WorldWideScience

Sample records for invasive species

  1. Invasive Species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Invasive species have significantly changed the Great Lakes ecosystem. An invasive species is a plant or animal that is not native to an ecosystem, and whose introduction is likely to cause economic, human health, or environmental damage.

  2. National invasive species program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anna Rinick

    2007-01-01

    The structure and function of the National Invasive Species Council was presented below. The names and contact information for the USDA Invasive Species coordinators as of February 2006 were presented on the next page.

  3. Management of invasive species

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schou, Jesper Sølver; Jensen, Frank

    In this paper, we conduct a number of cost-benefit analyses to clarify whether the establishment of invasive species should be prevented or the damage of such species should be mitigated after introduction. We use the potential establishment of ragweed in Denmark as an empirical case. The main...... of information externalities, altruistic preferences, possible catastrophic events and ethical considerations....

  4. Over-invasion by functionally equivalent invasive species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, James C; Sataruddin, Nurul S; Heard, Allison D

    2014-08-01

    Multiple invasive species have now established at most locations around the world, and the rate of new species invasions and records of new invasive species continue to grow. Multiple invasive species interact in complex and unpredictable ways, altering their invasion success and impacts on biodiversity. Incumbent invasive species can be replaced by functionally similar invading species through competitive processes; however the generalized circumstances leading to such competitive displacement have not been well investigated. The likelihood of competitive displacement is a function of the incumbent advantage of the resident invasive species and the propagule pressure of the colonizing invasive species. We modeled interactions between populations of two functionally similar invasive species and indicated the circumstances under which dominance can be through propagule pressure and incumbent advantage. Under certain circumstances, a normally subordinate species can be incumbent and reject a colonizing dominant species, or successfully colonize in competition with a dominant species during simultaneous invasion. Our theoretical results are supported by empirical studies of the invasion of islands by three invasive Rattus species. Competitive displacement is prominent in invasive rats and explains the replacement of R. exulans on islands subsequently invaded by European populations of R. rattus and R. norvegicus. These competition outcomes between invasive species can be found in a broad range of taxa and biomes, and are likely to become more common. Conservation management must consider that removing an incumbent invasive species may facilitate invasion by another invasive species. Under very restricted circumstances of dominant competitive ability but lesser impact, competitive displacement may provide a novel method of biological control.

  5. Terrestrial animals as invasive species and as species at risk from invasions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deborah M. Finch; Dean Pearson; Joseph Wunderle; Wayne Arendt

    2010-01-01

    Including terrestrial animal species in the invasive species strategy plan is an important step in invasive species management. Invasions by nonindigenous species threaten nearly 50 percent of imperiled native species in the United States and are the Nation's second leading cause of species endangerment. Invasion and conversion of native habitats by exotic species...

  6. 75 FR 69698 - Invasive Species Advisory Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-15

    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Office of the Secretary Invasive Species Advisory Committee AGENCY: Office of the Secretary, Interior. ACTION: Notice of public meetings of the Invasive Species Advisory... of meetings of the Invasive Species Advisory Committee (ISAC). Comprised of 30 nonfederal invasive...

  7. 76 FR 68776 - Invasive Species Advisory Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-07

    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Office of the Secretary Invasive Species Advisory Committee AGENCY: Office of the Secretary, Interior. ACTION: Notice of public meetings of the Invasive Species Advisory... of meetings of the Invasive Species Advisory Committee (ISAC). Comprised of 29 nonfederal invasive...

  8. 77 FR 23740 - Invasive Species Advisory Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-20

    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Office of the Secretary Invasive Species Advisory Committee AGENCY: Office of the Secretary, Interior. ACTION: Notice of Public Meetings of the Invasive Species Advisory... of meetings of the Invasive Species Advisory Committee (ISAC). Comprised of 30 nonfederal invasive...

  9. Approaching invasive species in Madagascar | Kull | Madagascar ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    invasive', the topic of invasive species has until recently received less attention here than in other island contexts. Some species, often alien to Madagascar and introduced by humans, have expanded their range rapidly and have had both ...

  10. Invasive Species Science Update (No. 9)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Justin Runyon

    2017-01-01

    This newsletter is designed to keep managers and other users up-to-date with recently completed and ongoing research by RMRS scientists, as well as to highlight breaking news related to invasive species issues. The newsletter is produced by the RMRS Invasive Species Working Group (ISWG), a core group of scientists who volunteer to disseminate RMRS invasive species...

  11. Do invasive plant species alter soil health?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Invasive species may alter soil characteristics or interact with the soil microbial community to yield a competitive advantage. Our objectives were to determine: if invasive plant species alter soil properties important to soil health; and the long-term effects of invasive plant species on soil pro...

  12. 78 FR 70317 - Invasive Species Advisory Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-25

    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Office of the Secretary Invasive Species Advisory Committee AGENCY..., notice is hereby given of meetings of the Invasive Species Advisory Committee. The purpose of the Advisory Committee is to provide advice to the National Invasive Species Council, as authorized by...

  13. Invasive Species Science Update (No. 4)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ned B. Klopfenstein; Brian W. Geils

    2010-01-01

    The fourth issue of Invasive Species Science Update has finally arrived. This newsletter has no set publication schedule, but our intent is to deliver invasive species information on a timely basis. The RMRS Invasive Species Working Group (ISWG) has been reorganized and recharged. General information on the ISWG is presented in a publication by Butler and others (2009...

  14. Invasive Species Science Update (No. 7)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dean Pearson; Yvette Ortega; Jack Butler

    2014-01-01

    Invasive Species Science Updates are designed to keep managers and other users up-to-date with recently completed and ongoing research by RMRS scientists, as well as highlight breaking news related to invasive species issues. The newsletter is produced by the RMRS Invasive Species Working Group (ISWG), which is a core group of scientists who volunteer to coordinate...

  15. Invasive Species Science Update (No. 5)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dean Pearson; Yvette Ortega

    2011-01-01

    Welcome to the fifth issue of the Rocky Mountain Research Station's (RMRS) Invasive Species Science Update. The newsletter is produced by the RMRS Invasive Species Working Group (ISWG), which is a core group of scientists who volunteer to coordinate outreach of RMRS invasive species science to managers and the public. After publishing the past four newsletters, we...

  16. 78 FR 11899 - Invasive Species Advisory Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-20

    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Office of the Secretary Invasive Species Advisory Committee AGENCY... notice of public meetings of the Invasive Species Advisory Committee. The document contained incorrect..., March 6, 2013; 9 a.m. to 1:45 p.m. Meeting of the Invasive Species Advisory Committee (OPEN): Thursday...

  17. Invasive Species Science Update (No. 8)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dean Pearson; Yvette Ortega; Jack Butler

    2015-01-01

    Invasive Species Science Updates are designed to keep managers and other users up-to-date with recently completed and ongoing research by RMRS scientists, as well as highlight breaking news related to invasive species issues. The newsletter is produced by the RMRS Invasive Species Working Group (ISWG), which is a core group of scientists who volunteer to coordinate...

  18. The Invasive Species Forecasting System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnase, John; Most, Neal; Gill, Roger; Ma, Peter

    2011-01-01

    The Invasive Species Forecasting System (ISFS) provides computational support for the generic work processes found in many regional-scale ecosystem modeling applications. Decision support tools built using ISFS allow a user to load point occurrence field sample data for a plant species of interest and quickly generate habitat suitability maps for geographic regions of management concern, such as a national park, monument, forest, or refuge. This type of decision product helps resource managers plan invasive species protection, monitoring, and control strategies for the lands they manage. Until now, scientists and resource managers have lacked the data-assembly and computing capabilities to produce these maps quickly and cost efficiently. ISFS focuses on regional-scale habitat suitability modeling for invasive terrestrial plants. ISFS s component architecture emphasizes simplicity and adaptability. Its core services can be easily adapted to produce model-based decision support tools tailored to particular parks, monuments, forests, refuges, and related management units. ISFS can be used to build standalone run-time tools that require no connection to the Internet, as well as fully Internet-based decision support applications. ISFS provides the core data structures, operating system interfaces, network interfaces, and inter-component constraints comprising the canonical workflow for habitat suitability modeling. The predictors, analysis methods, and geographic extents involved in any particular model run are elements of the user space and arbitrarily configurable by the user. ISFS provides small, lightweight, readily hardened core components of general utility. These components can be adapted to unanticipated uses, are tailorable, and require at most a loosely coupled, nonproprietary connection to the Web. Users can invoke capabilities from a command line; programmers can integrate ISFS's core components into more complex systems and services. Taken together, these

  19. Invasive plant species in hardwood tree plantations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rochelle R. Beasley; Paula M. Pijut

    2010-01-01

    Invasive plants are species that can grow and spread aggressively, mature quickly, and invade an ecosystem causing economic and environmental damage. Invasive plants usually invade disturbed areas, but can also colonize small areas quickly, and may spread and dominate large areas in a few short years. Invasive plant species displace native or desirable forest...

  20. Invasive species and climate change (Chapter 7)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Justin B. Runyon; Jack L. Butler; Megan M. Friggens; Susan E. Meyer; Sharlene E. Sing

    2012-01-01

    Invasive species present one of the greatest threats to the health and sustainability of ecosystems worldwide. Invasive plants, animals, and diseases are known to have significant negative effects on biological diversity and the ecological structure and functions of native ecosystems. Moreover, the economic cost imposed by invasive species is enormous—the damage...

  1. The Invasive Plant Species Education Guide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, Kevin; James, Krista; Carlson, Kitrina; D'Angelo, Jean

    2010-01-01

    To help high school students gain a solid understanding of invasive plant species, university faculty and students from the University of Wisconsin-Stout (UW-Stout) and a local high school teacher worked together to develop the Invasive Plant Species (IPS) Education Guide. The IPS Education Guide includes nine lessons that give students an…

  2. Invasive Species Science Update (No. 1)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mee-Sook Kim; Jack Butler

    2008-01-01

    This electronic newsletter (Invasive Species Science Update) is published by the Rocky Mountain Research Station (RMRS) Cross-Program, Interdisciplinary Project team on Invasive Species. This newsletter will be published 3 times per year and is intended to enhance communication among RMRS scientists, wildland managers, other partners, stakeholders, and customers about...

  3. Invasive Species Science Update (No. 6)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paula Fornwalt

    2013-01-01

    The sixth issue of the Rocky Mountain Research Station's (RMRS) Invasive Species Science Update is now complete. Published approximately once per year, this newsletter keeps managers and other users up-to-date with recently completed and ongoing research by RMRS scientists, and covers breaking news related to invasive species issues. The newsletter is produced by...

  4. Quantifying the invasiveness of species

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Colautti, R. I.; Parker, J. D.; Cadotte, M. W.; Pyšek, Petr; Brown, C. S.; Sax, D. F.; Richardson, D. M.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 21, č. 1 (2014), s. 7-27 ISSN 1619-0033 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP505/11/1112; GA ČR(CZ) GAP504/11/1028 Grant - others:AV ČR(CZ) AP1002 Program:Akademická prémie - Praemium Academiae Institutional support: RVO:67985939 Keywords : biological invasions * biogeographical comparison * invasiveness Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour

  5. Fort Collins Science Center: Invasive Species Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stohlgren, Tom

    2004-01-01

    Invasive, non-native species of plants, animals, and disease organisms adversely affect the ecosystems they enter. Like "biological wildfires," they can quickly spread, and they affect nearly all terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems. Invasive species have become the greatest environmental challenge of the 21st century in terms of economic, environmental, and human health costs, with an estimated impact in the U.S. of over $138 billion per year. Managers of Department of the Interior and other public and private lands and waters rank invasive species as their top resource management problem.

  6. Global threat to agriculture from invasive species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paini, Dean R; Sheppard, Andy W; Cook, David C; De Barro, Paul J; Worner, Susan P; Thomas, Matthew B

    2016-07-05

    Invasive species present significant threats to global agriculture, although how the magnitude and distribution of the threats vary between countries and regions remains unclear. Here, we present an analysis of almost 1,300 known invasive insect pests and pathogens, calculating the total potential cost of these species invading each of 124 countries of the world, as well as determining which countries present the greatest threat to the rest of the world given their trading partners and incumbent pool of invasive species. We find that countries vary in terms of potential threat from invasive species and also their role as potential sources, with apparently similar countries sometimes varying markedly depending on specifics of agricultural commodities and trade patterns. Overall, the biggest agricultural producers (China and the United States) could experience the greatest absolute cost from further species invasions. However, developing countries, in particular, Sub-Saharan African countries, appear most vulnerable in relative terms. Furthermore, China and the United States represent the greatest potential sources of invasive species for the rest of the world. The analysis reveals considerable scope for ongoing redistribution of known invasive pests and highlights the need for international cooperation to slow their spread.

  7. 76 FR 30955 - Invasive Species Advisory Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-27

    ... broad array of issues related to preventing the introduction of invasive species and providing for their... primarily on invaders in the intermountain West. The meeting will focus on adapting management of invasive... ecology, climate change, land development, introduction pathways, and new invaders. ISAC will also consult...

  8. 75 FR 29359 - Invasive Species Advisory Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-25

    ..., opportunities for green jobs creation within invasive species efforts, ballast water related issues, and the..., 2010. ADDRESSES: The Argonaut Hotel, 495 Jefferson Street at Hyde, San Francisco, California 94109-1314...

  9. Aquatic invasive species: Lessons from cancer research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sepulveda, Adam; Ray, Andrew; Al-Chokhachy, Robert K.; Muhlfeld, Clint C.; Gresswell, Robert E.; Gross, Jackson A.; Kershner, Jeffrey L.

    2014-01-01

    Aquatic invasive species are disrupting ecosystems with increasing frequency. Successful control of these invasions has been rare: Biologists and managers have few tools for fighting aquatic invaders. In contrast, the medical community has long worked to develop tools for preventing and fighting cancer. Its successes are marked by a coordinated research approach with multiple steps: prevention, early detection, diagnosis, treatment options and rehabilitation. The authors discuss how these steps can be applied to aquatic invasive species, such as the American bullfrog (Lithobates catesbeianus), in the Northern Rocky Mountain region of the United States, to expedite tool development and implementation along with achievement of biodiversity conservation goals.

  10. Invasive species unchecked by climate - response

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burrows, Michael T.; Schoeman, David S.; Duarte, Carlos M.

    2012-01-01

    Hulme points out that observed rates of range expansion by invasive alien species are higher than the median speed of isotherm movement over the past 50 years, which in turn has outpaced the rates of climate-associated range changes of marine and terrestrial species. This is not surprising, given...... the many ecological and anthropogenic processes that combine to facilitate the translocation of invasive species and the subsequent expansion of their populations. Successful alien species have been observed to rapidly expand their ranges until some limit, typically climate-imposed, is reached. Comparisons...... of climate-change-induced range shifts between native and alien species are meaningful only after the initial invasive spread has reached a stable range boundary. A focus on regions with high velocities of climate change, and on regions such as the tropics where novel thermal niches are being created, should...

  11. Plant invasions: Merging the concepts of species invasiveness and community invasibility

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Richardson, D. M.; Pyšek, Petr

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 30, č. 3 (2006), s. 409-431 ISSN 0309-1333 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60050516 Keywords : plant invasions * species invasiveness * community invasibility Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 1.278, year: 2006

  12. Invasive species overarching priorities to 2029

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly Burnett; Susan J. Frankel; Melody Keena; Mee-Sook Kim; Ned B. Klopfenstein; Michael E. Ostry; Carolyn Hull Sieg

    2010-01-01

    Invasive species are one of the greatest threats to forest, range, aquatic, and urban forest ecosystem health. They contribute to the endangerment of native species and may lead to other severe ecological and financial consequences in our Nation’s wildlands and urban forests. Costs the public pays for damage, losses, and control efforts are estimated at more than $138...

  13. Climate change and invasive species: double jeopardy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mainka, Susan A; Howard, Geoffrey W

    2010-06-01

    Two of the key drivers of biodiversity loss today are climate change and invasive species. Climate change is already having a measurable impact on species distributions, reproduction and behavior, and all evidence suggests that things will get worse even if we act tomorrow to mitigate any future increases in greenhouse gas emissions: temperature will increase, precipitation will change, sea level will rise and ocean chemistry will change. At the same time, biological invasions remain an important threat to biodiversity, causing species loss, changes in distribution and habitat degradation. Acting together, the impacts of each of these drivers of change are compounded and interactions between these two threats present even greater challenges to field conservationists as well as policymakers. Similarly, the social and economic impacts of climate change and invasive species, already substantial, will be magnified. Awareness of the links between the two should underpin all biodiversity management planning and policy. © 2010 ISZS, Blackwell Publishing and IOZ/CAS.

  14. Economics of Harmful Invasive Species: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George Marbuah

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to review theoretical and empirical findings in economics with respect to the challenging question of how to manage invasive species. The review revealed a relatively large body of literature on the assessment of damage costs of invasive species; single species and groups of species at different geographical scales. However, the estimated damage costs show large variation, from less than 1 million USD to costs corresponding to 12% of gross domestic product, depending on the methods employed, geographical scale, and scope with respect to inclusion of different species. Decisions regarding optimal management strategies, when to act in the invasion chain and which policy to choose, have received much less attention in earlier years, but have been subject to increasing research during the last decade. More difficult, but also more relevant policy issues have been raised, which concern the targeting in time and space of strategies under conditions of uncertainty. In particular, the weighting of costs and benefits from early detection and mitigation against the uncertain avoidance of damage with later control, when the precision in targeting species is typically greater is identified as a key challenge. The role of improved monitoring for detecting species and their spread and damage has been emphasized, but questions remain on how to achieve this in practice. This is in contrast to the relatively large body of literature on policies for mitigating dispersal by trade, which is regarded as one of the most important vectors for the spread of invasive species. On the other hand, the literature on how to mitigate established species, by control or adaptation, is much more scant. Studies evaluating causes for success or failure of policies against invasive in practice are in principal non-existing.

  15. Invasive species in southern Nevada [Chapter 4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathew L. Brooks; Steven M. Ostoja; Jeanne C. Chambers

    2013-01-01

    Southern Nevada contains a wide range of topographies, elevations, and climatic zones emblematic of its position at the ecotone between the Mojave Desert, Great Basin, and Colorado Plateau ecoregions. These varied environmental conditions support a high degree of biological diversity (Chapter 1), but they also provide opportunities for a wide range of invasive species...

  16. Photosynthetic performance of invasive Vincetoxicum species (Apocynaceae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vincetoxicum rossicum and V. nigrum are perennial invasive vines impacting several ecosystems in the northeastern United States and southeastern Canada, including old-fields and forest understories. The integrity of these ecosystems is threatened by these two Vincetoxicum species. In order to bett...

  17. Ensemble habitat mapping of invasive plant species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stohlgren, T.J.; Ma, P.; Kumar, S.; Rocca, M.; Morisette, J.T.; Jarnevich, C.S.; Benson, N.

    2010-01-01

    Ensemble species distribution models combine the strengths of several species environmental matching models, while minimizing the weakness of any one model. Ensemble models may be particularly useful in risk analysis of recently arrived, harmful invasive species because species may not yet have spread to all suitable habitats, leaving species-environment relationships difficult to determine. We tested five individual models (logistic regression, boosted regression trees, random forest, multivariate adaptive regression splines (MARS), and maximum entropy model or Maxent) and ensemble modeling for selected nonnative plant species in Yellowstone and Grand Teton National Parks, Wyoming; Sequoia and Kings Canyon National Parks, California, and areas of interior Alaska. The models are based on field data provided by the park staffs, combined with topographic, climatic, and vegetation predictors derived from satellite data. For the four invasive plant species tested, ensemble models were the only models that ranked in the top three models for both field validation and test data. Ensemble models may be more robust than individual species-environment matching models for risk analysis. ?? 2010 Society for Risk Analysis.

  18. Workshop: Economic Impacts of Aquatic Invasive Species Workshop (2005)

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA's National Center for Environmental Economics and Office of Water jointly hosted the Economic Impacts of Aquatic Invasive Species Workshop on July 20-21, 2005 in DC. Goal to examine conceptual frameworks and tools to value invasive species impacts.

  19. Lake Superior Aquatic Invasive Species Complete Prevention Plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Lake Superior Aquatic Invasive Species Complete Prevention Plan is an expression of the best professional judgment of the members of the Lake Superior Task Force as to what is necessary to protect Lake Superior from new aquatic invasive species.

  20. A Landscape Approach to Invasive Species Management.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Lurgi

    Full Text Available Biological invasions are not only a major threat to biodiversity, they also have major impacts on local economies and agricultural production systems. Once established, the connection of local populations into metapopulation networks facilitates dispersal at landscape scales, generating spatial dynamics that can impact the outcome of pest-management actions. Much planning goes into landscape-scale invasive species management. However, effective management requires knowledge on the interplay between metapopulation network topology and management actions. We address this knowledge gap using simulation models to explore the effectiveness of two common management strategies, applied across different extents and according to different rules for selecting target localities in metapopulations with different network topologies. These management actions are: (i general population reduction, and (ii reduction of an obligate resource. The reduction of an obligate resource was generally more efficient than population reduction for depleting populations at landscape scales. However, the way in which local populations are selected for management is important when the topology of the metapopulation is heterogeneous in terms of the distribution of connections among local populations. We tested these broad findings using real-world scenarios of European rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus infesting agricultural landscapes in Western Australia. Although management strategies targeting central populations were more effective in simulated heterogeneous metapopulation structures, no difference was observed in real-world metapopulation structures that are highly homogeneous. In large metapopulations with high proximity and connectivity of neighbouring populations, different spatial management strategies yield similar outcomes. Directly considering spatial attributes in pest-management actions will be most important for metapopulation networks with heterogeneously

  1. 78 FR 14351 - Invasive Species Advisory Committee; Meeting Cancellation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-05

    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Office of the Secretary Invasive Species Advisory Committee; Meeting... meeting of the Invasive Species Advisory Committee (ISAC) scheduled for Thursday, March 7, 2013 and Friday... invasive species experts and stakeholders from across the nation. The purpose of the Advisory Committee is...

  2. Rocky Mountain Research Station invasive species visionary white paper

    Science.gov (United States)

    D. E. Pearson; M. Kim; J. Butler

    2011-01-01

    Invasive species represent one of the single greatest threats to natural ecosystems and the services they provide. Effectively addressing the invasive species problem requires management that is based on sound research. We provide an overview of recent and ongoing invasive species research conducted by Rocky Mountain Research Station scientists in the Intermountain...

  3. 78 FR 9724 - Invasive Species Advisory Committee; Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-11

    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Office of the Secretary Invasive Species Advisory Committee; Meetings AGENCY: Office of the Secretary, Interior. ACTION: Notice of public meetings of the Invasive Species... hereby given of meetings of the Invasive Species Advisory Committee (ISAC). Comprised of 31 nonfederal...

  4. Factors Determining Awareness and Knowledge of Aquatic Invasive Species

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eiswerth, M.E.; Yen, S.T.; Kooten, van G.C.

    2011-01-01

    Public perceptions of invasive species may influence policies and programs initiated by public and private stakeholders. We investigate the determinants of the public's awareness and knowledge of invasive species as few studies have examined this relationship. We focus on aquatic invasive species

  5. Invasive species information networks: Collaboration at multiple scales for prevention, early detection, and rapid response to invasive alien species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpson, Annie; Jarnevich, Catherine S.; Madsen, John; Westbrooks, Randy G.; Fournier, Christine; Mehrhoff, Les; Browne, Michael; Graham, Jim; Sellers, Elizabeth A.

    2009-01-01

    Accurate analysis of present distributions and effective modeling of future distributions of invasive alien species (IAS) are both highly dependent on the availability and accessibility of occurrence data and natural history information about the species. Invasive alien species monitoring and detection networks (such as the Invasive Plant Atlas of New England and the Invasive Plant Atlas of the MidSouth) generate occurrence data at local and regional levels within the United States, which are shared through the US National Institute of Invasive Species Science. The Inter-American Biodiversity Information Network's Invasives Information Network (I3N), facilitates cooperation on sharing invasive species occurrence data throughout the Western Hemisphere. The I3N and other national and regional networks expose their data globally via the Global Invasive Species Information Network (GISIN). International and interdisciplinary cooperation on data sharing strengthens cooperation on strategies and responses to invasions. However, limitations to effective collaboration among invasive species networks leading to successful early detection and rapid response to invasive species include: lack of interoperability; data accessibility; funding; and technical expertise. This paper proposes various solutions to these obstacles at different geographic levels and briefly describes success stories from the invasive species information networks mentioned above. Using biological informatics to facilitate global information sharing is especially critical in invasive species science, as research has shown that one of the best indicators of the invasiveness of a species is whether it has been invasive elsewhere. Data must also be shared across disciplines because natural history information (e.g. diet, predators, habitat requirements, etc.) about a species in its native range is vital for effective prevention, detection, and rapid response to an invasion. Finally, it has been our

  6. The stock of invasive insect species and its economic determinants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hlasny, Vladimir

    2011-06-01

    Invasions of nonindigenous organisms have long been linked to trade, but the contribution of individual trade pathways remains poorly understood, because species are not observed immediately upon arrival and the number of species arriving annually is unknown. Species interception records may count both new arrivals and species long introduced. Furthermore, the stock of invasive insect species already present is unknown. In this study, a state-space model is used to infer the stock of detected as well as undetected invasive insect species established in the United States. A system of equations is estimated jointly to distinguish the patterns of introduction, identification, and eradication. Introductions of invasive species are modeled as dependent on the volume of trade and arrival of people. Identifications depend on the public efforts at invasive species research, as well as on the established stock of invasive species that remain undetected. Eradications of both detected and undetected invasive species depend on containment and quarantine efforts, as well as on the stock of all established invasive species. These patterns are estimated by fitting the predicted number of invasive species detections to the observed record in the North American Non-Indigenous Arthropod Database. The results indicate that agricultural imports are the most important pathway of introduction, followed by immigration of people. Expenditures by the U.S. Department of Agriculture and the Agricultural Research Service are found to explain the species identification record well. Between three and 38 invasive insect species are estimated to be established in the United States undetected.

  7. Comparative anatomy of invasive and non-invasive species in the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The foliar and stem micromorphological study of the invasive and non-invasive species were undertaken using Light Microscope (LM). The occurrence of vessels in the pillar of the abundant sclerenchyma tissues are important component of the skeletal system in the invasive species. The prominent tiles of parenchymatous ...

  8. Five potential consequences of climate change for invasive species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hellmann, Jessica J; Byers, James E; Bierwagen, Britta G; Dukes, Jeffrey S

    2008-06-01

    Scientific and societal unknowns make it difficult to predict how global environmental changes such as climate change and biological invasions will affect ecological systems. In the long term, these changes may have interacting effects and compound the uncertainty associated with each individual driver. Nonetheless, invasive species are likely to respond in ways that should be qualitatively predictable, and some of these responses will be distinct from those of native counterparts. We used the stages of invasion known as the "invasion pathway" to identify 5 nonexclusive consequences of climate change for invasive species: (1) altered transport and introduction mechanisms, (2) establishment of new invasive species, (3) altered impact of existing invasive species, (4) altered distribution of existing invasive species, and (5) altered effectiveness of control strategies. We then used these consequences to identify testable hypotheses about the responses of invasive species to climate change and provide suggestions for invasive-species management plans. The 5 consequences also emphasize the need for enhanced environmental monitoring and expanded coordination among entities involved in invasive-species management.

  9. Introduced and invasive cactus species: a global review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novoa, Ana; Le Roux, Johannes J; Robertson, Mark P; Wilson, John R U; Richardson, David M

    2014-12-03

    Understanding which species are introduced and become invasive, and why, are central questions in invasion science. Comparative studies on model taxa have provided important insights, but much more needs to be done to unravel the context dependencies of these findings. The cactus family (Cactaceae), one of the most popular horticultural plant groups, is an interesting case study. Hundreds of cactus species have been introduced outside their native ranges; a few of them are among the most damaging invasive plant species in the world. We reviewed the drivers of introductions and invasions in the family and seek insights that can be used to minimize future risks. We compiled a list of species in the family and determined which have been recorded as invasive. We also mapped current global distributions and modelled the potential global distributions based on distribution data of known invasive taxa. Finally, we identified whether invasiveness is phylogenetically clustered for cacti and whether particular traits are correlated with invasiveness. Only 57 of the 1922 cactus species recognized in this treatment have been recorded as invasive. There are three invasion hotspots: South Africa (35 invasive species recorded), Australia (26 species) and Spain (24 species). However, there are large areas of the world with climates suitable for cacti that are at risk of future invasion-in particular, parts of China, eastern Asia and central Africa. The invasive taxa represent an interesting subset of the total species pool. There is a significant phylogenetic signal: invasive species occur in 2 of the 3 major phylogenetic clades and in 13 of the 130 genera. This phylogenetic signal is not driven by human preference, i.e. horticultural trade, but all invasive species are from 5 of the 12 cactus growth forms. Finally, invasive species tend to have significantly larger native ranges than non-invasive species, and none of the invasive species are of conservation concern in their

  10. Depletion of heterogeneous source species pools predicts future invasion rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrew M. Liebhold; Eckehard G. Brockerhoff; Mark Kimberley; Jacqueline Beggs

    2017-01-01

    Predicting how increasing rates of global trade will result in new establishments of potentially damaging invasive species is a question of critical importance to the development of national and international policies aimed at minimizing future invasions. Centuries of historical movement and establishment of invading species may have depleted the supply of species...

  11. Invasive clonal plant species have a greater root-foraging plasticity than non-invasive ones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keser, Lidewij H; Dawson, Wayne; Song, Yao-Bin; Yu, Fei-Hai; Fischer, Markus; Dong, Ming; van Kleunen, Mark

    2014-03-01

    Clonality is frequently positively correlated with plant invasiveness, but which aspects of clonality make some clonal species more invasive than others is not known. Due to their spreading growth form, clonal plants are likely to experience spatial heterogeneity in nutrient availability. Plasticity in allocation of biomass to clonal growth organs and roots may allow these plants to forage for high-nutrient patches. We investigated whether this foraging response is stronger in species that have become invasive than in species that have not. We used six confamilial pairs of native European clonal plant species differing in invasion success in the USA. We grew all species in large pots under homogeneous or heterogeneous nutrient conditions in a greenhouse, and compared their nutrient-foraging response and performance. Neither invasive nor non-invasive species showed significant foraging responses to heterogeneity in clonal growth organ biomass or in aboveground biomass of clonal offspring. Invasive species had, however, a greater positive foraging response in terms of root and belowground biomass than non-invasive species. Invasive species also produced more total biomass. Our results suggest that the ability for strong root foraging is among the characteristics promoting invasiveness in clonal plants.

  12. Dna c-values of 20 invasive alien species and 3 native species in south china

    OpenAIRE

    Gong Ni; Wang Yu-Tao; Björn Lars Olof; Li Shao-Shan

    2014-01-01

    Cultivated fields and forests in South China are experiencing serious damage due to invasive alien plants. We investigated the relation between DNA C-values and invasiveness. The DNA C-values of 23 species ranged from 0.39 pg to 3.37 pg. Herbs, perennials and native species had higher mean DNA C-values than shrubs, annuals and invasive alien species. DNA C-values decreased with increasing invasiveness. Paederia scandens, a harmful native species, has the lo...

  13. The role thermal physiology plays in species invasion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelley, Amanda L.

    2014-01-01

    The characterization of physiological phenotypes that may play a part in the establishment of non-native species can broaden our understanding about the ecology of species invasion. Here, an assessment was carried out by comparing the responses of invasive and native species to thermal stress. The goal was to identify physiological patterns that facilitate invasion success and to investigate whether these traits are widespread among invasive ectotherms. Four hypotheses were generated and tested using a review of the literature to determine whether they could be supported across taxonomically diverse invasive organisms. The four hypotheses are as follows: (i) broad geographical temperature tolerances (thermal width) confer a higher upper thermal tolerance threshold for invasive rather than native species; (ii) the upper thermal extreme experienced in nature is more highly correlated with upper thermal tolerance threshold for invasive vs. native animals; (iii) protein chaperone expression—a cellular mechanism that underlies an organism's thermal tolerance threshold—is greater in invasive organisms than in native ones; and (iv) acclimation to higher temperatures can promote a greater range of thermal tolerance for invasive compared with native species. Each hypothesis was supported by a meta-analysis of the invasive/thermal physiology literature, providing further evidence that physiology plays a substantial role in the establishment of invasive ectotherms. PMID:27293666

  14. The risk of establishment of aquatic invasive species: joining invasibility and propagule pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, Brian; Mandrak, Nicholas E

    2007-10-22

    Invasive species are increasingly becoming a policy priority. This has spurred researchers and managers to try to estimate the risk of invasion. Conceptually, invasions are dependent both on the receiving environment (invasibility) and on the ability to reach these new areas (propagule pressure). However, analyses of risk typically examine only one or the other. Here, we develop and apply a joint model of invasion risk that simultaneously incorporates invasibility and propagule pressure. We present arguments that the behaviour of these two elements of risk differs substantially--propagule pressure is a function of time, whereas invasibility is not--and therefore have different management implications. Further, we use the well-studied zebra mussel (Dreissena polymorpha) to contrast predictions made using the joint model to those made by separate invasibility and propagule pressure models. We show that predictions of invasion progress as well as of the long-term invasion pattern are strongly affected by using a joint model.

  15. Identifying Invasive Species Educational Needs in Florida: Opportunities for Extension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Pei-wen; Lamm, Alexa J.

    2016-01-01

    Florida's ecology has been adversely affected by invasive species. In Florida, a study was conducted to explore opportunities for Extension educators to contribute to combating the issue of invasive species. Florida residents' responses were captured through the use of an online public opinion survey. The findings revealed a need for invasive…

  16. Science priorities for reducing the threat of invasive species

    Science.gov (United States)

    E. A. Chornesky; A. M. Bartuska; G. H. Aplet; J. Cummings-Carlson; F. W. Davis; J. Eskow; D. R. Gordon; K. W. Gottschalk; R. A. Haack; A. J. Hansen; R. N. Mack; F. J. Rahel; M. A. Shannon; L. A. Wainger; T. B. Wigley

    2005-01-01

    Invasive species pose a major, yet poorly addressed, threat to sustainable forestry. Here we set forth an interdisciplinary science strategy of research, development, and applications to reduce this threat. To spur action by public and private entities that too often are slow, reluctant, or unable to act, we recommend (a) better integrating invasive species into...

  17. Invasive Species Working Group: Research Summary and Expertise Directory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jack Butler; Dean Pearson; Mee-Sook Kim

    2009-01-01

    Rocky Mountain Research Station (RMRS) personnel have scientific expertise in widely ranging disciplines and conduct multidisciplinary research on invasive species issues with emphasis in terrestrial and aquatic habitats throughout the Interior West, Great Plains, and related areas (fig. 1; Expertise Directory; appendix). RMRS invasive species research covers an array...

  18. 76 FR 75860 - National Forest System Invasive Species Management Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-05

    ... and implementing invasive species management activities as a tool for achieving sustainable management..., controlling, or eradicating invasive species assists in the recovery of the area's resilience and the capacity... decisionmaking. The core SDM concepts and steps to better decisionmaking are useful across all types of decisions...

  19. Invasive species in east Africa: current status for informed policy ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Invasive alien species are the second leading cause of biodiversity loss in the world today. A number of hypotheses have been advanced to explain the proliferation of invasive species. These hypotheses include deficiency of natural enemies in the introduced range, increased competitive ability, increased resource ...

  20. Dna c-values of 20 invasive alien species and 3 native species in south china

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gong Ni

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Cultivated fields and forests in South China are experiencing serious damage due to invasive alien plants. We investigated the relation between DNA C-values and invasiveness. The DNA C-values of 23 species ranged from 0.39 pg to 3.37 pg. Herbs, perennials and native species had higher mean DNA C-values than shrubs, annuals and invasive alien species. DNA C-values decreased with increasing invasiveness. Paederia scandens, a harmful native species, has the lowest DNA C-value among the perennials, indicating that native species with low nuclear content may also possess an invasive potential.

  1. Soil modification by invasive plants: Effects on native and invasive species of mixed-grass prairies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordan, N.R.; Larson, D.L.; Huerd, S.C.

    2008-01-01

    Invasive plants are capable of modifying attributes of soil to facilitate further invasion by conspecifics and other invasive species. We assessed this capability in three important plant invaders of grasslands in the Great Plains region of North America: leafy spurge (Euphorbia esula), smooth brome (Bromus inermis) and crested wheatgrass (Agropyron cristatum). In a glasshouse, these three invasives or a group of native species were grown separately through three cycles of growth and soil conditioning in both steam-pasteurized and non-pasteurized soils, after which we assessed seedling growth in these soils. Two of the three invasive species, Bromus and Agropyron, exhibited significant self-facilitation via soil modification. Bromus and Agropyron also had significant facilitative effects on other invasives via soil modification, while Euphorbia had significant antagonistic effects on the other invasives. Both Agropyron and Euphorbia consistently suppressed growth of two of three native forbs, while three native grasses were generally less affected. Almost all intra- and interspecific effects of invasive soil conditioning were dependent upon presence of soil biota from field sites where these species were successful invaders. Overall, these results suggest that that invasive modification of soil microbiota can facilitate plant invasion directly or via 'cross-facilitation' of other invasive species, and moreover has potential to impede restoration of native communities after removal of an invasive species. However, certain native species that are relatively insensitive to altered soil biota (as we observed in the case of the forb Linum lewisii and the native grasses), may be valuable as 'nurse'species in restoration efforts. ?? 2007 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.

  2. The Center for Invasive Species and Ecosystem Health: tools and information available to support invasive species and forest health education

    Science.gov (United States)

    G.K. Douce; D.J. Moorhead; C.T. Bargeron; J.H. LaForest; K.A. Rawlins; J.E. Griffin

    2011-01-01

    The mission of the Center for Invasive Species and Ecosystem Health at the University of Georgia (www.bugwood.org) is to serve a lead role in developing, consolidating, and disseminating formation and programs focused on invasive species, forest health, natural resource and agricultural management through technology development, program implementation, training,...

  3. Adaptive invasive species distribution models: A framework for modeling incipient invasions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uden, Daniel R.; Allen, Craig R.; Angeler, David G.; Corral, Lucia; Fricke, Kent A.

    2015-01-01

    The utilization of species distribution model(s) (SDM) for approximating, explaining, and predicting changes in species’ geographic locations is increasingly promoted for proactive ecological management. Although frameworks for modeling non-invasive species distributions are relatively well developed, their counterparts for invasive species—which may not be at equilibrium within recipient environments and often exhibit rapid transformations—are lacking. Additionally, adaptive ecological management strategies address the causes and effects of biological invasions and other complex issues in social-ecological systems. We conducted a review of biological invasions, species distribution models, and adaptive practices in ecological management, and developed a framework for adaptive, niche-based, invasive species distribution model (iSDM) development and utilization. This iterative, 10-step framework promotes consistency and transparency in iSDM development, allows for changes in invasive drivers and filters, integrates mechanistic and correlative modeling techniques, balances the avoidance of type 1 and type 2 errors in predictions, encourages the linking of monitoring and management actions, and facilitates incremental improvements in models and management across space, time, and institutional boundaries. These improvements are useful for advancing coordinated invasive species modeling, management and monitoring from local scales to the regional, continental and global scales at which biological invasions occur and harm native ecosystems and economies, as well as for anticipating and responding to biological invasions under continuing global change.

  4. Placing invasive species management in a spatiotemporal context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Christopher M; Bode, Michael

    2016-04-01

    Invasive species are a worldwide issue, both ecologically and economically. A large body of work focuses on various aspects of invasive species control, including how to allocate control efforts to eradicate an invasive population as cost effectively as possible: There are a diverse range of invasive species management problems, and past mathematical analyses generally focus on isolated examples, making it hard to identify and understand parallels between the different contexts. In this study, we use a single spatiotemporal model to tackle the problem of allocating control effort for invasive species when suppressing an island invasive species, and for long-term spatial suppression projects. Using feral cat suppression as an illustrative example, we identify the optimal resource allocation for island and mainland suppression projects. Our results demonstrate how using a single model to solve different problems reveals similar characteristics of the solutions in different scenarios. As well as illustrating the insights offered by linking problems through a spatiotemporal model, we also derive novel and practically applicable results for our case studies. For temporal suppression projects on islands, we find that lengthy projects are more cost effective and that rapid control projects are only economically cost effective when population growth rates are high or diminishing returns on control effort are low. When suppressing invasive species around conservation assets (e.g., national parks or exclusion fences), we find that the size of buffer zones should depend on the ratio of the species growth and spread rate.

  5. INVENTORY OF THE INVASIVE ALIE N PLANT SPECIES IN INDONESIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SRI S UDARMIYATI T JITROSOEDIRDJO

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available An inventory of the alien plant species in Indone sia based on the existing references and herbarium specimens concluded that 1936 alien plant species ar e found in Indonesia which belong to 187 families. Field studies should be done to get the complete figur es of alien plant species in Indonesia. Based on the existing figures of the plant species, the invasive alien plant species can be iden tified, followed by studies on the assessment of losses, biology, management and their possible utilizations. Alien plant species are imported to Indonesia for cultivation, collection of the botanical garden, as experimental plants or other curiosities. Aside from plants purposely imported, there are also introduced plant propagules conta-minating imported agricultural products. These alien plant species can be beneficial or have a potential of being invasive. The alien cultivated species consisted of 67% of the total number. More than half of the cultivated plants are ornamental plants. Some of th e species are naturalized or escaped from cultivation and become wild and invasive. Some other natura lized species, adapted well without any problems of invasion. There are 339 species or 17% of the species r ecorded as weeds. The highest record of weeds is found in the family of Poaceae (57 species, follo wed by Asteraceae (53 species and Cyperaceae (35 species. There are 6 families having more than 10 species of weeds: Amaranthaceae, Asteraceae, Cyperaceae, Euphorbiaceae, Poaceae, and Rubiaceae. Three families have more than 100 species: Asteraceae 162 species, Poaceae 120 species, and Papillionaceae 103 species. Five species of aquatic and 20 species of terrestrial plants considered as important alien plant species in Indonesia were identified and some of their distributions noted

  6. Evolutionary responses to global change: lessons from invasive species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moran, Emily V; Alexander, Jake M

    2014-05-01

    Biologists have recently devoted increasing attention to the role of rapid evolution in species' responses to environmental change. However, it is still unclear what evolutionary responses should be expected, at what rates, and whether evolution will save populations at risk of extinction. The potential of biological invasions to provide useful insights has barely been realised, despite the close analogies to species responding to global change, particularly climate change; in both cases, populations encounter novel climatic and biotic selection pressures, with expected evolutionary responses occurring over similar timescales. However, the analogy is not perfect, and invasive species are perhaps best used as an upper bound on expected change. In this article, we review what invasive species can and cannot teach us about likely evolutionary responses to global change and the constraints on those responses. We also discuss the limitations of invasive species as a model and outline directions for future research. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd/CNRS.

  7. Mitochondrial reactive oxygen species accelerate gastric cancer cell invasion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamura, Masato; Matsui, Hirofumi; Tomita, Tsutomu; Sadakata, Hisato; Indo, Hiroko P; Majima, Hideyuki J; Kaneko, Tsuyoshi; Hyodo, Ichinosuke

    2014-01-01

    Tumor invasion is the most important factor to decide patient's prognosis. The relation between reactive oxygen species and tumor invasion is mainly reported that nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate oxidase in the cell membrane is a reactive oxygen species producer for formulating an invadopodia. On the other hand, mitochondrion was known as one of the most important reactive oxygen species-producer in the cell via an energy transfer system. However, the relation between mitochondrial reactive oxygen species and the tumor invasion was not well clarified. In this study, we evaluated the relation between mitochondrial reactive oxygen species and tumor invasion using a normal gastric mucosal cell-line (RGM-1) and a cancerous mutant RGM-1 cell-line (RGK-1). Manganese superoxide dismutase-expressing RGK-1 cell-lines were used for a scavenging mitochondrial reactive oxygen species. The cells have been evaluated their movement ability as follows; cellular ruffling frequencies, wound healing assay to evaluate horizontal cellular migration, and invasion assay using matrigel to analyze vertical cellular migration. All cellular movement abilities were inhibited by scavenging mitochondrial reactive oxygen species with manganese superoxide dismutase. Therefore mitochondrial reactive oxygen species was one of factors enhancing the tumor invasion in gastric cancer.

  8. Globally threatened vertebrates on islands with invasive species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spatz, Dena R; Zilliacus, Kelly M; Holmes, Nick D; Butchart, Stuart H M; Genovesi, Piero; Ceballos, Gerardo; Tershy, Bernie R; Croll, Donald A

    2017-10-01

    Global biodiversity loss is disproportionately rapid on islands, where invasive species are a major driver of extinctions. To inform conservation planning aimed at preventing extinctions, we identify the distribution and biogeographic patterns of highly threatened terrestrial vertebrates (classified by the International Union for Conservation of Nature) and invasive vertebrates on ~465,000 islands worldwide by conducting a comprehensive literature review and interviews with more than 500 experts. We found that 1189 highly threatened vertebrate species (319 amphibians, 282 reptiles, 296 birds, and 292 mammals) breed on 1288 islands. These taxa represent only 5% of Earth's terrestrial vertebrates and 41% of all highly threatened terrestrial vertebrates, which occur in invasive vertebrates was available for 1030 islands (80% of islands with highly threatened vertebrates). Invasive vertebrates were absent from 24% of these islands, where biosecurity to prevent invasions is a critical management tool. On the 76% of islands where invasive vertebrates were present, management could benefit 39% of Earth's highly threatened vertebrates. Invasive mammals occurred in 97% of these islands, with Rattus sp. as the most common invasive vertebrate (78%; 609 islands). Our results provide an important baseline for identifying islands for invasive species eradication and other island conservation actions that reduce biodiversity loss.

  9. Australian acacias as invasive species: Lessons to be learnt from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Problems associated with invasiveness of non-native tree species used in forestry are increasing rapidly worldwide and are most severe in areas with a long history of plantings. Lessons learnt in areas with long histories of plantings and invasions may be applicable to areas with shorter planting histories. Most research ...

  10. Digestive efficiency of indigenous and invasive avian species fed ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... Knysna (Tauraco corythaix) and Purple-crested (Gallirex porphyreolophus) Turacos and invasive alien Rose-ringed Parakeets (Psittacula krameri) met their energy demands when fed fruits of four fleshyfruited invasive alien plant species: Solanum mauritianum, Cinnamomum camphora, Psidium guajava and Morus alba.

  11. Economic essays on marine invasive species and international fisheries agreements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Walker, A.N.

    2016-01-01

    This thesis is divided into two parts, as explained in Chapter 1, which focus on different aspects of marine ecological change. Part A considers marine Invasive Alien Species (IAS), which are taxa introduced outside of their native range. The detrimental consequences of invasions for human

  12. The assessment of invasive alien plant species removal programs ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Yusuf Adam

    Abstract. The occupation of natural environments by invasive alien plant species (IAPs) are a growing threat to ecosystems. This has resulted in the creation of government-based initiatives to mitigate invasion, however, there has been little progress towards assessing these initiatives. Remote sensing is a commonly used ...

  13. The assessment of invasive alien plant species removal programs ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The occupation of natural environments by invasive alien plant species (IAPs) are a growing threat to ecosystems. This has resulted in the creation of government-based initiatives to mitigate invasion, however, there has been little progress towards assessing these initiatives. Remote sensing is a commonly used tool in the ...

  14. Experiments on growth interactions between two invasive macrophyte species

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Barrat-Segretain, M-H.; Elger, A.F.

    2004-01-01

    The success of invasive species has been attributed to the ability to displace other species by direct competition. We studied growth and possible competition between the two macrophyte species Elodea nuttallii and E. canadensis, because the former has been observed to replace the latter in the

  15. Possibility to implement invasive species control in Swedish forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pettersson, Maria; Strömberg, Caroline; Keskitalo, E Carina H

    2016-02-01

    Invasive alien species constitute an increasing risk to forestry, as indeed to natural systems in general. This study reviews the legislative framework governing invasive species in the EU and Sweden, drawing upon both a legal analysis and interviews with main national level agencies responsible for implementing this framework. The study concludes that EU and Sweden are limited in how well they can act on invasive species, in particular because of the weak interpretation of the precautionary principle in the World Trade Organisation and Sanitary and Phytosanitary agreements. In the Swedish case, this interpretation also conflicts with the stronger interpretation of the precautionary principle under the Swedish Environmental Code, which could in itself provide for stronger possibilities to act on invasive species.

  16. MARINE SHIPPING TRADE AND INVASIVE SPECIES MANAGEMENT STRATEGIES

    OpenAIRE

    LINDA FERNANDEZ

    2006-01-01

    Addressing the international threat of invasive species to biodiversity worldwide requires an international context due to the nature of the transboundary pollution. This paper presents a comparison of strategies to address the invasive species problem in noncooperative versus cooperative differential games. Asymmetry between the countries in terms of abatement costs and damages enables the investigation of sharing rules under cooperation. The empirical analysis includes data of maritime trad...

  17. Effects of nonindigenous invasive species on water quality and quantity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank H. McCormick; Glen C. Contreras; Sherri L. Johnson

    2010-01-01

    Physical and biological disruptions of aquatic systems caused by invasive species alter water quantity and water quality. Recent evidence suggests that water is a vector for the spread of Sudden Oak Death disease and Port-Orfordcedar root disease. Since the 1990s, the public has become increasingly aware of the presence of invasive species in the Nation’s waters. Media...

  18. Assessing the effects of climate change on aquatic invasive species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahel, Frank J; Olden, Julian D

    2008-06-01

    Different components of global environmental change are typically studied and managed independently, although there is a growing recognition that multiple drivers often interact in complex and nonadditive ways. We present a conceptual framework and empirical review of the interactive effects of climate change and invasive species in freshwater ecosystems. Climate change is expected to result in warmer water temperatures, shorter duration of ice cover, altered streamflow patterns, increased salinization, and increased demand for water storage and conveyance structures. These changes will alter the pathways by which non-native species enter aquatic systems by expanding fish-culture facilities and water gardens to new areas and by facilitating the spread of species during floods. Climate change will influence the likelihood of new species becoming established by eliminating cold temperatures or winter hypoxia that currently prevent survival and by increasing the construction of reservoirs that serve as hotspots for invasive species. Climate change will modify the ecological impacts of invasive species by enhancing their competitive and predatory effects on native species and by increasing the virulence of some diseases. As a result of climate change, new prevention and control strategies such as barrier construction or removal efforts may be needed to control invasive species that currently have only moderate effects or that are limited by seasonally unfavorable conditions. Although most researchers focus on how climate change will increase the number and severity of invasions, some invasive coldwater species may be unable to persist under the new climate conditions. Our findings highlight the complex interactions between climate change and invasive species that will influence how aquatic ecosystems and their biota will respond to novel environmental conditions.

  19. Ecological niche transferability using invasive species as a case study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Fernández

    Full Text Available Species distribution modeling is widely applied to predict invasive species distributions and species range shifts under climate change. Accurate predictions depend upon meeting the assumption that ecological niches are conserved, i.e., spatially or temporally transferable. Here we present a multi-taxon comparative analysis of niche conservatism using biological invasion events well documented in natural history museum collections. Our goal is to assess spatial transferability of the climatic niche of a range of noxious terrestrial invasive species using two complementary approaches. First we compare species' native versus invasive ranges in environmental space using two distinct methods, Principal Components Analysis and Mahalanobis distance. Second we compare species' native versus invaded ranges in geographic space as estimated using the species distribution modeling technique Maxent and the comparative index Hellinger's I. We find that species exhibit a range of responses, from almost complete transferability, in which the invaded niches completely overlap with the native niches, to a complete dissociation between native and invaded ranges. Intermediate responses included expansion of dimension attributable to either temperature or precipitation derived variables, as well as niche expansion in multiple dimensions. We conclude that the ecological niche in the native range is generally a poor predictor of invaded range and, by analogy, the ecological niche may be a poor predictor of range shifts under climate change. We suggest that assessing dimensions of niche transferability prior to standard species distribution modeling may improve the understanding of species' dynamics in the invaded range.

  20. Is the osmorespiratory compromise limiting invasive species?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ferreira, Patricia Gomes; Flavio, Hugo; Hacking, Harry

    , we examined variation in two important MO2 measures, standard metabolic rate (SMR) and maximum metabolic rate (MMR) when N. melanostomus is exposed to increasing water salinities. Fish with an initially higher MMR (at the control salinity - 0ppt) are likely to be more challenged by environmental...... habitats and the physiological mechanisms potentially constraining the invasion into this environment are largely unknown. The gills play major roles in gas exchange and ionic regulation and it has been hypothesized that an osmorespiratory compromise impacts performance of each process. The tradeoff...... of the large gill exchange capacity ideal for gas exchange is greater passive ion fluxes. High ionic waters would result in greater passive ion uptake that would require greater active ion excretion. This osmoregulatory disturbance may interfere with fish invasion by disrupting the regular activity...

  1. Near term climate projections for invasive species distributions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarnevich, C.S.; Stohlgren, T.J.

    2009-01-01

    Climate change and invasive species pose important conservation issues separately, and should be examined together. We used existing long term climate datasets for the US to project potential climate change into the future at a finer spatial and temporal resolution than the climate change scenarios generally available. These fine scale projections, along with new species distribution modeling techniques to forecast the potential extent of invasive species, can provide useful information to aide conservation and invasive species management efforts. We created habitat suitability maps for Pueraria montana (kudzu) under current climatic conditions and potential average conditions up to 30 years in the future. We examined how the potential distribution of this species will be affected by changing climate, and the management implications associated with these changes. Our models indicated that P. montana may increase its distribution particularly in the Northeast with climate change and may decrease in other areas. ?? 2008 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.

  2. Population-specific responses to an invasive species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reichard, Martin; Douda, Karel; Przybyłski, Mirosław; Popa, Oana P; Karbanová, Eva; Matasová, Klára; Rylková, Kateřina; Polačik, Matej; Blažek, Radim; Smith, Carl

    2015-08-07

    Predicting the impacts of non-native species remains a challenge. As populations of a species are genetically and phenotypically variable, the impact of non-native species on local taxa could crucially depend on population-specific traits and adaptations of both native and non-native species. Bitterling fishes are brood parasites of unionid mussels and unionid mussels produce larvae that parasitize fishes. We used common garden experiments to measure three key elements in the bitterling-mussel association among two populations of an invasive mussel (Anodonta woodiana) and four populations of European bitterling (Rhodeus amarus). The impact of the invasive mussel varied between geographically distinct R. amarus lineages and between local populations within lineages. The capacity of parasitic larvae of the invasive mussel to exploit R. amarus was higher in a Danubian than in a Baltic R. amarus lineage and in allopatric than in sympatric R. amarus populations. Maladaptive oviposition by R. amarus into A. woodiana varied among populations, with significant population-specific consequences for R. amarus recruitment. We suggest that variation in coevolutionary states may predispose different populations to divergent responses. Given that coevolutionary relationships are ubiquitous, population-specific attributes of invasive and native populations may play a critical role in the outcome of invasion. We argue for a shift from a species-centred to population-centred perspective of the impacts of invasions. © 2015 The Author(s).

  3. Invasive Species - A Threat to the Homeland?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-04-07

    species of weeds, diseases and organisms on both my farm and the surrounding woodlands. Some of these species include soybean cyst nematode, soybean aphid ...of the almonds, 92.2 percent of the grapes, 77.8 percent of the lettuce , 75.5 percent of the strawberries, 47 percent of the tomatoes, and 33.8

  4. GSD Update: Strategies for understanding and controlling species invasions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deborah M. Finch

    2013-01-01

    Invasive species are significant environmental and economic threats to our Nation's and the world's ecosystems and natural resources. They impact wildlife habitat, endanger native species, threaten ecosystem services, damage lakes and rivers, reduce recreational opportunities, affect production of wood products, jeopardize human health and safety and reduce...

  5. Pushing the envelope in genetic analysis of species invasion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuel A. Cushman

    2015-01-01

    How a species spreads once introduced into a new environment is a major question in landscape genetics. When the species in question is a potential disease vector, the findings are important not only for fundamental science, but can impact applied science and public health as well. In this issue of Molecular Ecology Medley et al. (2014) study, the invasion...

  6. Central-marginal population dynamics in species invasions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qinfeng eGuo

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The species’ range limits and associated central-marginal (C-M; i.e., from species range center to margin population dynamics continue to draw increasing attention because of their importance for current emerging issues such as biotic invasions and epidemic diseases under global change. Previous studies have mainly focused on species borders and C-M process in natural settings for native species. More recently, growing efforts are devoted to examine the C-M patterns and process for invasive species partly due to their relatively short history, highly dynamic populations, and management implications. Here I examine recent findings and information gaps related to (1 the C-M population dynamics linked to species invasions, and (2 the possible effects of climate change and land use on the C-M patterns and processes. Unlike most native species that are relatively stable (some even having contracting populations or ranges, many invasive species are still spreading fast and form new distribution or abundance centers. Because of the strong nonlinearity of population demographic or vital rates (i.e. birth, death, immigration and emigration across the C-M gradients and the increased complexity of species ranges due to habitat fragmentation, multiple introductions, range-wide C-M comparisons and simulation involving multiple vital rates are needed in the future.

  7. Revealing historic invasion patterns and potential invasion sites for two non-native plant species.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacob N Barney

    Full Text Available The historical spatio-temporal distribution of invasive species is rarely documented, hampering efforts to understand invasion dynamics, especially at regional scales. Reconstructing historical invasions through use of herbarium records combined with spatial trend analysis and modeling can elucidate spreading patterns and identify susceptible habitats before invasion occurs. Two perennial species were chosen to contrast historic and potential phytogeographies: Japanese knotweed (Polygonum cuspidatum, introduced intentionally across the US; and mugwort (Artemisia vulgaris, introduced largely accidentally to coastal areas. Spatial analysis revealed that early in the invasion, both species have a stochastic distribution across the contiguous US, but east of the 90(th meridian, which approximates the Mississippi River, quickly spread to adjacent counties in subsequent decades. In contrast, in locations west of the 90(th meridian, many populations never spread outside the founding county, probably a result of encountering unfavorable environmental conditions. Regression analysis using variables categorized as environmental or anthropogenic accounted for 24% (Japanese knotweed and 30% (mugwort of the variation in the current distribution of each species. Results show very few counties with high habitat suitability (>/=80% remain un-invaded (5 for Japanese knotweed and 6 for mugwort, suggesting these perennials are reaching the limits of large-scale expansion. Despite differences in initial introduction loci and pathways, Japanese knotweed and mugwort demonstrate similar historic patterns of spread and show declining rates of regional expansion. Invasion mitigation efforts should be concentrated on areas identified as highly susceptible that border invaded regions, as both species demonstrate secondary expansion from introduction loci.

  8. Managing aquatic species of conservation concern in the face of climate change and invasive species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahel, Frank J; Bierwagen, Britta; Taniguchi, Yoshinori

    2008-06-01

    The difficult task of managing species of conservation concern is likely to become even more challenging due to the interaction of climate change and invasive species. In addition to direct effects on habitat quality, climate change will foster the expansion of invasive species into new areas and magnify the effects of invasive species already present by altering competitive dominance, increasing predation rates, and enhancing the virulence of diseases. In some cases parapatric species may expand into new habitats and have detrimental effects that are similar to those of invading non-native species. The traditional strategy of isolating imperiled species in reserves may not be adequate if habitat conditions change beyond historic ranges or in ways that favor invasive species. The consequences of climate change will require a more active management paradigm that includes implementing habitat improvements that reduce the effects of climate change and creating migration barriers that prevent an influx of invasive species. Other management actions that should be considered include providing dispersal corridors that allow species to track environmental changes, translocating species to newly suitable habitats where migration is not possible, and developing action plans for the early detection and eradication of new invasive species.

