comunidade de plantas invasoras em sistemas agroflorestais com café em Turrialba, Costa Rica Diversity of weed community in agroforestry systems with coffee in Turrialba, Costa Rica

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    Marta dos Santos Freire Ricci

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a diversidade de plantas invasoras, em sistemas agroflorestais com cafeeiros (Coffea arabica L. e em cafezal a pleno sol, sob manejo orgânico e convencional. Foram avaliados 20 tratamentos no delineamento de blocos ao acaso, em parcelas subdivididas no tempo, com três repetições. Os tratamentos corresponderam à combinação entre sistemas agroflorestais e quatro níveis de manejo, baseados na intensidade das práticas e aplicação de insumos: alto e médio convencional, médio e baixo orgânico. Em julho de 2002 e setembro de 2005 foi realizado o levantamento de plantas invasoras. Determinaram-se a riqueza, abundância, diversidade e eqüitabilidade. Observou-se redução nos valores médios de riqueza, abundância, diversidade e eqüitabilidade, em que os menores valores foram encontrados no tratamento com manejo alto convencional. Houve redução na freqüência das trepadeiras, ciperáceas e espécies de folhas estreitas (má cobertura, e aumento das espécies de folhas largas (boa cobertura e gramíneas. Nas duas épocas, os maiores percentuais de pontos com solo descoberto foram encontrados no tratamento alto convencional, e os menores percentuais foram encontrados em todos os tratamentos com manejo médio e baixo orgânico, e em três dos sete tratamentos com manejo médio convencional. Tais resultados demonstram que onde há aplicação freqüente de herbicida, a presença de árvores não evita exposição do solo.The objective of this work was to evaluate the floristic composition of spontaneous species in coffee (Coffea arabica L. cultivated in full sun and in agroforestry systems, under organic and conventional management. Twenty treatments were evaluated in a randomized complete block design, in a split plot in time, with three replicates. The treatments corresponded to combinations between types of agroforestry systems and four management system levels, based on practice intensity and

  2. Epizootic vacuolar myelinopathy of the central nervous system of bald eagles (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) and American coots (Fulica americana)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, N.J.; Meteyer, C.U.; Sileo, L.

    1998-01-01

    Unprecedented mortality occurred in bald eagles (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) at DeGray Lake, Arkansas, during the winters of 1994-1995 and 1996-1997. The first eagles were found dead during November, soon after arrival from fall migration, and deaths continued into January during both episodes. In total, 29 eagles died at or near DeGray Lake in the winter of 1994-1995 and 26 died in the winter of 1996-1997; no eagle mortality was noted during the same months of the intervening winter or in the earlier history of the lake. During the mortality events, sick eagles were observed overflying perches or colliding with rock walls. Signs of incoordination and limb paresis were also observed in American coots (Fulica americana) during the episodes of eagle mortality, but mortality in coots was minimal. No consistent abnormalities were seen on gross necropsy of either species. No microscopic findings in organs other than the central nervous system (CNS) could explain the cause of death. By light microscopy, all 26 eagles examined and 62/77 (81%) coots had striking, diffuse, spongy degeneration of the white matter of the CNS. Vacuolation occurred in all myelinated CNS tissue, including the cerebellar folia and medulla oblongata, but was most prominent in the optic tectum. In the spinal cord, vacuoles were concentrated near the gray matter, and occasional swollen axons were seen. Vacuoles were uniformly present in optic nerves but were not evident in the retina or peripheral or autonomic nerves. Cellular inflammatory response to the lesion was distinctly lacking. Vacuoles were 8-50 microns in diameter and occurred individually, in clusters, or in rows. In sections stained by luxol fast blue/periodic acid-Schiff stain, the vacuoles were delimited and transected by myelin strands. Transmission electron microscopy revealed intramyelinic vacuoles formed in the myelin sheaths by splitting of one or more myelin lamellae at the intraperiodic line. This lesion is characteristic of

  3. Resistência à compactação de um Latossolo cultivado com cafeeiro, sob diferentes sistemas de manejo de plantas invasoras Resistance to soil compaction of an Oxisol cultivated with coffee plants under different weed Management systems

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    Cezar Francisco Araujo-Junior

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available O conhecimento dos níveis de pressão que podem ser aplicados aos solos submetidos a diferentes sistemas de manejo das plantas invasoras é essencial para adaptar o manejo de lavouras cafeeiras de forma sustentável. O objetivo deste estudo foi o de avaliar a influência dos diferentes sistemas de manejo de plantas invasoras sobre a resistência à compactação em três camadas de um Latossolo Vermelho-Amarelo (LVA, utilizando modelos de capacidade de suporte de carga (CSC. O estudo foi realizado na fazenda da Epamig, no município de Patrocínio-MG, em uma lavoura cafeeira implantada em fevereiro de 1999, com a cultivar Rubi 1192 no espaçamento de 3,8 x 0,7 m. Foram avaliados os efeitos de quatro sistemas de manejo de plantas invasoras: sem capina (SC; capina manual (CM; herbicida de pós-emergência (HPÓS (glyphosate; e herbicida de pré-emergência (HPRÉ (oxyfluofen. Em cada sistema de manejo, foram coletadas 15 amostras indeformadas, em julho de 2004, no centro das entrelinhas, nas camadas de 0-3, 10-13 e 25-28 cm, totalizando 180 amostras. As amostras indeformadas foram equilibradas em diferentes umidades e submetidas ao ensaio de compressão uniaxial, para obtenção dos modelos de CSC. Os resultados sugerem que, de maneira geral, a resistência à compactação avaliada através da CSC decresce no centro da entrelinha na seguinte ordem: HPRÉ na camada de 0-3 cm > CM na camada de 10-13 cm > SC nas camadas de 0-3, 10-13 e 25-28 cm = HPÓS nas camadas de 0-3, 10-13 e 25-28 cm = CM nas camadas de 0-3 e 25-28 cm = HPRÉ na camada de 10-13 cm > HPRÉ na camada de 25-28 cm. A camada que se mostrou mais suscetível à compactação foi a de 25-28 cm, do sistema de manejo HPRÉ, e a mais resistente foi a camada de 0-3 cm do sistema de manejo HPRÉ. Os sistemas de manejo SC e HPÓS nas camadas de 0-3, 10-13 e 25-28 cm, CM nas camadas de 0-3 e 25-28 cm e HPRÉ na camada de 10-13 cm apresentaram a mesma resistência à compacta

  4. DISTRIBUIÇÃO ESPAÇO-TEMPORAL DA RÃ INVASORA, Lithobates catesbeianus (ANURA, RANIDAE (SHAW, 1802 EM DOIS REMANESCENTES FLORESTAIS DA MATA ATLÂNTICA NO SUL DO BRASIL

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    Jackson Fábio Preuss

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available A rã-touro (Lithobates catesbeianus é a mais notória espécie de anuro invasora. Foi introduzida no Brasil visando à criação comercial. Escapes acidentais e solturas têm favorecido a ocorrência desta espécie em ambientes naturais. O objetivo deste trabalho foi a avaliar a distribuição temporal e espacial da rã-touro, Lithobates catesbeianus em ambientes naturais. Entre novembro de 2014 e outubro de 2015 realizamos coletas noturnas em seis ambientes aquáticos de dois remanescentes florestais de Mata Atlântica, localizados no oeste do estado de Santa Catarina, Brasil. Durante esse período registramos o número de indivíduos em atividade, para a descrição física do habitat foi registrado o tipo de ambiente aquático, e para descrição do habitat registrou-se os parâmetros físicos da água/ambiente (temperatura da água, pH, temperatura do ar, pluviosidade e umidade relativa do ar. Foram registrados um total de 126 indivíduos, sendo 105 adultos e 21 juvenis. A rã touro foi registrada em atividade durante todo o período de estudo, utilizando corpos d’água lênticos e permanentes (lagoas, charcos e riachos. A espécie foi encontrada em todos os meses amostrados, sendo mais frequente no período de maiores temperaturas (dezembro; N= 31. A abundância foi relacionada significativamente à temperatura média da água (R2 = 0,62; p = 0,0013; N = 98. Entretanto, independente dos parâmetros físicos/ambientais investigados, esta espécie pode ser encontrada em todos os habitats investigados. No presente estudo, Lithobates catesbeianus apresentou alto grau de tolerância em ambientes naturais o qual evidencia-se como um fator negativo a biodiversidade local. Palavras-chave: rã-touro, ambientes naturais, fator negativo.

  5. ESTUDO DO APROVEITAMENTO DAS VÍSCERAS DOS MOLUSCOS ESCARGOT (Achatina fulica E ARUÁ (Pomacea lineata PARA INCORPORAÇÃO EM RAÇÃO ANIMAL

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    S. E. R. BARBOZA

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available

    O objetivo deste trabalho foi estudar o aproveitamento das vísceras - subprodutos, dos moluscos escargot e aruá. As vísceras foram processadas na forma de farinha e suas características físico-químicas (composição centesimal, cálcio, fósforo, digestibilidade em pepsina, índice de acidez e microbiológicas (Salmonella sp foram comparadas aos padrões de qualidades exigidas pela Legislação (6.198, de 26/12/74, e o Decreto 76.986, de 06/01/76 do Ministério da Agricultura e Abastecimento para a comercialização de produtos destinados à alimentação animal. Os resultados obtidos permitiram verificar que as farinhas de vísceras de ambas espécies podem ser utilizadas como matérias primas, constituindo ótimas fontes de nutrientes para a incorporação em rações animais.

  6. A vegetação secundária em um fragmento florestal urbano: influência de exóticas invasoras na comunidade vegetal. Secondary vegetation in a urban forest remnant: alien species influence on plant community

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    Silvana Cristina Pereira Muniz de SOUZA

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available O crescimento urbano desordenado da região metropolitana de São Paulo resultou na supressão da maior parte da vegetação natural, restando apenas os remanescentes protegidos em Unidades de Conservação de Proteção Integral, entre eles o Parque Estadual Alberto Löfgren – PEAL. Este estudo teve como objetivos detectar o estágio sucessional da vegetação secundária do PEAL e verificar a interferência de espécies exóticas no processo sucessional. Para isto, foi realizado um levantamento fitossociológico em um trecho contínuo de 4,8 ha, onde foram alocadas de modo aleatório 30 parcelas de 20 x 20 m e amostrados todos os indivíduos arbóreos e arbustivos com PAP ≥ 15 cm. Foram registradas 121 espécies (35 exóticas, pertencentes a 102 gêneros e 44 famílias, sendo as nativas clasificadas como 23% pioneiras, 54% secundárias, 16% clímax de dossel e 7% clímax de subosque. A síndrome de dispersão predominante foi a zoocoria, com 60% das espécies amostradas. Onze espécies foram consideradas ameaçadas de extinção. A densidade total obtida foi de 1.400 ind.ha-1, o índice de Shannon (H’ foi de 3,38 e a equabilidade 0,70. Entre as doze espécies de maior valor de importância, metade foi exótica. Concluiu-se que o PEAL permanece na condição de estágio inicial de sucessão e apresenta alto grau de colonização por espécies invasoras, o que compromete o avanço sucessional da área. A fim de evitar o agravamento desse processo, com a propagação das espécies exóticas para o interior das florestas naturais da Serra da Cantareira, recomenda-se a adoção de um programa integrado, que contemple o controle das exóticas e o enriquecimento com espécies nativas regionais. Neste estudo, são feitas sugestões indicando as espécies exóticas que devem ter o manejo priorizado para viabilizar o retorno dos processos de sucessão ecológica. Most of the natural vegetation of São Paulo municipality was lost due to the

  7. Encouraging results for controlling an Agricultural pest on St. Eustatius

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Debrot, A.O.; Reid, A.; Leslie, T.W.; Madden, H.; Stapel, J.; Dalm, Friso; Uphoff, Lara; Zwet, van der Leonie

    2016-01-01

    In 2013, the invasive Giant African Land Snail, Achatina fulica was found in a small part of urban St. Eustatius. In collaboration with local government agencies and Dutch universities, IMARES* conducted field and laboratory pilot trials of control methods from October 2015 to June 2016.

  8. Change of hemoagglutinin and hemolysin titers in hemolymph of gastropod molluscs in response to immunization with sheep erythrocytes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baskakov, AV; Polevshchikov, AV; Harazova, AD; Krasnodembskii, EG

    2000-01-01

    This work deals with analysis of changes of the levels of hemoagglutinins (HA) and hemolysins (HL) in hemolymph of three gastropod species, Planorbius corneus, Lymnea stagnalis, and Achatina fulica, in response to immunization with sheep erythrocytes (ShE). The levels of HA and HL were determined

  9. Novel approach to study gastropod-mediated innate immune reactions against metastrongyloid parasites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Penagos-Tabares, Felipe; Lange, Malin K.; Seipp, Anika

    2018-01-01

    -related investigations. Adult slug species (Arion lusitanicus, Limax maximus) and giant snails (Achatina fulica) were maintained in fully automated climate chambers until mating and production of fertilized eggs. Newly hatched F0 juvenile specimens were kept under parasite-free conditions before experimental use...

  10. Desempenho germinativo da invasora Leucaena leucocephala (Lam. de Wit. e comparação com Caesalpinia ferrea Mart. ex Tul. e Caesalpinia pulcherrima (L. Sw. (Fabaceae Germination performance of the invader Leucaena leucocephala (Lam. de Wit. compared to Caesalpinia ferrea Mart. ex Tul. and C. pulcherrima (L. Sw. (Fabaceae

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    Nilson Gonçalves da Fonseca

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available O sucesso das plantas na colonização de novas áreas está fortemente relacionado ao comportamento germinativo das sementes nas condições ambientais locais. O objetivo deste trabalho foi comparar o desempenho germinativo da exótica invasora Leucaena leucocephala ao das leguminosas (Caesalpinia ferrea, nativa e C. pulcherrima, exótica não consideradas invasoras. Sementes não escarificadas foram expostas às temperaturas de 15, 20, 25, 30, 35 e 40 °C, sob um fotoperíodo de 12 horas, durante 100 dias. Tanto a porcentagem final quanto a velocidade de germinação apresentaram diferenças significativas entre as três espécies. C. ferrea teve baixo desempenho, com temperatura ótima para a germinação a 25°C, porcentagem de germinação de 59% e IVG de 0,68 sementes d-1. Já C. pulcherrima, apresentou altas porcentagens de germinação em todas as temperaturas testadas, com faixa ótima entre 20-40 °C. As sementes de L. leucocephala apresentaram as menores porcentagens de germinação e temperatura ótima de 35 °C. O desempenho germinativo desta exótica não se sobressai ao das demais espécies estudadas e fatores como a pressão de propágulos, escarificação natural e bom desempenho em outras fases da vida devem contribuir para seu perfil de invasora.Success in establishing and colonizing new areas is directly related to germination behaviour of seeds under local environmental conditions. This work aimed to compare germination performance of the exotic invader Leucaena leucocephala to two legumes (Caesalpinia ferrea, native, and C. pulcherrima, exotic which are not considered invasive. Non-scarified seeds were exposed to constant temperatures of 15, 20, 25, 30, 35 and 40ºC, within a photoperiod of 12 hours, for 100 days. Both final germination percentage and germination speed showed significant differences among the three species. C. ferrea had low germination percentage, with optimal germination temperature at 25ºC, reaching

  11. Caracterización molecular de Streptococcus pyogenes causantes de enfermedad invasora y síndrome de shock tóxico estreptocócico Molecular characterization of Streptococcus pyogenes from invasive disease and streptococcal toxic shock syndrome episodes

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    F. Traverso

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Streptococcus pyogenes es el agente causal de varias enfermedades comunes entre las que se incluyen la faringoamigdalitis, la escarlatina y el impétigo. Sin embargo, en las últimas décadas se ha registrado mundialmente un resurgimiento de casos de enfermedad invasora y síndrome de shock tóxico estreptocócico (SSTE. El propósito del presente trabajo fue estudiar la diversidad genética, los factores de virulencia (genes spe, sme, ssa y la sensibilidad a los antibióticos de 10 cepas de S. pyogenes causantes de enfermedad invasora y SSTE. Los aislamientos fueron recuperados de hemocultivos de pacientes internados en el Hospital Santamarina y en la Nueva Clínica Chacabuco (Tandil, Argentina entre diciembre de 2000 y abril de 2005. Predominaron 2 patrones de electroforesis en campo pulsante. El más frecuente comprendió 5 aislamientos del tipo emm1-T1, con perfil de toxinas speA, speB, speF, speG y smeZ. El segundo patrón más frecuente incluyó 2 aislamientos tipo emm3-TNT (speB, speF, speG. Estos dos tipos (emm1 y emm3 fueron los prevalentes en las infecciones invasoras. Las otras tres cepas correspondieron a los tipos emm49-TNT (speB, speC, speF, speG, emm75-T25 (speB, speF, speG y emm83-TNT (speB, speF, speG, ssa, smeZ. Se encontró diversidad genética entre las cepas aisladas, pero todos los aislamientos fueron sensibles a penicilina, cefotaxima, eritromicina, clindamicina, cloranfenicol, tetraciclina y rifampicina. Por tal motivo, aún es válido el tratamiento empírico con penicilina asociada a clindamicina.Streptococcus pyogenes causes a variety of common human diseases, including pharyngitis, scarlet fever and impetigo. Nevertheless, the past decades have witnessed a worldwide resurgence in invasive disease and streptococcal toxic shock syndrome (STSS. The objective of the present study is to evaluate the genetic diversity, virulence gene distribution (spe, sme and ssa genes and susceptibility pattern of 10 S. pyogenes isolates

  12. Associação de Rhizoctonia solani Grupo de Anastomose 4 (AG-4 HGI e HGIII à espécies de plantas invasoras de área de cultivo de batata Rhizoctonia solani anastomosis group 4 (AG-4 HGI and HGIII associated with weed species from a potato cropping area

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    Fátima Aparecida da Silva-Barreto

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Os grupos 3 e 4 de anastomose (AG-3 e AG-4 do fungo Rhizoctonia solani são importantes grupos associados à batata no mundo. No Brasil, o AG-3 é relatado afetando principalmente batata e fumo. Já o AG-4 causa perdas consideráveis em culturas de importância econômica, como a soja, o feijão e o amendoim, podendo ocorrer também em hortaliças como o espinafre, o pimentão, o brócolis, o tomate, a batata e frutíferas como o melão. Recentemente foi constatada, em Brasília-DF, a associação de R. solani a plantas invasoras em áreas de cultivo de batata. Entretanto, não há informação a respeito da etiologia do patógeno bem como do papel de espécies invasoras como outras hospedeiras no ciclo do patógeno. Objetivou-se com esse estudo caracterizar isolados de R. solani obtidos de batata e de outras três espécies de plantas invasoras associadas a áreas de cultivo da cultura: juá-de-capote [Nicandra physaloides (L. Pers., Solanaceae], beldroega (Portulaca oleracea L., Portulacaceae, e caruru (Amaranthus deflexus L., Amaranthaceae. Foi confirmada a hipótese de que os isolados obtidos de R. solani de beldroega, caruru e juá-de-capote pertencem ao grupo 4 de anastomose e são patogênicos à batata, exceto o isolado de beldroega. Estes isolados apresentaram patogenicidade cruzada às três espécies e também patogênicos à maria-pretinha (Solanum americanum Mill., uma outra espécie de Solanaceae invasora. A classificação dos isolados no grupo AG-4 HGI ou no grupo AG-4 HGIII (isolado de caruru foi confirmada através de características culturais e moleculares (seqüenciamento da região ITS-5.8S do rDNA. Os resultados deste trabalho trazem implicações importantes para o manejo das podridões radiculares de Rhizoctonia em batata.The anastomosis groups 3 and 4 (AG-3 and AG-4 of the fungus Rhizoctonia solani are important groups associated with potatoes worldwide. In Brazil, the AG-3 is reported affecting mainly potatoes and

  13. First record of the invasive medusa Blackfordia virginica (Hydrozoa: Leptomedusae in the Río de la Plata estuary, Argentina-Uruguay Primer registro de la medusa invasora Blackfordia virginica (Hydrozoa: Leptomedusae en el estuario del Río de la Plata, Argentina-Uruguay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GABRIEL GENZANO

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Blackfordia virginica is a well-known invasive medusa inhabiting estuarine areas. It was recently detected in northern Argentina, constituting the first record of invasive hydromedusa for the Argentine Sea. In this work more than 1,500 plankton samples in the southwestern Atlantic Ocean (34-55º S from 1983 to 2000 were analyzed. More than 5,000 specimens per sample of B. virginica were found in Río de la Plata estuary for the first time in February 2000. This river is one of the large waterways of South America with an intense nautical traffic and several exotic species has been recorded here, mainly due to trans-oceanic shipping traffic. It is important to point out that we found medusae of both sexes (therefore this species could be introduced in either the medusa or the polyp stages or both, different size classes (including very small juveniles and maturation stages, and in such high numbers that would suggest local reproduction. For this reason the recent finding of this hydromedusa could represent the starting point of an successful introductionBlackfordia virginica es una medusa invasora reconocida por habitar áreas estuariales. Recientemente fue descubierta en el norte de Argentina, constituyendo el primer registro de una hidromedusa invasora para el mar argentino. En este trabajo se analizaron más de 1.500 muestras de plancton en el Océano Atlántico sudoccidental (34-55º S desde 1983 hasta el año 2000. Más de 5.000 especímenes por muestra fueron encontrados por primera vez en el estuario del Río de la Plata durante febrero del año 2000. Este río es una de las mayores vías de agua de América del Sur, posee un intenso tráfico náutico y varias especies exóticas se han registrado allí, principalmente debido al tráfico marítimo transoceánico. Es importante señalar que se encontraron medusas de ambos sexos (por lo tanto esta especie podría haber sido introducida en su estadio medusa, pólipo o ambos, con diferentes

  14. Molecular taxonomy of Plagioscion Heckel (Perciformes, Sciaenidae and evidence from mtDNA RFLP markers for an invasive species in the Paraná river, Southern Brazil Taxonomia molecular de Plagioscion Heckel (Perciformes, Sciaenidae e evidências de marcadores moleculares RFLPs de mtDNA para uma espécie invasora no rio Paraná, Sul do Brasil

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    Rodrigo A. Torres

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Mitochondrial RFLP markers were developed to examine whether Plagioscion squamosissimus (Heckel, 1840 is invasive in natural environments of the congener P. ternetzi in the Paraná river, in southern Brazil. Specimens of P. squamosissimus and of the putative P. ternetzi (Boulenger, 1895 were obtained from the Negro river (Manaus, Amazonas, Brazil and from Paraná river, respectively. Fragments of the cytochrome b gene (900bp were amplified by PCR and four restriction enzymes (Eco RI, Mbo I, Bam HI and Alu I yielded the mitochondrial markers. An additional RFLP analysis with a cytochrome b gene sequence of Plagioncion sp. from GeneBank was carried out to validate the prior analysis. No genetic differentiation was found among either sample. While molecular variation in the cytochrome b analysis was no substantial among individuals, the combined analysis was important for demonstrating that there is no evidence for differentiation of the putative sample P. ternetzi from that of P. squamosissimus. The ecological implications of the introduced occurrence of P. squamosissimus, as well as the role of molecular taxonomic approaches for biodiversity studies are discussed.Marcadores RFLPs mitocondriais foram desenvolvidos para verificar se Plagioscion squamosissimus (Heckel, 1840 é invasora nos ambientes naturais da espécie congênere P. ternetzi no rio Paraná, no sul do Brasil. Exemplares de Plagioscion squamosissimus e supostamente de P. ternetzi (Boulenger, 1895 foram obtidos, respectivamente, do rio Negro (Manaus, AM, Brasil e rio Paraná (Foz do Iguaçu, PR, Brasil. Foram amplificados, via PCR, fragmentos de cerca de 900pb do Citocromo b e foram utilizadas quatro enzimas de restrição (Eco RI, Mbo I, Bam HI e Alu I para os fins de geração dos marcadores moleculares. Foi desenvolvida, a partir de uma seqüência de Citocromo b de Plagioscion sp. (genebank, uma análise de RFLP adicional, objetivando validar a primeira análise acima mencionada

  15. A Severe Case of Angiostrongylus Eosinophilic Meningitis with Encephalitis and Neurologic Sequelae in Hawai‘i

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Edward; Ferguson, Tomas M; Park, Sarah Y; Manuzak, Augustina; Qvarnstrom, Yvonne; Morgan, Stephen; Ciminera, Paul

    2013-01-01

    Angiostrongylus eosinophilic meningitis is caused by infection with larvae of the rat lungworm, Angiostrongylus cantonensis. We report the case of an adult who ingested a raw, giant African snail (Achatina fulica) on the island of O‘ahu in Hawai‘i and developed an eosinophilic meningoencephalitis with severe headache, confusion, sixth cranial nerve palsy, ataxia, limb weakness, and paresthesia. He was treated with lumbar punctures to relieve pressure, high dose corticosteroids, and 14 days of albendazole. He had a prolonged convalescence, requiring 3 months of prednisone, and still had evidence of motor nerve weakness 4 months after exposure. A field investigation at the site of exposure yielded 5 of 9 Achatina fulica snails with evidence of A. cantonensis DNA by PCR. Cerebrospinal fluid samples from the patient were negative acutely but positive on day 15 of symptoms, using an investigational, real-time PCR assay. We discuss clinical management of this case in light of the current medical literature. PMID:23901383

  16. Germination of seeds of the invasive plant Sesbania virgata (cav. pers. under effects of light, temperature, and dormancy overcoming Germinação de sementes da invasora Sesbania virgata (cav. pers. sob efeito de luz, temperatura e superação de dormência

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    Irenice Gomes de Oliveira

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The work had as objectives to evaluate the influence of the light, temperature, and chemical scarification on the germination of seeds of S. virgata, species still little studied and that is invasive in several niches of the caatinga ecosystem. The seeds of S. virgata were collected in the municipal district of Natuba-PB in March/2008. Eight treatments were used as follows: intact seeds in the presence and absence of light, at 25ºC; intact seeds in the presence and absence of light, at 30ºC; submerged seeds in sulfuric acid for five minutes in the presence and absence of light, at 25ºC; submerged seeds in sulfuric acid for five minutes in the presence and absence of light, at 30ºC. The germination tests were accomplished in germination cameras under light and continuous darkness at constant temperatures of 25ºC and 30ºC, in a 12 hours photoperiod. The seeds were put to germinate in plastic boxes (gerbox with filter paper. The seeds of S. virgata have tegument dormancy and show low germination tax when intact, which is a strategy for seed banks formation. The acid scarification increased germination percentage and speed germination index. Este trabalho teve como objetivos avaliar a influência da luz, da temperatura e da escarificação química sobre a germinação de sementes de S. virgata, espécie ainda pouco estudada e que se constata invasora em diversos nichos do bioma Caatinga. Sementes de S. virgata foram coletadas no município de Natuba-PB em março de 2008 e submetidas a oito tratamentos, descritos a seguir: sementes intactas, na presença e ausência de luz, a 25ºC; sementes intactas na presença e ausência de luz, a 30ºC; sementes imersas em ácido sulfúrico por cinco minutos na presença e ausência de luz, a 25ºC; sementes imersas em ácido sulfúrico por cinco minutos na presença e ausência de luz, a 30ºC. Para estimar os efeitos dos tratamentos foram realizados testes de germinação em câmaras de germinação sob

  17. Seasonal variation of soluble carbohydrates and starch in Echinolaena inflexa, a native grass species from the Brazilian savanna, and in the invasive grass Melinis minutiflora Variações sazonais de carboidratos solúveis e amido em Echinolaena inflexa, uma espécie nativa do cerrado, e na gramínea invasora Melinis minutiflora

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    A. Souza

    2010-05-01

    , a 5 e 130 m da borda da Reserva Biológica e Estação Experimental de Mogi-Guaçu, uma área restrita de cerrado (SP, Brasil. Os resultados mostraram que os carboidratos solúveis e o conteúdo de amido da parte aérea de ambas as espécies variaram de acordo com a época do ano, enquanto que nos órgãos subterrâneos as variações foram observadas principalmente em relação aos transectos. Diferenças marcantes no padrão de distribuição de biomassa aérea das duas espécies em relação à localização na reserva também foram observadas, com dois picos de produção da espécie invasora (em julho e janeiro na borda da reserva. As diferenças observadas no acúmulo de carboidratos, partição e composição dos açúcares em relação à época do ano e localização na reserva foram mais relacionadas ao ciclo anual de crescimento de ambas as espécies e possivelmente a respostas fisiológicas específicas de M. minutiflora a ambientes perturbados na borda da reserva.

  18. Germinação e emergência de plântulas para três espécies de gramíneas invasoras de cultura do gênero Digitaria Heister ex Haller Germination and seedling emergence for three weed grasses of the genus Digitaria Heister ex Haller

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    José Marcos Barbosa

    1989-01-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho relaciona a germinação de sementes com emergência de plântulas para as espécies Digitaria ciliaris (Retz. Koel, D. horizontalis Willd. e D. insularis (L. Fedde, as quais apresentam grande interesse científico e econômico por serem gramíneas invasoras muito agressivas e por apresentarem ampla distribuição geográfica na América tropical e subtropical. Os testes de germinação foram realizados mensalmente com sementes e cariopses armazenadas em câmara seca e submetidas ao processo de envelhecimento natural durante um período de 360 dias. O trabalho também foi realizado para verificar o efeito da profundidade de semeadura sobre a emergência de plântulas. Os resultados de porcentagem e de velocidade de germinação das sementes mostram forte inibição da germinação causada pelas brácteas que envolvem as cariopses. Entretanto, nos tratamentos com cariopses nuas a inibição da germinação, ainda, persiste, indicando que estas sementes necessitam de um período de tempo para o amadurecimento. Os resultados de emergência de plântulas mostram que as semeaduras realizadas nas superfícies e a 2 centímetros de profundidade apresentam as mais altas porcentagens de emergências de plântulas. A interpretação dos resultados de germinação e de emergência de plântulas mostram aspectos importantes do comportamento da germinação destas espécies e permite o seu controle racional em áreas cultivadas.This work deals with the germination of seeds and seedling emergence of Digitaria ciliaris (Retz. Koel., D. horizontalis Willd. and D. insularis (L. Fedde and shows significant scientific and economical interest since the three weed grasses are very agressive and present ample geographical distribution in the tropical and subtropical American continent. The germination tests were performed monthly with seeds and caryopsis stored in a dry room or submitted to natural aging over the period of 360 days. This work was

  19. Parasites of edible land snails in Edo State, Nigeria

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    Igbinosa I. B.

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Land snails are sources of protein to man and are hosts to a number of parasites. It is imperative that the roles of the snail hosts and parasites are clearly defined. Before then however, the parasites of the different land snails collected in any locality should be identified. Land snails were collected in the wild in both dry and wet seasons. The internal organs and the faeces were examined for the presence of parasite. In the rainy season of 2015, a total of 272 snails were collected across four major towns (Benin, Uromi, Ekpoma and Auchi in Edo State, Nigeria, while in the dry season, fewer snails (n=91 were handpicked. The snail species seen are: Achatina achatina (Linnaeus, 1758, Achatina fulica (Férussac, 1821, Acharchatina marginata (Swainson, 1982, Limicolaria aurora (Jay, 1839, L. flammea (Müller, 1774 and Limicolariopsis spp. The larvae of Strongyloides stercoralis were isolated from the various snail species with overall prevalence of 54.04 %. Snails positive with Alaria mesocercariae were L. aurora, L. flammea and Limicolariopsis spp. Additionally, few L. flammea were positive of the cercariae of Drocoelium dedriticum. Meanwhile, some samples of A. fulica harboured larvae of Angiostrongylus cantonesis, sporocysts of Fasciola gigantica and Schistosoma mansoni. Therefore, these edible snails could pose serious health hazard to man and animals by serving as a possible alternative parasite transmission route.

  20. O CARAMUJO AFRICANO EM CONTEXTO ESCOLAR: AS PERCEPÇÕES DE ESTUDANTES DO ENSINO FUNDAMENTAL E O ESTUDO DA HELMINTOFAUNA ASSOCIADA AO CARAMUJO EM BARRA DO PIRAÍ (RJ

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    Zilene Moreira Pereira

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The study investigates elementary students’ perception of the species Achatina fulica (African snail and the risks this mollusc may pose to the population of Barra do Piraí – in the state of Rio de Janeiro. The research involved questionnaires, focus groups and field observations, besides A. fulica specimens parasitological analysis. The results indicated the presence of snails infected with nematodes of medical and veterinary interest in the locality. The students have a negative perception of the snail, and there is great difference between their perceptions and scientific knowledge. Based on the contributions of the perceptions study and of Meaningful Learning Theory, guidelines are suggested so that strategies for teaching the content regarding the African snail at school environment can be developed.

  1. First record of molluscs naturally infected with Angiostrongylus cantonensis (Chen, 1935 (Nematoda: Metastrongylidae in Brazil

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    Roberta Lima Caldeira

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Seeking the identification of Angiostrongylus cantonensis as a potential etiological agent of three clinical cases of eosinophilic meningitis, mollusc specimens were collected in the state of Espírito Santo, Brazil. The snails were identified as Sarasinula marginata (45 specimens, Subulina octona (157, Achatina fulica (45 and Bradybaena similaris (23. Larvae obtained were submitted to polymerase chain reaction and restriction fragment length polymorphism diagnosis. Their genetic profile were corresponded to A. cantonensis. Rattus norvegicus experimentally infected with third-stage larvae, developed menigoencephalitis, and parasites became sexually mature in the lungs. Additionally, larvae obtained from A. fulica snails, from São Vicente, state of São Paulo, also showed genetic profiles of this nematode. This is the first record of Brazilian molluscs infected with this nematode species.

  2. Reproductive ecology of the giant African snail in South Florida

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roda, Amy; Nachman, Gøsta Støger; Weihman, Scott

    2016-01-01

    than the larger snails. We evaluated the effect of control measures on six populations having >1000 adult snails and used data from the two largest populations to investigate how environmental factors (temperature, humidity, and rainfall) interacted with population dynamics and control measures. More......Giant African snail (Achatina fulica (Bowdich, 1822)), an important invasive snail, was recently found in South Florida, USA. An extensive eradication effort was initiated consisting of pesticide applications, debris removal and hand collections. We studied the reproduction capacity and population...

  3. CARAMUJO AFRICANO: APENAS UMA ESPÉCIE INTRODUZIDA OU UM PROBLEMA DE SAÚDE PÚBLICA?

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    Marcelo Nocelle ALMEIDA

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Esta revisão objetiva alertar e informar a população em geral e os profissionais de saúde quanto à atuação do caramujo africano [Achatina fulica (Bowdich, 1822], como hospedeiro intermediário, na transmissão de nematoides de interesse veterinário e humano. Também demonstra o papel das conchas como criadouros para mosquitos vetores de diversas viroses, algumas inclusive com alta incidência no norte e noroeste fluminense.

  4. Determination of 3-O- and 4-O-methylated monosaccharide constituents in snail glycans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stepan, Herwig; Bleckmann, Christina; Geyer, Hildegard; Geyer, Rudolf; Staudacher, Erika

    2010-07-02

    The N- and O-glycans of Arianta arbustorum, Achatina fulica, Arion lusitanicus and Planorbarius corneus were analysed for their monosaccharide pattern by reversed-phase HPLC after labelling with 2-aminobenzoic acid or 3-methyl-1-phenyl-2-pyrazolin-5-one and by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Glucosamine, galactosamine, mannose, galactose, glucose, fucose and xylose were identified. Furthermore, three different methylated sugars were detected: 3-O-methyl-mannose and 3-O-methyl-galactose were confirmed to be a common snail feature; 4-O-methyl-galactose was detected for the first time in snails. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Enzootic Angiostrongyliasis in Guangzhou, China, 2008–2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xiao; Qu, Zhenyu; He, Hualiang; Zheng, Xiaoying; He, Ai; Wu, Yu; Liu, Qian; Zhang, Dongjing; Wu, Zhongdao; Li, Zhuoya; Zhan, Ximei

    2012-01-01

    This study was conducted to gain an understanding of the Angiostrongylus cantonensis infection status of rodent definitive host, snail intermediate host, and local residents in Guangzhou, China. A total of 430 rats were captured and 23 rats, from two species, were infected, with an average infection rate of 5.35%. A total of 795 Achatina fulica snails and 734 Pomacea canaliculata snails were collected. The average infection rates of these two species were 13.96% (111 of 795) and 1.50% (11 of 734), respectively. As for the seroprevalence of different occupations, the rate among the “general group” was significantly lower than the “occupational group.” From this survey, Guangzhou is implicated to be the natural focus of Angiostrongylus cantonensis. Rattus norvegicus and Achatina fulica play important roles in spreading this nematode in Guangzhou. Residents who live in Guangzhou, especially those working in certain industries such as agriculture, food-making, and aquaculture, face a higher risk of infection. PMID:22556086

  6. La liebre europea, Lepus europaeus (Mammalia, Leporidae, especie invasora en el sur del Perú

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    Daniel Cossíos

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available La liebre europea fue introducida entre finales del siglo XIX y comienzos del siglo XX a Argentina y Chile, y desde entonces ha avanzado a través de América del Sur. En 1983 la liebre había alcanzado el sur de Brasil, el departamento de Tarija en el sur de Bolivia y el río Copiapó en Chile, encontrándose ausente en el Perú. En los años 2002 y 2004 se observó varios ejemplares de liebre en estado silvestre en los departamentos peruanos de Tacna y Arequipa, hasta una altitud de 4300 m. Según entrevistas hechas a pobladores de esas zonas, la liebre habría llegado al Perú entre los años 1995 y 1998, lo que significa una velocidad de dispersión mínima de 44,34 km/año partiendo de Tarija. Los entrevistados dijeron no dar uso a la liebre y que ésta les trae problemas al consumir la vegetación. La presente nota es una alerta sobre la llegada de la liebre europea al Perú y los posibles efectos de su presencia.

  7. Enquête sur la consommation, la répartition et l'élevage des escargots géants au Togo

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    Kuevi-Akue, K.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Investigations on Consumption, Distribution and Breeding of Giants Snails in Togo. A subcontracting convention has been signed between the "Programme National Petit Elevage" and the "Institut National Zootechnique et Vétérinaire " which permitted us to investigate African giant snail consumption, distribution and breeding in Togo. Investigations have lasted six months and were realised in "Régions maritime et des plateaux" both in South Togo. A questionnaire was used to obtain data. Hundred fifty questionnaires were given to sellers during market days, but only fourteen to breeders. The methodology used was based on rapid rural appraisal and direct interrogation. From this investigation we distinguish four species of giant snails (Archachatina archachatina, Archachatina degneri, Achatina achatina, Achatina fulica. For the consumtion about 80% of the samples (sellers and breeders confirmed that there is no difference in taste between species. Our estimation of giant snails gathered per year is about 30 tons and 80% of the sellers said that they got profit from this activity. For the constraints of giant snails breeding we notice lack of extension, high level of mortalities of young snails, red ant problem and lack of training and information. Giant snail breeding in Togo will be developed if solutions are found to the constraints.

  8. Current Situation of Edible Snails in Indonesia

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    Schneider, K.

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available From March 7, 1995 to April 16, 1995 du ring the rainy season the utilisation of edible snails was investigated in Indonesia. To assess the current situation, the focus was put to answer the following questions : - Is it feasible under the present circumstances to domesticate these snails with the aim to conserve the natural resources ? - Could any individual or private initiative be enhanced or utilized ? - Would local disadvantaged groups (traditional animal farmers, women oryouths be benefitted through domestication of these snails ? - Is there any existing private organisation or NGO, which already gathers and trades the snails or would be interested to do this in the future ? Snails gatherers, -dealers and -farmers were visited and interviewed on the following topics using standardised questionnaires : Spreading and ecology ways of marketing, consumption habits, breeding and rearing. Diotopes were also visited and investigated. Results Spreading and ecology : Achatina fulica, Pomacea canaliculata, Pila ampullacea and Bellamia javanica are eaten. The snails can be found ail overJava. Ways of marketing : The snails gathered in the biotope are either marketed directly or through various marketing paths. A. fulica is exported in large quantifies. The population is therefore endangered. Consumption habits : Snails are not eaten regularly. Snail meat is known to be healthy. The consumption depends on the consumer's ethnie background. Breeding and rearing experience : with simple breeding systems for A. fulica and P. canaliculata are seldom found. The breeding of P. canaliculata is forbidden in Indonesia. There is no interest in breeding P. ampullacea or B. javanica. The breeding of A. fulica can ben-efit disadvantaged groups financially and help to conserving the natural snail population.

  9. Phylogenetic study of the oxytocin-like immunoreactive system in invertebrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizuno, J; Takeda, N

    1988-01-01

    1. A phylogenetic study of oxytocin (OXT)-like immunoreactive cells was performed by the PAP method in the central nervous system of invertebrates. 2. The immunoreactivity was detected in the nerve cells of Hydra magnipapillata of the Coelenterata; Neanthes japonica and Pheretima communissima of the Annelida; Oncidium verrucosum, Limax marginatus and Meretrix lamarckii of the Mollusca; and Baratha brassica of the Arthropoda. 3. No immunoreactive cells were found in Bipalium sp. of the Platyhelminthes; Pomacea canaliculata, Aplysia kurodai, Bradybaena similaris and Achatina fulica of the Mollusca; and Gnorimosphaeroma rayi, Procambarus clarkii, Hemigrapsus sanguineus, Helice tridens and Gryllus bimaculatus of the Arthropoda; Asterina pectinifera of the Echinodermata; and Halocynthia roretzi of the Protochordata. 4. These results demonstrate that an OXT-immunoreactive substance is widely present not only in vertebrates but also in invertebrates. 5. OXT seems to have been introduced into these invertebrates at an early stage of their phylogenetic history.

  10. Phylogenetic study of the arginine-vasotocin/arginine-vasopressin-like immunoreactive system in invertebrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizuno, J; Takeda, N

    1988-01-01

    1. A phylogenetic study of arg-vasotocin (AVT)/arg-vasopressin (AVP)-like immunoreactive cells was performed by the PAP method in the central nervous system of invertebrates. 2. The immunoreactivity was detected in the nerve cells of Hydra magnipapillata of the Coelenterata; Neanthes japonica and Pheretima communissima of the Annelida; Pomacea canaliculata, Aplysia kurodai, Oncidium verrucosum, Bradybaena similaris, Achatina fulica, Limax marginatus and Meretrix lamarckii of the Mollusca; Gnorimosphaeroma rayi, Hemigrapsus sanguineus, Gryllus bimaculatus and Baratha brassicae of the Arthropoda; Asterina pectinifera of the Echinodermata; and Halocynthia roretzi of the Protochordata. 3. No immunoreactivity was detected in Bipalium sp. of the Platyhelminthes, or in Procambarus clarkii and Helice tridens of the Arthropoda. 4. From these results, it appears that AVT/AVP is a phylogenetically ancient peptide which is present in a wide variety of invertebrates. 5. The actions of AVT/AVP and its presence in invertebrates are discussed.

  11. The Trade in Medicinal Animals in Northeastern Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Felipe Silva; Albuquerque, Ulysses Paulino; Coutinho, Henrique Douglas Melo; Almeida, Waltécio de Oliveira; Alves, Rômulo Romeu da Nóbrega

    2012-01-01

    Over the centuries, a significant part of the Brazilian fauna is widely sold, more specifically in retail stores or street markets. The objective was to characterize the sale of medicinal animals in five large northeast cities. Information about the sale of zootherapeutic items was obtained in the cities of Aracaju-SE, Fortaleza-CE, Maceio-AL, Recife-PE, and Salvador-BA. A total of 68 animal species were sold for medicinal purposes in the cities studied; these are the first results on the use and sale of zootherapeutics in the markets of Aracaju, Fortaleza, and Salvador and first recorded on the medicinal use of the Achatina fulica, Trachycardium muricatum, Philodryas olfersii, Desmodus rotundus, and Leptodactylus vastus. Knowledge of the fauna utilized popular medicine is indispensable for conservation, demonstrating that research on this subject is necessary to determine appropriate practices for the management of the fauna. PMID:22216053

  12. The Trade in Medicinal Animals in Northeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felipe Silva Ferreira

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Over the centuries, a significant part of the Brazilian fauna is widely sold, more specifically in retail stores or street markets. The objective was to characterize the sale of medicinal animals in five large northeast cities. Information about the sale of zootherapeutic items was obtained in the cities of Aracaju-SE, Fortaleza-CE, Maceio-AL, Recife-PE, and Salvador-BA. A total of 68 animal species were sold for medicinal purposes in the cities studied; these are the first results on the use and sale of zootherapeutics in the markets of Aracaju, Fortaleza, and Salvador and first recorded on the medicinal use of the Achatina fulica, Trachycardium muricatum, Philodryas olfersii, Desmodus rotundus, and Leptodactylus vastus. Knowledge of the fauna utilized popular medicine is indispensable for conservation, demonstrating that research on this subject is necessary to determine appropriate practices for the management of the fauna.

  13. On the safe of pesticides in controlling the terrestrial mollusc pests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Panigrahi

    1993-06-01

    Full Text Available The preferred food items of the slugs Laevicaulis alte and the snails Achatina fulica were used to prepare 'poison baits'by injecting the pesticides 'Rogor'and 'Nuvan'to kill these mollusc pests. The 'poison baits'prepared with Thrichosanthes dioica and Lycopersicum esculentum were accepted by 100% individuals of both the species irrespective of the pesticides used. In all cases the slug and the snail individuals died within a considerable length of time following consuption of the bait. The importance of using 'poison bait'lies not only with the sure success in killing the pests but also with the 'safe use'of toxic materials in order to avoid environmental hazards.

  14. Modeling snail breeding in a bioregenerative life support system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovalev, V. S.; Manukovsky, N. S.; Tikhomirov, A. A.; Kolmakova, A. A.

    2015-07-01

    The discrete-time model of snail breeding consists of two sequentially linked submodels: "Stoichiometry" and "Population". In both submodels, a snail population is split up into twelve age groups within one year of age. The first submodel is used to simulate the metabolism of a single snail in each age group via the stoichiometric equation; the second submodel is used to optimize the age structure and the size of the snail population. Daily intake of snail meat by crewmen is a guideline which specifies the population productivity. The mass exchange of the snail unit inhabited by land snails of Achatina fulica is given as an outcome of step-by-step modeling. All simulations are performed using Solver Add-In of Excel 2007.

