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Sample records for invasive serogroup w135

  1. Critical appraisal of a quadrivalent CRM197 conjugate vaccine against meningococcal serogroups A, C W-135 and Y (Menveo®) in the context of treatment and prevention of invasive disease

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    Bröker, Michael; Cooper, Brian; DeTora, Lisa M; Stoddard, Jeffrey J

    2011-01-01

    Worldwide, invasive meningococcal disease affects about 500,000 people annually. Case fatality in developed countries averages 10%, and higher rates are reported in less prosperous regions. According to the World Health Organization, the most important pathogenic serogroups are A, B, C, W-135, X, and Y. Clinical features of invasive meningococcal disease make diagnosis and management difficult. Antibiotic measures are recommended for prophylaxis after exposure and for treatment of invasive meningococcal disease cases; however, resistant strains may be emerging. Vaccines are generally regarded as the best preventative measure for invasive meningococcal disease. Polysaccharide vaccines against serogroups A, C, W-135, and Y using protein conjugation technology have clear advantages over older plain polysaccharide formulations without a protein component. The first quadrivalent meningococcal conjugate vaccine (MenACWY-D) was licensed in the US in 2005. More recently, MenACWY-CRM (Menveo®) was licensed in Europe, the US, the Middle East, and Latin America. MenACWY-CRM uses cross-reactive material 197, a nontoxic mutant of diphtheria toxin, as the carrier protein. MenACWY-CRM offers robust immunogenicity in all age groups, with a tolerability profile similar to that of a plain polysaccharide vaccine. Given its potential for protecting persons from infancy to old age, MenACWY-CRM offers the opportunity to protect broad populations against invasive meningococcal disease. The most optimal strategy for use of the vaccine has to be assessed country by country on the basis of local epidemiology, individual health care systems, and need. PMID:21904459

  2. Critical appraisal of a quadrivalent CRM(197) conjugate vaccine against meningococcal serogroups A, C W-135 and Y (Menveo) in the context of treatment and prevention of invasive disease.

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    Bröker, Michael; Cooper, Brian; Detora, Lisa M; Stoddard, Jeffrey J

    2011-01-01

    Worldwide, invasive meningococcal disease affects about 500,000 people annually. Case fatality in developed countries averages 10%, and higher rates are reported in less prosperous regions. According to the World Health Organization, the most important pathogenic serogroups are A, B, C, W-135, X, and Y. Clinical features of invasive meningococcal disease make diagnosis and management difficult. Antibiotic measures are recommended for prophylaxis after exposure and for treatment of invasive meningococcal disease cases; however, resistant strains may be emerging. Vaccines are generally regarded as the best preventative measure for invasive meningococcal disease. Polysaccharide vaccines against serogroups A, C, W-135, and Y using protein conjugation technology have clear advantages over older plain polysaccharide formulations without a protein component. The first quadrivalent meningococcal conjugate vaccine (MenACWY-D) was licensed in the US in 2005. More recently, MenACWY-CRM (Menveo(®)) was licensed in Europe, the US, the Middle East, and Latin America. MenACWY-CRM uses cross-reactive material 197, a nontoxic mutant of diphtheria toxin, as the carrier protein. MenACWY-CRM offers robust immunogenicity in all age groups, with a tolerability profile similar to that of a plain polysaccharide vaccine. Given its potential for protecting persons from infancy to old age, MenACWY-CRM offers the opportunity to protect broad populations against invasive meningococcal disease. The most optimal strategy for use of the vaccine has to be assessed country by country on the basis of local epidemiology, individual health care systems, and need.

  3. Critical appraisal of a quadrivalent CRM197 conjugate vaccine against meningococcal serogroups A, C W-135 and Y (Menveo® in the context of treatment and prevention of invasive disease

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    Bröker M

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Michael Bröker, Brian Cooper, Lisa M DeTora, Jeffrey J StoddardGlobal Medical Affairs, Novartis Vaccines and Diagnostics, Marburg, Germany, and Cambridge, MA, USAAbstract: Worldwide, invasive meningococcal disease affects about 500,000 people annually. Case fatality in developed countries averages 10%, and higher rates are reported in less prosperous regions. According to the World Health Organization, the most important pathogenic serogroups are A, B, C, W-135, X, and Y. Clinical features of invasive meningococcal disease make diagnosis and management difficult. Antibiotic measures are recommended for prophylaxis after exposure and for treatment of invasive meningococcal disease cases; however, resistant strains may be emerging. Vaccines are generally regarded as the best preventative measure for invasive meningococcal disease. Polysaccharide vaccines against serogroups A, C, W-135, and Y using protein conjugation technology have clear advantages over older plain polysaccharide formulations without a protein component. The first quadrivalent meningococcal conjugate vaccine (MenACWY-D was licensed in the US in 2005. More recently, MenACWY-CRM (Menveo® was licensed in Europe, the US, the Middle East, and Latin America. MenACWY-CRM uses cross-reactive material 197, a nontoxic mutant of diphtheria toxin, as the carrier protein. MenACWY-CRM offers robust immunogenicity in all age groups, with a tolerability profile similar to that of a plain polysaccharide vaccine. Given its potential for protecting persons from infancy to old age, MenACWY-CRM offers the opportunity to protect broad populations against invasive meningococcal disease. The most optimal strategy for use of the vaccine has to be assessed country by country on the basis of local epidemiology, individual health care systems, and need.Keywords: invasive meningococcal disease, quadrivalent meningococcal conjugate vaccine, Neisseria meningitidis

  4. Immunochemical studies and genetic background of two Neisseria meningitidis isolates expressing unusual capsule polysaccharide antigens with specificities of both serogroup Y and W135.

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    Tsang, Raymond S W; Tsai, Chao Ming; Henderson, Averil M; Tyler, Shaun; Law, Dennis K S; Zollinger, Wendell; Jamieson, Frances

    2008-03-01

    We described 2 unusual Neisseria meningitidis strains isolated from epidemiologically unrelated invasive meningococcal disease cases in Ontario, Canada. Both isolates have features typical of serogroup Y N. meningitidis: are of serotype 2c, are of the multi-locus sequence types typical of the serogroup Y strains in Canada, and are genotyped as serogroup Y based on a previously described PCR-ELISA method that detects the serogroup-Y-specific siaD gene. However, both strains were poly-agglutinable in both anti-Y and anti-W135 antisera. Further studies on 1 of these 2 isolates showed the presence of glucose and galactose as well as sialic acids in its purified capsular polysaccharide, suggesting the presence of both serogroup Y and serogroup W135 polysaccharides. Rabbit antisera produced to this strain contained antibodies to both purified serogroup Y and serogroup W135 capsular polysaccharides. Absorption experiments with either serogroup Y or serogroup W135 bacteria confirmed the presence of antibodies to these 2 different polysaccharides. DNA sequencing of the cps operon from both isolates revealed a siaD gene with 99.7% homology to the published siaD sequence from a serogroup Y strain but with 3 point mutations that all resulted in amino acid changes. How these strains may affect results of routine surveillance, PCR diagnosis, and immuno-protection by vaccination are discussed.

  5. Meningococcal Serogroup A, C, W-135 and Y Conjugated Vaccine : A Cost-Effectiveness Analysis in the Netherlands

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    Hepkema, Hiltsje; Pouwels, Koen B.; van der Ende, Arie; Westra, Tjalke A.; Postma, Maarten J.

    2013-01-01

    Background: In 2002, vaccination with a serogroup C meningococcal conjugate vaccine (MenC) was introduced in the Netherlands for all children aged 14 months. Despite its success, herd immunity may wane over time. Recently, a serogroup A,C,W-135, Y meningococcal conjugate vaccine (MenACWY) was

  6. Persistence of immune responses after a single dose of Novartis meningococcal serogroup A, C, W-135 and Y CRM-197 conjugate vaccine (Menveo®) or Menactra® among healthy adolescents.

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    Gill, Christopher J; Baxter, Roger; Anemona, Alessandra; Ciavarro, Giuseppe; Dull, Peter

    2010-11-01

    The persistence of human bactericidal activity (hSBA) responses in adolescents was assessed 22 months after vaccination with one dose of Menveo® (MenACWY-CRM; Novartis) or Menactra® (MCV4) (sanofi pasteur). The proportion of subjects with hSBA titers ≥8 was significantly higher among recipients of MenACWY-CRM than MCV4 for serogroups A, W-135 and Y.

  7. A randomized study to assess the immunogenicity, antibody persistence and safety of a tetravalent meningococcal serogroups A, C, W-135 and Y tetanus toxoid conjugate vaccine in children aged 2–10 years

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    Vesikari, Timo; Forstén, Aino; Boutriau, Dominique; Bianco, Véronique; Van der Wielen, Marie; Miller, Jacqueline M.

    2012-01-01

    Incidence of meningococcal diseases is high in children, and effective vaccines are needed for this age group. In this phase II, open, controlled study, 309 children aged 2–10 y from Finland were randomized (3:1) into two parallel groups to receive one dose of meningococcal ACWY-tetanus toxoid conjugate vaccine (ACWY-TT group; n = 231) or a licensed meningococcal ACWY polysaccharide vaccine (Men-PS group; n = 78). Serum bactericidal activity using rabbit complement (rSBA) was evaluated up to three years post-vaccination. Exploratory comparisons suggested that rSBA vaccine response rates and geometric mean titers (GMTs) for each serogroup at one month post-vaccination and rSBA GMTs for serogroups A, W-135 and Y up to three years post-vaccination were higher in the ACWY-TT compared with Men-PS group, but did not detect any difference between groups in terms of rSBA-MenC GMTs at three years post-vaccination; this is explained by the higher proportion of children from the Men-PS group who were excluded because they were re-vaccinated with a monovalent meningococcal serogroup C vaccine due to loss of protective antibody levels against this serogroup. Although there was a higher incidence of local reactogenicity in the ACWY-TT group, general and unsolicited symptoms reporting rates were comparable in both groups. This study showed that MenACWY-TT was immunogenic with a clinically acceptable safety profile in children aged 2–10 y. MenACWY-TT induced higher functional antibody titers for all serogroups, which persisted longer for serogroups A, W-135 and Y, than the MenACWY polysaccharide vaccine. This study has been registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov NCT00427908. PMID:23032168

  8. Safety of Combination of a Tetravalent Meningococcal Conjugate Vaccine Against Serogroups A, C, Y, W-135 With Other Vaccine Preparations: a Prospective Study of a Series of Cases Among Healthy Children and Children With Various Health Abnormalities

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    Leyla S. Namazova-Baranova

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Meningococcal infection is an acute disease caused by Neisseria meningitidis, which proceeds with a diverse clinical aspect from nasopharyngitis to meningococcal meningitis and meningococcemia. Since 2014, a tetravalent meningococcal conjugate vaccine has been registered in Russia. This vaccine creates protection against serogroups A, C, W-135, Y and can be used from the age of nine months to 55 years. The actual issue is a vaccine tolerability, including when combined with other vaccine preparations.Objective: Our aim was to evaluate the safety of a tetravalent meningococcal conjugate vaccine against serogroups A, C, Y and W-135 when it is combined with other vaccine preparations.Methods. A prospective full-design study assessed the tolerability of immunization with a meningococcal conjugate vaccine, both in case of monovaccination and in combination with a pneumococcal 13-valent conjugate vaccine, measles-mumps-rubella, viral hepatitis A, influenza, and chicken pox vaccines.Results. 97 children aged from 9 months to 18 years were vaccinated, 20 of them were healthy and 77 had medical issues (with allergic pathology, ENT diseases, cardiovascular and nervous system diseases, lung diseases as well as orphan diseases. Among vaccinated children, general reactions were observed in 3/97 (3.1% children, local reactions — in 5 (5.2%. The post-vaccination period passed asymptomatically and uneventfully in the prevailing majority of children vaccinated with a tetravalent meningococcal conjugate vaccine (in 91, 93.8%.Conclusion. The immunization with a tetravalent meningococcal conjugate vaccine against serogroups A, C, Y, W-135 is well tolerated, both in case of monovaccination and in combination with other vaccine preparations, in healthy children of different age groups and in patients with different health status.

  9. Seroprevalence and placental transmission of maternal antibodies specific for Neisseria meningitidis Serogroups A, C, Y and W135 and influence of maternal antibodies on the immune response to a primary course of MenACWY-CRM vaccine in the United Kingdom.

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    Blanchard-Rohner, Geraldine; Snape, Matthew D; Kelly, Dominic F; O'Connor, Daniel; John, Tessa; Kibwana, Elizabeth; Parks, Hannah; Ford, Karen; Dull, Peter M; Pollard, Andrew J

    2013-07-01

    Maternal antibodies give neonates some protection against bacterial infection. We measured antibodies against Neisseria meningitidis serogroups A, C, Y and W135 in mothers and their 2-month-old infants at study enrollment. We also assessed the impact of maternal antibody present at 2 months of age on the immune response to a primary course of quadrivalent meningococcal conjugate vaccine (MenACWY-CRM197) given at 2 and 4 months of age. This was a single-center, open-label, randomized study undertaken in Oxford, United Kingdom. Two hundred sixteen healthy infants were enrolled in the study and vaccinated with MenACWY-CRM197 at 2 and 4 months of age. Blood was obtained from all mothers, in a subset of infants at 2 months and all infants at 5 months. Antibody and memory B-cell responses at 5 months were correlated with maternal antibodies. Mothers had low IgG antibodies against serogroups C, W135 and Y polysaccharides, but high serogroup A antibody, whereas 61-78% had protective human complement serum bactericidal activity (hSBA) (≥1:4) for serogroups C, W135 and Y but only 31% for serogroup A. Only 9%, 32%, 45% and 19% of 2-month-old infants had hSBA ≥1:4 for serogroups A, C, W135 and Y, respectively. Maternal antibody had little association on responses to MenACWY-CRM197, except a moderate negative association between MenC-specific bactericidal antibody at 2 and 5 months (r = -0.5, P = 0.006, n = 28) and between carrier-specific IgG antibody at 2 months and MenC-specific hSBA/IgG antibody at 5 months (r = -0.4, P = 0.02 and 0.04, n = 32 and 23). Nonetheless, 90% of infants achieved protective MenC-hSBA titers after vaccination at 2 and 4 months of age. The levels of serogroup-specific meningococcal antibodies were low in mothers and 2-month-old infants. Immunizing mothers before or during pregnancy with meningococcal conjugate vaccines might increase antibody levels in early infancy and provide protection against infection due to N. meningitidis.

  10. Epidemiology of serogroup B invasive meningococcal disease in Ontario, Canada, 2000 to 2010

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    Dang Vica

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Invasive meningococcal disease (IMD caused by serogroup B is the last major serogroup in Canada to become vaccine-preventable. The anticipated availability of vaccines targeting this serogroup prompted an assessment of the epidemiology of serogroup B disease in Ontario, Canada. Methods We retrieved information on confirmed IMD cases reported to Ontario’s reportable disease database between January 1, 2000 and December 31, 2010 and probabilistically-linked these cases to Public Health Ontario Laboratory records. Rates were calculated with denominator data obtained from Statistics Canada. We calculated a crude number needed to vaccinate using the inverse of the infant ( Results A total of 259 serogroup B IMD cases were identified in Ontario over the 11-year period. Serogroup B was the most common cause of IMD. Incidence ranged from 0.11 to 0.27/100,000/year, and fluctuated over time. Cases ranged in age from 13 days to 101 years; 21.4% occurred in infants, of which 72.7% were Conclusions Although rare, the proportion of IMD caused by serogroup B has increased and currently causes most IMD in Ontario, with infants having the highest risk of disease. Although serogroup B meningococcal vaccines are highly anticipated, our findings suggest that decisions regarding publicly funding serogroup B meningococcal vaccines will be difficult and may not be based on disease burden alone.

  11. [Surveillance of Neisseria meningitidis in Argentina, 1993-2005: distribution of serogroups, serotypes and serosubtypes isolated from invasive disease].

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    Chiávetta, L; Chávez, E; Ruzic, A; Mollerach, M; Regueira, M

    2007-01-01

    Neisseria meningitidis is an important cause of meningitis, bacteremia and septic shock syndrome. We herein present the distribution of serogroups, serotypes and serosubtypes of 2244 isolates of N. meningitidis from patients with meningitis or meningococcemia, received within the period 1993-2005, in the National Reference Laboratory, INEI-ANLIS "Dr. Carlos G. Malbrán", from 33 Argentine hospitals that are included in a National Network devoted to for the study of bacterial meningitis. Between 1993-1995, serogroup B was prevalent (66%) whereas in the period from 1995-2001, serogroup C prevailed (65%). However, following but after that period, the prevalence of serogroup B was recovered. In the last 5 years of the studied period, the serogroups Y and W135 represented as a whole a 15.6% as a whole whereas up to the year 2000 during the first 6 years they accounted for it was of 4.7%. Higher diversity in the distribution of serotypes and serosubtypes was observed within serogroup B. The nonsubtypable isolates throughout the period of study represented the 52.8%, this high percentage demonstrates the limited capacity of the serotyping for the determination of meningococcal/meningococcus subtypes. of meningococco.

  12. Pneumococcal serotypes and serogroups causing invasive disease in Pakistan, 2005-2013.

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    Sadia Shakoor

    Full Text Available While pneumococcal conjugate vaccines have been implemented in most countries worldwide, use in Asia has lagged in part because of a lack of data on the amount of disease that is vaccine preventable in the region. We describe pneumococcal serotypes elicited from 111 episodes of invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD from 2005 to 2013 among children and adults in Pakistan. Seventy-three percent (n = 81 of 111 IPD episodes were cases of meningitis (n = 76 in children 0-15 years and n = 5 among adults. Serotypes were determined by target amplification of DNA extracted from pneumococcal isolates (n = 52 or CSF specimens (n = 59. Serogroup 18 was the most common serogroup causing meningitis in children <5 years, accounting for 21% of cases (n = 13. The 10-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV 10 or PCV10- related serotypes were found in 61% (n = 47 of childhood (age 0-15 years meningitis episodes. PCV-13 increased this coverage to 63% (one additional serotype 19A; n = 48. Our data indicate that use of PCVs would prevent a large proportion of serious pneumococcal disease.

  13. Immunogenicity of fractional doses of tetravalent a/c/y/w135 meningococcal polysaccharide vaccine: results from a randomized non-inferiority controlled trial in Uganda.

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    Philippe J Guerin

    Full Text Available Neisseria meningitidis serogroup A is the main causative pathogen of meningitis epidemics in sub-Saharan Africa. In recent years, serogroup W135 has also been the cause of epidemics. Mass vaccination campaigns with polysaccharide vaccines are key elements in controlling these epidemics. Facing global vaccine shortage, we explored the use of fractional doses of a licensed A/C/Y/W135 polysaccharide meningococcal vaccine.We conducted a randomized, non-inferiority trial in 750 healthy volunteers 2-19 years old in Mbarara, Uganda, to compare the immune response of the full dose of the vaccine versus fractional doses (1/5 or 1/10. Safety and tolerability data were collected for all subjects during the 4 weeks following the injection. Pre- and post-vaccination sera were analyzed by measuring serum bactericidal activity (SBA with baby rabbit complement. A responder was defined as a subject with a > or =4-fold increase in SBA against a target strain from each serogroup and SBA titer > or =128. For serogroup W135, 94% and 97% of the vaccinees in the 1/5- and 1/10-dose arms, respectively, were responders, versus 94% in the full-dose arm; for serogroup A, 92% and 88% were responders, respectively, versus 95%. Non-inferiority was demonstrated between the full dose and both fractional doses in SBA seroresponse against serogroups W135 and Y, in total population analysis. Non-inferiority was shown between the full and 1/5 doses for serogroup A in the population non-immune prior to vaccination. Non-inferiority was not shown for any of the fractionate doses for serogroup C. Safety and tolerability data were favourable, as observed in other studies.While the advent of conjugate A vaccine is anticipated to largely contribute to control serogroup A outbreaks in Africa, the scale-up of its production will not cover the entire "Meningitis Belt" target population for at least the next 3 to 5 years. In view of the current shortage of meningococcal vaccines for Africa

  14. A first meningococcal meningitis case caused by serogroup Ⅹ Neisseria meningitidis strains in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Chao; UANG Ying-chun; ZHANG Tie-gang; HE Jing-guo; WU Jiang; CHEN Li-juan; LIU Jun-feng; PANG Xing-huo; YANG Jie; SHAO Zhu-jun

    2008-01-01

    @@ Neisseria meningitidis is the leading cause of bacterial meningitis and classified into 13 serogroups based on the immunological reactivity of the capsular polysaccharide.1 Serogroups A,B,C,W135 and Y are the most common causes of meningitis.2

  15. Serogroup C Neisseria meningitidis invasive infection: analysis of the possible vaccination strategies for a mass campaign.

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    Chiappini, Elena; Venturini, Elisabetta; Bonsignori, Francesca; Galli, Luisa; de Martino, Maurizio

    2010-11-01

    The serogroup C meningococcal conjugate vaccine is available since 1999. In the absence of randomized controlled trials that support a specific schedule, each country has adopted different vaccination programmes. Hereby, we analyse positive and negative aspects of the different vaccination strategies. While waiting for the introduction of other antimeningococcal vaccines, covering also for the Group B meningococci, further studies on effectiveness of an optimal schedule to be adopted in European countries are needed. © 2010 The Author(s)/Journal Compilation © 2010 Foundation Acta Paediatrica.

  16. Meningococcal serogroup A, C, W₁₃₅ and Y conjugated vaccine: a cost-effectiveness analysis in the Netherlands

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    Hepkema, Hiltsje; Pouwels, Koen B.; van der Ende, Arie; Westra, Tjalke A.; Postma, Maarten J.

    2013-01-01

    In 2002, vaccination with a serogroup C meningococcal conjugate vaccine (MenC) was introduced in the Netherlands for all children aged 14 months. Despite its success, herd immunity may wane over time. Recently, a serogroup A,C,W135,Y meningococcal conjugate vaccine (MenACWY) was licensed for use in

  17. Nasopharyngeal Carriage Rate and Serogroups of Neisseria meningitidis in Turkish recruits upon entry to the military

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    Ahmet Basustaoglu

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aim of this study was to determine nasopharyngeal carriage rate and serogroup of Neisseria meningitidis strains isolated from Turkish recruits upon entry to the military. Material and Methods: Nasopharyngeal swab samples were obtained from 1995 soldiers and were inoculated immediately on BBL-modified Thayer-Martin medium plates. The plates were examined for the presence of colonies showing the typical morphology of N. meningitidis. Suspect colonies were screened for oxidase reactivity, and positive colonies were Gram stained. If Gram-negative diplococci were present, a biochemical profile by the API NH system was used for confirmation. Serogrouping of the meningococcal isolates was performed by a slide agglutination technique. Findings: The nasopharyngeal carriage rate of N. meningitidis was found to be 4.2% (n=83. Of these meningococci, 15.6% (n=13 were serogroup Y, 10.8% (n=9 were serogroup W-135, 9.6% (n=8 were serogroup C, 6.1% (n=5 were serogroup B, 2.4% (n=2 were serogroup A. The 46 isolates (55.4% were detected as nonserogroupable. Conclusion: Since serogroup Y and W-135 are predominant in this study population, it was suggest that Turkish recruits should be vaccinated by quadrivalent vaccine (A,C,Y, and W-135 upon the military instead of A+C polysaccharide vaccine and now quadrivalent vaccine has been carried out. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2011; 10(4.000: 447-450

  18. Clonal replacement and expansion among invasive meningococcal isolates of serogroup W in France.

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    Hong, Eva; Barret, Anne-Sophie; Terrade, Aude; Denizon, Mélanie; Antona, Denise; Aouiti-Trabelsi, Myriam; Deghmane, Ala-Eddine; Parent du Châtelet, Isabelle; Levy-Bruhl, Daniel; Taha, Muhamed-Kheir

    2018-02-01

    Neisseria meningitidis group W (NmW) belonging to the clonal complex ST-11 (NmW/cc11) spread in Europe and in France in 2000 and declined thereafter. In France, invasive meningococcal disease (IMD) due to NmW increased again in 2012 and thereafter since 2015. Several sub-lineages of NmW/cc11 are circulating worldwide with successive epidemic waves. We aimed to describe recent epidemiological trends of NmW in France and to explore the microbiological and epidemiological characteristics associated with different NmW/cc11 sub-lineages. The epidemiology of NmW was described based on data collected through mandatory notification of IMD and strain typing data for culture-confirmed and PCR-confirmed cases for the period 2000-2016. All culture-confirmed cases due to NmW from the period 2010-2016 were characterised by whole genome sequencing (WGS). A detailed epidemiological analysis was performed for culture-confirmed cases on the basis of WGS data. During the period 2010-2016, genotyping was obtained for 148 cases including all the 132 culture-confirmed cases, among which 127 were matched with epidemiological data, and 16 PCR-confirmed cases (out of a total of 47 PCR-confirmed cases). An increase in IMD was observed in 2012 and was linked to isolates belonging to the "Anglo-French-Hajj" sub-lineage. These isolates have decreased significantly since 2013 and have been replaced by NmW/cc11 isolates related to the "South American - UK" sub-lineage which caused a marked increase in the number of cases of NmW in 2016. In this sub-lineage, the "original UK strain" was first detected in 2012 and increased thereafter, followed by the recently described "UK 2013-strain". Isolates related to the "South American-UK" sub-lineage represented 45% of all NmW cultured isolates from the whole period 2010-2016 but were the most frequent isolates in 2016, representing 76% of the total NmW typed isolates and 94% of the typed NmW/cc11 isolates. A changing pattern in the epidemiology of Nm

  19. Whole genome typing of the recently emerged Canadian serogroup W Neisseria meningitidis sequence type 11 clonal complex isolates associated with invasive meningococcal disease

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    Raymond S.W. Tsang

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: This study was performed to analyze the Canadian invasive serogroup W Neisseria meningitidis (MenW sequence type 11 (ST-11 clonal complex (CC isolates by whole genome typing and to compare Canadian isolates with similar isolates from elsewhere. Methods: Whole genome typing of 30 MenW ST-11 CC, 20 meningococcal group C (MenC ST-11 CC, and 31 MenW ST-22 CC isolates was performed on the Bacterial Isolate Genome Sequence database platform. Canadian MenW ST-11 CC isolates were compared with the 2000 MenW Hajj outbreak strain, as well as with MenW ST-11 CC from other countries. Results: Whole genome typing showed that the Canadian MenW ST-11 CC isolates were distinct from the traditional MenW ST-22 CC; they were not capsule-switched contemporary MenC strains that incorporated MenW capsules. While some recent MenW disease cases in Canada were caused by MenW ST-11 CC isolates showing relatedness to the 2000 MenW Hajj strain, many were non-Hajj isolates similar to current MenW ST-11 isolates found globally. Geographical and temporal variations in genotypes and surface protein antigen genes were found among the MenW ST-11 CC isolates. Conclusions: The current MenW ST-11 isolates did not arise by capsule switching from contemporary MenC ST-11 isolates. Both the Hajj-related and non-Hajj MenW ST-11 CC strains were associated with invasive meningococcal disease in Canada. Keywords: Neisseria meningitidis, Invasive meningococcal disease, Whole genome typing

  20. Genomic Investigation Reveals Highly Conserved, Mosaic, Recombination Events Associated with Capsular Switching among Invasive Neisseria meningitidis Serogroup W Sequence Type (ST)-11 Strains.

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    Mustapha, Mustapha M; Marsh, Jane W; Krauland, Mary G; Fernandez, Jorge O; de Lemos, Ana Paula S; Dunning Hotopp, Julie C; Wang, Xin; Mayer, Leonard W; Lawrence, Jeffrey G; Hiller, N Luisa; Harrison, Lee H

    2016-07-03

    Neisseria meningitidis is an important cause of meningococcal disease globally. Sequence type (ST)-11 clonal complex (cc11) is a hypervirulent meningococcal lineage historically associated with serogroup C capsule and is believed to have acquired the W capsule through a C to W capsular switching event. We studied the sequence of capsule gene cluster (cps) and adjoining genomic regions of 524 invasive W cc11 strains isolated globally. We identified recombination breakpoints corresponding to two distinct recombination events within W cc11: A 8.4-kb recombinant region likely acquired from W cc22 including the sialic acid/glycosyl-transferase gene, csw resulted in a C→W change in capsular phenotype and a 13.7-kb recombinant segment likely acquired from Y cc23 lineage includes 4.5 kb of cps genes and 8.2 kb downstream of the cps cluster resulting in allelic changes in capsule translocation genes. A vast majority of W cc11 strains (497/524, 94.8%) retain both recombination events as evidenced by sharing identical or very closely related capsular allelic profiles. These data suggest that the W cc11 capsular switch involved two separate recombination events and that current global W cc11 meningococcal disease is caused by strains bearing this mosaic capsular switch. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Molecular Biology and Evolution.

  1. Whole genome typing of the recently emerged Canadian serogroup W Neisseria meningitidis sequence type 11 clonal complex isolates associated with invasive meningococcal disease.

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    Tsang, Raymond S W; Ahmad, Tauqeer; Tyler, Shaun; Lefebvre, Brigitte; Deeks, Shelley L; Gilca, Rodica; Hoang, Linda; Tyrrell, Gregory; Van Caeseele, Paul; Van Domselaar, Gary; Jamieson, Frances B

    2018-04-01

    This study was performed to analyze the Canadian invasive serogroup W Neisseria meningitidis (MenW) sequence type 11 (ST-11) clonal complex (CC) isolates by whole genome typing and to compare Canadian isolates with similar isolates from elsewhere. Whole genome typing of 30 MenW ST-11 CC, 20 meningococcal group C (MenC) ST-11 CC, and 31 MenW ST-22 CC isolates was performed on the Bacterial Isolate Genome Sequence database platform. Canadian MenW ST-11 CC isolates were compared with the 2000 MenW Hajj outbreak strain, as well as with MenW ST-11 CC from other countries. Whole genome typing showed that the Canadian MenW ST-11 CC isolates were distinct from the traditional MenW ST-22 CC; they were not capsule-switched contemporary MenC strains that incorporated MenW capsules. While some recent MenW disease cases in Canada were caused by MenW ST-11 CC isolates showing relatedness to the 2000 MenW Hajj strain, many were non-Hajj isolates similar to current MenW ST-11 isolates found globally. Geographical and temporal variations in genotypes and surface protein antigen genes were found among the MenW ST-11 CC isolates. The current MenW ST-11 isolates did not arise by capsule switching from contemporary MenC ST-11 isolates. Both the Hajj-related and non-Hajj MenW ST-11 CC strains were associated with invasive meningococcal disease in Canada. Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  2. Potential Capsule Switching from Serogroup Y to B: The Characterization of Three such Neisseria meningitidis Isolates Causing Invasive Meningococcal Disease in Canada

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    Raymond SW Tsang

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Three group B Neisseria meningitidis isolates, recovered from meningococcal disease cases in Canada and typed as B:2c:P1.5, were characterized. Multilocus sequence typing showed that all three isolates were related because of an identical sequence type (ST 573. Isolates typed as 2c:P1.5 are common in serogroup Y meningococci but rare in isolates from serogroups B or C. Although no serogroup Y isolates have been typed as ST-573, eight isolates showed five to six housekeeping gene alleles that were identical to that of ST-573. This suggested that the B:2c:P1.5 isolates may have originated from serogroup Y organisms, possibly by capsule switching.

  3. A decade of invasive meningococcal disease surveillance in Poland.

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    Anna Skoczyńska

    Full Text Available Neisseria meningitidis is a leading etiologic agent of severe invasive disease. The objective of the study was to characterise invasive meningococcal disease (IMD epidemiology in Poland during the last decade, based on laboratory confirmed cases.The study encompassed all invasive meningococci collected between 2002 and 2011 in the National Reference Centre for Bacterial Meningitis. The isolates were re-identified and characterised by susceptibility testing, MLST analysis, porA and fetA sequencing. A PCR technique was used for meningococcal identification directly from clinical materials.In the period studied, 1936 cases of IMD were confirmed, including 75.6% identified by culture. Seven IMD outbreaks, affecting mostly adolescents, were reported; all were caused by serogroup C meningococci of ST-11. The highest incidence was observed among children under one year of age (15.71/100,000 in 2011. The general case fatality rate in the years 2010-2011 was 10.0%. Meningococci of serogroup B, C, Y and W-135 were responsible for 48.8%, 36.6%, 1.2% and 1.2% of cases, respectively. All isolates were susceptible to third generation cephalosporins, chloramphenicol, ciprofloxacin, and 84.2% were susceptible to penicillin. MLST analysis (2009-2011 revealed that among serogroup B isolates the most represented were clonal complexes (CC ST-32CC, ST-18CC, ST-41/44CC, ST-213CC and ST-269CC, and among serogroup C: ST-103CC, ST-41/44CC and ST-11CC.The detection of IMD in Poland has changed over time, but observed increase in the incidence of the disease was mostly attributed to changes in the surveillance system including an expanded case definition and inclusion of data from non-culture diagnostics.

  4. Vigilancia de Neisseria meningitidis en Argentina, 1993-2005: distribución de serogrupos, serotipos y serosubtipos causantes de enfermedad invasiva Surveillance of Neisseria meningitidis in Argentina, 1993-2005: Distribution of serogroups, serotypes and serosubtypes isolated from invasive disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Chiavetta

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Neisseria meningitidis es agente causal de enfermedades severas como meningitis, bacteriemia y síndrome de shock séptico. Se presenta la distribución en serogrupos, serotipos y serosubtipos de 2244 aislamientos de N. meningitidis obtenidos de cuadros de meningitis y/o meningococcemia durante el período 1993-2005 y analizados en el Laboratorio Nacional de Referencia del INEI-ANLIS "Dr. Carlos G. Malbrán". Estos aislamientos eran provenientes de 33 hospitales de todo el país, conformados en una red nacional de laboratorios para el estudio de meningitis bacteriana. Durante el período 1993-1995 prevaleció el serogrupo B (66%, mientras que entre los años 1995 y 2001 prevaleció el serogrupo C (65%; a partir de esta fecha se restableció la prevalencia de B. En los últimos 5 años los serogrupos Y y W135 representaron en su conjunto el 15,6%, mientras que hasta el año 2000 no superaron el 4,7%. Se registró mayor diversidad en la distribución de serotipos y serosubtipos dentro del serogrupo B que dentro del serogrupo C. Los aislamientos no subtipables durante todo el período de estudio representaron el 52,8%; este elevado porcentaje evidencia la limitada capacidad de la serología para la determinación de subtipos de meningococo.Neisseria meningitidis is an important cause of meningitis, bacteremia and septic shock syndrome. We herein present the distribution of serogroups, serotypes and serosubtypes of 2244 isolates of N. meningitidis from patients with meningitis or meningococcemia, received within the period 1993-2005, in the National Reference Laboratory, INEI-ANLIS "Dr. Carlos G. Malbrán", from 33 Argentine hospitals that are included in a National Network devoted to for the study of bacterial meningitis. Between 1993-1995, serogroup B was prevalent (66% whereas in the period from 1995-2001, serogroup C prevailed (65%. However, following but after that period, the prevalence of serogroup B was recovered. In the last 5 years of the

  5. Meningococcal disease serogroup C

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    Cuevas IE

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Félix O Dickinson1, Antonio E Pérez1, Iván E Cuevas21Department of Epidemiology, “Pedro Kourí” Institute, Havana, Cuba; 2Pharmacovigilance Group, Finlay Institute, Havana, CubaAbstract: Despite current advances in antibiotic therapy and vaccines, meningococcal disease serogroup C (MDC remains a serious threat to global health, particularly in countries in North and Latin America, Europe, and Asia. MDC is a leading cause of morbidity, mortality, and neurological sequelae and it is a heavy economic burden. At the individual level, despite advances in antibiotics and supportive therapies, case fatality rate remains nearly 10% and severe neurological sequelae are frequent. At the population level, prevention and control of infection is more challenging. The main approaches include health education, providing information to the public, specific treatment, chemoprophylaxis, and the use of vaccines. Plain and conjugate meningococcal C polysaccharide vaccines are considered safe, are well tolerated, and have been used successfully for over 30 years. Most high-income countries use vaccination as a part of public health strategies, and different meningococcal C vaccination schedules have proven to be effective in reducing incidence. This is particularly so with conjugate vaccines, which have been found to induce immunogenicity in infants (the age group with the highest incidence rates of disease, stimulate immunologic memory, have longer effects, not lead to hyporesponsiveness with repeated dosing, and decrease acquisition of nasopharyngeal carriage, inducing herd immunity. Antibiotics are considered a cornerstone of MDC treatment and must be administered empirically as soon as possible. The choice of which antibiotic to use should be made based on local antibiotic resistance, availability, and circulating strains. Excellent options for a 7-day course are penicillin, ampicillin, chloramphenicol, and third-generation cephalosporins (ceftriaxone and

  6. Adolescent meningococcal serogroup A, W and Y immune responses following immunization with quadrivalent meningococcal A, C, W and Y conjugate vaccine: Optimal age for vaccination.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Ravenhorst, Mariëtte B; van der Klis, Fiona R M; van Rooijen, Debbie M; Sanders, Elisabeth A M; Berbers, Guy A M

    2017-01-01

    Recently the incidence of meningococcal serogroup Y (MenY) and in particular serogroup W (MenW) invasive disease has risen in several European countries, including the Netherlands. Adolescents are a target group for primary prevention through vaccination to protect against disease and reduce

  7. Adolescent meningococcal serogroup A, W and Y immune responses following immunization with quadrivalent meningococcal A, C, W and Y conjugate vaccine : Optimal age for vaccination

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Ravenhorst, Mariëtte B.; van der Klis, Fiona R M; van Rooijen, Debbie M; Sanders, Elisabeth A.M.; Berbers, Guy A M

    2017-01-01

    Background Recently the incidence of meningococcal serogroup Y (MenY) and in particular serogroup W (MenW) invasive disease has risen in several European countries, including the Netherlands. Adolescents are a target group for primary prevention through vaccination to protect against disease and

  8. Factor analysis of serogroups botanica and aurisina of Leptospira biflexa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cinco, M

    1977-11-01

    Factor analysis is performed on serovars of Botanica and Aurisina serogroup of Leptospira biflexa. The results show the arrangement of main factors serovar and serogroup specific, as well as the antigens common with serovars of heterologous serogroups.

  9. Meningococcal serogroup A, C, W₁₃₅ and Y conjugated vaccine: a cost-effectiveness analysis in the Netherlands.

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    Hiltsje Hepkema

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In 2002, vaccination with a serogroup C meningococcal conjugate vaccine (MenC was introduced in the Netherlands for all children aged 14 months. Despite its success, herd immunity may wane over time. Recently, a serogroup A,C,W135,Y meningococcal conjugate vaccine (MenACWY was licensed for use in subjects of 12 months of age and above. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the cost-effectiveness of meningococcal vaccination at 14 months and an additional vaccination at the age of 12 years, both with the MenACWY vaccine. METHODS: A decision analysis cohort model, with 185,000 Dutch newborns, was used to evaluate the cost-effectiveness of different immunization strategies. For strategies including a vaccination at 12 years of age, an additional cohort with adolescents aged 12 years was followed. The incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER was estimated for the current disease incidence and for a scenario when herd immunity is lost. RESULTS: Vaccination with MenACWY at 14 months is cost-saving. Vaccinating with MenACWY at 14 months and at 12 years would prevent 7 additional cases of meningococcal serogroup A,C,W135,Y disease in the birth cohort and adolescent cohort followed for 99 years compared to the current vaccine schedule of a single vaccination with MenC at 14 months. With the current incidence, this strategy resulted in an ICER of €635,334 per quality adjusted life year. When serogroup C disease incidence returns to pre-vaccination levels due to a loss of vaccine-induced herd-immunity, vaccination with MenACWY at 14 months and at 12 years would be cost-saving. CONCLUSIONS: Routine vaccination with MenACWY is cost-saving. With the current epidemiology, a booster-dose with MenACWY is not likely cost-effective. When herd immunity is lost, a booster-dose has the potential of being cost-effective. A dynamic model should be developed for more precise estimation of the cost-effectiveness of the prevention of disappearance of herd immunity.

  10. Immunogenicity and tolerability of a multicomponent meningococcal serogroup B (4CMenB) vaccine in healthy adolescents in Chile: a phase 2b/3 randomised, observer-blind, placebo-controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santolaya, María Elena; O'Ryan, Miguel L; Valenzuela, María Teresa; Prado, Valeria; Vergara, Rodrigo; Muñoz, Alma; Toneatto, Daniela; Graña, Gabriela; Wang, Huajun; Clemens, Ralf; Dull, Peter M

    2012-02-18

    Effective glycoconjugate vaccines against Neisseria meningitidis serogroups A, C, W-135, and Y have been developed, but serogroup B remains a major cause of severe invasive disease in infants and adolescents worldwide. We assessed immunogenicity and tolerability of a four-component vaccine (4CMenB) in adolescents. We did a randomised, observer-blind, placebo-controlled, study at 12 sites in Santiago and Valparaíso, Chile. Adolescents aged 11-17 years received one, two, or three doses of 4CMenB at 1 month, 2 month, or 6 month intervals. Immunogenicity was assessed as serum bactericidal activity using human complement (hSBA) against three reference strains for individual vaccine antigens, and assessed by ELISA against the fourth strain. Local and systemic reactions were recorded 7 days after each vaccination, and adverse events were monitored throughout the study. Participants were initially randomised to five groups (3:3:3:3:1) during the primary phase to receive either one dose, two doses 1 or 2 months apart, or three doses of 4CMenB, or three doses of placebo, with an additional three groups generated for the booster phase. All subjects received at least one dose of 4CMenB. Geometric mean titres, proportions of participants with serum bactericidal antibody titres of 4 or more, and Clopper-Pearson 95% CIs were calculated. The study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT00661713. Overall, 1631 adolescents (mean age 13·8 [SD 1·9] years) received at least one dose of 4CMenB. After two or three doses, 99-100% of recipients had hSBA titres of 4 or more against test strains, compared with 92-97% after one dose (pvaccine-related serious adverse events were reported and no significant safety signals were identified. On the basis of immunogenicity responses this study provides evidence for an adolescent 4CMenB vaccine schedule of two doses, 1-6 months apart, to provide protection against meningococcal B infection. The extent of this protection against

  11. [Macrolide-resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae on the islands of Gran Canaria and Lanzarote (Spain): molecular mechanisms and serogroup relationships].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Artiles, Fernando; Horcajada-Herrera, Iballa; Noguera-Catalán, Javier; Alamo-Antúnez, Isabel; Bordes-Benítez, Ana; Lafarga-Capuz, Bernardo

    2007-11-01

    Macrolide resistance in Streptococcus pneumoniae is coded by the ermB and mefA/E genes. The aim of this study was to determine the status of macrolide-resistance, the molecular mechanisms involved, the serogroup relationships, and the level of co-resistance in S. pneumoniae isolates from Gran Canaria and Lanzarote, in the Canary Islands, Spain. Macrolide resistance phenotypes were investigated in 261 S. pneumoniae clinical isolates over a two-year period (2004 and 2005). Genotypes were determined by PCR (detection of ermB and mefA/E genes). Overall macrolide resistance was 40.6% (106 isolates); 79.2% (84) of resistant isolates presented the MLSB phenotype (98.8% harbored the ermB gene), with a predominance of serogroup 19, and 20.8% (22) presented the M phenotype (77.3% displayed the mefA/E gene), all associated with serogroup 14. Worthy of note, the M phenotype was found in 8 invasive isolates from Lanzarote (80%) all from serogroup 14. The ermB and mefA/E genes were detected in 7 isolates belonging to serogroup 19. Absence of co-resistance was observed most frequently in serogroup 14 (66.7%). Co-resistance with penicillin G, tetracycline, and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole was associated with serogroup 19 (36.8%). Two isolates (0.8%) were resistant to telithromycin. The frequency of macrolide resistance mechanisms in the Canary Islands is different from that observed in the rest of Spain, particularly in Lanzarote, where 80% of isolates harbored the mefA/E gene and belonged to serogroup 14.

  12. Resurgence of Neisseria meningitidis serogroup W ST-11 (cc11) in Madagascar, 2015-2016.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasoanandrasana, Saïda; Raberahona, Mihaja; Milenkov, Milen; Rakotomahefa Narison, Mbolanirina Lala; Ranaivo Rabetokotany, Felana; Rakotovao, Luc; Randria, Mamy Jean de Dieu; Hong, Eva; Paranhos-Baccalà, Glaucia; Taha, Muhamed-Kheir; Rakoto-Andrianarivelo, Mala

    2017-02-01

    The resurgence of invasive meningococcal disease caused by Neisseria meningitidis serogroup W with sequence type ST-11 (cc11) was observed in Madagascar in 2015-2016. Three cases were investigated in this study. Molecular characterization of the strains suggests the local transmission of a single genotype that may have been circulating for years. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  13. Serogroup B Meningococcal Vaccine (MenB)

    Science.gov (United States)

    What are meningococcal group B vaccines?Two serogroup B meningococcal group B vaccines (Bexsero and Trumenba) have been licensed by the Food and Drug ... Who should not get meningococcal group B vaccine or should wait?Tell the person ... you the vaccine:If you have any severe, life-threatening allergies. ...

  14. Serogroup prevalence of Shigellae in Bombay.

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    Sonawala M

    1995-10-01

    Full Text Available Prevalence of Shigellae serotypes in Bombay was studied from June 1988 to May 1991. A total of 2758 faecal specimens were collected from paediatric patients (< 12 yrs with acute gastroenteritis. A total of 90 Shigella were isolated giving the isolation rate of 3.2%. Shigella flexneri was the predominant serogroup (73.3% followed by Shigella dysenteriae (16.6%. All the isolates were sensitive to nalidixic acid. Eighty percent of the Shigellae were multidrug resistant. Present data were compared with the study carried out during the period of 1983-87 from the same institute. A change in the serogroup prevalence was noted wherein Shigella flexneri dominated over Shigella dysenteriae since 1985. Increase in resistance to ampicillin and cotrimoxazole was seen in Shigella flexneri strains as compared to previous years.

  15. Invasive meningococcal disease epidemiology and control measures: a framework for evaluation

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    Coudeville L

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Meningococcal disease can have devastating consequences. As new vaccines emerge, it is necessary to assess their impact on public health. In the absence of long-term real world data, modeling the effects of different vaccination strategies is required. Discrete event simulation provides a flexible platform with which to conduct such evaluations. Methods A discrete event simulation of the epidemiology of invasive meningococcal disease was developed to quantify the potential impact of implementing routine vaccination of adolescents in the United States with a quadrivalent conjugate vaccine protecting against serogroups A, C, Y, and W-135. The impact of vaccination is assessed including both the direct effects on individuals vaccinated and the indirect effects resulting from herd immunity. The simulation integrates a variety of epidemiologic and demographic data, with core information on the incidence of invasive meningococcal disease and outbreak frequency derived from data available through the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Simulation of the potential indirect benefits of vaccination resulting from herd immunity draw on data from the United Kingdom, where routine vaccination with a conjugate vaccine has been in place for a number of years. Cases of disease are modeled along with their health consequences, as are the occurrence of disease outbreaks. Results When run without a strategy of routine immunization, the simulation accurately predicts the age-specific incidence of invasive meningococcal disease and the site-specific frequency of outbreaks in the Unite States. 2,807 cases are predicted annually, resulting in over 14,000 potential life years lost due to invasive disease. In base case analyses of routine vaccination, life years lost due to infection are reduced by over 45% (to 7,600 when routinely vaccinating adolescents 12 years of age at 70% coverage. Sensitivity analyses indicate that herd immunity plays

  16. Effect of a serogroup A meningococcal conjugate vaccine (PsA-TT) on serogroup A meningococcal meningitis and carriage in Chad: a community study [corrected].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daugla, D M; Gami, J P; Gamougam, K; Naibei, N; Mbainadji, L; Narbé, M; Toralta, J; Kodbesse, B; Ngadoua, C; Coldiron, M E; Fermon, F; Page, A-L; Djingarey, M H; Hugonnet, S; Harrison, O B; Rebbetts, L S; Tekletsion, Y; Watkins, E R; Hill, D; Caugant, D A; Chandramohan, D; Hassan-King, M; Manigart, O; Nascimento, M; Woukeu, A; Trotter, C; Stuart, J M; Maiden, McJ; Greenwood, B M

    2014-01-04

    effective at prevention of serogroup A invasive meningococcal disease and carriage in Chad. How long this protection will persist needs to be established. The Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation, the Wellcome Trust, and Médecins Sans Frontères. Copyright © 2014 Daugla et al. Open Access article distributed under the terms of CC BY. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Global spredning af meningokok serogruppe w135

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestergård, Dorthe; David, Kim P

    2008-01-01

    Worldwide, meningococcal meningitis and sepsis cause 500,000 cases of illness and 50,000 deaths annually. The increase in global travel activity has resulted in a change in the epidemiology of infectious diseases, and an accumulation of evidence now indicates a connection between pilgrimage and t...

  18. Shifts in the Antibiotic Susceptibility, Serogroups, and Clonal Complexes of Neisseria meningitidis in Shanghai, China: A Time Trend Analysis of the Pre-Quinolone and Quinolone Eras.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Mingliang; Guo, Qinglan; Wang, Ye; Zou, Ying; Wang, Gangyi; Zhang, Xi; Xu, Xiaogang; Zhao, Miao; Hu, Fupin; Qu, Di; Chen, Min; Wang, Minggui

    2015-06-01

    Fluoroquinolones have been used broadly since the end of the 1980s and have been recommended for Neisseria meningitidis prophylaxis since 2005 in China. The aim of this study was to determine whether and how N. meningitidis antimicrobial susceptibility, serogroup prevalence, and clonal complex (CC) prevalence shifted in association with the introduction and expanding use of quinolones in Shanghai, a region with a traditionally high incidence of invasive disease due to N. meningitidis. A total of 374 N. meningitidis isolates collected by the Shanghai Municipal Center for Disease Control and Prevention between 1965 and 2013 were studied. Shifts in the serogroups and CCs were observed, from predominantly serogroup A CC5 (84%) in 1965-1973 to serogroup A CC1 (58%) in 1974-1985, then to serogroup C or B CC4821 (62%) in 2005-2013. The rates of ciprofloxacin nonsusceptibility in N. meningitidis disease isolates increased from 0% in 1965-1985 to 84% (31/37) in 2005-2013 (p convenience isolates from 1965-1985 were available. The increasing prevalence of ciprofloxacin resistance since 2005 in Shanghai was associated with the spread of hypervirulent lineages CC4821 and CC5. Two resistant meningococcal clones ChinaCC4821-R1-C/B and ChinaCC5-R14-A have emerged in Shanghai during the quinolone era. Ciprofloxacin should be utilized with caution for the chemoprophylaxis of N. meningitidis in China.

  19. Neisseria meningitidis serogroup A capsular polysaccharide acetyltransferase, methods and compositions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stephens, David S [Stone Mountain, GA; Gudlavalleti, Seshu K [Kensington, MD; Tzeng, Yih-Ling [Atlanta, GA; Datta, Anup K [San Diego, CA; Carlson, Russell W [Athens, GA

    2011-02-08

    Provided are methods for recombinant production of an O-acetyltransferase and methods for acetylating capsular polysaccharides, especially those of a Serogroup A Neisseria meningitidis using the recombinant O-acetyltransferase, and immunogenic compositions comprising the acetylated capsular polysaccharide.

  20. Genomic Epidemiology of Hypervirulent Serogroup W, ST-11 Neisseria meningitidis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mustapha, Mustapha M; Marsh, Jane W; Krauland, Mary G; Fernandez, Jorge O; de Lemos, Ana Paula S; Dunning Hotopp, Julie C; Wang, Xin; Mayer, Leonard W; Lawrence, Jeffrey G; Hiller, N Luisa; Harrison, Lee H

    2015-10-01

    Neisseria meningitidis is a leading bacterial cause of sepsis and meningitis globally with dynamic strain distribution over time. Beginning with an epidemic among Hajj pilgrims in 2000, serogroup W (W) sequence type (ST) 11 emerged as a leading cause of epidemic meningitis in the African 'meningitis belt' and endemic cases in South America, Europe, Middle East and China. Previous genotyping studies were unable to reliably discriminate sporadic W ST-11 strains in circulation since 1970 from the Hajj outbreak strain (Hajj clone). It is also unclear what proportion of more recent W ST-11 disease clusters are caused by direct descendants of the Hajj clone. Whole genome sequences of 270 meningococcal strains isolated from patients with invasive meningococcal disease globally from 1970 to 2013 were compared using whole genome phylogenetic and major antigen-encoding gene sequence analyses. We found that all W ST-11 strains were descendants of an ancestral strain that had undergone unique capsular switching events. The Hajj clone and its descendants were distinct from other W ST-11 strains in that they shared a common antigen gene profile and had undergone recombination involving virulence genes encoding factor H binding protein, nitric oxide reductase, and nitrite reductase. These data demonstrate that recent acquisition of a distinct antigen-encoding gene profile and variations in meningococcal virulence genes was associated with the emergence of the Hajj clone. Importantly, W ST-11 strains unrelated to the Hajj outbreak contribute a significant proportion of W ST-11 cases globally. This study helps illuminate genomic factors associated with meningococcal strain emergence and evolution.

  1. Serogroup B Meningococcal vaccine (MenB) - What you need to know

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... disabilities such as hearing loss, brain damage, kidney damage, amputations, nervous system problems, or severe scars from skin grafts. Serogroup B meningococcal (MenB) vaccines can help prevent meningococcal disease caused by serogroup ...

  2. Antigen sequence typing of outer membrane protein (fetA gene of Neisseria meningitidis serogroup A from Delhi & adjoining areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Dwivedi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background & objectives: Meningitis caused by Neisseria meningitidis is a fatal disease. Meningococcal meningitis is an endemic disease in Delhi and irregular pattern of outbreaks has been reported in India. All these outbreaks were associated with serogroup A. Detailed molecular characterization of N. meningitidis is required for the management of this fatal disease. In this study, we characterized antigenic diversity of surface exposed outer membrane protein (OMP FetA antigen of N. meningitidis serogroup A isolates obtained from cases of invasive meningococcal meningitis in Delhi, India. Methods: Eight isolates of N. meningitidis were collected from cerebrospinal fluid during October 2008 to May 2011 from occasional cases of meningococcal meningitis. Seven isolates were from outbreaks of meningococcal meningitis in 2005-2006 in Delhi and its adjoining areas. These were subjected to molecular typing of fetA gene, an outer membrane protein gene. Results: All 15 N. meningitides isolates studied were serogroup A. This surface exposed porin is putatively under immune pressure. Hence as a part of molecular characterization, genotyping was carried out to find out the diversity in outer membrane protein (FetA gene among the circulating isolates of N. meningitidis. All 15 isolates proved to be of the same existing allele type of FetA variable region (VR when matched with global database. The allele found was F3-1 for all the isolates. Interpretation & conclusions: There was no diversity reported in the outer membrane protein FetA in the present study and hence this protein appeared to be a stable molecule. More studies on molecular characterization of FetA antigen are required from different serogroups circulating in different parts of the world.

  3. Progressive decrease in the potential usefulness of meningococcal serogroup B vaccine (4CMenB, Bexsero® in Gipuzkoa, Northern Spain.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emilio Pérez-Trallero

    Full Text Available The effectiveness of a vaccine is determined not only by the immunogenicity of its components, but especially by how widely it covers the disease-causing strains circulating in a given region. Because vaccine coverage varies over time, this study aimed to detect possible changes that could affect vaccine protection during a specific period in a southern European region. The 4CMenB vaccine is licensed for use in Europe, Canada, and Australia and is mainly directed against Neisseria meningitidis serogroup B. This vaccine contains four main immunogenic components: three recombinant proteins, FHbp, Nhba and NadA, and an outer membrane vesicle [PorA P1.4]. The allelic distribution of FHbp, Nhba, NadA, and PorA antigens in 82 invasive isolates (B and non-B serogroups isolated from January 2008 to December 2013 were analyzed. 4CMenB was likely protective against 61.8% and 50% of serogroup B and non-B meningococci, respectively, in the entire period, but between 2012 and 2013, the predicted protection fell below 45% (42.1% for serogroup B isolates.The observed decreasing trend in the predicted protection during the 6 years of the study (Χ2 for trend  = 4.68, p = 0.03 coincided with a progressive decrease of several clonal complexes (e.g., cc11, cc32 and cc41/44, which had one or more antigens against which the vaccine would offer protection.

  4. Fatal coinfection with Legionella pneumophila serogroup 8 and Aspergillus fumigatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guillouzouic, Aurélie; Bemer, Pascale; Gay-Andrieu, Françoise; Bretonnière, Cédric; Lepelletier, Didier; Mahé, Pierre-Joachim; Villers, Daniel; Jarraud, Sophie; Reynaud, Alain; Corvec, Stéphane

    2008-02-01

    Legionella pneumophila is an important cause of community-acquired and nosocomial pneumonia. We report on a patient who simultaneously developed L. pneumophila serogroup 8 pneumonia and Aspergillus fumigatus lung abscesses. Despite appropriate treatments, Aspergillus disease progressed with metastasis. Coinfections caused by L. pneumophila and A. fumigatus remain exceptional. In apparently immunocompetent patients, corticosteroid therapy is a key risk factor for aspergillosis.

  5. Immunological properties of meningococcal lipopolysaccharide from serogroups A, B & C

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, T J; Kharazmi, A; Shand, G

    1996-01-01

    The aim of the study was to measure and compare the oxidative burst, chemotaxis and cytokine production of human white blood cells, stimulated with meningococcal lipopolysaccharides (LPS) extracted from three different serogroups (A, B and C) of Neisseria meningitidis, and to evaluate whether...

  6. Genome assortment, not serogroup, defines Vibrio cholerae pandemic strains

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brettin, Thomas S [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Bruce, David C [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Challacombe, Jean F [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Detter, John C [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Han, Cliff S [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Munik, A C [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Chertkov, Olga [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Meincke, Linda [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Saunders, Elizabeth [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Choi, Seon Y [SEOUL NATL. UNIV.; Haley, Bradd J [U. MARYLAND; Taviani, Elisa [U. MARYLAND; Jeon, Yoon - Seong [INTL. VACCINE INST. SEOUL; Kim, Dong Wook [INTL. VACCINE INST. SEOUL; Lee, Jae - Hak [SEOUL NATL. UNIV.; Walters, Ronald A [PNNL; Hug, Anwar [NATL. INST. CHOLERIC ENTERIC DIS.; Colwell, Rita R [U. MARYLAND

    2009-01-01

    Vibrio cholerae, the causative agent of cholera, is a bacterium autochthonous to the aquatic environment, and a serious public health threat. V. cholerae serogroup O1 is responsible for the previous two cholera pandemics, in which classical and El Tor biotypes were dominant in the 6th and the current 7th pandemics, respectively. Cholera researchers continually face newly emerging and re-emerging pathogenic clones carrying combinations of new serogroups as well as of phenotypic and genotypic properties. These genotype and phenotype changes have hampered control of the disease. Here we compare the complete genome sequences of 23 strains of V. cholerae isolated from a variety of sources and geographical locations over the past 98 years in an effort to elucidate the evolutionary mechanisms governing genetic diversity and genesis of new pathogenic clones. The genome-based phylogeny revealed 12 distinct V. cholerae phyletic lineages, of which one, designated the V. cholerae core genome (CG), comprises both O1 classical and EI Tor biotypes. All 7th pandemic clones share nearly identical gene content, i.e., the same genome backbone. The transition from 6th to 7th pandemic strains is defined here as a 'shift' between pathogenic clones belonging to the same O1 serogroup, but from significantly different phyletic lineages within the CG clade. In contrast, transition among clones during the present 7th pandemic period can be characterized as a 'drift' between clones, differentiated mainly by varying composition of laterally transferred genomic islands, resulting in emergence of variants, exemplified by V.cholerae serogroup O139 and V.cholerae O1 El Tor hybrid clones that produce cholera toxin of classical biotype. Based on the comprehensive comparative genomics presented in this study it is concluded that V. cholerae undergoes extensive genetic recombination via lateral gene transfer, and, therefore, genome assortment, not serogroup, should be used to

  7. Prevalent serogroups and antibiotic sensitivity of Neisseria gonorrhoeae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aggarwal S

    1992-01-01

    Full Text Available One hundred and thirty two cases clinically labeled as acute gonorrhoea were investigated for gonococcal etiology. Smears were positive in 110 (83.3% cases and among these N. gonorrhoeae could be identified in 102 (77.3% cases by culture method. Strains were examined for serogrouping by monoclonal GC test which utilizes the principle of co-agglutination and detects the antigens of outer membrane protein. 96(94.1% strains belonged to serogroup W II/III, showing it to be the major serogroup circulating in the community. The strains were tested for sensitivity against 7 antibiotics. The largest proportion (30.4% of strains were resistant to penicillin (MIC>O. 125 IU/ml. Resistance to cotrimoxazole, erythromycin, cephalaxin and tetracycline was noted as 18.6, 17.6, 7.8 and 5.8 percent respectively. Strains showing resistance concurrently to two or more drugs were observed. All restrains were sensitive to gentamicin and norfloxacin. None of the strains was penicillinase producer.

  8. Distribution of Leptospira serogroups in cattle herds and dogs in France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayral, Florence C; Bicout, Dominique J; Pereira, Helena; Artois, Marc; Kodjo, Angeli

    2014-10-01

    A retrospective study was conducted to identify and describe the distribution pattern of Leptospira serogroups in domestic animals in France. The population consisted of cattle herds and dogs with clinically suspected leptospirosis that were tested at the "Laboratoire des Leptospires" between 2008 and 2011. The laboratory database was queried for records of cattle and dogs in which seroreactivity in Leptospira microagglutination tests was consistent with a recent or current infection, excluding vaccine serogroups in dogs. A total of 394 cattle herds and 232 dogs were diagnosed with clinical leptospirosis, and the results suggested infection by the Leptospira serogroup Australis in 43% and 63%, respectively; by the Leptospira serogroup Grippotyphosa in 17% and 9%, respectively; and by the Leptospira serogroup Sejroe in 33% and 6%, respectively. This inventory of infecting Leptospira serogroups revealed that current vaccines in France are not fully capable of preventing the clinical form of the disease. © The American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene.

  9. A meningococcal NOMV-FHbp vaccine for Africa elicits broader serum bactericidal antibody responses against serogroup B and non-B strains than a licensed serogroup B vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pajon, Rolando; Lujan, Eduardo; Granoff, Dan M

    2016-01-27

    Meningococcal epidemics in Sub-Sahara caused by serogroup A strains are controlled by a group A polysaccharide conjugate vaccine. Strains with serogroups C, W and X continue to cause epidemics. Protein antigens in licensed serogroup B vaccines are shared among serogroup B and non-B strains. Compare serum bactericidal antibody responses elicited by an investigational native outer membrane vesicle vaccine with over-expressed Factor H binding protein (NOMV-FHbp) and a licensed serogroup B vaccine (MenB-4C) against African serogroup A, B, C, W and X strains. Human Factor H (FH) transgenic mice were immunized with NOMV-FHbp prepared from a mutant African meningococcal strain containing genetically attenuated endotoxin and a mutant sub-family B FHbp antigen with low FH binding, or with MenB-4C, which contains a recombinant sub-family B FHbp antigen that binds human FH, and three other antigens, NHba, NadA and PorA P1.4, capable of eliciting bactericidal antibody. The NOMV-FHbp elicited serum bactericidal activity against 12 of 13 serogroup A, B, W or X strains from Africa, and four isogenic serogroup B mutants with sub-family B FHbp sequence variants. There was no activity against a serogroup B mutant with sub-family A FHbp, or two serogroup C isolates from a recent outbreak in Northern Nigeria, which were mismatched for both PorA and sub-family of the FHbp vaccine antigen. For MenB-4C, NHba was expressed by all 16 African isolates tested, FHbp sub-family B in 13, and NadA in five. However, MenB-4C elicited titers ≥ 1:10 against only one isolate, and against only two of four serogroup B mutant strains with sub-family B FHbp sequence variants. NOMV-FHbp has greater potential to confer serogroup-independent protection in Africa than the licensed MenB-4C vaccine. However, the NOMV-FHbp vaccine will require inclusion of sub-family A FHbp for coverage against recent serogroup C strains causing outbreaks in Northern Nigeria. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights

  10. Global epidemiology of serogroup B meningococcal disease and opportunities for prevention with novel recombinant protein vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villena, Rodolfo; Safadi, Marco Aurelio P; Valenzuela, María Teresa; Torres, Juan P; Finn, Adam; O'Ryan, Miguel

    2018-04-18

    Meningococcal disease (MD) is a major cause of meningitis and sepsis worldwide, with a high case fatality rate and frequent sequelae. Neisseria meningitidis serogroups A, B, C, W, X and Y are responsible for most of these life-threatening infections, and its unpredictable epidemiology can cause outbreaks in communities, with significant health, social and economic impact. Currently, serogroup B is the main cause of MD in Europe and North America and one of the most prevalent serogroups in Latin America. Mass vaccination strategies using polysaccharide vaccines have been deployed since the 1970s and the use of conjugate vaccines has controlled endemic and epidemic disease caused by serogroups A, C, W and Y and more recently serogroup B using geographically-specific outer membrane vesicle based vaccines. Two novel protein-based vaccines are a significant addition to our armamentarium against N. meningitidis as they provide broad coverage against highly diverse strains in serogroup B and other groups. Early safety, effectiveness and impact data of these vaccines are encouraging. These novel serogroup B vaccines should be actively considered for individuals at increased risk of disease and to control serogroup B outbreaks occurring in institutions or specific regions, as they are likely to save lives and prevent severe sequelae. Incorporation into national programs will require thorough country-specific analysis.

  11. Meningococcal Serogroup B Bivalent rLP2086 Vaccine Elicits Broad and Robust Serum Bactericidal Responses in Healthy Adolescents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vesikari, Timo; Østergaard, Lars Jørgen; Diez-Domingo, Javier

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Neisseria meningitidis serogroup B (MnB) is a leading cause of invasive meningococcal disease in adolescents and young adults. A recombinant factor H binding protein (fHBP) vaccine (Trumenba(®); bivalent rLP2086) was recently approved in the United States in individuals aged 10-25 years....... Immunogenicity and safety of 2- or 3-dose schedules of bivalent rLP2086 were assessed in adolescents. METHODS: Healthy adolescents (11 to ... bactericidal antibody assay using human complement (hSBA). Safety assessments included local and systemic reactions and adverse events. RESULTS: Bivalent rLP2086 was immunogenic when administered as 2 or 3 doses; the most robust hSBA responses occurred with 3 doses. The proportion of subjects with hSBA titers...

  12. Whole-Genome Characterization of Epidemic Neisseria meningitidis Serogroup C and Resurgence of Serogroup W, Niger, 2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kretz, Cecilia B.; Retchless, Adam C.; Sidikou, Fati; Issaka, Bassira; Ousmane, Sani; Schwartz, Stephanie; Tate, Ashley H.; Pana, Assimawè; Njanpop-Lafourcade, Berthe-Marie; Nzeyimana, Innocent; Nse, Ricardo Obama; Deghmane, Ala-Eddine; Hong, Eva; Brynildsrud, Ola Brønstad; Novak, Ryan T.; Meyer, Sarah A.; Oukem-Boyer, Odile Ouwe Missi; Ronveaux, Olivier; Caugant, Dominique A.; Taha, Muhamed-Kheir

    2016-01-01

    In 2015, Niger reported the largest epidemic of Neisseria meningitidis serogroup C (NmC) meningitis in sub-Saharan Africa. The NmC epidemic coincided with serogroup W (NmW) cases during the epidemic season, resulting in a total of 9,367 meningococcal cases through June 2015. To clarify the phylogenetic association, genetic evolution, and antibiotic determinants of the meningococcal strains in Niger, we sequenced the genomes of 102 isolates from this epidemic, comprising 81 NmC and 21 NmW isolates. The genomes of 82 isolates were completed, and all 102 were included in the analysis. All NmC isolates had sequence type 10217, which caused the outbreaks in Nigeria during 2013–2014 and for which a clonal complex has not yet been defined. The NmC isolates from Niger were substantially different from other NmC isolates collected globally. All NmW isolates belonged to clonal complex 11 and were closely related to the isolates causing recent outbreaks in Africa. PMID:27649262

  13. Epidemiology of invasive meningococcal disease in the Netherlands, 1960-2012: an analysis of national surveillance data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bijlsma, Merijn W.; Bekker, Vincent; Brouwer, Matthijs C.; Spanjaard, Lodewijk; van de Beek, Diederik; van der Ende, Arie

    2014-01-01

    Epidemiological data for invasive meningococcal disease is essential for public health policy and vaccine development. We analysed national surveillance data from the Netherlands for PorA coverage of two PorA-based meningococcal serogroup B vaccines to describe the epidemiology of invasive

  14. Nosocomial infection with Legionella pneumophila serogroup 1 and 8 in a neonate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aubert, G; Bornstein, N; Rayet, I; Pozzetto, B; Lenormand, P H

    1990-01-01

    A case of pneumonia related to 2 serogroups (1 and 8) of Legionella pneumophila (Lp) in a 10-day-old boy is described together with the epidemiological survey in the maternity ward which made it possible to establish its nosocomial origin. Rodshaped bacteria reacting with an Lp genus-specific monoclonal antibody and serogroup 1 and 8 polyclonal sera were detected in bronchoalveolar lavages (BAL) collected on day 13. Serogroups 1 and 8 were recovered from cultures of BAL collected on days 12 and 13. Fourfold or more antibody rises to serogroups 1, 5, 8 and 10 of Lp were observed in sequential serum specimens. Water samples collected from the tank and mixer of the maternity ward grew serogroups 1 and 8 of Lp. Serogroup 1 was detected in large amounts in water samples taken at several points of the hot water supply system and from the oxygen nebulizers and the feeding-bottle heater. Analysis of the Lp serogroup 1 strains isolated from the water by subgroup-specific monoclonal antibodies revealed the presence of 4 different subgroups, one of which was identical to the Lp 1 subgroup isolated from the neonate's BAL. This latter subgroup, reactive with McKinney monoclonal antibody Mab 2, has been described as highly virulent. No other case of legionellosis was recorded in the maternity ward.