  9. Implementing invasive species management in an adaptive management framework

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Llewellyn C. Foxcroft

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Adaptive management theory has attracted substantial interest in recent years, in natural resource management in general and also for invasive alien species management. However, whilst many theoretical and conceptual advances have been made, documented cases of practical applications are rare. Coupling invasive species management components with adaptive feedback processes is not without challenges, requiring a substantial change in the thinking and practice of all those involved. Drawing on a decade of experience in South African National Parks, we suggest an approach to implementing adaptive management for controlling invasive alien species. Whilst efforts have been made to advance components of the overall management strategy, the absence of a framework for decision making and feedback mechanisms, inflexibility in the system and shortcomings in the governance structure are all identified as barriers to learning and knowledge integration for the purposes of effective invasive alien species management. The framework provided here, encompassing documents, committees and processes, is aimed at addressing these shortcomings.Conservation implication: Adaptive management theory offers a robust tool for managing inherently complex systems. Its practical application, however, requires distilling the theory into useable functions. We offer a framework to advance implementation of strategic adaptive management for the control of invasive alien species using experiences gained from South African National Parks.

  10. Can species distribution models really predict the expansion of invasive species?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbet-Massin, Morgane; Rome, Quentin; Villemant, Claire; Courchamp, Franck

    2018-01-01

    Predictive studies are of paramount importance for biological invasions, one of the biggest threats for biodiversity. To help and better prioritize management strategies, species distribution models (SDMs) are often used to predict the potential invasive range of introduced species. Yet, SDMs have been regularly criticized, due to several strong limitations, such as violating the equilibrium assumption during the invasion process. Unfortunately, validation studies-with independent data-are too scarce to assess the predictive accuracy of SDMs in invasion biology. Yet, biological invasions allow to test SDMs usefulness, by retrospectively assessing whether they would have accurately predicted the latest ranges of invasion. Here, we assess the predictive accuracy of SDMs in predicting the expansion of invasive species. We used temporal occurrence data for the Asian hornet Vespa velutina nigrithorax, a species native to China that is invading Europe with a very fast rate. Specifically, we compared occurrence data from the last stage of invasion (independent validation points) to the climate suitability distribution predicted from models calibrated with data from the early stage of invasion. Despite the invasive species not being at equilibrium yet, the predicted climate suitability of validation points was high. SDMs can thus adequately predict the spread of V. v. nigrithorax, which appears to be-at least partially-climatically driven. In the case of V. v. nigrithorax, SDMs predictive accuracy was slightly but significantly better when models were calibrated with invasive data only, excluding native data. Although more validation studies for other invasion cases are needed to generalize our results, our findings are an important step towards validating the use of SDMs in invasion biology.

  11. GSD Update: What are invasive species? ... And do we really need to worry about them?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catherine Dold

    2011-01-01

    Invasive species are the focus of the September 2011 issue of GSDUpdate: What Are Invasive Species? And Do We Really Need to Worry About Them? An invasive species is any species - non-native or native to a region - that could cause economic or ecological harm to an area. Invasives can be weeds, shrubs and trees, insects, mollusks, vertebrates and even microorganisms...

  12. Towards Arctic Resource Governance of Marine Invasive Species

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kourantidou, Melina; Kaiser, Brooks; Fernandez, Linda

    2015-01-01

    research into invasive species threats in the Arctic, including the ways in which known marine invasions are related to different stakeholder groups and existing disparate national and international experiences with invasive species. Stakeholdergroups include dominant industries (fishing, shipping, tourism......, resource exploration) and indigenous communities (regarded as resource users, citizen scientists, and recipients of goods shipped from other locations). Governance gaps are examined in the context of applied national policies (such as promoting or intercepting intentional introductions), international...... agreements (regarding introductions and mitigations) and existing prevention programs (regional, national and international). We intend to help focus domestic and international governance and research initiatives regarding introduced species on the most valuable, cost effective options, given the knowledge...

  13. Introducing the Global Register of Introduced and Invasive Species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pagad, Shyama; Genovesi, Piero; Carnevali, Lucilla; Schigel, Dmitry; McGeoch, Melodie A.

    2018-01-01

    Harmonised, representative data on the state of biological invasions remain inadequate at country and global scales, particularly for taxa that affect biodiversity and ecosystems. Information is not readily available in a form suitable for policy and reporting. The Global Register of Introduced and Invasive Species (GRIIS) provides the first country-wise checklists of introduced (naturalised) and invasive species. GRIIS was conceived to provide a sustainable platform for information delivery to support national governments. We outline the rationale and methods underpinning GRIIS, to facilitate transparent, repeatable analysis and reporting. Twenty country checklists are presented as exemplars; GRIIS Checklists for close to all countries globally will be submitted through the same process shortly. Over 11000 species records are currently in the 20 country exemplars alone, with environmental impact evidence for just over 20% of these. GRIIS provides significant support for countries to identify and prioritise invasive alien species, and establishes national and global baselines. In future this will enable a global system for sustainable monitoring of trends in biological invasions that affect the environment. PMID:29360103

  14. Chronic effects of an invasive species on an animal community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doody, J Sean; Rhind, David; Green, Brian; Castellano, Christina; McHenry, Colin; Clulow, Simon

    2017-08-01

    Invasive species can trigger trophic cascades in animal communities, but published cases involving their removal of top predators are extremely rare. An exception is the invasive cane toad (Rhinella marina) in Australia, which has caused severe population declines in monitor lizards, triggering trophic cascades that facilitated dramatic and sometimes unexpected increases in several prey of the predators, including smaller lizards, snakes, turtles, crocodiles, and birds. Persistence of isolated populations of these predators with a decades-long sympatry with toads suggests the possibility of recovery, but alternative explanations are possible. Confirming predator recovery requires longer-term study of populations with both baseline and immediate post-invasion densities. Previously, we quantified short-term impacts of invasive cane toads on animal communities over seven years at two sites in tropical Australia. Herein, we test the hypothesis that predators have begun to recover by repeating the study 12 yr after the initial toad invasion. The three predatory lizards that experienced 71-97% declines in the short-term study showed no sign of recovery, and indeed a worse fate: two of the three species were no longer detectable in 630 km of river surveys, suggesting local extirpation. Two mesopredators that had increased markedly in the short term due to these predator losses showed diverse responses in the medium term; a small lizard species increased by ~500%, while populations of a snake species showed little change. Our results indicate a system still in ecological turmoil, having not yet reached a "new equilibrium" more than a decade after the initial invasion; predator losses due to this toxic invasive species, and thus downstream effects, were not transient. Given that cane toads have proven too prolific to eradicate or control, we suggest that recovery of impacted predators must occur unassisted by evolutionary means: dispersal into extinction sites from

  15. Invasive Species Mediate Insecticide Effects on Community and Ecosystem Functioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Andreia C M; Machado, Ana L; Bordalo, Maria D; Saro, Liliana; Simão, Fátima C P; Rocha, Rui J M; Golovko, Oksana; Žlábek, Vladimír; Barata, Carlos; Soares, Amadeu M V M; Pestana, João L T

    2018-04-03

    Anthropogenic activities increase pesticide contamination and biological invasions in freshwater ecosystems. Understanding their combined effects on community structure and on ecosystem functioning presents challenges for an improved ecological risk assessment. This study focuses on an artificial stream mesocosms experiment testing for direct and indirect effects of insecticide (chlorantraniliprole - CAP) exposure on the structure of a benthic macroinvertebrate freshwater community and on ecosystem functioning (leaf decomposition, primary production). To understand how predator identity and resource quality alter the community responses to chemical stress, the mediating effects of an invasive predator species (crayfish Procambarus clarkii) and detritus quality (tested by using leaves of the invasive Eucalyptus globulus) on insecticide toxicity were also investigated. Low concentrations of CAP reduced the abundance of shredders and grazers, decreasing leaf decomposition and increasing primary production. Replacement of autochthonous predators and leaf litter by invasive species decreased macroinvertebrate survival, reduced leaf decomposition, and enhanced primary production. Structural equation modeling (SEM) highlighted that CAP toxicity to macroinvertebrates was mediated by the presence of crayfish or eucalypt leaf litter which are now common in many Mediterranean freshwaters. In summary, our results demonstrate that the presence of these two invasive species alters the effects of insecticide exposure on benthic freshwater communities. The approach used here also allowed for a mechanistic evaluation of indirect effects of these stressors and of their interaction on ecosystem functional endpoint, emphasizing the value of incorporating biotic stressors in ecotoxicological experiments.

  16. The Human Release Hypothesis for biological invasions: human activity as a determinant of the abundance of invasive plant species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmermann, Heike; Brandt, Patric; Fischer, Joern; Welk, Erik; von Wehrden, Henrik

    2014-01-01

    Research on biological invasions has increased rapidly over the past 30 years, generating numerous explanations of how species become invasive. While the mechanisms of invasive species establishment are well studied, the mechanisms driving abundance patterns (i.e. patterns of population density and population size) remain poorly understood. It is assumed that invasive species typically have higher abundances in their new environments than in their native ranges, and patterns of invasive species abundance differ between invaded regions. To explain differences in invasive species abundance, we propose the Human Release Hypothesis. In parallel to the established Enemy Release Hypothesis, this hypothesis states that the differences in abundance of invasive species are found between regions because population expansion is reduced in some regions through continuous land management and associated cutting of the invasive species. The Human Release Hypothesis does not negate other important drivers of species invasions, but rather should be considered as a potentially important complementary mechanism. We illustrate the hypothesis via a case study on an invasive rose species, and hypothesize which locations globally may be most likely to support high abundances of invasive species. We propose that more extensive empirical work on the Human Release Hypothesis could be useful to test its general applicability.

  17. A multi-objective optimization approach for invasive species control

    OpenAIRE

    I Esra Buyuktahtakin; Zhuo Feng; Ferenc Szidarovszky

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we formulate and analyse a long-term multi-objective dynamic model for controlling invasive species. This optimization framework is then applied to the case of buffelgrass control in the Arizona desert. The proposed model simultaneously optimizes three objectives corresponding to three different valued and threatened resources including saguaros (a native cactus species), buildings and vegetation. The model is used to decide the optimal allocation of labour to these resources t...

  18. Implementing invasive species management in an adaptive management framework

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Llewellyn C. Foxcroft

    2011-05-01

    Conservation implication: Adaptive management theory offers a robust tool for managing inherently complex systems. Its practical application, however, requires distilling the theory into useable functions. We offer a framework to advance implementation of strategic adaptive management for the control of invasive alien species using experiences gained from South African National Parks.

  19. Economics of Arctic Fisheries and Marine Invasive Species Part I

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kourantidou, Melina

    Bioeconomics of Red King Crab in the Barents Sea involves the crab’s dual nature as invader and market commodity. We apply a spatial dynamic model to find the optimal joint management of international invasive species threats with historic management of the Red King Crab by Norway and Russia...

  20. Status, Impact and Management of Invasive Alien Species in Tanzania

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Invasive alien species (IAS) are among the significant drivers of environmental change worldwide and important causes of biodiversity losses. They contribute to economic hardship and social instability, placing constraints on sustainable development, economic growth, and ecological problems in various parts of the world, ...

  1. Invasive species in southern Nevada [Chapter 4] (Executive Summary)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthew L. Brooks; Steven M. Ostoja; Jeanne C.. Chambers

    2013-01-01

    Southern Nevada contains a wide range of topographies, elevations, and climatic zones that are emblematic of its position at the ecotone between the Mojave Desert, Great Basin, and Colorado Plateau ecoregions. These varied environmental conditions support a high degree of biological diversity, but they also provide opportunities for a wide range of invasive species. In...

  2. 77 FR 23494 - Invasive Species Advisory Committee; Request for Nominations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-19

    ... information-sharing. The role of ISAC is to maintain an intensive and regular dialogue regarding the... interests affected by invasive species such as: Agriculture; aquaculture; biofuel production; livestock... planning; integrating science and the human dimension in order to create effective solutions to complex...

  3. 76 FR 32135 - National Forest System Invasive Species Management Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-03

    ... management activities as a tool for achieving sustainable management and providing a broad range of ecosystem... effectiveness of treatments. Preventing, controlling, or eradicating invasive species assists in the recovery of... decision making are useful across all types of decisions: from individuals making minor decisions to...

  4. Invasive species control in a one-dimensional metapopulation network

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Walker, A.N.; Poos, J.J.; Groeneveld, R.A.

    2015-01-01

    The growth and spread of established Invasive Alien Species (IAS) cause significant ecological and economic damages. Minimising the costs of controlling, and the damages from, IAS depends on the spatial dynamics and uncertainty regarding IAS spread. This study expands on existing modelling

  5. Effects of Climate Change on Aquatic Invasive Species and ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    This draft report reviews available literature on climate change effects on aquatic invasive species (AIS) and examines state level AIS management activities. This draft report assesses the state of the science of climate change effects on AIS and examines state level AIS management activities.

  6. A globally-distributed alien invasive species poses risks to United States imperiled species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClure, Meredith L; Burdett, Christopher L; Farnsworth, Matthew L; Sweeney, Steven J; Miller, Ryan S

    2018-03-28

    In the midst of Earth's sixth mass extinction event, non-native species are a driving factor in many imperiled species' declines. One of the most widespread and destructive alien invasive species in the world, wild pigs (Sus scrofa) threaten native species through predation, habitat destruction, competition, and disease transmission. We show that wild pigs co-occur with up to 87.2% of imperiled species in the contiguous U.S. identified as susceptible to their direct impacts, and we project increases in both the number of species at risk and the geographic extent of risks by 2025. Wild pigs may therefore present a severe threat to U.S. imperiled species, with serious implications for management of at-risk species throughout wild pigs' global distribution. We offer guidance for efficient allocation of research effort and conservation resources across species and regions using a simple approach that can be applied to wild pigs and other alien invasive species globally.

  7. Decisionmaking under risk in invasive species management: risk management theory and applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shefali V. Mehta; Robert G. Haight; Frances R. Homans

    2010-01-01

    Invasive species management is closely entwined with the assessment and management of risk that arises from the inherently random nature of the invasion process. The theory and application of risk management for invasive species with an economic perspective is reviewed in this synthesis. Invasive species management can be delineated into three general categories:...

  8. Functional morphology underlies performance differences among invasive and non-invasive ruderal Rubus species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caplan, Joshua S; Yeakley, J Alan

    2013-10-01

    The ability of some introduced plant species to outperform native species under altered resource conditions makes them highly productive in ecosystems with surplus resources. However, ruderal native species are also productive when resources are available. The differences in abundance among invasive and non-invasive ruderal plants may be related to differences in ability to maintain access to or store resources for continual use. For a group of ruderal species in the Pacific Northwest of North America (invasive Rubus armeniacus; non-invasive R. ursinus, R. parviflorus, R. spectabilis, and Rosa nutkana), we sought to determine whether differences in functional morphological traits, especially metrics of water access and storage, were consistent with differences in water conductance and growth rate. We also investigated the changes in these traits in response to abundant vs. limited water availability. Rubus armeniacus had among the largest root systems and cane cross-sectional areas, the lowest cane tissue densities, and the most plastic ratios of leaf area to plant mass and of xylem area to leaf area, often sharing its rank with R. ursinus or Rosa nutkana. These three species had the highest water conductance and relative growth rates, though Rubus armeniacus grew the most rapidly when water was not limited. Our results suggest that water access and storage abilities vary with morphology among the ruderal species investigated, and that these abilities, in combination, are greatest in the invasive. In turn, functional morphological traits allow R. armeniacus to maintain rapid gas exchange rates during the dry summers in its invaded range, conferring on it high productivity.

  9. Historic land use influences contemporary establishment of invasive plant species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattingly, W Brett; Orrock, John L

    2013-08-01

    The legacy of agricultural land use can have widespread and persistent effects on contemporary landscapes. Although agriculture can lead to persistent changes in soil characteristics and plant communities, it remains unclear whether historic agricultural land use can alter the likelihood of contemporary biological invasions. To understand how agricultural land-use history might interact with well-known drivers of invasion, we conducted factorial manipulations of soil disturbance and resource additions within non-agricultural remnant sites and post-agricultural sites invaded by two non-native Lespedeza species. Our results reveal that variation in invader success can depend on the interplay of historic land use and contemporary processes: for both Lespedeza species, establishment was greater in remnant sites, but soil disturbance enhanced establishment irrespective of land-use history, demonstrating that contemporary processes can help to overcome legacy constraints on invader success. In contrast, additions of resources known to facilitate seedling recruitment (N and water) reduced invader establishment in post-agricultural but not in remnant sites, providing evidence that interactions between historic and contemporary processes can also limit invader success. Our findings thus illustrate that a consideration of historic land use may help to clarify the often contingent responses of invasive plants to known determinants of invasibility. Moreover, in finding significantly greater soil compaction at post-agricultural sites, our study provides a putative mechanism for historic land-use effects on contemporary invasive plant establishment. Our work suggests that an understanding of invasion dynamics requires knowledge of anthropogenic events that often occur decades before the introduction of invasive propagules.

  10. Plant invasions in the Czech Republic: current state, introduction dynamics, invasive species and invaded habitats

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pyšek, Petr; Chytrý, M.; Pergl, Jan; Sádlo, Jiří; Wild, Jan

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 84, č. 3 (2012), s. 575-629 ISSN 0032-7786 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP504/11/1028 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60050516 Institutional support: RVO:67985939 Keywords : invasive species * invaded habitats * Czech Republic Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 2.833, year: 2012

  11. Invasive plant species: Inventory, mapping, and monitoring - A national strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ludke, J. Larry; D'Erchia, Frank; Coffelt, Jan; Hanson, Leanne

    2002-01-01

    America is under siege by invasive species of plants and animals, and by diseases. The current environmental, economic, and health-related costs of invasive species could exceed $138 billion per year-more than all other natural disasters combined. Notorious examples include West Nile virus, Dutch elm disease, chestnut blight, and purple loose- strife in the Northeast; kudzu, Brazilian peppertree, water hyacinth, nutria, and fire ants in the Southeast; zebra mussels, leafy spurge, and Asian long-horn beetles in the Midwest; salt cedar, Russian olive, and Africanized bees in the Southwest; yellow star thistle, European wild oats, oak wilt disease, Asian clams, and white pine blister rust in California; cheatgrass, various knapweeds, and thistles in the Great Basin; whirling disease of salmonids in the Northwest; hundreds of invasive species from microbes to mammals in Hawaii; and the brown tree snake in Guam. Thousands of species from other countries are introduced intentionally or accidentally into the United States each year. Based on past experience, 10-15 percent can be expected to establish free-living populations and about 1 percent can be expected to cause significant impacts to ecosystems, native species, economic productivity, and (or) human health.

  12. Using carbon dioxide in fisheries and aquatic invasive species management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treanor, Hilary B.; Ray, Andrew M.; Layhee, Megan J.; Watten, Barnaby J.; Gross, Jason A.; Gresswell, Robert E.; Webb, Molly A. H.

    2017-01-01

    To restore native fish populations, fisheries programs often depend on active removal of aquatic invasive species. Chemical removal can be an effective method of eliminating aquatic invasive species, but chemicals can induce mortality in nontarget organisms and persist in the environment. Carbon dioxide (CO2) is an emerging alternative to traditional chemical control agents because it has been demonstrated to be toxic to fish, but is naturally occurring and readily neutralized. In addition, CO2 is a commercially available gas, is highly soluble, and has high absorption efficiency. When these characteristics are paired with advances in modern, large-scale gas delivery technologies, opportunities to use CO2 in natural or artificial (e.g., canals) waters to manage fish become increasingly feasible. Our objective is to describe the history of CO2 use in fisheries and outline potential future applications of CO2 to suppress and manipulate aquatic species in field and aquaculture settings.

  13. Seed bank survival of an invasive species, but not of two native species, declines with invasion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orrock, John L; Christopher, Cory C; Dutra, Humberto P

    2012-04-01

    Soil-borne seed pathogens may play an important role in either hindering or facilitating the spread of invasive exotic plants. We examined whether the invasive shrub Lonicera maackii (Caprifoliaceae) affected fungi-mediated mortality of conspecific and native shrub seeds in a deciduous forest in eastern Missouri. Using a combination of L. maackii removal and fungicide treatments, we found no effect of L. maackii invasion on seed viability of the native Symphoricarpos orbiculatus (Caprifoliaceae) or Cornus drummondii (Cornaceae). In contrast, fungi were significant agents of L. maackii seed mortality in invaded habitats. Losses of L. maackii to soil fungi were also significant in invaded habitats where L. maackii had been removed, although the magnitude of the effect of fungi was lower, suggesting that changes in soil chemistry or microhabitat caused by L. maackii were responsible for affecting fungal seed pathogens. Our work suggests that apparent competition via soil pathogens is not an important factor contributing to impacts of L. maackii on native shrubs. Rather, we found that fungal seed pathogens have density-dependent effects on L. maackii seed survival. Therefore, while fungal pathogens may provide little biotic resistance to early invasion by L. maackii, our study illustrates that more work is needed to understand how changes in fungal pathogens during the course of an invasion contribute to the potential for restoration of invaded systems. More generally, our study suggests that increased rates of fungal pathogen attack may be realized by invasive plants, such as L. maackii, that change the chemical or physical environment of the habitats they invade.

  14. Marine Invasive Species Management: Adapting in the Arctic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaiser, Brooks

    2014-01-01

    The rapid pace of climate change and increased human disturbance of ecosystems in the Arctic is bringing urgency to concern over non-native species introductions and their potential threats to the marine environment and its economic productivity, where before environmental conditions served...... perturbations in the fragile Arctic ecosystems are likely to have outsized impacts both ecologically and economically. This paper discusses the optimal management of invasive species threats as a process that begins before the arrival of any species, with prevention, and continues in an integrated fashion...

  15. 'Caribbean Creep' chills out: climate change and marine invasive species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canning-Clode, João; Fowler, Amy E; Byers, James E; Carlton, James T; Ruiz, Gregory M

    2011-01-01

    New marine invasions have been recorded in increasing numbers along the world's coasts due in part to the warming of the oceans and the ability of many invasive marine species to tolerate a broader thermal range than native species. Several marine invertebrate species have invaded the U.S. southern and mid-Atlantic coast from the Caribbean and this poleward range expansion has been termed 'Caribbean Creep'. While models have predicted the continued decline of global biodiversity over the next 100 years due to global climate change, few studies have examined the episodic impacts of prolonged cold events that could impact species range expansions. A pronounced cold spell occurred in January 2010 in the U.S. southern and mid-Atlantic coast and resulted in the mortality of several terrestrial and marine species. To experimentally test whether cold-water temperatures may have caused the disappearance of one species of the 'Caribbean Creep' we exposed the non-native crab Petrolisthes armatus to different thermal treatments that mimicked abnormal and severe winter temperatures. Our findings indicate that Petrolisthes armatus cannot tolerate prolonged and extreme cold temperatures (4-6 °C) and suggest that aperiodic cold winters may be a critical 'reset' mechanism that will limit the range expansion of other 'Caribbean Creep' species. We suggest that temperature 'aberrations' such as 'cold snaps' are an important and overlooked part of climate change. These climate fluctuations should be accounted for in future studies and models, particularly with reference to introduced subtropical and tropical species and predictions of both rates of invasion and rates of unidirectional geographic expansion. © 2011 Canning-Clode et al.

  16. Mediterranean, invasive, woody species grow larger than their less-invasive counterparts under potential global environmental change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erskine-Ogden, Jennifer; Grotkopp, Eva; Rejmánek, Marcel

    2016-04-01

    Revealing biological differences between invasive and noninvasive species is essential for predicting species' distribution changes with global environmental change. While most research has focused on differences between invasive and noninvasive species under favorable conditions using herbaceous species, invasive woody angiosperms are also of great ecological concern. Our study focused on how growth and allocation may change for invasive and noninvasive, mediterranean, woody angiosperms under future conditions caused by global change, specifically increased nitrogen deposition and drought. We tested how seedling functional traits differed between invasive and noninvasive woody angiosperms under different experimental conditions in a greenhouse setting. We compared growth rates and allocation patterns using two levels of soil nitrogen and three levels of watering. We also examined trait log response ratios to increases in nitrogen and increases in water. Our study sampled angiosperm trees and shrubs, incorporating congeneric/confamilial relationships through 13 phylogenetically controlled contrasts. Three functional traits were highly and positively associated with plant invasiveness for most conditions studied: seedling plant mass, leaf area, and height. Invasive species also had significantly higher root mass ratios at low water regardless of nitrogen input. Invasive and noninvasive species had similar log response ratios to increases in nitrogen and watering for studied traits. Mediterranean, woody, invasive species' larger mass, leaf area, and early height advantage under elevated nitrogen input and increased root production in drought conditions may lead to increased invasion of these species with expected global climate change. © 2016 Botanical Society of America.

  17. "Invented Invaders": An Engaging Activity to Teach Characteristics Control of Invasive Species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lampert, Evan

    2015-01-01

    Invasive species, defined as exotic species that reach pest status, are major threats to global biodiversity. Although invasive species can belong to any taxonomic group, general characteristics such as rapid growth and reproduction are shared by many invasive species. "Invented Invaders" is a collaborative activity in which students…

  18. Optimal control of an invasive species with imperfect information about the level of infestation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert G. Haight; Stephen. Polasky

    2010-01-01

    The presence of invasive species is often not realized until well after the species becomes established. Discovering the location and extent of infestation before the invasive species causes widespread damage typically requires intensive monitoring efforts. In this paper, we analyze the problem of controlling an invasive species when there is imperfect information...

  19. Using habitat suitability models to target invasive plant species surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crall, Alycia W; Jarnevich, Catherine S; Panke, Brendon; Young, Nick; Renz, Mark; Morisette, Jeffrey

    2013-01-01

    Managers need new tools for detecting the movement and spread of nonnative, invasive species. Habitat suitability models are a popular tool for mapping the potential distribution of current invaders, but the ability of these models to prioritize monitoring efforts has not been tested in the field. We tested the utility of an iterative sampling design (i.e., models based on field observations used to guide subsequent field data collection to improve the model), hypothesizing that model performance would increase when new data were gathered from targeted sampling using criteria based on the initial model results. We also tested the ability of habitat suitability models to predict the spread of invasive species, hypothesizing that models would accurately predict occurrences in the field, and that the use of targeted sampling would detect more species with less sampling effort than a nontargeted approach. We tested these hypotheses on two species at the state scale (Centaurea stoebe and Pastinaca sativa) in Wisconsin (USA), and one genus at the regional scale (Tamarix) in the western United States. These initial data were merged with environmental data at 30-m2 resolution for Wisconsin and 1-km2 resolution for the western United States to produce our first iteration models. We stratified these initial models to target field sampling and compared our models and success at detecting our species of interest to other surveys being conducted during the same field season (i.e., nontargeted sampling). Although more data did not always improve our models based on correct classification rate (CCR), sensitivity, specificity, kappa, or area under the curve (AUC), our models generated from targeted sampling data always performed better than models generated from nontargeted data. For Wisconsin species, the model described actual locations in the field fairly well (kappa = 0.51, 0.19, P habitat suitability models can be highly useful tools for guiding invasive species monitoring

  20. Climate Change and Aquatic Invasive Species (Final Report) ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA announced the availability of the final report, Climate Change and Aquatic Invasive Species. This report reviews available literature on climate-change effects on aquatic invasive species (AIS) and examines state-level AIS management activities. Data on management activities came from publicly available information, was analyzed with respect to climate-change effects, and was reviewed by managers. This report also analyzes state and regional AIS management plans to determine their capacity to incorporate information on changing conditions generally, and climate change specifically. The report is intended for managers and scientists working with AIS to provide them with information on the potential effects of climate change on AIS, strategies for adapting their management to accomodate these environmental changes, and highlight further research needs and gaps.

  1. Origin matters: diversity affects the performance of alien invasive species but not of native species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yan; Müller-Schärer, Heinz; Maron, John L; Schaffner, Urs

    2015-06-01

    At local scales, it has often been found that invasibility decreases with increasing resident plant diversity. However, whether resident community diversity similarly resists invasion by alien versus native species is seldom studied. We examined this issue by invading constructed native plant assemblages that varied in species and functional richness with invasive alien or native Asteraceae species. Assemblages were also invaded with spotted knapweed, Centaurea stoebe, a native European aster that has been previously used in diversity-invasibility experiments in North America. We also conducted a field survey to explore the generality of the patterns generated from our experimental study. Both experimental and observational work revealed that increasing diversity reduced the performance of alien but not native invaders. Centaurea stoebe invading its native community performed poorly regardless of resident diversity, whereas in a parallel, previously published study conducted in North America, C. stoebe easily invaded low-diversity but not high-diversity assemblages. Our results suggest that diversity is an attribute of resident communities that makes them more or less susceptible to invasion by novel invasive alien but not native plant species.

  2. Are Hong Kong and Taiwan stepping-stones for invasive species to the mainland of China?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Jianbo; Li, Shao-Peng; Wu, Yujia; Jiang, Lin

    2018-02-01

    Understanding the origins and introduction pathways of invasive species is a fundamental issue for invasion biology, which is necessary for predicting and preventing future invasion. Once an invasive species is established in a new location, this location could serve as a stepping-stone for further invasions. However, such "stepping-stone" effect has not been widely investigated. Using the published literature and records, we compiled the first found locations of 127 top invasive species in China. Our study showed that the most common landing spots of these invasive species were Hong Kong (22 species) and Taiwan (20 species), which accounted for one-third of the invasive species in China. Our analysis revealed that the invasive species in mainland China were more likely to transport from Hong Kong than Macau, a neighboring region with a similar area and colonial history. Similarly, more invasive species were also first landed on Taiwan than Hainan, a nearby island sharing similar climate conditions. Together, our findings indicate that Hong Kong and Taiwan are the most important stepping-stones for invasive species to the mainland of China and suggesting that the increasing trade exchange of China's coastal ports constitutes a potential risk for the spread of more invasive species. We suppose that they would be the future stepping-stones for invasive species to the mainland of China and these coastal ports regions where improved biosecurity is needed now.

  3. Responses of the soil fungal communities to the co-invasion of two invasive species with different cover classes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, C; Zhou, J; Liu, J; Jiang, K; Xiao, H; Du, D

    2018-01-01

    Soil fungal communities play an important role in the successful invasion of non-native species. It is common for two or more invasive plant species to co-occur in invaded ecosystems. This study aimed to determine the effects of co-invasion of two invasive species (Erigeron annuus and Solidago canadensis) with different cover classes on soil fungal communities using high-throughput sequencing. Invasion of E. annuus and/or S. canadensis had positive effects on the sequence number, operational taxonomic unit (OTU) richness, Shannon diversity, abundance-based cover estimator (ACE index) and Chao1 index of soil fungal communities, but negative effects on the Simpson index. Thus, invasion of E. annuus and/or S. canadensis could increase diversity and richness of soil fungal communities but decrease dominance of some members of these communities, in part to facilitate plant further invasion, because high soil microbial diversity could increase soil functions and plant nutrient acquisition. Some soil fungal species grow well, whereas others tend to extinction after non-native plant invasion with increasing invasion degree and presumably time. The sequence number, OTU richness, Shannon diversity, ACE index and Chao1 index of soil fungal communities were higher under co-invasion of E. annuus and S. canadensis than under independent invasion of either individual species. The co-invasion of the two invasive species had a positive synergistic effect on diversity and abundance of soil fungal communities, partly to build a soil microenvironment to enhance competitiveness of the invaders. The changed diversity and community under co-invasion could modify resource availability and niche differentiation within the soil fungal communities, mediated by differences in leaf litter quality and quantity, which can support different fungal/microbial species in the soil. © 2017 German Society for Plant Sciences and The Royal Botanical Society of the Netherlands.

  4. Invasive vascular plant species of limnocrenic karst springs in Poland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spałek, Krzysztof

    2015-04-01

    Natural water reservoirs are very valuable floristic sites in Poland. Among them, the most important for preservation of biodiversity of flora are limnocrenic karst springs. The long-term process of human pressure on habitats of this type caused disturbance of their biological balance. Changes in the water regime, industrial development and chemisation of agriculture, especially in the period of last two hundred years, led to systematic disappearance of localities of many plant species connected with rare habitats and also to appear numerous invasive plant species. They are: Acorus calamus, Echinocystis lobata, Elodea canadensis, Erechtites hieraciifolia, Impatiens glandulifera, Solidago canadensis, S. gigantea and S. graminifolia. Fielworks were conducted in 2010-2014.

  5. Economics of controlling invasive species: the case of Californian thistle in New Zealand

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chalak, S.M.

    2009-01-01

    Keywords
    Invasive species, Economics, Californian thistle, New Zealand, Stochastic, Dynamic programming, Biological control, Extinction risk, Herbivory, Dispersal, Competition
    Invasive species are one of the most significant threats to biodiversity and agricultural production systems

  6. Proceedings, 22nd U.S. Department of Agriculture interagency research forum on invasive species 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katherine A McManus; Kurt W., eds. Gottschalk

    2011-01-01

    Contains abstracts and papers of 62 oral and poster presentations on invasive species biology, molecular biology, ecology, impacts, and management presented at the annual U.S. Department of Agriculture Interagency Research Forum on Invasive Species.

  7. Proceedings, 23rd U.S. Department of Agriculture interagency research forum on invasive species 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katherine A McManus; Kurt W., eds. Gottschalk

    2013-01-01

    Contains abstracts and papers of 75 oral and poster presentations on invasive species biology, molecular biology, ecology, impacts, and management presented at the annual U.S. Department of Agriculture Interagency Research Forum on Invasive Species.

  8. Land-use proxies for aquatic species invasions in the Laurentian Great Lakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aquatic invasive species adversely impact ecosystems, human health, and the economy of the Laurentian Great Lakes region. Targeted preventative and eradication efforts in response to early detection of invasive species can be both cost advantageous and effective. But where should...

  9. Effects of Climate Change on Aquatic Invasive Species and Implications for Management and Research (Final Report)

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA announced the availability of the final report, Effects of Climate Change on Aquatic Invasive Species and Implications for Management and Research . This report reviews available literature on climate-change effects on aquatic invasive species (AIS) and examines sta...

  10. Proceedings 19th U.S. Department of Agriculture Interagency Research Forum on Invasive Species 2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katherine A. McManus; Kurt W., eds. Gottschalk

    2009-01-01

    Contains abstracts and papers of 67 oral and poster presentations on invasive species biology, molecular biology, ecology, impacts, and management presented at the annual U.S. Department of Agriculture Interagency Research Forum on Invasive Species.

  11. Proceedings, 21st U.S. Department of Agriculture interagency research forum on invasive species 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katherine A McManus; Kurt W. Gottschalk

    2010-01-01

    Contains abstracts and papers of 95 oral and poster presentations on invasive species biology, molecular biology, ecology, impacts, and management presented at the annual U.S. Department of Agriculture Interagency Research Forum on Invasive Species.

  12. Current practices and future opportunities for policy on climate change and invasive species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pyke, Christopher R; Thomas, Roxanne; Porter, Read D; Hellmann, Jessica J; Dukes, Jeffrey S; Lodge, David M; Chavarria, Gabriela

    2008-06-01

    Climate change and invasive species are often treated as important, but independent, issues. Nevertheless, they have strong connections: changes in climate and societal responses to climate change may exacerbate the impacts of invasive species, whereas invasive species may affect the magnitude, rate, and impact of climate change. We argue that the design and implementation of climate-change policy in the United States should specifically consider the implications for invasive species; conversely, invasive-species policy should address consequences for climate change. The development of such policies should be based on (1) characterization of interactions between invasive species and climate change, (2) identification of areas where climate-change policies could negatively affect invasive-species management, and (3) identification of areas where policies could benefit from synergies between climate change and invasive-species management.

  13. Floristic analysis of perennial species on flowerbeds in Belgrade with special attention on invasiveness of the recorded species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Popović Marija

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Urban areas are among the most important centres of invasive plant species distribution due to their richness in alien species. Because of that, a detailed floristic analysis of perennial flowerbeds was conducted in the central parks of Belgrade. A total of 53 perennial species were found, of which 55% were the alien species planted on 75% of the research area. Among them, two species (Aster novi belgii and Solidago canadensis are invasive and six species are potentially invasive in Serbia. These are planted on 5% and 20% of the flowerbeds, respectively. We can conclude that both the experts and institutions should be informed about the invasive species and potential damages. In the meantime, planting of native decorative species should be encouraged, since they will not pose a threat to natural habitats. Also, detailed research should be conducted in order to eradicate invasive and potentially invasive species from the surfaces around the research area.

  14. Do low oxygen environments facilitate marine invasions? Relative tolerance of native and invasive species to low oxygen conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lagos, Marcelo E; Barneche, Diego R; White, Craig R; Marshall, Dustin J

    2017-06-01

    Biological invasions are one of the biggest threats to global biodiversity. Marine artificial structures are proliferating worldwide and provide a haven for marine invasive species. Such structures disrupt local hydrodynamics, which can lead to the formation of oxygen-depleted microsites. The extent to which native fauna can cope with such low oxygen conditions, and whether invasive species, long associated with artificial structures in flow-restricted habitats, have adapted to these conditions remains unclear. We measured water flow and oxygen availability in marinas and piers at the scales relevant to sessile marine invertebrates (mm). We then measured the capacity of invasive and native marine invertebrates to maintain metabolic rates under decreasing levels of oxygen using standard laboratory assays. We found that marinas reduce water flow relative to piers, and that local oxygen levels can be zero in low flow conditions. We also found that for species with erect growth forms, invasive species can tolerate much lower levels of oxygen relative to native species. Integrating the field and laboratory data showed that up to 30% of available microhabitats within low flow environments are physiologically stressful for native species, while only 18% of the same habitat is physiologically stressful for invasive species. These results suggest that invasive species have adapted to low oxygen habitats associated with manmade habitats, and artificial structures may be creating niche opportunities for invasive species. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Bartonella species in invasive rats and indigenous rodents from Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Billeter, Sarah A; Borchert, Jeff N; Atiku, Linda A; Mpanga, Joseph T; Gage, Kenneth L; Kosoy, Michael Y

    2014-03-01

    The presence of bartonellae in invasive rats (Rattus rattus) and indigenous rodents (Arvicanthis niloticus and Cricetomys gambianus) from two districts in Uganda, Arua and Zombo, was examined by PCR detection and culture. Blood from a total of 228 R. rattus, 31 A. niloticus, and 5 C. gambianus was screened using genus-specific primers targeting the 16S-23S intergenic spacer region. Furthermore, rodent blood was plated on brain heart infusion blood agar, and isolates were verified as Bartonella species using citrate synthase gene- (gltA) specific primers. One hundred and four fleas recovered from R. rattus were also tested for the presence of Bartonella species using the same gltA primer set. An overall prevalence of 1.3% (three of 228) was obtained in R. rattus, whereas 61.3% of 31 A. niloticus and 60% of five C. gambianus were positive for the presence of Bartonella species. Genotypes related to Bartonella elizabethae, a known zoonotic pathogen, were detected in three R. rattus and one C. gambianus. Bartonella strains, similar to bacteria detected in indigenous rodents from other African countries, were isolated from the blood of A. niloticus. Bartonellae, similar to bacteria initially cultured from Ornithodorus sonrai (soft tick) from Senegal, were found in two C. gambianus. Interestingly, bartonellae detected in fleas from invasive rats were similar to bacteria identified in indigenous rodents and not their rat hosts, with an overall prevalence of 6.7%. These results suggest that if fleas are competent vectors of these bartonellae, humans residing in these two districts of Uganda are potentially at greater risk for exposure to Bartonella species from native rodents than from invasive rats. The low prevalence of bartonellae in R. rattus was quite surprising, in contrast, to the detection of these organisms in a large percentage of Rattus species from other geographical areas. A possible reason for this disparity is discussed.

  16. Evaluating Hypotheses of Plant Species Invasions on Mediterranean Islands: Inverse Patterns between Alien and Endemic Species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Bjarnason

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Invasive alien species cause major changes to ecosystem functioning and patterns of biodiversity, and the main factors involved in invasion success remain contested. Using the Mediterranean island of Crete, Greece as a case study, we suggest a framework for analyzing spatial data of alien species distributions, based on environmental predictors, aiming to gain an understanding of their spatial patterns and spread. Mediterranean islands are under strong ecological pressure from invading species due to their restricted size and increased human impact. Four hypotheses of invasibility, the “propagule pressure hypothesis” (H1, “biotic resistance hypothesis vs. acceptance hypothesis” (H2, “disturbance-mediated hypothesis” (H3, and “environmental heterogeneity hypothesis” (H4 were tested. Using data from alien, native, and endemic vascular plant species, the propagule pressure, biotic resistance vs. acceptance, disturbance-mediated, and environmental heterogeneity hypotheses were tested with Generalized Additive Modeling (GAM of 39 models. Based on model selection, the optimal model includes the positive covariates of native species richness, the negative covariates of endemic species richness, and land area. Variance partitioning between the four hypotheses indicated that the biotic resistance vs. acceptance hypothesis explained the vast majority of the total variance. These results show that areas of high species richness have greater invasibility and support the acceptance hypothesis and “rich-get-richer” distribution of alien species. The negative correlation between alien and endemic species appears to be predominantly driven by altitude, with fewer alien and more endemic species at greater altitudes, and habitat richness. The negative relationship between alien and endemic species richness provides potential for understanding patterns of endemic and alien species on islands, contributing to more effective conservation

  17. 78 FR 39310 - Voluntary Guidelines to Prevent the Introduction and Spread of Aquatic Invasive Species...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-01

    ...-FF09F14000] Voluntary Guidelines to Prevent the Introduction and Spread of Aquatic Invasive Species... Introduction and Spread of Aquatic Invasive Species: Recreational Activities Voluntary Guidelines to Prevent the Introduction and Spread of Aquatic Invasive Species: Water Gardening These voluntary guidelines...

  18. Preliminary Marine Safety Risk Assessment, Brandon Road Lock and Dam Invasive Species Control Measures

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-12-01

    Invasive Species Control Measures Distribution Statement A: Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. December 2016 Report No...CG-D-03-17 Preliminary Marine Safety Risk Assessment, BRLD Invasive Species Control Measures ii UNCLAS//Public | CG-926 RDC | M. Lewandowski...CT 06320 Preliminary Marine Safety Risk Assessment, BRLD Invasive Species Control Measures iii UNCLAS//Public | CG-926 RDC | M

  19. Methods for invasive species control are transferable across invaded areas.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takashi Haramura

    Full Text Available Cane Toads (Rhinella marina are invasive pests in many parts of the world, including the Japanese island of Ishigaki. Extensive research in Australia has identified promising new methods for control, but also has shown that toads exhibit geographic variation in many traits (suggesting that methods developed in one location may not work in another. Can the approaches developed in Australia play a useful role for controlling this invasive species in Japan? Our experimental trials on Ishigaki Island suggest that these new methods can be successfully applied to Japan. First, Cane Toad embryos exposed to chemical cues of conspecific tadpoles exhibited a reduction in viability (subsequent growth and development. This response appears to be species-specific, with native frog embryos not being affected by exposure to cues from toad tadpoles, and Cane Toad embryos not being affected by exposure to cues from native frog tadpoles. Second, Cane Toad tadpoles were attracted to traps containing water from conspecific eggs, and toxin from adult conspecifics. Third, adult Cane Toads were attracted to acoustic cues of calling males, with sex differences in rates of attraction to specific versions of a synthetic call (males were attracted to choruses whereas females were attracted to low-frequency calls. Our results suggest that the methods developed by Australian researchers are applicable to controlling invasive Cane Toads in Japan.

  20. Mycorrhizal status helps explain invasion success of alien plant species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menzel, Andreas; Hempel, Stefan; Klotz, Stefan; Moora, Mari; Pyšek, Petr; Rillig, Matthias C; Zobel, Martin; Kühn, Ingolf

    2017-01-01

    It is still debated whether alien plants benefit from being mycorrhizal, or if engaging in the symbiosis constrains their establishment and spread in new regions. We analyzed the association between mycorrhizal status of alien plant species in Germany and their invasion success. We compared whether the representation of species with different mycorrhizal status (obligate, facultative, or non-mycorrhizal) differed at several stages of the invasion process. We used generalized linear models to explain the occupied geographical range of alien plants, incorporating interactions of mycorrhizal status with plant traits related to morphology, reproduction, and life-history. Non-naturalized aliens did not differ from naturalized aliens in the relative frequency of different mycorrhizal status categories. Mycorrhizal status significantly explained the occupied range of alien plants; with facultative mycorrhizal species inhabiting a larger range than non-mycorrhizal aliens and obligate mycorrhizal plant species taking an intermediate position. Aliens with storage organs, shoot metamorphoses, or specialized structures promoting vegetative dispersal occupied a larger range when being facultative mycorrhizal. We conclude that being mycorrhizal is important for the persistence of aliens in Germany and constitutes an advantage compared to being non-mycorrhizal. Being facultative mycorrhizal seems to be especially advantageous for successful spread, as the flexibility of this mycorrhizal status may enable plants to use a broader set of ecological strategies. © 2016 by the Ecological Society of America.

  1. Applying remote sensing to invasive species science—A tamarisk example

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morisette, Jeffrey T.

    2011-01-01

    The Invasive Species Science Branch of the Fort Collins Science Center provides research and technical assistance relating to management concerns for invasive species, including understanding how these species are introduced, identifying areas vulnerable to invasion, forecasting invasions, and developing control methods. This fact sheet considers the invasive plant species tamarisk (Tamarix spp), addressing three fundamental questions: *Where is it now? *What are the potential or realized ecological impacts of invasion? *Where can it survive and thrive if introduced? It provides peer-review examples of how the U.S. Geological Survey, working with other federal agencies and university partners, are applying remote-sensing technologies to address these key questions.

  2. Microsatellite Markers for the Invasive Species Bidens alba (Asteraceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong-Bin Lu

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Premise of the study: Microsatellite markers were developed in the invasive species Bidens alba (Asteraceae to assess its population structure and to facilitate tracking its expansion in China. Methods and Results: Using 454 pyrosequencing, 20 microsatellite primer sets were developed for B. alba. The markers were tested on one population of B. alba (30 individuals and one population of the closely related B. pilosa (30 individuals in China. For B. alba, all of the markers were polymorphic, and the number of alleles per locus ranged from three to 32. The expected heterozygosity values were from 0.3787 to 0.9284, and the Shannon–Wiener index was from 0.6796 to 2.8401. Conclusions: These markers will be useful for investigating the genetic structure, genetic diversity, and invasion dynamics of B. alba and will also be useful in studies of B. pilosa.

  3. Invasive plant species in the West Indies: geographical, ecological, and floristic insights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojas-Sandoval, Julissa; Tremblay, Raymond L; Acevedo-Rodríguez, Pedro; Díaz-Soltero, Hilda

    2017-07-01

    The level of invasion (number or proportion of invasive species) in a given area depends on features of the invaded community, propagule pressure, and climate. In this study, we assess the invasive flora of nine islands in the West Indies to identify invasion patterns and evaluate whether invasive species diversity is related to geographical, ecological, and socioeconomic factors. We compiled a database of invasive plant species including information on their taxonomy, origin, pathways of introduction, habitats, and life history. This database was used to evaluate the similarity of invasive floras between islands and to identify invasion patterns at regional (West Indies) and local (island) scales. We found a total of 516 alien plant species that are invasive on at least one of the nine islands studied, with between 24 to 306 invasive species per island. The invasive flora on these islands includes a wide range of taxonomic groups, life forms, and habitats. We detected low similarity in invasive species diversity between islands, with most invasive species (>60%) occurring on a single island and 6% occurring on at least five islands. To assess the importance of different models in predicting patterns of invasive species diversity among islands, we used generalized linear models. Our analyses revealed that invasive species diversity was well predicted by a combination of island area and economic development (gross domestic product per capita and kilometers of paved roadways). Our results provide strong evidence for the roles of geographical, ecological, and socioeconomic factors in determining the distribution and spread of invasive species on these islands. Anthropogenic disturbance and economic development seem to be the major drivers facilitating the spread and predominance of invasive species over native species.

  4. A Framework for Spatial Risk Assessments: Potential Impacts of Nonindigenous Invasive Species on Native Species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Craig R. Allen

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Many populations of wild animals and plants are declining and face increasing threats from habitat fragmentation and loss as well as exposure to stressors ranging from toxicants to diseases to invasive nonindigenous species. We describe and demonstrate a spatially explicit ecological risk assessment that allows for the incorporation of a broad array of information that may influence the distribution of an invasive species, toxicants, or other stressors, and the incorporation of landscape variables that may influence the spread of a species or substances. The first step in our analyses is to develop species models and quantify spatial overlap between stressor and target organisms. Risk is assessed as the product of spatial overlap and a hazard index based on target species vulnerabilities to the stressor of interest. We illustrate our methods with an example in which the stressor is the ecologically destructive nonindigenous ant, Solenopsis invicta, and the targets are two declining vertebrate species in the state of South Carolina, USA. A risk approach that focuses on landscapes and that is explicitly spatial is of particular relevance as remaining undeveloped lands become increasingly uncommon and isolated and more important in the management and recovery of species and ecological systems. Effective ecosystem management includes the control of multiple stressors, including invasive species with large impacts, understanding where those impacts may be the most severe, and implementing management strategies to reduce impacts.

  5. Species coexistence and the superior ability of an invasive species to exploit a facilitation cascade habitat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altieri, Andrew H; Irving, Andrew D

    2017-01-01

    Facilitation cascades generated by co-occurring foundation species can enhance the abundance and diversity of associated organisms. However, it remains poorly understood how differences among native and invasive species in their ability to exploit these positive interactions contribute to emergent patterns of community structure and biotic acceptance. On intertidal shorelines in New England, we examined the patterns of coexistence between the native mud crabs and the invasive Asian shore crab in and out of a facilitation cascade habitat generated by mid intertidal cordgrass and ribbed mussels. These crab species co-occurred in low intertidal cobbles adjacent to the cordgrass-mussel beds, despite experimental findings that the dominant mud crabs can kill and displace Asian shore crabs and thereby limit their successful recruitment to their shared habitat. A difference between the native and invasive species in their utilization of the facilitation cascade likely contributes to this pattern. Only the Asian shore crabs inhabit the cordgrass-mussel beds, despite experimental evidence that both species can similarly benefit from stress amelioration in the beds. Moreover, only Asian shore crabs settle in the beds, which function as a nursery habitat free of lethal mud crabs, and where their recruitment rates are particularly high (nearly an order of magnitude higher than outside beds). Persistence of invasive adult Asian shore crabs among the dominant native mud crabs in the low cobble zone is likely enhanced by a spillover effect of the facilitation cascade in which recruitment-limited Asian shore crabs settle in the mid intertidal cordgrass-mussel beds and subsidize their vulnerable populations in the adjacent low cobble zone. This would explain why the abundances of Asian shore crabs in cobbles are doubled when adjacent to facilitation cascade habitats. The propensity for this exotic species to utilize habitats created by facilitation cascades, despite the lack of a

  6. Species coexistence and the superior ability of an invasive species to exploit a facilitation cascade habitat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew H. Altieri

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Facilitation cascades generated by co-occurring foundation species can enhance the abundance and diversity of associated organisms. However, it remains poorly understood how differences among native and invasive species in their ability to exploit these positive interactions contribute to emergent patterns of community structure and biotic acceptance. On intertidal shorelines in New England, we examined the patterns of coexistence between the native mud crabs and the invasive Asian shore crab in and out of a facilitation cascade habitat generated by mid intertidal cordgrass and ribbed mussels. These crab species co-occurred in low intertidal cobbles adjacent to the cordgrass–mussel beds, despite experimental findings that the dominant mud crabs can kill and displace Asian shore crabs and thereby limit their successful recruitment to their shared habitat. A difference between the native and invasive species in their utilization of the facilitation cascade likely contributes to this pattern. Only the Asian shore crabs inhabit the cordgrass–mussel beds, despite experimental evidence that both species can similarly benefit from stress amelioration in the beds. Moreover, only Asian shore crabs settle in the beds, which function as a nursery habitat free of lethal mud crabs, and where their recruitment rates are particularly high (nearly an order of magnitude higher than outside beds. Persistence of invasive adult Asian shore crabs among the dominant native mud crabs in the low cobble zone is likely enhanced by a spillover effect of the facilitation cascade in which recruitment-limited Asian shore crabs settle in the mid intertidal cordgrass–mussel beds and subsidize their vulnerable populations in the adjacent low cobble zone. This would explain why the abundances of Asian shore crabs in cobbles are doubled when adjacent to facilitation cascade habitats. The propensity for this exotic species to utilize habitats created by facilitation cascades

  7. An inventory of invasive alien species in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haigen Xu

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Invasive alien species (IAS are a major global challenge requiring urgent action, and the Strategic Plan for Biodiversity (2011–2020 of the Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD includes a target on the issue. Meeting the target requires an understanding of invasion patterns. However, national or regional analyses of invasions are limited to developed countries. We identified 488 IAS in China’s terrestrial habitats, inland waters and marine ecosystems based on available literature and field work, including 171 animals, 265 plants, 26 fungi, 3 protists, 11 procaryots, and 12 viruses. Terrestrial plants account for 51.6% of the total number of IAS, and terrestrial invertebrates (104 species for 21.3%. Of the total numbers, 67.9% of plant IAS and 34.8% of animal IAS were introduced intentionally. All other taxa were introduced unintentionally despite very few animal and plant species that invaded naturally. In terms of habitats, 64.3% of IAS occur on farmlands, 13.9% in forests, 8.4% in marine ecosystems, 7.3% in inland waters, and 6.1% in residential areas. Half of all IAS (51.1% originate from North and South America, 18.3% from Europe, 17.3% from Asia not including China, 7.2% from Africa, 1.8% from Oceania, and the origin of the remaining 4.3% IAS is unknown. The distribution of IAS can be divided into three zones. Most IAS are distributed in coastal provinces and the Yunnan province; provinces in Middle China have fewer IAS, and most provinces in West China have the least number of IAS. Sites where IAS were first detected are mainly distributed in the coastal region, the Yunnan Province and the Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region. The number of newly emerged IAS has been increasing since 1850. The cumulative number of firstly detected IAS grew exponentially.

  8. Invasive species in phytocenosis of Sterlitamak town (Republic of Bashkortostan, Russia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golovanov, Ya M.; Abramova, L. M.; Petrov, S. S.

    2018-01-01

    There were 69 invasive and potentially invasive species in the flora of Sterlitamak in the Bashkortostan Republic (Russia). Eight are in the most dangerous types of invasive species. The greatest danger is represented by: Acer negundo, Ambrosia trifida, Elodea canadensis and Xanthium albinum. Within the boundaries of Sterlitamak, 21 syntaxa (13 associations and 8 derivated communities) are invasive species. This phytocenosis in an urban environment can be prime targets for plant quarantine actions.

  9. Two invasive acacia species secure generalist pollinators in invaded communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montesinos, Daniel; Castro, Sílvia; Rodríguez-Echeverría, Susana

    2016-07-01

    Exotic entomophilous plants need to establish effective pollinator interactions in order to succeed after being introduced into a new community, particularly if they are obligatory outbreeders. By establishing these novel interactions in the new non-native range, invasive plants are hypothesised to drive changes in the composition and functioning of the native pollinator community, with potential impacts on the pollination biology of native co-flowering plants. We used two different sites in Portugal, each invaded by a different acacia species, to assess whether two native Australian trees, Acacia dealbata and Acacia longifolia, were able to recruit pollinators in Portugal, and whether the pollinator community visiting acacia trees differed from the pollinator communities interacting with native co-flowering plants. Our results indicate that in the invaded range of Portugal both acacia species were able to establish novel mutualistic interactions, predominantly with generalist pollinators. For each of the two studied sites, only two other co-occurring native plant species presented partially overlapping phenologies. We observed significant differences in pollinator richness and visitation rates among native and non-native plant species, although the study of β diversity indicated that only the native plant Lithodora fruticosa presented a differentiated set of pollinator species. Acacias experienced a large number of visits by numerous pollinator species, but massive acacia flowering resulted in flower visitation rates frequently lower than those of the native co-flowering species. We conclude that the establishment of mutualisms in Portugal likely contributes to the effective and profuse production of acacia seeds in Portugal. Despite the massive flowering of A. dealbata and A. longifolia, native plant species attained similar or higher visitation rates than acacias.

  10. Founding population size of an aquatic invasive species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalinowski, Steven T.; Muhlfeld, Clint C.; Guy, Christopher S.; Benjamin Cox,

    2010-01-01

    Non-native species of fish threaten native fishes throughout North America, and in the Rocky Mountains, introduced populations of lake trout threaten native populations of bull trout. Effective management of lake trout and other exotic species require understanding the dynamics of invasion in order to either suppress non-native populations or to prevent their spread. In this study, we used microsatellite genetic data to estimate the number of lake trout that invaded a population of bull trout in Swan Lake, MT. Examination of genetic diversity and allele frequencies within the Swan Lake populations showed that most of the genes in the lake trout population are descended from two founders. This emphasizes the importance of preventing even a few lake trout from colonizing new territory.

  11. Ecological and economic determinants of invasive tree species on Alabama forestland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anwar Hussain; Changyou Sun; Xiaoping Zhou; Ian A. Munn

    2008-01-01

    The spread of invasive tree species has caused increasing harm to the environment. This study was motivated by the considerations that earlier studies generally ignored the role of economic factors related to the occurrence and abundance of invasive species, and empirical analyses of invasive trees on forestland have been inadequate. We assessed the impact of...

  12. Risk analysis and bioeconomics of invasive species to inform policy and management

    Science.gov (United States)

    David M. Lodge; Paul W. Simonin; Stanley W. Burgiel; Reuben P. Keller; Jonathan M. Bossenbroek; Christopher L. Jerde; Andrew M. Kramer; Edward S. Rutherford; Matthew A. Barnes; Marion E. Wittmann; W. Lindsay Chadderton; Jenny L. Apriesnig; Dmitry Beletsky; Roger M. Cooke; John M. Drake; Scott P. Egan; David C. Finnoff; Crysta A. Gantz; Erin K. Grey; Michael H. Hoff; Jennifer G. Howeth; Richard A. Jensen; Eric R. Larson; Nicholas E. Mandrak; Doran M. Mason; Felix A. Martinez; Tammy J. Newcomb; John D. Rothlisberger; Andrew J. Tucker; Travis W. Warziniack; Hongyan. Zhang

    2016-01-01

    Risk analysis of species invasions links biology and economics, is increasingly mandated by international and national policies, and enables improved management of invasive species. Biological invasions proceed through a series of transition probabilities (i.e., introduction, establishment, spread, and impact), and each of these presents opportunities for...

  13. Seed Removal Increased by Scramble Competition with an Invasive Species.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca L Minor

    Full Text Available Competition for seeds has a major influence on the evolution of granivores and the plants on which they rely. The complexity of interactions and coevolutionary relationships vary across forest types. The introduction of non-native granivores has considerable potential to alter seed dispersal dynamics. Non-native species are a major cause of endangerment for native species, but the mechanisms are often unclear. As biological invasions continue to rise, it is important to understand mechanisms to build up strategies to mitigate the threat. Our field experiment quantified the impact of introduced Abert's squirrels (Sciurus aberti on rates of seed removal within the range of critically endangered Mount Graham red squirrels (Tamiasciurus hudsonicus grahamensis, which consumes similar foods. In the presence of invasive Abert's squirrels, the time cones were removed was faster than when the invasive was excluded, accounting for a median removal time of cones available to red and Abert's squirrels that is 32.8% less than that of cones available only to the rare native red squirrels. Moreover, in the presence of Abert's squirrels, removal rates are higher at great distance from a territorial red squirrel larderhoard and in more open portions of the forest, which suggests differential patterns of seed dispersal. The impact on food availability as a result of cone removal by Abert's squirrels suggests the potential of food competition as a mechanism of endangerment for the Mount Graham red squirrel. Furthermore, the magnitude and differential spatial patterns of seed removal suggest that non-native granivores may have impacts on forest regeneration and structure.

  14. When can efforts to control nuisance and invasive species backfire?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zipkin, E.F.; Kraft, C.E.; Cooch, E.G.; Sullivan, P.J.