  15. Anotrichium furcellatum (Ceramiaceae, Rhodophyta en Argentina: Una posible especie invasora Anotrichium furcellatum (Ceramiaceae, Rhodophyta in Argentina: A possible invasive species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alicia L. Boraso de Zaixso

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Se reporta la presencia de al menos dos poblaciones de Anotrichium en la costa argentina (provincias de Buenos Aires, Chubut y Santa Cruz. Las poblaciones submareales observadas estaban caracterizadas por una mayoría de talos en estado vegetativo. Solo las poblaciones intermareales mostraron tetrasporofitos con esporangios. Las poblaciones se identificaron provisionalmente de acuerdo a la morfología del talo y de los tetrasporangios como Anotrichium furcellatum (J. Agardh Baldock. Las características de los talos de las poblaciones estudiadas son comparadas con las de las especies de Anotrichium que poseen igualmente pocos tetrasporangios por célula. Se reportan arribazones inusualmente abundantes de esta especie ocurridas en la costa bonaerense en el año 2000.At least two populations of Anotrichium are reported from the coast of Argentina (Buenos Aires, Chubut, and Santa Cruz provinces. These populations have a majority of vegetative thalli. According with their morphological and tetrasporangial characteristics the populations are provisionally assigned to Anotrichium furcellatum (J. Agardh Baldock. The characteristics of the thalli of studied populations are compared with the species of Anotrichium having also a low number of tetrasporangia per cell. Extraordinary high quantities of cast ashore thalli of this species is reported along the Buenos Aires province coast in the year 2000.

  16. First Evidence of Angiostrongyliasis Caused by Angiostrongylus cantonensis in Guadeloupe, Lesser Antilles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dard, Céline; Piloquet, Jean-Eudes; Qvarnstrom, Yvonne; Fox, LeAnne M.; M'kada, Helmi; Hebert, Jean-Christophe; Mattera, Didier; Harrois, Dorothée

    2017-01-01

    Infection by the rat lungworm Angiostrongylus cantonensis represents the most common cause of infectious eosinophilic meningitis in humans, causing central nervous system (CNS) angiostrongyliasis. Most of CNS angiostrongyliasis cases were described in Asia, Pacific Basin, Australia, and some limited parts of Africa and America. CNS angiostrongyliasis has been reported in the Caribbean but never in the Lesser Antilles. The primary objectives of this study were to depict the first case of CNS angiostrongyliasis in the Lesser Antilles and investigate the environmental presence of A. cantonensis in Guadeloupe, Lesser Antilles. In December 2013, a suspected case of CNS angiostrongyliasis in an 8-month-old infant in Guadeloupe was investigated by real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) testing on cerebral spinal fluid (CSF). The environmental investigation was performed by collecting Achatina fulica molluscs from different parts of Guadeloupe and testing the occurrence of A. cantonensis by real-time PCR. CSF from the suspected case of angiostrongyliasis was positive for A. cantonensis by real-time PCR. Among 34 collected snails for environmental investigation, 32.4% were positive for A. cantonensis. In conclusion, we report the first laboratory-confirmed case of CNS-angiostrongyliasis in the Lesser Antilles. We identified the presence and high prevalence of A. cantonensis in A. fulica in Guadeloupe. These results highlight the need to increase awareness of this disease and implement public health programs in the region to prevent human cases of angiostrongyliasis and improve management of eosinophilic meningitis patients. PMID:28070007

  17. Angiostrongylus cantonensis (Nematode: Metastrongyloidea in molluscs from harbour areas in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omar dos Santos Carvalho

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Angiostrongylus cantonensis is the most common aetiological agent of human eosinophilic meningoencephalitis. Following a report indicating the presence of this parasite in Brazil in 2007, the present study was undertaken to investigate the presence of A. cantonensis in the surrounding Brazilian port areas. In total, 30 ports were investigated and the following molluscs were identified: Achatina fulica, Belocaulus sp., Bradybaena similaris sp., Cyclodontina sp., Helix sp., Leptinaria sp., Melampus sp., Melanoides tuberculata, Phyllocaulis sp., Pomacea sp., Pseudoxychona sp., Rhinus sp., Sarasinula marginata, Streptaxis sp., Subulina octona, Succinea sp., Tomigerus sp., Wayampia sp. and specimens belonging to Limacidae and Orthalicinae. Digestion and sedimentation processes were performed and the sediments were examined. DNA was extracted from the obtained larvae and the internal transcribed spacer region 2 was analysed by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism after digestion with the endonuclease ClaI. Of the 30 ports investigated in this study, 11 contained molluscs infected with A. cantonensis larvae. The set of infected species consisted of S. octona, S. marginata, A. fulica and B. similaris. A total of 36.6% of the investigated ports were positive for A. cantonensis, indicating a wide distribution of this worm. It remains uncertain when and how A. cantonensis was introduced into South America.

  18. EFEITO ALELOPÁTICO E MOLUSCICIDA DE AMORA (Morus rubra L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ANA CRISTINA MENDES MIRANDA

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Secondary metabolite produced in some plants can provoke alterations in the development of other plants or even other organisms. The aim of this paper was to identify possible allelopathic effects and biologic control of Achatina fulica Bowdich with aqueous extracts of Morus rubra L. leaves. For obtaining the aqueous extract, we used previously dried leaves in concentration of 1g 10 mL-1. Five concentrations of each aqueous extract were tested (10, 30, 50, 70 and 100% and compared to control (0.0%, distilled water. The aqueous extracts of Morus rubra showed up allelopathic potentialities on the seed germination and in the growth of the shoot and the root system of the tested species, considering that the reduction in the germination and initial growth increased with the rising of the aqueous extracts concentrations used and, in the biologic control, only in the final mass of A. fulica. The results indicated the existence of allelopathic effect, but not molluscicide of M. rubra.

  19. Thevetia peruviana (Family: Apocynaceae in the control of slug and snail pests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Panigrahi

    1994-06-01

    Full Text Available An aqueous extract prepared from Kernels of the fruit of Thevetia peruviana (Pers. Schumann (Family : Apocynaceae was found under experimental conditions, to be toxic ti the slug Laevicaulis alte (Férussac and the snail Achatina fulica Bowdich, the important agrihorticultural pests of Indo-Pacific countries. Concentrations as low as 1% (w/v killed all the slugs exposed in less than 981.00 (± SD 22.76 min, and 2% of the extract killed 100% of the slugs L. alte and 50%, 50% and 30% of the snail A. fulica in between 92.34 (± SD 6.63 - 321.33 (± SD 4.14 and 271.20 (± SD 17.54 - 298.26 (± SD 16.69 min respectively. The most effective concentration of the extract was 20%; it killed 100% of exposed slugs and snails within a short time (40-50 and 90-1440 min respectively when the extract was exposed on the soil in experimental trays or when it was applied to potato slices offered as food to the gastropods.

  20. Traditional utilization and biochemical composition of six mollusc shells in Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ademolu Kehinde O.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The shells of molluscs protect them from physical damage, predators and dehydration. We studied various local uses of shells and their biochemical properties in Abeokuta, Nigeria. A standard structured questionnaire about use was applied to 100 snail and herb sellers and shells from 120 adult individuals of Archachatina marginata, Achatina achatina, Achatina fulica, Littorina littorea, Meretrix lusoria and Merceneria mercenaria were evaluated for their mineral components (Ca2+, Fe2+, Mg2+, Na+, Zn+, P+, K+ and proximate composition (crude protein, ash, fibre, crude fat and carbohydrate using standard methods. Properties against fungi and bacteria isolates were also tested. These shells are used for bleaching, brushing, abrasion and others. The weight of the shells varied from 0.5g (L. littorea to 25.00g (A. marginata and thickness from 0.46mm in M .lusoria to 5.35mm in M. mercenaria. We found no inhibitory effect against fungi and bacterial isolates. The molluscs are high in carbohydrates (83.54-92.76g/100g and low in protein (0.16-0.38g/100g. The fat content ranged between 0.42g/100g and 0.82g/100g, and ash between 2.14g/100g and 9.45g/100g. Ca2+ was the most abundant (10.25-96.35mg/g while K+ was the least abundant (0.3-0.7mg/g (p<0.05. Active ingredients of these shells can be used in the feed and construction industries.

  1. Shell utilization pattern of the hermit crab Clibanarius vittatus (Crustacea, Anomura in an estuary at São Vicente, State of São Paulo, Brazil Padrão de utilização de conchas do ermitão Clibanarius vittatus (Crustacea, Anomura, no Estuário de São Vicente, Estado de São Paulo, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno S. Sant'Anna

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available We evaluated the gastropod shell utilization pattern of the hermit crab Clibanarius vittatus (Bosc, 1802 at Pescadores Beach in São Vicente, State of São Paulo, Brazil. Specimens were collected monthly from May 2001 through April 2003, in the intertidal zone at low tide. The crabs were weighed and their carapace shield length measured. All gastropod shells were identified and had their shell biometric parameters (total length and aperture length measured (mm and weighed (g. A total of 2,344 hermit crabs (644 males, 1,594 females, 45 ovigerous females and 61 individuals in intersex, using 13 species of gastropod shells, were collected. Stramonita haemastoma (Linnaeus, 1767, Cymatium parthenopeum (Von Salis, 1793 and Achatina fulica (Bowdich, 1822 comprised over 98% of all the shells. Male and intersex crabs were significantly larger than the females. This size difference strongly influenced the shell utilization pattern, principally in A. fulica, which has the largest shell size, that was only used by males and intersexual individuals of C. vittatus. Cymatium parthenopeum was the only shell species that showed a high determinant coefficient in all the biometric correlations evaluated. The high abundance of S. haemastoma shells and a strong correlation between crab size and shell aperture length established by a significant determination coefficient, indicated that C. vittatus uses this species as the principal resource for shell occupation at Pescadores Beach.O objetivo do presente estudo foi avaliar a utilização de conchas de gastrópodes por Clibanarius vittatus (Bosc, 1802, na Praia dos Pescadores, em São Vicente (SP, Brasil. Foram realizadas amostras mensais no período de maio de 2001 a abril de 2003, na região intertidal durante a maré baixa. Todos os animais foram pesados e tiveram o comprimento de seu escudo cefalotorácico mensurados, suas conchas identificadas e medidas quanto ao comprimento (mm, abertura (mm e peso (g

  2. effect of different prevein level on the land snail (achatina chatina ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    RAJAH

    The foot (edible portion), the shell and the visceral materials were weighed separately for each snail. .... Biometrics.11: 1-42. Ejidike, B. N., 2001. Comparative effect of supplemental and complete diets on the performance of. African giant land snail. Archachatina marginata). Proc. 26th Ann. Conf. Nig. Soc. for. Anim. Prod.

  3. American coot (Fulica americana) on the Hanford Site. Part 1. Nesting biology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fitzner, R.E.; Schreckhise, R.G.

    1979-05-01

    The nesting biology of the American coot was studied on low-level radioactive waste ponds located on the Hanford DOE Site and on control ponds located in the Columbia National Wildlife Refuge in southeastern Washington from 1974 through 1976. The objective was to discover any differences in the nesting biology of the birds which could be attributed to the low-level radioactive wastes present in the Hanford DOE Site ponds. Coots nesting on the Hanford ponds and those nesting on the wildlife refuge were found to have similar nesting habits. Nesting habitats were also similar. There were no apparent differences in nesting chronology between birds from the different study sites. Clutch size also showed no significant differences. The average number of eggs per nest for all ponds was 6.7. Egg and chick weights and percent hatching success were similar among coots from both study sites. Feeding habits of the coots from the two sites did show some differences. However, this is probably related to the availability of food items in each pond

  4. Seasonal variation in food supply and breeding success in European Coots Fulica atra

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brinkhof, M.W.G.

    1997-01-01

    Chick survival in the European Coot typically shows a convex seasonal pattern. Previous experiments revealed that this pattern is directly linked to hatching date and that food supply within the first ten days after hatching is a causal factor in this relationship. However, the precise mechanism

  5. Modelação espacial da adequabilidade de habitat a espécies invasoras: o Carpobrotus Edulis em terreno não dunar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    César Capinha

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available SPATIAL MODELLING OF HABITAT SUITABILITY FOR INVASIVE SPECIES: THE CARPOBROTUS EDULIS IN A NON-DUNE AREA. The use of habitat modelling for exotic invasive species can be extremely useful for identifying their potential impacts and for assisting in the design of eradication strategies. Even though the latter builds on theoretical assumptions that are quite different from those involved in the modelling of the habitat of native species, these two modelling methods are in fact quite similar. This article presents a habitat suitability modelling framework for Carpobrotus edulis, an alien invader plant in Serra do Bouro, Portugal. Several land surveys have been carried out in the study area in order to record the presence of this plant. The criteria for recording a presence were that the plant did not show any signs of weakness and that there were mat formations covering at least 5m2. Pseudo-absences were also obtained in a completely random way. The model was calibrated using a binary logistic regression. The performance of this model usually considered superior to that of models that rely on presence data only. Additionally, an evaluation technique based on the minimum area of higher adequacy is also presented. This technique assumes that, for a given probability threshold, model performance is higher whenever it has the same number of correct presences for a smaller predicted area. Using a 0.7 probability threshold, the model correctly predicted 80% of the total presences using only 8% of the study area. The model suggests that the main factor contributing to the expansion of Carpobrotus edulis has been the abandonment of agriculture in the study area. In addition, proximity to the shoreline and above-average erosion potential in the study area both seem to benefit the plant’s expansion. Conversely, steeper and longer slopes, and greater distances from the shoreline, were found to be significant contributors to the plant’s absence.

  6. Insetos galhadores associados a duas espécies de plantas invasoras de áreas urbanas e peri-urbanas

    OpenAIRE

    Julião,Genimar R.; Fernandes,G. Wilson; Negreiros,Daniel; Bedê,Lúcio; Araújo,Raquel C.

    2005-01-01

    Os insetos têm sido considerados importantes indicadores de mudanças ambientais e da qualidade de habitats. Apesar de seu hábito séssil, fácil visualização, abundância, e especificidade de hospedeiro, insetos indutores de galhas não têm sido utilizados em estudos desta natureza. Neste estudo foi investigado o uso potencial de insetos galhadores associados a duas espécies de plantas hospedeiras ruderais (Baccharis dracunculifolia e Vernonia polyanthes: Asteraceae) como bioindicadores da qualid...

  7. Estudio del placentoma de poblaciones de mabuya con énfasis en el análisis de células invasoras

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simón Halcón Vieira Samper

    2007-01-01

    células invasivas comparten rasgos ultraestructurales con las células del corion, pero con particularidades que les permiten cumplir funciones específicas. Prolongaciones de estas células entran en contacto con capilares uterinos y forman un extenso sistema de membranas dobles muy próximas entre sí, que encapsulan el capilar. Este hallazgo proporciona bases para proponer una nueva clasificación de la placenta de estas lagartijas al evidenciarse una relación muy estrecha entre los tejidos embrionarios y la circulación materna.

  8. Structure of gastropod communities at mangrove ecosystem in Lubuk Kertang village, West Berandan District, Langkat Regency, North Sumatera Province

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manullang, T.; Bakti, D.; Leidonald, R.

    2018-02-01

    Gastropod was one of the class from mollusca in mangrove ecosystem. Lubuk Kertang Village’s mangrove forest was been converted into tourist areas, agricultural land and settlements. The purpose of this study was to analyze the structure of gastropods at Avicennia lanata, Rhizophora apiculata and Sonneratia alba. This research was conducted at Lubuk Kertang Village in February-March 2017. Gastropod were collected in 1 m × 1 m transect in mangrove. Examples of biota were taken by using shovel, then the biota was inserted into a plastic bag sample, wrote date of sampling and identified. The results showed there were 15 species Gastropods, namely Achatina fulica, Cerithidea alata, Cerithidea cingulata, Cerithidea obtusa, Chicoreus capucinus, Cymatium pileare, Ellobium aurimisdae, Ellobium aurisjudae, Littoraria melanostoma, Littoraria scabra, Murex tribulus, Nerita balteata, Nerita planospira, Pugilina cochlidium, Stramonita gradata, Telescopium telescopium and Terebralia sulcata. Diversity index ranged 1.702 to 2.165 was in medium category, Similarity index ranged 0.676 to 0.799 was in low category and Dominance index ranged 0.142 to 0.282 that categorized was low. The highest gastropod density was 31 individuals/m2 in the Sonneratia alba. The conclusion of the research is the existing mangrove ecosystem in Lubuk Kertang Village in a stable state.

  9. Analyse de la filière des escargots comestibles dans la Région de l'Equateur en République Centrafricaine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mbétid-Bessane, E.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Analysis of the Edible Snails Chain in the Equatorial Region of the Central African Republic. The edible snail is a unconventional food resource with a high economic and social importance in the Central African Republic Equatorial's region. It allows the population of this region to have income and to diversify their daily food ration. The analysis of this chain, from a sample of 200 stakeholders, shows that snails picking and marketing are profitable activities. Globally, the biggest part of the chain returns to the wholesaler with about 45%, followed by the retail dealer 1 with 37% and by the retail dealer 2 with 14%. The snails' picker supplier has the lowest part of the chain with only 4%. However, the consumption of snails could increase at national level if solutions are found to the sociological and cultural constraints, notably food prejudices and forbidden. Besides, the seasonal variation of the picking snails' supply and the pressure of collection due to an increasing demand set up an opportunity for the breeding snails' sale. But, there are enormous risks if one wants multiplying Achatina fulica which are a danger for the other local species. Breeding would allow to increase the income, to strengthen food security and to balance biodiversity.

  10. The occurrence of the rat lungworm, Angiostrongylus cantonensis, in nonindigenous snails in the Gulf of Mexico region of the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teem, John L.; Qvarnstrom, Yvonne; Bishop, Henry S.; da Silva, Alexandre J.; Carter, Jacoby; White-McLean, Jodi; Smith, Trevor

    2013-01-01

    Nonindigenous apple snails, Pomacea maculata (formerly Pomacea insularum), are currently spreading rapidly through the southeastern United States. This mollusk serves as an intermediate host of the rat lungworm parasite (Angiostrongylus cantonensis), which can cause eosinophilic meningitis in humans who consume infected mollusks. A PCR-based detection assay was used to test nonindigenous apple snails for the rat lungworm parasite in Louisiana, Texas, Mississippi, and Florida. Only apple snails obtained from the New Orleans, Louisiana, area tested positive for the parasite. These results provide the first evidence that Angiostrongylus cantonensis does occur in nonindigenous apple snails in the southeastern United States. Additionally, Angiostrongylus cantonensis was identified in the terrestrial species Achatina fulica in Miami, Florida, indicating that rat lungworm is now established in Florida as well as Louisiana. Although the study suggests that the rat lungworm is not widespread in the Gulf States region, the infected snail population could still pose a risk to human health and facilitate the spread of the parasite to new areas.

  11. Angiostrongylus cantonensis and Rat Lungworm Disease in Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira Simões, Raquel; Fernandez, Monica Ammon; Júnior, Arnaldo Maldonado

    2013-01-01

    The metastrongyloid nematode genus Angiostrongylus includes 18 species, two of which are relevant from a medical standpoint, Angiostrongylus costaricensis and Angiostrongylus cantonensis. The first was described from Costa Rica in 1971 and causes abdominal angiostrongyliasis in the Americas, including in Brazil. Angiostrongylus cantonensis, first described in 1935 from Canton, China, is the causative agent of eosinophilic meningitis. The natural definitive hosts are rodents, and molluscs are the intermediate hosts. Paratenic or carrier hosts include crabs, freshwater shrimp, amphibians, flatworms, and fish. Humans become infected accidentally by ingestion of intermediate or paratenic hosts and the parasite does not complete the life cycle as it does in rats. Worms in the brain cause eosinophilic meningitis. This zoonosis, widespread in Southeast Asia and the Pacific islands, has now been reported from other regions. In the Americas there are records from the United States, Cuba, Jamaica, Brazil, Ecuador, and Haiti. In Brazil seven human cases have been reported since 2007 from the southeastern and northeastern regions. Epidemiological studies found infected specimens of Rattus norvegicus and Rattus rattus as well as many species of molluscs, including the giant African land snail, Achatina fulica, from various regions of Brazil. The spread of angiostrongyliasis is currently a matter of concern in Brazil. PMID:23901376

  12. POTENSI TAMAN NASIONAL BOGANI NANI WARTABONE, PERMASALAHAN DAN KONSERVASI PADA TINGKAT PENGEMBANGAN DAN PENGAWASAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Femmy Roosje Kawuwung

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Taman Nasional Bogani Nani Wartabone sebelumnya bernama Dumoga Bone. Nani Wartabone seorang pahlawan yang terkenal di daerah Gorontalo, untuk mengenang pahlawan tersebut maka namanya diabadikan pada nama Taman Nasional. Pada tahun 1982 luas 300.000 hektar dinyatakan Menteri Pertanian. Ditunjuk Menteri Kehutanan, SK No. 731/Kpts-II/1992 luas 287.115 hektar. Propinsi Gorontalo dengan ketinggian tempat 50 – 2.000 meter dpl. Posisi 1o– 4o LS, 120o – 124o BT. Permasalahan; terjadinya fragmentasi, perladangan berpindah, pertanian, illegal logging, pemukiman, pertambangan, dan pencurian spesies flora dan fauna. Tujuan mengetahui potensi Taman Nasional Bogani Nani Wartabone, permasalahan dan upaya konservasi.Potensi Taman Nasional Bogani Nani Wartabone adalah; Flora terdiri dari 400 jenis pohon, 241 jenis tumbuhan tinggi, 120 jenis efifit dan terdapat 24 jenis anggrek. Tumbuhan endemik yaitu; palem matayangan, kayu hitam dan bunga bangkai(Amophaphallus compamulatus. Tumbuhan yang umum adalah cempaka, kenanga, agates, dan tanaman hias.Taman Nasional Bogani Nani Wartabone memiliki 24 jenis mamalia, 64 jenis aves, 11 jenis reptile. Mamalia (satwa endemik : monyet hitam/yaki (Macaca nigra, Monyet Dumoga Bone, babirusa, kelelawar bone, kus-kus besar (Palanger ursinus, anoa kecil (B.quarlesi. Di Taman Nasional Bogani Nani Wartabone tercatat 200 – 225 jenis burung. Reptil : ular kobra, king kobra (N. hammah, ular belang, katak pohon (Rhacophorus monticola, ikan : ikan mas (Cyprinus carpio, bekicot (Achatina fulica. Upaya konservasi adalah pada tingkat pengembangan dan pengawasan. Dalam upaya konservasi harus ada kerja sama dari pemerintah dan masyarakat sekitar kawasan.

  13. Angiostrongylus cantonensis Infection on Mayotte Island, Indian Ocean, 2007-2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epelboin, Loïc; Blondé, Renaud; Chamouine, Abdourahim; Chrisment, Alexandra; Diancourt, Laure; Villemant, Nicolas; Atale, Agnès; Cadix, Claire; Caro, Valérie; Malvy, Denis; Collet, Louis

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Human angiostrongyliasis (HA) is a neurological helminthic disease caused by the lung worm Angiostrongylus cantonensis. It is suspected in the combination of travel or a residence in an endemic area and eosinophilic meningitis. In Mayotte, an island in the Indian Ocean, cases are rare but regular. The main objective of our study was to describe the epidemiological and diagnosis clues of HA in Mayotte. The secondary objectives were to evaluate the contribution of Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction (RT- PCR) for the diagnosis of HA, delineate the characteristics of the local transmission and ascertain the presence of A. cantonensis in Achatina fulica, the potential vector of the disease. Materials and Methods Between 2007 and 2012, all cases of eosinophilic meningitis were retrospectively included and investigated by RT- PCR in the CSF. Descriptive analysis was conducted for clinical, biological and radiological features, and were analyzed for all patients together with the search for prognostic factors for mortality. Concurrently, geolocalization and temporal parameters were studied to correlate the occurrence of the cases with rainfall seasons and snails were collected to enhance a parasitic carriage with real time PCR. Results During the 6-year period of the study, 14 cases were identified (2.3 cases/year) and 9 among 10 remaining CSF were positive in PCR. Among 14 cases of EM, 13 were less than 2 year-old children. The 1 year mortality rate was 5/14 (35.7%). Among survivors, 3/7 (42.8%) presented neurological sequelae. Factors associated with mortality were dysfunction of cranial nerves, abnormal brain imaging, and CSF glucose level inferior to 2 mmol/l. Occurrence of cases was temporarily and spatially correlated to the rainy season. Among the 64 collected giant snails, 6 (9.4%) were positive with A. cantonensis PCR. The likely main route of transmission was the children licking snails, carriers of the parasite. Conclusion In Mayotte, HA was mainly

  14. Angiostrongylus cantonensis Infection on Mayotte Island, Indian Ocean, 2007-2012.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Loïc Epelboin

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Human angiostrongyliasis (HA is a neurological helminthic disease caused by the lung worm Angiostrongylus cantonensis. It is suspected in the combination of travel or a residence in an endemic area and eosinophilic meningitis. In Mayotte, an island in the Indian Ocean, cases are rare but regular. The main objective of our study was to describe the epidemiological and diagnosis clues of HA in Mayotte. The secondary objectives were to evaluate the contribution of Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction (RT- PCR for the diagnosis of HA, delineate the characteristics of the local transmission and ascertain the presence of A. cantonensis in Achatina fulica, the potential vector of the disease.Between 2007 and 2012, all cases of eosinophilic meningitis were retrospectively included and investigated by RT- PCR in the CSF. Descriptive analysis was conducted for clinical, biological and radiological features, and were analyzed for all patients together with the search for prognostic factors for mortality. Concurrently, geolocalization and temporal parameters were studied to correlate the occurrence of the cases with rainfall seasons and snails were collected to enhance a parasitic carriage with real time PCR.During the 6-year period of the study, 14 cases were identified (2.3 cases/year and 9 among 10 remaining CSF were positive in PCR. Among 14 cases of EM, 13 were less than 2 year-old children. The 1 year mortality rate was 5/14 (35.7%. Among survivors, 3/7 (42.8% presented neurological sequelae. Factors associated with mortality were dysfunction of cranial nerves, abnormal brain imaging, and CSF glucose level inferior to 2 mmol/l. Occurrence of cases was temporarily and spatially correlated to the rainy season. Among the 64 collected giant snails, 6 (9.4% were positive with A. cantonensis PCR. The likely main route of transmission was the children licking snails, carriers of the parasite.In Mayotte, HA was mainly found in paediatric cases under 2 years

  15. THE MEDICALLY IMPORTANT MOLLUSCS OF INDONESIA

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    Machfudz Djajasasmita

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available At present in Indonesia 32 species of non-marine molluscs which belong to IS families have been known to be potentially of medicalor veterinary importance, since they are suspected to be capable in transmitting human and animal diseases. The brackish water family Potamididae comprises of 1 species; whereas the freshwater snails are : Viviparidae (3 sp., Ampullariidae (3 sp., Bythiniidae (1 sp.. Pomatiopsidae (1 sp., Thiaridae (7 sp., Lymnaeidae(l sp. and Planorbidae (5 sp.; freshwater bivalve are: Corbiculidae (4 sp.; land snails are: Subulinidae (2 sp., Achatinidae (1 sp. and Bradybaenidae (1 sp.; land slug: Veronicelidae (2 sp. Philomycidae (1 sp. and Limacidae (1 sp.. All are common species which can be found in the vicinity of human habitation (ponds, rice-field, ditches, gardens etc. The parasitological studies on these molluscs are rather limited, only 9 species have been studied and confirmed to be the intermediate host of parasitic nematodes and nematodes; i.e. Oncomelania hupensis lindoensis, the intermediate host of the blood fluke Schistosoma japonica in Central Sulawesi: Pila suctata, Achatina fulica and Laevicaulis alte from several places in Sumatra, Java, Sulawesi and Flores have been found to be harbouring the larvae of the nematode Angiostrongylus cantonensis, the causative agent of eosinophilic meningoencephalitis; Bellamy a rudipelis, Gyraulus sarasinorum and Corbicula lindoensis were recorded as the intermediate host of the intestinal fluke Echinostoma lindoensis in Central Sulawesi; Lymnaea rubiginosa plays an important role in the life-cycle of the cattle liver fluke Fasciola gigantica and F.hepatica, which may reduce the national meat production; and Digoniostoma truncatum from Bali has been recorded naturally infected with radiae and cercariae of Paramphistoma sp., the causative agent of the fatal paramphistomiasis of cattle. Gyraulus convexiusculus is considered to be the most likely first intermediate host of

  16. A Role For Ca 2+ in the Thermal and Urea Denaturation of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Giant African snail (Achatina achatina) becomes dormant (aestivate) under harsh environmental conditions like dry seasons. During this period the animal accumulates urea and is faced with thermal death. The stability towards thermal and urea denaturation of haemocyanin from aestivating and nonaestivating A. achatina ...

  17. Reproductive Ecology of the Giant African Snail in South Florida: Implications for Eradication Programs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amy Roda

    Full Text Available Giant African snail (Achatina fulica (Bowdich, 1822, an important invasive snail, was recently found in South Florida, USA. An extensive eradication effort was initiated consisting of pesticide applications, debris removal and hand collections. We studied the reproduction capacity and population dynamics of snails collected from 22 populations for two years to help evaluate the likely success of the eradication program. A total of 23,890 snails, ranging from 25-131 mm, were measured, dissected and the number of eggs in each snail counted. Gravid snails ranged from 48-128 mm. Only 5% of snails had eggs, which were found year round. As the snails increased in size, they were more likely to include reproducing individuals. However, the percentage of gravid snails peaked when snails were approximately 90 mm. Although more prevalent, small (1000 adult snails and used data from the two largest populations to investigate how environmental factors (temperature, humidity, and rainfall interacted with population dynamics and control measures. More snails were collected in weeks with high humidity and more gravid snails were collected when the temperature was higher. The addition of metaldehyde pesticides had the greatest impact on population dynamics by reducing snail numbers. In populations with fewer snails, their numbers were already declining before the use of metaldehyde, although the new treatment accelerated the process. As a consequence of the eradication program, egg-producing snails were no longer collected from most populations by the end of the study. The aggressive and persistent control efforts apparently lead to reduced populations of egg producing snails, eventually resulting in local extinctions of this important pest.

  18. Nucleolin: acharan sulfate–binding protein on the surface of cancer cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joo, Eun Ji; ten Dam, Gerdy B.; van Kuppevelt, Toin H.; Toida, Toshihiko; Linhardt, Robert J.; Kim, Yeong Shik

    2005-01-01

    Glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) are complex polysaccharides that participate in the regulation of physiological processes through the interactions with a wide variety of proteins. Acharan sulfate (AS), isolated from the giant African snail Achatina fulica, primarily consists of the repeating disaccharide structure α-D-N-acetylglucosaminyl (1→4) 2-sulfoiduronic acid. Exogenous AS was injected subcutaneously near the tumor tissue in C57BL/6 mice that had been implanted with Lewis lung carcinoma cells (LLCs). The location of AS in the tumor was assessed by staining of sectioned tissues with alcian blue and periodic acid–Schiff (PAS) reagent. In vitro assays indicated binding of cells to 50 μg/ml AS (or heparin) after a 5-h incubation. Immunofluorescence assays, using anti-AS antibody, detected AS at the cell surface. The outer-surface of LLCs were next biotinylated to identify the AS-binding proteins. Biotinylated cells were lysed, and the lysates were fractionated on the AS affinity column using a stepwise salt gradient (0, 0.1, 0.3, 0.5, 0.7, 1.0, and 2.0 M). The fractions were analyzed by SDS–PAGE with silver staining and western blotting. We focused on the proteins with high affinity for AS (eluting at 1 M NaCl) and detected only two bands by western blotting. ESI Q-TOF MS analysis of one of these bands, molecular weight ~110 kDa, showed it to be nucleolin. A phosphorylated form of nucleolin on the surface of cells acts as a cell surface receptor for a variety of ligands, including growth factors (i.e., basic fibroblast growth factor) and chemokines (i.e., midkine). These results show that nucleolin is one of several AS-binding proteins and suggest that AS might demonstrate its tumor growth inhibitory activity by binding the nucleolin receptor protein on the surface of cancer cells. PMID:15329357

  19. Invasive snails and an emerging infectious disease: results from the first national survey on Angiostrongylus cantonensis in China.

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    Shan Lv

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Eosinophilic meningitis (angiostrongyliasis caused by Angiostrongylus cantonensis is emerging in mainland China. However, the distribution of A. cantonensis and its intermediate host snails, and the role of two invasive snail species in the emergence of angiostrongyliasis, are not well understood. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A national survey pertaining to A. cantonensis was carried out using a grid sampling approach (spatial resolution: 40x40 km. One village per grid cell was randomly selected from a 5% random sample of grid cells located in areas where the presence of the intermediate host snail Pomacea canaliculata had been predicted based on a degree-day model. Potential intermediate hosts of A. cantonensis were collected in the field, restaurants, markets and snail farms, and examined for infection. The infection prevalence among intermediate host snails was estimated, and the prevalence of A. cantonensis within P. canaliculata was displayed on a map, and predicted for non-sampled locations. It was confirmed that P. canaliculata and Achatina fulica were the predominant intermediate hosts of A. cantonensis in China, and these snails were found to be well established in 11 and six provinces, respectively. Infected snails of either species were found in seven provinces, closely matching the endemic area of A. cantonensis. Infected snails were also found in markets and restaurants. Two clusters of A. cantonensis-infected P. canaliculata were predicted in Fujian and Guangxi provinces. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The first national survey in China revealed a wide distribution of A. cantonensis and two invasive snail species, indicating that a considerable number of people are at risk of angiostrongyliasis. Health education, rigorous food inspection and surveillance are all needed to prevent recurrent angiostrongyliasis outbreaks.

  20. Characterization of GdFFD, a d-Amino Acid-containing Neuropeptide That Functions as an Extrinsic Modulator of the Aplysia Feeding Circuit*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Lu; Livnat, Itamar; Romanova, Elena V.; Alexeeva, Vera; Yau, Peter M.; Vilim, Ferdinand S.; Weiss, Klaudiusz R.; Jing, Jian; Sweedler, Jonathan V.

    2013-01-01

    During eukaryotic translation, peptides/proteins are created using l-amino acids. However, a d-amino acid-containing peptide (DAACP) can be produced through post-translational modification via an isomerase enzyme. General approaches to identify novel DAACPs and investigate their function, particularly in specific neural circuits, are lacking. This is primarily due to the difficulty in characterizing this modification and due to the limited information on neural circuits in most species. We describe a multipronged approach to overcome these limitations using the sea slug Aplysia californica. Based on bioinformatics and homology to known DAACPs in the land snail Achatina fulica, we targeted two predicted peptides in Aplysia, GFFD, similar to achatin-I (GdFAD versus GFAD, where dF stands for d-phenylalanine), and YAEFLa, identical to fulyal (YdAEFLa versus YAEFLa), using stereoselective analytical methods, i.e. MALDI MS fragmentation analysis and LC-MS/MS. Although YAEFLa in Aplysia was detected only in an all l-form, we found that both GFFD and GdFFD were present in the Aplysia CNS. In situ hybridization and immunolabeling of GFFD/GdFFD-positive neurons and fibers suggested that GFFD/GdFFD might act as an extrinsic modulator of the feeding circuit. Consistent with this hypothesis, we found that GdFFD induced robust activity in the feeding circuit and elicited egestive motor patterns. In contrast, the peptide consisting of all l-amino acids, GFFD, was not bioactive. Our data indicate that the modification of an l-amino acid-containing neuropeptide to a DAACP is essential for peptide bioactivity in a motor circuit, and thus it provides a functional significance to this modification. PMID:24078634

  1. Metagenomic Analysis of the Microbiota from the Crop of an Invasive Snail Reveals a Rich Reservoir of Novel Genes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardoso, Alexander M.; Cavalcante, Janaína J. V.; Cantão, Maurício E.; Thompson, Claudia E.; Flatschart, Roberto B.; Glogauer, Arnaldo; Scapin, Sandra M. N.; Sade, Youssef B.; Beltrão, Paulo J. M. S. I.; Gerber, Alexandra L.; Martins, Orlando B.; Garcia, Eloi S.; de Souza, Wanderley; Vasconcelos, Ana Tereza R.

    2012-01-01

    The shortage of petroleum reserves and the increase in CO2 emissions have raised global concerns and highlighted the importance of adopting sustainable energy sources. Second-generation ethanol made from lignocellulosic materials is considered to be one of the most promising fuels for vehicles. The giant snail Achatina fulica is an agricultural pest whose biotechnological potential has been largely untested. Here, the composition of the microbial population within the crop of this invasive land snail, as well as key genes involved in various biochemical pathways, have been explored for the first time. In a high-throughput approach, 318 Mbp of 454-Titanium shotgun metagenomic sequencing data were obtained. The predominant bacterial phylum found was Proteobacteria, followed by Bacteroidetes and Firmicutes. Viruses, Fungi, and Archaea were present to lesser extents. The functional analysis reveals a variety of microbial genes that could assist the host in the degradation of recalcitrant lignocellulose, detoxification of xenobiotics, and synthesis of essential amino acids and vitamins, contributing to the adaptability and wide-ranging diet of this snail. More than 2,700 genes encoding glycoside hydrolase (GH) domains and carbohydrate-binding modules were detected. When we compared GH profiles, we found an abundance of sequences coding for oligosaccharide-degrading enzymes (36%), very similar to those from wallabies and giant pandas, as well as many novel cellulase and hemicellulase coding sequences, which points to this model as a remarkable potential source of enzymes for the biofuel industry. Furthermore, this work is a major step toward the understanding of the unique genetic profile of the land snail holobiont. PMID:23133637

  2. Invasive Snails and an Emerging Infectious Disease: Results from the First National Survey on Angiostrongylus cantonensis in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Shan; Zhang, Yi; Liu, He-Xiang; Hu, Ling; Yang, Kun; Steinmann, Peter; Chen, Zhao; Wang, Li-Ying; Utzinger, Jürg; Zhou, Xiao-Nong

    2009-01-01

    Background Eosinophilic meningitis (angiostrongyliasis) caused by Angiostrongylus cantonensis is emerging in mainland China. However, the distribution of A. cantonensis and its intermediate host snails, and the role of two invasive snail species in the emergence of angiostrongyliasis, are not well understood. Methodology/Principal Findings A national survey pertaining to A. cantonensis was carried out using a grid sampling approach (spatial resolution: 40×40 km). One village per grid cell was randomly selected from a 5% random sample of grid cells located in areas where the presence of the intermediate host snail Pomacea canaliculata had been predicted based on a degree-day model. Potential intermediate hosts of A. cantonensis were collected in the field, restaurants, markets and snail farms, and examined for infection. The infection prevalence among intermediate host snails was estimated, and the prevalence of A. cantonensis within P. canaliculata was displayed on a map, and predicted for non-sampled locations. It was confirmed that P. canaliculata and Achatina fulica were the predominant intermediate hosts of A. cantonensis in China, and these snails were found to be well established in 11 and six provinces, respectively. Infected snails of either species were found in seven provinces, closely matching the endemic area of A. cantonensis. Infected snails were also found in markets and restaurants. Two clusters of A. cantonensis–infected P. canaliculata were predicted in Fujian and Guangxi provinces. Conclusions/Significance The first national survey in China revealed a wide distribution of A. cantonensis and two invasive snail species, indicating that a considerable number of people are at risk of angiostrongyliasis. Health education, rigorous food inspection and surveillance are all needed to prevent recurrent angiostrongyliasis outbreaks. PMID:19190771

  3. Action potential bursts in central snail neurons elicited by paeonol: roles of ionic currents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yi-hung; Lin, Pei-lin; Hsu, Hui-yu; Wu, Ya-ting; Yang, Han-yin; Lu, Dah-yuu; Huang, Shiang-suo; Hsieh, Ching-liang; Lin, Jaung-geng

    2010-01-01

    Aim: To investigate the effects of 2′-hydroxy-4′-methoxyacetophenone (paeonol) on the electrophysiological behavior of a central neuron (right parietal 4; RP4) of the giant African snail (Achatina fulica Ferussac). Methods: Intracellular recordings and the two-electrode voltage clamp method were used to study the effects of paeonol on the RP4 neuron. Results: The RP4 neuron generated spontaneous action potentials. Bath application of paeonol at a concentration of ≥500 μmol/L reversibly elicited action potential bursts in a concentration-dependent manner. Immersing the neurons in Co2+-substituted Ca2+-free solution did not block paeonol-elicited bursting. Pretreatment with the protein kinase A (PKA) inhibitor KT-5720 or the protein kinase C (PKC) inhibitor Ro 31-8220 did not affect the action potential bursts. Voltage-clamp studies revealed that paeonol at a concentration of 500 μmol/L had no remarkable effects on the total inward currents, whereas paeonol decreased the delayed rectifying K+ current (IKD) and the fast-inactivating K+ current (IA). Application of 4-aminopyridine (4-AP 5 mmol/L), an inhibitor of IA, or charybdotoxin 250 nmol/L, an inhibitor of the Ca2+-activated K+ current (IK(Ca)), failed to elicit action potential bursts, whereas tetraethylammonium chloride (TEA 50 mmol/L), an IKD blocker, successfully elicited action potential bursts. At a lower concentration of 5 mmol/L, TEA facilitated the induction of action potential bursts elicited by paeonol. Conclusion: Paeonol elicited a bursting firing pattern of action potentials in the RP4 neuron and this activity relates closely to the inhibitory effects of paeonol on the IKD. PMID:21042287

  4. Reproductive Ecology of the Giant African Snail in South Florida: Implications for Eradication Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Giant African snail (Achatina fulica (Bowdich, 1822)), an important invasive snail, was recently found in South Florida, USA. An extensive eradication effort was initiated consisting of pesticide applications, debris removal and hand collections. We studied the reproduction capacity and population dynamics of snails collected from 22 populations for two years to help evaluate the likely success of the eradication program. A total of 23,890 snails, ranging from 25–131 mm, were measured, dissected and the number of eggs in each snail counted. Gravid snails ranged from 48–128 mm. Only 5% of snails had eggs, which were found year round. As the snails increased in size, they were more likely to include reproducing individuals. However, the percentage of gravid snails peaked when snails were approximately 90 mm. Although more prevalent, small (1000 adult snails and used data from the two largest populations to investigate how environmental factors (temperature, humidity, and rainfall) interacted with population dynamics and control measures. More snails were collected in weeks with high humidity and more gravid snails were collected when the temperature was higher. The addition of metaldehyde pesticides had the greatest impact on population dynamics by reducing snail numbers. In populations with fewer snails, their numbers were already declining before the use of metaldehyde, although the new treatment accelerated the process. As a consequence of the eradication program, egg-producing snails were no longer collected from most populations by the end of the study. The aggressive and persistent control efforts apparently lead to reduced populations of egg producing snails, eventually resulting in local extinctions of this important pest. PMID:27861504

  5. Phylogenetic relationship of the Brazilian isolates of the rat lungworm Angiostrongylus cantonensis (Nematoda: Metastrongylidae employing mitochondrial COI gene sequence data

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    Monte Tainá CC

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The rat lungworm Angiostrongylus cantonensis can cause eosinophilic meningoencephalitis in humans. This nematode’s main definitive hosts are rodents and its intermediate hosts are snails. This parasite was first described in China and currently is dispersed across several Pacific islands, Asia, Australia, Africa, some Caribbean islands and most recently in the Americas. Here, we report the genetic variability among A. cantonensis isolates from different geographical locations in Brazil using mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI gene sequences. Methods The isolates of A. cantonensis were obtained from distinct geographical locations of Brazil. Genomic DNAs were extracted, amplified by polymerase reaction, purified and sequenced. A partial sequence of COI gene was determined to assess their phylogenetic relationship. Results The sequences of A. cantonensis were monophyletic. We identified a distinct clade that included all isolates of A. cantonensis from Brazil and Asia based on eight distinct haplotypes (ac1, ac2, ac3, ac4, ac5, ac6, ac7 and ac8 from a previous study. Interestingly, the Brazilian haplotype ac5 is clustered with isolates from Japan, and the Brazilian haplotype ac8 from Rio de Janeiro, São Paulo, Pará and Pernambuco states formed a distinct clade. There is a divergent Brazilian haplotype, which we named ac9, closely related to Chinese haplotype ac6 and Japanese haplotype ac7. Conclusion The genetic variation observed among Brazilian isolates supports the hypothesis that the appearance of A. cantonensis in Brazil is likely a result of multiple introductions of parasite-carrying rats, transported on ships due to active commerce with Africa and Asia during the European colonization period. The rapid spread of the intermediate host, Achatina fulica, also seems to have contributed to the dispersion of this parasite and the infection of the definitive host in different Brazilian regions.

  6. Phylogenetic relationship of the Brazilian isolates of the rat lungworm Angiostrongylus cantonensis (Nematoda: Metastrongylidae) employing mitochondrial COI gene sequence data

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background The rat lungworm Angiostrongylus cantonensis can cause eosinophilic meningoencephalitis in humans. This nematode’s main definitive hosts are rodents and its intermediate hosts are snails. This parasite was first described in China and currently is dispersed across several Pacific islands, Asia, Australia, Africa, some Caribbean islands and most recently in the Americas. Here, we report the genetic variability among A. cantonensis isolates from different geographical locations in Brazil using mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI) gene sequences. Methods The isolates of A. cantonensis were obtained from distinct geographical locations of Brazil. Genomic DNAs were extracted, amplified by polymerase reaction, purified and sequenced. A partial sequence of COI gene was determined to assess their phylogenetic relationship. Results The sequences of A. cantonensis were monophyletic. We identified a distinct clade that included all isolates of A. cantonensis from Brazil and Asia based on eight distinct haplotypes (ac1, ac2, ac3, ac4, ac5, ac6, ac7 and ac8) from a previous study. Interestingly, the Brazilian haplotype ac5 is clustered with isolates from Japan, and the Brazilian haplotype ac8 from Rio de Janeiro, São Paulo, Pará and Pernambuco states formed a distinct clade. There is a divergent Brazilian haplotype, which we named ac9, closely related to Chinese haplotype ac6 and Japanese haplotype ac7. Conclusion The genetic variation observed among Brazilian isolates supports the hypothesis that the appearance of A. cantonensis in Brazil is likely a result of multiple introductions of parasite-carrying rats, transported on ships due to active commerce with Africa and Asia during the European colonization period. The rapid spread of the intermediate host, Achatina fulica, also seems to have contributed to the dispersion of this parasite and the infection of the definitive host in different Brazilian regions. PMID:23130987

  7. Phylogenetic relationship of the Brazilian isolates of the rat lungworm Angiostrongylus cantonensis (Nematoda: Metastrongylidae) employing mitochondrial COI gene sequence data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monte, Tainá C C; Simões, Raquel O; Oliveira, Ana Paula M; Novaes, Clodoaldo F; Thiengo, Silvana C; Silva, Alexandre J; Estrela, Pedro C; Maldonado, Arnaldo

    2012-11-06

    The rat lungworm Angiostrongylus cantonensis can cause eosinophilic meningoencephalitis in humans. This nematode's main definitive hosts are rodents and its intermediate hosts are snails. This parasite was first described in China and currently is dispersed across several Pacific islands, Asia, Australia, Africa, some Caribbean islands and most recently in the Americas. Here, we report the genetic variability among A. cantonensis isolates from different geographical locations in Brazil using mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI) gene sequences. The isolates of A. cantonensis were obtained from distinct geographical locations of Brazil. Genomic DNAs were extracted, amplified by polymerase reaction, purified and sequenced. A partial sequence of COI gene was determined to assess their phylogenetic relationship. The sequences of A. cantonensis were monophyletic. We identified a distinct clade that included all isolates of A. cantonensis from Brazil and Asia based on eight distinct haplotypes (ac1, ac2, ac3, ac4, ac5, ac6, ac7 and ac8) from a previous study. Interestingly, the Brazilian haplotype ac5 is clustered with isolates from Japan, and the Brazilian haplotype ac8 from Rio de Janeiro, São Paulo, Pará and Pernambuco states formed a distinct clade. There is a divergent Brazilian haplotype, which we named ac9, closely related to Chinese haplotype ac6 and Japanese haplotype ac7. The genetic variation observed among Brazilian isolates supports the hypothesis that the appearance of A. cantonensis in Brazil is likely a result of multiple introductions of parasite-carrying rats, transported on ships due to active commerce with Africa and Asia during the European colonization period. The rapid spread of the intermediate host, Achatina fulica, also seems to have contributed to the dispersion of this parasite and the infection of the definitive host in different Brazilian regions.