  15. Standardization of Neisseria meningitidis Serogroup B Colorimetric Serum Bactericida Assay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez, Tamara; Lastre, Miriam; Cedré, Barbara; Campo, Judith del; Bracho, Gustavo; Zayas, Caridad; Taboada, Carlos; Díaz, Miriam; Sierra, Gustavo; Pérez, Oliver

    2002-01-01

    The correlate of protection for serogroup B meningococci is not currently known, but for serogroup C it is believed to be the serum bactericidal assay (SBA). The current SBAs are labor intensive and the variations in protocols among different laboratories make interpretation of results difficult. A colorimetric SBA (cSBA), based on the ability of Neisseria meningitidis serogroup B to consume glucose, leading to acid production, was standardized by using group B strain Cu385-83 as the target. The cSBA results were compared to those obtained for a traditional colony-counting microassay (mSBA). Glucose and bromocresol purple pH indicator were added to the medium in order to estimate growth of cSBA target cell survivors through color change. Different variants of the assay parameters were optimized: growth of target cells (Mueller Hinton agar plates), target cell number (100 CFU/per well), and human complement source used at a final concentration of 25%. After the optimization, three other group B strains (H44/76, 490/91, and 511/91) were used as targets for the cSBA. The selection of the assay parameters and the standardization of cSBA were done with 13 sera from vaccinated volunteers. The titers were determined as the higher serum dilution that totally inhibited the bacterial growth marked by the color invariability of the pH indicator. This was detected visually as well as spectrophotometrically and was closely related to a significant difference in the growth of target cell survivors determined using Student’s t test. Intralaboratory reproducibility was ±1 dilution. The correlation between bactericidal median titers and specific immunoglobulin G serum concentration by enzyme immunoassay was high (r = 0.910, P < 0.01). The bactericidal titers generated by the cSBA and the mSBA were nearly identical, and there was a high correlation between the two assays (r = 0.974, P < 0.01). The standardized cSBA allows easy, fast, and efficient evaluation of samples. PMID

  16. Identification and characterization of serogroup M Dichelobacter nodosus from sheep with virulent footrot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhungyel, Om; Schiller, Natalie; Whittington, Richard

    2015-04-17

    As part of an outbreak-specific footrot vaccination field trial a total of 1282 footrot lesion samples were collected from 2 sheep flocks on King Island, Tasmania. Breeding rams were shared between the two flocks, suggesting a common source of infection. All samples were tested for Dichelobacter nodosus. A total of 1047 D. nodosus isolates were obtained in pure culture (490 from 670 lesion samples from flock 1, and 557 from 612 lesion samples from flock 2) were tested by agglutination and PCR tests for the 9 common Australian serogroups A to I. After the first rounds of a specific vaccination program, a significant proportion of the isolates of D. nodosus from these flocks were found to be negative in the serogrouping tests and the prevalence of the disease remained high in both. Those isolates were tested retrospectively against New Zealand and Nepal serogroup M antisera and found to be positive. Fimbrial gene (fimA) sequences of three isolates collected over three years were identical indicating that these strains belonged to one serogroup and were most closely related to New Zealand and Nepal serogroup M sequences. More than 40% of the D. nodosus isolates from these flocks belonged to serogroup M and were virulent in tests for protease activity. The next most prevalent serogroup was A (23%). This study reports the identification and characterization of serogroup M isolates of D. nodosus from Australia, and led to routine testing for serogroup M in flocks where specific vaccination will be applied for control, treatment and eradication of the virulent footrot. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. [Genomic DNA fingerprints of Legionella pneumophila serogroup 2 strains as an epidemiologic marker].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bender-Beck, L; Mühlenberg, W; Lück, P C; Ott, M; Horbach, I; Fehrenbach, F J; Wewalka, G; Hacker, J

    1995-08-01

    Using pulsed-field gel electrophoresis, DNA fingerprints of eleven Legionella pneumophila isolates of serogroup 2 were generated. It was shown that two strains from a patient suffering from pneumonia as well as three environmental strains isolated from the shower in the hotel where the patient stayed 5 days before his illness were identical. Six strains of the same serogroup isolated from other sources were clearly separated. Thus, DNA fingerprints by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis are excellent epidemiological markers for the rarely occurring serogroup 2 of Legionella pneumophila.

  18. Background Paper for the update of meningococcal vaccination recommendations in Germany: use of the serogroup B vaccine in persons at increased risk for meningococcal disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hellenbrand, Wiebke; Koch, Judith; Harder, Thomas; Bogdan, Christian; Heininger, Ulrich; Tenenbaum, Tobias; Terhardt, Martin; Vogel, Ulrich; Wichmann, Ole; von Kries, Rüdiger

    2015-11-01

    In December 2013 Bexsero® became available in Germany for vaccination against serogroup B meningococci (MenB). In August 2015 the German Standing Committee on Vaccination (STIKO) endorsed a recommendation for use of this vaccine in persons at increased risk of invasive meningococcal disease (IMD). This background paper summarizes the evidence underlying the recommendation. Bexsero® is based on surface protein antigens expressed by about 80% of circulating serogroup B meningococci in Germany. The paper reviews available data on immunogenicity and safety of Bexsero® in healthy children and adolescents; data in persons with underlying illness and on the effectiveness in preventing clinical outcomes are thus far unavailable.STIKO recommends MenB vaccination for the following persons based on an individual risk assessment: (1) Persons with congenital or acquired immune deficiency or suppression. Among these, persons with terminal complement defects and properdin deficiency, including those under eculizumab therapy, are at highest risk with reported invasive meningococcal disease (IMD) incidences up 10,000-fold higher than in the general population. Persons with asplenia were estimated to have a ~ 20-30-fold increased risk of IMD, while the risk in individuals with other immune defects such as HIV infection or hypogammaglobulinaemia was estimated at no more than 5-10-fold higher than the background risk. (2) Laboratory staff with a risk of exposure to N. meningitidis aerosols, for whom an up to 271-fold increased risk for IMD has been reported. (3) Unvaccinated household (-like) contacts of a MenB IMD index case, who have a roughly 100-200-fold increased IMD risk in the year after the contact despite chemoprophylaxis. Because the risk is highest in the first 3 months and full protective immunity requires more than one dose (particularly in infants and toddlers), MenB vaccine should be administered as soon as possible following identification of the serogroup of the

  19. Shifts in the Antibiotic Susceptibility, Serogroups, and Clonal Complexes of Neisseria meningitidis in Shanghai, China: A Time Trend Analysis of the Pre-Quinolone and Quinolone Eras.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mingliang Chen

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Fluoroquinolones have been used broadly since the end of the 1980s and have been recommended for Neisseria meningitidis prophylaxis since 2005 in China. The aim of this study was to determine whether and how N. meningitidis antimicrobial susceptibility, serogroup prevalence, and clonal complex (CC prevalence shifted in association with the introduction and expanding use of quinolones in Shanghai, a region with a traditionally high incidence of invasive disease due to N. meningitidis.A total of 374 N. meningitidis isolates collected by the Shanghai Municipal Center for Disease Control and Prevention between 1965 and 2013 were studied. Shifts in the serogroups and CCs were observed, from predominantly serogroup A CC5 (84% in 1965-1973 to serogroup A CC1 (58% in 1974-1985, then to serogroup C or B CC4821 (62% in 2005-2013. The rates of ciprofloxacin nonsusceptibility in N. meningitidis disease isolates increased from 0% in 1965-1985 to 84% (31/37 in 2005-2013 (p < 0.001. Among the ciprofloxacin-nonsusceptible isolates, 87% (27/31 were assigned to either CC4821 (n = 20 or CC5 (n = 7. The two predominant ciprofloxacin-resistant clones were designated ChinaCC4821-R1-C/B and ChinaCC5-R14-A. The ChinaCC4821-R1-C/B clone acquired ciprofloxacin resistance by a point mutation, and was present in 52% (16/31 of the ciprofloxacin-nonsusceptible disease isolates. The ChinaCC5-R14-A clone acquired ciprofloxacin resistance by horizontal gene transfer, and was found in 23% (7/31 of the ciprofloxacin-nonsusceptible disease isolates. The ciprofloxacin nonsusceptibility rate was 47% (7/15 among isolates from asymptomatic carriers, and nonsusceptibility was associated with diverse multi-locus sequence typing profiles and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis patterns. As detected after 2005, ciprofloxacin-nonsusceptible strains were shared between some of the patients and their close contacts. A limitation of this study is that isolates from 1986-2004 were not available

  20. A multicenter evaluation of genotypic methods for the epidemiologic typing of Legionella pneumophila serogroup 1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fry, Norman K.; Alexiou-Daniel, Stella; Bangsborg, Jette Marie

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To compare genotypic methods for epidemiologic typing of Legionella pneumophila serogroup (sg) 1, in order to determine the best available method within Europe for implementation and standardization by members of the European Working Group on Legionella Infections. METHODS: Coded...

  1. Outbreak of serotype W135 Neisseria meningitidis in central river ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2012-06-21

    Jun 21, 2012 ... program on immunization schedule of the Gambia and other countries within the meningitic epidemic belt. Key words: Neisseria ... The African meningitis belt extends from Ethiopia in the. East, to Senegal in the West within ..... surveillance and management system at the national level for effective control of ...

  2. Effects of experimental Neisseria meningitis W135 infection on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AJB SERVER

    2006-09-04

    Sep 4, 2006 ... oxygen and energy demand at the expense of increased intracranial pressure due to ... multilocus electrophoresis (Selander et al., 1986) at the Central. Laboratory of ..... Part I. Intl. J. Sports Med. 22(7):467–481. Tan TQ ...

  3. Outbreak of serotype W135 Neisseria meningitidis in central river ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2012-06-21

    Jun 21, 2012 ... References. 1. Gambia Ministry of Health and Social welfare. Epidemiology and disease control unit Banjul; 2012. 2. World Health Organization. Control of epidemic meningococcal disease. In: Practical Guidelines. 2nd ed. Geneva: World Health Organization; 1998. Available from: http://www.who.int/emc.

  4. Impact of the conjugate vaccine, MenAfriVac, on carriage of serogroup A Neisseria meningitidis and disease transmission

    OpenAIRE

    Kristiansen, Paul Arne

    2013-01-01

    Neisseria meningitidis (Nm), also referred to as meningococcus, is a human commensal colonising the oropharynx, transmittable by close contact between healthy people. The bacterium can act as an opportunistic pathogen and cause bacterial meningitis and septicaemia. Meningococci are classified into 12 serogroups based on the composition of their polysaccharide (Ps) capsule. Six of these serogroups, serogroups A, B, C, W, X and Y cause meningococcal disease worldwide. The populations most affec...

  5. An outbreak of serogroup C (ST-11) meningococcal disease in Tijuana, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chacon-Cruz, Enrique; Espinosa-De Los Monteros, Luz Elena; Navarro-Alvarez, Samuel; Aranda-Lozano, Jose Luis; Volker-Soberanes, Maria Luisa; Rivas-Landeros, Rosa Maria; Alvelais-Arzamendi, Ariadna Annete; Vazquez, Julio Alberto

    2014-05-01

    Invasive meningococcal disease (IMD) has been reported to be endemic in children from Tijuana, Mexico and the risk of an outbreak was always a threat. To describe all clinical, epidemiological and microbiological features of a meningococcal outbreak that occurred in Tijuana, Mexico. All cases with IMD were admitted at different emergency departments within the city and diagnosed by culture and agglutination tests. Further restriction fragment length polymorphism pulse field gel electrophoresis (RFLP-PFGE) and multi locus sequence typing (MLST) were performed. All clinical and epidemiological characteristics and interventions were evaluated, as well as risk factors associated with mortality. From 30 January 2013 to 30 March 2013 there were 19 cases of IMD all caused by Neisseria meningitidis serogroup C. The median age was 16 years (2-47), with higher frequency among individuals at least 13 years old (73.7%). At admission, meningitis was the main clinical presentation (94.7%), followed by purpura (78.9%), septic shock (42.1%) and disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC, 36.8%). Overall mortality was seven (36.8%). Variables associated with higher mortality were, at admission, presence of septic shock, DIC and thrombocytopenia less than 70,000. All 19 cases had no identifiable site or cluster as the source of the outbreak. RFLP-PFGE showed a discriminatory power for only one profile on all N. meningitidis strains analyzed and a clone ST-11 was identified in all strains. Public health interventions were continuous case reporting of all suspected cases of IMD, an increase in active surveillance in all hospitals, training of medical and laboratory personnel, massive and rapid chemoprophylaxis to all close contacts as indicated, and promotion of good health habits. An outbreak with high mortality of IMD occurred in Tijuana, Mexico. This event and evidence of endemicity should encourage health authorities to evaluate meningococcal vaccination in the region.

  6. Estandarización de ensayos inmunoenzimáticos (ELISA para la cuantificación de anticuerpos IgG inducidos por una vacuna de vesículas de membrana externa de los serogrupos A y W135 de Neisseria meningitidis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleida Mandiarote

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available La enfermedad meningocócica es una afección invasiva, de amplia incidencia mundial, cuyo agente causal es la bacteria gramnegativa Neisseria meningitidis . Existen vacunas polisacarídicas sin conjugar o conjugadas, contra cuatro de los cinco serogrupos responsables del 95% de los casos en el mundo. Para el serogrupo B, cuyo polisacárido es pobremente inmunogénico, se han evaluado varios candidatos vacunales producidos a base de vesículas de membrana externa. La determinación de la actividad bactericida y la cuantificación de IgG por ELISA han sido los métodos más utilizados en la medición de la respuesta inmune generada por vacunas contra la meningitis meningocócica. El segundo de estos métodos es utilizado en el Instituto Finlay como ensayo de inmunogenicidad para la liberación de lotes de VA-MENGOC-BC®. Como parte de una colaboración con investigadores noruegos, se trabaja en la obtención de un candidato vacunal contra los serogrupos A y W135 , basado en vesículas de membrana externa. En el presente trabajo se describe la estandarización de un ELISA para ser utilizado en la evaluación de la respuesta inmune del candidato vacunal bivalente.

  7. Pros and cons of vaccination against serogroup B meningococcal disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delgado Rodríguez, Miguel; Domínguez García, Ángela

    2018-02-09

    A vaccine has recently been approved in the EU against meningococcal serogroup B, the main cause of meningococcal disease. There is a fierce debate about the decision regarding a universal vaccination in infants older than 2 months, as recommended by the majority of scientific societies. In western Europe the only country to have included the universal vaccination is the United Kingdom, with a lower incidence of the disease than Ireland. Other countries have also adopted it, such as the Czech Republic, Cuba and certain regions of Italy. Numerous cost-effectiveness studies have been published regarding the vaccination with different assumptions, which have supported the decision not to implant the universal vaccination because it exceeds the will to pay for a health benefit. We discuss the pros and cons of the universal vaccination against meningococcal B, recommended by the Sociedad Española de Pediatría (Spanish Society of Paediatrics), which as yet has not been implemented. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  8. Changing epidemiology of Infant Meningococcal Disease after the introduction of meningococcal serogroup C vaccine in Italy, 2006-2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefanelli, P; Fazio, C; Neri, A; Boros, S; Renna, G; Pompa, M G

    2015-07-17

    In Italy, the incidence of Invasive Meningococcal Disease (IMD) was around 0.28 per 100,000 over the last years. Since the risk IMD is usually high among infants aged less than 1 year, we decided to evaluate the trend of IMD cases reported between 2006 and 2014 in this age group. In particular, the study aim was to describe the main characteristics of IMD cases in infants following the introduction of MCC vaccine (2005) and to estimate the number of cases which are potentially preventable through early vaccination. The National Surveillance System of Bacterial Meningitis was established in 1994 and in 2007 was extended to all invasive bacterial diseases. Clinical data and isolates and/or clinical samples are collected from hospitalized patients throughout the country. IMD cases are reported by clinicians to the local health authorities, and samples are sent to the Reference Laboratory at the Istituto Superiore di Sanità for further characterization and storage at -80°C. In particular, serogroup identification is obtained by agglutination with commercial antisera or by multiplex PCR. The annual incidence for infants B was more frequently detected among infants aged B was the most commonly detected over time. The long-term impact of meningococcal C conjugate vaccine and the effect of the introduction of meningococcal B vaccination among infants need to be evaluated. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Identifying optimal vaccination strategies for serogroup A Neisseria meningitidis conjugate vaccine in the African meningitis belt.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Tartof

    Full Text Available The optimal long-term vaccination strategies to provide population-level protection against serogroup A Neisseria meningitidis (MenA are unknown. We developed an age-structured mathematical model of MenA transmission, colonization, and disease in the African meningitis belt, and used this model to explore the impact of various vaccination strategies.The model stratifies the simulated population into groups based on age, infection status, and MenA antibody levels. We defined the model parameters (such as birth and death rates, age-specific incidence rates, and age-specific duration of protection using published data and maximum likelihood estimation. We assessed the validity of the model by comparing simulated incidence of invasive MenA and prevalence of MenA carriage to observed incidence and carriage data.The model fit well to observed age- and season-specific prevalence of carriage (mean pseudo-R2 0.84 and incidence of invasive disease (mean R2 0.89. The model is able to reproduce the observed dynamics of MenA epidemics in the African meningitis belt, including seasonal increases in incidence, with large epidemics occurring every eight to twelve years. Following a mass vaccination campaign of all persons 1-29 years of age, the most effective modeled vaccination strategy is to conduct mass vaccination campaigns every 5 years for children 1-5 years of age. Less frequent campaigns covering broader age groups would also be effective, although somewhat less so. Introducing conjugate MenA vaccine into the EPI vaccination schedule at 9 months of age results in higher predicted incidence than periodic mass campaigns.We have developed the first mathematical model of MenA in Africa to incorporate age structures and progressively waning protection over time. Our model accurately reproduces key features of MenA epidemiology in the African meningitis belt. This model can help policy makers consider vaccine program effectiveness when determining the

  10. Erwinia carotovora contamination of Finnish seed potatoes and the prevalence of bacterial subspecies and serogroups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pirkko Harju

    1993-07-01

    Full Text Available Symptomless contamination with the rot-inducing bacterium Erwinia carotovora was detectable by the tuber incubation method in 82% of the commercial seed potato stocks surveyed. E. carotovora subsp. atroseptica (Eca was more common than E. carotovora subsp. carotovora (Ecc among the tuber contaminants. In a four-year survey of ten meristem-based seed stocks, recontamination with both Eca and Ecc occurred typically during the second field generation, but three stocks remained free of detectable contamination throughout the survey period. The first blackleg symptoms occurred typically during the third field generation. The serogroup distribution of Finnish Eca isolates was different from that reported from other countries. The predominant serogroup, I, constituted only 74% of all Eca isolates, since serogroups XXXV and XLI occurred relatively frequently. Serogroup I was more common among isolates from diseased stems than among those from latently contaminated tubers. The results also suggest that serogroup I is more dominant in the southern than in the northern parts of the country.

  11. Comparative genomic analysis of Brazilian Leptospira kirschneri serogroup Pomona serovar Mozdok

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luisa Z Moreno

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Leptospira kirschneri is one of the pathogenic species of the Leptospira genus. Human and animal infection from L. kirschneri gained further attention over the last few decades. Here we present the isolation and characterisation of Brazilian L. kirschneri serogroup Pomona serovar Mozdok strain M36/05 and the comparative genomic analysis with Brazilian human strain 61H. The M36/05 strain caused pulmonary hemorrhagic lesions in the hamster model, showing high virulence. The studied genomes presented high symmetrical identity and the in silico multilocus sequence typing analysis resulted in a new allelic profile (ST101 that so far has only been associated with the Brazilian L. kirschneri serogroup Pomona serovar Mozdok strains. Considering the environmental conditions and high genomic similarity observed between strains, we suggest the existence of a Brazilian L. kirschneri serogroup Pomona serovar Mozdok lineage that could represent a high public health risk; further studies are necessary to confirm the lineage significance and distribution.

  12. [Epidemiology of the meningococcal disease in Catalonia before and after vaccination against serogroup C].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez, Ana I; Domínguez, Angela; Oviedo, Manuel; Minguell, Sofía; Jansà, Josep M; Codina, Gemma; Vázquez, Julio A

    2009-01-01

    Meningococcal disease remains a serious public health problem worldwide. In Catalonia, after implementing the vaccination program, there has been a significant decrease in cases caused by meningococcus C. Reported cases of meningococcal disease between 1997 and 2008 were analyzed to determine the evolution after the introduction of a conjugated vaccine in Catalonia. In case-fatality-rate increased only in serogroup B (3% and 7.4%). Serosubtype P1.15was the most frequent in serogroup B (31%), mainly associated with serotype 4 (80%), and in serogroup C subtype P1.5 (36%), with serotype 2a (86%). During 2008, 5 apparently unrelated cases of B:2a:P1.5 were identified in the same geographic area, with a case-fatality-rate of 80%. Exhaustive surveillance of circulating meningococcal strains is essential.

  13. Consensus recommendation for meningococcal disease prevention for Hajj and Umra pilgrimage/travel medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shibl, A; Tufenkeji, H; Khalil, M; Memish, Z

    2013-04-01

    The Islamic Hajj to Makkah (Mecca) has been associated with outbreaks of invasive meningococcal disease and the global spread of Neisseria meningitidis serogroup W-135. For Hajj pilgrims the quadrivalent vaccination against serogroups A, C, W-135 and Y is a mandatory requirement. Novel conjugate vaccines may provide benefits for the community by reduction of carriage. With the introduction of the new generation of quadrivalent meningococcal conjugate vaccines (Menveo, Menactra, and others pending license) and their recent implementation in Saudi Arabia, experts from 11 countries in the Middle East region met at a Meningococcal Leadership Forum (MLF), in Dubai in May 2010 to exchange opinions on meningococcal disease and prevention strategies. These experts discussed the importance of introducing conjugate vaccines for pilgrims and travellers, and elaborated a consensus recommendation to support healthcare professionals and decision-makers.

  14. Impact of an Immunization Campaign to Control an Increased Incidence of Serogroup B Meningococcal Disease in One Region of Quebec, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Wals, Philippe; Deceuninck, Geneviève; Lefebvre, Brigitte; Tsang, Raymond; Law, Dennis; De Serres, Gaston; Gilca, Vladimir; Gilca, Rodica; Boulianne, Nicole

    2017-05-01

    Invasive meningococcal disease (IMD) incidence increased in Quebec, starting in 2003, and was caused by a serogroup B sequence type 269 clone. The Saguenay-Lac-Saint-Jean (SLSJ) region was particularly affected with a rate of 3.4 per 100000 person-years in 2006-2013. In May 2014, an immunization campaign was launched in SLSJ, using the 4-component protein-based meningococcal vaccine (MenB-4C). We aimed to evaluate the impact of the campaign 2 years after its initiation. Immunization registry data and serogroup B invasive meningococcal disease (B-IMD) cases notified to public health authorities and confirmed by culture or polymerase chain reaction from July 1996 to December 2016 were analyzed, including a multivariate Poisson regression model of incidence rates. By the end of the campaign, 82% of the 59000 targeted SLSJ residents between 2 months and 20 years of age had been immunized. Following the initiation of the campaign, no B-IMD case occurred among vaccinees, whereas 2 cases were reported among unvaccinated adult SLSJ residents, and a third case in an unvaccinated child who had stayed in the region during the week prior to disease onset, in 2015. B-IMD incidence decreased in all other regions in the years 2015-2016 but sporadic cases continued to occur. A multivariate analysis showed a significant effect of the campaign in the SLSJ region (relative B-IMD risk: 0.22; P = .04). Results suggest a high level of protection provided by MenB-4C following mass vaccination at regional level. This, along with reassuring safety data, supports the current recommendations for MenB-4C use for controlling outbreaks caused by clones covered by the vaccine. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  15. Host Response in Rabbits to Infection with Pasteurella multocida Serogroup F Strains Originating from Fowl Cholera

    Science.gov (United States)

    The ability of two avian Pasteurella multocida serogroup F strains to induce disease in rabbits was investigated in this study. Two groups of 18 Pasteurella-free rabbits each were intranasally challenged with strains isolated from chicken and turkey, respectively. Half the animals in each challenge ...

  16. Widespread molecular detection of Legionella pneumophila Serogroup 1 in cold water taps across the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    In the United States 3,522 cases of legionellosis were reported to the Center for Disease Control and Prevention in 2009. Of these reports, it is estimated that 84% are caused by the microorganism Legionella pneumophila Serogroup (Sg) 1. Legionella spp. have been isolated and r...

  17. A Seroepidemiological Study of Serogroup A Meningococcal Infection in the African Meningitis Belt.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olivier Manigart

    Full Text Available The pattern of epidemic meningococcal disease in the African meningitis belt may be influenced by the background level of population immunity but this has been measured infrequently. A standardised enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA for measuring meningococcal serogroup A IgG antibodies was established at five centres within the meningitis belt. Antibody concentrations were then measured in 3930 individuals stratified by age and residence from six countries. Seroprevalence by age was used in a catalytic model to determine the force of infection. Meningococcal serogroup A IgG antibody concentrations were high in each country but showed heterogeneity across the meningitis belt. The geometric mean concentration (GMC was highest in Ghana (9.09 μg/mL [95% CI 8.29, 9.97] and lowest in Ethiopia (1.43 μg/mL [95% CI 1.31, 1.57] on the margins of the belt. The force of infection was lowest in Ethiopia (λ = 0.028. Variables associated with a concentration above the putative protective level of 2 μg/mL were age, urban residence and a history of recent vaccination with a meningococcal vaccine. Prior to vaccination with the serogroup A meningococcal conjugate vaccine, meningococcal serogroup A IgG antibody concentrations were high across the African meningitis belt and yet the region remained susceptible to epidemics.

  18. Comparison of commercial diagnostic tests for identification of serogroup antigens of Neisseria meningitidis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Ende, A.; Schuurman, I. G.; Hopman, C. T.; Fijen, C. A.; Dankert, J.

    1995-01-01

    In the study that is described the sensitivities and specificities of three commercial tests and the standard Reference Laboratory test, used since 1961, to identify Neisseria meningitidis serogroups were compared. The tests marketed by Difco, Murex/Wellcome, and Sanofi/Pasteur showed overall

  19. Travel-associated infections caused by unusual serogroups of Legionella pneumophila identified using Legionella BIOCHIP slides in Turkey and Iraq.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kocazeybek, Bekir S; Yuksel, Pelin; Keskin, Dilek; Sheikh, Suhail; Habip, Zafer; Yavuzer, Serap Sahin; Caliskan, Reyhan; Altun, Yagız Meric; Kuskucu, Mert; Cengiz, Mahir; Dinc, Harika Oyku; Karakullukcu, Asiye; Ergin, Sevgi; Saribas, Suat; Yilmaz, Nail; Tokman, Hrisi Bahar

    2016-01-01

    Although Legionella pneumophila serogroup 1 is the common disease causing serogroup, rare serogroups can also may cause legionellosis. A 54-year-old male patient (index case) reported that he had been on a religious trip (for visiting, tomb of Ali, which is important for Shias) to Iraq with a large group (50 shia pilgrims from Kars city of Turkey) two weeks prior to admission. Due to civil war, the hotel where the patient stayed in Iraq lacked proper hygiene. A large number of people in the travel group were experiencing the same symptoms. Other five cases were 2 males (ages; 50, 45) and 3 females including the wife of the index case (ages; 50, 28, 27). The detection of L. pneumophila IgG and IgM was performed by anti-L. pneumophila Indirect Immunofluorescent IgM, IgG kit. Legionella 1 biochip/verification BIOCHIP slides were used for serogrouping in Euroimmun AG, Leubeck, Germany. In index case, L. pneumophila IgM was positive with a titer of 1/32 titer. IgG was negative with a 1/100 titer. Another case (28 year old female), had clinical symptoms identical to the index case. L. pneumophila IgM and IgG were positive with titers of 1/64 and 1/100, respectively. These two cases were diagnosed with Legionnaires' disease caused by L. pneumophila serogroup 12 (index case) and female (28-year-old) by serogroup 11. The other 4 cases were diagnosed with possible Pontiac fever caused by L. pneumophila serogroups 14 (wife of the index case), 4, and 6 whereas the serogroup of L. pneumophila detected in 27 years old female case could not be identified. A major limitation of this work is the absence of genotyping and the serogroup difference between index case and his wife who shared the same hotel. We suggest that this serogroup difference may be caused by (for men and women) sitting separately in Islamic rules. On the other hand, the movement of people in the context of mutual visits between countries or neighboring countries for tourism-related (i.e., for religious events

  20. Increase of Neisseria meningitidis W:cc11 invasive disease in Chile has no correlation with carriage in adolescents.

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    Paulina S Rubilar

    Full Text Available Neisseria meningitidis is a human exclusive pathogen that can lead to invasive meningococcal disease or may be carried in the upper respiratory tract without symptoms. The relationship between carriage and disease remains poorly understood but it is widely accepted that decreasing carriage by immunization should lead to a reduction of invasive cases. Latin America has experienced an increased incidence of serogroup W invasive cases of Neisseria meningitidis in the last decade. Specifically in Chile, despite low total incidence of invasive cases, serogroup W has become predominant since 2011 and has been associated with elevated mortality. Expecting to gain insight into the epidemiology of this disease, this study has used molecular typing schemes to compare Neisseria meningitidis isolates causing invasive disease with those isolates collected from adolescent carriers during the same period in Chile. A lower carriage of the serogroup W clonal complex ST-11/ET37 than expected was found; whereas, the same clonal complex accounted for 66% of total invasive meningococcal disease cases in the country that year. A high diversity of PorA variable regions and fHbp peptides was also ascertained in the carrier isolates compared to the invasive ones. According to the results shown here, the elevated number of serogroup W invasive cases in our country cannot be explained by a rise of carriage of pathogenic isolates. Overall, this study supports the idea that some strains, as W:cc11 found in Chile, possess an enhanced virulence to invade the host. Notwithstanding hypervirulence, this strain has not caused an epidemic in Chile. Finally, as genetic transfer occurs often, close surveillance of Neisseria meningitidis strains causing disease, and particularly hypervirulent W:cc11, should be kept as a priority in our country, in order to prepare the best response to face genetic changes that could lead to enhanced fitness of this pathogen.

  1. Safety, immunogenicity, and tolerability of meningococcal serogroup B bivalent recombinant lipoprotein 2086 vaccine in healthy adolescents: a randomised, single-blind, placebo-controlled, phase 2 trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richmond, Peter C; Marshall, Helen S; Nissen, Michael D; Jiang, Qin; Jansen, Kathrin U; Garcés-Sánchez, Maria; Martinón-Torres, Federico; Beeslaar, Johannes; Szenborn, Leszek; Wysocki, Jacek; Eiden, Joseph; Harris, Shannon L; Jones, Thomas R; Perez, John L

    2012-08-01

    Neisseria meningitidis serogroup B is a major cause of invasive meningococcal disease, but a broadly protective vaccine is not currently licensed. A bivalent recombinant factor H-binding protein vaccine (recombinant lipoprotein 2086) has been developed to provide broad coverage against diverse invasive meningococcus serogroup B strains. Our aim was to test the immune response of this vaccine. This randomised, placebo-controlled trial enrolled healthy adolescents from 25 sites in Australia, Poland, and Spain. Exclusion criteria were previous invasive meningococcal disease or serogroup B vaccination, previous adverse reaction or known hypersensitivity to the vaccine, any significant comorbidities, and immunosuppressive therapy or receipt of blood products in the past 6 months. Participants were randomly assigned with a computerised block randomisation scheme to receive ascending doses of vaccine (60, 120, or 200 μg) or placebo at 0, 2, and 6 months. Principal investigators, participants and their guardians, and laboratory personnel were masked to the allocation; dispensing staff were not. Immunogenicity was measured by serum bactericidal assays using human complement (hSBA) against eight diverse meningococcus serogroup B strains. The co-primary endpoints were seroconversion for the two indicator strains (PMB1745 and PMB17) analysed by the Clopper-Pearson method. Local and systemic reactions and adverse events were recorded. The study is registered at ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT00808028. 539 participants were enrolled and 511 received all three study vaccinations--116 in the placebo group, 21 in the 60 μg group, 191 in the 120 μg group, and 183 in the 200 μg group. The proportion of participants responding with an hSBA titre equal to or greater than the lower limit of quantitation of the hSBA assays (reciprcocal titres of 7 to 18, depending on test strain) was similar for the two largest doses and ranged from 75·6 to 100·0% for the 120 μg dose and 67·9 to

  2. Meningococcal genetic variation mechanisms viewed through comparative analysis of serogroup C strain FAM18.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen D Bentley

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available The bacterium Neisseria meningitidis is commonly found harmlessly colonising the mucosal surfaces of the human nasopharynx. Occasionally strains can invade host tissues causing septicaemia and meningitis, making the bacterium a major cause of morbidity and mortality in both the developed and developing world. The species is known to be diverse in many ways, as a product of its natural transformability and of a range of recombination and mutation-based systems. Previous work on pathogenic Neisseria has identified several mechanisms for the generation of diversity of surface structures, including phase variation based on slippage-like mechanisms and sequence conversion of expressed genes using information from silent loci. Comparison of the genome sequences of two N. meningitidis strains, serogroup B MC58 and serogroup A Z2491, suggested further mechanisms of variation, including C-terminal exchange in specific genes and enhanced localised recombination and variation related to repeat arrays. We have sequenced the genome of N. meningitidis strain FAM18, a representative of the ST-11/ET-37 complex, providing the first genome sequence for the disease-causing serogroup C meningococci; it has 1,976 predicted genes, of which 60 do not have orthologues in the previously sequenced serogroup A or B strains. Through genome comparison with Z2491 and MC58 we have further characterised specific mechanisms of genetic variation in N. meningitidis, describing specialised loci for generation of cell surface protein variants and measuring the association between noncoding repeat arrays and sequence variation in flanking genes. Here we provide a detailed view of novel genetic diversification mechanisms in N. meningitidis. Our analysis provides evidence for the hypothesis that the noncoding repeat arrays in neisserial genomes (neisserial intergenic mosaic elements provide a crucial mechanism for the generation of surface antigen variants. Such variation will have an

  3. Severe Community-acquired Pneumonia Due to Legionella pneumophila Serogroup 6

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chung-Yu Chen

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Legionella pneumophila is a common cause of sporadic community-acquired pneumonia, but culture-proven legionellosis is rarely diagnosed. There is no laboratory test for Legionnaires' disease that can detect all patients with the disease. Culture is the standard diagnostic method and should be initiated as soon as possible in suspected cases. We describe a rare case of community-acquired pneumonia caused by L. pneumophila serogroup 6. A 77-year-old man was admitted to a tertiary care hospital because of high fever, productive cough, and progressive dyspnea. Chest radiography showed bilateral pneumonia, which led to respiratory failure necessitating mechanical ventilatory support. Despite antibiotic therapy, his condition continued to deteriorate and acute renal failure also developed. Urine was negative for L. pneumophila. Culture of the sputum yielded L. pneumophila serogroup 6, although there was no elevation of the serum antibody titer. Pneumonia resolved gradually and he was extubated after treatment with levofloxacin followed by erythromycin. L. pneumophila other than serogroup 1 should be included in the differential diagnosis of patients with suspected atypical community-acquired pneumonia.

  4. Serogroups and antimicrobial susceptibility among Escherichia coli isolated from farmed mink (Mustela vison Schreiber) in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vulfson, L.; Pedersen, Karl; Chriel, M.

    2001-01-01

    Escherichia coli is commonly found in outbreaks of diarrhoea in mink during the production season although its role as a primary causal organism remains unclear. The present study was undertaken to determine the serogroups and antimicrobial susceptibility of E. coli isolates from healthy and diar......Escherichia coli is commonly found in outbreaks of diarrhoea in mink during the production season although its role as a primary causal organism remains unclear. The present study was undertaken to determine the serogroups and antimicrobial susceptibility of E. coli isolates from healthy...... diseased. All isolates were serotyped and MICs were determined for nine antimicrobial compounds. Non-haemolytic isolates numbered 147, whereas 63 were haemolytic. Both haemolytic and non-haemolytic isolates were isolated from both healthy and diseased animals. A wide range of serogroups was detected...... among the six mink farms, for tetracycline (0-16.4%. average 21.9), ampicillin (2.9-50.0%. average 23.3), spectinomycin (8.0-35.7%. average 21.9), sulfamethoxazole (8.6-57.7%. average 30.0) and trimethoprim (0-35.7%. average 9.5). Resistance to tetracycline was statistically more prevalent among...

  5. Lipoprotein NMB0928 from Neisseria meningitidis serogroup B as a novel vaccine candidate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delgado, Maité; Yero, Daniel; Niebla, Olivia; González, Sonia; Climent, Yanet; Pérez, Yusleydis; Cobas, Karem; Caballero, Evelín; García, Darien; Pajón, Rolando

    2007-12-05

    Polysaccharide-based vaccines for serogroup B Neisseria meningitidis have failed to induce protective immunity. As a result, efforts to develop vaccines for serogroup B meningococcal disease have mostly focused on outer membrane proteins (OMP). Vaccine candidates based on meningococcal OMP have emerged in the form of outer membrane vesicles (OMVs) or, more recently, purified recombinant proteins, as alternative strategies for serogroup B vaccine development. In our group, the protein composition of the Cuban OMVs-based vaccine VA-MENGOC-BC was elucidated using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and mass spectrometry. The proteomic map of this product allowed the identification of new putative protective proteins not previously reported as components of an antimeningococcal vaccine. In the present study, we have determined the immunogenicity and protective capacity of NMB0928, one of those proteins present in the OMVs. The antigen was obtained as a recombinant protein in Escherichia coli, purified and used to immunize mice. The antiserum produced against the protein was capable to recognize the natural protein in different meningococcal strains by whole-cell ELISA and Western blotting. After immunization, recombinant NMB0928 induced bactericidal antibodies, and when the protein was administered inserted into liposomes, the elicited antibodies were protective in the infant rat model. These results suggest that NMB0928 is a novel antigen worth to be included in a broadly protective meningococcal vaccine.

  6. [Detection of putative polysaccharide biosynthesis genes in Azospirillum brasilense strains from serogroups I and II].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrova, L P; Prilipov, A G; Katsy, E I

    2017-01-01

    It is known that in Azospirillum brasilense strains Sp245 and SR75 included in serogroup I, the repeat units of their O-polysaccharides consist of five residues of D-rhamnose, and in strain SR15, of four; and the heteropolymeric O-polysaccharide of A. brasilense type strain Sp7 from serogroup II contains not less than five types of repeat units. In the present work, a complex of nondegenerate primers to the genes of A. brasilense Sp245 plasmids AZOBR_p6, AZOBR_p3, and AZOBR_p2, which encode putative enzymes for the biosynthesis of core oligosaccharide and O-polysaccharide of lipopolysaccharide, capsular polysaccharides, and exopolysaccharides, was proposed. By using the designed primers, products of the expected sizes were synthesized in polymerase chain reactions on genomic DNA of A. brasilense Sp245, SR75, SR15, and Sp7 in 36, 29, 23, and 12 cases, respectively. As a result of sequencing of a number of amplicons, a high (86–99%) level of identity of the corresponding putative polysaccharide biosynthesis genes in three A. brasilense strains from serogroup I was detected. In a blotting-hybridization reaction with the biotin-labeled DNA of the A. brasilense gene AZOBR_p60122 coding for putative permease of the ABC transporter of polysaccharides, localization of the homologous gene in ~120-MDa plasmids of the bacteria A. brasilense SR15 and SR75 was revealed.

  7. Recombinant outer membrane secretin PilQ(406-770) as a vaccine candidate for serogroup B Neisseria meningitidis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haghi, Fakhri; Peerayeh, Shahin Najar; Siadat, Seyed Davar; Zeighami, Habib

    2012-02-21

    Secretin PilQ is an antigenically conserved outer membrane protein which is present on most meningococci. This protein naturally expressed at high levels and is essential for meningococcal pilus expression at the cell surface. A 1095 bp fragment of C-terminal of secretin pilQ from serogroup B Neisseria meningitidis was cloned into prokaryotic expression vector pET-28a. Recombinant protein was overexpressed with IPTG and affinity-purified by Ni-NTA agarose. BALB/c mice were immunized subcutaneously with purified rPilQ(406-770) mixed with Freund's adjuvant. Serum antibody responses to serogroups A and B N. meningitidis whole cells or purified rPilQ(406-770) and functional activity of antibodies were determined by ELISA and SBA, respectively. The output of rPilQ(406-770) was approximately 50% of the total bacterial proteins. Serum IgG responses were significantly increased in immunized group with PilQ(406-770) mixed with Freund's adjuvant in comparison with control groups. Antisera produced against rPilQ(406-770) demonstrated strong surface reactivity to serogroups A and B N. meningitidis tested by whole-cell ELISA. Surface reactivity to serogroup B N. meningitidis was higher than serogroup A. The sera from PilQ(406-770) immunized animals were strongly bactericidal against serogroups A and B. These results suggest that rPilQ(406-770) is a potential vaccine candidate for serogroup B N. meningitidis. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Invasive Candidiasis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Waterborne, and Environmental Diseases Mycotic Diseases Branch Invasive Candidiasis Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Global Emergence ... antifungal drugs. Learn more about C. auris Invasive candidiasis is an infection caused by a yeast (a ...

  9. Identification of new meningococcal serogroup B surface antigens through a systematic analysis of neisserial genomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pajon, Rolando; Yero, Daniel; Niebla, Olivia; Climent, Yanet; Sardiñas, Gretel; García, Darién; Perera, Yasser; Llanes, Alejandro; Delgado, Maité; Cobas, Karem; Caballero, Evelin; Taylor, Stephen; Brookes, Charlotte; Gorringe, Andrew

    2009-12-11

    The difficulty of inducing an effective immune response against the Neisseria meningitidis serogroup B capsular polysaccharide has lead to the search for vaccines for this serogroup based on outer membrane proteins. The availability of the first meningococcal genome (MC58 strain) allowed the expansion of high-throughput methods to explore the protein profile displayed by N. meningitidis. By combining a pan-genome analysis with an extensive experimental validation to identify new potential vaccine candidates, genes coding for antigens likely to be exposed on the surface of the meningococcus were selected after a multistep comparative analysis of entire Neisseria genomes. Eleven novel putative ORF annotations were reported for serogroup B strain MC58. Furthermore, a total of 20 new predicted potential pan-neisserial vaccine candidates were produced as recombinant proteins and evaluated using immunological assays. Potential vaccine candidate coding genes were PCR-amplified from a panel of representative strains and their variability analyzed using maximum likelihood approaches for detecting positive selection. Finally, five proteins all capable of inducing a functional antibody response vs N. meningitidis strain CU385 were identified as new attractive vaccine candidates: NMB0606 a potential YajC orthologue, NMB0928 the neisserial NlpB (BamC), NMB0873 a LolB orthologue, NMB1163 a protein belonging to a curli-like assembly machinery, and NMB0938 (a neisserial specific antigen) with evidence of positive selection appreciated for NMB0928. The new set of vaccine candidates and the novel proposed functions will open a new wave of research in the search for the elusive neisserial vaccine.

  10. Molecular Typing of Pathogenic Leptospira Serogroup Icterohaemorrhagiae Strains Circulating in China during the Past 50 Years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Cuicai; Yang, Huimian; Li, Xiuwen; Cao, Zhiqiang; Zhou, Haijian; Zeng, Linzi; Xu, Jianmin; Xu, Yinghua; Chang, Yung-Fu; Guo, Xiaokui; Zhu, Yongzhang; Jiang, Xiugao

    2015-01-01

    Background Leptospirosis is one of the most important neglected tropical infectious diseases worldwide. Icterohaemorrhagiae has been throughout recent history, and still is, the predominant serogroup of this pathogen in China. However, very little in detail is known about the serovars or genotypes of this serogroup. Methodology/Principal Findings In this study, 120 epidemic strains from five geographically diverse regions in China collected over a 50 year period (1958~2008), and 8 international reference strains characterized by 16S rRNA sequencing and MLST analysis. 115, 11 and 2 strains were identified as L. interrogans, L. borgpetersenii, and L. kirschneri, respectively. 17 different STs were identified including 69 ST1 strains, 18 ST17, 18 ST128, 9 ST143 and 2 ST209. The remaining 12 strains belonged to 12 different STs. eBURST analysis demonstrated that, among the clonal complexes isolated (CCs), CC1 accounted for 73.3% (88/120) strains representing three STs: ST1, ST128 and ST98. ST1 was the most likely ancestral strain of this CC, followed by singleton CC17 (17/120) and CC143 (11/120). Further analysis of adding 116 serogroup Icterohaemorrhagiae strains in the MLST database and studies previously described using global eBURST analysis and MST dendrogram revealed relatively similar ST clustering patterns with five main CCs and 8 singletons among these 244 strains. CC17 was found to be the most prevalent clone of pathogenic Leptospira circulating worldwide. This is the first time, to our knowledge, that ST1 and ST17 strains were distributed among 4 distinct serovars, indicating a highly complicated relationship between serovars and STs. Conclusions/Significance Our studies demonstrated a high level of genetic diversity in the serogroup Icterohaemorrhagiae strains. Distinct from ST17 or ST37 circulating elsewhere, ST1 included in CC1, has over the past 50 years or so, proven to be the most prevalent ST of pathogenic leptospires isolated in China. Moreover, the

  11. Immunogenicity and safety of investigational vaccine formulations against meningococcal serogroups A, B, C, W, and Y in healthy adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saez-Llorens, Xavier; Aguilera Vaca, Diana Catalina; Abarca, Katia; Maho, Emmanuelle; Graña, Maria Gabriela; Heijnen, Esther; Smolenov, Igor; Dull, Peter M

    2015-01-01

    This phase 2 study assessed the immunogenicity, safety, and reactogenicity of investigational formulations of meningococcal ABCWY vaccines, consisting of recombinant proteins (rMenB) and outer membrane vesicle (OMV) components of a licensed serogroup B vaccine, combined with components of a licensed quadrivalent meningococcal glycoconjugate vaccine (MenACWY-CRM). A total of 495 healthy adolescents were randomized to 6 groups to receive 2 doses (Months 0, 2) of one of 4 formulations of rMenB antigens, with or without OMV, combined with MenACWY-CRM, or 2 doses of rMenB alone or one dose of MenACWY-CRM then a placebo. Immunogenicity was assessed by serum bactericidal assay with human complement (hSBA) against serogroups ACWY and serogroup B test strains; solicited reactions and any adverse events (AEs) were assessed. Two MenABCWY vaccinations elicited robust ACWY immune responses, with higher seroresponse rates than one dose of MenACWY-CRM. Bactericidal antibody responses against the rMenB antigens and OMV components were highest in subjects who received 2 doses of OMV-containing MenABCWY formulations, with ≥68% of subjects achieving hSBA titers ≥5 against each of the serogroup B test strains. After the first dose, solicited local reaction rates were higher in the MenABCWY or rMenB groups than the MenACWY-CRM group, but similar across groups after the second dose, consisting mainly of transient injection site pain. Fever (≥38.0°C) was rare and there were no vaccine-related serious AEs. In conclusion, investigational MenABCWY formulations containing OMV components elicited highly immunogenic responses against meningococcal serogroups ACWY, as well as serogroup B test strains, with an acceptable safety profile. [NCT01210885].

  12. Rapid Laboratory Identification of Neisseria meningitidis Serogroup C as the Cause of an Outbreak - Liberia, 2017.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Jaymin C; George, Josiah; Vuong, Jeni; Potts, Caelin C; Bozio, Catherine; Clark, Thomas A; Thomas, Jerry; Schier, Joshua; Chang, Arthur; Waller, Jessica L; Diaz, Maureen H; Whaley, Melissa; Jenkins, Laurel T; Fuller, Serena; Williams, Desmond E; Redd, John T; Arthur, Ray R; Taweh, Fahn; Vera Walker, Yatta; Hardy, Patrick; Freeman, Maxwell; Katawera, Victoria; Gwesa, Gulu; Gbanya, Miatta Z; Clement, Peter; Kohar, Henry; Stone, Mardia; Fallah, Mosoka; Nyenswah, Tolbert; Winchell, Jonas M; Wang, Xin; McNamara, Lucy A; Dokubo, E Kainne; Fox, LeAnne M

    2017-10-27

    On April 25, 2017, a cluster of unexplained illness and deaths among persons who had attended a funeral during April 21-22 was reported in Sinoe County, Liberia (1). Using a broad initial case definition, 31 cases were identified, including 13 (42%) deaths. Twenty-seven cases were from Sinoe County (1), and two cases each were from Grand Bassa and Monsterrado counties, respectively. On May 5, 2017, initial multipathogen testing of specimens from four fatal cases using the Taqman Array Card (TAC) assay identified Neisseria meningitidis in all specimens. Subsequent testing using direct real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) confirmed N. meningitidis in 14 (58%) of 24 patients with available specimens and identified N. meningitidis serogroup C (NmC) in 13 (54%) patients. N. meningitidis was detected in specimens from 11 of the 13 patients who died; no specimens were available from the other two fatal cases. On May 16, 2017, the National Public Health Institute of Liberia and the Ministry of Health of Liberia issued a press release confirming serogroup C meningococcal disease as the cause of this outbreak in Liberia.

  13. Characterization of Leptospira santarosai Serogroup Grippotyphosa Serovar Bananal Isolated from Capybara ( Hydrochaeris hydrochaeris ) in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno, Luisa Z; Miraglia, Fabiana; Marvulo, Maria F V; Silva, Jean C R; Paula, Catia D; Costa, Barbara L P; Morais, Zenaide M; Ferreira, Fernando; Neto, José S Ferreira; Dellagostin, Odir A; Hartskeerl, Rudy A; Vasconcellos, Silvio A; Moreno, Andrea M

    2016-07-01

    Leptospirosis is a widespread zoonosis caused by bacteria of the genus Leptospira. Rodents appear to be the most important reservoirs of infection. They contaminate the environment and food and can transmit the pathogen when they are consumed by carnivores. Capybara ( Hydrochaeris hydrochaeris ) are efficient reservoirs of Leptospira, and because they are in close contact with farm animals and are found in semiurban areas, they represent a risk to public health. We isolated five Leptospira strains from capybara kidneys in Sao Paulo State, Brazil, in 2001 and typed them using serologic and molecular techniques. These strains include the Leptospira santarosai serogroup Grippotyphosa serovar Bananal. Pulsed field gel electrophoresis resulted in a unique pattern distinct from the reference strains, and the isolates clustered with greater than 85% similarity. The isolates also presented higher growth rates than other Leptospira serovars, with high minimal inhibitory concentration values for most of the tested antibiotics, with the exception of penicillin and ampicillin. This isolation and characterization of the L. santarosai serogroup Grippotyphosa serovar Bananal from capybara, highlights the importance of wild and sinantropic rodents as carriers of pathogenic leptospires.

  14. Study of 138 Neisseria meningitidis strains isolated from blood or cerebrospinal fluid in Lombardy between 2007 and 2010

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    Laura Daprai

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Neisseria meningitidis, Streptococcus pneumoniae, and Haemophilus influenzae type b cause the majority of cases of bacterial septicaemia in children and young adults. Disease epidemiology is evolving rapidly due to the introduction of vaccines and changing in bacterial antibiotic-resistance patterns. (Asymptomatic nasopharyngeal colonization with Neisseria meningitides occurs in 5-10% of adult. The aim of this study was to calculate the frequency of each serogroup of this pathogens involved in invasive infection and to study susceptibility to antibiotics of these strains. Between March 2007 and June 2010 we received, from 43 hospitals of Lombardy, 138 strains of Neisseria meningitidis, from 138 patients aged (2-80yrs. The most frequent serogroup was B (58%, followed by serogroup C (34%, serogroup G (4% and W 135 (2%. Serogroup A end X accounted for 1% of invasive infection, each. We observed a decrease in susceptibility towards penicillin in 38% of strains. In addition we studied, by REP- PCR, genotype of 9 strains selected on the basis of epidemiological data.Among these strains, 3 different clusters according to the 3 small epidemic outbreaks occurred between June and September 2009, were recognised. Seven of these strains, although belonged to the same serogroup, brought about two different clusters. The present findings demonstrated that phenotypic data are not sufficient to define epidemic clusters, therefore molecular genotyping is required.

  15. Differentiating non-0157:H7 STEC serogroups from ground beef plated on agar media by hyperspetral imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Introduction: The development of an assay to detect and confirm a positive non-O157:H7 isolate is challenging when mixed morphologically results are obtained from the serogroups growing on Rainbow agar. Rainbow agar is only claimed by the manufacturer to be very specific for E.coli O157:H7 strain...

  16. Pathogenicity of Vibrio anguillarum serogroup O1 strains compared to plasmids, outer membrane protein profiles and siderophore production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, K.; Gram, Lone; Austin, D.A.

    1997-01-01

    The virulence of 18 strains of Vibrio anguillarum serogroup 01 was compared to plasmid content, expression of siderophores and outer membrane proteins. All strains, irrespective of plasmid content, produced siderophores and inducible outer membrane proteins under iron-limited conditions. Only str...

  17. Could the multicomponent meningococcal serogroup B vaccine (4CMenB) control Neisseria meningitidis capsular group X outbreaks in Africa?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Eva; Giuliani, Marzia Monica; Deghmane, Ala-Eddine; Comanducci, Maurizio; Brunelli, Brunella; Dull, Peter; Pizza, Mariagrazia; Taha, Muhamed-Kheir

    2013-02-04

    A new vaccine, 4CMenB, is composed of surface proteins of Neisseria meningitidis and is aimed to target serogroup B (MenB) isolates. The vaccine components are present in meningococcal isolates of other serogroups allowing potential use against meningococcal isolates belonging to non-B serogroups. Isolates of serogroup X (MenX) have been emerged in countries of the African meningitis belt. 4CMenB may offer a vaccine strategy against these isolates as there is no available capsule-based vaccine against MenX. We used the Meningococcal Antigen Typing System (MATS) to determine presence, diversity and levels of expression of 4CMenB antigens among 9 MenX isolates from several African countries in order to estimate the potential coverage of MenX by the 4CMenB vaccine. We performed bactericidal assays against these isolates, using pooled sera from 4CMenB-vaccinated infants, adolescents and adults. The African MenX isolates belonged to the same genotype but showed variation in the vaccine antigens. MATS data and bactericidal assays suggest coverage of the 9 African MenX isolates by 4CMenB but not of two unrelated MenX isolates from France. 4CMenB vaccine can be considered for further investigation to control MenX outbreaks in Africa. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Biofilm formation, antimicrobial susceptibility, serogroups and virulence genes of uropathogenic E. coli isolated from clinical samples in Iran

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    Elahe Tajbakhsh

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Uropathogenic Escherichia coli O- Serogroups with their virulence factors are the most prevalent causes of UTIs. The present research performed to track common uropathogenic E.coli serogroups, antibiotic resistance pattern of strains and prevalence of virulence genes in isolations having the ability to constitute biofilm. Methods In this research 130 E.coli isolation from patients having UTI symptoms were collected and antimicrobial resistance pattern was performed by Kirby-Bauer method. Polymerase chain reaction was done using primer pairs to identify common serogroups of uropathogenic E.coli and studying virulence genes in isolations creating biofilm. Results Among 130 E.coli isolates, 80 (61.53 % were able to make biofilm that 15 isolates (18.75 % indicated strong reaction, 20 (25 % of medium and 45 (56.25 % of weak biofilm reaction. Among isolations creating biofilm, the highest resistance reported to Ampicillin (87.5 % and the lowest to Nitrofurantoin (3.75 %. The frequency of fimH, pap, sfa and afa genes in isolations having the ability to create strong biofilm reported 93.33 %, 86.66 %, 86.66 % and 66.66 %, respectively. Conclusions The findings indicated the importance of virulence genes in serogroups producing uropathogenic E.coli biofilm. It is recommended that strains producing biofilm before antibiotic use should be studied.

  19. Meningococcal Disease Caused by Neisseria meningitidis Serogroup B Serotype 4 in São Paulo, Brazil, 1990 to 1996

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    Sacchi Claudio Tavares

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available A large epidemic of serogroup B meningococcal disease (MD, has been occurring in greater São Paulo, Brazil, since 1988.21 A Cuban-produced vaccine, based on outer-membrane-protein (OMP from serogroup B: serotype 4: serosubtype P1.15 (B:4:P1.15 Neisseria meningitidis, was given to about 2.4 million children aged from 3 months to 6 years during 1989 and 1990. The administration of vaccine had little or no measurable effects on this outbreak. In order to detect clonal changes that could explain the continued increase in the incidence of disease after the vaccination, we serotyped isolates recovered between 1990 and 1996 from 834 patients with systemic disease. Strains B:4:P1.15, which was detected in the area as early as 1977, has been the most prevalent phenotype since 1988. These strains are still prevalent in the area and were responsible for about 68% of 834 serogroup B cases in the last 7 years. We analyzed 438 (52% of these strains by restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLPs of rRNA genes (ribotyping. The most frequent pattern obtained was referred to as Rb1 (68%. We concluded that the same clone of B:4:P1.15-Rb1 strains was the most prevalent strain and responsible for the continued increase of incidence of serogroup B MD cases in greater São Paulo during the last 7 years in spite of the vaccination trial.

  20. Utilization of a novel autologous killed tri-vaccine (serogroups B [Typhimurium], C [Mbandaka] and E [Orion]) for Salmonella control in commercial poultry breeders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavic, Anthony; Groves, Peter J; Cox, Julian M

    2010-02-01

    An autologous killed trivalent vaccine (3x10(8) colony-forming units [CFU]), based on three Salmonella serovars (Typhimurium - serogroup B, Mbandaka - serogroup C, and Orion - serogroup E) prevalent in the flocks of Australian poultry companies, was developed using Salenvac techniques. At 20 weeks, hens vaccinated at 12 and 17 weeks as well as non-vaccinated hens were challenged (250 microl of 10(7) CFU) with autologous and heterologous serovars belonging to serogroup B (Typhimurium and Agona), serogroup C (Mbandaka and Infantis) and serogroup E (Orion and Zanzibar). Overall, vaccination resulted in a significant difference in carriage of Salmonella between non-vaccinated and vaccinated commercial Cobb hens (P 0.05) could be determined for serogroup E. All vaccinated flocks produced a significant antibody response (P<0.001) to the S. Typhimurium vaccine strain, measured using a S. Typhimurium enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (Guildhay), which peaked at 20 weeks of age, with 39% of the hens positive. Maternal antibodies were detected in 16% of the yolks from eggs produced by these flocks. There was a significant difference after challenge with Salmonella (P <0.05) among 1-day-old chicks from vaccinated versus non-vaccinated parents, when challenged using 10(4) CFU but not when challenged with 10(8) CFU. The success of this trial resulted in the incorporation of this vaccine into a Salmonella control system in commercial broiler breeder production.

  1. Serogrupos y susceptibilidad antimicrobiana en cepas de Shigella Serogroups and antimicrobial susceptibility in Shigella strains

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    Leonor Díaz Rigau

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCCIÓN. Shigella spp. es uno de los agentes causales más importantes de diarrea aguda en los niños. La presente investigación tuvo como objetivo conocer la frecuencia de serogrupos y la susceptibilidad antimicrobiana a los fármacos de elección y a los alternativos. MÉTODOS. Se realizó un estudio descriptivo y retrospectivo entre enero de 2004 y diciembre de 2006 a partir de 34 cepas de Shigella spp. aisladas en heces de niños menores de 5 años ingresados en el Hospital «Aleida Fernández Chardiet» (Municipio Güines a causa de enfermedad diarreica aguda. RESULTADOS. Los serogrupos encontrados fueron S. sonnei (70,5 % y S. flexneri (29,5 %. Ambos serogrupos mostraron altos niveles de resistencia al trimetoprim-sulfametoxazol y a la ampicilina, además en las cepas de S. sonnei se encontró resistencia al ácido nalidíxico y en las de S. flexneri al cloranfenicol. Todas las cepas mostraron altos porcentajes de sensibilidad a la ceftriaxona, norfloxacina y ciprofloxacina. El 70 % de las cepas de S. sonnei fueron multirresistentes. El patrón de multirresistencia (ampicilina, trimetoprim-sulfamtetoxazol y ácido nalidíxico se encontró en ambos serogrupos. CONCLUSIONES. La determinación y vigilancia de los patrones de resistencia facilita el control de la política de uso de antibióticos en la región estudiada y previene el surgimiento de cepas resistentes a fármacos de nueva generación.INTRODUCTION: Shigella ssp. is one of the more important causal agents of acute diarrhea in children. Present research has as aim to know serogroups frequency and antimicrobial susceptibility to choice drugs, and to its alternatives. METHODS: A descriptive retrospective study was carried out between January 2004 and December 2006 of 34 strains of Shigella isolated from children lower than 5 years admitted in "Aleida Fernández Chardiet" Hospital in Güines Municipality by acute diarrheic disease. RESULTS: Serogroups included S. sonnei (70

  2. Proteus mirabilis RMS 203 as a new representative of the O13 Proteus serogroup.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palusiak, Agata; Siwińska, Małgorzata; Zabłotni, Agnieszka

    2015-01-01

    The unique feature of some Proteus O-polysaccharides is occurrence of an amide of galacturonic acid with N(ε)-[(S/R)-1-Carboxyethyl]-L-lysine, GalA6(2S,8S/R-AlaLys). The results of the serological studies presented here, with reference to known O-antigens structures suggest that GalA6(2S,8S/R-AlaLys) or 2S,8R-AlaLys contribute to cross-reactions of O13 Proteus antisera, and Proteeae LPSs. It was also revealed that the Proteus mirabilis RMS 203 strain can be classified into the O13 serogroup, represented so far by two strains: Proteus mirabilis 26/57 and Proteus vulgaris 8344. The O13 LPS is a serologically important antigen with a fragment common to LPSs of different species in the Proteeae tribe.

  3. Genomic characterization of a large outbreak of Legionella pneumophila serogroup 1 strains in Quebec City, 2012.

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    Simon Lévesque

    Full Text Available During the summer of 2012, a major Legionella pneumophila serogroup 1 outbreak occurred in Quebec City, Canada, which caused 182 declared cases of Legionnaire's disease and included 13 fatalities. Legionella pneumophila serogroup 1 isolates from 23 patients as well as from 32 cooling towers located in the vicinity of the outbreak were recovered for analysis. In addition, 6 isolates from the 1996 Quebec City outbreak and 4 isolates from patients unrelated to both outbreaks were added to allow comparison. We characterized the isolates using pulsed-field gel electrophoresis, sequence-based typing, and whole genome sequencing. The comparison of patients-isolated strains to cooling tower isolates allowed the identification of the tower that was the source of the outbreak. Legionella pneumophila strain Quebec 2012 was identified as a ST-62 by sequence-based typing methodology. Two new Legionellaceae plasmids were found only in the epidemic strain. The LVH type IV secretion system was found in the 2012 outbreak isolates but not in the ones from the 1996 outbreak and only in half of the contemporary human isolates. The epidemic strains replicated more efficiently and were more cytotoxic to human macrophages than the environmental strains tested. At least four Icm/Dot effectors in the epidemic strains were absent in the environmental strains suggesting that some effectors could impact the intracellular replication in human macrophages. Sequence-based typing and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis combined with whole genome sequencing allowed the identification and the analysis of the causative strain including its likely environmental source.

  4. [Sequences and expression pattern of mce gene in Leptospira interrogans of different serogroups].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lei; Xue, Feng; Yan, Jie; Mao, Ya-fei; Li, Li-wei

    2008-11-01

    To determine the frequency of mce gene in Leptospira interrogans, and to investigate the gene transcription levels of L. interrogans before and after infecting cells. The segments of entire mce genes from 13 L.interrogans strains and 1 L.biflexa strain were amplified by PCR and then sequenced after T-A cloning. A prokaryotic expression system of mce gene was constructed; the expression and output of the target recombinant protein rMce were examined by SDS-PAGE and Western Blot assay. Rabbits were intradermally immunized with rMce to prepare the antiserum, the titer of antiserum was measured by immunodiffusion test. The transcription levels of mce gene in L.interrogans serogroup Icterohaemorrhagiae serovar lai strain 56601 before and after infecting J774A.1 cells were monitored by real-time fluorescence quantitative RT-PCR. mce gene was carried in all tested L.interrogans strains, but not in L.biflexa serogroup Semaranga serovar patoc strain Patoc I. The similarities of nucleotide and putative amino acid sequences of the cloned mce genes to the reported sequences (GenBank accession No: NP712236) were 99.02%-100% and 97.91%-100%, respectively. The constructed prokaryotic expression system of mce gene expressed rMce and the output of rMce was about 5% of the total bacterial proteins. The antiserum against whole cell of L.interrogans strain 56601 efficiently recognized rMce. After infecting J774A.1 cells, transcription levels of the mce gene in L.interrogans strain 56601 were remarkably up-regulated. The constructed prokaryotic expression system of mce gene and the prepared antiserum against rMce provide useful tools for further study of the gene function.

  5. Virulence factors, serogroups and antimicrobial resistance properties of Escherichia coli strains in fermented dairy products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dehkordi, Farhad Safarpoor; Yazdani, Farshad; Mozafari, Jalal; Valizadeh, Yousef

    2014-04-07

    From a clinical perspective, it is essential to know the microbial safety of fermented dairy products. Doogh and kashk are fermented dairies. These products are used by millions of people but their microbial qualities are unknown. Shiga toxin producing Escherichia coli (STEC) is one of the most commonly detected pathogens in the cases of food poisoning and food-borne illnesses. The present investigation was carried out in order to study the molecular characterization and antimicrobial resistance properties of STEC strains isolated from fermented dairy products. Six hundred fermented dairy samples were collected and immediately transferred to the laboratory. All samples were cultured immediately and those that were E. coli-positive were analyzed for the presence of O157 , O26, O103, O111, O145, O45, O91, O113, O121 and O128 STEC serogroups, tetA, tetB, blaSHV, CITM, cmlA, cat1, aadA1, dfrA1, qnr, aac (3)-IV, sul1 and ereA antibiotic resistance genes and stx1, stx2, eaeA, ehly, cnf1, cnf2, iutA, cdtB, papA, traT, sfaS and fyuA virulence factors using PCR. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing was performed also using disk diffusion methodology with Mueller-Hinton agar. Fifty out of 600 (8.33%) dairy samples harbored E. coli. In addition, yoghurt was the most commonly contaminated dairy. O157 (26%) and O26 (12%) were the most commonly detected serogroups. A significant difference was found between the frequency of Attaching and Effacing E. coli and Enterohaemorrhagic E. coli (P Fermented dairy products can easily become contaminated by antibiotic resistant STEC strains. Our findings should raise awareness about antibiotic resistance in Iran. Clinicians should exercise caution when prescribing antibiotics, especially in veterinary treatments.

  6. Meningococcal serogroup C immunogenicity, antibody persistence and memory B-cells induced by the monovalent meningococcal serogroup C versus quadrivalent meningococcal serogroup ACWY conjugate booster vaccine: A randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Ravenhorst, Mariëtte B; van der Klis, Fiona R M; van Rooijen, Debbie M; Knol, Mirjam J; Stoof, Susanne P; Sanders, Elisabeth A M; Berbers, Guy A M

    2017-08-24

    Adolescents are considered the key transmitters of meningococci in the population. Meningococcal serogroup C (MenC) antibody levels wane rapidly after MenC conjugate vaccination in young children, leaving adolescents with low antibody levels. In this study, we compared MenC immune responses after booster vaccination in adolescence with either tetanus toxoid conjugated MenC (MenC-TT) or MenACWY (MenACWY-TT) vaccine, and aimed to establish an optimal age for this booster. Healthy 10-, 12-, and 15-year-olds, who received a single dose of MenC-TT vaccine in early childhood, were randomized to receive MenC-TT or MenACWY-TT vaccine. MenC serum bactericidal antibody (rSBA) titers, MenC polysaccharide (PS) specific IgG, IgG1 and IgG2 and MenC-specific IgG and IgA memory B-cells were determined before, one month and one year after the booster. Non-inferiority was tested by comparing geometric mean titers (GMTs) between vaccinees at one year. Of 501 participants, 464 (92.6%) were included in the 'according to protocol' cohort analysis. At one month, all participants developed high MenC rSBA titers (>24,000 in all groups) and MenC-PS-specific IgG levels. Non-inferiority was not demonstrated one year after the booster with higher MenC GMTs after the monovalent vaccine, but 462/464 (99.6%) participants maintained protective MenC rSBA titers. IgG levels mainly consisted of IgG1, but similar levels of increase were observed for IgG1 and IgG2. Both vaccines induced a clear increase in the number of circulating MenC-PS specific IgG and IgA memory B-cells. Between one month and one year, the highest antibody decay rate was observed in the 10-year-olds. Both MenC-TT and MenACWY-TT vaccines induced robust protective MenC immune responses after the booster vaccination, although non-inferiority could not be demonstrated for the MenACWY-TT vaccine after one year. Our results underline the importance of optimal timing of a meningococcal booster vaccination to protect against MenC disease

  7. Temporal associations between national outbreaks of meningococcal serogroup W and C disease in the Netherlands and England: an observational cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knol, Mirjam J; Hahné, Susan J M; Lucidarme, Jay; Campbell, Helen; de Melker, Hester E; Gray, Stephen J; Borrow, Ray; Ladhani, Shamez N; Ramsay, Mary E; van der Ende, Arie

    2017-10-01

    Since 2009, the incidence of meningococcal serogroup W disease has increased rapidly in the UK because of a single strain (the so-called original UK strain) belonging to the hypervirulent sequence type-11 clonal complex (cc11), with a variant outbreak strain (the so-called 2013 strain) emerging in 2013. Subsequently, the Netherlands has had an increase in the incidence of meningococcal serogroup W disease. We assessed the temporal and phylogenetic associations between the serogroup W outbreaks in the Netherlands and England, and the historical serogroup C outbreaks in both countries. For this observational cohort study, we used national surveillance data for meningococcal serogroup W and serogroup C disease in the Netherlands and England for the epidemiological years (July to June) 1992-93 to 2015-16. We also did whole genome sequencing and core genome multilocus sequence typing (1546 loci) on serogroup W disease isolates from both countries for surveillance years 2008-09 to 2015-16. We used Poisson regression to compare the annual relative increase in the incidence of serogroup W and serogroup C between both countries. In the Netherlands, the incidence of meningococcal serogroup W disease increased substantially in 2015-16 compared with 2014-15, with an incidence rate ratio of 5·2 (95% CI 2·0-13·5) and 11% case fatality. In England, the incidence increased substantially in 2012-13 compared with 2011-12, with an incidence rate ratio of 1·8 (1·2-2·8). The relative increase in the Netherlands from 2014-15 to 2015-16 was 418% (95% CI 99-1248), which was significantly higher than the annual relative increase of 79% (61-99) per year in England from 2011-12 to 2014-15 (p=0·03). Cases due to meningococcal serogroup W cc11 (MenW:cc11) emerged in 2012-13 in the Netherlands. Of 29 MenW:cc11 cases found up to 2015-16, 26 (90%) were caused by the 2013 strain. For both the current serogroup W outbreak and the historical serogroup C outbreak, the increase in incidence

  8. Prevalence of serogroups and virulence genes in Escherichia coli associated with postweaning diarrhoea and edema disease in pigs and a comparison of diagnostic approaches

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frydendahl, K.

