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Sample records for invasive opium poppy

  1. [History of opium poppy and morphine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norn, Svend; Kruse, Poul R; Kruse, Edith

    2005-01-01

    Opium has been known for millennia to relieve pain and its use for surgical analgesia has been recorded for several centuries. The Sumerian clay tablet (about 2100 BC) is considered to be the world's oldest recorded list of medical prescriptions. It is believed by some scholars that the opium poppy is referred to on the tablet. Some objects from the ancient Greek Minoan culture may also suggest the knowledge of the poppy. A goddess from about 1500 BC shows her hair adorned probably with poppy-capsules and her closed eyes disclose sedation. Also juglets probably imitating the poppy-capsules were found in that period in both Cyprus and Egypt. The first authentic reference to the milky juice of the poppy we find by Theophrastus at the beginning of the third century BC. In the first century the opium poppy and opium was known by Dioscorides, Pliny and Celsus and later on by Galen. Celsus suggests the use of opium before surgery and Dioscorides recommended patients should take mandrake (contains scopolamine and atropine) mixed with wine, before limb amputation. The Arabic physicians used opium very extensively and about 1000 AD it was recommended by Avicenna especially in diarrhoea and diseases of the eye. Polypharmacy, including a mixture of nonsensical medications were often used. Fortunately for both patients and physicians many of the preparations contained opium. The goal was a panacea for all diseases. A famous and expensive panacea was theriaca containing up to sixty drugs including opium. Simplified preparations of opium such as tinctura opii were used up to about 2000 in Denmark. In the early 1800s sciences developed and Sertürner isolated morphine from opium and was the founder of alkaloid research. A more safe and standardized effect was obtained by the pure opium. Several morphine-like drugs have been synthesized to minimize adverse effects and abuse potential. Opioid receptors were identified and characterized in binding assays and their localization

  2. Benzylisoquinoline alkaloid biosynthesis in opium poppy.

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    Beaudoin, Guillaume A W; Facchini, Peter J

    2014-07-01

    Opium poppy (Papaver somniferum) is one of the world's oldest medicinal plants and remains the only commercial source for the narcotic analgesics morphine, codeine and semi-synthetic derivatives such as oxycodone and naltrexone. The plant also produces several other benzylisoquinoline alkaloids with potent pharmacological properties including the vasodilator papaverine, the cough suppressant and potential anticancer drug noscapine and the antimicrobial agent sanguinarine. Opium poppy has served as a model system to investigate the biosynthesis of benzylisoquinoline alkaloids in plants. The application of biochemical and functional genomics has resulted in a recent surge in the discovery of biosynthetic genes involved in the formation of major benzylisoquinoline alkaloids in opium poppy. The availability of extensive biochemical genetic tools and information pertaining to benzylisoquinoline alkaloid metabolism is facilitating the study of a wide range of phenomena including the structural biology of novel catalysts, the genomic organization of biosynthetic genes, the cellular and sub-cellular localization of biosynthetic enzymes and a variety of biotechnological applications. In this review, we highlight recent developments and summarize the frontiers of knowledge regarding the biochemistry, cellular biology and biotechnology of benzylisoquinoline alkaloid biosynthesis in opium poppy.

  3. Opium poppy monitoring with remote sensing in North Myanmar.

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    Tian, Yichen; Wu, Bingfang; Zhang, Lei; Li, Qiangzi; Jia, Kun; Wen, Meiping

    2011-07-01

    Myanmar has long been a focus of the international community as a major opium poppy cultivation region. This study used remote sensing technology and ground verification to monitor opium poppy cultivation for three opium poppy growth seasons in North Myanmar. The study found that opium poppy cultivation has remained high. In 2005-6, 2006-7 and 2007-8 growing seasons the total areas monitored were 52,482 km(2), 178,274 km(2) and 236,342 km(2) and the total cultivated area of opium poppy was 8959 ha, 18,606 ha and 22,300, respectively. This was significantly less than cultivation levels reported during the 1990s. The major cultivation regions were located in Shan State, producing 88% of total poppy cultivation in North Myanmar in 2007-8. The opium poppy was mainly cultivated in the interlocking regions controlled by the local armed forces in Shan State. The field survey noted that most households in this area were poor and poppy cultivation was a main source of income. There were also differences between our figures on poppy cultivation and those reported by United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime. Our study shows that although the opium poppy cultivation in North Myanmar has reduced over recent years, it remains a major producer of opium and to which the international community needs to pay attention, especially in those areas controlled by local armed forces. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Utilization of opium poppy wastes as a fuel source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Demirbas, A.; Cengiz, M.; Yayli, N. (KT University, Akcaabat-Trabzon (Turkey). Educational Faculty)

    1994-01-01

    Air dried and ground opium poppy stalks suspended in water containing sodium carbonate catalysts have been completely converted into liquid fuels and water soluble- chemicals at 573[degree]K in a 0.1 liter autoclave. Extractives and oil properties obtained from stalks and poppy seed were studied. Major components of the oil were linoleic acid (60.2%) and oleic acid (22.3%). Alcohol-benzene extractives of the stalks were 28.8% while ether solubility was 7.5%. 15 refs., 6 tabs.