    2009-01-01

    Population control through harvest has the potential to reduce the abundance of nuisance and invasive species. However, demographic structure and density-dependent processes can confound removal efforts and lead to undesirable consequences, such as overcompensation (an increase in abundance in response to harvest) and instability (population cycling or chaos). Recent empirical studies have demonstrated the potential for increased mortality (such as that caused by harvest) to lead to overcompensation and instability in plant, insect, and fish populations. We developed a general population model with juvenile and adult stages to help determine the conditions under which control harvest efforts can produce unintended outcomes. Analytical and simulation analyses of the model demonstrated that the potential for overcompensation as a result of harvest was significant for species with high fecundity, even when annual stage-specific survivorship values were fairly low. Population instability as a result of harvest occurred less frequently and was only possible with harvest strategies that targeted adults when both fecundity and adult survivorship were high. We considered these results in conjunction with current literature on nuisance and invasive species to propose general guidelines for assessing the risks associated with control harvest based on life history characteristics of target populations. Our results suggest that species with high per capita fecundity (over discrete breeding periods), short juvenile stages, and fairly constant survivorship rates are most likely to respond undesirably to harvest. It is difficult to determine the extent to which overcompensation and instability could occur during real-world removal efforts, and more empirical removal studies should be undertaken to evaluate population-level responses to control harvests. Nevertheless, our results identify key issues that have been seldom acknowledged and are potentially generic across taxa

  15. A decade of aquatic invasive species (AIS) early detection ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    As an invasion prone location, the St. Louis River Estuary (SLRE) has been a case study for ongoing research to develop the framework for a practical Great Lakes monitoring network for early detection of aquatic invasive species (AIS). Early detection, however, necessitates finding new invaders before they are common. Here we outline our research (2005 present) approach and findings, including strategies to increase detection efficiency by optimizing specimen collection and identification methods. Initial surveys were designed to over-sample to amass data as the basis for numerical experiments to investigate to the effort required for a given detection probability. Later surveys tested the outcome of implementing these strategies, examined the potential benefits of sampling larval fish instead of adults and explored the prospect of using advanced DNA based methods as an alternative to traditional taxonomy. To date we have identified several previously undetected invertebrate invaders, developed survey design and gear recommendations and have refined the search strategy for systems beyond the SLRE. In addition, because we’ve accumulated such a large body of data we now have the basis to show spatial-temporal trends for native and non-native species in the SLRE. not applicable

  16. SHELTER COMPETITION BETWEEN TWO INVASIVE CRAYFISH SPECIES: A LABORATORY STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ALONSO F.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Alien crayfishes represent a common threat to aquatic ecosystems. Their spread in Europe is leading to more frequent contacts between different invasive species populations. Shelter can be an important factor in the resulting interactions. A laboratory experiment was designed to analyse the competition for shelter in similarly sized males of two species that show an invasive behaviour in Spain, Pacifastacus leniusculus and Procambarus clarkii. We carried out 24 heterospecific, six-hour trials, with 30 min behavioural observations per hour. Most often, red swamp crayfish were both the first (70.8% and the long-term winner (62.5%. Usually, the long-term winner was the first winner. Whenever shelter was occupied, a passive behaviour by unsheltered individuals was more frequent in signal crayfish than in red swamp crayfish. When both were unsheltered, signal crayfish displayed more often a passive behaviour. Although the observed behaviour might be explained as the result of dominance by the red swamp crayfish over the signal crayfish, shelter availability and class, as well as different growth patterns and population size structures, could change the intensity and the outcome of the encounters in the wild, where signal crayfish usually reach larger sizes than red swamp crayfish.

  17. Commonly rare and rarely common: comparing population abundance of invasive and native aquatic species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Gretchen J A; Vander Zanden, M Jake; Blum, Michael J; Clayton, Murray K; Hain, Ernie F; Hauxwell, Jennifer; Izzo, Marit; Kornis, Matthew S; McIntyre, Peter B; Mikulyuk, Alison; Nilsson, Erika; Olden, Julian D; Papeş, Monica; Sharma, Sapna

    2013-01-01

    Invasive species are leading drivers of environmental change. Their impacts are often linked to their population size, but surprisingly little is known about how frequently they achieve high abundances. A nearly universal pattern in ecology is that species are rare in most locations and abundant in a few, generating right-skewed abundance distributions. Here, we use abundance data from over 24,000 populations of 17 invasive and 104 native aquatic species to test whether invasive species differ from native counterparts in statistical patterns of abundance across multiple sites. Invasive species on average reached significantly higher densities than native species and exhibited significantly higher variance. However, invasive and native species did not differ in terms of coefficient of variation, skewness, or kurtosis. Abundance distributions of all species were highly right skewed (skewness>0), meaning both invasive and native species occurred at low densities in most locations where they were present. The average abundance of invasive and native species was 6% and 2%, respectively, of the maximum abundance observed within a taxonomic group. The biological significance of the differences between invasive and native species depends on species-specific relationships between abundance and impact. Recognition of cross-site heterogeneity in population densities brings a new dimension to invasive species management, and may help to refine optimal prevention, containment, control, and eradication strategies.

  18. Mechanisms controlling the distribution of two invasive Bromus species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga Bykova

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available In order to predict future range shifts for invasive species it is important to explore their ability to acclimate to the new environment and understand physiological and reproductive constraints controlling their distribution. My dissertation studied mechanisms by which temperature may affect the distribution of two aggressive plant invaders in North America, Bromus tectorum and Bromus rubens. I first evaluated winter freezing tolerance of Bromus species and demonstrated that the mechanism explaining their distinct northern range limits is different acquisition time of freezing tolerance. While B. rubens has a slower rate of freezing acclimation that leads to intolerance of sudden, late-autumn drops in temperature below -12°C, B. tectorum rapidly hardens and so is not impacted by the sudden onset of severe late-autumn cold. In addition, the analysis of male reproductive development and seed production showed that neither species produces seed at or above 36°C, due to complete pollen sterility, which might trigger climate-mediated range contractions at B. tectorum and B. rubens southern margins. Finally, a detailed gas-exchange analysis combined with biochemical modelling demonstrated that both species acclimate to a broad range of temperatures and photosynthetic response to temperature does not explain their current range separation.

  19. Invasive Species Biology, Control, and Research. Part 1: Kudzu (Pueraria montana)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Guertin, Patrick J; Denight, Michael L; Gebhart, Dick L; Nelson, Linda

    2008-01-01

    ..., and damage to equipment and structures. Of the 11 plant species (or groups) identified by installations as uncontrolled vegetation, six were invasive plants, of which the two invasive plants most commonly identified were Kudzu (Pueraria montana...

  20. Invasive Species Biology, Control, and Research. Part 2. Multiflora Rose (Rosa multiflora)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Denight, Michael L; Guertin, Patrick J; Gebhart, Dick L; Nelson, Linda

    2008-01-01

    ..., and damage to equipment and structures. Of the 11 plant species (or groups) identified by installations as "uncontrolled vegetation," six were invasive plants, of which the two invasive plants most commonly identified were Kudzu (Pueraria montana...

  1. Plant functional traits of dominant native and invasive species in mediterranean-climate ecosystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Funk, Jennifer L; Standish, Rachel J; Stock, William D; Valladares, Fernando

    2016-01-01

    The idea that dominant invasive plant species outperform neighboring native species through higher rates of carbon assimilation and growth is supported by several analyses of global data sets. However, theory suggests that native and invasive species occurring in low-resource environments will be functionally similar, as environmental factors restrict the range of observed physiological and morphological trait values. We measured resource-use traits in native and invasive plant species across eight diverse vegetation communities distributed throughout the five mediterranean-climate regions, which are drought prone and increasingly threatened by human activities, including the introduction of exotic species. Traits differed strongly across the five regions. In regions with functional differences between native and invasive species groups, invasive species displayed traits consistent with high resource acquisition; however, these patterns were largely attributable to differences in life form. We found that species invading mediterranean-climate regions were more likely to be annual than perennial: three of the five regions were dominated by native woody species and invasive annuals. These results suggest that trait differences between native and invasive species are context dependent and will vary across vegetation communities. Native and invasive species within annual and perennial groups had similar patterns of carbon assimilation and resource use, which contradicts the widespread idea that invasive species optimize resource acquisition rather than resource conservation. .

  2. Diversity and distribution of genetic variation in gammarids: Comparing patterns between invasive and non-invasive species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baltazar-Soares, Miguel; Paiva, Filipa; Chen, Yiyong; Zhan, Aibin; Briski, Elizabeta

    2017-10-01

    Biological invasions are worldwide phenomena that have reached alarming levels among aquatic species. There are key challenges to understand the factors behind invasion propensity of non-native populations in invasion biology. Interestingly, interpretations cannot be expanded to higher taxonomic levels due to the fact that in the same genus, there are species that are notorious invaders and those that never spread outside their native range. Such variation in invasion propensity offers the possibility to explore, at fine-scale taxonomic level, the existence of specific characteristics that might predict the variability in invasion success. In this work, we explored this possibility from a molecular perspective. The objective was to provide a better understanding of the genetic diversity distribution in the native range of species that exhibit contrasting invasive propensities. For this purpose, we used a total of 784 sequences of the cytochrome c oxidase subunit I of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA-COI) collected from seven Gammaroidea, a superfamily of Amphipoda that includes species that are both successful invaders ( Gammarus tigrinus , Pontogammarus maeoticus, and Obesogammarus crassus ) and strictly restricted to their native regions ( Gammarus locusta , Gammarus salinus , Gammarus zaddachi, and Gammarus oceanicus ). Despite that genetic diversity did not differ between invasive and non-invasive species, we observed that populations of non-invasive species showed a higher degree of genetic differentiation. Furthermore, we found that both geographic and evolutionary distances might explain genetic differentiation in both non-native and native ranges. This suggests that the lack of population genetic structure may facilitate the distribution of mutations that despite arising in the native range may be beneficial in invasive ranges. The fact that evolutionary distances explained genetic differentiation more often than geographic distances points toward that deep lineage

  3. Soil seed banks in plant invasions: promoting species invasiveness and long-term impakt on plant community dynamics

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Gioria, M.; Pyšek, Petr; Moravcová, Lenka

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 84, č. 2 (2012), s. 327-350 ISSN 0032-7786 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA206/09/0563 Institutional support: RVO:67985939 Keywords : soil seed bank * plant invasions * species invasive ness Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 2.833, year: 2012

  4. Minimizing Risks of Invasive Alien Plant Species in Tropical Production Forest Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Padmanaba

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Timber production is the most pervasive human impact on tropical forests, but studies of logging impacts have largely focused on timber species and vertebrates. This review focuses on the risk from invasive alien plant species, which has been frequently neglected in production forest management in the tropics. Our literature search resulted in 114 publications with relevant information, including books, book chapters, reports and papers. Examples of both invasions by aliens into tropical production forests and plantation forests as sources of invasions are presented. We discuss species traits and processes affecting spread and invasion, and silvicultural practices that favor invasions. We also highlight potential impacts of invasive plant species and discuss options for managing them in production forests. We suggest that future forestry practices need to reduce the risks of plant invasions by conducting surveillance for invasive species; minimizing canopy opening during harvesting; encouraging rapid canopy closure in plantations; minimizing the width of access roads; and ensuring that vehicles and other equipment are not transporting seeds of invasive species. Potential invasive species should not be planted within dispersal range of production forests. In invasive species management, forewarned is forearmed.

  5. Modeling invasive alien plant species in river systems : Interaction with native ecosystem engineers and effects on hydro-morphodynamic processes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Oorschot, M.; Kleinhans, M. G.; Geerling, G.W.; Egger, G.; Leuven, R.S.E.W.; Middelkoop, H.

    2017-01-01

    Invasive alien plant species negatively impact native plant communities by out-competing species or changing abiotic and biotic conditions in their introduced range. River systems are especially vulnerable to biological invasions, because waterways can function as invasion corridors. Understanding

  6. Annotated list of marine alien species in the Mediterranean with records of the worst invasive species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. ZENETOS

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available This collaborative effort by many specialists across the Mediterranean presents an updated annotated list of alien marine species in the Mediterranean Sea. Alien species have been grouped into six broad categories namely established, casual, questionable, cryptogenic, excluded and invasive, and presented in lists of major ecofunctional/taxonomic groups. The establishment success within each group is provided while the questionable and excluded records are commented in brief. A total of 963 alien species have been reported from the Mediterranean until December 2005, 218 of which have been classified as excluded (23% leaving 745 of the recorded species as valid aliens. Of these 385 (52% are already well established, 262 (35% are casual records, while 98 species (13% remain “questionable” records. The species cited in this work belong mostly to zoobenthos and in particular to Mollusca and Crustacea, while Fish and Phytobenthos are the next two groups which prevail among alien biota in the Mediterranean. The available information depends greatly on the taxonomic group examined. Thus, besides the three groups explicitly addressed in the CIESM atlas series (Fish, Decapoda/Crustacea and Mollusca, which are however updated in the present work, Polychaeta, Phytobenthos, Phytoplankton and Zooplankton are also addressed in this study. Among other zoobenthic taxa sufficiently covered in this study are Echinodermata, Sipuncula, Bryozoa and Ascidiacea. On the contrary, taxa such as Foraminifera, Amphipoda and Isopoda, that are not well studied in the Mediterranean, are insufficiently covered. A gap of knowledge is also noticed in Parasites, which, although ubiquitous and pervasive in marine systems, have been relatively unexplored as to their role in marine invasions. Conclusively the lack of funding purely systematic studies in the region has led to underestimation of the number of aliens in the Mediterranean. Emphasis is put on those species that are

  7. Landscape corridors can increase invasion by an exotic species and reduce diversity of native species.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Resasco, Julian [University of Florida; et al,

    2014-04-01

    Abstract. Landscape corridors are commonly used to mitigate negative effects of habitat fragmentation, but concerns persist that they may facilitate the spread of invasive species. In a replicated landscape experiment of open habitat, we measured effects of corridors on the invasive fire ant, Solenopsis invicta, and native ants. Fire ants have two social forms: polygyne, which tend to disperse poorly but establish at high densities, and monogyne, which disperse widely but establish at lower densities. In landscapes dominated by polygyne fire ants, fire ant abundance was higher and native ant diversity was lower in habitat patches connected by corridors than in unconnected patches. Conversely, in landscapes dominated by monogyne fire ants, connectivity had no influence on fire ant abundance and native ant diversity. Polygyne fire ants dominated recently created landscapes, suggesting that these corridor effects may be transient. Our results suggest that corridors can facilitate invasion and they highlight the importance of considering species’ traits when assessing corridor utility.

  8. Modeling species invasions in Ecopath with Ecosim: an evaluation using Laurentian Great Lakes models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langseth, Brian J.; Rogers, Mark; Zhang, Hongyan

    2012-01-01

    Invasive species affect the structure and processes of ecosystems they invade. Invasive species have been particularly relevant to the Laurentian Great Lakes, where they have played a part in both historical and recent changes to Great Lakes food webs and the fisheries supported therein. There is increased interest in understanding the effects of ecosystem changes on fisheries within the Great Lakes, and ecosystem models provide an essential tool from which this understanding can take place. A commonly used model for exploring fisheries management questions within an ecosystem context is the Ecopath with Ecosim (EwE) modeling software. Incorporating invasive species into EwE models is a challenging process, and descriptions and comparisons of methods for modeling species invasions are lacking. We compared four methods for incorporating invasive species into EwE models for both Lake Huron and Lake Michigan based on the ability of each to reproduce patterns in observed data time series. The methods differed in whether invasive species biomass was forced in the model, the initial level of invasive species biomass at the beginning of time dynamic simulations, and the approach to cause invasive species biomass to increase at the time of invasion. The overall process of species invasion could be reproduced by all methods, but fits to observed time series varied among the methods and models considered. We recommend forcing invasive species biomass when model objectives are to understand ecosystem impacts in the past and when time series of invasive species biomass are available. Among methods where invasive species time series were not forced, mediating the strength of predator–prey interactions performed best for the Lake Huron model, but worse for the Lake Michigan model. Starting invasive species biomass at high values and then artificially removing biomass until the time of invasion performed well for both models, but was more complex than starting invasive species

  9. A review of operations research models in invasive species management: state of the art, challenges, and future directions

    Science.gov (United States)

    İ. Esra Büyüktahtakın; Robert G. Haight

    2017-01-01

    Invasive species are a major threat to the economy, the environment, health, and thus human well-being. The international community, including the United Nations' Global Invasive Species Program (GISP), National Invasive Species Council (NISC), and Center for Invasive Species Management (CISM), has called for a rapid control of invaders in order to minimize their...

  10. Toward a global information system for invasive species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricciardi, Anthony; Steiner, William W.M.; Mack, Richard N.; Simberloff, Daniel

    2000-01-01

    The growing frequency and impact of biological invasions worldwide threaten biodiversity, ecosystem functioning, resource availability, national economies, and human health (Ruesink et al. 1995, Simberloff 1996, Vitousek et al. 1997). Organisms are spreading into new regions at unprecedented rates. As a result, hundreds to thousands of nonindigenous species of invertebrates, vertebrates, plants, bacteria, and fungi have become established in all but the most remote areas of the planet (Vitousek et al. 1997). Recent examples are abundant and, in some cases, alarming. Cholera bacteria and toxic dinoflagellates have been discovered in the ballast waters of cargo ships (McCarthy and Khambaty 1994, Hallegraeff 1998). Asian tiger mosquitos—vectors of yellow fever and encephalitis—have spread to new continents in imported truck tires (Moore et al. 1988). Pasture and crop lands in Australia are being invaded by Parthenium, an aggressive Caribbean weed that causes severe allergic reactions in livestock and humans (Evans 1997). Rapid and widespread dieoffs of native freshwater mussels are occurring in the wake of the zebra mussel invasion in North America (Ricciardi et al. 1998). [[AQ4]Hardwood trees in American cities are being killed by Asian long-horned beetles introduced with wooden packing crates (Haack et al. 1997).

  11. Biological control of alien and invasive species in agriculture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calvitti, Maurizio; Moretti Riccardo; Lampazzi, Elena

    2015-01-01

    Agricultural production in Europe faces many challenges including limited availability of water, nitrogen input and fossil fuels. It is necessary, therefore, to identify methods of production and new technologies to increase the efficiency of the primary systems, guaranteeing amount of food, quality, safety and eco-sustainability . One of the most important aspects, though often undervalued in relation to the food chain, is the adversity of biological management of agricultural crops due to pests, pathogens or fitomizi with potential invasive already present in the territory or of recent origin alien. In this context, two main objectives should be implemented at the same time reduce production losses and protect the agro-ecosystem. To meet these expectations, as of January 1, 2015 all farms in the European Union countries are bound to the application of the Integrated Defense principles, as indicated by the Directive on the sustainable use of plant protection products (128/09 / EC) .In response to this and other new entomological emergencies plant health and medical-veterinary entomologist researchers of the Laboratory sustainable management of Agro-Ecosystems in ENEA, have directed their research towards the development of innovative systems for the sustainable control of invasive species of insects is in the agricultural sector that health. [it

  12. Distribution patterns of invasive alien species in Alabama, USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiongwen Chen

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Invasive alien species (IAS cause environmental and economical problems. How to effectively manage all IAS at a large area is a challenge.Hypotheses about IAS (such as the “human activity” hypothesis, the “biotic acceptance” and the “biotic resistance” have been proposedfrom numerous studies. Here the state of Alabama in USA, widely occupied by IAS, is used as a case study for characterizing the emergentpatterns of IAS. The results indicate that most IAS are located in metropolitan areas and in the Black Belt area which is a historical intensiveland use area. There are positive relationships between the richness of IAS and the change of human population, the species richness and thenumber of endangered species, as well as the total road length and farmland area across Alabama. This study partially supports the abovethree hypotheses and provides a general pattern of local IAS. Based on possible processes related with IAS, some implications forstrategically managing local IAS are discussed.

  13. Inferring invasive species abundance using removal data from management actions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Amy J.; Hooten, Mevin B.; Miller, Ryan S.; Farnsworth, Matthew L.; Lewis, Jesse S.; Moxcey, Michael; Pepin, Kim M.

    2016-01-01

    Evaluation of the progress of management programs for invasive species is crucial for demonstrating impacts to stakeholders and strategic planning of resource allocation. Estimates of abundance before and after management activities can serve as a useful metric of population management programs. However, many methods of estimating population size are too labor intensive and costly to implement, posing restrictive levels of burden on operational programs. Removal models are a reliable method for estimating abundance before and after management using data from the removal activities exclusively, thus requiring no work in addition to management. We developed a Bayesian hierarchical model to estimate abundance from removal data accounting for varying levels of effort, and used simulations to assess the conditions under which reliable population estimates are obtained. We applied this model to estimate site-specific abundance of an invasive species, feral swine (Sus scrofa), using removal data from aerial gunning in 59 site/time-frame combinations (480–19,600 acres) throughout Oklahoma and Texas, USA. Simulations showed that abundance estimates were generally accurate when effective removal rates (removal rate accounting for total effort) were above 0.40. However, when abundances were small (method, 78% of our site/time frame estimates were accurate. To use this modeling framework it is important to have multiple removals (more than three) within a time frame during which demographic changes are minimized (i.e., a closed population; ≤3 months for feral swine). Our results show that the probability of accurately estimating abundance from this model improves with increased sampling effort (8+ flight hours across the 3-month window is best) and increased removal rate. Based on the inverse relationship between inaccurate abundances and inaccurate removal rates, we suggest auxiliary information that could be collected and included in the model as covariates (e

  14. Herbicides: an unexpected ally for native plants in the war against invasive species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrea Watts; Tim Harrington; Dave Peter

    2015-01-01

    Herbicides are primarily used for protecting agricultural crops from weeds and controlling vegetation competition in newly planted forest stands. Yet for over 40 years, they have also proven useful in controlling invasive plant species in natural areas. Nonnative invasive plant species, if not controlled, can displace native species and disrupt an ecosystem by changing...

  15. Race to Displace: A Game to Model the Effects of Invasive Species on Plant Communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopwood, Jennifer L.; Flowers, Susan K.; Seidler, Katie J.; Hopwood, Erica L.

    2013-01-01

    Invasive species are a substantial threat to biodiversity. Educating students about invasive species introduces fundamental concepts in biology, ecology, and environmental science. In the Race to Displace game, students assume the characteristics of select native or introduced plants and experience first hand the influences of species interactions…

  16. Teaching Farmers and Commercial Pesticide Applicators about Invasive Species in Pesticide Training Workshops

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyatt, Gary J.; Herzfeld, Dean; Haugen-Brown, Tana

    2015-01-01

    Farmers and agricultural professionals who are aware of species likely to invade agricultural landscapes can be active participants in efforts to detect invasive species. To reach this audience we created a short invasive species program and added it to the existing and required pesticide applicator recertification workshops. We highlighted four…

  17. The role of the Forest Service in aquatic invasive species research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Susan B. Adams; Kelly M. Burnett; Peter Bisson; Bret Harvey; Keith H. Nislow; Bruce E. Rieman; John Rinne

    2010-01-01

    Aquatic ecosystems include the most imperiled taxa in the United States, and invasive species are the second leading contributor to this imperilment. The U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA), Forest Service is legally mandated to sustainably manage aquatic habitats and native species on National Forest System (NFS) lands. Invasive species add complexity and...

  18. The challenge of modelling and mapping the future distribution and impact of invasive alien species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert C. Venette

    2015-01-01

    Invasions from alien species can jeopardize the economic, environmental or social benefits derived from biological systems. Biosecurity measures seek to protect those systems from accidental or intentional introductions of species that might become injurious. Pest risk maps convey how the probability of invasion by an alien species or the potential consequences of that...

  19. Planting intensity, residence time, and species traits determine invasion success of alien woody species

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pyšek, Petr; Křivánek, Martin; Jarošík, Vojtěch

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 90, č. 10 (2009), s. 2734-2744 ISSN 0012-9658 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA206/05/0323; GA MŠk LC06073 Grant - others:Evropská komise(XE) GOCE-CT-2003-506675 ALARM Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60050516 Keywords : woody species * invasion * planting Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 4.411, year: 2009

  20. High-density native-range species affects the invasive plant Chromolaena odorata more strongly than species from its invasive range.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Yulong; Liao, Zhiyong

    2017-11-22

    Invasive plant species often form dense mono-dominant stands in areas they have invaded, while having only sparse distribution in their native ranges, and the reasons behind this phenomenon are a key point of research in invasive species biology. Differences in species composition between native and invasive ranges may contribute to the difference in distribution status. In this study, we found that the high-density condition had a more negative effect on C. odorata than the low-density condition when co-grown with neighbor plants from its native range in Mexico, while this pattern was not in evidence when it was grown with neighbors from its invasive range in China. Different competitive ability and coevolutionary history with C. odorata between native-range neighbors and invasive-range neighbors may lead to the inconsistent patterns.

  1. Research on the fundamental principles of China's marine invasive species prevention legislation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Jiayu

    2014-12-15

    China's coastal area is severely damaged by marine invasive species. Traditional tort theory resolves issues relevant to property damage or personal injuries, through which plaintiffs cannot cope with the ecological damage caused by marine invasive species. Several defects exist within the current legal regimes, such as imperfect management systems, insufficient unified technical standards, and unsound legal responsibility systems. It is necessary to pass legislation to prevent the ecological damage caused by marine invasive species. This investigation probes the fundamental principles needed for the administration and legislation of an improved legal framework to combat the problem of invasive species within China's coastal waters. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. The need for spatially explicit quantification of benefits in invasive-species management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Januchowski-Hartley, Stephanie R; Adams, Vanessa M; Hermoso, Virgilio

    2018-04-01

    Worldwide, invasive species are a leading driver of environmental change across terrestrial, marine, and freshwater environments and cost billions of dollars annually in ecological damages and economic losses. Resources limit invasive-species control, and planning processes are needed to identify cost-effective solutions. Thus, studies are increasingly considering spatially variable natural and socioeconomic assets (e.g., species persistence, recreational fishing) when planning the allocation of actions for invasive-species management. There is a need to improve understanding of how such assets are considered in invasive-species management. We reviewed over 1600 studies focused on management of invasive species, including flora and fauna. Eighty-four of these studies were included in our final analysis because they focused on the prioritization of actions for invasive species management. Forty-five percent (n = 38) of these studies were based on spatial optimization methods, and 35% (n = 13) accounted for spatially variable assets. Across all 84 optimization studies considered, 27% (n = 23) explicitly accounted for spatially variable assets. Based on our findings, we further explored the potential costs and benefits to invasive species management when spatially variable assets are explicitly considered or not. To include spatially variable assets in decision-making processes that guide invasive-species management there is a need to quantify environmental responses to invasive species and to enhance understanding of potential impacts of invasive species on different natural or socioeconomic assets. We suggest these gaps could be filled by systematic reviews, quantifying invasive species impacts on native species at different periods, and broadening sources and enhancing sharing of knowledge. © 2017 Society for Conservation Biology.

  3. Effects of macroalgal identity on epifaunal assemblages: native species versus the invasive species Sargassum muticum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gestoso, Ignacio; Olabarria, Celia; Troncoso, Jesús S.

    2012-06-01

    Seaweeds are a refuge from stressful conditions associated with life on rocky intertidal shores, and there is evidence that different macrophytes support different assemblages of mobile epifauna. Introduction of non-indigenous macroalgae may have a great impact on associated epifaunal assemblages and ecosystem processes in coastal areas. Previous studies have reported conflicting evidences for the ability of epifauna to colonize non-indigenous species. Here, we analyzed epifaunal assemblages associated with three species of macroalgae that are very abundant on intertidal shores along the Galician coast: the two native species Bifurcaria bifurcata and Saccorhiza polyschides and the invasive species Sargassum muticum. We collected samples of each species from three different sites at three different times to test whether variability of epifaunal assemblages was consistent over space and time. Epifaunal assemblages differed between the three macroalgae. Results suggested that stability and morphology of habitat played an important role in shaping the structure of epifaunal assemblages. This study also showed that the invasive S. muticum offered a suitable habitat for many invertebrates.

  4. Invasive species: Ocean ecosystem case studies for earth systems and environmental sciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schofield, Pam; Brown, Mary E.

    2016-01-01

    Marine species are increasingly transferred from areas where they are native to areas where they are not. Some nonnative species become invasive, causing undesirable impacts to environment, economy and/or human health. Nonnative marine species can be introduced through a variety of vectors, including shipping, trade, inland corridors (such as canals), and others. Effects of invasive marine species can be dramatic and irreversible. Case studies of four nonnative marine species are given (green crab, comb jelly, lionfish and Caulerpa algae).

  5. Public reaction to invasive plant species in a disturbed Colorado landscape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael T. Daab; Courtney G. Flint

    2010-01-01

    Invasive plant species degrade ecosystems in many ways. Controlling invasive plants is costly for government agencies, businesses, and individuals. North central Colorado is currently experiencing large-scale disturbance, and millions of acres are vulnerable to invasion because of natural and socioeconomic processes. Mountain pine beetles typically endemic to this...

  6. Aliens in Transylvania: risk maps of invasive alien plant species in Central Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heike Zimmermann

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Using the MAXENT algorithm, we developed risk maps for eight invasive plant species in southern Transylvania, Romania, a region undergoing drastic land-use changes. Our findings show that invasion risk increased with landscape heterogeneity. Roads and agricultural areas were most prone to invasion, whereas forests were least at risk.

  7. Housing is positively associated with invasive exotic plant species richness in New England, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregorio I. Gavier-Pizarro; Volker C. Radeloff; Susan I. Stewart; Cynthia D. Huebner; Nicholas S. Keuler

    2010-01-01

    Understanding the factors related to invasive exotic species distributions at broad spatial scales has important theoretical and management implications, because biological invasions are detrimental to many ecosystem functions and processes. Housing development facilitates invasions by disturbing land cover, introducing nonnative landscaping plants, and facilitating...

  8. Evolutionary responses of native plant species to invasive plants: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oduor, Ayub M O

    2013-12-01

    Strong competition from invasive plant species often leads to declines in abundances and may, in certain cases, cause localized extinctions of native plant species. Nevertheless, studies have shown that certain populations of native plant species can co-exist with invasive plant species,suggesting the possibility of adaptive evolutionary responses of those populations to the invasive plants. Empirical inference of evolutionary responses of the native plant species to invasive plants has involved experiments comparing two conspecific groups of native plants for differences in expression of growth/reproductive traits: populations that have experienced competition from the invasive plant species (i.e. experienced natives) versus populations with no known history of interactions with the invasive plant species (i.e. naıve natives). Here, I employ a meta-analysis to obtain a general pattern of inferred evolutionary responses of native plant species from 53 such studies. In general, the experienced natives had significantly higher growth/reproductive performances than naıve natives, when grown with or without competition from invasive plants.While the current results indicate that certain populations of native plant species could potentially adapt evolutionarily to invasive plant species, the ecological and evolutionary mechanisms that probably underlie such evolutionary responses remain unexplored and should be the focus of future studies.

  9. Species pool, human population, and global versus regional invasion patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qinfeng Guo; Basil V. Iannone III; Gabriela C. Nunez-Mir; Kevin M. Potter; Christopher M. Oswalt; Songlin Fei

    2017-01-01

    Context Biological invasions are among the greatest global and regional threats to biomes in the Anthropocene. Islands, in particular, have been perceived to have higher vulnerability to invasions. Because of the dynamic nature of ongoing invasions, distinguishing regional patterns from global patterns and their underlying determinants remains a challenge. Objectives...

  10. Invasive plant species and the Joint Fire Science Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heather E. Erickson; Rachel White

    2007-01-01

    Invasive nonnative plants may be responsible for serious, long-term ecological impacts, including altering fire behavior and fire regimes. Therefore, knowing how to successfully manage invasive plants and their impacts on natural resources is crucial. We present a summary of research on invasive plants and fire that has been generated through the Joint Fire Science...

  11. Running a network on a shoestring: the Global Invasive Species Information Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarnevich, Catherine S.; Simpson, Annie; Graham, James J; Newman, Gregory J.; Bargeron, Chuck T.

    2015-01-01

    The Global Invasive Species Information Network (GISIN) was conceptualized in 2004 to aggregate and disseminate invasive species data in a standardized way. A decade later the GISIN community has implemented a data portal and three of six GISIN data aggregation models in the GISIN data exchange Protocol, including invasive species status information, resource URLs, and occurrence data. The portal is based on a protocol developed by representatives from 15 countries and 27 organizations of the global invasive species information management community. The GISIN has 19 data providers sharing 34,343 species status records, 1,693,073 occurrences, and 15,601 resource URLs. While the GISIN's goal is to be global, much of its data and funding are provided by the United States. Several initiatives use the GISIN as their information backbone, such as the Great Lakes Early Detection Network (GLEDN) and the North American Invasive Species Network (NAISN). Here we share several success stories and organizational challenges that remain.

  12. A Source Area Approach Demonstrates Moderate Predictive Ability but Pronounced Variability of Invasive Species Traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klonner, Günther; Fischer, Stefan; Essl, Franz; Dullinger, Stefan

    2016-01-01

    The search for traits that make alien species invasive has mostly concentrated on comparing successful invaders and different comparison groups with respect to average trait values. By contrast, little attention has been paid to trait variability among invaders. Here, we combine an analysis of trait differences between invasive and non-invasive species with a comparison of multidimensional trait variability within these two species groups. We collected data on biological and distributional traits for 1402 species of the native, non-woody vascular plant flora of Austria. We then compared the subsets of species recorded and not recorded as invasive aliens anywhere in the world, respectively, first, with respect to the sampled traits using univariate and multiple regression models; and, second, with respect to their multidimensional trait diversity by calculating functional richness and dispersion metrics. Attributes related to competitiveness (strategy type, nitrogen indicator value), habitat use (agricultural and ruderal habitats, occurrence under the montane belt), and propagule pressure (frequency) were most closely associated with invasiveness. However, even the best multiple model, including interactions, only explained a moderate fraction of the differences in invasive success. In addition, multidimensional variability in trait space was even larger among invasive than among non-invasive species. This pronounced variability suggests that invasive success has a considerable idiosyncratic component and is probably highly context specific. We conclude that basing risk assessment protocols on species trait profiles will probably face hardly reducible uncertainties.

  13. A Source Area Approach Demonstrates Moderate Predictive Ability but Pronounced Variability of Invasive Species Traits.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Günther Klonner

    Full Text Available The search for traits that make alien species invasive has mostly concentrated on comparing successful invaders and different comparison groups with respect to average trait values. By contrast, little attention has been paid to trait variability among invaders. Here, we combine an analysis of trait differences between invasive and non-invasive species with a comparison of multidimensional trait variability within these two species groups. We collected data on biological and distributional traits for 1402 species of the native, non-woody vascular plant flora of Austria. We then compared the subsets of species recorded and not recorded as invasive aliens anywhere in the world, respectively, first, with respect to the sampled traits using univariate and multiple regression models; and, second, with respect to their multidimensional trait diversity by calculating functional richness and dispersion metrics. Attributes related to competitiveness (strategy type, nitrogen indicator value, habitat use (agricultural and ruderal habitats, occurrence under the montane belt, and propagule pressure (frequency were most closely associated with invasiveness. However, even the best multiple model, including interactions, only explained a moderate fraction of the differences in invasive success. In addition, multidimensional variability in trait space was even larger among invasive than among non-invasive species. This pronounced variability suggests that invasive success has a considerable idiosyncratic component and is probably highly context specific. We conclude that basing risk assessment protocols on species trait profiles will probably face hardly reducible uncertainties.

  14. Rapid assessment of the invasive status of eucalyptus species in two South African provinces

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Forsyth, GG

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Gum trees, or eucalypts (Eucalyptus species), have been targeted for invasive alien plant clearing programmes in many parts of South Africa. This has caused some dissatisfaction where the species concerned also have useful characteristics...

  15. The content of phenolics and tannins in native and invasive Solidago species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oksana Omelchuk

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with plant invasions in the Transcarpathian region of the Ukraine. Within Solidagogenus, one native (S. virgaurea and one invasive (S. canadensis species were studied by measuring contents of phenolics and tannins. The results support the enemy release hypothesis. Because the invasive species can save its energy by aborting the phenolics production, and use this energy for other processes like growth or reproduction.

  16. Range Expansion and Population Dynamics of an Invasive Species: The Eurasian Collared-Dove (Streptopelia decaocto)

    OpenAIRE

    Scheidt, Spencer N.; Hurlbert, Allen H.

    2014-01-01

    Invasive species offer ecologists the opportunity to study the factors governing species distributions and population growth. The Eurasian Collared-Dove (Streptopelia decaocto) serves as a model organism for invasive spread because of the wealth of abundance records and the recent development of the invasion. We tested whether a set of environmental variables were related to the carrying capacities and growth rates of individual populations by modeling the growth trajectories of individual po...

  17. Genetic structure of three invasive gobiid species along the Danube-Rhine invasion corridor: similar distributions, different histories

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Janáč, Michal; Bryja, Josef; Ondračková, Markéta; Mendel, Jan; Jurajda, Pavel

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 12, č. 4 (2017), s. 551-564 ISSN 1798-6540 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP505/11/1768; GA ČR(CZ) GBP505/12/G112 Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : invasive species * Gobiidae * mitochondrial DNA haplotypes * invasion genetics * microsatellites Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour OBOR OECD: Ecology Impact factor: 2.069, year: 2016

  18. Invasive species change detection using artificial neural networks and CASI hyperspectral imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    For monitoring and controlling the extent and intensity of an invasive species, a direct multi-date image classification method was applied in invasive species (saltcedar) change detection in the study area of Lovelock, Nevada. With multi-date Compact Airborne Spectrographic Imager (CASI) hyperspec...

  19. Determining a charge for the clearing of invasive alien plant species ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    South Africa is running out of water supply options. One option, however, is to control invasive alien plant species (IAPs) within water catchment areas and in riparian zones. The National Water Act and subsequent documentation provide a guide for the use of economic instruments to manage invasive alien plant species at ...

  20. A Hands-On Activity to Introduce the Effects of Transmission by an Invasive Species

    Science.gov (United States)

    May, Barbara Jean

    2013-01-01

    This activity engages students to better understand the impact of transmission by invasive species. Using dice, poker chips, and paper plates, an entire class mimics the spread of an invasive species within a geographic region. The activity can be modified and conducted at the K-16 levels.

  1. Teaching Citizen Science Skills Online: Implications for Invasive Species Training Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, Greg; Crall, Alycia; Laituri, Melinda; Graham, Jim; Stohlgren, Tom; Moore, John C.; Kodrich, Kris; Holfelder, Kirstin A.

    2010-01-01

    Citizen science programs are emerging as an efficient way to increase data collection and help monitor invasive species. Effective invasive species monitoring requires rigid data quality assurances if expensive control efforts are to be guided by volunteer data. To achieve data quality, effective online training is needed to improve field skills…

  2. The role of the Forest Service in the economics of invasive species research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeffrey P Prestemon; Thomas P. Holmes

    2010-01-01

    Invasive species increasingly influence various sectors of the economy through their effects on agricultural, forest, range, aquatic, and urban ecosystems. Policymakers evaluating the actual and potential effects of invasive species are concerned with allocating scarce taxpayer resources among a variety of competing governmental actions. To make allocation choices,...

  3. Invasive species and disturbances: Current and future roles of Forest Service Research and Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jim Slavicek; Allen M. Solomon

    2010-01-01

    The success of an invasive species is in large part due to favorable conditions resulting from the complex interactions among natural and anthropogenic factors such as native and nonnative pests, fires, droughts, hurricanes, wind storms, ice storms, climate warming, management practices, human travel, and trade. Reducing the negative effects of invasive species and...

  4. Exotic annual Bromus invasions: Comparisons among species and ecoregions in the western United States [Chapter 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthew L. Brooks; Cynthia S. Brown; Jeanne C. Chambers; Carla M. D' Antonio; Jon E. Keeley; Jayne Belnap

    2016-01-01

    Exotic annual Bromus species are widely recognized for their potential to invade, dominate, and alter the structure and function of ecosystems. In this chapter, we summarize the invasion potential, ecosystem threats, and management strategies for different Bromus species within each of five ecoregions of the western United States. We characterize invasion...

  5. Expansion of invasive species on ombrotrophic bogs: desiccation or high N deposition?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tomassen, H.B.M.; Smolders, A.J.P.; Limpens, J.; Lamers, L.P.M.; Roelofs, J.G.M.

    2004-01-01

    1. In many ombrotrophic bog areas the invasion of grass (e.g. Molinia caerulea) and tree (e.g. Betula pubescens) species has become a major problem. We investigated whether the invasion of such species is due to high atmospheric nitrogen (N) deposition by conducting a fertilization experiment. 2.

  6. There is no silver bullet: the value of diversification in planning invasive species surveillance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denys Yemshanov; Frank H. Koch; Bo Lu; D. Barry Lyons; Jeffrey P. Prestemon; Taylor Scarr; Klaus Koehler

    2014-01-01

    In this study we demonstrate how the notion of diversification can be used in broad-scale resource allocation for surveillance of invasive species. We consider the problem of short-term surveillance for an invasive species in a geographical environment.Wefind the optimal allocation of surveillance resourcesamongmultiple geographical subdivisions via application of a...

  7. Phenotypic plasticity and population differentiation in an ongoing species invasion.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Matesanz

    Full Text Available The ability to succeed in diverse conditions is a key factor allowing introduced species to successfully invade and spread across new areas. Two non-exclusive factors have been suggested to promote this ability: adaptive phenotypic plasticity of individuals, and the evolution of locally adapted populations in the new range. We investigated these individual and population-level factors in Polygonum cespitosum, an Asian annual that has recently become invasive in northeastern North America. We characterized individual fitness, life-history, and functional plasticity in response to two contrasting glasshouse habitat treatments (full sun/dry soil and understory shade/moist soil in 165 genotypes sampled from nine geographically separate populations representing the range of light and soil moisture conditions the species inhabits in this region. Polygonum cespitosum genotypes from these introduced-range populations expressed broadly similar plasticity patterns. In response to full sun, dry conditions, genotypes from all populations increased photosynthetic rate, water use efficiency, and allocation to root tissues, dramatically increasing reproductive fitness compared to phenotypes expressed in simulated understory shade. Although there were subtle among-population differences in mean trait values as well as in the slope of plastic responses, these population differences did not reflect local adaptation to environmental conditions measured at the population sites of origin. Instead, certain populations expressed higher fitness in both glasshouse habitat treatments. We also compared the introduced-range populations to a single population from the native Asian range, and found that the native population had delayed phenology, limited functional plasticity, and lower fitness in both experimental environments compared with the introduced-range populations. Our results indicate that the future spread of P. cespitosum in its introduced range will likely be

  8. Low genetic diversity despite multiple introductions of the invasive plant species Impatiens glandulifera in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagenblad, Jenny; Hülskötter, Jennifer; Acharya, Kamal Prasad; Brunet, Jörg; Chabrerie, Olivier; Cousins, Sara A O; Dar, Pervaiz A; Diekmann, Martin; De Frenne, Pieter; Hermy, Martin; Jamoneau, Aurélien; Kolb, Annette; Lemke, Isgard; Plue, Jan; Reshi, Zafar A; Graae, Bente Jessen

    2015-08-20

    Invasive species can be a major threat to native biodiversity and the number of invasive plant species is increasing across the globe. Population genetic studies of invasive species can provide key insights into their invasion history and ensuing evolution, but also for their control. Here we genetically characterise populations of Impatiens glandulifera, an invasive plant in Europe that can have a major impact on native plant communities. We compared populations from the species' native range in Kashmir, India, to those in its invaded range, along a latitudinal gradient in Europe. For comparison, the results from 39 other studies of genetic diversity in invasive species were collated. Our results suggest that I. glandulifera was established in the wild in Europe at least twice, from an area outside of our Kashmir study area. Our results further revealed that the genetic diversity in invasive populations of I. glandulifera is unusually low compared to native populations, in particular when compared to other invasive species. Genetic drift rather than mutation seems to have played a role in differentiating populations in Europe. We find evidence of limitations to local gene flow after introduction to Europe, but somewhat less restrictions in the native range. I. glandulifera populations with significant inbreeding were only found in the species' native range and invasive species in general showed no increase in inbreeding upon leaving their native ranges. In Europe we detect cases of migration between distantly located populations. Human activities therefore seem to, at least partially, have facilitated not only introductions, but also further spread of I. glandulifera across Europe. Although multiple introductions will facilitate the retention of genetic diversity in invasive ranges, widespread invasive species can remain genetically relatively invariant also after multiple introductions. Phenotypic plasticity may therefore be an important component of the

  9. Invasive species in the flora of the Starobilsk grass-meadow steppe (Ukraine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kucher Oksana O.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The results of an investigation of the invasive species in the flora of the Starobilsk grass-meadow steppe are presented. Check-list of alien plant has over 386 species of vascular plants of which 28 species are invasive. We have identified 6 transformer species from the invasive plants. We aggregate data on the entry, distribution history, ecology, occurrence in different plant communities, degree of their naturalization and the habitats where they occur. The leading families of invasive species are: Asteraceae. The basis for this group is presented by origin from the North America and the Mediterranean. With respect to the time of immigration, most of them are kenophytes. By the method of introduction, ksenophytes are dominated; according to the degree of naturalization epoecophytes and agriophytes dominate in this group. With regard to the characteristics of life forms, half of invasive species are terophytes. The vast majority of plants are heliophytes and xeromesophytes. Most species are found in biotopes group I: Cultivated agricultural biotopes; least of all species found in biotopes group F: Biotopes dominated by chamephytes and nanophanerophytes. Only 3 species found in biotopes group F: Biotopes dominated by chamephytesand nanophanerophytes. The maps of distribution of 28 invasive species are provided. Most of the species marked dispersed in more than 30 squares.

  10. Economic impacts of invasive species in forest past, present, and future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas P. Holmes; Juliann E. Aukema; Betsy Von Holle; Andrew Liebhold; Erin Sills

    2009-01-01

    Biological invasions by nonnative species are a by-product of economic activities, with the vast majority of nonnative species introduced by trade and transport of products and people. Although most introduced species are relatively innocuous, a few species ultimately cause irreversible economic and ecological impacts, such as the chestnut blight that functionally...

  11. Competition for shelter between four invasive gobiids and two native benthic fish species

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Kessel, N.; Dorenbosch, M.; De Boer, M.R.M.; Leuven, R.S.E.W.; Van der Velde, G.

    2011-01-01

    Recent invasions by non-native gobiid fish species that are ongoing in the Western European rivers Rhine and Meuse, will lead to interactions with native benthic fish species. Since both non-native gobiids and native benthic species are bottom dwelling species with a preference for shelter during at

  12. Interaction of species traits and environmental disturbance predicts invasion success of aquatic microorganisms.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elvira Mächler

    Full Text Available Factors such as increased mobility of humans, global trade and climate change are affecting the range of many species, and cause large-scale translocations of species beyond their native range. Many introduced species have a strong negative influence on the new local environment and lead to high economic costs. There is a strong interest to understand why some species are successful in invading new environments and others not. Most of our understanding and generalizations thereof, however, are based on studies of plants and animals, and little is known on invasion processes of microorganisms. We conducted a microcosm experiment to understand factors promoting the success of biological invasions of aquatic microorganisms. In a controlled lab experiment, protist and rotifer species originally isolated in North America invaded into a natural, field-collected community of microorganisms of European origin. To identify the importance of environmental disturbances on invasion success, we either repeatedly disturbed the local patches, or kept them as undisturbed controls. We measured both short-term establishment and long-term invasion success, and correlated it with species-specific life-history traits. We found that environmental disturbances significantly affected invasion success. Depending on the invading species' identity, disturbances were either promoting or decreasing invasion success. The interaction between habitat disturbance and species identity was especially pronounced for long-term invasion success. Growth rate was the most important trait promoting invasion success, especially when the species invaded into a disturbed local community. We conclude that neither species traits nor environmental factors alone conclusively predict invasion success, but an integration of both of them is necessary.

  13. Temperature tolerance and stress proteins as mechanisms of invasive species success.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robyn A Zerebecki

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Invasive species are predicted to be more successful than natives as temperatures increase with climate change. However, few studies have examined the physiological mechanisms that theoretically underlie this differential success. Because correlative evidence suggests that invasiveness is related to the width of a species' latitudinal range, it has been assumed--but largely untested--that range width predicts breadth of habitat temperatures and physiological thermotolerances. In this study, we use empirical data from a marine community as a case study to address the hypotheses that (1 geographic temperature range attributes are related to temperature tolerance, leading to greater eurythermality in invasive species, and (2 stress protein expression is a subcellular mechanism that could contribute to differences in thermotolerance. We examined three native and six invasive species common in the subtidal epibenthic communities of California, USA. We assessed thermotolerance by exposing individuals to temperatures between 14°C and 31°C and determining the temperature lethal to 50% of individuals (LT(50 after a 24 hour exposure. We found a strong positive relationship between the LT(50 and both maximum habitat temperatures and the breadth of temperatures experience across the species' ranges. In addition, of the species in our study, invasives tended to inhabit broader habitat temperature ranges and higher maximum temperatures. Stress protein expression may contribute to these differences: the more thermotolerant, invasive species Diplosoma listerianum expressed higher levels of a 70-kDa heat-shock protein than the less thermotolerant, native Distaplia occidentalis for which levels declined sharply above the LT(50. Our data highlight differences between native and invasive species with respect to organismal and cellular temperature tolerances. Future studies should address, across a broader phylogenetic and ecosystem scope, whether this

  14. Impacts of invasive plants on carbon pools depend on both species' traits and local climate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Philip A; Newton, Adrian C; Bullock, James M

    2017-04-01

    Invasive plants can alter ecosystem properties, leading to changes in the ecosystem services on which humans depend. However, generalizing about these effects is difficult because invasive plants represent a wide range of life forms, and invaded ecosystems differ in their plant communities and abiotic conditions. We hypothesize that differences in traits between the invader and native species can be used to predict impacts and so aid generalization. We further hypothesize that environmental conditions at invaded sites modify the effect of trait differences and so combine with traits to predict invasion impacts. To test these hypotheses, we used systematic review to compile data on changes in aboveground and soil carbon pools following non-native plant invasion from studies across the World. Maximum potential height (H max ) of each species was drawn from trait databases and other sources. We used meta-regression to assess which of invasive species' H max , differences in this height trait between native and invasive plants, and climatic water deficit, a measure of water stress, were good predictors of changes in carbon pools following invasion. We found that aboveground biomass in invaded ecosystems relative to uninvaded ones increased as the value of H max of invasive relative to native species increased, but that this effect was reduced in more water stressed ecosystems. Changes in soil carbon pools were also positively correlated with the relative H max of invasive species, but were not altered by water stress. This study is one of the first to show quantitatively that the impact of invasive species on an ecosystem may depend on differences in invasive and native species' traits, rather than solely the traits of invasive species. Our study is also the first to show that the influence of trait differences can be altered by climate. Further developing our understanding of the impacts of invasive species using this framework could help researchers to identify not

  15. Mutualism between co-introduced species facilitates invasion and alters plant community structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prior, Kirsten M.; Robinson, Jennifer M.; Meadley Dunphy, Shannon A.; Frederickson, Megan E.

    2015-01-01

    Generalized mutualisms are often predicted to be resilient to changes in partner identity. Variation in mutualism-related traits between native and invasive species however, can exacerbate the spread of invasive species (‘invasional meltdown’) if invasive partners strongly interact. Here we show how invasion by a seed-dispersing ant (Myrmica rubra) promotes recruitment of a co-introduced invasive over native ant-dispersed (myrmecochorous) plants. We created experimental communities of invasive (M. rubra) or native ants (Aphaenogaster rudis) and invasive and native plants and measured seed dispersal and plant recruitment. In our mesocosms, and in laboratory and field trials, M. rubra acted as a superior seed disperser relative to the native ant. By contrast, previous studies have found that invasive ants are often poor seed dispersers compared with native ants. Despite belonging to the same behavioural guild, seed-dispersing ants were not functionally redundant. Instead, native and invasive ants had strongly divergent effects on plant communities: the invasive plant dominated in the presence of the invasive ant and the native plants dominated in the presence of the native ant. Community changes were not due to preferences for coevolved partners: variation in functional traits of linked partners drove differences. Here, we show that strongly interacting introduced mutualists can be major drivers of ecological change. PMID:25540283

  16. Differential Allocation to Photosynthetic and Non-Photosynthetic Nitrogen Fractions among Native and Invasive Species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Funk, Jennifer L.; Glenwinkel, Lori A.; Sack, Lawren

    2013-01-01

    Invasive species are expected to cluster on the “high-return” end of the leaf economic spectrum, displaying leaf traits consistent with higher carbon assimilation relative to native species. Intra-leaf nitrogen (N) allocation should support these physiological differences; however, N biochemistry has not been examined in more than a few invasive species. We measured 34 leaf traits including seven leaf N pools for five native and five invasive species from Hawaii under low irradiance to mimic the forest understory environment. We found several trait differences between native and invasive species. In particular, invasive species showed preferential N allocation to metabolism (amino acids) rather than photosynthetic light reactions (membrane-bound protein) by comparison with native species. The soluble protein concentration did not vary between groups. Under these low irradiance conditions, native species had higher light-saturated photosynthetic rates, possibly as a consequence of a greater investment in membrane-bound protein. Invasive species may succeed by employing a wide range of N allocation mechanisms, including higher amino acid production for fast growth under high irradiance or storage of N in leaves as soluble protein or amino acids. PMID:23700483

  17. Citizen Science and Open Data: a Model for Invasive Alien Plant Species in Kenya's Northern Rangelands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amirazodi, S.; Griffin, R.; Flores Cordova, A. I.; Ouko, E.; Omondi, S.; Mugo, R. M.; Farah, H.; Flores Cordova, A. I.; Adams, E. C.

    2017-12-01

    Invasive species in African savannas pose great threat to the native biodiversity and changes ecosystem functioning. In the forest sector, for instance Acacia species are important sources of fuel-wood, yet at the same time they have increased strain on water resources and shrunken forage spaces for both livestock and wildlife. In recently infested regions, invasive species can progress through the stages of introduction, establishment and dispersal to a full range. Currently there is much worldwide interest in predicting distributions of invasive species, and several organizations are faced with questions of whether and how to tackle such environmental challenges, or how to interpret predictions from the science community. Conservation practioners require mapped estimates of where species could persist in a given region, and this is associated to information about the biotope - i.e. the geographic location of the species' niche. The process of collecting species distribution data for identifying the potential distribution of the invasive species in the invaded ranges has become a challenge both in terms of resource and time allocation. This study highlights innovative approaches in crowdsourcing validation data in mapping and modelling invasive species (Acacia reficiens and Cactus) through involvement of the local communities. The general approach was to model the distribution of A. reficiens and Cactus (Opuntia Spp) using occurrence records from native range, then project the model into new regions to assess susceptibility to invasion using climatic and topographic environmental variables. The models performed better than random prediction (P 0.75.

  18. Is invasion history a useful tool for predicting the impacts of the world's worst aquatic invasive species?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulhanek, Stefanie A; Ricciardi, Anthony; Leung, Brian

    2011-01-01

    The ecological impact stemming from a biological invasion is the most poorly understood aspect of the invasion process. While forecasting methods are generally lacking, a potential means of predicting future impacts is to examine the effects caused by a nonindigenous species (NIS) at previously invaded locations, i.e., its invasion history. However, given the context dependence of impact and the scarcity of data, it is uncertain whether invasion history can in fact be used to forecast the effects of most introduced species. Using a sample of 19 aquatic NIS listed with the IUCN's 100 World's Worst Alien Invasive Species, we reviewed the literature to determine (1) the amount of information currently available concerning their ecological impacts, (2) if the effects reported to be caused by each NIS are consistent across multiple studies, and (3) whether their invasion histories provide sufficient quantitative information to assess and forecast the severity of their impacts on recipient environments. As a case study, we conducted a meta-analysis and developed models that relate the severity of the impacts of a well-documented invader, common carp (Cyprinus carpio), to two potential predictor variables: biomass and time since introduction. We then tested whether models developed from one set of observations can predict the severity of impacts reported at other sites. Models incorporating biomass and pre-impact conditions explained 91% of the variation in carp impact severity at new locations (i.e., those not used to build the models). For most other NIS, limited availability of comparable quantitative data currently prevents the development of similar empirical models for predicting the severity of future impact. Nonetheless, invasion history can often be used to develop informative predictions concerning the type and direction of impacts to be expected at novel recipient sites.

  19. Investigating the genetic load of an emblematic invasive species: the case of the invasive harlequin ladybird Harmonia axyridis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tayeh, A; Estoup, A; Hufbauer, R A; Ravigne, V; Goryacheva, I; Zakharov, I A; Lombaert, E; Facon, B

    2013-04-01

    Introduction events can lead to admixture between genetically differentiated populations and bottlenecks in population size. These processes can alter the adaptive potential of invasive species by shaping genetic variation, but more importantly, they can also directly affect mean population fitness either increasing it or decreasing it. Which outcome is observed depends on the structure of the genetic load of the species. The ladybird Harmonia axyridis is a good example of invasive species where introduced populations have gone through admixture and bottleneck events. We used laboratory experiments to manipulate the relatedness among H. axyridis parental individuals to assess the possibility for heterosis or outbreeding depression in F1 generation offspring for two traits related to fitness (lifetime performance and generation time). We found that inter-populations crosses had no major impact on the lifetime performance of the offspring produced by individuals from either native or invasive populations. Significant outbreeding depression was observed only for crosses between native populations for generation time. The absence of observed heterosis is indicative of a low occurrence of fixed deleterious mutations within both the native and invasive populations of H. axyridis. The observed deterioration of fitness in native inter-population crosses most likely results from genetic incompatibilities between native genomic backgrounds. We discuss the implications of these results for the structure of genetic load in H. axyridis in the light of the available information regarding the introduction history of this species.

  20. The widespread collapse of an invasive species: Argentine ants (Linepithema humile) in New Zealand

    OpenAIRE

    Cooling, Meghan; Hartley, Stephen; Sim, Dalice A.; Lester, Philip J.

    2011-01-01

    Synergies between invasive species and climate change are widely considered to be a major biodiversity threat. However, invasive species are also hypothesized to be susceptible to population collapse, as we demonstrate for a globally important invasive species in New Zealand. We observed Argentine ant populations to have collapsed in 40 per cent of surveyed sites. Populations had a mean survival time of 14.1 years (95% CI = 12.9–15.3 years). Resident ant communities had recovered or partly re...

  1. Ecology and space: A case study in mapping harmful invasive species

    Science.gov (United States)

    David T. Barnett,; Jarnevich, Catherine S.; Chong, Geneva W.; Stohlgren, Thomas J.; Sunil Kumar,; Holcombe, Tracy R.; Brunn, Stanley D.; Dodge, Martin

    2017-01-01

    The establishment and invasion of non-native plant species have the ability to alter the composition of native species and functioning of ecological systems with financial costs resulting from mitigation and loss of ecological services. Spatially documenting invasions has applications for management and theory, but the utility of maps is challenged by availability and uncertainty of data, and the reliability of extrapolating mapped data in time and space. The extent and resolution of projections also impact the ability to inform invasive species science and management. Early invasive species maps were coarse-grained representations that underscored the phenomena, but had limited capacity to direct management aside from development of watch lists for priorities for prevention and containment. Integrating mapped data sets with fine-resolution environmental variables in the context of species-distribution models allows a description of species-environment relationships and an understanding of how, why, and where invasions may occur. As with maps, the extent and resolution of models impact the resulting insight. Models of cheatgrass (Bromus tectorum) across a variety of spatial scales and grain result in divergent species-environment relationships. New data can improve models and efficiently direct further inventories. Mapping can target areas of greater model uncertainty or the bounds of modeled distribution to efficiently refine models and maps. This iterative process results in dynamic, living maps capable of describing the ongoing process of species invasions.

  2. Pre-adaptation or genetic shift after introduction in the invasive species Impatiens glandulifera?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elst, Evelyne M.; Acharya, Kamal P.; Dar, Pervaiz A.; Reshi, Zafar A.; Tufto, Jarle; Nijs, Ivan; Graae, Bente J.