    2002-01-01

    Identification of Escherichia coli causing porcine postweaning diarrhoea (PWD) or edema disease (ED) requires knowledge regarding the prevalent pathotypes within a given region. This study was undertaken to determine the present distribution of serogroups. hemolytic activity and virulence factor...

  9. Global practices of meningococcal vaccine use and impact on invasive disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Asad; Jafri, Rabab Zehra; Messonnier, Nancy; Tevi-Benissan, Carol; Durrheim, David; Eskola, Juhani; Fermon, Florence; Klugman, Keith P; Ramsay, Mary; Sow, Samba; Zhujun, Shao; Bhutta, Zulfiqar; Abramson, Jon

    2014-01-01

    A number of countries now include meningococcal vaccines in their routine immunization programs. This review focuses on different approaches to including meningococcal vaccines in country programs across the world and their effect on the burden of invasive meningococcal disease (IMD) as reflected by pre and post-vaccine incidence rates in the last 20 years. Mass campaigns using conjugated meningococcal vaccines have lead to control of serogroup C meningococcal disease in the UK, Canada, Australia, Spain, Belgium, Ireland, and Iceland. Serogroup B disease, predominant in New Zealand, has been dramatically decreased, partly due to the introduction of an outer membrane vesicle (OMV) vaccine. Polysaccharide vaccines were used in high risk people in Saudi Arabia and Syria and in routine immunization in China and Egypt. The highest incidence region of the meningitis belt initiated vaccination with the serogroup A conjugate vaccine in 2010 and catch-up vaccination is ongoing. Overall results of this vaccine introduction are encouraging especially in countries with a moderate to high level of endemic disease. Continued surveillance is required to monitor effectiveness in countries that recently implemented these programs. PMID:24548156

  10. Assessment of intercentre reproducibility and epidemiological concordance of Legionella pneumophila serogroup 1 genotyping by amplified fragment length polymorphism analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fry, N K; Bangsborg, Jette Marie; Bernander, S

    2000-01-01

    The aims of this work were to assess (i) the intercentre reproducibility and epidemiological concordance of amplified fragment length polymorphism analysis for epidemiological typing of Legionella pneumophila serogroup 1, and (ii) the suitability of the method for standardisation and implementation...... by members of the European Working Group on Legionella Infections. Fifty coded isolates comprising two panels of well-characterised strains, a "reproducibility" panel (n=20) and an "epidemiologically related" panel (n=30), were sent to 13 centres in 12 European countries. Analysis was undertaken in each...... using gel analysis software yielded R=1.00 and E=1.00, with 12, 13 or 14 types. This method can be used as a simple, rapid screening tool for epidemiological typing of isolates of Legionella pneumophila serogroup 1. Results demonstrate that the method can be highly reproducible (R=1...

  11. The changing epidemiology of meningococcal disease in Quebec, Canada, 1991-2011: potential implications of emergence of new strains.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodica Gilca

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In order to inform meningococcal disease prevention strategies, we analysed the epidemiology of invasive meningococcal disease (IMD in the province of Quebec, Canada, 10 years before and 10 years after the introduction of serogroup C conjugate vaccination. METHODOLOGY: IMD cases reported to the provincial notifiable disease registry in 1991-2011 and isolates submitted for laboratory surveillance in 1997-2011 were analysed. Serogrouping, PCR testing and assignment of isolates to sequence types (ST by using multilocus sequence typing (MLST were performed. RESULTS: Yearly overall IMD incidence rates ranged from 2.2-2.3/100,000 in 1991-1992 to 0.49/100,000 in 1999-2000, increasing to 1.04/100,000 in 2011. Among the 945 IMD cases identified by laboratory surveillance in 1997-2011, 68%, 20%, 8%, and 3% were due to serogroups B, C, Y, and W135, respectively. Serogroup C IMD almost disappeared following the implementation of universal childhood immunization with monovalent C conjugate vaccines in 2002. Serogroup B has been responsible for 88% of all IMD cases and 61% of all IMD deaths over the last 3 years. The number and proportion of ST-269 clonal complex has been steadily increasing among the identified clonal complexes of serogroup B IMD since its first identification in 2003, representing 65% of serogroup B IMD in 2011. This clonal complex was first introduced in adolescent and young adults, then spread to other age groups. CONCLUSION: Important changes in the epidemiology of IMD have been observed in Quebec during the last two decades. Serogroup C has been virtually eliminated. In recent years, most cases have been caused by the serogroup B ST-269 clonal complex. Although overall burden of IMD is low, the use of a vaccine with potential broad-spectrum coverage could further reduce the burden of disease. Acceptability, feasibility and cost-effectiveness studies coupled with ongoing clinical and molecular surveillance are necessary in

  12. IncA/C plasmids harboured in serious multidrug-resistant Vibrio cholerae serogroup O139 strains in China.

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    Wang, Ruibai; Yu, Dong; Zhu, Lianhui; Li, Jie; Yue, Junjie; Kan, Biao

    2015-03-01

    Vibrio cholerae serogroup O139 emerged in 1992 and is one of two major serogroups to have caused cholera epidemics. After 1998, serious multidrug-resistant (MDR) O139 strains quickly became common in China, showing a multidrug resistance profile to eight antibiotics. It is a great threat to public health, and elucidation of its mechanisms of resistance will provide a helpful guide for the clinical treatment and prevention of cholera. In this study, mega-plasmids from MDR V. cholerae O139 strains were identified by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) without enzyme digestion. One plasmid was isolated and sequenced, belonging to the IncA/C family. Ten antibiotic resistance genes were found in the MDR regions, including a blaTEM-20 gene, and these genes endowed the host with resistance to seven antibiotics. This kind of plasmid was positive in 71.2% (198/278) of toxigenic O139 strains, and the rate of plasmid positivity was consistent with the yearly change in MDR rates of these strains. This study reveals an important role of the IncA/C family plasmid in the spread of multiple antibiotic resistance of epidemic V. cholerae serogroup O139 strains, which has recombined with plasmids from different bacterial species and transferred among V. cholerae strains. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. and the International Society of Chemotherapy. All rights reserved.

  13. Legionella species and serogroups in Malaysian water cooling towers: identification by latex agglutination and PCR-DNA sequencing of isolates.

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    Yong, Stacey Foong Yee; Goh, Fen-Ning; Ngeow, Yun Fong

    2010-03-01

    In this study, we investigated the distribution of Legionella species in water cooling towers located in different parts of Malaysia to obtain information that may inform public health policies for the prevention of legionellosis. A total of 20 water samples were collected from 11 cooling towers located in three different states in east, west and south Malaysia. The samples were concentrated by filtration and treated with an acid buffer before plating on to BCYE agar. Legionella viable counts in these samples ranged from 100 to 2,000 CFU ml(-1); 28 isolates from the 24 samples were examined by latex agglutination as well as 16S rRNA and rpoB PCR-DNA sequencing. These isolates were identified as Legionella pneumophila serogroup 1 (35.7%), L. pneumophila serogroup 2-14 (39%), L. pneumophila non-groupable (10.7%), L. busanensis, L. gormanii, L. anisa and L. gresilensis. L. pneumophila was clearly the predominant species at all sampling sites. Repeat sampling from the same cooling tower and testing different colonies from the same water sample showed concurrent colonization by different serogroups and different species of Legionella in some of the cooling towers.

  14. Identification by PCR of non-typhoidal Salmonella enterica serovars associated with invasive infections among febrile patients in Mali.

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    Sharon M Tennant

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available In sub-Saharan Africa, non-typhoidal Salmonella (NTS are emerging as a prominent cause of invasive disease (bacteremia and focal infections such as meningitis in infants and young children. Importantly, including data from Mali, three serovars, Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium, Salmonella Enteritidis and Salmonella Dublin, account for the majority of non-typhoidal Salmonella isolated from these patients.We have extended a previously developed series of polymerase chain reactions (PCRs based on O serogrouping and H typing to identify Salmonella Typhimurium and variants (mostly I 4,[5],12:i:-, Salmonella Enteritidis and Salmonella Dublin. We also designed primers to detect Salmonella Stanleyville, a serovar found in West Africa. Another PCR was used to differentiate diphasic Salmonella Typhimurium and monophasic Salmonella Typhimurium from other O serogroup B, H:i serovars. We used these PCRs to blind-test 327 Salmonella serogroup B and D isolates that were obtained from the blood cultures of febrile patients in Bamako, Mali.We have shown that when used in conjunction with our previously described O-serogrouping PCR, our PCRs are 100% sensitive and specific in identifying Salmonella Typhimurium and variants, Salmonella Enteritidis, Salmonella Dublin and Salmonella Stanleyville. When we attempted to differentiate 171 Salmonella Typhimurium (I 4,[ 5],12:i:1,2 strains from 52 monophasic Salmonella Typhimurium (I 4,[5],12:i:- strains, we were able to correctly identify 170 of the Salmonella Typhimurium and 51 of the Salmonella I 4,[5],12:i:- strains.We have described a simple yet effective PCR method to support surveillance of the incidence of invasive disease caused by NTS in developing countries.

  15. Meningococcal serogroup B strain coverage of the multicomponent 4CMenB vaccine with corresponding regional distribution and clinical characteristics in England, Wales, and Northern Ireland, 2007-08 and 2014-15: a qualitative and quantitative assessment.

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    Parikh, Sydel R; Newbold, Lynne; Slater, Stephanie; Stella, Maria; Moschioni, Monica; Lucidarme, Jay; De Paola, Rosita; Giuliani, Maria; Serino, Laura; Gray, Stephen J; Clark, Stephen A; Findlow, Jamie; Pizza, Mariagrazia; Ramsay, Mary E; Ladhani, Shamez N; Borrow, Ray

    2017-07-01

    The UK introduced 4CMenB-a multicomponent vaccine against serogroup B meningococcal disease-into the national infant immunisation programme in September, 2015. The Meningococcal Antigen Typing System (MATS) was used to estimate coverage by 4CMenB of invasive meningococcal group B isolates obtained during 2007-08 in England and Wales (MATS coverage). We aimed to repeat the MATS survey for invasive meningococcal group B isolates obtained during 2014-15, before 4CMenB introduction; compare strain coverage between 2007-08 and 2014-15; and investigate associations between MATS coverage, age, region, and disease outcomes. Invasive serogroup B meningococcal isolates from cases in England, Wales, and Northern Ireland during 2014-15 were assayed using MATS and compared with 2007-08 data. MATS coverage was assessed by geographical region and age group. Clinical characteristics, risk factors, and outcomes were assessed according to MATS coverage for 2014-15 English cases. In 2014-15, 165 of 251 (66%; 95% CI 52-80) meningococcal group B isolates were estimated by MATS to be covered by 4CMenB, compared with 391 of 535 (73%; 95% CI 57-87) in 2007-08. The proportion of MATS-positive isolates with one vaccine antigen increased from 23% (122 of 535) in 2007-08 to 31% (78 of 251) in 2014-15, whereas the proportion with more than one antigen fell from 50% (269 of 535) to 35% (87 of 251). This effect reflected changes in circulating strains, particularly ST-269 clonal complex strains. MATS coverage increased with age, varied by geographical region, and was associated with more severe disease. In 2014-15, two-thirds of meningococcal group B isolates were predicted to be covered by 4CMenB. Temporal changes in MATS coverage underscore the need for continued monitoring of antigen expression and diversity, particularly in countries with 4CMenB programmes. Public Health England, GlaxoSmithKline. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Plasma and memory B-cell kinetics in infants following a primary schedule of CRM 197-conjugated serogroup C meningococcal polysaccharide vaccine.

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    Kelly, Dominic F; Snape, Matthew D; Perrett, Kirsten P; Clutterbuck, Elizabeth A; Lewis, Susan; Blanchard Rohner, Geraldine; Jones, Meryl; Yu, Ly-Mee; Pollard, Andrew J

    2009-05-01

    The induction of persistent protective levels of pathogen-specific antibody is an important goal of immunization against childhood infections. However, antibody persistence is poor after immunization in infancy versus later in life. Serogroup C meningococci (MenC) are an important cause of bacteraemia and meningitis in children. The use of protein-polysaccharide conjugate vaccines against MenC has been associated with a significant decline in the incidence of invasive disease. However, vaccine effectiveness is negligible by more than 1 year after a three-dose priming series in infancy and corresponds to a rapid decline in antibody following an initial immune response. The cellular mechanisms underlying the generation of persistent antibody in this age group are unclear. An essential prelude to larger studies of peripheral blood B cells is an understanding of B-cell kinetics following immunization. We measured MenC- and diphtheria-specific plasma and memory B-cell kinetics in infants receiving a CRM(197) (cross-reactive material; mutant diphtheria toxoid)-conjugated MenC vaccine at 2, 3 and 4 months of age. Plasma cell responses were more delayed after the first dose when compared with the rapid appearance of plasma cells after the third dose. Memory B cells were detectable at all time-points following the third dose as opposed to the low frequency seen following a first dose. This study provides data on B-cell kinetics following a primary schedule of immunization in young infants upon which to base further studies of the underlying cellular mechanism of humoral immunity.

  17. Biochemical characteristics, serogroups, and virulence factors of aeromonas species isolated from cases of diarrhoea and domestic water samples in Chennai

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    Alavandi S

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: The objective of the present study was to delineate the differences between the clinical and environmental Aeromonas species with respect to their biochemical characteristics, serogrouping and virulence factors, in order to find a phenotypic marker of enteropathogenicity. METHODS: A total of 55 Aeromonas spp. inclusive of 19 isolates from cases of diarrhoea, and 36 from water samples comprising, 10 isolates of A. hydrophila, 21 isolates each of A. sobria, and A. caviae, two isolates of A. jandaei and one isolate of A. veronii were subjected to analysis of their biochemical characteristics, serogrouping, and virulence factors. RESULTS: Among the differences recorded in the biochemical characteristics in the three major species, the most striking characteristic was fermentation of lactose, which was observed in all the 11 A. caviae isolates recovered from water samples. None of the 10 clinical isolates of A. caviae tested fermented lactose. The clinical Aeromonas isolates belonged to seven typable serogroups, O:13, O:14, O:16, O:21, O:27, O:32 and O:35. The environmental isolates belonged to eight different serogroups, such as, O:3, O:11, O:14, O:16, O:18, O:28, O:64 and O:78 and were predominated by serotypes O:18 and O:64. Among the virulence factors tested, 89% of the environmental isolates produced b haemolysin, while only 62.3% of clinical isolates were able to do so. There was no significant difference between the clinical and environmental aeromonads with respect to their enterotoxigenicity in suckling mice in vivo, cytotoxicity in vitro in Vero cell monolayers, and ability to produce siderophores. CONCLUSION: Efforts to delineate the differences between the clinical and environmental Aeromonas spp. did not reveal significant difference between them. However, difference was observed with respect to their ability to produce b haemolysin, wherein, higher percentage of environmental isolates was haemolytic. The results also suggest

  18. Prevalence of Vibrio cholerae O1 serogroup in Assam, India: A hospital-based study.

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    Sharma, Ajanta; Dutta, Bornali Sarmah; Rasul, Elmy Samsun; Barkataki, Dipa; Saikia, Anjanamoyee; Hazarika, Naba Kumar

    2017-09-01

    Although cholera remains to be an important public health problem, studies on reliable population-based estimates of laboratory confirmed cholera in endemic areas are limited worldwide. The aim of this hospital-based study was to evaluate the prevalence of Vibrio cholerae serogroup in Assam, India, during 2003-2013. Stool samples/rectal swabs were collected from acute watery diarrhoea (AWD) cases during 2003-2013 and processed by standard microbiological procedures. Antibiotic sensitivity test was done following the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute guidelines. Year-wise epidemiological trend of cholera was analyzed. Cholera contributed to 3.93 per cent of AWD cases. In Assam, cholera was found to be more prevalent in the rural areas (6.7%) followed by the tea gardens (5.06%), urban slum (1.9%) and urban areas (1.4%). Highest proportion of cholera (13.7%) was observed in 0-10 yr age group. Of them, 11.5 per cent belonged to 0-5 yr age group. V. cholerae O1 El Tor serotype Ogawa was the predominant isolate. Multiple drug-resistant isolates of V. cholerae O1 Ogawa were reported in the study. Emergence of resistance amongst V. cholerae towards many antibiotics is a matter of concern. Hence, continuous surveillance for diarrhoeal disorders is necessary to control the future outbreaks of cholera in this region.

  19. Cross-protection in Neisseria meningitidis serogroups Y and W polysaccharides: A comparative conformational analysis.

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    Kuttel, Michelle M; Timol, Zaheer; Ravenscroft, Neil

    2017-06-29

    The capsular polysaccharide is the main virulence factor in meningococcus. The capsular polysaccharides for meningococcal serogroups Y and W are almost identical polymers of hexose-sialic acid, suggesting the possibility of cross-protection between group Y and W vaccines. However, early studies indicated that they elicit different levels of cross-protection. Here we explore the conformations of the meningococcal Y and W polysaccharides with molecular dynamics simulations of three repeating unit oligosaccharide strands. We find differences in Y and W antigen conformation: the Y polysaccharide has a single dominant conformation, whereas W exhibits a family of conformations including the Y conformation. This result is supported by our NMR NOESY analysis, which indicates key close contacts for W that are not present in Y. These conformational differences provide an explanation for the different levels of cross-protection measured for the Y and W monovalent vaccines and the high group W responses observed in HibMenCY-TT vaccinees. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Cross neutralizing antibodies in hamsters vaccinated with leptospiral bacterins produced with three serovars of serogroup Sejroe

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    Rosana Tabata

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available Three leptospiral bacterins, produced with different serovars of Serogroup Sejroe, namely the hardjo (bacterin A, wolffi (bacterin B and guaricura (bacterin C, were evaluated in male hamsters (Mesocricetus auratus by comparing the agglutinating and neutralizing antibodies titers using microscopic agglutination (MAT and in vitro growth inhibition (GIT tests. The immunization schedule was based on two 1.0 mL doses of non-diluted formalininactivated whole culture bacterin given through subcutaneous route with 10-day interval. The challenge was performed ten days after the second vaccine dose, when the animals were inoculated with 0.2 mL of non-inactivated cultures of each serovar through intraperitoneal route. On the 21st post-challenge day (PCD, all animals were bled and their sera were joined in pools (n=8 and tested by MAT and GIT. All vaccinated and control animals presented no clinical signs of leptospirosis after the challenge, but the serovar guaricura was isolated from the kidneys of control animals on the 21st PCD. The MAT results showed cross agglutinins between serovars hardjo and wolffi, and between wolffi and guaricura. The GIT results revealed the presence of cross neutralizing antibodies between serovars wolffi or guaricura against hardjo, wolffi and guaricura. It was found that the tested strain of serovar hardjo did not produce detectable levels of neutralizing antibodies, indicating its poor immunogenicity.

  1. A phase 2 randomized controlled trial of a multicomponent meningococcal serogroup B vaccine (I).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prymula, Roman; Esposito, Susanna; Zuccotti, Gian Vincenzo; Xie, Fang; Toneatto, Daniela; Kohl, Igor; Dull, Peter M

    2014-01-01

    The novel meningococcal serogroup B vaccine (4CMenB, Bexsero(®)), recently approved in Europe and Australia, may soon be included in routine infant immunization schedules, subject to guidance from national or regional recommending bodies. In the development of 4CMenB and consistent with other newly introduced vaccines, clinical studies have shown concomitant administration with routine infant vaccines induces an incremental increase in some reactions, including fever. As this may hinder acceptability, we examined the impact of prophylactic paracetamol on the occurrence of fever and other solicited reactions, as well as the immune responses to study vaccines, in a prospectively designed study. 4CMenB was administered as a 4-dose series at 2, 3, 4, and 12 months of age concomitantly with routine infant vaccines: DTaP-HBV-IPV/Hib and PCV7, with or without prophylactic paracetamol; a third group received MenC vaccine. Immune responses to 4CMenB were not decreased by the use of paracetamol prophylaxis and there were no clinically relevant effects on immune responses to routine vaccines. Occurrence of fever was higher in infants co-administered with 4CMenB compared with those given MenC vaccine, but was significantly decreased by prophylactic paracetamol, as were other solicited reactions to vaccination, both local and systemic. Co-administration of 4CMenB had an acceptable tolerability profile, with no withdrawals due to vaccination-related adverse events. Inclusion of 4CMenB in routine infant immunization schedules will be a major advance in the control of meningococcal disease, and our study indicates that by using paracetamol prophylaxis, post-vaccination reactions are reduced without clinically relevant negative consequences on vaccine immunogenicity.

  2. [Community-acquired pneumonia due to Legionella pneumophila serogroup 1. Study of 97 cases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benito, José Ramón; Montejo, José Miguel; Cancelo, Laura; Zalacaín, Rafael; López, Leyre; Fernández Gil de Pareja, Joaquín; Alonso, Eva; Oñate, Javier

    2003-10-01

    Legionella pneumophila is the causal agent of 5% to 12% of sporadic community-acquired pneumonia cases, though rates are changing with the use of new diagnostic methods. This is a retrospective study of all patients admitted to our hospital with community-acquired pneumonia due to Legionella pneumophila between 1997 and 2001. Diagnostic criteria included either a positive Legionella serogroup 1 urinary antigen test or seroconversion and a chest radiograph consistent with pneumonia. A total of 97 patients were studied. Ninety cases (92.8%) were community-acquired and 7 (7.2%) were associated with travelling. In 82 cases (84.5%) the presentation was sporadic. Seventy-five patients were smokers (77.3%). The most common symptoms were fever in 91 patients (93.8%) and cough in 67 (68.1%). In five patients (5.2%) creatine phosphokinase concentrations were over 5 times their baseline values (in two over 100 times); four of these patients presented acute renal failure. Seroconversion was observed in 23/42 patients (54.8%). There were no statistically significant differences between the administration of erythromycin or clarithromycin in monotherapy, or in combination with rifampin. Nineteen patients (19.6%) presented acute renal failure and mechanical ventilation was necessary in 22 (22.7%). Twelve patients died (12.5%). Independent prognostic factors associated with death included respiratory rate > 30 breaths/min, urea > 60 mg/dL and PaO2 scale scores and the presence of complications or mortality. The Legionella urinary antigen test permits early diagnosis and treatment of this disease. The severity scale is an indicator of complications or death.

  3. Prevalence of Infection-Competent Serogroup 6 Legionella pneumophila within Premise Plumbing in Southeast Michigan

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    Brenda G. Byrne

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Coinciding with major changes to its municipal water system, Flint, MI, endured Legionnaires’ disease outbreaks in 2014 and 2015. By sampling premise plumbing in Flint in the fall of 2016, we found that 12% of homes harbored legionellae, a frequency similar to that in residences in neighboring areas. To evaluate the genetic diversity of Legionella pneumophila in Southeast Michigan, we determined the sequence type (ST and serogroup (SG of the 18 residential isolates from Flint and Detroit, MI, and the 33 clinical isolates submitted by hospitals in three area counties in 2013 to 2016. Common to one environmental and four clinical samples were strains of L. pneumophila SG1 and ST1, the most prevalent ST worldwide. Among the Flint premise plumbing isolates, 14 of 16 strains were of ST367 and ST461, two closely related SG6 strain types isolated previously from patients and corresponding environmental samples. Each of the representative SG1 clinical strains and SG6 environmental isolates from Southeast Michigan infected and survived within macrophage cultures at least as well as a virulent laboratory strain, as judged by microscopy and by enumerating CFU. Likewise, 72 h after infection, the yield of viable-cell counts increased >100-fold for each of the representative SG1 clinical isolates, Flint premise plumbing SG6 ST367 and -461 isolates, and two Detroit residential isolates. We verified by immunostaining that SG1-specific antibody does not cross-react with the SG6 L. pneumophila environmental strains. Because the widely used urinary antigen diagnostic test does not readily detect non-SG1 L. pneumophila, Legionnaires’ disease caused by SG6 L. pneumophila is likely underreported worldwide.

  4. Effectiveness of a mass immunization campaign against serogroup C meningococci in children in the Federal State of Santa Catarina, Brazil

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    Kupek Emil

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available In addition to vaccine efficacy studies, there is a pressing need to evaluate vaccine effectiveness in a way that takes into account the limitations of health care systems in certain settings. An attempt to reach this objective was exemplified by a vaccination campaign against serogroup C meningococci in the federal state of Santa Catarina, in Brazil. A polysaccharide vaccine against serogroup C meningococci was administered to all individuals between 6 months and 14 years of age in March, 1996, in the municipalities that had the highest incidence of meningococcal disease in the previous year. All cases of the disease due to this serogroup observed in Santa Catarina during a 1-year period before and after the vaccination were included in the analysis. The cumulative incidence rate ratio was calculated for the unvaccinated compared to the vaccinated area. As a second step, the ratio of this quantity for the period before and after the vaccination, i.e. the ratio of the rate ratios (RRR, was calculated. One minus RRR was used to estimate the vaccine effectiveness. In the general population, the vaccine effectiveness was 74.3% (95% confidence intervals 52.7% to 99.6%. In children 6 months to 14 years, vaccine effectiveness was 93.1% (85.2% to 100%. Vaccine effectiveness could not be confirmed within more specific age bands, probably due to the lack of statistical power. It is concluded that group C meningococcal vaccine is effective in reducing the occurrence of meningococcal disease in children 6 months to 14 years of age, and that the ratio of rate ratios (RRR in a useful method to evaluate vaccine effectiveness.

  5. Immunogenicity and safety of a multicomponent meningococcal serogroup B vaccine in healthy adolescents in Korea--A randomised trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hoan Jong; Choe, Young June; Hong, Young-Jin; Kim, Kyung-Hyo; Park, Su Eun; Kim, Yun-Kyung; Oh, Chi-Eun; Lee, Hyunju; Song, Hyoyoung; Bock, Hans; Casula, Daniela; Bhusal, Chiranjiwi; Arora, Ashwani Kumar

    2016-02-24

    Neisseria meningitidis serogroup B is a significant cause of septicaemia and meningitis worldwide. This phase 3 randomised, controlled study assessed the immunogenicity and safety of a multicomponent meningococcal serogroup B vaccine, 4CMenB, in healthy Korean adolescents. 264 adolescents (11-17 years old) were randomised to receive two doses, one month apart, of 4CMenB or control vaccines [placebo followed by one dose of a quadrivalent meningococcal ACWY glycoconjugate vaccine (MenACWY-CRM)]. Immunogenicity was evaluated by serum bactericidal assay with human complement (hSBA) against three serogroup B test strains specific for individual vaccine antigens (fHbp, NadA or PorA P1.4), and by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) against the NHBA antigen. Solicited reactions and adverse events (AEs) were assessed. One month post-second vaccination, 98%, 97%, and 97% of subjects in the 4CMenB group achieved hSBA titres ≥ 4 against the fHbp, NadA and PorA test strains, respectively, while percentages in the Control group were comparable to baseline (27%, 16%, and 17%, respectively). Geometric mean ELISA concentrations (GMCs) against NHBA increased 52-fold relative to baseline in the 4CMenB group, while there was no substantial increase in GMCs in the Control group (1.05-fold). Frequencies of solicited reactions after any vaccination were higher in the 4CMenB group than in the Control group, although most reactions were of short duration and mild to moderate intensity. There were no vaccine-related serious AEs. Two doses of 4CMenB induced robust immune responses against the vaccine antigens and were well tolerated, with no safety concerns identified, in Korean adolescents (NCT01973218). Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Effectiveness of a mass immunization campaign against serogroup C meningococci in children in the Federal State of Santa Catarina, Brazil

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    Emil Kupek

    Full Text Available In addition to vaccine efficacy studies, there is a pressing need to evaluate vaccine effectiveness in a way that takes into account the limitations of health care systems in certain settings. An attempt to reach this objective was exemplified by a vaccination campaign against serogroup C meningococci in the federal state of Santa Catarina, in Brazil. A polysaccharide vaccine against serogroup C meningococci was administered to all individuals between 6 months and 14 years of age in March, 1996, in the municipalities that had the highest incidence of meningococcal disease in the previous year. All cases of the disease due to this serogroup observed in Santa Catarina during a 1-year period before and after the vaccination were included in the analysis. The cumulative incidence rate ratio was calculated for the unvaccinated compared to the vaccinated area. As a second step, the ratio of this quantity for the period before and after the vaccination, i.e. the ratio of the rate ratios (RRR, was calculated. One minus RRR was used to estimate the vaccine effectiveness. In the general population, the vaccine effectiveness was 74.3% (95% confidence intervals 52.7% to 99.6%. In children 6 months to 14 years, vaccine effectiveness was 93.1% (85.2% to 100%. Vaccine effectiveness could not be confirmed within more specific age bands, probably due to the lack of statistical power. It is concluded that group C meningococcal vaccine is effective in reducing the occurrence of meningococcal disease in children 6 months to 14 years of age, and that the ratio of rate ratios (RRR in a useful method to evaluate vaccine effectiveness.

  7. Epidemiology of invasive meningococcal B disease in Australia, 1999-2015: priority populations for vaccination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Archer, Brett N; Chiu, Clayton K; Jayasinghe, Sanjay H; Richmond, Peter C; McVernon, Jodie; Lahra, Monica M; Andrews, Ross M; McIntyre, Peter B

    2017-11-06

    To describe trends in the age-specific incidence of serogroup B invasive meningococcal disease (IMD) in Australia, 1999-2015. Analysis in February 2017 of de-identified notification data from the Australian National Notifiable Diseases Surveillance System of all notifications of IMD in Australia with a recorded diagnosis date during 1999-2015.Major outcomes: IMD notification rates in Australia, 1999-2015, by age, serogroup, Indigenous status, and region. The incidence of meningococcal serogroup B (MenB) disease declined progressively from 1.52 cases per 100 000 population in 2001 to 0.47 per 100 000 in 2015. During 2006-2015, MenB accounted for 81% of IMD cases with a known serogroup; its highest incidence was among infants under 12 months of age (11.1 [95% CI, 9.81-12.2] per 100 000), children aged 1-4 years (2.82 [95% CI, 2.52-3.15] per 100 000), and adolescents aged 15-19 years (2.40 [95% CI, 2.16-2.67] per 100 000). Among the 473 infants under 2 years of age with MenB, 43% were under 7 months and 69% under 12 months of age. The incidence of meningococcal serogroup C (MenC) disease prior to the introduction of the MenC vaccine in 2003 was much lower in infants than for MenB (2.60 cases per 100 000), the rate peaking in people aged 15-19 years (3.32 per 100 000); the overall case fatality rate was also higher (MenC, 8%; MenB, 4%). The incidence of MenB disease was significantly higher among Indigenous than non-Indigenous Australians during 2006-2015 (incidence rate ratio [IRR], 3.8; 95% CI, 3.3-4.5). Based on disease incidence at its current low endemic levels, priority at risk age/population groups for MenB vaccination include all children between 2 months and 5 years of age, Indigenous children under 10 years of age, and all adolescents aged 15-19 years. Given marked variation in meningococcal disease trends over time, close scrutiny of current epidemiologic data is essential.

  8. Molecular and serological characterization of Leptospira kirschneri serogroup Pomona isolated from a human case in a Brazilian rural area

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    Ilana Teruszkin Balassiano

    Full Text Available Abstract INTRODUCTION: Leptospirosis is an important health concern in Brazil. Currently, information on the epidemiology of the disease in the rural areas of the country is lacking. METHODS: Serological and molecular techniques were used to characterize a clinical isolate of Leptospira. RESULTS: The strain CLEP 00060, isolated from a 59-year-old man in a rural area of Rio Grande do Sul state, Brazil, was identified as belonging to L. kirschneri serogroup Pomona serovar Mozdok. CONCLUSIONS: This study contributes to the local epidemiological knowledge of leptospirosis, prevention of the disease by vaccines, and improvements in its diagnosis.

  9. Viruses in the Anopheles A, Anopheles B, and Tete serogroups in the Orthobunyavirus genus (family Bunyaviridae) do not encode an NSs protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamed, Maizan; McLees, Angela; Elliott, Richard M

    2009-08-01

    Viruses in the genus Orthobunyavirus, family Bunyaviridae, have a genome comprising three segments (called L, M, and S) of negative-sense RNA. Serological studies have classified the >170 named virus isolates into 18 serogroups, with a few additional as yet ungrouped viruses. Until now, molecular studies and full-length S-segment nucleotide sequences were available for representatives of eight serogroups; in all cases, the S segment encodes two proteins, N (nucleocapsid) and NSs (nonstructural), in overlapping open reading frames (ORFs) that are translated from the same mRNA. The NSs proteins of Bunyamwera virus (BUNV) and California serogroup viruses have been shown to play a role in inhibiting host cell mRNA and protein synthesis, thereby preventing induction of interferon (IFN). We have determined full-length sequences of the S segments of representative viruses in the Anopheles A, Anopheles B, and Tete serogroups, and we report here that these viruses do not show evidence of having an NSs ORF. In addition, these viruses have rather longer N proteins than those in the other serogroups. Most of the naturally occurring viruses that lack the NSs protein behaved like a recombinant BUNV with the NSs gene deleted in that they failed to prevent induction of IFN-beta mRNA. However, Tacaiuma virus (TCMV) in the Anopheles A serogroup inhibited IFN induction in a manner similar to that of wild-type BUNV, suggesting that TCMV has evolved an alternative mechanism, not involving a typical NSs protein, to antagonize the host innate immune response.

  10. Invasive meningococcal disease in children in Jerusalem

    Science.gov (United States)

    STEIN-ZAMIR, C.; ABRAMSON, N.; ZENTNER, G.; SHOOB, H.; VALINSKY, L.; BLOCK, C.

    2008-01-01

    SUMMARY Neisseria meningitidis is an important cause of childhood meningitis and septicaemia. Between 1999 and 2005, 133 invasive meningococcal disease (IMD) cases occurred in Jerusalem, 112 (84·2%) of them in children aged 0–14 years. The annual incidence rate in Jerusalem was higher than the national average (2·45±0·6 vs. 1·13±0·16/100 000 population, P=0·002). Most of the children (82·1%) were from low socio-economic Arab and Jewish ultra-orthodox communities; mortality was higher among Arab than Jewish children (1·3 vs. 0·22/100 000 person-years, P=0·004). A cluster of 10 children with severe meningococcal sepsis (three fatalities) emerged in the winter of 2003–2004. Compared to the other 102 cases in 1999–2005 both meningococcaemia (100% vs. 51%, P=0·003) and mortality (30% vs. 6·9%, P=0·014) rates were higher. Serogroup B comprised 77·6% of the bacterial isolates. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis showed considerable variability among cluster isolates, but significant resemblance in Arab cases throughout 1999–2005. The increased susceptibility of specific sub-populations to IMD necessitates further evaluation. PMID:17662169

  11. The invasive MenC cc103 lineage with penicillin reduced susceptibility persisting in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fonseca, Érica L; Marin, Michel A; Freitas, Fernanda S; Vitório, Bruna S A; de Araújo, Flávio M G; Camargo, Dhian R A; Coimbra, Roney S; De Filippis, Ivano R; Vicente, Ana Carolina P

    2017-09-01

    Penicillin is the antibiotic of choice for the treatment of meningococcal infections, and mutations in penA gene are involved with reduced susceptibility (pen I ) emergence to this antibiotic. This study aimed to characterize the penA allelic diversity, their association with pen I phenotype and distribution among prevalent meningococci serogroups in Brazil. The entire penA from 49 invasive strains of distinct serogroups circulating in Brazil for more than two decades were obtained by PCR and sequencing. Additionally, the penA from 22 publicly available complete Neisseria meningitidis genomes from Brazil were included in the study. The allelic diversity was determined and a genetic tree was built using the penA sequence alignment. The penicillin MIC was obtained by the E-Test method. In general, the identified penA alleles correlated with the observed pen I phenotype. The canonical penA1 was the most prevalent allele, however, several altered penA were also identified in strains presenting increased penicillin MICs. It was identified a new penA amino acid position (residue 480) that possibly influence the penicillin MIC in some strains. Interestingly, the altered penA14 was found in pen I invasive MenC cc103 strains spread in Brazil and persisting since 2011, indicating that the biological cost imposed by pen I phenotype can be ameliorated by particular features present in this lineage, which represents an additional public health threat. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  12. Changing emergence of Shigella sero-groups in Bangladesh: observation from four different diarrheal disease hospitals.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sumon Kumar Das

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Shigellosis continues to be a public health challenge for developing countries, including Bangladesh. The aim of the study is to demonstrate recent changes in Shigella sero-groups and their geographical diversity. METHODS: Data were extracted from data archive of four diarrheal disease surveillance systems. A 2% sub sample from urban Dhaka Hospital (2008-2011; n = 10,650, and 10% from urban Mirpur Treatment Centre (2009-2011; n = 3,585, were enrolled systematically; whereas, all patients coming from the Health and Demographic Surveillance System area in rural Matlab (2008-2011; n = 6,399 and rural Mirzapur (2010-2011; n = 2,812 were included irrespective of age, sex, and disease severity. A fresh stool specimen was collected for identification of Shigella spp. Of them, 315 (3% were positive for Shigella in Dhaka, 490 (8% from Matlab, 109 (3% from Mirpur and 369 (13% from Mirzapur and considered as analyzable sample size. RESULTS: Among all Shigella isolates regardless of age, significant decreases in percentage of S. flexneri over time was observed in Mirpur (55→29%; p value of χ(2-for trend = 0.019 and Mirzapur (59→47%; p = 0.025. A non-significant decrease was also seen in Dhaka (58→48%, while in Matlab there was a non-significant increase (73→81%. Similar patterns were observed among under-5 children at all sites. Emergence of S. sonnei was found in Dhaka (8→25%; p<0.001 and Mirpur (10→33%; p = 0.015, whereas it decreased in Mirzapur (32→23%; p = 0.056. The emergence of S. boydii was seen in all ages in Mirzapur [(3→28%; p<0.001; (3→27%; p<0.001]. On the other hand, we saw non-significant percent reductions in S. boydii in Dhaka [overall (25→16%; under-5 (16→9%]. Decreasing rates of Shigella dysenteriae were observed in Matlab, Mirpur and Mirzapur; whereas, in Dhaka it remained unchanged. CONCLUSION AND SIGNIFICANCE: Emergence of S. sonnei and S. boydii as important infectious

  13. Changing Emergence of Shigella Sero-Groups in Bangladesh: Observation from Four Different Diarrheal Disease Hospitals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Sumon Kumar; Ahmed, Shahnawaz; Ferdous, Farzana; Farzana, Fahmida Dil; Chisti, Mohammod Jobayer; Leung, Daniel T.; Malek, Mohammad Abdul; Talukder, Kaisar Ali; Bardhan, Pradip Kumar; Salam, Mohammed Abdus; Faruque, Abu Syed Golam; Raqib, Rubhana

    2013-01-01

    Background Shigellosis continues to be a public health challenge for developing countries, including Bangladesh. The aim of the study is to demonstrate recent changes in Shigella sero-groups and their geographical diversity. Methods Data were extracted from data archive of four diarrheal disease surveillance systems. A 2% sub sample from urban Dhaka Hospital (2008–2011; n = 10,650), and 10% from urban Mirpur Treatment Centre (2009–2011; n = 3,585), were enrolled systematically; whereas, all patients coming from the Health and Demographic Surveillance System area in rural Matlab (2008–2011; n = 6,399) and rural Mirzapur (2010–2011; n = 2,812) were included irrespective of age, sex, and disease severity. A fresh stool specimen was collected for identification of Shigella spp. Of them, 315 (3%) were positive for Shigella in Dhaka, 490 (8%) from Matlab, 109 (3%) from Mirpur and 369 (13%) from Mirzapur and considered as analyzable sample size. Results Among all Shigella isolates regardless of age, significant decreases in percentage of S. flexneri over time was observed in Mirpur (55→29%; p value of χ2-for trend = 0.019) and Mirzapur (59→47%; p = 0.025). A non-significant decrease was also seen in Dhaka (58→48%), while in Matlab there was a non-significant increase (73→81%). Similar patterns were observed among under-5 children at all sites. Emergence of S. sonnei was found in Dhaka (8→25%; pp = 0.015), whereas it decreased in Mirzapur (32→23%; p = 0.056). The emergence of S. boydii was seen in all ages in Mirzapur [(3→28%; pp<0.001)]. On the other hand, we saw non-significant percent reductions in S. boydii in Dhaka [overall (25→16%); under-5 (16→9%)]. Decreasing rates of Shigella dysenteriae were observed in Matlab, Mirpur and Mirzapur; whereas, in Dhaka it remained unchanged. Conclusion and Significance Emergence of S. sonnei and S. boydii as important infectious diarrhea etiologies and variations in

  14. Genomic characterisation of Leptospira inadai serogroup Lyme isolated from captured rat in Brazil and comparative analysis with human reference strain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno, Luisa Z; Miraglia, Fabiana; Loureiro, Ana P; Kremer, Frederico S; Eslabao, Marcus R; Dellagostin, Odir A; Lilenbaum, Walter; Vasconcellos, Silvio A; Heinemann, Marcos B; Moreno, Andrea M

    2018-01-01

    Leptospira inadai is classified as a species of the Leptospira intermediate group that has been poorly studied due to its apparent insignificance to human and animal health. Nevertheless, over the last two decades the species has been described in human cases in India and in carrier animals in Ecuador. Here, we present the first identification and genomic characterisation of L. inadai serogroup Lyme isolated from captured rodent in Brazil. Even though the M34/99 strain was not pathogenic for hamsters, it was able to establish renal colonisation. The M34/99 strain presented high similarity with L. inadai serogroup Lyme human reference indicating that animal strain could also infect humans, although it does not represent high risk of severe disease. An extrachromosomal sequence was also identified in M34/99 strain and presented high identity with previously described L. inadai phage LinZ_10, suggesting that phage-like extrachromosomal sequence may be another feature of this understudied species. PMID:29538491

  15. Genomic characterisation of Leptospira inadai serogroup Lyme isolated from captured rat in Brazil and comparative analysis with human reference strain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno, Luisa Z; Miraglia, Fabiana; Loureiro, Ana P; Kremer, Frederico S; Eslabao, Marcus R; Dellagostin, Odir A; Lilenbaum, Walter; Vasconcellos, Silvio A; Heinemann, Marcos B; Moreno, Andrea M

    2018-03-12

    Leptospira inadai is classified as a species of the Leptospira intermediate group that has been poorly studied due to its apparent insignificance to human and animal health. Nevertheless, over the last two decades the species has been described in human cases in India and in carrier animals in Ecuador. Here, we present the first identification and genomic characterisation of L. inadai serogroup Lyme isolated from captured rodent in Brazil. Even though the M34/99 strain was not pathogenic for hamsters, it was able to establish renal colonisation. The M34/99 strain presented high similarity with L. inadai serogroup Lyme human reference indicating that animal strain could also infect humans, although it does not represent high risk of severe disease. An extrachromosomal sequence was also identified in M34/99 strain and presented high identity with previously described L. inadai phage LinZ_10, suggesting that phage-like extrachromosomal sequence may be another feature of this understudied species.

  16. Adverse events following immunisation with a meningococcal serogroup B vaccine: report from post-marketing surveillance, Germany, 2013 to 2016.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mentzer, Dirk; Oberle, Doris; Keller-Stanislawski, Brigitte

    2018-04-01

    Background and aimIn January 2013, a novel vaccine against Neisseria meningitidis serogroup B, the multicomponent meningococcal serogroup B vaccine (4CMenB), was approved by the European Medicines Agency. We aimed to evaluate the safety profile of this vaccine. Methods: All adverse events following immunisation (AEFI) reported from Germany since the vaccine's launch in Germany in November 2013 through December 2016 were reviewed and analysed. Results: Through December 2016, a total of 664 individual case safety reports (ICSR) notifying 1,960 AEFI were received. A majority of vaccinees for whom AEFI were reported were children 2 to 11 years of age (n = 280; 42.2%) followed by infants and toddlers aged 28 days to 23 months (n = 170; 25.6%). General disorders and administration site conditions was the System Organ Class (SOC) with the majority of AEFI (n = 977; 49.8%), followed by nervous system disorders (n = 249; 12.7%), and skin and subcutaneous tissue disorders (n = 191; 9.7%). Screening of patient records for immune-mediated and neurological diseases did not raise any safety signal in terms of an increased proportional reporting ratio (PRR). Conclusions: The safety profile described in the Summary of Product Characteristics, in general, is confirmed by data from spontaneous reporting. No safety concerns were identified.

  17. Genomic characterisation of Leptospira inadai serogroup Lyme isolated from captured rat in Brazil and comparative analysis with human reference strain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luisa Z Moreno

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Leptospira inadai is classified as a species of the Leptospira intermediate group that has been poorly studied due to its apparent insignificance to human and animal health. Nevertheless, over the last two decades the species has been described in human cases in India and in carrier animals in Ecuador. Here, we present the first identification and genomic characterisation of L. inadai serogroup Lyme isolated from captured rodent in Brazil. Even though the M34/99 strain was not pathogenic for hamsters, it was able to establish renal colonisation. The M34/99 strain presented high similarity with L. inadai serogroup Lyme human reference indicating that animal strain could also infect humans, although it does not represent high risk of severe disease. An extrachromosomal sequence was also identified in M34/99 strain and presented high identity with previously described L. inadai phage LinZ_10, suggesting that phage-like extrachromosomal sequence may be another feature of this understudied species.

  18. Characteristics of Disease Spectrum in relation to Species, Serogroups, and Adhesion Ability of Motile Aeromonads in Fish

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alicja Kozińska

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available An attempt was made to delineate the relationship between of Aeromonas species and/or serogroups and specific disease symptoms in common carp Cyprinus carpio L. and rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss Walbaum. The adhesion of Aeromonas strains to various tissues in relation to disease spectrum was also tested. All strains of A. hydrophila caused skin ulcers as well as septicaemia in both carp and trout while the other strains were able to cause only skin ulcers or some specific internal lesions with or without septicaemia depending on which species and/or serogroup they represented. Disease symptoms depended also on fish species. It was found that adhesion intensity of Aeromonas strains tested was significantly higher to tissues, which were susceptible to infection with these strains. The results indicate that adhesion to various cells of the fish organism is principal marker to detect virulent Aeromonas strains. The findings presented in this study may be helpful in the appraisal of aeromonads disease risk and kind of the infection in particular fish farms by epizootiological studies or/and during routine fish examinations. They will also be useful to improve and facilitate diagnosis of bacterial fish disease.

  19. Concomitant administration of a fully liquid, ready-to-use DTaP-IPV-HB-PRP-T hexavalent vaccine with a meningococcal serogroup C conjugate vaccine in infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vesikari, Timo; Borrow, Ray; Da Costa, Xavier; Richard, Patrick; Eymin, Cécile; Boisnard, Florence; Lockhart, Stephen

    2017-01-11

    DTaP-IPV-HB-PRP-T or hexavalent vaccines are indicated for primary and booster vaccination of infants and toddlers against diphtheria, tetanus, pertussis, hepatitis B, poliomyelitis and invasive diseases caused by Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib). The present study evaluates the safety and immunogenicity of a ready-to-use hexavalent vaccine when co-administered with a meningococcal serogroup C conjugate (MenC) vaccine in infants. This was a phase III, open-label, randomised, multicentre study conducted in Finland. Healthy infants, aged 46-74days (n=350), were randomised in a ratio of 1:1 to receive DTaP-IPV-HB-PRP-T vaccine at two, three and four months, either with a MenC vaccine co-administered at two and four months (Group 1; n=175) or without MenC vaccine (Group 2; n=175). All infants also received routine rotavirus and 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccines. The proportion of participants with an anti-HBs concentration ⩾10mIU/mL assessed one month after the third dose of DTaP-IPV-HB-PRP-T vaccine was 97.5% [95%CI: 93.1-99.3] in the coadministration group and 96.1% [95%CI: 91.8-98.6] in the group without MenC vaccine. The proportion of participants with an anti-MenC SBA titre ⩾8 assessed one month after the second dose of MenC vaccine was 100% in the coadministration group. Both primary objectives were achieved. Secondary immunogenicity and safety analyses showed that co-administration of DTaP-IPV-HB-PRP-T and MenC vaccines did not impact the immune response to the antigens of each of the two vaccines. All vaccines were well tolerated and the safety profile of DTaP-IPV-HB-PRP-T vaccine was similar in both groups. ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT01839175; EudraCT number: 2012-005547-24. Crown Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Immunogenicity and tolerability of recombinant serogroup B meningococcal vaccine administered with or without routine infant vaccinations according to different immunization schedules: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gossger, Nicoletta; Snape, Matthew D; Yu, Ly-Mee; Finn, Adam; Bona, Gianni; Esposito, Susanna; Principi, Nicola; Diez-Domingo, Javier; Sokal, Etienne; Becker, Birgitta; Kieninger, Dorothee; Prymula, Roman; Dull, Peter; Ypma, Ellen; Toneatto, Daniela; Kimura, Alan; Pollard, Andrew J

    2012-02-08

    In the absence of an effective vaccine, serogroup B Neisseria meningitidis (MenB) remains a major cause of invasive disease in early childhood in developed countries. To determine the immunogenicity and reactogenicity of a multicomponent MenB vaccine (4CMenB) and routine infant vaccines when given either concomitantly or separately. Phase 2b, multicenter, open-label, parallel-group, randomized controlled study of 1885 infants enrolled at age 2 months from August 2008 to July 2010 in Europe. Participants were randomized 2:2:1:1 to receive (1) 4CMenB at 2, 4, and 6 months with routine vaccines (7-valent pneumococcal and combined diphtheria, tetanus, acellular pertussis, inactivated polio, hepatitis B, Haemophilus influenzae type b vaccines); (2) 4CMenB at 2, 4, and 6 months and routine vaccines at 3, 5, and 7 months; (3) 4CMenB with routine vaccines at 2, 3, and 4 months; or (4) routine vaccines alone at 2, 3, and 4 months. Percentage of participants with human complement serum bactericidal activity (hSBA) titer of 1:5 or greater against 3 MenB strains specific for vaccine antigens (NZ98/254, 44/76-SL, and 5/99). After three 4CMenB vaccinations, 99% or more of infants developed hSBA titers of 1:5 or greater against strains 44/76-SL and 5/99. For NZ98/254, this proportion was 79% (95% CI, 75.2%-82.4%) for vaccination at 2, 4, and 6 months with routine vaccines, 86.1% (95% CI, 82.9%-89.0%) for vaccination at 2, 4, and 6 months without routine vaccines, and 81.7% (95% CI, 76.6%-86.2%) for vaccination at 2, 3, and 4 months with routine vaccines. Responses to routine vaccines given with 4CMenB were noninferior to routine vaccines alone for all antigens, except for the responses to pertactin and serotype 6B pneumococcal polysaccharide. Fever was seen following 26% (158/602) to 41% (247/607) of 4CMenB doses when administered alone, compared with 23% (69/304) to 36% (109/306) after routine vaccines given alone and 51% (306/605) to 61% (380/624) after 4CMenB and routine

  1. Risk Factors for Serogroup C Meningococcal Disease during Outbreak among Men who Have Sex with Men, New York City, New York, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ridpath, Alison; Greene, Sharon K; Robinson, Byron F; Weiss, Don

    2015-08-01

    Risk factors for illness during a serogroup C meningococcal disease outbreak among men who have sex with men in New York City, New York, USA, in 2012-2013 included methamphetamine and cocaine use and sexually transmitted infections. Outbreak investigations should consider routinely capturing information regarding drug use and sex-related risk factors.

  2. Kinetics of antibody responses after primary immunization with meningococcal serogroup C conjugate vaccine or secondary immunization with either conjugate or polysaccharide vaccine in adults

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Voer, Richarda M.; van der Klis, Fiona R. M.; Engels, Carla W. A. M.; Schepp, Rutger M.; van de Kassteele, Jan; Sanders, Elisabeth A. M.; Rijkers, Ger T.; Berbers, Guy A. M.

    2009-01-01

    In the Netherlands the meningococcal serogroup C conjugate (MenCC) vaccine is administered as a single dose at 14 months. We evaluated the kinetics of isotype-specific antibodies in adults (n = 21) after primary immunization with MenCC or secondary immunization with MenCC or plain MenC

  3. Clinical Application of a Multiplex Real-Time PCR Assay for Simultaneous Detection of Legionella Species, Legionella pneumophila, and Legionella pneumophila Serogroup 1

    OpenAIRE

    Benitez, Alvaro J.; Winchell, Jonas M.

    2014-01-01

    We developed a single-tube multiplex real-time PCR assay capable of simultaneously detecting and discriminating Legionella spp., Legionella pneumophila, and Legionella pneumophila serogroup 1 in primary specimens. Evaluation of 21 clinical specimens and 115 clinical isolates demonstrated this assay to be a rapid, high-throughput diagnostic test with 100% specificity that may aid during legionellosis outbreaks and epidemiologic investigations.

  4. Absence of Neisseria meningitidis Serogroup C-Specific Antibodies during the First Year of Life in The Netherlands : an Age Group at Risk?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Voer, Richarda M.; van der Klis, Fiona R. M.; Niers, Laetitia E. M.; Rijkers, Ger T.; Berbers, Guy A. M.

    2009-01-01

    In The Netherlands, a single meningococcal serogroup C conjugate (MenCC) vaccination is administered to children at the age of 14 months. Here, we report the levels of MenC polysaccharide-specific antibodies in children at birth and at 3, 11, and 12 months of age and the presence of functional

  5. Necrotising fasciitis as atypical presentation of infection with emerging Neisseria meningitidis serogroup W (MenW) clonal complex 11, the Netherlands, March 2017

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Russcher, Anne; Fanoy, Ewout; van Olden, Ger D. J.; Graafland, Antonie D.; van der Ende, Arie; Knol, Mirjam J.

    2017-01-01

    In March 2017, a patient with necrotising fasciitis caused by Neisseria meningitidis serogroup W (MenW) clonal complex 11 was diagnosed in the Netherlands. Unusual and severe presentations of MenW infections are common in the current European epidemic. In the Netherlands, the incidence of MenW

  6. Development of a pan-Simbu real-time reverse transcriptase PCR for the detection of Simbu serogroup viruses and comparison with SBV diagnostic PCR systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Melina; Schirrmeier, Horst; Wernike, Kerstin; Wegelt, Anne; Beer, Martin; Hoffmann, Bernd

    2013-11-05

    Schmallenberg virus (SBV), a novel orthobunyavirus of the Simbu serogroup, was first identified in October 2011 in dairy cattle in Germany, where it caused fever, diarrhea and a drop in milk yield. Since then, SBV additionally has been detected in adult sheep and goats. Although symptoms of acute infection were not observed, infection during a vulnerable phase of pregnancy caused congenital malformations and stillbirths. In view of the current situation and the possible emergence of further Simbu serogroup members, a pan-Simbu real-time reverse transcriptase (RT) PCR system for the reliable detection of Simbu serogroup viruses should be developed. In this study a pan-Simbu real-time RT-PCR system was established and compared to several SBV real-time RT-PCR assays. All PCR-systems were tested using a panel of different Simbu serogroup viruses as well as several field samples from diseased cattle, sheep and goats originating from all over Germany. Several pan-Simbu real-time RT-PCR products were sequenced via Sanger sequencing. Furthermore, in silico analyses were performed to investigate suitability for the detection of further orthobunyaviruses. All tested members of the Simbu serogroup (n = 14) as well as most of the field samples were successfully detected by the pan-Simbu real-time RT-PCR system. The comparison of this intercalating dye assay with different TaqMan probe-based assays developed for SBV diagnostics confirmed the functionality of the pan-Simbu assay for screening purposes. However, the SBV-TaqMan-assay SBV-S3 delivered the highest analytical sensitivity of less than ten copies per reaction for duplex systems including an internal control. In addition, for confirmation of SBV-genome detection the highly specific SBV-M1 assay was established. The pan-Simbu real-time RT-PCR system was able to detect all tested members of the Simbu serogroup, most of the SBV field samples as well as three tested Bunyamwera serogroup viruses with a suitable

  7. Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli isolated from chicken meat in Iran: serogroups, virulence factors, and antimicrobial resistance properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Momtaz, Hassan; Jamshidi, Alireza

    2013-05-01

    The aim of the current study was to determine the virulence factors, serogroups, and antibiotic resistance properties of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli isolated from chicken meat samples. A total of 422 chicken meat samples were collected from 5 townships of Iran. Specimens were immediately transferred to the laboratory in a cooler with an ice pack. Samples were cultured, and the positive culture samples were analyzed by PCR assays. Finally, the antimicrobial susceptibility test was performed using the disk diffusion method in Mueller-Hinton agar. According to the results, out of 422 samples, 146 (34.59%) were confirmed to be E. coli positive and among E. coli-positive samples, 51 (34.93%) and 31 (21.23%) were from attaching and effacing E. coli (AEEC) and enterohemorrhagic E. coli (EHEC) subgroups, respectively. All of the EHEC-positive samples had all stx1, eaeA, and ehly virulence genes, whereas only 5 (9.80%) of AEEC subgroup had all stx1, stx2, and eaeA genes. As the data revealed, O157 was the most prevalent and O111 was the least prevalent strains in the Shiga toxin-producing E. coli (STEC) population. Among STEC strains, sulI and blaSHV had the highest and lowest incidence rate, respectively. There was a high resistance to tetracycline (76.82%), followed by chloramphenicol (73.17%) and nitrofurantoin (63.41%), but there was low resistance to cephalotine (7.31%) antibiotics in isolated strains. Results shows that the PCR technique has a high performance for detection of serogroups, virulence genes, and antibiotic resistance genes in STEC strains. This study is the first prevalence report of detection of virulence genes, serogroups, and antibiotic resistance properties of STEC strains isolated from chicken meat samples in Iran. Based on the results, chicken meat is one of the main sources of STEC strains and its virulence factors in Iran, so an accurate meat inspection would reduce disease outbreaks.

  8. Prevalence of Infection-Competent Serogroup 6 Legionella pneumophila within Premise Plumbing in Southeast Michigan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrne, Brenda G; McColm, Sarah; McElmurry, Shawn P; Kilgore, Paul E; Sobeck, Joanne; Sadler, Rick; Love, Nancy G; Swanson, Michele S

    2018-02-06

    Coinciding with major changes to its municipal water system, Flint, MI, endured Legionnaires' disease outbreaks in 2014 and 2015. By sampling premise plumbing in Flint in the fall of 2016, we found that 12% of homes harbored legionellae, a frequency similar to that in residences in neighboring areas. To evaluate the genetic diversity of Legionella pneumophila in Southeast Michigan, we determined the sequence type (ST) and serogroup (SG) of the 18 residential isolates from Flint and Detroit, MI, and the 33 clinical isolates submitted by hospitals in three area counties in 2013 to 2016. Common to one environmental and four clinical samples were strains of L. pneumophila SG1 and ST1, the most prevalent ST worldwide. Among the Flint premise plumbing isolates, 14 of 16 strains were of ST367 and ST461, two closely related SG6 strain types isolated previously from patients and corresponding environmental samples. Each of the representative SG1 clinical strains and SG6 environmental isolates from Southeast Michigan infected and survived within macrophage cultures at least as well as a virulent laboratory strain, as judged by microscopy and by enumerating CFU. Likewise, 72 h after infection, the yield of viable-cell counts increased >100-fold for each of the representative SG1 clinical isolates, Flint premise plumbing SG6 ST367 and -461 isolates, and two Detroit residential isolates. We verified by immunostaining that SG1-specific antibody does not cross-react with the SG6 L. pneumophila environmental strains. Because the widely used urinary antigen diagnostic test does not readily detect non-SG1 L. pneumophila , Legionnaires' disease caused by SG6 L. pneumophila is likely underreported worldwide. IMPORTANCE L. pneumophila is the leading cause of disease outbreaks associated with drinking water in the United States. Compared to what is known of the established risks of colonization within hospitals and hotels, relatively little is known about residential exposure to

  9. Outbreak of Vibrio cholerae serogroup O1, serotype Ogawa, biotype El Tor strain--La Huasteca Region, Mexico, 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz-Quiñonez, Alberto; Hernández-Monroy, Irma; Montes-Colima, Norma; Moreno-Pérez, Asunción; Galicia-Nicolás, Adriana; Martínez-Rojano, Hugo; Carmona-Ramos, Concepción; Sánchez-Mendoza, Miroslava; Rodríguez-Martínez, José Cruz; Suárez-Idueta, Lorena; Jiménez-Corona, María Eugenia; Ruiz-Matus, Cuitláhuac; Kuri-Morales, Pablo

    2014-06-27

    On September 2 and 6, 2013, Mexico's National System of Epidemiological Surveillance identified two cases of cholera in Mexico City. Rectal swab cultures from both patients were confirmed as toxigenic Vibrio cholerae serogroup O1, serotype Ogawa, biotype El Tor. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis and virulence gene amplification (ctxA, ctxB, zot, and ace) demonstrated that the strains were identical to one another but different from strains circulating in Mexico previously. The strains were indistinguishable from the strain that has caused outbreaks in Haiti, the Dominican Republic, and Cuba. The strain was susceptible to doxycycline, had intermediate susceptibility to ampicillin and chloramphenicol, was less than fully susceptible to ciprofloxacin, and was resistant to furazolidone and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole. An investigation failed to identify a common source of infection, additional cases, or any epidemiologic link between the cases. Both patients were treated with a single, 300-mg dose of doxycycline, and their symptoms resolved.

  10. Update on the use of meningococcal serogroup C CRM₁₉₇-conjugate vaccine (Meningitec) against meningitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badahdah, Al-Mamoon; Rashid, Harunor; Khatami, Ameneh

    2016-01-01

    Meningitec is a CRM197-conjugated meningococcal serogroup C (MenC) vaccine, first licensed in 1999. It has been used as a primary and booster vaccine in infants, toddlers, older children and adults, and has been shown to be immunogenic and well-tolerated in all age groups, including premature infants. Vaccine effectiveness has been demonstrated using combined data on all three licensed MenC conjugate vaccines. Evidence from clinical trials, however, suggests that the different MenC conjugate vaccines behave differently with respect to the induction and persistence of bactericidal antibody and generation of immune memory. It appears that Meningitec has a less favorable immunologic profile compared particularly to tetanus toxoid (TT) MenC conjugate vaccines. Data from comparative trials have raised interesting questions on priming of the immune system by conjugate vaccines, particularly in infants. The results from these and other studies are reviewed here with specific focus on Meningitec.

  11. YERSINIA PSEUDOTUBERCULOSIS, SEROGROUP O:1A, INFECTION IN TWO AMAZON PARROTS (AMAZONA AESTIVA AND AMAZONA ORATRIX) WITH HEPATIC HEMOSIDEROSIS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galosi, Livio; Farneti, Silvana; Rossi, Giacomo; Cork, Susan Catherine; Ferraro, Stefano; Magi, Gian Enrico; Petrini, Stefano; Valiani, Andrea; Cuteri, Vincenzo; Attili, Anna-Rita

    2015-09-01

    Necropsies were conducted on a female blue-fronted Amazon (Amazona aestiva) and a female yellow-headed Amazon (Amazona oratrix) that died after depression, ruffled feathers, diarrhea, and biliverdin in the urine. Gross and microscopic examinations revealed multifocal necrosis in the liver, spleen, lungs, kidneys, intestines, and heart caused by acute bacteremia. Yersinia pseudotuberculosis, serogroup O:1a, was isolated by culturing from the visceral lesions in the liver, intestines, and spleen. Virulence gene analysis showed the presence of the inv gene and the complete pathogenicity island: IS100, psn, yptE, irp1, irp2 ybtP-ybtQ, ybtX-ybtS, and int asnT-Int. Histopathologic findings and chemical analysis also demonstrated hepatic hemosiderosis. As has been demonstrated in other species, hemosiderosis may predispose Amazona spp. to systemic infection with Y. pseudotuberculosis after enteric disease.

  12. Bacteriophage SP6 encodes a second tailspike protein that recognizes Salmonella enterica serogroups C2 and C3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gebhart, Dana; Williams, Steven R.; Scholl, Dean

    2017-01-01

    SP6 is a salmonella phage closely related to coliphage K1-5. K1-5 is notable in that it encodes two polysaccharide-degrading tailspike proteins, an endosialidase that allows it to infect E. coli K1, and a lyase that enables it to infect K5 strains. SP6 is similar to K1-5 except that it encodes a P22-like endorhamnosidase tailspike, gp46, allowing it to infect group B Salmonella. We show here that SP6 can also infect Salmonella serogroups C 2 and C 3 and that a mutation in a putative second tailspike, gp47, eliminates this specificity. Gene 47 was fused to the coding region of the N-terminal portion of the Pseudomonas aeruginosa R2 pyocin tail fiber and expressed in trans such that the fusion protein becomes incorporated into pyocin particles. These pyocins, termed AvR2-SP47, killed serogroups C 2 and C 3 Salmonella. We conclude that SP6 encodes two tail proteins providing it a broad host range among Salmonella enterica. - Highlights: • SP6 is a “dual specificity” bacteriophage that encodes two different receptor binding proteins giving it a broad host range. • These receptor binding proteins can be used to re-target the spectrum of R-type bacteriocins to Salmonella enterica. • Both SP6 and the engineered R-type bacteriocins can kill the Salmonella serovars most associated with human disease making them attractive for development as antimicrobial agents.

  13. Is a single dose of meningococcal serogroup C conjugate vaccine sufficient for protection? experience from the Netherlands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaaijk Patricia

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The first meningococcal serogroup C (MenC conjugate vaccine was licensed in 1999 and introduced in the United Kingdom. Countries that have implemented the MenC vaccine since then in their national immunisation programmes use different schedules. Nevertheless, all involved countries seem to experience substantial declines in the incidence of MenC disease. Discussion Since 2001, the MenC conjugate vaccine has been implemented in the Netherlands by offering a single dose to all children aged 14 months. Prior to the introduction of the vaccine into the national immunisation programme, a catch-up vaccination campaign was initiated in which a single dose of the MenC conjugate vaccine was offered to all children aged from 14 months up to and including 18 years. Since then, there has been no report of any case of MenC disease among immunocompetent vaccinees. Administration of a single dose of MenC conjugate vaccine after infancy could be beneficial considering the already complex immunisation schedules with large numbers of vaccinations in the first year of life. The present paper deals with the advantages and critical aspects of a single dose of the MenC conjugate vaccine. Summary A single dose of MenC conjugate vaccine at the age of 14 months in combination with a catch up vaccine campaign appeared to be a successful strategy to prevent MenC disease in the Netherlands, thereby confirming that a single dose of the vaccine could sufficiently protect against disease. Nevertheless, this approach can only be justified in countries with a relatively low incidence of serogroup C meningococcal disease in the first year of life. Furthermore, a good surveillance programme is recommended for timely detection of vaccine breakthroughs and outbreaks among non-vaccinees, since long-term protection after a single dose in the second year of life cannot currently be guaranteed.

  14. Optimization of Molecular Approaches to Genogroup Neisseria meningitidis Carriage Isolates and Implications for Monitoring the Impact of New Serogroup B Vaccines.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Rojas

    Full Text Available The reservoir for Neisseria meningitidis (Nm is the human oropharynx. Implementation of Nm serogroup C (NmC glycoconjugate vaccines directly reduced NmC carriage. Prophylactic vaccines are now available to prevent disease caused by the five major Nm disease causing serogroups (ABCWY. Nm serogroup B (NmB vaccines are composed of antigens that are conserved across Nm serogroups and therefore have the potential to impact all Nm carriage. To assess the effect of these vaccines on carriage, standardized approaches to identify and group Nm are required. Real-time PCR (rt-PCR capsule grouping assays that were internally controlled to confirm Nm species were developed for eight serogroups associated with carriage (A, B, C, E, W, X, Y and Z. The grouping scheme was validated using diverse bacterial species associated with carriage and then used to evaluate a collection of diverse Nm carriage isolates (n=234. A scheme that also included porA and ctrA probes was able to speciate the isolates, while ctrA also provided insights on the integrity of the polysaccharide loci. Isolates were typed for the Nm vaccine antigen factor H binding protein (fHbp, and were found to represent the known diversity of this antigen. The porA rt-PCR yielded positive results with all 234 of the Nm carriage isolates. Genogrouping assays classified 76.5% (179/234 of these isolates to a group, categorized 53 as nongenogroupable (NGG and two as mixed results. Thirty seven NGG isolates evidenced a disrupted capsular polysaccharide operon judged by a ctrA negative result. Only 28.6% (67/234 of the isolates were serogrouped by slide agglutination (SASG, highlighting the reduced capability of carriage strains to express capsular polysaccharide. These rt-PCR assays provide a comprehensive means to identify and genogroup N. meningitidis in carriage studies used to guide vaccination strategies and to assess the impact of novel fHbp containing vaccines on meningococcal carriage.