  8. Metagenomic analysis of the microbiota from the crop of an invasive snail reveals a rich reservoir of novel genes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander M Cardoso

    Full Text Available The shortage of petroleum reserves and the increase in CO(2 emissions have raised global concerns and highlighted the importance of adopting sustainable energy sources. Second-generation ethanol made from lignocellulosic materials is considered to be one of the most promising fuels for vehicles. The giant snail Achatina fulica is an agricultural pest whose biotechnological potential has been largely untested. Here, the composition of the microbial population within the crop of this invasive land snail, as well as key genes involved in various biochemical pathways, have been explored for the first time. In a high-throughput approach, 318 Mbp of 454-Titanium shotgun metagenomic sequencing data were obtained. The predominant bacterial phylum found was Proteobacteria, followed by Bacteroidetes and Firmicutes. Viruses, Fungi, and Archaea were present to lesser extents. The functional analysis reveals a variety of microbial genes that could assist the host in the degradation of recalcitrant lignocellulose, detoxification of xenobiotics, and synthesis of essential amino acids and vitamins, contributing to the adaptability and wide-ranging diet of this snail. More than 2,700 genes encoding glycoside hydrolase (GH domains and carbohydrate-binding modules were detected. When we compared GH profiles, we found an abundance of sequences coding for oligosaccharide-degrading enzymes (36%, very similar to those from wallabies and giant pandas, as well as many novel cellulase and hemicellulase coding sequences, which points to this model as a remarkable potential source of enzymes for the biofuel industry. Furthermore, this work is a major step toward the understanding of the unique genetic profile of the land snail holobiont.

  9. Ocorrência de Calotropis procera (Ait. R. Br. (Apocynaceae como espécie invasora de restinga Occurrence of Calotropis procera (Ait. R. Br. (Apocynaceae as an invasive species in restinga vegetation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisangela de Sousa Rangel

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Apesar de possuírem grande importância ao nível de conservação ambiental, existe no Brasil uma acentuada escassez de trabalhos relacionados às invasões biológicas em ambientes terrestres. As restingas, sobretudo, são ambientes extremamente susceptíveis a este tipo de ameaça. Este estudo teve como objetivo avaliar a ocorrência e a estrutura populacional da espécie exótica Calotropis procera na Restinga do Xexé, Farol de São Thomé, Campos dos Goytacazes, RJ. Uma varredura que abrangeu uma área de 126 ha (1400m x 900m foi realizada, sendo amostrado um total de 475 indivíduos, ou seja, uma média de 3,8 indivíduos por hectare. Para a avaliação da distribuição dos indivíduos num gradiente interior-praia, foram alocados três transectos (300m x 10m nesta direção. A amostragem nos transectos indicou a ocorrência de 28 indivíduos com altura > 50 cm e nenhum com altura Although invasive species are one of the main reasons for the loss of biodiversity, in Brazil there is little information about biological invasions in terrestrial ecosystems. Sandy coastal plain forests (restinga and shrubby vegetation are places extremely susceptible to this kind of threat. The goal of this work was to evaluate the occurrence of the exotic species Calotropis procera in the Restinga do Xexé, Farol de São Tomé, Campos dos Goytacazes, RJ, Brazil. A survey covering an area of 126 ha (1400 m x 900 m was carried out, where a total of 475 individuals were sampled (mean of 3.8 indiv.ha-1. To assess the spatial distribution and population structure of this species, three transects (300 m x 10 m were created, which were perpendicular to the vegetation gradient from interior to shoreline, and all individuals of C. procera were sampled. A total of 28 individuals > 50 cm tall were sampled, and no individuals < 50 cm tall were found in the three transects. The plants were restricted to areas with vestiges of human disturbance. The absence of seedling samples within the transects is probably related to the fast growth of this species after germination. The results showed that C. procera has a great potential of invading disturbed areas in restinga vegetation. A plan to control and eradicate this species should be considered by the Brazilian environmental agency.

  10. Didymosphenia geminata (Lyngbye) M. Schmidt en el área andina de la provincia de Chubut: taxonomía, diversidad morfológica y genética y origen del alga invasora

    OpenAIRE

    Uyua, Noelia Mariel

    2017-01-01

    La temática abordada en el presente trabajo está vinculada a los problemas que, a nivel mundial, causa Didymosphenia geminata (Lyngbye) Schmidt. Esta es una diatomea de agua dulce que puede formar proliferaciones masivas o floraciones. A diferencia de las floraciones algales planctónicas que están relacionadas con el aumento de las concentraciones de nitrógeno y fósforo, los crecimientos masivos de D. geminata, en general están asociados a ambientes pobres en nutrientes y en muchos casos prís...

  11. Insetos galhadores associados a duas espécies de plantas invasoras de áreas urbanas e peri-urbanas Galling insects associated with two species of ruderal plants in urban and peri urban areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Genimar R. Julião

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Os insetos têm sido considerados importantes indicadores de mudanças ambientais e da qualidade de habitats. Apesar de seu hábito séssil, fácil visualização, abundância, e especificidade de hospedeiro, insetos indutores de galhas não têm sido utilizados em estudos desta natureza. Neste estudo foi investigado o uso potencial de insetos galhadores associados a duas espécies de plantas hospedeiras ruderais (Baccharis dracunculifolia e Vernonia polyanthes: Asteraceae como bioindicadores da qualidade de habitats. Procurou-se responder às seguintes questões: (i A diversidade de insetos galhadores é afetada pelo tipo de uso e ocupação da paisagem (solo?; (ii A resposta das comunidades de insetos galhadores difere entre as duas espécies de plantas hospedeiras?; (iii A diversidade de insetos galhadores é influenciada por características bióticas e físicas dos biótopo urbanos? Foram coletadas 6.226 galhas, pertinentes a 6 espécies de insetos galhadores associados à V. polyanthes e 11 espécies associadas à B. dracunculifolia. Não foi encontrada nenhuma diferença na riqueza de insetos galhadores entre os biótopos amostrados. No entanto, a abundância de insetos galhadores apresentou diferenças significativas quanto ao tipo de uso e ocupação da paisagem. As galhas foram mais numerosas em biótopos menos urbanizados, sendo observado uma relação forte e positiva com a porcentagem de cobertura vegetal do biótopo. As comunidades de insetos galhadores de ambas as espécies de plantas hospedeiras apresentaram respostas diferenciais quanto ao tipo de uso da paisagem. Os resultados sugerem três fatores que podem estar envolvidos com a diversidade de insetos galhadores em áreas urbanas: (i estrutura dos habitats num biótopo; (ii abundância e distribuição espacial do recurso planta hospedeira e; (iii freqüência e intensidade do manejo de reservas, parques, jardins e terrenos baldios de uma dada área urbana. Constatou-se ainda que áreas verdes em espaços urbanos são de fundamental importância na manutenção da diversidade de insetos.Insects have been considered as important bioindicators of environmental changes and habitat quality. In spite of its sessile habit, easy localization, abundance and host specificity, insects that induce galls have not been utilized in studies of this nature. It was investigated the suitability of gall-inducing insects associated to two ruderal host plant species (Baccharis dracunculifolia and Vernonia polyanthes: Asteraceae as bioindicators of habitat quality. The following questions were addressed: (i is gall-inducing insect diversity influenced by different types of land use?; (ii are the responses of galling insect communities different between host plants?; (iii how does the biotic and physical features of the biotope influence the gall-inducing insect diversity? It was found 6,226 galls, belonging to six galling insect species on V. polyanthes and 11 galling species on B. dracunculifolia. No difference was found in galling species richness among land use types. Nevertheless, gall-forming insect abundance was statistically different among the biotopes studied. Insect galls were more numerous in biotopes with lower urbanization levels. Gall abundance showed a strong and positive relationship with the percentage of vegetal cover. Gall-forming insect communities on both host species showed differential responses to the different land use types. The results suggest that three factors may be involved with galling insect diversity in urban areas: (i habitat structure in the biotope; (ii resource abundance (host plant abundance and distribution; and (iii frequency and intensity of management in reserves, parks, city squares, wastelands found at a given urban area.

  12. Histopathology of liver and kidneys of wild living Mallards Anas platyrhynchos and Coots Fulica atra with considerable concentrations of lead and cadmium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Binkowski, Łukasz J., E-mail: ljbinkowski@gmail.com [Institute of Biology, Pedagogical University of Cracow, Podbrzezie 3, 31-054 Cracow (Poland); Sawicka-Kapusta, Katarzyna, E-mail: katarzyna.sawicka-kapusta@uj.edu.pl [Institute of Environmental Sciences, Jagiellonian University, Gronostajowa 7, 30-387 Cracow (Poland); Szarek, Józef, E-mail: szarek@uwm.edu.pl [Department of Pathophysiology, Forensic Veterinary Medicine and Administration, University of Warmia and Mazury, Oczapowskiego 13, 10-719 Olsztyn (Poland); Strzyżewska, Emilia, E-mail: emijel@wp.pl [Department of Pathophysiology, Forensic Veterinary Medicine and Administration, University of Warmia and Mazury, Oczapowskiego 13, 10-719 Olsztyn (Poland); Felsmann, Mariusz, E-mail: felsmann.mariusz@wp.pl [Department of Pathophysiology, Forensic Veterinary Medicine and Administration, University of Warmia and Mazury, Oczapowskiego 13, 10-719 Olsztyn (Poland)

    2013-04-15

    Concentrations of cadmium and lead were measured in liver and kidneys of Mallard (n = 60) and Coot (n = 50). Free living birds were collected by hunters in years 2006–2008 in the area of fishponds near Zator in southern Poland. Age group was determined according to the appearance of the plumage (Mallards) and iris color (Coot). Concentrations of metals were measured with ET-AA spectrometer. Among all birds specimens with negligible (n = 5) and high concentrations (Mallards n = 18 and Coots n = 17) of cadmium and lead were chosen for further analysis. Histopathological alterations were observed, ranging from circulatory disturbances, retrogressive changes, inflammations to leukocytic infiltration in liver and kidney. They dominated among birds with the highest concentrations of metals. The control group of birds was characterized by a very small number of mentioned lesions. Probably the higher cadmium and lead concentrations in tissues are co-factors in the development of lesions. - Highlights: ► High levels of Cd and Pb were found in liver and kidneys of Mallard and Coot. ► Lower concentrations were found in young birds. ► Amount of metals exceeded the safety threshold established for edible poultry. ► Histopathological alterations were found in studied tissues. ► Lesions in birds with the highest concentrations of metals were numerous.

  13. Minocycline inhibits D-amphetamine-elicited action potential bursts in a central snail neuron.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Y-H; Lin, P-L; Wong, R-W; Wu, Y-T; Hsu, H-Y; Tsai, M-C; Lin, M-J; Hsu, Y-C; Lin, C-H

    2012-10-25

    Minocycline is a second-generation tetracycline that has been reported to have powerful neuroprotective properties. In our previous studies, we found that d-amphetamine (AMPH) elicited action potential bursts in an identifiable RP4 neuron of the African snail, Achatina fulica Ferussac. This study sought to determine the effects of minocycline on the AMPH-elicited action potential pattern changes in the central snail neuron, using the two-electrode voltage clamping method. Extracellular application of AMPH at 300 μM elicited action potential bursts in the RP4 neuron. Minocycline dose-dependently (300-900 μM) inhibited the action potential bursts elicited by AMPH. The inhibitory effects of minocycline on AMPH-elicited action potential bursts were restored by forskolin (50 μM), an adenylate cyclase activator, and by dibutyryl cAMP (N(6),2'-O-Dibutyryladenosine 3',5'-cyclic monophosphate; 1mM), a membrane-permeable cAMP analog. Co-administration of forskolin (50 μM) plus tetraethylammonium chloride (TEA; 5mM) or co-administration of TEA (5mM) plus dibutyryl cAMP (1mM) also elicited action potential bursts, which were prevented and inhibited by minocycline. In addition, minocycline prevented and inhibited forskolin (100 μM)-elicited action potential bursts. Notably, TEA (50mM)-elicited action potential bursts in the RP4 neuron were not affected by minocycline. Minocycline did not affect steady-state outward currents of the RP4 neuron. However, minocycline did decrease the AMPH-elicited steady-state current changes. Similarly, minocycline decreased the effects of forskolin-elicited steady-state current changes. Pretreatment with H89 (N-[2-(p-Bromocinnamylamino)ethyl]-5-isoquinolinesulfonamide dihydrochloride; 10 μM), a protein kinase A inhibitor, inhibited AMPH-elicited action potential bursts and decreased AMPH-elicited steady-state current changes. These results suggest that the cAMP-protein kinase A signaling pathway and the steady-state current are involved in

  14. Étude de la croissance d'un escargot géant africain comestible ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    un amendement à la poudre de coquilles d'escargots du substrat d'élevage susceptible d'induire de meilleures performances de croissance chez Achatina achatina. Méthodologie et résultats: Deux cent vingt-cinq juvéniles d'escargots A.

  15. Bacteria and digestive enzymes in the alimentary tract of the giant ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A study was carried out to investigate the bacteria flora in the gut of the Giant African Land Snails (GALS), Archarchatina marginata and Achatina achatina. Microflora cultures from snail gut contents were prepared to isolate and identify microorganisms within the snail digestive tract. Enzyme assays were carried out on a few ...

  16. Establishment of mixed reforestation with typical Atlantic forest species as a function of minimum or intensive soil cultivation and weed control; Estabelecimento de reflorestamentos mistos com especies tipicas da mata Atlantica, em funcao do cultivo minimo ou intensivo do solo e do controle de plantas invasoras

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goncalves, Jose Leonardo de Moraes; Gandara, Flavio [Sao Paulo Univ., Piracicaba, SP (Brazil). Escola Superior de Agricultura Luiz de Queiroz. Dept. de Ciencias Florestais]. E-mail: jlmgonca@carpa.ciagri.usp.br; Goncalves, Janio Carlos; Oliveira, Donizete Barbosa de; Simionato, Jose Luiz do Amaral [Companhia Energetica de Sao Paulo (CESP), SP (Brazil); Cenci, Silvia [Sao Paulo Univ., Piracicaba, SP (Brazil). Escola Superior de Agricultura Luiz de Queiroz (ESALQ)

    1999-07-15

    The objectives of this research were: to study the effect of different methods of site cleaning and soil preparation on the reforestation growths established with typical species of the Atlantic Forest; and to evaluate the efficiency of different methods of weed control from planting time to canopy closure. The trial was installed (from Feb to May 1995) around the reservoir of Mario Lopes Leao hydroelectric plant owned by the Electric Power of Sao Paulo (CESP), municipal district of Promissao, SP. The climate of the area is tropical with dry winter (Cwa, classification of Koeppen). The soil was characterized as an Red-Dark Latosol, medium texture. Six treatments arranged in a randomized block design with four replications were tested: 1) herbicide application over total area, planting in furrows (PF), manual weeding in the planting row (MWR) and herbicide application inter rows (HAI); 2) slashing in total area (STA), planting hole (Ph), MW R and slashing inter rows: 3) STA, slash burning (SB), heavy and light harrowing (HLH), PF, MWR and HAI; 4) STA, SB, PF, MWR and HAI; 5) STA, SB, PF, HLH, MWR and HAI; and 6) SAT, SB, two heavy harrowing, PH, selective weed control in the rows and inter rows. The plantation was accomplished with a composition of nine species: pioneers - Trema micrantha, Guazuma ulmifolia and Croton urucurana; secondary - Peltophorum dubium, Gallesia integrifolia and Ormosia arborea and climax - Tabebuia avellanedae, Hymenaea courbaril and Genipa americana. The pioneer and secondary species presented the highest results to the applied treatments. In all treatments where weed control was made with herbicide (glyphosate), the occurrence of Panicum maximum, common species in the area, was very restricted. The growth rates were intensified and the under story presented more diversified composition of weed species, with predominance of broad leaves. Opposite results were observed when weed controlled was manually or mechanically. The largest differences between the best and worst treatments were verified for root collar diameter (RCD) and crown projection diameter (CPD) parameters. These parameters were highly correlated to each other. Considering tree growth response together with the operational costs of establishment and maintenance, the best treatment was that in which weeds were controlled with herbicide on inter rows and soil preparations restricted to planting rows. No effect on tree growth or weed control was observed for burning vegetable residues on the ground after two years of planting time. (author)

  17. Distribución de serotipos de Streptococcus pneumoniae aislados de infecciones invasoras en el Hospital de Niños de Santa Fe Serotype distribution of Streptococcus pneumoniae isolated from invasive infections at the Hospital de Niños of Santa Fe.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Mayoral

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Con la introducción de vacunas conjugadas antineumocócicas se observó, en muchos países, disminución de aislamientos de Streptococcus pneumoniae del serotipo 14 y aumento de aislamientos correspondientes a serotipos no incluidos en esas vacunas. En 1993, el Hospital de Niños de Santa Fe comenzó la vigilancia de la distribución de serotipos de Streptococcus pneumoniae invasores. En este trabajo se estudió la correlación entre serotipo y a patología (neumonía/meningitis, b edad (menor o mayor de dos años, y c CIM de penicilina, para los serotipos aislados en el período 2003-2005. El serotipo predominante fue el 14, seguido del 1, 6B, 18C, 7F, 19F y 5. El serotipo 14 mostró asociación estadísticamente significativa con valores de CIM de penicilina entre 0,5 y 2 mg/l, no así con alguna patología, aunque se lo halló con mayor frecuencia en neumonías que en meningitis. Los serotipos 14 y 1 prevalecieron en niños menores y mayores de 2 años, respectivamente. La CIM de penicilina = 2 mg/l se observó más en neumonías que en meningitis. La frecuencia relativa de los diferentes serotipos hallados fue semejante a la observada en el período 1993-99; no obstante, los serotipos 18C, 4, 12F y 22F no se habían encontrado antes. La aparición de nuevos serotipos convierte en importante la vigilancia, dada la necesidad de formular vacunas que los incluyan y que efectivamente prevengan las infecciones neumocócicas más comunes.The serotype distribution of Streptococcus pneumoniae varies through time. The introduction of pneumococcal conjugate vaccines showed a decreased prevalence of pneumococcal invasive isolates belonging to serotype 14 and an increase of serotypes not therein included. In 1993, the Hospital de Niños of Santa Fe began surveillance of the serotype distribution of invasive S. pneumoniae disease. In the period 2003 - 2005, 76 isolates were analysed by studying the correlation between serotype and pathology, age and MIC of penicillin. Serotype 14 was the most frequent followed by serotypes 1, 6B, 18C, 7F, 19 F and 5. Serotype 14 showed a statistically significant correlation with MICs of penicillin ranging from 0,5 to 2 mg/l. Although this serotype was more frequently observed in pneumonia than in meningitis, there was not a significant association with any particular pathology. Serotypes 14 and 1, were prevalent among children under and over 2 years old, respectively. Most of these isolates with MICs of penicillin = 2 mg/l, were from patients with pneumonia and not with meningitis. The serotype distribution was similar to that during the period 1993-99, with the exception of serotypes 18C, 4, 12F and 22F which had never been found before. The emergence of these serotypes makes it essential to continue surveillance to determine which conjugated vaccine formulation would be suitable to prevent the most frequent pneumococcal invasive infections.

  18. The problematic of the geographical expansion of invasive alien species. Analysis and distribution of two species in the province of Avila and initiatives for the minimization of their effects; La problematica de la expansion geografica de las especies exoticas invasoras. Analisis y distribucion de dos especies en la provincia de Avila e iniciativas para la minimizacion de sus efectos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia Quiroga, F.

    2012-07-01

    Invasive alien species currently constitute a serious threat for biodiversity and large economic losses. The risks associated to its introduction are in constant growth due to the increase of trade, tourism, transport and market globalization. Examples of these species can be found in the fauna such as the red swamp or Louisiana crawfish and in the flora as the ailanthus, which affect a great deal of the Spanish provinces, as that of Avila where they will be analyzed in greater detail. Because of it, the development of an effective action against its invasion through a series of measures, as well as the development and implementation of a legal framework, in addition to the information of the citizens are essential aspects for eradication or to mitigate its expansion. (Author)

  19. Phyto chemical study and evaluation of allelopathy in Memora peregrina, 'ciganinha', Bignoniaceae, an invading species in pastures in Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil; Estudo fitoquimico e avaliacao alelopatica de Memora peregrina - 'ciganinha' - Bignoniaceae, uma especie invasora de pastagens em Mato Grosso do Sul

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grassi, Rafaela Ferreira [Mato Grosso do Sul Univ., Campo Grande, MS (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica; Resende, Ubirazilda Maria [Mato Grosso do Sul Univ., Campo Grande, MS (Brazil). Dept. de Biologia; Silva, Walciane da; Macedo, Maria Ligia Rodrigues [Mato Grosso do Sul Univ., Campo Grande, MS (Brazil). Dept. de Ciencias Naturais; Butera, Ana Paola; Tulli, Elayne de Oliveira; Saffran, Francis Paes; Siqueira, Joao Maximo de [Mato Grosso do Sul Univ., Campo Grande, MS (Brazil). Dept. de Farmacia-Bioquamica]. E-mail: jmaximo@nin.ufms.br

    2005-04-01

    Memora peregrina (local name: 'ciganinha' - Bignoniaceae) is a weed that often invades pastures in the Brazilian state of Mato Grosso do Sul. From its leaves and subterranean parts, the following compounds were isolated: allantoin (20.7 w/w in subterranean parts), the iridoid 6{beta}-hydroxyipolamiide, hyperin, 3'-O-methylhyperin, 4-hydroxy-N-methylproline, {beta}-sitosterol, {alpha}-amirin and {beta}-amirin, and lupeol. Allantoin exhibited an activity of inducing germination in seeds of Lactuca sativa used as a biological model, and the iridoid showed moderate activity in the larval development of Anagasta kuehniella. These results, associated with this plant's behavior, are suggestive of the occurrence of adaptive and competitive strategies in relation to other plant species. (author)

  20. Distribución y densidad de moluscos invasores de la familia Thiaridae en diferentes ambientes dulceacuícolas de Tabasco, México

    OpenAIRE

    Trinidad-Ocaña, Cinthia; Miranda-Vidal, José F.; Juárez-Flores, Juan; Barba-Macías, Everardo

    2017-01-01

    Resumen Antecedentes: Melanoides tuberculata y Tarebia granifera son especies invasoras que se caracterizan por colonizar y establecerse fácilmente en nuevas áreas, además de desplazar a las especies nativas. Objetivos: Determinar la distribu ción y densidad de las especies invasoras de Thiaridos en ambientes dulceacuícolas (arroyos, ríos y lagunas) de Tabasco, México. Métodos: Se realizó el registro de variables físico-químicas de la columna de agua y sedimento y recolecta de organismos...

  1. Desarrollo de un nuevo modelo de Aspergilosis Pulmonar en rata consideraciones previas, estudio comparativo y aplicaciones al diagnóstico de la enfermedad

    OpenAIRE

    Caballero de Toro, Jesús

    2005-01-01

    Aspergilosis incluye una gran cantidad de enfermedades, incluida la Aspergilosis Invasora. El objetivo de esta tesis es el estudio de la Aspergilosis invasora en humanos. En primer lugar se evalúan los perfiles proteicos de A. fumigatus crecidos en diferentes medios y su capacidad antigénica. Posteriormente se realiza una evaluación de la capacidad de infección de A. fumigatus en modelos animales en ratones y ratas. Se desarrolla un nuevo modelo de infección transtorácia con hifas. Finalmente...

  2. FORAGING BEHAVIOUR RESPONSES IN THE AFRICAN GIANT ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr Osondu

    ... sensory stimuli from experimental vegetable odour during feeding. Results indicated. T1 with highest tentacle lowering; T2 indicated an acquisition effect; T3 indicated latent inhibition effect;. T4 indicated over shadowing effect between paired odour. The A. achatina demonstrated at least 7 days of odour memory retention.

  3. Foraging Behaviour Responses in the African Giant Land Snail ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... sensory stimuli from experimental vegetable odour during feeding. Results indicated T1 with highest tentacle lowering; T2 indicated an acquisition effect; T3 indicated latent inhibition effect; T4 indicated over shadowing effect between paired odour. The A. achatina demonstrated at least 7 days of odour memory retention.

  4. Browse Title Index

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 8501 - 8550 of 11090 ... Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. ... fruit and leaves with cabbage peels as a natural feedstuff in the diet of Achatina ... JC Obeta, CV Agu, OU Njoku, CC Okonkwo, EG Anaduaka ... Vol 10, No 81 (2011), Prediction of significant factors in the production of ethanol by ragi tapai ...

  5. Association between body weight and dimensional shell traits of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The results of regression models revealed that live weight of A. achatina was best predicted with multiple linear regression models, while with live weight of A. marginata was best predicted with simple linear regression model and multiple linear regression models. A test of accuracy of the linear regression models showed ...

  6. Functional responses of human hunters to their prey - why harvest statistics may not always reflect changes in prey population abundance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kahlert, Johnny Abildgaard; Fox, Anthony David; Heldbjerg, Henning

    pigeon Columba palumbus, coot Fulica atra, grey partridge Perdix perdix, roe deer Capreolus capreolus and brown hare Lepus europaeus in Denmark. If we consider hunting a form of predator-prey interaction, the annual kill can be viewed as a predator functional response to prey population size. Convergence...

  7. The common coot as sentinel species for the presence of West Nile and Usutu flaviviruses in Central Europe

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Straková, Petra; Šikutová, Silvie; Jedličková, Petra; Sitko, J.; Rudolf, Ivo; Hubálek, Zdeněk

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 102, October (2015), s. 159-161 ISSN 0034-5288 EU Projects: European Commission(XE) 261504 Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : West Nile virus * Usutu virus * Common coot * Fulica atra * Surveillance * Mosquito -borne viruses * Culex spp. Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 1.504, year: 2015

  8. INTERACTIONS BETWEEN DOMINANT HYDROPHYTIC SPECIES OF THE WETLANDS OF WESTERN MEXICO MEDIATED BY FIRE AND NITRATE CONCENTRATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilber Montejo-Mayo

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available La dinámica de comunidades vegetales de humedales está influenciada por factores abióticos, como los nutrimentos y el fuego. En humedales en donde hay especies invasoras, determinar el papel de factores abióticos en las interacciones planta-planta es fundamental para entender la dinámica de la comunidad y para su manejo. En este estudio, la interacción entre pares de especies fue cuantificada entre una no invasora (Schoenoplectus americanus, una que puede volverse sobredominante como consecuancia de disturbios humanos (Typha domingensis y una que posee un linaje que es invasor en norteamérica (Phragmites australis, las cuales crecieron bajo diferentes concentraciones de nitrato y fueron sometidas al efecto del fuego. Todas las especies respondieron a la adición de nitratos incrementando su crecimiento.Phragmitesrespondió en altura y biomasa de raíces,Typhaen biomasa aérea y de raíces ySchoenoplectuspara todas las variables. Las interacciones entre especies fueron complejas y variaron entre años. Durante el primer año, sólo el efecto deTyphaen si misma fue significativo. Para el segundo año, el efecto deTyphafue negativo en Phrangmites, el efecto deSchoenoplectusfue negativo en sí mismo y el efecto deTyphayPhragmitesfue negativo enTypha. El fuego fue significativo paraPhragmitesySchoenoplectus, las plantas no quemadas fueron más altas. Se detectaron efectos del fuego en las interacciones, la presencia de Schoenoplectus benefició el desempeño deTypha, y viceversa. En etapas tempranas, las interacciones más fuertes ocurrieron entre las especies no invasoras, permitiendo a la invasora responder a la concentración de nitratos, y el fuego tuvo su mayor efecto en la interacción entre nativas y no con la invasora.

  9. Comité Scientifique de la Revue des Sciences et de la Technologie ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    MICROSIM

    berges ou dans l'eau libre, soit par basculement du corps, ou par immersion du bec ou de la tête de l'oiseau. Mots clés : Fulica atra - El-Kala .... de l'avant du corps dans l'eau et alimentation à pied dans les vasières et les berges. .... moyens matériels et humains nécessaires à la réalisation de ce travail sur le terrain.

  10. ORNITHOLOGICAL OBSERVATIONS ON THE VÂLCELE BASIN DURING FEBRUARY 2013 – JANUARY 2014

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrian Mestecăneanu

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper are showed the results of the researches performed during February 2013 – January 2014 on the avifauna from the Vâlcele Basin. The 65 observed species belong to 13 orders, Passeriformes being the richest (33 species. Anseriformes and Charadriiformes (each with 7 species were the best represented among the wetland birds. 5 species (Podiceps cristatus, Phalacrocorax carbo, Anas platyrhynchos, Fulica atra, and Larus argentatus cachinnans/michahellis were euconstant and 2 species (Anas platyrhynchos and Fulica atra were eudominant. Anas platyrhynchos counted most individuals in a month in December; in July were no individuals. Fulica atra had the most number in September; it was absent in May. For the Vâlcele Basin avicoenose, Anseriformes and Gruiformes were the overdominat orders and, inside the Anseriformes order, Anas platyrhynchos was overdominant species. 7 species (Egretta alba, Nycticorax nycticorax, Ciconia ciconia, Chlidonias hybridus, Alcedo atthis, Picus canus, and Lanius collurio are in the Annex I of the Birds Directive.

  11. Trait differences between naturalized and invasive plant species independent of residence time and phylogeny

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallagher, R V; Randall, R P; Leishman, M R

    2015-01-01

    inclusion of quantitative traits, in particular SLA, into the WRA schemes. Diferencia de Características entre Especies de Plantas Naturalizadas e Invasoras Independientes del Tiempo de Residencia y de la Filogenia Resumen La habilidad para predecir cuáles plantas exóticas harán la transición de naturalizadas a invasoras antes de su introducción a regiones nuevas es un objetivo clave para la conservación y tiene el potencial de incrementar la eficiencia de la evaluación de riesgo de hierbas (ERH). Sin embargo, múltiples factores contribuyen al éxito invasor de las plantas (p. ej.: características funcionales, características de cobertura, tiempo de residencia, filogenia) y todos deben considerarse simultáneamente para poder identificar correlaciones significativas del éxito invasor. Recopilamos en Australia 146 parejas de especies de plantas invasoras y naturalizadas emparejadas filogenéticamente (congéneres) y con tiempos de residencia mínima similares (es decir, el tiempo transcurrido desde su introducción en años). Estas parejas se usaron para probar diferencias en cinco características funcionales (duración de la floración, tamaño de la hoja, altura máxima, área específica de la hoja [AEH], masa de la semilla) y en tres características de cobertura nativa de las especies (ocupación de bioma, temperatura media anual y amplitud de pluviosidad) entre especies invasoras y naturalizadas. Las especies invasoras, en promedio, tuvieron una mayor AEH, periodos de floración más largos y fueron más altas que sus parientes congéneres naturalizadas. Las invasoras también exhibieron una mayor tolerancia a diferentes condiciones ambientales en su cobertura nativa, donde ocuparon más biomas y una mayor amplitud de pluviosidad y condiciones de temperatura que sus congéneres naturalizadas. Sin embargo, ni la masa de la semilla ni el tamaño de hoja difirieron entre las parejas de especies naturalizadas e invasoras. Un hallazgo relevante fue el papel de

  12. Primer registro de Vespula vulgaris (Hymenoptera: Vespidae) en la Argentina

    OpenAIRE

    Maité MASCIOCCHI; Jacqueline R. BEGGS; James M. CARPENTER; Juan C. CORLEY

    2010-01-01

    Vespula vulgaris (Linnaeus) es un véspido social nativo de la región Holártica. En este trabajo reportamos la primera detección de esta especie en Argentina. Obreras de esta avispa fueron capturadas cerca de la ciudad de San Carlos de Bariloche (Argentina) en Febrero de 2010, mientras se tomaban muestras de otra avispa invasora, Vespula germanica (Fabricius) o chaqueta amarilla, de morfología externa y hábitos similares a la anteriormente mencionada. Además, detallamos algunos caracteres de i...

  13. First record of Vespula vulgaris (Hymenoptera: Vespidae) in Argentina

    OpenAIRE

    Masciocchi, Maité; Beggs, Jacqueline R.; Carpenter, James M.; Corley, Juan Carlos

    2016-01-01

    Vespula vulgaris (Linnaeus) es un véspido social nativo de la región Holártica. En este trabajo reportamos la primera detección de esta especie en Argentina. Obreras de esta avispa fueron capturadas cerca de la ciudad de San Carlos de Bariloche (Argentina) en Febrero de 2010, mientras se tomaban muestras de otra avispa invasora, Vespula germanica (Fabricius) o chaqueta amarilla, de morfología externa y hábitos similares a la anteriormente mencionada. Además, detallamos algunos caracteres de i...

  14. Primer registro de Vespula vulgaris (Hymenoptera: Vespidae en la Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maité MASCIOCCHI

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Vespula vulgaris (Linnaeus es un véspido social nativo de la región Holártica. En este trabajo reportamos la primera detección de esta especie en Argentina. Obreras de esta avispa fueron capturadas cerca de la ciudad de San Carlos de Bariloche (Argentina en Febrero de 2010, mientras se tomaban muestras de otra avispa invasora, Vespula germanica (Fabricius o chaqueta amarilla, de morfología externa y hábitos similares a la anteriormente mencionada. Además, detallamos algunos caracteres de identificación y características biológicas.

  15. Teor e qualidade de substâncias húmicas de planossolo sob diferentes sistemas de cultivo

    OpenAIRE

    Rosa,Carla Machado da; Castilhos,Rosa Maria Vargas; Dick,Deborah Pinheiro; Pauletto,Eloy Antonio; Gomes,Algenor da Silva

    2008-01-01

    Este trabalho teve por objetivo avaliar e comparar os teores e as características químicas das substâncias húmicas (SHs) de um Planossolo háplico submetido a diferentes sistemas de cultivos de arroz. Amostras de solo foram coletadas em um experimento de longa duração (19 anos) nas profundidades de 0-0,025, 0,025-0,05, 0,05-0,20m e no topo do horizonte B. Os tratamentos avaliados foram: APC-Sistema de cultivo contínuo de arroz (preparo convencional) e controle de invasoras com herbicida, APD-S...

  16. Avaliação de diferentes coberturas na supressão de plantas daninhas no cerrado Evaluation of weed suppression using different crop covers under Brazilian cerrado soil conditions

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    D.K. Meschede

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available A definição de espécies com elevada produtividade de fitomassa para cobertura do solo é um dos fatores de sucesso do sistema plantio direto. O cultivo de solos tropicais e subtropicais, baseado em práticas de preparo com intenso revolvimento, normalmente resulta na maior incidência de plantas invasoras. Objetivou-se neste trabalho comparar diferentes tipos de cobertura vegetal quanto ao potencial de supressão das plantas invasoras em áreas do cerrado. Foram avaliados sete tipos de cobertura (milheto ADR500, milheto ADR 300, sorgo, milho, crotalária, mamona e vegetação espontânea mais a testemunha mantida no limpo (capinada. O delineamento foi em blocos casualizados, com quatro repetições. O sorgo apresentou maior peso de cobertura seca (11.890 kg ha-1 e, juntamente com o milheto e a crotalária, demonstrou maior capacidade de supressão das plantas invasoras, pela maior capacidade de cobertura do solo. A vegetação espontânea apresentou os menores valores de biomassa. O milho e a mamona são culturas com menor potencial de cobertura do solo. O acúmulo de biomassa pelas coberturas foi inversamente proporcional ao da biomassa das plantas invasoras.The definition of plant species with higher production for soil mulching is one of the main factors for a successful no-tillage system. The practice of soil tillage in tropical and subtropical regions based on intensive soil revolving results in decreased organic matter and increased weed incidence. Thus, the aim of this work was to compare the potential of different soil mulching to suppress weeds under no-tillage system in Brazilian cerrado areas. Thus, seven treatments were evaluated consisting of the following soil crop covers: Millet ADR 500 (Penisetum americanum L., Millet ADR300, Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L., Maize (Zea mays L., Crotalaria (Crotalaria juncea L., Castorbean plant (Ricinus communis L. and spontaneous vegetation. A randomized block experimental design with 4

  17. Primera cita de la Argentina de Ophelimus maskelli (Ashmead (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae y su parasitoide, Closterocerus chamaeleon (Girault (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae

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    Daniel A AQUINO

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Se cita por primera vez de la Argentina la presencia de la avispa galí - cola exótica Ophelimus maskelli (Ashmead (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae y su para - sitoide natural, Closterocerus chamaeleon (Girault (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae en Eucalyptus camaldulensis de la provincia de Buenos Aires. Ophelimus maskelli es una especie invasora de origen Australiano que ha sido reportada como plaga de los eucaliptos en numerosos países de Asia, Europa y América. Closterocerus chamaleon es un parasitoide exótico cuyo potencial como biocontrolador de O. maskelli está siendo evaluado en algunos países.

  18. Efeito das condições de manejo nas características sensoriais de banana (Musa spp. cv. Pacovan

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    Maria Sueli Francisco

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Estudou-se o efeito de quatro condições de manejo sobre a aceitação de banana 'Pacovan'. Os frutos foram colhidos no ponto de maturação fisiológica ideal para o armazenamento, em quatro propriedades rurais do município de Bananeiras - PB, seguindo-se delineamento inteiramente casualizado. Os tratamentos foram identificados como: P1: irrigação+adubação química e orgânica +controle químico de plantas invasoras; P2: controle manual de plantas invasoras; P3: irrigação+adubação química+controle manual de plantas invasoras; P4: controle manual e químico de plantas invasoras. Em cada propriedade, foram colhidos cinco cachos de banana que foram submetidos à climatização com carbureto de cálcio por 12 horas para uniformização da maturação. Após esse período, foram mantidos à temperatura ambiente até sua completa maturação. O painel sensorial foi composto por 62 julgadores não treinados, com idade média de 18 anos. Os atributos aroma, sabor, textura e cor da polpa foram avaliados por meio de teste de aceitação, utilizando-se de escala hedônica estruturada de 9 pontos. Para o teste de intenção de compra, foi utilizada escala estruturada de 5 pontos. As amostras foram apresentadas aos julgadores na forma de rodelas, com espessura aproximada de 1,5 cm. Os resultados foram submetidos à análise de variância (ANOVA, e as médias, comparadas pelo teste de Tukey, ao nível de 5% de probabilidade. Para todos os atributos avaliados,os valores situaram-se entre 7,34 e 7,68, posicionando-se na escala hedônica entre os termos 'gostei moderadamente' e 'gostei muito'. Para intenção de compra, o percentual de aceitação foi de 74,19; 72,58; 72,58 e 70,97%, respectivamente, para as amostras P1, P2, P3 e P4. O tipo de manejo não influenciou na aceitação da banana 'Pacovan', sendo os frutos considerados pelos julgadores como produto de boa aceitação.

  19. Registros del estornino pinto (Sturnus vulgaris en la ciudad de Pachuca, Hidalgo y evidencias de actividad reproductiva

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    Laura Gómez Aíza

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Reportamos avistamientos recientes del estornino pinto (Sturnus vulgaris, una especie de ave invasora, en la ciudad de Pachuca, Hidalgo. Durante 340 horas de observación a las flores del maguey pulquero, Agave salmiana, realizadas en cuatro años (2006, 2007, 2009 y 2010, registramos 502 visitas del estornino pinto. El número de visitas se incrementó en los últimos dos años y en el 2010 observamos conductas de cortejo y registramos visitas de individuos juveniles. Esta información sugiere que el estornino pinto se está estableciendo en la ciudad.

  20. Selección de dormideros por el estornino pinto (Sturnus vulgaris) en La Plata, Buenos Aires, Argentina

    OpenAIRE

    Girini, Juan Manuel; Palacio, Facundo Xavier; del Huerto, María del C.; Kuzmanich, Nicolás

    2016-01-01

    El Estornino Pinto (Sturnus vulgaris) es un ave introducida en Argentina que establece dormideros comunales durante la época no reproductiva. A pesar de ser una de las especies invasoras más perjudiciales del mundo, se conoce muy poco acerca de su ecología en Argentina. En este trabajo se caracterizaron los dormideros comunales del Estornino Pinto en la ciudad de La Plata con el objetivo de evaluar la selección del sitio de dormidero por parte de la especie. Se encontró un total de 34 dormide...

  1. Invasión del estornino pinto Sturnus vulgaris en el Noreste de la provincia de Buenos Aires: análisis de la competencia con aves nativas y potencialidad como transmisor de parásitos

    OpenAIRE

    Ibáñez, Lucía Mariel

    2015-01-01

    El Estornino Pinto (Sturnus vulgaris) es un ave nativa de Europa, Oeste de Asia y norte de África que ha sido introducida en numerosos países y actualmente es considerada una de las 100 especies más invasoras del mundo. En la Argentina fue introducida en la década del 80 y a partir de ese momento se ha observado un aumento importante en la cantidad de ejemplares por bandada y una expansión a distintas provincias del país. Entre noviembre de 2010 y octubre de 2011 se realizó un censo...

  2. Registros del estornino pinto (Sturnus vulgaris) en la ciudad de Pachuca, Hidalgo y evidencias de actividad reproductiva

    OpenAIRE

    Laura Gómez Aíza; Iriana Zuria

    2012-01-01

    Reportamos avistamientos recientes del estornino pinto (Sturnus vulgaris), una especie de ave invasora, en la ciudad de Pachuca, Hidalgo. Durante 340 horas de observación a las flores del maguey pulquero, Agave salmiana, realizadas en cuatro años (2006, 2007, 2009 y 2010), registramos 502 visitas del estornino pinto. El número de visitas se incrementó en los últimos dos años y en el 2010 observamos conductas de cortejo y registramos visitas de individuos juveniles. Esta información sugiere qu...

  3. Selección de dormideros por el Estornino Pinto (Sturnus vulgaris) en La Plata, Buenos Aires, Argentina

    OpenAIRE

    Girini, Juan M; Palacio, Facundo X; del Huerto, María del C; Kuzmanich, Nicolás

    2014-01-01

    El Estornino Pinto (Sturnus vulgaris) es un ave introducida en Argentina que establece dormideros comunales durante la época no reproductiva. A pesar de ser una de las especies invasoras más perjudiciales del mundo, se conoce muy poco acerca de su ecología en Argentina. En este trabajo se caracterizaron los dormideros comunales del Estornino Pinto en la ciudad de La Plata con el objetivo de evaluar la selección del sitio de dormidero por parte de la especie. Se encontró un total de 34 dormide...

  4. Registros del estornino pinto (Sturnus vulgaris) en la ciudad de Pachuca, Hidalgo y evidencias de actividad reproductiva

    OpenAIRE

    Gómez Aíza, Laura; Zuria, Iriana

    2012-01-01

    Reportamos avistamientos recientes del estornino pinto (Sturnus vulgaris), una especie de ave invasora, en la ciudad de Pachuca, Hidalgo. Durante 340 horas de observación a las flores del maguey pulquero, Agave salmiana, realizadas en cuatro años (2006, 2007, 2009 y 2010), registramos 502 visitas del estornino pinto. El número de visitas se incrementó en los últimos dos años y en el 2010 observamos conductas de cortejo y registramos visitas de individuos juveniles. Esta información sugiere qu...

  5. RESÍDUOS DE AGROTÓXICOS EM ÁGUA POTÁVEL USANDO SPE E DETERMINAÇÃO RÁPIDA POR LC-MS/MS E GC-MS/MS

    OpenAIRE

    Filipe Fagan Donato

    2012-01-01

    O uso de agrotóxicos sempre esteve associado à efetividade no controle de pragas ou plantas invasoras para aumentar a produção de alimentos. No entanto, o uso indiscriminado dessas substâncias vem causando a degradação dos recursos hídricos. No Brasil, o Ministério da Saúde através da Portaria 2914 define diversos parâmetros de potabilidade, entre eles, os limites máximos permitidos para alguns agrotóxicos. No presente trabalho foi desenvolvido e validado um método para a deter...

  6. Arquitectura y modelo de crecimiento de malezas tolerantes a glifosato. Caracterización de las posibles estrategias de escape a la acción herbicida

    OpenAIRE

    Acosta, Juan Manuel

    2017-01-01

    Fil: Acosta, Juan Manuel. Universidad Nacional del Litoral. Facultad de Bioquímica y Ciencias Biológicas; Argentina. La presente tesis analiza el problema que presentan Gomphrena perennis e Iresine diffusa como malezas invasoras de campos dedicados a la siembra directa con aplicaciones intensivas de glifosato. Inicialmente se aplicaron los conceptos del análisis arquitectural a todos los representantes argentinos del género Gomphrena e Iresine como marco de partida en la comprensión de sus...

  7. Parasitism of Harmonia axyridis (Pallas (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae by Strongygaster brasiliensis (Towsend (Diptera: Tachinidae

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    Camila Castro-Guedes

    2018-04-01

    Resumo. Harmonia axyridis (Pallas é uma espécie de Coccinellidae originária do Nordeste da Ásia e utilizada como agente de controle biológico de afídeos. Como é uma espécie invasora é muito importante conhecer seus inimigos naturais. Dessa forma, este trabalho fornece o primeiro registro de Strongygaster brasiliensis (Towsend(Diptera: Tachinidae parasitando H. axyridis no sul do Brasil.

  8. Invasion biology of Trichocorixa verticalis in Doñana, SW Spain

    OpenAIRE

    Coccia, Cristina

    2015-01-01

    Globalmente, las invasiones biológicas constituyen una de las principales amenazas para la biodiversidad y el funcionamiento de los ecosistemas, y son los sistemas de agua continentales los mas susceptibles a estas invasiones. El éxito de una especie como invasora depende de sus cualidades, las que le permiten invadir un nuevo hábitat, pero también de las interacciones de éstas con la comunidad invadida, además de otros muchos factores. Recientemente, el coríxido de Norte América Trichocorixa...