    2016-01-01

    Invasive exotic plants often grow fast, reproduce rapidly and display considerable phenotypic plasticity in their invasive range, which may be essential characteristics for successful invasion. However, it remains unclear whether these characteristics are already present in native populations (pre-adaptation hypothesis) or evolve after introduction (genetic shift hypothesis). To test these hypotheses we compared means and phenotypic plasticity of vegetative and reproductive traits between populations of Impatiens glandulifera collected from either the invasive (Norway) or native range (India). Seeds were sown and the resulting plants were exposed to different experimental environments in a glasshouse. We also tested whether trait means and reaction norms harbored genetic variation, as this may promote fitness in the novel environment. We did not find evidence that invasive populations of I. glandulifera grew more vigorously or produced more seeds than native populations. Phenotypic plasticity did not differ between the native and invasive range, except for the number of nodes which was more plastic in the invasive range. Genetic variation in the slope of reaction norms was absent, suggesting that the lack of change in phenotypic plasticity between native and invasive populations resulted from low genetic variation in phenotypic plasticity initially harbored by this species. Post-introduction evolution of traits thus probably did not boost the invasiveness of I. glandulifera. Instead, the species seems to be pre-adapted for invasion. We suggest that differences in habitat between the native and invasive range, more specifically the higher nutrient availability observed in the new environment, are the main factor driving the invasion of this species. Indeed, plants in the more nutrient-rich invasive range had greater seed mass, likely conferring a competitive advantage, while seed mass also responded strongly to nutrients in the glasshouse. Interactions between

  3. Can transgenerational plasticity contribute to the invasion success of annual plant species?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fenesi, Annamária; Dyer, Andrew R; Geréd, Júliánna; Sándor, Dorottya; Ruprecht, Eszter

    2014-09-01

    Adaptive transgenerational plasticity (TGP), i.e., significantly higher fitness when maternal and offspring conditions match, might contribute to the population growth of non-native species in highly variable environments. However, comparative studies that directly test this hypothesis are lacking. Therefore, we performed a reciprocal split-brood experiment to compare TGP in response to N and water availability in single populations of two invasive (Amaranthus retroflexus, Galinsoga parviflora) and two congeneric non-invasive introduced species (Amaranthus albus, Galinsoga ciliata). We hypothesized that the transgenerational effect is adaptive: (1) in invasive species compared with non-invasive adventives, and (2) in stressful conditions compared with resource-rich environments. The phenotypic variation among offspring was generated, in large part, by our experimental treatments in the maternal generation; therefore, we demonstrated a direct TGP effect on the offspring's adult fitness. We found evidence, for the first time, that invasive and non-invasive adventive species differ regarding the expression of TGP in the adult stage, as adaptive responses were found exclusively in the invasive species. The manifestation of TGP was more explicit under resource-rich conditions; therefore, it might contribute to the population dynamics of non-native species in resource-rich sites rather than to their ecological tolerance spectra.

  4. The control of invasive species on private property with neighbor-to-neighbor spillovers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fenichel, Eli P; Richards, Timothy J; Shanafelt, David W

    2014-10-01

    Invasive pests cross property boundaries. Property managers may have private incentives to control invasive species despite not having sufficient incentive to fully internalize the external costs of their role in spreading the invasion. Each property manager has a right to future use of his own property, but his property may abut others' properties enabling spread of an invasive species. The incentives for a foresighted property manager to control invasive species have received little attention. We consider the efforts of a foresighted property manager who has rights to future use of a property and has the ability to engage in repeated, discrete control activities. We find that higher rates of dispersal, associated with proximity to neighboring properties, reduce the private incentives for control. Controlling species at one location provides incentives to control at a neighboring location. Control at neighboring locations are strategic complements and coupled with spatial heterogeneity lead to a weaker-link public good problem, in which each property owner is unable to fully appropriate the benefits of his own control activity. Future-use rights and private costs suggest that there is scope for a series of Coase-like exchanges to internalize much of the costs associated with species invasion. Pigouvian taxes on invasive species potentially have qualitatively perverse behavioral effects. A tax with a strong income effect (e.g, failure of effective revenue recycling) can reduce the value of property assets and diminish the incentive to manage insects on one's own property.

  5. Trait differences between naturalized and invasive plant species independent of residence time and phylogeny.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallagher, R V; Randall, R P; Leishman, M R

    2015-04-01

    The ability to predict which alien plants will transition from naturalized to invasive prior to their introduction to novel regions is a key goal for conservation and has the potential to increase the efficacy of weed risk assessment (WRA). However, multiple factors contribute to plant invasion success (e.g., functional traits, range characteristics, residence time, phylogeny), and they all must be taken into account simultaneously in order to identify meaningful correlates of invasion success. We compiled 146 pairs of phylogenetically paired (congeneric) naturalized and invasive plant species in Australia with similar minimum residence times (i.e., time since introduction in years). These pairs were used to test for differences in 5 functional traits (flowering duration, leaf size, maximum height, specific leaf area [SLA], seed mass) and 3 characteristics of species' native ranges (biome occupancy, mean annual temperature, and rainfall breadth) between naturalized and invasive species. Invasive species, on average, had larger SLA, longer flowering periods, and were taller than their congeneric naturalized relatives. Invaders also exhibited greater tolerance for different environmental conditions in the native range, where they occupied more biomes and a wider breadth of rainfall and temperature conditions than naturalized congeners. However, neither seed mass nor leaf size differed between pairs of naturalized and invasive species. A key finding was the role of SLA in distinguishing between naturalized and invasive pairs. Species with high SLA values were typically associated with faster growth rates, more rapid turnover of leaf material, and shorter lifespans than those species with low SLA. This suite of characteristics may contribute to the ability of a species to transition from naturalized to invasive across a wide range of environmental contexts and disturbance regimes. Our findings will help in the refinement of WRA protocols, and we advocate the inclusion

  6. Protected areas offer refuge from invasive species spreading under climate change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallardo, Belinda; Aldridge, David C; González-Moreno, Pablo; Pergl, Jan; Pizarro, Manuel; Pyšek, Petr; Thuiller, Wilfried; Yesson, Christopher; Vilà, Montserrat

    2017-12-01

    Protected areas (PAs) are intended to provide native biodiversity and habitats with a refuge against the impacts of global change, particularly acting as natural filters against biological invasions. In practice, however, it is unknown how effective PAs will be in shielding native species from invasions under projected climate change. Here, we investigate the current and future potential distributions of 100 of the most invasive terrestrial, freshwater, and marine species in Europe. We use this information to evaluate the combined threat posed by climate change and invasions to existing PAs and the most susceptible species they shelter. We found that only a quarter of Europe's marine and terrestrial areas protected over the last 100 years have been colonized by any of the invaders investigated, despite offering climatically suitable conditions for invasion. In addition, hotspots of invasive species and the most susceptible native species to their establishment do not match at large continental scales. Furthermore, the predicted richness of invaders is 11%-18% significantly lower inside PAs than outside them. Invasive species are rare in long-established national parks and nature reserves, which are actively protected and often located in remote and pristine regions with very low human density. In contrast, the richness of invasive species is high in the more recently designated Natura 2000 sites, which are subject to high human accessibility. This situation may change in the future, since our models anticipate important shifts in species ranges toward the north and east of Europe at unprecedented rates of 14-55 km/decade, depending on taxonomic group and scenario. This may seriously compromise the conservation of biodiversity and ecosystem services. This study is the first comprehensive assessment of the resistance that PAs provide against biological invasions and climate change on a continental scale and illustrates their strategic value in safeguarding native

  7. Predicting the presence and cover of management relevant invasive plant species on protected areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iacona, Gwenllian; Price, Franklin D; Armsworth, Paul R

    2016-01-15

    Invasive species are a management concern on protected areas worldwide. Conservation managers need to predict infestations of invasive plants they aim to treat if they want to plan for long term management. Many studies predict the presence of invasive species, but predictions of cover are more relevant for management. Here we examined how predictors of invasive plant presence and cover differ across species that vary in their management priority. To do so, we used data on management effort and cover of invasive plant species on central Florida protected areas. Using a zero-inflated multiple regression framework, we showed that protected area features can predict the presence and cover of the focal species but the same features rarely explain both. There were several predictors of either presence or cover that were important across multiple species. Protected areas with three days of frost per year or fewer were more likely to have occurrences of four of the six focal species. When invasive plants were present, their proportional cover was greater on small preserves for all species, and varied with surrounding household density for three species. None of the predictive features were clearly related to whether species were prioritized for management or not. Our results suggest that predictors of cover and presence can differ both within and across species but do not covary with management priority. We conclude that conservation managers need to select predictors of invasion with care as species identity can determine the relationship between predictors of presence and the more management relevant predictors of cover. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Introduced and invasive insect species in the Czech Republic and their economic and ecological impact (Insecta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hana Šefrová

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available A total of 383 alien insect species were registered in the Czech Republic, which represents 1.4% of local fauna. The most numerous taxonomic groups are Homoptera (116 species, 30.3%, Coleoptera (110; 28.7% and Lepidoptera (37; 9.7%. The occurrence of 200 species (52.2% are limited to closed heated spaces, casual aliens (28; 7.3% infiltrate the outdoor environment for a short term only, 36 (9.4% naturalized non-invasive species do not spread from the location of introduction, 50 (13.1% species are post-invasive and 69 (18.0% invasive. From the species registered, 61 (15.9% are stored product pests (especially Coleoptera 36 species, Psocoptera 11, and Lepidoptera 9, 50 (13.1% are plant pests indoors (especially Coccinea 33 species, Aphidinea 7, and Thysanoptera 6, 25 (i.e. 6.5% of aliens are pests in agriculture, forestry, and in ornamental cultures, 15 species (3.9% are important animal parasites, and 5 species (1.3% can affect biodiversity. Of the remaining 227 species (59.3%, no economic or ecological effects were found. The origin of most of the species living eusynanthropically is in the tropics and subtropics; of the 155 naturalized (non-invasive, post-invasive, and invasive species, 42 (27.1% originate from the Mediterranean, 36 (23.2% from North America, 28 (18.1% from Central to Southwest Asia, 14 (9.0% from East Asia, 13 (8.4% from South and Southeast Asia, with the remaining 22 species (14.2% coming from other areas.

  9. Reproductive characteristics of neophytes in the Czech Republic: traits of invasive and non-invasive species

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Moravcová, Lenka; Pyšek, Petr; Jarošík, Vojtěch; Havlíčková, Vendula; Zákravský, Petr

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 82, č. 4 (2010), s. 365-390 ISSN 0032-7786 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LC06073; GA ČR GA206/09/0563; GA ČR GA206/05/0323 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60050516 Keywords : plant invasions * reproductive traits * invasiveness Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 2.792, year: 2010

  10. Invasive plant species in lawns of Belgrade roads | Stavretović ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this paper the presence of invasive and potentially invasive plant species in lawns of roads in Belgrade, the capital city of the Republic of Serbia was analysed. The following lawn categories were selected for the purpose of analysis: the lawns of traffic roundabouts, the lane-dividing lawns, the lawns around roads and ...

  11. Exotic and invasive terrestrial and freshwater animal species in the Dutch Caribbean

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buurt, van G.; Debrot, A.O.

    2011-01-01

    An overview of 72 invasive animals of the terrestrial and freshwater environments of the Dutch Caribbean, eleven of which are no longer present. All invasive animals that are principally agricultural pests and or animal and plant diseases (46 species) are excluded as these are discussed separately

  12. Invasive species: The categorization of wildlife in science, policy, and wildlife management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boonman-Berson, S.H.; Turnhout, E.; Tatenhove, van J.P.M.

    2014-01-01

    Species categories commonly used in nature conservation, such as protected, endangered, reintroduced,or invasive, are open to various interpretations that can result in diverging and sometimes serious con-sequences. This is vividly apparent with respect to invasiveness because the categorization of

  13. Effect of the internet commerce on dispersal modes of invasive alien species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenda, Magdalena; Skórka, Piotr; Knops, Johannes M H; Moroń, Dawid; Sutherland, William J; Kuszewska, Karolina; Woyciechowski, Michał

    2014-01-01

    The spread of invasive alien plants has considerable environmental and economic consequences, and is one of the most challenging ecological problems. The spread of invasive alien plant species depends largely on long-distance dispersal, which is typically linked with human activity. The increasing domination of the internet will have impacts upon almost all components of our lives, including potential consequences for the spread of invasive species. To determine whether the rise of Internet commerce has any consequences for the spread of invasive alien plant species, we studied the sale of thirteen of some of the most harmful Europe invasive alien plant species sold as decorative plants from twenty-eight large, well known gardening shops in Poland that sold both via the Internet and through traditional customer sales. We also analyzed temporal changes in the number of invasive plants sold in the largest Polish internet auction portal. When sold through the Internet invasive alien plant species were transported considerably longer distances than for traditional sales. For internet sales, seeds of invasive alien plant species were transported further than were live plants saplings; this was not the case for traditional sales. Also, with e-commerce the shape of distance distribution were flattened with low skewness comparing with traditional sale where the distributions were peaked and right-skewed. Thus, e-commerce created novel modes of long-distance dispersal, while traditional sale resembled more natural dispersal modes. Moreover, analysis of sale in the biggest Polish internet auction portal showed that the number of alien specimens sold via the internet has increased markedly over recent years. Therefore internet commerce is likely to increase the rate at which ecological communities become homogenized and increase spread of invasive species by increasing the rate of long distance dispersal.

  14. Effect of the Internet Commerce on Dispersal Modes of Invasive Alien Species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenda, Magdalena; Skórka, Piotr; Knops, Johannes M. H.; Moroń, Dawid; Sutherland, William J.; Kuszewska, Karolina; Woyciechowski, Michał

    2014-01-01

    The spread of invasive alien plants has considerable environmental and economic consequences, and is one of the most challenging ecological problems. The spread of invasive alien plant species depends largely on long-distance dispersal, which is typically linked with human activity. The increasing domination of the internet will have impacts upon almost all components of our lives, including potential consequences for the spread of invasive species. To determine whether the rise of Internet commerce has any consequences for the spread of invasive alien plant species, we studied the sale of thirteen of some of the most harmful Europe invasive alien plant species sold as decorative plants from twenty-eight large, well known gardening shops in Poland that sold both via the Internet and through traditional customer sales. We also analyzed temporal changes in the number of invasive plants sold in the largest Polish internet auction portal. When sold through the Internet invasive alien plant species were transported considerably longer distances than for traditional sales. For internet sales, seeds of invasive alien plant species were transported further than were live plants saplings; this was not the case for traditional sales. Also, with e-commerce the shape of distance distribution were flattened with low skewness comparing with traditional sale where the distributions were peaked and right-skewed. Thus, e-commerce created novel modes of long-distance dispersal, while traditional sale resembled more natural dispersal modes. Moreover, analysis of sale in the biggest Polish internet auction portal showed that the number of alien specimens sold via the internet has increased markedly over recent years. Therefore internet commerce is likely to increase the rate at which ecological communities become homogenized and increase spread of invasive species by increasing the rate of long distance dispersal. PMID:24932498

  15. Restoring abandoned agricultural lands in cold desert shrublands: Tradeoffs between water availability and invasive species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeanne C. Chambers; Eric P. Eldredge; Keirith A. Snyder; David I. Board; Tara Forbis de Queiroz; Vada Hubbard

    2014-01-01

    Restoration of abandoned agricultural lands to create resilient ecosystems in arid and semi-arid ecosystems typically requires seeding or transplanting native species, improving plant-soil-water relations, and controlling invasive species. We asked if improving water relations via irrigation or surface mulch would result in negative tradeoffs between native species...

  16. Integrating conventional classifiers with a GIS expert system to increase the accuracy of invasive species mapping

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Masocha, M.; Skidmore, A.K.

    2011-01-01

    Mapping the cover of invasive species using remotely sensed data alone is challenging, because many invaders occur as mid-level canopy species or as subtle understorey species and therefore contribute little to the spectral signatures captured by passive remote sensing devices. In this study, two

  17. Sensitivity and accuracy of high-throughput metabarcoding methods for early detection of invasive fish species

    Science.gov (United States)

    For early detection biomonitoring of aquatic invasive species, sensitivity to rare individuals and accurate, high-resolution taxonomic classification are critical to minimize detection errors. Given the great expense and effort associated with morphological identification of many...

  18. Invasive alien plant species dynamics in the Himalayan region under climate change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamsal, Pramod; Kumar, Lalit; Aryal, Achyut; Atreya, Kishor

    2018-01-25

    Climate change will impact the dynamics of invasive alien plant species (IAPS). However, the ability of IAPS under changing climate to invade mountain ecosystems, particularly the Himalayan region, is less known. This study investigates the current and future habitat of five IAPS of the Himalayan region using MaxEnt and two representative concentration pathways (RCPs). Two invasive species, Ageratum conyzoides and Parthenium hysterophorus, will lose overall suitable area by 2070, while Ageratina adenophora, Chromolaena odorata and Lantana camara will gain suitable areas and all of them will retain most of the current habitat as stable. The southern Himalayan foothills will mostly conserve species ecological niches, while suitability of all the five species will decrease with increasing elevation. Such invasion dynamics in the Himalayan region could have impacts on numerous ecosystems and their biota, ecosystem services and human well-being. Trans-boundary response strategies suitable to the local context of the region could buffer some of the likely invasion impacts.

  19. 76 FR 18575 - Nominations of New Members to the Invasive Species Advisory Committee (ISAC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-04

    ... must be postmarked by June 3, 2011. ADDRESSES: Nominations should be sent to Lori Williams, Executive... no later than June 3, 2011, to Lori Williams, Executive Director, National Invasive Species Council... the needs of the diverse groups served. [[Page 18576

  20. Prospects for the biological control of invasive Pinus species (Pinaceae) in South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Hoffmann, JH

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Nine Pinus species (Pinaceae) have become invasive plants in South Africa after being deliberately introduced and cultivated in commercial forests, for timber. A proposal to use biological control to contain the problem raised concerns among...

  1. Invasive Species Biology, Control, and Research. Part 1: Kudzu (Pueraria montana)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Guertin, Patrick J; Denight, Michael L; Gebhart, Dick L; Nelson, Linda

    2008-01-01

    ...) and Multiflora Rose (Rosa multiflora). This work provides a snapshot of current research and scientific knowledge related to the invasive plant species Kudzu, its impact on the Army, and a concise representation of control technologies for military land managers.

  2. Strong Response of an Invasive Plant Species (Centaurea solstitialis L.) to Global Environmental Changes.

    OpenAIRE

    Dukes, Jeffrey; Chiariello, Nona R; Loarie, Scott R; Field, Christopher B

    2011-01-01

    Global environmental changes are altering interactions among plant species, sometimes favoring invasive species. Here, we examine how a suite of five environmental factors, singly and in combination, can affect the success of a highly invasive plant. We introduced Centaurea solstitialis L. (yellow starthistle), which is considered by many to be California’s most troublesome wildland weed, to grassland plots in the San Francisco Bay Area. These plots experienced ambient or elevated levels of wa...

  3. E-commerce and Caulerpa : unregulated dispersal of invasive species

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Walters, LJ; Brown, KR; Stam, WT; Olsen, JL

    Professional aquarists and hobbyists are thought to be the source of invasions of the aquarium strain of the green macroalga Caulerpa taxi folia in the Mediterranean, southern California, and Australia. The US Department of Agriculture, Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service (USDA-APHIS)

  4. Development of beneficial biological agents for invasive species control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-01

    Noxious and invasive weeds readily colonize disturbed areas and outcompete and displace native and other desirable vegetation. This can result in a loss of pollinators (i.e. animals such as birds, bees, and other insects that move pollen between plan...

  5. Optimal surveillance and eradication of invasive species in heterogeneous landscapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rebecca S. Epanchin-Niell; Robert G. Haight; Ludek Berec; John M. Kean; Andrew M. Liebhold

    2012-01-01

    Cost-effective surveillance strategies are needed for efficient responses to biological invasions and must account for the trade-offs between surveillance effort and management costs. Less surveillance may allow greater population growth and spread prior to detection, thereby increasing the costs of damages and control. In addition, surveillance strategies are usually...

  6. Species invasion history influences community evolution in a tri-trophic food web model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akihiko Mougi

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Recent experimental studies have demonstrated the importance of invasion history for evolutionary formation of community. However, only few theoretical studies on community evolution have focused on such views.We used a tri-trophic food web model to analyze the coevolutionary effects of ecological invasions by a mutant and by a predator and/or resource species of a native consumer species community and found that ecological invasions can lead to various evolutionary histories. The invasion of a predator makes multiple evolutionary community histories possible, and the evolutionary history followed can determine both the invasion success of the predator into the native community and the fate of the community. A slight difference in the timing of an ecological invasion can lead to a greatly different fate. In addition, even greatly different community histories can converge as a result of environmental changes such as a predator trait shift or a productivity change. Furthermore, the changes to the evolutionary history may be irreversible.Our modeling results suggest that the timing of ecological invasion of a species into a focal community can largely change the evolutionary consequences of the community. Our approach based on adaptive dynamics will be a useful tool to understand the effect of invasion history on evolutionary formation of community.

  7. Species invasion history influences community evolution in a tri-trophic food web model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mougi, Akihiko; Nishimura, Kinya

    2009-08-24

    Recent experimental studies have demonstrated the importance of invasion history for evolutionary formation of community. However, only few theoretical studies on community evolution have focused on such views. We used a tri-trophic food web model to analyze the coevolutionary effects of ecological invasions by a mutant and by a predator and/or resource species of a native consumer species community and found that ecological invasions can lead to various evolutionary histories. The invasion of a predator makes multiple evolutionary community histories possible, and the evolutionary history followed can determine both the invasion success of the predator into the native community and the fate of the community. A slight difference in the timing of an ecological invasion can lead to a greatly different fate. In addition, even greatly different community histories can converge as a result of environmental changes such as a predator trait shift or a productivity change. Furthermore, the changes to the evolutionary history may be irreversible. Our modeling results suggest that the timing of ecological invasion of a species into a focal community can largely change the evolutionary consequences of the community. Our approach based on adaptive dynamics will be a useful tool to understand the effect of invasion history on evolutionary formation of community.

  8. Effects of climate change, invasive species, and disease on the distribution of native European crayfishes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capinha, César; Larson, Eric R; Tricarico, Elena; Olden, Julian D; Gherardi, Francesca

    2013-08-01

    Climate change will require species to adapt to new conditions or follow preferred climates to higher latitudes or elevations, but many dispersal-limited freshwater species may be unable to move due to barriers imposed by watershed boundaries. In addition, invasive nonnative species may expand into new regions under future climate conditions and contribute to the decline of native species. We evaluated future distributions for the threatened European crayfish fauna in response to climate change, watershed boundaries, and the spread of invasive crayfishes, which transmit the crayfish plague, a lethal disease for native European crayfishes. We used climate projections from general circulation models and statistical models based on Mahalanobis distance to predict climate-suitable regions for native and invasive crayfishes in the middle and at the end of the 21st century. We identified these suitable regions as accessible or inaccessible on the basis of major watershed boundaries and present occurrences and evaluated potential future overlap with 3 invasive North American crayfishes. Climate-suitable areas decreased for native crayfishes by 19% to 72%, and the majority of future suitable areas for most of these species were inaccessible relative to native and current distributions. Overlap with invasive crayfish plague-transmitting species was predicted to increase. Some native crayfish species (e.g., noble crayfish [Astacus astacus]) had no future refugia that were unsuitable for the modeled nonnative species. Our results emphasize the importance of preventing additional introductions and spread of invasive crayfishes in Europe to minimize interactions between the multiple stressors of climate change and invasive species, while suggesting candidate regions for the debatable management option of assisted colonization. © 2013 Society for Conservation Biology.

  9. Modeling the Impact of Spatial Structure on Growth Dynamics of Invasive Plant Species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, James T.; Johnson, Mark P.; Walshe, Ray

    2013-07-01

    Invasive nonindigenous plant species can have potentially serious detrimental effects on local ecosystems and, as a result, costly control efforts often have to be put in place to protect habitats. An example of an invasive problem on a global scale involves the salt marsh grass species from the genus Spartina. The spread of Spartina anglica in Europe and Asia has drawn much concern due to its ability to convert coastal habitats into cord-grass monocultures and to alter the native food webs. However, the patterns of invasion of Spartina species are amenable to spatially-explicit modeling strategies that take into account both temporal and spatio-temporal processes. In this study, an agent-based model of Spartina growth on a simulated mud flat environment was developed in order to study the effects of spatial pattern and initial seedling placement on the invasion dynamics of the population. The spatial pattern of an invasion plays a key role in the rate of spread of the species and understanding this can lead to significant cost savings when designing efficient control strategies. We present here a model framework that can be used to explicitly represent complex spatial and temporal patterns of invasion in order to be able to predict quantitatively the impact of these factors on invasion dynamics. This would be a useful tool for assessing eradication strategies and choosing optimal control solutions in order to be able to minimize future control costs.

  10. Does competition for phosphate supply explain the invasion pattern of Elodea species?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiébaut, Gabrielle

    2005-09-01

    Two invasive aquatic plants, Elodea canadensis and Elodea nuttallii, occurred in north-eastern France. In this study, we examine the influence of phosphorus availability in soft water streams to explain the invasion pattern of exotic species (E. nuttallii and E. canadensis) compared to native plants (Callitriche platycarpa, Ranunculus peltatus). Total phosphorus was measured in these four aquatic macrophytes. Sediment total phosphorus and water-soluble reactive phosphorus were also analysed each season in 2001. Phosphorus content in the two invasive species and in R. peltatus was higher than in C. platycarpa. Elodea species are adapted to the seasonal phosphorus fluctuations as well as R. peltatus and exhibited high phosphorus storage ability. The high fluctuation availability of resources in space or/and time favoured the spread of the invasive plants and confirms the theory of invasibility of Davis et al. [2000. Fluctuating resources in plant communities: a general theory of invasibility. J. Ecol. 88, 528-534]. The eutrophication process increases the invasibility of E. nuttallii's, while inducing competition between E. nuttallii and native macrophyte species.

  11. Horticultural markets promote alien species invasions: an Estonian case study of herbaceous perennials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Merle Ööpik

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Gardening is a popular pastime, but commercial horticulture is responsible for the introduction of alien species and contributes to invasions in a variety of ways. Although an extensive international literature is available on plant invasions, it is still important at the national level to examine the influence of local factors. Accordingly, 17 nurseries in Estonia that cultivated and sold perennial alien species were selected, and a list of species and prices was compiled. The relationships between species status, and factors such as their abundance in the wild were examined statistically. A qualitative list of the nationally problematic species among herbaceous perennials was also completed. A total of 880 taxa were recorded, of which 10.3% were native and 89.7% alien. In all, 87.3% of the alien species were still confined to cultivated areas. The ecological and socio-economic characteristics of the taxa were described, and lists of the families of casual, naturalised and invasive aliens were provided. Both native and increasing wild alien species have a very similar profile on the market. Alien species that are less expensive, widely available and have more cultivars per species on the market are also more likely to escape. The invasive status and abundance of escaped aliens in an area increases with residence time. In general, socio-economic factors create new and reflect previous propagule pressures from commercial horticulture, which continuously increase the likelihood of alien species surviving and invading new areas. Our findings suggest that these national socio-economic market-related factors explain much of the invasiveness of various perennial ornamental species, and therefore regional and national authorities urgently need to regulate and control the ornamental plant trade to diminish the risk of new invasions.

  12. What determines positive, neutral, and negative impacts of Solidago canadensis invasion on native plant species richness?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Li-Jia; Yu, Hong-Wei; He, Wei-Ming

    2015-11-17

    Whether plant invasions pose a great threat to native plant diversity is still hotly debated due to conflicting findings. More importantly, we know little about the mechanisms of invasion impacts on native plant richness. We examined how Solidago canadensis invasion influenced native plants using data from 291 pairs of invaded and uninvaded plots covering an entire invaded range, and quantified the relative contributions of climate, recipient communities, and S. canadensis to invasion impacts. There were three types of invasion consequences for native plant species richness (i.e., positive, neutral, and negative impacts). Overall, the relative contributions of recipient communities, S. canadensis and climate to invasion impacts were 71.39%, 21.46% and 7.15%, respectively; furthermore, the roles of recipient communities, S. canadensis and climate were largely ascribed to plant diversity, density and cover, and precipitation. In terms of direct effects, invasion impacts were negatively linked to temperature and native plant communities, and positively to precipitation and soil microbes. Soil microbes were crucial in the network of indirect effects on invasion impacts. These findings suggest that the characteristics of recipient communities are the most important determinants of invasion impacts and that invasion impacts may be a continuum across an entire invaded range.

  13. Optimal surveillance and eradication of invasive species in heterogeneous landscapes

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Epanchin-Niell, R. S.; Haight, R. G.; Berec, Luděk; Kean, J. M.; Liebhold, A. M.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 15, č. 8 (2012), s. 803-812 ISSN 1461-023X Grant - others:National Science Foundation(US) DEB-0553768; USDA PREISM(US) 58-7000-7-0088 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50070508 Keywords : biological invasions * cost efficient * detection Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 17.949, year: 2012 http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1461-0248.2012.01800.x/pdf

  14. Invasive species, environmental change and management, and health

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pyšek, Petr; Richardson, D. M.

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 35, - (2010), s. 25-57,C1,C2 ISSN 1543-5938 R&D Projects: GA MŠk 7E09053; GA MŠk LC06073 Grant - others:Evropská komise(XE) GOCE-CT-2003-506675 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60050516 Keywords : biological invasions * impact * management Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 3.737, year: 2010

  15. Mycorrhizal status helps explain invasion success of alien plant species

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Menzel, A.; Hempel, S.; Klotz, S.; Moora, M.; Pyšek, Petr; Rillig, M. C.; Zobel, M.; Kühn, I.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 98, č. 1 (2017), s. 92-102 ISSN 0012-9658 R&D Projects: GA ČR GB14-36079G Grant - others:AV ČR(CZ) AP1002 Program:Akademická prémie - Praemium Academiae Institutional support: RVO:67985939 Keywords : plant invasion * mycorrhiza * naturalization Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour OBOR OECD: Ecology Impact factor: 4.809, year: 2016

  16. Federated or cached searches: providing expected performance from multiple invasive species databases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, Jim; Jarnevich, Catherine S.; Simpson, Annie; Newman, Gregory J.; Stohlgren, Thomas J.

    2011-01-01

    Invasive species are a universal global problem, but the information to identify them, manage them, and prevent invasions is stored around the globe in a variety of formats. The Global Invasive Species Information Network is a consortium of organizations working toward providing seamless access to these disparate databases via the Internet. A distributed network of databases can be created using the Internet and a standard web service protocol. There are two options to provide this integration. First, federated searches are being proposed to allow users to search “deep” web documents such as databases for invasive species. A second method is to create a cache of data from the databases for searching. We compare these two methods, and show that federated searches will not provide the performance and flexibility required from users and a central cache of the datum are required to improve performance.

  17. NASA and USGS invest in invasive species modeling to evaluate habitat for Africanized Honey Bees

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    Invasive non-native species, such as plants, animals, and pathogens, have long been an interest to the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and NASA. Invasive species cause harm to our economy (around $120 B/year), the environment (e.g., replacing native biodiversity, forest pathogens negatively affecting carbon storage), and human health (e.g., plague, West Nile virus). Five years ago, the USGS and NASA formed a partnership to improve ecological forecasting capabilities for the early detection and containment of the highest priority invasive species. Scientists from NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) and the Fort Collins Science Center developed a longterm strategy to integrate remote sensing capabilities, high-performance computing capabilities and new spatial modeling techniques to advance the science of ecological invasions [Schnase et al., 2002].

  18. Exotic annual Bromus invasions: comparisons among species and ecoregions in the western United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, Matthew L.; Brown, Cynthia S.; Chambers, Jeanne C.; D'Antonio, Carla M.; Keeley, Jon E.; Belnap, Jayne

    2016-01-01

    Exotic annual Bromus species are widely recognized for their potential to invade, dominate, and alter the structure and function of ecosystems. In this chapter, we summarize the invasion potential, ecosystem threats, and management strategies for different Bromus species within each of five ecoregions of the western United States. We characterize invasion potential and threats in terms of ecosystem resistance to Bromus invasion and ecosystem resilience to disturbance with an emphasis on the importance of fi re regimes. We also explain how soil temperature and moisture regimes can be linked to patterns of resistance and resilience and provide a conceptual framework that can be used to evaluate the relative potential for invasion and ecological impact of the dominant exotic annual Bromus species in the western United States.

  19. Identifying knowledge gaps for gene drive research to control invasive animal species: The next CRISPR step

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorian Moro

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Invasive animals have been linked to the extinctions of native wildlife, and to significant agricultural financial losses or impacts. Current approaches to control invasive species require ongoing resources and management over large geographic scales, and often result in the short-term suppression of populations. New and innovative approaches are warranted. Recently, the RNA guided gene drive system based on CRISPR/Cas9 is being proposed as a potential gene editing tool that could be used by wildlife managers as a non-lethal addition or alternative to help reduce pest animal populations. While regulatory control and social acceptance are crucial issues that must be addressed, there is an opportunity now to identify the knowledge and research gaps that exist for some important invasive species. Here we systematically determine the knowledge gaps for pest species for which gene drives could potentially be applied. We apply a conceptual ecological risk framework within the gene drive context within an Australian environment to identify key requirements for undertaking work on seven exemplar invasive species in Australia. This framework allows an evaluation of the potential research on an invasive species of interest and within a gene drive and risk context. We consider the currently available biological, genetic and ecological information for the house mouse, European red fox, feral cat, European rabbit, cane toad, black rat and European starling to evaluate knowledge gaps and identify candidate species for future research. We discuss these findings in the context of future thematic areas of research worth pursuing in preparation for a more formal assessment of the use of gene drives as a novel strategy for the control of these and other invasive species. Keywords: Invasive species, Gene drive, CRISPR, Pest management, Islands

  20. Do traits of invasive species influence decomposition and soil respiration of disturbed ecosystems?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wells, A. J.; Balster, N. J.

    2009-12-01

    Large-scale landscape disturbances typically alter the terrestrial carbon cycle leading to shifts in pools of soil carbon. Restoration of disturbed landscapes with prairie vegetation has thus been practiced with the intent of increasing carbon accrual in soils. However, since disturbed soils are prone to invasion by non-native invasive species, many ecological restorations have resulted in unexpected outcomes, which may be explained by differences in plant traits such as tissue quality and biomass allocation. Typically, the tissue of invasive species has lower C:N ratios relative to native species, and consequently, faster decomposition rates, which potentially can alter the balance in soil carbon. The primary objective of this research was to compare the effects of native prairie species versus non-native invasive species on the carbon cycling within a novel environment: a recently dewatered basin in southwestern Wisconsin following dam removal. We hypothesized that a higher invasive to native species ratio would result in faster litter decomposition and a higher rate of soil respiration. To test this hypothesis, we seeded newly exposed sediments with native prairie seeds in 2005, annually collected aboveground plant biomass (by species per plot), calculated decomposition rate of native and invasive litter (underneath both canopy types), and measured soil respiration during the growing season of 2009. After four years of seeding, the aboveground biomass of the native vegetation has increased significantly (p explained 20% of the variation in soil respiration. However, the vegetation type did not have a significant effect on the respiration rate. Our results suggest that vegetation traits may be influencing the cycling of carbon at this site, but that spatial variation in abiotic conditions above and belowground appear to control decomposition and soil respiration at a local scale. Moreover, the ecophysiological interactions measured here may have practical

  1. Clarifying values, risk perceptions, and attitudes to resolve or avoid social conflicts in invasive species management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estévez, Rodrigo A; Anderson, Christopher B; Pizarro, J Cristobal; Burgman, Mark A

    2015-02-01

    Decision makers and researchers recognize the need to effectively confront the social dimensions and conflicts inherent to invasive species research and management. Yet, despite numerous contentious situations that have arisen, no systematic evaluation of the literature has examined the commonalities in the patterns and types of these emergent social issues. Using social and ecological keywords, we reviewed trends in the social dimensions of invasive species research and management and the sources and potential solutions to problems and conflicts that arise around invasive species. We integrated components of cognitive hierarchy theory and risk perceptions theory to provide a conceptual framework to identify, distinguish, and provide understanding of the driving factors underlying disputes associated with invasive species. In the ISI Web of Science database, we found 15,915 peer-reviewed publications on biological invasions, 124 of which included social dimensions of this phenomenon. Of these 124, 28 studies described specific contentious situations. Social approaches to biological invasions have emerged largely in the last decade and have focused on both environmental social sciences and resource management. Despite being distributed in a range of journals, these 124 articles were concentrated mostly in ecology and conservation-oriented outlets. We found that conflicts surrounding invasive species arose based largely on differences in value systems and to a lesser extent stakeholder and decision maker's risk perceptions. To confront or avoid such situations, we suggest integrating the plurality of environmental values into invasive species research and management via structured decision making techniques, which enhance effective risk communication that promotes trust and confidence between stakeholders and decision makers. © 2014 Society for Conservation Biology.

  2. Discovery-dominance trade-off among widespread invasive ant species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertelsmeier, Cleo; Avril, Amaury; Blight, Olivier; Jourdan, Hervé; Courchamp, Franck

    2015-07-01

    Ants are among the most problematic invasive species. They displace numerous native species, alter ecosystem processes, and can have negative impacts on agriculture and human health. In part, their success might stem from a departure from the discovery-dominance trade-off that can promote co-existence in native ant communities, that is, invasive ants are thought to be at the same time behaviorally dominant and faster discoverers of resources, compared to native species. However, it has not yet been tested whether similar asymmetries in behavioral dominance, exploration, and recruitment abilities also exist among invasive species. Here, we establish a dominance hierarchy among four of the most problematic invasive ants (Linepithema humile, Lasius neglectus, Wasmannia auropunctata, Pheidole megacephala) that may be able to arrive and establish in the same areas in the future. To assess behavioral dominance, we used confrontation experiments, testing the aggressiveness in individual and group interactions between all species pairs. In addition, to compare discovery efficiency, we tested the species' capacity to locate a food resource in a maze, and the capacity to recruit nestmates to exploit a food resource. The four species differed greatly in their capacity to discover resources and to recruit nestmates and to dominate the other species. Our results are consistent with a discovery-dominance trade-off. The species that showed the highest level of interspecific aggressiveness and dominance during dyadic interactions.

  3. Are Invasive Species Stressful? The Glucocorticoid Profile of Native Lizards Exposed to Invasive Fire Ants Depends on the Context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, Sean P; Freidenfelds, Nicole A; Thawley, Christopher J; Robbins, Travis R; Langkilde, Tracy

    Invasive species represent a substantial threat to native species worldwide. Research on the impacts of invasive species on wild living vertebrates has focused primarily on population-level effects. The sublethal, individual-level effects of invaders may be equally important but are poorly understood. We investigated the effects of invasive fire ants (Solenopsis invicta) on the physiological stress response of a native lizard (Sceloporus undulatus) within two experimental contexts: directly exposing lizards to a fire ant attack and housing lizards with fire ants in seminatural field enclosures. Lizards directly exposed to brief attack by fire ants had elevated concentrations of the stress hormone corticosterone (CORT), suggesting that these encounters can be physiologically stressful. However, lizards exposed for longer periods to fire ants in field enclosures had lower concentrations of CORT. This may indicate that the combined effects of confinement and fire ant exposure have pushed lizards into allostatic overload. However, lizards from fire ant enclosures appeared to have intact negative feedback controls of the stress response, evidenced by functioning adrenocorticotropic hormone responsiveness and lack of suppression of innate immunity (plasma bactericidal capacity). We review previous studies examining the stress response of wild vertebrates to various anthropogenic stressors and discuss how these-in combination with our results-underscore the importance of considering context (the length, frequency, magnitude, and types of threat) when assessing these impacts.

  4. Public Perception of Invasive Plant Species: Assessing the Impact of Workshop Activities to Promote Young Students' Awareness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schreck Reis, Catarina; Marchante, Helia; Freitas, Helena; Marchante, Elizabete

    2013-01-01

    Invasive species are one of the main threats to biodiversity worldwide. Even though they are identified and recognized as such by the Portuguese law, the majority of the population is not yet aware of this problem. Aiming to increase awareness about biological invasions among young students, a workshop on Invasive Plant Species was organized at…

  5. Identifying barriers to effective management of widespread invasive alien trees: Prosopis species (mesquite) in South Africa as a case study

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Shackleton, RT

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available and in some cases improve the benefits that some invasive species can provide. This study assesses the barriers that hinder the effective management of widespread tree invasions, drawing insights from a case study of invasions of Prosopis species (mesquite...

  6. Invasive Species Distribution Modeling (iSDM): Are absence data and dispersal constraints needed to predict actual distributions?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomáš Václavík; Ross K. Meentemeyer

    2009-01-01

    Species distribution models (SDMs) based on statistical relationships between occurrence data and underlying environmental conditions are increasingly used to predict spatial patterns of biological invasions and prioritize locations for early detection and control of invasion outbreaks. However, invasive species distribution models (iSDMs) face special challenges...

  7. Species invasions on islands: searching for general patterns and principles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Q. Guo

    2014-01-01

    Numerous islands worldwide are being increasingly invaded by exotic species. However, the effects of invading species on native floras remain underexplored, particularly whether island biogeography theory is applicable to native, exotic, and the newly assembled floras. Inter-group comparisons across different regions or island groups through a collection of individual...

  8. Invasive exotic plant species in Sierra Nevada ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carla M. D' Antonio; Eric L. Berlow; Karen L. Haubensak

    2004-01-01

    The Sierra Nevada is a topographically and floristically diverse region of the western United States. While it comprises only a fifth of the total land area of California, half of the native plant species in the state occur within the range. In addition, more than 400 plant species are endemic to the Sierra Nevada and many of these are listed as threatened or have...

  9. Contrasting phenotypic plasticity in the photoprotective strategies of the invasive species Carpobrotus edulis and the coexisting native species Crithmum maritimum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fenollosa, Erola; Munné-Bosch, Sergi; Pintó-Marijuan, Marta

    2017-06-01

    Photoprotective strategies vary greatly within the plant kingdom and reflect a plant's physiological status and capacity to cope with environment variations. The plasticity and intensity of these responses may determine plant success. Invasive species are reported to show increased vigor to displace native species. Describing the mechanisms that confer such vigor is essential to understanding the success of invasive species. We performed an experiment whereby two species were monitored: Carpobrotus edulis, an aggressive invasive species in the Mediterranean basin, and Crithmum maritimum, a coexisting native species in the Cap de Creus Natural Park (NE Spain). We analyzed their photoprotective responses to seasonal environmental dynamics by comparing the capacity of the invader to respond to the local environmental stresses throughout the year. Our study analyses ecophysiological markers and photoprotective strategies to gain an insight into the success of invaders. We found that both species showed completely different but effective photoprotective strategies: in summer, C. edulis took special advantage of the xanthophyll cycle, whereas the success of C. maritimum in summer stemmed from morphological changes and alterations on β-carotene content. Winter also presented differences between the species, as the native showed reduced F v /F m ratios. Our experimental design allowed us to introduce a new approach to compare phenotypic plasticity: the integrated phenotypic plasticity index (PP int ), defined as the maximum Euclidian distance between phenotypes, using a combination of different variables to describe them. This index revealed significantly greater phenotypic plasticity in the invasive species compared to the native species. © 2017 Scandinavian Plant Physiology Society.

  10. Housing is positively associated with invasive exotic plant species richness in New England, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gavier-Pizarro, Gregorio I; Radeloff, Volker C; Stewart, Susan I; Huebner, Cynthia D; Keuler, Nicholas S

    2010-10-01

    Understanding the factors related to invasive exotic species distributions at broad spatial scales has important theoretical and management implications, because biological invasions are detrimental to many ecosystem functions and processes. Housing development facilitates invasions by disturbing land cover, introducing nonnative landscaping plants, and facilitating dispersal of propagules along roads. To evaluate relationships between housing and the distribution of invasive exotic plants, we asked (1) how strongly is housing associated with the spatial distribution of invasive exotic plants compared to other anthropogenic and environmental factors; (2) what type of housing pattern is related to the richness of invasive exotic plants; and (3) do invasive plants represent ecological traits associated with specific housing patterns? Using two types of regression analysis (best subset analysis and hierarchical partitioning analysis), we found that invasive exotic plant richness was equally or more strongly related to housing variables than to other human (e.g., mean income and roads) and environmental (e.g., topography and forest cover) variables at the county level across New England. Richness of invasive exotic plants was positively related to area of wildland-urban interface (WUI), low-density residential areas, change in number of housing units between 1940 and 2000, mean income, plant productivity (NDVI), and altitudinal range and rainfall; it was negatively related to forest area and connectivity. Plant life history traits were not strongly related to housing patterns. We expect the number of invasive exotic plants to increase as a result of future housing growth and suggest that housing development be considered a primary factor in plans to manage and monitor invasive exotic plant species.

  11. Go forth, evolve and prosper: the genetic basis of adaptive evolution in an invasive species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franks, Steven J; Munshi-South, Jason

    2014-05-01

    Invasive species stand accused of a familiar litany of offences, including displacing native species, disrupting ecological processes and causing billions of dollars in ecological damage (Cox 1999). Despite these transgressions, invasive species have at least one redeeming virtue--they offer us an unparalleled opportunity to investigate colonization and responses of populations to novel conditions in the invaded habitat (Elton 1958; Sakai et al. 2001). Invasive species are by definition colonists that have arrived and thrived in a new location. How they are able to thrive is of great interest, especially considering a paradox of invasion (Sax & Brown 2000): if many populations are locally adapted (Leimu & Fischer 2008), how could species introduced into new locations become so successful? One possibility is that populations adjust to the new conditions through plasticity--increasing production of allelopathic compounds (novel weapons), or taking advantage of new prey, for example. Alternatively, evolution could play a role, with the populations adapting to the novel conditions of the new habitat. There is increasing evidence, based on phenotypic data, for rapid adaptive evolution in invasive species (Franks et al. 2012; Colautti & Barrett 2013; Sultan et al. 2013). Prior studies have also demonstrated genetic changes in introduced populations using neutral markers, which generally do not provide information on adaptation. Thus, the genetic basis of adaptive evolution in invasive species has largely remained unknown. In this issue of Molecular Ecology, Vandepitte et al. (2014) provide some of the first evidence in invasive populations for molecular genetic changes directly linked to adaptation. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Herbarium specimens show patterns of fruiting phenology in native and invasive plant species across New England.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallinat, Amanda S; Russo, Luca; Melaas, Eli K; Willis, Charles G; Primack, Richard B

    2018-01-01

    Patterns of fruiting phenology in temperate ecosystems are poorly understood, despite the ecological importance of fruiting for animal nutrition and seed dispersal. Herbarium specimens represent an under-utilized resource for investigating geographical and climatic factors affecting fruiting times within species, patterns in fruiting times among species, and differences between native and non-native invasive species. We examined over 15,000 herbarium specimens, collected and housed across New England, and found 3159 specimens with ripe fruits, collected from 1849-2013. We examined patterns in fruiting phenology among 37 native and 18 invasive woody plant species common to New England. We compared fruiting dates between native and invasive species, and analyzed how fruiting phenology varies with temperature, space, and time. Spring temperature and year explained a small but significant amount of the variation in fruiting dates. Accounting for the moderate phylogenetic signal in fruiting phenology, invasive species fruited 26 days later on average than native species, with significantly greater standard deviations. Herbarium specimens can be used to detect patterns in fruiting times among species. However, the amount of intraspecific variation in fruiting times explained by temporal, geographic, and climatic predictors is small, due to a combination of low temporal resolution of fruiting specimens and the protracted nature of fruiting. Later fruiting times in invasive species, combined with delays in autumn bird migrations in New England, may increase the likelihood that migratory birds will consume and disperse invasive seeds in New England later into the year. © 2018 Botanical Society of America.

  13. Allelopathic assessment of selected invasive species of pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akhtar, S.

    2014-01-01

    Invader species are a great threat to local flora. Eight invader species of Pakistan were screened for their allelopathic activity through sandwich method. Toxic (inhibitory) and non-toxic (stimulatory) effects were assessed by recording their effect on germination and growth of lettuce. Radicle and plumule growth of lettuce were recorded at 5, 10 and 50 mg leaves concentrations of each species. Among all species the growth activity was found to be concentration dependent. Except Eutcalyptus glabra all species resulted in inhibitory effects at 5, 10 and 50 mg leaves concentrations. Xanthium strumarium and Cannabis sativa showed strong inhibitory effects on radicle and plumule growth of lettuce. Maximum inhibition was recorded at highest concentration; even growth of lettuce was stopped with 50 mg leaves concentration of C. sativa. (author)

  14. Use of exotic species in afforestation and facilitation for the establishment of biological invasion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliano Ricardo Fabricante

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to inventory the species used in landscaping the Campus of Agricultural Sciences of the Federal University of Paraíba, Areia, PB, Brazil and to rank them according to their origin and their invasive potential. Through walks throughout the study area (active search, we cataloged all the species used in local afforestation and classified them as native or exotic. Exotic plants were also classified as to their invasive potential. Altogether, we identified 76 species belonging to 67 genera and 25 families. Of these, only 26 species were native. The results of this study are worrisome because of the large number of exotic species used for planting at the study site (50 species, including known aggressive species: Artocarpus heterophyllus Lam., Azadirachta indica A. Juss. and Leucaena leucocephala (Lam. de Wit.

  15. Hurricane Activity and the Large-Scale Pattern of Spread of an Invasive Plant Species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattarai, Ganesh P.; Cronin, James T.

    2014-01-01

    Disturbances are a primary facilitator of the growth and spread of invasive species. However, the effects of large-scale disturbances, such as hurricanes and tropical storms, on the broad geographic patterns of invasive species growth and spread have not been investigated. We used historical aerial imagery to determine the growth rate of invasive Phragmites australis patches in wetlands along the Atlantic and Gulf Coasts of the United States. These were relatively undisturbed wetlands where P. australis had room for unrestricted growth. Over the past several decades, invasive P. australis stands expanded in size by 6–35% per year. Based on tropical storm and hurricane activity over that same time period, we found that the frequency of hurricane-force winds explained 81% of the variation in P. australis growth over this broad geographic range. The expansion of P. australis stands was strongly and positively correlated with hurricane frequency. In light of the many climatic models that predict an increase in the frequency and intensity of hurricanes over the next century, these results suggest a strong link between climate change and species invasion and a challenging future ahead for the management of invasive species. PMID:24878928

  16. Analysis of the Trojan Y-Chromosome eradication strategy for an invasive species

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Xueying

    2013-05-24

    The Trojan Y-Chromosome (TYC) strategy, an autocidal genetic biocontrol method, has been proposed to eliminate invasive alien species. In this work, we analyze the dynamical system model of the TYC strategy, with the aim of studying the viability of the TYC eradication and control strategy of an invasive species. In particular, because the constant introduction of sex-reversed trojan females for all time is not possible in practice, there arises the question: What happens if this injection is stopped after some time? Can the invasive species recover? To answer that question, we perform a rigorous bifurcation analysis and study the basin of attraction of the recovery state and the extinction state in both the full model and a certain reduced model. In particular, we find a theoretical condition for the eradication strategy to work. Additionally, the consideration of an Allee effect and the possibility of a Turing instability are also studied in this work. Our results show that: (1) with the inclusion of an Allee effect, the number of the invasive females is not required to be very low when the introduction of the sex-reversed trojan females is stopped, and the remaining Trojan Y-Chromosome population is sufficient to induce extinction of the invasive females; (2) incorporating diffusive spatial spread does not produce a Turing instability, which would have suggested that the TYC eradication strategy might be only partially effective, leaving a patchy distribution of the invasive species. © 2013 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.

  17. Impact of mine dumps on transport the invasive plant species to Upper Silesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sotkova, N.; Lokajickova, B.; Mec, J.; Svehlakova, H.; Stalmachova, B.

    2017-10-01

    Human activities significantly change the species composition in the area. The main factor of change was the mining industry, which changed the natural conditions on Upper Silesia. The anthropogenic relief of mine dumps are the main centre of alien plant in an industrial landscape. The poster deals with the state of the invasive plant species by the phyto-sociological surveys on Upper Silesia.

  18. Invasive alien species under attack: natural enemies of Harmonia axyridis in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Raak-van den Berg, C.L.; Wielink, van P.; Jong, de P.W.; Gort, G.; Haelewaters, D.; Helder, J.; Lenteren, van J.C.

    2014-01-01

    The aphid predator Harmonia axyridis (Pallas) (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) is an invasive alien species in Europe and North America with negative effects on non-target species (including a decline of native ladybird populations), as well as fruit production, and human health. It is, therefore,

  19. Does global warning increase establishment rates of invasive alien species? A centurial time series analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dingcheng Huang; Robert A. Haack; Runzhi. Zhang

    2011-01-01

    The establishment rate of invasive alien insect species has been increasing worldwide during the past century. This trend has been widely attributed to increased rates of international trade and associated species introductions, but rarely linked to environmental change. To better understand and manage the bioinvasion process, it is crucial to understand the...

  20. How did this snail get here? Several dispersal vectors inferred for an aquatic invasive species

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Leeuwen, C.H.A.; Huig, N.; Van der Velde, G.; Van Alen, T.; Wagemaker, C.A.M.; Sherman, C.D.H.; Klaassen, M.R.J.; Figuerola, J.

    2013-01-01

    How species reach and persist in isolated habitats remains an open question in many cases, especially for rapidly spreading invasive species. This is particularly true for temporary freshwater ponds, which can be remote and may dry out annually, but may still harbour high biodiversity. Persistence

  1. A dynamic invasive species research vision: Opportunities and priorities 2009-29

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Invasive species significantly impact U.S. ecosystems and are one of the greatest threats to forest, rangeland, and urban forest health. They have contributed to increases in fire frequency and intensity; reduced water resources, forest growth, and timber; and negatively affected native species and their habitats throughout the United States. Global trade, climate...

  2. Invasive species management: Ensuring the 'cure' is not worse than the condition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharlene E. Sing; Robert K. D. Peterson; Bruce D. Maxwell

    2007-01-01

    The challenge in effectively managing invasive species arises out of our subjective response to the problem: 1) these species do not belong in our ecosystems; and 2) their impact on our ecosystems will be negative.1 These visceral responses typically dove-tail into the fundamental management objective: get rid of it! Society promotes the idea that good management is...

  3. Developing thresholds of potential concern for invasive alien species: Hypotheses and concepts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Llewellyn C. Foxcroft

    2009-03-01

    Conservation implication: In accepting that species and systems are variable, and that flux is inevitable and desirable, these TPCs developed for invasive alien species specifi cally, provide end points against which monitoring can be assessed. Once a threshold is reached, the cause of the threshold being exceeded is examined and management interventions recommended.

  4. A rapid assessment survey of invasive species of macrobenthic invertebrates in Korean waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Chul; Kim, Sung-Tae; Hong, Jae-Sang; Choi, Keun-Hyung

    2017-09-01

    Introduced species are a growing and imminent threat to living marine resources in parts of the world's oceans. The present study is a rapid assessment survey of invasive macrobenthic invertebrate species in Korean ports. We surveyed over 40 ports around Korea during the period of May 2010 March 2013. Among the sampling sites were concrete walls, docks and associated floats, bumpers, tires, and ropes which might harbor non-native species. We found 15 invasive species as follows: one Sponge, two Bryozoans, three Mollusks, one Polychaete, four Cirripedes, and four Ascidians. Three morphologically similar species, namely X. atrata, M. galloprovincialis, and X. securis were further examined for distinctions in their morphology. Although they could be reasonably distinguished based on shell shapes, significant overlap was noted so that additional analysis may be required to correctly distinguish them. Although many of the introduced species have already spread to all three coastal areas, newly arrived invasive species showed a relatively restricted range, with a serpulid polychaete Ficopomatus enigmaticus and a mytilid bivalve Xenostrobus securis found only at a few sites on the East Coast. An exception is for Balanus perforatus, which has rapidly colonized the East coast of Korea following its introduction into the region. Successful management of invasive macrobenthic invertebrates should be established in order to contain the spread of these newly arrived species.

  5. Evolving mutation rate advances the invasion speed of a sexual species

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cobben, Marleen M. P.; Mitesser, Oliver; Kubisch, Alexander

    2017-01-01

    Many species are shifting their ranges in response to global climate change. Range expansions are known to have profound effects on the genetic composition of populations. The evolution of dispersal during range expansion increases invasion speed, provided that a species can adapt sufficiently fast

  6. What does "local" firewood buy you? Managing the risk of invasive species introduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patrick C. Tobin; Andrea Diss-Torrance; Laura M. Blackburn; Brian D. Brown

    2011-01-01

    Firewood can serve as a primary vector in the transport of non-native species, particularly of wood boring insects that can be transported surreptitiously in firewood. State and Federal governments have enacted limitations on the movement of firewood as a means to limit accidental introduction of invasive species. However, it can be challenging for governments to...

  7. Disarming the Red Queen: plant invasions, novel weapons, species coexistence, and microevolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    This paper is a commentary on the importance of the featured paper in the issue. The authors found that an invasive species and a co-occurring native species had evolved to coexist with one another in the space of 50 years. The rapid evolution of tolerance (as opposed to arms race style escalation) ...

  8. Using Risk Assessment and Habitat Suitability Models to Prioritise Invasive Species for Management in a Changing Climate

    OpenAIRE

    Chai, Shauna-Lee; Zhang, Jian; Nixon, Amy; Nielsen, Scott

    2016-01-01

    Accounting for climate change in invasive species risk assessments improves our understanding of potential future impacts and enhances our preparedness for the arrival of new non-native species. We combined traditional risk assessment for invasive species with habitat suitability modeling to assess risk to biodiversity based on climate change. We demonstrate our method by assessing the risk for 15 potentially new invasive plant species to Alberta, Canada, an area where climate change is expec...

  9. Hyperspectral Time Series Analysis of Native and Invasive Species in Hawaiian Rainforests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregory P. Asner

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The unique ecosystems of the Hawaiian Islands are progressively being threatened following the introduction of exotic species. Operational implementation of remote sensing for the detection, mapping and monitoring of these biological invasions is currently hampered by a lack of knowledge on the spectral separability between native and invasive species. We used spaceborne imaging spectroscopy to analyze the seasonal dynamics of the canopy hyperspectral reflectance properties of four tree species: (i Metrosideros polymorpha, a keystone native Hawaiian species; (ii Acacia koa, a native Hawaiian nitrogen fixer; (iii the highly invasive Psidium cattleianum; and (iv Morella faya, a highly invasive nitrogen fixer. The species specific separability of the reflectance and derivative-reflectance signatures extracted from an Earth Observing-1 Hyperion time series, composed of 22 cloud-free images spanning a period of four years and was quantitatively evaluated using the Separability Index (SI. The analysis revealed that the Hawaiian native trees were universally unique from the invasive trees in their near-infrared-1 (700–1,250 nm reflectance (0.4 > SI > 1.4. Due to its higher leaf area index, invasive trees generally had a higher near-infrared reflectance. To a lesser extent, it could also be demonstrated that nitrogen-fixing trees were spectrally unique from non-fixing trees. The higher leaf nitrogen content of nitrogen-fixing trees was expressed through slightly increased separabilities in visible and shortwave-infrared reflectance wavebands (SI = 0.4. We also found phenology to be key to spectral separability analysis. As such, it was shown that the spectral separability in the near-infrared-1 reflectance between the native and invasive species groups was more expressed in summer (SI > 0.7 than in winter (SI < 0.7. The lowest separability was observed for March-July (SI < 0.3. This could be explained by the

  10. Species' traits help predict small mammal responses to habitat homogenization by an invasive grass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceradini, Joseph P; Chalfoun, Anna D

    2017-07-01

    Invasive plants can negatively affect native species, however, the strength, direction, and shape of responses may vary depending on the type of habitat alteration and the natural history of native species. To prioritize conservation of vulnerable species, it is therefore critical to effectively predict species' responses to invasive plants, which may be facilitated by a framework based on species' traits. We studied the population and community responses of small mammals and changes in habitat heterogeneity across a gradient of cheatgrass (Bromus tectorum) cover, a widespread invasive plant in North America. We live-trapped small mammals over two summers and assessed the effect of cheatgrass on native small mammal abundance, richness, and species-specific and trait-based occupancy, while accounting for detection probability and other key habitat elements. Abundance was only estimated for the most common species, deer mice (Peromyscus maniculatus). All species were pooled for the trait-based occupancy analysis to quantify the ability of small mammal traits (habitat association, mode of locomotion, and diet) to predict responses to cheatgrass invasion. Habitat heterogeneity decreased with cheatgrass cover. Deer mouse abundance increased marginally with cheatgrass. Species richness did not vary with cheatgrass, however, pocket mouse (Perognathus spp.) and harvest mouse (Reithrodontomys spp.) occupancy tended to decrease and increase, respectively, with cheatgrass cover, suggesting a shift in community composition. Cheatgrass had little effect on occupancy for deer mice, 13-lined ground squirrels (Spermophilus tridecemlineatus), and Ord's kangaroo rat (Dipodomys ordii). Species' responses to cheatgrass primarily corresponded with our a priori predictions based on species' traits. The probability of occupancy varied significantly with a species' habitat association but not with diet or mode of locomotion. When considered within the context of a rapid habitat change

  11. An ounce of prevention or a pound of cure: bioeconomic risk analysis of invasive species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, Brian; Lodge, David M; Finnoff, David; Shogren, Jason F; Lewis, Mark A; Lamberti, Gary

    2002-12-07

    Numbers of non-indigenous species--species introduced from elsewhere - are increasing rapidly worldwide, causing both environmental and economic damage. Rigorous quantitative risk-analysis frameworks, however, for invasive species are lacking. We need to evaluate the risks posed by invasive species and quantify the relative merits of different management strategies (e.g. allocation of resources between prevention and control). We present a quantitative bioeconomic modelling framework to analyse risks from non-indigenous species to economic activity and the environment. The model identifies the optimal allocation of resources to prevention versus control, acceptable invasion risks and consequences of invasion to optimal investments (e.g. labour and capital). We apply the model to zebra mussels (Dreissena polymorpha), and show that society could benefit by spending up to US$324 000 year(-1) to prevent invasions into a single lake with a power plant. By contrast, the US Fish and Wildlife Service spent US$825 000 in 2001 to manage all aquatic invaders in all US lakes. Thus, greater investment in prevention is warranted.