  15. Detection by hyperspectral imaging of shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli serogroups O26, O45, O103, O111, O121, and O145 on rainbow agar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Windham, William R; Yoon, Seung-Chul; Ladely, Scott R; Haley, Jennifer A; Heitschmidt, Jerry W; Lawrence, Kurt C; Park, Bosoon; Narrang, Neelam; Cray, William C

    2013-07-01

    The U.S. Department of Agriculture, Food Safety Inspection Service has determined that six non-O157 Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) serogroups (O26, O45, O103, O111, O121, and O145) are adulterants in raw beef. Isolate and phenotypic discrimination of non-O157 STEC is problematic due to the lack of suitable agar media. The lack of distinct phenotypic color variation among non-O157serogroups cultured on chromogenic agar poses a challenge in selecting colonies for confirmation. In this study, visible and near-infrared hyperspectral imaging and chemometrics were used to detect and classify non-O157 STEC serogroups grown on Rainbow agar O157. The method was first developed by building spectral libraries for each serogroup obtained from ground-truth regions of interest representing the true identity of each pixel and thus each pure culture colony in the hyperspectral agar-plate image. The spectral library for the pure-culture non-O157 STEC consisted of 2,171 colonies, with spectra derived from 124,347 of pixels. The classification models for each serogroup were developed with a k nearest-neighbor classifier. The overall classification training accuracy at the colony level was 99%. The classifier was validated with ground beef enrichments artificially inoculated with 10, 50, and 100 CFU/ml STEC. The validation ground-truth regions of interest of the STEC target colonies consisted of 606 colonies, with 3,030 pixels of spectra. The overall classification accuracy was 98%. The average specificity of the method was 98% due to the low false-positive rate of 1.2%. The sensitivity ranged from 78 to 100% due to the false-negative rates of 22, 7, and 8% for O145, O45, and O26, respectively. This study showed the potential of visible and near-infrared hyperspectral imaging for detecting and classifying colonies of the six non-O157 STEC serogroups. The technique needs to be validated with bacterial cultures directly extracted from meat products and positive

  16. Detection of cell-associated or soluble antigens of Legionella pneumophila serogroups 1 to 6, Legionella bozemanii, Legionella dumoffii, Legionella gormanii, and Legionella micdadei by staphylococcal coagglutination tests.

    OpenAIRE

    Wilkinson, H W; Fikes, B J

    1981-01-01

    Current methods used for the detection of whole-cell isolates of Legionella or for the detection of Legionella soluble antigens are technically impractical for many clinical laboratories. The purpose of this study was to explore practical alternatives. The results showed that whole cell isolates of Legionella pneumophila serogroups 1 to 6, Legionella bozemanii, Legionella dumoffii, Legionella gormanii, and Legionella micdadei were identified specifically by a simple slide agglutination test o...

  17. Distribution of sequence-based types of legionella pneumophila serogroup 1 strains isolated from cooling towers, hot springs, and potable water systems in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Tian; Zhou, Haijian; Ren, Hongyu; Guan, Hong; Li, Machao; Zhu, Bingqing; Shao, Zhujun

    2014-04-01

    Legionella pneumophila serogroup 1 causes Legionnaires' disease. Water systems contaminated with Legionella are the implicated sources of Legionnaires' disease. This study analyzed L. pneumophila serogroup 1 strains in China using sequence-based typing. Strains were isolated from cooling towers (n = 96), hot springs (n = 42), and potable water systems (n = 26). Isolates from cooling towers, hot springs, and potable water systems were divided into 25 sequence types (STs; index of discrimination [IOD], 0.711), 19 STs (IOD, 0.934), and 3 STs (IOD, 0.151), respectively. The genetic variation among the potable water isolates was lower than that among cooling tower and hot spring isolates. ST1 was the predominant type, accounting for 49.4% of analyzed strains (n = 81), followed by ST154. With the exception of two strains, all potable water isolates (92.3%) belonged to ST1. In contrast, 53.1% (51/96) and only 14.3% (6/42) of cooling tower and hot spring, respectively, isolates belonged to ST1. There were differences in the distributions of clone groups among the water sources. The comparisons among L. pneumophila strains isolated in China, Japan, and South Korea revealed that similar clones (ST1 complex and ST154 complex) exist in these countries. In conclusion, in China, STs had several unique allelic profiles, and ST1 was the most prevalent sequence type of environmental L. pneumophila serogroup 1 isolates, similar to its prevalence in Japan and South Korea.

  18. Meningococcal serogroup B-specific responses after vaccination with bivalent rLP2086: 4 year follow-up of a randomised, single-blind, placebo-controlled, phase 2 trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, Helen S; Richmond, Peter C; Beeslaar, Johannes; Jiang, Qin; Jansen, Kathrin U; Garcés-Sánchez, Maria; Martinón-Torres, Federico; Szenborn, Leszek; Wysocki, Jacek; Eiden, Joseph; Harris, Shannon L; Jones, Thomas R; Lee, Su-San; Perez, John L

    2017-01-01

    test strain, compared with 0% (n=0/25) to 35% (n=8/23) of control recipients. Despite initial declines in seroprotective hSBA titres for all four test strains, for three test strains (A22, A56, and B24), more than 50% of bivalent rLP2086 recipients continued to achieve titres equal to or greater than the lower limit of quantification at months 6 (57% [n=93/163] to 89% [n=42/47]), 12 (54% [n=84/155] to 69% [n=33/48]), 24 (53% [n=26/49] to 54% [n=82/152]), and 48 (51% [n=24/47] to 59% [n=79/134]); corresponding values in the control group were 14% (n=11/80) to 22% (n=5/23) at month 6, 13% (n=10/78) to 29% (n=22/76) at month 12, 16% (n=12/74) to 36% (n=8/22) at month 24, and 24% (n=16/68) to 35% (n=8/23) at month 48. For test strain B44, hSBA titres equal to or greater than the lower limit of quantification were shown in 37% (n=18/49) of vaccine recipients at 6 months, in 29% (n=14/48) at 12 months, in 22% (n=11/49) at 24 months, and in 20% (n=10/49) at 48 months, compared with 0% (n=0/25) of control recipients at month 6, 4% (n=1/25) at months 12 and 24, and 12% (n=3/25) at month 48. Adverse events were reported in seven (4%) of 170 participants in the bivalent rLP2086 group and two (3%) of 80 participants in the control group; no event was deemed related to vaccine. After three doses of bivalent rLP2086, protective hSBA titres above the correlate of protection (≥1/4) were elicited up to 4 years in more than 50% of participants for three of four meningococcal serogroup B test strains representative of disease-causing meningococci expressing vaccine-heterologous antigens. Further studies will be needed to assess possible herd immunity effects with meningococcal serogroup B vaccines and the need for a booster dose to sustain individual protection against invasive meningococcal disease. Pfizer. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Detection and Serogrouping of Dichelobacter nodosus Infection by Use of Direct PCR from Lesion Swabs To Support Outbreak-Specific Vaccination for Virulent Footrot in Sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McPherson, Andrew S; Dhungyel, Om P; Whittington, Richard J

    2018-04-01

    Virulent footrot is an economically significant disease in most sheep-rearing countries. The disease can be controlled with vaccine targeting the fimbriae of virulent strains of the essential causative agent, Dichelobacter nodosus However, the bacterium is immunologically heterogeneous, and 10 distinct fimbrial serogroups have been identified. Ideally, in each outbreak the infecting strains would be cultured and serogrouped so that the appropriate serogroup-specific mono- or bivalent vaccine could be administered, because multivalent vaccines lack efficacy due to antigenic competition. If clinical disease expression is suspected to be incomplete, culture-based virulence tests are required to confirm the diagnosis, because control of benign footrot is economically unjustifiable. Both diagnosis and vaccination are conducted at the flock level. The aims of this study were to develop a PCR-based procedure for detecting and serogrouping D. nodosus directly from foot swabs and to determine whether this could be done accurately from the same cultured swab. A total of 269 swabs from the active margins of foot lesions of 261 sheep in 12 Merino sheep flocks in southeastern Australia were evaluated. DNA extracts taken from putative pure cultures of D. nodosus and directly from the swabs were evaluated in PCR assays for the 16S rRNA and fimA genes of D. nodosus Pure cultures were tested also by the slide agglutination test. Direct PCR using extracts from swabs was more sensitive than culture for detecting and serogrouping D. nodosus strains. Using the most sensitive sample collection method of the use of swabs in lysis buffer, D. nodosus was more likely to be detected by PCR in active than in inactive lesions, and in lesions with low levels of fecal contamination, but lesion score was not a significant factor. PCR conducted on extracts from swabs in modified Stuart's transport medium that had already been used to inoculate culture plates had lower sensitivity. Therefore, if

  20. The prevalence of O serogroups of Escherichia coli strains causing acute urinary tract infection in children in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatemeh Emamghorashi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of present study was to determine the prevalence of O serogroups of Escherichia coli (E. coli strains that cause community-acquired urinary tract infections (UTI in children. In this study, 96 children with UTI referred to two Jahrom University-affiliated Hospitals in Iran were enrolled, during the period from August 2005 to August 2006. Drug sensitivity was tested by disk diffusion method and serotyping done by slide agglutination method. A total of 96 E. coli strains were isolated from urine samples of the study children whose age ranged from one month to 14 years. Cystitis was diagnosed in 49.2% and pyelonephritis in 50.8% of the study patients. Maximum drug resistance was seen with ampicilin (80.2% and the least with imipenem (1.1%. The most common type of O antigen was O1 (12.2%. There was significant correlation between the presence of O antigens and sensitivity to nalidixic acid and gentamicin (P < 0.05. This is the first report of E. coli serotyping in children with UTI from the south of Iran and their relation to antibiotic resistance and clinical presentation. Further studies from other parts of Iran and on other serotypes are recommended.

  1. Deeply invasive candidiasis.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ostrosky-Zeichner, L.; Rex, J.H.; Bennett, J.; Kullberg, B.J.

    2002-01-01

    The incidence of invasive candidiasis is on the rise because of increasing numbers of immunocompromised hosts and more invasive medical technology. Recovery of Candida spp from several body sites in a critically ill or immunocompromised patient should raise the question of disseminated disease.

  2. Cryptic invasions: a review

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Morais, Pedro Miguel; Reichard, Martin

    613-614, February (2018), s. 1438-1448 ISSN 0048-9697 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-05872S Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : Conspecific invader * Biological invasions * Bibliometric * Invasiveness Subject RIV: EG - Zoology OBOR OECD: Environmental sciences (social aspects to be 5.7) Impact factor: 4.900, year: 2016

  3. Factors influencing plant invasiveness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yvette Ortega; Dean Pearson

    2009-01-01

    Invasiveness of spotted knapweed and biological control agents. Dean and Yvette are examining the influence of drought on the invasiveness of spotted knapweed (Centaurea maculosa) and its susceptibility to herbivory by biological control agents. In collaboration with the University of Montana and Forest Health Protection, researchers have constructed 150...

  4. Alien invasive birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brochier, B; Vangeluwe, D; van den Berg, T

    2010-08-01

    A bird species is regarded as alien invasive if it has been introduced, intentionally or accidentally, to a location where it did not previously occur naturally, becomes capable of establishing a breeding population without further intervention by humans, spreads and becomes a pest affecting the environment, the local biodiversity, the economy and/or society, including human health. European Starling (Sturnus vulgaris), Common Myna (Acridotheres tristis) and Red-vented Bulbul (Pycnonotus cafer) have been included on the list of '100 of the World's Worst Invasive Alien Species', a subset of the Global Invasive Species Database. The 'Delivering Alien Invasive Species Inventories for Europe' project has selected Canada Goose (Branta canadensis), Ruddy Duck (Oxyura jamaicensis), Rose-ringed Parakeet (Psittacula krameri) and Sacred Ibis (Threskiornis aethiopicus) as among 100 of the worst invasive species in Europe. For each of these alien bird species, the geographic range (native and introduced range), the introduction pathway, the general impacts and the management methods are presented.

  5. Minimally invasive orthognathic surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resnick, Cory M; Kaban, Leonard B; Troulis, Maria J

    2009-02-01

    Minimally invasive surgery is defined as the discipline in which operative procedures are performed in novel ways to diminish the sequelae of standard surgical dissections. The goals of minimally invasive surgery are to reduce tissue trauma and to minimize bleeding, edema, and injury, thereby improving the rate and quality of healing. In orthognathic surgery, there are two minimally invasive techniques that can be used separately or in combination: (1) endoscopic exposure and (2) distraction osteogenesis. This article describes the historical developments of the fields of orthognathic surgery and minimally invasive surgery, as well as the integration of the two disciplines. Indications, techniques, and the most current outcome data for specific minimally invasive orthognathic surgical procedures are presented.

  6. California serogroup GC (G1) glycoprotein is the principal determinant of pH-dependent cell fusion and entry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plassmeyer, Matthew L.; Soldan, Samantha S.; Stachelek, Karen M.; Martin-Garcia, Julio; Gonzalez-Scarano, Francisco

    2005-01-01

    Members of the California serogroup of orthobunyaviruses, particularly La Crosse (LAC) and Tahyna (TAH) viruses, are significant human pathogens in areas where their mosquito vectors are endemic. Previous studies using wild-type LAC and TAH181/57, a highly neurovirulent strain with low neuroinvasiveness (Janssen, R., Gonzalez-Scarano, F., Nathanson, N., 1984. Mechanisms of bunyavirus virulence. Comparative pathogenesis of a virulent strain of La Crosse and an avirulent strain of Tahyna virus. Lab. Invest. 50 (4), 447-455), have demonstrated that the neuroinvasive phenotype maps to the M segment, the segment that encodes the two viral glycoproteins GN (G2) and GC (G1), as well as a non-structural protein NSm. To further define the role of GN and GC in fusion and entry, we prepared a panel of recombinant M segment constructs using LAC, TAH181/57, and V22F, a monoclonal-resistant variant of LAC with deficient fusion function. These M segment constructs were then tested in two surrogate assays for virus entry: a cell-to-cell fusion assay based on T7-luciferase expression, and a pseudotype transduction assay based on the incorporation of the bunyavirus glycoproteins on an MLV backbone. Both assays demonstrated that GC is the principal determinant of virus fusion and cell entry, and furthermore that the region delineated by amino acids 860-1442, corresponding to the membrane proximal two-thirds of GC, is key to these processes. These results, coupled with structural modeling suggesting homologies between the carboxy region of GC and Sindbis virus E1, suggest that the LAC GC functions as a type II fusion protein

  7. Identification of Common Epitopes on a Conserved Region of NSs Proteins Among Tospoviruses of Watermelon silver mottle virus Serogroup.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Tsung-Chi; Huang, Ching-Wen; Kuo, Yan-Wen; Liu, Fang-Lin; Yuan, Chao-Hsiu Hsuan; Hsu, Hei-Ti; Yeh, Shyi-Dong

    2006-12-01

    ABSTRACT The NSs protein of Watermelon silver mottle virus (WSMoV) was expressed by a Zucchini yellow mosaic virus (ZYMV) vector in squash. The expressed NSs protein with a histidine tag and an additional NIa protease cleavage sequence was isolated by Ni(2+)-NTA resins as a free-form protein and further eluted after sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis for production of rabbit antiserum and mouse monoclonal antibodies (MAbs). The rabbit antiserum strongly reacted with the NSs crude antigen of WSMoV and weakly reacted with that of a high-temperature-recovered gloxinia isolate (HT-1) of Capsicum chlorosis virus (CaCV), but not with that of Calla lily chlorotic spot virus (CCSV). In contrast, the MAbs reacted strongly with all crude NSs antigens of WSMoV, CaCV, and CCSV. Various deletions of the NSs open reading frame were constructed and expressed by ZYMV vector. Results indicate that all three MAbs target the 89- to 125-amino-acid (aa) region of WSMoV NSs protein. Two indispensable residues of cysteine and lysine were essential for MAbs recognition. Sequence comparison of the deduced MAbs-recognized region with the reported tospoviral NSs proteins revealed the presence of a consensus sequence VRKPGVKNTGCKFTMHNQIFNPN (denoted WNSscon), at the 98- to 120-aa position of NSs proteins, sharing 86 to 100% identities among those of WSMoV, CaCV, CCSV, and Peanut bud necrosis virus. A synthetic WNSscon peptide reacted with the MAbs and verified that the epitopes are present in the 98- to 120-aa region of WSMoV NSs protein. The WSMoV sero-group-specific NSs MAbs provide a means for reliable identification of tospoviruses in this large serogroup.

  8. Mucosal immunization using proteoliposome and cochleate structures from Neisseria meningitidis serogroup B induce mucosal and systemic responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campo, Judith Del; Zayas, Caridad; Romeu, Belkis; Acevedo, Reinaldo; González, Elizabeth; Bracho, Gustavo; Cuello, Maribel; Cabrera, Osmir; Balboa, Julio; Lastre, Miriam

    2009-12-01

    Most pathogens either invade the body or establish infection in mucosal tissues and represent an enormous challenge for vaccine development by the absence of good mucosal adjuvants. A proteoliposome-derived adjuvant from Neisseria meningitidis serogroup B (AFPL1, Adjuvant Finlay Proteoliposome 1) and its derived cochleate form (Co, AFCo1) contain multiple pathogen-associated molecular patterns as immunopotentiators, and can also serve as delivery systems to elicit a Th1-type immune response. The present studies demonstrate the ability of AFPL1and AFCo1 to induce mucosal and systemic immune responses by different mucosal immunizations routes and significant adjuvant activity for antibody responses of both structures: a microparticle and a nanoparticle with a heterologous antigen. Therefore, we used female mice immunized by intragastric, intravaginal, intranasal or intramuscular routes with both structures alone or incorporated with ovalbumin (OVA). High levels of specific IgG antibody were detected in all sera and in vaginal washes, but specific IgA antibody in external secretions was only detected in mucosally immunized mice. Furthermore, antigen specific IgG1 and IgG2a isotypes were all induced. AFPL1 and AFCo1 are capable of inducing IFN-gamma responses, and chemokine secretions, like MIP-1alpha and MIP-1beta. However, AFCo1 is a better alternative to induce immune responses at mucosal level. Even when we use a heterologous antigen, the AFCo1 response was better than with AFPL1 in inducing mucosal and systemic immune responses. These results support the use of AFCo1 as a potent Th1 inducing adjuvant particularly suitable for mucosal immunization.

  9. A Western-blot assay for the detection of antibodies against pathogenic Leptospira serogroups with recombinant outer membrane protein LipL32

    OpenAIRE

    Hong-yuan DUAN; Zhi-guo LIU; Shao-fu QIU; Bin HE; Hai ZHAO; Li-hua SONG; Hong ZHU; Qing DUAN

    2011-01-01

    Objective To provide a possible antigen for rapid serodiagnosis of leptospirosis,the present study focused on the activity of immune-reaction and cross-reaction between outer membrane protein LipL32 and multi-serogroup anti-pathogenic Leptospira antibodies.Methods Based on the given sequence of LipL32 gene of Leptospira icterohaemorrhagiae strain 56601,the primer pair was designed and the DNA fragment was amplified by PCR.The amplified product was inserted into vector pET-28a-(c) to construct...

  10. Genetic diversity of Neisseria meningitidis serogroup C ST-4821 in China based on multiple-locus variable number tandem repeat analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoying Shan

    Full Text Available Neisseria meningitidis sequence type (ST-4821 was first reported in China in 2003, and a new hyper-virulent lineage has been designated as the ST-4821 complex. A large number of N. meningitidis ST-4821 strains have been identified in China since 2003; however, the microevolution characteristics of this complex are unclear. Different combinations of variable number of tandem repeats (VNTR loci were used in multiple-locus VNTR analysis (MLVA to analyze 118 N. meningitidis serogroup C ST-4821 strains isolated from seventeen provinces between 2003 and 2012. Additionally, MLVA with five VNTR loci was performed due to its high discriminatory power. One hundred and eighteen isolates were found to comprise 112 subtypes based on MLVA, and 16 outbreak-associated strains were clustered into one group. These data indicate a high level of diversity for N. meningitidis ST-4821 due to microevolution in the last decade. In addition, the results revealed high similarity between isolates from the same geographic origins, which is helpful when monitoring the spread of N. meningitidis serogroup C ST-4821 and will provide valuable information for the control and prevention of bacterial meningitis in China.

  11. Fatal case of hemolytic-uremic syndrome in an adult due to a rare serogroup O91 Entero hemorrhagic Escherichia coli associated with a Clostridium difficile infection. More than meets the eye

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Guillard

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Hemolytic-uremic syndrome due to enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli, belonging to serogroup O91 has rarely been described. We report here a case of post-diarrheal HUS due to EHEC O91 in an elderly patient for whom diagnosis was delayed given a previously diagnosed C. difficile infection. This case highlights the usefulness of Shiga-toxin detection.

  12. Medio EMJH modificado para el cultivo de Leptospira interrogans serogrupo Ballum Modified EMJH medium for cultivation of Leptospira interrogans serogroup Ballum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. González

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available El serogrupo Ballum agrupa cepas de crecimiento fastidioso, con requerimientos nutricionales más exigentes que otras cepas patógenas de Leptospira. Fue evaluada la influencia de 37 compuestos nutricionales sobre el crecimiento de Leptospira interrogans serogrupo Ballum, tomando como base para el estudio al medio sintético EMJH. El crecimiento microbiano fue estimado espectrofotométricamente y por conteo directo en cámara de Petroff-Hausser. La estabilidad de la virulencia fue evaluada en hamsters mediante el cálculo de la dosis letal media. La estabilidad de la antigenicidad fue evaluada mediante Western blotting con antisuero policlonal específico. Bajo condiciones de cultivo controladas se logró triplicar los rendimientos de biomasa comúnmente obtenidos en el medio EMJH sin afectación de la virulencia y antigenicidad tras el incremento de la concentración de Tween 80 y la incorporación de acetato de sodio y extracto de carne. El incremento de la concentración de al menos 6 componentes del EMJH o la incorporación de una variedad de nuevos nutrientes no estimularon apreciablemente los rendimientos de biomasa o la velocidad específica de crecimiento del microorganismo. Los resultados obtenidos permiten disponer de un medio de cultivo enriquecido capaz de sustentar elevados rendimientos de biomasa de este serogrupo exigente de mayor circulación en humanos en Cuba.Strains within the Ballum serogroup of spirochete Leptospira show fastidious growth with more exigent nutritional requirements than those of other Leptospira pathogenic strains. The influence of 37 nutritional compounds on the growth of Leptospira interrogans serogroup Ballum was investigated employing the synthetic EMJH medium as the base for the study. Microbial growth was estimated spectrophotometrically and direct counts were performed with a Petroff-Hausser counting chamber. Virulence stability was evaluated by calculating the mean lethal dose in hamsters

  13. Exotic invasive plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carolyn Hull Sieg; Barbara G. Phillips; Laura P. Moser

    2003-01-01

    Ecosystems worldwide are threatened by nonnative plant invasions that can cause undesirable, irreversible changes. They can displace native plants and animals, out-cross with native flora, alter nutrient cycling and other ecosystem functions, and even change an ecosystem's flammability (Walker and Smith 1997). After habitat loss, the spread of exotic species is...

  14. Minimally invasive distal pancreatectomy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Røsok, Bård I.; de Rooij, Thijs; van Hilst, Jony; Diener, Markus K.; Allen, Peter J.; Vollmer, Charles M.; Kooby, David A.; Shrikhande, Shailesh V.; Asbun, Horacio J.; Barkun, Jeffrey; Besselink, Marc G.; Boggi, Ugo; Conlon, Kevin; Han, Ho Seong; Hansen, Paul; Kendrick, Michael L.; Kooby, David; Montagnini, Andre L.; Palanivelu, Chinnasamy; Wakabayashi, Go; Zeh, Herbert J.

    2017-01-01

    The first International conference on Minimally Invasive Pancreas Resection was arranged in conjunction with the annual meeting of the International Hepato-Pancreato-Biliary Association (IHPBA), in Sao Paulo, Brazil on April 19th 2016. The presented evidence and outcomes resulting from the session

  15. Pathogenesis of invasive candidiasis.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veerdonk, F.L. van de; Kullberg, B.J.; Netea, M.G.

    2010-01-01

    PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Disseminated candidiasis remains a life-threatening disease in the ICU. The development of invasive disease with Candida albicans is dependent on multiple factors, such as colonization and efficient host defense at the mucosa. In the present review, we describe the host defense

  16. Effect of a quadrivalent meningococcal ACWY glycoconjugate or a serogroup B meningococcal vaccine on meningococcal carriage: an observer-blind, phase 3 randomised clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Read, Robert C; Baxter, David; Chadwick, David R; Faust, Saul N; Finn, Adam; Gordon, Stephen B; Heath, Paul T; Lewis, David J M; Pollard, Andrew J; Turner, David P J; Bazaz, Rohit; Ganguli, Amitava; Havelock, Tom; Neal, Keith R; Okike, Ifeanyichukwu O; Morales-Aza, Begonia; Patel, Kamlesh; Snape, Matthew D; Williams, John; Gilchrist, Stefanie; Gray, Steve J; Maiden, Martin C J; Toneatto, Daniela; Wang, Huajun; McCarthy, Maggie; Dull, Peter M; Borrow, Ray

    2014-12-13

    Meningococcal conjugate vaccines protect individuals directly, but can also confer herd protection by interrupting carriage transmission. We assessed the effects of meningococcal quadrivalent glycoconjugate (MenACWY-CRM) or serogroup B (4CMenB) vaccination on meningococcal carriage rates in 18-24-year-olds. In this phase 3, observer-blind, randomised controlled trial, university students aged 18-24 years from ten sites in England were randomly assigned (1:1:1, block size of three) to receive two doses 1 month apart of Japanese Encephalitis vaccine (controls), 4CMenB, or one dose of MenACWY-CRM then placebo. Participants were randomised with a validated computer-generated random allocation list. Participants and outcome-assessors were masked to the treatment group. Meningococci were isolated from oropharyngeal swabs collected before vaccination and at five scheduled intervals over 1 year. Primary outcomes were cross-sectional carriage 1 month after each vaccine course. Secondary outcomes included comparisons of carriage at any timepoint after primary analysis until study termination. Reactogenicity and adverse events were monitored throughout the study. Analysis was done on the modified intention-to-treat population, which included all enrolled participants who received a study vaccination and provided at least one assessable swab after baseline. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, registration number NCT01214850. Between Sept 21 and Dec 21, 2010, 2954 participants were randomly assigned (987 assigned to control [984 analysed], 979 assigned to 4CMenB [974 analysed], 988 assigned to MenACWY-CRM [983 analysed]); 33% of the 4CMenB group, 34% of the MenACWY-CRM group, and 31% of the control group were positive for meningococcal carriage at study entry. By 1 month, there was no significant difference in carriage between controls and 4CMenB (odds ratio 1·2, 95% CI 0·8-1·7) or MenACWY-CRM (0·9, [0·6-1·3]) groups. From 3 months after dose two, 4CMen

  17. Bacteriophage SP6 encodes a second tailspike protein that recognizes Salmonella enterica serogroups C{sub 2} and C{sub 3}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gebhart, Dana; Williams, Steven R.; Scholl, Dean, E-mail: dean@avidbiotics.com

    2017-07-15

    SP6 is a salmonella phage closely related to coliphage K1-5. K1-5 is notable in that it encodes two polysaccharide-degrading tailspike proteins, an endosialidase that allows it to infect E. coli K1, and a lyase that enables it to infect K5 strains. SP6 is similar to K1-5 except that it encodes a P22-like endorhamnosidase tailspike, gp46, allowing it to infect group B Salmonella. We show here that SP6 can also infect Salmonella serogroups C{sub 2} and C{sub 3} and that a mutation in a putative second tailspike, gp47, eliminates this specificity. Gene 47 was fused to the coding region of the N-terminal portion of the Pseudomonas aeruginosa R2 pyocin tail fiber and expressed in trans such that the fusion protein becomes incorporated into pyocin particles. These pyocins, termed AvR2-SP47, killed serogroups C{sub 2} and C{sub 3}Salmonella. We conclude that SP6 encodes two tail proteins providing it a broad host range among Salmonella enterica. - Highlights: • SP6 is a “dual specificity” bacteriophage that encodes two different receptor binding proteins giving it a broad host range. • These receptor binding proteins can be used to re-target the spectrum of R-type bacteriocins to Salmonella enterica. • Both SP6 and the engineered R-type bacteriocins can kill the Salmonella serovars most associated with human disease making them attractive for development as antimicrobial agents.

  18. Effect of complement Factor H on anti-FHbp serum bactericidal antibody responses of infant rhesus macaques boosted with a licensed meningococcal serogroup B vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giuntini, Serena; Beernink, Peter T; Granoff, Dan M

    2015-12-16

    FHbp is a major serogroup B meningococcal vaccine antigen. Binding of complement Factor H (FH) to FHbp is specific for human and some non-human primate FH. In previous studies, FH binding to FHbp vaccines impaired protective anti-FHbp antibody responses. In this study we investigated anti-FHbp antibody responses to a third dose of a licensed serogroup B vaccine (MenB-4C) in infant macaques vaccinated in a previous study with MenB-4C. Six macaques with high binding of FH to FHbp (FH(high)), and six with FH(low) baseline phenotypes, were immunized three months after dose 2. After dose 2, macaques with the FH(low) baseline phenotype had serum anti-FHbp antibodies that enhanced FH binding to FHbp (functionally converting them to a FH(high) phenotype). In this group, activation of the classical complement pathway (C4b deposition) by serum anti-FHbp antibody, and anti-FHbp serum bactericidal titers were lower after dose 3 than after dose 2 (pb deposition and bactericidal titers were similar after doses 2 and 3. Two macaques developed serum anti-FH autoantibodies after dose 2, which were not detected after dose 3. In conclusion, in macaques with the FH(low) baseline phenotype whose post-dose 2 serum anti-FHbp antibodies had converted them to FH(high), the anti-FHbp antibody repertoire to dose 3 was skewed to less protective epitopes than after dose 2. Mutant FHbp vaccines that eliminate FH binding may avoid eliciting anti-FHbp antibodies that enhance FH binding, and confer greater protection with less risk of inducing anti-FH autoantibodies than FHbp vaccines that bind FH. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Persistence of bactericidal antibodies following early infant vaccination with a serogroup B meningococcal vaccine and immunogenicity of a preschool booster dose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snape, Matthew D; Saroey, Praveen; John, Tessa M; Robinson, Hannah; Kelly, Sarah; Gossger, Nicoletta; Yu, Ly-Mee; Wang, Huajun; Toneatto, Daniela; Dull, Peter M; Pollard, Andrew J

    2013-10-15

    The multicomponent serogroup B meningococcal (4CMenB) vaccine was recently licensed for use in Europe. There are currently no data on the persistence of bactericidal antibodies induced by use of this vaccine in infants. Our objective was to evaluate serogroup B-specific bactericidal antibodies in children aged 40-44 months previously vaccinated at 2, 4, 6 and 12 months of age. Participants given 4 doses of 4CMenB as infants received a fifth dose of the vaccine at 40-44 months of age. Age-matched participants who were MenB vaccine-naive received 4CMenB and formed the control group. We evaluated human complement serum bactericidal activity (hSBA) titres at baseline and 1 month after each dose of 4CMenB. Before a booster dose at enrolment, 41%-76% of 17 participants previously vaccinated with 4CMenB in infancy had hSBA titres of 4 or greater against 4 reference strains. Before vaccination in the control group (n = 40) these proportions were similar for strains 44/76-SL (63%) and M10713 (68%) but low for strains NZ98/254 (0%) and 5/99 (3%). A booster dose in the 4CMenB-primed participants generated greater increases in hSBA titres than in controls. As has been observed with other meningococcal vaccines, bactericidal antibodies waned after vaccination with 4CMenB administered according to an approved infant vaccination schedule of 2, 4, 6 and 12 months of age, but there was an anamnestic response to a booster dose at 40-44 months of age. If 4CMenB were introduced into routine vaccination schedules, assessment of the need for a booster dose would require data on the impact of these declining titres on vaccine effectiveness. ClinicalTrials.gov, no. NCT01027351.

  20. Management of invasive species

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schou, Jesper Sølver; Jensen, Frank

    impact of the establishment of this invasive species is a substantial increase in the number of allergy cases, which we use as a measure of the physical damage. As valuation methods, we use both the cost-of-illness method and the benefit transfer method to quantify the total gross benefits of the two...... policy actions. Based on the idea of an invasion function, we identify the total and average net benefit under both prevention and mitigation. For both policy actions, the total and average net benefits are significantly positive irrespective of the valuation method used; therefore, both prevention...... and mitigation are beneficial policy actions. However, the total and average net benefits under mitigation are larger than the benefits under prevention, implying that the former policy action is more beneficial. Despite this result, we conclude that prevention, not mitigation, shall be used because...

  1. [Invasive nosocomial pulmonary aspergillosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Germaud, P; Haloun, A

    2001-04-01

    Immunodepressed patients, particularly those with neutropenia or bone marrow or organ grafts, are at risk of developing nosocomial invasive pulmonary aspergilosis. The favoring factors, early diagnostic criteria and curative treatment protocols are well known. Prognosis remains however quite severe with a death rate above 50%. Preventive measures are required for the treatment of these high-risk patients and epidemiology surveillance is needed in case of aspergillosis acquired in the hospital.

  2. Plant invasions: Merging the concepts of species invasiveness and community invasibility

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Richardson, D. M.; Pyšek, Petr

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 30, č. 3 (2006), s. 409-431 ISSN 0309-1333 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60050516 Keywords : plant invasions * species invasiveness * community invasibility Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 1.278, year: 2006

  3. Inmunogenicidad y capacidad protectora en hamsters de vacunas antileptospirósicas monovalentes de células enteras del serogrupo Ballum Immunogenicity and protective capacity of leptospiral whole-cell monovalent serogroup Ballum vaccines in hamsters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. González

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available El serogrupo Ballum de Leptospira constituye en la actualidad la primera causa de leptospirosis humana en Cuba. Vacunas de células enteras químicamente inactivadas fueron formuladas a partir de dos cepas clínicas de Leptospira interrogans serogrupo Ballum empleando como adyuvante hidróxido de aluminio. Los niveles de aglutininas inducidos en hamsters por una u otra preparación vacunal fueron estimados mediante aglutinación microscópica y la actividad IgG específica fue cuantificada mediante ELISA. La capacidad de protección homóloga y heteróloga contra la infección letal y subletal se determinó mediante el desafío con 100 y 10 000 DL50 de cinco cepas virulentas pertenecientes a los serogrupos Ballum, Canicola, Icterohaemorrhagiae y Pomona. Las evaluaciones realizadas demostraron que ambas vacunas fueron inmunogénicas e indujeron una completa protección homóloga en el modelo animal empleado. La protección cruzada frente a serogrupos heterólogos solo fue significativa en una de las preparaciones monovalentes frente al desafío con 100 DL50 de Canicola. Como resultado de este estudio se pudo comprobar la alta inmunogenicidad y capacidad protectora en hamsters de vacunas monovalentes de células enteras formuladas a partir de dos cepas candidatas vacunales del serogrupo de Leptospira de mayor circulación en humanos en Cuba no incluido en la vacuna actualmente disponible.Leptospira serogroup Ballum is at present the first cause of human leptospirosis in Cuba. Killed whole-cell vaccines were formulated with two clinical isolates of Leptospira interrogans serogroup Ballum using aluminum hydroxide as adjuvant. Agglutinins levels induced by each vaccine in hamsters were estimated by microscopic agglutination test and specific IgG activities were quantified by a whole cell-based enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Homologous and cross protective capacity against lethal and sublethal infection were determined in vaccinated animals by

  4. Minimally Invasive Parathyroidectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee F. Starker

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Minimally invasive parathyroidectomy (MIP is an operative approach for the treatment of primary hyperparathyroidism (pHPT. Currently, routine use of improved preoperative localization studies, cervical block anesthesia in the conscious patient, and intraoperative parathyroid hormone analyses aid in guiding surgical therapy. MIP requires less surgical dissection causing decreased trauma to tissues, can be performed safely in the ambulatory setting, and is at least as effective as standard cervical exploration. This paper reviews advances in preoperative localization, anesthetic techniques, and intraoperative management of patients undergoing MIP for the treatment of pHPT.

  5. Designation of the European Working Group on Legionella Infection (EWGLI) amplified fragment length polymorphism types of Legionella pneumophila serogroup 1 and results of intercentre proficiency testing Using a standard protocol

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fry, N K; Bangsborg, Jette Marie; Bergmans, A

    2002-01-01

    The utility of amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) analysis as a genotyping method for the epidemiological typing of Legionella pneumophila serogroup 1 has been previously demonstrated. This study (i). reports recommendations for the designation of the European Working Group on Legionella...... centres), and 92% (7 centres) to 100% (7 centres). The AFLP method as described is robust and rapid and allows the genotypic comparison of isolates of Legionella pneumophila between different testing centres without the need for exchange of the strains studied....

  6. Safety and Immunogenicity of Coadministering a Combined Meningococcal Serogroup C and Haemophilus influenzae Type b Conjugate Vaccine with 7-Valent Pneumococcal Conjugate Vaccine and Measles, Mumps, and Rubella Vaccine at 12 Months of Age ▿

    OpenAIRE

    Miller, Elizabeth; Andrews, Nick; Waight, Pauline; Findlow, Helen; Ashton, Lindsey; England, Anna; Stanford, Elaine; Matheson, Mary; Southern, Joanna; Sheasby, Elizabeth; Goldblatt, David; Borrow, Ray

    2010-01-01

    The coadministration of the combined meningococcal serogroup C conjugate (MCC)/Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) vaccine with pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV7) and measles, mumps, and rubella (MMR) vaccine at 12 months of age was investigated to assess the safety and immunogenicity of this regimen compared with separate administration of the conjugate vaccines. Children were randomized to receive MCC/Hib vaccine alone followed 1 month later by PCV7 with MMR vaccine or to receive all thr...

  7. A tool based on Ligation Detection Reaction-Universal Array (LDR-UA) for the characterization of VTEC by identification of virulence-associated and serogroup-specific genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lauri, Andrea; Castiglioni, Bianca; Morabito, Stefano; Tozzoli, Rosangela; Consolandi, Clarissa; Mariani, Paola

    2011-02-01

    Verocytoxigenic Escherichia coli (VTEC) are zoonotic pathogens whose natural reservoir is represented by ruminants, particularly cattle. Infections are mainly acquired by consumption of undercooked contaminated food of animal origin, contact with infected animals and contaminated environment. VTEC O157 is the most frequently isolated serogroup from cases of human disease, however, other VTEC serogroups, such as O26, O111, O145 and O103, are increasingly reported as causing Hemolytic Uremic Syndrome (HUS) worldwide. The identification of VTEC is troublesome, hindering the development of effective prevention strategies. In fact, VTEC are morphologically indistinguishable from harmless E. coli and their pathogenic potential is not strictly dependent on the serogroup, but relies on the presence of a collection of virulence genes. We developed a diagnostic tool for VTEC based on the Ligation Detection Reaction coupled to Universal Array (LDR-UA) for the simultaneous identification of virulence factors and serogroup-associated genes. The method includes the investigation of 40 sites located in 13 fragments from 12 genes (sodCF1/F2, adfO, terB, ehxA, eae, vtx1, vtx2, ihp1, wzx, wbdI, rfbE, dnaK) and was evaluated by performing a trial on a collection of 67 E. coli strains, both VTEC and VT-negative E. coli, as well as on 25 isolates belonging to other related species. Results of this study showed that the LDR-UA technique was specific in identifying the target microorganism. Moreover, due to its higher throughput, the LDR-UA can be a valid and cheaper alternative to real time PCR-based (rt-PCR) methods for VTEC identification. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. O Serogroup-Specific Touchdown-Multiplex Polymerase Chain Reaction for Detection and Identification of Vibrio cholerae O1, O139, and Non-O1/Non-O139

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adisak Bhumiratana

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A novel, sensitive locus-specific touchdown-multiplex polymerase chain reaction (TMPCR, which is based on two-stage amplification pertaining to multiplex PCR and conditional touchdown strategy, was used in detecting and differentiating Vibrio cholerae serogroups. A panel of molecular marker-based TMPCR method generates reproducible profiles of V. cholerae-specific (588 bp amplicons derived from ompW gene encoding the outer membrane protein and serogroup-specific amplicons, 364 bp for the O1 and 256 bp for the O139, authentically copied from rfb genes responsible for the lipopolysaccharide biosynthesis. The TMPCR amplification efficiency yields either equally or unequally detectable duplex DNA bands of the O1 (588 and 364 bp and O139 (588 and 256 bp or a DNA fragment of non-O1/non-O139 (588 bp while providing no false positive identifications using the genomic DNA templates of the other vibrios and Enterobacteriaceae. The reciprocal analysis of two-template combinations demonstrated that, using V. cholerae O1, O139, or equally mixed O1 and O139, the TMPCR had a detection limit of as low as 100 pg of the O1, O139, or non-O1/non-O139 in reactions containing unequally or equally mixed gDNAs. In addition, the O serogroup-specific TMPCR method had 100% agreement with the serotyping method when examined for the serotyped V. cholerae reference strains and those recovered from clinical samples. The potential benefit of using this TMPCR tool would augment the serotyping method used in epidemiological surveillance and monitoring of V. cholerae serogroups, O1, O139, and non-O1/non-O139 present in clinical and environmental samples.

  9. Association of meningococcal serotypes with the course of disease: serotypes 2a and 2b in the Netherlands, 1959-1981

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spanjaard, L.; Bol, P.; de Marie, S.; Zanen, H. C.

    1987-01-01

    Case histories of 692 patients with meningococcal disease due to serogroup B, C, or W (W-135) were reviewed to study the association of the serotypes 2a and 2b with the course of disease. The case-fatality rate in group B disease was significantly associated with serotype 2b (B:2b) strains (P =

  10. Comparative analysis of virulence determinants, antibiotic susceptibility patterns and serogrouping of atypical enteropathogenic Escherichia coli versus typical enteropathogenic E. coli in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malvi, Supriya; Appannanavar, Suma; Mohan, Balvinder; Kaur, Harsimran; Gautam, Neha; Bharti, Bhavneet; Kumar, Yashwant; Taneja, Neelam

    2015-10-01

    The epidemiology of enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC) and the significance of isolation of atypical EPEC (aEPEC) in childhood diarrhoea have not been well studied in an Indian context. A comparative study was undertaken to investigate virulence determinants, antibiotic susceptibility patterns and serogrouping of typical EPEC (tEPEC) versus aEPEC causing diarrhoea in children. A total of 400 prospective and 500 retrospective E. coli isolates were included. PCR was performed for eae, bfpA, efa, nleB, nleE, cdt, ehxA and paa genes. The Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute's disc diffusion test was used to determine the antimicrobial susceptibility. Phenotypic screening of extended spectrum β-lactamases (ESBLs), AmpC and Klebsiella pneumoniae carbapenemase (KPC) production, and molecular detection of bla(NDM-1), bla(VIM), bla(CTX-M-15), bla(IMP) and bla(KPC) were performed. aEPEC (57.6 %) were more common as compared with tEPEC (42.3 %). The occurrence of virulence genes was observed to be three times higher in aEPEC as compared with tEPEC, efa1 (14.7 % of aEPEC, 4 % of tEPEC) being the most common. Most of the isolates did not belong to the classical EPEC O-serogroups. The highest resistance was observed against amoxicillin (93.22 %) followed by quinolones (83 %), cephalosporins (37.28 %), cotrimoxazole (35.59 %) and carbapenems (30.5 %). Overall equal numbers of aEPEC (41.17 %) and tEPEC (40 %) were observed to be multidrug-resistant. Fifteen EPEC strains demonstrated presence of ESBLs, five produced AmpC and four each produced metallo-β-lactamases and KPC-type carbapenemases; eight, seven and one isolate(s) each were positive for bla(VIM), bla(CTX-M-15) and bla(NDM-1), respectively. Here, to the best of our knowledge, we report for the first time on carbapenem resistance and the presence of bla(NDM-1) and bla(CTX-M-15) in EPEC isolates from India.

  11. Quantifying the invasiveness of species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Colautti

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The success of invasive species has been explained by two contrasting but non-exclusive views: (i intrinsic factors make some species inherently good invaders; (ii species become invasive as a result of extrinsic ecological and genetic influences such as release from natural enemies, hybridization or other novel ecological and evolutionary interactions. These viewpoints are rarely distinguished but hinge on distinct mechanisms leading to different management scenarios. To improve tests of these hypotheses of invasion success we introduce a simple mathematical framework to quantify the invasiveness of species along two axes: (i interspecific differences in performance among native and introduced species within a region, and (ii intraspecific differences between populations of a species in its native and introduced ranges. Applying these equations to a sample dataset of occurrences of 1,416 plant species across Europe, Argentina, and South Africa, we found that many species are common in their native range but become rare following introduction; only a few introduced species become more common. Biogeographical factors limiting spread (e.g. biotic resistance, time of invasion therefore appear more common than those promoting invasion (e.g. enemy release. Invasiveness, as measured by occurrence data, is better explained by inter-specific variation in invasion potential than biogeographical changes in performance. We discuss how applying these comparisons to more detailed performance data would improve hypothesis testing in invasion biology and potentially lead to more efficient management strategies.

  12. New recombinant vaccines for the prevention of meningococcal B disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taha MK

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Muhamed-Kheir Taha, Ala-Eddine DeghmaneInstitut Pasteur, Unit of Invasive Bacterial Infections and National Reference Center for Meningococci, Paris, FranceAbstract: Meningococcal disease is a life-threatening invasive infection (mainly septicemia and meningitis that occurs as epidemic or sporadic cases. The causative agent, Neisseria meningitidis or meningococcus, is a capsulated Gram-negative bacterium. Current vaccines are prepared from the capsular polysaccharides (that also determine serogroups and are available against strains of serogroups A, C, Y, and W-135 that show variable distribution worldwide. Plain polysaccharide vaccines were first used and subsequently conjugate vaccines with enhanced immunogenicity were introduced. The capsular polysaccharide of meningococcal serogroup B is poorly immunogenic due to similarity to the human neural cells adhesion molecule. Tailor-made, strain-specific vaccines have been developed to control localized and clonal outbreaks due to meningococci of serogroup B but no “universal” vaccine is yet available. This unmet medical need was recently overcome using several subcapsular proteins to allow broad range coverage of strains and to reduce the risk of escape variants due to genetic diversity of the meningococcus. Several vaccines are under development that target major or minor surface proteins. One vaccine (Bexsero®; Novartis, under registration, is a multicomponent recombinant vaccine that showed an acceptable safety profile and covers around 80% of the currently circulating serogroup B isolates. However, its reactogenicity in infants seems to be high and the long term persistence of the immune response needs to be determined. Its activity on carriage, and therefore transmission, is under evaluation. Indirect protection is expected through restricting strain circulation and acquisition. This vaccine covers the circulating strains according to the presence of the targeted antigens in the

  13. A comparison of non-invasive versus invasive methods of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Puneet Khanna

    for Hb estimation from the laboratory [total haemoglobin mass (tHb)] and arterial blood gas (ABG) machine (aHb), using ... A comparison of non-invasive versus invasive methods of haemoglobin estimation in patients undergoing intracranial surgery. 161 .... making decisions for blood transfusions based on these results.

  14. Klebsiella pneumoniae Invasive Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasco Evangelista

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Klebsiella pneumoniae invasive syndrome (KPIS is a rare clinical condition characterized by primary liver abscess associated with metastatic infection. Most case reports are from Southeast Asia, with only one case described in Portugal. The Authors present the case of a 44-year-old man with a history of fever, dry cough and cervicalgia. A thoracic computed tomography (CT scan showed multiple pulmonary and hepatic nodules, suggestive of metastatic malignancy. Both blood cultures and bronchoalveolar lavage were positive for Klebsiella pneumoniae. Imaging studies were repeated during his hospital stay, showing a reduction in both number and volume of identified lesions, thus revealing their infectious nature. This case illustrates how much this entity can mimic other illnesses.

  15. Dietary Flexibility Aids Asian Earthworm Invasion in North American Forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    On a local scale, invasiveness of introduced species and invasibility of habitats together determine invasion success. A key issue in invasion ecology has been how to quantify the contribution of species invasiveness and habitat invasibility separately. Conventional approaches, s...

  16. Distribution of monoclonal antibody subgroups and sequence-based types among Legionella pneumophila serogroup 1 isolates derived from cooling tower water, bathwater, and soil in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amemura-Maekawa, Junko; Kikukawa, Kiyomi; Helbig, Jürgen H; Kaneko, Satoko; Suzuki-Hashimoto, Atsuko; Furuhata, Katsunori; Chang, Bin; Murai, Miyo; Ichinose, Masayuki; Ohnishi, Makoto; Kura, Fumiaki

    2012-06-01

    Legionella pneumophila serogroup (SG) 1 is the most frequent cause of legionellosis. This study analyzed environmental isolates of L. pneumophila SG 1 in Japan using monoclonal antibody (MAb) typing and sequence-based typing (SBT). Samples were analyzed from bathwater (BW; n = 50), cooling tower water (CT; n = 50), and soil (SO; n = 35). The distribution of MAb types varied by source, with the most prevalent types being Bellingham (42%), Oxford (72%), and OLDA (51%) in BW, CT, and SO, respectively. The ratios of MAb 3/1 positive isolates were 26, 2, and 14% from BW, CT, and SO, respectively. The environmental isolates from BW, CT, and SO were divided into 34 sequence types (STs; index of discrimination [IOD] = 0.973), 8 STs (IOD = 0.448), and 11 STs (IOD = 0.879), respectively. Genetic variation among CT isolates was smaller than seen in BW and SO. ST1 accounted for 74% of the CT isolates. The only common STs between (i) BW and CT, (ii) BW and SO, and (iii) CT and SO were ST1, ST129, and ST48, respectively, suggesting that each environment constitutes an independent habitat.

  17. Effect of severe weather events on the shedding of Shiga toxigenic Escherichia coli in slaughter cattle and phenotype of serogroup O157 isolates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanford, Kim; Reuter, Tim; Bach, Susan J; Chui, Linda; Ma, Angela; Conrad, Cheyenne C; Tostes, Renata; McAllister, Tim A

    2017-09-01

    High-event periods (HEPs) occur sporadically when beef carcasses and meat have episodes of acute contamination with Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC). In this study, severe weather events were investigated as catalysts for HEPs based on PCR and isolate prevalence of seven E. coli serogroups in slaughter cattle feces. Winter ambient temperatures with daily means 10.5oC warmer or 12.3°C colder than seasonal norms (-10.4°C) most altered STEC shedding. Fecal samples yielded increased proportions (P  10 min and one also had strong biofilm-forming potential. However, this isolate lacked eae and stx genes. Severe weather can influence STEC shedding, particularly of O157, and could possibly trigger HEPs. However, our data suggest that it is unlikely for isolates to carry virulence genes and possess phenotypes capable of evading post-harvest microbiological interventions. © FEMS 2017. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  18. Interactions of proteoliposomes from serogroup B Neisseria meningitidis with bone marrow-derived dendritic cells and macrophages: adjuvant effects and antigen delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez, Tamara; Pérez, Oliver; Ménager, Nathalie; Ugrinovic, Sanja; Bracho, Gustavo; Mastroeni, Pietro

    2005-01-26

    Exposure to proteoliposomes from serogroup B Neisseria meningitidis (PL) induced up-regulation of MHC-II, MHC-I, CD40, CD80 and CD86 expression on the surface of murine bone marrow-derived dendritic cells (DC). CD40, CD80 and CD86 were up-regulated on bone marrow-derived macrophages (MPhi) upon stimulation with PL. Both DC and MPhi released TNFalpha, but only DC produced IL12(p70) in response to PL. A small increase in the expression of MHC-II, CD40 and CD86, as well as production of IL12(p70), was observed on the cell surface of DC, but not MPhi from LPS-non-responder C3H/HeJ after exposure to PL. DC, but not MPhi, incubated with PL containing ovalbumin (PL-OVA) presented OVA-specific peptides to CD4+ and CD8+ OVA-specific T-cell hybridomas. These data clearly indicate that PL exert an immunomodulatory effect on DC and MPhi, with some contribution of non-LPS components besides the main role of LPS. The work also shows the potential of PL as a general system to deliver antigens to DC for presentation to CD4+ and CD8+ T-cells.

  19. Close genetic relationship between Legionella pneumophila serogroup 1 isolates from sputum specimens and puddles on roads, as determined by sequence-based typing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanatani, Jun-ichi; Isobe, Junko; Kimata, Keiko; Shima, Tomoko; Shimizu, Miwako; Kura, Fumiaki; Sata, Tetsutaro; Watahiki, Masanori

    2013-07-01

    We investigated the prevalence of Legionella species isolated from puddles on asphalt roads. In addition, we carried out sequence-based typing (SBT) analysis on the genetic relationship between L. pneumophila serogroup 1 (SG 1) isolates from puddles and from stock strains previously obtained from sputum specimens and public baths. Sixty-nine water samples were collected from puddles on roads at 6 fixed locations. Legionella species were detected in 33 samples (47.8%) regardless of season. Among the 325 isolates from puddles, strains of L. pneumophila SG 1, a major causative agent of Legionnaires' disease, were the most frequently isolated (n = 62, 19.1%). Sixty-two isolates of L. pneumophila SG 1 from puddles were classified into 36 sequence types (STs) by SBT. ST120 and ST48 were identified as major STs. Environmental ST120 strains from puddles were found for the first time in this study. Among the 14 STs of the clinical isolates (n = 19), 4 STs (n = 6, 31.6%), including ST120, were also detected in isolates from puddles on roads, and the sources of infection in these cases remained unclear. The lag-1 gene, a tentative marker for clinical isolates, was prevalent in puddle isolates (61.3%). Our findings suggest that puddles on asphalt roads serve as potential reservoirs for L. pneumophila in the environment.

  20. Parents’ and Adolescents’ Willingness to be Vaccinated Against Serogroup B Meningococcal Disease during a Mass Vaccination in Saguenay–Lac-St-Jean (Quebec

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eve Dubé

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A mass vaccination campaign with the 4CMenB vaccine (Bexsero®; Novartis Pharmaceutical Canada Inc was launched in a serogroup B endemic area in Quebec. A telephone survey was conducted to assess parental and adolescent opinions about the acceptability of the vaccine. Intent to receive the vaccine or vaccine receipt was reported by the majority of parents (93% and adolescents (75%. Meningitis was perceived as being a dangerous disease by the majority of parents and adolescents. The majority of respondents also considered the 4CMenB vaccine to be safe and effective. The main reason for positive vaccination intention or behaviour was self-protection, while a negative attitude toward vaccination in general was the main reason mentioned by parents who did not intend to have their child vaccinated. Adolescents mainly reported lack of interest, time or information, and low perceived susceptibility and disease severity as the main reasons for not intending to be vaccinated or not being vaccinated.

  1. Microbial ecology of biological invasions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van der Putten, W.H.; Klironomos, J.N.; Wardle, D.A.

    2007-01-01

    Invasive microbes, plants and animals are a major threat to the composition and functioning of ecosystems; however, the mechanistic basis of why exotic species can be so abundant and disruptive is not well understood. Most studies have focused on invasive plants and animals, although few have

  2. Invasive tightly coupled processor arrays

    CERN Document Server

    LARI, VAHID

    2016-01-01

    This book introduces new massively parallel computer (MPSoC) architectures called invasive tightly coupled processor arrays. It proposes strategies, architecture designs, and programming interfaces for invasive TCPAs that allow invading and subsequently executing loop programs with strict requirements or guarantees of non-functional execution qualities such as performance, power consumption, and reliability. For the first time, such a configurable processor array architecture consisting of locally interconnected VLIW processing elements can be claimed by programs, either in full or in part, using the principle of invasive computing. Invasive TCPAs provide unprecedented energy efficiency for the parallel execution of nested loop programs by avoiding any global memory access such as GPUs and may even support loops with complex dependencies such as loop-carried dependencies that are not amenable to parallel execution on GPUs. For this purpose, the book proposes different invasion strategies for claiming a desire...

  3. [Invasive pulmonary aspergillosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanchard, E; Gabriel, F; Jeanne-Leroyer, C; Servant, V; Dumas, P-Y

    2018-02-01

    Invasive pulmonary aspergillosis (IPA) is an important cause of morbidity and mortality in a wide range of patients. Early recognition and diagnosis have become a major focus in improving the management and outcomes of this life-threatening disease. IPA typically occurs during a period of severe and prolonged neutropenia. However, solid organ transplant recipients, patients under immunosuppressive therapy or hospitalized in intensive care units are also at risk. The diagnosis is suspected in the presence of a combination of clinical, biological and CT scan evidence. The microbiological diagnostic strategy should be adapted to the patient's profile. Conventional methods with culture and species identification remain the standard but early diagnosis has been improved by the use of biomarkers such as galactomannan antigen in serum or in bronchoalveolar lavage. The epidemiology of IPA should change with the increased use of antifungal prophylactic regimens and the arrival of targeted therapies. Other microbiological tools, such as PCR and other biomarkers, are currently being assessed. IPA must be considered in a wide range of patients. Its prognosis remains poor despite progress in the microbiological diagnosis and therapeutic management. Copyright © 2018 SPLF. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  4. Non-invasive hemoglobin monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph, Bellal; Haider, Ansab; Rhee, Peter

    2016-09-01

    Technology has transformed the practice of medicine and surgery in particular over the last several decades. This change in practice has allowed diagnostic and therapeutic tests to be performed less invasively. Hemoglobin monitoring remains one of the most commonly performed diagnostic tests in the United States. Recently, non-invasive hemoglobin monitoring technology has gained popularity. The aim of this article is to review the principles of how this technology works, pros and cons, and the implications of non-invasive hemoglobin technology particularly in trauma surgery. Copyright © 2015 IJS Publishing Group Ltd. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Micafungin in the treatment of invasive candidiasis and invasive aspergillosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathan P Wiederhold

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Nathan P Wiederhold1, Jason M Cota2, Christopher R Frei11University of Texas at Austin College of Pharmacy, Austin, Texas, USA; 2University of the Incarnate Word Feik School of Pharmacy, San Antonio, Texas, USAAbstract: Micafungin is an echinocandin antifungal agent available for clinical use in Japan, Europe, and the United States. Through inhibition of β-1,3-glucan production, an essential component of the fungal cell wall, micafungin exhibits potent antifungal activity against key pathogenic fungi, including Candida and Aspergillus species, while contributing minimal toxicity to mammalian cells. This activity is maintained against polyene and azole-resistant isolates. Pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic studies have demonstrated linear kinetics both in adults and children with concentration-dependent activity observed both in vitro and in vivo. Dosage escalation studies have also demonstrated that doses much higher than those currently recommended may be administered without serious adverse effects. Clinically, micafungin has been shown to be efficacious for the treatment of invasive candidiasis and invasive aspergillosis. Furthermore, the clinical effectiveness of micafungin against these infections occurs without the drug interactions that occur with the azoles and the nephrotoxicity observed with amphotericin B formulations. This review will focus on the pharmacology, clinical microbiology, mechanisms of resistance, safety, and clinical efficacy of micafungin in the treatment of invasive candidiasis and invasive aspergillosis.Keywords: micafungin, echinocandin, Candida, Aspergillus, invasive candidiasis, invasive aspergillosis

  6. Squamous cell carcinoma - invasive (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    This irregular red nodule is an invasive squamous cell carcinoma (a form of skin cancer). Initial appearance, shown here, may be very similar to a noncancerous growth called a keratoacanthoma. Squamous cell cancers ...

  7. The mathematics behind biological invasions

    CERN Document Server

    Lewis, Mark A; Potts, Jonathan R

    2016-01-01

    This book investigates the mathematical analysis of biological invasions. Unlike purely qualitative treatments of ecology, it draws on mathematical theory and methods, equipping the reader with sharp tools and rigorous methodology. Subjects include invasion dynamics, species interactions, population spread, long-distance dispersal, stochastic effects, risk analysis, and optimal responses to invaders. While based on the theory of dynamical systems, including partial differential equations and integrodifference equations, the book also draws on information theory, machine learning, Monte Carlo methods, optimal control, statistics, and stochastic processes. Applications to real biological invasions are included throughout. Ultimately, the book imparts a powerful principle: that by bringing ecology and mathematics together, researchers can uncover new understanding of, and effective response strategies to, biological invasions. It is suitable for graduate students and established researchers in mathematical ecolo...

  8. Invasive Meningococcal Men Y Disease

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2012-04-18

    Dr. Leonard Mayer, a public health microbiologist at CDC, discusses invasive meningococcal disease.  Created: 4/18/2012 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 4/23/2012.

  9. Combined Haemophilus Influenzae type B-Neisseria meningitidis serogroup C vaccine is immunogenic and well tolerated in preterm infants when coadministered with other routinely recommended vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omeñaca, Félix; Arístegui, Javier; Tejedor, Juan Carlos; Moreno-Perez, David; Ruiz-Contreras, Jésus; Merino, Jose Manuel; Muro Brussi, Marta; Sánchez-Tamayo, Tomás; Castro Fernandez, Javier; Cabanillas, Lucia; Peddiraju, Kavitha; Mesaros, Narcisa; Miller, Jacqueline M

    2011-11-01

    Preterm infants are at greater risk of morbidity from vaccine-preventable diseases. Therefore, their responses to vaccination are of particular interest. In this open, controlled, Spanish multicenter study, we assessed immunogenicity and safety following primary vaccination of 163 preterm infants (n = 56, 36 weeks' gestation), with Haemophilus Influenzae type B (Hib)-MenC-TT, DTaP(diphtheria-tetanus-acellular pertussis vaccine)-HepB-IPV, and PCV7 at 2 to 4-6 months of age followed by booster vaccination at 16 to 18 months of age. Serum bactericidal activity (rabbit complement) against MenC, and antibodies to Hib and hepatitis b (anti-HBs) were determined. Local/general symptoms were assessed after each vaccination via diary cards. Serious adverse events were recorded throughout the study. There were no statistically significant differences between preterm and full-term infants in either Hib or MenC seroprotection rates or geometric mean concentrations at 1 month postdose 3, before or 1 month postbooster. Postdose 3, >99% of participants had seroprotective anti-HBs antibody concentrations. Anti-HBs geometric mean concentrations was significantly lower in the group compared with other groups and this difference persisted until 16 to 18 months of age. Hib-MenC-TT vaccine was well tolerated at all ages. There was one death caused by meningococcal serogroup-B sepsis (full term). No serious adverse events were assessed by the investigator as being vaccine related. Hib-MenC-TT vaccine had a similar immunogenicity and safety profile in preterm and full-term infants. These results demonstrate that preterm infants can be safely vaccinated with Hib-MenC-TT at the recommended chronologic age without impacting the responses to the Hib and MenC antigens.

  10. Immunogenicity, reactogenicity, and safety of a P1.7b,4 strain-specific serogroup B meningococcal vaccine given to preteens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosking, Jamie; Rasanathan, Kumanan; Mow, Florina Chan; Jackson, Catherine; Martin, Diana; O'Hallahan, Jane; Oster, Philipp; Ypma, Ellen; Reid, Stewart; Aaberge, Ingeborg; Crengle, Sue; Stewart, Joanna; Lennon, Diana

    2007-11-01

    New Zealand (NZ) has experienced a Neisseria meningitidis serogroup B epidemic since 1991. MeNZB, a strain-specific outer membrane vesicle vaccine made using an NZ epidemic strain isolate, NZ98/254 (B:4:P1.7b,4), from two manufacturing sites, the Norwegian Institute of Public Health (NIPH) and Chiron Vaccines (CV; now Novartis), was evaluated for safety, immunogenicity, and reactogenicity in this observer-blind trial with 8- to 12-year-old children. In year 1, cohort A (n = 302) was randomized 4:1 for receipt of NIPH-MeNZB or MenBvac (Norwegian parent vaccine strain 44/76; B:15:P1.7,16). In year 2, cohort B (n = 313) was randomized 4:1 for receipt of CV-MeNZB or NIPH-MeNZB. Participants all received three vaccinations 6 weeks apart. Local and systemic reactions were monitored for 7 days. Seroresponse was defined as a fourfold or greater rise in the serum bactericidal antibody titer from the baseline titer as measured by a serum bactericidal assay. Those with baseline titers of /=1:8 to serorespond. Intention-to-treat (ITT) and per protocol (PP) analyses are presented. In cohort A, 74% (ITT) and 73% (PP) of NIPH-MeNZB recipients demonstrated seroresponses against NZ98/254 after three doses, versus 32% (ITT and PP) of MenBvac recipients. In cohort B, seroresponses against NZ98/254 after three doses occurred in 79% (ITT and PP) of CV-MeNZB versus 75% (ITT) and 76% (PP) of NIPH-MeNZB recipients. Vaccines were tolerable, with no vaccine-related serious adverse events. In conclusion, the NZ strain meningococcal B vaccine (MeNZB) from either manufacturing site was immunogenic against New Zealand epidemic vaccine strain meningococci with no safety concerns when given in three doses to these 8- to 12-year-old children.

  11. Emergence and genomic diversification of a virulent serogroup W:ST-2881(CC175) Neisseria meningitidis clone in the African meningitis belt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamelas, Araceli; Hauser, Julia; Dangy, Jean-Pierre; Hamid, Abdul-Wahab M; Röltgen, Katharina; Abdul Sater, Mohamad R; Hodgson, Abraham; Sie, Ali; Junghanss, Thomas; Harris, Simon R; Parkhill, Julian; Bentley, Stephen D; Pluschke, Gerd

    2017-08-01

    Countries of the African 'meningitis belt' are susceptible to meningococcal meningitis outbreaks. While in the past major epidemics have been primarily caused by serogroup A meningococci, W strains are currently responsible for most of the cases. After an epidemic in Mecca in 2000, W:ST-11 strains have caused many outbreaks worldwide. An unrelated W:ST-2881 clone was described for the first time in 2002, with the first meningitis cases caused by these bacteria reported in 2003. Here we describe results of a comparative whole-genome analysis of 74 W:ST-2881 strains isolated within the framework of two longitudinal colonization and disease studies conducted in Ghana and Burkina Faso. Genomic data indicate that the W:ST-2881 clone has emerged from Y:ST-175(CC175) bacteria by capsule switching. The circulating W:ST-2881 populations were composed of a variety of closely related but distinct genomic variants with no systematic differences between colonization and disease isolates. Two distinct and geographically clustered phylogenetic clonal variants were identified in Burkina Faso and a third in Ghana. On the basis of the presence or absence of 17 recombination fragments, the Ghanaian variant could be differentiated into five clusters. All 25 Ghanaian disease isolates clustered together with 23 out of 40 Ghanaian isolates associated with carriage within one cluster, indicating that W:ST-2881 clusters differ in virulence. More than half of the genes affected by horizontal gene transfer encoded proteins of the 'cell envelope' and the 'transport/binding protein' categories, which indicates that exchange of non-capsular antigens plays an important role in immune evasion.

  12. Quantifying the invasiveness of species

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Colautti, R. I.; Parker, J. D.; Cadotte, M. W.; Pyšek, Petr; Brown, C. S.; Sax, D. F.; Richardson, D. M.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 21, č. 1 (2014), s. 7-27 ISSN 1619-0033 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP505/11/1112; GA ČR(CZ) GAP504/11/1028 Grant - others:AV ČR(CZ) AP1002 Program:Akademická prémie - Praemium Academiae Institutional support: RVO:67985939 Keywords : biological invasions * biogeographical comparison * invasiveness Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour

  13. Randomized Trial to Compare the Immunogenicity and Safety of a CRM or TT Conjugated Quadrivalent Meningococcal Vaccine in Teenagers who Received a CRM or TT Conjugated Serogroup C Vaccine at Preschool Age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishola, David A; Andrews, Nick; Waight, Pauline; Yung, Chee-Fu; Southern, Jo; Bai, Xilian; Findlow, Helen; Matheson, Mary; England, Anna; Hallis, Bassam; Findlow, Jamie; Borrow, Ray; Miller, Elizabeth

    2015-08-01

    Protection after meningococcal C (MenC) conjugate (MCC) vaccination in early childhood is short-lived. Boosting with a quadrivalent vaccine in teenage years, a high-risk period for MenC disease, should protect against additional serogroups but might compromise MenC response. The carrier protein in the primary MCC vaccine determines the response to MCC booster in toddlers, but the relationship between primary vaccine and booster given later is unclear. This study compared responses to a CRM-conjugated or tetanus toxoid (TT)-conjugated MenACWY vaccine in teenagers primed with different MCC vaccines at preschool age. Ninety-three teenagers (16-19 years), who were previously randomized at age 3-6 years to receive single-dose MCC-CRM or MCC-TT, were randomized to receive either MenACWY-CRM or MenACWY-TT booster. Serum bactericidal antibodies (SBA, protective titer ≥ 8) were measured before, 1 month and 6 or 9 months after boosting. Preboosting, MCC-TT-primed teenagers had significantly higher MenC SBA titers than those MCC-CRM-primed (P = 0.02). Postboosting, both MenACWY vaccines induced protective SBA titers to all 4 serogroups in most participants (≥ 98% at 1 month and ≥ 90% by 9 months postboost). The highest MenC SBA titers were seen in those MCC-TT-primed and MenACWY-TT-boosted [geometric mean titer (GMT) ~ 22,000] followed by those boosted with MenACWY-CRM irrespective of priming (GMT ~ 12,000) and then those MCC-CRM-primed and MenACWY-TT-boosted (GMT ~ 5500). The estimated postbooster MenC SBA decline beyond 1 month was ~40% as time since booster doubles. Both vaccines were well tolerated with no attributable serious adverse events. Both MenACWY vaccines safely induced protective sustained antibody responses against all targeted serogroups in MCC-primed teenagers.