  9. Seguimento clínico-laboratorial de mola hidatiforme

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    Suelen Montagner

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUÇÃO As doenças tofoblásticas gestacionais (DTG englobam um grupo raro de doenças neoplásicas que derivam da placenta humana e que são inter-relacionadas. Essas doenças incluem: Mola Hidatiforme Completa (MHC ou Parcial (MHP, Mola Invasora (MHI, Cariocarcinoma (CC e Tumor Trofoblástico do Sítio Placentário (TTSP. O tipo mais comum, a MHC, ocorre, no Brasil, em freqüencia que varia entre 1/200 gestações a 1/800 gestações.

  10. DENSIDAD Y ESTRUCTURA DE TALLAS DEL PEZ LEÓN PTEROIS VOLITANS (SCORPAENIDAE) EN EL CARIBE OCCIDENTAL INSULAR COLOMBIANO

    OpenAIRE

    González-Corredor, Juan David; Acero P, Arturo; García-Urueña, Rocío

    2016-01-01

    RESUMEN En los últimos años se ha reconocido la problemática causada por especies invasoras, consideradas el segundo causal de pérdida de diversidad después de la degradación del hábitat. El pez león (Pterois volitans), especie originaria del Pacífico occidental, fue visto por primera vez al sur de la Florida en 1985. A partir de 2000 se ha dispersado y establecido en la costa este de Estados Unidos, Bermudas, las Bahamas, y desde 2007 se ha expandido por el Caribe, registrándose en localidad...

  11. El género Chloris Sw. (Poaceae: Chloridoideae) en México

    OpenAIRE

    Cerros-Tlatilpa, Rosa; Siqueiros Delgado, María Elena; Skendzic, Elizabeth M.

    2015-01-01

    En este estudio se reconocen 12 especies de Chloris para el territorio de la República. Cinco son cosmopolitas, cinco americanas y dos de ellas se restringen a México y E.U.A., una está en América y en Australia, mientras que C. truncata se reporta por primera vez de nuestro país. Chloris barbata, C. gayana y C. virgata son consideradas invasoras para el país. Se incluye una clave para su identificación, descripciones y mapas de distribución. El género ocupa una variedad de hábitats, desde zo...

  12. Susceptibilidad a antimicrobianos en aislamientos de Streptococcus pneumoniae invasor en Colombia

    OpenAIRE

    Aura Lucía Leal; Castañeda Elizabeth

    1999-01-01

    Se realizó un estudio para determinar los patrones de susceptibilidad a los antimicrobianos de los aislamientos de Streptococcus pneumoniae causante de enfermedad invasora diagnosticada en Colombia en niños menores de 5 años entre 1994 y 1996 y para establecer la distribución de los tipos capsulares de los aislamientos resistentes. Se analizaron 324 aislamientos recuperados durante la ejecución del Protocolo Nacional de Serotipificación de S. pneumoniae realizado en Santa Fe de Bogotá, Medell...

  13. O javali (Sus scrofa linnaeus, 1758) na região do Parque Nacional das Araucárias

    OpenAIRE

    Batista, Graziele Oliveira

    2015-01-01

    Dissertação (mestrado) - Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, Centro de Ciências Biológicas, Programa de Pós-Graduação em Ecologia, Florianópolis, 2015. As invasões biológicas podem representar ameaça para espécies nativas, ecossistemas e para o bem-estar humano. Entretanto, a percepção das pessoas sobre as espécies invasoras depende da cultura das pessoas envolvidas quanto do organismo invasor; assim uma invasão pode ser considerada negativa da perspectiva ambiental e positiva por algu...

  14. Reciente invasión del Archipiélago de Tierra del Fuego por la avispa Vespula germanica (Hymenoptera: Vespidae

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    Francisco J. SOLA

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Vespula germanica es una especie invasora de nivel mundial que ha sido detectada en la Patagonia continental de la Argentina y Chile. En este trabajo, ampliamos el rango de distribución de este véspido de la Patagonia, al Archipiélago de Tierra del Fuego. Indicamos ubicación, año y ambiente de cada avistamiento y/o captura. El patrón de expansión indicaría que esta especie está bien establecida tanto en áreas naturales como antrópicas, y probablemente ha dependido del transporte humano para llegar desde el continente. Esta comunicación breve sirve también para tomar medidas prácticas de mitigación y control de esta especie, incluyendo información básica para que la ciudadanía tome conciencia sobre su presencia y esto ayude a evitar su transporte a nuevos lugares. Finalmente, se recomienda mayor investigación para el manejo y control de esta especie invasora en Tierra del Fuego.

  15. Efeito dos tratos silviculturais na produtividade e na qualidade da madeira em plantações de Eucalyptus spp

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    Genilson Cordeiro de Sousa

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho descreve os tratamentos culturais que podem ser realizados em plantações de eucalipto, com o intuito de melhorar a produtividade e qualidade da madeira produzida. A escolha do espaçamento inicial de plantio depende do destino final da madeira a ser produzida. O controle de plantas invasoras pode ser de forma manual, mecânica ou química nas linhas e/ou entrelinhas de plantio, este é de suma importância principalmente no estabelecimento da floresta, no qual essas plantas invasoras iram competir pelos recursos do meio com as mudas recém plantadas, retardando o crescimento da floresta. A fertilização pode alterar a estrutura anatômica e a densidade da madeira. A desrama pode melhorar a qualidade da madeira tornando-a isenta de nós. O desbaste é empregado para ampliar o espaço vital, e obter, dessa forma, um maior crescimento em diâmetro das árvores remanescentes.

  16. Producción de Bioetanol a partir de Elodea sp.

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    Tatiana Marulanda López

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available La dependencia de los países a los combustibles fósiles es cada vez mayor, pero estos no son renovables. Además, el uso de estos combustibles ha aumentado la emisión de gases de efecto invernadero. Colombia debe empezar a buscar otras alternativas que suplan la deficiencia en combustible, y cuya fuente de obtención sea renovable y no comprometa los recursos agrícolas usados como alimentos, tal es el caso de la caña de azúcar. Las plantas invasoras se caracterizan por producir eutrofización de las aguas, ocasionando problemas ambientales y de abastecimiento de agua a las ciudades. El manejo que se hace de esta planta es erradicarla usando diferentes métodos. En este artículo se muestra el aprovechamiento de la planta invasora de cuerpos acuosos, Elodea sp., para la obtención de bioetanol. Después de la hidrólisis de los carbohidratos, la detoxificación, y la fermentación, la planta mostró un alto rendimiento en la producción de bioetanol. Este trabajo es la base para el desarrollo del bioproceso, usando como sustrato el material lignocelulítico, y además, es una alternativa para el manejo de la planta Elodea sp. bomo fuente de energía carburante.

  17. Is preemptive antifungal therapy a good alternative to empirical treatment in prolonged febrile neutropenia?

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    Erica Koch

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available La neutropenia febril prolongada conlleva un alto riesgo de desarrollar infecciones fúngicas invasoras, por lo que habitualmente se administra terapia antifúngica empírica en estos casos. Sin embargo, esta se asocia a importantes efectos adversos, por lo que se ha propuesto como alternativa la estrategia "preemptive" o anticipada, es decir, la indicación de antifúngicos sólo ante la evidencia indirecta de infección fúngica invasora. Utilizando la base de datos Epistemonikos, la cual es mantenida mediante búsquedas en 30 bases de datos, identificamos tres revisiones sistemáticas que en conjunto incluyen doce estudios. Cuatro estudios aleatorizados evaluaron la pregunta abordada en este artículo. Realizamos un metanálisis y tablas de resumen de los resultados utilizando el método GRADE. Concluimos que no está claro si la estrategia "preemptive" tiene algún efecto sobre la mortalidad porque la certeza de la evidencia es muy baja, pero podría disminuir levemente el uso de antifúngicos en pacientes con neutropenia febril prolongada.

  18. Caracterización florística y estructural de tres fragmentos boscosos secundarios en Cartago, Costa Rica

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    Carlos O Morales

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Se realizaron observaciones sobre sucesión y composición florística en 25 parcelas de 10 m x 2 m en tres fragmentos boscosos secundarios, contiguos, del Jardín Botánico Lankester, Costa Rica. La intervención humana fue positiva en la regeneración de estos fragmentos por 1 protección de una antigua área de cultivo y pastoreo desde 1970, y 2 siembra y propagación de especies vegetales. Se comprobó que el cultivo de plantas nativas e introducidas de crecimiento exitoso puede acelerar el proceso de regeneración, impedir la dominancia de especies pioneras o invasoras y aumentar la diversidad de especies más rápidamente que en procesos comunes de sucesión. La diversificación natural se redujo a medida que la vegetación natural de los alrededores de los fragmentos fue desapareciendo, con una consecuente disminución o erradicación de semillas y otros propágulos, tales como esporas y tallos. Especies introducidas se naturalizaron en estos bosques, se propagan fácilmente y algunas son invasoras. Este estudio propone pautas generales para facilitar la regeneración de bosques neotropicales al combinar regeneración natural y cultivo de especies nativas.

  19. Capacidade de suporte de carga e umidade crítica de um Latossolo induzida por diferentes manejos

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    Cezar Francisco Araujo-Junior

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Os diferentes manejos de plantas invasoras em lavouras cafeeiras têm promovido alterações estruturais aos solos, comprometendo a sua qualidade física. Assim, o conhecimento da capacidade de suporte de carga do solo sob diferentes sistemas de manejo de plantas invasoras é essencial para o manejo sustentável do solo de lavouras cafeeiras. Os objetivos deste estudo foram: (a avaliar a influência da adoção, durante 30 anos, de diferentes sistemas de manejo de plantas invasoras na capacidade de suporte de carga de um Latossolo Vermelho distroférrico (LVdf cultivado com cafeeiros e localizado na Fazenda da Epamig em São Sebastião do Paraíso, MG (Latitude de 20 º 55 ' 00 " S e Longitude 47 º 07 ' 10 " W ; b determinar a tensão máxima (σmax aplicada ao solo por um trator; e c estabelecer as umidades volumétricas críticas (θcrítica para o tráfego de um trator. Os manejos de plantas invasoras avaliados foram: sem capina (SCAP; capina manual (CAPM; herbicida de pós-emergência (HPOS; roçadora (ROÇA; enxada rotativa (ENRT; grade (GRAD; e herbicida de pré-emergência (HPRE. Em cada sistema de manejo, 15 amostras indeformadas de solo foram coletadas aleatoriamente no centro das entrelinhas dos cafeeiros, nas profundidades de 0-3, 10-13 e 25-28 cm, totalizando 315 amostras. Em uma mata nativa (MATA sob LVdf, adjacente à área de estudo, foram coletadas 15 amostras adicionais por profundidade, as quais serviram de referência dos atributos avaliados. Os equipamentos utilizados no manejo da lavoura cafeeira foram tracionados por um trator cafeeiro Valmet® modelo 68. Para determinar a θcrítica para o tráfego do trator, foram consideradas apenas aquelas tensões que não excedem a resistência interna do solo expressa pela pressão de preconsolidação. As amostras indeformadas foram utilizadas para determinar a pressão de preconsolidação (σp em diferentes umidades volumétricas (θ e obtenção da densidade do solo (Ds. A

  20. Disruption of ecosystem processes in western North America by invasive species

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    Jeffrey S. Dukes

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Many ecosystems of western North America have been dramatically changed by non-native species. Here, we review ecological impacts of 56 plant, animal, fungus, and protist species that were brought to this region by humans. We discuss characteristics of invasive species that can lead to major ecosystem impacts, and explore how invasive species alter many different attributes of ecosystems. Specifically, we include examples of invasive species that affect geomorphology, fire regimes, hydrology, microclimate, atmospheric composition, nutrient cycling, and productivity. Finally, we review the direct consequences of biological invasions for some native species. We summarize examples from this paper in Appendix 1. Our examples illustrate how, as invasive species have become dominant across large areas of western North America's grassland, shrubland, dune, riparian, and estuarine ecosystems, the properties and functioning of these systems have changed. To date, some systems in this region, such as its forests, remain relatively unaffected by invasive species. However, recent attacks of forest pathogens highlight the potential vulnerability of these ecosystemsMuchos ecosistemas de Norteamérica occidental han cambiado dramáticamente a causa del efecto producido por especies no autóctonas. Aquí se muestra una revisión del impacto ecológico producido por 56 especies diferentes de plantas, animales y hongos, y especies de protistas que fueron traídos a esta región por humanos. Discutimos las características de las especies invasoras que pueden producir un gran impacto en el ecosistema, y exploramos cómo las especies invasoras pueden alterar de forma muy diferente los atributos de un ecosistema. Específicamente, incluimos ejemplos de especies invasoras que afectan a la geomorfología, a los regímenes del fuego, a la hidrología, al microclima, a la composición atmosférica, al ciclo de nutrientes, y a la productividad. Finalmente, revisamos las

  1. 2100-IJBCS-Article-Dr Karamoko Mamadou

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    hp

    Le rendement en viande de l'escargot A. fulica soumis à deux régimes végétaux de fourrages verts. (R1 et R2) et 3 régimes concentrés de farines (R3, R4 et R5) avec différentes teneurs en protéines (10,5%;. 14% et 17,5%), a été évalué après 50 semaines d'élevage en milieu expérimental. Le régime R1 est constitué de ...

  2. Gipuzkoan hegazti habigile batzuen lehen aipamenak eta beste aipamen interesgarri batzuk

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    OLANO, M., VAZQUEZ, J., AIERBE, T.

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Como resultado del trabajo de campo realizado estos últimos años, se da cuenta por primera vez de la presencia como aves nidificantes en Gipuzkoa de Fulica atra, Policeps cristatus, Tachybaptus ruficollis, Riparia riparia, Falco subbuteo, Asio otus, Aquila chysaëtos, Circaetus Gallicus y Drycopus martius. Además, se recogen datos de unas cuantas especies muy poco conocidas en esta provincia : Accipiter gentilis, Hieraëtus pennatus, Milvus migrans, Bubo bubo, Motacilla flava, Monticola solitarius and Certthia familiaris.

  3. Recurrencia histórica de peces invasores en la Reserva de la Biósfera Sierra de Huautla, México

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    Humberto Mejía-Mojica

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Los efectos de las especies invasoras en los ecosistemas nativos son variados, y estos se han vinculado con la desaparición o disminución de la fauna nativa, cambios en la estructura de la comunidad, modificación de los ecosistemas y como vectores de nuevas enfermedades y parásitos. El desarrollo del comercio de especies para uso ornamental ha contribuido significativamente a la importación e introducción de peces invasores en algunas áreas importantes para la conservación de la biodiversidad en México, pero la presencia de estas especies está escasamente documentada. En este estudio se analiza la comunidad de peces en la reserva de Biosfera Sierra de Huautla, registrando los cambios en la diversidad en los últimos 100 años. Con bases de datos de registros históricos y recientes colecciones para cinco sitios en el río Amacuzac, que cruza la zona de reserva de la Biosfera, se comparan los valores de similitud (índice de Jaccard entre cinco series de tiempo (1898-1901, 1945-1953, 1971-1980, 1994-1995 y 2008-2009, así mismo, obtuvimos los valores de similitud (Bray-Curtis entre los cinco sitios analizados. En total hemos reconocido 19 especies para el área, diez nativas y nueve no nativas, de las cuales tres están extirpadas para el área, los valores de similitud entre los primeros registros y los actuales son muy bajos (0.27, los principales cambios en la composición de la fauna se han producido en los últimos 20 años. Los valores de abundancia, diversidad y similitud entre los sitios de muestreo, indican el predominio de especies no nativas. Discutimos el papel del comercio de peces ornamentales de la región como la principal causa de introducción de invasoras en el ecosistema, y los posibles efectos negativos que han tenido al menos cuatro especies en la fauna nativa y el ecosistema (Oreochromis mossambicus, Amatitlania nigrofasciata, Pterygoplichthys disjunctivus y P. pardalis, se hace notar la ausencia de programas de

  4. The ecology of Egeria densa Planchón (Liliopsida: Alismatales: A wetland ecosystem engineer? La ecología de Egeria densa Planchón (Liliopsida: Alismatales: ¿Una especie ingeniera de humedales?

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    MATTHEW YARROW

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Egeria densa Planchón is considered an invasive species in continental aquatic systems in Chile. Its original geographical distribution was limited to the subtropical regions of Brazil, Argentina and Uruguay. Its fast growth and dense canopy-forming habit are associated with the clear water state of shallow water continental ecosystems. As a dominant species in many of the systems in which it occurs, E. densa behaves as an ecosystem engineer by preventing the re-suspension of sediments and controlling the growth of phytoplankton by removing nutrients from the water column. At the same time, this invasive species produces unwanted effects such as: (1 clogging waterways and hydroelectric turbines, (2 out-competing native vegetation, and (3 negatively affecting the sediment seed bank. Given its importance in the recent (2004 change of state of the Río Cruces wetland, Chile, we felt it appropriate to undertake a comprehensive literature review of this species. We conclude by discussing the role of E. densa as an ecosystem engineer while cautioning against the impression that E. densa is always a highly competitive invader.Egeria densa Planchón es considerada una especie invasora en los sistemas acuáticos de Chile. Su distribución geográfica original estaba limitada a regiones subtropicales de Brasil, Argentina y Uruguay. Su crecimiento rápido y su tendencia a formar densas coberturas suelen estar asociadas con el estado de aguas claras en ecosistemas acuáticos continentales de aguas someras. Su dominancia sugiere que E. densa puede comportarse como una especie ingeniera, previniendo la resuspensión de sedimentos y controlando el crecimiento del fitoplancton a través de la utilización de los nutrientes. Sin embargo, al mismo tiempo, como especie invasora produce efectos no deseados tales como: (1 no permitir el crecimiento de otras macrófitas nativas, (2 disminuir la diversidad en el banco de semillas, y (3 interferir con la navegación y

  5. Avifaunal changes revealed in Quaternary deposits near Waitomo Caves, North Island, New Zealand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Worthy, T.H.; Swabey, E.J.

    2002-01-01

    Late Pleistocene (23,000-10,000 14 C yr BP) and Holocene (10,000 14 C yr - present BP) avifaunas are described from the Henry Lambert and associated passages in Gardners Gut Cave, Waitomo Caves, North Island, New Zealand. Nine radiocarbon dates on bones and three uranium series dates on speleothems support the dating of the sites. These data are augmented by six new dates and reanalysis of the avifaunas from F1c Cave, also in the Waitomo karst. A distinctive Pleistocene avifauna characterised by the moa Euryapterix curtus and Pachyornis mappini and the North Island goose (Cnemiornis gracilis) with common associates including New Zealand coot (Fulica prisca), North Island takahe (Porphyrio mantelli), Finsch's duck (Euryanas finschi), and North Island kokako (Callaeas wilsoni) was present. The presence of kokako, saddleback (Philesturnus rufusater), and robin (Petroica longipes) in the Pleistocene deposits and the absence of grassland taxa such as pipit (Anthus noveaseelandiae) and quail (Coturnix novaezelandiae) indicate that the vegetation about Gardners Gut Cave included tall shrubland and probably lacked much grassland, even over the Last Glacial Maximum. The Holocene at Waitomo was characterised by a moa fauna dominated by Anomalopteryx didiformis, although both Euryapteryx curtus and Pachyornis mappini persisted in small numbers. The frequent occurrence of kakapo (Strigops habroptilus), weka (Gallirallus australis), and brown teal (Anas chlorotis) typifies Holocene avifaunas; Cnemiornis and Fulica are unknown from Holocene deposits in the area. (author). 45 refs., 7 figs., 8 tabs

  6. Helmintos gastrointestinales en aves acuáticas de la subcuenca alta del río Lerma, México Gastrointestinal helminth in waterfowl of the upper Lerma river sub-basin, Mexico

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    Marcela Martínez-Haro

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Se realizó un inventario y se calcularon los parámetros de infección de los helmintos gastrointestinales de 36 ejemplares de aves acuáticas pertenecientes a las familias Anatidae, Rallidae y Threskiornithidae, procedentes de la subcuenca alta del río Lerma, Estado de México, identificándose 20 especies: 9 tremátodos, 8 céstodos, 2 nemátodos y 1 acantocéfalo. De las 8 especies de céstodos, 6 son registros nuevos para el país y Pseudocorynosoma constrictum se registra por primera vez en Anas crecca, Anas discors, Oxyura jamaicensis y Fulica americana. Los helmintos que presentaron las prevalencias más altas fueron los céstodos Hymenolepis megalops y Sobolevicanthus krabbeella en Anas acuta, Anas clypeata, Anas cyanoptera y Anas crecca.A survey of helminth parasites in 36 waterfowl species from the upper Lerma River, in central Mexico was conducted. A total of 20 helminth species were recorded, including 9 trematodes, 8 cestodes, 2 nematodes and 1 acanthocephalan. Six of the cestode species are recorded for the fisrt time from Mexican birds; the acanthocephalan Pseudocorynosoma constrictum is reported for the first time in Anas crecca, A. discors, Oxyura jamaicensis and Fulica americana. The highest prevalences were recorded for the cestodes Hymenolepis megalops and Sobolevicanthus krabbeella in Anas acuta, A. clypeata, A. cyanoptera and A. crecca.

  7. UNIDADES DE CONSERVAÇÃO COM FRONTEIRA AGRÍCOLA PODEM EVITAR INVASÕES? O CASO DA RÃ-TOURO NA MATA ATLÂNTICA DO SUL DO BRASIL

    OpenAIRE

    Bruno Madalozzo

    2013-01-01

    Lithobates catesbeianus, a rã-touro, é considerada uma das 100 espécies invasoras mais prejudiciais do planeta. Predições com base em modelagens climáticas e topográficas evidenciam muitas regiões pertencentes ao bioma Mata Atlântica como favoráveis para o estabelecimento da espécie. Modelos que preveem o aumento de temperatura e maior concentração de gases ligados ao efeito estufa colocaram áreas protegidas do bioma como propícias à invasão nos próximos anos. Nós amostramos 36 corpos de água...

  8. Nova espécie de Dasineura Rondani, 1840 (Diptera, Cecidomyiidae em capítulos de Hypochaeris chillensis (Kunth Britton (Asteraceae para o Brasil

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    Alessandre Pereira-Colavite

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Uma nova espécie de Dasineura Rondani, 1840 (Diptera, Cecidomyiidae para o Brasil, Dasineura occulta sp. nov., é descrita associada a Hypochaeris chillensis (Kunth Britton (Asteraceae, uma espécie invasora e característica de ambientes antropizadas. Esta nova espécie foi encontrada ocupando capítulos e não há formação de galhas ou alterações no tecido das inflorescências que possam ser reconhecidas externamente. São apresentados desenhos de caracteres morfológicos de adultos (macho e fêmea, larva e pupa. Pranchas da ocupação do hospedeiro também são incluídas.

  9. Os invasores:as ameaças que representam as migrações subsaariana na Espanha e haitiana no Brasil

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    Antônio Tadeu Ribeiro de Oliveira

    Full Text Available Este artigo apresenta os processos que envolvem a migração subsaariana para Espanha e a haitiana para o Brasil, passando pelos fatores que impulsionam os deslocamentos, as rotas migratórias utilizadas, a inserção social e laboral desses migrantes e o momento das políticas migratórias em cada um dos países de destino, ressaltando as semelhanças e algumas diferenças em cada um desses processos. O objetivo é demonstrar que longe de se constituírem numa ameaça invasora, mais bem são vítimas de um sistema que produz exclusão e exploração, que nos casos de subsaarianos e haitianos se amplifica pelos componentes da discriminação e racismo.

  10. Presencia de Gambusia affinis (Baird & Girard, 1853 en un humedal boscoso del Sur de Chile. Posibles implicancias sobre la fauna local de invertebrados.

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    L. Parra-Coloma

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Las especies invasoras son la principal causa de pérdida debiodiversidad del planeta, producto de la depredación que afecta a la faunalocal mediante competencia, hibridación, alteración del hábitat y transmisiónde enfermedades. En este estudio se describe la posible implicancia del pezmosquito sobre la fauna de invertebrados en un humedal boscoso presente en laregión de la Araucanía, Chile. Los resultados nos indican la presencia de Gambusia affinis en todos los sitios demuestreo, destacándose su gran adaptabilidad a la temperatura y pH. El roldepredador de Gambusia affinis sobremosquitos, puede favorecer al desarrollo de sus larvas, al consumirinvertebrados predadores de éstas, influyendo en la estructura trófica de lascomunidades.

  11. Primeros registros de la cotorra argentina (Myiopsitta monachus en el estado de Hidalgo, México

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    Iriana Zuria

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available La cotorra argentina (Myiopsitta monachus es una especie de ave exótica e invasora en México. En esta nota presentamos los primeros registros de esta especie en el estado de Hidalgo. Observamos individuos adultos y nidos activos desde 2011 en dos ciudades de la entidad: Huejutla y Pachuca. Los nidos en Huejutla los ubicamos tanto en una galera metálica como en una antena de telefonía, mientras que en Pachuca un nido estaba en una yuca dentro de un campo de golf. La presencia de nidos activos indica que la especie está en proceso de establecerse en la entidad. La distribución de la cotorra argentina se ha incrementado de manera significativa en México ya que actualmente se tienen registros en 23 entidades del país.

  12. Physiological quality of algaroba seeds recovered from faeces of mulesQualidade fisiológica de sementes de algaroba recuperadas de excrementos de muares

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    Gerlândio Suassuna Gonçalves

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Preventing expansion into areas not yet infested is a priority standard for controlling mesquite. The contamination of other areas occurs through the flocks (endozoochory, which disperse the seeds in different areas to consume fruits, facilitating the emergence of new stands of invasive plant. This research was carried out with the objective to determine the transit time through the gastrointestinal tract (GIT, viability and vigor of mesquite seeds (Prosopis juliflora (Sw. DC., recovered in the faeces of mules. Three adult mules were confined in stalls, being daily supplied to each of them as part of their diet, a kilogram of fruits of this invasive specie. The excrements were collected, placed on sieves and washed with running water to hold the seeds. The following variables were evaluated: percentage of seeds excreted, percentage of seeds with radicle emission and physiological quality of seeds. The mules, to consume the fruits of P. juliflora, effectively contribute to the advancement of biological invasion, being necessary to receive appropriate management not to act as dispersers of that invasion. The physiological quality of seeds of P. juliflora has not diminished with time spent in GIT. To clean the digestive tract of mules after consumption of fruits of that invasion are required at least 10 days. In the field, about 20% of the excreted seeds can be preserved viable in the faeces for longer than six months. A prevenção da expansão para áreas ainda não infestadas constitui uma medida prioritária no controle da algaroba. A contaminação de outras áreas ocorre basicamente através dos rebanhos (endozoocoria, que ao consumirem seus frutos dispersam as sementes em áreas distintas, facilitando o surgimento de novos povoamentos da planta invasora. Este trabalho foi realizado com o objetivo de determinar o tempo de passagem pelo trato gastrintestinal (TGI, a viabilidade e a qualidade fisiológica de sementes de algaroba (Prosopis

  13. Avaliação do impacto da contaminação do solo de áreas agrícolas de Bom Repouso (MG) por meio de ensaios ecotoxicológicos

    OpenAIRE

    Natália Costa de Lima

    2010-01-01

    Nas últimas décadas tem-se verificado um significativo aumento na quantidade de contaminantes que são liberados no ambiente, destacando-se os agrotóxicos como um dos mais utilizados e nocivos. Os agrotóxicos são utilizados para o controle de doenças, pragas e plantas invasoras e, apesar de sua eficiência, seus efeitos em nível de ecossistema e saúde humana são preocupantes. No município de Bom Repouso/MG, devido à prática agrícola há intenso uso de agrotóxicos, os quais são aplicados nas lavo...

  14. EMERGENCIA Y SOBREVIVENCIA DEL ZACATE ROSADO EN DIFERENTES SUELOS Y PATRONES DE HUMEDAD-SEQUÍA

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    Martha Balandrán Valladares

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Las plantas invasoras afectan la función y composición de los ecosistemas nativos. La gramínea zacate rosado [Melinis repens (Willd. Zizka] es una especie invasora introducida que ha ido incrementando su presencia en el estado de Chihuahua, México. Para determinar su posible propagación se evaluó en invernadero, la emergencia y sobrevivencia de M. repens en suelos provenientes de cuatro áreas con diferente tipo de vegetación y patrones de humedad-sequía (bajo, pobre, medio y alto más comunes durante el verano en Chihuahua. Los tipos de vegetación fueron matorral, pastizal mediano, pastizal halófito con suelo aluvial profundo y bosque con suelo coluvial. Los datos fueron analizados como categóricos y se realizó la comparación de medias mediante una prueba de proporciones en distribuciones normales. La semilla germinó en los suelos provenientes de las cuatro áreas con diferentes tipos de vegetación y patrones de humedad-sequía. La mayor emergencia, 92%, se presentó en el suelo aluvial profundo de pastizal mediano con una secuencia de humedad-sequía de 120 mm que representa una precipitación de 12 días al año (P < 0.0008. Las plantas sobrevivieron de 12 a 24 días sin riego, pero no a los 36 días. El pasto M. repens es capaz de germinar en cualquier suelo proveniente de las cuatro áreas con diferentes tipos de vegetación estudiados y la poca o abundante humedad no representa un impedimento para su emergencia.

  15. First record of the alien pest Rhaponticum repens (Compositae in the Iberian Peninsula

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    Martínez-Flores, F.

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available First record of the alien pest Rhaponticum repens (Compositae in the Iberian Peninsula.- Rhaponticum repens is reported for the first time for the flora of the Iberian Peninsula. The species is native from Central Asia and has become invasive in Argentina, Canada, Europe and the USA. It was detected for the first time in abandoned fields from Vilablareix, near the city of Girona (Catalonia, Spain and in the valley of the Vinalopó in Alicante (Valencia, Spain, where it was collected as early as in 1959 but misdentified. Molecular data, based on nrDNA region ITS, suggest that the reported populations may be closely related to plants from the United States. Due to the extremely noxious character of the species and the possible relationship of Spanish plants with the invasive American populations, some kind of monitoring is recommended.Rhaponticum repens (Compositae, una nueva planta alóctona para la Península Ibérica.- Se cita por primera vez la especie Rhaponticum repens para la flora de la Península Ibérica. Rhaponticum repens es una especie nativa de Asia central que actúa como invasora en diversos países como Argentina, Canadá o los Estados Unidos. Se ha encontrado por primera vez en campos de cultivo abandonados en el pueblo de Vilablareix, cerca de la ciudad de Girona (Cataluña, España y en el valle del Vinalopó (Valencia, España, donde fue recolectada y mal identificada en 1959. Los datos moleculares, obtenidos a partir de la región ITS del nrDNA, sugieren que estas poblaciones podrían estar relacionadas con plantas invasoras de Estados Unidos. Debido al carácter extremadamente invasor de la especie, y a su posible origen secundario a partir de las poblaciones norteamericanas, se recomienda el seguimiento de estas poblaciones.

  16. JENIS HERPETOFAUNA DI CAGAR ALAM DAN TAMAN WISATA ALAM PENGANDARAN JAWA BARAT

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    Syafa'at Ariful Huda

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to determine the type of Herpetofauna that often appear in the area Cikamal and Cirengganis. This research was conducted in West Java precisely in Nature Tourism and Pangandaran Nature Reserve. The method used in this research is descriptive qualitative with field research approach (VES. Visual Encounter Survey (VES along the river and river body. The data obtained is analyzed first with the calculation of the number and calculation of the percentage of research results. From the results of this study get 2 types of herpetofauna consisting of amphibians and reptiles. Amphibians consist of a type of frog and type of bangkong. While only the type of lizard reptile found in the two locations. Amphibians and reptiles are found: Type of frog (Fajervarya limnocharis, Rana chalconata, Microdiscus sp, Hylidae, type of bangkong (Microhyla achatina, Bufonidae and Lizard Type (Spenomorphus sp.Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui jenis Herpetofauna yang sering muncul di daerah Cikamal dan Cirengganis. Penelitian ini dilakukan di Jawa Barat tepatnya di Wisata Alam dan Cagar Alam Pangandaran. Metode yang digunakan dalam penelitian adalah deskriptif kualitatif dengan pendekatan riset lapangan (VES. Visual Encounter Survey (VES dengan menyusuri Sungai dan badan Sungai. Data yang diperoleh dianalisis terlebih dahulu dengan perhitungan jumlah dan perhitungan persentase hasil penelitian. Dari hasil penelitian kali ini mendapatkan 2 jenis herpetofauna yang terdiri dari amfibi dan reptil. Amfibi terdiri dari jenis katak dan jenis bangkong. Sedangkan reptil hanya jenis kadal yang di temukan di dua lokasi tersebut. Amfibi dan reptil yang ditemukan yaitu: Jenis katak (Fajervarya limnocharis, Rana chalconata, Microdiscus sp, Hylidae, jenis bangkong (Microhyla achatina, Bufonidae dan Jenis Kadal (Spenomorphus sp.

  17. Attempted eradication of Porphyrio porphyrio Linnaeus in the Florida Everglades

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    Dave EGGEMAN

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Porphyrio porphyrio (Fulica porphyrio Linnaeus was reported to the South Florida Water Management District in a Water Conservation Area and in constructed wetlands in the Everglades in 2006. A rapid assessment, including casual observations and surveys of land managers, indicated a limited number of P. porphyrio (~300 birds was present, and an eradication attempt was initiated. From 2006 – 2008, more than 3100 P. porphyrio were killed by shotgun from airboats during 73 hunts, suggesting the initial population assessment was severely underestimated. After removing nearly 1500 P. porphyrio in 2008, we concluded that eradication was not possible. Failure of this eradication attempt is attributed to P. porphyrio’s affinity with dense emergent vegetation, which greatly limited shooting effectiveness. Further, the failed eradication underscores the importance of a reporting network to improve early detection and the chance to eliminate naturalized or feral populations of non‐native species.

  18. Trends of some wintering waterbirds in Lazio (1993-2006

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    Massimo Brunelli

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Since the 90s, censuses of wintering waterfowl have been carried out in the main wetlands of Lazio. We analysed the trends of 31 species in the 1993-2006 period (base year 1993 by means of TRIM (Trends and Indices Monitoring data software (Model 3. Among the species regularly recorded in the region, Ardea alba, Ardea cinerea, Bubulcus ibis and Anser anser showed a strong increase; Podiceps cristatus, Nycticorax nycticorax, Egretta garzetta, Phoenicopterus ruber, Anas penelope, Anas strepera, Anas crecca, Anas platyrhynchos, Anas clypeata, Netta rufina, Aythya ferina, Aythya nyroca, Circus aeruginosus, Fulica atra, Pluvialis apricaria and Vanellus vanellus showed a moderate increase; Gavia arctica, Tachybaptus ruficollis, Podiceps nigricollis, Phalacrocorax carbo, Aythya fuligula and Numenius arquata resulted “stable”; Botaurus stellaris, Tadorna tadorna, Anas acuta, Pluvialis squatarola and Calidris alpina showed an uncertain trend. The trends for most species are similar to those recorded at a national level.

  19. Meeting the challenge: prevention of pneumococcal disease with conjugate vaccines Al encuentro del reto: prevención de la enfermedad neumocócica con vacunas conjugadas

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    Irma Gabriela Echániz-Avilés

    2001-08-01

    Full Text Available Streptococcus pneumoniae is one of the leading causes of both invasive and noninvasive diseases in the pediatric population and continues to represent a significant public health burden worldwide. The increasing incidence of antibioticresistant strains of the pathogen has complicated treatment and management of the various pneumococcal disease manifestations. Thus, the best management strategy may be the prevention of pneumococcal diseases through vaccination. Although several pneumococcal conjugate vaccines have been clinically studied in infants and children, only a 7-valent conjugate vaccine (PNCRM7; Prevnar®/Prevenar® is currently approved for the prevention of invasive disease. Vaccination with PNCRM7 is safe and effective in infants and young children. Routine vaccination with the conjugate vaccine could improve outcomes by safeguarding against the development of antibiotic-resistant strains of S. pneumoniae, thus simplifying the management of pneumococcal disease. Additionally, the overall costs associated with the treatment of pneumococcal diseases could be substantially reduced, particularly in developing countries. The time has come for fully applying this new advancement against S. pneumoniae, to benefit the children of the world. The Spanish version of this paper is available at: http://www.insp.mx/salud/index.htmlStreptococcus pneumoniae es uno de los principales agentes causantes de enfermedades invasoras y no invasoras en la población pediátrica y sigue representando uno de los principales problemas de salud pública a nivel mundial. La incidencia creciente de cepas resistentes a diversos antimicrobianos ha complicado el tratamiento y manejo de varias de las manifestaciones de la enfermedad neumocócica. Con éstas consideraciones, la mejor estrategia de manejo es la prevención de éstas enfermedades a través de la vacunación. A pesar de que se han estudiado diversas vacunas neumocócicas conjugadas en niños, solo una

  20. First record of Caulerpa cylindracea (Caulerpaceae, Chlorophyta in Andalusia (Southern Spain

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    Altamirano, María

    2014-12-01

    representaría la cita más occidental de la variedad invasora en las costas mediterráneas europeas. Se realiza una completa identificación de esta alga invasora en el Sur de España mediante una descripción morfológica y filogenia molecular. Los datos obtenidos se discuten en relación a la composición de las comunidades receptoras, tales como fondos de maërl y bordes de Posidonia oceanica (Linnaeus Delile, y su ecología. Los resultados confirman la direccionalidad de la ruta invasora de la especie hacia el oeste en las proximidades del Estrecho de Gibraltar, principalmente debido a corrientes marinas y vectores de origen antropogénico.

  1. Threats to the Cerrado remnants of the state of São Paulo, Brazil Ameaças a fragmentos de Cerrado no estado de São Paulo, Brasil

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    Giselda Durigan

    2007-08-01

    ção no ecossistema e os tipos de uso da terra no seu entorno. Os usos mais freqüentes foram pastagens cultivadas (registradas em 78% das áreas, plantio de cana-de-açúcar (26%, rodovias (19%, reflorestamento (14% e culturas anuais (14%. As ameaças mais freqüentemente registradas foram gramíneas invasoras (35% das áreas parcial ou totalmente invadidas, presença de gado (32%, desmatamento (21% e fogo (21%. A análise da freqüência observada de cada tipo de impacto mediante a freqüência esperada caso não houvesse influência do uso da terra (qui-quadrado, mostrou que as ameaças dependem do uso da terra nas áreas ao redor dos fragmentos, exceto para o desmatamento, que tem ocorrido indiferentemente ao tipo de uso. Gramíneas invasoras e fogo são muito mais freqüentes na vizinhança de rodovias e zonas urbanas, enquanto que o plantio de cana-de-açúcar, silvicultura e fruticultura têm sido os usos da terra menos impactantes para a vegetação de Cerrado, considerando-se apenas a freqüência de ocorrência dos impactos. Esses cultivos envolvem o controle de plantas invasoras e a prevenção e controle de incêndios, e a eliminação do gado, com reflexos positivos para a conservação dos ecossistemas naturais.

  2. Impactos da invasão de Prosopis juliflora (sw. DC. (Fabaceae sobre o estrato arbustivo-arbóreo em áreas de Caatinga no Estado da Paraíba, Brasil - doi: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v32i3.4535 Impact of the invasion of Prosopis juliflora (Sw. DC. (Fabaceae in areas of Caatinga in the state of Paraiba, Brazil - doi: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v32i3.4535

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    Juliano Ricardo Fabricante

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Estima-se que as áreas invadidas por algaroba – Prosopis juliflora (Sw. DC. (Fabaceae no semi-árido nordestino já ultrapassam um milhão de hectares. O presente trabalho objetivou estudar os impactos da invasão de P. juliflora sobre a fitodiversidade e a estrutura do componente arbustivo-arbóreo, em remanescentes de caatinga no Estado da Paraíba. Usando-se o método de parcelas, foram amostrados quatro ambientes, nos quais os indivíduos de todas as espécies arbustivas e arbóreas foram inventariados e medidos, estimando-se os parâmetros estruturais das comunidades. Também foi calculada a diversidade, pelo índice de Shannon-Wiener (H’ e o índice de impacto ambiental de exóticas (IIAE. No total, foram amostradas 19 famílias, 35 gêneros e 39 espécies. A invasora foi responsável por mais de 70% de toda a estrutura dos ambientes inventariados. A baixa diversidade e o elevado valor de impacto ambiental obtidos para os ambientes invadidos revelaram, conjuntamente com os dados de estrutura das populações, os graves impactos que P. juliflora provoca nas comunidades invadidas. Evidencia-se com isso a formação de sistemas monodominados pela espécie invasora, o que revela a necessidade de controle efetivo de P. juliflora para se proteger o patrimônio genético autóctone.It is estimated that invader populations of algaroba Prosopis juliflora (Sw. DC. (Fabaceae in the northeastern semi-arid, Brazil, cover more than one million ha. This study aimed to study the impacts of P. juliflora invasion on phytodiversity and on the structure of the shrub-tree component in caatinga fragments in Paraiba state. Four environments were sampled by plots in which all shrub-tree individuals were surveyed and measured, estimating structural parameters of the communities. Diversity was estimated by the Shannon-Wiener index (H', and the index of environmental impacts of exotic species (IIAE was also calculated. A total of 19 families, 35 genera and 39

  3. Comparação econômica entre controle biológico e químico para o manejo de ácaro-vermelho em macieira Economic comparison of biological and chemical control in the management of red spider mites in apple orchard

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    Lino Bittencourt Monteiro

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available O ácaro-vermelho da macieira, Panonychus ulmi (Acari: Tetranychidae, é uma importante praga na cultura da macieira em Fraiburgo - SC, e o controle biológico aplicado foi implantado em meados dos anos 90. O objetivo deste trabalho foi demonstrar os benefícios econômicos da utilização do controle biológico no manejo do ácaro-vermelho. A avaliação foi realizada em dois pomares comerciais de macieiras. Em um deles, foi implantado o controle biológico aplicado de ácaros, baseado na liberação do ácaro predador Neoseiulus californicus (Acari: Phytoseiidae, seleção de inseticidas e manejo de ervas invasoras, e o outro pomar seguiu o manejo convencional de artrópodes, baseado na aplicação de produtos químicos para o controle de insetos, ácaros fitófagos e ervas invasoras. A análise econômica mostrou que os custos com mão-de-obra e máquinas foram semelhantes em ambos os pomares, entretanto os custos com acaricidas foram significativamente inferiores no pomar onde o manejo foi o controle biológico, demonstrando que, apesar da necessidade de investimentos em instalações para a criação do ácaro predador e custos de manutenção das mesmas, a estratégia biológica foi economicamente viável.Red spider mite, Panonychus ulmi (Acari: Tetranychidae is a significant pest in apple tree in Fraiburgo, Santa Catarina (SC and applied biological control was implemented in the mid-nineties. The objective of this study was to demonstrate the economic benefits of biological control in the management of red spider mite. The assessment was carried out in two commercial orchards, one of which was subjected to biological control of spider mite by releasing the predator Neoseiulus californicus, insecticide selection and weed management, and the other to conventional arthropod management, based on the application of chemicals to control insects, phytofagous mites and weed. Economic analysis showed that the costs for labor and machines were

  4. Caracterización florística y estructural de tres fragmentos boscosos secundarios en Cartago, Costa Rica

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    Carlos O Morales

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Se realizaron observaciones sobre sucesión y composición florística en 25 parcelas de 10 m x 2 m en tres fragmentos boscosos secundarios, contiguos, del Jardín Botánico Lankester, Costa Rica. La intervención humana fue positiva en la regeneración de estos fragmentos por 1 protección de una antigua área de cultivo y pastoreo desde 1970, y 2 siembra y propagación de especies vegetales. Se comprobó que el cultivo de plantas nativas e introducidas de crecimiento exitoso puede acelerar el proceso de regeneración, impedir la dominancia de especies pioneras o invasoras y aumentar la diversidad de especies más rápidamente que en procesos comunes de sucesión. La diversificación natural se redujo a medida que la vegetación natural de los alrededores de los fragmentos fue desapareciendo, con una consecuente disminución o erradicación de semillas y otros propágulos, tales como esporas y tallos. Especies introducidas se naturalizaron en estos bosques, se propagan fácilmente y algunas son invasoras. Este estudio propone pautas generales para facilitar la regeneración de bosques neotropicales al combinar regeneración natural y cultivo de especies nativas.Floristic and structural characterization of three secondary forest fragments in Costa Rica. Observations on successional development and floristic composition were made in 25 plots (10x2 m established in three contiguous secondary forest fragments of the Lankester Botanical Garden, Costa Rica. Human activities favored forest regeneration there by 1 protecting an abandoned farm and pasture area since 1970, and 2 planting and propagating plant species. Planting successfully growing native and introduced species can accelerate the succession process, avoid dominance of pioneer or invasive species, and increase species diversity faster than in common successional processes. Natural diversification slowed down as natural vegetation surrounding the secondary fragments was disappearing, with a

  5. Impactos da invasão de Prosopis juliflora (sw. DC. (Fabaceae sobre o estrato arbustivo-arbóreo em áreas de Caatinga no Estado da Paraíba, Brasil = Impact of the invasion of Prosopis juliflora (Sw. DC. (Fabaceae in areas of Caatinga in the state of Paraíba, Brazil

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    Leonaldo Alves de Andrade

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Estima-se que as áreas invadidas por algaroba – Prosopis juliflora (Sw. DC. (Fabaceae no semi-árido nordestino já ultrapassam um milhão de hectares. O presente trabalho objetivou estudar os impactos da invasão de P. juliflora sobre a fitodiversidade e a estrutura do componente arbustivo-arbóreo, em remanescentes de caatinga no Estado da Paraíba. Usando-se o método de parcelas, foram amostrados quatro ambientes, nos quais os indivíduos de todas as espécies arbustivas e arbóreas foram inventariados e medidos, estimando-se os parâmetros estruturais das comunidades. Também foi calculada a diversidade, pelo índice de Shannon-Wiener (H’ e o índice de impacto ambiental deexóticas (IIAE. No total, foram amostradas 19 famílias, 35 gêneros e 39 espécies. A invasora foi responsável por mais de 70% de toda a estrutura dos ambientes inventariados. A baixa diversidade e o elevado valor de impacto ambiental obtidos para os ambientes invadidosrevelaram, conjuntamente com os dados de estrutura das populações, os graves impactos que P. juliflora provoca nas comunidades invadidas. Evidencia-se com isso a formação de sistemas monodominados pela espécie invasora, o que revela a necessidade de controle efetivo de P. juliflora para se proteger o patrimônio genético autóctone.It is estimated that invader populations of algaroba Prosopis juliflora (Sw. DC. (Fabaceae in the northeastern semi-arid, Brazil, cover more than one million ha. This study aimed to study the impacts of P. juliflora invasion on phytodiversity and on the structure of the shrub-tree component in caatinga fragments in Paraiba state. Four environments were sampled by plots in which all shrubtree individuals were surveyed and measured, estimating structural parameters of thecommunities. Diversity was estimated by the Shannon-Wiener index (H', and the index of environmental impacts of exotic species (IIAE was also calculated. A total of 19 families, 35 genera and 39

  6. Alienígenas na sala: o que fazer com espécies exóticas em trabalhos de taxonomia, florística e fitossociologia?

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    Marcelo Freire Moro

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available A presença cada vez mais disseminada de organismos exóticos (muitos dos quais se tornam invasores nas diferentes regiões do planeta levou ao surgimento de uma linha de pesquisa na ecologia voltada às invasões biológicas. E para permitir a comunicação entre autores também foi desenvolvido um arcabouço terminológico. Mas, apesar disso, a terminologia relativa às bioinvasões tem sido ignorada por boa parte dos botânicos no Brasil. Há uma boa dose de confusão entre botânicos sobre o que seja uma espécie exótica, naturalizada, invasora, daninha e ruderal, levando ao uso inconsistente da terminologia. Além disso, diferentes autores têm adotado posturas praticamente opostas ao lidar com espécies exóticas em suas áreas de estudo, seja na preparação de tratamentos taxonômicos, seja na publicação de levantamentos florísticos e fitossociológicos. Enquanto alguns pesquisadores incluem em floras mesmo espécies cultivadas que não se reproduzem, outros excluem plantas invasoras comuns e conspícuas. Nós apresentamos aqui, em português, os principais conceitos relativos ao tema da bioinvasão e chamamos a atenção dos autores brasileiros para a necessidade de utilizar de modo consistente o arcabouço terminológico já existente na literatura. Também propomos a adoção de rótulos claros para informar quais espécies são exóticas na área estudada, diferenciando-as das nativas, e sugerimos critérios para ajudar botânicos a decidirem quando uma planta exótica deve ou não ser incluída em tratamentos taxonômicos ou levantamentos de florística.