  12. Morphology delimits more species than molecular genetic clusters of invasive Pilosella.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moffat, Chandra E; Ensing, David J; Gaskin, John F; De Clerck-Floate, Rosemarie A; Pither, Jason

    2015-07-01

    • Accurate assessments of biodiversity are paramount for understanding ecosystem processes and adaptation to change. Invasive species often contribute substantially to local biodiversity; correctly identifying and distinguishing invaders is thus necessary to assess their potential impacts. We compared the reliability of morphology and molecular sequences to discriminate six putative species of invasive Pilosella hawkweeds (syn. Hieracium, Asteraceae), known for unreliable identifications and historical introgression. We asked (1) which morphological traits dependably discriminate putative species, (2) if genetic clusters supported morphological species, and (3) if novel hybridizations occur in the invaded range.• We assessed 33 morphometric characters for their discriminatory power using the randomForest classifier and, using AFLPs, evaluated genetic clustering with the program structure and subsequently with an AMOVA. The strength of the association between morphological and genotypic dissimilarity was assessed with a Mantel test.• Morphometric analyses delimited six species while genetic analyses defined only four clusters. Specifically, we found (1) eight morphological traits could reliably distinguish species, (2) structure suggested strong genetic differentiation but for only four putative species clusters, and (3) genetic data suggest both novel hybridizations and multiple introductions have occurred.• (1) Traditional floristic techniques may resolve more species than molecular analyses in taxonomic groups subject to introgression. (2) Even within complexes of closely related species, relatively few but highly discerning morphological characters can reliably discriminate species. (3) By clarifying patterns of morphological and genotypic variation of invasive Pilosella, we lay foundations for further ecological study and mitigation. © 2015 Botanical Society of America, Inc.

  13. Corruption, development and governance indicators predict invasive species risk from trade

    OpenAIRE

    Brenton-Rule, Evan C.; Barbieri, Rafael F.; Lester, Philip J.

    2016-01-01

    Invasive species have an enormous global impact, with international trade being the leading pathway for their introduction. Current multinational trade deals under negotiation will dramatically change trading partnerships and pathways. These changes have considerable potential to influence biological invasions and global biodiversity. Using a database of 47 328 interceptions spanning 10 years, we demonstrate how development and governance socio-economic indicators of trading partners can pred...

  14. Species? and site?specific impacts of an invasive herbivore on tree survival in mixed forests

    OpenAIRE

    Holland, E. Penelope; Gormley, Andrew M.; Pech, Roger P.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Invasive herbivores are often managed to limit their negative impact on plant populations, but herbivore density ? plant damage relationships are notoriously spatially and temporally variable. Site and species characteristics (both plant and herbivore) must be considered when assessing the potential for herbivore damage, making it difficult to set thresholds for efficient management. Using the invasive brushtail possum Trichosurus vulpecula in New Zealand as a case study, we paramete...

  15. Selection for life-history traits to maximize population growth in an invasive marine species

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jaspers, Cornelia; Marty, Lise; Kiørboe, Thomas

    2018-01-01

    Species establishing outside their natural range, negatively impacting local ecosystems, are of increasing global concern. They often display life-history features characteristic for r-selected populations with fast growth and high reproduction rates to achieve positive population growth rates (r......) in invaded habitats. Here, we demonstrate substantially earlier maturation at a 2 orders of magnitude lower body mass at first reproduction in invasive compared to native populations of the comb jelly Mnemiopsis leidyi. Empirical results are corroborated by a theoretical model for competing life...... populations is an underappreciated determinant of invasiveness, acting as substrate upon which selection can act during the invasion process....

  16. Economic impacts of invasive species in forests: past, present, and future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmes, Thomas P; Aukema, Juliann E; Von Holle, Betsy; Liebhold, Andrew; Sills, Erin

    2009-04-01

    Biological invasions by nonnative species are a by-product of economic activities, with the vast majority of nonnative species introduced by trade and transport of products and people. Although most introduced species are relatively innocuous, a few species ultimately cause irreversible economic and ecological impacts, such as the chestnut blight that functionally eradicated the American chestnut across eastern North America. Assessments of the economic costs and losses induced by nonnative forest pests are required for policy development and need to adequately account for all of the economic impacts induced by rare, highly damaging pests. To date, countrywide economic evaluations of forest-invasive species have proceeded by multiplying a unit value (price) by a physical quantity (volume of forest products damaged) to arrive at aggregate estimates of economic impacts. This approach is inadequate for policy development because (1) it ignores the dynamic impacts of biological invasions on the evolution of prices, quantities, and market behavior, and (2) it fails to account for the loss in the economic value of nonmarket ecosystem services, such as landscape aesthetics, outdoor recreation, and the knowledge that healthy forest ecosystems exist. A review of the literature leads one to anticipate that the greatest economic impacts of invasive species in forests are due to the loss of nonmarket values. We proposed that new methods for evaluating aggregate economic damages from forest-invasive species need to be developed that quantify market and nonmarket impacts at microscales that are then extended using spatially explicit models to provide aggregate estimates of impacts. Finally, policies that shift the burden of economic impacts from taxpayers and forest landowners onto parties responsible for introducing or spreading invasives, whether through the imposition of tariffs on products suspected of imposing unacceptable risks on native forest ecosystems or by requiring

  17. Unadapted behaviour of native, dominant ant species during the colonization of an aggressive, invasive ant

    OpenAIRE

    Le Breton, Julien; Orivel, J.; Chazeau, Jean; Dejean, A.

    2007-01-01

    Among the factors driving the invasive success of non-indigenous species, the "escape opportunity" or "enemy release" hypothesis argues that an invader's success may result partly from less resistance from the new competitors found in its introduced range. In this study, we examined competitive interactions between the little fire ant Wasmannia auropunctata (Roger) and ant species of the genus Pheidole in places where both are native (French Guiana) and in places where only species of Pheidol...

  18. Are Photosynthetic Characteristics and Energetic Cost Important Invasive Traits for Alien Sonneratia Species in South China?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Feng-Lan; Zan, Qi-Jie; Hu, Zheng-Yu; Shin, Paul-K S; Cheung, Siu-Gin; Wong, Yuk-Shan; Tam, Nora Fung-Yee; Lei, An-Ping

    2016-01-01

    A higher photosynthesis and lower energetic cost are recognized as important characteristics for invasive species, but whether these traits are also important for the ability of alien mangrove species to become invasive has seldom been reported. A microcosm study was conducted to compare the photosynthetic characteristics, energetic cost indices and other growth traits between two alien species (Sonneratia apetala and S. caseolaris) and four native mangrove species over four seasons in a subtropical mangrove nature reserve in Shenzhen, South China. The aim of the study was to evaluate the invasive potential of Sonneratia based on these physiological responses. The annual average net photosynthetic rate (Pn), stomatal conductance (Gs) and total carbon assimilation per unit leaf area (Atotal) of the two alien Sonneratia species were significantly higher than the values of the native mangroves. In contrast, the opposite results were obtained for the leaf construction cost (CC) per unit dry mass (CCM) and CC per unit area (CCA) values. The higher Atotal and lower CC values resulted in a 72% higher photosynthetic energy-use efficiency (PEUE) for Sonneratia compared to native mangroves, leading to a higher relative growth rate (RGR) of the biomass and height of Sonneratia with the respective values being 51% and 119% higher than those of the native species. Higher photosynthetic indices for Sonneratia compared to native species were found in all seasons except winter, whereas lower CC values were found in all four seasons. The present findings reveal that alien Sonneratia species may adapt well and become invasive in subtropical mangrove wetlands in Shenzhen due to their higher photosynthetic characteristics coupled with lower costs in energy use, leading to a higher PEUE. The comparison of these physiological responses between S. apetala and S. caseolaris reveal that the former species is more invasive than the latter one, thus requiring more attention in future.

  19. Understanding of evolutionary genomics of invasive species of rice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Red rice is an aggressive, weedy form of cultivated rice (Oryza sativa) that infests crop fields and is a primary factor limiting rice productivity in the U.S. and worldwide. As the weedy relative of a genomic model species, red rice is a model for understanding the genetic and evolutionary mechani...

  20. Co-occurence of Invasive Species on Priority TES Installations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-05-01

    Nutrient mineralization rate Nutrient immobilization rate Soil and water chemistry Altered disturbance regime Type ...with installation. Scientific name Scientific name of NIS. Form Life form of NIS. Habitat Habitat type species is most likely to occur in; F... Herbarium , Bruce Baldwin, 510-643-7008 Sea Grant, http://endeavor.des.ucdavis.edu/weeds/countylist.asp California Exotic Pest Plant Council, http

  1. The assessment of invasive alien plant species removal programs ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Yusuf Adam

    Yusuf Adama, Njoya S Ngetara, Syd Ramdhanib a School of Agricultural, Earth and Environmental Sciences, University of KwaZulu-Natal, Howard ... Shaanker, 2013). These species affect human health, agriculture, forestry and biodiversity .... 2.2 Field data collection and image processing. Field data for the classification of ...

  2. Marine Invasive Species Management: Adapting in the Arctic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaiser, Brooks

    2014-01-01

    The rapid pace of climate change and increased human disturbance of ecosystems in the Arctic is bringing urgency to concern over non-native species introductions and their potential threats to the marine environment and its economic productivity, where before environmental conditions served...

  3. Population-specific responses to an invasive species

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Reichard, Martin; Douda, K.; Przybylski, M.; Popa, O. P.; Karbanová, E.; Matasová, K.; Rylková, K.; Polačik, Matej; Blažek, Radim; Smith, Carl

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 282, č. 1812 (2015), s. 167-174, č. článku 20151063. ISSN 0962-8452 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-05872S Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : alien species * Anodonta woodiana * intraspecific variation * glochidia * host–parasite dynamics * symbiosis Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 4.823, year: 2015

  4. Managing invasive species in the presence of endogenous technological change with uncertainty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, C S; Schaible, Glenn D; Lewandrowski, Jan; Vasavada, Utpal

    2010-02-01

    This research incorporates the development and adoption of an induced technology under uncertainty into a conceptual dynamic model to more broadly examine efficient policies for mitigating invasive species infestations. We find that under optimal policy, marginal costs of adopting conventional control measures are equal to the sum of the marginal benefits from development and adoption of new technology, as well as the use of conventional control measures. This result implies that a resource allocation designed for controlling invasive species is not adequate when an induced technology is not considered. Our results also reveal that the shadow values associated with the probabilities of developing and then adopting an induced technology increase as the shadow values associated with the stock of an invasive species population increase.

  5. Invasive Alien Species of Terrestrial Vegetation of North-Eastern Uttar Pradesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sumit Srivastava

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The vegetational landscape of north-eastern Terai region at the foot hills of Central Himalayas is a mosaic of grassland, old-field, wasteland, and forest ecosystems. Like many other parts of the country, this region is also infested with alien intruders which not only interfere with the growth and production of food crops but also exercise adverse effects on the biodiversity of native species. The present study attempts to catalogue the invasive alien species of the terrestrial vegetation of north-eastern Uttar Pradesh especially with reference to their habit, taxonomic position, and nativity. A total of 1135 plant species within 580 genera under 119 families are so far known to occur in the region. Of these, only 149 species within 100 genera under 41 families have been found to be invasive aliens as evident from their center of origin, past history, nature of aggregation, and invasion observed under field conditions. About 80% of these invaders have been introduced from neotropics. Out of 173 invasive plants across India, this region shares 149 species, out of which 66% of species have come from Tropical America, 14% from African continent, and the rest from other countries. A better planning in the form of early identification and reporting of infestation and spread of noxious weeds is needed for their control.

  6. Predicting invasive species impacts: a community module functional response approach reveals context dependencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paterson, Rachel A; Dick, Jaimie T A; Pritchard, Daniel W; Ennis, Marilyn; Hatcher, Melanie J; Dunn, Alison M

    2015-03-01

    Predatory functional responses play integral roles in predator-prey dynamics, and their assessment promises greater understanding and prediction of the predatory impacts of invasive species. Other interspecific interactions, however, such as parasitism and higher-order predation, have the potential to modify predator-prey interactions and thus the predictive capability of the comparative functional response approach. We used a four-species community module (higher-order predator; focal native or invasive predators; parasites of focal predators; native prey) to compare the predatory functional responses of native Gammarus duebeni celticus and invasive Gammarus pulex amphipods towards three invertebrate prey species (Asellus aquaticus, Simulium spp., Baetis rhodani), thus, quantifying the context dependencies of parasitism and a higher-order fish predator on these functional responses. Our functional response experiments demonstrated that the invasive amphipod had a higher predatory impact (lower handling time) on two of three prey species, which reflects patterns of impact observed in the field. The community module also revealed that parasitism had context-dependent influences, for one prey species, with the potential to further reduce the predatory impact of the invasive amphipod or increase the predatory impact of the native amphipod in the presence of a higher-order fish predator. Partial consumption of prey was similar for both predators and occurred increasingly in the order A. aquaticus, Simulium spp. and B. rhodani. This was associated with increasing prey densities, but showed no context dependencies with parasitism or higher-order fish predator. This study supports the applicability of comparative functional responses as a tool to predict and assess invasive species impacts incorporating multiple context dependencies. © 2014 The Authors. Journal of Animal Ecology © 2014 British Ecological Society.

  7. Attack of the invasive garden ant: aggression behaviour of Lasius neglectus (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) against native Lasius species in Spain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cremer, Sylvia; Ugelvig, Line Vej; Lommen, Suzanne T.E.

    2006-01-01

    Invasive species often dramatically change native species communities by directly and indirectly out-competing na-tive species. We studied the direct interference abilities of the invasive garden ant, Lasius neglectus VAN LOON, BOOMSMA & ANDRÁSFALVY, 1990, by performing one-to-one aggression test...

  8. Danger to biodiversity of High Tatras by spread of invasive plant species

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strba, P.; Gogolakova, A.

    2010-01-01

    The aim of our work was to analyze the current status of invasive plant species - their generic representation of a current extension (horizontal and vertical extension). We have been working method inventory of species richness. Site was recorded on a tourist map and a GPS (Garmin). Populations of invasive plants are studied localities mostly small (a few individuals to hundreds of individuals), but at the high anthropogenic impacts (construction activity, excessive tourist traffic), by synantropization of habitats and concurrently with the impacts of climate change here can create important focal point of the country and pose a serious threat to biodiversity is very valuable ecosystems.

  9. Invasive species in the Northeastern and Southwestern Atlantic Ocean: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro, Maria Cecilia T de; Fileman, Timothy W; Hall-Spencer, Jason M

    2017-03-15

    The spread of non-native species has been a subject of increasing concern since the 1980s when human-mediated transportation, mainly related to ships' ballast water, was recognized as a major vector for species transportation and spread, although records of non-native species go back as far as 16th Century. Ever increasing world trade and the resulting rise in shipping have highlighted the issue, demanding a response from the international community to the threat of non-native marine species. In the present study, we searched for available literature and databases on shipping and invasive species in the North-eastern (NE) and South-western (SW) Atlantic Ocean and assess the risk represented by the shipping trade between these two regions. There are reports of 44 species associated with high impacts for the NE Atlantic and 15 for the SW Atlantic, although this may be an underestimate. Vectors most cited are ballast water and biofouling for both regions while aquaculture has also been a very significant pathway of introduction and spread of invasive species in the NE Atlantic. Although the two regions have significant shipping traffic, no exchange of invasive species could be directly associated to the shipping between the two regions. However, it seems prudent to bring the exchange of ballast water between the two regions under control as soon as possible. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Previous Land Use and Invasive Species Impacts on Long-term Afforestation Success

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    Joshua B. Nickelson

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The conversion of agricultural lands to forests has increased worldwide over the past few decades for multiple reasons including increasing forest connectivity and wildlife habitat. However, previous land cover and competing vegetation often impede afforestation. We established 219 plots in 29 Quercus plantations on four previous land cover types (LCT: Clover, Soybeans, Woody Brush, and Herbaceous Weeds. Plantations were located in Illinois, USA and were sampled 15–18 years after planting. Sampling data for all trees (planted and volunteer included species, diameter, and vine presence on the main bole of the tree. Free-to-grow status was recorded for all Quercus species and estimated cover of two invasive species, Elaeagnus umbellata and Lonicera japonica, was documented on each plot. There was a strong relationship between total tree density and invasive species cover across all sites. Stocking success was lower and E. umbellata cover was higher on Woody Brush sites compared to Clover and Soybean cover types. Additionally, significantly more free-to-grow Quercus saplings occurred in Clover and Soybean cover types compared to the Woody Brush sites. The results indicate that previous land cover plays a critical role in forest afforestation. Furthermore, while historically, volunteer tree species were thought to be detrimental to the development of planted species these results suggest that with the increasing prevalence of invasive species worldwide the role of volunteer species in afforestation should be reconsidered and silvicultural protocols adjusted accordingly.

  11. Mediterranean species of Caulerpa are polyploid with smaller genomes in the invasive ones.

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    Elena Varela-Álvarez

    Full Text Available Caulerpa species are marine green algae, which often act as invasive species with rapid clonal proliferation when growing outside their native biogeographical borders. Despite many publications on the genetics and ecology of Caulerpa species, their life history and ploidy levels are still to be resolved and are the subject of large controversy. While some authors claimed that the thallus found in nature has a haplodiplobiontic life cycle with heteromorphic alternation of generations, other authors claimed a diploid or haploid life cycle with only one generation involved. DAPI-staining with image analysis and microspectrophotometry were used to estimate relative nuclear DNA contents in three species of Caulerpa from the Mediterranean, at individual, population and species levels. Results show that ploidy levels and genome size vary in these three Caulerpa species, with a reduction in genome size for the invasive ones. Caulerpa species in the Mediterranean are polyploids in different life history phases; all sampled C. taxifolia and C. racemosa var. cylindracea were in haplophasic phase, but in C. prolifera, the native species, individuals were found in both diplophasic and haplophasic phases. Different levels of endopolyploidy were found in both C. prolifera and C. racemosa var. cylindracea. Life history is elucidated for the Mediterranean C. prolifera and it is hypothesized that haplophasic dominance in C. racemosa var. cylindracea and C. taxifolia is a beneficial trait for their invasive strategies.

  12. The Bifurcation and Control of a Single-Species Fish Population Logistic Model with the Invasion of Alien Species

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    Yi Zhang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this paper is to study systematically the bifurcation and control of a single-species fish population logistic model with the invasion of alien species based on the theory of singular system and bifurcation. It regards Spartina anglica as an invasive species, which invades the fisheries and aquaculture. Firstly, the stabilities of equilibria in this model are discussed. Moreover, the sufficient conditions for existence of the trans-critical bifurcation and the singularity induced bifurcation are obtained. Secondly, the state feedback controller is designed to eliminate the unexpected singularity induced bifurcation by combining harvested effort with the purification capacity. It obviously inhibits the switch of population and makes the system stable. Finally, the numerical simulation is proposed to show the practical significance of the bifurcation and control from the biological point of view.

  13. Invasive species triggers a massive loss of ecosystem services through a trophic cascade.

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    Walsh, Jake R; Carpenter, Stephen R; Vander Zanden, M Jake

    2016-04-12

    Despite growing recognition of the importance of ecosystem services and the economic and ecological harm caused by invasive species, linkages between invasions, changes in ecosystem functioning, and in turn, provisioning of ecosystem services remain poorly documented and poorly understood. We evaluate the economic impacts of an invasion that cascaded through a food web to cause substantial declines in water clarity, a valued ecosystem service. The predatory zooplankton, the spiny water flea (Bythotrephes longimanus), invaded the Laurentian Great Lakes in the 1980s and has subsequently undergone secondary spread to inland lakes, including Lake Mendota (Wisconsin), in 2009. In Lake Mendota, Bythotrephes has reached unparalleled densities compared with in other lakes, decreasing biomass of the grazer Daphnia pulicaria and causing a decline in water clarity of nearly 1 m. Time series modeling revealed that the loss in water clarity, valued at US$140 million (US$640 per household), could be reversed by a 71% reduction in phosphorus loading. A phosphorus reduction of this magnitude is estimated to cost between US$86.5 million and US$163 million (US$430-US$810 per household). Estimates of the economic effects of Great Lakes invasive species may increase considerably if cases of secondary invasions into inland lakes, such as Lake Mendota, are included. Furthermore, such extreme cases of economic damages call for increased investment in the prevention and control of invasive species to better maximize the economic benefits of such programs. Our results highlight the need to more fully incorporate ecosystem services into our analysis of invasive species impacts, management, and public policy.

  14. Range expansion and population dynamics of an invasive species: the Eurasian Collared-Dove (Streptopelia decaocto.

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    Spencer N Scheidt

    Full Text Available Invasive species offer ecologists the opportunity to study the factors governing species distributions and population growth. The Eurasian Collared-Dove (Streptopelia decaocto serves as a model organism for invasive spread because of the wealth of abundance records and the recent development of the invasion. We tested whether a set of environmental variables were related to the carrying capacities and growth rates of individual populations by modeling the growth trajectories of individual populations of the Collared-Dove using Breeding Bird Survey (BBS and Christmas Bird Count (CBC data. Depending on the fit of our growth models, carrying capacity and growth rate parameters were extracted and modeled using historical, geographical, land cover and climatic predictors. Model averaging and individual variable importance weights were used to assess the strength of these predictors. The specific variables with the greatest support in our models differed between data sets, which may be the result of temporal and spatial differences between the BBS and CBC. However, our results indicate that both carrying capacity and population growth rates are related to developed land cover and temperature, while growth rates may also be influenced by dispersal patterns along the invasion front. Model averaged multivariate models explained 35-48% and 41-46% of the variation in carrying capacities and population growth rates, respectively. Our results suggest that widespread species invasions can be evaluated within a predictable population ecology framework. Land cover and climate both have important effects on population growth rates and carrying capacities of Collared-Dove populations. Efforts to model aspects of population growth of this invasive species were more successful than attempts to model static abundance patterns, pointing to a potentially fruitful avenue for the development of improved invasive distribution models.

  15. Keystone predators (eastern newts, Notophthalmus viridescens) reduce the impacts of an aquatic invasive species

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    Smith, Kimberly G.

    2006-01-01

    Predation, competition, and their interaction are known to be important factors that influence the structure of ecological communities. In particular, in those cases where a competitive hierarchy exists among prey species, the presence of certain keystone predators can result in enhanced diversity in the prey community. However, little is known regarding the influence of keystone predator presence on invaded prey communities. Given the widespread occurrence of invasive species and substantial concern regarding their ecological impacts, studies on this topic are needed. In this study I used naturalistic replications of an experimental tadpole assemblage to assess the influence of predatory eastern newts, Notophthalmus viridescens, on the outcome of interspecific competition among native and nonindigenous tadpoles. When newts were absent, the presence of the tadpoles of one invasive species, the Cuban treefrog, Osteopilus septentrionalis, resulted in decreased survival and growth rate of the dominant native species, Bufo terrestris, and dominance of the tadpole assemblage by O. septentrionalis. However, the presence of one adult newt generally reduced or eliminated the negative impacts of O. septentrionalis tadpoles, resulting in comparable survival and performance of native species in invaded and noninvaded treatments. Differential mortality among the tadpole species suggests that newts preyed selectively on O. septentrionalis tadpoles, supporting the hypothesis that newts acted as keystone predators in the invaded assemblage. The presence of nonindigenous larval cane toads, Bufo marinus, did not significantly affect native species, and this species was not negatively affected by the presence of newts. Collectively, these results suggest that eastern newts significantly modified the competitive hierarchy of the invaded tadpole assemblage and reduced the impacts of a competitively superior invasive species. If general, these results suggest that the presence of

  16. Species Distribution Model for Management of an Invasive Vine in Forestlands of Eastern Texas

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    Hsiao-Hsuan Wang

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Invasive plants decrease biodiversity, modify vegetation structure, and inhibit growth and reproduction of native species. Japanese honeysuckle (Lonicera japonica Thunb. is the most prevalent invasive vine in the forestlands of eastern Texas. Hence, we aimed to identify potential factors influencing the distribution of the species, quantify the relative importance of each factor, and test possible management strategies. We analyzed an extensive dataset collected as part of the Forest Inventory and Analysis Program of the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA Forest Service to quantify the range expansion of Japanese honeysuckle in the forestlands of eastern Texas from 2006 to 2011. We then identified potential factors influencing the likelihood of presence of Japanese honeysuckle using boosted regression trees. Our results indicated that the presence of Japanese honeysuckle on sampled plots almost doubled during this period (from 352 to 616 plots, spreading extensively, geographically. The probability of invasion was correlated with variables representing landscape conditions, climatic conditions, forest features, disturbance factors, and forest management activities. Habitats most at risk to invasion under current conditions occurred primarily in northeastern Texas, with a few invasion hotspots in the south. Estimated probabilities of invasion were reduced most by artificial site regeneration, with habitats most at risk again occurring primarily in northeastern Texas.

  17. What can morphology tell us about ecology of four invasive goby species?

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    Jakubčinová, K; Simonović, P; Števove, B; Čanak Atlagić, J; Kováč, V

    2017-05-01

    This study presents a detailed comparative analysis of external morphology of four of the most invasive goby species in Europe (round goby Neogobius melanostomus, bighead goby Ponticola kessleri, monkey goby Neogobius fluviatilis and racer goby Ponticola gymnotrachelus) and interprets some ecological requirements of these species based on their morphological attributes. The results are evaluated within an ontogenetic context, and the morphological differences between the species are discussed in terms of the question: can special external shape adaptations help to assess the invasive potential of each species? The morphometric analyses demonstrate important differences between the four invasive gobies. Neogobius melanostomus appears to have the least specialized external morphology that may favour its invasive success: little specialization to habitat or diet means reduced restraints on overall ecological requirements. The other three species were found to possess some morphological specializations (P. kessleri to large prey, N. fluviatilis to sandy habitats and P. gymnotrachelus to macrophytes), but none of these gobies have managed to colonize such large areas or to reach such overall abundances as N. melanostomus. © 2017 The Fisheries Society of the British Isles.

  18. International cooperation in the solution to trade-related invasive species risks.

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    Perrings, Charles; Burgiel, Stas; Lonsdale, Mark; Mooney, Harold; Williamson, Mark

    2010-05-01

    In this paper, we consider the factors behind the growth of invasive species as a global problem, and the scope for international cooperation and coordination in addressing that problem. This is limited by the terms of the various international agreements governing trade, health, and biodiversity. The default strategy in most cases has two parts: border protection and the control of or adaptation to introduced species that have escaped detection at the border. Most invasive species policy involves unilateral national defensive action as opposed to coordinated international action. We argue that an important part of the solution to the problem lies in global coordination and cooperation in the management of both pathways and sanitary and phytosanitary risks at all scales. More particularly, because invasive species are an externality of trade, transport, and travel that involve public goods, they require collective regulation of international markets that goes beyond that admitted under the World Trade Organization's (WTO) Agreement on the Application of Sanitary and Phytosanitary Measures. We argue that it is important to bring that agreement into conformity with the International Health Regulations (IHR), and to develop an international mechanism to generate and disseminate information on invasive species risks and their impacts.

  19. Invasive species management restores a plant-pollinator mutualism in Hawaii

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    Hanna, Cause; Foote, David; Kremen, Claire

    2013-01-01

    1.The management and removal of invasive species may give rise to unanticipated changes in plant–pollinator mutualisms because they can alter the composition and functioning of plant–pollinator interactions in a variety of ways. To utilize a functional approach for invasive species management, we examined the restoration of plant–pollinator mutualisms following the large-scale removal of an invasive nectar thief and arthropod predator, Vespula pensylvanica. 2.We reduced V. pensylvanica populations in large plots managed over multiple years to examine the response of plant–pollinator mutualisms and the fruit production of a functionally important endemic Hawaiian tree species, Metrosideros polymorpha. To integrate knowledge of the invader's behaviour and the plant's mating system, we determined the efficacy of V. pensylvanica as a pollinator of M. polymorpha and quantified the dependence of M. polymorpha on animal pollination (e.g. level of self-compatibility and pollen limitation). 3.The reduction of V. pensylvanica in managed sites, when compared to unmanaged sites, resulted in a significant increase in the visitation rates of effective bee pollinators (e.g. introduced Apis mellifera and native Hylaeus spp.) and in the fruit production of M. polymorpha. 4.Apis mellifera, following the management of V. pensylvanica, appears to be acting as a substitute pollinator for M. polymorpha, replacing extinct or threatened bird and bee species in our study system. 5.Synthesis and applications. Fruit production of the native M. polymorpha was increased after management of the invasive pollinator predator V. pensylvanica; however, the main pollinators were no longer native but introduced. This research thus demonstrates the diverse impacts of introduced species on ecological function and the ambiguous role they play in restoration. We recommend incorporating ecological function and context into invasive species management as this approach may enable conservation

  20. Aedes albopictus and Aedes japonicus - two invasive mosquito species with different temperature niches in Europe

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    Sarah Cunze

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Aedes albopictus and Ae. japonicus are two of the most widespread invasive mosquito species that have recently become established in western Europe. Both species are associated with the transmission of a number of serious diseases and are projected to continue their spread in Europe. Methods In the present study, we modelled the habitat suitability for both species under current and future climatic conditions by means of an Ensemble forecasting approach. We additionally compared the modelled MAXENT niches of Ae. albopictus and Ae. japonicus regarding temperature and precipitation requirements. Results Both species were modelled to find suitable habitat conditions in distinct areas within Europe: Ae. albopictus within the Mediterranean regions in southern Europe, Ae. japonicus within the more temperate regions of central Europe. Only in few regions, suitable habitat conditions were projected to overlap for both species. Whereas Ae. albopictus is projected to be generally promoted by climate change in Europe, the area modelled to be climatically suitable for Ae. japonicus is projected to decrease under climate change. This projection of range reduction under climate change relies on the assumption that Ae. japonicus is not able to adapt to warmer climatic conditions. The modelled MAXENT temperature niches of Ae. japonicus were found to be narrower with an optimum at lower temperatures compared to the niches of Ae. albopictus. Conclusions Species distribution models identifying areas with high habitat suitability can help improving monitoring programmes for invasive species currently in place. However, as mosquito species are known to be able to adapt to new environmental conditions within the invasion range quickly, niche evolution of invasive mosquito species should be closely followed upon in future studies.

  1. Impact of an Alien Invasive Shrub on Ecology of Native and Alien Invasive Mosquito Species (Diptera: Culicidae).

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    Muturi, Ephantus J; Gardner, Allison M; Bara, Jeffrey J

    2015-10-01

    We examined how leaf litter of alien invasive honeysuckle (Lonicera maackii Rupr.) either alone or in combination with leaf litter of one of two native tree species, sugar maple (Acer saccharum Marshall) and northern red oak (Quercus rubra L.), affects the ecology of Culex restuans Theobald, Ochlerotatus triseriatus Say, and Ochlerotatus japonicus Theobald. Experimental mesocosms containing single species litter or a mixture of honeysuckle and one of two native tree species litter were established at South Farms and Trelease Woods study sites in Urbana, IL, and examined for their effect on 1) oviposition site selection by the three mosquito species, and 2) adult production and body size of Oc. triseriatus and Oc. japonicus. There were no significant effects of study site and leaf treatment on Oc. japonicus and Oc. triseriatus oviposition preference and adult production. In contrast, significantly more Cx. restuans eggs rafts were collected at South Farms relative to Trelease Woods and in honeysuckle litter relative to native tree species litter. Significantly larger adult females of Oc. japonicus and Oc. triseriatus were collected at South Farms relative to Trelease Woods and in honeysuckle litter relative to native tree species litter. Combining honeysuckle litter with native tree species litter had additive effects on Cx. restuans oviposition preference and Oc. japonicus and Oc. triseriatus body size, with the exception of honeysuckle and northern red oak litter combination, which had antagonistic effects on Oc. triseriatus body size. We conclude that input of honeysuckle litter into container aquatic habitats may alter the life history traits of vector mosquito species. © The Authors 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  2. Abundance modelling of invasive and indigenous Culicoides species in Spain

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    Els Ducheyne

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we present a novel methodology applied in Spain to model spatial abundance patterns of potential vectors of disease at a medium spatial resolution of 5 x 5 km using a countrywide database with abundance data for five Culicoides species, random regression Forest modelling and a spatial dataset of ground measured and remotely sensed eco-climatic and environmental predictor variables. First the probability of occurrence was computed. In a second step a direct regression between the probability of occurrence and trap abundance was established to verify the linearity of the relationship. Finally the probability of occurrence was used in combination with the set of predictor variables to model abundance. In each case the variable importance of the predictors was used to biologically interpret results and to compare both model outputs, and model performance was assessed using four different accuracy measures. Results are shown for C. imicola, C. newsteadii, C. pulicaris group, C. punctatus and C. obsoletus group. In each case the probability of occurrence is a good predictor of abundance at the used spatial resolution of 5 x 5 km. In addition, the C. imicola and C. obsoletus group are highly driven by summer rainfall. The spatial pattern is inverse between the two species, indicating that the lower and upper thresholds are different. C. pulicaris group is mainly driven by temperature. The patterns for C. newsteadii and C. punctatus are less clear. It is concluded that the proposed methodology can be used as an input to transmission-infection-recovery (TIR models and R0 models. The methodology will become available to the general public as part of the VECMAPTM software.

  3. Using Risk Assessment and Habitat Suitability Models to Prioritise Invasive Species for Management in a Changing Climate.

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    Shauna-Lee Chai

    Full Text Available Accounting for climate change in invasive species risk assessments improves our understanding of potential future impacts and enhances our preparedness for the arrival of new non-native species. We combined traditional risk assessment for invasive species with habitat suitability modeling to assess risk to biodiversity based on climate change. We demonstrate our method by assessing the risk for 15 potentially new invasive plant species to Alberta, Canada, an area where climate change is expected to facilitate the poleward expansion of invasive species ranges. Of the 15 species assessed, the three terrestrial invasive plant species that could pose the greatest threat to Alberta's biodiversity are giant knotweed (Fallopia sachalinensis, tamarisk (Tamarix chinensis, and alkali swainsonpea (Sphaerophysa salsula. We characterise giant knotweed as 'extremely invasive', with 21 times the suitable habitat between baseline and future projected climate. Tamarisk is 'extremely invasive' with a 64% increase in suitable habitat, and alkali swainsonpea is 'highly invasive' with a 21% increase in suitable habitat. Our methodology can be used to predict and prioritise potentially new invasive species for their impact on biodiversity in the context of climate change.

  4. Using Risk Assessment and Habitat Suitability Models to Prioritise Invasive Species for Management in a Changing Climate.

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    Chai, Shauna-Lee; Zhang, Jian; Nixon, Amy; Nielsen, Scott

    2016-01-01

    Accounting for climate change in invasive species risk assessments improves our understanding of potential future impacts and enhances our preparedness for the arrival of new non-native species. We combined traditional risk assessment for invasive species with habitat suitability modeling to assess risk to biodiversity based on climate change. We demonstrate our method by assessing the risk for 15 potentially new invasive plant species to Alberta, Canada, an area where climate change is expected to facilitate the poleward expansion of invasive species ranges. Of the 15 species assessed, the three terrestrial invasive plant species that could pose the greatest threat to Alberta's biodiversity are giant knotweed (Fallopia sachalinensis), tamarisk (Tamarix chinensis), and alkali swainsonpea (Sphaerophysa salsula). We characterise giant knotweed as 'extremely invasive', with 21 times the suitable habitat between baseline and future projected climate. Tamarisk is 'extremely invasive' with a 64% increase in suitable habitat, and alkali swainsonpea is 'highly invasive' with a 21% increase in suitable habitat. Our methodology can be used to predict and prioritise potentially new invasive species for their impact on biodiversity in the context of climate change.

  5. Acute Upper Thermal Limits of Three Aquatic Invasive Invertebrates: Hot Water Treatment to Prevent Upstream Transport of Invasive Species

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    Beyer, Jessica; Moy, Philip; de Stasio, Bart

    2011-01-01

    Transport of aquatic invasive species (AIS) by boats traveling up rivers and streams is an important mechanism of secondary spread of AIS into watersheds. Because physical barriers to AIS movement also prevent navigation, alternate methods for preventing spread are necessary while allowing upstream navigation. One promising approach is to lift boats over physical barriers and then use hot water immersion to kill AIS attached to the hull, motor, or fishing gear. However, few data have been published on the acute upper thermal tolerance limits of potential invaders treated in this manner. To test the potential effectiveness of this approach for a planned boat lift on the Fox River of northeastern WI, USA, acute upper thermal limits were determined for three AIS, adult zebra mussels ( Dreissena polymorpha), quagga mussels ( Dreissena rostriformis bugensis), and spiny water fleas ( Bythotrephes longimanus) from the local area employing temperatures from 32 to 54°C and immersion times from 1 to 20 min. Mortality was determined after immersion followed by a 20-min recovery period. Immersion at 43°C for at least 5 min was required to ensure 100% mortality for all three species, but due to variability in the response by Bythotrephes a 10 min immersion would be more reliable. Overall there were no significant differences between the three species in acute upper thermal limits. Heated water can be an efficient, environmentally sound, and cost effective method of controlling AIS potentially transferred by boats, and our results should have both specific and wide-ranging applications in the prevention of the spread of aquatic invasive species.

  6. Do alien species matter? Impacts of invasions in Indian freshwater systems and challenges in management

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    Murugan Muralidharan

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Alongside anthropogenic activities and habitat destruction, invasions are regarded as one of the most influential components of global change. India as a growing economy and rapidly developing nation has been constantly engaged in infrastructure development which consequently has led to depletion of natural resources and declining quality of habitats aquatic systems in particular. Invasions that have established from the introductions in past during the colonial era and recently spread species are great challenges that hamper survival of aquatic resources. As of 2015, 20 plants, one mollusc and 37 fishes are known to have naturalized in Indian water bodies. Awareness on the invasive species along with detailed information on the ecosystem-wide impacts is essential for management.

  7. Epidemiology of candidemia and antifungal susceptibility in invasive Candida species in the Asia-Pacific region.

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    Wang, He; Xu, Ying-Chun; Hsueh, Po-Ren

    2016-10-01

    In the Asia-Pacific region, Candida albicans is the predominant Candida species causing invasive candidiasis/candidemia in Australia, Japan, Korea, Hong Kong, Malaysia, Singapore and Thailand whereas C. tropicalis is the most frequently encountered Candida species in Pakistan and India. Invasive isolates of C. albicans, C. parapsilosis complex and C. tropicalis remain highly susceptible to fluconazole (>90% susceptible). Fluconazole resistance (6.8-15%), isolates with the non-wild-type phenotype for itraconazole susceptibility (3.9-10%) and voriconazole (5-17.8%), and echinocandin resistance (2.1-2.2% in anidulafungin and 2.2% in micafungin) among invasive C. glabrata complex isolates are increasing in prevalence. Moreover, not all isolates of C. tropicalis have been shown to be susceptible to fluconazole (nonsusceptible rate, 5.7-11.6% in China) or voriconazole (nonsusceptible rate, 5.7-9.6% in China).

  8. Teaching citizen science skills online: Implications for invasive species training programs

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    Newman, G.; Crall, A.; Laituri, M.; Graham, J.; Stohlgren, T.; Moore, J.C.; Kodrich, K.; Holfelder, K.A.

    2010-01-01

    Citizen science programs are emerging as an efficient way to increase data collection and help monitor invasive species. Effective invasive species monitoring requires rigid data quality assurances if expensive control efforts are to be guided by volunteer data. To achieve data quality, effective online training is needed to improve field skills and reach large numbers of remote sentinel volunteers critical to early detection and rapid response. The authors evaluated the effectiveness of online static and multimedia tutorials to teach citizen science volunteers (n = 54) how to identify invasive plants; establish monitoring plots; measure percent cover; and use Global Positioning System (GPS) units. Participants trained using static and multimedia tutorials provided less (p quality, and overall program effectiveness. ?? Taylor & Francis Group, LLC.

  9. INVASIVESNET towards an International Association for Open Knowledge on Invasive Alien Species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucy, Frances; Roy, Helen; Simpson, Annie; Carlton, James T.; Hanson, John Mark; Magellan, Kit; Campbell, Marnie L.; Costello, Mark J.; Pagad, Shyama; Hewitt, Chad L; McDonald, Justin; Cassey, Phillip; Thomaz, Sidinei M; Katsanevakis, Stelios; Zenetos, Argyro; Tricarico, Elena; Boggero, Angela; Groom, Quentin J.; Adriaens, Tim; Vanderhoeven, Sonia; Torchin, Mark E.; Hufbauer, Ruth A.; Fuller, Pam; Carman, Mary R; Conn, David Bruce; Vitule, Jean R. S.; Canning-Clode, João; Galil, Bella S; Ojaveer, Henn; Bailey, Sarah A; Therriault, Thomas W; Claudi, Renata; Gazda, Anna; Dick, Jaimie T A; Caffrey, Joe; Witt, Arne; Kenis, Marc; Lehtiniemi, Maiju; Helmisaari, Harry; Panov, Vadim E

    2016-01-01

    In a world where invasive alien species (IAS) are recognised as one of the major threats to biodiversity, leading scientists from five continents have come together to propose the concept of developing an international association for open knowledge and open data on IAS—termed “INVASIVESNET”. This new association will facilitate greater understanding and improved management of invasive alien species (IAS) and biological invasions globally, by developing a sustainable network of networks for effective knowledge exchange. In addition to their inclusion in the CBD Strategic Plan for Biodiversity, the increasing ecological, social, cultural and economic impacts associated with IAS have driven the development of multiple legal instruments and policies. This increases the need for greater co-ordination, co-operation, and information exchange among scientists, management, the community of practice and the public.

  10. Improving invasive species management by integrating priorities and contributions of scientists and decision makers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    N'Guyen, Anouk; Hirsch, Philipp E; Adrian-Kalchhauser, Irene; Burkhardt-Holm, Patricia

    2016-04-01

    Managing invasive species is a major challenge for society. In the case of newly established invaders, rapid action is key for a successful management. Here, we develop, describe and recommend a three-step transdisciplinary process (the "butterfly model") to rapidly initiate action for invasion management. In the framing of a case study, we present results from the first of these steps: assessing priorities and contributions of both scientists and decision makers. Both scientists and decision makers prioritise research on prevention. The available scientific knowledge contributions, however, are publications on impacts rather than prevention of the invasive species. The contribution of scientific knowledge does thus not reflect scientists' perception of what is essentially needed. We argue that a more objective assessment and transparent communication of not only decision makers' but also scientists' priorities is an essential basis for a successful cooperation. Our three-step model can help achieve objectivity via transdisciplinary communication.

  11. Historic Mining and Agriculture as Indicators of Occurrence and Abundance of Widespread Invasive Plant Species

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    Calinger, Kellen; Calhoon, Elisabeth; Chang, Hsiao-chi; Whitacre, James; Wenzel, John; Comita, Liza; Queenborough, Simon

    2015-01-01

    Anthropogenic disturbances often change ecological communities and provide opportunities for non-native species invasion. Understanding the impacts of disturbances on species invasion is therefore crucial for invasive species management. We used generalized linear mixed effects models to explore the influence of land-use history and distance to roads on the occurrence and abundance of two invasive plant species (Rosa multiflora and Berberis thunbergii) in a 900-ha deciduous forest in the eastern U.S.A., the Powdermill Nature Reserve. Although much of the reserve has been continuously forested since at least 1939, aerial photos revealed a variety of land-uses since then including agriculture, mining, logging, and development. By 2008, both R. multiflora and B. thunbergii were widespread throughout the reserve (occurring in 24% and 13% of 4417 10-m diameter regularly-placed vegetation plots, respectively) with occurrence and abundance of each varying significantly with land-use history. Rosa multiflora was more likely to occur in historically farmed, mined, logged or developed plots than in plots that remained forested, (log odds of 1.8 to 3.0); Berberis thunbergii was more likely to occur in plots with agricultural, mining, or logging history than in plots without disturbance (log odds of 1.4 to 2.1). Mining, logging, and agriculture increased the probability that R. multiflora had >10% cover while only past agriculture was related to cover of B. thunbergii. Proximity to roads was positively correlated with the occurrence of R. multiflora (a 0.26 increase in the log odds for every 1-m closer) but not B. thunbergii, and roads had no impact on the abundance of either species. Our results indicated that a wide variety of disturbances may aid the introduction of invasive species into new habitats, while high-impact disturbances such as agriculture and mining increase the likelihood of high abundance post-introduction. PMID:26046534

  12. Increase in quantity and quality of suitable areas for invasive species as climate changes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertelsmeier, Cleo; Luque, Gloria M; Courchamp, Franck

    2013-12-01

    As climatically suitable range projections become increasingly used to assess distributions of species, we recommend systematic assessments of the quality of habitat in addition to the classical binary classification of habitat. We devised a method to assess occurrence probability, captured by a climatic suitability index, through which we could determine variations in the quality of potential habitat. This relative risk assessment circumvents the use of an arbitrary suitability threshold. We illustrated our method with 2 case studies on invasive ant species. We estimated invasion potential of the destroyer ant (Monomorium destructor) and the European fire ant (Myrmica rubra) on a global scale currently and by 2080 with climate change. We found that 21.1% of the world's landmass currently has a suitable climate for the destroyer ant and 16% has a suitable climate for European fire ant. Our climatic suitability index showed that both ant species would benefit from climate change, but in different ways. The size of the potential distribution increased by 35.8% for the destroyer ant. Meanwhile, the total area of potential distribution remained the same for the European fire ant (>0.05%), but the level of climatic suitability within this range increased greatly and led to an improvement in habitat quality (i.e., of invasive species' establishment likelihood). Either through quantity or quality of suitable areas, both invasive ant species are likely to increase the extent of their invasion in the future, following global climate change. Our results show that species may increase their range if either more areas become suitable or if the available areas present improved suitability. Studies in which an arbitrary suitability threshold was used may overlook changes in area quality within climatically suitable areas and as a result reach incorrect predictions. Incremento de la Cantidad y Calidad de Áreas Idóneas para Especies Invasoras a Medida que Cambia el Clima.

  13. An annotated bibliography of invasive tree pathogens Sirococcus clavigignenti-juglandacearum, Phytophthora alni, and Phytophthora quercina and a regulatory policy and management practices for invasive species

    Science.gov (United States)

    T.M. Seeland; M.E. Ostry; R. Venette; J. Juzwik

    2006-01-01

    Provides a database of selected literature pertaining to the prevention, early detection and rapid response, control and management, and rehabilitation and restoration related to three invasive fungal pathogens of forest trees. Literature addressing regulatory policy and management practices for invasive species is also included.

  14. Climate, invasive species and land use drive population dynamics of a cold-water specialist

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovach, Ryan P.; Al-Chokhachy, Robert K.; Whited, Diane C.; Schmetterling, David A.; Dux, Andrew M; Muhlfeld, Clint C.

    2017-01-01

    Climate change is an additional stressor in a complex suite of threats facing freshwater biodiversity, particularly for cold-water fishes. Research addressing the consequences of climate change on cold-water fish has generally focused on temperature limits defining spatial distributions, largely ignoring how climatic variation influences population dynamics in the context of other existing stressors.We used long-term data from 92 populations of bull trout Salvelinus confluentus – one of North America's most cold-adapted fishes – to quantify additive and interactive effects of climate, invasive species and land use on population dynamics (abundance, variability and growth rate).Populations were generally depressed, more variable and declining where spawning and rearing stream habitat was limited, invasive species and land use were prevalent and stream temperatures were highest. Increasing stream temperature acted additively and independently, whereas land use and invasive species had additive and interactive effects (i.e. the impact of one stressor depended on exposure to the other stressor).Most (58%–78%) of the explained variation in population dynamics was attributed to the presence of invasive species, differences in life history and management actions in foraging habitats in rivers, lakes and reservoirs. Although invasive fishes had strong negative effects on populations in foraging habitats, proactive control programmes appeared to effectively temper their negative impact.Synthesis and applications. Long-term demographic data emphasize that climate warming will exacerbate imperilment of cold-water specialists like bull trout, yet other stressors – especially invasive fishes – are immediate threats that can be addressed by proactive management actions. Therefore, climate-adaptation strategies for freshwater biodiversity should consider existing abiotic and biotic stressors, some of which provide potential and realized opportunity for conservation

  15. Alien Species of Lepidium in the Flora of Romania: Invasion History and Habitat Preference

    OpenAIRE

    Culiţă SÎRBU; Adrian OPREA; Cristian Valeriu PATRICHE; Costel SAMUIL; Vasile VÎNTU

    2014-01-01

    The history of spread and habitat preferences during invasion of four alien species of Lepidium in Romania, namely L. densiflorum, L. oblongum, L. sativum, and L. virginicum are presented in this paper. The floristic records of these species, collected between 1816 and 2013, were used in the study. L. sativum was sporadically mentioned by earlier botanic references, as a casual alien plant in ruderal places. L. oblongum was reported from a single locality, but it may be considered a potential...

  16. INVASIVE ALIEN PLANT SPECIES USED FOR THE TREATMENT OF VARIOUS DISEASES IN LIMPOPO PROVINCE, SOUTH AFRICA

    OpenAIRE

    Maema, Lesibana Peter; Potgieter, Martin; Mahlo, Salome Mamokone

    2016-01-01

    Background: Invasive alien plant species (IAPs) are plants that have migrated from one geographical region to non-native region either intentional or unintentional. The general view of IAPs in environment is regarded as destructive to the ecosystem and they pose threat to native vegetation and species. However, some of these IAPS are utilized by local inhabitants as a substitute for scarce indigenous plants. The aim of the study is to conduct ethnobotanical survey on medicinal usage of invasi...

  17. Novel chemistry of invasive plants: exotic species have more unique metabolomic profiles than native congeners

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Macel, M.; de Vos, R.C.H.; Jansen, J.J.; Van der Putten, W.H.; Van Dam, N.M.

    2014-01-01

    t is often assumed that exotic plants can become invasive when they possess novel secondary chemistry compared with native plants in the introduced range. Using untargeted metabolomic fingerprinting, we compared a broad range of metabolites of six successful exotic plant species and their native

  18. Plant species invasions along the latitudinal gradient in the United States: Reply

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curtis H. Flather; Thomas J. Stohlgren; Catherine Jarnevich; David Barnett; John Kartesz

    2006-01-01

    We welcome the opportunity to respond to the comments of our colleagues, Fridley et al. (2006), on our recent paper (Stohlgren et al. 2005) regarding plant species invasions along latitudinal gradients. We agree on many aspects of this important line of research. In fact, the two major findings that they report from their analysis of floras are consistent with our main...

  19. Missing the Boat on Invasive Alien Species: A Review of Post-Secondary Curricula in Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Andrea L.; Bazely, Dawn R.; Yan, Norman D.

    2011-01-01

    Invasive alien species (IAS) cause major environmental and economic damage worldwide, and also threaten human food security and health. The impacts of IAS are expected to rise with continued globalization, land use modification, and climate change. Developing effective strategies to deal with IAS requires a collaborative, interdisciplinary…

  20. Exploring Stakeholders' Attitudes and Beliefs regarding Behaviors that Prevent the Spread of Invasive Species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prinbeck, Gwenn; Lach, Denise; Chan, Samuel

    2011-01-01

    The Theory of Planned Behavior was used as a framework for investigating recreationists' attitudes, subjective norms, and behavioral control beliefs pertaining to behaviors that reduce the spread of invasive species. A series of focus groups comprised of gardeners, fishers, hunters, and boaters was convened in Oregon, USA. Findings indicate six…

  1. Sampling design for aquatic invasive species early detection in Great Lakes ports

    Science.gov (United States)

    From 2006-2012, we evaluated a pilot aquatic invasive species (AIS) early detection monitoring program in Lake Superior that was designed to detect newly introduced fishes. We established survey protocols for three major ports (Duluth-Superior, Sault Ste. Marie, Thunder Bay) and ...

  2. Pest risk maps for invasive alien species: a roadmap for improvement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert C. Venette; Darren J. Kriticos; Roger D. Magarey; Frank H. Koch; Richard H. A. Baker; Susan P. Worner; Nadila N. Gomez Raboteaux; Daniel W. McKenney; Erhard J. Dobesberger; Denys Yemshanov; Paul J. De Barro; William D. Hutchinson; Glenn Fowler; Tom M. Kalaris; John. Pedlar

    2010-01-01

    Pest risk maps are powerful visual communication tools to describe where invasive alien species might arrive, establish, spread, or cause harmful impacts. These maps inform strategic and tactical pest management decisions, such as potential restrictions on international trade or the design of pest surveys and domestic quarantines. Diverse methods are available to...

  3. Pest risk maps for invasive alien species: a roadmap for improvement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert C. Venette; Darren J. Kriticos; Roger D. Magarey; Frank H. Koch; Richard H.A. Baker; Susan P. Worner; Nadilia N. Gomez Raboteaux; Daniel W. McKenney; Erhard J. Dobesberger; Denys Yemshanov; Paul J. De Barro; William D. Hutchison; Glenn Fowler; Tom M. Kalaris; John. Pedlar

    2010-01-01

    Pest risk maps are powerful visual communication tools to describe where invasive alien species might arrive, establish, spread, or cause harmful impacts. These maps inform strategic and tactical pest management decisions, such as potential restrictions on international trade or the design of pest surveys and domestic quarantines. Diverse methods are available to...

  4. Maintenance of salt barrens inhibited landward invasion of Spartina species in salt marshes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Qi, Man; Sun, Tao; Zhang, Heyue; Zhu, Meisha; Yang, Ying-Wei; Shao, Dongdong; Voinov, Alexey

    2017-01-01

    Spartina spp. (cordgrasses) often dominates intertidal mudflats and/or low marshes. The landward invasion of these species was typically thought to be restrained by low tidal inundation frequencies and interspecific competition. We noticed that the reported soil salinity levels in some salt marshes

  5. Successful invasion of the neotropical species Piper aduncum in rain forests in Papua New Guinea

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Lepš, Jan; Novotný, Vojtěch; Čížek, Lukáš; Molem, K.; Isua, B.; Boen, W.; Kutil, R.; Auga, J.; Kasbal, M.; Manumbor, M.; Hiuk, S.

    2002-01-01

    Roč. 5, - (2002), s. 255-262 ISSN 1402-2001 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA206/99/1112; GA AV ČR IAA6007106 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5007907 Keywords : Alien species * Biological invasion * Disturbance Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour

  6. Pacific oysters and parasites: Species invasions and their impact on parasite-host interactions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goedknegt, M.A.

    2017-01-01

    Human-aided introductions of species affect natural communities and ecosystems worldwide. These biological invasions can be considered to be ‘experiments in nature’ to study general ecological and evolutionary processes at large spatial and temporal scales.Studies on biological

  7. Trait convergence and plasticity among native and invasive species in resource-poor environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drenovsky, Rebecca E; Khasanova, Albina; James, Jeremy J

    2012-04-01

    Functional trait comparisons provide a framework with which to assess invasion and invasion resistance. However, recent studies have found evidence for both trait convergence and divergence among coexisting dominant native and invasive species. Few studies have assessed how multiple stresses constrain trait values and plasticity, and no study has included direct measurements of nutrient conservation traits, which are critical to plants growing in low-resource environments. We evaluated how nutrient and water stresses affect growth and allocation, water potential and gas exchange, and nitrogen (N) allocation and use traits among a suite of six codominant species from the Intermountain West to determine trait values and plasticity. In the greenhouse, we grew our species under a full factorial combination of high and low N and water availability. We measured relative growth rate (RGR) and its components, total biomass, biomass allocation, midday water potential, photosynthetic rate, water-use efficiency (WUE), green leaf N, senesced leaf N, total N pools, N productivity, and photosynthetic N use efficiency. Overall, soil water availability constrained plant responses to N availability and was the major driver of plant trait variation in our analysis. Drought decreased plant biomass and RGR, limited N conservation, and led to increased WUE. For most traits, native and nonnative species were similarly plastic. Our data suggest native and invasive biomass dominants may converge on functionally similar traits and demonstrate comparable ability to respond to changes in resource availability.

  8. Impacts of nonnative invasive species on US forests and recommendations for policy and management

    Science.gov (United States)

    W. Keith Moser; Edward L. Barnard; Ronald F. Billings; Susan J. Crocker; Andrew N. Gray; George G. Ice; Mee-Sook Kim; Richard Reid; Sue U. Rodman; William H. McWilliams

    2009-01-01

    The introduction of nonnative invasive species (NNIS) into the United States has had tremendous impacts on the nation's commercial and urban forest resources. Of principal concern are the effects of NNIS on forest composition, structure, function, productivity, and patterns of carbon sequestration. In 2006, the Society of American Foresters commissioned an ad hoc...

  9. An invasive mosquito species Aedes albopictus found in the Czech Republic, 2012

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šebesta, Oldřich; Rudolf, Ivo; Betášová, Lenka; Peško, Juraj; Hubálek, Zdeněk

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 17, č. 43 (2012), s. 20301 ISSN 1560-7917 Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : invasive mosquito species * Aedes albopictus Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 5.491, year: 2012 http://www.eurosurveillance.org/ViewArticle.aspx?ArticleId=20301

  10. Public support for invasive alien species eradication programs: insights from the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Runhaar, Hens; Vane, Maurice

    2016-01-01

    Over the last few decades, the number of invasive alien species (IAS) has increasedworldwide. IAS can have negative impacts on biodiversity, human health, and the economy. For a number of reasons, IAS policies and management schemes that have been implemented have not been sufficient to tackle the

  11. Framework for modelling economic impacts of invasive species, applied to pine wood nematode in Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Soliman, T.; Mourits, M.C.M.; Werf, van der W.; Hengeveld, G.M.; Robinet, C.; Oude Lansink, A.G.J.M.

    2012-01-01

    Background Economic impact assessment of invasive species requires integration of information on pest entry, establishment and spread, valuation of assets at risk and market consequences at large spatial scales. Here we develop such a framework and demonstrate its application to the pinewood

  12. On the potential of plant species invasion influencing bio-geomorphologic landscape formation in salt marshes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schwarz, Christian; Ysebaert, Tom; Vandenbruwaene, Wouter; Temmerman, Stijn; Zhang, Li Quan; Herman, Peter M.J.