  14. Epidemiology of vaccine-preventable invasive diseases in Catalonia in the era of conjugate vaccines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciruela, Pilar; Martínez, Ana; Izquierdo, Conchita; Hernández, Sergi; Broner, Sonia; Muñoz-Almagro, Carmen; Domínguez, Àngela; of Catalonia Study Group, the Microbiological Reporting System

    2013-01-01

    We investigated the incidence and distribution of cases of invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD), invasive meningococcal disease (IMD) and invasive Hemophilus influenzae disease (IHiD) notified by hospital laboratories to the Microbiological Reporting System of Catalonia between 2005 and 2009. Incidence rates were compared using the rate ratio (RR) and 95% CI were calculated. A value of p cases, 6,012 were IPD, 436 IMD and 213 IHiD. The global annual incidence per 105 inhabitants was 16.62 (95% CI 16.20–17.04) for IPD, 1.21 (95% CI 1.09–1.32) for IMD and 0.59 (95% CI 0.51–0.67) for IHiD. IPD increased in 2009 compared with 2005 (RR:1.55, 95%CI: 1.43–1.70) and IMD and IHiD remained stable. Pneumonia was the most-frequent clinical manifestation of IPD (75.6%) and IHiD (44.1%) and meningoencephalitis with or without sepsis for IMD (70.6%). The male:female ratio was 1.37 for IPD, 1.0 for IMD and 1.15 for IHiD. The age groups with the highest incidence were the ≤ 2 y and 2–4 y groups for IPD (66.40 and 50.66/100,000 persons-year) and IMD (14.88 and 7.26/100,000 persons-year) and the ≤ 2 y and ≥ 65 y groups for IHiD (1.88 and 1.89/100,000 persons-year). The most-frequent serotypes were serotype 1 (19.0%) in IPD and untypeable serotypes (60.8%) in IHiD. Serogroup B (78.3%) was the most frequent in IMD. S. pneumoniae is the most-frequent agent causing invasive disease in Catalonia. The main clinical manifestations were pneumonia in IPD and IHiD and meningitis in IMD. The main causative agent of meningitis was N. meningitidis in people aged < 20 y and S. pneumoniae in people aged ≥ 20 y. Vaccination with conjugate vaccines may reduce the risk of infectious disease in our setting. PMID:23303166

  15. Evaluation of the induction of immune memory following infant immunisation with serogroup C Neisseria meningitidis conjugate vaccines--exploratory analyses within a randomised controlled trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ameneh Khatami

    Full Text Available We measured meningococcal serogroup C (MenC-specific memory B-cell responses in infants by Enzyme-Linked Immunospot (ELISpot following different MenC conjugate vaccine schedules to investigate the impact of priming on immune memory.Infants aged 2 months were randomised to receive 1 or 2 doses of MenC-CRM197 at 3 or 3 and 4 months, 1 dose of MenC-TT at 3 months, or no primary MenC doses. All children received a Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib-MenC booster at 12 months. Blood was drawn at 5, 12, 12 months +6 days and 13 months of age.Results were available for 110, 103, 76 and 44 children from each group respectively. Following primary immunisations, and prior to the 12-month booster, there were no significant differences between 1- or 2-dose primed children in the number of MenC memory B-cells detected. One month following the booster, children primed with 1 dose MenC-TT had more memory B-cells than children primed with either 1-dose (p = 0.001 or 2-dose (p<0.0001 MenC-CRM197. There were no differences in MenC memory B-cells detected in children who received 1 or 2 doses of MenC-CRM197 in infancy and un-primed children.MenC-specific memory B-cell production may be more dependent on the type of primary vaccine used than the number of doses administered. Although the mechanistic differences between MenC-CRM197 and MenC-TT priming are unclear, it is possible that structural differences, including the carrier proteins, may underlie differential interactions with B- and T-cell populations, and thus different effects on various memory B-cell subsets. A MenC-TT/Hib-MenC-TT combination for priming/boosting may offer an advantage in inducing more persistent antibody.EU Clinical Trials Register 2009-016579-31 ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01129518.

  16. A meta-analysis of trait differences between invasive and non-invasive plant species

    OpenAIRE

    van Kleunen, Mark; Weber, Ewald; Fischer, Markus

    2010-01-01

    A major aim in ecology is identifying determinants of invasiveness. We performed a meta-analysis of 117 field or experimental-garden studies that measured pair-wise trait differences of a total of 125 invasive and 196 non-invasive plant species in the invasive range of the invasive species. We tested whether invasiveness is associated with performance-related traits (physiology, leaf-area allocation, shoot allocation, growth rate, size and fitness), and whether such associations depend on typ...

  17. Molecular epidemiology and emergence of worldwide epidemic clones of Neisseria meningitidis in Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chang Hsiu-Li

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Meningococcal disease is infrequently found in Taiwan, a country with 23 million people. Between 1996 and 2002, 17 to 81 clinical cases of the disease were reported annually. Reported cases dramatically increased in 2001–2002. Our record shows that only serogroup B and W135 meningococci have been isolated from patients with meningococcal disease until 2000. However, serogroup A, C and Y meningococci were detected for the first time in 2001 and continued to cause disease through 2002. Most of serogroup Y meningococcus infections localized in Central Taiwan in 2001, indicating that a small-scale outbreak of meningococcal disease had occurred. The occurrence of a meningococcal disease outbreak and the emergence of new meningococcal strains are of public health concern. Methods Neisseria meningitidis isolates from patients with meningococcal disease from 1996 to 2002 were collected and characterized by serogrouping, pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE and multilocus sequence typing (MLST. The genetic relatedness and clonal relationship between the isolates were analyzed by using the PFGE patterns and the allelic profiles of the sequence types (STs. Results Serogroups A, B, C, W135, Y, and non-serogroupable Neisseria meningitidis were, respectively, responsible for 2%, 50%, 2%, 35%, 9%, and 2% of 158 culture-confirmed cases of meningococcal disease in 1996–2002. Among 100 N. meningitidis isolates available for PFGE and MLST analyses, 51 different PFGE patterns and 30 STs were identified with discriminatory indices of 0.95 and 0.87, respectively. Of the 30 STs, 21 were newly identified and of which 19 were found in serogroup B isolates. A total of 40 PFGE patterns were identified in 52 serogroup B isolates with the patterns distributed over several distinct clusters. In contrast, the isolates within each of the serogroups A, C, W135, and Y shared high levels of PFGE pattern similarity. Analysis of the allelic profile of the

  18. Advertising and Invasion of Privacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohrer, Daniel Morgan

    The right of privacy as it relates to advertising and the use of a person's name or likeness is discussed in this paper. After an introduction that traces some of the history of invasion of privacy in court decisions, the paper examines cases involving issues such as public figures and newsworthy items, right of privacy waived, right of privacy…

  19. Radiological characterization of invasive prolactinomas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mauricio, J.C.; Goulao, A.; Ribeiro, C.; Campos, J.

    1983-01-01

    Clinical problems are analized of invasive prolactinomas, from the radiographic records of the Hospital Egas Moniz (Neuro-radiological Departament). The purpose of this paper is contribute for the anatomic-radiological knowledge and clinical progress, under medical treatment, of the macroprolactinomas that have some characteristics that differentiate them from the small adenomas. (Author) [pt

  20. Biological invasions in forest ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrew M. Liebhold; Eckehard G. Brockerhoff; Susan Kalisz; Martin A. Nuñez; David A. Wardle; Michael J. Wingfield

    2017-01-01

    Forests play critical roles in global ecosystem processes and provide numerous services to society. But forests are increasingly affected by a variety of human influences, especially those resulting from biological invasions. Species invading forests include woody and herbaceous plants, many animal species including mammals and invertebrates, as well as a variety of...

  1. Invasive cranial mycosis our experiences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tapas Kumbhkar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Fungi can cause serious cranial infections in immunocompromised and diabetic patients. Common pathogens mainly include Aspergillus and Mucor. These organisms cause tissue invasion and destruction of adjacent structures (e.g. orbit, ethmoid, sphenoid, maxillary & cavernous sinuses. Mortality and morbidity rate is high despite combined surgical, antifungal and antidiabetic treatment. We present our experience of six cases with such infection.

  2. Vaccines against invasive Salmonella disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacLennan, Calman A; Martin, Laura B; Micoli, Francesca

    2014-01-01

    Though primarily enteric pathogens, Salmonellae are responsible for a considerable yet under-appreciated global burden of invasive disease. In South and South-East Asia, this manifests as enteric fever caused by serovars Typhi and Paratyphi A. In sub-Saharan Africa, a similar disease burden results from invasive nontyphoidal Salmonellae, principally serovars Typhimurium and Enteritidis. The existing Ty21a live-attenuated and Vi capsular polysaccharide vaccines target S. Typhi and are not effective in young children where the burden of invasive Salmonella disease is highest. After years of lack of investment in new Salmonella vaccines, recent times have seen increased interest in the area led by emerging-market manufacturers, global health vaccine institutes and academic partners. New glycoconjugate vaccines against S. Typhi are becoming available with similar vaccines against other invasive serovars in development. With other new vaccines under investigation, including live-attenuated, protein-based and GMMA vaccines, now is an exciting time for the Salmonella vaccine field. PMID:24804797

  3. Acquiring minimally invasive surgical skills

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hiemstra, Ellen

    2012-01-01

    Many topics in surgical skills education have been implemented without a solid scientific basis. For that reason we have tried to find this scientific basis. We have focused on training and evaluation of minimally invasive surgical skills in a training setting and in practice in the operating room.

  4. Indirect effects of childhood pneumococcal conjugate vaccination on invasive pneumococcal disease: a systematic review and meta-analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tinevimbo Shiri, DrPhD

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Summary: Background: The full extent to which childhood pneumococcal conjugate vaccines (PCV can indirectly reduce illness in unvaccinated populations is not known. We aimed to estimate the magnitude and timing of indirect effects of PCVs on invasive pneumococcal disease. Methods: In this systematic review and meta-analysis, we searched bibliographic databases for non-randomised quasi-experimental or observational studies reporting invasive pneumococcal disease changes following PCV introduction in unvaccinated populations (studies published Sept 1, 2010, to Jan 6, 2016, updating the previous systematic review of the same topic (studies published Jan 1, 1994, to Sept 30, 2010. Two reviewers extracted summary data by consensus. We used a Bayesian mixed-effects model to account for between-study heterogeneity to estimate temporal indirect effects by pooling of invasive pneumococcal disease changes by serotype and serogroup. Findings: Data were extracted from 70 studies included in the previous review and 172 additional studies, covering 27 high-income and seven middle-income countries. The predicted mean times to attaining a 90% reduction in invasive pneumococcal disease were 8·9 years (95% credible interval [CrI] 7·8–10·3 for grouped serotypes contained in the seven-valent PCV (PCV7, and 9·5 years (6·1–16·6 for the grouped six additional serotypes contained in the 13-valent PCV (PCV13 but not in PCV7. Disease due to grouped serotypes contained in the 23-valent pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine (PPV23 decreased at similar rates per year in adults aged 19–64 years (relative risk [RR] 0·85, 95% CrI 0·75–0·95 and 65 years and older (0·87, 0·84–0·90. However, we noted no changes in either group in invasive pneumococcal disease caused by the additional 11 serotypes covered by PPV23 but not PCV13. Interpretation: Population childhood PCV programmes will lead, on average, to substantial protection across the whole population

  5. 76 FR 68776 - Invasive Species Advisory Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-07

    ... broad array of issues related to preventing the introduction of invasive species and providing for their...-2012 Invasive Species National Management Plan. The meeting is open to the public. An orientation...

  6. 77 FR 23740 - Invasive Species Advisory Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-20

    ... broad array of issues related to preventing the introduction of invasive species and providing for their... both ecological and management contexts, will center on topics that: (1) Pertain to invasive species...

  7. Genetic structure of Neisseria meningitidis serogroup C epidemic strains in South Brazil Estrutura genética de cepas epidêmicas de Neisseria meningitidis sorogrupo C do Sul do Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudio Tavares Sacchi

    1995-08-01

    Full Text Available In the present study we report the results of an analysis, based on serotyping, multilocus enzyme electrophoresis (MEE, and ribotyping of N. meningitidis serogroup C strains isolated from patients with meningococcal disease (MD in Rio Grande do Sul (RS and Santa Catarina (SC States, Brazil, as the Center of Epidemiology Control of Ministry of Health detected an increasing of MD cases due to this serogroup in the last two years (1992-1993. We have demonstrated that the MD due to N.meningitidis serogroup C strains in RS and SC States occurring in the last 4 years were caused mainly by one clone of strains (ET 40, with isolates indistinguishable by serogroup, serotype, subtype and even by ribotyping. One small number of cases that were not due to an ET 40 strains, represent closely related clones that probably are new lineages generated from the ET 40 clone referred as ET 11A complex. We have also analyzed N.meningitidis serogroup C strains isolated in the greater São Paulo in 1976 as representative of the first post epidemic year in that region. The ribotyping method, as well as MEE, could provide useful information about the clonal characteristics of those isolates and also of strains isolated in south Brazil. The strains from 1976 have more similarity with the actual endemic than epidemic strains, by the ribotyping, sulfonamide sensitivity, and MEE results. In conclusion, serotyping with monoclonal antibodies (C:2b:P1.3, MEE (ET 11 and ET 11A complex, and ribotyping by using ClaI restriction enzyme (Rb2, were useful to characterize these epidemic strains of N.meningitidis related to the increased incidence of MD in different States of south Brazil. It is mostly probable that these N.meningitidis serogroup C strains have poor or no genetic corelation with 1971-1975 epidemic serogroup C strains. The genetic similarity of members of the ET 11 and ET 11A complex were confirmed by the ribotyping method by using three restriction endonucleases

  8. Invasive plants in 21st Century landscapes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valerie. Rapp

    2005-01-01

    A plant species is defined as invasive if it is nonnative to the ecosystem under consideration, and if it causes or is likely to cause economic or environmental harm or harm to human health. Nonnative plant invasions are generally considered to have reached the Pacific Northwest in the mid-1800s with the arrival of European-American settlers. Invasive species such as...

  9. 75 FR 29359 - Invasive Species Advisory Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-25

    ... Council is co-chaired by the Secretary of the Interior, the Secretary of Agriculture, and the Secretary of... of the most invaded marine/coastal environments in the world, with over 50 invasive species that... development of state invasive species councils. DATES: Meeting of the Invasive Species Advisory Committee...

  10. CONSERVATION PROGRAMS THAT PROMOTE INVASIVE SPECIES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Invasive plant species are degrading the structure and function of ecosystems throughout the world. Although most state and federal conservation agencies in the U.S. attempt to reduce the impact of invasive species, some agency activities can contribute to the spread of invasive...

  11. Invasive Species Science Update (No. 7)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dean Pearson; Yvette Ortega; Jack Butler

    2014-01-01

    Invasive Species Science Updates are designed to keep managers and other users up-to-date with recently completed and ongoing research by RMRS scientists, as well as highlight breaking news related to invasive species issues. The newsletter is produced by the RMRS Invasive Species Working Group (ISWG), which is a core group of scientists who volunteer to coordinate...

  12. Invasive Plants on Rangelands: a Global Threat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Invasive plant species are spreading and invading rangelands at an unprecedented rate costing ranchers billions of dollars to control invasive plants each year. In its simplest form, the invasion process has four primary stages, including introduction, establishment, spread and colonization. Th...

  13. Do invasive plant species alter soil health?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Invasive species may alter soil characteristics or interact with the soil microbial community to yield a competitive advantage. Our objectives were to determine: if invasive plant species alter soil properties important to soil health; and the long-term effects of invasive plant species on soil pro...

  14. Invasive plant species in hardwood tree plantations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rochelle R. Beasley; Paula M. Pijut

    2010-01-01

    Invasive plants are species that can grow and spread aggressively, mature quickly, and invade an ecosystem causing economic and environmental damage. Invasive plants usually invade disturbed areas, but can also colonize small areas quickly, and may spread and dominate large areas in a few short years. Invasive plant species displace native or desirable forest...

  15. Terrestrial animals as invasive species and as species at risk from invasions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deborah M. Finch; Dean Pearson; Joseph Wunderle; Wayne Arendt

    2010-01-01

    Including terrestrial animal species in the invasive species strategy plan is an important step in invasive species management. Invasions by nonindigenous species threaten nearly 50 percent of imperiled native species in the United States and are the Nation's second leading cause of species endangerment. Invasion and conversion of native habitats by exotic species...

  16. The risk of establishment of aquatic invasive species: joining invasibility and propagule pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, Brian; Mandrak, Nicholas E

    2007-10-22

    Invasive species are increasingly becoming a policy priority. This has spurred researchers and managers to try to estimate the risk of invasion. Conceptually, invasions are dependent both on the receiving environment (invasibility) and on the ability to reach these new areas (propagule pressure). However, analyses of risk typically examine only one or the other. Here, we develop and apply a joint model of invasion risk that simultaneously incorporates invasibility and propagule pressure. We present arguments that the behaviour of these two elements of risk differs substantially--propagule pressure is a function of time, whereas invasibility is not--and therefore have different management implications. Further, we use the well-studied zebra mussel (Dreissena polymorpha) to contrast predictions made using the joint model to those made by separate invasibility and propagule pressure models. We show that predictions of invasion progress as well as of the long-term invasion pattern are strongly affected by using a joint model.

  17. Radiologic aspects in invasive aspergillosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feger, C.; Kerviler, E. de; Zagdanski, A.M.; Attal, P.; Cyna-Gorse, F.; Frija, J.; Laval-Jeantet, M.

    1994-01-01

    Invasive aspergillosis is a life-threatening illness, whose diagnosis is difficult: clinical signs are indeed not specific, and biological and mycological exams are not always conclusive. Radiological exams are essential for the diagnosis of this disease allowing to start an early intensive appropriate therapy. According to the literature and to their own experience the authors report the main radiological patterns with emphasis on the pulmonary and cerebral affections. (authors). 26 refs., 5 figs

  18. [Minimally invasive coronary artery surgery].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zalaquett, R; Howard, M; Irarrázaval, M J; Morán, S; Maturana, G; Becker, P; Medel, J; Sacco, C; Lema, G; Canessa, R; Cruz, F

    1999-01-01

    There is a growing interest to perform a left internal mammary artery (LIMA) graft to the left anterior descending coronary artery (LAD) on a beating heart through a minimally invasive access to the chest cavity. To report the experience with minimally invasive coronary artery surgery. Analysis of 11 patients aged 48 to 79 years old with single vessel disease that, between 1996 and 1997, had a LIMA graft to the LAD performed through a minimally invasive left anterior mediastinotomy, without cardiopulmonary bypass. A 6 to 10 cm left parasternal incision was done. The LIMA to the LAD anastomosis was done after pharmacological heart rate and blood pressure control and a period of ischemic pre conditioning. Graft patency was confirmed intraoperatively by standard Doppler techniques. Patients were followed for a mean of 11.6 months (7-15 months). All patients were extubated in the operating room and transferred out of the intensive care unit on the next morning. Seven patients were discharged on the third postoperative day. Duplex scanning confirmed graft patency in all patients before discharge; in two patients, it was confirmed additionally by arteriography. There was no hospital mortality, no perioperative myocardial infarction and no bleeding problems. After follow up, ten patients were free of angina, in functional class I and pleased with the surgical and cosmetic results. One patient developed atypical angina on the seventh postoperative month and a selective arteriography confirmed stenosis of the anastomosis. A successful angioplasty of the original LAD lesion was carried out. A minimally invasive left anterior mediastinotomy is a good surgical access to perform a successful LIMA to LAD graft without cardiopulmonary bypass, allowing a shorter hospital stay and earlier postoperative recovery. However, a larger experience and a longer follow up is required to define its role in the treatment of coronary artery disease.

  19. Acquiring minimally invasive surgical skills

    OpenAIRE

    Hiemstra, Ellen

    2012-01-01

    Many topics in surgical skills education have been implemented without a solid scientific basis. For that reason we have tried to find this scientific basis. We have focused on training and evaluation of minimally invasive surgical skills in a training setting and in practice in the operating room. This thesis has led to an enlarged insight in the organization of surgical skills training during residency training of surgical medical specialists.

  20. Biological invasions, ecological resilience and adaptive governance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaffin, Brian C; Garmestani, Ahjond S; Angeler, David G; Herrmann, Dustin L; Stow, Craig A; Nyström, Magnus; Sendzimir, Jan; Hopton, Matthew E; Kolasa, Jurek; Allen, Craig R

    2016-12-01

    In a world of increasing interconnections in global trade as well as rapid change in climate and land cover, the accelerating introduction and spread of invasive species is a critical concern due to associated negative social and ecological impacts, both real and perceived. Much of the societal response to invasive species to date has been associated with negative economic consequences of invasions. This response has shaped a war-like approach to addressing invasions, one with an agenda of eradications and intense ecological restoration efforts towards prior or more desirable ecological regimes. This trajectory often ignores the concept of ecological resilience and associated approaches of resilience-based governance. We argue that the relationship between ecological resilience and invasive species has been understudied to the detriment of attempts to govern invasions, and that most management actions fail, primarily because they do not incorporate adaptive, learning-based approaches. Invasive species can decrease resilience by reducing the biodiversity that underpins ecological functions and processes, making ecosystems more prone to regime shifts. However, invasions do not always result in a shift to an alternative regime; invasions can also increase resilience by introducing novelty, replacing lost ecological functions or adding redundancy that strengthens already existing structures and processes in an ecosystem. This paper examines the potential impacts of species invasions on the resilience of ecosystems and suggests that resilience-based approaches can inform policy by linking the governance of biological invasions to the negotiation of tradeoffs between ecosystem services. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  1. Invasive Paget Disease of the Vulva.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borghi, Chiara; Bogani, Giorgio; Ditto, Antonino; Martinelli, Fabio; Signorelli, Mauro; Chiappa, Valentina; Scaffa, Cono; Perotto, Stefania; Leone Roberti Maggiore, Umberto; Recalcati, Dario; Lorusso, Domenica; Raspagliesi, Francesco

    2018-01-01

    Extramammary Paget disease of the vulva (EPDV) is a rare occurrence with an indolent and relapsing course. Progression to invasion occurs in 4% to 19% of cases. The aim of this study is to report clinical-pathological features and outcomes of patients treated for invasive EPDV. Data of consecutive patients treated between 2000 and 2017 for invasive EPDV were reviewed. Among 79 patients with EPDV, 10 (12.7%) presented a microinvasive or invasive form at first diagnosis or during follow-up. All of them underwent upfront radical surgery; 7 (70%) received subsequent radiotherapy, chemotherapy, or both. The mortality rate was 40%. The recurrence rate after treatment for invasive forms was 60%, with a mean time to first recurrence of 20 (range, 5-36) months. Our study confirms that invasive EPDV remains a rare gynecological neoplasm with a poor prognosis. Multicentre trials or well-organized prospective data collection could improve the knowledge about the management of invasive EPDV.

  2. Invasive predators and global biodiversity loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doherty, Tim S; Glen, Alistair S; Nimmo, Dale G; Ritchie, Euan G; Dickman, Chris R

    2016-10-04

    Invasive species threaten biodiversity globally, and invasive mammalian predators are particularly damaging, having contributed to considerable species decline and extinction. We provide a global metaanalysis of these impacts and reveal their full extent. Invasive predators are implicated in 87 bird, 45 mammal, and 10 reptile species extinctions-58% of these groups' contemporary extinctions worldwide. These figures are likely underestimated because 23 critically endangered species that we assessed are classed as "possibly extinct." Invasive mammalian predators endanger a further 596 species at risk of extinction, with cats, rodents, dogs, and pigs threatening the most species overall. Species most at risk from predators have high evolutionary distinctiveness and inhabit insular environments. Invasive mammalian predators are therefore important drivers of irreversible loss of phylogenetic diversity worldwide. That most impacted species are insular indicates that management of invasive predators on islands should be a global conservation priority. Understanding and mitigating the impact of invasive mammalian predators is essential for reducing the rate of global biodiversity loss.

  3. 3D-CRT, Proton, or Brachytherapy APBI in Treating Patients With Invasive and Non-invasive Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-12-29

    Ductal Breast Carcinoma In Situ; Estrogen Receptor Positive; Grade 1 Invasive Breast Carcinoma; Grade 2 Invasive Breast Carcinoma; Grade 3 Invasive Breast Carcinoma; Invasive Ductal and Lobular Carcinoma In Situ; Mucinous Breast Carcinoma; Tubular Breast Carcinoma

  4. Susceptibility of Meningococcal Strains Responsible for Two Serogroup B Outbreaks on U.S. University Campuses to Serum Bactericidal Activity Elicited by the MenB-4C Vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossi, Raffaella; Beernink, Peter T; Giuntini, Serena; Granoff, Dan M

    2015-12-01

    In 2013 and 2014, two U.S. universities had meningococcal serogroup B outbreaks (a total of 14 cases) caused by strains from two different clonal complexes. To control the outbreaks, students were immunized with a serogroup B meningococcal vaccine (Novartis) that was not yet licensed in the United States. The vaccine (referred to as MenB-4C) contains four components capable of eliciting bactericidal activity. Both outbreak strains had high expression levels of two of the vaccine antigens (subfamily B factor H binding protein [FHbp] and neisserial heparin binding antigen [NHba]); the university B outbreak strain also had moderate expression of a third antigen, NadA. We investigated the bactericidal activity of sera from mice immunized with FHbp, NHba, or NadA and sera from MenB-4C-immunized infant macaques and an adult human. The postimmunization bactericidal activity of the macaque or human serum against isolates from university B with FHbp identification (ID) 1 that exactly matched the vaccine FHbp sequence variant was 8- to 21-fold higher than that against isolates from university A with FHbp ID 276 (96% identity to the vaccine antigen). Based on the bactericidal activity of mouse antisera to FHbp, NadA, or NHba and macaque or human postimmunization serum that had been depleted of anti-FHbp antibody, the bactericidal activity against both outbreak strains largely or entirely resulted from antibodies to FHbp. Thus, despite the high level of strain expression of FHbp from a subfamily that matched the vaccine antigen, there can be large differences in anti-FHbp bactericidal activity induced by MenB-4C vaccination. Further, strains with moderate to high NadA and/or NHba expression can be resistant to anti-NadA or anti-NHba bactericidal activity elicited by MenB-4C vaccination. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  5. Invasive ductal carcinoma vs. invasive lobular carcinoma; mammographic findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Eun Chun; Do, Young Soo; Oh, Hoon Il; Han, Yoon Hee; Kim, Ki Soo; Chin, Soo Yil [Korea Cancer Center Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1996-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate mammographic findings of invasive ductal carcinoma (IDC) and invasive lobular carcinoma(ILC) and to find differential points between the two. 239 patients, who underwent mammography prior to surgery and were proved to have IDC(patients) or ILC(15 patients) pathologically, were analized retrospectively. On mammogram, presence of mass and microcalcification were analized. When there was a mass on mammogram, lesion opacity was classified into high, equal, or low opacity and border of the mass was classified into spiculated, poorly marginated, and well-marginated. When there was no definite mass, mammographic findings were classifie into asymmetric opacity and no mass. Masses were observed in 168 patients(75%) of IDC and 12 patients(80%) of ILC. Border of the masses were spiculated(n=50, 22.3%), poorly marginated(n=112, 50%), or well-marginated(n=6, 2.7%) in patients with IDC. Spiculated and poorly marginated borders were observed in 8 patients(53.3%) and 4 patients(26.7%) respectively, in patients with ILC. Microcalcifications were seen in 88 patients(17.3%) of IDC and patients(33.3%) of ILC. Although equal or low opacities were observed more frequently in ILC and microcalcifications were noted more frequently in IDC, it was difficult to differentiate the two diseases based on mammographic findings.

  6. Invasive ductal carcinoma vs. invasive lobular carcinoma; mammographic findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Eun Chun; Do, Young Soo; Oh, Hoon Il; Han, Yoon Hee; Kim, Ki Soo; Chin, Soo Yil

    1996-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate mammographic findings of invasive ductal carcinoma (IDC) and invasive lobular carcinoma(ILC) and to find differential points between the two. 239 patients, who underwent mammography prior to surgery and were proved to have IDC(patients) or ILC(15 patients) pathologically, were analized retrospectively. On mammogram, presence of mass and microcalcification were analized. When there was a mass on mammogram, lesion opacity was classified into high, equal, or low opacity and border of the mass was classified into spiculated, poorly marginated, and well-marginated. When there was no definite mass, mammographic findings were classifie into asymmetric opacity and no mass. Masses were observed in 168 patients(75%) of IDC and 12 patients(80%) of ILC. Border of the masses were spiculated(n=50, 22.3%), poorly marginated(n=112, 50%), or well-marginated(n=6, 2.7%) in patients with IDC. Spiculated and poorly marginated borders were observed in 8 patients(53.3%) and 4 patients(26.7%) respectively, in patients with ILC. Microcalcifications were seen in 88 patients(17.3%) of IDC and patients(33.3%) of ILC. Although equal or low opacities were observed more frequently in ILC and microcalcifications were noted more frequently in IDC, it was difficult to differentiate the two diseases based on mammographic findings

  7. Use of MenACWY-CRM in adolescents in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, Steven; Block, Stan L

    2013-03-01

    Adolescents constitute a high-risk group for invasive meningococcal disease. MenACWY-CRM (Menveo, Novartis Vaccines, Cambridge, MA) is a quadrivalent meningococcal conjugate vaccine indicated to prevent invasive meningococcal disease caused by Neisseria meningitidis serogroups A, C, W-135, and Y. It has been approved for use in persons age 2-55 years. The tolerability and immunogenicity of MenACWY-CRM in adolescents have been ascertained in phase 2 and 3 trials against MPSV4 (Menomune, sanofi pasteur, Swiftwater, PA), an unconjugated quadrivalent meningococcal vaccine, and MenACWY-D (Menactra, sanofi pasteur), another conjugated quadrivalent meningococcal vaccine. Clinical trials also have demonstrated that MenACWY-CRM is well tolerated and immunogenic when administered to adolescents concomitantly with the combined tetanus, diphtheria, and acellular pertussis vaccine (Boostrix, GlaxoSmithKline Biologicals, Rixensart, Belgium) and the quadrivalent human papillomavirus vaccine (Gardasil, Merck & Co., Inc., Whitehouse Station, NJ). Copyright © 2013 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Non-invasive neural stimulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyler, William J.; Sanguinetti, Joseph L.; Fini, Maria; Hool, Nicholas

    2017-05-01

    Neurotechnologies for non-invasively interfacing with neural circuits have been evolving from those capable of sensing neural activity to those capable of restoring and enhancing human brain function. Generally referred to as non-invasive neural stimulation (NINS) methods, these neuromodulation approaches rely on electrical, magnetic, photonic, and acoustic or ultrasonic energy to influence nervous system activity, brain function, and behavior. Evidence that has been surmounting for decades shows that advanced neural engineering of NINS technologies will indeed transform the way humans treat diseases, interact with information, communicate, and learn. The physics underlying the ability of various NINS methods to modulate nervous system activity can be quite different from one another depending on the energy modality used as we briefly discuss. For members of commercial and defense industry sectors that have not traditionally engaged in neuroscience research and development, the science, engineering and technology required to advance NINS methods beyond the state-of-the-art presents tremendous opportunities. Within the past few years alone there have been large increases in global investments made by federal agencies, foundations, private investors and multinational corporations to develop advanced applications of NINS technologies. Driven by these efforts NINS methods and devices have recently been introduced to mass markets via the consumer electronics industry. Further, NINS continues to be explored in a growing number of defense applications focused on enhancing human dimensions. The present paper provides a brief introduction to the field of non-invasive neural stimulation by highlighting some of the more common methods in use or under current development today.

  9. Antarctic crabs: invasion or endurance?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huw J Griffiths

    Full Text Available Recent scientific interest following the "discovery" of lithodid crabs around Antarctica has centred on a hypothesis that these crabs might be poised to invade the Antarctic shelf if the recent warming trend continues, potentially decimating its native fauna. This "invasion hypothesis" suggests that decapod crabs were driven out of Antarctica 40-15 million years ago and are only now returning as "warm" enough habitats become available. The hypothesis is based on a geographically and spatially poor fossil record of a different group of crabs (Brachyura, and examination of relatively few Recent lithodid samples from the Antarctic slope. In this paper, we examine the existing lithodid fossil record and present the distribution and biogeographic patterns derived from over 16,000 records of Recent Southern Hemisphere crabs and lobsters. Globally, the lithodid fossil record consists of only two known specimens, neither of which comes from the Antarctic. Recent records show that 22 species of crabs and lobsters have been reported from the Southern Ocean, with 12 species found south of 60 °S. All are restricted to waters warmer than 0 °C, with their Antarctic distribution limited to the areas of seafloor dominated by Circumpolar Deep Water (CDW. Currently, CDW extends further and shallower onto the West Antarctic shelf than the known distribution ranges of most lithodid species examined. Geological evidence suggests that West Antarctic shelf could have been available for colonisation during the last 9,000 years. Distribution patterns, species richness, and levels of endemism all suggest that, rather than becoming extinct and recently re-invading from outside Antarctica, the lithodid crabs have likely persisted, and even radiated, on or near to Antarctic slope. We conclude there is no evidence for a modern-day "crab invasion". We recommend a repeated targeted lithodid sampling program along the West Antarctic shelf to fully test the validity of the

  10. The Invasive Species Forecasting System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnase, John; Most, Neal; Gill, Roger; Ma, Peter

    2011-01-01

    The Invasive Species Forecasting System (ISFS) provides computational support for the generic work processes found in many regional-scale ecosystem modeling applications. Decision support tools built using ISFS allow a user to load point occurrence field sample data for a plant species of interest and quickly generate habitat suitability maps for geographic regions of management concern, such as a national park, monument, forest, or refuge. This type of decision product helps resource managers plan invasive species protection, monitoring, and control strategies for the lands they manage. Until now, scientists and resource managers have lacked the data-assembly and computing capabilities to produce these maps quickly and cost efficiently. ISFS focuses on regional-scale habitat suitability modeling for invasive terrestrial plants. ISFS s component architecture emphasizes simplicity and adaptability. Its core services can be easily adapted to produce model-based decision support tools tailored to particular parks, monuments, forests, refuges, and related management units. ISFS can be used to build standalone run-time tools that require no connection to the Internet, as well as fully Internet-based decision support applications. ISFS provides the core data structures, operating system interfaces, network interfaces, and inter-component constraints comprising the canonical workflow for habitat suitability modeling. The predictors, analysis methods, and geographic extents involved in any particular model run are elements of the user space and arbitrarily configurable by the user. ISFS provides small, lightweight, readily hardened core components of general utility. These components can be adapted to unanticipated uses, are tailorable, and require at most a loosely coupled, nonproprietary connection to the Web. Users can invoke capabilities from a command line; programmers can integrate ISFS's core components into more complex systems and services. Taken together, these

  11. [Minimally invasive approach for cervical spondylotic radiculopathy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Liang; Sun, Taicun; Huang, Yonghui

    2010-01-01

    To summarize the recent minimally invasive approach for cervical spondylotic radiculopathy (CSR). The recent literature at home and abroad concerning minimally invasive approach for CSR was reviewed and summarized. There were two techniques of minimally invasive approach for CSR at present: percutaneous puncture techniques and endoscopic techniques. The degenerate intervertebral disc was resected or nucleolysis by percutaneous puncture technique if CSR was caused by mild or moderate intervertebral disc herniations. The cervical microendoscopic discectomy and foraminotomy was an effective minimally invasive approach which could provide a clear view. The endoscopy techniques were suitable to treat CSR caused by foraminal osteophytes, lateral disc herniations, local ligamentum flavum thickening and spondylotic foraminal stenosis. The minimally invasive procedure has the advantages of simple handling, minimally invasive and low incidence of complications. But the scope of indications is relatively narrow at present.

  12. [Iron and invasive fungal infection].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Álvarez, Florencio; Fernández-Ruiz, Mario; Aguado, José María

    2013-01-01

    Iron is an essential factor for both the growth and virulence of most of microorganisms. As a part of the innate (or nutritional) immune system, mammals have developed different mechanisms to store and transport this element in order to limit free iron bioavailability. To survive in this hostile environment, pathogenic fungi have specific uptake systems for host iron sources, one of the most important of which is based on the synthesis of siderophores-soluble, low-molecular-mass, high-affinity iron chelators. The increase in free iron that results from iron-overload conditions is a well-established risk factor for invasive fungal infection (IFI) such as mucormycosis or aspergillosis. Therefore, iron chelation may be an appealing therapeutic option for these infections. Nevertheless, deferoxamine -the first approved iron chelator- paradoxically increases the incidence of IFI, as it serves as a xeno-siderophore to Mucorales. On the contrary, the new oral iron chelators (deferiprone and deferasirox) have shown to exert a deleterious effect on fungal growth both in vitro and in animal models. The present review focuses on the role of iron metabolism in the pathogenesis of IFI and summarises the preclinical data, as well as the limited clinical experience so far, in the use of new iron chelators as treatment for mucormycosis and invasive aspergillosis. Copyright © 2012 Revista Iberoamericana de Micología. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  13. Invasion ecology meets parasitology: Advances and challenges

    OpenAIRE

    Robert Poulin

    2017-01-01

    Biological invasions threaten the diversity and functioning of native ecosystems, and the rate at which species are being introduced to new areas shows no sign of slowing down. Parasites play roles in biological invasions, for instance when native parasites interact with exotic hosts, or when parasites themselves are introduced to new areas. However, publication trends show clearly that research on parasitism in the context of biological invasions is lagging far behind research on biological ...

  14. Invasive Species Science Update (No. 10)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Justin Runyon

    2018-01-01

    In this issue, we cover new research on wide-ranging topics from the longterm effects of drought on competition between native and invasive plant species, to the effects of drought on pollinator visitation to invasive plants, to a novel use of insect pheromones to improve biocontrol of invasive saltcedar. There’s also big news to report in weed biocontrol: two new...

  15. Invasion ecology meets parasitology: Advances and challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Poulin

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Biological invasions threaten the diversity and functioning of native ecosystems, and the rate at which species are being introduced to new areas shows no sign of slowing down. Parasites play roles in biological invasions, for instance when native parasites interact with exotic hosts, or when parasites themselves are introduced to new areas. However, publication trends show clearly that research on parasitism in the context of biological invasions is lagging far behind research on biological invasions in general. The different articles in this special issue of International Journal for Parasitology–Parasites and Wildlife on ‘Invasions’ address various aspects of the interface between parasitology and invasion biology, including how invasive free-living species lose or gain parasites on the invasion front as they move away from their site of introduction, how these invasive species affect the dynamics of native parasites, and how exotic parasites become established and impact native hosts. Together, they highlight the challenges facing researchers in this area, and set the agenda for the next few years of research. Keywords: alien species, Biological invasions, Enemy release, Non-natives, Parasites

  16. Microparasites and Placental Invasiveness in Eutherian Mammals.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabella Capellini

    Full Text Available Placental invasiveness-the number of maternal tissue layers separating fetal tissues from maternal blood-is variable across mammalian species. Although this diversity is likely to be functionally important, variation in placental invasiveness remains unexplained. Here we test the hypothesis that increased risk of transplacental transmission of pathogens from the mother to the fetus promotes the evolution of non-invasive placentation, the most likely derived condition in eutherian mammals. Specifically, we predict that non-invasive placentation is associated with increased microparasite species richness relative to more invasive placental types, based on the assumption that higher numbers of microparasites in a population reflects greater risk of transplacental transmission to fetuses. As predicted, higher bacteria species richness is associated with non-invasive placentation. Protozoa species richness, however, shows the opposite pattern. Because invasive placentae facilitate the transfer of maternal antibodies to the fetus, we propose that the ancestral condition of invasive placentation is retained under selection for protection of newborns from higher risk of postnatal protozoan infection. Hence, our findings suggest that a tradeoff exists between protection against bacterial infection prenatally and protozoan infection postnatally. Future studies are needed to investigate how maternal prevalence of infection and the relative pre- versus postnatal risk of fetal infection by different microparasite groups vary among mammalian hosts in relation to placental invasiveness.

  17. Intraspecies differenes in phenotypic plasticity: Invasive versus non-invasive populations of Ceratophyllum demersum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hyldgaard, Benita; Brix, Hans

    2012-01-01

    High phenotypic plasticity has been hypothesized to affect the invasiveness of plants, as high plasticity may enlarge the breath of environments in which the plants can survive and reproduce. Here we compare the phenotypic plasticity of invasive and non-invasive populations of the same species...... hypothesized that the phenotypic plasticity in fitness-related traits like growth and photosynthesis were higher in the invasive than in the non-invasive population. The invasive population acclimated to elevated temperatures through increased rates of photosynthesis (range: Pamb: 8–452 mol O2 g−1 DM h−1......-harvesting complex. Hence, the invasive population of C. demersum from New Zealand had higher phenotypic plasticity in response to temperature than the non-invasive Danish population. This might be the result of genetic evolution since its introduction to New Zealand five decades ago, but further studies are needed...

  18. An Evolutionary Modelling Approach To Understanding The Factors Behind Plant Invasiveness And Community Susceptibility To Invasion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Warren, John; Topping, Christopher John; James, Penri

    2011-01-01

    Ecologists have had limited success in understanding which introduced species may become invasive. An evolutionary model is used to investigate which traits are associated with invasiveness. Translocation experiments were simulated in which species were moved into similar but evolutionary younger...

  19. Invasion of a mined landscape: what habitat characteristics are influencing the occurrence of invasive plants?

    Science.gov (United States)

    D. Lemke; I.A. Tazisong; Y. Wang; J.A. Brown

    2012-01-01

    Throughout the world, the invasion of alien plants is an increasing threat to native biodiversity. Invasion is especially prevalent in areas affected by land transformation and anthropogenic disturbance. Surface mines are a major disturbance, and thus may promote the establishment and expansion of invasive plant communities. Environmental and habitat factors that may...

  20. Comparative anatomy of invasive and non-invasive species in the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The foliar and stem micromorphological study of the invasive and non-invasive species were undertaken using Light Microscope (LM). The occurrence of vessels in the pillar of the abundant sclerenchyma tissues are important component of the skeletal system in the invasive species. The prominent tiles of parenchymatous ...

  1. E-commerce trade in invasive plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humair, Franziska; Humair, Luc; Kuhn, Fabian; Kueffer, Christoph

    2015-12-01

    Biological invasions are a major concern in conservation, especially because global transport of species is still increasing rapidly. Conservationists hope to anticipate and thus prevent future invasions by identifying and regulating potentially invasive species through species risk assessments and international trade regulations. Among many introduction pathways of non-native species, horticulture is a particularly important driver of plant invasions. In recent decades, the horticultural industry expanded globally and changed structurally through the emergence of new distribution channels, including internet trade (e-commerce). Using an automated search algorithm, we surveyed, on a daily basis, e-commerce trade on 10 major online auction sites (including eBay) of approximately three-fifths of the world's spermatophyte flora. Many recognized invasive plant species (>500 species) (i.e., species associated with ecological or socio-economic problems) were traded daily worldwide on the internet. A markedly higher proportion of invasive than non-invasive species were available online. Typically, for a particular plant family, 30-80% of recognized invasive species were detected on an auction site, but only a few percentages of all species in the plant family were detected on a site. Families that were more traded had a higher proportion of invasive species than families that were less traded. For woody species, there was a significant positive relationship between the number of regions where a species was sold and the number of regions where it was invasive. Our results indicate that biosecurity is not effectively regulating online plant trade. In the future, automated monitoring of e-commerce may help prevent the spread of invasive species, provide information on emerging trade connectivity across national borders, and be used in horizon scanning exercises for early detection of new species and their geographic source areas in international trade. © 2015 Society for

  2. Unconventional gas development facilitates plant invasions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barlow, Kathryn M; Mortensen, David A; Drohan, Patrick J; Averill, Kristine M

    2017-11-01

    Vegetation removal and soil disturbance from natural resource development, combined with invasive plant propagule pressure, can increase vulnerability to plant invasions. Unconventional oil and gas development produces surface disturbance by way of well pad, road, and pipeline construction, and increased traffic. Little is known about the resulting impacts on plant community assembly, including the spread of invasive plants. Our work was conducted in Pennsylvania forests that overlay the Marcellus and Utica shale formations to determine if invasive plants have spread to edge habitat created by unconventional gas development and to investigate factors associated with their presence. A piecewise structural equation model was used to determine the direct and indirect factors associated with invasive plant establishment on well pads. The model included the following measured or calculated variables: current propagule pressure on local access roads, the spatial extent of the pre-development road network (potential source of invasive propagules), the number of wells per pad (indicator of traffic density), and pad age. Sixty-one percent of the 127 well pads surveyed had at least one invasive plant species present. Invasive plant presence on well pads was positively correlated with local propagule pressure on access roads and indirectly with road density pre-development, the number of wells, and age of the well pad. The vast reserves of unconventional oil and gas are in the early stages of development in the US. Continued development of this underground resource must be paired with careful monitoring and management of surface ecological impacts, including the spread of invasive plants. Prioritizing invasive plant monitoring in unconventional oil and gas development areas with existing roads and multi-well pads could improve early detection and control of invasive plants. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Minimally invasive aortic valve replacement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foghsgaard, Signe; Schmidt, Thomas Andersen; Kjaergard, Henrik K

    2009-01-01

    In this descriptive prospective study, we evaluate the outcomes of surgery in 98 patients who were scheduled to undergo minimally invasive aortic valve replacement. These patients were compared with a group of 50 patients who underwent scheduled aortic valve replacement through a full sternotomy...... operations were completed as mini-sternotomies, 4 died later of noncardiac causes. The aortic cross-clamp and perfusion times were significantly different across all groups (P replacement...... is an excellent operation in selected patients, but its true advantages over conventional aortic valve replacement (other than a smaller scar) await evaluation by means of randomized clinical trial. The "extended mini-aortic valve replacement" operation, on the other hand, is a risky procedure that should...

  4. A minimally invasive smile enhancement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peck, Fred H

    2014-01-01

    Minimally invasive dentistry refers to a wide variety of dental treatments. On the restorative aspect of dental procedures, direct resin bonding can be a very conservative treatment option for the patient. When tooth structure does not need to be removed, the patient benefits. Proper treatment planning is essential to determine how conservative the restorative treatment will be. This article describes the diagnosis, treatment options, and procedural techniques in the restoration of 4 maxillary anterior teeth with direct composite resin. The procedural steps are reviewed with regard to placing the composite and the variety of colors needed to ensure a natural result. Finishing and polishing of the composite are critical to ending with a natural looking dentition that the patient will be pleased with for many years.

  5. Chapter 8: Invasive fungal rhinosinusitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duggal, Praveen; Wise, Sarah K

    2013-01-01

    Invasive fungal rhinosinusitis (IFRS) is a disease of the paranasal sinuses and nasal cavity that typically affects immunocompromised patients in the acute fulminant form. Early symptoms can often mimic rhinosinusitis, while late symptoms can cause significant morbidity and mortality. Swelling and mucosal thickening can quickly progress to pale or necrotic tissue in the nasal cavity and sinuses, and the disease can rapidly spread and invade the palate, orbit, cavernous sinus, cranial nerves, skull base, carotid artery, and brain. IFRS can be life threatening if left undiagnosed or untreated. While the acute fulminant form of IFRS is the most rapidly progressive and destructive, granulomatous and chronic forms also exist. Diagnosis of IFRS often mandates imaging studies in conjunction with clinical, endoscopic, and histopathological examination. Treatment of IFRS consists of reversing the underlying immunosuppression, antifungal therapy, and aggressive surgical debridement. With early diagnosis and treatment, IFRS can be treated and increase patient survival.

  6. Invasive alien birds in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fox, Anthony David; Heldbjerg, Henning; Nyegaard, Timme

    2015-01-01

    Avian Introduced Alien Species (IAS) constitute a threat to the integrity of native biodiversity, the economy and human health, so here we briefly review some of the problems posed by such species around the world in relation to such bird species in Denmark. A new European Union Regulation...... on Invasive Alien Species implemented in January 2015 establishes a framework for actions to combat alien species, which requires Member States to prevent the spread of alien species, provide early warning and rapid responses to their presence and management of established alien species where they occur. We...... show the importance of mechanisms such as DOF’s (Dansk Ornitologisk Forening, BirdLife Denmark) Atlas project, Common Bird Census (breeding and wintering species) and DOFbasen to contribute data on the current geographical and numerical distribution of the few serious alien avian species already...

  7. Invasive alien birds in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nyegaard, Timme; Heldbjerg, Henning; Fox, Anthony David

    Avian Introduced Alien Species (IAS) constitute a threat to the integrity of native biodiversity, the economy and human health, so here we briefly review some of the problems posed by such species around the world in relation to bird species in Denmark. A new European Union Regulation on Invasive...... Alien Species implemented in January 2015 requires a framework for actions to combat alien species, which requires Member States to prevent the spread of alien species, provide early warning and rapid responses to their presence and management of established alien species where they occur. We show...... the importance of mechanisms such as DOFs (Danish Ornithological Society, BirdLife Denmark) Atlas project, Common Bird Monitoring (breeding and wintering species) and DOFbasen to contribute data on the current geographical and numerical distribution of the few serious alien avian species already present...

  8. Invasion of erythrocytes by Babesia bovis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gaffar, Fasila Razzia

    2004-01-01

    In this thesis we investigated the invasion of erythrocytes taking place during the asexual erythrocytic blood stage of the apicomplexan parasites Babesia bovis parasite. Host cell invasion by apicomplexan parasites is a complex process requiring multiple receptor-ligand interactions, involving

  9. The evolution of invasiveness in garden ants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cremer, Sylvia; Ugelvig, Line Vej; Drijfhout, Falko P

    2008-01-01

    It is unclear why some species become successful invaders whilst others fail, and whether invasive success depends on pre-adaptations already present in the native range or on characters evolving de-novo after introduction. Ants are among the worst invasive pests, with Lasius neglectus and its ra...

  10. Impact of the invasive parasitic copepod

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goedknegt, M.A.; Bedolfe; Drent, J.; van der Meer, J.; Thieltges, D.W.

    2018-01-01

    Invasive species can indirectly affect native species by modifying parasite–host dynamics and disease occurrence. This scenario applies to European coastal waters where the invasive Pacific oyster (Magallana gigas) co-introduced the parasitic copepod Mytilicola orientalis that spills

  11. Alien invasive species and international trade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emergency control measures for invasive species often rely on use of pesticides and other destructive practices. Public concern about pesticide contamination of the ground water and the environment has lead to increased restrictions on the use of pesticides for control of many destructive invasive ...

  12. Economic Analysis of Biological Invasions in Forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomas P. Holmes; Julian Aukema; Jeffrey Englin; Robert G. Haight; Kent Kovacs; Brian Leung

    2014-01-01

    Biological invasions of native forests by nonnative pests result from complex stochastic processes that are difficult to predict. Although economic optimization models describe efficient controls across the stages of an invasion, the ability to calibrate such models is constrained by lack of information on pest population dynamics and consequent economic damages. Here...

  13. Book review: Encyclopedia of biological invasions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qinfeng Guo

    2011-01-01

    Species introductions and consequent biotic invasions and homogenization are major components of global change that are drawing increasing concern and various levels of actions and reactions around the world. Invasion ecology has advanced rapidly during the last few decades, and the discipline is now increasingly integrated with the social and economic sciences. A...

  14. Allelopathic effects of invasive Eucalyptus camaldulensis on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Eucalyptus camaldulensis Dehnh. (red river gum; Myrtaceae) is an invasive tree in riparian habitats of the Western Cape, South Africa, where it replaces indigenous vegetation and affects ecosystem functioning. These invasions lead to changes in river geomorphology and reduction in stream flow. The mechanisms that ...

  15. The Invasive Plant Species Education Guide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, Kevin; James, Krista; Carlson, Kitrina; D'Angelo, Jean

    2010-01-01

    To help high school students gain a solid understanding of invasive plant species, university faculty and students from the University of Wisconsin-Stout (UW-Stout) and a local high school teacher worked together to develop the Invasive Plant Species (IPS) Education Guide. The IPS Education Guide includes nine lessons that give students an…

  16. Mapping invasive weeds using airborne hyperspectral imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Invasive plant species present a serious problem to the natural environment and have adverse ecological and economic impacts on both terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems they invade. This article provides a brief overview on the use of remote sensing for mapping invasive plant species in both terrestr...

  17. 76 FR 30955 - Invasive Species Advisory Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-27

    ... Commerce. The duty of the Council is to provide national leadership regarding invasive species issues... broad array of issues related to preventing the introduction of invasive species and providing for their... with Western-based scientists and practitioners on problems and potential solutions, as well as...

  18. Liver injury in invasive aspergillus. Echographic findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Otero Fernandez, R.; Garcia Revillo, J.; Paez Moreno, J.; Zurera Tendero, L.J.

    1994-01-01

    Aspergillus is the second most common mycoses in immuno compromised patients. The invasive form is associated with a mortality of approximately 100%. We present a case of invasive aspergillus in a heart transplant recipient in whom ultrasound disclosed the presence of liver injury which was later confirmed by necropsy. We review the available literature. (Author) 15 refs

  19. Domestic exotics and the perception of invasibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qinfeng Guo; Robert Ricklefs

    2010-01-01

    Susceptibility of an area to invasion by exotic species is often judged by the fraction of introduced species in the local biota. However, the degree of invasion, particularly in mainland areas, has often been underestimated because of the exclusion of ‘domestic exotics’ (those introduced to internal units from within the national border) in calculations. Because all...

  20. Invasive aspergillosis in paediatric oncology patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muda, Z; Ibrahim, H; Abdulrahman, E J; Menon, B S; Zahari, Z; Zaleha, A M; Talib, A

    2008-12-01

    Invasive aspergillosis predominantly occurs in immunocompromised patients and is often resistant to different therapeutically strategies. However, mortality significantly increases if the central nervous system is affected. In this report we describe two cases of invasive aspergilosis, one with kidney involvement with a successful treatment while the other with pulmonary and cerebral involvement with a grave outcome.

  1. Principles for ecologically based invasive plant management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeremy J. James; Brenda S. Smith; Edward A. Vasquez; Roger L. Sheley

    2010-01-01

    Land managers have long identified a critical need for a practical and effective framework for designing restoration strategies, especially where invasive plants dominate. A holistic, ecologically based, invasive plant management (EBIPM) framework that integrates ecosystem health assessment, knowledge of ecological processes, and adaptive management into a successional...

  2. A proposed unified framework for biological invasions

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Blackburn, T. M.; Pyšek, Petr; Bacher, S.; Carlton, J. T.; Duncan, R. P.; Jarošík, Vojtěch; Wilson, J. R. U.; Richardson, D. M.

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 26, č. 7 (2011), s. 333-339 ISSN 0169-5347 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA206/09/0563; GA MŠk LC06073 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60050516 Keywords : biological invasions * invasion process * general framework Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 15.748, year: 2011

  3. Predator control promotes invasive dominated ecological states.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallach, Arian D; Johnson, Christopher N; Ritchie, Euan G; O'Neill, Adam J

    2010-08-01

    Invasive species are regarded as one of the top five drivers of the global extinction crisis. In response, extreme measures have been applied in an attempt to control or eradicate invasives, with little success overall. We tested the idea that state shifts to invasive dominance are symptomatic of losses in ecosystem resilience, due to the suppression of apex predators. This concept was investigated in Australia where the high rate of mammalian extinctions is largely attributed to the destructive influence of invasive species. Intensive pest control is widely applied across the continent, simultaneously eliminating Australia's apex predator, the dingo (Canis lupus dingo). We show that predator management accounts for shifts between two main ecosystem states. Lethal control fractures dingo social structure and leads to bottom-up driven increases in invasive mesopredators and herbivores. Where control is relaxed, dingoes re-establish top-down regulation of ecosystems, allowing for the recovery of biodiversity and productivity.

  4. Protection by meningococcal outer membrane protein PorA-specific antibodies and a serogroup B capsular polysaccharide-specific antibody in complement-sufficient and C6-deficient infant rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toropainen, Maija; Saarinen, Leena; Vidarsson, Gestur; Käyhty, Helena

    2006-05-01

    The relative contributions of antibody-induced complement-mediated bacterial lysis and antibody/complement-mediated phagocytosis to host immunity against meningococcal infections are currently unclear. Further, the in vivo effector functions of antibodies may vary depending on their specificity and Fc heavy-chain isotype. In this study, a mouse immunoglobulin G2a (mIgG2a) monoclonal antibody (MN12H2) to meningococcal outer membrane protein PorA (P1.16), its human IgG subclass derivatives (hIgG1 to hIgG4), and an mIgG2a monoclonal antibody (Nmb735) to serogroup B capsular polysaccharide (B-PS) were evaluated for passive protection against meningococcal serogroup B strain 44/76-SL (B:15:P1.7,16) in an infant rat infection model. Complement component C6-deficient (PVG/c-) rats were used to assess the importance of complement-mediated bacterial lysis for protection. The PorA-specific parental mIgG2a and the hIgG1 to hIgG3 derivatives all induced efficient bactericidal activity in vitro in the presence of human or infant rat complement and augmented bacterial clearance in complement-sufficient HsdBrlHan:WIST rats, while the hIgG4 was unable to do so. In C6-deficient PVG/c- rats, lacking complement-mediated bacterial lysis, the augmentation of bacterial clearance by PorA-specific mIgG2a and hIgG1 antibodies was impaired compared to that in the syngeneic complement-sufficient PVG/c+ rat strain. This was in contrast to the case for B-PS-specific mIgG2a, which conferred similar protective activity in both rat strains. These data suggest that while anti-B-PS antibody can provide protection in the infant rats without membrane attack complex formation, the protection afforded by anti-PorA antibody is more dependent on the activation of the whole complement pathway and subsequent bacterial lysis.

  5. A human breast cell model of pre-invasive to invasive transition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bissell, Mina J; Rizki, Aylin; Weaver, Valerie M.; Lee, Sun-Young; Rozenberg, Gabriela I.; Chin, Koei; Myers, Connie A.; Bascom, Jamie L.; Mott, Joni D.; Semeiks, Jeremy R.; Grate, Leslie R.; Mian, I. Saira; Borowsky, Alexander D.; Jensen, Roy A.; Idowu, Michael O.; Chen, Fanqing; Chen, David J.; Petersen, Ole W.; Gray, Joe W.; Bissell, Mina J.

    2008-03-10

    A crucial step in human breast cancer progression is the acquisition of invasiveness. There is a distinct lack of human cell culture models to study the transition from pre-invasive to invasive phenotype as it may occur 'spontaneously' in vivo. To delineate molecular alterations important for this transition, we isolated human breast epithelial cell lines that showed partial loss of tissue polarity in three-dimensional reconstituted-basement membrane cultures. These cells remained non-invasive; however, unlike their non-malignant counterparts, they exhibited a high propensity to acquire invasiveness through basement membrane in culture. The genomic aberrations and gene expression profiles of the cells in this model showed a high degree of similarity to primary breast tumor profiles. The xenograft tumors formed by the cell lines in three different microenvironments in nude mice displayed metaplastic phenotypes, including squamous and basal characteristics, with invasive cells exhibiting features of higher grade tumors. To find functionally significant changes in transition from pre-invasive to invasive phenotype, we performed attribute profile clustering analysis on the list of genes differentially expressed between pre-invasive and invasive cells. We found integral membrane proteins, transcription factors, kinases, transport molecules, and chemokines to be highly represented. In addition, expression of matrix metalloproteinases MMP-9,-13,-15,-17 was up regulated in the invasive cells. Using siRNA based approaches, we found these MMPs to be required for the invasive phenotype. This model provides a new tool for dissection of mechanisms by which pre-invasive breast cells could acquire invasiveness in a metaplastic context.

  6. Invasive cancer cells and metastasis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mierke, Claudia Tanja

    2013-12-01

    The physics of cancer is a relatively new emerging field of cancer research. In the last decade it has become a focus of biophysical research as well as becoming a novel focus for classical cancer research. This special section of Physical Biology focusing on invasive cancer cells and metastasis (physical oncology) will give greater insight into the different subfields where physical approaches are being applied to cancer research. This focus on the physical aspects of cancer is necessary because novel approaches in the field of genomics and proteomics have not altered the field of cancer research dramatically, due to the fact that few breakthroughs have been made. It is still not understood why some primary tumors metastasize and thus have a worse outcome compared to others that do not metastasize. As biophysicists, we and others suggest that the mechanical properties of the cancer cells, which possess the ability to transmigrate, are quite different compared to non-metastatic and non-invasive cancer cells. Furthermore, we hypothesize that these cancer cells undergo a selection process within the primary tumor that enables them to weaken their cell-cell adhesions and to alter their cell-matrix adhesions in order to be able to cross the outermost boundary of the primary tumor, as well as the surrounding basement membrane, and to invade the connective tissue. This prerequisite may also help the cancer cells to enter blood or lymph vessels, get transported with the vessel flow and form secondary tumors either within the vessel, directly on the endothelium, or in a different organ after crossing the endothelial lining a second time. This special section begins with a paper by Mark F Coughlin and Jeffrey J Fredberg on the changes in cytoskeletal dynamics and nonlinear rheology due to the metastatic capability of cancer cells from different cancer tissue types such as skin, bladder, prostate and kidney [1]. The hypothesis was that the metastatic outcome is impacted by

  7. Invasive Candidiasis: An Overview from Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheng-Yuan Ruan

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Invasive candidiasis has emerged as an important nosocomial infection, especially in critically ill patients. We review the epidemiology of invasive candidiasis with an emphasis on data from Taiwan. An increasing incidence of candidemia became apparent from 1980 to the end of the 1990s, followed by relative stability. Crude mortality rates of patients with candidemia were in the range of 35% to 60%. Candida albicans remains the predominant cause of invasive candidiasis in Taiwan and accounts for more than 50% of all cases. Candida tropicalis, Candida glabrata and Candida parapsilosis are the three most common nonalbicansCandida species that cause invasive candidiasis. The above four Candida species account for more than 90% of invasive candidiasis in Taiwan. Overall, invasive Candida isolates have remained highly susceptible to fluconazole (> 90% susceptibility over the past two decades. However, periodic surveillance is needed to monitor antifungal resistance because reduced fluconazole susceptibility in non-albicans Candida is not an uncommon trend. Voriconazole and echinocandins continue to exhibit excellent in vitro activity against invasive Candida isolates.

  8. Invasive Aspergillosis in Hematological Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimura, Shun-Ichi

    2016-01-01

    Invasive aspergillosis (IA) is still one of the leading causes of morbidity and mortality in hematological patients, although its outcome has been improving. Prolonged and profound neutropenia in patients receiving intensive chemotherapy for acute leukemia and stem cell transplantation is a major risk factor for IA. Allogeneic stem cell transplant recipients with graft-versus-host disease and corticosteroid use are also at high risk. Management in a protective environment with high efficiency particular air (HEPA) filter is generally recommended to prevent aspergillosis in patients with prolonged and profound neutropenia. Antifungal prophylaxis against Aspergillus species should be considered in patients with past history of aspergillosis or colonization of Aspergillus species, at facilities with high incidence of IA and those without a protective environment. Early diagnosis and prompt antifungal treatment is important to improve outcome. Imaging studies such as computed tomography and biomarkers such as galactomannan antigen and β-D-glucan are useful for early diagnosis. Empirical antifungal treatment based on persistent or recurrent fever during neutropenia despite broad-spectrum antibiotic therapy is generally recommended in high-risk patients. Alternatively, a preemptive treatment strategy has recently been proposed in the context of progress in the early diagnosis of IA based on the results of imaging studies and biomarkers. Voriconazole is recommended for initial therapy for IA. Liposomal amphotericin B is considered as alternative initial therapy. Combination antifungal therapy of echinocandin with voriconazole or liposomal amphotericin B could be a choice for refractory cases.

  9. Robotic assisted minimally invasive surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Palep Jaydeep

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The term "robot" was coined by the Czech playright Karel Capek in 1921 in his play Rossom′s Universal Robots. The word "robot" is from the check word robota which means forced labor.The era of robots in surgery commenced in 1994 when the first AESOP (voice controlled camera holder prototype robot was used clinically in 1993 and then marketed as the first surgical robot ever in 1994 by the US FDA. Since then many robot prototypes like the Endoassist (Armstrong Healthcare Ltd., High Wycombe, Buck, UK, FIPS endoarm (Karlsruhe Research Center, Karlsruhe, Germany have been developed to add to the functions of the robot and try and increase its utility. Integrated Surgical Systems (now Intuitive Surgery, Inc. redesigned the SRI Green Telepresence Surgery system and created the daVinci Surgical System ® classified as a master-slave surgical system. It uses true 3-D visualization and EndoWrist ® . It was approved by FDA in July 2000 for general laparoscopic surgery, in November 2002 for mitral valve repair surgery. The da Vinci robot is currently being used in various fields such as urology, general surgery, gynecology, cardio-thoracic, pediatric and ENT surgery. It provides several advantages to conventional laparoscopy such as 3D vision, motion scaling, intuitive movements, visual immersion and tremor filtration. The advent of robotics has increased the use of minimally invasive surgery among laparoscopically naοve surgeons and expanded the repertoire of experienced surgeons to include more advanced and complex reconstructions.

  10. Study of melanoma invasion by FTIR spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Y.; Sulé-Suso, J.; Sockalingum, G. D.

    2008-02-01

    Compared to other forms of skin cancer, a malignant melanoma has a high risk of spreading to other parts of the body. Melanoma invasion is a complex process involving changes in cell-extracellular matrix (ECM) interaction and cell-cell interactions. To fully understand the factors which control the invasion process, a human skin model system was reconstructed. HBL (a commercially available cell line) melanoma cells were seeded on a skin model with and without the presence of keratinocytes and/or fibroblasts. After 14 days culture, the skin specimens were fixed, parafin embedded and cut into 7 µm sections. The de-parafinised sections were investigated by synchrotron Fourier transformed infrared (FTIR) microspectroscopy to study skin cell invasion behaviour. The advantage of using FTIR is its ability to obtain the fingerprint information of the invading cells in terms of protein secondary structure in comparison to non-invading cells and the concentration of the enzyme (matrix-metalloproteinase) which digests protein matrix, near the invading cells. With aid of the spectral mapping images, it is possible to pinpoint the cells in non-invasion and invasion area and analyse the respective spectra. It has been observed that the protein bands in cells and matrix shifted between non-invasive and invasive cells in the reconstructed skin model. We hypothesise that by careful analysis of the FTIR data and validation by other models, FTIR studies can reveal information on which type of cells and proteins are involved in melanoma invasion. Thus, it is possible to trace the cell invasion path by mapping the spectra along the interface of cell layer and matrix body by FTIR spectroscopy.

  11. Bactericidal antibody against a representative epidemiological meningococcal serogroup B panel confirms that MATS underestimates 4CMenB vaccine strain coverage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frosi, Giacomo; Biolchi, Alessia; Lo Sapio, Morena; Rigat, Fabio; Gilchrist, Stefanie; Lucidarme, Jay; Findlow, Jamie; Borrow, Ray; Pizza, Mariagrazia; Giuliani, Marzia Monica; Medini, Duccio

    2013-10-09

    4CMenB (Bexsero), a vaccine developed against invasive meningococcal disease caused by capsular group B strains (MenB), was recently licensed for use by the European Medicines Agency. Assessment of 4CMenB strain coverage in specific epidemiologic settings is of primary importance to predict vaccination impact on the burden of disease. The Meningococcal Antigen Typing System (MATS) was developed to predict 4CMenB strain coverage, using serum bactericidal antibody assay with human complement (hSBA) data from a diverse panel of strains not representative of any specific epidemiology. To experimentally validate the accuracy of MATS-based predictions against strains representative of a specific epidemiologic setting. We used a stratified sampling method to identify a representative sample from all MenB disease isolates collected from England and Wales in 2007-2008, tested the strains in the hSBA assay with pooled sera from infant and adolescent vaccinees, and compared these results with MATS. MATS predictions and hSBA results were significantly associated (P=0.022). MATS predicted coverage of 70% (95% CI, 55-85%) was largely confirmed by 88% killing in the hSBA (95% CI, 72-95%). MATS had 78% accuracy and 96% positive predictive value against hSBA. MATS is a conservative predictor of strain coverage by the 4CMenB vaccine in infants and adolescents. Crown Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Invasive clonal plant species have a greater root-foraging plasticity than non-invasive ones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keser, Lidewij H; Dawson, Wayne; Song, Yao-Bin; Yu, Fei-Hai; Fischer, Markus; Dong, Ming; van Kleunen, Mark

    2014-03-01

    Clonality is frequently positively correlated with plant invasiveness, but which aspects of clonality make some clonal species more invasive than others is not known. Due to their spreading growth form, clonal plants are likely to experience spatial heterogeneity in nutrient availability. Plasticity in allocation of biomass to clonal growth organs and roots may allow these plants to forage for high-nutrient patches. We investigated whether this foraging response is stronger in species that have become invasive than in species that have not. We used six confamilial pairs of native European clonal plant species differing in invasion success in the USA. We grew all species in large pots under homogeneous or heterogeneous nutrient conditions in a greenhouse, and compared their nutrient-foraging response and performance. Neither invasive nor non-invasive species showed significant foraging responses to heterogeneity in clonal growth organ biomass or in aboveground biomass of clonal offspring. Invasive species had, however, a greater positive foraging response in terms of root and belowground biomass than non-invasive species. Invasive species also produced more total biomass. Our results suggest that the ability for strong root foraging is among the characteristics promoting invasiveness in clonal plants.

  13. Fort Collins Science Center: Invasive Species Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stohlgren, Tom

    2004-01-01

    Invasive, non-native species of plants, animals, and disease organisms adversely affect the ecosystems they enter. Like "biological wildfires," they can quickly spread, and they affect nearly all terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems. Invasive species have become the greatest environmental challenge of the 21st century in terms of economic, environmental, and human health costs, with an estimated impact in the U.S. of over $138 billion per year. Managers of Department of the Interior and other public and private lands and waters rank invasive species as their top resource management problem.

  14. Extracellular Molecules Involved in Cancer Cell Invasion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stivarou, Theodora; Patsavoudi, Evangelia

    2015-01-01

    Nowadays it is perfectly clear that understanding and eradicating cancer cell invasion and metastasis represent the crucial, definitive points in cancer therapeutics. During the last two decades there has been a great interest in the understanding of the extracellular molecular mechanisms involved in cancer cell invasion. In this review, we highlight the findings concerning these processes, focusing in particular on extracellular molecules, including extracellular matrix proteins and their receptors, growth factors and their receptors, matrix metalloproteinases and extracellular chaperones. We report the molecular mechanisms underlying the important contribution of this pool of molecules to the complex, multi-step phenomenon of cancer cell invasion

  15. Extracellular Molecules Involved in Cancer Cell Invasion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Theodora Stivarou

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays it is perfectly clear that understanding and eradicating cancer cell invasion and metastasis represent the crucial, definitive points in cancer therapeutics. During the last two decades there has been a great interest in the understanding of the extracellular molecular mechanisms involved in cancer cell invasion. In this review, we highlight the findings concerning these processes, focusing in particular on extracellular molecules, including extracellular matrix proteins and their receptors, growth factors and their receptors, matrix metalloproteinases and extracellular chaperones. We report the molecular mechanisms underlying the important contribution of this pool of molecules to the complex, multi-step phenomenon of cancer cell invasion.