  7. Allelopathic evidence in Brachiaria decumbens and its potential to invade the Brazilian Cerrados

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    Elizabeth Gorgone Barbosa

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to look for evidence of allelochemicals in B. decumbens, in parts of the plant from where they could easily be released to the environment. The germination inhibition of Phalaris canariensis, Lactuca sativa (standard species and Melinis minutiflora, another invasive African grass, was tested using B. decumbens germinating seeds and aqueous leachates of the roots, green and senescent leaves, at 5, 10 and 20% w/v. Both the germinating seeds and the aqueous leachates of B. decumbens reduced the germination of the species tested; the effectiveness of the aqueous leachates increased according to concentration. Apparently, the competitive advantage of B. decumbens in the cerrados could be amplified via allelopathy.Invasão biológica é uma das maiores causas atuais da perda de biodiversidade. Várias espécies que se tornam invasoras produzem substâncias fitotóxicas que aumentam sua capacidade competitiva; assim, a alelopatia é uma estratégia capaz de potencializar o sucesso de invasão. Brachiaria decumbens, uma gramínea africana, invadiu os cerrados brasileiros e representa, atualmente, uma séria ameaça à biota regional. Neste ensaio, verificamos a presença de aleloquímicos em partes de B. decumbens das quais poderiam ser facilmente liberados para o ambiente. Testamos a inibição da germinação de Phalaris canariensis, Lactuca sativa (espécies padrão e Melinis minutiflora (outra gramínea africana invasora usando sementes de B. decumbens e soluções aquosas lixiviadas de suas raízes, folhas verdes e folhas senescentes, a 5, 10 e 20% de peso do material por volume de água. Tanto as sementes como as soluções lixiviadas de decumbens reduziram a germinação das outras espécies; a eficiência dos lixiviados aumentou de acordo com a concentração da solução. Acreditamos que a grande vantagem competitiva de B. decumbens no cerrado possa ser amplificada pela alelopatia.

  8. Composición de especies leñosas en comunidades invadidas en montañas del centro de Argentina: su relación con factores ambientales locales

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    Sebastián R. Zeballos

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available En todo el mundo, las invasiones de especies leñosas exóticas están amenazando las funciones ecosistémicas. La dispersión y el subsecuente reemplazo de bosques de especies nativas por comunidades dominadas por exóticas es evidente, particularmente, en proximidad a centros urbanos donde la presión de propágulos de especies exóticas es alta. Sin embargo, existe una falta de información sobre los factores ambientales que subyacen este reemplazo. En este estudio nos propusimos responder las siguientes preguntas: (1 ¿se observa una segregación espacial a escala local entre especies leñosas exóticas y/o nativas dominantes?, y (2 si existe esa segregación, ¿está asociada a variables ambientales? En el 2010 se establecieron 31 parcelas distribuidas en 16 laderas en los bosques Chaqueños de las Sierras de Córdoba, en Argentina central. En cada uno de los sitios de muestreo se relevó la composición y abundancia de todas las especies leñosas con un diámetro a la altura de la base superior a 5cm. Para caracterizar el ambiente en cada una de las parcelas medimos la posición topográfica (pendiente y orientación y algunas propiedades asociadas con la física (densidad aparente y compactación, estructura (profundidad y textura y con la química (pH y el contenido de nutrientes y agua del suelo. A través, de un análisis jerárquico de agrupamiento, se identificaron cinco comunidades de leñosas coexistiendo: (1 Bosques dominados por Ligustrum lucidum, (2 Bosques mixtos dominados por Lithraea molleoides y Celtis australis, (3 Matorrales de Condalia buxifolia, (4 Matorrales de Cotoneaster glaucophyllus, y (5 Pajonales con emergentes de Pyracantha angustifolia. Estas comunidades se asociaron diferencialmente a las variables topográficas y edáficas locales. La segregación ambiental observada sugiere que las especies invasoras tienen una capacidad potencial para colonizar casi todos los ambientes en el área de estudio (variando la

  9. Glomus halonatum Rose & Trappe (Glomeromycota in South America: comments on the morphological characteristics of the species Glomus halonatum Rose & Trappe (Glomeromycota na América do Sul: comentários sobre a morfologia das espécies

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    Bruno Tomio Goto

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Ornamented glomerospores of an arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus were collected from an area of Atlantic Forest in Goiana (Pernambuco, Brazil. The area had been cultivated with Coffea canephora Pierre ex. Froehner [=Coffea robusta (L. Linden] and Bixa orellana L., then left fallow and today is covered by herbaceous raider species. After taxonomic analysis using current descriptive and terminological criteria, the species was identified as Glomus halonatum. A description, illustrations and comments about the species are presented.Glomerosporos ornamentados de um fungo micorrízico arbuscular foram coletados em uma área de Floresta Atlântica em Goiana (Pernambuco, Brasil. A área tinha sido cultivada com Coffea canephora Pierre ex. Froehner [=Coffea robusta (L. Linden] e Bixa orellana L., abandonada, e hoje está coberta por espécies herbáceas invasoras. Após análise taxonômica usando critérios descritivos e terminológicos atuais, a espécie foi identificada como Glomus halonatum. São apresentados descrição, ilustrações e comentários sobre a espécie.

  10. Primer registro de Vespula vulgaris (Hymenoptera: Vespidae en la Argentina First record of Vespula vulgaris (Hymenoptera: Vespidae in Argentina

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    Maité Masciocchi

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Vespula vulgaris (Linnaeus es un véspido social nativo de la región Holártica. En este trabajo reportamos la primera detección de esta especie en Argentina. Obreras de esta avispa fueron capturadas cerca de la ciudad de San Carlos de Bariloche (Argentina en Febrero de 2010, mientras se tomaban muestras de otra avispa invasora, Vespula germanica (Fabricius o chaqueta amarilla, de morfología externa y hábitos similares a la anteriormente mencionada. Además, detallamos algunos caracteres de identificación y características biológicas.Vespula vulgaris (Linnaeus is a social vespid native to the Holarctic region. The first detection of this species in Argentina is here reported. Workers were captured close to San Carlos de Bariloche (Argentina during February 2010, while sampling for another successful invader, the German wasp or Yellowjacket, Vespula germanica (Fabricius. Both these wasp species are very similar morphologically and share a number of common habits. Also, some identification features and biological characters are here explained.

  11. ABUSO DEL DIAGNÓSTICO DE AMIBIASIS EN COLOMBIA

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    Ernesto Plata Rueda

    1983-09-01

    Full Text Available

    Se citan argumentos de la literatura nacional y de la práctica diaria según los cuales es patente que en Colombia se está abusando del diagnóstico de amibiasis, como salida fácil para tratar de solucionar los más variados problemas clínicos, tanto de la pediatría como de la medicina general. Los orígenes del abuso son, por una parte la real alta prevalencia de la parasitosis en Colombia, pero por sobre todo, el considerar enfermedad a la condición
    de portador, agravado por la circunstancia de ser evidente que hay fallas importantes en el entrenamiento de personal de laboratorio clínico para distinguir con razonable certeza la Entamoeba histolítica patógena, de otras especies no invasoras.

    El abuso tiene especial gravedad en el niño pequeño, quien, como consecuencia de él, es objeto de tratamientos agresivos y deja de recibir el manejo médico o quirúrgico que sí es adecuado. Se sugieren una serie de medidas educativas y técnicas para contrarrestar este problema.

  12. Invasão da piranha Serrasalmus marginatus Valenciennes, 1847 no alto rio Paraná, Brasil (Osteichthyes, Serrasalmidae Observation of an invasion of the piranha Serrasalmus marginatus Valenciennes, 1847 (Osteichthyes, Serrasalmidae into the Upper Paraná River, Brazil

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    Horácio Ferreira Júlio Junior

    2002-05-01

    Full Text Available A construção da barragem de Itaipu, 150 km a jusante do salto de Sete Quedas, resultou no afogamento da barreira geográfica natural, com conseqüente mistura das ictiofaunas. Serrasalmus marginatus (Osteichthyes, Serrasalmidae, uma espécie que apresentava distribuição restrita ao segmento a jusante de Sete Quedas, invadiu o alto rio Paraná. A captura de Serrasalmus spilopleura, uma espécie residente, diminuiu drasticamente após a invasão, ao contrário de S. marginatus que aumentou em abundância. No rio Piquiri, onde a espécie invasora não ocorreu, a abundância de S. spilopleura permaneceu alta por causa das quedas de Nhá Bárbara e Apertado.The building of Itaipu Dam, 150 km downstream from Sete Quedas Falls, resulted in the natural geographical barrier drowning, with subsequent mixing of the fish faunas. Serrasalmus marginatus (Osteichthyes, Serrasalmidae, a species that had been restricted to the river segment downstream from Sete Quedas, invaded the Upper Paraná River. The catching of Serrasalmus spilopleura, a resident species, decreased drastically after the invasion, contrary to S. marginatus, which increased in abundance. In the Piquiri River, where the latter species does not occur, the abundance of S. spilopleura remained high, due to the presence of Nhá Bárbara and Apertado Falls.

  13. Relación costo-efectividad de la vacuna contra Haemophilus influenzae tipo b en niños menores de dos años de edad en Colombia The cost-effectiveness of Haemophilus influenzae type b vaccine for children under 2 years of age in Colombia

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    Nelson Alvis Guzmán

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVOS: Las vacunas conjugadas contra Haemophilus influenzae tipo b (Hib son la herramienta más importante para prevenir la mayoría de las enfermedades invasoras producidas por dicho patógeno, pero debido a su costo, aún no se han introducido mundialmente de manera masiva. En el presente estudio se determinó la relación costo-efectividad de una vacuna contra Hib para prevenir la neumonía y la meningitis bacterianas en niños menores de 2 años en Colombia. MÉTODOS: Se estimaron los costos directos e indirectos de la neumonía y la meningitis hospitalaria y siguiendo las recomendaciones de la Organización Mundial de la Salud (OMS, la relación costo-efectividad de los programas de vacunación contra Hib. Se estimaron también las razones de costos por caso evitado de enfermedad invasora por Hib y el costo por año de vida salvado en dos situaciones hipotéticas: con vacunación contra Hib (cobertura vacunal: 90% y sin vacunación. RESULTADOS: El costo medio del tratamiento hospitalario de un caso de neumonía fue de 611,5 dólares estadounidenses (US$ (intervalo de confianza del 95% [IC95%]: 532,2 - 690,8, el costo medio del tratamiento hospitalario de un caso de meningitis fue de US$ 848,9 (IC95%: 716,8 - 981,0 y el costo por caso evitado de enfermedad invasora por Hib, de US$ 316,7 (IC95%: 294,2 - 339,2. La relación costo-efectividad en la hipótesis con vacunación fue de 2,38, frente a 3,81 en la hipótesis sin vacunación. CONCLUSIÓN: La aplicación de un programa adecuado de vacunación contra Hib en Colombia puede prevenir cerca de 25 000 casos de enfermedad invasora por año, lo que representa un ahorro de por lo menos US$ 15 millones anuales. Además, puede evitar cerca de 700 defunciones y salvar anualmente 44 054 años de vida.OBJECTIVE: Conjugate vaccines are the best public health tools available for preventing most invasive diseases caused by Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib, but the high cost of the vaccines has so

  14. Naturalizando la nación: aliens, apocalipsis y el estado postcolonial

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    Jean Comaroff

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Este ensayo examina la situación del estado-nación postcolonial a través del prisma de la catástrofe medio ambiental: cómo las plantas «invasoras» pueden llegar a ser un apremiante problema político y lo que esto puede revelar acerca de las cambiantes relaciones entre ciudadanos, comunidad y soberanía nacional bajo condiciones neo-liberales. Siguiendo estas cuestiones en relación al caso de la «nueva» Sudáfrica, planteamos tres características claves de las políticas postcoloniales en una era del laissez-faire: la refiguración del sujeto-ciudadano, la crisis de las fronteras de soberanía y la despolitización de la política. Bajo tales condiciones los «invasores» -tanto plantas como personas- terminan encarnando básicas contradicciones de frontera y pertenencia; la naturaleza extraña (alien-natura proporciona un lenguage para proclamar nuevas formas de discriminación en plena cultura del «post-racismo» y los derechos civiles.

  15. Utilização de diferentes materiais como cobertura morta do solo no cultivo de pimentão

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    Queiroga Roberto Cleiton F.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Avaliou-se o efeito de diferentes tipos de cobertura morta sobre características de frutos do pimentão (Capsicum annuum L. cv. Yolo Wonder em um experimento instalado em campo na ESAM, de junho a novembro de 1994 . O clima local é semi-árido, seco e muito quente, com as estações seca (de junho a janeiro e chuvosa (fevereiro a maio. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi de blocos completos casualizados com sete tratamentos e quatro repetições. Foram utilizadas as coberturas mortas de palha de vagens de caupi, palha de carnaúba, raspa de madeira, palha de milho, palha de sorgo e palha de capim elefante e a testemunha sem cobertura. O diâmetro de frutos, número de frutos por planta, peso de frutos e a produção foram afetados pela cobertura morta, tendo a palha de carnaúba se mostrado superior às demais coberturas mortas. O comprimento do fruto não foi afetado pelas coberturas mortas avaliadas. A maior incidência de plantas invasoras ocorreu no tratamento com palha de vagem de caupi.

  16. Surgimiento y diseminación de Staphylococcus aureus meticilinorresistente Staphylococcus aureus methicillin-resistant: emergence and dissemination

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    Maria Elena Velázquez-Meza

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Las infecciones nosocomiales ocasionadas por cepas de Staphylococcus aureus meticilinorresistentes (SAMR son un problema de salud importante en todo el mundo. Este microorganismo produce una gran variedad de infecciones incluyendo osteomielitis, endocarditis invasora, artritis séptica y septicemia. La multirresistencia es un factor que influye en la persistencia de los SAMR dentro del ámbito hospitalario. La introducción de técnicas de tipificación molecular dentro de las investigaciones epidemiológicas ha provisto nuevas herramientas para conocer el origen y las vías de diseminación de este microorganismo. Una de las conclusiones importantes que han surgido de este tipo de estudios es que un número pequeño de clonas son las responsables de las infecciones estafilocócicas en todo el mundo.Nosocomial infections due to methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA is an important health problem worldwide. This microorganism causes a variety of clinical infections, including osteomyelitis, invasive endocarditis, septic arthritis and septicemia. Antimicrobial resistance is a factor that influences the persistence of MRSA in the hospital environment. The introduction of molecular typing techniques in epidemiological investigations has provided new tools for identifying the microorganism's origin and routes of dissemination. One of the most important conclusions that have resulted from these types of studies is that a small number of clones are responsible for most of the staphylococcal infections throughout the world.

  17. Primer registro de la cotorra argentina (Myiopsitta monachus en Coahuila, México

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillermo Romero-Figueroa

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Reportamos por primera vez individuos de la cotorra argentina (Myiopsitta monachus en una colonia reproductiva en la ciudad de Torreón, Coahuila, México. observadas por primera vez en febrero de 2013. Tras las observaciones de junio de 2016, se registró un aumento importante de la población, fue evidente que su distribución se extendió a nuevas áreas dentro del campus Laguna de la Universidad Autónoma Agraria Antonio Narro. La colonia estaba establecida sobre plantas de yuca (Yucca elata, con al menos ocho entradas visibles activas, a una altura de 4 m sobre el nivel del suelo. En 2013 observamos 12 individuos en el sitio; de los cuales nueve fueron adultos y tres jóvenes, mientras que en las observaciones del 2016 detectamos 25 cotorras. A pesar de que hay una estrategia nacional para prevenir, controlar y erradicar especies exóticas invasoras en México, en la ciudad de Torreón no existe ninguna acción que controle esta especie. El área urbana donde se encuentra establecida la población de cotorras posee características y condiciones apropiadas en estructura y composición de la vegetación, según la literatura, para que continúe el crecimiento de la población.

  18. “SANTAS CRUZES” LOCUS DE NUCLEAÇÃO DE RESTAURAÇÃO AMBIENTAL. METODOLOGIA POR ABANDONO E REGENERAÇÃO ESPONTÂNEA, UM RISCO PARA O BIOMA MATA ATLÂNTICA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiane da Silva Jacob

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Uma expressão cultural-religiosa “Santa Cruz” (altar com descarte de imagens de valor sacro para a Igreja Católica tem possível valor deletério sobre o Hotspot ambiental Mata Atlântica, na região Metropolitana do Vale do Paraíba e Litoral Norte Paulista. Material e Métodos: foi construído um modelo de Santa Cruz similar às encontradas na Mata Atlântica e, durante seis meses (outono/inverno foram medidas as alterações de pH do solo e a retenção de água, pós chuva e em período de seca, pelas imagens de gesso. Os resultados mostraram que nesses lócus o pH do solo oscilou entre 6,3 e 7,0; a umidade retida nas peças de gesso aumentou a massa das imagens em ambos os períodos.Concluiu-se que estas Santas Cruzes podem se transformar em ambientes semelhantes ao modelo de nucleação por abandono usado para a recomposição florestal de áreas degradados, mas também permite o desenvolvimento de Espécies Invasoras ao Bioma, oferecendo riscos antrópicos ao Hotspot.

  19. Conhecimento botânico medicinal sobre espécies vegetais nativas da caatinga e plantas espontâneas no agreste da Paraíba, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.M.P. Cordeiro

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available O bioma Caatinga apresenta diversas espécies vegetais amplamente empregadas pelas populações rurais, especialmente na fitoterapia, abrangendo diversos usos no tratamento de determinadas enfermidades. As plantas espontâneas, apesar de serem entendidas como espécies daninhas ou invasoras, concomitantemente apresentam propriedades fitoquímicas que podem ser aproveitadas no âmbito medicinal. Nesta concepção, o referente trabalho tem como objetivo identificar espécies vegetais nativas da Caatinga, assim como plantas espontâneas, empregadas na medicina popular através de estudo etnobotânico desenvolvido na zona rural do município de Serra da Raiz, Agreste da Paraíba, Nordeste do Brasil. O levantamento das plantas de uso fitoterápico foi estabelecido através de questionamentos e entrevistas semiestruturadas com 57 famílias da região. Foram coletadas informações referentes a 55 espécies vegetais e seus empregos terapêuticos, destacando-se entre elas: Myracrodruom urundeuva Allemão (Aroeira, Genipa americana L. (Jenipapo, Solanum paniculatum L. (Jurubeba e Anadenanthera colubrina (Vell. Brenan (Angico por serem amplamente utilizadas no tratamento de diversas enfermidades pelos moradores locais.

  20. Distribución espacio-temporal de aves acuáticas invernantes en la Ciénega de Tláhuac, planicie lacustre de Chalco, México Spatio-temporal distribution of wintering aquatic birds in the Ciénega de Tláhuac, Chalco lacustrine plain, Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Víctor Ayala-Pérez

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available La avifauna acuática invernal de la ciénaga de Tláhuac fue estudiada de noviembre de 2006 a febrero de 2007; se identificaron 40 especies, 3 de las cuales corresponden a nuevos registros. El área fue utilizada por, al menos, 25 000 aves acuáticas; 5 fueron las especies dominantes: 3 anátidos (Anas clypeata, A. platyrhynchos diazi y Oxyura jamaicensis, 1 ave playera (Limnodromus scolopaceus y 1 gallareta (Fulica americana. Sobresalió por su abundancia A. platyrhynchos diazi, subespecie endémica y amenazada, ya que los 2 200 individuos observados representan el 4% de la población total estimada. Las especies mejor representadas mostraron una utilización espacial diferencial, con 3 patrones: 1 especies con distribución uniforme (A. clypeata y F. americana, 2 las agrupadas en una sola porción del humedal (A.p. diazi y O. jamaicensis y 3 aquella con afinidad por 2 porciones del humedal (L. scolopaceus. La ciénega de Tláhuac es un humedal importante para la avifauna de la región; en ella ocurren, durante el invierno, 6 especies protegidas por el gobierno mexicano; sin embargo, existen factores antrópicos que ponen en riesgo su integridad y que hacen necesarias acciones de protección y conservación.The winter waterbirds of the Ciénega de Tláhuac were studied from November 2006 to February 2007; a total of 40 species were observed, with 3 new records. The area was usedby al least 25 000 birds; 5 species were the dominant: 3 anatids (Anas clypeata, A. platyrhynchos diazi y Oxyura jamaicensis, 1 shorebird (Limnodromus scolopaceus and 1 coot (Fulica americana. The abundance of A. platyrhynchos diazi, a threatened endemic subspecies, was remarkable because the 2 200 individuals observed represent 4% of its population.The best represented species showed a differential spatial use, with 3 patterns: 1 species with homogeneous use (A. clypeata y F. americana, 2 with affinity to a single portion of the wetland (A. p. diazi y O. jamaicensis

  1. Description of a new species of Microhyla from Bali, Indonesia (Amphibia, Anura).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsui, Masafumi; Hamidy, Amir; Eto, Koshiro

    2013-01-01

    We describe a microhylid frog from Bali, Indonesia as a new species, Microhyla orientalis sp. nov. It belongs to the M. achatina group and is close to M. mantheyi, M. malang, and M. borneensis. It is distinguished from its congeners by a combination of the following characters: small size (adult males about 16-17 mm in SVL); a faint vertebral stripe present; a black lateral stripe from behind eye to half length of trunk; snout rounded in profile; eyelid without supraciliary spines; first finger less than one-fifth of third; tips of three outer fingers weakly dilated, forming weak disks, dorsally with median longitudinal groove; outer palmar tubercle single; tibiotarsal articulation reaching up to center of eye; tips of toes distinctly dilated into disks, dorsally with median longitudinal groove; inner and outer metatarsal tubercles present; four or more phalanges on inner and outer sides of fourth toe, and three phalanges on inner side of fifth toe free of web; and tail of larva with a black marking at middle. The male advertisement call of the new species consists of a series of notes each lasts for 0.01-0.08 s and composed of 3-5 pulses with a dominant frequency of 3.2-3.6 kHz. Uncorrected sequence divergences between M. orientalis and all homologous 16S rRNA sequences available were > 6.6%. At present, the new species is known from rice fields between 435-815 m elevation in Wongaya Gede and Batukaru.

  2. Failure to transmit avian vacuolar myelinopathy to mallard ducks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsen, R.S.; Nutter, F.B.; Augspurger, T.; Rocke, T.E.; Thomas, N.J.; Stoskopf, M.K.

    2003-01-01

    Avian vacuolar myelinopathy (AVM) is a neurologic disease that has been diagnosed in free-ranging birds in the southeastern United States. Bald eagles (Haliaeetus leuocephalus), American coots (Fulica americana), and mallards (Anas platyrhynchos) have been affected. Previous investigations have not determined the etiology of this disease. In November and December 2002, we attempted to induce AVM in game-farmed mallards through four, 7-day exposure trials. Mallards were housed in six groups of eight, with two of these groups serving as controls. One group was housed with AVM-affected coots; one group was tube fed daily with water from the lake where affected coots were captured; one group was tube fed daily with aquatic vegetation (Hydrilla verticillata) from the same lake; and another group was tube fed daily with sediment from the lake. No ducks exhibited clinical neurologic abnormalities consistent with AVM and no evidence of AVM was present at histopathologic examination of brain tissue. Although limitations in sample size, quantity of individual doses, frequency of dose administration, duration of exposure, and timing of these trials restrict the interpretation of the findings, AVM was not readily transmitted by direct contact, water, hydrilla, or sediment in this investigation.

  3. [Distribution of aquatic birds in oxidation lagoons of La Paz city in South Baja California, Mexico].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamora-Orozco, Elvia Margarita; Carmona, Roberto; Brabata, Georgina

    2007-06-01

    Taxonomic composition, spatial and temporal distribution of aquatic birds in oxidation lagoons (LO) of La Paz city in south Baja California, Mexico, were determined during 24 censuses realized in two-week intervals (April/98-March/99). There are five lagoons of5 Ha each and 17 ha of terrains constantly flooded that serve as feeding areas for cattle and birds. One hundred twenty three species were observed, 75 of which were aquatic birds. A total of 46 041 observations were made (average 1 918 birds/census). Richness and abundance of aquatic birds were influenced mainly by migration of anatids and sandpipers. The first group had the greatest abundance due to its affinity towards fresh water bodies. The terrains were the favorite sites of dabbling ducks (Anas) and sandpipers. In contrast, two of the most abundant species (Oxyura jamaicensis, 12.5% of all species, and Fulica americana, 8.8 %) restricted their presence to the oxidation lagoons. LO presented a bird structure of its own and atypical, according to the dryness of the region.

  4. Nest survival of American Coots relative to grazing, burning, and water depths

    Science.gov (United States)

    Austin, Jane E.; Buhl, Deborah A.

    2011-01-01

    Water and emergent vegetation are key features influencing nest site selection and success for many marsh-nesting waterbirds. Wetland management practices such as grazing, burning, and water-level manipulations directly affect these features and can influence nest survival. We used model selection and before-after-control-impact approaches to evaluate the effects of water depth and four common land-management practices or treatments, i.e., summer grazing, fall grazing, fall burning, and idle (no active treatment) on nest survival of American coots (Fulica americana) nesting at Grays Lake, a large montane wetland in southeast Idaho. The best model included the variables year × treatment, and quadratic functions of date, water depth, and nest age; height of vegetation at the nest did not improve the best model. However, results from the before-after-control-impact analysis indicate that management practices affected nest success via vegetation and involved interactions of hydrology, residual vegetation, and habitat composition. Nest success in idled fields changed little between pre- and post-treatment periods, whereas nest success declined in fields that were grazed or burned, with the most dramatic declines the year following treatments. The importance of water depth may be amplified in this wetland system because of rapid water-level withdrawal during the nesting season. Water and land-use values for area ranchers, management for nesting waterbirds, and long-term wetland function are important considerations in management of water levels and vegetation.

  5. Characterization of Durham virus, a novel rhabdovirus that encodes both a C and SH protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allison, A B; Palacios, G; Travassos da Rosa, A; Popov, V L; Lu, L; Xiao, S Y; DeToy, K; Briese, T; Lipkin, W I; Keel, M K; Stallknecht, D E; Bishop, G R; Tesh, R B

    2011-01-01

    The family Rhabdoviridae is a diverse group of non-segmented, negative-sense RNA viruses that are distributed worldwide and infect a wide range of hosts including vertebrates, invertebrates, and plants. Of the 114 currently recognized vertebrate rhabdoviruses, relatively few have been well characterized at both the antigenic and genetic level; hence, the phylogenetic relationships between many of the vertebrate rhabdoviruses remain unknown. The present report describes a novel rhabdovirus isolated from the brain of a moribund American coot (Fulica americana) that exhibited neurological signs when found in Durham County, North Carolina, in 2005. Antigenic characterization of the virus revealed that it was serologically unrelated to 68 other known vertebrate rhabdoviruses. Genomic sequencing of the virus indicated that it shared the highest identity to Tupaia rhabdovirus (TUPV), and as only previously observed in TUPV, the genome encoded a putative C protein in an overlapping open reading frame (ORF) of the phosphoprotein gene and a small hydrophobic (SH) protein located in a novel ORF between the matrix and glycoprotein genes. Phylogenetic analysis of partial amino acid sequences of the nucleoprotein and polymerase protein indicated that, in addition to TUPV, the virus was most closely related to avian and small mammal rhabdoviruses from Africa and North America. In this report, we present the morphological, pathological, antigenic, and genetic characterization of the new virus, tentatively named Durham virus (DURV), and discuss its potential evolutionary relationship to other vertebrate rhabdoviruses. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Characterization of Durham virus, a novel rhabdovirus that encodes both a C and SH protein

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allison, A. B.; Palacios, G.; Rosa, A. Travassos da; Popov, V. L.; Lu, L.; Xiao, S. Y.; DeToy, K.; Briese, T.; Lipkin, W. Ian; Keel, M. K.; Stallknecht, D. E.; Bishop, G. R.; Tesh, R. B.

    2010-01-01

    The family Rhabdoviridae is a diverse group of non-segmented, negative-sense RNA viruses that are distributed worldwide and infect a wide range of hosts including vertebrates, invertebrates, and plants. Of the 114 currently recognized vertebrate rhabdoviruses, relatively few have been well characterized at both the antigenic and genetic level; hence, the phylogenetic relationships between many of the vertebrate rhabdoviruses remain unknown. The present report describes a novel rhabdovirus isolated from the brain of a moribund American coot (Fulica americana) that exhibited neurological signs when found in Durham County, North Carolina, in 2005. Antigenic characterization of the virus revealed that it was serologically unrelated to 68 other known vertebrate rhabdoviruses. Genomic sequencing of the virus indicated that it shared the highest identity to Tupaia rhabdovirus (TUPV), and as only previously observed in TUPV, the genome encoded a putative C protein in an overlapping open reading frame (ORF) of the phosphoprotein gene and a small hydrophobic protein located in a novel ORF between the matrix and glycoprotein genes. Phylogenetic analysis of partial amino acid sequences of the nucleoprotein and polymerase proteins indicated that, in addition to TUPV, the virus was most closely related to avian and small mammal rhabdoviruses from Africa and North America. In this report, we present the morphological, pathological, antigenic, and genetic characterization of the new virus, tentatively named Durham virus (DURV), and discuss its potential evolutionary relationship to other vertebrate rhabdoviruses. PMID:20863863

  7. Effects on wildlife of ethyl and methyl parathion applied to California rice fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Custer, T.W.; Hill, E.F.; Ohlendorf, H.M.

    1985-01-01

    Selected rice fields on the Sacramento National Wildlife Refuge Complex were aerially sprayed one time during May or June 1982 with either ethyl (0.11 kg Al/ha) or methyl (0.84 kg AI/ha) parathion for control of tadpole shrimp, Triops longicaudatus. No sick or dead vertebrate wildlife were found or adjacent to the treated rice fields after spraying. Specimens of the following birds and mammals were assayed for brain cholinesterase (ChE) activity to determine exposure to either form of parathion; house mouse, Mus musculus; black-tailed jackrabbit, Lepus californicus; mallard, Anas platyrhynchos; ring-necked pheasant, Phasianus colchicus; American coot, Fulica americana; and red-winged blackbird, Agelaius phoeniceus. Both mice and pheasants from methyl parathion-treated fields had overall mean ChE activities that were significantly (P < 0.05) inhibited compared with controls, and 7, 40, 54 and 57% of individual blackbirds, pheasant, mice, and coots, respectively, had inhibited brain ChE activities (i.e., less than -2 SD of control mean). Although no overall species effect was detected for ethyl parathoid treatment, pheasants (43%), coots (33%), and mice (37%) had significantly inhibited brain ChE activities. Neither of the parathion treatment appeared acutely hazardous to wildlife in or adjacent to rice fields, but sufficient information on potential hazards was obtained to warrant caution in use of these chemicals, especially methyl parathion, in rice fields.

  8. Effects of wildlife of ethyl and methyl parathion applied to California USA rice fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Custer, T.W.; Hill, E.F.; Ohlendorf, H.M.

    1985-01-01

    Selected rice fields on the Sacramento National Wildlife Refuge Complex were aerially sprayed one time during May or June 1982 with either ethyl (0.11 kg Al/ha) or methyl (0.84 kg AI/ha) parathion for control of tadpole shrimp, Triops longicaudatus. No sick or dead vertebrate wildlife were found or adjacent to the treated rice fields after spraying. Specimens of the following birds and mammals were assayed for brain cholinesterase (ChE) activity to determine exposure to either form of parathion; house mouse, Mus musculus; black-tailed jackrabbit, Lepus californicus; mallard, Anas platyrhynchos; ring-necked pheasant, Phasianus colchicus; American coot, Fulica americana; and red-winged blackbird, Agelaius phoeniceus. Both mice and pheasants from methyl parathion-treated fields had overall mean ChE activities that were significantly (P < 0.05) inhibited compared with controls, and 7, 40, 54 and 57% of individual blackbirds, pheasant, mice, and coots, respectively, had inhibited brain ChE activities (i.e., less than -2 SD of control mean). Although no overall species effect was detected for ethyl parathoid treatment, pheasants (43%), coots (33%), and mice (37%) had significantly inhibited brain ChE activities. Neither of the parathion treatment appeared acutely hazardous to wildlife in or adjacent to rice fields, but sufficient information on potential hazards was obtained to warrant caution in use of these chemicals, especially methyl parathion, in rice fields.

  9. Effects of lead exposure on oxidative stress biomarkers and plasma biochemistry in waterbirds in the field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez-Haro, Monica; Green, Andy J; Mateo, Rafael

    2011-05-01

    Medina lagoon in Andalusia has one of the highest densities of spent lead (Pb) shot in Europe. Blood samples from waterbirds were collected in 2006-2008 to measure Pb concentration (PbB), δ-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase (ALAD), oxidative stress biomarkers and plasma biochemistry. PbB above background levels (>20 μg/dl) was observed in 19% (n=59) of mallards (Anas platyrhynchos) and in all common pochards (Aythya ferina) (n=4), but common coots (Fulica atra) (n=37) and moorhens (Gallinula chloropus) (n=12) were all 6 μg/dl. In mallards, an inhibition of glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and an increased level of oxidized glutathione (oxGSH) in red blood cells (RBC) were associated with PbB levels >20 μg/dl. In coots, PbB levels were negatively related to vitamin A and carotenoid levels in plasma, and total glutathione in RBCs; and positively related with higher superoxide dismutase and GPx activities and % oxGSH in RBCs. Overall, the results indicate that previously assumed background levels of PbB for birds need to be revised. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Presence of plastic particles in waterbirds faeces collected in Spanish lakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gil-Delgado, J A; Guijarro, D; Gosálvez, R U; López-Iborra, G M; Ponz, A; Velasco, A

    2017-01-01

    Plastic intake by marine vertebrates has been widely reported, but information about its presence in continental waterfowl is scarce. Here we analyzed faeces of waterbirds species (European coot, Fulica atra, mallard, Anas platyrhynchos and shelduck, Tadorna tadorna) for plastic debris in five wetlands in Central Spain. We collected 89 faeces of shelduck distributed in four lakes, 43.8% of them presented plastic remnants. Sixty percent of 10 faeces of European coot and 45% of 40 faeces of mallard contained plastic debris. Plastic debris found was of two types, threads and fragments, and were identified as remnants of plastic objects used in agricultural fields surrounding the lakes. Differences in prevalence of plastic in faeces, number of plastic pieces per excrement and size of the plastic pieces were not statistically significant between waterfowl species. Thus, our results suggest that plastic may also be frequently ingested by waterfowl in continental waters, at least in our study area. Future studies should address this potential problem for waterbird conservation in other wetlands to evaluate the real impact of this pollutant on waterbirds living in inland water. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Diet of the White-Tailed Eagle During the Breeding Season in the Polesski State Radiation-Ecological Reserve, Belarus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valeri V. Yurko

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This article presents data on the diet of the White-Tailed Eagle (Haliaeetus albicilla collected during breeding seasons of 2006–2015 in the Polesski State Radiation-Ecological Reserve. The data included 127 records of prey remains belonging to 27 species of vertebrates collected in and under the nests. We discovered that the diet of the White-Tailed Eagle mainly consists of vertebrates of three classes: fishes (Pisces 48.1 %, birds (Aves 41.7 % and mammals (Mammalia 10.2 %. At the present, the main prey species in the diet of the White-Tailed Eagle in the breeding season are: Bream (Abramis brama – 22.0 %, Black Stork (Ciconia nigra – 12.6 %, Northern Pike (Esox lucius – 10.2 %, Wild Boar (Sus scrofa – 7.1 %, White Stork (Ciconia ciconia – 6.3 %, Mallard (Anas platyrhynchos – 5.5 % and Eurasian Coot (Fulica atra – 5.5 %. Together these species makes up 69.2 % or 2/3 of the diet of this raptor. We also established that cannibalism is a character feature of the local population of White-Tailed Eagle, and its proportion is 2.4 %.

  12. Nest Survival of American Coots Relative to Grazing, Burning, and Water Depths

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jane E. Austin

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Water and emergent vegetation are key features influencing nest site selection and success for many marsh-nesting waterbirds. Wetland management practices such as grazing, burning, and water-level manipulations directly affect these features and can influence nest survival. We used model selection and before-after-control-impact approaches to evaluate the effects of water depth and four common land-management practices or treatments, i.e., summer grazing, fall grazing, fall burning, and idle (no active treatment on nest survival of American coots (Fulica americana nesting at Grays Lake, a large montane wetland in southeast Idaho. The best model included the variables year × treatment, and quadratic functions of date, water depth, and nest age; height of vegetation at the nest did not improve the best model. However, results from the before-after-control-impact analysis indicate that management practices affected nest success via vegetation and involved interactions of hydrology, residual vegetation, and habitat composition. Nest success in idled fields changed little between pre- and post-treatment periods, whereas nest success declined in fields that were grazed or burned, with the most dramatic declines the year following treatments. The importance of water depth may be amplified in this wetland system because of rapid water-level withdrawal during the nesting season. Water and land-use values for area ranchers, management for nesting waterbirds, and long-term wetland function are important considerations in management of water levels and vegetation.

  13. Ducks change wintering patterns due to changing climate in the important wintering waters of the Odra River Estuary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dominik Marchowski

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Some species of birds react to climate change by reducing the distance they travel during migration. The Odra River Estuary in the Baltic Sea is important for wintering waterfowl and is where we investigated how waterbirds respond to freezing surface waters. The most abundant birds here comprise two ecological groups: bottom-feeders and piscivores. Numbers of all bottom-feeders, but not piscivores, were negatively correlated with the presence of ice. With ongoing global warming, this area is increasing in importance for bottom-feeders and decreasing for piscivores. The maximum range of ice cover in the Baltic Sea has a weak and negative effect on both groups of birds. Five of the seven target species are bottom-feeders (Greater Scaup Aythya marila, Tufted Duck A. fuligula, Common Pochard A. ferina, Common Goldeneye Bucephala clangula and Eurasian Coot Fulica atra, and two are piscivores (Smew Mergellus albellus and Goosander Mergus merganser. Local changes at the level of particular species vary for different reasons. A local decline of the Common Pochard may simply be a consequence of its global decline. Climate change is responsible for some of the local changes in the study area, disproportionately favoring some duck species while being detrimental to others.

  14. Our trials of recovering wetlands for waterbirds; Mizudori to mizube kankyo zukuri

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hasuo, S. [Chiba Prefectural Government Office, Chiba (Japan)

    1994-08-10

    This paper explains the ecology of wild birds, and describes a number of attempts at the Gyotoku wildlife sanctuary to build wetland environments for waterfowls to live. Many of wild birds use shallow marshy grounds, rivers, ponds, and tidelands as their place of living. There are not only birds living on fishes, but like wild ducks those living on plant seeds, algae on mud, and small animals. Others live on shellfishes and insects. Their environmental conditions for hatching and breeding are also a large factor. Among the `estuary area sets` where these environmental conditions are available, the continuation of tidelands is now endangered. One example is the Shinobazu pond in Ueno, Tokyo. Fulica, for example as a representative bird living at swamps, requires vegetation around its living area, affluent submerged plants, an open area with a radius of at least 200 meters to be available, and water depths from about 0.5 m to 2 m. At the Gyotoku wildlife sanctuary, long-lasting observations are continued at several test ponds having different conditions and water qualities. 4 figs.

  15. Recurring waterbird mortalities and unusual etiologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, Rebecca A.; Franson, J. Christian; Boere, Gerard C.; Galbraith, Colin A.; Stroud, David A.

    2006-01-01

    Over the last decade, the National Wildlife Health Center of the United States Geological Survey has documented various largescale mortalities of birds caused by infectious and non-infectious disease agents. Some of these mortality events have unusual or unidentified etiologies and have been recurring. While some of the causes of mortalities have been elucidated, others remain in various stages of investigation and identification. Two examples are discussed: 1) Leyogonimus polyoon (Class: Trematoda), not found in the New World until 1999, causes severe enteritis and has killed over 15 000 American Coot Fulica americana in the upper mid-western United States. The geographic range of this parasite within North America is predicted to be limited to the Great Lakes Basin. 2) In the early 1990s, estimates of up to 6% of the North American population of the Eared Grebe Podiceps nigricollis died at Salton Sea, California, with smaller mortalities occurring throughout the 1990s. Birds were observed to have unusual preening behaviour, and to congregate at freshwater drains and move onto land. Suggested etiologies included interactions of contaminants, immuno-suppression, an unusual form of a bacterial disease, and an unknown biotoxin. During studies carried out from 2000 to 2003, Eared Grebe mortality did not approach the level seen in the early 1990s and, although bacteria were identified as minor factors, the principal cause of mortality remains undetermined. The potential population impact of these emerging and novel disease agents is currently unknown.

  16. Estimating the cost-effectiveness of pneumococcal conjugate vaccination in Brazil Cálculo de la relación costo-efectividad de la vacuna conjugada antineumocócica en Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glaucia Vespa

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To compare the costs and benefits of pneumococcal conjugate vaccination compared with no vaccination from the perspectives of the health care system and society. METHODS: Using data from established sources, we estimated the incidence and mortality due to invasive pneumococcal disease, pneumonia, and acute otitis media (AOM for a hypothetical birth cohort of children from birth to 5 years. RESULTS: A universal pneumococcal conjugate vaccination program was estimated capable of annually avoiding 1 047 cases of invasive disease, 58 226 cases of pneumonia, and 209 862 cases of AOM. When herd immunity effects were considered, the program prevented 1.3 million cases of pneumococcal disease and over 7 000 pneumococcal deaths. At a vaccination cost of R$ 51.12 (US$ 26.35 per dose, vaccination would cost annually R$ 4 289 (US$ 2,211 per disability-adjusted life years averted. This does not take into account herd immunity effects. CONCLUSIONS: At the current vaccine price, conjugate vaccination could be a cost-effective investment compared to other options to control childhood diseases. Further analysis is required to determine whether vaccination at the current price is affordable to Brazil.OBJETIVO: Comparar los costos y los beneficios de la aplicación de la vacuna conjugada antineumocócica en comparación con la no vacunación, desde las perspectivas del sistema de salud y la sociedad. MÉTODOS: A partir de fuentes reconocidas, se estimaron la incidencia y la mortalidad por enfermedad neumocócica invasora, neumonía y otitis media aguda (OMA para una cohorte hipotética de niños desde su nacimiento hasta los 5 años. RESULTADOS: Se estimó que un programa de vacunación universal con una vacuna conjugada antineumocócica sería capaz de evitar anualmente 1 047 casos de la enfermedad invasora, 58 226 casos de neumonía y 209 862 casos de OMA. Si se considera el efecto de la inmunidad de grupo, el programa evitaría 1,3 millones de casos

  17. Sistemas de produção de grãos e incidência de plantas daninhas Weed incidence in grain production systems

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    G.S.A Castro

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available O sistema de semeadura direta e os diferentes sistemas de produção nele adotados podem contribuir para a supressão de plantas infestantes. Em razão disso, o objetivo do presente trabalho foi avaliar o controle de plantas daninhas em função de diferentes sistemas de produção de grãos. Os tratamentos utilizados foram: I. Sistema "safra-pousio" - soja/ pousio/milho/pousio/arroz/pousio/soja; II. Sistema "safra-adubo verde" - soja/milheto/ milho/guandu/arroz/crotalária/soja; III. Sistema "safra-safrinha" - soja/aveia-branca/milho/ feijão-da-seca/arroz/mamona/soja; IV. Sistema "safra - forrageira"- soja + braquiária/milho + braquiária/arroz + braquiária/soja. Em novembro de 2009 (após três safras agrícolas, foi realizado o levantamento de plantas daninhas infestantes. Para isso, foi utilizado um quadro (0,3 x 0,3 m, lançado aleatoriamente quatro vezes dentro de cada parcela. As plantas foram identificadas, bem como feita a determinação do número total das espécies invasoras, da massa seca e da porcentagem de controle das espécies de acordo com o sistema de produção. Foi realizada ainda a análise fitossociológica da comunidade de plantas daninhas infestantes. Os sistemas safra-adubo verde, safra-safrinha e safra-forrageira apresentaram bom controle de plantas infestantes quando comparados ao sistema safra-pousio. Portanto, a presença de algum tipo de cobertura é importante para manter as características do solo favorável e um bom controle de plantas invasoras.Tillage and other agricultural production systems can contribute to weed suppression. Thus, the objective of this study was to evaluate weed control using different grain production systems. The treatments were: I. "Harvest-fallow" System- soybean/fallow/corn/fallow/rice/ fallow/soybean; II. "Harvest-green manure" System-soybean/millet/maize/pigeon pea/rice/ Crotalaria/soybean; III. "Harvest-out of season" System-soy/white oats/corn/dry bean/rice/castor oil

  18. Estado de portador nasofaríngeo de Streptococcus pneumoniae en madres e hijos de la población indígena Panare del estado Bolívar, Venezuela Pneumococcal carriage in mothers and children of the Panare Amerindians from the State of Bolivar, Venezuela

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    T Bello González

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available En América del Norte, los grupos indígenas se han identificado como una población con un riesgo elevado de ser portadora de Streptococcus pneumoniae, así como de desarrollar enfermedad neumocócica invasora. Sin embargo, hay poca información con respecto a los indígenas de Latinoamérica. En el presente estudio se evaluó el estado de portador nasofaríngeo y la distribución de los serotipos de S. pneumoniae en madres e hijos de la población panare de Venezuela. Durante el mes de mayo de 2008 se obtuvieron 148 muestras nasofaríngeas de 64 madres y 84 niños menores de 5 años pertenecientes a 8 comunidades panare. Mediante procedimientos estándares se identificaron 65 cepas de S. pneumoniae. Dichas cepas fueron tipificadas por PCR múltiple, y sus patrones de sensibilidad a los antimicrobianos se determinaron por el método de difusión con discos. El 11% de las madres y el 69% de los niños eran portadores de S. pneumoniae. Los serotipos 6B (49%, 33F (21,5%, 6A (6%, 19A (3,1% y 23F (1,5% fueron los más frecuentes. El mismo serotipo se identificó en 3 de los 6 grupos madre-hijo/s colonizados. Todas las cepas fueron sensibles a la penicilina y el 13,7% fue resistente a los macrólidos. La elevada tasa de colonización en la población panare sugiere que los niños presentan un alto riesgo de desarrollar enfermedad invasora por S. pneumoniae; por lo tanto podrían beneficiarse de la vacunación. Cuatro serotipos de la vacuna conjugada (6B, 6A, 19A y 23F, que representaron el 58% de las cepas aisladas, estaban presentes en la población al momento del estudio. La resistencia a los antibióticos no se presenta como un problema dentro de esta población.In North America, the indigenous groups have been identified as a population with increased risk of pneumococcal colonization and pneumococcal invasive disease. However, little information is available from South American natives. In the present study we evaluated the nasopharyngeal

  19. Alienígenas na sala: o que fazer com espécies exóticas em trabalhos de taxonomia, florística e fitossociologia? Aliens in the room: what to do with exotic species in taxonomic, floristic and phytosociological studies?