    2016-01-01

    Species invasions are known to change biotic and abiotic ecosystem characteristics such as community structure, cycling of materials and dynamics of rivers. However, their ability to alter interactions between biotic and abiotic ecosystem components, in particular bio-geomorphic feedbacks and the

  13. On the potential of plant species invasion influencing bio-geomorphologic landscape formation in salt marshes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schwarz, C.; Ysebaert, T.; Vandenbruwaene, W.; Temmerman, S.; Zhang, L.; Herman, P.

    2016-01-01

    Species invasions are known to change biotic and abiotic ecosystem characteristics such as community structure, cycling of materials and dynamics of rivers. However, their ability to alter interactions between biotic and abiotic ecosystem components, in particular bio-geomorphic feedbacks and the

  14. The uniqueness of the everyday: Herders and invasive species in India

    OpenAIRE

    Puri, Rajindra K.

    2015-01-01

    This chapter approaches climate change through the quotidian response of herders in India to\\ud an invasive species whose proliferation is linked to increasing dry spells, thereby\\ud problematising the way that scientists and policymakers imagine climate as abstracted from\\ud its social context.

  15. Novel chemistry of invasive plants: exotic species have more unique metabolomic profiles than native congeners

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Macel, M.; Vos, de R.C.H.; Jansen, J.J.; Putten, van der W.H.; Dam, van N.M.

    2014-01-01

    It is often assumed that exotic plants can become invasive when they possess novel secondary chemistry compared with native plants in the introduced range. Using untargeted metabolomic fingerprinting, we compared a broad range of metabolites of six successful exotic plant species and their native

  16. A new approach to horizon-scanning: identifying potentially invasive alien species and their introduction pathways

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Matthews, Jonathan; Beringen, Ruud; Creemers, Raymond; Hollander, Hans; van Kessel, Nils; van Kleef, Hein; de Koppel, Sander van; Lemaire, Adrienne J. J.; Ode, Baudewijn; Verbrugge, Laura N. H.; Hendriks, A. Jan; Schipper, Aafke M.; van der Velde, Gerard; Leuven, Rob S. E. W.

    Invasive alien species (IAS) are considered an important threat to global biodiversity due to major ecological impacts. In 2014, the European Union (EU) introduced a regulation (EU) No 1143/2014 on the prevention and management of the introduction and spread of IAS. The first risk prioritized list

  17. The aggressive invasion of exotic reptiles in Florida with a focus on prominent species: A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard ENGEMAN, Elliott JACOBSON, Michael L. AVERY

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Florida, along with Hawaii, has among the two worst invasive species problems in the USA, and the state is especially susceptible to establishment by alien reptiles. Besides the large numbers of established non-native reptile species in Florida, many of these species present novel difficulties for management, or have other characteristics making effective management extremely challenging. Moreover, initiation of management action requires more than recognition by experts that a potentially harmful species has become established. It also requires the political will along with concomitant resources and appropriate personnel to develop effective methods and apply them. We review the situation in Florida, including assessment of risk for establishment, and we use a subset of prominent species to illustrate in more detail the array of invasive reptile species circumstances in Florida, including routes of introduction, impacts, and potential and implemented management actions. These examples not only highlight the severity of the invasive reptile problems in the state, but they also show the diversity in resolve and response towards them and the motivating factors [Current Zoology 57 (5: 599–612, 2011].

  18. Assessing distributions of two invasive species of contrasting habits in future climate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panda, Rajendra Mohan; Behera, Mukunda Dev; Roy, Partha Sarathi

    2018-05-01

    Understanding the impact of climate change on species invasion is crucial for sustainable biodiversity conservation. Through this study, we try to answer how species differing in phenological cycles, specifically Cassia tora and Lantana camara, differ in the manner in which they invade new regions in India in the future climate. Since both species occupy identical niches, exploring their invasive potential in different climate change scenarios will offer critical insights into invasion and inform ecosystem management. We use three modelling protocols (i.e., maximum entropy, generalised linear model and generalised additive model) to predict the current distribution. Projections are made for both moderate (A1B) and extreme (A2) IPCC (Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change) scenarios for the year 2050 and 2100. The study reveals that the distributions of C. tora (annual) and L. camara (perennial) would depend on the precipitation of the warmest quarter and moisture availability. C. tora may demonstrate physiological tolerance to the mean diurnal temperature range and L. camara to the solar radiation. C. tora may invade central India, while L. camara may invade the Western Himalaya, parts of the Eastern Himalaya and the Western Ghats. The distribution ranges of both species could shift in the northern and north-eastern directions in India, owing to changes in moisture availability. The possible alterations in precipitation regimes could lead to water stress, which might have cascading effects on species invasion. L. camara might adapt to climate change better compared with C. tora. This comparative analysis of the future distributions of two invasive plants with contrasting habits demonstrates that temporal complementarity would prevail over the competition. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Genetic networking of the Bemisia tabaci cryptic species complex reveals pattern of biological invasions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul De Barro

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: A challenge within the context of cryptic species is the delimitation of individual species within the complex. Statistical parsimony network analytics offers the opportunity to explore limits in situations where there are insufficient species-specific morphological characters to separate taxa. The results also enable us to explore the spread in taxa that have invaded globally. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Using a 657 bp portion of mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase 1 from 352 unique haplotypes belonging to the Bemisia tabaci cryptic species complex, the analysis revealed 28 networks plus 7 unconnected individual haplotypes. Of the networks, 24 corresponded to the putative species identified using the rule set devised by Dinsdale et al. (2010. Only two species proposed in Dinsdale et al. (2010 departed substantially from the structure suggested by the analysis. The analysis of the two invasive members of the complex, Mediterranean (MED and Middle East - Asia Minor 1 (MEAM1, showed that in both cases only a small number of haplotypes represent the majority that have spread beyond the home range; one MEAM1 and three MED haplotypes account for >80% of the GenBank records. Israel is a possible source of the globally invasive MEAM1 whereas MED has two possible sources. The first is the eastern Mediterranean which has invaded only the USA, primarily Florida and to a lesser extent California. The second are western Mediterranean haplotypes that have spread to the USA, Asia and South America. The structure for MED supports two home range distributions, a Sub-Saharan range and a Mediterranean range. The MEAM1 network supports the Middle East - Asia Minor region. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: The network analyses show a high level of congruence with the species identified in a previous phylogenetic analysis. The analysis of the two globally invasive members of the complex support the view that global invasion often involve very small portions of

  20. What does "local" firewood buy you? Managing the risk of invasive species introduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tobin, Patrick C; Diss-Torrance, Andrea; Blackburn, Laura M; Brown, Brian D

    2010-10-01

    Firewood can serve as a vector in the transport of non-native species, including wood-boring insects that feed within the wood and thus can be transported accidentally. Governments have enacted limitations on the movement of firewood in an effort to limit the anthropogenic movement of non-native species through, for example, recreational camping. Although the movement of invasive species through firewood is a documented invasion pathway, it is not trivial for governments to determine a "safe" allowable distance for moving firewood. We were motivated by this challenge and developed a theoretical simulation to determine the campgrounds that could be potentially exposed to infested firewood based upon the hypothetical distribution of an invasive species and the allowable distance for moving firewood. We extend this concept to the known distributions of emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire (Coleoptera: Buprestidae) and Asian longhorned beetle, Anoplophora glabripennis (Motschulsky) Coleoptera: Cerambycidae). We illustrate, based upon theoretical and empirical observations, that as the distribution of an invasive species increases, more rigid constraints on the movement of firewood would be required relative to those species that are distributed over a smaller scale. Also, on the level of management within a state, smaller states have far less margin for error than larger ones, as even extremely rigid restrictions on the movement of firewood could have little management effect unless the infested area is spatially limited. These results collectively suggest the potential for a dynamic management strategy that adjusts allowable distances for firewood movement based upon the distribution of the non-native species.

  1. Does the order of invasive species removal matter? The case of the eagle and the pig.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul W Collins

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Invasive species are recognized as a primary driver of native species endangerment and their removal is often a key component of a conservation strategy. Removing invasive species is not always a straightforward task, however, especially when they interact with other species in complex ways to negatively influence native species. Because unintended consequences may arise if all invasive species cannot be removed simultaneously, the order of their removal is of paramount importance to ecological restoration. In the mid-1990s, three subspecies of the island fox Urocyon littoralis were driven to near extinction on the northern California Channel Islands owing to heightened predation by golden eagles Aquila chrysaetos. Eagles were lured to the islands by an abundant supply of feral pigs Sus scrofa and through the process of apparent competition pigs indirectly facilitated the decline in foxes. As a consequence, both pigs and eagles had to be removed to recover the critically endangered fox. Complete removal of pigs was problematic: removing pigs first could force eagles to concentrate on the remaining foxes, increasing their probability of extinction. Removing eagles first was difficult: eagles are not easily captured and lethal removal was politically distasteful.Using prey remains collected from eagle nests both before and after the eradication of pigs, we show that one pair of eagles that eluded capture did indeed focus more on foxes. These results support the premise that if the threat of eagle predation had not been mitigated prior to pig removal, fox extinction would have been a more likely outcome.If complete eradication of all interacting invasive species is not possible, the order in which they are removed requires careful consideration. If overlooked, unexpected consequences may result that could impede restoration.

  2. Rapid evolution mitigates the ecological consequences of an invasive species (Bythotrephes longimanus) in lakes in Wisconsin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillis, Michael K; Walsh, Matthew R

    2017-07-12

    Invasive species have extensive negative consequences for biodiversity and ecosystem health. Novel species also drive contemporary evolution in many native populations, which could mitigate or amplify their impacts on ecosystems. The predatory zooplankton Bythotrephes longimanus invaded lakes in Wisconsin, USA, in 2009. This invasion caused precipitous declines in zooplankton prey ( Daphnia pulicaria ), with cascading impacts on ecosystem services (water clarity). Here, we tested the link between Bythotrephes invasion, evolution in Daphnia and post-invasion ecological dynamics using 15 years of long-term data in conjunction with comparative experiments. Invasion by Bythotrephes is associated with rapid increases in the body size of Daphnia Laboratory experiments revealed that such shifts have a genetic component; third-generation laboratory-reared Daphnia from 'invaded' lakes are significantly larger and exhibit greater reproductive effort than individuals from 'uninvaded' lakes. This trajectory of evolution should accelerate Daphnia population growth and enhance population persistence. We tested this prediction by comparing analyses of long-term data with laboratory-based simulations, and show that rapid evolution in Daphnia is associated with increased population growth in invaded lakes. © 2017 The Authors.

  3. Integrating Remote Sensing with Species Distribution Models; Mapping Tamarisk Invasions Using the Software for Assisted Habitat Modeling (SAHM)

    OpenAIRE

    West, Amanda M.; Evangelista, Paul H.; Jarnevich, Catherine S.; Young, Nicholas E.; Stohlgren, Thomas J.; Talbert, Colin; Talbert, Marian; Morisette, Jeffrey; Anderson, Ryan

    2016-01-01

    Early detection of invasive plant species is vital for the management of natural resources and protection of ecosystem processes. The use of satellite remote sensing for mapping the distribution of invasive plants is becoming more common, however conventional imaging software and classification methods have been shown to be unreliable. In this study, we test and evaluate the use of five species distribution model techniques fit with satellite remote sensing data to map invasive tamarisk (Tama...

  4. An assessment of invasive plant species monitored by the Northern Research Station Forest Inventory and Analysis Program, 2005 through 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassandra M. Kurtz

    2013-01-01

    Invasive plant species are a worldwide concern due to the high ecological and economic costs associated with their presence. This document describes the plant characteristics and regional distribution of the 50 invasive plant species monitored from 2005 through 2010 on forested Phase 2 (P2) Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) plots in the 24 states of the Northern...

  5. Potential establishment of alien-invasive forest insect species in the United States: where and how many?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank H. Koch; Denys Yemshanov; Manuel Colunga-Garcia; Roger D. Magarey; William D. Smith

    2011-01-01

    International trade is widely acknowledged as a conduit for movement of invasive species, but few studies have directly quantified the invasion risk confronting individual locations of interest. This study presents estimates of the likelihood of successful entry for alien forest insect species at more than 3,000 urban areas in the contiguous United States (US). To...

  6. Leaf litter traits of invasive alien species slow down decomposition compared to Spanish natives: a broad phylogenetic comparison.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Godoy, O.; Castro Diez, P.; van Logtestijn, R.S.P; Cornelissen, J.H.C.; Valladares, F.

    2010-01-01

    Leaf traits related to the performance of invasive alien species can influence nutrient cycling through litter decomposition. However, there is no consensus yet about whether there are consistent differences in functional leaf traits between invasive and native species that also manifest themselves

  7. Optimal control applied to native-invasive species competition via a PDE model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wandi Ding

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available We consider an optimal control problem of a system of parabolic partial differential equations modelling the competition between an invasive and a native species. The motivating example is cottonwood-salt cedar competition, where the effect of disturbance in the system (such as flooding is taken to be a control variable. Flooding being detrimental at low and high levels, and advantageous at medium levels led us to consider the quadratic growth function of the control. The objective is to maximize the native species and minimize the invasive species while minimizing the cost of implementing the control. An existence result for an optimal control is given. Numerical examples are presented to illustrate the results.

  8. Invasive hybridization in a threatened species is accelerated by climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muhlfeld, Clint C.; Kovach, Ryan P.; Jones, Leslie A.; Al-Chokhachy, Robert K.; Boyer, Matthew C.; Leary, Robb F.; Lowe, Winsor H.; Luikart, Gordon; Allendorf, Fred W.

    2014-01-01

    Climate change will decrease worldwide biodiversity through a number of potential pathways, including invasive hybridization (cross-breeding between invasive and native species). How climate warming influences the spread of hybridization and loss of native genomes poses difficult ecological and evolutionary questions with little empirical information to guide conservation management decisions. Here we combine long-term genetic monitoring data with high-resolution climate and stream temperature predictions to evaluate how recent climate warming has influenced the spatio-temporal spread of human-mediated hybridization between threatened native westslope cutthroat trout (Oncorhynchus clarkii lewisi) and non-native rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss), the world’s most widely introduced invasive fish. Despite widespread release of millions of rainbow trout over the past century within the Flathead River system, a large relatively pristine watershed in western North America, historical samples revealed that hybridization was prevalent only in one (source) population. During a subsequent 30-year period of accelerated warming, hybridization spread rapidly and was strongly linked to interactions between climatic drivers—precipitation and temperature—and distance to the source population. Specifically, decreases in spring precipitation and increases in summer stream temperature probably promoted upstream expansion of hybridization throughout the system. This study shows that rapid climate warming can exacerbate interactions between native and non-native species through invasive hybridization, which could spell genomic extinction for many species.

  9. Management of invasive plant species in Nigeria through economic exploitation: lessons from other countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Folaranmi Dapo Babalola

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Invasive alien species, once they made entry into a region or country, often become difficult to eradicate and it appears that they have cometo stay. Worse still, their adverse effects on the native biodiversity are enormous and they are considered ecologically harmful. Agriculturaland economic losses to invasive species are comparatively high. Mechanical control is expensive and difficult in some terrains; chemicalcontrol is also expensive, requires constant application and has its environmental implications, while biological control is mirred with mixedfailures and successes. This paper reviewed that economic exploitation of some notorious invasive species in other countries – such asSudan, Ethiopia, India, Senegal, Mali and the Gambia – and how this had helped reduce the spread of these invasives and at the same time,became source of income to the poor people. It is believed that adopting this concept in Nigeria will create incentives for harvesting invasivespecies with more commitment, while it is an indirect way of controlling them. Furthermore, harvesting could be labour intensive, thuscreating jobs for people, while it provides additional means of income for rural people, which is a key adaptation strategy for climate change.

  10. Restoration versus invasive species: Bigheaded carps’ use of a rehabilitated backwater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coulter, Alison A; Schultz, Douglas; Tristano, Elizabeth; Brey, Marybeth; Garvey, James E.

    2017-01-01

    Knowledge of how invasive species use invaded habitats can aid in developing management practices to exclude them. Swan Lake, a 1100-ha Illinois River (USA) backwater, was rehabilitated to restore ecosystem functions, but may provide valuable habitat for invasive bigheaded carps [bighead carp (Hypophthalmichthys nobilis) and silver carp (H. molitrix)]. Use (residency and passages) of Swan Lake by invasive bigheaded carps was monitored using acoustic telemetry (n = 50 individuals/species) to evaluate the use of a large, restored habitat from 2004 to 2005. Passages (entrances/exits) by bigheaded carps were highest in winter, and residency was highest in the summer. Bighead carp backwater use was associated with the differences in temperature between the main channel and backwater, and passages primarily occurred between 18:00 h and midnight. Silver carp backwater use was positively correlated with water level and main channel discharge, and fewer passages occurred between 12:00 h and 18:00 h than during any other time of day. Harvest occurring during summer or high main channel discharge could reduce backwater abundances while maintenance of low water levels could reduce overall backwater use. Conclusions from this study regarding the timing of bigheaded carps' use of backwater habitats are critical to integrated pest management plans to control invasive species.

  11. Improving and integrating data on invasive species collected by citizen scientists

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Limited resources make it difficult to effectively document, monitor, and control invasive species across large areas, resulting in large gaps in our knowledge of current and future invasion patterns. We surveyed 128 citizen science program coordinators and interviewed 15 of them to evaluate their potential role in filling these gaps. Many programs collect data on invasive species and are willing to contribute these data to public databases. Although resources for education and monitoring are readily available, groups generally lack tools to manage and analyze data. Potential users of these data also retain concerns over data quality. We discuss how to address these concerns about citizen scientist data and programs while preserving the advantages they afford. A unified yet flexible national citizen science program aimed at tracking invasive species location, abundance, and control efforts could be designed using centralized data sharing and management tools. Such a system could meet the needs of multiple stakeholders while allowing efficiencies of scale, greater standardization of methods, and improved data quality testing and sharing. Finally, we present a prototype for such a system (see www.citsci.org).

  12. Evaluating the "recovery level" of endangered species without prior information before alien invasion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watari, Yuya; Nishijima, Shota; Fukasawa, Marina; Yamada, Fumio; Abe, Shintaro; Miyashita, Tadashi

    2013-11-01

    For maintaining social and financial support for eradication programs of invasive species, quantitative assessment of recovery of native species or ecosystems is important because it provides a measurable parameter of success. However, setting a concrete goal for recovery is often difficult owing to lack of information prior to the introduction of invaders. Here, we present a novel approach to evaluate the achievement level of invasive predator management based on the carrying capacity of endangered species estimated using long-term monitoring data. In Amami-Oshima Island, Japan, where the eradication project of introduced small Indian mongoose is ongoing since 2000, we surveyed the population densities of four endangered species threatened by the mongoose (Amami rabbit, the Otton frog, Amami tip-nosed frog, and Amami Ishikawa's frog) at four time points ranging from 2003 to 2011. We estimated the carrying capacities of these species using the logistic growth model combined with the effects of mongoose predation and environmental heterogeneity. All species showed clear tendencies toward increasing their density in line with decreased mongoose density, and they exhibited density-dependent population growth. The estimated carrying capacities of three endangered species had small confidence intervals enough to measure recovery levels by the mongoose management. The population density of each endangered species has recovered to the level of the carrying capacity at about 20-40% of all sites, whereas no individuals were observed at more than 25% of all sites. We propose that the present approach involving appropriate monitoring data of native organism populations will be widely applicable to various eradication projects and provide unambiguous goals for management of invasive species.

  13. Hyperspectral remote sensing tools for quantifying plant litter and invasive species in arid ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagler, Pamela L.; Sridhar, B.B. Maruthi; Olsson, Aaryn Dyami; Glenn, Edward P.; van Leeuwen, Willem J.D.; Thenkabail, Prasad S.; Huete, Alfredo; Lyon, John G.

    2012-01-01

    Green vegetation can be distinguished using visible and infrared multi-band and hyperspectral remote sensing methods. The problem has been in identifying and distinguishing the non-photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) landscape components, such as litter and soils, and from green vegetation. Additionally, distinguishing different species of green vegetation is challenging using the relatively few bands available on most satellite sensors. This chapter focuses on hyperspectral remote sensing characteristics that aim to distinguish between green vegetation, soil, and litter (or senescent vegetation). Quantifying litter by remote sensing methods is important in constructing carbon budgets of natural and agricultural ecosystems. Distinguishing between plant types is important in tracking the spread of invasive species. Green leaves of different species usually have similar spectra, making it difficult to distinguish between species. However, in this chapter we show that phenological differences between species can be used to detect some invasive species by their distinct patterns of greening and dormancy over an annual cycle based on hyperspectral data. Both applications require methods to quantify the non-green cellulosic fractions of plant tissues by remote sensing even in the presence of soil and green plant cover. We explore these methods and offer three case studies. The first concerns distinguishing surface litter from soil using the Cellulose Absorption Index (CAI), as applied to no-till farming practices where plant litter is left on the soil after harvest. The second involves using different band combinations to distinguish invasive saltcedar from agricultural and native riparian plants on the Lower Colorado River. The third illustrates the use of the CAI and NDVI in time-series analyses to distinguish between invasive buffelgrass and native plants in a desert environment in Arizona. Together the results show how hyperspectral imagery can be applied to

  14. From Points to Forecasts: Predicting Invasive Species Habitat Suitability in the Near Term

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    Tracy R. Holcombe

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available We used near-term climate scenarios for the continental United States, to model 12 invasive plants species. We created three potential habitat suitability models for each species using maximum entropy modeling: (1 current; (2 2020; and (3 2035. Area under the curve values for the models ranged from 0.92 to 0.70, with 10 of the 12 being above 0.83 suggesting strong and predictable species-environment matching. Change in area between the current potential habitat and 2035 ranged from a potential habitat loss of about 217,000 km2, to a potential habitat gain of about 133,000 km2.

  15. Analysis of a native whitefly transcriptome and its sequence divergence with two invasive whitefly species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Xiao-Wei

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Genomic divergence between invasive and native species may provide insight into the molecular basis underlying specific characteristics that drive the invasion and displacement of closely related species. In this study, we sequenced the transcriptome of an indigenous species, Asia II 3, of the Bemisia tabaci complex and compared its genetic divergence with the transcriptomes of two invasive whiteflies species, Middle East Asia Minor 1 (MEAM1 and Mediterranean (MED, respectively. Results More than 16 million reads of 74 base pairs in length were obtained for the Asia II 3 species using the Illumina sequencing platform. These reads were assembled into 52,535 distinct sequences (mean size: 466 bp and 16,596 sequences were annotated with an E-value above 10-5. Protein family comparisons revealed obvious diversification among the transcriptomes of these species suggesting species-specific adaptations during whitefly evolution. On the contrary, substantial conservation of the whitefly transcriptomes was also evident, despite their differences. The overall divergence of coding sequences between the orthologous gene pairs of Asia II 3 and MEAM1 is 1.73%, which is comparable to the average divergence of Asia II 3 and MED transcriptomes (1.84% and much higher than that of MEAM1 and MED (0.83%. This is consistent with the previous phylogenetic analyses and crossing experiments suggesting these are distinct species. We also identified hundreds of highly diverged genes and compiled sequence identify data into gene functional groups and found the most divergent gene classes are Cytochrome P450, Glutathione metabolism and Oxidative phosphorylation. These results strongly suggest that the divergence of genes related to metabolism might be the driving force of the MEAM1 and Asia II 3 differentiation. We also analyzed single nucleotide polymorphisms within the orthologous gene pairs of indigenous and invasive whiteflies which are helpful for

  16. Analysis of a native whitefly transcriptome and its sequence divergence with two invasive whitefly species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiao-Wei; Zhao, Qiong-Yi; Luan, Jun-Bo; Wang, Yu-Jun; Yan, Gen-Hong; Liu, Shu-Sheng

    2012-10-04

    Genomic divergence between invasive and native species may provide insight into the molecular basis underlying specific characteristics that drive the invasion and displacement of closely related species. In this study, we sequenced the transcriptome of an indigenous species, Asia II 3, of the Bemisia tabaci complex and compared its genetic divergence with the transcriptomes of two invasive whiteflies species, Middle East Asia Minor 1 (MEAM1) and Mediterranean (MED), respectively. More than 16 million reads of 74 base pairs in length were obtained for the Asia II 3 species using the Illumina sequencing platform. These reads were assembled into 52,535 distinct sequences (mean size: 466 bp) and 16,596 sequences were annotated with an E-value above 10-5. Protein family comparisons revealed obvious diversification among the transcriptomes of these species suggesting species-specific adaptations during whitefly evolution. On the contrary, substantial conservation of the whitefly transcriptomes was also evident, despite their differences. The overall divergence of coding sequences between the orthologous gene pairs of Asia II 3 and MEAM1 is 1.73%, which is comparable to the average divergence of Asia II 3 and MED transcriptomes (1.84%) and much higher than that of MEAM1 and MED (0.83%). This is consistent with the previous phylogenetic analyses and crossing experiments suggesting these are distinct species. We also identified hundreds of highly diverged genes and compiled sequence identify data into gene functional groups and found the most divergent gene classes are Cytochrome P450, Glutathione metabolism and Oxidative phosphorylation. These results strongly suggest that the divergence of genes related to metabolism might be the driving force of the MEAM1 and Asia II 3 differentiation. We also analyzed single nucleotide polymorphisms within the orthologous gene pairs of indigenous and invasive whiteflies which are helpful for the investigation of association between

  17. Identification of invasive and expansive plant species based on airborne hyperspectral and ALS data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szporak-Wasilewska, Sylwia; Kuc, Gabriela; Jóźwiak, Jacek; Demarchi, Luca; Chormański, Jarosław; Marcinkowska-Ochtyra, Adriana; Ochtyra, Adrian; Jarocińska, Anna; Sabat, Anita; Zagajewski, Bogdan; Tokarska-Guzik, Barbara; Bzdęga, Katarzyna; Pasierbiński, Andrzej; Fojcik, Barbara; Jędrzejczyk-Korycińska, Monika; Kopeć, Dominik; Wylazłowska, Justyna; Woziwoda, Beata; Michalska-Hejduk, Dorota; Halladin-Dąbrowska, Anna

    2017-04-01

    The aim of Natura 2000 network is to ensure the long term survival of most valuable and threatened species and habitats in Europe. The encroachment of invasive alien and expansive native plant species is among the most essential threat that can cause significant damage to protected habitats and their biodiversity. The phenomenon requires comprehensive and efficient repeatable solutions that can be applied to various areas in order to assess the impact on habitats. The aim of this study is to investigate of the issue of invasive and expansive plant species as they affect protected areas at a larger scale of Natura 2000 network in Poland. In order to determine the scale of the problem we have been developing methods of identification of invasive and expansive species and then detecting their occurrence and mapping their distribution in selected protected areas within Natura 2000 network using airborne hyperspectral and airborne laser scanning data. The aerial platform used consists of hyperspectral HySpex scanner (451 bands in VNIR and SWIR), Airborne Laser Scanner (FWF) Riegl Lite Mapper and RGB camera. It allowed to obtain simultaneous 1 meter resolution hyperspectral image, 0.1 m resolution orthophotomaps and point cloud data acquired with 7 points/m2. Airborne images were acquired three times per year during growing season to account for plant seasonal change (in May/June, July/August and September/October 2016). The hyperspectral images were radiometrically, geometrically and atmospherically corrected. Atmospheric correction was performed and validated using ASD FieldSpec 4 measurements. ALS point cloud data were used to generate several different topographic, vegetation and intensity products with 1 m spatial resolution. Acquired data (both hyperspectral and ALS) were used to test different classification methods including Mixture Tuned Matched Filtering (MTMF), Spectral Angle Mapper (SAM), Random Forest (RF), Support Vector Machines (SVM), among others

  18. Soil-occupancy effects of invasive and native grassland plant species on composition and diversity of mycorrhizal associations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordan, Nicholas R.; Aldrich-Wolfe, Laura; Huerd, Sheri C.; Larson, Diane L.; Muehlbauer, Gary

    2012-01-01

    Diversified grasslands that contain native plant species can produce biofuels, support sustainable grazing systems, and produce other ecosystem services. However, ecosystem service production can be disrupted by invasion of exotic perennial plants, and these plants can have soil-microbial “legacies” that may interfere with establishment and maintenance of diversified grasslands even after effective management of the invasive species. The nature of such legacies is not well understood, but may involve suppression of mutualisms between native species and soil microbes. In this study, we tested the hypotheses that legacy effects of invasive species change colonization rates, diversity, and composition of arbuscular-mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) associated with seedlings of co-occurring invasive and native grassland species. In a glasshouse, experimental soils were conditioned by cultivating three invasive grassland perennials, three native grassland perennials, and a native perennial mixture. Each was grown separately through three cycles of growth, after which we used T-RFLP analysis to characterize AMF associations of seedlings of six native perennial and six invasive perennial species grown in these soils. Legacy effects of soil conditioning by invasive species did not affect AMF richness in seedling roots, but did affect AMF colonization rates and the taxonomic composition of mycorrhizal associations in seedling roots. Moreover, native species were more heavily colonized by AMF and roots of native species had greater AMF richness (number of AMF operational taxonomic units per seedling) than did invasive species. The invasive species used to condition soil in this experiment have been shown to have legacy effects on biomass of native seedlings, reducing their growth in this and a previous similar experiment. Therefore, our results suggest that successful plant invaders can have legacies that affect soil-microbial associations of native plants and that these effects

  19. Temperature-dependent performance of competitive native and alien invasive plant species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Uhram

    2017-10-01

    To assess the likely impacts of environmental change, the responses of two well-known invasive plant species, native Pueraria lobata and alien Humulus japonicus, to differences in growth temperature were studied in South Korea. Habitat preferences, physiological responses such as photosynthetic rates and chlorophyll contents, growth rates, and nutrient contents were quantified for each species. A competition experiment was conducted to evaluate the temperature preferences of the two species. All results indicated that the alien species H. japonicus can take advantage of elevated temperatures (35 °C) to enhance its competitive advantage against the native species P. lobata. While H. japonicus took advantage of elevated temperatures and preferred high-temperature areas, P. lobata showed reduced performance and dominance in high-temperature areas. Therefore, in future, due to global warming and urbanization, there are possibilities that H. japonicus takes advantage of elevated temperature against P. lobata that could lead to increased H. japonicus coverage over time. Therefore, consistent monitoring of both species especially where P. lobata is dominated are required because both species are found in every continents in the world. Controlling P. lobata requires thorough inspection of H. japonicus presence of the habitat in advance to prevent post P. lobata management invasion of H. japonicus.

  20. Effects of an invasive plant species, celastrus orbiculatus, on soil composition and processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leicht-Young, S. A.; O'Donnell, H.; Latimer, A.M.; Silander, J.A.

    2009-01-01

    Celastrus orbiculatus is a non-native, invasive liana that was introduced to the United States in the 1860s and has spread rapidly throughout the Northeast Several attributes contribute to the invasiveness of C. orbiculatus, including tolerance to a wide range of light levels and habitat types. We compared soil characteristics in seven sets of adjacent, paired plots, spanning a range of habitats and soil types, with and without C. orbiculatus. The paired plots were similar other than the presence or absence of Celastrus. Plots with C. orbiculatus had significantly higher soil pH, potassium, calcium and magnesium levels. Furthermore, nitrogen mineralization and litter decomposition rates were higher in plots with C. orbiculatus. Phosphorus levels were not significantly different between the paired plots. The results of this study contribute to the growing body of research of the effects of invasive species on ecosystem processes.

  1. Genetic diversity in three invasive clonal aquatic species in New Zealand

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Background Elodea canadensis, Egeria densa and Lagarosiphon major are dioecious clonal species which are invasive in New Zealand and other regions. Unlike many other invasive species, the genetic variation in New Zealand is very limited. Clonal reproduction is often considered an evolutionary dead end, even though a certain amount of genetic divergence may arise due to somatic mutations. The successful growth and establishment of invasive clonal species may be explained not by adaptability but by pre-existing ecological traits that prove advantageous in the new environment. We studied the genetic diversity and population structure in the North Island of New Zealand using AFLPs and related the findings to the number of introductions and the evolution that has occurred in the introduced area. Results Low levels of genetic diversity were found in all three species and appeared to be due to highly homogeneous founding gene pools. Elodea canadensis was introduced in 1868, and its populations showed more genetic structure than those of the more recently introduced of E. densa (1946) and L. major (1950). Elodea canadensis and L. major, however, had similar phylogeographic patterns, in spite of the difference in time since introduction. Conclusions The presence of a certain level of geographically correlated genetic structure in the absence of sexual reproduction, and in spite of random human dispersal of vegetative propagules, can be reasonably attributed to post-dispersal somatic mutations. Direct evidence of such evolutionary events is, however, still insufficient. PMID:20565861

  2. Genetic diversity in three invasive clonal aquatic species in New Zealand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sorrell Brian K

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Elodea canadensis, Egeria densa and Lagarosiphon major are dioecious clonal species which are invasive in New Zealand and other regions. Unlike many other invasive species, the genetic variation in New Zealand is very limited. Clonal reproduction is often considered an evolutionary dead end, even though a certain amount of genetic divergence may arise due to somatic mutations. The successful growth and establishment of invasive clonal species may be explained not by adaptability but by pre-existing ecological traits that prove advantageous in the new environment. We studied the genetic diversity and population structure in the North Island of New Zealand using AFLPs and related the findings to the number of introductions and the evolution that has occurred in the introduced area. Results Low levels of genetic diversity were found in all three species and appeared to be due to highly homogeneous founding gene pools. Elodea canadensis was introduced in 1868, and its populations showed more genetic structure than those of the more recently introduced of E. densa (1946 and L. major (1950. Elodea canadensis and L. major, however, had similar phylogeographic patterns, in spite of the difference in time since introduction. Conclusions The presence of a certain level of geographically correlated genetic structure in the absence of sexual reproduction, and in spite of random human dispersal of vegetative propagules, can be reasonably attributed to post-dispersal somatic mutations. Direct evidence of such evolutionary events is, however, still insufficient.

  3. Alkaloid concentration of the invasive plant species Ulex europaeus in relation to geographic origin and herbivory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hornoy, Benjamin; Atlan, Anne; Tarayre, Michèle; Dugravot, Sébastien; Wink, Michael

    2012-11-01

    In the study of plant defense evolution, invasive plant species can be very insightful because they are often introduced without their enemies, and traits linked to defense can be released from selective pressures and evolve. Further, studying plant defense evolution in invasive species is important for biological control and use of these species. In this study, we investigated the evolution of the defensive chemicals quinolizidine alkaloids (QAs) in the invasive species gorse, Ulex europaeus. Using a common garden experiment, our goals were to characterize the role of QAs relative to specialist enemies of gorse and to investigate if QA concentration evolved in invaded regions, where gorse was introduced without these enemies. Our results showed that pod infestation rate by the seed predator Exapion ulicis and infestation by the rust pathogen Uromyces genistae-tinctoriae were negatively correlated to concentration of the QA lupanine. Quinolizidine alkaloid concentration was very variable between individuals, both within and among populations, but it was not different between native and invaded regions, suggesting that no evolution of decreased resistance occurred after gorse lost its enemies. Our study also suggests that QA concentrations are traits integrated into seed predation avoidance strategies of gorse, with plants that mass-fruit in spring but do not escape pod infestation in time being richer in QAs.

  4. Acacia saligna: an invasive species on the coast of Molise (southern Italy

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    Calabrese V

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Italy is one of the European countries most affected by biological invasions. In this study, we focused on the impact of Acacia saligna, an Australian invasive plant species, on the coastal ecosystem’s ecology and biodiversity along the sandy coasts of Molise (southern Italy. We analyzed data from 61 vegetation plots recorded in coastal pine forest and Mediterranean scrub habitats of Molise throughout the preparatory actions of the “LIFE Maestrale” project (NAT/IT/000262. In order to study the ecological impact of Acacia saligna comparing invaded and non-invaded areas, we first assigned the Ellenberg’s indicator values to each plant species, which were then used to relate the presence of Acacia saligna with ecological characteristics of sites through a generalized linear model (GLM. Our results showed a significant positive relationship between the presence of Acacia saligna and high levels of soil nutrients and, on the contrary, a negative relationship with the presence of mesophilic species, which are typical of the community interest habitats of pine forest (2270*. The use of ecological indicators is effective to pinpoint the ecological effects of biological invasions, as well as to evaluate habitat conservation state and to identify vulnerable native species.

  5. Differences in functional traits between invasive and native Amaranthus species under different forms of N deposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Congyan; Zhou, Jiawei; Liu, Jun; Jiang, Kun

    2017-08-01

    Differences in functional traits between invasive and native plant species are believed to determine the invasion success of the former. Increasing amounts of anthropogenic nitrogen (N) are continually deposited into natural ecosystems, which may change the relative occurrence of the different N deposition forms (such as NH 4 -N, NO 3 -N, and CO(NH 2 ) 2 -N) naturally deposited. Under high N deposition scenarios, some invasive species may grow faster, gaining advantage over native species. In a greenhouse experiment, we grew invasive and native Amaranthus species from seed both alone and in competition under simulated N enriched environments with different forms of N over 3 months. Then, we measured different leaf traits (i.e., plant height, leaf length, leaf width, leaf shape index, specific leaf area (SLA), and leaf chlorophyll and N concentrations). Results showed that the competition intensity between A. retroflexus and A. tricolor decreased under N deposition. This may be due to the large functional divergence between A. retroflexus and A. tricolor under simulated N deposition. Phenotypic plasticity of SLA and leaf chlorophyll concentration of A. retroflexus were significantly lower than in A. tricolor. The lower range of phenotypic plasticity of SLA and leaf chlorophyll concentration of A. retroflexus may indicate a fitness cost for plastic functional traits under adverse environments. The restricted phenotypic plasticity of SLA and leaf chlorophyll concentration of A. retroflexus may also stabilize leaf construction costs and the growth rate. Meanwhile, the two Amaranthus species possessed greater plasticity in leaf N concentration under NO 3 -N fertilization, which enhanced their competitiveness.

  6. Differences in functional traits between invasive and native Amaranthus species under different forms of N deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Congyan; Zhou, Jiawei; Liu, Jun; Jiang, Kun

    2017-08-01

    Differences in functional traits between invasive and native plant species are believed to determine the invasion success of the former. Increasing amounts of anthropogenic nitrogen (N) are continually deposited into natural ecosystems, which may change the relative occurrence of the different N deposition forms (such as NH4-N, NO3-N, and CO(NH2)2-N) naturally deposited. Under high N deposition scenarios, some invasive species may grow faster, gaining advantage over native species. In a greenhouse experiment, we grew invasive and native Amaranthus species from seed both alone and in competition under simulated N enriched environments with different forms of N over 3 months. Then, we measured different leaf traits (i.e., plant height, leaf length, leaf width, leaf shape index, specific leaf area (SLA), and leaf chlorophyll and N concentrations). Results showed that the competition intensity between A. retroflexus and A. tricolor decreased under N deposition. This may be due to the large functional divergence between A. retroflexus and A. tricolor under simulated N deposition. Phenotypic plasticity of SLA and leaf chlorophyll concentration of A. retroflexus were significantly lower than in A. tricolor. The lower range of phenotypic plasticity of SLA and leaf chlorophyll concentration of A. retroflexus may indicate a fitness cost for plastic functional traits under adverse environments. The restricted phenotypic plasticity of SLA and leaf chlorophyll concentration of A. retroflexus may also stabilize leaf construction costs and the growth rate. Meanwhile, the two Amaranthus species possessed greater plasticity in leaf N concentration under NO3-N fertilization, which enhanced their competitiveness.

  7. GyrB polymorphisms accurately assign invasive viridans group streptococcal species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galloway-Peña, Jessica; Sahasrabhojane, Pranoti; Tarrand, Jeffrey; Han, Xiang Y; Shelburne, Samuel A

    2014-08-01

    Viridans group streptococci (VGS) are a heterogeneous group of medically important bacteria that cannot be accurately assigned to a particular species using conventional phenotypic methods. Although multilocus sequence analysis (MLSA) is considered the gold standard for VGS species-level identification, MLSA is not yet feasible in the clinical setting. Conversely, molecular methods, such as sodA and 16S rRNA gene sequencing, are clinically practical but not sufficiently accurate for VGS species-level identification. Here, we present data regarding the use of an ∼ 400-nucleotide internal fragment of the gene encoding DNA gyrase subunit B (GyrB) for VGS species-level identification. MLSA, internal gyrB, sodA, full-length, and 5' 16S gene sequences were used to characterize 102 unique VGS blood isolates collected from 2011 to 2012. When using the MLSA species assignment as a reference, full-length and 5' partial 16S gene and sodA sequence analyses failed to correctly assign all strains to a species. Precise species determination was particularly problematic for Streptococcus mitis and Streptococcus oralis isolates. However, the internal gyrB fragment allowed for accurate species designations for all 102 strains. We validated these findings using 54 VGS strains for which MLSA, 16S gene, sodA, and gyrB data are available at the NCBI, showing that gyrB is superior to 16S gene and sodA sequence analyses for VGS species identification. We also observed that specific polymorphisms in the 133-amino acid sequence of the internal GyrB fragment can be used to identify invasive VGS species. Thus, the GyrB amino acid sequence may offer a more practical and accurate method for classifying invasive VGS strains to the species level. Copyright © 2014, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  8. Invasive species and biodiversity crises: testing the link in the late devonian.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alycia L Stigall

    Full Text Available During the Late Devonian Biodiversity Crisis, the primary driver of biodiversity decline was the dramatic reduction in speciation rates, not elevated extinction rates; however, the causes of speciation decline have been previously unstudied. Speciation, the formation of new species from ancestral populations, occurs by two primary allopatric mechanisms: vicariance, where the ancestral population is passively divided into two large subpopulations that later diverge and form two daughter species, and dispersal, in which a small subset of the ancestral population actively migrates then diverges to form a new species. Studies of modern and fossil clades typically document speciation by vicariance in much higher frequencies than speciation by dispersal. To assess the mechanism behind Late Devonian speciation reduction, speciation rates were calculated within stratigraphically constrained species-level phylogenetic hypotheses for three representative clades and mode of speciation at cladogenetic events was assessed across four clades in three phyla: Arthropoda, Brachiopoda, and Mollusca. In all cases, Devonian taxa exhibited a congruent reduction in speciation rate between the Middle Devonian pre-crisis interval and the Late Devonian crisis interval. Furthermore, speciation via vicariance is almost entirely absent during the crisis interval; most episodes of speciation during this time were due to dispersal. The shutdown of speciation by vicariance during this interval was related to widespread interbasinal species invasions. The lack of Late Devonian vicariance is diametrically opposed to the pattern observed in other geologic intervals, which suggests the loss of vicariant speciation attributable to species invasions during the Late Devonian was a causal factor in the biodiversity crisis. Similarly, modern ecosystems, in which invasive species are rampant, may be expected to exhibit similar shutdown of speciation by vicariance as an outcome of the

  9. Species groups occupying different trophic levels respond differently to the invasion of semi-natural vegetation by Solidago canadensis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groot, de M.; Kleijn, D.; Jogan, N.

    2007-01-01

    We studied the impact of the invasive plant species Solidago canadensis on the species richness of vascular plants and the abundance, species richness and diversity of butterflies, hoverflies and carabid beetles in herbaceous semi-natural habitats near Ljubljana, Slovenia. The species groups were

  10. Recruitment of invasive plant species in the Sundarbans following tropical Cyclone Aila

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, M. M.; Vacik, H.

    2016-02-01

    The Sundarbans is the largest mangrove forest in the world. Two-thirds of the forest (62%) is in the southwest corner of Bangladesh while the rest is in the West Bengal of India. The out flow of water from Bangladesh is the third highest in the world, next to the Amazonia and Congo basin. Major rivers of Bangladesh flow from north to south, silting up the mangroves delta and draining into the Bay of Bengal. The mangroves delta is also a region of transition between the freshwater of the rivers originating from the Ganges and the saline water of the Bay of Bengal. The ecosystems as well as the luxuriant biodiversity of Sundarbans have strong interactions with marine environments. The environmental parameters with the direct influences on Sundarbans in terms of global climate change are sea-level rise, natural calamities like cyclones, salinity and drought. Almost 26 percent frequency of cyclones was increased over past 120 years in the Bay of Bengal. Five disastrous tropical cyclones originated in the Bay of Bengal since 2006 - Sidr, Nargis, Bijli, Aila and Mahasen. Cyclones impact Sundarbans through four primary mechanisms: wind damage, storm surge, sedimentation and colonization of invasive species. Many researches were carried out to investigate the wind damages. The invasions of plant species were not documented; this study is the first attempt to do so in a scientific manner. The study area in the Chandpai Range of Sundarbans was classified as `less affected' (LAA) and `high affected' (HAA) areas due to the tropical cyclone `Aila'. In total 23 invasive plant species were identified in the Chandpai Range of Sundarbans, out of them 19 species are indigenous and the rest are alien. All species were found in the HAA, where only 09 species were found in the LAA. The abundance, diversity and rate of invasion were higher in the HAA than that of LAA. Proper management must be adopted to control the invasion to protect the endemic species. Key words: Mangrove, Marine

  11. Genes, communities & invasive species: understanding the ecological and evolutionary dynamics of host-pathogen interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burdon, J J; Thrall, P H; Ericson, L

    2013-08-01

    Reciprocal interactions between hosts and pathogens drive ecological, epidemiological and co-evolutionary trajectories, resulting in complex patterns of diversity at population, species and community levels. Recent results confirm the importance of negative frequency-dependent rather than 'arms-race' processes in the evolution of individual host-pathogen associations. At the community level, complex relationships between species abundance and diversity dampen or alter pathogen impacts. Invasive pathogens challenge these controls reflecting the earliest stages of evolutionary associations (akin to arms-race) where disease effects may be so great that they overwhelm the host's and community's ability to respond. Viewing these different stabilization/destabilization phases as a continuum provides a valuable perspective to assessment of the role of genetics and ecology in the dynamics of both natural and invasive host-pathogen associations. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Biology and impacts of Pacific island invasive species 9. Capra hircus, the feral goat, (Mammalia: Bovidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chynoweth, Mark W.; Litton, Creighton M.; Lepczyk, Christopher A.; Hess, Steve A.; Cordell, Susan

    2013-01-01

    Domestic goats, Capra hircus, were intentionally introduced to numerous oceanic islands beginning in the sixteenth century. The remarkable ability of C. hircus to survive in a variety of conditions has enabled this animal to become feral and impact native ecosystems on islands throughout the world. Direct ecological impacts include consumption and trampling of native plants, leading to plant community modification and transformation of ecosystem structure. While the negative impacts of feral goats are well-known and effective management strategies have been developed to control this invasive species, large populations persist on many islands. This review summarizes the impacts of feral goats on Pacific island ecosystems, and the management strategies available to control this invasive species.

  13. Forest legacies, climate change, altered disturbance regimes, invasive species and water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stohlgren, T.; Jarnevich, C.; Kumar, S.

    2007-01-01

    The factors that must be considered in seeking to predict changes in water availability has been examined. These factors are the following: forest legacies including logging, mining, agriculture, grazing, elimination of large carnivores, human-caused wildfire, and pollution; climate change and stream flow; altered disturbances such as frequency intensity and pattern of wildfires and insect outbreaks as well as flood control; lastly, invasive species like forest pests and pathogens. An integrated approach quantifying the current and past condition trends can be combined with spatial and temporal modeling to develop future change in forest structures and water supply. The key is a combination of geographic information system technologies with climate and land use scenarios, while preventing and minimizing the effects of harmful invasive species.

  14. Environmental DNA detection of rare and invasive fish species in two Great Lakes tributaries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balasingham, Katherine D; Walter, Ryan P; Mandrak, Nicholas E; Heath, Daniel D

    2018-01-01

    The extraction and characterization of DNA from aquatic environmental samples offers an alternative, noninvasive approach for the detection of rare species. Environmental DNA, coupled with PCR and next-generation sequencing ("metabarcoding"), has proven to be very sensitive for the detection of rare aquatic species. Our study used a custom-designed group-specific primer set and next-generation sequencing for the detection of three species at risk (Eastern Sand Darter, Ammocrypta pellucida; Northern Madtom, Noturus stigmosus; and Silver Shiner, Notropis photogenis), one invasive species (Round Goby, Neogobius melanostomus) and an additional 78 native species from two large Great Lakes tributary rivers in southern Ontario, Canada: the Grand River and the Sydenham River. Of 82 fish species detected in both rivers using capture-based and eDNA methods, our eDNA method detected 86.2% and 72.0% of the fish species in the Grand River and the Sydenham River, respectively, which included our four target species. Our analyses also identified significant positive and negative species co-occurrence patterns between our target species and other identified species. Our results demonstrate that eDNA metabarcoding that targets the fish community as well as individual species of interest provides a better understanding of factors affecting the target species spatial distribution in an ecosystem than possible with only target species data. Additionally, eDNA is easily implemented as an initial survey tool, or alongside capture-based methods, for improved mapping of species distribution patterns. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Getting the Right Traits: Reproductive and Dispersal Characteristics Predict the Invasiveness of Herbaceous Plant Species

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Moravcová, Lenka; Pyšek, Petr; Jarošík, Vojtěch; Pergl, Jan

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 10, č. 4 (2015), s. 1-16,no.e0123634 E-ISSN 1932-6203 R&D Projects: GA ČR GB14-36079G; GA ČR GA206/05/0323 Grant - others:AV ČR(CZ) AP1002 Program:Akademická prémie - Praemium Academiae Institutional support: RVO:67985939 Keywords : species traits * prediction * invasiveness Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 3.057, year: 2015

  16. Resources from the workshop "Data for invasive species research, policy making and management"

    OpenAIRE

    Quentin Groom; Tim Adriaens; Peter Desmet; Aaike De Wever; Sonia Vanderhoeven

    2017-01-01

    Materials from a workshop titled "Data for invasive species research, policy making and management" held in Brussels on 16-17 February 2016 at the Belgian Science Policy Office (BelSPO). The collection of materials including a list of the nomenclatural and taxonomic resources given by delegates at the workshop. Discussion templeates used at the workshop, a group photo and pictures of the discussion summaries.

  17. Tackling invasive alien species in Europe II: threats and opportunities until 2020

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Piria, M.; Copp, G. H.; Dick, J. T. A.; Duplić, A.; Groom, Q.; Jelić, D.; Lucy, F. E.; Roy, H. E.; Sarat, E.; Simonović, P.; Tomljanović, T.; Tricarico, E.; Weinlander, M.; Adámek, Zdeněk; Bedolfe, S.; Coughlan, N. E.; Davis, E.; Dobrzycka-Krahel, A.; Grgić, Z.; Kırankaya, S. G.; Ekmekci, F. G.; Lajtner, J.; Lukas, J. A. Y.; Koutsikos, N.; Mennen, G. J.; Mitić, B.; Pastorino, P.; Ruokonen, T. J.; Skóra, M. E.; Smith, E. R. C.; Šprem, N.; Tarkan, A. S.; Treer, T.; Vardakas, L.; Vehanen, T.; Vilizzi, L.; Zanella, D.; Caffrey, J. M.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 8, č. 3 (2017), s. 273-286 E-ISSN 1989-8649. [Freshwater Invasives – Networking for Strategy (FINS-II). Zagreb, 11.07.2016-14.07.2016] Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : non-native species * legislation * policy * environmental management * sequential rank voting * scoring system Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour OBOR OECD: Biodiversity conservation Impact factor: 1.439, year: 2016

  18. A modeling framework for the establishment and spread of invasive species in heterogeneous environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lustig, Audrey; Worner, Susan P; Pitt, Joel P W; Doscher, Crile; Stouffer, Daniel B; Senay, Senait D

    2017-10-01

    Natural and human-induced events are continuously altering the structure of our landscapes and as a result impacting the spatial relationships between individual landscape elements and the species living in the area. Yet, only recently has the influence of the surrounding landscape on invasive species spread started to be considered. The scientific community increasingly recognizes the need for broader modeling framework that focuses on cross-study comparisons at different spatiotemporal scales. Using two illustrative examples, we introduce a general modeling framework that allows for a systematic investigation of the effect of habitat change on invasive species establishment and spread. The essential parts of the framework are (i) a mechanistic spatially explicit model (a modular dispersal framework-MDIG) that allows population dynamics and dispersal to be modeled in a geographical information system (GIS), (ii) a landscape generator that allows replicated landscape patterns with partially controllable spatial properties to be generated, and (iii) landscape metrics that depict the essential aspects of landscape with which dispersal and demographic processes interact. The modeling framework provides functionality for a wide variety of applications ranging from predictions of the spatiotemporal spread of real species and comparison of potential management strategies, to theoretical investigation of the effect of habitat change on population dynamics. Such a framework allows to quantify how small-grain landscape characteristics, such as habitat size and habitat connectivity, interact with life-history traits to determine the dynamics of invasive species spread in fragmented landscape. As such, it will give deeper insights into species traits and landscape features that lead to establishment and spread success and may be key to preventing new incursions and the development of efficient monitoring, surveillance, control or eradication programs.

  19. Unprecedented carbon accumulation in mined soils: the synergistic effect of resource input and plant species invasion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Lucas C R; Corrêa, Rodrigo S; Doane, Timothy A; Pereira, Engil I P; Horwath, William R

    2013-09-01

    Opencast mining causes severe impacts on natural environments, often resulting in permanent damage to soils and vegetation. In the present study we use a 14-year restoration chronosequence to investigate how resource input and spontaneous plant colonization promote the revegetation and reconstruction of mined soils in central Brazil. Using a multi-proxy approach, combining vegetation surveys with the analysis of plant and soil isotopic abundances (delta13C and delta15N) and chemical and physical fractionation of organic matter in soil profiles, we show that: (1) after several decades without vegetation cover, the input of nutrient-rich biosolids into exposed regoliths prompted the establishment of a diverse plant community (> 30 species); (2) the synergistic effect of resource input and plant colonization yielded unprecedented increases in soil carbon, accumulating as chemically stable compounds in occluded physical fractions and reaching much higher levels than observed in undisturbed ecosystems; and (3) invasive grasses progressively excluded native species, limiting nutrient availability, but contributing more than 65% of the total accumulated soil organic carbon. These results show that soil-plant feedbacks regulate the amount of available resources, determining successional trajectories and alternative stable equilibria in degraded areas undergoing restoration. External inputs promote plant colonization, soil formation, and carbon sequestration, at the cost of excluding native species. The introduction of native woody species would suppress invasive grasses and increase nutrient availability, bringing the system closer to its original state. However, it is difficult to predict whether soil carbon levels could be maintained without the exotic grass cover. We discuss theoretical and practical implications of these findings, describing how the combination of resource manipulation and management of invasive species could be used to optimize restoration strategies

  20. Advancing the science of microbial symbiosis to support invasive species management: a case study on Phragmites in the Great Lakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kowalski, Kurt P; Bacon, Charles; Bickford, Wesley; Braun, Heather; Clay, Keith; Leduc-Lapierre, Michèle; Lillard, Elizabeth; McCormick, Melissa K; Nelson, Eric; Torres, Monica; White, James; Wilcox, Douglas A

    2015-01-01

    A growing body of literature supports microbial symbiosis as a foundational principle for the competitive success of invasive plant species. Further exploration of the relationships between invasive species and their associated microbiomes, as well as the interactions with the microbiomes of native species, can lead to key new insights into invasive success and potentially new and effective control approaches. In this manuscript, we review microbial relationships with plants, outline steps necessary to develop invasive species control strategies that are based on those relationships, and use the invasive plant species Phragmites australis (common reed) as an example of how development of microbial-based control strategies can be enhanced using a collective impact approach. The proposed science agenda, developed by the Collaborative for Microbial Symbiosis and Phragmites Management, contains a foundation of sequential steps and mutually-reinforcing tasks to guide the development of microbial-based control strategies for Phragmites and other invasive species. Just as the science of plant-microbial symbiosis can be transferred for use in other invasive species, so too can the model of collective impact be applied to other avenues of research and management.

  1. Discrimination of Species and Hybrid Detection in Myriophyllum Spp.: an Introduction to Biodiversity Conservation and Invasion Avoidance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Ghahramanzadeh

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Minimizing economical loss through introduction of invasive alien species (IAS in local ecosystem is one of the most important issues in biosecurity. The hybridization potential between non-indigenous and native species has raised concerns due mainly to introgression, which can cause extirpation of native species through gene contamination. In the present study, 71 samples belonging to 12 species from Myriophyllum genus were assessed in Plant Breeding group of Wageningen University. Internal transcribed spacer (ITS was used for identification of invasive species from related native and possible hybrid plants. The result showed that based on universal application, high sequence divergence and species discrimination, ITS is a powerful sequence for the identification of invasive species from related non-invasive foreign and native species. In contrast to morphological data, ITS grouped suspected hybrid plants in to M. heterophyllum and demonstrated that they have not resulted from hybridization. These observations suggest that multiple introduction and genetic recombination among different introduced genotypes or genetic pools could be reasons of non-flowering in suspected hybrid plants. Results showed that molecular markers enable to distinguish invasive plant species from their most closely related congeners. This could be helpful with enforcing a ban on important of such invasive which can help to plant ecosystem and biodiversity stability.

  2. INVASIVE ALIEN PLANT SPECIES USED FOR THE TREATMENT OF VARIOUS DISEASES IN LIMPOPO PROVINCE, SOUTH AFRICA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maema, Lesibana Peter; Potgieter, Martin; Mahlo, Salome Mamokone

    2016-01-01

    Invasive alien plant species (IAPs) are plants that have migrated from one geographical region to non-native region either intentional or unintentional. The general view of IAPs in environment is regarded as destructive to the ecosystem and they pose threat to native vegetation and species. However, some of these IAPS are utilized by local inhabitants as a substitute for scarce indigenous plants. The aim of the study is to conduct ethnobotanical survey on medicinal usage of invasive plant species in Waterberg District, Limpopo Province, South Africa. An ethnobotanical survey on invasive plant species was conducted to distinguish species used for the treatment of various ailments in the Waterberg, District in the area dominated by Bapedi traditional healers. About thirty Bapedi traditional healers (30) were randomly selected via the snowball method. A guided field work by traditional healers and a semi-structured questionnaire was used to gather information from the traditional healers. The questionnaire was designed to gather information on the local name of plants, plant parts used and methods of preparation which is administered by the traditional healers. The study revealed that Schinus molle L., Catharanthus roseus (L.), Datura stramonium L., Opuntia stricta (Haw.) Haw., Opuntia ficus- indica, Sambucus canadensis L., Ricinus communis L., Melia azedarch L., Argemone ochroleuca and Eriobotrya japónica are used for treatment of various diseases such as chest complaint, blood purification, asthma, hypertension and infertility. The most plant parts that were used are 57.6% leaves, followed by 33.3% roots, and whole plant, seeds and bark at 3% each. Noticeably, most of these plants are cultivated (38%), followed by 28% that are common to the study area, 20% abundant, 12% wild, and 3% occasionally. Schinus molle is the most frequently used plant species for the treatment of various ailments in the study area. National Environmental Management Biodiversity Act (NEMBA

  3. New invasive species of aphids (Hemiptera, Aphididae in Serbia and Montenegro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petrović-Obradović Olivera

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Three new invasive species of aphids have been found in Serbia: Chaitophorus populifolli Essig, Myzocallis walshii (Monell and Trichosiphonaphis polygonifoliae (Shinji and two have been found in Montenegro: Aphis illinoisensis Shimer and Tinocallis kahawaluokalani (Kirkaldy. A. illinoisensis is a pest of the grapevine, T. polygonifoliae, feeds on a decorative shrub (Lonicera and the other three feed on trees (Populus, Quercus and Lagerostroemia. Three of the species are American aphids and two are of Asian origin. Their morphology, illustrated by original drawings and data on the biology and distribution are given. .