  16. Bivalent rLP2086 Vaccine (Trumenba(®)): A Review in Active Immunization Against Invasive Meningococcal Group B Disease in Individuals Aged 10-25 Years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirley, Matt; Dhillon, Sohita

    2015-10-01

    Bivalent rLP2086 vaccine (Trumenba(®)) [hereafter referred to as rLP2086] is a Neisseria meningitidis serogroup B (MenB) vaccine recently licensed in the USA for active immunization to prevent invasive disease caused by MenB in individuals 10-25 years of age. rLP2086, which contains two variants of the meningococcal surface protein factor H-binding protein (fHBP), was approved by the FDA under the accelerated approval pathway after the immunogenicity of the vaccine was demonstrated in several phase II trials. This article reviews the immunogenicity and reactogenicity of rLP2086 as demonstrated in the trials with a focus on the US setting and on use of the vaccine as per FDA-approved labeling. rLP2086 is approved in the USA as a three-dose series administered in a 0-, 2-, and 6-month schedule. In the phase II trials, rLP2086 elicited a robust immune response against a panel of MenB test strains. A strong immune response was evident in a marked proportion of subjects after two vaccine doses, with a further increase after a third dose. The four primary test strains used were selected to be representative of MenB strains prevalent in the USA, with each expressing an fHBP variant heterologous to the vaccine antigens. rLP2086 was generally well tolerated in the trials, with most adverse reactions being mild to moderate in severity. Although some questions remain, including the duration of the protective response, rLP2086 vaccine has the potential to be a valuable tool for the prevention of invasive MenB disease.

  17. Comparison of the sensitivity of the Legionella urinary antigen EIA kits from Binax and Biotest with urine from patients with infections caused by less common serogroups and subgroups of Legionella.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsen, C W; Elverdal, P; Jørgensen, C S; Uldum, S A

    2009-07-01

    The detection of urinary antigen is the most widely used method to diagnose Legionnaires' disease (LD), so it is important that these assays have a high sensitivity for the disease. In this study, we compare two kits for their ability to detect urinary antigen in urine samples from patients infected with Legionella species and L. pneumophila sero- and subgroups not considered as the most common causes of LD. Urine samples (n = 33) from 30 culture-proven cases of L. pneumophila serogroup (sg) 1, subgroup non-Pontiac infection, and urine samples (n = 35) from 32 cases of non-L. pneumophila species or non-sg 1 infection were examined using the Binax EIA and Biotest EIA kits. For both groups, the overall diagnostic sensitivity of the Binax kit was significantly better than the sensitivity of the Biotest kits (P < 0.0001). For the non-Pontiac group, the sensitivity was 81.8 and 42.4%, respectively, and for the non-sg1 group, it was 51.4 and 28.6%, respectively. It was concluded that the Binax kit was more suitable for the general diagnosis of LD than the Biotest kit, but we still need urinary antigen detection methods with higher sensitivity for non-sg1 LD.

  18. Beautiful, but also potentially invasive

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lipták Boris

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction of non-indigenous exotic species to new areas, where they may establish viable populations and become invasive, is a considerable problem in the protection of nature worldwide, as these species may alter the indigenous species population structure and potentially even decrease the biodiversity. The European fauna underwent through major negative changes on the continent and nowadays, it experiences another new treat, represented by the expanding aquarium pet trade, and with it, associated species (and disease introductions. Exotic freshwater crustaceans are one of the taxa widely incorporated in the business, counting a remarkable number of species. Recent records of the exotic marbled crayfish or Marmorkrebs (Procambarus fallax f. virginalis in German in open ecosystems in Slovakia pointed to human-mediated introductions associated with aquarium pet trade in the country. In this regard, a study of the aquarium pet trade both in expositions and shops and online was assessed. Several crustacean taxa are available both in pet trade exhibitions and online through the Internet. Altogether 26 different species were identified in the aquarium trade in Slovakia. These are Procambarus fallax f. virginalis, P. clarkii, P. alleni, Cherax quadricarinatus, C. destructor, C. holthuisi, C. peknyi, Cambarellus patzcuarensis and C. diminutus occurring in the aquarium pet trade in Slovakia (n = 9. Procambarus fallax f. virginalis, P. clarkii and C. patzuarensis are the most common in this regard. There is also a quantity of other related taxa in the aquarium pet trade in Slovakia, mainly Caridina spp. (n = 5, Neocaridina spp. (n = 4, Atyopsis moluccensis, Atya gabonensis, Arachnochium kulsiense and several taxa of exotic crabs (n = 5 belonging to three different genera (Cardiosoma, Geosesarma and Gecarinus present. Neocaridina davidi is identified as the most frequent in this regard. As some of the species can become established and form viable

  19. Radio frequency energy for non-invasive and minimally invasive skin tightening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulholland, R Stephen

    2011-07-01

    This article reviews the non-invasive and minimally invasive options for skin tightening, focusing on peer-reviewed articles and presentations and those technologies with the most proven or promising RF non-excisional skin-tightening results for excisional surgeons. RF has been the mainstay of non-invasive skin tightening and has emerged as the "cutting edge" technology in the minimally invasive skin-tightening field. Because these RF skin-tightening technologies are capital equipment purchases with a significant cost associated, this article also discusses some business issues and models that have proven to work in the plastic surgeon's office for non-invasive and minimally invasive skin-tightening technologies. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Heart bypass surgery - minimally invasive - discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... invasive direct coronary artery bypass - discharge; MIDCAB - discharge; Robot assisted coronary artery bypass - discharge; RACAB - discharge; Keyhole ... M. is also a founding member of Hi-Ethics and subscribes to the principles of the Health ...

  1. Invasive aspergillosis in near drowning nonneutropenic patient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munta, Kartik; Gopal, Palepu B N; Vigg, Ajit

    2015-12-01

    Invasive aspergillosis in immunosuppressed people has been well documented, but to diagnose and treat in an immunocompetent individual after near drowning, it requires early suspicion and proper empirical treatment. We report a case diagnosed to have invasive aspergillosis with systemic dissemination of the infection to the brain, gluteal muscles, and kidneys after a fall in a chemical tank of a paper manufacturing company. He was ventilated for acute respiratory distress syndrome and managed with antibiotics and vasopressors. Due to nonresolving pneumonia and positive serum galactomannan, trans-tracheal biopsy was performed which confirmed invasive aspergillosis and was treated with antifungals. With the availability of galactomannan assay and better radiological investigative modalities, occurrence of such invasive fungal infections in cases of drowning patients should be considered early in such patients and treated with appropriate antifungals.

  2. [Invasive yeast infections in neutropenic patients].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz Camps, Isabel; Jarque, Isidro

    2016-01-01

    Invasive fungal diseases caused by yeasts still play an important role in the morbidity and mortality in neutropenic patients with haematological malignancies. Although the overall incidence of invasive candidiasis has decreased due to widespread use of antifungal prophylaxis, the incidence of non-Candida albicans Candida species is increasing compared with that of C.albicans, and mortality of invasive candidiasis continues to be high. In addition, there has been an increase in invasive infections caused by an array of uncommon yeasts, including species of the genus Malassezia, Rhodotorula, Trichosporon and Saprochaete, characterised by their resistance to echinocandins and poor prognosis. Copyright © 2016 Asociación Española de Micología. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  3. NNDSS - Table II. Invasive Pneumococcal to Legionellosis

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — NNDSS - Table II. Invasive Pneumococcal to Legionellosis - 2014.In this Table, all conditions with a 5-year average annual national total of more than or equals...

  4. Providing intraosseous anesthesia with minimal invasion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giffin, K M

    1994-08-01

    A new variation of intraosseous anesthesia--crestal anesthesia--that is rapid, site-specific and minimally invasive is presented. The technique uses alveolar crest nutrient canals for anesthetic delivery without penetrating either bone or periodontal ligament.

  5. NNDSS - Table II. Invasive Pneumococcal to Legionellosis

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — NNDSS - Table II. Invasive Pneumococcal to Legionellosis - 2015.In this Table, provisional cases of selected notifiable diseases (≥1,000 cases reported during the...

  6. NNDSS - Table II. Invasive Pneumococcal to Legionellosis

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — NNDSS - Table II. Invasive Pneumococcal to Legionellosis - 2016. In this Table, provisional* cases of selected† notifiable diseases (≥1,000 cases reported during the...

  7. The evolution of invasiveness in garden ants.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sylvia Cremer

    Full Text Available It is unclear why some species become successful invaders whilst others fail, and whether invasive success depends on pre-adaptations already present in the native range or on characters evolving de-novo after introduction. Ants are among the worst invasive pests, with Lasius neglectus and its rapid spread through Europe and Asia as the most recent example of a pest ant that may become a global problem. Here, we present the first integrated study on behavior, morphology, population genetics, chemical recognition and parasite load of L. neglectus and its non-invasive sister species L. turcicus. We find that L. neglectus expresses the same supercolonial syndrome as other invasive ants, a social system that is characterized by mating without dispersal and large networks of cooperating nests rather than smaller mutually hostile colonies. We conclude that the invasive success of L. neglectus relies on a combination of parasite-release following introduction and pre-adaptations in mating system, body-size, queen number and recognition efficiency that evolved long before introduction. Our results challenge the notion that supercolonial organization is an inevitable consequence of low genetic variation for chemical recognition cues in small invasive founder populations. We infer that low variation and limited volatility in cuticular hydrocarbon profiles already existed in the native range in combination with low dispersal and a highly viscous population structure. Human transport to relatively disturbed urban areas thus became the decisive factor to induce parasite release, a well established general promoter of invasiveness in non-social animals and plants, but understudied in invasive social insects.

  8. The Evolution of Invasiveness in Garden Ants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cremer, Sylvia; Ugelvig, Line V.; Drijfhout, Falko P.; Schlick-Steiner, Birgit C.; Steiner, Florian M.; Seifert, Bernhard; Hughes, David P.; Schulz, Andreas; Petersen, Klaus S.; Konrad, Heino; Stauffer, Christian; Kiran, Kadri; Espadaler, Xavier; d'Ettorre, Patrizia; Aktaç, Nihat; Eilenberg, Jørgen; Jones, Graeme R.; Nash, David R.; Pedersen, Jes S.; Boomsma, Jacobus J.

    2008-01-01

    It is unclear why some species become successful invaders whilst others fail, and whether invasive success depends on pre-adaptations already present in the native range or on characters evolving de-novo after introduction. Ants are among the worst invasive pests, with Lasius neglectus and its rapid spread through Europe and Asia as the most recent example of a pest ant that may become a global problem. Here, we present the first integrated study on behavior, morphology, population genetics, chemical recognition and parasite load of L. neglectus and its non-invasive sister species L. turcicus. We find that L. neglectus expresses the same supercolonial syndrome as other invasive ants, a social system that is characterized by mating without dispersal and large networks of cooperating nests rather than smaller mutually hostile colonies. We conclude that the invasive success of L. neglectus relies on a combination of parasite-release following introduction and pre-adaptations in mating system, body-size, queen number and recognition efficiency that evolved long before introduction. Our results challenge the notion that supercolonial organization is an inevitable consequence of low genetic variation for chemical recognition cues in small invasive founder populations. We infer that low variation and limited volatility in cuticular hydrocarbon profiles already existed in the native range in combination with low dispersal and a highly viscous population structure. Human transport to relatively disturbed urban areas thus became the decisive factor to induce parasite release, a well established general promoter of invasiveness in non-social animals and plants, but understudied in invasive social insects. PMID:19050762

  9. Invasive crayfish in the Pacific Northwest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearl, Christopher A.; McCreary, Brome; Adams, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Invasive species directly threaten freshwater biodiversity, particularly in regions of high aquatic richness like the Pacific Northwest (PNW). Crayfish are among the most impactful of aquatic invasive species. Invasive crayfish are considered ecosystem engineers due to their ability to alter basic wetland properties, such as reducing vegetation and bank integrity and increasing turbidity. In areas where invasion is advanced, crayfish pose major economic and ecological problems. Crayfish have been widely introduced for aquaculture and can become established in a wide range of habitat conditions. They also may be spread by anglers who use them as bait. Several non-native crayfish are established in the PNW, but the extent of their invasion is not well known. At least two groups are known from scattered sites in the PNW, and both have proven problematic for native species in other parts of the world: Red swamp crayfish (Procambarus clarkii) and several members of the genus Orconectes. Both groups are native to areas of the eastern United States. Both are identified globally as invasives of high concern and appear on the Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife's "10 Most Unwanted" and the U.S. Forest Service's "Primary Species of Concern" lists for stream systems in the PNW. Despite the presence of introduced crayfish in the PNW and their high potential for negative effects, the scope of their invasion and effects on aquatic systems are not well known. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), along with local groups and state agencies, is working to clarify crayfish distribution and to outline which basins may not yet be invaded. Other goals are to improve understanding of habitat associations of invasive crayfish and their potential effects on native crayfish.

  10. Effects of invasive plants on arthropods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Litt, Andrea R; Cord, Erin E; Fulbright, Timothy E; Schuster, Greta L

    2014-12-01

    Non-native plants have invaded nearly all ecosystems and represent a major component of global ecological change. Plant invasions frequently change the composition and structure of vegetation communities, which can alter animal communities and ecosystem processes. We reviewed 87 articles published in the peer-reviewed literature to evaluate responses of arthropod communities and functional groups to non-native invasive plants. Total abundance of arthropods decreased in 62% of studies and increased in 15%. Taxonomic richness decreased in 48% of studies and increased in 13%. Herbivorous arthropods decreased in response to plant invasions in 48% of studies and increased in 17%, likely due to direct effects of decreased plant diversity. Predaceous arthropods decreased in response to invasive plants in 44% of studies, which may reflect indirect effects due to reductions in prey. Twenty-two percent of studies documented increases in predators, which may reflect changes in vegetation structure that improved mobility, survival, or web-building for these species. Detritivores increased in 67% of studies, likely in response to increased litter and decaying vegetation; no studies documented decreased abundance in this functional group. Although many researchers have examined effects of plant invasions on arthropods, sizeable information gaps remain, specifically regarding how invasive plants influence habitat and dietary requirements. Beyond this, the ability to predict changes in arthropod populations and communities associated with plant invasions could be improved by adopting a more functional and mechanistic approach. Understanding responses of arthropods to invasive plants will critically inform conservation of virtually all biodiversity and ecological processes because so many organisms depend on arthropods as prey or for their functional roles, including pollination, seed dispersal, and decomposition. Given their short generation times and ability to respond rapidly to

  11. Soil modification by invasive plants: Effects on native and invasive species of mixed-grass prairies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordan, N.R.; Larson, D.L.; Huerd, S.C.

    2008-01-01

    Invasive plants are capable of modifying attributes of soil to facilitate further invasion by conspecifics and other invasive species. We assessed this capability in three important plant invaders of grasslands in the Great Plains region of North America: leafy spurge (Euphorbia esula), smooth brome (Bromus inermis) and crested wheatgrass (Agropyron cristatum). In a glasshouse, these three invasives or a group of native species were grown separately through three cycles of growth and soil conditioning in both steam-pasteurized and non-pasteurized soils, after which we assessed seedling growth in these soils. Two of the three invasive species, Bromus and Agropyron, exhibited significant self-facilitation via soil modification. Bromus and Agropyron also had significant facilitative effects on other invasives via soil modification, while Euphorbia had significant antagonistic effects on the other invasives. Both Agropyron and Euphorbia consistently suppressed growth of two of three native forbs, while three native grasses were generally less affected. Almost all intra- and interspecific effects of invasive soil conditioning were dependent upon presence of soil biota from field sites where these species were successful invaders. Overall, these results suggest that that invasive modification of soil microbiota can facilitate plant invasion directly or via 'cross-facilitation' of other invasive species, and moreover has potential to impede restoration of native communities after removal of an invasive species. However, certain native species that are relatively insensitive to altered soil biota (as we observed in the case of the forb Linum lewisii and the native grasses), may be valuable as 'nurse'species in restoration efforts. ?? 2007 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.

  12. Invasion and predation in aquatic ecosystems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Judith S. WEIS

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available This article reviews biological invasions in which predation (or its absence plays a major role in the success of the invader. Examples are described in which the invader out-competes native species for the same food, and cases in which the invader consumes valued native species. In many instances, better predator avoidance by the invasive species or the absence of predators in the new habitat contributes to the success of the invaders; in other cases native or introduced predators appear to be able to keep the invasive species in check. A relatively new management approach in the US is the idea of adding another trophic level – to have humans act as the predators and consume the invasive species. This approach is being utilized in Florida and throughout the Caribbean against the lionfish, but could be extended to other fishes, as well as to various invasive crustaceans and mollusks. This idea is controversial, and current regulations prohibiting the possession of individuals of the invasive species (e.g., mitten crabs or snakefish would preclude the development of a fishery for them [Current Zoology 57 (5: 613–624, 2011].

  13. Invasive Species Science Branch: research and management tools for controlling invasive species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, Robert N.; Walters, Katie D.

    2015-01-01

    Invasive, nonnative species of plants, animals, and disease organisms adversely affect the ecosystems they enter. Like “biological wildfires,” they can quickly spread and affect nearly all terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems. Invasive species have become one of the greatest environmental challenges of the 21st century in economic, environmental, and human health costs, with an estimated effect in the United States of more than $120 billion per year. Managers of the Department of the Interior and other public and private lands often rank invasive species as their top resource management problem. The Invasive Species Science Branch of the Fort Collins Science Center provides research and technical assistance relating to management concerns for invasive species, including understanding how these species are introduced, identifying areas vulnerable to invasion, forecasting invasions, and developing control methods. To disseminate this information, branch scientists are developing platforms to share invasive species information with DOI cooperators, other agency partners, and the public. From these and other data, branch scientists are constructing models to understand and predict invasive species distributions for more effective management. The branch also has extensive herpetological and population biology expertise that is applied to harmful reptile invaders such as the Brown Treesnake on Guam and Burmese Python in Florida.

  14. Worldwide Alien Invasion: A Methodological Approach to Forecast the Potential Spread of a Highly Invasive Pollinator.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André L Acosta

    Full Text Available The ecological impacts of alien species invasion are a major threat to global biodiversity. The increasing number of invasion events by alien species and the high cost and difficulty of eradicating invasive species once established require the development of new methods and tools for predicting the most susceptible areas to invasion. Invasive pollinators pose serious threats to biodiversity and human activity due to their close relationship with many plants (including crop species and high potential competitiveness for resources with native pollinators. Although at an early stage of expansion, the bumblebee species Bombus terrestris is becoming a representative case of pollinator invasion at a global scale, particularly given its high velocity of invasive spread and the increasing number of reports of its impacts on native bees and crops in many countries. We present here a methodological framework of habitat suitability modeling that integrates new approaches for detecting habitats that are susceptible to Bombus terrestris invasion at a global scale. Our approach did not include reported invaded locations in the modeling procedure; instead, those locations were used exclusively to evaluate the accuracy of the models in predicting suitability over regions already invaded. Moreover, a new and more intuitive approach was developed to select the models and evaluate different algorithms based on their performance and predictive convergence. Finally, we present a comprehensive global map of susceptibility to Bombus terrestris invasion that highlights priority areas for monitoring.

  15. Positive feedback between mycorrhizal fungi and plants influences plant invasion success and resistance to invasion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qian; Yang, Ruyi; Tang, Jianjun; Yang, Haishui; Hu, Shuijin; Chen, Xin

    2010-08-24

    Negative or positive feedback between arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) and host plants can contribute to plant species interactions, but how this feedback affects plant invasion or resistance to invasion is not well known. Here we tested how alterations in AMF community induced by an invasive plant species generate feedback to the invasive plant itself and affect subsequent interactions between the invasive species and its native neighbors. We first examined the effects of the invasive forb Solidago canadensis L. on AMF communities comprising five different AMF species. We then examined the effects of the altered AMF community on mutualisms formed with the native legume forb species Kummerowia striata (Thunb.) Schindl. and on the interaction between the invasive and native plants. The host preferences of the five AMF were also assessed to test whether the AMF form preferred mutualistic relations with the invasive and/or the native species. We found that S. canadensis altered AMF spore composition by increasing one AMF species (Glomus geosporum) while reducing Glomus mosseae, which is the dominant species in the field. The host preference test showed that S. canadensis had promoted the abundance of AMF species (G. geosporum) that most promoted its own growth. As a consequence, the altered AMF community enhanced the competitiveness of invasive S. canadensis at the expense of K. striata. Our results demonstrate that the invasive S. canadensis alters soil AMF community composition because of fungal-host preference. This change in the composition of the AMF community generates positive feedback to the invasive S. canadensis itself and decreases AM associations with native K. striata, thereby making the native K. striata less dominant.

  16. Positive feedback between mycorrhizal fungi and plants influences plant invasion success and resistance to invasion.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qian Zhang

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Negative or positive feedback between arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF and host plants can contribute to plant species interactions, but how this feedback affects plant invasion or resistance to invasion is not well known. Here we tested how alterations in AMF community induced by an invasive plant species generate feedback to the invasive plant itself and affect subsequent interactions between the invasive species and its native neighbors. We first examined the effects of the invasive forb Solidago canadensis L. on AMF communities comprising five different AMF species. We then examined the effects of the altered AMF community on mutualisms formed with the native legume forb species Kummerowia striata (Thunb. Schindl. and on the interaction between the invasive and native plants. The host preferences of the five AMF were also assessed to test whether the AMF form preferred mutualistic relations with the invasive and/or the native species. We found that S. canadensis altered AMF spore composition by increasing one AMF species (Glomus geosporum while reducing Glomus mosseae, which is the dominant species in the field. The host preference test showed that S. canadensis had promoted the abundance of AMF species (G. geosporum that most promoted its own growth. As a consequence, the altered AMF community enhanced the competitiveness of invasive S. canadensis at the expense of K. striata. Our results demonstrate that the invasive S. canadensis alters soil AMF community composition because of fungal-host preference. This change in the composition of the AMF community generates positive feedback to the invasive S. canadensis itself and decreases AM associations with native K. striata, thereby making the native K. striata less dominant.

  17. Fluid challenge: tracking changes in cardiac output with blood pressure monitoring (invasive or non-invasive).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakhal, Karim; Ehrmann, Stephan; Perrotin, Dominique; Wolff, Michel; Boulain, Thierry

    2013-11-01

    To assess whether invasive and non-invasive blood pressure (BP) monitoring allows the identification of patients who have responded to a fluid challenge, i.e., who have increased their cardiac output (CO). Patients with signs of circulatory failure were prospectively included. Before and after a fluid challenge, CO and the mean of four intra-arterial and oscillometric brachial cuff BP measurements were collected. Fluid responsiveness was defined by an increase in CO ≥10 or ≥15% in case of regular rhythm or arrhythmia, respectively. In 130 patients, the correlation between a fluid-induced increase in pulse pressure (Δ500mlPP) and fluid-induced increase in CO was weak and was similar for invasive and non-invasive measurements of BP: r² = 0.31 and r² = 0.29, respectively (both p area under the receiver-operating curve (AUC) of 0.82 (0.74-0.88), similar (p = 0.80) to that of non-invasive Δ500mlPP [AUC of 0.81 (0.73-0.87)]. Outside large gray zones of inconclusive values (5-23% for invasive Δ500mlPP and 4-35% for non-invasive Δ500mlPP, involving 35 and 48% of patients, respectively), the detection of responsiveness or unresponsiveness to fluid was reliable. Cardiac arrhythmia did not impair the performance of invasive or non-invasive Δ500mlPP. Other BP-derived indices did not outperform Δ500mlPP. As evidenced by large gray zones, BP-derived indices poorly reflected fluid responsiveness. However, in our deeply sedated population, a high increase in invasive pulse pressure (>23%) or even in non-invasive pulse pressure (>35%) reliably detected a response to fluid. In the absence of a marked increase in pulse pressure (<4-5%), a response to fluid was unlikely.

  18. Minimal Invasive Urologic Surgery and Postoperative Ileus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fouad Aoun

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Postoperative ileus (POI is the most common cause of prolonged length of hospital stays (LOS and associated healthcare costs. The advent of minimal invasive technique was a major breakthrough in the urologic landscape with great potential to progress in the future. In the field of gastrointestinal surgery, several studies had reported lower incidence rates for POI following minimal invasive surgery compared to conventional open procedures. In contrast, little is known about the effect of minimal invasive approach on the recovery of bowel motility after urologic surgery. We performed an overview of the potential benefit of minimal invasive approach on POI for urologic procedures. The mechanisms and risk factors responsible for the onset of POI are discussed with emphasis on the advantages of minimal invasive approach. In the urologic field, POI is the main complication following radical cystectomy but it is rarely of clinical significance for other minimal invasive interventions. Laparoscopy or robotic assisted laparoscopic techniques when studied individually may reduce to their own the duration and prevent the onset of POI in a subset of procedures. The potential influence of age and urinary diversion type on postoperative ileus is contradictory in the literature. There is some evidence suggesting that BMI, blood loss, urinary extravasation, existence of a major complication, bowel resection, operative time and transperitoneal approach are independent risk factors for POI. Treatment of POI remains elusive. One of the most important and effective management strategies for patients undergoing radical cystectomy has been the development and use of enhanced recovery programs. An optimal rational strategy to shorten the duration of POI should incorporate minimal invasive approach when appropriate into multimodal fast track programs designed to reduce POI and shorten LOS.

  19. Plant invasions in China: an emerging hot topic in invasion science

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian Liu

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available China has shown a rapid economic development in recent decades, and several drivers of this change are known to enhance biological invasions, a major cause of biodiversity loss. Here we review the current state of research on plant invasions in China by analyzing papers referenced in the ISI Web of Knowledge. Since 2001, the number of papers has increased exponentially, indicating that plant invasions in China are an emerging hot topic in invasion science. The analyzed papers cover a broad range of methodological approaches and research topics. While more that 250 invasive plant species with negative impacts have been reported from China, only a few species have been considered in more than a handful of papers (in order of decreasing number of references: Spartina alterniflora, Ageratina adenophora, Mikania micrantha, Alternanthera philoxeroides, Solidago canadensis, Eichhornia crassipes. Yet this selection might rather reflect the location of research teams than the most invasive plant species in China. Considering the previous achievements in China found in our analysis research in plant invasions could be expanded by (1 compiling comprehensive lists of non-native plant species at the provincial and national scales and to include species that are native to one part of China but non-native to others in these lists; (2 strengthening pathways studies (primary introduction to the country, secondary releases within the country to enhance prevention and management; and (3 assessing impacts of invasive species at different spatial scales (habitats, regions and in relation to conservation resources.

  20. Updated Scar Management Practical Guidelines: Non-invasive and invasive measures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Monstrey, S.; Middelkoop, E.; Vranckx, J.J.; Bassetto, F.; Ziegler, U.E.; Meaume, S.; Teot, L.

    2014-01-01

    Hypertrophic scars and keloids can be aesthetically displeasing and lead to severe psychosocial impairment. Many invasive and non-invasive options are available for the plastic (and any other) surgeon both to prevent and to treat abnormal scar formation. Recently, an updated set of practical

  1. Spillover but no spillback of two invasive parasitic copepods from invasive Pacific oysters (

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goedknegt, M.A.; Schuster, A.-K.; Buschbaum, C.; Gergs, R.; Jung, A.; Luttikhuizen, P.C.; Van der Meer, J.; Troost, K.; Wegner, K.M.; Thieltges, D.W.

    2017-01-01

    Invasive species can cause indirect effects on native biota by modifying parasite-host interactions and disease occurrence in native species. This study investigated the role of the invasive Pacific oyster (Crassostrea gigas) in potential spillover (co-introduced parasites infect native hosts) and

  2. Integrating invasive species policies across ornamental horticulture supply chains to prevent plant invasions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hulme, Philip E.; Brundu, Giuseppe; Carboni, Marta; Dehnen-schmutz, Katharina; Dullinger, Stefan; Early, Regan; Essl, Franz; González-moreno, Pablo; Groom, Quentin J.; Kueffer, Christoph; Kühn, Ingolf; Maurel, Noëlie; Novoa, Ana; Pergl, Jan; Pyšek, Petr; Seebens, Hanno; Tanner, Rob; Touza, Julia M.; Van Kleunen, Mark; Verbrugge, Laura Nicoline Halley

    2017-01-01

    1.Ornamental horticulture is the primary pathway for invasive alien plant introductions. We critically appraise published evidence on the effectiveness of four policy instruments that tackle invasions along the horticulture supply chain: pre-border import restrictions, post-border bans, industry

  3. Efficient distinction of invasive aquatic plant species from non-invasive related species using DNA barcoding

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ghahramanzadeh, R.; Esselink, G.; Kodde, L.P.; Duistermaat, H.; Valkenburg, van J.L.C.H.; Marashi, S.H.; Smulders, M.J.M.; Wiel, van de C.C.M.

    2013-01-01

    Biological invasions are regarded as threats to global biodiversity. Among invasive aliens, a number of plant species belonging to the genera Myriophyllum, Ludwigia and Cabomba, and to the Hydrocharitaceae family pose a particular ecological threat to water bodies. Therefore, one would try to

  4. The relation between invasive and non-invasive tear break-up time ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tear stability normal to Nigerians with consideration of gender and age has not been reported. Tear stability in young adults was measured using invasive and non-invasive tear break-up time (TBUT and NIBUT). Forty –five subjects aged 20 to 30 years were selected from among the students of University of. Benin, Edo ...

  5. Earthworm invasion in North America: Food resource competition affects native millipede survival and invasive earthworm reproduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruce Snyder; Mac Callaham; Christopher Lowe; Paul Hendrix

    2013-01-01

    The invasive non-native earthworm Amynthas agrestis (Goto and Hatai, 1899) has recently been documented invading forests of the Appalachian Mountains in the southeastern United States. This epigeic earthworm decreases the depth of organic soil horizons, and this may play a role in the decrease of millipede richness and abundance associated with A. agrestis invasion. To...

  6. Invasive cervical carcinoma (Stages IB-IIB)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sironi, S.; Zanello, A.; Rodighiero, M.G.; Vanzulli, A.; Del Maschio, A.; Taccagni, G.L.; Belloni, C.

    1991-01-01

    In the patients with invasive cervical carcinoma, the accurate assessment of parametrial invasion greatly affects the therapeutic choice between surgery and radiation therapy. As a matter of fact, surgery is usually performed only in the patients with carcinoma confined to the cervix, whereas those with parametrial involvement, or more advanced stages, are treated with radiation therapy. This prospective study was aimed at investigating the comparative adequecy of CT and MR imaging in assessing parametrial status in the patients with invasive cervical cancer. Twenty-one consecutive patients, with histologic diagnosis of cervical carcinoma, were investigated. All of them were clinically considered as having invasive cervical cancer (FIGO stage IB-IIB) and subsequently underwent surgery. In all cases, detailed histology of the parametrium was obtained. Pathological data were compared with CT and MR findings in all cases. As for assessing parametrial involvement by cancer, CT had 62% accuracy, 63% sensitivity, and 60% specificity, versus MR imaging 81% accuracy, 69% sensitivity, and 80% specificify. Therefore, MR imaging appears to be superior to CT in assessing the parametrial status of patients with invasive cervical carcinoma; the method yields valuable information for treatment planning

  7. Cell signaling during Trypanosoma cruzi invasion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Yukio Maeda

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Cell signaling is an essential requirement for mammalian cell invasion by Trypanosoma cruzi. Depending on the parasite strain and the parasite developmental form, distinct signaling pathways may be induced. In this short review, we focus on the data coming from studies with metacyclic trypomastigotes (MT generated in vitro and tissue culture-derived trypomastigotes (TCT, used as counterparts of insect-borne and bloodstream parasites respectively. During invasion of host cells by MT or TCT, intracellular Ca2+ mobilization and host cell lysosomal exocytosis are triggered. Invasion mediated by MT surface molecule gp82 requires the activation of mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR, phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K and protein kinase C (PKC in the host cell, associated with Ca2+-dependent disruption of the actin cytoskeleton. In MT, protein tyrosine kinase (PTK, PI3K, phospholipase C (PLC and PKC appear to be activated. TCT invasion, on the other hand, does not rely on mTOR activation, rather on target cell PI3K, and may involve the host cell autophagy for parasite internalization. Enzymes, such oligopeptidase B and the major T. cruzi cysteine proteinase cruzipain, have been shown to generate molecules that induce target cell Ca2+ signal. In addition, TCT may trigger host cell responses mediated by TGF-β receptor or integrin family member. Further investigations are needed for a more complete and detailed picture of T. cruzi invasion.

  8. Current research in perineural invasion of cholangiocarcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deng Xi-Yun

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Perineural invasion is a common path for cholangiocarcinoma (CCA metastasis, and it is highly correlated with postoperative recurrence and poor prognosis. It is often an early event in a disease that is commonly diagnosed in advanced stages, and thus it could offer a timely therapeutic and diagnostic target if better understood. This article systematically reviews the progress of CCA neural invasion-related molecules. Methods Studies were identified by searching MEDLINE and PubMed databases for articles from January 1990 to December 2009, using the keywords "cholangiocarcinoma," "perineural invasion," "nerve growth factor"(NGF, "neural cell adhesion molecule" (NCAM, "matrix metalloproteinase"(MMP, "neurotransmitter," "acetylcholine" (Ach, and "transforming growth factor" (TGF." Additional papers and book chapters were identified by a manual search of references from the key articles. Results From above we found that the molecules NGF, NCAM, MMP, Ach and TGF may have prognostic significance in, and offer clues to the mechanism of CCA neural invasion. Conclusions Cholangiocarcinoma's increasing worldwide incidence is especially poignant in view of both the lacking effective therapies, and the fact that it is commonly diagnosed in advanced stages. As CCA neural invasion often appears early, more complete characterization of its molecular pathology could lead to the identification of targets for the diagnosis and therapy of this devastating malignancy.

  9. Synchronous lobular carcinoma in situ and invasive lobular cancer: marker or precursor for invasive lobular carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, A S; Xiang, D; Hockman, L; Arya, M; Jeffress, J; Wang, Z; Dale, P S

    2014-10-01

    Lobular carcinoma in situ (LCIS) is a known risk factor for invasive breast carcinoma, but there is increasing data indicating a possible precursor relationship. This study investigates the incidence of lobular carcinoma in situ that occurs with invasive lobular carcinoma (ILC). Women diagnosed with ILC or LCIS from 2000 to 2010 were retrospectively identified and reviewed after institutional review board approval. This group was divided into two cohorts: ILC alone, and LCIS and ILC (ILC/LCIS). Patient demographics, disease characteristics, and treatment modalities were captured. p invasive ductal carcinoma at ∼40%. The association of pre-invasive and invasive lobular lesions should be further studied in a large scale prospective study to assess for a precursor relationship. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. KARIER MENINGITIS MENINGOKOK PADA JEMAAH HAJI INDONESIA TAHUN 1993-2003

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarwo Handayani

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Research and routine survey of meningococcal meningitis on Indonesian hajj pilgrims have been conducted since 1993 until now. This paper consists of several research and routine survey of meningococcal meningitis during 1993 and 2003. The objectives of the test were determining the meningococcal meningitis carrier on hajj pilgrims, determining the serogroup of N. meningitidis and knowing sensitivity of bacteria to several antibiotics. The result showed increasing of meningococcal meningitis carrier in 1993 up to 1996, that was 1.3% - 9,4% respectively. This proportion of meningococcal meningitis carrier in the case groups decreased after given of rifampicin in 1994 and cyprofloxacin in 1997 as a chemoprophilactic. The result of the study in 1997 indiciated that the carrier rate of groups with cyprofloxacin (1.4% was lower than rifampicin group (1.4%. Most of the isolated bacteria of N. meningitidis in 1996 and 1997 were resistant to rifampicin (sensitivity test was 0-33%. Serogroup B of N. meningitidis were found dominantly between 1993 and 1999, it changed to be serogroup W135 from 2000 to 2003. The changes related  with the majority cases of meningococcal meningitis in another countries that caused by serogroup W135. Because  of  that  since 2002, immunization program has given a tetravalen (serogroup ACYW135 meningococcal vaccine to all of Indonesian hajj pilgrims. The carrier of meningococcal meningitis is still found in hajj pilgrims and their contact. More attention must be given, caused of meningococcal meningitis serogroup B vaccine is not available. The further researches are needed especially for subtype of N. meningitidis, effectivity of the drug choice and development of meningococcal meningitis vaccine serogroup B.

  11. A randomized study to evaluate the immunogenicity and safety of a heptavalent diphtheria, tetanus, pertussis, hepatitis B, poliomyelitis, haemophilus influenzae b, and meningococcal serogroup C combination vaccine administered to infants at 2, 4 and 12 months of age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thollot, Franck; Scheifele, David; Pankow-Culot, Heidemarie; Cheuvart, Brigitte; Leyssen, Maarten; Ulianov, Liliana; Miller, Jacqueline M

    2014-12-01

    The immunogenicity and safety of the investigational diphtheria, tetanus, acellular pertussis, hepatitis B, poliomyelitis, Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) and meningococcal serogroup C (MenC) heptavalent combination vaccine were compared with those of licensed control vaccines. In this open, phase II, randomized study (NCT01090453), 480 infants from Germany, France and Canada received the heptavalent vaccine (Hepta group) or hexavalent and monovalent MenC control vaccines (HexaMenC group) co-administered with a 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine at 2, 4 and 12 months of age. Immunogenicity was measured 1 month after the second primary dose, and before and 1 month after the booster dose. Safety and reactogenicity were also evaluated. Non-inferiority of immune responses to MenC and Hib induced by 2-dose primary vaccination with the heptavalent vaccine versus control vaccines was demonstrated. In exploratory analyses, postprimary and postbooster functional antibody geometric mean titers against MenC tended to be lower (1119.5 vs. 3200.5; 2653.8 vs. 6028.4) and antibody geometric mean concentrations against Hib higher (1.594 vs. 0.671 μg/mL; 17.678 vs. 13.737 μg/mL) in the Hepta versus the HexaMenC group. The heptavalent and control vaccines were immunogenic to all other antigens, although immune responses to poliovirus were lower than expected in both groups. No differences in safety and reactogenicity profiles were detected between groups. The heptavalent vaccine induced non-inferior MenC and Hib responses compared with control vaccines. Both vaccination regimens, when administered at 2, 4 and 12 months of age, had comparable safety profiles and were immunogenic to all antigens, with lower-than-expected responses to poliomyelitis.

  12. Safety and immunogenicity of coadministering a combined meningococcal serogroup C and Haemophilus influenzae type b conjugate vaccine with 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine and measles, mumps, and rubella vaccine at 12 months of age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Elizabeth; Andrews, Nick; Waight, Pauline; Findlow, Helen; Ashton, Lindsey; England, Anna; Stanford, Elaine; Matheson, Mary; Southern, Joanna; Sheasby, Elizabeth; Goldblatt, David; Borrow, Ray

    2011-03-01

    The coadministration of the combined meningococcal serogroup C conjugate (MCC)/Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) vaccine with pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV7) and measles, mumps, and rubella (MMR) vaccine at 12 months of age was investigated to assess the safety and immunogenicity of this regimen compared with separate administration of the conjugate vaccines. Children were randomized to receive MCC/Hib vaccine alone followed 1 month later by PCV7 with MMR vaccine or to receive all three vaccines concomitantly. Immunogenicity endpoints were MCC serum bactericidal antibody (SBA) titers of ≥8, Hib-polyribosylribitol phosphate (PRP) IgG antibody concentrations of ≥0.15 μg/ml, PCV serotype-specific IgG concentrations of ≥0.35 μg/ml, measles and mumps IgG concentrations of >120 arbitrary units (AU)/ml, and rubella IgG concentrations of ≥11 AU/ml. For safety assessment, the proportions of children with erythema, swelling, or tenderness at site of injection or fever or other systemic symptoms for 7 days after immunization were compared between regimens. No adverse consequences for either safety or immunogenicity were demonstrated when MCC/Hib vaccine was given concomitantly with PCV and MMR vaccine at 12 months of age or separately at 12 and 13 months of age. Any small differences in immunogenicity were largely in the direction of a higher response when all three vaccines were given concomitantly. For systemic symptoms, there was no evidence of an additive effect; rather, any differences between schedules showed benefit from the concomitant administration of all three vaccines, such as lower overall proportions with postvaccination fevers. The United Kingdom infant immunization schedule now recommends that these three vaccines may be offered at one visit at between 12 and 13 months of age.

  13. Safety and immunogenocity of a novel combined Haemophilus influenzae type b-Neisseria meningitidis serogroups A and C-tetanus-toxoid conjugate vaccine in healthy Chinese children aged 6 months to 5 years old.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Jian-li; Tao, Hong; Li, Jing-xin; Dai, Wei-ming; Song, Bin; Sun, Jin-fang; Liu, Pei; Tang, Jie; Liu, Wen-yu; Wang, Shi-yuan; Zhu, Feng-cai

    2015-01-01

    A novel combined Haemophilus influenzae type b-Neisseria meningitidis serogroups A and C-tetanus-toxoid conjugate vaccine (Hib-MenAC vaccine) has been developed to protect children against diseases caused by Hib, MenA, and MenC. This study investigated the safety and immunogenicity of the Hib-MenAC vaccine administered in 2-dose series to children aged 6-23 months and in a single dose to children aged 2-5 y. A randomized, positive-controlled, non-inferiority clinical trial was conducted for 1200 healthy participants in each age group. Within each age group, participants were randomly allocated to the Hib-MenAC group or the control group at a ratio of 1:1. Adverse reactions were recorded within 28 d after each dose. Blood samples were obtained to assess immunogenicity on day 0 and at 28 d after a complete vaccination course. For the investigational vaccine, the incidence of total adverse reactions in vaccinees aged 6-23 months was 46.8% and that in vaccinees aged 2-5 y was 29.8%. Most adverse reactions were mild or moderate. One non-fatal serious adverse event occurred in the Hib-MenAC group, but was unrelated to vaccination. The seroconversion rate to the 3 components reached 94.0%, and the proportion of vaccinees with rSBA titers ≥ 1:8 and PRP ≥ 0.15 g/mL reached 97.0% in both age groups. The safety and immunogenicity of the Hib-MenAC vaccine were non-inferior when compared to the licensed vaccines. It was concluded that the novel vaccine would be expected to protect children against all of the targeted diseases.

  14. Genomic comparison of invasive and rare non-invasive strains reveals Porphyromonas gingivalis genetic polymorphisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svetlana Dolgilevich

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Porphyromonas gingivalis strains are shown to invade human cells in vitro with different invasion efficiencies, varying by up to three orders of magnitude.We tested the hypothesis that invasion-associated interstrain genomic polymorphisms are present in P. gingivalis and that putative invasion-associated genes can contribute to P. gingivalis invasion.Using an invasive (W83 and the only available non-invasive P. gingivalis strain (AJW4 and whole genome microarrays followed by two separate software tools, we carried out comparative genomic hybridization (CGH analysis.We identified 68 annotated and 51 hypothetical open reading frames (ORFs that are polymorphic between these strains. Among these are surface proteins, lipoproteins, capsular polysaccharide biosynthesis enzymes, regulatory and immunoreactive proteins, integrases, and transposases often with abnormal GC content and clustered on the chromosome. Amplification of selected ORFs was used to validate the approach and the selection. Eleven clinical strains were investigated for the presence of selected ORFs. The putative invasion-associated ORFs were present in 10 of the isolates. The invasion ability of three isogenic mutants, carrying deletions in PG0185, PG0186, and PG0982 was tested. The PG0185 (ragA and PG0186 (ragB mutants had 5.1×103-fold and 3.6×103-fold decreased in vitro invasion ability, respectively.The annotation of divergent ORFs suggests deficiency in multiple genes as a basis for P. gingivalis non-invasive phenotype. Access the supplementary material to this article: Supplement, table (see Supplementary files under Reading Tools online.

  15. [Lobular neoplasms and invasive lobular breast cancer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinn, H-P; Helmchen, B; Heil, J; Aulmann, S

    2014-02-01

    The term lobular neoplasia (LN) comprises both atypical lobular hyperplasia (ALH), and lobular carcinoma in situ (LCIS) and thus a spectrum of morphologically heterogeneous but clinically and biologically related lesions. LN is regarded as a nonobligatory precursor lesion of invasive breast cancer and at the same time as an indicator lesion for ipsilateral and contralateral breast cancer risk of the patient. Rare pleomorphic or florid variants of LCIS must be differentiated from classical LCIS. The classical type of invasive lobular carcinoma (ILC) can be distinguished from the non-special type of invasive breast cancer (NST) by E-cadherin inactivation, loss of E-cadherin related cell adhesion and the subsequent discohesive growth pattern. Variant forms of ILC may show different molecular features, and solid and pleomorphic differentiation patterns in cases of high grade variants. Important parameters for the prognostic assessment of ILC are tumor grading and the recognition of morphological variants.

  16. Mechatronic Feasibility of Minimally Invasive, Atraumatic Cochleostomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tom Williamson

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Robotic assistance in the context of lateral skull base surgery, particularly during cochlear implantation procedures, has been the subject of considerable research over the last decade. The use of robotics during these procedures has the potential to provide significant benefits to the patient by reducing invasiveness when gaining access to the cochlea, as well as reducing intracochlear trauma when performing a cochleostomy. Presented herein is preliminary work on the combination of two robotic systems for reducing invasiveness and trauma in cochlear implantation procedures. A robotic system for minimally invasive inner ear access was combined with a smart drilling tool for robust and safe cochleostomy; evaluation was completed on a single human cadaver specimen. Access to the middle ear was successfully achieved through the facial recess without damage to surrounding anatomical structures; cochleostomy was completed at the planned position with the endosteum remaining intact after drilling as confirmed by microscope evaluation.

  17. Computed tomography versus invasive coronary angiography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Napp, Adriane E.; Haase, Robert; Laule, Michael

    2017-01-01

    Objectives: More than 3.5 million invasive coronary angiographies (ICA) are performed in Europe annually. Approximately 2 million of these invasive procedures might be reduced by noninvasive tests because no coronary intervention is performed. Computed tomography (CT) is the most accurate...... angiography (ICA) is the reference standard for detection of CAD.• Noninvasive computed tomography angiography excludes CAD with high sensitivity.• CT may effectively reduce the approximately 2 million negative ICAs in Europe.• DISCHARGE addresses this hypothesis in patients with low-to-intermediate pretest...

  18. Biosensors and invasive monitoring in clinical applications

    CERN Document Server

    Córcoles, Emma P

    2013-01-01

    This volume examines the advances of invasive monitoring by means of biosensors and microdialysis. Physical and physiological parameters are commonly monitored in clinical settings using invasive techniques due to their positive outcome in patients’ diagnosis and treatment. Biochemical parameters, however, still rely on off-line measurements and require large pieces of equipment. Biosensing and sampling devices present excellent capabilities for their use in continuous monitoring of patients’ biochemical parameters. However, certain issues remain to be solved in order to ensure a more widespread use of these techniques in today’s medical practices.

  19. Pepducin Based Intervention of Breast Cancer Invasion

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-08-01

    Metalloprotease-1 Receptor that Promotes Invasion and Tumorigenesis of Breast Cancer Cells. Cell 120, 303-313. (6) Arribas , J. (2005) Matrix Metalloproteases...promotes invasion and tumorigenesis of breast cancer cells. Cell 2005;120:303–13. 6. Arribas J. Matrix metalloproteases and tumor inva- sion. N Engl J Med...to ala - provide a model for more aggressive, tamoxifen-insen- nine. The F43A PAR1 mutant does not transduce a sig- sitive, breast cancers. MDA-MB-231

  20. Invasion rate and population characteristics of the invasive round goby Neogobius melanostomus: effects of density and invasion history

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Azour, Farivar; Deurs, Mikael van; Behrens, Jane

    2015-01-01

    Round goby Neogobius melanostomus is currently one of the most wide-ranging invasive fish species in Europe and North America. The present study demonstrates how the distribution of round goby has expanded from 2008 to 2013 at a rate of about 30 km yr−1 along the Danish coastline in the western B...

  1. The complexity underlying invasiveness precludes the identification of invasive traits: A comparative study of invasive and noninvasive heterocarpic Atriplex congeners

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Doudová, J.; Douda, J.; Mandák, Bohumil

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 12, č. 4 (2017), s. 1-16, č. článku e017645. E-ISSN 1932-6203 Institutional support: RVO:67985939 Keywords : Atriplex * heterocarpy * invasiveness Subject RIV: EF - Botanics OBOR OECD: Plant sciences, botany Impact factor: 2.806, year: 2016

  2. Differentiating invasive and pre-invasive lung cancer by quantitative analysis of histopathologic images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Chuan; Sun, Hongliu; Chan, Heang-Ping; Chughtai, Aamer; Wei, Jun; Hadjiiski, Lubomir; Kazerooni, Ella

    2018-02-01

    We are developing automated radiopathomics method for diagnosis of lung nodule subtypes. In this study, we investigated the feasibility of using quantitative methods to analyze the tumor nuclei and cytoplasm in pathologic wholeslide images for the classification of pathologic subtypes of invasive nodules and pre-invasive nodules. We developed a multiscale blob detection method with watershed transform (MBD-WT) to segment the tumor cells. Pathomic features were extracted to characterize the size, morphology, sharpness, and gray level variation in each segmented nucleus and the heterogeneity patterns of tumor nuclei and cytoplasm. With permission of the National Lung Screening Trial (NLST) project, a data set containing 90 digital haematoxylin and eosin (HE) whole-slide images from 48 cases was used in this study. The 48 cases contain 77 regions of invasive subtypes and 43 regions of pre-invasive subtypes outlined by a pathologist on the HE images using the pathological tumor region description provided by NLST as reference. A logistic regression model (LRM) was built using leave-one-case-out resampling and receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis for classification of invasive and pre-invasive subtypes. With 11 selected features, the LRM achieved a test area under the ROC curve (AUC) value of 0.91+/-0.03. The results demonstrated that the pathologic invasiveness of lung adenocarcinomas could be categorized with high accuracy using pathomics analysis.

  3. Meningococcal factor H binding proteins in epidemic strains from Africa: implications for vaccine development.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rolando Pajon

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Factor H binding protein (fHbp is an important antigen for vaccines against meningococcal serogroup B disease. The protein binds human factor H (fH, which enables the bacteria to resist serum bactericidal activity. Little is known about the vaccine-potential of fHbp for control of meningococcal epidemics in Africa, which typically are caused by non-group B strains.We investigated genes encoding fHbp in 106 serogroup A, W-135 and X case isolates from 17 African countries. We determined complement-mediated bactericidal activity of antisera from mice immunized with recombinant fHbp vaccines, or a prototype native outer membrane vesicle (NOMV vaccine from a serogroup B mutant strain with over-expressed fHbp. Eighty-six of the isolates (81% had one of four prevalent fHbp sequence variants, ID 4/5 (serogroup A isolates, 9 (W-135, or 74 (X in variant group 1, or ID 22/23 (W-135 in variant group 2. More than one-third of serogroup A isolates and two-thirds of W-135 isolates tested had low fHbp expression while all X isolates tested had intermediate or high expression. Antisera to the recombinant fHbp vaccines were generally bactericidal only against isolates with fHbp sequence variants that closely matched the respective vaccine ID. Low fHbp expression also contributed to resistance to anti-fHbp bactericidal activity. In contrast to the recombinant vaccines, the NOMV fHbp ID 1 vaccine elicited broad anti-fHbp bactericidal activity, and the antibodies had greater ability to inhibit binding of fH to fHbp than antibodies elicited by the control recombinant fHbp ID 1 vaccine.NOMV vaccines from mutants with increased fHbp expression elicit an antibody repertoire with greater bactericidal activity than recombinant fHbp vaccines. NOMV vaccines are promising for prevention of meningococcal disease in Africa and could be used to supplement coverage conferred by a serogroup A polysaccharide-protein conjugate vaccine recently introduced in some sub

  4. Biological invasions, ecological resilience and adaptive governance

    Science.gov (United States)

    In a world of increasing interconnections in global trade as well as rapid change in climate and land cover, the accelerating introduction and spread of invasive species is a critical concern due to associated negative social and ecological impacts, both real and perceived. Much...

  5. Invasive plants affect prairie soil biology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Non-native or exotic plants often cause ecological and environmental damage in ecosystems where they invade and become established. These invasive plants may be the most serious threat to plant diversity in prairies, especially those in scattered remnants, which may be particularly vulnerable to rap...

  6. The October 2011 Kenyan invasion of Somalia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Gorm Rye

    2018-01-01

    -Kenyan origin who pursued their own interests. Security and economic concerns did play a role, while the paper dismisses that the invasion can be understood as a consequence of the Kenyan government pursuing an ‘international image management strategy’. Theoretically, the paper concludes that ‘Western’ theories...

  7. Benefit from the minimally invasive sinus technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salama, N; Oakley, R J; Skilbeck, C J; Choudhury, N; Jacob, A

    2009-02-01

    Sinus drainage is impeded by the transition spaces that the anterior paranasal sinuses drain into, not the ostia themselves. Addressing the transition spaces and leaving the ostia intact, using the minimally invasive sinus technique, should reverse chronic rhinosinusitis. To assess patient benefit following use of the minimally invasive sinus technique for chronic rhinosinusitis. One hundred and forty-three consecutive patients underwent the minimally invasive sinus technique for chronic rhinosinusitis. Symptoms (i.e. blocked nose, poor sense of smell, rhinorrhoea, post-nasal drip, facial pain and sneezing) were recorded using a visual analogue scale, pre-operatively and at six and 12 weeks post-operatively. Patients were also surveyed using the Glasgow benefit inventory, one and three years post-operatively. We found a significant reduction in all nasal symptom scores at six and 12 weeks post-operatively, and increased total quality of life scores at one and three years post-operatively (25.2 and 14.8, respectively). The patient benefits of treatment with the minimally invasive sinus technique compare with the published patient benefits for functional endoscopic sinus surgery.

  8. Invasive species in southern Nevada [Chapter 4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathew L. Brooks; Steven M. Ostoja; Jeanne C. Chambers

    2013-01-01

    Southern Nevada contains a wide range of topographies, elevations, and climatic zones emblematic of its position at the ecotone between the Mojave Desert, Great Basin, and Colorado Plateau ecoregions. These varied environmental conditions support a high degree of biological diversity (Chapter 1), but they also provide opportunities for a wide range of invasive species...

  9. Invasive plants often emanate from southern gardens

    Science.gov (United States)

    J.H. Miller; A. Miller

    2009-01-01

    Did you know that heavenly bamboo, thorny olive, English ivy, Boston fern, privets and many garden favorites are invading forests to their and thus our detriment? Garden clubs should band together to protect our natural vegetation against invasive plants that take over the habitat of the native flora. Often called non-native, exotic, or noxious weeds, they...

  10. Invasive thymoma; Radiologic evaluation by computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoon, Choon Sik; Choe, Kyu Ok

    1985-01-01

    In 6 cases of invasive thymoma proved histologically from 1981 to 1984 in Yonsei University Medical Center, the CT findings and pattern were analysed. The results were as follows; 1. Of 6 cases, 4 were males and 2 were females. All cases were between 40-64 years and the average was 51 year old. 2. Of 6 cases, 2 female patients were associated with myasthenia gravis. 3. By the histological examination, 2 were confirmed as mixed cell type, 2 spindle cell type, 1 lymphocytic type and 1 epithelial cell type. 4. CT findings of invasive thymoma were 1) A discrete but lobulated and irregular marginated soft tissue mass in the superoanterior mediastinum replacing the normal mediastinal fat tissue. 2) Usually irregular low density areas within the mass suggesting central necrosis or calcification in 1 of 6 cases was noted. 3) Local invasiveness of the mass shown as obliteration of the normal fat plans surrounding great vessels, irregular thickening or nodular shadows of the pleura, diagphragm and pericardium and irregular and ragged tumor-lung interfaces if the tumor invade to the structures. 4) Frequent extension of tumor to middle and post. mediastinum along pericardium or mediastinal pleura with resultant extrinsic indentation and/or invasion of the hilar region. 5). Extensive tumor infiltration to middle and post. mediastinum in 1 case, indistinguishable from lymphoma. 6) Low attenuation numbered area of brain in another 1 case, but not confirmed histologically

  11. Invasive pests—insects and diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donald A. Duerr; Paul A. Mistretta

    2013-01-01

    Key FindingsNonnative pest species have increasing impacts in the South regardless of climate change, patterns of land ownership, or changes in the composition of vegetation.“New” nonnative invasive insects and diseases will have serious impacts on southern forests over the next 50 years. Some species such as emerald ash borer...

  12. Elephant invasion and escalated depletion of environmental ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    For decades, elephants' invasion is known to be associated with severe environmental consequences leading to escalated depletion o environmental resources (plants, water, wildlife and soil). This paper examined the effects of elephants' activity on the environmental resources inHong and Gombi Local Government areas ...

  13. Socioeconomic legacy yields an invasion debt

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Essl, F.; Dullinger, S.; Rabitsch, W.; Hulme, P. E.; Hülber, K.; Jarošík, Vojtěch; Kleinbauer, I.; Krausmann, F.; Kuhn, H.; Nentwig, W.; Vila, M.; Genovesi, P.; Gherardi, F.; Desprez-Loustau, M.-L.; Roques, A.; Pyšek, Petr

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 108, č. 1 (2011), s. 203-207 ISSN 0027-8424 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LC06073 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60050516 Keywords : biological invasions * Europe * economy Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 9.681, year: 2011

  14. On shelterbelt design for combating sand invasion.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mohammed, A.E.; Stigter, C.J.; Adam, H.S.

    1996-01-01

    After a review of the scarce literature on using trees against sand encroachment, a quantitative experiment with a wide shelterbelt to combat sand invasion is reported on. Experimental work was carried out at the northwestern border of the Gezira Scheme (Sudan), an area of severe land degradation

  15. Voriconazole salvage treatment of invasive candidiasis.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ostrosky-Zeichner, L.; Oude Lashof, A.M.L.; Kullberg, B.J.; Rex, J.H.

    2003-01-01

    Data on the salvage treatment of invasive candidiasis with voriconazole in 52 patients intolerant of other antifungal agents or with infection refractory to other antifungal agents were analyzed. Patients had received a mean of two previous antifungal agents (range, 1-4 agents), and 83% had received

  16. The Long American Grain Invasion of Britain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sharp, Paul Richard

    and Britain. Both trade statistics and contemporary comment reveal the importance of this trade from the middle to late eighteenth century, long before the so-called grain invasion of the late nineteenth century. Using data on imports from America and a large volume of substantiating primary evidence...

  17. Sonomammographic characteristics of invasive lobular carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    El-Damshety O

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Osama R Kombar,1,3 Dalia M Fahmy,1 Mary V Brown,3 Omar Farouk,2 Osama El-Damshety21Diagnostic Radiology Department, 2Surgical Oncology Department, Oncology Center, Mansoura University, Mansoura, Egypt; 3Diagnostic Radiology Department, Al-Amiri Hospital, Safat, KuwaitObjective: The objective of our study was to identify characteristic features of invasive lobular carcinoma on mammography and ultrasound examinationsMaterials and methods: This is a retrospective multicenter study of women with biopsy-proven invasive lobular carcinoma. All patients had undergone diagnostic sonomammography. The imaging findings were identified by experienced breast imagers. Final surgical pathology results were used as the reference standard.Results: Thirty-two women ranging in age from 42 to 63 years old (mean age, 53 years, All had biopsy-proven invasive lobular carcinomas. Common features on mammogram included dense mass followed by architectural distortion; three cases showed breast asymmetry and one case was reported as normal. On ultrasound, common features included solid mass with spiculated margins, posterior shadowing, and perpendicular to the skin.Conclusion: Although no specific features could be linked to invasive lobular carcinoma, care should be directed to subtle signs such as architectural distortion and breast asymmetry in order not to miss any lesions. The combination of mammographic and sonographic helps to decrease the relatively high false negative diagnosis of this type of breast cancer.Keywords: mammography, ultrasound, cancer, breast

  18. Systems for tracking minimally invasive surgical instruments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chmarra, M. K.; Grimbergen, C. A.; Dankelman, J.

    2007-01-01

    Minimally invasive surgery (e.g. laparoscopy) requires special surgical skills, which should be objectively assessed. Several studies have shown that motion analysis is a valuable assessment tool of basic surgical skills in laparoscopy. However, to use motion analysis as the assessment tool, it is

  19. Invasive thymoma; Radiologic evaluation by computed tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoon, Choon Sik; Choe, Kyu Ok [Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1985-04-15

    In 6 cases of invasive thymoma proved histologically from 1981 to 1984 in Yonsei University Medical Center, the CT findings and pattern were analysed. The results were as follows; 1. Of 6 cases, 4 were males and 2 were females. All cases were between 40-64 years and the average was 51 year old. 2. Of 6 cases, 2 female patients were associated with myasthenia gravis. 3. By the histological examination, 2 were confirmed as mixed cell type, 2 spindle cell type, 1 lymphocytic type and 1 epithelial cell type. 4. CT findings of invasive thymoma were 1) A discrete but lobulated and irregular marginated soft tissue mass in the superoanterior mediastinum replacing the normal mediastinal fat tissue. 2) Usually irregular low density areas within the mass suggesting central necrosis or calcification in 1 of 6 cases was noted. 3) Local invasiveness of the mass shown as obliteration of the normal fat plans surrounding great vessels, irregular thickening or nodular shadows of the pleura, diagphragm and pericardium and irregular and ragged tumor-lung interfaces if the tumor invade to the structures. 4) Frequent extension of tumor to middle and post. mediastinum along pericardium or mediastinal pleura with resultant extrinsic indentation and/or invasion of the hilar region. 5). Extensive tumor infiltration to middle and post. mediastinum in 1 case, indistinguishable from lymphoma. 6) Low attenuation numbered area of brain in another 1 case, but not confirmed histologically.

  20. New trends in minimally invasive urological surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prabhakar Rajan

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The perceived benefits of minimally-invasive surgery include less postoperative pain, shorter hospitalization, reduced morbidity and better cosmesis while maintaining diagnostic accuracy and therapeutic outcome. We review the new trends in minimally-invasive urological surgery. Materials and method: We reviewed the English language literature using the National Library of Medicine database to identify the latest technological advances in minimally-invasive surgery with particular reference to urology. Results: Amongst other advances, studies incorporating needlescopic surgery, laparoendoscopic single-site surgery , magnetic anchoring and guidance systems, natural orifice transluminal endoscopic surgery and flexible robots were considered of interest. The results from initial animal and human studies are also outlined. Conclusion: Minimally-invasive surgery continues to evolve to meet the demands of the operators and patients. Many novel technologies are still in the testing phase, whilst others have entered clinical practice. Further evaluation is required to confirm the safety and efficacy of these techniques and validate the published reports.

  1. Alien plant invasions in European woodlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wagner, Viktoria; Chytrý, Milan; Jiménez-Alfaro, Borja; Pergl, Jan; Hennekens, Stephan; Biurrun, Idoia; Knollová, Ilona; Berg, Christian; Vassilev, Kiril; Rodwell, John S.; Škvorc, Željko; Jandt, Ute; Ewald, Jörg; Jansen, Florian; Tsiripidis, Ioannis; Botta-Dukát, Zoltán; Casella, Laura; Attorre, Fabio; Rašomavičius, Valerijus; Ćušterevska, Renata; Schaminée, Joop H.J.; Brunet, Jörg; Lenoir, Jonathan; Svenning, Jens Christian; Kącki, Zygmunt; Petrášová-Šibíková, Mária; Šilc, Urban; García-Mijangos, Itziar; Campos, Juan Antonio; Fernández-González, Federico; Wohlgemuth, Thomas; Onyshchenko, Viktor; Pyšek, Petr

    2017-01-01

    Aim: Woodlands make up a third of European territory and carry out important ecosystem functions, yet a comprehensive overview of their invasion by alien plants has never been undertaken across this continent. Location: Europe. Methods: We extracted data from 251,740 vegetation plots stored in the

  2. Minimally invasive treatments of uterine fibroids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Voogt, M.J.

    2012-01-01

    This thesis assesses clinical results and technical developments of two minimally invasive treatments for symptomatic uterine fibroids: uterine artery embolization (UAE) and magnetic resonance-guided high intensity focused ultrasound (MR-HIFU). Part I: Uterine artery embolization The results of a

  3. Teaching Team Invasion Games and Motivational Climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, Shirley; Sproule, John; Morgan, Kevin

    2009-01-01

    Team invasion games (TIG) make up a large part of the PE curriculum in Scottish schools. It is important, therefore, to understand the environmental conditions that contribute to pupils' motivation to learn to play TIG. Consequently, this study aimed to identify the teaching behaviours exhibited when teaching TIG using a game-based approach and a…

  4. Non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Malmström, Per-Uno; Agrawal, Sachin; Bläckberg, Mats

    2017-01-01

    The management of non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer (NMIBC) has evolved from the first reports on bladder endoscopy and transurethral resection to the introduction of adjuvant intravesical treatment. However, disease recurrence and progression remain an ongoing risk, placing a heavy burden...

  5. Control of invasive weeds with prescribed burning

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiTomaso, Joseph M.; Brooks, Matthew L.; Allen, Edith B.; Minnich, Ralph; Rice, Peter M.; Kyser, Guy B.

    2006-01-01

    Prescribed burning has primarily been used as a tool for the control of invasive late-season annual broadleaf and grass species, particularly yellow starthistle, medusahead, barb goatgrass, and several bromes. However, timely burning of a few invasive biennial broadleaves (e.g., sweetclover and garlic mustard), perennial grasses (e.g., bluegrasses and smooth brome), and woody species (e.g., brooms and Chinese tallow tree) also has been successful. In many cases, the effectiveness of prescribed burning can be enhanced when incorporated into an integrated vegetation management program. Although there are some excellent examples of successful use of prescribed burning for the control of invasive species, a limited number of species have been evaluated. In addition, few studies have measured the impact of prescribed burning on the long-term changes in plant communities, impacts to endangered plant species, effects on wildlife and insect populations, and alterations in soil biology, including nutrition, mycorrhizae, and hydrology. In this review, we evaluate the current state of knowledge on prescribed burning as a tool for invasive weed management.

  6. Invasive Bacterial Pathogens and their Antibiotic Susceptibility ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The isolates showed high rates of resistance to most antibiotics tested. The range of resistance for gram positive bacteria were 0% to 85.7%, and for gram negative from 0% to 100%. None of the isolates were resistance to ciprofloxacin and ceftriaxone. CONCLUSION: Our study result showed the presence of invasive ...

  7. Invasive species information networks: Collaboration at multiple scales for prevention, early detection, and rapid response to invasive alien species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpson, Annie; Jarnevich, Catherine S.; Madsen, John; Westbrooks, Randy G.; Fournier, Christine; Mehrhoff, Les; Browne, Michael; Graham, Jim; Sellers, Elizabeth A.

    2009-01-01

    Accurate analysis of present distributions and effective modeling of future distributions of invasive alien species (IAS) are both highly dependent on the availability and accessibility of occurrence data and natural history information about the species. Invasive alien species monitoring and detection networks (such as the Invasive Plant Atlas of New England and the Invasive Plant Atlas of the MidSouth) generate occurrence data at local and regional levels within the United States, which are shared through the US National Institute of Invasive Species Science. The Inter-American Biodiversity Information Network's Invasives Information Network (I3N), facilitates cooperation on sharing invasive species occurrence data throughout the Western Hemisphere. The I3N and other national and regional networks expose their data globally via the Global Invasive Species Information Network (GISIN). International and interdisciplinary cooperation on data sharing strengthens cooperation on strategies and responses to invasions. However, limitations to effective collaboration among invasive species networks leading to successful early detection and rapid response to invasive species include: lack of interoperability; data accessibility; funding; and technical expertise. This paper proposes various solutions to these obstacles at different geographic levels and briefly describes success stories from the invasive species information networks mentioned above. Using biological informatics to facilitate global information sharing is especially critical in invasive species science, as research has shown that one of the best indicators of the invasiveness of a species is whether it has been invasive elsewhere. Data must also be shared across disciplines because natural history information (e.g. diet, predators, habitat requirements, etc.) about a species in its native range is vital for effective prevention, detection, and rapid response to an invasion. Finally, it has been our

  8. A systematic review of context bias in invasion biology.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert J Warren

    Full Text Available The language that scientists use to frame biological invasions may reveal inherent bias-including how data are interpreted. A frequent critique of invasion biology is the use of value-laden language that may indicate context bias. Here we use a systematic study of language and interpretation in papers drawn from invasion biology to evaluate whether there is a link between the framing of papers and the interpretation of results. We also examine any trends in context bias in biological invasion research. We examined 651 peer-reviewed invasive species competition studies and implemented a rigorous systematic review to examine bias in the presentation and interpretation of native and invasive competition in invasion biology. We predicted that bias in the presentation of invasive species is increasing, as suggested by several authors, and that bias against invasive species would result in misinterpreting their competitive dominance in correlational observational studies compared to causative experimental studies. We indeed found evidence of bias in the presentation and interpretation of invasive species research; authors often introduced research with invasive species in a negative context and study results were interpreted against invasive species more in correlational studies. However, we also found a distinct decrease in those biases since the mid-2000s. Given that there have been several waves of criticism from scientists both inside and outside invasion biology, our evidence suggests that the subdiscipline has somewhat self-corrected apparent biases.

  9. A systematic review of context bias in invasion biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warren, Robert J; King, Joshua R; Tarsa, Charlene; Haas, Brian; Henderson, Jeremy

    2017-01-01

    The language that scientists use to frame biological invasions may reveal inherent bias-including how data are interpreted. A frequent critique of invasion biology is the use of value-laden language that may indicate context bias. Here we use a systematic study of language and interpretation in papers drawn from invasion biology to evaluate whether there is a link between the framing of papers and the interpretation of results. We also examine any trends in context bias in biological invasion research. We examined 651 peer-reviewed invasive species competition studies and implemented a rigorous systematic review to examine bias in the presentation and interpretation of native and invasive competition in invasion biology. We predicted that bias in the presentation of invasive species is increasing, as suggested by several authors, and that bias against invasive species would result in misinterpreting their competitive dominance in correlational observational studies compared to causative experimental studies. We indeed found evidence of bias in the presentation and interpretation of invasive species research; authors often introduced research with invasive species in a negative context and study results were interpreted against invasive species more in correlational studies. However, we also found a distinct decrease in those biases since the mid-2000s. Given that there have been several waves of criticism from scientists both inside and outside invasion biology, our evidence suggests that the subdiscipline has somewhat self-corrected apparent biases.