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    Marcelo Freire Moro

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available A presença cada vez mais disseminada de organismos exóticos (muitos dos quais se tornam invasores nas diferentes regiões do planeta levou ao surgimento de uma linha de pesquisa na ecologia voltada às invasões biológicas. E para permitir a comunicação entre autores também foi desenvolvido um arcabouço terminológico. Mas, apesar disso, a terminologia relativa às bioinvasões tem sido ignorada por boa parte dos botânicos no Brasil. Há uma boa dose de confusão entre botânicos sobre o que seja uma espécie exótica, naturalizada, invasora, daninha e ruderal, levando ao uso inconsistente da terminologia. Além disso, diferentes autores têm adotado posturas praticamente opostas ao lidar com espécies exóticas em suas áreas de estudo, seja na preparação de tratamentos taxonômicos, seja na publicação de levantamentos florísticos e fitossociológicos. Enquanto alguns pesquisadores incluem em floras mesmo espécies cultivadas que não se reproduzem, outros excluem plantas invasoras comuns e conspícuas. Nós apresentamos aqui, em português, os principais conceitos relativos ao tema da bioinvasão e chamamos a atenção dos autores brasileiros para a necessidade de utilizar de modo consistente o arcabouço terminológico já existente na literatura. Também propomos a adoção de rótulos claros para informar quais espécies são exóticas na área estudada, diferenciando-as das nativas, e sugerimos critérios para ajudar botânicos a decidirem quando uma planta exótica deve ou não ser incluída em tratamentos taxonômicos ou levantamentos de florística.The ever-growing presence of exotic organisms (many of which become invasive throughout the planet has led to the emergence of biological invasions as a field of study within ecology. To enable communication between scientists in this field, a terminology has developed. However, this terminology has been ignored by many botanists in Brazil where there is confusion regarding

  20. Capim - gordura (Melinis minutiflora P. Beauv., uma gramínea exótica que compromete a recuperação de áreas degradadas em unidades de conservação Molasses grass (Melinis minutiflora P. Beauv., an exotic species compromising the recuperation of degraded areas in conservation units

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    Carlos Romero Martins

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available O capim-gordura, Melinis minutiflora, é uma gramínea de origem africana que invade áreas degradadas da região do Cerrado em detrimento das espécies nativas. A interferência do capim-gordura no processo de sucessão e o efeito da queimada controlada sobre essa gramínea foram estudados em uma cascalheira localizada no Parque Nacional de Brasília. O estudo foi realizado numa área experimental em que, em 1993, havia sido implantado um experimento para avaliar o estabelecimento de gramíneas nativas pela técnica do "coquetel de sementes". Mesmo não estando entre as espécies semeadas, o capim-gordura estabeleceu-se nas parcelas experimentais, onde se incorporou torta de mamona ou turfa. Metade das parcelas que apresentaram os melhores índices de cobertura do solo foi queimada no final da estação seca, em setembro de 1998. Em maio de 1999, oito meses após a queimada verificou-se redução da cobertura do substrato superior a 50%, em comparação com a cobertura antes da queimada. Nos anos subseqüentes, o índice de cobertura do substrato voltou a crescer, atingindo, em maio de 2001, os valores observados antes da queimada. Durante esse período, notou-se, nas parcelas queimadas e nãoqueimadas, aumento na contribuição do capim-gordura para o índice total de cobertura do solo, em detrimento das espécies nativas. O uso do fogo não foi eficaz no controle dessa invasora. Assim, em programas de recuperação de áreas degradadas em áreas protegidas é necessário controlar as espécies invasoras exóticas para permitir o estabelecimento de um maior número de espécies nativas do Cerrado.Melinis minutiflora is an African grass that invades degraded areas in the cerrado endangering native species. The effects of this invasion and of burning on Melinis minutiflora propagation were investigated in a gravel-mining pit, within the National Park of Brasilia. This study was conducted in an area where an experimental field was set up in 1993

  1. Diferenças morfológicas entre Amaranthus cruentus, cv. BRS Alegria, e as plantas daninhas A. hybridus, A. retroflexus, A. viridis e A. spinosus Morphological differences between Amaranthus cruentus, cv. BRS Alegria, and the weed species A. hybridus, A. retroflexus, A. viridis and A. spinosus

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    C.R. Spehar

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available O pseudocereal amaranto, com as espécies Amaranthus caudatus, A. cruentus e A. hypochondriacus, domesticado pelas populações indígenas antes que a América fosse descoberta, tem se adaptado aos sistemas produtivos dos cerrados. A planta apresenta panículas apicais, divididas em pequenos ramos com frutos do tipo pixídio, com uma semente cada. Estas germinam rapidamente em presença de umidade, após atingirem a maturação fisiológica. No início da fase vegetativa, o amaranto cultivado pode confundir-se com espécies de plantas daninhas do mesmo gênero (A. hybridus, A. retroflexus, A. viridis e A. spinosus, as quais estão associadas à expansão agrícola. As diferenças morfológicas tornam-se mais visíveis após o florescimento: ramificações com flores axilares e terminais, em contraste com o amaranto, no qual a inflorescência (panícula é apical; as sementes claras das espécies cultivadas contrastam com as das invasoras, que são escuras. BRS Alegria (A. cruentus, cultivar pioneiro no Brasil, apresenta plantas com 180 cm, das quais a panícula ocupa 48 cm; maturação fisiológica aos 90 dias; resistência ao acamamento; e 0,68 g por 1.000 sementes, com produção de 2,3 t ha¹ (sementes e 5,6 t ha-1 (biomassa total. As sementes nas plantas daninhas são menores, germinam gradativamente e podem permanecer no solo por muitos anos, infestando as áreas. As diferenças morfológicas detectadas na experimentação demonstram que as espécies são distinguíveis; elas contribuem para orientar a produção de sementes e o cultivo comercial de amaranto, enfatizando as características de adaptação, em contraste com as das invasoras do mesmo gênero botânico.The pseudocereal grain amaranth, with the species Amaranthus caudatus, A. ruentus e A. hypochondriacus, domesticated by indigenous populations before America was discovered, has shown adaptability to production systems in the Brazilian savannah. The plants present apical

  2. EVOLUCIÓN DE LA ENFERMEDAD MENINGOCÓCICA EN LA POBLACIÓN INFANTIL DE LA COMUNIDAD VALENCIANA (1996-2000. EFECTIVIDAD DE LA VACUNACIÓN ANTIMENINGOCÓCICA A+B

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    Mercedes Goicoechea Sáez

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available por serogrupo C en la Comunidad Valenciana durante 1996-1997 motivó la realización de una campaña de vacunación antimeningocócica A+C en la población de 18 meses a 19 años de edad (entre septiembre y diciembre de 1997. El objetivo de este estudio es analizar el impacto de la campaña en cuanto a la epidemiología, clínica, evolución de la enfermedad meningocócica y estado de vacunación de la población infantil con el fin de valorar la efectividad vacunal. Métodos: Los datos se obtuvieron de las historias clínicas de los niños menores de 15 años, que presentaron síntomas y signos clínicos sugestivos de enfermedad invasora con aislamiento de Neisseria. meningitidis y/o que cumplían con los criterios de definición de caso establecidos, atendidos en todos los hospitales públicos de la Comunidad Valenciana entre 1996-2000. La evolución de la incidencia se valoró mediante tasas de incidencia. La clínica y su evolución (secuelas y letalidad mediante la frecuencia y distribución por serogrupo y edad. La efectividad vacunal se calculó según la fórmula de Orestein. Resultados: Se registró un total de 302 casos de enfermedad invasora por N. meningitidis. La tasa de incidencia por serogrupo C en niños menores de 15 años disminuyó tras la campaña de vacunación desde 5,82/105 habitantes en 1997 a 1,68/105 habitantes en 1998. Tres años después de la campaña se ha vuelto a tasas similares a la época prevacunal, con un aumento por serogrupo B en los 2 últimos años. El 61% de las secuelas se da en menores de 5 años. La letalidad fue más elevada para el serogrupo C. La efectividad vacunal al tercer año tras la campaña ha sido del 83,7% para el grupo de 5-14 años y del 69,1% para el grupo de 19 meses-4 años. Conclusión: La vacuna polisacarídica se mostró efectiva para interrumpir el brote. La disminución de la incidencia del serogrupo C es atribuible a la efectividad vacunal obtenida.

  3. Evolución de la enfermedad meningocócica en la población infantil de la Comunidad Valenciana (1996-2000: Efectividad de la vacunación antimeningocócica A+C

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    Goicoechea Sáez Mercedes

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Fundamento: El incremento de la enfermedad meningocócica por serogrupo C en la Comunidad Valenciana durante 1996-1997 motivó la realización de una campaña de vacunación antimeningocócica A+C en la población de 18 meses a 19 años de edad (entre septiembre y diciembre de 1997. El objetivo de este estudio es analizar el impacto de la campaña en cuanto a la epidemiología, clínica, evolución de la enfermedad meningocócica y estado de vacunación de la población infantil con el fin de valorar la efectividad vacunal. Métodos: Los datos se obtuvieron de las historias clínicas de los niños menores de 15 años, que presentaron síntomas y signos clínicos sugestivos de enfermedad invasora con aislamiento de Neisseria. meningitidis y/o que cumplían con los criterios de definición de caso establecidos, atendidos en todos los hospitales públicos de la Comunidad Valenciana entre 1996-2000. La evolución de la incidencia se valoró mediante tasas de incidencia. La clínica y su evolución (secuelas y letalidad mediante la frecuencia y distribución por serogrupo y edad. La efectividad vacunal se calculó según la fórmula de Orestein. Resultados: Se registró un total de 302 casos de enfermedad invasora por N. meningitidis. La tasa de incidencia por serogrupo C en niños menores de 15 años disminuyó tras la campaña de vacunación desde 5,82/10(5 habitantes en 1997 a 1,68/10(5 habitantes en 1998. Tres años después de la campaña se ha vuelto a tasas similares a la época prevacunal, con un aumento por serogrupo B en los 2 últimos años. El 61% de las secuelas se da en menores de 5 años. La letalidad fue más elevada para el serogrupo C. La efectividad vacunal al tercer año tras la campaña ha sido del 83,7% para el grupo de 5-14 años y del 69,1% para el grupo de 19 meses-4 años. Conclusión: La vacuna polisacarídica se mostró efectiva para interrumpir el brote. La disminución de la incidencia del serogrupo C es atribuible a la

  4. Carbono, nitrogênio e fósforo microbiano do solo sob diferentes coberturas em pomar de produção orgânica de maçã no sul do Brasil Microbial carbon, nitrogen and phosphorus on soil under different mulchings in organic apple orchard in southern of Brazil

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    Denice Almeida

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available O uso de coberturas sobre o solo constitui-se em alternativa na prevenção de plantas invasoras nos plantios orgânicos que excluem a utilização de herbicidas. Entretanto, existem poucos estudos no sul do Brasil sobre a implicação da cobertura do solo em sua qualidade microbiológica. Assim, o objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar em duas épocas distintas o efeito de diferentes tipos de cobertura do solo nos atributos de carbono, nitrogênio e fósforo microbiano de um Latossolo com produção orgânica de maçã no sul do Brasil. O estudo foi realizado na Estação Experimental da Embrapa em Vacaria (RS em delineamento experimental de blocos ao acaso. As coberturas estudadas foram: acícula, serragem e plástico preto comparadas ao solo descoberto e com plantas invasoras. As amostras de solo foram coletadas em fevereiro (verão e agosto (inverno de 2006, sendo determinados atributos microbianos e químicos relacionados ao carbono, nitrogênio e fósforo. As coberturas orgânicas (acícula e serragem promoveram maior umidade e maiores teores de Cmic, Nmic, Corg, maior relação Cmic/Corg, Nmic/Ntotal e C/N microbiano. A cobertura com plástico preto e solo descoberto promoveu maior temperatura, nitrato, quociente metabólico e fósforo imobilizado na biomassa. Com base neste estudo e considerando a qualidade microbiana do solo as melhores coberturas foram as orgânicas.The use of soil mulching is an alternative in the prevention of weeds in organic orchard, which exclude the use of herbicides. However, there are few studies in southern Brazil on the impact of soil mulching in the soil microbiological quality. In this sense, the purpose of this study was to evaluate in two different seasons the effect of different types of soil mulching in the attributes of microbial carbon, nitrogen and phosphorus in a Typic Hapludox producing of organic apples in southern Brazil. The study was conducted at the Experimental Station of Embrapa in Vacaria, Rio

  5. Correção da acidez do solo e controle do capim-sapé Soil acidity correction and control of sapé-grass

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    Margarida Mesquita Carvalho

    2000-02-01

    Full Text Available RESUMO - Um experimento de campo foi realizado para verificar o efeito da correção da acidez do solo sobre o controle do capim-sapé (Imperata brasiliensis, gramínea invasora de pastagens. Pastagem de capim-gordura (Melinis minutiflora em Latossolo Vermelho-Amarelo, com intensa infestação de capim-sapé foi usada. Os tratamentos consistiram de cinco doses de calcário dolomítico (0, 1, 2, 4 e 6 t/ha, incorporado ao solo manualmente com auxílio de enxada, à profundidade de 20 cm, após gradagem das parcelas. Um tratamento extra, sem calcário e gradagem foi adotado. O delineamento experimental foi em blocos ao acaso com quatro repetições. No período de 33 meses de duração do experimento, foram feitos três cortes da vegetação aérea e duas amostragens de solo. Não houve efeito das doses de calcário sobre a produção de matéria seca do capim-sapé e das outras espécies (capim-gordura, Brachiaria decumbens e invasoras de folhas largas, apesar de terem ocorrido alterações nas características químicas do solo. A correção da acidez do solo, quando associada às correções das principais deficiências nutricionais, pode controlar o capim-sapé, ao estimular o crescimento das forrageiras.ABSTRACT - A field experiment was conducted to determine the effect of acid soil correction, on the control of the sapé (Imperata brasiliensis, a grass type weed of pasture. A molasses grass (Melinis minutiflora pasture in a red-yellow latosol, having a high proportion of "sapé" was used. Treatments consisted of five levels of dolomite limestone (0, 1, 2, 4 and 6 t/ha incorporated by hand using a garden tool to the top 20 cm of soil following a mechanical tillage of the plots (disking. An additional treatment without disking and without lime was adopted. The experimental design was randomized blocks with four replications. During the 33 months of the experimental period, three harvests and two soil samplings were performed. There were no

  6. Amebiasis: Epidemiología y Tratamiento

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    Alberto Albornoz Plata

    1986-08-01

    Full Text Available

    Introducción

    El concepto que se tenía hace varios años de “Enfermedades Tropicales” (se pensaba en un tipo de medicina exótica, como se llamaban en Europa, la malaria y amebiasis ha cambiado totalmente en la actualidad y específicamente para la amebiasis en el sentido de considerarla como enfermedad universal a la que puede ser susceptible cualquier ser humano que viva en cualquier sitio del mundo. Actualmente esta parasitosis cobra especial interés por los estudios inmunológicos, enzimáticos, epidemiológicos, metabólicos y terapéuticos que se desarrollan en centros muy especializados y se supone, con fundamento lógico, que no estará lejos el día en que se disponga de una vacuna eficaz contra esta enfermedad que ataca a muchas gentes, es causa de ausentismo al trabajo, incapacita por períodos largos a muchos pacientes por la complicación hepática y muchas veces es causa de mortalidad en los llamados casos de amebiasis invasora-fulminante.

    En este escrito solo se explicará lo referen te al aspecto epidemiológico y preventivo y, además, se hará énfasis para combatir ideas diagnósticas equivocadas con la entidad colon irritable.

    Al final se explicará el tratamiento actual de la amebiasis.

    Prevalencia y Susceptibilidad
    La amebiasis se considera como una enfermedad mundial, pero la mayor frecuencia es en aquellos lugares en donde las condiciones higiénicas ambientales son defectuosas, en especial lo referente al correcto suministro de agua potable, al buen tratamiento de las excretas y al control sanitario de los alimentos; por este motivo, en los países sub-desarrollados, o mejor subprivilegiados, y en las clases socio-económicas débiles, es donde más se encunetra esta enfermedad.

    Se ha calculado que en el mundo, el 20%de la población alberga la Endamoeba histolytica (l pero la gran mayoría no se consideran enfermos ya que son simplemente

  7. Familias de la proteína de superficie PspA de Streptococcus pneumoniae: Relación con serotipos y localización

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    Clara Mayoral

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available PspA, proteína de superficie de Streptococcus pneumoniae es un factor de virulencia, fuertemente inmunogénica y común a todos los serotipos. Aunque el gen que codifica para esta proteína presenta una marcada heterogeneidad en la región correspondiente al N-terminal, la PspA contiene epitopes conservados de manera tal que la inmunización genera protección contra neumococos pertenecientes a diversos tipos capsulares y con distintas PspA. A pesar del marcado polimorfismo del gen pspA es posible agrupar las distintas variantes en 3 familias mayoritarias. Estas propiedades las convierten en candidatas ideales para elaborar vacunas. Debido a que la mayoría de los trabajos sobre identificación de familias fueron realizados sobre serotipos frecuentes en otros países, el objetivo fue identificar las familias de PspA de aislamientos de pacientes de nuestra región y relacionarlas con los serotipos prevalentes y patologías. Se estudiaron 70 aislamientos, provenientes de niños con infecciones invasoras. Se aplicó una PCR utilizando cebadores específicos de cada familia. El 60% fueron familia 1 y 34% familia 2. En un 6% no se identificó ninguna de las familias de PspA. Los serotipos 1 y 5 presentaron familia 1 únicamente; los serotipos 14, 6B, 19F y 18C mostraron genes de ambas familias. La familia 1 se observó en 60% de las neumonías y 50% de las meningitis. La familia 2 en 33% de neumonías y 50% de meningitis. Esta información podría ser un valioso aporte para la formulación de una vacuna regional efectiva utilizando PspA recombinante como inmunógeno.

  8. Utilização de um veículo aéreo não-tripulado em atividades de imageamento georeferenciado On the use of unmanned aerial vehicle for acquisition of georrefecend image data

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    Fabrício Ardais Medeiros

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho teve por objetivo desenvolver subsídios para propor um procedimento alternativo para aquisição de dados, telemetria, monitoramento e georeferenciamento das atividades agrícolas, por meio da acoplagem de equipamentos eletrônicos a um Veículo Aéreo Não-Tripulado (VANT. Para tal, foi desenvolvido um VANT na Universidade Federal de Santa Maria, no qual foram acoplados equipamentos para a coleta de imagens e a aquisição de pontos de referência. O equipamento desenvolvido mostrou imenso potencial para ser utilizado como ferramenta auxiliar na localização de áreas com falhas de germinação, na infestação de invasoras e no mapeamento de área. O maior entrave a um melhor emprego deste equipamento refere-se à baixa qualidade das imagens geradas, mostrando a necessidade de reavaliações do aparato utilizado.The aim of this study consisted in developing and testing an alternative procedure for data acquisition, telemetry, monitoring and geo-referencing in agricultural fields. The proposed approach was implemented by placing dedicated electronic gear onboard Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAV. For this purpose an UAV was assembled at the Federal University in Santa Maria, Brazil and equipped with the required hardware for image and control points acquisition. Tests have shown that the proposed approach can be regarded as a valuable tool to detect areas affected by faulty germination, weed infestation and mapping in general. The tests have also shown that poor quality of the acquired image data was the main drawback in the equipment onboard the UAV, pointing to the need to reevaluate the system with regard to this particular aspect.

  9. Propagação vegetativa e potencial paisagístico de uma verbena rasteira

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    CAROLINE CHITOLINA DE CAMPOS

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Verbenas rasteiras são facilmente encontradas em terrenos baldios e beiras de barrancos. Apresentam folhas de tom verde-escuro e inflorescências violeta, e possuem características de rusticidade e adaptabilidade que demonstram sua viabilidade para uso em paisagismo. O presente artigo teve por objetivo avaliar a propagação vegetativa de uma planta rasteira da família Verbenaceae e demonstrar seu valor ornamental. Para tanto, realizou-se a classificação taxonômica e a propagação vegetativa por estaquia com a utilização de dois substratos, um com casca de arroz carbonizada apenas e outro formado por solo mineral, composto orgânico e casca de arroz carbonizada (1+1+0,5, e cinco doses de AIB (0, 150, 300, 450 e 600 ppm, com avaliação do percentual de enraizamento. Avaliou-se o potencial ornamental e paisagístico das mudas instaladasem canteiro com medições de altura e diâmetro da planta, bem como a ocorrência de plantas invasoras. Os valores obtidos na estaquia mostraram que a dose de 600 ppm e o substrato com solo mineral apresentaram melhores resultados no enraizamento das estacas. Em canteiro, os resultados demonstraram o rápido crescimento das mudas com intensa emissão de estolões e fechamento do espaço em 105 dias. Esta espécie rústica, Glandularia marrubioides (Cham. Tronc. cf., apresenta alto potencial ornamental e paisagístico como forração em áreas degradadas e em declive.

  10. Increase in quantity and quality of suitable areas for invasive species as climate changes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertelsmeier, Cleo; Luque, Gloria M; Courchamp, Franck

    2013-12-01

    As climatically suitable range projections become increasingly used to assess distributions of species, we recommend systematic assessments of the quality of habitat in addition to the classical binary classification of habitat. We devised a method to assess occurrence probability, captured by a climatic suitability index, through which we could determine variations in the quality of potential habitat. This relative risk assessment circumvents the use of an arbitrary suitability threshold. We illustrated our method with 2 case studies on invasive ant species. We estimated invasion potential of the destroyer ant (Monomorium destructor) and the European fire ant (Myrmica rubra) on a global scale currently and by 2080 with climate change. We found that 21.1% of the world's landmass currently has a suitable climate for the destroyer ant and 16% has a suitable climate for European fire ant. Our climatic suitability index showed that both ant species would benefit from climate change, but in different ways. The size of the potential distribution increased by 35.8% for the destroyer ant. Meanwhile, the total area of potential distribution remained the same for the European fire ant (>0.05%), but the level of climatic suitability within this range increased greatly and led to an improvement in habitat quality (i.e., of invasive species' establishment likelihood). Either through quantity or quality of suitable areas, both invasive ant species are likely to increase the extent of their invasion in the future, following global climate change. Our results show that species may increase their range if either more areas become suitable or if the available areas present improved suitability. Studies in which an arbitrary suitability threshold was used may overlook changes in area quality within climatically suitable areas and as a result reach incorrect predictions. Incremento de la Cantidad y Calidad de Áreas Idóneas para Especies Invasoras a Medida que Cambia el Clima.

  11. Description of the immature stages of the planthopper Lacertinella australis (Hemiptera: Delphacidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batiz, M. F. Rossi; Marino de Remes Lenicov, A. M.; Hagedorn, Henry

    2014-01-01

    Abstract The five immature stages of the planthopper Lacertinella australis (Remes Lenicov and Rossi Batiz) (Hemiptera: Delphacidae: Saccharosydnini) are described and illustrated. The main characters that allowed us to distinguish the various stages were body size, number of tarsomeres and metatibial spines, and number of teeth on the spur. New biological data based on laboratory rearing and field observations showed that L. australis can carry out its biological cycle successfully on the graminaceous pampas grass ( Cortaderia spp. Stapf (Poales: Poaceae)). In addition, the efficient rearing in captivity, the high survivorship registered, and overwintering only on this host plant suggests that L. australis is a potential biocontrol agent of this invasive graminaceous weed. This study provides information about the immature stages , including a key for their identification, based on laboratory reared specimens and field observations. Resumen Se describen e ilustran las cinco etapas inmaduras de la especie de Saccharisydnini Lacertinella australis (Remes Lenicov and Rossi Batiz) (Hemiptera: Delphacidae). Los principales caracteres que permitieron distinguir las diferentes etapas fueron: tamaño corporal, número de espinas en los tarsómeros y metatibia y número de dientes en el espolón tibial. Nuevos datos biológicos, basados en la cría de laboratorio y observaciones de campo, mostraron que L. australis puede realizar su ciclo biológico exitosamente en la graminácea cortadera ( Cortaderia spp. Stapf (Poales: Poaceae)). Además, la eficiente crianza en cautive-rio y la alta supervivencia registrada en esta planta hospedera, sugieren que L. australis podría ser usada como un potencial agente de control biológico de esta maleza invasora. Este estudio proporciona informa-ción sobre las etapas inmaduras, incluyendo una clave para su identificación, basada en individuos provenientes de la cría de laboratorio y de campo. PMID:25199992

  12. Código de barras del ADN y sus posibles aplicaciones en el campo de la Entomología

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    Analía A. LANTERI

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available En este artículo se abordan algunos aspectos de la controversia sobre la iniciativa «Código de barras del ADN», y se hace hincapié en sus potenciales aplicaciones en Entomología. Esta iniciativa propone emplear información dentro de una misma región génica (gen mitocondrial de la Citocromo c Oxidasa I = COI, en todas las especies vivientes y con condiciones de secuenciación universalmente aceptadas y estandarizadas. En la actualidad, no pretende sustituir la taxonomía alfa y la filogenia sino agilizar las tareas de identificación, especialmente en el campo de la Biomedicina (identificación de patógenos, parásitos y vectores, el control de plagas (intercepción de especies invasoras, cualquiera sea su estado de desarrollo ontogenético y los estudios sobre conservación de la biodiversidad. Para arribar a una correcta delimitación de las especies biológicas es preciso contar con las secuencias de COI de numerosos individuos a lo largo de todo su rango geográfico y además, secuencias de genes nucleares e información morfológica y biológica detallada. Las «Unidades Evolutivas Significativas», identificadas sobre la base del «código de barras», podrían corresponder tanto a morfoespecies como a especies crípticas y a subespecies o linajes con diferentes preferencias de huéspedes. La integración del «código de barras del ADN», el trabajo de campo, las colecciones de museos y la investigación científica resultan imprescindibles para que esta herramienta redunde en avances significativos en el campo de la Sistemática Entomológica.

  13. Caracterización molecular de aislamientos invasores colombianos de Streptococcus pneumoniae serotipo 5 recuperados entre 1994 y 2004.

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    Carolina Firacative

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Introducción. Streptococcus pneumoniae serotipo 5 es causa importante de enfermedad invasora en Colombia, donde se ha demostrado la circulación del clon 19-Colombia(5 susceptible a penicilina pero resistente a tetraciclina y a cloranfenicol. Objetivo. Establecer las relaciones genéticas de aislamientos invasores colombianos de S. pneumoniae serotipo 5 recuperados entre 1994 y 2004 con el clon 19-Colombia(5. Materiales y métodos. Se estudiaron 83 aislamientos que tenían datos de susceptibilidad a penicilina, vancomicina, ceftriaxona, eritromicina, trimetoprim sulfametoxazol, cloranfenicol y tetraciclina, de los cuales 29 fueron obtenidos de niños menores de cinco años. El patrón de restricción del ADN se determinó por electroforesis en gel de campo pulsado, usando la enzima Sma I. La similitud genética entre los aislamientos y el clon se estableció según los criterios de Tenover y utilizando el programa Fingerprinting II. Resultados. Todos los aislamientos se relacionaron con el clon 19-Colombia5 y se agruparon en el patrón electroforético A con 17 subtipos. El patrón A se estableció en 32 aislamientos (38,6%, el A8 en 18 (21,7% y el A5 en 10 (12%, los 15 patrones restantes agruparon los otros 23 aislamientos. Los 34 aislamientos resistentes a tetraciclina y cloranfenicol mostraron relación con los patrones electroforéticos A (n = 32, A16 (n = 1 y A28 (n = 1, caracterizados, al igual que el clon, por presentar una banda de 340 Kb. Conclusión. Estos resultados muestran la circulación continua en el país de aislamientos de S. pneumoniae serotipo 5 genéticamente relacionados con el clon 19-Colombia(5.

  14. Especies del género Tamarix (Tamaricaceae invadiendo ambientes naturales y seminaturales en Argentina Tamarix species (Tamaricaceae invading natural and seminatural habitats in Argentina

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    E. S. Natale

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available El género Tamarix incluye especies con antecedentes como invasores agresivos en ambientes naturales de Estados Unidos, México y Australia. Su presencia en Argentina es conocida desde hace mucho tiempo, cultivado como ornamental, cortina corta-vientos o para sombra o creciendo de manera espontánea. Estudios previos citan un número variable de especies del género como cultivadas en el país, este trabajo aclara confusiones relacionadas con sinonimias, confirmando la presencia de cuatro especies en el país: T. gallica, T. ramosissima, T. chinensis y T. parviflora, las tres primeras registradas colonizando ambientes naturales o seminaturales. Se describen las especies del género citadas para Argentina y se provee una clave para su identificación. Se presenta la distribución conocida hasta el momento del género y se incluyen mapas con la ubicación de poblaciones establecidas e invasoras de cada especie a nivel nacional.The genus Tamarix includes species behaving as aggressive invaders in the USA, México and Australia. Previous studies report a variable number of species of this genus cultivated in Argentina as ornamentals, wind-break or for shadow, or growing spontaneously. This work makes clear some confusion related to synonyms and confirms the presence of four species in our country: T. gallica, T. ramosissima, T. chinensis and T. parviflora, the former three recorded colonizing natural and semi-natural habitats. A description of these species is given, together with a key for their identification, and information of their geographical distribution in Argentina, including maps showing the occurrence of established and invasive populations.

  15. El efecto de las plantaciones forestales sobre el funcionamiento de los ecosistemas sudamericanos / The effect of tree plantations on south american ecosystems functioning

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    Germán Baldi

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available El establecimiento de plantaciones forestales sobre áreas bajo vegetaciónoriginal o uso agrícolo-ganadero se expande en la mayoría de los países de Sudamérica, incentivado por los altos rendimientos, el apoyo fi scal y por el inminente comercio de bonos de carbono. En este trabajo se evaluócómo esta transformación afecta la producción de biomasa y la dinámicadel agua sintetizando información preexistente y original. Mediciones satelitales muestran que el “Índice de Vegetación de DiferenciasNormalizadas” (NDVI de las plantaciones forestales superó a la dela matriz del paisaje agrícolo-ganadera en todos los países y regiones ecológicas analizadas y –con excepción de los bosques valdivianos- a todos los tipos de vegetación original. A escala regional, este aumento enla productividad fue acompañado en el litoral del Río Uruguay por una mayor evapotranspiración y un menor rendimiento hidrológico que redujoa la mitad el caudal de cuencas forestadas, en acuerdo con lo observado en pastizales forestados de la región. Es apremiante generar informaciónacerca de otros impactos de las forestaciones tales como cambios en la dinámica del fuego y el avance de especies invasoras. Reconocer integralmente la infl uencia de las forestaciones sobre la producción de servicios y bienes permitirá plantear sistemas y políticas forestales más sustentables y útiles para la sociedad.

  16. Detección de aves exóticas en parques urbanos del centro de México

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    Rubén Pineda-López

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Las áreas arboladas urbanas son utilizadas por algunas aves invasoras en su proceso de colonización; la detección temprana de estas especies es una acción necesaria para su vigilancia y control. Utilizamos un muestreo rápido en parques urbanos, que requiere de poco tiempo de planeación y ejecución, como una forma de detección de aves que actualmente aumentan su distribución en México: Streptopelia decaocto (paloma de collar, Myiopsitta monachus (perico monje, Turdus rufopalliatus (mirlo dorso rufo y Sturnus vulgaris (estornino pinto. Realizamos los muestreos en la mayoría de los parques de las ciudades de León de los Aldama, Guanajuato, Aguascalientes y Santiago de Querétaro. Presentamos los primeros registros de M. monachus, T. rufopalliatus y S. vulgaris para la ciudad de León de los Aldama; así como de M. monachus en la de Guanajuato. Además, en Santiago de Querétaro registramos las cuatro especies buscadas; a T. rufopalliatus en Guanajuato, y a S. vulgaris en Aguascalientes. Analizamos las variables asociadas con la presencia de las especies, así como el establecimiento de las especies en cada ciudad en relación con la proporción de parques en que se presentan. Sugerimos que este método es útil para evaluar la distribución actual de estas especies en México y proveer de conocimiento básico para futuros estudios.

  17. Candidiasis hepatoesplénica en un paciente con leucemia mieloide aguda Hepatosplenic candidiasis in acute myeloid leukemia

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    A. Larregina

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available La candidiasis diseminada crónica, principalmente en su variedad hepatoesplénica, es una de las formas clínicas más características de infección invasora por Candida en pacientes hematológicos. Se presenta el caso clínico de un varón de 31 años, con leucemia mieloide aguda (LMA M2, internado en el Servicio de Clínica Médica del hospital, que luego del tratamiento quimioterápico de inducción y consolidación presentó neutropenia febril leve. La candidiasis hepatoesplénica fue diagnosticada por tomografía axial computada (TAC y biopsia hepática. El enfermo fue tratado con anfotericina B, seguida de la forma liposomal hasta completar los 4 g. Se le dió el alta en espera de transplante de médula ósea. En este paciente se demostró que la sospecha temprana de candidiasis hepatoesplénica ayudó en la elección de un método de diagnóstico precoz y a su correcto tratamiento.Chronic diseminated candidiasis - mainly its hepatosplenic form- is one of the most characteristic invasive infection due to Candida in haematological patients. A case is presented of a 31 year old man admitted to the Clinical Department with acute mieloid leukosis M2, showing febrile neutropenia after induction and consolidation chemotherapy. Hepatoesplenic candidiasis was diagnosed and confirmed by computered axial tomography (CAT and hepatic biopsy; amphotericin B followed by liposome encapsuled amphotericin B up to complete a total dose of 4 g was used for treatment. The patient was discharged waiting for bone marrow transplantation. Early suspicion of hepatosplenic candidiasis helps to select a rapid diagnosis method and an effective treatment.

  18. Ojo de buey en tomografía hepática.

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    Jorge Alberto Cortés

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available Las infecciones micóticas invasoras se presentan con mayor frecuencia en pacientes con neutropenia posterior al uso de quimioterapia para el tratamiento del cáncer. Se presenta una paciente de 4 años con diagnóstico de leucemia linfoide aguda, quien, luego de la quimioterapia, desarrolló neutropenia febril y diarrea. Recibió tratamiento antibiótico y antimicótico de amplio espectro. Se aisló Candida albicans y se observaron trofozoítos de Entamoeba histolytica en la materia fecal. La paciente desarrolló candidiosis crónica diseminada que fue tratada con anfotericina B y, posteriormente, con fluconazol. Se ilustra la imagen tomográfica conocida como 'ojo de buey' y su correspondiente estudio histopatológico. Candida spp. es la levadura más común en pacientes inmunosuprimidos con tumores hematológicos que reciben quimioterapia. La candidiosis diseminada que se presenta en estos pacientes persiste y se hace evidente clínicamente una vez se resuelve la neutropenia; se denomina candidiosis crónica diseminada. En la paciente se presentaron varios factores de riesgo, como el tratamiento previo con antibióticos de amplio espectro, la colonización del tracto gastrointestinal por Candida y la neutropenia prolongada. El diagnóstico por imagen se hace principalmente por ecografía, tomografía axial computarizada y resonancia magnética. Se han descrito cuatro patrones tanto ecográficos como tomográficos, de los cuales se destacan el tipo 1 ('ruedas entre ruedas' y el tipo 2 ('ojo de buey', que son característicos de

  19. Papel actual de la técnica de acceso Heart Port™ en la cirugía valvular

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    María Jesús López-Gude

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available En los últimos 15 años se han desarrollado nuevas tecnologías en cirugía cardíaca para evitar la incisión más frecuente, la esternotomía media, o la circulación extracorpórea, intentando así realizar una cirugía menos invasora. Entre estas técnicas se sitúa la cirugía mediante puertos o Heart Port™. Los principales beneficios de esta técnica radican, entre otros, en la disminución del traumatismo quirúrgico, lo que se asocia a una disminución del dolor postoperatorio y de la estancia hospitalaria así como a una mayor satisfacción de los pacientes desde un punto de vista estético. La cirugía valvular mitral y/o tricúspide de mínimo acceso es, en la actualidad, una técnica reproducible y segura, que puede desarrollarse con una morbimortalidad semejante a la técnica convencional, considerándose a día de hoy una opción válida de tratamiento para cualquier paciente sometido a una cirugía de sustitución o reparación mitral o tricúspide. En este artículo se describen las peculiaridades de la técnica quirúrgica y se analizan los resultados en cuanto a morbimortalidad postoperatoria de las diferentes series publicadas.

  20. Seguimiento a mujeres con resultado citológico positivo en una Empresa Social del Estado - ESE, Medellín, Colombia, 2011- 2012

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    Marleny Valencia Arredondo

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available En Colombia el cáncer cérvico-uterino (Cacu es una de las principales causas de muerte. Anualmente se diagnostican 7.000 casos y se registran 3.300 muertes, el 50% por diagnóstico tardío y falta de acceso a tratamientos especializados. Objetivo: describir el seguimiento a mujeres con resultado citológico positivo en una ESE de Medellín, 2011-2012. Metodología: estudio descriptivo transversal en 277 mujeres con resultado citológico positivo para lesiones sugestivas de alto grado y/o alteraciones glandulares. Se empleó muestreo estratificado y sistemático. Se utilizaron fuentes de información primaria y secundaria. La sistematización de datos se realizó en el programa SPSS, y se calcularon medidas de frecuencia, tendencia central y dispersión. Se empleó análisis descriptivo uni-bivariado para variables sociodemográficas, clínicas y relacionadas con la atención recibida. Resultados: el 10,7% de mujeres con lesiones de alto grado o invasoras no culminaron el tratamiento. La oportunidad total del seguimiento fue del 52,3% y las fases con mayores tiempos de espera para la atención fueron las citas para diagnóstico y tratamiento. Conclusión: A pesar de los esfuerzos para mejorar la cobertura del cribado y búsqueda activa de pacientes con citología positiva evidenciada en el estudio aún se presentan obstáculos en la atención de pacientes para un diagnóstico y tratamiento oportuno, lo que lleva en varios casos al avance de la enfermedad e incluso la muerte.

  1. Alelopatia de Camelina sativa Boiss. (Brassicaceae sobre a germinação e desenvolvimento inicial de Bidens pilosa (L. e Glycine max (L. Merr

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    Jéssica da Silva

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/2175-7925.2011v24n4p17 O presente trabalho buscou avaliar a possível presença de potencial alelopático na camelina, bem como o seu efeito sobre a germinação e o desenvolvimento inicial de plântulas de soja e picão-preto, a fim de verificar a possibilidade do cultivo dela com a soja no sistema de rotação de culturas e de seu uso como herbicida. Os experimentos foram realizados no Laboratório de Fisiologia Vegetal da Universidade Estadual do Oeste do Paraná, Cascavel, Paraná. O delineamento foi inteiramente casualizado e as avaliações realizadas diariamente. Os parâmetros avaliados foram: porcentagem de germinação, tempo e velocidade média de germinação e comprimento médio de raiz. Os dados obtidos foram submetidos ao Teste F e as médias comparadas pelo Teste de Tukey, a 5% de probabilidade. Os resultados obtidos comprovam a presença de potencial alelopático na camelina. Foi verificado que esta espécie pode ser considerada uma opção para o cultivo com a soja devido à interferência alelopática positiva provocada na cultura e ainda, que ela apresenta capacidade para utilização no controle de plantas invasoras como o picão-preto, já que atuou atrasando o desenvolvimento das plântulas testadas.

  2. Interferência entre espécies de planta daninha e duas cultivares de feijoeiro em duas épocas de semeadura Interference between weed species and two bean cultivars in two times of sowing

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    Arthur Arrobas Martins Barroso

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available O Brasil é o maior produtor mundial de feijão, mas a interferência das plantas daninhas pode causar reduções de produtividade entre 15% e 80%, devido a fatores como cultivar de feijoeiro e espécies de plantas daninhas presentes na área. Objetivou-se com este trabalho avaliar os efeitos de seis espécies de plantas daninhas sobre o crescimento e a produtividade de duas cultivares de feijoeiro, em duas safras. Observou-se que as plantas eudicotiledôneas causam maior interferência na cultura, principalmente Amaranthus viridis e Raphanus raphanistrum. Todas causam perdas na produção do feijoeiro, exceto Eleusine indica, a menos competitiva. A cultivar ´Rubi´ é mais produtiva e mais competitiva que a ´Carioca´, e a maior produtividade é atingida na safra da seca. A escolha da cultivar e da data correta para a semeadura podem ser estratégias de manejo no controle de invasoras.Brazil is the world's largest producer of bean, but weed interference can cause yield losses between 15 to 80% due several factors such as bean cultivar and weed species in the area. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of six weed species on growth and productivity of two bean cultivars, in two sowing seasons. It was observed that the dicot plants cause more interference in the crop, especially Amaranthus viridis and Raphanus raphanistrum. All cause losses in bean yield except Eleusine indica that was less competitive. The ´Rubi´ bean cultivar is more productive and competitive than ´Carioca´, and the higher production is achieved during the drought sowing season. The choice of cultivar and correct season for sowing may be management strategy as in weeds control.

  3. Phylogeny and revision of Erpobdelliformes (Annelida, Arhynchobdellida from Mexico based on nuclear and mithochondrial gene sequences. Filogenia y revisión de los Erpobdelliformes (Annelida, Arhynchobdellida de México, con base en secuencias de ADN nuclear y mitocondrial

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    Alejandro Oceguera-Figueroa

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available The phylogenetic relationships of the suborder Erpobdelliformes, a group of non-sanguivorous leeches, were investigated with the use of mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I, mitochondrial 12S rDNA and nuclear 18S rDNA. The resulting hypothesis indicates that Erpobdellidae and Salifidae are monophyletic and each other closest relatives. We detect, for first time in leeches, intra-specific variation of similar amount than inter-specific variation. We formally resurrect the name Erpobdella mexicana, proposed by Dugès for Mexican specimens, and recommend the use of the name Erpobdella ochoterenai rather than Erpobdella microstoma for Mexican specimens. We record an invasive species of the family Salifidae: Barbronia arcana in Mexico, representing the first record of the species outside Australia, first record of the family in Mexico and third in the New World.Se estudian las relaciones filogenéticas del suborden Erpobdelliformes, un grupo de sanguijuelas no hematófagas de vertebrados, con base en secuencias de la subunidad I del citocromo c oxidasa del ADN mitocondrial, 12S ADNr del ADN mitocondrial y 18S ADNr del ADN nuclear. La hipótesis resultante señala que las familias Salifidae y Erpobdellidae son monofiléticas y hermanas entre sí. Se detecta por primera vez en sanguijuelas variación interespecífica de magnitud similar a la variación interespecífica. Formalmente se reslece el nombre empleado por Dugès: Erpobdella mexicana para las formas mexicanas, así como se argumenta sobre el uso del nombre Erpobdella ochoterenai en lugar de Erpobdella microstoma para las formas mexicanas. Se registra a una especie invasora de la familia Salifidae en México: Barbronia arcana, el cual constituye el primer registro de la especie fuera de Australia, primer registro de la familia en México y tercero en el continente americano.

  4. Intoxicação experimental por Indigofera suffruticosa em caprinos e ovinos

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    Anna P.M. de Figueiredo

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Indigofera suffruticosa é uma planta invasora, ção. Em um caprino e um ovino foram realizados os testes que causa anemia hemolítica com hemoglobinúria em bo-de fragilidade osmótica, determinação de hemoglobina e vinos e, experimentalmente, anemia sem hemoglobinúria metemoglobina e pesquisa de corpúsculos de Heinz. Foi em cobaios. O objetivo deste trabalho foi determinar a comprovado que em caprinos e ovinos, I. suffruticosa cautoxicidade de I. suffruticosa para caprinos e ovinos. Par-sa anemia hemolítica sem hemoglobinúria com formação tes aéreas da planta foram administradas a seis caprinos de corpúsculos de Heinz. Os animais recuperaram-se da e quatro ovinos em doses diárias de 10, 20 e 40g por kg anemia, total ou parcialmente, mesmo com a continuidade de peso vivo, durante períodos de 2 a 24 dias. Foram ava-da administração da planta. Oito a 12 horas após a coleliados os parâmetros hematológicos (hematócrito, níveis ta observa-se pigmento azulado na urina. Sugere-se que o de hemoglobina e contagem de hemácias e foi coletada pigmento seja anilina ou algum metabolito dessa substânurina para urinálise e observação de variações na coloracia e que a anilina seja o princípio ativo responsável pela hemólise causada por I. suffruticosa.