  4. European hare Lepus europaeus(Lagomorpha: Leporidae an invasive species in Peru

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Horacio Zeballos

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available We describe the current distribution of the European hare, Lepus europaeus, in Peru which currently covers the highlands, Andean valleys, surrounding areas of the Titicaca Lake and coastal irrigations; in Arequipa, Cusco, Moquegua, Puno and Tacna departments. Based on its current distribution we developed models of potential distribution of this species, which would forecast this species in northern Peru. We make recommendations on the main issues that should be studied in Peru, and the possible consequences of their invasive process of in Peru.

  5. Biological Invasion Influences the Outcome of Plant-Soil Feedback in the Invasive Plant Species from the Brazilian Semi-arid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Souza, Tancredo Augusto Feitosa; de Andrade, Leonaldo Alves; Freitas, Helena; da Silva Sandim, Aline

    2017-05-30

    Plant-soil feedback is recognized as the mutual interaction between plants and soil microorganisms, but its role on the biological invasion of the Brazilian tropical seasonal dry forest by invasive plants still remains unclear. Here, we analyzed and compared the arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) communities and soil characteristics from the root zone of invasive and native plants, and tested how these AMF communities affect the development of four invasive plant species (Cryptostegia madagascariensis, Parkinsonia aculeata, Prosopis juliflora, and Sesbania virgata). Our field sampling revealed that AMF diversity and frequency of the Order Diversisporales were positively correlated with the root zone of the native plants, whereas AMF dominance and frequency of the Order Glomerales were positively correlated with the root zone of invasive plants. We grew the invasive plants in soil inoculated with AMF species from the root zone of invasive (I changed ) and native (I unaltered ) plant species. We also performed a third treatment with sterilized soil inoculum (control). We examined the effects of these three AMF inoculums on plant dry biomass, root colonization, plant phosphorous concentration, and plant responsiveness to mycorrhizas. We found that I unaltered and I changed promoted the growth of all invasive plants and led to a higher plant dry biomass, mycorrhizal colonization, and P uptake than control, but I changed showed better results on these variables than I unaltered . For plant responsiveness to mycorrhizas and fungal inoculum effect on plant P concentration, we found positive feedback between changed-AMF community (I changed ) and three of the studied invasive plants: C. madagascariensis, P. aculeata, and S. virgata.

  6. Faster N Release, but Not C Loss, From Leaf Litter of Invasives Compared to Native Species in Mediterranean Ecosystems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guido Incerti

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Plant invasions can have relevant impacts on biogeochemical cycles, whose extent, in Mediterranean ecosystems, have not yet been systematically assessed comparing litter carbon (C and nitrogen (N dynamics between invasive plants and native communities. We carried out a 1-year litterbag experiment in 4 different plant communities (grassland, sand dune, riparian and mixed forests on 8 invasives and 24 autochthonous plant species, used as control. Plant litter was characterized for mass loss, N release, proximate lignin and litter chemistry by 13C CPMAS NMR. Native and invasive species showed significant differences in litter chemical traits, with invaders generally showing higher N concentration and lower lignin/N ratio. Mass loss data revealed no consistent differences between native and invasive species, although some woody and vine invaders showed exceptionally high decomposition rate. In contrast, N release rate from litter was faster for invasive plants compared to native species. N concentration, lignin content and relative abundance of methoxyl and N-alkyl C region from 13C CPMAS NMR spectra were the parameters that better explained mass loss and N mineralization rates. Our findings demonstrate that during litter decomposition invasive species litter has no different decomposition rates but greater N release rate compared to natives. Accordingly, invasives are expected to affect N cycle in Mediterranean plant communities, possibly promoting a shift of plant assemblages.

  7. Incentivizing the public to support invasive species management: eurasian milfoil reduces lakefront property values.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julian D Olden

    Full Text Available Economic evaluations of invasive species are essential for providing comprehensive assessments of the benefits and costs of publicly-funded management activities, yet many previous investigations have focused narrowly on expenditures to control spread and infestation. We use hedonic modeling to evaluate the economic effects of Eurasian milfoil (Myriophyllum spicatum invasions on lakefront property values of single-family homes in an urban-suburban landscape. Milfoil often forms dense canopies at the water surface, diminishing the value of ecosystem services (e.g., recreation, fishing and necessitating expensive control and management efforts. We compare 1,258 lakeshore property sale transactions (1995-2006 in 17 lakes with milfoil and 24 un-invaded lakes in King County, Washington (USA. After accounting for structural (e.g., house size, locational (e.g., boat launch, and environmental characteristics (e.g., water clarity of lakes, we found that milfoil has a significant negative effect on property sales price ($94,385 USD lower price, corresponding to a 19% decline in mean property values. The aggregate cost of milfoil invading one additional lake in the study area is, on average, $377,542 USD per year. Our study illustrates that invasive aquatic plants can significantly impact property values (and associated losses in property taxes that reduce local government revenue, justifying the need for management strategies that prevent and control invasions. We recommend coordinated efforts across Lake Management Districts to focus institutional support, funding, and outreach to prevent the introduction and spread of milfoil. This effort will limit opportunities for re-introduction from neighboring lakes and incentivize private landowners and natural resource agencies to commit time and funding to invasive species management.

  8. Three invasive species occurring in the diets of fishes in a Neotropical floodplain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Isaac

    Full Text Available The composition of the diets of 66 species of fishes was investigated from September 2009 to June 2010 in three subsystems of the Upper Paraná River floodplain (Brazil, following invasion by the two mollusk species Limnoperna fortunei (Dunker, 1857 and Corbicula fluminea (Müller, 1774, and the macrophyte Hydrilla verticillata (L.f. Royle. Limnoperna fortunei was consumed in all three subsystems and occurred in the diet of 15 fish species, with a high proportion in the diet of Leporinus obtusidens. Corbicula flumineawas present in the diet of Pterodoras granulosus caught in the Paraná and Ivinheima subsystems. Hydrilla verticillataoccurred in the diet of Schizodon nasutus caught in the Ivinheima and Paraná subsystems. It is not yet possible to evaluate the potential of these species to control invasive mollusks in the study area or the impact of these species on the structure of the food chain. Omnivorous and herbivorous fishes in the study area may have little impact on the population of H. verticillata.

  9. Parallel evolution in an invasive plant species: evolutionary changes in allocation to growth, defense, competitive ability and regrowth of invasive Jacobaea vulgaris

    OpenAIRE

    Lin, Tiantian

    2015-01-01

    Although the introduction of invasive plant species in a given area causes economic and ecological problems, it still provides an ideal opportunity for ecologists to study evolutionary changes. According to the Evolution of Increased Competitive Ability hypothesis and Shifting Defense Hypothesis, the release from specialist herbivores after introduction is expected invasive plants to shift their costly defense against specialist herbivores to cheaper defense against local generalist herbivore...

  10. Predators vs. alien: differential biotic resistance to an invasive species by two resident predators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Calum MacNeil

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The success of invading species can be restricted by interspecific interactions such as competition and predation (i.e. biotic resistance from resident species, which may be natives or previous invaders. Whilst there are myriad examples of resident species preying on invaders, simply showing that such an interaction exists does not demonstrate that predation limits invader establishment, abundance or spread. Support for this conclusion requires evidence of negative associations between invaders and resident predators in the field and, further, that the predator-prey interaction is likely to strongly regulate or potentially de-stabilise the introduced prey population. Moreover, it must be considered that different resident predator species may have different abilities to restrict invaders. In this study, we show from analysis of field data that two European predatory freshwater amphipods, Gammarus pulex and G. duebeni celticus, have strong negative field associations with their prey, the invasive North American amphipod Crangonyx pseudogracilis. This negative field association is significantly stronger with G. pulex, a previous and now resident invader in the study sites, than with the native G. d. celticus. These field patterns were consistent with our experimental findings that both resident predators display potentially population de-stabilising Type II functional responses towards the invasive prey, with a significantly greater magnitude of response exhibited by G. pulex than by G. d. celticus. Further, these Type II functional responses were consistent across homo- and heterogeneous environments, contrary to the expectation that heterogeneity facilitates more stabilising Type III functional responses through the provision of prey refugia. Our experimental approach confirms correlative field surveys and thus supports the hypothesis that resident predatory invertebrates are differentially limiting the distribution and abundance of an

  11. Integrated monitoring and information systems for managing aquatic invasive species in a changing climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Henry; Reusser, Deborah A.; Olden, Julian D.; Smith, Scott S.; Graham, Jim; Burkett, Virginia; Dukes, Jeffrey S.; Piorkowski, Robert J.; Mcphedran, John

    2008-01-01

    Changes in temperature, precipitation, and other climatic drivers and sea-level rise will affect populations of existing native and non-native aquatic species and the vulnerability of aquatic environments to new invasions. Monitoring surveys provide the foundation for assessing the combined effects of climate change and invasions by providing baseline biotic and environmental conditions, although the utility of a survey depends on whether the results are quantitative or qualitative, and other design considerations. The results from a variety of monitoring programs in the United States are available in integrated biological information systems, although many include only non-native species, not native species. Besides including natives, we suggest these systems could be improved through the development of standardized methods that capture habitat and physiological requirements and link regional and national biological databases into distributed Web portals that allow drawing information from multiple sources. Combining the outputs from these biological information systems with environmental data would allow the development of ecological-niche models that predict the potential distribution or abundance of native and non-native species on the basis of current environmental conditions. Environmental projections from climate models can be used in these niche models to project changes in species distributions or abundances under altered climatic conditions and to identify potential high-risk invaders. There are, however, a number of challenges, such as uncertainties associated with projections from climate and niche models and difficulty in integrating data with different temporal and spatial granularity. Even with these uncertainties, integration of biological and environmental information systems, niche models, and climate projections would improve management of aquatic ecosystems under the dual threats of biotic invasions and climate change

  12. Remote sensing of California estuaries: Monitoring climate change and invasive species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulitsch, Melinda Jennifer

    The spread of invasive species and climate change are among the most serious global environmental threats. The goal of this dissertation was to link inter-annual climate change and biological invasions at a landscape scale using novel remote sensing techniques applied to the San Francisco Bay/Sacramento- San Joaquin Delta Estuary. I evaluated the use of hyperspectral imagery for detecting invasive aquatic species in the Delta using 3 m HyMap hyperspectral imagery. The target invasive aquatics weeds were the emergent water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes) and the submerged Brazilian waterweed (Egeria densa). Data were analyzed using linear spectral mixture analysis (SMA). The results show the weeds were mapped with a classification accuracy of 90.6% compared to 2003 sample sites and 82.6% accuracy compared to 2004 sample sites. Brazilian waterweed locations were successfully mapped but the abundances were overestimated because we did not separate it from other submerged aquatic vegatation (SAV). I evaluated 3 m HyMap imagery, from 2004, for SAV species in the Delta, including: Brazilian waterweed ( Egeria densa), Eurasian watermilfoil (Myriophyllum spicatum ), curlyleaf pondweed (Potamogeton crispus), coontail (Ceratophyllum demersum), American pondweed (Potamogeton nodosus), fanwort (Cabomba caroliniana), and common elodea (Elodea canadensis). Data were analyzed using SMA with a classification accuracy of 84.4%. Spectral simulations of Brazilian waterweed and American pondweed show how spectral properties can change at different water depths and varying water quality. Finally I address the effect of inter-annual climate change on the estuary ecology in the San Francisco Bay by analyzing current (2002) and historical (1994-1996) Airborne Visible Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS) datasets to map salt marsh species distribution. The species in the estuary, Salicornia virginica, Spartinia foliosa, Scirpus robustus, and Distichlis spicata undergo dramatic changes in

  13. Targeted research to improve invasive species management: yellow crazy ant Anoplolepis gracilipes in Samoa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin D Hoffmann

    Full Text Available Lack of biological knowledge of invasive species is recognised as a major factor contributing to eradication failure. Management needs to be informed by a site-specific understanding of the invasion system. Here, we describe targeted research designed to inform the potential eradication of the invasive yellow crazy ant Anoplolepis gracilipes on Nu'utele island, Samoa. First, we assessed the ant's impacts on invertebrate biodiversity by comparing invertebrate communities between infested and uninfested sites. Second, we investigated the timing of production of sexuals and seasonal variation of worker abundance and nest density. Third, we investigated whether an association existed between A. gracilipes and carbohydrate sources. Within the infested area there were few other ants larger than A. gracilipes, as well as fewer spiders and crabs, indicating that A. gracilipes is indeed a significant conservation concern. The timing of male reproduction appears to be consistent with places elsewhere in the world, but queen reproduction was outside of the known reproductive period for this species in the region, indicating that the timing of treatment regimes used elsewhere are not appropriate for Samoa. Worker abundance and nest density were among the highest recorded in the world, being greater in May than in October. These abundance and nest density data form baselines for quantifying treatment efficacy and set sampling densities for post-treatment assessments. The number of plants and insects capable of providing a carbohydrate supply to ants were greatest where A. gracilipes was present, but it is not clear if this association is causal. Regardless, indirectly controlling ant abundance by controlling carbohydrate supply appears to be promising avenue for research. The type of targeted, site-specific research such as that described here should be an integral part of any eradication program for invasive species to design knowledge-based treatment

  14. Meta-analysis reveals evolution in invasive plant species but little support for Evolution of Increased Competitive Ability (EICA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felker-Quinn, Emmi; Schweitzer, Jennifer A; Bailey, Joseph K

    2013-03-01

    Ecological explanations for the success and persistence of invasive species vastly outnumber evolutionary hypotheses, yet evolution is a fundamental process in the success of any species. The Evolution of Increased Competitive Ability (EICA) hypothesis (Blossey and Nötzold 1995) proposes that evolutionary change in response to release from coevolved herbivores is responsible for the success of many invasive plant species. Studies that evaluate this hypothesis have used different approaches to test whether invasive populations allocate fewer resources to defense and more to growth and competitive ability than do source populations, with mixed results. We conducted a meta-analysis of experimental tests of evolutionary change in the context of EICA. In contrast to previous reviews, there was no support across invasive species for EICA's predictions regarding defense or competitive ability, although invasive populations were more productive than conspecific native populations under noncompetitive conditions. We found broad support for genetically based changes in defense and competitive plant traits after introduction into new ranges, but not in the manner suggested by EICA. This review suggests that evolution occurs as a result of plant introduction and population expansion in invasive plant species, and may contribute to the invasiveness and persistence of some introduced species.

  15. Invasive species' leaf traits and dissimilarity from natives shape their impact on nitrogen cycling: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Marissa R; Bernhardt, Emily S; van Bodegom, Peter M; Cornelissen, J Hans C; Kattge, Jens; Laughlin, Daniel C; Niinemets, Ülo; Peñuelas, Josep; Reich, Peter B; Yguel, Benjamin; Wright, Justin P

    2017-01-01

    Many exotic species have little apparent impact on ecosystem processes, whereas others have dramatic consequences for human and ecosystem health. There is growing evidence that invasions foster eutrophication. We need to identify species that are harmful and systems that are vulnerable to anticipate these consequences. Species' traits may provide the necessary insights. We conducted a global meta-analysis to determine whether plant leaf and litter functional traits, and particularly leaf and litter nitrogen (N) content and carbon: nitrogen (C : N) ratio, explain variation in invasive species' impacts on soil N cycling. Dissimilarity in leaf and litter traits among invaded and noninvaded plant communities control the magnitude and direction of invasion impacts on N cycling. Invasions that caused the greatest increases in soil inorganic N and mineralization rates had a much greater litter N content and lower litter C : N in the invaded than the reference community. Trait dissimilarities were better predictors than the trait values of invasive species alone. Quantifying baseline community tissue traits, in addition to those of the invasive species, is critical to understanding the impacts of invasion on soil N cycling. © 2016 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2016 New Phytologist Trust.

  16. Inventory of Invasive Plant Species along the corridor of Kawah Ijen Nature Tourism Park, Banyuwangi, East Java

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lia Hapsari

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A field survey was conducted in November 2013 to inventory invasive plant species present along the corridor of Kawah Ijen Nature Tourism Park exploratively. Result showed that there were 11 plant species found abundantly along the corridor. Typical native species were dominated by Cyathea contaminans, Casuarina junghuhniana and Vaccinium varingiaefolium. Three species were determined as invasive alien species i.e. Chromolaena odorata, Acacia decurrens and Blumea lacera whereas five species were determined as native species but potential invaders i.e. Rubus moluccanus, Melastoma malabatrichum, Polygonum barbatum, Debregeasia longifolia and Pteridium aquilinum. In term of tourism particularly on nature-based destinations enable moving in and out of invasive alien species due to opening the access of some natural protected areas. The environmental impact of an alien species whether it becomes invasive at its destination depends on its biological key point,  what ecological role the species may play, and on additional factors such as its tolerance of the gross features of the environment in the new range. Keyword: invasive plants, corridor, Kawah Ijen, Nature Tourism Park, Banyuwangi

  17. Invasive plant species alters consumer behavior by providing refuge from predation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutra, Humberto P; Barnett, Kirk; Reinhardt, Jason R; Marquis, Robert J; Orrock, John L

    2011-07-01

    Understanding the effects of invasive plants on native consumers is important because consumer-mediated indirect effects have the potential to alter the dynamics of coexistence in native communities. Invasive plants may promote changes in consumer pressure due to changes in protective cover (i.e., the architectural complexity of the invaded habitat) and in food availability (i.e., subsidies of fruits and seeds). No experimental studies have evaluated the relative interplay of these two effects. In a factorial experiment, we manipulated cover and food provided by the invasive shrub Amur honeysuckle (Lonicera maackii) to evaluate whether this plant alters the foraging activity of native mammals. Using tracking plates to quantify mammalian foraging activity, we found that removal of honeysuckle cover, rather than changes in the fruit resources it provides, reduced the activity of important seed consumers, mice in the genus Peromyscus. Two mesopredators, Procyon lotor and Didelphis virginiana, were also affected. Moreover, we found rodents used L. maackii for cover only on cloudless nights, indicating that the effect of honeysuckle was weather-dependent. Our work provides experimental evidence that this invasive plant species changes habitat characteristics, and in so doing alters the behavior of small- and medium-sized mammals. Changes in seed predator behavior may lead to cascading effects on the seeds that mice consume.

  18. The changing biodiversity of AlabamaDrosophila: important impacts of seasonal variation, urbanization, and invasive species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bombin, Andrei; Reed, Laura K

    2016-10-01

    Global warming and anthropogenic disturbances significantly influence the biosphere, tremendously increasing species extinction rates. In Central Alabama, we analyzed Drosophilidae species composition change nearly 100 years after the previous survey. We found ten Drosophilid species that were not reported during the last major biodiversity studies, two of which are invasive pests. In addition, we analyzed the influence of seasonal environmental variables characteristic of the subtropical climate zone on Drosophila abundance and biodiversity. We found a significant correlation between temperature and abundance of total Drosophila as well as for six of the seven most represented species individually, with a maximum abundance at intermediate temperatures (18-26°C). In addition, temperature was positively correlated with biodiversity of Drosophila . Precipitation produced a significant effect on the abundance of five species of Drosophila, with different optima for each species, but did not affect overall biodiversity. We concluded that in the subtropical climate zone of Central Alabama, seasonal temperature and precipitation changes produce a significant effect on Drosophila abundance and biodiversity, while local land use also impacts fly abundance, contributing to an apparent shift in species composition over the last century. We expect global climate change and other anthropogenic factors to further impact Drosophila species composition in the subtropical climate zone into the future.

  19. Invasive plants as potential food resource for native pollinators: A case study with two invasive species and a generalist bumble bee.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drossart, Maxime; Michez, Denis; Vanderplanck, Maryse

    2017-11-24

    It is now well established that invasive plants may induce drifts in the quantity and/or quality of floral resources. They are then often pointed out as a potential driver of bee decline. However, their impact on bee population remains quite unclear and still controversial, as bee responses are highly variable among species. Here, we compared the amino acid composition of pollen from three native and two invasive plant species included in diets of common pollinators in NW Europe. Moreover, the nutritional intake (i.e., pollen and amino acid intakes) of Bombus terrestris colonies and the pollen foraging behaviour of workers (i.e., visiting rate, number of foraging trips, weight of pollen loads) were considered. We found significant differences in pollen nutrients among the studied species according to the plant invasive behaviour. We also found significant differences in pollen foraging behaviour according to the plant species, from few to several foraging trips carrying small or large pollen loads. Such behavioural differences directly impacted the pollen intake but depended more likely on plant morphology rather than on plant invasive behaviour. These results suggest that common generalist bumble bees might not always suffer from plant invasions, depending on their behavioural plasticity and nutritional requirements.

  20. From restoration to adaptation: the changing discourse of invasive species management in coastal New England under global environmental change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scholars have focused on militaristic metaphors of invasion for more than a decade, but few if any studies look to the on-the-ground language of restoration practitioners to determine how they talk about invasive species. Here we demonstrate the absence of militaristic metaphors ...

  1. Predicting climate change impacts on native and invasive tree species using radial growth and twenty-first century climate scenarios

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    González-Muñoz, N.; Linares, J.C.; Castro-Díez, P.; Sass-Klaassen, U.G.W.

    2014-01-01

    The climatic conditions predicted for the twenty-first century may aggravate the extent and impacts of plant invasions, by favouring those invaders more adapted to altered conditions or by hampering the native flora. We aim to predict the fate of native and invasive tree species in the oak forests

  2. Environmental risk assessment for invasive alien species : A case study of apple snails affecting ecosystem services in Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gilioli, Gianni; Schrader, Gritta; Carlsson, Nils; van Donk, Ellen; van Leeuwen, Casper H.A.; Martín, Pablo R.; Pasquali, Sara; Vilà, Montserrat; Vos, Sybren

    2017-01-01

    The assessment of the risk posed by invasive alien species (IAS) to the environment is a component of increasing importance for Pest Risk Analysis. Standardized and comprehensive procedures to assess their impacts on ecosystem services have been developed only recently. The invasive apple snails

  3. Environmental risk assessment for invasive alien species: A case study of apple snails affecting ecosystem services in Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gilioli, Gianni; Schrader, Gritta; Carlsson, Nils; van Donk, Ellen; van Leeuwen, Casper H.A.; Martín, Pablo R.; Pasquali, Sara; Vilà, Montserrat; Vos, Sybren

    Abstract The assessment of the risk posed by invasive alien species (IAS) to the environment is a component of increasing importance for Pest Risk Analysis. Standardized and comprehensive procedures to assess their impacts on ecosystem services have been developed only recently. The invasive apple

  4. Coupling ecological and social network models to assess "transmission" and "contagion" of an aquatic invasive species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haak, Danielle M; Fath, Brian D; Forbes, Valery E; Martin, Dustin R; Pope, Kevin L

    2017-04-01

    Network analysis is used to address diverse ecological, social, economic, and epidemiological questions, but few efforts have been made to combine these field-specific analyses into interdisciplinary approaches that effectively address how complex systems are interdependent and connected to one another. Identifying and understanding these cross-boundary connections improves natural resource management and promotes proactive, rather than reactive, decisions. This research had two main objectives; first, adapt the framework and approach of infectious disease network modeling so that it may be applied to the socio-ecological problem of spreading aquatic invasive species, and second, use this new coupled model to simulate the spread of the invasive Chinese mystery snail (Bellamya chinensis) in a reservoir network in Southeastern Nebraska, USA. The coupled model integrates an existing social network model of how anglers move on the landscape with new reservoir-specific ecological network models. This approach allowed us to identify 1) how angler movement among reservoirs aids in the spread of B. chinensis, 2) how B. chinensis alters energy flows within individual-reservoir food webs, and 3) a new method for assessing the spread of any number of non-native or invasive species within complex, social-ecological systems. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Temperature rise and parasitic infection interact to increase the impact of an invasive species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laverty, Ciaran; Brenner, David; McIlwaine, Christopher; Lennon, Jack J; Dick, Jaimie T A; Lucy, Frances E; Christian, Keith A

    2017-04-01

    Invasive species often detrimentally impact native biota, e.g. through predation, but predicting such impacts is difficult due to multiple and perhaps interacting abiotic and biotic context dependencies. Higher mean and peak temperatures, together with parasites, might influence the impact of predatory invasive host species additively, synergistically or antagonistically. Here, we apply the comparative functional response methodology (relationship between resource consumption rate and resource supply) in one experiment and conduct a second scaled-up mesocosm experiment to assess any differential predatory impacts of the freshwater invasive amphipod Gammarus pulex, when uninfected and infected with the acanthocephalan Echinorhynchus truttae, at three temperatures representative of current and future climate. Individual G. pulex showed Type II predatory functional responses. In both experiments, infection was associated with higher maximum feeding rates, which also increased with increasing temperatures. Additionally, infection interacted with higher temperatures to synergistically elevate functional responses and feeding rates. Parasitic infection also generally increased Q 10 values. We thus suggest that the differential metabolic responses of the host and parasite to increasing temperatures drives the synergy between infection and temperature, elevating feeding rates and thus enhancing the ecological impact of the invader. Copyright © 2017 Australian Society for Parasitology. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Spatially explicit control of invasive species using a reaction-diffusion model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonneau, Mathieu; Johnson, Fred A.; Romagosa, Christina M.

    2016-01-01

    Invasive species, which can be responsible for severe economic and environmental damages, must often be managed over a wide area with limited resources, and the optimal allocation of effort in space and time can be challenging. If the spatial range of the invasive species is large, control actions might be applied only on some parcels of land, for example because of property type, accessibility, or limited human resources. Selecting the locations for control is critical and can significantly impact management efficiency. To help make decisions concerning the spatial allocation of control actions, we propose a simulation based approach, where the spatial distribution of the invader is approximated by a reaction–diffusion model. We extend the classic Fisher equation to incorporate the effect of control both in the diffusion and local growth of the invader. The modified reaction–diffusion model that we propose accounts for the effect of control, not only on the controlled locations, but on neighboring locations, which are based on the theoretical speed of the invasion front. Based on simulated examples, we show the superiority of our model compared to the state-of-the-art approach. We illustrate the use of this model for the management of Burmese pythons in the Everglades (Florida, USA). Thanks to the generality of the modified reaction–diffusion model, this framework is potentially suitable for a wide class of management problems and provides a tool for managers to predict the effects of different management strategies.

  7. Dispersal and selection mediate hybridization between a native and invasive species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovach, Ryan P.; Muhlfeld, Clint C.; Boyer, Matthew C.; Lowe, Winsor H.; Allendorf, Fred W.; Luikart, Gordon

    2015-01-01

    Hybridization between native and non-native species has serious biological consequences, but our understanding of how dispersal and selection interact to influence invasive hybridization is limited. Here, we document the spread of genetic introgression between a native (Oncorhynchus clarkii) and invasive (Oncorhynchus mykiss) trout, and identify the mechanisms influencing genetic admixture. In two populations inhabiting contrasting environments, non-native admixture increased rapidly from 1984 to 2007 and was driven by surprisingly consistent processes. Individual admixture was related to two phenotypic traits associated with fitness: size at spawning and age of juvenile emigration. Fish with higher non-native admixture were larger and tended to emigrate at a younger age—relationships that are expected to confer fitness advantages to hybrid individuals. However, strong selection against non-native admixture was evident across streams and cohorts (mean selection coefficient against genotypes with non-native alleles (s) ¼ 0.60; s.e. ¼ 0.10). Nevertheless, hybridization was promoted in both streams by the continuous immigration of individuals with high levels of non-native admixture from other hybrid source populations. Thus, antagonistic relationships between dispersal and selection are mediating invasive hybridization between these fish, emphasizing that data on dispersal and natural selection are needed to fully understand the dynamics of introgression between native and non-native species. .

  8. Comparing climate change and species invasions as drivers of coldwater fish population extirpations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Sapna; Vander Zanden, M Jake; Magnuson, John J; Lyons, John

    2011-01-01

    Species are influenced by multiple environmental stressors acting simultaneously. Our objective was to compare the expected effects of climate change and invasion of non-indigenous rainbow smelt (Osmerus mordax) on cisco (Coregonus artedii) population extirpations at a regional level. We assembled a database of over 13,000 lakes in Wisconsin, USA, summarising fish occurrence, lake morphology, water chemistry, and climate. We used A1, A2, and B1 scenarios from the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) of future temperature conditions for 15 general circulation models in 2046-2065 and 2081-2100 totalling 78 projections. Logistic regression indicated that cisco tended to occur in cooler, larger, and deeper lakes. Depending upon the amount of warming, 25-70% of cisco populations are predicted to be extirpated by 2100. In addition, cisco are influenced by the invasion of rainbow smelt, which prey on young cisco. Projecting current estimates of rainbow smelt spread and impact into the future will result in the extirpation of about 1% of cisco populations by 2100 in Wisconsin. Overall, the effect of climate change is expected to overshadow that of species invasion as a driver of coldwater fish population extirpations. Our results highlight the potentially dominant role of climate change as a driver of biotic change.

  9. Comparing climate change and species invasions as drivers of coldwater fish population extirpations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sapna Sharma

    Full Text Available Species are influenced by multiple environmental stressors acting simultaneously. Our objective was to compare the expected effects of climate change and invasion of non-indigenous rainbow smelt (Osmerus mordax on cisco (Coregonus artedii population extirpations at a regional level. We assembled a database of over 13,000 lakes in Wisconsin, USA, summarising fish occurrence, lake morphology, water chemistry, and climate. We used A1, A2, and B1 scenarios from the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC of future temperature conditions for 15 general circulation models in 2046-2065 and 2081-2100 totalling 78 projections. Logistic regression indicated that cisco tended to occur in cooler, larger, and deeper lakes. Depending upon the amount of warming, 25-70% of cisco populations are predicted to be extirpated by 2100. In addition, cisco are influenced by the invasion of rainbow smelt, which prey on young cisco. Projecting current estimates of rainbow smelt spread and impact into the future will result in the extirpation of about 1% of cisco populations by 2100 in Wisconsin. Overall, the effect of climate change is expected to overshadow that of species invasion as a driver of coldwater fish population extirpations. Our results highlight the potentially dominant role of climate change as a driver of biotic change.

  10. Invasive ecosystem engineer selects for different phenotypes of an associated native species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Jeffrey T; Gribben, Paul E; Byers, James E; Monro, Keyne

    2012-06-01

    Invasive habitat-forming ecosystem engineers modify the abiotic environment and thus represent a major perturbation to many ecosystems. Because native species often persist in these invaded habitats but have no shared history with the ecosystem engineer, the engineer may impose novel selective pressure on native species. In this study, we used a phenotypic selection framework to determine whether an invasive habitat-forming ecosystem engineer (the seaweed Caulerpa taxifolia) selects for different phenotypes of a common co-occurring native species (the bivalve Anadara trapezia). Compared to unvegetated habitat, Caulerpa habitat has lower water flow, lower dissolved oxygen, and sediments are more silty and anoxic. We determined the performance consequences of variation in key functional traits that may be affected by these abiotic changes (shell morphology, gill mass, and palp mass) for Anadara transplanted into Caulerpa and unvegetated habitat. Both linear and nonlinear performance gradients in Anadara differed between habitats, and these gradients were stronger in Caulerpa compared to unvegetated sediment. Moreover, in Caulerpa alternate phenotypes performed well, and these phenotypes were different from the dominant phenotype in unvegetated sediment. By demonstrating that phenotype-performance gradients differ between habitats, we have highlighted a role for Caulerpa as an agent of selection on native species.

  11. The origin of invasion of an alien frog species in Tibet, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Supen; Fan, Liqing; Liu, Conghui; Li, Jiaqi; Gao, Xu; Zhu, Wei; Li, Yiming

    2017-12-01

    Identifying the origins of alien species has important implications for effectively controlling the spread of alien species. The black-spotted frog Pelophylax nigromaculatus , originally from East Asia, has become an alien species on the Tibetan Plateau (TP). In this study, we collected 300 individuals of P. nigromaculatus from 13 native regions and 2 invasive regions (including Nyingchi and Lhasa) on the TP. To identify the source region of the TP introductions, we sequenced portions of the mitochondrial cyt b gene. We sequenced a ∼600-bp portion of the mitochondrial cyt b gene to identify 69 haplotypes (124 polymorphic sites) in all sampled populations. According to the network results, we suggest that the P. nigromaculatus found on the TP was most likely originated from Chongqing by human introduction. Furthermore, we found that the genetic diversity was significantly lower for invasive than for native sites due to founder effects. Our study provides genetic evidence that this alien species invaded the cold environment of high elevations and expanded the distribution of P. nigromaculatus in China.

  12. Shrubs as ecosystem engineers across an environmental gradient: effects on species richness and exotic plant invasion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleinhesselink, Andrew R; Magnoli, Susan M; Cushman, J Hall

    2014-08-01

    Ecosystem-engineering plants modify the physical environment and can increase species diversity and exotic species invasion. At the individual level, the effects of ecosystem engineers on other plants often become more positive in stressful environments. In this study, we investigated whether the community-level effects of ecosystem engineers also become stronger in more stressful environments. Using comparative and experimental approaches, we assessed the ability of a native shrub (Ericameria ericoides) to act as an ecosystem engineer across a stress gradient in a coastal dune in northern California, USA. We found increased coarse organic matter and lower wind speeds within shrub patches. Growth of a dominant invasive grass (Bromus diandrus) was facilitated both by aboveground shrub biomass and by growing in soil taken from shrub patches. Experimental removal of shrubs negatively affected species most associated with shrubs and positively affected species most often found outside of shrubs. Counter to the stress-gradient hypothesis, the effects of shrubs on the physical environment and individual plant growth did not increase across the established stress gradient at this site. At the community level, shrub patches increased beta diversity, and contained greater rarified richness and exotic plant cover than shrub-free patches. Shrub effects on rarified richness increased with environmental stress, but effects on exotic cover and beta diversity did not. Our study provides evidence for the community-level effects of shrubs as ecosystem engineers in this system, but shows that these effects do not necessarily become stronger in more stressful environments.

  13. Disruption of ecosystem processes in western North America by invasive species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey S. Dukes

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Many ecosystems of western North America have been dramatically changed by non-native species. Here, we review ecological impacts of 56 plant, animal, fungus, and protist species that were brought to this region by humans. We discuss characteristics of invasive species that can lead to major ecosystem impacts, and explore how invasive species alter many different attributes of ecosystems. Specifically, we include examples of invasive species that affect geomorphology, fire regimes, hydrology, microclimate, atmospheric composition, nutrient cycling, and productivity. Finally, we review the direct consequences of biological invasions for some native species. We summarize examples from this paper in Appendix 1. Our examples illustrate how, as invasive species have become dominant across large areas of western North America's grassland, shrubland, dune, riparian, and estuarine ecosystems, the properties and functioning of these systems have changed. To date, some systems in this region, such as its forests, remain relatively unaffected by invasive species. However, recent attacks of forest pathogens highlight the potential vulnerability of these ecosystemsMuchos ecosistemas de Norteamérica occidental han cambiado dramáticamente a causa del efecto producido por especies no autóctonas. Aquí se muestra una revisión del impacto ecológico producido por 56 especies diferentes de plantas, animales y hongos, y especies de protistas que fueron traídos a esta región por humanos. Discutimos las características de las especies invasoras que pueden producir un gran impacto en el ecosistema, y exploramos cómo las especies invasoras pueden alterar de forma muy diferente los atributos de un ecosistema. Específicamente, incluimos ejemplos de especies invasoras que afectan a la geomorfología, a los regímenes del fuego, a la hidrología, al microclima, a la composición atmosférica, al ciclo de nutrientes, y a la productividad. Finalmente, revisamos las

  14. Changing conditions and changing ecosystems: a long-term regional and transcontinental research approach on invasive species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ariel E. Lugo; Grizelle Gonzalez

    2010-01-01

    Emerging new ecosystems are products of human activity. They occur everywhere but particularly in degraded sites and abandoned managed lands. These ecosystems have new species combinations and dominance by invasive species and appear to be increasing in land cover. As new ecosystems emerge on landscapes, issues of social values and attitudes toward alien species and...

  15. The role of CVS (and FIA) data and genetic tests in assessing species vulnerability to invasive pests and changing climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    R.A. Sniezko; H.E. Lintz

    2017-01-01

    United States tree species and their associated ecosystems, managed forests, and urban plantings are increasingly vulnerable to non-native invasive pathogens and insects as well as effects associated with a changing climate. Some species, such as whitebark pine (Pinus albicaulis), have been proposed for listing under the Endangered Species Act. To...

  16. Evaluating the impact of invasive species in forest landscapes: the southern pine beetle and the hemlock woolly adelgid

    Science.gov (United States)

    John D. Waldron; Robert N. Coulson; David M. Cairns; Charles W. Lafon; Maria D. Tchakerian; Weimin Xi; Kier Klepzig; Andrew. Birt

    2010-01-01

    The southern pine beetle, Dendroctonus frontalis (Zimmerman) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae) (SPB), is an indigenous invasive species that infests and causes mortality to pines (Pinus spp.) throughout the Southern United States. The hemlock woolly adelgid, Adelges tsugae (Annand) (Homoptera:...

  17. The economics of landscape restoration: Benefits of controlling bush encroachment and invasive plant species in South Africa and Namibia

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Stafford, William

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Bush encroachment and alien plant invasions alter the composition and/or balance of species in natural ecosystems and impact biodiversity, land productivity and water availability. Therefore, the appropriate control and management of bush...

  18. The problem of assessing the viability of invasive species in the conditions of the steppe zone of Ukraine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. K. Holoborodko

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available This article proposes a completely new method of resolving the pressing global environmental problem of assessing the capacity of invasive organisms to adapt to new environmental conditions. A new three-step approach to the evaluation of vital and ecological functions of invasive species is recommended. In addition to classic species and population surveys, it was proposed to apply a stress-resistance biochemical assessment of invasive species. Stress resistance can be regarded as the main response of living organisms to changes in continuous environmental components. The obtained results will provide an opportunity to give a qualitative prognisis of what adaptive capacity an invasive species has,what precise ecological functions and for what time period it can perform in a new ecosystem.

  19. Gone with the wind and the stream: Dispersal in the invasive species Ailanthus altissima

    Science.gov (United States)

    Planchuelo, Greg; Catalán, Pablo; Delgado, Juan Antonio

    2016-05-01

    Dispersal is a key process in plant invasions and is strongly related to diaspore morphology. Often, dispersal comprises more than one step, and morphologies adapted to a primary dispersal mechanism can aid or detract from a secondary one. The aim of this work was to assess the relationship between primary wind dispersal and secondary water dispersal in Ailanthus altissima, an invasive tree species. Wind and water dispersal potential and their association with the morphological characteristics of samaras were assessed under controlled conditions to ensure the repeatability of the measurements. We found a direct positive relationship between primary wind and secondary water dispersal in A. altissima. The main morphological characteristics of the samara that affected the success of the two types of dispersal were side perimeter and mass. However, a possibility of dispersal specialisation exists, as one morphological characteristic (samara width) affects wind dispersal negatively but water dispersal positively, and dispersal potential and samara morphology have been shown to differ across individuals.

  20. Usefulness of bioclimatic models for studying climate change and invasive species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeschke, Jonathan M; Strayer, David L

    2008-01-01

    Bioclimatic models (also known as envelope models or, more broadly, ecological niche models or species distribution models) are used to predict geographic ranges of organisms as a function of climate. They are widely used to forecast range shifts of organisms due to climate change, predict the eventual ranges of invasive species, infer paleoclimate from data on species occurrences, and so forth. Several statistical techniques (including general linear models, general additive models, climate envelope models, classification and regression trees, and genetic algorithms) have been used in bioclimatic modeling. Recently developed techniques tend to perform better than older techniques, although it is unlikely that any single statistical approach will be optimal for all applications and species. Proponents of bioclimatic models have stressed their apparent predictive power, whereas opponents have identified the following unreasonable model assumptions: biotic interactions are unimportant in determining geographic ranges or are constant over space and time; the genetic and phenotypic composition of species is constant over space and time; and species are unlimited in their dispersal. In spite of these problematic assumptions, bioclimatic models often successfully fit present-day ranges of species. Their ability to forecast the effects of climate change or the spread of invaders has rarely been tested adequately, however, and we urge researchers to tie the evaluation of bioclimatic models more closely to their intended uses.

  1. Archaea and bacteria mediate the effects of native species root loss on fungi during plant invasion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mamet, Steven D; Lamb, Eric G; Piper, Candace L; Winsley, Tristrom; Siciliano, Steven D

    2017-05-01

    Although invasive plants can drive ecosystem change, little is known about the directional nature of belowground interactions between invasive plants, native roots, bacteria, archaea and fungi. We used detailed bioinformatics and a recently developed root assay on soils collected in fescue grassland along a gradient of smooth brome (Bromus inermis Leyss) invasion to examine the links between smooth brome shoot litter and root, archaea, bacteria and fungal communities. We examined (1) aboveground versus belowground influences of smooth brome on soil microbial communities, (2) the importance of direct versus microbe-mediated impacts of plants on soil fungal communities, and (3) the web of roots, shoots, archaea, bacteria and fungi interactions across the A and B soil horizons in invaded and non-invaded sites. Archaea and bacteria influenced fungal composition, but not vice versa, as indicated by redundancy analyses. Co-inertia analyses suggested that bacterial-fungal variance was driven primarily by 12 bacterial operational taxonomic units (OTUs). Brome increased bacterial diversity via smooth brome litter in the A horizon and roots in the B horizon, which then reduced fungal diversity. Archaea increased abundance of several bacterial OTUs, and the key bacterial OTUs mediated changes in the fungi's response to invasion. Overall, native root diversity loss and bacterial mediation were more important drivers of fungal composition than were the direct effects of increases in smooth brome. Critically, native plant species displacement and root loss appeared to be the most important driver of fungal composition during invasion. This causal web likely gives rise to the plant-fungi feedbacks, which are an essential factor determining plant diversity in invaded grassland ecosystems.

  2. Gene expression plasticity across hosts of an invasive scale insect species

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christodoulides, Nicholas; Van Dam, Alex; Peterson, Daniel A.

    2017-01-01

    For plant-eating insects, we still have only a nascent understanding of the genetic basis of host-use promiscuity. Here, to improve that situation, we investigated host-induced gene expression plasticity in the invasive lobate lac scale insect, Paratachardina pseudolobata (Hemiptera: Keriidae). We...... were particularly interested in the differential expression of detoxification and effector genes, which are thought to be critical for overcoming a plant’s chemical defenses. We collected RNA samples from P. pseudolobata on three different host plant species, assembled transcriptomes de novo...... of several recently published studies of other plant-eating insect species. Thus, across plant-eating insect species, there may be a common set of gene expression changes that enable host-use promiscuity....

  3. Citizen science contributes to our knowledge of invasive plant species distributions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crall, Alycia W.; Jarnevich, Catherine S.; Young, Nicholas E.; Panke, Brendon; Renz, Mark; Stohlgren, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Citizen science is commonly cited as an effective approach to expand the scale of invasive species data collection and monitoring. However, researchers often hesitate to use these data due to concerns over data quality. In light of recent research on the quality of data collected by volunteers, we aimed to demonstrate the extent to which citizen science data can increase sampling coverage, fill gaps in species distributions, and improve habitat suitability models compared to professionally generated data sets used in isolation. We combined data sets from professionals and volunteers for five invasive plant species (Alliaria petiolata, Berberis thunbergii, Cirsium palustre, Pastinaca sativa, Polygonum cuspidatum) in portions of Wisconsin. Volunteers sampled counties not sampled by professionals for three of the five species. Volunteers also added presence locations within counties not included in professional data sets, especially in southern portions of the state where professional monitoring activities had been minimal. Volunteers made a significant contribution to the known distribution, environmental gradients sampled, and the habitat suitability of P. cuspidatum. Models generated with professional data sets for the other four species performed reasonably well according to AUC values (>0.76). The addition of volunteer data did not greatly change model performance (AUC > 0.79) but did change the suitability surface generated by the models, making them more realistic. Our findings underscore the need to merge data from multiple sources to improve knowledge of current species distributions, and to predict their movement under present and future environmental conditions. The efficiency and success of these approaches require that monitoring efforts involve multiple stakeholders in continuous collaboration via established monitoring networks.

  4. Environmental DNA (eDNA metabarcoding assays to detect invasive invertebrate species in the Great Lakes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katy E Klymus

    Full Text Available Describing and monitoring biodiversity comprise integral parts of ecosystem management. Recent research coupling metabarcoding and environmental DNA (eDNA demonstrate that these methods can serve as important tools for surveying biodiversity, while significantly decreasing the time, expense and resources spent on traditional survey methods. The literature emphasizes the importance of genetic marker development, as the markers dictate the applicability, sensitivity and resolution ability of an eDNA assay. The present study developed two metabarcoding eDNA assays using the mtDNA 16S RNA gene with Illumina MiSeq platform to detect invertebrate fauna in the Laurentian Great Lakes and surrounding waterways, with a focus for use on invasive bivalve and gastropod species monitoring. We employed careful primer design and in vitro testing with mock communities to assess ability of the markers to amplify and sequence targeted species DNA, while retaining rank abundance information. In our mock communities, read abundances reflected the initial input abundance, with regressions having significant slopes (p<0.05 and high coefficients of determination (R2 for all comparisons. Tests on field environmental samples revealed similar ability of our markers to measure relative abundance. Due to the limited reference sequence data available for these invertebrate species, care must be taken when analyzing results and identifying sequence reads to species level. These markers extend eDNA metabarcoding research for molluscs and appear relevant to other invertebrate taxa, such as rotifers and bryozoans. Furthermore, the sphaeriid mussel assay is group-specific, exclusively amplifying bivalves in the Sphaeridae family and providing species-level identification. Our assays provide useful tools for managers and conservation scientists, facilitating early detection of invasive species as well as improving resolution of mollusc diversity.

  5. Locomotor performance in an invasive species: cane toads from the invasion front have greater endurance, but not speed, compared to conspecifics from a long-colonised area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llewelyn, John; Phillips, Benjamin L; Alford, Ross A; Schwarzkopf, Lin; Shine, Richard

    2010-02-01

    Cane toads (Bufo marinus) are now moving about 5 times faster through tropical Australia than they did a half-century ago, during the early phases of toad invasion. Radio-tracking has revealed higher daily rates of displacement by toads at the invasion front compared to those from long-colonised areas: toads from frontal populations follow straighter paths, move more often, and move further per displacement than do toads from older (long-established) populations. Are these higher movement rates of invasion-front toads associated with modified locomotor performance (e.g. speed, endurance)? In an outdoor raceway, toads collected from the invasion front had similar speeds, but threefold greater endurance, compared to conspecifics collected from a long-established population. Thus, increased daily displacement in invasion-front toads does not appear to be driven by changes in locomotor speed. Instead, increased dispersal is associated with higher endurance, suggesting that invasion-front toads tend to spend more time moving than do their less dispersive conspecifics. Whether this increased endurance is a cause or consequence of behavioural shifts associated with rapid dispersal is unclear. Nonetheless, shifts in endurance between frontal and core populations of this invasive species point to the complex panoply of traits affected by selection for increased dispersal ability on expanding population fronts.

  6. The Invasive Species Forecasting System (ISFS): An iRODS-Based, Cloud-Enabled Decision Support System for Invasive Species Habitat Suitability Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gill, Roger; Schnase, John L.

    2012-01-01

    The Invasive Species Forecasting System (ISFS) is an online decision support system that allows users to load point occurrence field sample data for a plant species of interest and quickly generate habitat suitability maps for geographic regions of interest, such as a national park, monument, forest, or refuge. Target customers for ISFS are natural resource managers and decision makers who have a need for scientifically valid, model- based predictions of the habitat suitability of plant species of management concern. In a joint project involving NASA and the Maryland Department of Natural Resources, ISFS has been used to model the potential distribution of Wavyleaf Basketgrass in Maryland's Chesapeake Bay Watershed. Maximum entropy techniques are used to generate predictive maps using predictor datasets derived from remotely sensed data and climate simulation outputs. The workflow to run a model is implemented in an iRODS microservice using a custom ISFS file driver that clips and re-projects data to geographic regions of interest, then shells out to perform MaxEnt processing on the input data. When the model completes, all output files and maps from the model run are registered in iRODS and made accessible to the user. The ISFS user interface is a web browser that uses the iRODS PHP client to interact with the ISFS/iRODS- server. ISFS is designed to reside in a VMware virtual machine running SLES 11 and iRODS 3.0. The ISFS virtual machine is hosted in a VMware vSphere private cloud infrastructure to deliver the online service.

  7. Effects of metal lead on growth and mycorrhizae of an invasive plant species (Solidago canadensis L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Ruyi; Yu, Guodong; Tang, Jianjun; Chen, Xin

    2008-01-01

    It is less known whether and how soil metal lead (Pb) impacts the invasion of exotic plants. A greenhouse experiment was conducted to estimate the effects of lead on the growth and mycorrhizae of an invasive species (Solidago canadensis L.) in a microcosm system. Each microcosm unit was separated into HOST and TEST compartments by a replaceable mesh screen that allowed arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungal hyphae rather than plant roots to grow into the TEST compartments. Three Pb levels (control, 300, and 600 mg/kg soil) were used in this study to simulate ambient soil and two pollution sites where S. canadensis grows. Mycorrhizal inoculum comprised five indigenous arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal species (Glomus mosseae, Glomus versiform, Glomus diaphanum, Glomus geosporum, and Glomus etunicatum). The 15N isotope tracer was used to quantify the mycorrhizally mediated nitrogen acquisition of plants. The results showed that S. canadensis was highly dependent on mycorrhizae. The Pb additions significantly decreased biomass and arbuscular mycorrhizal colonization (root length colonized, RLC%) but did not affect spore numbers, N (including total N and 15N) and P uptake. The facilitating efficiency of mycorrhizae on nutrient acquisition was promoted by Pb treatments. The Pb was mostly sequestered in belowground of plant (root and rhizome). The results suggest that the high efficiency of mycorrhizae on nutrient uptake might give S. canadensis a great advantage over native species in Pb polluted soils.

  8. Corruption, development and governance indicators predict invasive species risk from trade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brenton-Rule, Evan C.; Barbieri, Rafael F.; Lester, Philip J.

    2016-01-01

    Invasive species have an enormous global impact, with international trade being the leading pathway for their introduction. Current multinational trade deals under negotiation will dramatically change trading partnerships and pathways. These changes have considerable potential to influence biological invasions and global biodiversity. Using a database of 47 328 interceptions spanning 10 years, we demonstrate how development and governance socio-economic indicators of trading partners can predict exotic species interceptions. For import pathways associated with vegetable material, a significantly higher risk of exotic species interceptions was associated with countries that are poorly regulated, have more forest cover and have surprisingly low corruption. Corruption and indicators such as political stability or adherence to rule of law were important in vehicle or timber import pathways. These results will be of considerable value to policy makers, primarily by shifting quarantine procedures to focus on countries of high risk based on their socio-economic status. Further, using New Zealand as an example, we demonstrate how a ninefold reduction in incursions could be achieved if socio-economic indicators were used to select trade partners. International trade deals that ignore governance and development indicators may facilitate introductions and biodiversity loss. Development and governance within countries clearly have biodiversity implications beyond borders. PMID:27306055

  9. Global potential distribution of an invasive species, the yellow crazy ant (Anoplolepis gracilipes) under climate change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Youhua

    2008-09-01

    Changes to the Earth's climate may affect the distribution of countless species. Understanding the potential distribution of known invasive species under an altered climate is vital to predicting impacts and developing management policy. The present study employs ecological niche modeling to construct the global potential distribution range of the yellow crazy ant (Anoplolepis gracilipes) using past, current and future climate scenarios. Three modeling algorithms, GARP, BioClim and Environmental Distance, were used in a comparative analysis. Output from the models suggest firstly that this insect originated from south Asia, expanded into Europe and then into Afrotropical regions, after which it formed its current distribution. Second, the invasive risk of A. gracilipes under future climatic change scenarios will become greater because of an extension of suitable environmental conditions in higher latitudes. Third, when compared to the GARP model, BioClim and Environmental Distance models were better at modeling a species' ancestral distribution. These findings are discussed in light of the predictive accuracy of these models. © 2008 ISZS, Blackwell Publishing and IOZ/CAS.

  10. Corruption, development and governance indicators predict invasive species risk from trade.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brenton-Rule, Evan C; Barbieri, Rafael F; Lester, Philip J

    2016-06-15

    Invasive species have an enormous global impact, with international trade being the leading pathway for their introduction. Current multinational trade deals under negotiation will dramatically change trading partnerships and pathways. These changes have considerable potential to influence biological invasions and global biodiversity. Using a database of 47 328 interceptions spanning 10 years, we demonstrate how development and governance socio-economic indicators of trading partners can predict exotic species interceptions. For import pathways associated with vegetable material, a significantly higher risk of exotic species interceptions was associated with countries that are poorly regulated, have more forest cover and have surprisingly low corruption. Corruption and indicators such as political stability or adherence to rule of law were important in vehicle or timber import pathways. These results will be of considerable value to policy makers, primarily by shifting quarantine procedures to focus on countries of high risk based on their socio-economic status. Further, using New Zealand as an example, we demonstrate how a ninefold reduction in incursions could be achieved if socio-economic indicators were used to select trade partners. International trade deals that ignore governance and development indicators may facilitate introductions and biodiversity loss. Development and governance within countries clearly have biodiversity implications beyond borders. © 2016 The Author(s).

  11. Perception and Understanding of Invasive Alien Species Issues by Nature Conservation and Horticulture Professionals in Belgium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanderhoeven, Sonia; Piqueray, Julien; Halford, Mathieu; Nulens, Greet; Vincke, Jan; Mahy, Grégory

    2011-03-01

    We conducted a survey to determine how two professional sectors in Belgium, horticulture professionals and nature reserve managers (those directly involved in conservation), view the issues associated with invasive plant species. We developed and utilized a questionnaire that addressed the themes of awareness, concept and use of language, availability of information, impacts and, finally, control and available solutions. Using co-inertia analyses, we tested to what extent the perception of invasive alien species (IAS) was dependent upon the perception of Nature in general. Only forty-two percent of respondent horticulture professionals and eighty-two percent of nature reserve managers had a general knowledge of IAS. Many individuals in both target groups nonetheless had an accurate understanding of the scientific issues. Our results therefore suggest that the manner in which individuals within the two groups view, or perceive, the IAS issue was more the result of lack of information than simply biased perceptions of target groups. Though IAS perceptions by the two groups diverged, they were on par with how they viewed Nature in general. The descriptions of IAS by participants converged with the ideas and concepts frequently found in the scientific literature. Both managers and horticulture professionals expressed a strong willingness to participate in programs designed to prevent the spread of, and damage caused by, IAS. Despite this, the continued commercial availability of many invasive species highlighted the necessity to use both mandatory and voluntary approaches to reduce their re-introduction and spread. The results of this study provide stakeholders and conservation managers with practical information on which communication and management strategies can be based.

  12. Perception and understanding of invasive alien species issues by nature conservation and horticulture professionals in Belgium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanderhoeven, Sonia; Piqueray, Julien; Halford, Mathieu; Nulens, Greet; Vincke, Jan; Mahy, Grégory

    2011-03-01

    We conducted a survey to determine how two professional sectors in Belgium, horticulture professionals and nature reserve managers (those directly involved in conservation), view the issues associated with invasive plant species. We developed and utilized a questionnaire that addressed the themes of awareness, concept and use of language, availability of information, impacts and, finally, control and available solutions. Using co-inertia analyses, we tested to what extent the perception of invasive alien species (IAS) was dependent upon the perception of Nature in general. Only forty-two percent of respondent horticulture professionals and eighty-two percent of nature reserve managers had a general knowledge of IAS. Many individuals in both target groups nonetheless had an accurate understanding of the scientific issues. Our results therefore suggest that the manner in which individuals within the two groups view, or perceive, the IAS issue was more the result of lack of information than simply biased perceptions of target groups. Though IAS perceptions by the two groups diverged, they were on par with how they viewed Nature in general. The descriptions of IAS by participants converged with the ideas and concepts frequently found in the scientific literature. Both managers and horticulture professionals expressed a strong willingness to participate in programs designed to prevent the spread of, and damage caused by, IAS. Despite this, the continued commercial availability of many invasive species highlighted the necessity to use both mandatory and voluntary approaches to reduce their re-introduction and spread. The results of this study provide stakeholders and conservation managers with practical information on which communication and management strategies can be based.

  13. Modeling invasive alien plant species in river systems: Interaction with native ecosystem engineers and effects on hydro-morphodynamic processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Oorschot, M.; Kleinhans, M. G.; Geerling, G. W.; Egger, G.; Leuven, R. S. E. W.; Middelkoop, H.

    2017-08-01

    Invasive alien plant species negatively impact native plant communities by out-competing species or changing abiotic and biotic conditions in their introduced range. River systems are especially vulnerable to biological invasions, because waterways can function as invasion corridors. Understanding interactions of invasive and native species and their combined effects on river dynamics is essential for developing cost-effective management strategies. However, numerical models for simulating long-term effects of these processes are lacking. This paper investigates how an invasive alien plant species affects native riparian vegetation and hydro-morphodynamics. A morphodynamic model has been coupled to a dynamic vegetation model that predicts establishment, growth and mortality of riparian trees. We introduced an invasive alien species with life-history traits based on Japanese Knotweed (Fallopia japonica), and investigated effects of low- and high propagule pressure on invasion speed, native vegetation and hydro-morphodynamic processes. Results show that high propagule pressure leads to a decline in native species cover due to competition and the creation of unfavorable native colonization sites. With low propagule pressure the invader facilitates native seedling survival by creating favorable hydro-morphodynamic conditions at colonization sites. With high invader abundance, water levels are raised and sediment transport is reduced during the growing season. In winter, when the above-ground invader biomass is gone, results are reversed and the floodplain is more prone to erosion. Invasion effects thus depend on seasonal above- and below ground dynamic vegetation properties and persistence of the invader, on the characteristics of native species it replaces, and the combined interactions with hydro-morphodynamics.

  14. Optimal control of an invasive species using a reaction-diffusion model and linear programming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonneau, Mathieu; Johnson, Fred A.; Smith, Brian J.; Romagosa, Christina M.; Martin, Julien; Mazzotti, Frank J.

    2017-01-01

    Managing an invasive species is particularly challenging as little is generally known about the species’ biological characteristics in its new habitat. In practice, removal of individuals often starts before the species is studied to provide the information that will later improve control. Therefore, the locations and the amount of control have to be determined in the face of great uncertainty about the species characteristics and with a limited amount of resources. We propose framing spatial control as a linear programming optimization problem. This formulation, paired with a discrete reaction-diffusion model, permits calculation of an optimal control strategy that minimizes the remaining number of invaders for a fixed cost or that minimizes the control cost for containment or protecting specific areas from invasion. We propose computing the optimal strategy for a range of possible model parameters, representing current uncertainty on the possible invasion scenarios. Then, a best strategy can be identified depending on the risk attitude of the decision-maker. We use this framework to study the spatial control of the Argentine black and white tegus (Salvator merianae) in South Florida. There is uncertainty about tegu demography and we considered several combinations of model parameters, exhibiting various dynamics of invasion. For a fixed one-year budget, we show that the risk-averse strategy, which optimizes the worst-case scenario of tegus’ dynamics, and the risk-neutral strategy, which optimizes the expected scenario, both concentrated control close to the point of introduction. A risk-seeking strategy, which optimizes the best-case scenario, focuses more on models where eradication of the species in a cell is possible and consists of spreading control as much as possible. For the establishment of a containment area, assuming an exponential growth we show that with current control methods it might not be possible to implement such a strategy for some of the

  15. NAFTA and member country strategies for maritime trade and marine invasive species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez, Linda

    2008-12-01

    Maritime shipping has two vectors of spreading marine invasive species: ballast water inside the ship and biofouling on the hulls outside the ship. While some attention has focused on ballast water, virtually none is focused on biofouling. This paper offers a quantitative analysis of economic incentives for shippers and regulating ports to address both pollution vectors. The strategies to address the vectors are induced by incentive mechanisms involving liability, subsidies and taxes. Results show these offer ample incentives in order to truly foster abatement of both vectors. Data from North America's Pacific coast is included in the analysis.