  10. Economics of Harmful Invasive Species: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George Marbuah

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to review theoretical and empirical findings in economics with respect to the challenging question of how to manage invasive species. The review revealed a relatively large body of literature on the assessment of damage costs of invasive species; single species and groups of species at different geographical scales. However, the estimated damage costs show large variation, from less than 1 million USD to costs corresponding to 12% of gross domestic product, depending on the methods employed, geographical scale, and scope with respect to inclusion of different species. Decisions regarding optimal management strategies, when to act in the invasion chain and which policy to choose, have received much less attention in earlier years, but have been subject to increasing research during the last decade. More difficult, but also more relevant policy issues have been raised, which concern the targeting in time and space of strategies under conditions of uncertainty. In particular, the weighting of costs and benefits from early detection and mitigation against the uncertain avoidance of damage with later control, when the precision in targeting species is typically greater is identified as a key challenge. The role of improved monitoring for detecting species and their spread and damage has been emphasized, but questions remain on how to achieve this in practice. This is in contrast to the relatively large body of literature on policies for mitigating dispersal by trade, which is regarded as one of the most important vectors for the spread of invasive species. On the other hand, the literature on how to mitigate established species, by control or adaptation, is much more scant. Studies evaluating causes for success or failure of policies against invasive in practice are in principal non-existing.

  11. From mini-invasive to non-invasive treatment using monopolar radiofrequency: the next orthopaedic frontier.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whipple, Terry L

    2009-10-01

    Tendinopathy arises from a failed tendon healing process. Current non-invasive therapeutic alternatives are anti-inflammatory in nature, and outcomes are unpredictable. The benefit of invasive alternatives resides in the induction of the healing response. A new technology that uses non-invasive monopolar capacitive coupled radiofrequency has demonstrated the ability to raise temperatures in tendons and ligaments above 50 degrees C, the threshold for collagen modulation, tissue shrinkage and recruitment of macrophages, fibroblasts, and heat shock protein factors, without damaging the overlying structures, resulting in activation of the wound healing response. Monopolar capacitive-coupled radiofrequency offers a new non-invasive choice for tendinopathies and sprained ligaments. It does not interfere with subsequent surgical procedures should they become necessary.

  12. Reproductive characteristics of neophytes in the Czech Republic: traits of invasive and non-invasive species

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Moravcová, Lenka; Pyšek, Petr; Jarošík, Vojtěch; Havlíčková, Vendula; Zákravský, Petr

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 82, č. 4 (2010), s. 365-390 ISSN 0032-7786 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LC06073; GA ČR GA206/09/0563; GA ČR GA206/05/0323 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60050516 Keywords : plant invasions * reproductive traits * invasiveness Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 2.792, year: 2010

  13. Stress in biological invasions: Introduced invasive grey squirrels increase physiological stress in native Eurasian red squirrels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santicchia, Francesca; Dantzer, Ben; van Kesteren, Freya; Palme, Rupert; Martinoli, Adriano; Ferrari, Nicola; Wauters, Lucas Armand

    2018-05-23

    Invasive alien species can cause extinction of native species through processes including predation, interspecific competition for resources or disease-mediated competition. Increases in stress hormones in vertebrates may be associated with these processes and contribute to the decline in survival or reproduction of the native species. Eurasian red squirrels (Sciurus vulgaris) have gone extinct across much of the British Isles and parts of Northern Italy following the introduction of North American invasive grey squirrels (Sciurus carolinensis). We extracted glucocorticoid metabolites from faecal samples to measure whether the presence of the invasive species causes an increase in physiological stress in individuals of the native species. We show that native red squirrels in seven sites where they co-occurred with invasive grey squirrels had glucocorticoid concentrations that were three times higher than those in five sites without the invasive species. Moreover, in a longitudinal study, stress hormones in native red squirrels increased after colonisation by grey squirrels. When we experimentally reduced the abundance of the invasive grey squirrels, the concentration of faecal glucocorticoid metabolites in co-occurring red squirrels decreased significantly between pre- and postremoval periods. Hence, we found that the invasive species acts as a stressor which significantly increases the concentrations of glucocorticoids in the native species. Given that sustained elevations in glucocorticoids could reduce body growth and reproductive rate, our results are consistent with previous studies where the co-occurrence of the invasive grey squirrel was associated with smaller size and lower reproductive output in red squirrels. © 2018 The Authors. Journal of Animal Ecology © 2018 British Ecological Society.

  14. The effects of exotic weed Flaveria bidentis with different invasion ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aghomotsegin

    community, especially its effect pattern at different invasion stages. In this study, soil ... invasion significantly decreased the richness of soil bacterial community, and the decline contents were positively ...... in nitrogen turnover. Agric. Ecosyst.

  15. School based assessment module for invasion games category in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    School based assessment module for invasion games category in physical education. ... This study identify the level of basic skills of invasion games category when using School Based Assessment Module. ... AJOL African Journals Online.

  16. CT evaluation of gastric cancer. Depth of tumor invasion and pancreas invasion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Banba, Yoshihisa; Kanazawa, Tadayoshi; Seto, Hikaru

    1998-01-01

    To compare the internal structure of tumor and the contiguous organ configuration on computed tomography (CT) with the depth of tumor invasion on the pathological specimen. Sixty-four gastric cancers depicted on incremental dynamic CT were classified according to the internal structure of the tumor, and correlated with the depth of tumor invasion. In addition, the cancers were classified according to the contiguous pancreatic configuration, and correlated with the degree of pancreatic invasion. Eleven tumors with thickened gastric wall consisting of both a thick inner layer of high attenuation and a thin outer layer of low attenuation (two-layered tumor with a thin outer layer) did not invade the serosa: mucosa (n=5) and submucosa (n=6). Of 59 gastric cancers with a regular margin to the contiguous pancreas, pancreatic invasion was absent in 58 and present in one. Pancreatic invasion was present in all of five gastric cancers with an irregular margin. Our results indicate that two-layered gastric tumors with a thin outer layer never invade the serosa. Furthermore, pancreatic invasion is predicted only when the margin of the contiguous pancreas is irregular. (author)

  17. Invasive versus Non Invasive Methods Applied to Mummy Research: Will This Controversy Ever Be Solved?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Day, Jasmine; Bianucci, Raffaella

    2015-01-01

    Advances in the application of non invasive techniques to mummified remains have shed new light on past diseases. The virtual inspection of a corpse, which has almost completely replaced classical autopsy, has proven to be important especially when dealing with valuable museum specimens. In spite of some very rewarding results, there are still many open questions. Non invasive techniques provide information on hard and soft tissue pathologies and allow information to be gleaned concerning mummification practices (e.g., ancient Egyptian artificial mummification). Nevertheless, there are other fields of mummy studies in which the results provided by non invasive techniques are not always self-explanatory. Reliance exclusively upon virtual diagnoses can sometimes lead to inconclusive and misleading interpretations. On the other hand, several types of investigation (e.g., histology, paleomicrobiology, and biochemistry), although minimally invasive, require direct contact with the bodies and, for this reason, are often avoided, particularly by museum curators. Here we present an overview of the non invasive and invasive techniques currently used in mummy studies and propose an approach that might solve these conflicts. PMID:26345295

  18. Invasive Plant Species in the National Parks of Vietnam

    OpenAIRE

    Bernard Dell; Pham Quang Thu; Dang Thanh Tan

    2012-01-01

    The impact of invasive plant species in national parks and forests in Vietnam is undocumented and management plans have yet to be developed. Ten national parks, ranging from uncut to degraded forests located throughout Vietnam, were surveyed for invasive plant species. Transects were set up along roads, trails where local people access park areas, and also tracks through natural forest. Of 134 exotic weeds, 25 were classified as invasive species and the number of invasive species ranged from ...

  19. HPV genotypes in invasive cervical cancer in Danish women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirschner, Benny; Junge, Jette; Holl, Katsiaryna

    2013-01-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) genotype distribution in invasive cervical cancers may differ by geographic region. The primary objective of this study was to estimate HPV-genotype distribution in Danish women with a diagnosis of invasive cervical cancer.......Human papillomavirus (HPV) genotype distribution in invasive cervical cancers may differ by geographic region. The primary objective of this study was to estimate HPV-genotype distribution in Danish women with a diagnosis of invasive cervical cancer....

  20. Immune responses to a recombinant, four-component, meningococcal serogroup B vaccine (4CMenB) in adolescents: a phase III, randomized, multicentre, lot-to-lot consistency study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perrett, Kirsten P; McVernon, Jodie; Richmond, Peter C; Marshall, Helen; Nissen, Michael; August, Allison; Percell, Sandra; Toneatto, Daniela; Nolan, Terry

    2015-09-22

    For decades, a broadly effective vaccine against serogroup B Neisseria meningitidis (MenB) has remained elusive. Recently, a four-component recombinant vaccine (4CMenB) has been developed and is now approved in Europe, Canada, Australia and some Latin American countries. This phase III, randomized study evaluated the lot consistency, early immune responses and the safety profile of 4CMenB in 11 to 17-year-old adolescents in Australia and Canada (NCT01423084). In total, 344 adolescents received two doses of one of 2 lots of 4CMenB, 1-month apart. Immunogenicity was assessed before, 2-weeks and 1-month following the second vaccination. Serum bactericidal activity using human complement (hSBA) was measured against three reference strains 44/76-SL, 5/99 and NZ98/254, selected to express one of the vaccine antigens; Neisseria adhesin A (NadA), factor H binding protein (fHbp) and porin A (PorA) containing outer membrane vesicle (OMV), respectively. Responses to the Neisseria heparin binding antigen (NHBA) were assessed with enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Local and systemic reactions were recorded for 7 days following each vaccination; unsolicited adverse events were monitored throughout the study. Immunological equivalence of the two lots of 4CMenB was established at 1-month. At baseline, ≤7% of participants had hSBA titers ≥5 to all three reference strains. Two weeks following the second dose of 4CMenB, all participants had hSBA titers ≥5 against fHbp and NadA compared with 84-96% against the PorA reference strains. At 1-month, corresponding proportions were 99%, 100% and 70-79%, respectively. Both lots were generally well tolerated and had similar adverse event profiles. Two doses of 4CMenB had an acceptable safety profile and induced a robust immune response in adolescents. Peak antibody responses were observed at 14 days following vaccination. While a substantial non-uniform antigen-dependent early decline in antibody titers was seen thereafter, a

  1. Invasive ductal carcinoma with lobular features: a comparison study to invasive ductal and invasive lobular carcinomas of the breast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arps, David P; Healy, Patrick; Zhao, Lili; Kleer, Celina G; Pang, Judy C

    2013-04-01

    Invasive ductal carcinoma with lobular features (IDC-L) is not recognized as a distinct subtype of breast cancer, and its clinicopathologic features and outcomes are unknown. In this retrospective study, we focused on characterization of clinicopathologic features and outcomes of IDC-L and compared them to invasive ductal carcinoma (IDC) and invasive lobular carcinoma (ILC). 183 cases of IDC-L from 1996 to 2011 were compared with 1,499 cases of IDC and 375 cases of ILC. Available slides of IDC-L (n = 150) were reviewed to quantify the lobular component (≤ 20, 21-50, 51-80, >80 %), defined as small cells individually dispersed, arranged in linear cords, or in loose aggregates without the formation of tubules or cohesive nests. E-cadherin immunostain was performed to confirm ductal origin. Compared to IDC, IDC-L was more likely to have lower histologic grade (p lobular component in IDC-L had no impact on the size, nodal status, stage, or outcome. Our data suggest that although IDC-L may be a variant of IDC, with >90 % of cases being E-cadherin positive, the clinical and biological characteristics are more similar to that of ILC.

  2. Rocky Mountain Research Station invasive species visionary white paper

    Science.gov (United States)

    D. E. Pearson; M. Kim; J. Butler

    2011-01-01

    Invasive species represent one of the single greatest threats to natural ecosystems and the services they provide. Effectively addressing the invasive species problem requires management that is based on sound research. We provide an overview of recent and ongoing invasive species research conducted by Rocky Mountain Research Station scientists in the Intermountain...

  3. The role of hybridization in facilitating tree invasion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hybridization events can generate additional genetic diversity on which natural selection can act and at times enhance invasiveness of the species. Invasive tree species are a growing ecological concern worldwide, and some of these invasions involve hybridization events pre- or post-introduction. Th...

  4. Tamarix (Tamaricaceae) hybrids: most dominant invasive genotype in southern Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hybridization can potentially enhance invasiveness. Tamarix (Tamaricaceae) hybrids appear to be the dominant genotypes in their invasions. Exotic Tamarix are declared invasive in South Africa and the exotic T. chinensis and T. ramosissima are known to hybridize between themselves, and with the nativ...

  5. Invasion of exotic earthworms into ecosystems inhabited by native earthworms

    Science.gov (United States)

    P. F. Hendrix; G. H. Baker; M. A. Callaham Jr; G. A. Damoff; Fragoso C.; G. Gonzalez; S. W. James; S. L. Lachnicht; T. Winsome; X. Zou

    2006-01-01

    The most conspicuous biological invasions in terrestrial ecosystems have been by exotic plants, insects and vertebrates. Invasions by exotic earthworms, although not as well studied, may be increasing with global commerce in agriculture, waste management and bioremediation. A number of cases has documented where invasive earthworms have caused significant changes in...

  6. Optimal detection and control strategies for invasive species management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shefali V. Mehta; Robert G. Haight; Frances R. Homans; Stephen Polasky; Robert C. Venette

    2007-01-01

    The increasing economic and environmental losses caused by non-native invasive species amplify the value of identifying and implementing optimal management options to prevent, detect, and control invasive species. Previous literature has focused largely on preventing introductions of invasive species and post-detection control activities; few have addressed the role of...

  7. The potential role of podoplanin in tumour invasion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wicki, A; Christofori, G

    2006-01-01

    Podoplanin is a small mucin-like transmembrane protein, widely expressed in various specialised cell types throughout the body. Here, we revisit the mechanism of podoplanin-mediated tumour invasion. We compare molecular pathways leading to single and collective cell invasion and discuss novel distinct concepts of tumour cell invasion. PMID:17179989

  8. Does responsiveness to arbuscular mycorrhizas depend on plant invasive status?

    Science.gov (United States)

    1. Some posit invasive alien plants are less dependent on mycorrhizal associations than native plants, and thus weak mycorrhizal responsiveness may be a general mechanism of plant invasion. 2. Here, we tested whether mycorrhizal responsiveness varies by plant invasive status while controlling for ph...

  9. 49 CFR 801.56 - Unwarranted invasion of personal privacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Unwarranted invasion of personal privacy. 801.56... Unwarranted invasion of personal privacy. Pursuant to 5 U.S.C. 552(b)(6), any personal, medical, or similar... a clearly unwarranted invasion of the person's personal privacy. ...

  10. Invasive species unchecked by climate - response

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burrows, Michael T.; Schoeman, David S.; Duarte, Carlos M.

    2012-01-01

    environments. This may be particularly true in the world's boreal oceans as melting sea ice facilitates new migratory passages between the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans. Moreover, as the ebb and flow of biodiversity intensifies under anthropogenic climate change, novel climates and communities of species......Hulme points out that observed rates of range expansion by invasive alien species are higher than the median speed of isotherm movement over the past 50 years, which in turn has outpaced the rates of climate-associated range changes of marine and terrestrial species. This is not surprising, given...... of climate-change-induced range shifts between native and alien species are meaningful only after the initial invasive spread has reached a stable range boundary. A focus on regions with high velocities of climate change, and on regions such as the tropics where novel thermal niches are being created, should...

  11. DNA barcoding of invasive plants in China: A resource for identifying invasive plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Song-Zhi; Li, Zhen-Yu; Jin, Xiao-Hua

    2018-01-01

    Invasive plants have aroused attention globally for causing ecological damage and having a negative impact on the economy and human health. However, it can be extremely challenging to rapidly and accurately identify invasive plants based on morphology because they are an assemblage of many different families and many plant materials lack sufficient diagnostic characteristics during border inspections. It is therefore urgent to evaluate candidate loci and build a reliable genetic library to prevent invasive plants from entering China. In this study, five common single markers (ITS, ITS2, matK, rbcL and trnH-psbA) were evaluated using 634 species (including 469 invasive plant species in China, 10 new records to China, 16 potentially invasive plant species around the world but not introduced into China yet and 139 plant species native to China) based on three different methods. Our results indicated that ITS2 displayed largest intra- and interspecific divergence (1.72% and 91.46%). Based on NJ tree method, ITS2, ITS, matK, rbcL and trnH-psbA provided 76.84%, 76.5%, 63.21%, 52.86% and 50.68% discrimination rates, respectively. The combination of ITS + matK performed best and provided 91.03% discriminatory power, followed by ITS2 + matK (85.78%). For identifying unknown individuals, ITS + matK had 100% correct identification rate based on our database, followed by ITS/ITS2 (both 93.33%) and ITS2 + matK (91.67%). Thus, we propose ITS/ITS2 + matK as the most suitable barcode for invasive plants in China. This study also demonstrated that DNA barcoding is an efficient tool for identifying invasive species. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Alien plant invasions in European woodlands

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Wagner, V.; Chytrý, M.; Jiménez-Alfaro, B.; Pergl, Jan; Hennekens, S. M.; Biurrun, I.; Knollová, I.; Berg, C.; Vassilev, K.; Rodwell, J. S.; Škvorc, Ž.; Jandt, U.; Ewald, J.; Jansen, F.; Tsiripidis, I.; Botta-Dukát, Z.; Casella, L.; Attorre, F.; Rašomavičius, V.; Ćušterevska, R.; Schaminée, J.H.J.; Brunet, J.; Lenoir, J.; Svenning, J.-C.; Kacki, Z.; Petrášová-Šibíková, M.; Šilc, U.; García-Mijangos, I.; Campos, J. A.; Fernández-González, F.; Wohlgemuth, T.; Onyshchenko, V.; Pyšek, Petr

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 23, č. 9 (2017), s. 969-981 ISSN 1366-9516 R&D Projects: GA ČR GB14-36079G Grant - others:AV ČR(CZ) AP1002 Program:Akademická prémie - Praemium Academiae Institutional support: RVO:67985939 Keywords : neophyte * non-native * invasive plants * EUNIS * forests Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour OBOR OECD: Biodiversity conservation Impact factor: 4.391, year: 2016

  13. Procedures minimally invasive image-guided

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mora Guevara, Alejandro

    2011-01-01

    A literature review focused on minimally invasive procedures, has been performed at the Department of Radiology at the Hospital Calderon Guardia. A multidisciplinary team has been raised for decision making. The materials, possible complications and the available imaging technique such as ultrasound, computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging, have been determined according to the procedure to be performed. The revision has supported medical interventions didactically enjoying the best materials, resources and conditions for a successful implementation of procedures and results [es

  14. Minimally invasive aesthetic procedures in young adults

    OpenAIRE

    Wollina, Uwe; Goldman, Alberto

    2011-01-01

    Uwe Wollina1, Alberto Goldman21Department of Dermatology and Allergology, Academic Teaching Hospital Dresden-Friedrichstadt, Dresden, Germany; 2Clinica Goldman, Porto Alegre, Rio Grande du Sul, BrazilAbstract: Age is a significant factor in modifying specific needs when it comes to medical aesthetic procedures. In this review we will focus on young adults in their third decade of life and review minimally invasive aesthetic procedures other than cosmetics and cosmeceuticals. Correction of asy...

  15. Screening and Invasive Testing in Twins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanni Monni

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Prenatal screening and testing for trisomy 21 in twin pregnancies poses a number of challenges: the exact estimate of the a priori risk of trisomy 21, the choice of prenatal screening test and/or invasive techniques to employ for the diagnosis and the impact of the result on the options of treatment in case of discordant results within a twin pair or among multiples. These different aspects are discussed below while recognizing that many issues remain unresolved.

  16. Minimally Invasive Surgery in Thymic Malignances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wentao FANG

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Surgery is the most important therapy for thymic malignances. The last decade has seen increasing adoption of minimally invasive surgery (MIS for thymectomy. MIS for early stage thymoma patients has been shown to yield similar oncological results while being helpful in minimize surgical trauma, improving postoperative recovery, and reduce incisional pain. Meanwhile, With the advance in surgical techniques, the patients with locally advanced thymic tumors, preoperative induction therapies or recurrent diseases, may also benefit from MIS in selected cases.

  17. A Landscape Approach to Invasive Species Management.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Lurgi

    Full Text Available Biological invasions are not only a major threat to biodiversity, they also have major impacts on local economies and agricultural production systems. Once established, the connection of local populations into metapopulation networks facilitates dispersal at landscape scales, generating spatial dynamics that can impact the outcome of pest-management actions. Much planning goes into landscape-scale invasive species management. However, effective management requires knowledge on the interplay between metapopulation network topology and management actions. We address this knowledge gap using simulation models to explore the effectiveness of two common management strategies, applied across different extents and according to different rules for selecting target localities in metapopulations with different network topologies. These management actions are: (i general population reduction, and (ii reduction of an obligate resource. The reduction of an obligate resource was generally more efficient than population reduction for depleting populations at landscape scales. However, the way in which local populations are selected for management is important when the topology of the metapopulation is heterogeneous in terms of the distribution of connections among local populations. We tested these broad findings using real-world scenarios of European rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus infesting agricultural landscapes in Western Australia. Although management strategies targeting central populations were more effective in simulated heterogeneous metapopulation structures, no difference was observed in real-world metapopulation structures that are highly homogeneous. In large metapopulations with high proximity and connectivity of neighbouring populations, different spatial management strategies yield similar outcomes. Directly considering spatial attributes in pest-management actions will be most important for metapopulation networks with heterogeneously

  18. Sonomammographic characteristics of invasive lobular carcinoma

    OpenAIRE

    Fahmy, Dalia Monir; Kombar,; Farouk,Omar; El-damshety,; Brown,

    2012-01-01

    Osama R Kombar,1,3 Dalia M Fahmy,1 Mary V Brown,3 Omar Farouk,2 Osama El-Damshety21Diagnostic Radiology Department, 2Surgical Oncology Department, Oncology Center, Mansoura University, Mansoura, Egypt; 3Diagnostic Radiology Department, Al-Amiri Hospital, Safat, KuwaitObjective: The objective of our study was to identify characteristic features of invasive lobular carcinoma on mammography and ultrasound examinationsMaterials and methods: This is a retrospective multicenter study of women with ...

  19. Optic nerve invasion of uveal melanoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindegaard, Jens; Isager, Peter; Prause, Jan Ulrik

    2007-01-01

    in Denmark between 1942 and 2001 were reviewed (n=157). Histopathological characteristics and depth of optic nerve invasion were recorded. The material was compared with a control material from the same period consisting of 85 cases randomly drawn from all choroidal/ciliary body melanomas without optic nerve...... juxtapapillary tumors invading the optic nerve because of simple proximity to the nerve. A neurotropic subtype invades the optic nerve and retina in a diffuse fashion unrelated to tumor size or location. Udgivelsesdato: 2007-Jan...

  20. A Landscape Approach to Invasive Species Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lurgi, Miguel; Wells, Konstans; Kennedy, Malcolm; Campbell, Susan; Fordham, Damien A

    2016-01-01

    Biological invasions are not only a major threat to biodiversity, they also have major impacts on local economies and agricultural production systems. Once established, the connection of local populations into metapopulation networks facilitates dispersal at landscape scales, generating spatial dynamics that can impact the outcome of pest-management actions. Much planning goes into landscape-scale invasive species management. However, effective management requires knowledge on the interplay between metapopulation network topology and management actions. We address this knowledge gap using simulation models to explore the effectiveness of two common management strategies, applied across different extents and according to different rules for selecting target localities in metapopulations with different network topologies. These management actions are: (i) general population reduction, and (ii) reduction of an obligate resource. The reduction of an obligate resource was generally more efficient than population reduction for depleting populations at landscape scales. However, the way in which local populations are selected for management is important when the topology of the metapopulation is heterogeneous in terms of the distribution of connections among local populations. We tested these broad findings using real-world scenarios of European rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus) infesting agricultural landscapes in Western Australia. Although management strategies targeting central populations were more effective in simulated heterogeneous metapopulation structures, no difference was observed in real-world metapopulation structures that are highly homogeneous. In large metapopulations with high proximity and connectivity of neighbouring populations, different spatial management strategies yield similar outcomes. Directly considering spatial attributes in pest-management actions will be most important for metapopulation networks with heterogeneously distributed links. Our

  1. Minimally invasive surgery for esophageal achalasia

    OpenAIRE

    Bonavina, Luigi

    2006-01-01

    Esophageal achalasia is the most commonly diagnosed primary esophageal motor disorder and the second most common functional esophageal disorder. Current therapy of achalasia is directed toward elimination of the outflow resistance caused by failure of the lower esophageal sphincter to relax completely upon swallowing. The advent of minimally invasive surgery has nearly replaced endoscopic pneumatic dilation as the first-line therapeutic approach. In this editorial, the rationale and the evide...

  2. Bacterial endophytes enhance competition by invasive plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rout, Marnie E; Chrzanowski, Thomas H; Westlie, Tara K; DeLuca, Thomas H; Callaway, Ragan M; Holben, William E

    2013-09-01

    Invasive plants can alter soil microbial communities and profoundly alter ecosystem processes. In the invasive grass Sorghum halepense, these disruptions are consequences of rhizome-associated bacterial endophytes. We describe the effects of N2-fixing bacterial strains from S. halepense (Rout and Chrzanowski, 2009) on plant growth and show that bacteria interact with the plant to alter soil nutrient cycles, enabling persistence of the invasive. • We assessed fluxes in soil nutrients for ∼4 yr across a site invaded by S. halepense. We assayed the N2-fixing bacteria in vitro for phosphate solubilization, iron chelation, and production of the plant-growth hormone indole-3-acetic acid (IAA). We assessed the plant's ability to recruit bacterial partners from substrates and vertically transmit endophytes to seeds and used an antibiotic approach to inhibit bacterial activity in planta and assess microbial contributions to plant growth. • We found persistent alterations to eight biogeochemical cycles (including nitrogen, phosphorus, and iron) in soils invaded by S. halepense. In this context, three bacterial isolates solubilized phosphate, and all produced iron siderophores and IAA in vitro. In growth chamber experiments, bacteria were transmitted vertically, and molecular analysis of bacterial community fingerprints from rhizomes indicated that endophytes are also horizontally recruited. Inhibiting bacterial activity with antibiotics resulted in significant declines in plant growth rate and biomass, with pronounced rhizome reductions. • This work suggests a major role of endophytes on growth and resource allocation of an invasive plant. Indeed, bacterial isolate physiology is correlated with invader effects on biogeochemical cycles of nitrogen, phosphate, and iron.

  3. Invasive plants on disturbed Korean sand dunes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kee Dae

    2005-01-01

    The sand dunes in coastal regions of South Korea are important ecosystems because of their small size, the rare species found in this habitat, and the beautiful landscapes they create. This study investigated the current vegetative status of sand dunes on three representative coasts of the Korean peninsula, and on the coasts of Cheju Island, and assessed the conditions caused by invasive plants. The relationships between the degree of invasion and 14 environmental variables were studied. Plots of sand dunes along line transects perpendicular to the coastal lines were established to estimate vegetative species coverage. TWINSPAN (Two-Way Indicator Species Analysis), CCA (Canonical Correspondence Analysis), and DCCA (Detrended Canonical Correspondence Analysis) were performed to classify communities on sand dunes and assess species composition variation. Carex kobomugi, Elymus mollis, and Vitex rotundifolia were found to be the dominant species plotted on the east, the west, and the peripheral coasts of Cheju Island, respectively. Vegetation on the south coast was totally extinct. The 19 communities, including representative C. kobomugi, C. kobomugi- Ixeris repens, C. kobomugi- Oenothera biennis, E. mollis, Lolium multiflorum- Calystegia soldanella, and V. rotundifolia- C. kobomugi, were all classified according to TWINSPAN. Oenothera biennis and L. multiflorum were exotics observed within these native communities. CCA showed that invasive native and exotic species distribution was segregated significantly, according to disturbance level, exotic species number, gravel, sand and silt contents, as well as vegetation size. It further revealed that human disturbance can strongly favor the settlement of invasive and exotic species. Restoration options to reduce exotic plants in the South Korean sand dune areas were found to be the introduction of native plant species from one sand dune into other sand dune areas, prohibition of building and the introduction of exotic

  4. Intensive care unit audit: invasive procedure surveillance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariama Amaral Michels

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Rationale and objective: currently, Healthcare-associated Infections (HAIs constitute a serious public health problem. It is estimated that for every ten hospitalized patients, one will have infection after admission, generating high costs resulting from increased length of hospitalization, additional diagnostic and therapeutic interventions. The intensive care unit (ICU, due to its characteristics, is one of the most complex units of the hospital environment, a result of the equipment, the available technology, the severity of inpatients and the invasive procedures the latter are submitted to. The aim of the study was to evaluate the adherence to specifi c HAI prevention measures in invasive ICU procedures. Methods: This study had a quantitative, descriptive and exploratory approach. Among the risk factors for HAIs are the presence of central venous access, indwelling vesical catheter and mechanical ventilation, and, therefore, the indicators were calculated for patients undergoing these invasive procedures, through a questionnaire standardized by the Hospital Infection Control Commission (HICC. Results: For every 1,000 patients, 15 had catheter-related bloodstream infection, 6.85 had urinary tract infection associated with indwelling catheter in the fi rst half of 2010. Conclusion: most HAIs cannot be prevented, for reasons inherent to invasive procedures and the patients. However, their incidence can be reduced and controlled. The implementation of preventive measures based on scientifi c evidence can reduce HAIs signifi cantly and sustainably, resulting in safer health care services and reduced costs. The main means of prevention include the cleaning of hands, use of epidemiological block measures, when necessary, and specifi c care for each infection site. KEYWORDS Nosocomial infection. Intensive care units.

  5. THE INVASIVE COLEOPTEROFAUNA FOR REPUBLIC OF MOLDOVA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asea M. Timuş

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The invasive coleopterofauna for Republic of Moldova consists of the 100 species. After correlation local database with Fauna Europaea for our country registered are 31 of species, but for 69 mentioned with the „absent” and 38 „no date”. In the meantime 24 species were recorded for our country: Acanthoscelides abtectus, A.pallidipennis, Alphitobius diaperinus, Alphitophagus bifasciatus, Bruchus pisorum, B.rufimanus, Caulophilus latinasus, Diabrotica virgifera, Gnathocerus cornutus, Harmonia axyridis, Lasioderma serricorne, Leptinotarsa decemlineata, Lignyodes bischoffi, Lithocharis nigriceps, Oryzaephilus surinamensis, Rhyzopertha dominica, Sitophilus granarius, S. oryzae, S. zeamais, Tenebrio molitor, Tenebrioides mauritanicus, Tribolium castaneum, T. destructor, Trogoderma granarium. According periods penetration the invasive beetles it was found that 2 species have entered the XVIII century, 16 species in the XIX, 53 species in the XX and 29 species in the XXI century. The registration invasive beetles in countries of interest to the our country is in: Bulgaria – 54 species; Poland – 39; România – 3; other countries- 4.

  6. Mechanisms of cellular invasion by intracellular parasites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Dawn M; Oghumu, Steve; Gupta, Gaurav; McGwire, Bradford S; Drew, Mark E; Satoskar, Abhay R

    2014-04-01

    Numerous disease-causing parasites must invade host cells in order to prosper. Collectively, such pathogens are responsible for a staggering amount of human sickness and death throughout the world. Leishmaniasis, Chagas disease, toxoplasmosis, and malaria are neglected diseases and therefore are linked to socio-economical and geographical factors, affecting well-over half the world's population. Such obligate intracellular parasites have co-evolved with humans to establish a complexity of specific molecular parasite-host cell interactions, forming the basis of the parasite's cellular tropism. They make use of such interactions to invade host cells as a means to migrate through various tissues, to evade the host immune system, and to undergo intracellular replication. These cellular migration and invasion events are absolutely essential for the completion of the lifecycles of these parasites and lead to their for disease pathogenesis. This review is an overview of the molecular mechanisms of protozoan parasite invasion of host cells and discussion of therapeutic strategies, which could be developed by targeting these invasion pathways. Specifically, we focus on four species of protozoan parasites Leishmania, Trypanosoma cruzi, Plasmodium, and Toxoplasma, which are responsible for significant morbidity and mortality.

  7. [Non-invasive assessment of fatty liver].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egresi, Anna; Lengyel, Gabriella; Hagymási, Krisztina

    2015-04-05

    As the result of various harmful effects (infectious agents, metabolic diseases, unhealthy diet, obesity, toxic agents, autoimmune processes) hepatic damage may develop, which can progress towards liver steatosis, and fibrosis as well. The most common etiological factors of liver damages are hepatitis B and C infection, alcohol consumption and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. Liver biopsy is considered as the gold standard for the diagnosis of chronic liver diseases. Due to the dangers and complications of liver biopsy, studies are focused on non-invasive markers and radiological imaging for liver steatosis, progression of fatty liver, activity of the necroinflammation and the severity of the fibrosis. Authors review the possibilities of non-invasive assessment of liver steatosis. The statistical features of the probes (positive, negative predictive values, sensitivity, specificity) are reviewed. The role of radiological imaging is also discussed. Although the non-invasive methods discussed in this article are useful to assess liver steatosis, further studies are needed to validate to follow progression of the diseases and to control therapeutic response.

  8. CT diagnosis of invasive hydatidiform mole

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu Mingquan; Jiang Lina; Li Xianxing; Wang Peijun

    2000-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the CT features and the diagnostic value in invasive mole. Methods: Eleven cases (age, 30 to 53 years, mean 40 years) with invasive mole proved by operation and pathology were studied, including 3 cases during peri-menopausal period of eight months, ten months and twelve months respectively. All cases were scanned by CT and enhanced study was done. Results: All cases showed enlargement of uterus of varying degrees. On CT, the density of uterine cavity was similar to that of water, intermingled with spotty patchy and hazy circular isodense shadows. High density stripe-like bleeding foci were found in 3 cases. The outline of uterine cavity was locally disrupted in all case and the muscle layer was thickened in 3 cases. On enhanced CT scan, the lesions in the uterine cavity appeared markedly hyperdense, just like 'the crater' and the 'mole sign'. The muscle layers at the site of disruption showed inhomogeneous enhancement after contrast injection. Conclusion: The CT features of invasive mole are characteristic, with important diagnostic value, especially for those during peri-menopausal period

  9. Thymoma and minimally invasive surgical treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krajc, T.; Spalek, P.; Lucenic, M.; Benej, R.; Harustiak, S.

    2011-01-01

    The authors review the current thymoma classification schemes, diagnosis and surgical treatment options. Many minimally invasive techniques do not provide sufficient extensiveness when compared to complete sternotomy. The Zieliński technique combines transcervical, subxiphoidal and bilateral thoracoscopic approach in a hybrid procedure (MMIT, maximal minimally invasive thymectomy) based on double sternal traction, and allows for removal of the thymus gland, the thymoma and all the relevant mediastinal adipose tissue, thus adhering to principles of oncological radicality. Of the 28 patients undergoing MMIT there were 7 with myasthenia associated thymoma (MGAT) and 5 with a thymoma and no myasthenia, tumors staged Masaoka I-II. Apart from one temporary recurrent nerve palsy there were no postoperative complications. The largest thymoma measured 70 x 65 x 55 mm. Adjuvant radiotherapy was applied in 5 patients. Ectopic thymic tissue was identified in 100 % of patients with thymoma and no myasthenia and in 42.9 % of MGAT patients. Until now there were no recurrences, however, the follow-up median is very short, the longest follow-up period being 30 months. MMIT is a safe technique suitable also for Masaoka I-II thymoma patients and for some specific cases with Masaoka III stage (lung parenchyma invasion). The authors approach all the anterior mediastinal tumors with no mediastinal lymphadenopathy and no myasthenia as a potential thymoma and always attempt the MMIT procedure starting as VATS procedure on the side of tumor. (author)

  10. Invasive aquarium fish transform ecosystem nutrient dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capps, Krista A.; Flecker, Alexander S.

    2013-01-01

    Trade of ornamental aquatic species is a multi-billion dollar industry responsible for the introduction of myriad fishes into novel ecosystems. Although aquarium invaders have the potential to alter ecosystem function, regulation of the trade is minimal and little is known about the ecosystem-level consequences of invasion for all but a small number of aquarium species. Here, we demonstrate how ecological stoichiometry can be used as a framework to identify aquarium invaders with the potential to modify ecosystem processes. We show that explosive growth of an introduced population of stoichiometrically unique, phosphorus (P)-rich catfish in a river in southern Mexico significantly transformed stream nutrient dynamics by altering nutrient storage and remineralization rates. Notably, changes varied between elements; the P-rich fish acted as net sinks of P and net remineralizers of nitrogen. Results from this study suggest species-specific stoichiometry may be insightful for understanding how invasive species modify nutrient dynamics when their population densities and elemental composition differ substantially from native organisms. Risk analysis for potential aquarium imports should consider species traits such as body stoichiometry, which may increase the likelihood that an invasion will alter the structure and function of ecosystems. PMID:23966642

  11. Competitive interactions between co-occurring invaders: identifying asymmetries between two invasive crayfish species

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hudina, S.; Galic, N.G.; Roessink, I.; Hock, K.

    2011-01-01

    Ecosystems today increasingly suffer invasions by multiple invasive species. Complex interactions between invasive species can have different fitness implications for each invader, which can in turn determine the future progression of their invasions and result in differential impacts on native

  12. Dynamic models in research and management of biological invasions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchadas, Ana; Vaz, Ana Sofia; Honrado, João P; Alagador, Diogo; Bastos, Rita; Cabral, João A; Santos, Mário; Vicente, Joana R

    2017-07-01

    Invasive species are increasing in number, extent and impact worldwide. Effective invasion management has thus become a core socio-ecological challenge. To tackle this challenge, integrating spatial-temporal dynamics of invasion processes with modelling approaches is a promising approach. The inclusion of dynamic processes in such modelling frameworks (i.e. dynamic or hybrid models, here defined as models that integrate both dynamic and static approaches) adds an explicit temporal dimension to the study and management of invasions, enabling the prediction of invasions and optimisation of multi-scale management and governance. However, the extent to which dynamic approaches have been used for that purpose is under-investigated. Based on a literature review, we examined the extent to which dynamic modelling has been used to address invasions worldwide. We then evaluated how the use of dynamic modelling has evolved through time in the scope of invasive species management. The results suggest that modelling, in particular dynamic modelling, has been increasingly applied to biological invasions, especially to support management decisions at local scales. Also, the combination of dynamic and static modelling approaches (hybrid models with a spatially explicit output) can be especially effective, not only to support management at early invasion stages (from prevention to early detection), but also to improve the monitoring of invasion processes and impact assessment. Further development and testing of such hybrid models may well be regarded as a priority for future research aiming to improve the management of invasions across scales. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Five potential consequences of climate change for invasive species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hellmann, Jessica J; Byers, James E; Bierwagen, Britta G; Dukes, Jeffrey S

    2008-06-01

    Scientific and societal unknowns make it difficult to predict how global environmental changes such as climate change and biological invasions will affect ecological systems. In the long term, these changes may have interacting effects and compound the uncertainty associated with each individual driver. Nonetheless, invasive species are likely to respond in ways that should be qualitatively predictable, and some of these responses will be distinct from those of native counterparts. We used the stages of invasion known as the "invasion pathway" to identify 5 nonexclusive consequences of climate change for invasive species: (1) altered transport and introduction mechanisms, (2) establishment of new invasive species, (3) altered impact of existing invasive species, (4) altered distribution of existing invasive species, and (5) altered effectiveness of control strategies. We then used these consequences to identify testable hypotheses about the responses of invasive species to climate change and provide suggestions for invasive-species management plans. The 5 consequences also emphasize the need for enhanced environmental monitoring and expanded coordination among entities involved in invasive-species management.

  14. Modelling Hotspots for Invasive Alien Plants in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adhikari, Dibyendu; Tiwary, Raghuvar; Barik, Saroj Kanta

    2015-01-01

    Identification of invasion hotspots that support multiple invasive alien species (IAS) is a pre-requisite for control and management of invasion. However, till recently it remained a methodological challenge to precisely determine such invasive hotspots. We identified the hotspots of alien species invasion in India through Ecological Niche Modelling (ENM) using species occurrence data from the Global Biodiversity Information Facility (GBIF). The predicted area of invasion for selected species were classified into 4 categories based on number of model agreements for a region i.e. high, medium, low and very low. About 49% of the total geographical area of India was predicted to be prone to invasion at moderate to high levels of climatic suitability. The intersection of anthropogenic biomes and ecoregions with the regions of 'high' climatic suitability was classified as hotspot of alien plant invasion. Nineteen of 47 ecoregions of India, harboured such hotspots. Most ecologically sensitive regions of India, including the 'biodiversity hotspots' and coastal regions coincide with invasion hotspots, indicating their vulnerability to alien plant invasion. Besides demonstrating the usefulness of ENM and open source data for IAS management, the present study provides a knowledge base for guiding the formulation of an effective policy and management strategy for controlling the invasive alien species.

  15. Characterizing the landscape dynamics of an invasive plant and risk of invasion using remote sensing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradley, Bethany A; Mustard, John F

    2006-06-01

    Improved understanding of the spatial dynamics of invasive plant species may lead to more effective land management and reduced future invasion. Here, we identified the spatial extents of nonnative cheatgrass (Bromus tectorum) in the north central Great Basin using remotely sensed data from Landsat MSS, TM, and ETM+. We compared cheatgrass extents in 1973 and 2001 to six spatially explicit landscape variables: elevation, aspect, hydrographic channels, cultivation, roads, and power lines. In 2001, Cheatgrass was 10% more likely to be found in elevation ranges from 1400 to 1700 m (although the data suggest a preferential invasion into lower elevations by 2001), 6% more likely on west and northwest facing slopes, and 3% more likely within hydrographic channels. Over this time period, cheatgrass expansion was also closely linked to proximity to land use. In 2001, cheatgrass was 20% more likely to be found within 3 km of cultivation, 13% more likely to be found within 700 m of a road, and 15% more likely to be found within 1 km of a power line. Finally, in 2001 cheatgrass was 26% more likely to be present within 150 m of areas occupied by cheatgrass in 1973. Using these relationships, we created a risk map of future cheatgrass invasion that may aid land management. These results highlight the importance of including land use variables and the extents of current plant invasion in predictions of future risk.

  16. Invasive earthworms interact with abiotic conditions to influence the invasion of common buckthorn (Rhamnus cathartica).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roth, Alexander M; Whitfeld, Timothy J S; Lodge, Alexandra G; Eisenhauer, Nico; Frelich, Lee E; Reich, Peter B

    2015-05-01

    Common buckthorn (Rhamnus cathartica L.) is one of the most abundant and ecologically harmful non-native plants in forests of the Upper Midwest United States. At the same time, European earthworms are invading previously glaciated areas in this region, with largely anecdotal evidence suggesting they compound the negative effects of buckthorn and influence the invasibility of these forests. Germination and seedling establishment are important control points for colonization by any species, and manipulation of the conditions influencing these life history stages may provide insight into why invasive species are successful in some environments and not others. Using a greenhouse microcosm experiment, we examined the effects of important biotic and abiotic factors on the germination and seedling establishment of common buckthorn. We manipulated light levels, leaf litter depth and earthworm presence to investigate the independent and interactive effects of these treatments on buckthorn establishment. We found that light and leaf litter depth were significant predictors of buckthorn germination but that the presence of earthworms was the most important factor; earthworms interacted with light and leaf litter to increase the number and biomass of buckthorn across all treatments. Path analysis suggested both direct and moisture-mediated indirect mechanisms controlled these processes. The results suggest that the action of earthworms may provide a pathway through which buckthorn invades forests of the Upper Midwest United States. Hence, researchers and managers should consider co-invasion of plants and earthworms when investigating invasibility and creating preemptive or post-invasion management plans.

  17. MicroRNA and protein profiles in invasive versus non-invasive oral tongue squamous cell carcinoma cells in vitro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Korvala, Johanna, E-mail: johanna.korvala@oulu.fi [Cancer and Translational Medicine Research Unit, University of Oulu, The Medical Research Center Oulu, Oulu University Hospital, Aapistie 5A, 90014 Oulu (Finland); Jee, Kowan [Department of Pathology, University of Turku, Turku University Hospital, Turku (Finland); Department of Pathology, Haartman Institute, University of Helsinki, Helsinki (Finland); Porkola, Emmi [Cancer and Translational Medicine Research Unit, University of Oulu, The Medical Research Center Oulu, Oulu University Hospital, Aapistie 5A, 90014 Oulu (Finland); Almangush, Alhadi [Department of Pathology, Haartman Institute, University of Helsinki, Helsinki (Finland); Mosakhani, Neda [Department of Pathology, HUSLAB, Helsinki (Finland); Bitu, Carolina [Cancer and Translational Medicine Research Unit, University of Oulu, The Medical Research Center Oulu, Oulu University Hospital, Aapistie 5A, 90014 Oulu (Finland); Cervigne, Nilva K. [Department of Oral Diagnosis, School of Dentistry, University of Campinas (UNICAMP), Av. Limeira, 901 – Bairro Areião, CEP: 13414-903 Piracicaba, São Paulo (Brazil); Department of Clinical and Pathology, Faculty of Medicine of Jundiai - FMJ, Jundiai, SP (Brazil); Zandonadi, Flávia S.; Meirelles, Gabriela V.; Leme, Adriana Franco Paes [Laboratório Nacional de Biociências, LNBio, CNPEM, Rua Giuseppe Máximo Scolfaro, 10.000, Polo II de Alta Tecnologia de Campinas, Campinas/SP, P.O.Box 6192, CEP 13083-970 Campinas, São Paulo (Brazil); Coletta, Ricardo D. [Department of Oral Diagnosis, School of Dentistry, University of Campinas (UNICAMP), Av. Limeira, 901 – Bairro Areião, CEP: 13414-903 Piracicaba, São Paulo (Brazil); and others

    2017-01-01

    Complex molecular pathways regulate cancer invasion. This study overviewed proteins and microRNAs (miRNAs) involved in oral tongue squamous cell carcinoma (OTSCC) invasion. The human highly aggressive OTSCC cell line HSC-3 was examined in a 3D organotypic human leiomyoma model. Non-invasive and invasive cells were laser-captured and protein expression was analyzed using mass spectrometry-based proteomics and miRNA expression by microarray. In functional studies the 3D invasion assay was replicated after silencing candidate miRNAs, miR-498 and miR-940, in invasive OTSCC cell lines (HSC-3 and SCC-15). Cell migration, proliferation and viability were also studied in the silenced cells. In HSC-3 cells, 67 proteins and 53 miRNAs showed significant fold-changes between non-invasive vs. invasive cells. Pathway enrichment analyses allocated “Focal adhesion” and “ECM-receptor interaction” as most important for invasion. Significantly, in HSC-3 cells, miR-498 silencing decreased the invasion area and miR-940 silencing reduced invasion area and depth. Viability, proliferation and migration weren’t significantly affected. In SCC-15 cells, down-regulation of miR-498 significantly reduced invasion and migration. This study shows HSC-3 specific miRNA and protein expression in invasion, and suggests that miR-498 and miR-940 affect invasion in vitro, the process being more influenced by mir-940 silencing in aggressive HSC-3 cells than in the less invasive SCC-15.

  18. Insights into invasion and restoration ecology: Time to collaborate towards a holistic approach to tackle biological invasions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirijam Gaertner

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of our study is to provide an integrated framework for the management of alien plant invasions, combining insights and experiences from the fields of invasion and restoration ecology to enable more effective management of invasive species. To determine linkages between the scientific outputs of the two disciplines we used an existing data base on restoration studies between 2000 and 2008 and did a bibliometric analysis. We identified the type of restoration applied, determined by the aim of the study, and conducted a content analysis on 208 selected studies with a link to biological invasions (invasion-restoration studies. We found a total of 1075 articles on ecosystem restoration, with only eight percent of the studiesthe main objective to control alien invasions. The content analysis of 208 invasion-restoration studies showed that the majority of the studies focused on causes of degradation other than alien invasions. If invaders were referred to as the main driver of degradation, the prevalent cause for degradation was invaders outcompeting and replacing native species. Mechanical control of alien plant invasions was by far the most common control method used. Measures that went beyond the removal of alien plants were implemented in sixty-five percent of the studies.Although invasion control was not as common as other types of restoration, a closer look at the sub-group of invasion-restoration studies shows a clear link between restoration and invasion ecology. Concerns, as identified in the literature review, are firstly that restoration activities mostly focus on controlling the invader while other underlying causes for degradation are neglected, and secondly that the current approach of dealing with alien invasions lacks a combination of theoretical and practical aspects. We suggest that closer collaboration between invasion and restoration ecologists can help to improve the management of alien plant invasions. We conclude with a

  19. Invasion Success by Plant Breeding Evolutionary Changes as a Critical Factor for the Invasion of the Ornamental Plant Mahonia aquifolium

    CERN Document Server

    Ross, Christel Anne

    2009-01-01

    Invasive species are a major threat to global biodiversity and cause significant economic costs. Studying biological invasions is both essential for preventing future invasions and is also useful in order to understand basic ecological processes. Christel Ross investigates whether evolutionary changes by plant breeding are a relevant factor for the invasion success of Mahonia aquifolium in Germany. Her findings show that invasive populations differ from native populations in quantitative-genetic traits and molecular markers, whereas their genetic diversity is similar. She postulates that these evolutionary changes are rather a result of plant breeding, which includes interspecific hybridisation, than the result of a genetic bottleneck or the releases from specialist herbivores.

  20. A first step in understanding an invasive weed through its genes: an EST analysis of invasive Centaurea maculosa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    He Ji

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The economic and biological implications of plant invasion are overwhelming; however, the processes by which plants become successful invaders are not well understood. Limited genetic resources are available for most invasive and weedy species, making it difficult to study molecular and genetic aspects that may be associated with invasion. Results As an initial step towards understanding the molecular mechanisms by which plants become invasive, we have generated a normalized Expressed Sequence Tag (EST library comprising seven invasive populations of Centaurea maculosa, an invasive aster in North America. Seventy-seven percent of the 4423 unique transcripts showed significant similarity to existing proteins in the NCBI database and could be grouped based on gene ontology assignments. Conclusion The C. maculosa EST library represents an initial step towards looking at gene-specific expression in this species, and will pave the way for creation of other resources such as microarray chips that can help provide a view of global gene expression in invasive C. maculosa and its native counterparts. To our knowledge, this is the first published set of ESTs derived from an invasive weed that will be targeted to study invasive behavior. Understanding the genetic basis of evolution for increased invasiveness in exotic plants is critical to understanding the mechanisms through which exotic invasions occur.

  1. A first step in understanding an invasive weed through its genes: an EST analysis of invasive Centaurea maculosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broz, Amanda K; Broeckling, Corey D; He, Ji; Dai, Xinbin; Zhao, Patrick X; Vivanco, Jorge M

    2007-05-24

    The economic and biological implications of plant invasion are overwhelming; however, the processes by which plants become successful invaders are not well understood. Limited genetic resources are available for most invasive and weedy species, making it difficult to study molecular and genetic aspects that may be associated with invasion. As an initial step towards understanding the molecular mechanisms by which plants become invasive, we have generated a normalized Expressed Sequence Tag (EST) library comprising seven invasive populations of Centaurea maculosa, an invasive aster in North America. Seventy-seven percent of the 4423 unique transcripts showed significant similarity to existing proteins in the NCBI database and could be grouped based on gene ontology assignments. The C. maculosa EST library represents an initial step towards looking at gene-specific expression in this species, and will pave the way for creation of other resources such as microarray chips that can help provide a view of global gene expression in invasive C. maculosa and its native counterparts. To our knowledge, this is the first published set of ESTs derived from an invasive weed that will be targeted to study invasive behavior. Understanding the genetic basis of evolution for increased invasiveness in exotic plants is critical to understanding the mechanisms through which exotic invasions occur.

  2. Synergistic impacts by an invasive amphipod and an invasive fish explain native gammarid extinction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beggel, S; Brandner, J; Cerwenka, A F; Geist, J

    2016-07-14

    Worldwide freshwater ecosystems are increasingly affected by invasive alien species. In particular, Ponto-Caspian gobiid fishes and amphipods are suspected to have pronounced effects on aquatic food webs. However, there is a lack of systematic studies mechanistically testing the potential synergistic effects of invasive species on native fauna. In this study we investigated the interrelations between the invasive amphipod Dikerogammarus villosus and the invasive fish species Neogobius melanostomus in their effects on the native amphipod Gammarus pulex. We hypothesized selective predation by the fish as a driver for displacement of native species resulting in potential extinction of G. pulex. The survival of G. pulex in the presence of N. melanostomus in relation to the presence of D. villosus and availability of shelter was analyzed in the context of behavioural differences between the amphipod species. Gammarus pulex had a significantly higher susceptibility to predation by N. melanostomus compared to D. villosus in all experiments, suggesting preferential predation by this fish on native gammarids. Furthermore, the presence of D. villosus significantly increased the vulnerability of G. pulex to fish predation. Habitat structure was an important factor for swimming activity of amphipods and their mortality, resulting in a threefold decrease in amphipods consumed with shelter habitat structures provided. Behavioral differences in swimming activity were additionally responsible for higher predation rates on G. pulex. Intraguild predation could be neglected within short experimental durations. The results of this study provide evidence for synergistic effects of the two invasive Ponto-Caspian species on the native amphipod as an underlying process of species displacements during invasion processes. Prey behaviour and monotonous habitat structures additionally contribute to the decline of the native gammarid fauna in the upper Danube River and elsewhere.

  3. Secondary invasions of noxious weeds associated with control of invasive Tamarix are frequent, idiosyncratic and persistent

    Science.gov (United States)

    González, Eduardo; Sher, Anna A.; Anderson, Robert M.; Bay, Robin F.; Bean, Daniel W.; Bissonnete, Gabriel J.; Cooper, David J.; Dohrenwend, Kara; Eichhorst, Kim D.; El Waer, Hisham; Kennard, Deborah K.; Harms-Weissinger, Rebecca; Henry, Annie L.; Makarick, Lori J.; Ostoja, Steven M.; Reynolds, Lindsay V.; Robinson, W. Wright; Shafroth, Patrick B.; Tabacchi, Erich

    2017-01-01

    Control of invasive species within ecosystems may induce secondary invasions of non-target invaders replacing the first alien. We used four plant species listed as noxious by local authorities in riparian systems to discern whether 1) the severity of these secondary invasions was related to the control method applied to the first alien; and 2) which species that were secondary invaders persisted over time. In a collaborative study by 16 research institutions, we monitored plant species composition following control of non-native Tamarix trees along southwestern U.S. rivers using defoliation by an introduced biocontrol beetle, and three physical removal methods: mechanical using saws, heavy machinery, and burning in 244 treated and 79 untreated sites across six U.S. states. Physical removal favored secondary invasions immediately after Tamarix removal (0–3 yrs.), while in the biocontrol treatment, secondary invasions manifested later (> 5 yrs.). Within this general trend, the response of weeds to control was idiosyncratic; dependent on treatment type and invader. Two annual tumbleweeds that only reproduce by seed (Bassia scoparia and Salsola tragus) peaked immediately after physical Tamarix removal and persisted over time, even after herbicide application. Acroptilon repens, a perennial forb that vigorously reproduces by rhizomes, and Bromus tectorum, a very frequent annual grass before removal that only reproduces by seed, were most successful at biocontrol sites, and progressively spread as the canopy layer opened. These results demonstrate that strategies to control Tamarix affect secondary invasions differently among species and that time since disturbance is an important, generally overlooked, factor affecting response.

  4. Efficient distinction of invasive aquatic plant species from non-invasive related species using DNA barcoding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghahramanzadeh, R; Esselink, G; Kodde, L P; Duistermaat, H; van Valkenburg, J L C H; Marashi, S H; Smulders, M J M; van de Wiel, C C M

    2013-01-01

    Biological invasions are regarded as threats to global biodiversity. Among invasive aliens, a number of plant species belonging to the genera Myriophyllum, Ludwigia and Cabomba, and to the Hydrocharitaceae family pose a particular ecological threat to water bodies. Therefore, one would try to prevent them from entering a country. However, many related species are commercially traded, and distinguishing invasive from non-invasive species based on morphology alone is often difficult for plants in a vegetative stage. In this regard, DNA barcoding could become a good alternative. In this study, 242 samples belonging to 26 species from 10 genera of aquatic plants were assessed using the chloroplast loci trnH-psbA, matK and rbcL. Despite testing a large number of primer sets and several PCR protocols, the matK locus could not be amplified or sequenced reliably and therefore was left out of the analysis. Using the other two loci, eight invasive species could be distinguished from their respective related species, a ninth one failed to produce sequences of sufficient quality. Based on the criteria of universal application, high sequence divergence and level of species discrimination, the trnH-psbA noncoding spacer was the best performing barcode in the aquatic plant species studied. Thus, DNA barcoding may be helpful with enforcing a ban on trade of such invasive species, such as is already in place in the Netherlands. This will become even more so once DNA barcoding would be turned into machinery routinely operable by a nonspecialist in botany and molecular genetics. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  5. Seed bank survival of an invasive species, but not of two native species, declines with invasion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orrock, John L; Christopher, Cory C; Dutra, Humberto P

    2012-04-01

    Soil-borne seed pathogens may play an important role in either hindering or facilitating the spread of invasive exotic plants. We examined whether the invasive shrub Lonicera maackii (Caprifoliaceae) affected fungi-mediated mortality of conspecific and native shrub seeds in a deciduous forest in eastern Missouri. Using a combination of L. maackii removal and fungicide treatments, we found no effect of L. maackii invasion on seed viability of the native Symphoricarpos orbiculatus (Caprifoliaceae) or Cornus drummondii (Cornaceae). In contrast, fungi were significant agents of L. maackii seed mortality in invaded habitats. Losses of L. maackii to soil fungi were also significant in invaded habitats where L. maackii had been removed, although the magnitude of the effect of fungi was lower, suggesting that changes in soil chemistry or microhabitat caused by L. maackii were responsible for affecting fungal seed pathogens. Our work suggests that apparent competition via soil pathogens is not an important factor contributing to impacts of L. maackii on native shrubs. Rather, we found that fungal seed pathogens have density-dependent effects on L. maackii seed survival. Therefore, while fungal pathogens may provide little biotic resistance to early invasion by L. maackii, our study illustrates that more work is needed to understand how changes in fungal pathogens during the course of an invasion contribute to the potential for restoration of invaded systems. More generally, our study suggests that increased rates of fungal pathogen attack may be realized by invasive plants, such as L. maackii, that change the chemical or physical environment of the habitats they invade.

  6. Granivory of invasive, naturalized, and native plants in communities differentially susceptible to invasion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connolly, B M; Pearson, D E; Mack, R N

    2014-07-01

    Seed predation is an important biotic filter that can influence abundance and spatial distributions of native species through differential effects on recruitment. This filter may also influence the relative abundance of nonnative plants within habitats and the communities' susceptibility to invasion via differences in granivore identity, abundance, and food preference. We evaluated the effect of postdispersal seed predators on the establishment of invasive, naturalized, and native species within and between adjacent forest and steppe communities of eastern Washington, USA that differ in severity of plant invasion. Seed removal from trays placed within guild-specific exclosures revealed that small mammals were the dominant seed predators in both forest and steppe. Seeds of invasive species (Bromus tectorum, Cirsium arvense) were removed significantly less than the seeds of native (Pseudoroegneria spicata, Balsamorhiza sagittata) and naturalized (Secale cereale, Centaurea cyanus) species. Seed predation limited seedling emergence and establishment in both communities in the absence of competition in a pattern reflecting natural plant abundance: S. cereale was most suppressed, B. tectorum was least suppressed, and P. spicata was suppressed at an intermediate level. Furthermore, seed predation reduced the residual seed bank for all species. Seed mass correlated with seed removal rates in the forest and their subsequent effects on plant recruitment; larger seeds were removed at higher rates than smaller seeds. Our vegetation surveys indicate higher densities and canopy cover of nonnative species occur in the steppe compared with the forest understory, suggesting the steppe may be more susceptible to invasion. Seed predation alone, however, did not result in significant differences in establishment for any species between these communities, presumably due to similar total small-mammal abundance between communities. Consequently, preferential seed predation by small

  7. Immunogenicity of MenACWY-CRM in Korean Military Recruits: Influence of Tetanus-Diphtheria Toxoid Vaccination on the Vaccine Response to MenACWY-CRM.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Han Wool; Park, In Ho; You, Sooseong; Yu, Hee Tae; Oh, In Soo; Sung, Pil Soo; Shin, Eui Cheol; Kim, Kyung Hyo

    2016-11-01

    The quadrivalent meningococcal conjugate vaccine (MenACWY-CRM) has been introduced for military recruits in Korea since 2012. This study was performed to evaluate the immunogenicity of MenACWY-CRM in Korean military recruits. In addition, the influence of tetanus-diphtheria toxoids (Td) vaccination on the vaccine response to MenACWY-CRM was analyzed. A total of 75 military recruits were enrolled. Among them, 18 received a dose of MenACWY-CRM only (group 1), and 57 received Td three days before MenACWY-CRM immunization (group 2). The immunogenicity of MenACWY-CRM was compared between the two groups. The serum bactericidal activity with baby rabbit complement was measured before and three weeks after immunization against serogroups A, C, W-135, and Y. The geometric mean titers (GMTs) against four serogroups were significantly increased in both groups after immunization. Compared to group 2, group 1 exhibited significantly higher vaccine responses in several aspects: post-immune GMTs against serogroup A and C, seroresponse rates against serogroup A, and a fold increases of titers against serogroup A, C, and Y. MenACWY-CRM was immunogenic against all vaccine-serogroups in Korean military recruits. Vaccine response to MenACWY-CRM was influenced by Td administered three days earlier.

  8. Responses of the soil fungal communities to the co-invasion of two invasive species with different cover classes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, C; Zhou, J; Liu, J; Jiang, K; Xiao, H; Du, D

    2018-01-01

    Soil fungal communities play an important role in the successful invasion of non-native species. It is common for two or more invasive plant species to co-occur in invaded ecosystems. This study aimed to determine the effects of co-invasion of two invasive species (Erigeron annuus and Solidago canadensis) with different cover classes on soil fungal communities using high-throughput sequencing. Invasion of E. annuus and/or S. canadensis had positive effects on the sequence number, operational taxonomic unit (OTU) richness, Shannon diversity, abundance-based cover estimator (ACE index) and Chao1 index of soil fungal communities, but negative effects on the Simpson index. Thus, invasion of E. annuus and/or S. canadensis could increase diversity and richness of soil fungal communities but decrease dominance of some members of these communities, in part to facilitate plant further invasion, because high soil microbial diversity could increase soil functions and plant nutrient acquisition. Some soil fungal species grow well, whereas others tend to extinction after non-native plant invasion with increasing invasion degree and presumably time. The sequence number, OTU richness, Shannon diversity, ACE index and Chao1 index of soil fungal communities were higher under co-invasion of E. annuus and S. canadensis than under independent invasion of either individual species. The co-invasion of the two invasive species had a positive synergistic effect on diversity and abundance of soil fungal communities, partly to build a soil microenvironment to enhance competitiveness of the invaders. The changed diversity and community under co-invasion could modify resource availability and niche differentiation within the soil fungal communities, mediated by differences in leaf litter quality and quantity, which can support different fungal/microbial species in the soil. © 2017 German Society for Plant Sciences and The Royal Botanical Society of the Netherlands.

  9. Introduced and invasive cactus species: a global review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novoa, Ana; Le Roux, Johannes J.; Robertson, Mark P.; Wilson, John R.U.; Richardson, David M.

    2015-01-01

    Understanding which species are introduced and become invasive, and why, are central questions in invasion science. Comparative studies on model taxa have provided important insights, but much more needs to be done to unravel the context dependencies of these findings. The cactus family (Cactaceae), one of the most popular horticultural plant groups, is an interesting case study. Hundreds of cactus species have been introduced outside their native ranges; a few of them are among the most damaging invasive plant species in the world. We reviewed the drivers of introductions and invasions in the family and seek insights that can be used to minimize future risks. We compiled a list of species in the family and determined which have been recorded as invasive. We also mapped current global distributions and modelled the potential global distributions based on distribution data of known invasive taxa. Finally, we identified whether invasiveness is phylogenetically clustered for cacti and whether particular traits are correlated with invasiveness. Only 57 of the 1922 cactus species recognized in this treatment have been recorded as invasive. There are three invasion hotspots: South Africa (35 invasive species recorded), Australia (26 species) and Spain (24 species). However, there are large areas of the world with climates suitable for cacti that are at risk of future invasion—in particular, parts of China, eastern Asia and central Africa. The invasive taxa represent an interesting subset of the total species pool. There is a significant phylogenetic signal: invasive species occur in 2 of the 3 major phylogenetic clades and in 13 of the 130 genera. This phylogenetic signal is not driven by human preference, i.e. horticultural trade, but all invasive species are from 5 of the 12 cactus growth forms. Finally, invasive species tend to have significantly larger native ranges than non-invasive species, and none of the invasive species are of conservation concern in their

  10. The stock of invasive insect species and its economic determinants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hlasny, Vladimir

    2011-06-01

    Invasions of nonindigenous organisms have long been linked to trade, but the contribution of individual trade pathways remains poorly understood, because species are not observed immediately upon arrival and the number of species arriving annually is unknown. Species interception records may count both new arrivals and species long introduced. Furthermore, the stock of invasive insect species already present is unknown. In this study, a state-space model is used to infer the stock of detected as well as undetected invasive insect species established in the United States. A system of equations is estimated jointly to distinguish the patterns of introduction, identification, and eradication. Introductions of invasive species are modeled as dependent on the volume of trade and arrival of people. Identifications depend on the public efforts at invasive species research, as well as on the established stock of invasive species that remain undetected. Eradications of both detected and undetected invasive species depend on containment and quarantine efforts, as well as on the stock of all established invasive species. These patterns are estimated by fitting the predicted number of invasive species detections to the observed record in the North American Non-Indigenous Arthropod Database. The results indicate that agricultural imports are the most important pathway of introduction, followed by immigration of people. Expenditures by the U.S. Department of Agriculture and the Agricultural Research Service are found to explain the species identification record well. Between three and 38 invasive insect species are estimated to be established in the United States undetected.

  11. News from the western European invasion front

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filipe Ribeiro

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Invasive species are one of the main threats to aquatic biodiversity, being particularly serious in regions with high number of endemic and endangered fishes. Portugal has currently one of the highest numbers of non-native fishes per area in western Europe and the rate of species arrival is increasing. In this review, an updated status of non-native fishes is provided with recent trends of leading vectors and routes. Non-native fish component represents 31% of the freshwater fish diversity existing in the country, totaling 20 established species out of 28 introduced species. In the last decade, the non-native fish detection rate (a proxy of introduction rate has been one new species in every two years. Most of the non-native fishes in Portugal are mainly from Central Europe and North America and were illegally introduced for sports fisheries. However, some recent records are also linked with the ornamental trade, from Asia, indicating an increase of this vector in fish introductions. The international drainages exhibit the highest number of non-native fishes due to prevalent invasion routes from Spain, although direct introductions to national drainages in spatially limited areas suggest new invasion routes caused by higher propagule pressure of leading vectors (fisheries and ornamental trade. Management options are presented in order to tackle this growing threat, namely risk assessment, enforcement and environmental education. Only a comprehensive and integrated approach at an Iberian level could reduce the current rate of non-native species arrival to this region and help us to preserve the Iberian freshwater fishes for future generations.

  12. Caracterização e relacionamento antigênico de três novos Bunyavirus no grupo Anopheles A (Bunyaviridae dos arbovirus Characterization and antigenic relationship of three new Bunyavirus in the Anopheles A serogroup (Bunyaviridae of arboviruses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Fernando Soares Travassos da Rosa

    1992-06-01

    Full Text Available São descritos o isolamento e a caracterização de três novos arbovirus isolados na região da Usina Hidro-Elétrica de Tucuruí (UHE-TUC. Os três novos arbovirus pertencem ao grupo Anopheles A(ANA, gênero Bunyavirus (família Bunyaviridae. Os vírus Tucuruí (TUC, Caraipé (CPE e Arumateua (ART são relacionados entre si e com o vírus Trombetas (TBT, formando dentro do grupo ANA um complexo chamado Trombetas. Os arbovirus TUC, CPE e ART foram obtidos a partir de lotes de mosquitos Anopheles (Nyssorhynchus sp capturados em Tucuruí, nas proximidades da usina hidrelétrica de Tucuruí, Estado do Pará, nos meses de fevereiro, agosto e outubro de 1984, respectivamente. Até o final de 1990 os vírus TUC, CPE e ART foram isolados 12, 32 e 28 vezes respectivamente, sempre na região da UHE-TUC, exceção feita ao vírus TUC, do qual se obteve uma amostra procedente de Balbina, onde também foi construída uma hidroelétrica. Até o presente, esses vírus só foram isolados a partir de mosquitos do grupo An. (Nys. principalmente, a partir das espécies An. (Nys. nuneztovari e An. (Nys. triannulatus também consideradas vetores secundários da malária na Amazônia Brasileira. Testes sorológicos executados com soros humanos e de diversas espécies de animais silvestres foram negativos, com exceção de um soro de um carnívoro de espécie Nasua nasua que neutralizou a amostra TUC em títulos de 2.6 índice logaritmico de neutralização (ILN.The isolation and characterization of three new viruses obtained from the Tucuruí hydroelectric dam region is repeated. These three agents belong to the Anopheles A serogroup, genus Bunyavirus, Bunyaviridae. The Tucuruí (TUC, Caraipe (CPE and Arumateua (ART viruses have close relationships with each other and with Trombetas (TBT virus, an Anopheles A virus previously isolated in the Amazon Region of Brazil. These viruses form the "Trombetas complex". TUC, CPE and ART viruses were obtained from pools of

  13. News from the western European invasion front

    OpenAIRE

    Filipe Ribeiro

    2015-01-01

    Invasive species are one of the main threats to aquatic biodiversity, being particularly serious in regions with high number of endemic and endangered fishes. Portugal has currently one of the highest numbers of non-native fishes per area in western Europe and the rate of species arrival is increasing. In this review, an updated status of non-native fishes is provided with recent trends of leading vectors and routes. Non-native fish component represents 31% of the freshwater fish diversity ex...