  5. A casual alien plant new to Mediterranean Europe: Ceiba speciosa (Malvaceae in the suburban area of Palermo (NW Sicily, Italy

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    Pasta, Salvatore

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The abiotic and biotic characteristics of the first sites where floss silk tree behaves as a casual alien plant in the Mediterranean Europe are described. The species was probably first planted in botanical gardens of southern France few decades before mid XIX century. It was introduced in Palermo in 1896, a city which appears to match very well its climatic requirements. According to the available information on its biology and ecology in both its original and secondary range, the floss silk tree should not become an invasive alien plant in the Mediterranean. Nevertheless, several gaps need to be filled in order to increase our understanding of future trends of Ceiba speciosa in southern Europe, in particular, the eventual role of pollinators and seed dispersers outside the species’ natural range.Se describen las caracteristicas abióticas y bióticas de los primeros sitios del mediterráneo europeo donde el árbol palo borracho se encuentra creciendo como especie alóctona casual. Con respecto a la historia de su introducción, esta especie fue probablemente plantada en los jardines botánicos del sur de Francia unos pocos decenios antes de la mitad del siglo XIX. En 1896, sin embargo, fue introducida en Palermo, ciudad que parece satisfacer muy bien sus requerimientos climáticos. De acuerdo con la información disponible, tanto dentro como fuera de su área de distribución natural, el palo borracho no debería convertirse en planta invasora en el mediterráneo. Sin embargo, algunos vacíos de información deben ser completados antes de establecer su potencial invasor de una manera definitiva, particularmente, el posible papel de agentes polinizadores y dispersores fuera del área de distribución natural de la especie.

  6. GENETIC STATUS, SOURCE AND ESTABLISHMENT RISK OF THE GIANT TIGER SHRIMP (PENAEIDAE: Penaeus monodon, AN INVASIVE SPECIES IN COLOMBIAN CARIBBEAN WATERS

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    J.C. AGUIRRE-PABÓN

    2015-01-01

    El camarón tigre (Penaeus monodon es una especie del Indo-Pacífico. Su producción mundial entre 1970 y 1980 superó todas las otras especies de camarón, lo que favoreció su introducción y cultivo fuera del área de distribución natural en varios países de África, Europa, EE.UU. y América del Sur. Actualmente se encuentra en la costa del Océano Atlántico (México, Estados Unidos, Puerto Rico, Brasil, Guyana, Venezuela y Colombia. A pesar del riesgo que implica, no se han realizado estudios para evaluar su impacto como posible especie invasora y su condición genética. Este estudio evaluó el estado genético y el origen de la población de P. monodon en el norte del Caribe colombiano, analizando la región control del ADN mitocondrial (ADNmt-CR. 16 individuos fueron recolectados al azar del Golfo de Salamanca y 342 secuencias originales de muestras del Indo- Pacífico fueron obtenidas de GenBank. Se analizaron los parámetros de diversidad genética y las relaciones genéticas. Se analizaron un total de 358 secuencias y se identificaron 303 haplotipos. En la población de Colombia se identificaron tres haplotipos, mostrando una baja diversidad genética en comparación con las poblaciones del Indo-Pacífico. Estos haplotipos se encontraron cercanamente relacionados con secuencias obtenidas de muestras de Filipinas y Taiwán, principalmente. Se discute la necesidad de crear una red regional para caracterizar las poblaciones establecidas en el Gran Caribe, con el propósito de inferir los procesos de colonización y el establecimiento de medidas de manejo

  7. Recurrencia histórica de peces invasores en la Reserva de la Biósfera Sierra de Huautla, México Historical presence of invasive fish in the Biosphere Reserve Sierra de Huautla, Mexico

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    Humberto Mejía-Mojica

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Los efectos de las especies invasoras en los ecosistemas nativos son variados, y estos se han vinculado con la desaparición o disminución de la fauna nativa, cambios en la estructura de la comunidad, modificación de los ecosistemas y como vectores de nuevas enfermedades y parásitos. El desarrollo del comercio de especies para uso ornamental ha contribuido significativamente a la importación e introducción de peces invasores en algunas áreas importantes para la conservación de la biodiversidad en México, pero la presencia de estas especies está escasamente documentada. En este estudio se analiza la comunidad de peces en la reserva de Biosfera Sierra de Huautla, registrando los cambios en la diversidad en los últimos 100 años. Con bases de datos de registros históricos y recientes colecciones para cinco sitios en el río Amacuzac, que cruza la zona de reserva de la Biosfera, se comparan los valores de similitud (índice de Jaccard entre cinco series de tiempo (1898-1901, 1945-1953, 1971-1980, 1994-1995 y 2008-2009, así mismo, obtuvimos los valores de similitud (Bray-Curtis entre los cinco sitios analizados. En total hemos reconocido 19 especies para el área, diez nativas y nueve no nativas, de las cuales tres están extirpadas para el área, los valores de similitud entre los primeros registros y los actuales son muy bajos (0.27, los principales cambios en la composición de la fauna se han producido en los últimos 20 años. Los valores de abundancia, diversidad y similitud entre los sitios de muestreo, indican el predominio de especies no nativas. Discutimos el papel del comercio de peces ornamentales de la región como la principal causa de introducción de invasoras en el ecosistema, y los posibles efectos negativos que han tenido al menos cuatro especies en la fauna nativa y el ecosistema (Oreochromis mossambicus, Amatitlania nigrofasciata, Pterygoplichthys disjunctivus y P. pardalis, se hace notar la ausencia de programas de

  8. New habitats, new menaces: Centaurea x kleinii (C. moncktonii x C. solstitialis, a new hybrid species between two alien weeds

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    Susanna, A.

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Anthropic alteration of habitat opens the door to the cohabitation of imported species that in their native range would never coexist. Centaurea solstitialis and Centaurea moncktonii are two invasive species whose natural distributions in Eurasia do not overlap. After introduction in North America, invasive spread led to overlapping distributions. Although the environmental requirements differ between the two species, the close proximity of diverse habitats (within pollinator range has resulted in several cases of natural hybridization between the two. The result of the cross between these two distantly related species is a sterile perennial. Many of its characteristics are intermediate between its parents, but morphologically it is closer to Centaurea moncktonii (probably the maternal parent, and itself of hybrid origin. The plant could possibly become an invasive weed through clonal reproduction. The apparent maternal parent, which the hybrid may more closely resemble physiologically as well as morphologically, is a wellknown creeping weed in alpine pastures throughout Europe.La alteración antrópica del hábitat da paso a la cohabitación de especies importadas que nunca coexistirían en su ámbito natural. Centaurea solstitialis y Centaurea moncktonii son dos especies invasoras cuyas distribuciones en Eurasia apenas se solapan. Después de su introducción en Norteamérica, la expansión invasiva condujo a distribuciones superpuestas. Aunque los requerimientos ambientales de las dos especies son distintos, la proximidad de hábitats diversos (dentro del alcance de los polinizadores ha dado lugar a varios casos de hibridación natural entre ambas. El cruce resultante entre dos especies lejanamente emparentadas es una planta perenne estéril. Muchos de los caracteres del híbrido son intermedios entre sus especies parentales, pero morfológicamente es más parecida a Centaurea moncktonii (probablemente la especie materna y a su vez ya de

  9. Invasive vertebrate species in Chile and their control and monitoring by governmental agencies Especies de vertebrados invasores en Chile y su control y monitoreo por agencias gubernamentales

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    J. AGUSTÍN IRIARTE

    2005-03-01

    Entregamos una revisión del estado actual de las especies de vertebrados invasores en Chile, actualizando información sobre las especies exóticas terrestres y documentando la situación de las especies exóticas de peces dulceacuícolas. Además, revisamos la legislación pertinente y los programas que el gobierno chileno ha implementado para limitar la entrada de especies exóticas al país o para minimizar su impacto sobre la flora y fauna nativas y los ecosistemas naturales. Documentamos lo que se conoce sobre la introducción de 26 especies exóticas de peces a las aguas continentales de Chile, discutiendo la distribución y efectos putativos de 11 especies que pueden considerarse invasivas. De la lista previa de 24 especies invasoras de vertebrados terrestres, nosotros retiramos la tortuga argentina (Chelonoidis chilensis, el reno (Rangifer tarandus y el muflón (Ovis ammon, porque no hay evidencias de que hayan logrado asilvestrarse. Por otra parte, agregamos la tortuga dulceacuícola de orejas rojas (Trachemys scripta, la cotorra argentina (Myiopsitta monachus y el cardenal de cresta roja (Paraoria coronata, manteniéndose así el total de invasoras constante en 24 especies. La principal agencia a cargo de implementar las leyes y regulaciones existentes con respecto a la importación de especies exóticas de peces es el Servicio Nacional de Pesca (SERNAPESCA, una dependencia del Ministerio de Economía. La principal agencia a cargo de aplicar las leyes y regulaciones vigentes sobre la importación de especies exóticas terrestres a Chile es el Servicio Agrícola y Ganadero (SAG, una dependencia del Ministerio de Agricultura. Actualmente, el SAG no solo controla los pasos fronterizos, puertos y aeropuertos de Chile, sino también financia estudios para monitorear y controlar los invasores ya presentes en el país. Además, la Corporación Nacional Forestal (CONAF también se involucra con especies invasoras, pero solo si ellas entran al Sistema Nacional de

  10. Impacts of Panicum maximum Jacq. invasion and its manual weeding on the wood plant regeneration in the understory of a restoration site Efeitos da invasão por Panicum maximum Jacq. e do seu controle manual sobre a regeneração de plantas lenhosas no sub-bosque de um reflorestamento

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    Gabriela Ribeiro de Andrade

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Responsible for considerable annual losses of biodiversity in natural ecosystems, invasive alien species cause important conservation problems, leading native species to local extinction. This study examined the relationship among the coverage of Guinea-grass (Panicum maximum Jacq., its manual weeding and the woody plant diversity of a restoration site. The site is a reforestation created using native species but due to spacing and species composition grass still dominates its understory more than 17 years after. Preliminary results showed that it is a barrier to the establishment of native species. In this study, we established 20 plots of 5m x 5m divided into two treatments, control and removal of P. maximum, to investigate the impact of manual weeding on the understory in a period of 90 days. Grass cover and canopy openness were also recorded. The grass cover had negative correlation with the abundance of plants, with the species richness and abundance of tree species. Canopy openness had a negative influence on the species richness, on abundance and richness of tree species, but not showed correlation with P. maximum. After grass removal, both abundance of seedling and species richness had no significant differences, so the manual weeding did not cause a negative impact in short time on the regeneration of the understory due to accidental native plant uprooting. However, a positive impact is expected only after a longer period of observation, after successive removals of invasive herbaceous and increased chance of colonization of the area by regenerating seedlings.Responsáveis por perdas anuais consideráveis na biodiversidade dos ecossistemas naturais, as espécies exóticas invasoras causam sérios problemas à conservação, levando muitas espécies à extinção local. Este estudo analisou o efeito da cobertura de capim-colonião (Panicum maximum Jacq. no sub-bosque de um reflorestamento dominado há mais de 17 anos por essa gram

  11. Late Quaternary speleogenesis and landscape evolution in a tropical carbonate island: Pango la Kuumbi (Kuumbi Cave, Zanzibar

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    Nikos Kourampas

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Kuumbi Cave is one of a group of caves that underlie a flight of marine terraces in Pleistocene limestone in eastern Zanzibar (Indian Ocean. Drawing on the findings of geoarchaeological field survey and archaeological excavation, we discuss the formation and evolution of Kuumbi Cave and its wider littoral landscape. In the later part of the Quaternary (last ca. 250,000 years?, speleogenesis and terrace formation were driven by the interplay between glacioeustatic sea level change and crustal uplift at rates of ca. 0.10-0.20 mm/yr. Two units of backreef/reef limestone were deposited during ‘optimal’ (highest highstands, tentatively correlated with MIS 7 and 5; (mainly erosive marine terraces formed in these limestones in ‘suboptimal’ highstands. Kuumbi and other sub-terrace caves developed as flank margin caves, in the seaward portion of freshwater lenses during such ‘suboptimal’ highstands. Glacioeustacy-induced fluctuations of the groundwater table may have resulted in shifts from vadose (with deposition of well-developed speleothems to phreatic/epiphreatic conditions in these caves. At Kuumbi, Late Pleistocene (pre-20,000 cal. BP ceiling collapse initiated colluvial deposition near-entrance and opened the cave to large plants and animals, including humans. A phase of terminal Pleistocene human occupation ca. 18,500-17,000 cal. BP resulted in the deposition of a dense assemblage of Achatina spp. landsnails, alongside marine molluscs and mammal remains (including zebra, buffalo and other taxa now extinct on Zanzibar. The Holocene part of the cave stratigraphy near-entrance records phases of abandonment and intensified late Holocene human use.

  12. Red fox spatial characteristics in relation to waterfowl predation

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    Sargeant, A.B.

    1972-01-01

    Radio-equipped red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) on the Cedar Creek area in Minnesota were spatially distributed, with individual families occupying well defined, nonoverlapping, contiguous territories. Territory boundaries often conformed to natural physical boundaries and appeared to be maintained through some nonaggressive behavior mechanism. Individual foxes traveled extensively throughout the family territory each night. Fox territories appeared to range from approximately 1 to 3 square miles in size, dependent largely on population density. Red foxes used a sequence of dens to rear their pups, and the amount and location of food remains at individual dens changed as the pups matured. The denning season was divided into pre-emergence, confined-use, and dispersed-use periods of 4 to 5 weeks each. Remains of adult waterfowl were collected at rearing dens on six townships in three ecologically different regions of eastern North Dakota. Remains of 172 adult dabbling ducks and 16 adult American coots (Fulica americana) were found at 35 dens. No remains from diving ducks were found. The number of adult ducks per den averaged 1.6, 5.9, and 10.2 for paired townships in regions with relatively low, moderate and high duck populations, respectively. Eighty-four percent of the ducks were females. The species and sex composition of ducks found at dens during early and late sampling periods reflected the nesting chronology of prairie dabbling ducks. Occupied rearing dens were focal points of red fox travel, and the locations of dens may have had considerable influence on predation. Thirty-five of 38 dens found on the six township study areas were on pastured or idle lands. The distribution of rearing dens on the Sand Lake and Arrowwood national wildlife refuges suggested that, on these areas, fox dens were concentrated because of the topography and land-use practices.

  13. The bird species of Kumasir lake (Kahramanmaras-Turkey) and a view of environmental ethics on sustainable wetland management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inac, S; Gorucu, O; Pinar, A H

    2008-05-01

    Kumasir lake is located next to towns of Donuklu and Fatih, nine km west of Kahramanmaras city center the region of east Mediterranean, Turkey This lake is of crucial importance from the point of native and immigrant birds. We located 17 birdspecies in this area during our observations carried out in the spring and autumn of 2005-2006. These were Ciconia ciconia L., Anas platyrhynchos L., Accipiter nisus L., Accipiter brevipes L., Fulica atra L., Columba palumbus L., Merops apiaster L., Upupa epops L., Alauda arvensis L., Motacilla flava L., Turdus merula L., Acrocephalus scirpaceus L., Regulus regulus L., Garrulus glandarius L., Corvus corax L., Fringilla coelebs L., Hirundo rustica L.. Among observed 17 species; 6 of them were immigrant and remaining 11 of them were native birds. Kumasir lake is surrounded by wetland of Amik and Gavur lake. Since it was greatly dried, it was transformed to farmland. Consequently the birds lost most of theirnests and settlements. However not taken in the care of environmental ethic values, the wastewaters of the villages drain to lake reservoir; herbicides and insecticides used for agriculture are polluting the water reeds have been burned, the lake's reeds are getting dry by the irrigation for the farmland. So, the wetland ecosystem is being affected negatively by these factors. On the other hand, the birds are exposed to illegal and unlawful hunting. For this reasons, this lake must be taken into a management regime of sustainable wetland (protection profiting balance) and used techniques of participation planning via the process of sustainable natural resources and planning.

  14. Experimental feeding of Hydrilla verticillata colonized by stigonematales cyanobacteria induces vacuolar myelinopathy in painted turtles (Chrysemys picta.

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    Albert D Mercurio

    Full Text Available Vacuolar myelinopathy (VM is a neurologic disease primarily found in birds that occurs when wildlife ingest submerged aquatic vegetation colonized by an uncharacterized toxin-producing cyanobacterium (hereafter "UCB" for "uncharacterized cyanobacterium". Turtles are among the closest extant relatives of birds and many species directly and/or indirectly consume aquatic vegetation. However, it is unknown whether turtles can develop VM. We conducted a feeding trial to determine whether painted turtles (Chrysemys picta would develop VM after feeding on Hydrilla (Hydrilla verticillata, colonized by the UCB (Hydrilla is the most common "host" of UCB. We hypothesized turtles fed Hydrilla colonized by the UCB would exhibit neurologic impairment and vacuolation of nervous tissues, whereas turtles fed Hydrilla free of the UCB would not. The ability of Hydrilla colonized by the UCB to cause VM (hereafter, "toxicity" was verified by feeding it to domestic chickens (Gallus gallus domesticus or necropsy of field collected American coots (Fulica americana captured at the site of Hydrilla collections. We randomly assigned ten wild-caught turtles into toxic or non-toxic Hydrilla feeding groups and delivered the diets for up to 97 days. Between days 82 and 89, all turtles fed toxic Hydrilla displayed physical and/or neurologic impairment. Histologic examination of the brain and spinal cord revealed vacuolations in all treatment turtles. None of the control turtles exhibited neurologic impairment or had detectable brain or spinal cord vacuolations. This is the first evidence that freshwater turtles can become neurologically impaired and develop vacuolations after consuming toxic Hydrilla colonized with the UCB. The southeastern United States, where outbreaks of VM occur regularly and where vegetation colonized by the UCB is common, is also a global hotspot of freshwater turtle diversity. Our results suggest that further investigations into the effect of the

  15. Uso de hábitat y estado de conservación de las aves en el humedal El Paraíso, Lima, Perú

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    Alessandra S. Quiñonez

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Las aves son el grupo taxonómico más representativo de los humedales. En la costa central peruana muchos de estos ecosistemas se encuentran seriamente afectados por actividades antropogénicas. Con el objetivo de brindar información que contribuya a la implementación de planes de manejo y conservación de la avifauna del humedal El Paraíso se evaluó las preferencias y usos de los dos hábitats acuáticos presentes en el humedal, la laguna salobre y la zona cenagosa. Se llevaron a cabo evaluaciones mensuales desde mayo del 2009 a marzo del 2010 utilizando el método de puntos de conteo. Se observaron 68 especies que hicieron uso directo de los hábitats de estudio. Las familias más abundantes fueron Anatidae (19.2%, Laridae (18.0%, Phalacrocoracidae (16.8% y Rallidae (16.1%. La especie más abundante fue Phalacrocorax brasilianus (16.7%, seguida de la Fulica ardesiaca (13.0%. Se encontró marcada diferencias en la composición de aves entre los dos hábitats evaluados debido, principalmente, a la  presencia de especies migratorias boreales quienes prefieren el hábitat cenagoso. Por otro lado, fueron identificados los sitios de anidamiento de especies representativas del humedal tales como Phalacrocorax brasilianus, Tachuris rubrigastra, Phleocryptes melanops, Charadrius nivosus. La actividad frecuentemente registrada fue el descanso (73.9%, seguido de la alimentación (23.4% y la reproducción (2.73%. Constituyen las principales amenazas para el humedal; la caza deportiva, quema de totorales y juncales, tránsito de vehículos por la orilla marina y desechos de residuos sólidos dejados por los bañistas.

  16. Letna Dinamika Pojavljanja Vodnih Ptic Na Reki Dravi Med Mariborskim Jezerom In Jezom Melje (Sv Slovenija / Yearly dynamics of waterbirds’ occurrence on the Drava River between Lake Maribor and Melje Dam (NE Slovenia

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    Logar Katja

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Between April 2007 and April 2008, 40 systematic waterbird counts were conducted on the Drava River between Lake Maribor and the Melje Dam (length 8.5 km, area 155 ha to determine the specific composition, abundance and seasonal dynamics of bird occurrence. Between October and May, counts were conducted every week, whereas between June and September they were carried out once every two weeks. In total, 26,803 individuals of 30 species were counted. The number of waterbirds and diversity of species were the highest from late December to late February, when more than 1,000 individuals were regularly present in the area. Waterbirds were distributed along the river unequally, with the highest number of birds present yearround in the city centre and in the first counting sector of Lake Maribor. The Mallard Anas platyrhynchos and Mute Swan Cygnus olor were recorded during every count, while occurrence frequency was greater than 50% in another 10 species. Dominant species in terms of percentage composition were Mallard, Black-headed Gull Chroicocephalus ridibundus, Coot Fulica atra, Mute Swan, Pochard Aythya ferina and Tufted Duck Ay. fuligula. Mute Swan and Mallard were the only breeding waterbirds in the study area. Both the total number of waterbirds and the highest daily total in the first two counting sectors were greater between October and March 1992/93 than in our study. The decline in numbers was the greatest for Mallard, Pochard and Tufted Duck, while an increase was noted in Mute Swan and Yellow-legged / Caspian Gull Larus michahellis / cachinnans. The total number of waterbirds and the number of some species in the study area were significantly higher than expected solely based on its length compared to the length of the lowland Drava in Slovenia (125.7 km. The study area is conservationally important for Pochard, Tufted Duck and Black-headed Gull

  17. ALTERNATE FOOD-CHAIN TRANSFER OF THE TOXIN LINKED TO AVIAN VACUOLAR MYELINOPATHY AND IMPLICATIONS FOR THE ENDANGERED FLORIDA SNAIL KITE (ROSTRHAMUS SOCIABILIS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dodd, Shelley R; Haynie, Rebecca S; Williams, Susan M; Wilde, Susan B

    2016-04-28

    Avian vacuolar myelinopathy (AVM) is a neurologic disease causing recurrent mortality of Bald Eagles ( Haliaeetus leucocephalus ) and American Coots ( Fulica americana ) at reservoirs and small impoundments in the southern US. Since 1994, AVM is considered the cause of death for over 170 Bald Eagles and thousands of American Coots and other species of wild birds. Previous studies link the disease to an uncharacterized toxin produced by a recently described cyanobacterium, Aetokthonos hydrillicola gen. et sp. nov. that grows epiphytically on submerged aquatic vegetation (SAV). The toxin accumulates, likely in the gastrointestinal tract of waterbirds that consume SAV, and birds of prey are exposed when feeding on the moribund waterbirds. Aetokthonos hydrillicola has been identified in all reservoirs where AVM deaths have occurred and was identified growing abundantly on an exotic SAV hydrilla ( Hydrilla verticillata ) in Lake Tohopekaliga (Toho) in central Florida. Toho supports a breeding population of a federally endangered raptor, the Florida Snail Kite ( Rostrhamus sociabilis ) and a dense infestation of an exotic herbivorous aquatic snail, the island applesnail ( Pomacea maculata ), a primary source of food for resident Snail Kites. We investigated the potential for transmission in a new food chain and, in laboratory feeding trials, confirmed that the AVM toxin was present in the hydrilla/A. hydrillicola matrix collected from Toho. Additionally, laboratory birds that were fed apple snails feeding on hydrilla/A. hydrillicola material from a confirmed AVM site displayed clinical signs (3/5), and all five developed brain lesions unique to AVM. This documentation of AVM toxin in central Florida and the demonstration of AVM toxin transfer through invertebrates indicate a significant risk to the already diminished population of endangered Snail Kites.

  18. Community structures of soil animals and survival of land snails on an island of the Ogasawara Archipelago Estruturas de comunidades de animais de solo e sobrevivência dos caracóis terrestres numa ilha do Arquipélago Ogasawara

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    Motohiro Hasegawa

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available On Chichijima, one of the Ogasawara (Bonin Islands located in the Western Pacific Ocean, land snails have declined, the suggested cause being predation pressure by an invasive flatworm (Platydemus manokwari. Soil fauna were investigated in areas where the snail survives, and where it has become extinct. Much of the fauna, dominated by introduced earthworms and ants, was undiminished, however, one undescribed but endemic carabid (Badister sp., which selectively feeds on land snails, was absent in snail-extinct areas. The invasive flatworm P. manokwari has been reported to feed also on the carcasses of earthworms, as well as on live snails, and is therefore expected to occur in most parts of Chichijima Island. Among other groups, the density of isopods (also dominated by exotic species was very low, in comparison with the reported ones 30 years ago. Community structure is currently reflected by dominance of earthworms and ants, decline of endemic isopods, and a high frequency of introduced or alien species.Em Chichijima, uma das ilhas do Arquipélago Ogasawara (Bonin, localizado no Oceano Pacífico Ocidental, o número de caracóis terrestres diminuiu, e a causa provável é a predação por uma planária invasora (Platydemus manokwari. A fauna edáfica foi avaliada nas áreas onde o caracol sobreviveu e onde se extinguiu. Grande parte da fauna, dominada inicialmente por minhocas e formigas, não diminuiu; contudo, um carabídeo endêmico e não descrito (Badister sp., que se alimenta de caracóis terrestres, não estava presente nas áreas em que o caracol foi extinto. Sabe-se que a planária invasiva P. manokwari se alimenta não só das carcaças das minhocas, mas também de caracóis vivos, e por isso habita a maior parte da Ilha Chichijima. Entre outros grupos, a densidade de isópodos (também dominados por espécies exóticas foi muita baixa, em comparação aos relatos feitos 30 anos antes. A estrutura da comunidade é refletida atualmente

  19. Amaranto BRS Alegria: alternativa para diversificar os sistemas de produção Amaranth BRS Alegria: alternative for diversification of cropping systems

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    Carlos Roberto Spehar

    2003-05-01

    Full Text Available A diversificação do sistema produtivo depende de espécies com rápido crescimento, tolerância ao déficit hídrico, produção de biomassa, ciclagem de nutrientes e utilização humana e animal. As espécies Amaranthus caudatus, A. cruentus e A. hypochondriacus apresentam essas características e sementes claras, sem dormência. Distinguem-se das invasoras A. spinosus, A. hybridus, A. blitum e A. viridis, com sementes escuras e dormentes. Os grãos, com excelente qualidade protéica, atendem à demanda por dietas especiais, livres de glúten e podem ser usados na alimentação animal. O A. cruentus BRS Alegria, primeira recomendação ao cultivo granífero no Brasil, originou-se da variedade AM 5189, dos Estados Unidos, na qual realizou-se seleção massal. Em sucessão à soja, apresentou produção média de 2.359 kg ha-1 de grãos e 5.650 kg ha-1 de biomassa total em apenas 90 dias de ciclo.Diversification of production systems depends on rapid growth, tolerance to hydric stress, biomass production, nutrient cycling and human and animal utilization. The grain amaranth species Amaranthus caudatus, A. cruentus and A. hypochondriacus, with light seed colour and no dormancy, present these characteristics. They are distinguishable from the weeds A. spinosus, A. hybridus, A. blitum and A. viridis, with dark and dormant seeds. Their grains, with excellent protein quality, can be used in gluten-free special diets and livestock feed. The A. cruentus BRS Alegria, the first recommendation for grain production systems in Brazil, originated from mass selection in the variety AM 5189 of the United States. In double-cropping, after soybeans, it showed average yield of 2,359 kg ha-1 for grain and of 5,650 kg ha-1 for total biomass, in 90 days from emergence to maturity.

  20. Presencia de los géneros invasores Mus y Rattus en áreas naturales de Chile: un riesgo ambiental y epidemiológico Presence of the invasive genera Mus and Rattus in natural areas in Chile: an environmental and epidemiological risk

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    GABRIEL LOBOS

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Realizamos un estudio que incluyó muestreos y prospecciones en un gradiente latitudinal en Chile continental para determinar la presencia y ausencia de roedores murinos introducidos, particularmente Mus musculus, Rattus rattus y R. norvegicus en áreas naturales o silvestres a lo largo de Chile. Además se analizó el riesgo epidemiológico que representan estas especies en el marco de un estudio sobre el virus Hanta. Los resultados mostraron que M. musculus rara vez es recolectado en áreas naturales. Sin embargo, las dos especies de Rattus han invadido ampliamente la región mediterránea chilena. Las regiones desérticas, los ambientes de alturas y las regiones australes, serían biótopos restringidos para estos invasores. Desde una perspectiva epidemiológica, la presencia del virus Hanta (variedades Andes y Seoul en Rattus es un elemento que demuestra que las especies invasoras además de generar impactos ecológicos, pueden ocasionar problemas económicos y de salud pública. La fragilidad de los ecosistemas mediterráneos determina que la presencia de especies exóticas constituya un elemento de alto riesgo para la conservación del patrimonio natural del país. Probablemente, la conservación de áreas naturales constituye la mejor herramienta para enfrentar a estas especies exóticasWe conducted a latitudinal study in natural areas of continental Chile to evaluate the occurrence of the introduced murine rodents Mus musculus, Rattus rattus and R. norvegicus. Furthermore, we evaluated the epidemiological risk of these species as part of an ongoing study on Hantavirus. The results allowed us to conclude that M. musculus occurs rarely in natural environments. However, the two species of Rattus have widely invaded the mediterranean region of Chile. Desert, altitudinal and high latitude regions seem to be restricted areas for these invasive rodents. From an epidemiological perspective, the occurrence of Hantavirus in Rattus (Andes and Seoul

  1. Patrones de colonización y ecología de poblaciones de dos bivalvos invasores (mejillón cebra Dreissena polymorpha Pallas, 1771 y almeja asiática Corbicula fluminea Müller, 1774 en un tramo lótico del Ebro medio (Castejón, Navarra.

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    MORALES, J., FLECHOSO, F., LIZANA, M., NEGRO, A.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Los bivalvos dulceacuícolas son un componente importante de la ecología fluvial, fundamentalmente por el papel que desempeñan como organismos filtradores y de remoción del sedimento. Además son un grupo zoológico diverso y amenazado a escala global, en el que se incluyen algunas de las especies invasoras más dañinas. El estudio de sus poblaciones es imprescindible para conocer el estado de conservación de las comunidades bentónicas. Para esto se prospectaron 17 parcelas vadeables y 7 escolleras a lo largo de 7,38 km de meandros del río Ebro en Castejón (Navarra, tanto el cauce principal como en brazos secundarios de corriente permanente y/o temporal. El mejillón cebra Dreissena polymorpha Pallas, 1771 se encontró en 7 escolleras y 6 parcelas. El sustrato preferente fueron rocas (85%, donde la densidad resultó 0,31-5,45 mejillones/m2; el 2,6% se hallaron sobre plásticos agrícolas abandonados. En las escolleras sólo el 3,6% de los ejemplares eran juveniles y un 33% tenían una edad > 4 años. La almeja asiática Corbicula fluminea Müller, 1774 se encontró en todas las parcelas. La densidad resultó muy diferente en los tres tipos de ambientes fluviales con valores máximos de 15.100 almejas/m2, lo que constituye un nuevo máximo fluvial en Europa. Se encontraron subpoblaciones de almeja asiática con diferentes estructuras de edad según los ambientes fluviales, además de poblaciones menos numerosas en el brazo principal del río que en los otros tipos. Los resultados muestran que junto a estas especies alóctonas en expansión, con altas tasas de reclutamiento, se encuentra una estructura poblacional muy precaria para las autóctonas, de las cuales únicamente se localizaron 12 náyades vivas y ningún esférido.

  2. Use of low volume in oil and air assistance in weed controlUso de baixo volume oleoso e assistência de ar no controle de plantas daninhas

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    Emerson da Silva Teixeira

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Weeds control is an important action to keep the crop production potential. The objective of this study was to evaluate the efficiency of weed control in ground spraying with and without air assistance, using conventional flow rate in herbicide application compared to low volume in oil (LVO. The experimental design was randomized with 48 m2 per plot, and five replications of five different treatments. The applications occurred in post-emergency of Digitaria insularis (L. Fedde and Commelina benghalensis L. The treatments were of conventional and LVO system, with and without air assistance, and one control. LVO applications showed similar control levels as conventional applications. The use of air assistance increased the efficiency of conventional application and reduced the efficiency of LVO applications.O controle das plantas daninhas é uma ação de grande importância para a preservação do potencial produtivo das culturas. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a eficiência do controle de plantas invasoras nas aplicações terrestres de herbicidas com e sem assistência de ar, utilizando volumes convencionais de pulverização comparados com baixo volume oleoso (BVO. O delineamento experimental empregado foi inteiramente ao acaso, com parcelas de 48 m2, com 5 tratamentos e cinco repetições. A aplicação ocorreu em pós-emergência de Digitaria insularis (L. Fedde e Commelina benghalensis L. Os tratamentos consistiram de pulverização convencional e com sistema BVO, ambos com e sem assistência de ar, mais uma testemunha. As aplicações com sistema BVO sem assistência de ar mostraram níveis de controle semelhantes às aplicações convencionais. O uso da assistência de ar elevou a eficiência das aplicações convencionais e reduziu a eficiência das aplicações em BVO.

  3. Plesiomonas shigelloides: um enteropatógeno emergente?

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    J. P. FALCãO

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available

    Plesiomonas shigelloides é um bacilo Gram-negativo, pertencente à família Enterobacteriaceae, isolado de água doce e salgada, de peixes de água doce, mariscos e de inúmeros tipos de animais. Suspeita-se que a maioria das infecções humanas causadas por P. shigelloides, seja veiculada pela água, pois a bactéria está presente em águas não tratadas que são usadas para beber, águas recreacionais ou água para lavar alimentos que são consumidos sem cozimento ou aquecimento. A ingestão de P. shigelloides não causa sempre doença no animal hospedeiro, mas o microrganismo pode permanecer temporariamente como membro transitório não infeccioso da microbiota intestinal. A bactéria é isolada de fezes de pacientes com diarréia, mas algumas vezes também de fezes de indivíduos sem sintomas. A doença causada por P. shigelloides é a gastrenterite, que normalmente é auto-limitante, com febre, calafrio, dor abdominal, náusea, diarréia ou vômito. Em casos graves, as fezes diarréicas podem ser verde-amareladas, espumosas e com presença de sangue. A bactéria pode também causar infecções extra-intestinais. Ademais, pode produzir toxinas e ser invasora. As características utilizadas para considerar P. shigelloides como um enteropatógeno não são totalmente convincentes. Embora seja isolada de pacientes com diarréia e incriminada em vários surtos epidêmicos envolvendo água e alimentos contaminados, não foi possível identificar em muitas amostras de P. shigelloides, associadas com infecções gastrintestinais, um mecanismo de virulência definitivo. Palavras-chave: P. shigelloides; enteropatógeno; gastrenterite; diarréia; infecções extra-intestinais.

  4. Distribución del género Diplodon (Mollusca: Bivalvia: Hyriidae en territorio Argentino mediante el uso de Colecciones Biológicas

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    Santiago Hernán Torres

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Los bivalvos nacaríferos dulciacuícolas (“náyades”, son especies infaunales, endémicas de la RegiónNeotropical, pertenecientes a las familias Hyriidae (Swaison, 1840 y Etheriidae (Swaison, 1840. La alteración del ambiente y la competencia con especies invasoras como Corbicula fluminea (Müller, 1774 y Limnoperna fortunei (Dunker, 1857, impactan sobre las poblaciones naturales. En esta comunicación, se presenta el inicio de un Proyecto de investigación sobre la distribución geográfica de las especies del género Diplodon en la Argentina. Estas especies son un componente importante de la infauna de los cuerpos lóticos y lénticos, viviendo en fondos limosos, limo-arenosos, excepcionalmente en sustratos duros, con un régimen nutricio filtrador, teniendo un papel importante como recicladores de materia orgánica. Conocer la distribución de los bivalvos pertenecientes al género Diplodon en el territorio Argentino permitirá el reconocimiento de potenciales áreas prioritarias para su conservación. Sobre la base de la bibliografía disponible y los ejemplares de las especies del genero Diplodon depositados en la Colección Malacológica del Museo de La Plata (FCNyM-UNLP, se confeccionó una matriz de datos que incluye la identificación del ejemplar, la colección en que se encuentra depositado, el número de catálogo, la localidad y la fecha de colecta. Cada localidad fue ubicada mediante el uso de cartas geográficas de Argentina y revisiones bibliográficas en imágenes satelitales de GoogleEarth, asignando las coordenadas para cada punto. Como resultado del trabajo se obtiene la distribución de estas especies nativas y se discute el grado de solapamiento con las dos especies de bivalvos invasores y el impacto de actividades humanas. 

  5. Degradação de pastagens em regiões de cerrado Pasture degradation in savanna's regions

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    Antônio José Peron

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available A degradação das pastagens tem sido um grande problema para a pecuária brasileira, desenvolvida basicamente em pasto. Estima-se que 80% dos 50 a 60 milhões de hectares de pastagens cultivadas no Brasil Central encontram-se em algum estado de degradação, ou seja, em processo evolutivo de perda de vigor, sem possibilidade de recuperação natural e incapazes de sustentar os níveis de produção e qualidade exigido pelos animais, bem como de superar os efeitos nocivos de pragas, doenças e plantas invasoras. Essa degradação é conseqüência de vários fatores que atuam isoladamente ou em conjunto, como, preparo incorreto do solo, escolha errada da espécie forrageira, uso de sementes de baixa qualidade, má formação inicial, manejo inadequado e, principalmente, em razão da não-reposição dos nutrientes perdidos no processo produtivo, por exportação no corpo dos animais, erosão, lixiviação e volatilização ao longo dos anos. A persistência desse processo culmina com a degradação do solo e dos recursos naturais, com prejuízos irrecuperáveis para toda a sociedade.Pasture degradation has been a great problem for Brazilian livestock breeding, developed basically from grassland. It is estimated that 80% out of the 50 to 60 million hectares of grassland grown in Central Brazil lie in some degradation status, namely, in a evolutive process of vigor loss, with no possibility of natural recovery and incapable of supporting yield and quality demanded by the animals as well as of overcoming the harmful effects of pest insects, diseases and weeds. That degradation is a consequence of a number of factors, which act singly or jointly, such as incorrect soil tillage, wrong choice of the forage species, use of low quality seeds and poor initial establishment, inadequate management and chiefly due to the non-replacement of the nutrients lost in the productive process by export into the animals' body, erosion, leaching and volatilization

  6. Alimentação de Limnoperna fortunei (Dunker 1857: taxas de filtração com ênfase ao uso de Cyanobacteria- DOI: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v26i4.1523 Feeding of Limnoperna fortunei (Dunker 1857: filtration rates with emphasis on Cyanobacteria use - DOI: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v26i4.1523

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    Mônica de Cassia Souza Campos

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available Limnoperna fortunei é uma espécie invasora na América do Sul que, devido ao seu crescimento excessivo, tornou-se um sério problema para o ambiente e para os setores usuários de água bruta. L. fortunei é um molusco filtrador que se alimenta de fitoplâncton e outras partículas suspensas. Moluscos filtradores são grandes bioacumuladores de toxinas. Desta forma, L. fortunei apresenta um potencial de bioacumulação e transferência na cadeia trófica de cianotoxinas. Neste estudo, experimentos in vitro demonstraram que L. fortunei é capaz de alimentar-se de espécies de Cyanobacteria potencialmente tóxicas, Microcystis viridis e Pseudanabaena sp. As taxas de filtração foram 17,20 e 24,52mL.mgPS-1.h-1, respectivamente, sendo similares à encontrada para a Chlorophyta Selenastrum capricornutum – 11,91mL.mgPS 1.h-1. Os resultados indicaram que a bioacumulação de cianotoxinas por L. fortunei pode tornar-se um problema futuro visto as grandes densidades que esses organismos atingem e a sua utilização como item alimentar de peixesLimnoperna fortunei is an invasive species in South America. The massive growth of this species became a great problem for environment and for the companies that use raw water. Limnoperna fortunei is a filter-feeding mollusk that feed on phytoplankton and other suspended particles. Filtering mollusks are great toxin bioaccumulators. Then L. fortunei has a potential cyanotoxin bioaccumulation and transfer in the food chain. In this study, in vitro experiments showed that L. fortunei is able to feed on Cyanobacteria toxic species, Microcystis viridis and Pseudanabaena sp. The filtration rates were 17.20 and 24.52mL.mgDW-1.h-1, respectively. They were similar as for the Chlorophyta Selenastrum capricornutum – 11.91mL.mgDW-1.h-1. Results showed that cyanotoxins bioaccumulation by Limnoperna fortunei could be a future problem because of the high densities reached by these organisms and their feeding utilization

  7. Crescimento e acúmulo de nutrientes por plantas espontâneas e por leguminosas utilizadas para adubação verde

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    C. Favero

    2000-03-01

    Full Text Available As espécies vegetais espontâneas, nas áreas de cultivo agrícola, têm sido tratadas como "plantas daninhas", "ervas invasoras", "inços" e outras denominações, do ponto de vista dos prejuízos que podem acarretar às espécies cultivadas. No entanto, as espontâneas podem promover os mesmos efeitos de proteção do solo e ciclagem de nutrientes que espécies cultivadas ou introduzidas para adubação verde. O crescimento e o acúmulo de nutrientes pela parte aérea de espontâneas e de leguminosas utilizadas como adubos verdes foram medidos em um experimento de campo em Sete Lagoas (MG, na Embrapa Milho e Sorgo. O experimento consistiu de cinco espécies de leguminosas (feijão-de-porco, feijão-bravo do Ceará, mucuna-preta, lab-lab e guandu, submetidas a duas condições de manejo (com e sem capina, e uma testemunha (somente espontâneas. No florescimento das leguminosas, foram obtidos a massa da matéria seca e o teor de nutrientes da parte aérea de cada espécie de leguminosa e das espontâneas presentes nas parcelas. O sistema com apenas as espontâneas produziu menos biomassa e acumulou menos nutrientes que os sistemas com leguminosas. Foram poucas as espontâneas que apresentaram teores de carbono, cálcio e nitrogênio próximos ou superiores aos das leguminosas. No entanto, para potássio, magnésio e fósforo, ocorreu o inverso. A maioria das espontâneas apresentou teores de potássio, magnésio e de fósforo superiores aos das leguminosas, destacando-se: Portulaca oleracea, Euphorbia heterophylla, Bidens pilosa, Commelina benghalensis e Melanpodium perfoliatum.

  8. Circulation of Streptococcus pneumoniae clone Colombia5 ST289 in nine Latin American countries Circulación de Streptococcus pneumoniae clon Colombia5 ST289 en nueve países de América Latina

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    Carolina Firacative

    2009-04-01

    (A5, A6, A8, A13 y A27 constituyeron 61,4% de los aislamientos. CONCLUSIONES: El clon Colombia5 ST289 está diseminado por América Latina. Esto es importante ya que S. pneumoniae serotipo 5 es causa frecuente de enfermedades invasoras en la Región y está asociado con la resistencia a trimetoprim-sulfametoxazol.

  9. Sementes de Cássia tora L: estudo da germinação visando o controle em áreas cultivadas

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    Roberto Andreani Junior

    1987-12-01

    Full Text Available O trabalho é um estudo das condições de germinação das sementes de Cassia tora L., planta invasora das culturas em geral e, principalmente, da cultura da soja. Nesta pesquisa, estudou se a quebra da dormência, o efeito da profundidade de semeadura sobre a emergência de plântulas e o potencial de armazenamento, considerando o envelhecimento natural e precoce com o objetivo de um controle mais racional desta espécie. As profundidades de semeadura de 4 a 6 cm apresentaram as porcentagens mais altas de emergência das plântulas. A porcentagem de germinação de sementes, logo após a colheita, encontra-se próxima de 42%, decrescendo para 40%, 39% e 30%, aproximadamente, nos períodos de armazenamento por 90, 180 e 270 dias, respectivamente, evidenciando uma porcentagem média de germinação próxima de 38% nos períodos considerados. O processo de escarificação mecânica mostrou-se o mais eficiente para quebra da dormência das sementesThe objective of the present research was to study the germination of Cassia tora L. seeds, which is known to be a weed mainly at soybean plantations and other general crops. This work should verify the effect of planting seeds on different depths on seedling emergence, the potential of seed storage related to natural and accelerated aging and the dormancy breaking process, in order to obtain a more rational control of this species. Seeds which were planted 4 and 6 cm deep gave best seedling emergence percentagens. After harvest the percentage seed germination of which about 42%, decreased to 40%, 39% and 30% on storage periods of 90, 180 and 270 days respectively, showing an average of 38% of germination. The best treatment dormancy breaking of there seeds was found to be mechanical scarification

  10. Economic evaluation of cereal cropping systems under semiarid conditions: minimum input, organic and conventional Avaliação econômica de sistemas de cultivo de cereias em condições semiáridas: cultivo mínimo, orgânico e convencional

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    Gabriel Pardo

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Cropping systems like organic farming, selling products at a higher price and promoting environmental sustainability by reducing fertilizer and pesticides, can be more profitable than conventional systems. An economic evaluation of three cropping systems in a seven year period experiment was performed, using a common rotation (fallow-barley-vetch-durum wheat in a semi-arid rainfed field of Spain. The minimum input system included mouldboard ploughing, cultivator preparation, sowing and harvest. The conventional system involved mineral fertilizer and herbicide treatments, while the organic system involved composted manure and mechanical weed control. The resulting economic margins were highest with the minimum input system, followed by the organic and conventional systems. If the cereal grain from the minimum input system was sold at a higher price on the organic market, this system was the most profitable. Without the price difference, the organic system was as profitable as the conventional one.Sistemas de cultivo como agricultura orgânica, cujos produtos têm custo mais alto, mas que promova sustentabilidade ambiental pela redução do uso de fertilizantes e pesticidas, pode ser mais lucrativo do que sistemas convencionais de cultivo. Efetuou-se uma avaliação econômica de três sistemas de cultivo num período experimental de sete anos, utilizando um sistema comum de rotação (pousio-cevada-ervilhaca-trigo duro, sem irrigação, em um local semi-árido da Espanha. O sistema de cultivo mínimo incluía aração com aiveca, preparo com cultivador, semeadura e colheita. O sistema convencional envolvia tratamentos com herbicidas e fertilizantes minerais, enquanto o sistema orgânico envolvia adubação com composto e controle mecânico de ervas invasoras. O sistema com maior retorno econômico foi o de cultivo mínimo, seguido do orgânico e do convencional. O sistema de cultivo mínimo foi o mais lucrativo quando o cereal foi vendido num pre

  11. Reproductive biology in species of Bidens L. (Asteraceae Biologia reprodutiva em espécies de Bidens L. (Asteraceae

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    Maria Tereza Grombone-Guaratini

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available Studies about reproductive biology of weed species can have implications on the establishment of controlling practices that minimize the effects of these weed populations on agricultural fields. The pollination biology of Bidens alba (L. DC., B. pilosa L., and Bidens subalternans DC., was studied at different sites and climatic seasons. Bidens pilosa and B. subalternans are widely distributed in agricultural areas, in disturbed habitats, and along road sides. Bidens alba occur only along the coast. The three species are self-compatible and non agamospermous. The composition of the pollinator community changes during the year and between sites. Hymenopterans and lepidopterans are the most frequent visitors to Bidens species in both areas studied. Although the species are self-compatible, the presence of pollinators may affect the levels of inbreeding. The attraction of insects by Bidens species may be benefical to agricultural crop and may also have important implications for conservation biology.Estudos de biologia reprodutiva de espécies invasoras podem ter implicações sobre o estabelecimento de práticas de controle que minimizem o efeito das populações destas espécies em áreas agrícolas. A biologia da polinização de Bidens alba (L. DC., B. pilosa L. e Bidens subalternans DC. foi estudada em diferentes locais e estações climáticas. Bidens pilosa e B. subalternans são espécies amplamente distribuídas em áreas agrícolas, em habitats perturbados e em margens de estradas. Bidens alba ocorre somente em regiões litorâneas. As três espécies são auto-compatíveis e não são agamospérmicas. A composição da comunidade de polinizadores apresenta diferenças durante o ano e entre locais. Himenópteros e lepidópteros são os visitantes mais freqüentes nas espécies de Bidens. Embora as espécies sejam auto compatíveis, a presença de polinizadores pode afetar os níveis de endocruzamento. A atração de insetos por esp

  12. Palinomorfos e partículas de carvões nos sedimentos holocênicos na região do alto rio Paraná e sua aplicação nas reconstruções paleoambientais e paleoclimáticas = Palynomorphs and charcoal particles in Holocene sediments of the upper Paraná river area: paleoenvironmental and paleoclimatic reconstruction

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    Svetlana Medeanik

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Foram analisadas as amostras de dois perfis num horizonte de paleossolo da planície de inundação do rio Paraná, sendo processada uma datação pelo método 14C na profundidade de 1,95 m, atingindo idade de 1.700 ± 70 anos AP. Foram avaliados pólen e esporos de plantas terrestres juntamente com as partículas de carvão. Dois estágios, no desenvolvimento paleoambiental, foram estabelecidos com respeito ao desenvolvimento da vegetação. Um estágio mais antigo é caracterizado pela distribuição limitada das florestas ripárias e predomínio de campo nas condições de clima mais seco. Quantidade notável de partículas de carvão encontradas nas amostras deste estágio sugere ocorrência de queimadas locais ou regionais durante um clima seco. No estágio mais novo, a expansão das ripárias emresposta ao aumento das precipitações atmosféricas ocorreu. Pólen de plantas cultivadas, daninhas e invasoras, encontrado nos sedimentos, indica o desenvolvimento da agricultura neste estágio. Maior freqüência de partículas de carvão em mesmos sedimentos provavelmenteindique ocorrência de queimadas locais associadas ao desmatamento da região. The samples from two profiles of flood plain deposits of the Paraná River were studied. One sample at the depth of 1.95 m was dated by 14C as 1,700 ± 70 yr BP. Palynological data and charcoal particles were obtained from fluvial sediments and paleosoil. Two principal stages in paleoenvironmental development were established. The early stage is characterized by the limited distribution of riparian forests and predominance of mesophyllous grassland under a condition of relatively dry climate. The deposition of charcoal particles in such predominant quantity was the result of local or regional burns.During the more recent stage, a natural enlargement of riparian forests occurred in conjunction with an increase in rainfall. Land use of that region may be confirmed by relatively frequent presence of

  13. Vascular flora of the Upper Paraná River floodplain Flora vascular da planície de inundação do Alto Rio Paraná

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    MC. Souza

    2009-06-01

    , Tillandsia, Serjania, Casearia e Polygonum, que juntos reuniram 10,2% do número de espécies. Estes dados, somados aos publicados em 1997, permitiram elevar para 955 espécies, 555 gêneros e 128 famílias, distribuídos entre herbáceas, arbustivas, arbóreas, lianas e epífitas, e em diversas formações ripárias. Panicum maximum, Pennisetum purpureum, Ricinus communis e Urochloa decumbens são consideradas invasoras e sugerimos estudos propondo seu controle.