  16. Distribution and status of marine invasive species in and bordering the West Coast National Park

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T.B. Robinson

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available On a global scale, species are constantly being moved from their areas of origin to new locales. Such range extensions can occur naturally, but are frequently aided (intentionally or non-intentionally by humans (Mack et al. 2000. As a result, the marked world-wide increase in animal, plant, and microbial immigrations, has been found to roughly track the increase in human commerce (Mack et al. 2000. The principal vectors of human-mediated marine invasions are ballast water (Williams et al. 1988, mariculture (Minchin 1996, sediment held in ballast tanks (Carlton 1985, and ship hull fouling (Minchin 1996.

  17. Long time behavior of a PDE model for invasive species control

    KAUST Repository

    Parshad, R.D.

    2011-01-01

    The Trojan Y Chromosome strategy (TYC) is a theoretical method for eradication of invasive species. It requires constant introduction of artificial individuals into a target population, causing a shift in the sex ratio, that ultimately leads to local extinction. In this work we consider a modified version of the TYC system. We first demonstrate the existence of a unique weak solution to the system. Furthermore, we prove the existence of a compact finite dimensional global attractor for the modified system, in L 2(Ω) × L 2(Ω)× L 2(Ω).

  18. Parallel evolution in an invasive plant species : evolutionary changes in allocation to growth, defense, competitive ability and regrowth of invasive Jacobaea vulgaris

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lin, Tiantian

    2015-01-01

    Although the introduction of invasive plant species in a given area causes economic and ecological problems, it still provides an ideal opportunity for ecologists to study evolutionary changes. According to the Evolution of Increased Competitive Ability hypothesis and Shifting Defense Hypothesis,

  19. The application of the European strategy on invasive alien species: an example with introduced squirrels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandro Bertolino

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract We assessed the cases of squirrel species already introduced into Italy inside the framework proposed by the European strategy on invasive alien species. We collected information on 9 introductions that originated 8 populations: 3 of grey squirrels (Sciurus carolinensis, 2 of Finlayson's squirrels (Callosciurus finlaysonii, and 3 of Siberian chip-munks (Eutamias sibiricus. Food opportunism and high reproductive rate may explain the high success rate in establishing new populations, even with a low propagule pressure. A negative impact on the red squirrel (Sciurus vulgaris and damage to forestry and manufactures have been recorded in the areas of introduction. Accordingly to the European strategy, Italy is called to build-up a rapid response system in order to avoid further releases of alien squirrels in the wild. Meanwhile these species must be considered as a priority for trade restriction. Considering the risks posed to biodiversity and human activities, Italy must adopt a precautionary principle, removing small nuclei of introduced species before they spread in large areas. Riassunto Applicazione della strategia europea sulle specie non indigene: un esempio con gli scoiattoli introdotti Come esempio di applicazione della strategia europea sulle specie invasive introdotte, abbiamo analizzato la situazione degli scoiattoli introdotti in Italia. Su 9 introduzioni registrate, in 8 casi si sono formate popolazioni naturalizzate: 3 di scoiattolo grigio (Sciurus carolinensis, 2 di scoiattolo di Finlayson (Callosciurus finlaysonii e 3 di tamia siberiano (Eutamias sibiricus. L'alto successo delle introduzioni, anche a partire da pochi animali rilasciati, è probabilmente legato all'opportunismo alimentare delle specie considerate e al loro elevato tasso riproduttivo. Al momento, nelle aree di introduzione sono segnalati fenomeni

  20. Restraining of reactive oxygen species promotes invasion of Listeria monocytogenes into glia cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Sen; Chen, Guowei; Wu, Man; Zhang, Jingchen; Wu, Shuyan

    2016-01-01

    Listeria monocytogenes is a foodborne pathogen that could cause severe infection in the central nervous system of humans and animals. However, the molecular mechanism of the pathogenesis is not fundamentally assessed. This study aimed to analyze the role of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in L. monocytogenes during its invasion into glia cells. The ROS level in L. monocytogenes was manipulated using NAD(P)H oxidase inhibitor diphenyleneiodonium chloride (DPI) and ROS scavenger N-acetyl cysteine (NAC). Results showed that the invasiveness of L. monocytogenes was elevated when ROS was downregulated by DPI and NAC treatment. Expression profiles of proinflammatory factors in glia cells were also examined because they play important roles in the functions of glia cells in the brain immune system. The expression levels of proinflammatory factors (tumor necrosis factor α and interleukin-1β) in host glia cells were downregulated when invaded by L. monocytogenes with lower ROS level. This finding indicates that ROS may function as negative regulator during the invasion of L. monocytogenes in brain infection. © FEMS 2015. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  1. Trait differences between naturalized and invasive plant species independent of residence time and phylogeny

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallagher, R V; Randall, R P; Leishman, M R

    2015-01-01

    The ability to predict which alien plants will transition from naturalized to invasive prior to their introduction to novel regions is a key goal for conservation and has the potential to increase the efficacy of weed risk assessment (WRA). However, multiple factors contribute to plant invasion success (e.g., functional traits, range characteristics, residence time, phylogeny), and they all must be taken into account simultaneously in order to identify meaningful correlates of invasion success. We compiled 146 pairs of phylogenetically paired (congeneric) naturalized and invasive plant species in Australia with similar minimum residence times (i.e., time since introduction in years). These pairs were used to test for differences in 5 functional traits (flowering duration, leaf size, maximum height, specific leaf area [SLA], seed mass) and 3 characteristics of species’ native ranges (biome occupancy, mean annual temperature, and rainfall breadth) between naturalized and invasive species. Invasive species, on average, had larger SLA, longer flowering periods, and were taller than their congeneric naturalized relatives. Invaders also exhibited greater tolerance for different environmental conditions in the native range, where they occupied more biomes and a wider breadth of rainfall and temperature conditions than naturalized congeners. However, neither seed mass nor leaf size differed between pairs of naturalized and invasive species. A key finding was the role of SLA in distinguishing between naturalized and invasive pairs. Species with high SLA values were typically associated with faster growth rates, more rapid turnover of leaf material, and shorter lifespans than those species with low SLA. This suite of characteristics may contribute to the ability of a species to transition from naturalized to invasive across a wide range of environmental contexts and disturbance regimes. Our findings will help in the refinement of WRA protocols, and we advocate the

  2. Seven Recommendations to Make Your Invasive Alien Species Data More Useful

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Quentin J. Groom

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Science-based strategies to tackle biological invasions depend on recent, accurate, well-documented, standardized and openly accessible information on alien species. Currently and historically, biodiversity data are scattered in numerous disconnected data silos that lack interoperability. The situation is no different for alien species data, and this obstructs efficient retrieval, combination, and use of these kinds of information for research and policy-making. Standardization and interoperability are particularly important as many alien species related research and policy activities require pooling data. We describe seven ways that data on alien species can be made more accessible and useful, based on the results of a European Cooperation in Science and Technology (COST workshop: (1 Create data management plans; (2 Increase interoperability of information sources; (3 Document data through metadata; (4 Format data using existing standards; (5 Adopt controlled vocabularies; (6 Increase data availability; and (7 Ensure long-term data preservation. We identify four properties specific and integral to alien species data (species status, introduction pathway, degree of establishment, and impact mechanism that are either missing from existing data standards or lack a recommended controlled vocabulary. Improved access to accurate, real-time and historical data will repay the long-term investment in data management infrastructure, by providing more accurate, timely and realistic assessments and analyses. If we improve core biodiversity data standards by developing their relevance to alien species, it will allow the automation of common activities regarding data processing in support of environmental policy. Furthermore, we call for considerable effort to maintain, update, standardize, archive, and aggregate datasets, to ensure proper valorization of alien species data and information before they become obsolete or lost.

  3. Seven recommendations to make your invasive alien species data more useful

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groom, Quentin J.; Adriaens, Tim; Desmet, Peter; Simpson, Annie; De Wever, Aaike; Bazos, Ioannis; Cardoso, Ana Cristina; Charles, Lucinda; Christopoulou, Anastasia; Gazda, Anna; Helmisaari, Harry; Hobern, Donald; Josefsson, Melanie; Lucy, Frances; Marisavljevic, Dragana; Oszako, Tomasz; Pergl, Jan; Petrovic-Obradovic, Olivera; Prévot, Céline; Ravn, Hans Peter; Richards, Gareth; Roques, Alain; Roy, Helen; Rozenberg, Marie-Anne A.; Scalera, Riccardo; Tricarico, Elena; Trichkova, Teodora; Vercayie, Diemer; Zenetos, Argyro; Vanderhoeven, Sonia

    2017-01-01

    Science-based strategies to tackle biological invasions depend on recent, accurate, well-documented, standardized and openly accessible information on alien species. Currently and historically, biodiversity data are scattered in numerous disconnected data silos that lack interoperability. The situation is no different for alien species data, and this obstructs efficient retrieval, combination, and use of these kinds of information for research and policy-making. Standardization and interoperability are particularly important as many alien species related research and policy activities require pooling data. We describe seven ways that data on alien species can be made more accessible and useful, based on the results of a European Cooperation in Science and Technology (COST) workshop: (1) Create data management plans; (2) Increase interoperability of information sources; (3) Document data through metadata; (4) Format data using existing standards; (5) Adopt controlled vocabularies; (6) Increase data availability; and (7) Ensure long-term data preservation. We identify four properties specific and integral to alien species data (species status, introduction pathway, degree of establishment, and impact mechanism) that are either missing from existing data standards or lack a recommended controlled vocabulary. Improved access to accurate, real-time and historical data will repay the long-term investment in data management infrastructure, by providing more accurate, timely and realistic assessments and analyses. If we improve core biodiversity data standards by developing their relevance to alien species, it will allow the automation of common activities regarding data processing in support of environmental policy. Furthermore, we call for considerable effort to maintain, update, standardize, archive, and aggregate datasets, to ensure proper valorization of alien species data and information before they become obsolete or lost.

  4. Invasive vascular plant species of oxbow lakes in south-western Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Spałek Krzysztof

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Natural water reservoirs are very valuable floristic sites in south-western Poland. Among them, the most important for the preservation of biodiversity of flora are oxbow lakes. The long-term process of human pressure on habitats of this type caused disturbances of their biological balance. Changes in the water regime, industrial development and chemisation of agriculture, especially in the period of the last two hundred years, led to systematic disappearances of localities of many plant species connected with rare habitats and also to the appearance of numerous invasive plant species. They are: Azolla filiculoides, Echinocystis lobata, Erechtites hieraciifolia, Impatiens glandulifera, I. parviflora, Reynoutria japonica, Solidago canadensis, S. gigantea and S. graminifolia. Field works were conducted in years 2005-2012.

  5. Biological observations for invasive and exotic insect species Anoplophora chinensis (Forster, 1771

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erdem Hizal

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, invasive and exotic insect species have been frequently found in Turkey. Anoplophora chinensis (Forster, 1771 was first recorded in Şile (Istanbul province county, Turkey, in June 2014 and later in Zeytinburnu (the garden of the Abdi Ipekçi Sports Complex and the surrounding in July in the same year. This study was conducted in these two counties in particular between June 2014 and July 2016 with the aims of making remarks on an earlier misidentification of Anoplophora species and determining the life cycle and the host plants in Istanbul, Turkey. It was noted that the record of A. glabripennis in Istanbul was a misidentification of A. chinensis. It took 1 year to complete its generation. The primary host plant of this insect was found to be Acer negundo.

  6. Hyperspectral Mapping of the Invasive Species Pepperweed and the Development of a Habitat Suitability Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, A.; Gole, A.; Randall, J.; Dlott, G. A.; Zhang, S.; Alfaro, B.; Schmidt, C.; Skiles, J. W.

    2011-12-01

    Mapping and predicting the spatial distribution of invasive plant species is central to habitat management, however difficult to implement at landscape and regional scales. Remote sensing techniques can reduce the cost of field campaigns and can provide a regional and multi-temporal view of invasive species spread. Invasive perennial pepperweed (Lepidium latifolium) is now widespread in fragmented estuaries of the South San Francisco Bay, and is shown to degrade native vegetation in estuaries and adjacent habitats, thereby reducing forage and shelter for wildlife. The purpose of this study is to map the current distribution of pepperweed in estuarine areas of the South San Francisco Bay Salt Pond Restoration Project, and create a habitat suitability model to predict future spread. Pepperweed reflectance data were collected in-situ with a GER 1500 spectroradiometer along with 88 corresponding pepperweed presence and absence points used for building the statistical models. The spectral angle mapper (SAM) classification algorithm was used to distinguish the reflectance spectrum of pepperweed and map its distribution using an EO-1 Hyperion satellite image. To map pepperweed, a supervised classification was performed on an ASTER image with a resulting classification accuracy of 71.8%. We generated a weighted overlay analysis model within a geographic information system (GIS) framework to predict areas in the study site most susceptible to pepperweed colonization. Variables for the model included propensity for disturbance, status of pond restoration, proximity to water channels, and terrain curvature. A Generalized Additive Model (GAM) was also used to generate a probability map and investigate the statistical probability that each variable contributed to predict pepperweed spread. Results from the GAM revealed distance to channels, distance to ponds and curvature were statistically significant (p < 0.01) in determining the locations of suitable pepperweed habitats.

  7. Hyperspectral Mapping of the Invasive Species Pepperweed and the Development of a Habitat Suitability Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Andrew; Gole, Alexander; Randall, Jarom; Dlott, Glade; Zhang, Sylvia; Alfaro, Brian; Schmidt, Cindy; Skiles, J. W.

    2011-01-01

    Mapping and predicting the spatial distribution of invasive plant species is central to habitat management, however difficult to implement at landscape and regional scales. Remote sensing techniques can reduce the impact field campaigns have on these ecologically sensitive areas and can provide a regional and multi-temporal view of invasive species spread. Invasive perennial pepperweed (Lepidium latifolium) is now widespread in fragmented estuaries of the South San Francisco Bay, and is shown to degrade native vegetation in estuaries and adjacent habitats, thereby reducing forage and shelter for wildlife. The purpose of this study is to map the present distribution of pepperweed in estuarine areas of the South San Francisco Bay Salt Pond Restoration Project (Alviso, CA), and create a habitat suitability model to predict future spread. Pepperweed reflectance data were collected in-situ with a GER 1500 spectroradiometer along with 88 corresponding pepperweed presence and absence points used for building the statistical models. The spectral angle mapper (SAM) classification algorithm was used to distinguish the reflectance spectrum of pepperweed and map its distribution using an image from EO-1 Hyperion. To map pepperweed, we performed a supervised classification on an ASTER image with a resulting classification accuracy of 71.8%. We generated a weighted overlay analysis model within a geographic information system (GIS) framework to predict areas in the study site most susceptible to pepperweed colonization. Variables for the model included propensity for disturbance, status of pond restoration, proximity to water channels, and terrain curvature. A Generalized Additive Model (GAM) was also used to generate a probability map and investigate the statistical probability that each variable contributed to predict pepperweed spread. Results from the GAM revealed distance to channels, distance to ponds and curvature were statistically significant (p suitable pepperweed

  8. Responses of soil N-fixing bacteria communities to invasive plant species under different types of simulated acid deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Congyan; Zhou, Jiawei; Jiang, Kun; Liu, Jun; Du, Daolin

    2017-06-01

    Biological invasions have incurred serious threats to native ecosystems in China, and soil N-fixing bacteria communities (SNB) may play a vital role in the successful plant invasion. Meanwhile, anthropogenic acid deposition is increasing in China, which may modify or upgrade the effects that invasive plant species can cause on SNB. We analyzed the structure and diversity of SNB by means of new generation sequencing technology in soils with different simulated acid deposition (SAD), i.e., different SO4 2- to NO3 - ratios, and where the invasive ( Amaranthus retroflexus L.) and the native species ( Amaranthus tricolor L.) grew mixed or isolated for 3 months. A. retroflexus itself did not exert significant effects on the diversity and richness of SNB but did it under certain SO4 2- to NO3 - ratios. Compared to soils where the native species grew isolated, the soils where the invasive A. retroflexus grew isolated showed lower relative abundance of some SNB classes under certain SAD treatments. Some types of SAD can alter soil nutrient content which in turn could affect SNB diversity and abundance. Specifically, greater SO4 2- to NO3 - ratios tended to have more toxic effects on SNB likely due to the higher exchange capacity of hydroxyl groups (OH-) between SO4 2- and NO3 -. As a conclusion, it can be expected a change in the structure of SNB after A. retroflexus invasion under acid deposition rich in sulfuric acid. This change may create a plant soil feedback favoring future A. retroflexus invasions.

  9. Rapid evolution meets invasive species control: The potential for pesticide resistance in sea lamprey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunlop, Erin S.; McLaughlin, Robert L.; Adams, Jean V.; Jones, Michael L.; Birceanu, Oana; Christie, Mark R.; Criger, Lori A.; Hinderer, Julia L.M.; Hollingworth, Robert M.; Johnson, Nicholas; Lantz, Stephen R.; Li, Weiming; Miller, James R.; Morrison, Bruce J.; Mota-Sanchez, David; Muir, Andrew M.; Sepulveda, Maria S.; Steeves, Todd B.; Walter, Lisa; Westman, Erin; Wirgin, Isaac; Wilkie, Michael P.

    2018-01-01

    Rapid evolution of pest, pathogen and wildlife populations can have undesirable effects; for example, when insects evolve resistance to pesticides or fishes evolve smaller body size in response to harvest. A destructive invasive species in the Laurentian Great Lakes, the sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus) has been controlled with the pesticide 3-trifluoromethyl-4-nitrophenol (TFM) since the 1950s. We evaluated the likelihood of sea lamprey evolving resistance to TFM by (1) reviewing sea lamprey life history and control; (2) identifying physiological and behavioural resistance strategies; (3) estimating the strength of selection from TFM; (4) assessing the timeline for evolution; and (5) analyzing historical toxicity data for evidence of resistance. The number of sea lamprey generations exposed to TFM was within the range observed for fish populations where rapid evolution has occurred. Mortality from TFM was estimated as 82-90%, suggesting significant selective pressure. However, 57 years of toxicity data revealed no increase in lethal concentrations of TFM. Vigilance and the development of alternative controls are required to prevent this aquatic invasive species from evolving strategies to evade control.

  10. Strong response of an invasive plant species (Centaurea solstitialis L.) to global environmental changes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dukes, Jeffrey S; Chiariello, Nona R; Loarie, Scott R; Field, Christopher B

    2011-09-01

    Global environmental changes are altering interactions among plant species, sometimes favoring invasive species. Here, we examine how a suite of five environmental factors, singly and in combination, can affect the success of a highly invasive plant. We introduced Centaurea solstitialis L. (yellow starthistle), which is considered by many to be California's most troublesome wildland weed, to grassland plots in the San Francisco Bay Area. These plots experienced ambient or elevated levels of warming, atmospheric CO2, precipitation, and nitrate deposition, and an accidental fire in the previous year created an additional treatment. Centaurea grew more than six times larger in response to elevated CO2, and, outside of the burned area, grew more than three times larger in response to nitrate deposition. In contrast, resident plants in the community responded less strongly (or did not respond) to these treatments. Interactive effects among treatments were rarely significant. Results from a parallel mesocosm experiment, while less dramatic, supported the pattern of results observed in the field. Taken together, our results suggest that ongoing environmental changes may dramatically increase Centaurea's prevalence in western North America.

  11. The potential for biodiversity offsetting to fund effective invasive species control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norton, David A; Warburton, Bruce

    2015-02-01

    Compensating for biodiversity losses in 1 location by conserving or restoring biodiversity elsewhere (i.e., biodiversity offsetting) is being used increasingly to compensate for biodiversity losses resulting from development. We considered whether a form of biodiversity offsetting, enhancement offsetting (i.e., enhancing the quality of degraded natural habitats through intensive ecological management), can realistically secure additional funding to control biological invaders at a scale and duration that results in enhanced biodiversity outcomes. We suggest that biodiversity offsetting has the potential to enhance biodiversity values through funding of invasive species control, but it needs to meet 7 key conditions: be technically possible to reduce invasive species to levels that enhance native biodiversity; be affordable; be sufficiently large to compensate for the impact; be adaptable to accommodate new strategic and tactical developments while not compromising biodiversity outcomes; acknowledge uncertainties associated with managing pests; be based on an explicit risk assessment that identifies the cost of not achieving target outcomes; and include financial mechanisms to provide for in-perpetuity funding. The challenge then for conservation practitioners, advocates, and policy makers is to develop frameworks that allow for durable and effective partnerships with developers to realize the full potential of enhancement offsets, which will require a shift away from traditional preservation-focused approaches to biodiversity management. © 2014 Society for Conservation Biology.

  12. Climate controls the distribution of a widespread invasive species: Implications for future range expansion

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDowell, W.G.; Benson, A.J.; Byers, J.E.

    2014-01-01

    1. Two dominant drivers of species distributions are climate and habitat, both of which are changing rapidly. Understanding the relative importance of variables that can control distributions is critical, especially for invasive species that may spread rapidly and have strong effects on ecosystems. 2. Here, we examine the relative importance of climate and habitat variables in controlling the distribution of the widespread invasive freshwater clam Corbicula fluminea, and we model its future distribution under a suite of climate scenarios using logistic regression and maximum entropy modelling (MaxEnt). 3. Logistic regression identified climate variables as more important than habitat variables in controlling Corbicula distribution. MaxEnt modelling predicted Corbicula's range expansion westward and northward to occupy half of the contiguous United States. By 2080, Corbicula's potential range will expand 25–32%, with more than half of the continental United States being climatically suitable. 4. Our combination of multiple approaches has revealed the importance of climate over habitat in controlling Corbicula's distribution and validates the climate-only MaxEnt model, which can readily examine the consequences of future climate projections. 5. Given the strong influence of climate variables on Corbicula's distribution, as well as Corbicula's ability to disperse quickly and over long distances, Corbicula is poised to expand into New England and the northern Midwest of the United States. Thus, the direct effects of climate change will probably be compounded by the addition of Corbicula and its own influences on ecosystem function.

  13. Temporal Genetic Dynamics of an Invasive Species, Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande), in an Early Phase of Establishment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xian-Ming; Lou, Heng; Sun, Jing-Tao; Zhu, Yi-Ming; Xue, Xiao-Feng; Hong, Xiao-Yue

    2015-07-03

    Many species can successfully colonize new areas despite their propagules having low genetic variation. We assessed whether the decreased genetic diversity could result in temporal fluctuations of genetic parameters of the new populations of an invasive species, western flower thrips, Frankliniella occidentalis, using mitochondrial and microsatellite markers. This study was conducted in eight localities from four climate regions in China, where F. occidentalis was introduced in the year 2000 and had lower genetic diversity than its native populations. We also tested the level of genetic differentiation in these introduced populations. The genetic diversity of the samples at different years in the same locality was not significantly different from each other in most localities. FST and STRUCTURE analysis also showed that most temporal population comparisons from the same sites were not significantly differentiated. Our results showed that the invasive populations of F. occidentalis in China can maintain temporal stability in genetic composition at an early phase of establishment despite having lower genetic diversity than in their native range.

  14. Intercontinental chemical variation in the invasive ant Wasmannia auropunctata (Roger) (Hymenoptera Formicidae): a key to the invasive success of a tramp species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Errard, Christine; Delabie, Jacques; Jourdan, Hervé; Hefetz, Abraham

    2005-07-01

    Unicoloniality emerges as a feature that characterizes successful invasive species. Its underlying mechanism is reduced intraspecific aggression while keeping interspecific competitiveness. To that effect, we present here a comparative behavioural and chemical study of the invasive ant Wasmannia auropunctata in parts of its native and introduced ranges. We tested the hypothesis that introduced populations (New Caledonia archipelago) have reduced intraspecific aggression relative to native populations (e.g., Ilhéus area, Brazil) and that this correlates with reduced variability in cuticular hydrocarbons (CHCs). As predicted, there was high intraspecific aggression in the Brazilian populations, but no intraspecific aggression among the New Caledonian populations. However, New Caledonian worker W. auropunctata remained highly aggressive towards ants of other invasive species. The chemical data corresponded with the behaviour. While CHCs of ants from the regions of Brazil diverged, the profiles of ants from various localities in New Caledonia showed high uniformity. We suggest that in New Caledonia W. auropunctata appears to behave as a single supercolony, whereas in its native range it acts as a multicolonial species. The uniformity of recognition cues in the New Caledonia ants may reflect a process whereby recognition alleles became fixed in the population, but may also be the consequence of a single introduction event and subsequent aggressive invasion of the ecosystem. Chemical uniformity coupled with low intraspecific but high interspecific aggression, lend credence to the latter hypothesis.

  15. Estimating suitable environments for invasive plant species across large landscapes: a remote sensing strategy using Landsat 7 ETM+

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Kendal E.; Abbott, Laurie B.; Caldwell, Colleen A.; Schrader, T. Scott

    2013-01-01

    The key to reducing ecological and economic damage caused by invasive plant species is to locate and eradicate new invasions before they threaten native biodiversity and ecological processes. We used Landsat Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus imagery to estimate suitable environments for four invasive plants in Big Bend National Park, southwest Texas, using a presence-only modeling approach. Giant reed (Arundo donax), Lehmann lovegrass (Eragrostis lehmanniana), horehound (Marrubium vulgare) and buffelgrass (Pennisteum ciliare) were selected for remote sensing spatial analyses. Multiple dates/seasons of imagery were used to account for habitat conditions within the study area and to capture phenological differences among targeted species and the surrounding landscape. Individual species models had high (0.91 to 0.99) discriminative ability to differentiate invasive plant suitable environments from random background locations. Average test area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) ranged from 0.91 to 0.99, indicating that plant predictive models exhibited high discriminative ability to differentiate suitable environments for invasive plant species from random locations. Omission rates ranged from <1.0 to 18%. We demonstrated that useful models estimating suitable environments for invasive plants may be created with <50 occurrence locations and that reliable modeling using presence-only datasets can be powerful tools for land managers.

  16. Horizon scanning for invasive alien species with the potential to threaten biodiversity in Great Britain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Helen E; Peyton, Jodey; Aldridge, David C; Bantock, Tristan; Blackburn, Tim M; Britton, Robert; Clark, Paul; Cook, Elizabeth; Dehnen-Schmutz, Katharina; Dines, Trevor; Dobson, Michael; Edwards, François; Harrower, Colin; Harvey, Martin C; Minchin, Dan; Noble, David G; Parrott, Dave; Pocock, Michael J O; Preston, Chris D; Roy, Sugoto; Salisbury, Andrew; Schönrogge, Karsten; Sewell, Jack; Shaw, Richard H; Stebbing, Paul; Stewart, Alan J A; Walker, Kevin J

    2014-12-01

    Invasive alien species (IAS) are considered one of the greatest threats to biodiversity, particularly through their interactions with other drivers of change. Horizon scanning, the systematic examination of future potential threats and opportunities, leading to prioritization of IAS threats is seen as an essential component of IAS management. Our aim was to consider IAS that were likely to impact on native biodiversity but were not yet established in the wild in Great Britain. To achieve this, we developed an approach which coupled consensus methods (which have previously been used for collaboratively identifying priorities in other contexts) with rapid risk assessment. The process involved two distinct phases: Preliminary consultation with experts within five groups (plants, terrestrial invertebrates, freshwater invertebrates, vertebrates and marine species) to derive ranked lists of potential IAS. Consensus-building across expert groups to compile and rank the entire list of potential IAS. Five hundred and ninety-one species not native to Great Britain were considered. Ninety-three of these species were agreed to constitute at least a medium risk (based on score and consensus) with respect to them arriving, establishing and posing a threat to native biodiversity. The quagga mussel, Dreissena rostriformis bugensis, received maximum scores for risk of arrival, establishment and impact; following discussions the unanimous consensus was to rank it in the top position. A further 29 species were considered to constitute a high risk and were grouped according to their ranked risk. The remaining 63 species were considered as medium risk, and included in an unranked long list. The information collated through this novel extension of the consensus method for horizon scanning provides evidence for underpinning and prioritizing management both for the species and, perhaps more importantly, their pathways of arrival. Although our study focused on Great Britain, we suggest

  17. Staged invasions across disparate grasslands: Effects of seed provenance, consumers and disturbance on productivity and species richness

    Science.gov (United States)

    John L. Maron; Harald Auge; Dean E. Pearson; Lotte Korell; Isabell Hensen; Katharine N. Suding; Claudia Stein

    2014-01-01

    Exotic plant invasions are thought to alter productivity and species richness, yet these patterns are typically correlative. Few studies have experimentally invaded sites and asked how addition of novel species influences ecosystem function and community structure and examined the role of competitors and/or consumers in mediating these patterns. We invaded disturbed...

  18. Contribution of climate, soil, and MODIS predictors when modeling forest inventory invasive species distribution using forest inventory data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumitru Salajanu; Dennis Jacobs

    2010-01-01

    Forest inventory and analysis data are used to monitor the presence and extent of certain non-native invasive species. Effective control of its spread requires quality spatial distribution information. There is no clear consensus why some ecosystems are more favorable to non-native species. The objective of this study is to evaluate the reelative contribution of geo-...

  19. The Scotch broom, Cytisus scoparius (Fabaceae), a paradox in Denmark – an invasive plant or endangered native species?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosenmeier, Lars; Kjær, Erik Dahl; Nielsen, Lene Rostgaard

    2013-01-01

    Scotch broom, Cytisus scoparius, spreads rapidly in parts of Denmark and is considered an invasive species by some authors. However, the species has been present in the Danish flora for centuries and is therefore considered native to Denmark. In the present study we explore whether Danish Scotch...

  20. Deep Learning Methods for Quantifying Invasive Benthic Species in the Great Lakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Billings, G.; Skinner, K.; Johnson-Roberson, M.

    2017-12-01

    In recent decades, invasive species such as the round goby and dreissenid mussels have greatly impacted the Great Lakes ecosystem. It is critical to monitor these species, model their distribution, and quantify the impacts on the native fisheries and surrounding ecosystem in order to develop an effective management response. However, data collection in underwater environments is challenging and expensive. Furthermore, the round goby is typically found in rocky habitats, which are inaccessible to standard survey techniques such as bottom trawling. In this work we propose a robotic system for visual data collection to automatically detect and quantify invasive round gobies and mussels in the Great Lakes. Robotic platforms equipped with cameras can perform efficient, cost-effective, low-bias benthic surveys. This data collection can be further optimized through automatic detection and annotation of the target species. Deep learning methods have shown success in image recognition tasks. However, these methods often rely on a labelled training dataset, with up to millions of labelled images. Hand labeling large numbers of images is expensive and often impracticable. Furthermore, data collected in the field may be sparse when only considering images that contain the objects of interest. It is easier to collect dense, clean data in controlled lab settings, but this data is not a realistic representation of real field environments. In this work, we propose a deep learning approach to generate a large set of labelled training data realistic of underwater environments in the field. To generate these images, first we draw random sample images of individual fish and mussels from a library of images captured in a controlled lab environment. Next, these randomly drawn samples will be automatically merged into natural background images. Finally, we will use a generative adversarial network (GAN) that incorporates constraints of the physical model of underwater light propagation

  1. The lethality of hot water and ozone to aquatic invasive species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buley, Riley

    2017-01-01

    The spread of Aquatic Invasive Species (AIS) between the Great Lakes and Mississippi River Basin by way of the Chicago Area Waterway System (CAWS) is a pressing concern to resource managers in the Midwest region. Augmenting this spread are watercrafts traveling through the CAWS locks and dams. AIS are able to attach to boat hulls, equipment, or are present in the surrounding water during lock transfers. It has been proposed that chemically treating boats during lock transfers would be an effective way to reduce the spread of AIS. Of a range of treatments identified as candidates to do this, hot water and dissolved ozone ranked high as effective treatments causing the least amount of environmental impact. This study assessed the lethality of hot water and dissolved ozone, separately and in combination, on select AIS in a laboratory setting. Species were exposed to water temperatures ranging from 18 to 50°C, ozone concentrations ranging from 0 to 920 ORP (Oxidation-Reduction Potential), and exposure durations ranging from 10 to 60 min to find treatments capable of inducing 100% mortality. Results indicated that water at 45°C achieved 100% mortality in all species tested with a 10 min exposure. Ozone concentrations induced significant mortality to all species tested, particularly when combined with elevated temperatures.

  2. Aquatic pollution may favor the success of the invasive species A. franciscana

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Varó, I., E-mail: inma@iats.csic.es [Instituto de Acuicultura Torre de la Sal (IATS-CSIC), Ribera de Cabanes, Castellón 12595 Spain (Spain); Redón, S. [Instituto de Acuicultura Torre de la Sal (IATS-CSIC), Ribera de Cabanes, Castellón 12595 Spain (Spain); Garcia-Roger, E.M. [Cavanilles Institute of Biodiversity and Evolutionary Biology, University of Valencia, Burjassot (Spain); Amat, F.; Guinot, D. [Instituto de Acuicultura Torre de la Sal (IATS-CSIC), Ribera de Cabanes, Castellón 12595 Spain (Spain); Serrano, R. [Research Institute for Pesticides and Water (IUPA), Avda. Sos Baynat, s/n. University Jaume I, Castellón 12071 (Spain); Navarro, J.C. [Instituto de Acuicultura Torre de la Sal (IATS-CSIC), Ribera de Cabanes, Castellón 12595 Spain (Spain)

    2015-04-15

    Highlights: • Artemia species display an elevated tolerance to high ranges of chlorpyrifos. • A. franciscana survived better and its fecundity was less affected by chlorpyrifos. • The higher fecundity of A. franciscana is a selective advantage in colonization processes. • Higher survival and biological fitness in A. franciscana indicate out-competitive advantages. - Abstract: The genus Artemia consists of several bisexual and parthenogenetic sibling species. One of them, A. franciscana, originally restricted to the New World, becomes invasive when introduced into ecosystems out of its natural range of distribution. Invasiveness is anthropically favored by the use of cryptobiotic eggs in the aquaculture and pet trade. The mechanisms of out-competition of the autochthonous Artemia by the invader are still poorly understood. Ecological fitness may play a pivotal role, but other underlying biotic and abiotic factors may contribute. Since the presence of toxicants in hypersaline aquatic ecosystems has been documented, our aim here is to study the potential role of an organophosphate pesticide, chlorpyrifos, in a congeneric mechanism of competition between the bisexual A. franciscana (AF), and one of the Old World parthenogenetic siblings, A. parthenogenetica (PD). For this purpose we carried out life table experiments with both species, under different concentrations of the toxicant (0.1, 1 and 5 μg/l), and analyzed the cholinesterase inhibition at different developmental stages. The results evidence that both, AF and PD, showed an elevated tolerance to high ranges of chlorpyrifos, but AF survived better and its fecundity was less affected by the exposure to the pesticide than that of PD. The higher fecundity of AF is a selective advantage in colonization processes leading to its establishment as NIS. Besides, under the potential selective pressure of abiotic factors, such as the presence of toxicants, its higher resistance in terms of survival and biological

  3. Aquatic pollution may favor the success of the invasive species A. franciscana

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Varó, I.; Redón, S.; Garcia-Roger, E.M.; Amat, F.; Guinot, D.; Serrano, R.; Navarro, J.C.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Artemia species display an elevated tolerance to high ranges of chlorpyrifos. • A. franciscana survived better and its fecundity was less affected by chlorpyrifos. • The higher fecundity of A. franciscana is a selective advantage in colonization processes. • Higher survival and biological fitness in A. franciscana indicate out-competitive advantages. - Abstract: The genus Artemia consists of several bisexual and parthenogenetic sibling species. One of them, A. franciscana, originally restricted to the New World, becomes invasive when introduced into ecosystems out of its natural range of distribution. Invasiveness is anthropically favored by the use of cryptobiotic eggs in the aquaculture and pet trade. The mechanisms of out-competition of the autochthonous Artemia by the invader are still poorly understood. Ecological fitness may play a pivotal role, but other underlying biotic and abiotic factors may contribute. Since the presence of toxicants in hypersaline aquatic ecosystems has been documented, our aim here is to study the potential role of an organophosphate pesticide, chlorpyrifos, in a congeneric mechanism of competition between the bisexual A. franciscana (AF), and one of the Old World parthenogenetic siblings, A. parthenogenetica (PD). For this purpose we carried out life table experiments with both species, under different concentrations of the toxicant (0.1, 1 and 5 μg/l), and analyzed the cholinesterase inhibition at different developmental stages. The results evidence that both, AF and PD, showed an elevated tolerance to high ranges of chlorpyrifos, but AF survived better and its fecundity was less affected by the exposure to the pesticide than that of PD. The higher fecundity of AF is a selective advantage in colonization processes leading to its establishment as NIS. Besides, under the potential selective pressure of abiotic factors, such as the presence of toxicants, its higher resistance in terms of survival and biological

  4. Enhancing the effectiveness of biological control programs of invasive species through a more comprehensive pest management approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiTomaso, Joseph M; Van Steenwyk, Robert A; Nowierski, Robert M; Vollmer, Jennifer L; Lane, Eric; Chilton, Earl; Burch, Patrick L; Cowan, Phil E; Zimmerman, Kenneth; Dionigi, Christopher P

    2017-01-01

    Invasive species are one of the greatest economic and ecological threats to agriculture and natural areas in the US and the world. Among the available management tools, biological control provides one of the most economical and long-term effective strategies for managing widespread and damaging invasive species populations of nearly all taxa. However, integrating biological control programs in a more complete integrated pest management approach that utilizes increased information and communication, post-release monitoring, adaptive management practices, long-term stewardship strategies, and new and innovative ecological and genetic technologies can greatly improve the effectiveness of biological control. In addition, expanding partnerships among relevant national, regional, and local agencies, as well as academic scientists and land managers, offers far greater opportunities for long-term success in the suppression of established invasive species. In this paper we direct our recommendations to federal agencies that oversee, fund, conduct research, and develop classical biological control programs for invasive species. By incorporating these recommendations into adaptive management strategies, private and public land managers will have far greater opportunities for long-term success in suppression of established invasive species. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  5. Tracking Invasive Alien Species (TrIAS: Building a data-driven framework to inform policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonia Vanderhoeven

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Imagine a future where dynamically, from year to year, we can track the progression of alien species (AS, identify emerging problem species, assess their current and future risk and timely inform policy in a seamless data-driven workflow. One that is built on open science and open data infrastructures. By using international biodiversity standards and facilities, we would ensure interoperability, repeatability and sustainability. This would make the process adaptable to future requirements in an evolving AS policy landscape both locally and internationally. In recent years, Belgium has developed decision support tools to inform invasive alien species (IAS policy, including information systems, early warning initiatives and risk assessment protocols. However, the current workflows from biodiversity observations to IAS science and policy are slow, not easily repeatable, and their scope is often taxonomically, spatially and temporally limited. This is mainly caused by the diversity of actors involved and the closed, fragmented nature of the sources of these biodiversity data, which leads to considerable knowledge gaps for IAS research and policy. We will leverage expertise and knowledge from nine former and current BELSPO projects and initiatives: Alien Alert, Invaxen, Diars, INPLANBEL, Alien Impact, Ensis, CORDEX.be, Speedy and the Belgian Biodiversity Platform. The project will be built on two components: 1 The establishment of a data mobilization framework for AS data from diverse data sources and 2 the development of data-driven procedures for risk evaluation based on risk modelling, risk mapping and risk assessment. We will use facilities from the Global Biodiversity Information Facility (GBIF, standards from the Biodiversity Information Standards organization (TDWG and expertise from Lifewatch to create and facilitate a systematic workflow. Alien species data will be gathered from a large set of regional, national and international

  6. The invasive species Ulex europaeus (Fabaceae) shows high dynamism in a fragmented landscape of south-central Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altamirano, Adison; Cely, Jenny Paola; Etter, Andrés; Miranda, Alejandro; Fuentes-Ramirez, Andres; Acevedo, Patricio; Salas, Christian; Vargas, Rodrigo

    2016-08-01

    Ulex europaeus (gorse) is an invasive shrub deemed as one of the most invasive species in the world. U. europaeus is widely distributed in the south-central area of Chile, which is considered a world hotspot for biodiversity conservation. In addition to its negative effects on the biodiversity of natural ecosystems, U. europaeus is one of the most severe pests for agriculture and forestry. Despite its importance as an invasive species, U. europaeus has been little studied. Although information exists on the potential distribution of the species, the interaction of the invasion process with the spatial dynamic of the landscape and the landscape-scale factors that control the presence or absence of the species is still lacking. We studied the spatial and temporal dynamics of the landscape and how these relate to U. europaeus invasion in south-central Chile. We used supervised classification of satellite images to determine the spatial distribution of the species and other land covers for the years 1986 and 2003, analysing the transitions between the different land covers. We used logistic regression for modelling the increase, decrease and permanence of U. europaeus invasion considering landscape variables. Results showed that the species covers only around 1 % of the study area and showed a 42 % reduction in area for the studied period. However, U. europaeus was the cover type which presented the greatest dynamism in the landscape. We found a strong relationship between changes in land cover and the invasion process, especially connected with forest plantations of exotic species, which promotes the displacement of U. europaeus. The model of gorse cover increase presented the best performance, and the most important predictors were distance to seed source and landscape complexity index. Our model predicted high spread potential of U. europaeus in areas of high conservation value. We conclude that proper management for this invasive species must take into account

  7. The effect of competition on the neutral intraspecific diversity of invasive species.

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    Roques, L; Hosono, Y; Bonnefon, O; Boivin, T

    2015-08-01

    This paper deals with the effect of interspecific competition on the dynamics of neutral genetic diversity in a range-expanding population. The spread of an invasive species in an environment already hosting a resident competitor is described by a traveling wave solution with minimal speed, u(t,x) = U(x - c ∗ t), of a diffusive Lotka-Volterra competition model. The description of the dynamics of neutral genetic fractions in this wave is based on a decomposition of the wave into several components, as proposed by Roques et al. (Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 109(23):8828-8833, 2012). Our analytical results reveal that the wave can be either the pulled type, corresponding to strong erosion of the diversity, or the pushed type, corresponding to maintenance of the initial diversity. The pulled/pushed nature of the wave depends on the linear or nonlinear nature of the speed c *. Our results show that, for sufficiently strong competition, the speed is nonlinear, and therefore all of the genetic diversity in the invasive population is maintained. Conversely, in the absence of competition, or when competition is mild, the speed is linear, which means that only the furthest forward fraction in the initial invasive population eventually remains in the colonization front. Our numerical results also show that the sufficient conditions of Lewis et al. (J Math Biol 45(3):219-233, 2002) and Huang (J Dyn Differ Equ 22(2):285-297, 2010) for the linearity of the speed c * can still be improved, and they show that nonlinear speeds occur across a wide region of the parameter space, providing a counterpoint to recent analytical results suggesting that nonlinear speeds only occur in certain limiting cases.

  8. Vulnerability assessment of New Jersey's food supply to invasive species: the New Jersey IMPORT project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregory, Petros; Hamilton, George; Borjan, Marija; Robson, Mark

    2006-01-01

    The United States' environment and economy have been severely impacted by unintentionally introduced biological organisms for the last 100 years. Our ecosystems and biological reserves of conservation importance are regularly invaded by non-indigenous species. To help prevent future invaders from entering the ports, this project undertaken at the Port of Elizabeth proposed to: 1. Catalog the different vegetable and fruit crops entering this country; 2. Evaluate the potential risk to New Jersey crops that an introduced exotic pest might pose; and 3. Evaluate the potential that imported crops entering the U.S. have for harboring exotic pests. The New Jersey IMPORT report, or Invasive Management Promoting Open and Responsible Trade project, details a newly designed ecological risk assessment tool to evaluate entry potential of invasive pests at the Port of Elizabeth. Risk designations were assigned to shipments of four fruits; seven vegetables; and two field/forage crops based on: i) Country of origin; ii) Amounts of commodities imported; and iii) Endemic pests present in exporting countries. Between 5,000 and 180,000 tons of crops were imported into the Port of Elizabeth from October 2001 to 2003. Pest risk analyses were drafted for twenty-five intercepted insects taken from the Port Information Network. In addition, eighteen pest risk analyses were drafted for invasive fungi, bacteria, and viruses of global concern as alerted by ProMed Digest. It was concluded that three crops imported remain at high risk: apples, peppers, and tomatoes. Peaches, soybeans, lettuce, sweet corn, potatoes, squash, and eggplant imported were considered moderate risk. Blueberries, cranberries, and alfalfa were considered low risk.

  9. Competition among native and invasive Impatiens species: the roles of environmental factors, population density and life stage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Čuda, Jan; Skálová, Hana; Janovský, Zdeněk; Pyšek, Petr

    2015-04-01

    Many invasive species are considered competitively superior to native species, with the strongest competition expected in species with similar niches and/or in closely related species. However, competition outcome is strongly context-dependent as competitive strength varies along environmental gradients, and life stages, and also depends on abundances. To explore the importance of these factors, we examined competition effects in an experiment with three Impatiens species (Balsaminaceae) widespread in central Europe and sharing similar life-history characteristics and habitats: the native I. noli-tangere, and two invasive species, I. parviflora and I. glandulifera. We compared their competitive strength and reciprocal impacts under two levels of water and light availability, two overall planting densities and three competitor densities. We assessed species performance (ability to complete the life-cycle, biomass and fecundity) and temporal competition dynamics in a garden pot experiment. Environmental variables had lower explanatory power than overall planting and competitor density, which indicates the importance of competitive interactions when evaluating plant performance and potential invasion success. Despite poor and delayed germination, the invasive I. glandulifera attained dominance even at a high competitor density and was competitively superior across all treatments, exceeding the height of both congeners. Impatiens parviflora was competitively weakest, having a negligible impact on both native I. noli-tangere and invasive I. glandulifera. The intermediate competitive strength of the native I. noli-tangere probably results from its intermediate height, and good germination rate and timing. The difference in height among species increased during the experiment when I. glandulifera was involved; this species continues growing until autumn, enhancing its competitive superiority. The results provide a mechanistic understanding for the competitive exclusion of

  10. From endogenous to exogenous pattern formation: Invasive plant species changes the spatial distribution of a native ant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Kevin; He, Yifan; Campbell, Susanna K; Colborn, A Shawn; Jackson, Eliot L; Martin, Austin; Monagan, Ivan V; Ong, Theresa Wei Ying; Perfecto, Ivette

    2017-06-01

    Invasive species are a significant threat to global biodiversity, but our understanding of how invasive species impact native communities across space and time remains limited. Based on observations in an old field in Southeast Michigan spanning 35 years, our study documents significant impacts of habitat change, likely driven by the invasion of the shrub, Elaeagnus umbellata, on the nest distribution patterns and population demographics of a native ant species, Formica obscuripes. Landcover change in aerial photographs indicates that E. umbellata expanded aggressively, transforming a large proportion of the original open field into dense shrubland. By comparing the ant's landcover preferences before and after the invasion, we demonstrate that this species experienced a significant unfavorable change in its foraging areas. We also find that shrub landcover significantly moderates aggression between nests, suggesting nests are more related where there is more E. umbellata. This may represent a shift in reproductive strategy from queen flights, reported in the past, to asexual nest budding. Our results suggest that E. umbellata may affect the spatial distribution of F. obscuripes by shifting the drivers of nest pattern formation from an endogenous process (queen flights), which led to a uniform pattern, to a process that is both endogenous (nest budding) and exogenous (loss of preferred habitat), resulting in a significantly different clustered pattern. The number and sizes of F. obscuripes nests in our study site are projected to decrease in the next 40 years, although further study of this population's colony structures is needed to understand the extent of this decrease. Elaeagnus umbellata is a common invasive shrub, and similar impacts on native species might occur in its invasive range, or in areas with similar shrub invasions. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Field evaluations of the efficacy of Distance Plus on invasive ant species in northern Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, Garry A; Hoffmann, Benjamin D

    2013-08-01

    The efficacy of Distance Plus Ant Bait, containing the insect growth regulator pyriproxyfen, was tested in the field against two invasive ant species in northern Australia: African big-headed ant (Pheidole megacephala (F.)) and yellow crazy ant (Anoplolepis gracilipes (Fr. Smith)). Results were also gained for a third pest species, Singapore ant (Monomorium destructor (Jerdon)), from one trial focused primarily on P. megacephala. Five studies were conducted throughout northern Australia, each with different protocols, but common to all was the broad-scale dispersal of Distance Plus, coupled with long-term monitoring of ant population levels. Additionally, a laboratory trial was conducted to assess if there was a direct toxic effect by the bait on A. gracilipes workers, and ant community data were collected at some sites in the A. gracilipes trial to assess nontarget impacts and subsequent ecological recovery. All three species were greatly affected by the treatments. The abundance of P. megacephala declined dramatically in all trials, and by the final assessment for each study, very few ants remained, with those remaining being attributable to edge effects from neighboring untreated properties. At both sites that it occurred, M. destructor was initially at least codominant with P. megacephala, but by the final assessment, only three M. destructor individuals were present at one lure at one site, and only a single individual at the other site. Abundance of A. gracilipes fell, on average, to 31% of control levels by 91 d and then slowly recovered, with subsequent treatments only providing slightly greater control. No direct toxic effect on workers was found in the laboratory trial, indicating that population declines of A. gracilipes were typical bait-related declines resulting from reduced worker replacement. Nontarget impacts of the bait could not be distinguished from the negative competitive impacts ofA. gracilipes, but there was a noticeable absence of some key

  12. Aspects Regarding the Installation of Some Invasive Weeds Species on Old Fly Ash Dumps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anca Pricop

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Most Romanian power plants were built in a period when environmental impact of their operation was undervalued, and constraints related to environmental protection were relatively few. Location of power plants and fly ash dumps was chosen most often by arbitrary criteria, and never after the impact that it may have on the environment. Building fly ash dumps have an effect of destruction of soils not only on the surface equivalent to those of dumps but also of the contiguous lands. Old fly ash dumps are a major risk because of the dispersion of pollutants in water and soil by percolation and soil leaching, and because of the unwanted invasion of weeds that are adaptable to arid conditions of the dumps and then invade surrounding areas jeopardizing the surrounding crops. In attempting to install vegetation an old fly ash dumps, the area were invaded by two species of weeds that quickly overgrown the experimental parcel and the surroundings. The present study followed the invasion degree of fly ash dumps with weeds and aspects regarding their development and breeding in the new formed ecosystem.

  13. Euphorbia davidii - an invasive weed species in the fields of Serbia

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    Vajgand Dragan K.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Euphorbia davidii Subils (Euphorbiaceae or toothed spurge is a plant native to North America, but in Europe it is an alien weed. The populations of this weed were recorded in the Province of Vojvodina (Serbia for the first time in 2007 in the arable fields in two localities: between the villages of Aleksa Šantić and Pačir and also between the villages of Pačir and Đurđin. There were no previous published data about the occurrence of this species in Serbia, nor about management measures in crops to suppress this agricultural invader. In this paper, we present experiences with several herbicide treatments applied to suppress populations of toothed spurge from the crop fields in Serbia during the last six years. The most effective was treatment with a high concentration of glyphosate in the early phases of toothed spurge growing. The populations of this invasive weed spread and formed more or less dense patches in the crop field, the area of distribution increased from 3 ha to 7 ha. Observations and experiences with treatments suggest that Euphorbia davidii, as an invasive plant, has significant impact on crop fields, therefore further investigation of suppression measures and monitoring of its population is needed.

  14. Impacts of aquatic nonindigenous invasive species on the Lake Erie ecosystem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Austen, Madeline J.W.; Ciborowski, Jan J.H.; Corkum, Lynda D.; Johnson, Tim B.; MacIsaac, Hugh J.; Metcalfe-Smith, Janice L.; Schloesser, Donald W.; George, Sandra E.

    2002-01-01

    Lake Erie is particularly vulnerable to the introduction and establishment of aquatic nonindigenous invasive species (NIS) populations. A minimum of 144 aquatic NIS have been recorded in the Lake Erie basin including several species [e.g., Eurasian watermilfoil (Myriophyllum spicatum); zebra mussel (Dreissena polymorpha); quagga mussel (Dreissena bugensis); an amphipod (Echinogammarus ischnus); round goby (Neogobius melanostomus); and sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus)] that have had discernible impacts on the lake's ecology. NIS pose threats to the Lake Erie ecosystem for a variety of reasons including their ability to proliferate quickly, compete with native species, and transfer contaminants (e.g., PCBs) and disease through the food web. Six of the 14 beneficial use impairments listed in Annex 2 of the Great Lakes Water Quality Agreement are impaired in Lake Erie, in part as a result of the introduction of NIS. The Lake Erie Lakewide Management Plan (LaMP) has adopted an ecosystem approach to restore beneficial use impairments in the lake. Furthermore, a research consortium, known as the Lake Erie Millennium Network, is working alongside the LaMP, to address research problems regarding NIS, the loss of habitat, and the role of contaminants in the Lake Erie ecosystem.

  15. Niche comparison among two invasive leafminer species and their parasitoid Opius biroi: implications for competitive displacement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xing, Zhenlong; Zhang, Linya; Wu, Shengyong; Yi, Hao; Gao, Yulin; Lei, Zhongren

    2017-06-26

    Fundamental to competitive displacement in biological invasion is that exotic species occupy the ecological niches of native species in novel environments. Contrasting outcomes of competitive displacement have occurred between Liriomyza trifolii and L. sativae in different geographical regions following their introduction. Various factors have been advanced in an attempt to explain these different competitive outcomes, although none of these explanations have addressed the effects of niche differences. We conducted field cage experiments to compare the feeding and habitat niches of the two leafminer species and their primary parasitoid, Opius biroi, when occurring together on kidney bean. A wider spatiotemporal niche breadth was found in L. trifolii (0.3670) than in L. sativae (0.3496). With respect to the parasitoid, the proportional niche similarity between L. sativae and the parasitoid was 0.3936 but only 0.0835 for L. trifolii, while similar results were found for niche overlap, indicating that stronger trailing behaviour and parasitic effects of O. biroi occurred in L. sativae. In conclusion, L. trifolii has outperformed L. sativae in occupying the ecological niche and is superior to L. sativae in avoiding parasitization by the pupal parasitoid, O. biroi.

  16. Capacity of management plans for aquatic invasive species to integrate climate change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bierwagen, Britta G; Thomas, Roxanne; Kane, Austin

    2008-06-01

    The consequences of climate change will affect aquatic ecosystems, including aquatic invasive species (AIS) that are already affecting these ecosystems. Effects on AIS include range shifts and more frequent overwintering of species. These effects may create new challenges for AIS management. We examined available U.S. state AIS management plans to assess each program's capacity to adapt to climate-change effects. We scored the adaptive capacity of AIS management plans on the basis of whether they addressed potential impacts resulting from climate change; demonstrated a capacity to adapt to changing conditions; provided for monitoring strategies; provided for plan revisions; and described funding for implementation. Most plans did not mention climate change specifically, but some did acknowledge climatic boundaries of species and ecosystem sensitivities to changing conditions. Just under half the plans mentioned changing environmental conditions as a factor, most frequently as part of research activities. Activities associated with monitoring showed the highest capacity to include information on changing conditions, and future revisions to management plans are likely to be the easiest avenue through which to address climate-change effects on AIS management activities. Our results show that programs have the capacity to incorporate information about climate-change effects and that the adaptive-management framework may be an appropriate approach.

  17. Remote Sensing Dynamic Monitoring of Biological Invasive Species Based on Adaptive PCNN and Improved C-V Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PENG Gang

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Biological species invasion problem bring serious damage to the ecosystem, and have become one of the six major enviromental problems that affect the future economic development, also have become one of the hot topic in domestic and foreign scholars. Remote sensing technology has been successfully used in the investigation of coastal zone resources, dynamic monitoring of the resources and environment, and other fields. It will cite a new remote sensing image change detection algorithm based on adaptive pulse coupled neural network (PCNN and improved C-V model, for remote sensing dynamic monitoring of biological species invasion. The experimental results show that the algorithm is effective in the test results of biological species invasions.

  18. Forestry trial data can be used to evaluate climate-based species distribution models in predicting tree invasions

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    Rethabile Motloung

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Climate is frequently used to predict the outcome of species introductions based on the results from species distribution models (SDMs. However, despite the widespread use of SDMs for pre- and post-border risk assessments, data that can be used to validate predictions is often not available until after an invasion has occurred. Here we explore the potential for using historical forestry trials to assess the performance of climate-based SDMs. SDMs were parameterized based on the native range distribution of 36 Australian acacias, and predictions were compared against both the results of 150 years of government forestry trials, and current invasive distribution in southern Africa using true skill statistic, sensitivity and specificity. Classification tree analysis was used to evaluate why some Australian acacias failed in trials while others were successful. Predicted suitability was significantly related to the invaded range (sensitivity = 0.87 and success in forestry trials (sensitivity = 0.80, but forestry trial failures were under-predicted (specificity = 0.35. Notably, for forestry trials, the success in trials was greater for species invasive somewhere in the world. SDM predictions also indicate a considerable invasion potential of eight species that are currently naturalized but not yet widespread. Forestry trial data clearly provides a useful additional source of data to validate and refine SDMs in the context of risk assessment. Our study identified the climatic factors required for successful invasion of acacias, and accentuates the importance of integration of status elsewhere for risk assessment.

  19. The PGI enzyme system and fitness response to temperature as a measure of environmental tolerance in an invasive species

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    Marie-Caroline Lefort

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available In the field of invasion ecology, the determination of a species’ environmental tolerance, is a key parameter in the prediction of its potential distribution, particularly in the context of global warming. In poikilothermic species such as insects, temperature is often considered the most important abiotic factor that affects numerous life-history and fitness traits through its effect on metabolic rate. Therefore the response of an insect to challenging temperatures may provide key information as to its climatic and therefore spatial distribution. Variation in the phosphoglucose-6-isomerase (PGI metabolic enzyme-system has been proposed in some insects to underlie their relative fitness, and is recognised as a key enzyme in their thermal adaptation. However, in this context it has not been considered as a potential mechanism contributing to a species invasive cability. The present study aimed to compare the thermal tolerance of an invasive scarabaeid beetle, Costelytra zealandica (White with that of the closely related, and in part sympatrically occurring, congeneric non-invasive species C. brunneum (Broun, and to consider whether any correlation with particular PGI genotypes was apparent. Third instar larvae of each species were exposed to one of three different temperatures (10, 15 and 20 °C over six weeks and their fitness (survival and growth rate measured and PGI phenotyping performed via cellulose acetate electrophoresis. No consistent relationship between PGI genotypes and fitness was detected, suggesting that PGI may not be contributing to the invasion success and pest status of C. zealandica.

  20. Wildfire, climate, and invasive grass interactions negatively impact an indicator species by reshaping sagebrush ecosystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coates, Peter S; Ricca, Mark A; Prochazka, Brian G; Brooks, Matthew L; Doherty, Kevin E; Kroger, Travis; Blomberg, Erik J; Hagen, Christian A; Casazza, Michael L

    2016-10-25

    Iconic sagebrush ecosystems of the American West are threatened by larger and more frequent wildfires that can kill sagebrush and facilitate invasion by annual grasses, creating a cycle that alters sagebrush ecosystem recovery post disturbance. Thwarting this accelerated grass-fire cycle is at the forefront of current national conservation efforts, yet its impacts on wildlife populations inhabiting these ecosystems have not been quantified rigorously. Within a Bayesian framework, we modeled 30 y of wildfire and climatic effects on population rates of change of a sagebrush-obligate species, the greater sage-grouse, across the Great Basin of western North America. Importantly, our modeling also accounted for variation in sagebrush recovery time post fire as determined by underlying soil properties that influence ecosystem resilience to disturbance and resistance to invasion. Our results demonstrate that the cumulative loss of sagebrush to direct and indirect effects of wildfire has contributed strongly to declining sage-grouse populations over the past 30 y at large spatial scales. Moreover, long-lasting effects from wildfire nullified pulses of sage-grouse population growth that typically follow years of higher precipitation. If wildfire trends continue unabated, model projections indicate sage-grouse populations will be reduced to 43% of their current numbers over the next three decades. Our results provide a timely example of how altered fire regimes are disrupting recovery of sagebrush ecosystems and leading to substantial declines of a widespread indicator species. Accordingly, we present scenario-based stochastic projections to inform conservation actions that may help offset the adverse effects of wildfire on sage-grouse and other wildlife populations.