  14. Minimally invasive surgery for esophageal achalasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Huan-Wen; Du, Ming

    2016-07-01

    Esophageal achalasia is due to the esophagus of neuromuscular dysfunction caused by esophageal functional disease. Its main feature is the lack of esophageal peristalsis, the lower esophageal sphincter pressure and to reduce the swallow's relaxation response. Lower esophageal muscular dissection is one of the main ways to treat esophageal achalasia. At present, the period of muscular layer under the thoracoscope esophagus dissection is one of the treatment of esophageal achalasia. Combined with our experience in minimally invasive esophageal surgery, to improved incision and operation procedure, and adopts the model of the complete period of muscular layer under the thoracoscope esophagus dissection in the treatment of esophageal achalasia.

  15. Invasive Crabs in the Barents Sea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaiser, Brooks; Fernandez, Linda; Kourantidou, Melina

    The recent invasions of the red king crab (RKC) and the snow crab (SC) in the Barents Sea represent the sorts of integrated ecological and economic shifts we may expect as climate change affects arctic seas. Economic incentives and ecological unknowns have combined to change the current...... and potentially future productivity and profitability of the Barents ecosystem in complex and interacting ways. We examine potential ecological-economic trajectories for these crabs’ continued expansions in the Arctic and how the profitability, the joint and national management structures in Norway and Russia...

  16. Role of Seprase in Breast Cancer Invasion

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-09-01

    length cDNA as quickly as possible, we have arranged to get help from Dr. Barbara L. Parsons at the National Center for Toxicological Research with...ctin Nvas si~paratcd frorn free (𔃻ýI1 by get I tra - iwtvdopodWa prateolysis )f e.TtraceLlular mnatrix~ tion osmAg sa. excellulose GS colunin (Pi.erce...invadopodia. MMP-2 is secreted istry of proteinas :. in tumor invasion. Physicl Revs 73, as a soluble enzyme that can be found within the 161-45, oytoplasm

  17. Minimally invasive splenectomy: an update and review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamme, Gary; Birch, Daniel W.; Karmali, Shahzeer

    2013-01-01

    Laparoscopic splenectomy (LS) has become an established standard of care in the management of surgical diseases of the spleen. The present article is an update and review of current procedures and controversies regarding minimally invasive splenectomy. We review the indications and contraindications for LS as well as preoperative considerations. An individual assessment of the procedures and outcomes of multiport laparoscopic splenectomy, hand-assisted laparoscopic splenectomy, robotic splenectomy, natural orifice transluminal endoscopic splenectomy and single-port splenectomy is included. Furthermore, this review examines postoperative considerations after LS, including the postoperative course of uncomplicated patients, postoperative portal vein thrombosis, infections and malignancy. PMID:23883500

  18. Modifying gummy smile: a minimally invasive approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdullah, Walid Ahmed; Khalil, Hesham S; Alhindi, Maryam M; Marzook, Hamdy

    2014-11-01

    Excessive gingival display is a problem that can be managed by variety of procedures. These procedures include non-surgical and surgical methods. The underlying cause of gummy smile can affect the type of procedure to be selected. Most patients prefer minimally invasive procedures with outstanding results. The authors describe a minimally invasive lip repositioning technique for management of gummy smile. Twelve patients (10 females, 2 males) with gingival display of 4 mm or more were operated under local anesthesia using a modified lip repositioning technique. Patients were followed up for 1, 3, 6 and 12 months and gingival display was measured at each follow up visit. The gingival mucosa was dissected and levator labii superioris and depressor septi muscles were freed and repositioned in a lower position. The levator labii superioris muscles were pulled in a lower position using circumdental sutures for 10 days. Both surgeon's and patient's satisfaction of surgical outcome was recorded at each follow-up visit. At early stage of follow-up the main complaints of patients were the feeling of tension in the upper lip and circum oral area, mild pain which was managed with analgesics. One month postoperatively, the gingival display in all patients was recorded to be between 2 and 4 mm with a mean of (2.6 mm). Patient satisfaction records after 1 month showed that 10 patients were satisfied with the results. Three months postoperatively, the gingival display in all patients was recorded and found to be between 2 and 5 mm with a mean of 3 mm. Patient satisfaction records showed that 8 patients were satisfied with the results as they gave scores between. Surgeon's satisfaction at three months follow up showed that the surgeons were satisfied in 8 patients. The same results were found in the 6 and 12 months follow-up periods without any changes. Complete relapse was recorded only in one case at the third postoperative month. This study showed that the proposed lip

  19. Treatment and prevention of invasive pneumococcal disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domínguez-Alegría, A R; Pintado, V; Barbolla, I

    2018-02-12

    Invasive pneumococcal disease is a severe infection that mainly affects patients with associated comorbidity. The paediatric conjugate vaccination has resulted in a change in the adult vaccination strategy. The antibiotic resistance of pneumococcus is not currently a severe problem. Nevertheless, the World Health Organisation has included pneumococcus among the bacteria whose treatment requires the introduction of new drugs, such as ceftaroline and ceftobiprole. Although the scientific evidence is still limited, the combination of beta-lactams and macrolides is recommended as empiric therapy for bacteraemic pneumococcal pneumonia. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier España, S.L.U. and Sociedad Española de Medicina Interna (SEMI). All rights reserved.

  20. Minimally Invasive Spine Surgery in Small Animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hettlich, Bianca F

    2018-01-01

    Minimally invasive spine surgery (MISS) seems to have many benefits for human patients and is currently used for various minor and major spine procedures. For MISS, a change in access strategy to the target location is necessary and it requires intraoperative imaging, special instrumentation, and magnification. Few veterinary studies have evaluated MISS for canine patients for spinal decompression procedures. This article discusses the general requirements for MISS and how these can be applied to veterinary spinal surgery. The current veterinary MISS literature is reviewed and suggestions are made on how to apply MISS to different spinal locations. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Smartphone-assisted minimally invasive neurosurgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandel, Mauricio; Petito, Carlo Emanuel; Tutihashi, Rafael; Paiva, Wellingson; Abramovicz Mandel, Suzana; Gomes Pinto, Fernando Campos; Ferreira de Andrade, Almir; Teixeira, Manoel Jacobsen; Figueiredo, Eberval Gadelha

    2018-03-13

    OBJECTIVE Advances in video and fiber optics since the 1990s have led to the development of several commercially available high-definition neuroendoscopes. This technological improvement, however, has been surpassed by the smartphone revolution. With the increasing integration of smartphone technology into medical care, the introduction of these high-quality computerized communication devices with built-in digital cameras offers new possibilities in neuroendoscopy. The aim of this study was to investigate the usefulness of smartphone-endoscope integration in performing different types of minimally invasive neurosurgery. METHODS The authors present a new surgical tool that integrates a smartphone with an endoscope by use of a specially designed adapter, thus eliminating the need for the video system customarily used for endoscopy. The authors used this novel combined system to perform minimally invasive surgery on patients with various neuropathological disorders, including cavernomas, cerebral aneurysms, hydrocephalus, subdural hematomas, contusional hematomas, and spontaneous intracerebral hematomas. RESULTS The new endoscopic system featuring smartphone-endoscope integration was used by the authors in the minimally invasive surgical treatment of 42 patients. All procedures were successfully performed, and no complications related to the use of the new method were observed. The quality of the images obtained with the smartphone was high enough to provide adequate information to the neurosurgeons, as smartphone cameras can record images in high definition or 4K resolution. Moreover, because the smartphone screen moves along with the endoscope, surgical mobility was enhanced with the use of this method, facilitating more intuitive use. In fact, this increased mobility was identified as the greatest benefit of the use of the smartphone-endoscope system compared with the use of the neuroendoscope with the standard video set. CONCLUSIONS Minimally invasive approaches

  2. Biological invasions: recommendations for U.S. policy and management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lodge, David M; Williams, Susan; MacIsaac, Hugh J; Hayes, Keith R; Leung, Brian; Reichard, Sarah; Mack, Richard N; Moyle, Peter B; Smith, Maggie; Andow, David A; Carlton, James T; McMichael, Anthony

    2006-12-01

    The Ecological Society of America has evaluated current U.S. national policies and practices on biological invasions in light of current scientific knowledge. Invasions by harmful nonnative species are increasing in number and area affected; the damages to ecosystems, economic activity, and human welfare are accumulating. Without improved strategies based on recent scientific advances and increased investments to counter invasions, harm from invasive species is likely to accelerate. Federal leadership, with the cooperation of state and local governments, is required to increase the effectiveness of prevention of invasions, detect and respond quickly to new potentially harmful invasions, control and slow the spread of existing invasions, and provide a national center to ensure that these efforts are coordinated and cost effective. Specifically, the Ecological Society of America recommends that the federal government take the following six actions: (1) Use new information and practices to better manage commercial and other pathways to reduce the transport and release of potentially harmful species; (2) Adopt more quantitative procedures for risk analysis and apply them to every species proposed for importation into the country; (3) Use new cost-effective diagnostic technologies to increase active surveillance and sharing of information about invasive species so that responses to new invasions can be more rapid and effective; (4) Create new legal authority and provide emergency funding to support rapid responses to emerging invasions; (5) Provide funding and incentives for cost-effective programs to slow the spread of existing invasive species in order to protect still uninvaded ecosystems, social and industrial infrastructure, and human welfare; and (6) Establish a National Center for Invasive Species Management (under the existing National Invasive Species Council) to coordinate and lead improvements in federal, state, and international policies on invasive species

  3. Modelling plant invasion pathways in protected areas under climate change: implication for invasion management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.-J. Wang

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Global climate change may enable invasive plant species (IPS to invade protected areas (PAs, but plant invasion on a global scale has not yet been explicitly addressed. Here, we mapped the potential invasion pathways for IPS in PAs across the globe and explored potential factors determining the pathways of plant invasion under climate change. We used species distribution modelling to estimate the suitable habitats of 386 IPS and applied a corridor analysis to compute the potential pathways of IPS in PAs under climate change. Subsequently, we analysed the potential factors affecting the pathways in PAs. According to our results, the main potential pathways of IPS in PAs are in Europe, eastern Australia, New Zealand, southern Africa, and eastern regions of South America and are strongly influenced by changes in temperature and precipitation. Protected areas can play an important role in preventing and controlling the spread of IPS under climate change. This is due to the fact that measures are taken to monitor climate change in detail, to provide effective management near or inside PAs, and to control the introduction of IPS with a high capacity for natural dispersal. A review of conservation policies in PAs is urgently needed.

  4. Integrative invasion science: model systems, multi-site studies, focused meta-analysis, and invasion syndromes

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kueffer, C.; Pyšek, Petr; Richardson, D. M.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 200, č. 3 (2013), s. 615-633 ISSN 1469-8137 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP504/11/1028; GA ČR GA206/09/0563 Institutional support: RVO:67985939 Keywords : model systems * invasion syndromes * multi-site studies Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 6.545, year: 2013

  5. Inhibition between invasives: a newly introduced predator moderates the impacts of a previously established invasive predator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffen, Blaine D; Guy, Travis; Buck, Julia C

    2008-01-01

    1. With continued globalization, species are being transported and introduced into novel habitats at an accelerating rate. Interactions between invasive species may provide important mechanisms that moderate their impacts on native species. 2. The European green crab Carcinus maenas is an aggressive predator that was introduced to the east coast of North America in the mid-1800 s and is capable of rapid consumption of bivalve prey. A newer invasive predator, the Asian shore crab Hemigrapsus sanguineus, was first discovered on the Atlantic coast in the 1980s, and now inhabits many of the same regions as C. maenas within the Gulf of Maine. Using a series of field and laboratory investigations, we examined the consequences of interactions between these predators. 3. Density patterns of these two species at different spatial scales are consistent with negative interactions. As a result of these interactions, C. maenas alters its diet to consume fewer mussels, its preferred prey, in the presence of H. sanguineus. Decreased mussel consumption in turn leads to lower growth rates for C. maenas, with potential detrimental effects on C. maenas populations. 4. Rather than an invasional meltdown, this study demonstrates that, within the Gulf of Maine, this new invasive predator can moderate the impacts of the older invasive predator.

  6. Quantifying "apparent" impact and distinguishing impact from invasiveness in multispecies plant invasions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dean E. Pearson; Yvette K. Ortega; Ozkan Eren; Jose L. Hierro

    2015-01-01

    The quantification of invader impacts remains a major hurdle to understanding and managing invasions. Here, we demonstrate a method for quantifying the community-level impact of multiple plant invaders by applying Parker et al.'s (1999) equation (impact = range x local abundance x per capita effect or per unit effect) using data from 620 survey plots from 31...

  7. A review of invasive and non-invasive sensory feedback in upper limb prostheses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svensson, Pamela; Wijk, Ulrika; Björkman, Anders; Antfolk, Christian

    2017-06-01

    The constant challenge to restore sensory feedback in prosthetic hands has provided several research solutions, but virtually none has reached clinical fruition. A prosthetic hand with sensory feedback that closely imitates an intact hand and provides a natural feeling may induce the prosthetic hand to be included in the body image and also reinforces the control of the prosthesis. Areas covered: This review presents non-invasive sensory feedback systems such as mechanotactile, vibrotactile, electrotactile and combinational systems which combine the modalities; multi-haptic feedback. Invasive sensory feedback has been tried less, because of the inherent risk, but it has successfully shown to restore some afferent channels. In this review, invasive methods are also discussed, both extraneural and intraneural electrodes, such as cuff electrodes and transverse intrafascicular multichannel electrodes. The focus of the review is on non-invasive methods of providing sensory feedback to upper-limb amputees. Expert commentary: Invoking embodiment has shown to be of importance for the control of prosthesis and acceptance by the prosthetic wearers. It is a challenge to provide conscious feedback to cover the lost sensibility of a hand, not be overwhelming and confusing for the user, and to integrate technology within the constraint of a wearable prosthesis.

  8. Quantifying levels of biological invasion: towards the objective classification of invaded and invasible ecosystems

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Catford, J.A.; Vesk, P.A.; Richardson, D. M.; Pyšek, Petr

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 18, č. 1 (2012), s. 44-62 ISSN 1354-1013 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP505/11/1112 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60050516 Institutional support: RVO:67985939 Keywords : level of invasion * standard metrics * abundance Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 6.910, year: 2012

  9. Separating habitat invasibility by alien plants from the actual level of invasion

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Chytrý, M.; Jarošík, Vojtěch; Pyšek, Petr; Hájek, O.; Knollová, I.; Tichý, L.; Danihelka, Jiří

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 89, č. 6 (2008), s. 1541-1553 ISSN 0012-9658 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LC06073 Grant - others:ALARM(XE) GOCE-CT-2003-506675 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60050516 Keywords : archaeophyte * biological invasions * Central Europe Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 4.874, year: 2008

  10. Micro-managing arthropod invasions: eradication and control of invasive arthropods with microbes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ann E. Hajek; Patrick C. Tobin

    2010-01-01

    Non-indigenous arthropods are increasingly being introduced into new areas worldwide and occasionally they cause considerable ecological and economic harm. Many invasive arthropods particularly pose problems to areas of human habitation and native ecosystems. In these cases, the use of environmentally benign materials, such as host-specific entomopathogens, can be more...

  11. Granivory of invasive, naturalized, and native plants in communities differentially susceptible to invasion

    Science.gov (United States)

    B. M. Connolly; D. E. Pearson; R. N. Mack

    2014-01-01

    Seed predation is an important biotic filter that can influence abundance and spatial distributions of native species through differential effects on recruitment. This filter may also influence the relative abundance of nonnative plants within habitats and the communities' susceptibility to invasion via differences in granivore identity, abundance, and food...

  12. Plant invasions in the Czech Republic: current state, introduction dynamics, invasive species and invaded habitats

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pyšek, Petr; Chytrý, M.; Pergl, Jan; Sádlo, Jiří; Wild, Jan

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 84, č. 3 (2012), s. 575-629 ISSN 0032-7786 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP504/11/1028 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60050516 Institutional support: RVO:67985939 Keywords : invasive species * invaded habitats * Czech Republic Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 2.833, year: 2012

  13. A Mena invasion isoform potentiates EGF-induced carcinoma cell invasion and metastasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philippar, Ulrike; Roussos, Evanthia T; Oser, Matthew; Yamaguchi, Hideki; Kim, Hyung-Do; Giampieri, Silvia; Wang, Yarong; Goswami, Sumanta; Wyckoff, Jeffrey B; Lauffenburger, Douglas A; Sahai, Erik; Condeelis, John S; Gertler, Frank B

    2008-12-01

    The spread of cancer during metastatic disease requires that tumor cells subvert normal regulatory networks governing cell motility to invade surrounding tissues and migrate toward blood and lymphatic vessels. Enabled (Ena)/vasodilator-stimulated phosphoprotein (VASP) proteins regulate cell motility by controlling the geometry of assembling actin networks. Mena, an Ena/VASP protein, is upregulated in the invasive subpopulation of breast cancer cells. In addition, Mena is alternately spliced to produce an invasion isoform, Mena(INV). Here we show that Mena and Mena(INV) promote carcinoma cell motility and invasiveness in vivo and in vitro, and increase lung metastasis. Mena and Mena(INV) potentiate epidermal growth factor (EGF)-induced membrane protrusion and increase the matrix degradation activity of tumor cells. Interestingly, Mena(INV) is significantly more effective than Mena in driving metastases and sensitizing cells to EGF-dependent invasion and protrusion. Upregulation of Mena(INV) could therefore enable tumor cells to invade in response to otherwise benign EGF stimulus levels.

  14. Invasive acacias experience higher ant seed removal rates at the invasion edges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Montesinos

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Seed dispersal is a key process for the invasion of new areas by exotic species. Introduced plants often take advantage of native generalist dispersers. Australian acacias are primarily dispersed by ants in their native range and produce seeds bearing a protein and lipid rich reward for ant mutualists (elaiosome. Nevertheless, the role of myrmecochory in the expansion of Australian acacias in European invaded areas is still not clear. We selected one European population of Acacia dealbata and another of A. longifolia and offered elaiosome-bearing and elaiosome-removed seeds to local ant communities. For each species, seeds were offered both in high-density acacia stands and in low-density invasion edges. For both acacia species, seed removal was significantly higher at the low-density edges. For A. longifolia, manual elimination of elaiosomes reduced the chance of seed removal by 80% in the low-density edges, whereas it made no difference on the high-density stands. For A. dealbata, the absence of elaiosome reduced seed removal rate by 52%, independently of the acacia density. Our data suggests that invasive acacias have found effective ant seed dispersers in Europe and that the importance of such dispersers is higher at the invasion edges.

  15. Biological invasions and natural colonisations are different: the need for invasion science

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Wilson, J. R. U.; García-Díaz, P.; Cassey, P.; Richardson, D. M.; Pyšek, Petr; Blackburn, T. M.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 31, č. 1 (2016), s. 87-98 ISSN 1619-0033 R&D Projects: GA ČR GB14-36079G Grant - others:AV ČR(CZ) AP1002 Program:Akademická prémie - Praemium Academiae Institutional support: RVO:67985939 Keywords : biological invasions * species spread * colonization Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour

  16. Multidetector CT of Locally Invasive Advanced Gastric Cancer: Value of Oblique Coronal Reconstructed Images for the Assessment of Local Invasion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jung, Jin Hee; Kim, Ah Yong; Kim, Hye Jin; Yook, Jeong Hwan; Yu, Eun Sil; Jang, Yoon Jin; Park, Seong Ho; Shin, Yong Moon; Ha, Hyun Kwon [Asan Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-01-15

    To evaluate the diagnostic value of oblique coronal reconstructed CT images to determine the local invasion of advanced gastric cancer (AGC). Thirty-four consecutive patients, who were suspected to have locally invasive advanced gastric cancer (more than T3 stage) on a preoperative MDCT scan and underwent a diagnostic or curative laparotomy, were enrolled in this study. Two reviewers performed an independent blind review of three series of MDCT images in random order; axial (AXI), conventional coronal (CCI), and oblique coronal (OCI) (parallel to long axis of gastric body and pancreas) images. In assessing the local invasion, the reader's confidence for the local invasion of AGC was graded using a five point scale (1 = definitely negative, 5 = definitely positive: T4). With surgical findings and histopathological proofs as reference standards, the diagnostic performance of the three different plans of CT images was employed for the verification of local invasion of AGC on a preoperative CT scan using the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) method. Agreements between the two reviewers were analyzed using weighted kappa statistics. Results: In 19 out of 34 patients, local invasion was confirmed surgically or histopathologically (13 pancreas invasion, 6 liver invasion, 4 major vascular invasion, 3 colon and mesocolon invasion, and 2 spleen invasion). The diagnostic performance of OCI was superior to AXI or CCI in the local invasion of AGC. The differences in the area under the curve of AXI (0.770 {+-} 0.087, 0.700 {+-} 0.094), CCI (0.884 {+-} 0.058, 0.958 {+-} 0.038), and OCI (0.954 {+-} 0.050, 0.956 {+-} 0.049), were statistically significant for both reviewers. Inter-observer agreement was excellent for OCI ({kappa}= .973), which was greater than CCI (({kappa}= .839), and AXI (({kappa}= .763). On a CT scan, OCI might be a useful imaging technique in evaluating locally invasive advanced gastric cancer.

  17. Freshwater ecosystems and aquatic insects: a paradox in biological invasions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fenoglio, Stefano; Bonada, Núria; Guareschi, Simone; López-Rodríguez, Manuel J; Millán, Andrés; Tierno de Figueroa, J Manuel

    2016-04-01

    Biological invasions have increased significantly in response to global change and constitute one of the major causes of biodiversity loss. Insects make up a large fraction of invasive species, in general, and freshwaters are among the most invaded ecosystems on our planet. However, even though aquatic insects dominate most inland waters, have unparalleled taxonomic diversity and occupy nearly all trophic niches, there are almost no invasive insects in freshwaters. We present some hypotheses regarding why aquatic insects are not common among aquatic invasive organisms, suggesting that it may be the result of a suite of biological, ecological and anthropogenic factors. Such specific knowledge introduces a paradox in the current scientific discussion on invasive species; therefore, a more in-depth understanding could be an invaluable aid to disentangling how and why biological invasions occur. © 2016 The Author(s).

  18. Response of native insect communities to invasive plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bezemer, T Martijn; Harvey, Jeffrey A; Cronin, James T

    2014-01-01

    Invasive plants can disrupt a range of trophic interactions in native communities. As a novel resource they can affect the performance of native insect herbivores and their natural enemies such as parasitoids and predators, and this can lead to host shifts of these herbivores and natural enemies. Through the release of volatile compounds, and by changing the chemical complexity of the habitat, invasive plants can also affect the behavior of native insects such as herbivores, parasitoids, and pollinators. Studies that compare insects on related native and invasive plants in invaded habitats show that the abundance of insect herbivores is often lower on invasive plants, but that damage levels are similar. The impact of invasive plants on the population dynamics of resident insect species has been rarely examined, but invasive plants can influence the spatial and temporal dynamics of native insect (meta)populations and communities, ultimately leading to changes at the landscape level.

  19. Techniques for Non-Invasive Monitoring of Arterial Blood Pressure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnes S. Meidert

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Since both, hypotension and hypertension, can potentially impair the function of vital organs such as heart, brain, or kidneys, monitoring of arterial blood pressure (BP is a mainstay of hemodynamic monitoring in acutely or critically ill patients. Arterial BP can either be obtained invasively via an arterial catheter or non-invasively. Non-invasive BP measurement provides either intermittent or continuous readings. Most commonly, an occluding upper arm cuff is used for intermittent non-invasive monitoring. BP values are then obtained either manually (by auscultation of Korotkoff sounds or palpation or automatically (e.g., by oscillometry. For continuous non-invasive BP monitoring, the volume clamp method or arterial applanation tonometry can be used. Both techniques enable the arterial waveform and BP values to be obtained continuously. This article describes the different techniques for non-invasive BP measurement, their advantages and limitations, and their clinical applicability.

  20. Environmental Adaptations, Ecological Filtering, and Dispersal Central to Insect Invasions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renault, David; Laparie, Mathieu; McCauley, Shannon J; Bonte, Dries

    2018-01-07

    Insect invasions, the establishment and spread of nonnative insects in new regions, can have extensive economic and environmental consequences. Increased global connectivity accelerates rates of introductions, while climate change may decrease the barriers to invader species' spread. We follow an individual-level insect- and arachnid-centered perspective to assess how the process of invasion is influenced by phenotypic heterogeneity associated with dispersal and stress resistance, and their coupling, across the multiple steps of the invasion process. We also provide an overview and synthesis on the importance of environmental filters during the entire invasion process for the facilitation or inhibition of invasive insect population spread. Finally, we highlight important research gaps and the relevance and applicability of ongoing natural range expansions in the context of climate change to gain essential mechanistic insights into insect invasions.

  1. Gastric Metastasis of Triple Negative Invasive Lobular Carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geredeli, Caglayan; Dogru, Osman; Omeroglu, Ethem; Yilmaz, Farise; Cicekci, Faruk

    2015-05-05

    Invasive lobular carcinomas are the second most common type (5% to 15%) of invasive breast carcinomas. The most frequent sites of breast cancer metastasis are the local and distant lymph nodes, brain, lung, liver, and bones; metastasis to the gastrointestinal system, especially to the stomach, is rare. When a mass is detected in an unusual place in a patient with invasive lobular carcinoma, it should be kept in mind that such a mass may be either a second primary carcinoma or the metastasis of an invasive lobular carcinoma. In this report, we present a case of gastric metastasis from triple-negative invasive lobular breast cancer. It is important to make an accurate diagnosis by distinguishing gastric metastasis from breast cancer in order to select the best initial treatment for systemic diseases of breast cancer. Considering our case, healthcare professionals should take into account that cases with invasive lobular breast cancer may experience unusual metastases.

  2. Readability of Invasive Procedure Consent Forms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eltorai, Adam E M; Naqvi, Syed S; Ghanian, Soha; Eberson, Craig P; Weiss, Arnold-Peter C; Born, Christopher T; Daniels, Alan H

    2015-12-01

    Informed consent is a pillar of ethical medicine which requires patients to fully comprehend relevant issues including the risks, benefits, and alternatives of an intervention. Given the average reading skill of US adults is at the 8th grade level, the American Medical Association (AMA) and the National Institutes of Health (NIH) recommend patient information materials should not exceed a 6th grade reading level. We hypothesized that text provided in invasive procedure consent forms would exceed recommended readability guidelines for medical information. To test this hypothesis, we gathered procedure consent forms from all surgical inpatient hospitals in the state of Rhode Island. For each consent form, readability analysis was measured with the following measures: Flesch Reading Ease Formula, Flesch-Kincaid Grade Level, Fog Scale, SMOG Index, Coleman-Liau Index, Automated Readability Index, and Linsear Write Formula. These readability scores were used to calculate a composite Text Readability Consensus Grade Level. Invasive procedure consent forms were found to be written at an average of 15th grade level (i.e., third year of college), which is significantly higher than the average US adult reading level of 8th grade (p readability guidelines for patient materials of 6th grade (p readability levels which makes comprehension difficult or impossible for many patients. Efforts to improve the readability of procedural consent forms should improve patient understanding regarding their healthcare decisions. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Minimally invasive thyroidectomy (MIT): indications and results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Docimo, Giovanni; Salvatore Tolone, Salvatore; Gili, Simona; d'Alessandro, A; Casalino, G; Brusciano, L; Ruggiero, Roberto; Docimo, Ludovico

    2013-01-01

    To establish if the indication for different approaches for thyroidectomy and the incision length provided by means of pre-operative assessment of gland volume and size of nodules resulted in safe and effective outcomes and in any notable aesthetic or quality-of-life impact on patients. Ninehundred eightytwo consecutive patients, undergoing total thyroidectomy, were enrolled. The thyroid volume and maximal nodule diameter were measured by means of ultrasounds. Based on ultrasounds findings, patients were divided into three groups: minimally invasive video assisted thyroidectomy (MIVAT), minimally invasive thyroidectomy (MIT) and conventional thyroidectomy (CT) groups. The data concerning the following parameters were collected: operative time, postoperative complications, postoperative pain and cosmetic results. The MIVAT group included 179 patients, MIT group included 592 patients and CT group included 211 patients. Incidence of complications did not differ significantly in each group. In MIVAT and MIT group, the perception of postoperative pain was less intense than CT group. The patients in the MIVAT (7±1.5) and MIT (8±2) groups were more satisfied with the cosmetic results than those in CT group (5±1.3) (p= MIT is a technique totally reproducible, and easily convertible to perform surgical procedures in respect of the patient, without additional complications, increased costs, and with better aesthetic results.

  4. INVASIVE AMOEBIASIS COMPLICATING IFLAMMATORY BOWEL DISEASE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ziglam H

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTIONAmoebiasis, which is caused by the intestinal protozoan Entamoeba histolytica, is a ubiquitous parasitic infection affecting approximately 10% of the world’s population and causing more deaths every year (100,000 deaths than any other parasitic infection, with the exception of malaria and schistosomiasis [1–3]. Most individuals with an E. histolytica infection are asymptomatic, but some develop severe invasive disease, such as amoebic colitis. Other manifestations, such as pulmonary, cardiac or brain involvement, are rare. Intestinal amoebiasis can probably also present as a chronic, non-dysenteric syndrome of diarrhoea, weight loss, and abdominal pain that can last for years and mimic inflammatory bowel disease. Fulminant colitis with bowel necrosis leading to perforation and peritonitis occurs in only about 0.5% of cases, but it is associated with a mortality rate of more than 40%. Patients with invasive amoebiasis living in the United Kingdom and other developed countries generally acquire the infection in another country in which the pathogenic species is endemic. Areas that have high rates of amoebic infection include India, Africa, Mexico and parts of Central and South America. Infection with pathogenic E. histolytica is not a common cause of travelers’ diarrhoea, and gastrointestinal infection is uncommon in travelers who have spent less than one month in endemic areas.

  5. Minimally invasive brow suspension for facial paralysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costantino, Peter D; Hiltzik, David H; Moche, Jason; Preminger, Aviva

    2003-01-01

    To report a new technique for unilateral brow suspension for facial paralysis that is minimally invasive, limits supraciliary scar formation, does not require specialized endoscopic equipment or expertise, and has proved to be equal to direct brow suspension in durability and symmetry. Retrospective survey of a case series of 23 patients between January 1997 and December 2000. Metropolitan tertiary care center. Patients with head and neck tumors and brow ptosis caused by facial nerve paralysis. The results of the procedure were determined using the following 3-tier rating system: outstanding (excellent elevation and symmetry); acceptable (good elevation and fair symmetry); and unacceptable (loss of elevation). The results were considered outstanding in 12 patients, acceptable in 9 patients, and unacceptable in only 1 patient. One patient developed a hematoma, and 1 patient required a secondary adjustment. The technique has proved to be superior to standard brow suspension procedures with regard to scar formation and equal with respect to facial symmetry and suspension. These results have caused us to abandon direct brow suspension and to use this minimally invasive method in all cases of brow ptosis due to facial paralysis.

  6. [Theory and practice of minimally invasive endodontics].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, H W

    2016-08-01

    The primary goal of modern endodontic therapy is to achieve the long-term retention of a functional tooth by preventing or treating pulpitis or apical periodontitis is. The long-term retention of endodontically treated tooth is correlated with the remaining amount of tooth tissue and the quality of the restoration after root canal filling. In recent years, there has been rapid progress and development in the basic research of endodontic biology, instrument and applied materials, making treatment procedures safer, more accurate, and more efficient. Thus, minimally invasive endodontics(MIE)has received increasing attention at present. MIE aims to preserve the maximum of tooth structure during root canal therapy, and the concept covers the whole process of diagnosis and treatment of teeth. This review article focuses on describing the minimally invasive concepts and operating essentials in endodontics, from diagnosis and treatment planning to the access opening, pulp cavity finishing, root canal cleaning and shaping, 3-dimensional root canal filling and restoration after root canal treatment.

  7. Invasive candidiasis in pediatric intensive care units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singhi, Sunit; Deep, Akash

    2009-10-01

    Candidemia and disseminated candidiasis are major causes of morbidity and mortality in hospitalized patients especially in the intensive care units (ICU). The incidence of invasive candidasis is on a steady rise because of increasing use of multiple antibiotics and invasive procedures carried out in the ICUs. Worldwide there is a shifting trend from C. albicans towards non albicans species, with an associated increase in mortality and antifungal resistance. In the ICU a predisposed host in one who is on broad spectrum antibiotics, parenteral nutrition, and central venous catheters. There are no pathognomonic signs or symptoms. The clinical clues are: unexplained fever or signs of severe sepsis or septic shock while on antibiotics, multiple, non-tender, nodular erythematous cutaneous lesions. The spectrum of infection with candida species range from superficial candidiasis of the skin and mucosa to more serious life threatening infections. Treatment of candidiasis involves removal of the most likely source of infection and drug therapy to speed up the clearance of infection. Amphotericin B remains the initial drug of first choice in hemodynamically unstable critically ill children in the wake of increasing resistance to azoles. Evaluation of newer antifungal agents and precise role of prophylactic therapy in ICU patients is needed.

  8. Non-invasive assessment of gastric activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smallwood, R.H.; Brown, B.H.

    1983-01-01

    There have been many suggestions for the routine clinical use of the electro-enterogram, but with the exception of the reported usage in the USSR no significant penetration into medical practice has been reported elsewhere. Amongst the many suggestions have been the possible application of electrical stimulation via surface electrodes to overcome post-operative inhibition of intestinal electrical activity, which can be recorded via surface electrodes. Gastric emptying studies have shown that duodenal ulceration is associated with changes in the rate and pattern of emptying of solid meals. Identifiable patterns in the electro-gastrogram following a metal might have diagnostic application. There is some evidence of correlations of electrical activity and pathology in the large intestine. In the colon diverticular disease has been shown to change the frequency content of the slow wave electrical activity and there is some evidence that this might be recorded from surface electrodes. A major obstacle to progress remains the inability to relate non-invasive recordings to intestinal motility. The best hope may be the use of direct and yet non-invasive methods of obtaining motility and in this context real-time ultrasound imaging is probably the most promising technique. The electro-gastrogram has certainly been shown to allow recording of gastric slow wave activity and there is a reasonable hope that further methods of analysis will allow inferential information on motility to be obtained. The following section makes brief mention of these techniques

  9. Plasminogen alleles influence susceptibility to invasive aspergillosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aimee K Zaas

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Invasive aspergillosis (IA is a common and life-threatening infection in immunocompromised individuals. A number of environmental and epidemiologic risk factors for developing IA have been identified. However, genetic factors that affect risk for developing IA have not been clearly identified. We report that host genetic differences influence outcome following establishment of pulmonary aspergillosis in an exogenously immune suppressed mouse model. Computational haplotype-based genetic analysis indicated that genetic variation within the biologically plausible positional candidate gene plasminogen (Plg; Gene ID 18855 correlated with murine outcome. There was a single nonsynonymous coding change (Gly110Ser where the minor allele was found in all of the susceptible strains, but not in the resistant strains. A nonsynonymous single nucleotide polymorphism (Asp472Asn was also identified in the human homolog (PLG; Gene ID 5340. An association study within a cohort of 236 allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplant (HSCT recipients revealed that alleles at this SNP significantly affected the risk of developing IA after HSCT. Furthermore, we demonstrated that plasminogen directly binds to Aspergillus fumigatus. We propose that genetic variation within the plasminogen pathway influences the pathogenesis of this invasive fungal infection.

  10. New pasture plants intensify invasive species risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Driscoll, Don A; Catford, Jane A; Barney, Jacob N; Hulme, Philip E; Inderjit; Martin, Tara G; Pauchard, Aníbal; Pyšek, Petr; Richardson, David M; Riley, Sophie; Visser, Vernon

    2014-11-18

    Agricultural intensification is critical to meet global food demand, but intensification threatens native species and degrades ecosystems. Sustainable intensification (SI) is heralded as a new approach for enabling growth in agriculture while minimizing environmental impacts. However, the SI literature has overlooked a major environmental risk. Using data from eight countries on six continents, we show that few governments regulate conventionally bred pasture taxa to limit threats to natural areas, even though most agribusinesses promote taxa with substantial weed risk. New pasture taxa (including species, subspecies, varieties, cultivars, and plant-endophyte combinations) are bred with characteristics typical of invasive species and environmental weeds. By introducing novel genetic and endophyte variation, pasture taxa are imbued with additional capacity for invasion and environmental impact. New strategies to prevent future problems are urgently needed. We highlight opportunities for researchers, agribusiness, and consumers to reduce environmental risks associated with new pasture taxa. We also emphasize four main approaches that governments could consider as they build new policies to limit weed risks, including (i) national lists of taxa that are prohibited based on environmental risk; (ii) a weed risk assessment for all new taxa; (iii) a program to rapidly detect and control new taxa that invade natural areas; and (iv) the polluter-pays principle, so that if a taxon becomes an environmental weed, industry pays for its management. There is mounting pressure to increase livestock production. With foresight and planning, growth in agriculture can be achieved sustainably provided that the scope of SI expands to encompass environmental weed risks.

  11. Unraveling the complexities of invasive multimodality neuromonitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinha, Saurabh; Hudgins, Eric; Schuster, James; Balu, Ramani

    2017-11-01

    Acute brain injuries are a major cause of death and disability worldwide. Survivors of life-threatening brain injury often face a lifetime of dependent care, and novel approaches that improve outcome are sorely needed. A delayed cascade of brain damage, termed secondary injury, occurs hours to days and even weeks after the initial insult. This delayed phase of injury provides a crucial window for therapeutic interventions that could limit brain damage and improve outcome. A major barrier in the ability to prevent and treat secondary injury is that physicians are often unable to target therapies to patients' unique cerebral physiological disruptions. Invasive neuromonitoring with multiple complementary physiological monitors can provide useful information to enable this tailored, precision approach to care. However, integrating the multiple streams of time-varying data is challenging and often not possible during routine bedside assessment. The authors review and discuss the principles and evidence underlying several widely used invasive neuromonitors. They also provide a framework for integrating data for clinical decision making and discuss future developments in informatics that may allow new treatment paradigms to be developed.

  12. Primary Intradural Hemangiopericytoma With Intramedullary Invasion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiang-Wei Chou

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Hemangiopericytoma (HPC is a rare tumor of the central nervous system and is usually found intracranially. Intraspinal HPCs are very rare and mostly involve the extradural bony structures. Primary intradural HPC has only been reported in 10 cases, all of which occurred in the extramedullary region. Intramedullary invasion has never been reported. Here, we describe a case of primary intradural HPC of the thoracic spine that presented initially with paresthesia and paraplegia of both legs. Magnetic resonance imaging of the thoracic spine showed an intradural dumbbell-shaped tumor at the T10 level. The initial impression was neurogenic tumor, meningioma, or metastasis. During operation, the tumor was found to have obvious intramedullary invasion. Gross-total removal was done, and the patient's neurological function improved; there was no recurrence at the 3-year follow-up. There is no consensus as to what constitutes the optimal treatment of HPC, but most neurosurgeons will advocate gross-total resection. A comparative analysis between intradural and extradural HPCs showed a higher chance of gross-total resection for intradural HPCs, while the recurrence rates showed no difference. The role of adjuvant radiotherapy remains uncertain. Due to the high risk of recurrence and metastasis of HPCs, close follow-up for a long period is mandatory. [J Chin Med Assoc 2009;72(10:536–541

  13. Doublethink and scale mismatch polarize policies for an invasive tree

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Caleb P.; Uden, Daniel R.; Allen, Craig R.; Twidwell, Dirac

    2018-01-01

    Mismatches between invasive species management policies and ecological knowledge can lead to profound societal consequences. For this reason, natural resource agencies have adopted the scientifically-based density-impact invasive species curve to guide invasive species management. We use the density-impact model to evaluate how well management policies for a native invader (Juniperus virginiana) match scientific guidelines. Juniperus virginiana invasion is causing a sub-continental regime shift from grasslands to woodlands in central North America, and its impacts span collapses in endemic diversity, heightened wildfire risk, and crashes in grazing land profitability. We (1) use land cover data to identify the stage of Juniperus virginiana invasion for three ecoregions within Nebraska, USA, (2) determine the range of invasion stages at individual land parcel extents within each ecoregion based on the density-impact model, and (3) determine policy alignment and mismatches relative to the density-impact model in order to assess their potential to meet sustainability targets and avoid societal impacts as Juniperus virginiana abundance increases. We found that nearly all policies evidenced doublethink and policy-ecology mismatches, for instance, promoting spread of Juniperus virginiana regardless of invasion stage while simultaneously managing it as a native invader in the same ecoregion. Like other invasive species, theory and literature for this native invader indicate that the consequences of invasion are unlikely to be prevented if policies fail to prioritize management at incipient invasion stages. Theory suggests a more realistic approach would be to align policy with the stage of invasion at local and ecoregion management scales. There is a need for scientists, policy makers, and ecosystem managers to move past ideologies governing native versus non-native invader classification and toward a framework that accounts for the uniqueness of native species invasions

  14. Epigenetic suppression of neprilysin regulates breast cancer invasion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephen, H M; Khoury, R J; Majmudar, P R; Blaylock, T; Hawkins, K; Salama, M S; Scott, M D; Cosminsky, B; Utreja, N K; Britt, J; Conway, R E

    2016-03-07

    In women, invasive breast cancer is the second most common cancer and the second cause of cancer-related death. Therefore, identifying novel regulators of breast cancer invasion could lead to additional biomarkers and therapeutic targets. Neprilysin, a cell-surface enzyme that cleaves and inactivates a number of substrates including endothelin-1 (ET1), has been implicated in breast cancer, but whether neprilysin promotes or inhibits breast cancer cell progression and metastasis is unclear. Here, we asked whether neprilysin expression predicts and functionally regulates breast cancer cell invasion. RT-PCR and flow cytometry analysis of MDA-MB-231 and MCF-7 breast cancer cell lines revealed decreased neprilysin expression compared with normal epithelial cells. Expression was also suppressed in invasive ductal carcinoma (IDC) compared with normal tissue. In addition, in vtro invasion assays demonstrated that neprilysin overexpression decreased breast cancer cell invasion, whereas neprilysin suppression augmented invasion. Furthermore, inhibiting neprilysin in MCF-7 breast cancer cells increased ET1 levels significantly, whereas overexpressing neprilysin decreased extracellular-signal related kinase (ERK) activation, indicating that neprilysin negatively regulates ET1-induced activation of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling. To determine whether neprilysin was epigenetically suppressed in breast cancer, we performed bisulfite conversion analysis of breast cancer cells and clinical tumor samples. We found that the neprilysin promoter was hypermethylated in breast cancer; chemical reversal of methylation in MDA-MB-231 cells reactivated neprilysin expression and inhibited cancer cell invasion. Analysis of cancer databases revealed that neprilysin methylation significantly associates with survival in stage I IDC and estrogen receptor-negative breast cancer subtypes. These results demonstrate that neprilysin negatively regulates the ET axis in breast cancer

  15. Resource competition in plant invasions: emerging patterns and research needs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gioria, Margherita; Osborne, Bruce A

    2014-01-01

    Invasions by alien plants provide a unique opportunity to examine competitive interactions among plants. While resource competition has long been regarded as a major mechanism responsible for successful invasions, given a well-known capacity for many invaders to become dominant and reduce plant diversity in the invaded communities, few studies have measured resource competition directly or have assessed its importance relative to that of other mechanisms, at different stages of an invasion process. Here, we review evidence comparing the competitive ability of invasive species vs. that of co-occurring native plants, along a range of environmental gradients, showing that many invasive species have a superior competitive ability over native species, although invasive congeners are not necessarily competitively superior over native congeners, nor are alien dominants are better competitors than native dominants. We discuss how the outcomes of competition depend on a number of factors, such as the heterogeneous distribution of resources, the stage of the invasion process, as well as phenotypic plasticity and evolutionary adaptation, which may result in increased or decreased competitive ability in both invasive and native species. Competitive advantages of invasive species over natives are often transient and only important at the early stages of an invasion process. It remains unclear how important resource competition is relative to other mechanisms (competition avoidance via phenological differences, niche differentiation in space associated with phylogenetic distance, recruitment and dispersal limitation, indirect competition, and allelopathy). Finally, we identify the conceptual and methodological issues characterizing competition studies in plant invasions, and we discuss future research needs, including examination of resource competition dynamics and the impact of global environmental change on competitive interactions between invasive and native species.

  16. Unusual Metastatic Patterns of Invasive Lobular Carcinoma of the Breast

    OpenAIRE

    Sobinsky, Justin D.; Willson, Thomas D.; Podbielski, Francis J.; Connolly, Mark M.

    2013-01-01

    Invasive lobular carcinoma of the breast has similar patterns of metastatic disease when compared to invasive ductal carcinoma; however, lobular carcinoma metastasizes to unusual sites more frequently. We present a 65-year-old female with a history of invasive lobular breast carcinoma (T3N3M0) treated with modified radical mastectomy and aromatase-inhibitor therapy who underwent a surveillance PET scan, which showed possible sigmoid cancer. Colonoscopy with biopsy revealed a 3?cm sigmoid aden...

  17. Invasive Neophyten im Limmattal – status quo 2007 und Massnahmen

    OpenAIRE

    Schneider, O; Burga, C A

    2010-01-01

    In the region of Dietikon-Spreitenbach-Heitersberg (Limmat Valley), invasive neophytes were analyzed and measures for dealing were proposed. For this purpose populations of invasive neophytes and phe- nomenologically defined habitats were mapped at a scale 1:10 000 in 2007. The map shows a strong concentration of invasive neophytes in the areas of settlement. 12 species that occur in the study area are from the Black List, 3 from the Watch List. The following plant species are the most widely...

  18. Resource competition in plant invasions: emerging patterns and research needs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gioria, Margherita; Osborne, Bruce A.

    2014-01-01

    Invasions by alien plants provide a unique opportunity to examine competitive interactions among plants. While resource competition has long been regarded as a major mechanism responsible for successful invasions, given a well-known capacity for many invaders to become dominant and reduce plant diversity in the invaded communities, few studies have measured resource competition directly or have assessed its importance relative to that of other mechanisms, at different stages of an invasion process. Here, we review evidence comparing the competitive ability of invasive species vs. that of co-occurring native plants, along a range of environmental gradients, showing that many invasive species have a superior competitive ability over native species, although invasive congeners are not necessarily competitively superior over native congeners, nor are alien dominants are better competitors than native dominants. We discuss how the outcomes of competition depend on a number of factors, such as the heterogeneous distribution of resources, the stage of the invasion process, as well as phenotypic plasticity and evolutionary adaptation, which may result in increased or decreased competitive ability in both invasive and native species. Competitive advantages of invasive species over natives are often transient and only important at the early stages of an invasion process. It remains unclear how important resource competition is relative to other mechanisms (competition avoidance via phenological differences, niche differentiation in space associated with phylogenetic distance, recruitment and dispersal limitation, indirect competition, and allelopathy). Finally, we identify the conceptual and methodological issues characterizing competition studies in plant invasions, and we discuss future research needs, including examination of resource competition dynamics and the impact of global environmental change on competitive interactions between invasive and native species. PMID

  19. Invasive lionfish reduce native fish abundance on a regional scale

    OpenAIRE

    Ballew, Nicholas G.; Bacheler, Nathan M.; Kellison, G. Todd; Schueller, Amy M.

    2016-01-01

    Invasive lionfish pose an unprecedented threat to biodiversity and fisheries throughout Atlantic waters off of the southeastern United States, the Caribbean, and the Gulf of Mexico. Here, we employ a spatially replicated Before-After-Control-Impact analysis with temporal pairing to quantify for the first time the impact of the lionfish invasion on native fish abundance across a broad regional scale and over the entire duration of the lionfish invasion (1990?2014). Our results suggest that 1) ...

  20. Doublethink and scale mismatch polarize policies for an invasive tree

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Caleb P.; Uden, Daniel R.; Allen, Craig R.; Twidwell, Dirac

    2018-01-01

    Mismatches between invasive species management policies and ecological knowledge can lead to profound societal consequences. For this reason, natural resource agencies have adopted the scientifically-based density-impact invasive species curve to guide invasive species management. We use the density-impact model to evaluate how well management policies for a native invader (Juniperus virginiana) match scientific guidelines. Juniperus virginiana invasion is causing a sub-continental regime shift from grasslands to woodlands in central North America, and its impacts span collapses in endemic diversity, heightened wildfire risk, and crashes in grazing land profitability. We (1) use land cover data to identify the stage of Juniperus virginiana invasion for three ecoregions within Nebraska, USA, (2) determine the range of invasion stages at individual land parcel extents within each ecoregion based on the density-impact model, and (3) determine policy alignment and mismatches relative to the density-impact model in order to assess their potential to meet sustainability targets and avoid societal impacts as Juniperus virginiana abundance increases. We found that nearly all policies evidenced doublethink and policy-ecology mismatches, for instance, promoting spread of Juniperus virginiana regardless of invasion stage while simultaneously managing it as a native invader in the same ecoregion. Like other invasive species, theory and literature for this native invader indicate that the consequences of invasion are unlikely to be prevented if policies fail to prioritize management at incipient invasion stages. Theory suggests a more realistic approach would be to align policy with the stage of invasion at local and ecoregion management scales. There is a need for scientists, policy makers, and ecosystem managers to move past ideologies governing native versus non-native invader classification and toward a framework that accounts for the uniqueness of native species

  1. To tilfaelde af invasive infektioner med Haemophilus influenzae type f

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jette Dettmann; Lind, Jens Wentzel; Bruun, Britta

    2009-01-01

    Two cases of invasive Haemophilus influenzae type f infection are presented: a three-week-old boy with meningitis and a 62-year-old woman with arthritis and bacteremia. Since 1993 vaccination against H. influenzae type b (Hib) has been offered to Danish children. The result has been a remarkable...... decrease in invasive Hib disease. However, physicians need to be aware of the existence of non-type b invasive H. influenzae disease. Udgivelsesdato: 2009-Jan...

  2. To tilfaelde af invasive infektioner med Haemophilus influenzae type f

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jette Dettmann; Lind, Jens; Bruun, Brita

    2009-01-01

    Two cases of invasive Haemophilus influenzae type f infection are presented: a three-week-old boy with meningitis and a 62-year-old woman with arthritis and bacteremia. Since 1993 vaccination against H. influenzae type b (Hib) has been offered to Danish children. The result has been a remarkable...... decrease in invasive Hib disease. However, physicians need to be aware of the existence of non-type b invasive H. influenzae disease. Udgivelsesdato: 2009-Jan-19...

  3. [Two cases of invasive Haemophilus influenzae type f infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, J.D.; Lind, J.W.; Bruun, B.

    2009-01-01

    Two cases of invasive Haemophilus influenzae type f infection are presented: a three-week-old boy with meningitis and a 62-year-old woman with arthritis and bacteremia. Since 1993 vaccination against H. influenzae type b (Hib) has been offered to Danish children. The result has been a remarkable...... decrease in invasive Hib disease. However, physicians need to be aware of the existence of non-type b invasive H. influenzae disease Udgivelsesdato: 2009/1/19...

  4. Serotype-specific mortality from invasive Streptococcus pneumoniae disease revisited

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martens, Pernille; Worm, Signe Westring; Lundgren, Bettina

    2004-01-01

    Serotype-specific mortality from invasive Streptococcus pneumoniae disease revisited.Martens P, Worm SW, Lundgren B, Konradsen HB, Benfield T. Department of Infectious Diseases 144, Hvidovre University Hospital, DK-2650 Hvidovre, Denmark. pernillemartens@yahoo.com BACKGROUND: Invasive infection...... with Streptococcus pneumoniae (pneumococci) causes significant morbidity and mortality. Case series and experimental data have shown that the capsular serotype is involved in the pathogenesis and a determinant of disease outcome. METHODS: Retrospective review of 464 cases of invasive disease among adults diagnosed...

  5. Predicting invasive fungal pathogens using invasive pest assemblages: testing model predictions in a virtual world.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dean R Paini

    Full Text Available Predicting future species invasions presents significant challenges to researchers and government agencies. Simply considering the vast number of potential species that could invade an area can be insurmountable. One method, recently suggested, which can analyse large datasets of invasive species simultaneously is that of a self organising map (SOM, a form of artificial neural network which can rank species by establishment likelihood. We used this method to analyse the worldwide distribution of 486 fungal pathogens and then validated the method by creating a virtual world of invasive species in which to test the SOM. This novel validation method allowed us to test SOM's ability to rank those species that can establish above those that can't. Overall, we found the SOM highly effective, having on average, a 96-98% success rate (depending on the virtual world parameters. We also found that regions with fewer species present (i.e. 1-10 species were more difficult for the SOM to generate an accurately ranked list, with success rates varying from 100% correct down to 0% correct. However, we were able to combine the numbers of species present in a region with clustering patterns in the SOM, to further refine confidence in lists generated from these sparsely populated regions. We then used the results from the virtual world to determine confidences for lists generated from the fungal pathogen dataset. Specifically, for lists generated for Australia and its states and territories, the reliability scores were between 84-98%. We conclude that a SOM analysis is a reliable method for analysing a large dataset of potential invasive species and could be used by biosecurity agencies around the world resulting in a better overall assessment of invasion risk.

  6. Predicting invasive fungal pathogens using invasive pest assemblages: testing model predictions in a virtual world.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paini, Dean R; Bianchi, Felix J J A; Northfield, Tobin D; De Barro, Paul J

    2011-01-01

    Predicting future species invasions presents significant challenges to researchers and government agencies. Simply considering the vast number of potential species that could invade an area can be insurmountable. One method, recently suggested, which can analyse large datasets of invasive species simultaneously is that of a self organising map (SOM), a form of artificial neural network which can rank species by establishment likelihood. We used this method to analyse the worldwide distribution of 486 fungal pathogens and then validated the method by creating a virtual world of invasive species in which to test the SOM. This novel validation method allowed us to test SOM's ability to rank those species that can establish above those that can't. Overall, we found the SOM highly effective, having on average, a 96-98% success rate (depending on the virtual world parameters). We also found that regions with fewer species present (i.e. 1-10 species) were more difficult for the SOM to generate an accurately ranked list, with success rates varying from 100% correct down to 0% correct. However, we were able to combine the numbers of species present in a region with clustering patterns in the SOM, to further refine confidence in lists generated from these sparsely populated regions. We then used the results from the virtual world to determine confidences for lists generated from the fungal pathogen dataset. Specifically, for lists generated for Australia and its states and territories, the reliability scores were between 84-98%. We conclude that a SOM analysis is a reliable method for analysing a large dataset of potential invasive species and could be used by biosecurity agencies around the world resulting in a better overall assessment of invasion risk.

  7. Acidity generated by the tumor microenvironment drives local invasion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estrella, Veronica; Chen, Tingan; Lloyd, Mark; Wojtkowiak, Jonathan; Cornnell, Heather H; Ibrahim-Hashim, Arig; Bailey, Kate; Balagurunathan, Yoganand; Rothberg, Jennifer M; Sloane, Bonnie F; Johnson, Joseph; Gatenby, Robert A; Gillies, Robert J

    2013-03-01

    The pH of solid tumors is acidic due to increased fermentative metabolism and poor perfusion. It has been hypothesized that acid pH promotes local invasive growth and metastasis. The hypothesis that acid mediates invasion proposes that H(+) diffuses from the proximal tumor microenvironment into adjacent normal tissues where it causes tissue remodeling that permits local invasion. In the current work, tumor invasion and peritumoral pH were monitored over time using intravital microscopy. In every case, the peritumoral pH was acidic and heterogeneous and the regions of highest tumor invasion corresponded to areas of lowest pH. Tumor invasion did not occur into regions with normal or near-normal extracellular pH. Immunohistochemical analyses revealed that cells in the invasive edges expressed the glucose transporter-1 and the sodium-hydrogen exchanger-1, both of which were associated with peritumoral acidosis. In support of the functional importance of our findings, oral administration of sodium bicarbonate was sufficient to increase peritumoral pH and inhibit tumor growth and local invasion in a preclinical model, supporting the acid-mediated invasion hypothesis. Cancer Res; 73(5); 1524-35. ©2012 AACR. ©2012 AACR.

  8. The clinical pathologic research of invasive pituitary adenomas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo Lingchuan; Zheng Yushuang; Wang Shouli; Hui Guozhen; Li Xiangdong

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To study the pathological morphologic characteristics of invasive pituitary tumor and the affect of vascularization to the tumor's invasion. Methods: One hundred and thirty cases of pituitary adenoma patients were divided into two groups, including invasive pituitary adenomas and non-invasive pituitary adenomas, and the clinical data of two groups were analysed and compared. Results : The difference was statistically significant between the invasive group and the non-invasive group in the incidence rate of pathological morphologic characteristics such as high nuclear cytoplasmic ratio, cell pleomorphism, nuclear atypia and nucleoli appearance (P<0.05); there were nuclear atypia and nucleolus margination in the invasive group through electron microscopy. And there was statistical significant difference in rate of MVD expression which was higher in the invasive group than that of noninvasive group (P<0.05). Conclusion: The pathological morphologic characteristics of pituitary tumor and the high expression of MVD are significantly reference valuable in tumor aggression diagnosis, which provides valuable indicators for early clinical diagnosis of tumor invasion. (authors)

  9. Manifestation of invasive pulmonary aspergillosis in the formation of mycetoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roos, N.; Peters, P.E.; Schellong, S.; Eiff, M. von

    1989-01-01

    Invasive pulmonary aspergillosis is characterized by radiological signs allowing a correct diagnosis, including differentiation from pulmonary candidiasis, when they are associated with appropriate clinical symptoms (neutropenia and fever persisting despite broad-spectrum antibiotics). In particular the formation of a pulmonary mycetoma in a previously normal lung is one of these signs. Unlike a simple fungus ball (the saprophytic form of aspergillosis), the rounded density of invasive pulmonary aspergillosis consists of sequestrum of devitalized lung tissue owing to blood vessel invasion by Aspergillus hyphae. This morphologic phenomenon is demonstrated in the present case report and is discussed together with the other roentgenological signs of the invasive aspergillosis. (orig.) [de

  10. Manifestation of invasive pulmonary aspergillosis in the formation of mycetoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roos, N.; Peters, P.E.; Schellong, S.; Eiff, M. von

    1989-05-01

    Invasive pulmonary aspergillosis is characterized by radiological signs allowing a correct diagnosis, including differentiation from pulmonary candidiasis, when they are associated with appropriate clinical symptoms (neutropenia and fever persisting despite broad-spectrum antibiotics). In particular the formation of a pulmonary mycetoma in a previously normal lung is one of these signs. Unlike a simple fungus ball (the saprophytic form of aspergillosis), the rounded density of invasive pulmonary aspergillosis consists of sequestrum of devitalized lung tissue owing to blood vessel invasion by Aspergillus hyphae. This morphologic phenomenon is demonstrated in the present case report and is discussed together with the other roentgenological signs of the invasive aspergillosis.

  11. A conceptual framework for invasion in microbial communities

    KAUST Repository

    Kinnunen, Marta; Dechesne, Arnaud; Proctor, Caitlin; Hammes, Frederik; Johnson, David; Quintela-Baluja, Marcos; Graham, David; Daffonchio, Daniele; Fodelianakis, Stylianos; Hahn, Nicole; Boon, Nico; Smets, Barth F

    2016-01-01

    There is a growing interest in controlling-promoting or avoiding-the invasion of microbial communities by new community members. Resource availability and community structure have been reported as determinants of invasion success. However, most invasion studies do not adhere to a coherent and consistent terminology nor always include rigorous interpretations of the processes behind invasion. Therefore, we suggest that a consistent set of definitions and a rigorous conceptual framework are needed. We define invasion in a microbial community as the establishment of an alien microbial type in a resident community and argue how simple criteria to define aliens, residents, and alien establishment can be applied for a wide variety of communities. In addition, we suggest an adoption of the community ecology framework advanced by Vellend (2010) to clarify potential determinants of invasion. This framework identifies four fundamental processes that control community dynamics: dispersal, selection, drift and diversification. While selection has received ample attention in microbial community invasion research, the three other processes are often overlooked. Here, we elaborate on the relevance of all four processes and conclude that invasion experiments should be designed to elucidate the role of dispersal, drift and diversification, in order to obtain a complete picture of invasion as a community process.

  12. Disturbance promotes non-indigenous bacterial invasion in soil microcosms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Manqiang; Strandmark, Lisa Bjørnlund; Rønn, Regin

    2012-01-01

    Invasion-biology is largely based on non-experimental observation of larger organisms. Here, we apply an experimental approach to the subject. By using microbial-based microcosm-experiments, invasion-biology can be placed on firmer experimental, and hence, less anecdotal ground. A better...... understanding of the mechanisms that govern invasion-success of bacteria in soil communities will provide knowledge on the factors that hinder successful establishment of bacteria artificially inoculated into soil, e.g. for remediation purposes. Further, it will yield valuable information on general principles...... of invasion biology in other domains of life....

  13. A conceptual framework for invasion in microbial communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinnunen, Marta; Dechesne, Arnaud; Proctor, Caitlin; Hammes, Frederik; Johnson, David; Quintela-Baluja, Marcos; Graham, David; Daffonchio, Daniele; Fodelianakis, Stilianos; Hahn, Nicole; Boon, Nico; Smets, Barth F

    2016-01-01

    There is a growing interest in controlling—promoting or avoiding—the invasion of microbial communities by new community members. Resource availability and community structure have been reported as determinants of invasion success. However, most invasion studies do not adhere to a coherent and consistent terminology nor always include rigorous interpretations of the processes behind invasion. Therefore, we suggest that a consistent set of definitions and a rigorous conceptual framework are needed. We define invasion in a microbial community as the establishment of an alien microbial type in a resident community and argue how simple criteria to define aliens, residents, and alien establishment can be applied for a wide variety of communities. In addition, we suggest an adoption of the community ecology framework advanced by Vellend (2010) to clarify potential determinants of invasion. This framework identifies four fundamental processes that control community dynamics: dispersal, selection, drift and diversification. While selection has received ample attention in microbial community invasion research, the three other processes are often overlooked. Here, we elaborate on the relevance of all four processes and conclude that invasion experiments should be designed to elucidate the role of dispersal, drift and diversification, in order to obtain a complete picture of invasion as a community process. PMID:27137125

  14. A conceptual framework for invasion in microbial communities

    KAUST Repository

    Kinnunen, Marta

    2016-05-03

    There is a growing interest in controlling-promoting or avoiding-the invasion of microbial communities by new community members. Resource availability and community structure have been reported as determinants of invasion success. However, most invasion studies do not adhere to a coherent and consistent terminology nor always include rigorous interpretations of the processes behind invasion. Therefore, we suggest that a consistent set of definitions and a rigorous conceptual framework are needed. We define invasion in a microbial community as the establishment of an alien microbial type in a resident community and argue how simple criteria to define aliens, residents, and alien establishment can be applied for a wide variety of communities. In addition, we suggest an adoption of the community ecology framework advanced by Vellend (2010) to clarify potential determinants of invasion. This framework identifies four fundamental processes that control community dynamics: dispersal, selection, drift and diversification. While selection has received ample attention in microbial community invasion research, the three other processes are often overlooked. Here, we elaborate on the relevance of all four processes and conclude that invasion experiments should be designed to elucidate the role of dispersal, drift and diversification, in order to obtain a complete picture of invasion as a community process.

  15. Minimally Invasive Surgery (MIS) Approaches to Thoracolumbar Trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaye, Ian David; Passias, Peter

    2018-03-01

    Minimally invasive surgical (MIS) techniques offer promising improvements in the management of thoracolumbar trauma. Recent advances in MIS techniques and instrumentation for degenerative conditions have heralded a growing interest in employing these techniques for thoracolumbar trauma. Specifically, surgeons have applied these techniques to help manage flexion- and extension-distraction injuries, neurologically intact burst fractures, and cases of damage control. Minimally invasive surgical techniques offer a means to decrease blood loss, shorten operative time, reduce infection risk, and shorten hospital stays. Herein, we review thoracolumbar minimally invasive surgery with an emphasis on thoracolumbar trauma classification, minimally invasive spinal stabilization, surgical indications, patient outcomes, technical considerations, and potential complications.

  16. Multiple mechanisms enable invasive species to suppress native species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Alison E; Thomsen, Meredith; Strauss, Sharon Y

    2011-07-01

    Invasive plants represent a significant threat to ecosystem biodiversity. To decrease the impacts of invasive species, a major scientific undertaking of the last few decades has been aimed at understanding the mechanisms that drive invasive plant success. Most studies and theories have focused on a single mechanism for predicting the success of invasive plants and therefore cannot provide insight as to the relative importance of multiple interactions in predicting invasive species' success. We examine four mechanisms that potentially contribute to the success of invasive velvetgrass Holcus lanatus: direct competition, indirect competition mediated by mammalian herbivores, interference competition via allelopathy, and indirect competition mediated by changes in the soil community. Using a combination of field and greenhouse approaches, we focus on the effects of H. lanatus on a common species in California coastal prairies, Erigeron glaucus, where the invasion is most intense. We found that H. lanatus had the strongest effects on E. glaucus via direct competition, but it also influenced the soil community in ways that feed back to negatively influence E. glaucus and other native species after H. lanatus removal. This approach provided evidence for multiple mechanisms contributing to negative effects of invasive species, and it identified when particular strategies were most likely to be important. These mechanisms can be applied to eradication of H. lanatus and conservation of California coastal prairie systems, and they illustrate the utility of an integrated set of experiments for determining the potential mechanisms of invasive species' success.

  17. Cavernous sinus invasion by pituitary adenomas. Relationship between magnetic resonance imaging findings and histologically verified dural invasion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daita, Go; Yonemasu, Yukichi; Nakai, Hirofumi; Takei, Hidetoshi; Ogawa, Katsuhiro [Asahikawa Medical Coll., Hokkaido (Japan)

    1995-01-01

    The relationship between magnetic resonance (MR) imaging findings and histologically verified invasion of the cavernous sinus by tumor cells was studied in 26 patients treated surgically for pituitary adenoma. Dural invasion of the sellar floor by tumor cells was found in 10 cases (38%). All patients were classified according to MR imaging findings into three types. Type I showed a gadolinium-enhanced stripe medial to the carotid artery (5 patients), none of which showed dural invasion. Type II showed no enhanced stripe (17 patients), six of which showed dural invasion. Within this type, tumor size and dural invasion showed no correlation. Type III showed displacement or encasement of the carotid artery by the tumor with or without extracranial extension (4 patients), all of which showed massive infiltration of the tumor cells into the dura mater. This study shows that preoperative MR imaging can provide information for assessment of invasion into the cavernous sinus in patients with pituitary adenoma. (author).

  18. Plasmodium falciparum field isolates from South America use an atypical red blood cell invasion pathway associated with invasion ligand polymorphisms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lopez-Perez, Mary; Villasis, Elizabeth; Machado, Ricardo L D

    2012-01-01

    Studies of Plasmodium falciparum invasion pathways in field isolates have been limited. Red blood cell (RBC) invasion is a complex process involving two invasion protein families; Erythrocyte Binding-Like (EBL) and the Reticulocyte Binding-Like (PfRh) proteins, which are polymorphic and not fully...... characterized in field isolates. To determine the various P. falciparum invasion pathways used by parasite isolates from South America, we studied the invasion phenotypes in three regions: Colombia, Peru and Brazil. Additionally, polymorphisms in three members of the EBL (EBA-181, EBA-175 and EBL-1) and five...... pathways and the ligand polymorphisms differed substantially among the Colombian and Brazilian isolates while the Peruvian isolates represent an amalgam of those present in the Colombian and Brazilian field isolates. The NrTrCr invasion profile was associated with the presence of the PfRh2a pepC variant...

  19. Two non-invasive diagnostic tools for invasive aspergilosis: (1-3)-beta-D-glucan and the galactomannan assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelaher, Amy

    2006-01-01

    Invasive aspergillosis (IA) is a serious cause of morbidity and mortality among immunocompromised patients. Prompt and non-invasive methods for diagnosing IA are needed to improve the management of this life-threatening infection in patients with hematological disorders. In summary, this retrospective review of studies performed on the two assays finds that both assays have high sensitivity and specificity but are more useful when used together as a diagnostic strategy for patients with invasive aspergillosis.

  20. Ancestral origins and invasion pathways in a globally invasive bird correlate with climate and influences from bird trade.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Hazel; Strubbe, Diederik; Tollington, Simon; Prys-Jones, Robert; Matthysen, Erik; Groombridge, Jim J

    2015-08-01

    Invasive species present a major threat to global biodiversity. Understanding genetic patterns and evolutionary processes that reinforce successful establishment is paramount for elucidating mechanisms underlying biological invasions. Among birds, the ring-necked parakeet (Psittacula krameri) is one of the most successful invasive species, established in over 35 countries. However, little is known about the evolutionary genetic origins of this species and what population genetic signatures tell us about patterns of invasion. We reveal the ancestral origins of populations across the invasive range and explore the potential influence of climate and propagule pressure from the pet trade on observed genetic patterns. Ring-necked parakeet samples representing the ancestral native range (n = 96) were collected from museum specimens, and modern samples from the invasive range (n = 855) were gathered from across Europe, Mauritius and Seychelles, and sequenced for two mitochondrial DNA markers comprising 868 bp of cytochrome b and control region, and genotyped at 10 microsatellite loci. Invasive populations comprise birds that originate predominantly from Pakistan and northern areas of India. Haplotypes associated with more northerly distribution limits in the ancestral native range were more prevalent in invasive populations in Europe, and the predominance of Asian haplotypes in Europe is consistent with the higher number of Asian birds transported by the pet trade outside the native range. Successful establishment of invasive species is likely to be underpinned by a combination of environmental and anthropogenic influences. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.