  14. IMPACT OF THE INVASION FROM NILE TILAPIA ON NATIVES CICHLIDAE SPECIES IN TRIBUTARY OF AMAZONAS RIVER, BRAZIL

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    Luana Silva Bittencourt

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo providenciou a primeira investigação sobre impacto causado pela invasão da Oreochromis niloticus sobre a população de Cichlidae nativos da bacia hidrográfica Igarapé Fortaleza, um tributário do Rio Amazonas no estado do Amapá, no Norte do Brasil. Como uma consequência de escapes e/ou liberações intencionais de O. niloticus de pisciculturas, houve a invasão e estabelecimento dessa espécie de peixe exótico no ecossistema natural, especialmente em área de refúgio, alimentação e reprodução das espécies de ciclídeos nativos.  Os fatores que contribuíram para essa invasão e estabelecimento foram aqui discutidos. A invasão de O. niloticus está causando pressão sobre as populações de ciclídeos nativos, os quais encontram-se em baixa densidade populacional, pois 72,7% da biomassa dos ciclídeos (nativos e não nativos está constituída por O. niloticus. Consequentemente, a CPUE (2,489 kg.h-1 para essa tilápia invasora é muito superior aos valores da CPUE (0,641 kg.h-1 de todas as 16 espécies de ciclídeos nativos juntos. Os resultados indicam uma necessidade de plano de manejo para controle desse peixe invasor, evitando assim a extinção de espécies de ciclídeos nativos. Além disso, serão úteis também para a tomada de decisão crítica de instituições governamentais (estadual e federal quanto à aprovação da introdução de peixes não nativos na Amazônia ou qualquer outra região do país. Palavras-chaves: Amazônia, peixe exótico, Oreochromis niloticus, crescimento. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.18561/2179-5746/biotaamazonia.v4n3p88-94

  15. Bioensaios de atividade alelopática dos esteroides espinasterol, espinasterona e glicopiranosil espinasterol Bioassays of allelopathic activity of the steroids spinasterol, spinasterone, and spinasterol glicopyranosyl

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    H.S. Ripardo Filho

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Três esteroides (espinasterol, espinasterona e glicopiranosil espinasterol foram isolados do caule de Moutabea guianensis, planta de origem amazônica. Suas estruturas foram determinadas a partir das análises de RMN e por comparação com dados espectroscópicos da literatura. Foram avaliadas as atividades alelopáticas das três substâncias em duas plantas invasoras de pastagens comuns da região amazônica: Mimosa pudica (malícia e Senna obtusifolia (mata-pasto. A substância glicopiranosil espinasterol foi mais ativa no ensaio de desenvolvimento da radícula, inibindo a espécie Senna obtusifolia em 75%; o espinasterol inibiu em 22% o desenvolvimento do hipocótilo de Senna obtusifolia; e no bioensaio de germinação de sementes as substâncias espinasterol e espinasterona proporcionaram 10% de inibição em Mimosa pudica. A partir desses resultados, observou-se que a diferença de substituintes observada na posição-3 dos esteroides é capaz de alterar a atividade alelopática. O grupo glicosil na posição-3 elevou a atividade alelopática de forma mais expressiva no bioensaio de desenvolvimento de radícula da espécie malícia, quando comparado aos esteroides hidroxilado e carbonilado. Este é o primeiro estudo químico e alelopático do gênero Moutabea.Three steroids (spinasterol, spinasterone, and spinasterol glucopyranosyl were isolated from the stem of the Amazonian plant Moutabea guianensis. Their structures were determined on the basis of NMR analysis and by comparison with spectroscopic data found in the literature. The allelopathic activities of the three substances were evaluated against two common weeds of the Amazon region, Mimosa pudica ('malicia' and Senna obtusifolia ('mata-pasto'. The substance spinasterol glucopyranosyl was the most active in the radicle growth bioassay, inhibiting Senna obtusifolia in 75%; spinasterol inhibited the development of hypocotyl of Senna obtusifolia in 22%, and spinasterone and

  16. Palinomorfos e partículas de carvões nos sedimentos holocênicos na região do alto rio Paraná e sua aplicação nas reconstruções paleoambientais e paleoclimáticas - DOI: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v30i4.5864 Palynomorphs and charcoal particles in Holocene sediments of the upper Paraná river area: paleoenvironmental and paleoclimatic reconstruction - DOI: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v30i4.5864

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    José Cândido Stevaux

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Foram analisadas as amostras de dois perfis num horizonte de paleossolo da planície de inundação do rio Paraná, sendo processada uma datação pelo método 14C na profundidade de 1,95 m, atingindo idade de 1.700 ± 70 anos AP. Foram avaliados pólen e esporos de plantas terrestres juntamente com as partículas de carvão. Dois estágios, no desenvolvimento paleoambiental, foram estabelecidos com respeito ao desenvolvimento da vegetação. Um estágio mais antigo é caracterizado pela distribuição limitada das florestas ripárias e predomínio de campo nas condições de clima mais seco. Quantidade notável de partículas de carvão encontradas nas amostras deste estágio sugere ocorrência de queimadas locais ou regionais durante um clima seco. No estágio mais novo, a expansão das ripárias em resposta ao aumento das precipitações atmosféricas ocorreu. Pólen de plantas cultivadas, daninhas e invasoras, encontrado nos sedimentos, indica o desenvolvimento da agricultura neste estágio. Maior freqüência de partículas de carvão em mesmos sedimentos provavelmente indique ocorrência de queimadas locais associadas ao desmatamento da região.The samples from two profiles of flood plain deposits of the Paraná River were studied. One sample at the depth of 1.95 m was dated by 14C as 1,700 ± 70 yr BP. Palynological data and charcoal particles were obtained from fluvial sediments and paleosoil. Two principal stages in paleoenvironmental development were established. The early stage is characterized by the limited distribution of riparian forests and predominance of mesophyllous grassland under a condition of relatively dry climate. The deposition of charcoal particles in such predominant quantity was the result of local or regional burns. During the more recent stage, a natural enlargement of riparian forests occurred in conjunction with an increase in rainfall. Land use of that region may be confirmed by relatively frequent presence of

  17. Environmental variables and tree population structures in deciduous forests of central Brazil with different levels of logging

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    Daniel Luis Mascia Vieira

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Population structures of six tree species in three fragments of intact seasonal deciduous forest and three fragments disturbed by logging were studied in the northeastern Goiás. Forty random 400 m² plots were allocated in each fragment to survey plant population structures, number of stumps, cattle feces, burnt logs, and canopy openness. Soil cover by life forms was estimated in 1m² sub-plots. Lianas were abundant in intermediately logged fragments and invasive herbs in the most disturbed fragment. Cattle avoided dense herbaceous strata, such as liana tangles. Cavanillesia arborea, Eugenia dysenterica and Swartzia multijuga trees occurred at very low densities in all the fragments and their seedlings were practically absent, which might endanger their future populations in these fragments. Myracrodruon urundeuva, Tabebuia impetiginosa and Astronium fraxinifolium, the most logged species, had high density of seedlings in all the fragments. However, the highest density of saplings and juvenile individuals occurred in the most disturbed fragment.As estruturas populacionais de seis espécies de árvores foram estudadas em três fragmentos de floresta estacional decidual intactos e três fragmentos impactados pela exploração seletiva de madeira no nordeste goiano. Quarenta parcelas de 400m² foram estabelecidas em cada fragmento para a amostragem de populações, número de tocos, fezes de gado, troncos queimados e abertura de dossel. A cobertura do solo por formas de vida foi estimada em sub-parcelas de 1m². Lianas foram mais abundantes em fragmentos com perturbação intermediária, enquanto herbáceas invasoras no fragmento mais perturbado. Cavanillesia arborea, Eugenia dysenterica e Swartzia multijuga ocorreram em densidades muito baixas em todos os fragmentos e plântulas foram praticamente ausentes, o que pode ameaçar o futuro de suas populações. Myracrodruon urundeuva, Tabebuia impetiginosa e Astronium fraxinifolium, as espécies mais

  18. Grateloupia lanceola versus Grateloupia turuturu (Gigartinales, Rhodophyta: en la Península Ibérica

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    Bárbara, Ignacio

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Grateloupia lanceola was originally described from the southern Iberian Peninsula and northwestern Africa coasts. Its current Iberian distribution only includes some localities in NW (La Coruña and SE (Málaga Spain. The closely related invasive species Grateloupia turuturu is present in Galicia (NW Spain since 1991 and in northern Portugal since 1997. Galicia is the only area in Europe where both especies are sympatric. This paper presents a comparative study of G. lanceola and G. turuturu along the Iberian Peninsula coast. The blade of G. lanceola is purplish red with a characteristic emerald green colour to the base, and usually has scattered paler spots. Moreover, it is 200-450 µm thick, has a sort stipe, and marginal proliferations developed usually only in eroded areas. The lamina of G. turuturu is red or pink through, without paler spots or green areas. It is thinner (130-250 µm, has a long stipe, and frequent congenital marginal proliferations.Grateloupia lanceola, especie descrita de las costas del sur de la Península Ibérica y del noroeste de África, sólo se conoce actualmente de las costas peninsulares en algunas localidades atlánticas del noroeste (La Coruña y mediterráneas del suroeste (Málaga. Por otro lado, la invasora y muy afín Grateloupia turuturu está presente en las costas de Galicia desde 1991 y en el norte de Portugal desde 1997. Galicia es la única región en Europa donde ambas especies conviven, por lo que ha sido posible realizar un estudio comparado que muestra claras diferencias entre ellas. Las láminas de Grateloupia lanceola son de color rojo púrpura, frecuentemente con motas más pálidas en superficie y un característico color verde esmeralda en su base. Estas láminas, de 200-450 µm de grosor, tienen un corto estipe y suelen desarrollar proliferaciones marginales sólo en las zonas erosionadas. Por el contrario, las láminas de G. turuturu son de color rojo más o menos rosado, sin motas

  19. Características do sistema produtivo da pecuária no município de Santarém, Pará Characterization of cattle production systems in Santarém, Pará, Brazil

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    Antonio Humberto Hamad Minervino

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de identificar as principais falhas no sistema de produção que limitam a pecuária em Santarém, Pará, foram entrevistados, ao acaso, 21 pecuaristas (90,5% de corte - cria, recria e engorda; 9,5% de leite, proprietários de 10% da população de bovinos do município. 71,4% das propriedades tinham currais para manejo do gado, entretanto apenas 38,1% possuíam balança e 23,8% tronco de contenção. A Brachiaria brizantha estava presente em todas as fazendas, sendo usada exclusivamente em 42,9% das propriedades. A disseminação de plantas invasoras (61,9% foi considerada a principal dificuldade no manejo das pastagens. Constatou-se que 76,2% dos pecuaristas utilizam misturas minerais com macro e micro-elementos, geralmente de formulações comerciais, enquanto que 19% utilizam apenas sal comum, enriquecido com micro-elementos. A concentração de fósforo (P na mistura mineral estava abaixo do recomendado para bovinos de corte em 76,9% das propriedades e apenas 19% das propriedades possuía cochos para suplementação mineral adequada.With the objective of identifying the main problems of cattle nutrition in the production systems of Santarém, Pará, Brazil, ranchers in different regions of the municipality and who owned 10% of the municipality's animals were interviewed at random. The ranchers raised mostly beef cattle; only 9.5% had dairy cattle. The infrastructure conditions are inappropriate; only 23.8% of the ranches have adequate facilities for beef cattle management and 61.9% of the ranchers do not consider weight control. Weed invasion was considered the main problem of the pastures (61.9%. The most common forage was Brachiaria brizantha, used exclusively in 42.9% of the ranches. 76.2% of the ranchers used a complete mineral supplement, with macro and micro elements, while 19% used only salt (NaCl with micro elements; the other 5% did not use mineral supplements at all. The phosphorus concentration in the mineral

  20. Doença trofoblástica gestacional recorrente

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    Belfort Paulo

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: estudar a freqüência da neoplasia trofoblástica gestacional recorrente e analisar se a evolução e o desfecho do episódio de repetição acarretam agravado risco, assim de invasão como de malignização, e se há necessidade de maior número de ciclos de quimioterapia e regimes mais agressivos. MÉTODOS: vinte e nove pacientes com mola hidatiforme recorrente foram acompanhadas e eventualmente tratadas no Centro de Neoplasia Trofoblástica Gestacional da 33ª Enfermaria da Santa Casa da Misericórdia do Rio de Janeiro, entre 1960 e 2001, representando incidência de 1,2% (29/2262. Foram revisados os prontuários médicos para determinar a idade das pacientes, o número de gravidezes, paridade, apresentação clínica e quimioterapia, caso tenha sido realizada. Um total de cinqüenta e oito episódios de neoplasia trofoblástica ocorreram nas 29 pacientes. Todos os casos tiveram comprovação histopatológica. Os cálculos estatísticos foram feitos mediante o teste de chi superscript two com correção de Yates e analisados pelo programa Epi-Info 2000, versão Windows, elaborado pelo Centro de Controle de Doenças de Atlanta, EUA. RESULTADOS: ocorreu mola invasora ou coriocarcinoma, no primeiro evento molar, em apenas uma paciente (1/29 - 3,4%; invasão ou malignização, entretanto, manifestou-se no segundo evento em sete pacientes (7/29 - 24,1% [RR: 8,9; IC 95% 1,5-41; p<0,05]. CONCLUSÃO: a gravidez molar recorrente cursa com agravamento histológico e aumento na incidência de seqüela trofoblástica proliferativa, exigindo quimioterapia mais freqüente e agressiva para induzir remissão.

  1. Transferências de plantas em uma perspectiva histórica: o estado da discussão*

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    William Beinart

    Full Text Available Este artigo explora algumas rotas dentro da história da transferência de plantas, especialmente durante o período do imperialismo europeu. Tenta extrair conhecimento de diferentes campos de pesquisa, que geralmente não estão justapostos, tecendo em conjunto perspectivas advindas de disciplinas contrastantes. Não pretende oferecer uma história completa, pois tal seria uma tarefa muito mais complexa. Tentamos incluir deliberadamente plantas cultivadas para a agricultura, plantas de jardim, ervas daninhas e plantas invasoras na mesma estrutura de análise, pois é difícil definir algumas espécies apenas dentro de uma dessas categorias culturalmente construídas. O artigo desenvolve três pontos principais. Primeiramente, ele levanta questões sobre o padrão assimétrico de transferência de plantas durante o período imperialista, consequentemente desafiando algumas das proposições presentes no livro Ecological imperialism, de Alfred Crosby. Em segundo lugar, avaliamos a literatura recente com relação à história da botânica e das instituições botânicas e sugerimos que uma área mais ampla de atuação humana necessita ser considerada, assim como as transferências acidentais, se quisermos mapear e compreender os movimentos globais das espécies de plantas. Em terceiro lugar, argumentamos que, na busca de generalizações sobre os padrões de transferência, os cientistas têm se concentrado em demasia nas propriedades das plantas e os historiadores, no entendimento das instituições políticas e econômicas. A construção de uma história global, assim como de histórias de plantas específicas, requer uma combinação de percepções e pesquisas advindas das ciências exatas, sociais e humanas.

  2. Efecto del volumen radicular sobre el crecimiento de Acacia dealbata Link. en vivero y en terreno en el secano de la Región del Biobío, Chile

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    Iván Quiroz

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Entre las especies arbóreas cultivadas en Chile, Acacia dealbata Link. se destaca por su rápido crecimiento y supervivencia en climas con marcado déficit hídrico y suelos altamente degradados. Aun cuando proporciona múltiples productos y servicios, la mayor parte de la investigación se ha centrado caracterizar su capacidad invasora, y poco se conoce respecto a su crecimiento durante los primeros años en terreno, escaseando antecedentes respecto efecto de la modificación de las prácticas silvícolas durante la producción y establecimiento de plantas. Por ello, este estudio analiza el efecto de la modificación del volumen radicular sobre el crecimiento durante la viverización, y la supervivencia y crecimiento culminadas la primera y segunda temporada en terreno. Finalizada la viverización resultó significativo el efecto del volumen radicular sobre el DAC y la altura total (P<0,05, los mayores valores se obtuvieron en plantas producidas con volumen de 100 cm³. Los volúmenes más altos presentaron los mayores índices de esbeltez y de Dickson (P<0.05, mientras que los mejores índices tallo/raíz se observaron con los volúmenes de 56 y 24 cm³ (P<0,05. Culminadas la primera y segunda temporada de crecimiento el efecto del volumen sobre la supervivencia resultó no significativo. Luego de la segunda temporada, se destacó el mayor incremento corriente anual en DAC del tratamiento de 24 cm³ (5,53 ± 1,63 mm. Luego de ambas temporadas se destacó una tendencia a la igualación en altura entre los tratamientos de 100, 80 y 24 cm³, el mayor crecimiento absoluto y relativo se observó en el tratamiento de 24 cm³.

  3. Invasão biológica por Prosopis juliflora (Sw. DC.: impactos sobre a diversidade e a estrutura do componente arbustivo-arbóreo da caatinga no Estado do Rio Grande do Norte, Brasil Biological invasion by Proposis juliflora (Sw. DC.: impacts on diversity and structure of the shrubby-arboreal component of caatinga in the State of Rio Grande do Norte, Brazil

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    Leonaldo Alves de Andrade

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho teve como objetivos estudar os impactos causados pela invasão da algaroba - Prosopis juliflora (Sw. DC. sobre a fitodiversidade e a estrutura do componente arbustivo arbóreo da caatinga. Foram selecionadas áreas em dois municípios no Rio Grande do Norte, Brasil, (Área I e Área II, sendo que em cada município foi estudado um remanescente de caatinga sem a presença de P. juliflora (Ambiente 1 e uma área invadida pela referida espécie (Ambiente 2. Em cada ambiente, foram plotadas 10 parcelas, nas quais foram amostrados todos os indivíduos arbóreo-arbustivos, incluídos nas categorias de adultos e regenerantes. A diversidade, medida pela função de Shannon-Wiener, para o Ambiente 1, nas Áreas I e II, alcançou, respectivamente, os seguintes valores: 2,74 e 2,44 para os adultos; 1,96 e 1,83 para os regenerantes; enquanto que, para o Ambiente 2, esses valores foram de apenas 0,88 e 0,42 para os adultos; 0,16 e 0,79 para os regenerantes, correspondendo às Áreas I e II, respectivamente. Os resultados demonstraram que P. juliflora afeta drasticamente a diversidade e, por conseguinte, a estrutura das comunidades invadidas, tornando evidente a necessidade de controle da referida invasora que ora ameaça a biodiversidade autóctone da caatinga e ecossistemas associados.We studied the impacts caused by the invasion of algaroba - Prosopis juliflora (Sw. DC. - on Caatinga biodiversity and structure. Areas in two minicipalities in the state of Rio Grande do Norte were selected (Area I and Area II. Ten plots were established in each environment, in which all shrubby-arboreal individuals were sampled. The diversity indices, measured by the Shannon-Wiener function, were: in Areas I and II of Environment 1, respectively 2.74 and 2.44 for adults, and 1.96 and 1.83 for regenerating individuals; in Areas I and II of Environment 2 these values were only 0.88 and 0.42 for adults; 0.16 and 0.79 for regenerating individuals, respectively. The

  4. Susceptibilidad a antimicrobianos en aislamientos de Streptococcus pneumoniae invasor en Colombia

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    Aura Lucía Leal

    1999-03-01

    Full Text Available Se realizó un estudio para determinar los patrones de susceptibilidad a los antimicrobianos de los aislamientos de Streptococcus pneumoniae causante de enfermedad invasora diagnosticada en Colombia en niños menores de 5 años entre 1994 y 1996 y para establecer la distribución de los tipos capsulares de los aislamientos resistentes. Se analizaron 324 aislamientos recuperados durante la ejecución del Protocolo Nacional de Serotipificación de S. pneumoniae realizado en Santa Fe de Bogotá, Medellín y Cali, Colombia, entre julio de 1994 y marzo de 1996. Se observó que 119 de todos los aislamientos (36,7% presentaban susceptibilidad disminuida por lo menos a un antimicrobiano, que 39 (12% presentaban susceptibilidad disminuida a la penicilina y que de estos últimos aislamientos, 29 presentaban resistencia intermedia y 10 resistencia alta. Nueve aislamientos (2,8% presentaban resistencia a la ceftriaxona, 80 (24,7% a la combinación de trimetoprima y sulfametoxazol (TMS, 49 (15,1% al cloranfenicol y 31 (9,6% a la eritromicina. Se observó resistencia a dos antimicrobianos en 31 aislamientos (9,6% y multirresistencia en 22 (6,7%. Estos 22 aislamientos mostraron resistencia al TMS. Las asociaciones más frecuentes fueron penicilina, TMS y eritromicina en 5 casos; penicilina, cloranfenicol, TMS y eritromicina en 4; penicilina, ceftriaxona, cloranfenicol y TMS en 3; y penicilina, ceftriaxona, cloranfenicol, TMS y eritromicina en 3 casos. Los serotipos más frecuentes en los aislamientos resistentes a la penicilina fueron: 23F (53,8%, 14 (25,6%, 6B (7,7%, 9V (5,1%, 19F (5,1% y 34 (2,6%. Los serotipos más frecuentes en los aislamientos resistentes a antimicrobianos distintos de la penicilina fueron: 5 (37,5%, 23F (7,5%, 14 (18,8% y 6B (13,8%. Esta diferencia en la distribución de los serotipos fue estadísticamente significativa (P < 0,0001. Los resultados de este estudio indican la necesidad de mantener una vigilancia activa de los patrones de

  5. Toxicity of neem's oil, a potential biocide against the invasive mussel Limnoperna fortunei (Dunker 1857

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    Patricio J. Pereyra

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The golden mussel Limnoperna fortunei (Dunker 1857 is one of the most distributed Nuisance Invasive Species (NIS in South America, and a threat of great concern for the industry of the area. In this study, we carried out toxicity tests made with a Neem's oil solution with L. fortunei larvae and benthonic adults (7, 13 and 19 ± 1 mm. Tests with non-target species (Daphnia magna, Lactuca sativa and Cnesterodon decemmculatus were also made with the aim to evaluate the potential toxicity of the Neem's solution in the environment. The LC100 of Neem's solution obtained for larvae was 500 µl/L, a value much higher than the one obtained for D. magna and C. decemmaculatus. Thus, we recommend that it should not be used in open waters. However, since the adults were killed in 72 h and the larvae in 24 h, this product can be used in closed systems, in man-made facilities.O Mexilhão dourado Limnoperna fortunei (Dunker 1857 é uma das espécies invasoras melhor distribuídas na América do Sul, sendo motivo de grande preocupação para a indústria local. Neste estudo, nós realizamos ensaios de toxicidade de soluções de Óleo de Neem em larvas e adultos bentônicos de L. fortune (7, 13 e 19 ± 1 mm. Com o objetivo de avaliar o potencial tóxico do Óleo de Neem no ambiente também foram realizados testes com organismos não alvo (Daphnia magna, Lactuca sativa e Cnesterodon decemmculatus. A LC100 da solução de Neem para larvas foi 500 µl/L, um valor muito superior ao obtido para D. magna e C. decemmaculatus. Desta forma, nossa recomendação é que este óleo não deve ser utilizado em ambientes naturais abertos. No entanto, uma vez que os adultos morreram em 72h e as larvas em 24h, este produto pode ser utilizado em sistemas fechados construídos pelo homem.

  6. Impact of the invasive plant Syzigium jambos (Myrtaceae on patterns of understory seedling abundance in a Tropical Premontane Forest, Costa Rica

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    Gerardo Avalos

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Habitat fragmentation, along with other human-induced disturbances, increase the vulnerability of native habitats to be invaded by aggressive, ecologically released, exotic species. Syzigium jambos (L. Alston (Myrtaceae, Rose Apple is an important invader still spreading throughout Hawaii, the Antilles, Central and South America. This study examines the effects of S. jambos on plant understory diversity in a 25 ha Tropical Premontane Moist Forest in Atenas, Alajuela, Costa Rica, a protected watershed that supplies drinking water for several human communities. Our final objective is to develop a management strategy combining water protection with the preservation of a representative sample of the original plant diversity in the area. Thirty 2 X 2 m plots were distributed throughout the Municipal Forest maintaining a minimum of 10 m between plots, and 2 m from trails, to sample all understory seedlings and saplings of S. jambos, Coffea arabica (coffee and tree seedlings. We found a clear dominance of S. jambos over all other understory plants. Of the total 1 285 sampled plants, S. jambos comprised 51%, coffee seedlings represented 14,78%, being the rest tree seedlings. Syzigium jambos had the highest density (5.46 plants/m2, S.D. = 6.44 compared to tree (3.67 plants/ m2, S.D. = 3.44 and coffee seedlings (1.58 plants/ m2, S.D. = 2.13. There was a highly significant negative relationship between the relative abundance of S. jambos and tree (r2 = 0.52, p La fragmentación del hábitat, junto con otros disturbios antropogénicos, aumentan la vulnerabilidad de los ambientes nativos a la invasión por especies exóticas, agresivas y sin controles ecológicos. Syzigium jambos (L. Alston (Myrtaceae, Manzana Rosa es una invasora importante que todavía está extendiendose en Hawaii, Las Antillas, Centro y Suramérica. Este estudio examina los efectos de S. jambos sobre la diversidad de plantas del sotobosque en un Bosque Húmedo Premontano de 25 ha en

  7. Meningitis and pneumonia in Guatemalan children: the importance of Haemophilus influenzae type b and Streptococcus pneumoniae Meningitis y neumonía en niños guatemaltecos: importancia de Haemophilus influenzae tipo b y de Streptococcus pneumoniae

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    Edwin J. Asturias

    2003-12-01

    meningitis and help estimate the burden of bacterial meningitis in Guatemala and other developing countries.OBJETIVO: Determinar las características epidemiológicas de las infecciones invasoras por Haemophilus influenzae tipo b (Hib y Streptococcus pneumoniae en niños hospitalizados en Guatemala. La importancia de este tema radica en que la vacunación contra Hib no ha sido incorporada a los programas de inmunización establecidos en Guatemala y en que los registros hospitalarios de 1995 indicaban una baja incidencia de meningitis e infecciones invasoras causadas por Hib y S. pneumoniae. MÉTODOS: Los niños hospitalizados en la Ciudad de Guatemala con signos clínicos de infección bacteriana se estudiaron en busca de indicios de infección por Hib o S. pneumoniae. Se cultivaron líquidos corporales normalmente estériles y se hicieron pruebas de detección de antígenos en líquidos cefalorraquídeo (LCR y pleural. RESULTADOS: De los 1 203 niños de 1 a 59 meses de edad hospitalizados en un período de 28 meses, 725 (60,3% tenían un diagnóstico primario de neumonía, 357 (29,7% de meningitis, 60 (5,0% de celulitis y 61 (5,1% de sepsis u otras afecciones. En 20,0% de los niños con meningitis se detectó Hib y en 12,9% S. pneumoniae. La incidencia media anual de meningitis por Hib fue de 13,8 casos por 100 000 niños menores de 5 años de edad; 32,4% de los casos de meningitis causados por Hib y 58,7% de los causados por S. pneumoniae ocurrieron en niños menores de 6 meses de edad. La tasa de letalidad fue de 14,1%, 37,0% y 18,0%, respectivamente, para los casos de meningitis por Hib, por S. pneumoniae y con resultados negativos tanto en el cultivo como en las pruebas de detección de antígeno. El tratamiento previo con antibióticos fue frecuente y se vio asociado con una reducción significativa de resultados positivos en el cultivo de LCR en los niños que presentaban otros signos de meningitis por Hib o S. pneumoniae. CONCLUSIONES: El perfeccionamiento de la

  8. The role of macrophytes in habitat structuring in aquatic ecosystems: methods of measurement, causes and consequences on animal assemblages' composition and biodiversity O papel das macrófitas na estruturação de habitat em ambientes aquáticos: métodos de medida, causas e consequências para a composição das assembléias animais e biodiversidade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sidinei Magela Thomaz

    2010-06-01

    structure and thus influence associated organisms. In this sense, they are suitable as the main focus of management strategies aimed at biodiversity restoration and conservation.Macrófitas aquáticas têm um importante papel na estruturação de comunidades em ambientes aquáticos. Essas plantas proporcionam estrutura física, aumentam a complexidade e a heterogeneidade de habitats e afetam vários grupos de organismos como invertebrados, peixes e aves aquáticas. A complexidade proporcionada pelas macrófitas tem sido exaustivamente estudada, porém, a mesma raramente tem sido medida de forma padronizada, dificultando comparações entre estudos e o estabelecimento de conclusões gerais. Com o objetivo de endereçar esse assunto, a presente revisão enfoca questões relacionadas à complexidade estrutural de habitats proporcionada por essas plantas e explora: i como a complexidade tem sido enfocada pelos ecólogos, com ênfase em estudos com macrófitas; ii os prós e contras de vários métodos usados para quantificar a complexidade; iii as consequências da estruturação de habitats proporcionada pelas macrófitas sobre invertebrados e peixes, assim como as possíveis causas, mediadas pela complexidade de habitats, que levam a alterações nas assembléias desses animais; iv os impactos potenciais de espécies exóticas invasoras de macrófitas sobre a complexidade de habitats e v a importância da estrutura fornecida por macrófitas em estratégias de manejo visando à conservação da biodiversidade. Nós examinamos a literatura produzida tanto em regiões temperadas como tropicais, mas priorizamos essa última. Os principais resultados dessa revisão são resumidos a seguir. Houve grande variedade de medidas da complexidade de habitats em macrófitas que visam compreender sua influência sobre as assembléias de animais associadas a essas plantas. No entanto, a falta de padronização (considerando uma extensa variação de técnicas e escalas de resolu

  9. Efeito do metribuzin no controle das plantas daninhas e na produção de grãos em Glycine max (L merrill Effect of metribuzin in weed control and yield of Glycine max (L. merrill

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    J. P. Silva Neto

    1991-01-01

    Full Text Available No ano agrícola 1985/ 86, em Viçosa-MG, foi instalado um ensaio de campo em solo Pdzólico Vermelho-Amarelo argiloso e com 2,9% de matéria orgânica, objetivando estudar o efeito das doses de metribuzin (0,0; 0,35; 0,70 e 1,05 kg i.a.ha-1 no controle de plantas daninhas e na produtividade da soja (Geycine max (L. Merri ll, cv. 'Uber aba'. A maioria das monocotiledôneas que ocorreram na area experimental foi represent ada por Cyperus rotundus L., Brachiaria plantaginea (Link Hitch. e Cynodon dactylon (L. Pers., tendo-se verificado somente redução em Brachiaria planta taginea em virtude do aumento das doses de metribuzin, ocorrendo o mesmo com relação às dicotiledôneas que se fizerem presentes no experimento, com exceção de Oxalis Oxyptera Prop., que não foi controlada nas doses utilizadas. A densidade total médias das invasoras, menos Cyperus rotundus , Oxalis oxyptera e Cynodon dactylon, foi de 141; 124; 62 e 59 plantas . m-2, respectivamente, para as doses de 0,0; 0,35 ; 0,70 e 1,05 kg i.a.ha-1 de metribuzin. A dose de 0,35 kg i.a. de metribuzin.ha-1 foi suficiente para promover a redução da matéria seca da parte aérea das plantas daninhas com a mesma eficiência de controle da dose de 1,05 kg i.a .ha-1 Entretanto, a densidade total médil das invasoras foi reduzida sig nificativamente nas doses de 0,70 e 1,05 kg i.a. de metribuzin.ha-l. O efeito do metribuzin na soja foi evidenciado somente na dose de 1,05 kg i.a.ha-1, com injúria foliar (clorose leve ocorrida até 25 dias, aproximadamente, apôs a emergência das plântulas. Após esse período, houve total recuperação de todas as plantas de soja submetidas a essa dose. A produção de grão se o índice de colheita não foram influencia dos significativamente pelas doses de metribuzin.In order to test doses of metribu zin (0,0; 0,35; 0,70 and 1,05 kg a.i.ha ¹ in weed control and yield of soybe an (Glycine max (L. Merri ll, Uberaba, an experiment was conducted under

  10. Radiocesium in migratory aquatic game birds using contaminated U.S. Department of Energy reactor-cooling reservoirs: A long-term perspective.

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    Kennamer, Robert A; Oldenkamp, Ricki E; Leaphart, James C; King, Joshua D; Bryan, A Lawrence; Beasley, James C

    2017-05-01

    Low-level releases of radiocesium into former nuclear reactor cooling-reservoirs on the U.S. Department of Energy's Savannah River Site (SRS) in South Carolina, USA, dating primarily to the late 1950s and early 1960s, have allowed examination of long-term contaminant attenuation in biota occupying these habitats. Periodic collections of migratory game birds since the 1970s have documented 137 Cs (radiocesium) activity concentrations in birds of SRS reservoirs, including mainly Par Pond and Pond B. In this study, during 2014 and 2015 we released wild-caught American coots (Fulica americana) and ring-necked ducks (Aythya collaris) onto Pond B. We made lethal collections of these same birds with residence times ranging from 32 to 173 days to examine radiocesium uptake and estimate the rate of natural attenuation. The two species achieved asymptotic whole-body activity concentrations of radiocesium at different times, with ring-necked ducks requiring almost three times longer than the 30-35 days needed by coots. We estimated ecological half-life (T e ) for Pond B coots over a 28-yr period as 16.8 yr (95% CI = 12.9-24.2 yr). Pond B coot T e was nearly four times longer than T e for coots at nearby Par Pond where radiocesium bioavailability had been constrained for decades by pumping of potassium-enriched river water into that reservoir. T e could not be estimated from long-term data for radiocesium in Pond B diving ducks, including ring-necked ducks, likely because of high variability in residence times of ducks on Pond B. Our results highlight the importance: (1) for risk managers to understand site-specific bio-geochemistry of radiocesium for successful implementation of countermeasures at contaminated sites and (2) of residence time as a critical determinant of observed radiocesium activity concentrations in highly mobile wildlife inhabiting contaminated habitats. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. ECOLOGICAL RESEARCH ON THE BREEDING AVIFAUNA OF THE DÂMBOVNIC AND SUSENI LAKES AREA

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    Maria Denisa Conete

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Our research study was conducted in the area of the Dâmbovnic and Suseni lakes (a square of 2x2 km, two artificially created lakes. We identified 105 breeding species belonging to 13 orders, 39 families and 74 genera; 97 (92,4% of them are confirmed breeding species and 8 (7,6 % are probable breeding species. The results of the research on the Dâmbovnic and Suseni lakes area were compared and related to the data from the Atlas of the Romanian breeding species. By relating them to the Atlas data, we noted that 83 of the 100 breeding species cited in the Atlas were also recorded during our study; 22 new breeding species were identified (19 of them are confirmed breeding species and 3 are probable breeding species. The species that nest mainly in the reed beds (Ixobrychus minutus, Anas platyrhynchos, Fulica atra, Gallinula chloropus, Aythya ferina, Acrocephalus arundinaceus and in the ecotones, marginal areas stand out among the wetland-dependent species through their higher numbers of individuals. Chroicocephalus ridibundus and Himantopus himantopus were observed to nest in the Argeş county for the first time. Most of them are constant and euconstant species (78 species, the results reflecting the abundance of resources in the area during the nesting period. The species showing increasing trends in their breeding population had a significant share (57 %, because the attractiveness of these lakes for birds has continuously grown, being correlated with the ecological restoration of the degraded wetland areas and the emergenge of dense vegetation (thus creating new nesting places, the diversity of the habitat, the existence of ecotone areas, the diversification of the aquatic trophic resources and last but not least the reduced interaction between the local population and the bird communities in the lakes area. The anthropogenic influence is manifested through aggressive agriculture (the use of pesticides and fertilizers, etc. and more recently

  12. RESEARCH STUDY ON THE BREEDING AVIFAUNA OF THE BASCOV RESERVOIR

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    Maria Denisa Conete

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The author conducted an ornithological study in the Bascov Reservoir area (a square of 2x2 km and observed 102 breeding species; 83 (81% of them are certain breeding species and 19 (19% are probable breeding species. The results of the research were cumulated with those found in the Atlas of the breeding species of Romania. By relating them with the Atlas data, we noted that 83 of the 100 breeding species cited in the Atlas were again recorded during our study. Nineteen new breeding species were identified. Among the species dependent on wetlands, mention should be made of Ixobrychus minutus, Anas platyrhynchos, Fulica atra, Gallinula chloropus, Aythya ferina, etc., with relatively large numbers of individuals. The analysis showed a relatively larger number (66 of euconstant and constant species, which confirmed the wealth of food resources in the area during the nesting period. The specific richness on the Bascov Lake is represented by 119 species, a number that is consistent with the availability of the food resources and nesting places, as well as the somewhat fluctuating presence of predators (stray dogs, and the anthropocentric disturbance (sound and chemical pollution, etc.. The yearly increase in the number of reed clusters, the expansion of the surface of the islets, the emergence of bushes and trees, the ageing of the existing trees have led to a certain yearly increase in the number of breeding individuals in 45 species. But the anthropogenic influence in the area has eventually contributed to a decrease in the number of birds, both as a number of species and as a number of individuals. The study has also shown that in the farmland bird species the number of individuals is in decline. Most of the breeding species - 75 (representing 74% in the area under research are migratory. Eighteen breeding species (17.64% are listed in Annex I of the Birds Directive. The presence of the key breeding species in the area under research must be

  13. Selenium teratogenesis in natural populations of aquatic birds in central California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, D.J.; Ohlendorf, H.M.; Aldrich, T.W.

    1988-01-01

    The frequency and types of malformations are described that were encountered during the spring of 1983 in a natural population of aquatic birds exposed to agricultural drainwater ponds and food items containing high concentrations of selenium in central California. A total of 347 nests of aquatic birds containing 1,681 eggs was selected for study at Kesterson Reservoir located in the Kesterson National Wildlife Refuge (NWR), Merced County, California. Embryos collected during incubation or from eggs that failed to hatch were examined to determine the age at death and presence of malformations. Embryonic death was generally high; approximately 17?60% of the nests of different species contained at least one dead embryo. The incidence of malformed embryos was also high; approximately 22?65% of the nests where at least two embryos were examined contained abnormal embryos. American coots (Fulica americana) and black-necked stilts (Himantopus mexicanus) experienced the highest incidence of malformed embryos. For all species, the average percentage of eggs containing dead or live abnormal embryos was 16.1 whereas the average percentage containing live abnormal embryos was 10.7. Multiple gross malformations of the eyes, brain, and feet were often present. Brain defects included hydrocephaly and exencephaly. Eye defects included both unilateral and bilateral anophthalmia and microphthalmia. Eye and foot defects with ectrodactyly and swollen joints were the most common in coots. Beak defects also occurred frequently and most often included incomplete development of the lower beak of ducks (Anas spp.) and stilts. Wing and leg defects were most prevalent in stilts and ducks, with ectromelia and amelia most prevalent in stilts. Other malformations occurring at lower frequencies included enlarged hearts with thin ventricular walls, liver hypopiasia, and gastroschisis. Based upon simultaneous examination of a control population of aquatic birds of the same species and published

  14. TRADITIONAL RURAL WETLANDS IN HARYANA STATE OF INDIA ARE CURRENTLY CONFRONTING MULTICORNERED THREATS LEADING TO EXTINCTION SOONER THAN LATER

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    Rohtash chand Gupta

    2012-05-01

    indicus, Mallard Anas platyrhynchos, Gadwall Anas strepera, Northern Shoveller Anas clypeata, Northern Pintail Anas acuta, Garganey Anas querquedula, Common Teal Anas crecca, Common Pochard Aythya ferina, Tufted Pochard Aythya fuligula, Common Coot Fulica atra, Little Ringed Plover Charadrius dubius, Kentish Plover Charadrius alexandrines, Spotted Redshank Tringa erythropus, Common Redshank Tringa tetanus, Marsh Sandpiper Tringa stagnatilis, Wood Sandpiper Tringa glareola and Pied Avocet Recurivirostra avosetta arrive in the extremely dilapidated rural ponds in Haryana from far off places including Russia, Siberia, China, and Caspian region, east Asia each winter season without any break. As such the extinction of ponds in Haryana directly threatens global avian biodiversity.

  15. Role of selenium toxicity and oxidative stress in aquatic birds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, D.J.

    2002-01-01

    Adverse effects of selenium (Se) in wild aquatic birds have been documented as a consequence of pollution of the aquatic environment by subsurface agricultural drainwater and other sources. These effects include mortality, impaired reproduction with teratogenesis, reduced growth, histopathological lesions and alterations in hepatic glutathione metabolism. A review is provided, relating adverse biological effects of Se in aquatic birds to altered glutathione metabolism and oxidative stress. Laboratory studies, mainly with an organic form of Se, selenomethionine, have revealed oxidative stress in different stages of the mallard (Anas platyrhynchos) life cycle. As dietary and tissue concentrations of Se increase, increases in plasma and hepatic GSH peroxidase activities occur, followed by dose-dependent increases in the ratio of hepatic oxidized to reduced glutathione (GSSG:GSH) and ultimately hepatic lipid peroxidation measured as an increase in thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS). One or more of these oxidative effects were associated with teratogenesis (4.6 ppm wet weight Se in eggs), reduced growth in ducklings (15 ppm Se in liver), diminished immune function (5 ppm Se in liver) and histopathological lesions (29 ppm Se in liver) in adults. Manifestations of Serelated effects on glutathione metabolism were also apparent in field studies in seven species of aquatic birds. Reduced growth and possibly immune function but increased liver:body weight and hepatic GSSG:GSH ratios were apparent in American avocet (Recurvirostra americana) hatchlings from eggs containing 9 ppm Se. In blacknecked stilts (Himantopus mexicanus), which contained somewhat lower Se concentrations, a decrease in hepatic GSH was apparent with few other effects. In adult American coots (Fulica americana), signs of Se toxicosis included emaciation, abnormal feather loss and histopathological lesions. Mean liver concentrations of 28 ppm Se (ww) in the coots were associated with elevated

  16. The influence of local- and landscape-level factors on wetland breeding birds in the Prairie Pothole Region of North and South Dakota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Igl, Lawrence D.; Shaffer, Jill A.; Johnson, Douglas H.; Buhl, Deborah A.

    2017-08-17

    We examined the relationship between local- (wetland) and landscape-level factors and breeding bird abundances on 1,190 depressional wetlands in the Prairie Pothole Region of North and South Dakota during the breeding seasons in 1995–97. The surveyed wetlands were selected from five wetland classes (alkali, permanent, semipermanent, seasonal, or temporary), two wetland types (natural or restored), and two landowner groups (private or Federal). We recorded 133 species of birds in the surveyed wetlands during the 3 years. We analyzed the nine most common (or focal) species (that is, species that were present in 25 percent or more of the 1,190 wetlands): the Red-winged Blackbird (Agelaius phoeniceus), Blue-winged Teal (Anas discors), Mallard (Anas platyrhynchos), American Coot (Fulica americana), Gadwall (Anas strepera), Common Yellowthroat (Geothlypis trichas), Yellow-headed Blackbird (Xanthocephalus xanthocephalus), Northern Shoveler (Anas clypeata), and Savannah Sparrow (Passerculus sandwichensis). Our results emphasize the ecological value of all wetland classes, natural and restored wetlands, and publicly and privately owned wetlands in this region, including wetlands that are generally smaller and shallower (that is, temporary and seasonal wetlands) and thus most vulnerable to drainage. Blue-winged Teal, Northern Shoveler, Gadwall, Common Yellowthroat, and Red-winged Blackbird had higher abundances on Federal than on private wetlands. Abundances differed among wetland classes for seven of the nine focal species: Blue-winged Teal, Northern Shoveler, Mallard, American Coot, Common Yellowthroat, Yellow-headed Blackbird, R