  5. In Silico Retrieving of Opium Poppy (Papaver Somniferum L. Microsatellites

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    Masárová Veronika

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Repetitive tandem sequences were retrieved within nucleotide sequences of opium poppy (Papaver somniferum L. genomic DNA available in the GenBank® database. Altogether 538 different microsatellites with the desired length characteristics of tandem repeats have been identified within 450 sequences of opium poppy DNA available in the database. The most frequented were mononucleotide repeats (246; nevertheless, 44 dinucleotide, 148 trinucleotide, 62 tetranucleotide, 28 pentanucleotide and 5 hexanucleotide tandem repeats have also been found. The most abundant were trinucleotide motifs (27.50%, and the most abundant motifs within each group of tandem repeats were TA/AT, TTC/GAA, GGTT/AACC and TTTTA/ TAAAA. Five hexanucleotide repeats contained four different motifs.

  6. Tyrosine aminotransferase contributes to benzylisoquinoline alkaloid biosynthesis in opium poppy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Eun-Jeong; Facchini, Peter J

    2011-11-01

    Tyrosine aminotransferase (TyrAT) catalyzes the transamination of L-Tyr and α-ketoglutarate, yielding 4-hydroxyphenylpyruvic acid and L-glutamate. The decarboxylation product of 4-hydroxyphenylpyruvic acid, 4-hydroxyphenylacetaldehyde, is a precursor to a large and diverse group of natural products known collectively as benzylisoquinoline alkaloids (BIAs). We have isolated and characterized a TyrAT cDNA from opium poppy (Papaver somniferum), which remains the only commercial source for several pharmaceutical BIAs, including codeine, morphine, and noscapine. TyrAT belongs to group I pyridoxal 5'-phosphate (PLP)-dependent enzymes wherein Schiff base formation occurs between PLP and a specific Lys residue. The amino acid sequence of TyrAT showed considerable homology to other putative plant TyrATs, although few of these have been functionally characterized. Purified, recombinant TyrAT displayed a molecular mass of approximately 46 kD and a substrate preference for L-Tyr and α-ketoglutarate, with apparent K(m) values of 1.82 and 0.35 mm, respectively. No specific requirement for PLP was detected in vitro. Liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry confirmed the conversion of L-Tyr to 4-hydroxyphenylpyruvate. TyrAT gene transcripts were most abundant in roots and stems of mature opium poppy plants. Virus-induced gene silencing was used to evaluate the contribution of TyrAT to BIA metabolism in opium poppy. TyrAT transcript levels were reduced by at least 80% in silenced plants compared with controls and showed a moderate reduction in total alkaloid content. The modest correlation between transcript levels and BIA accumulation in opium poppy supports a role for TyrAT in the generation of alkaloid precursors, but it also suggests the occurrence of other sources for 4-hydroxyphenylacetaldehyde.

  7. Degradation of morphine in opium poppy processing waste composting.

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    Wang, Yin Quan; Zhang, Jin Lin; Schuchardt, Frank; Wang, Yan

    2014-09-01

    To investigate morphine degradation and optimize turning frequency in opium poppy processing waste composting, a pilot scale windrow composting trial was run for 55 days. Four treatments were designed as without turning (A1), every 5 days turning (A2), every 10 days turning (A3) and every 15 days turning (A4). During composting, a range of physicochemical parameters including the residual morphine degradation, temperature, pH, and the contents of total C, total N, total P and total K were investigated. For all treatments, the residual morphine content decreased below the detection limit and reached the safety standards after day 30 of composting, the longest duration of high temperature (⩾50 °C) was observed in A3, pH increased 16.9-17.54%, total carbon content decreased 15.5-22.5%, C/N ratio reduced from 46 to 26, and the content of total phosphorus and total potassium increased slightly. The final compost obtained by a mixture of all four piles was up to 55.3% of organic matter, 3.3% of total nutrient (N, P2O5 and K2O) and 7.6 of pH. A turning frequency of every ten days for a windrow composting of opium poppy processing waste is recommended to produce homogenous compost. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Thebaine in hair as a marker for chronic use of illegal opium poppy substances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sooyeun; Park, Yonghoon; Han, Eunyoung; Choi, Hwakyung; Chung, Heesun; Oh, Seung Min; Chung, Kyu Hyuck

    2011-01-30

    Opium poppy products are often illegally used for both recreational and medicinal purposes. In order to demonstrate the ingestion of opium poppy substances, morphine, codeine and their metabolites have been identified. However, morphine and codeine also originate from the ingestion of therapeutic drugs. Therefore, thebaine, one of the main opium alkaloids, in hair was suggested as a marker for chronic use of illegal opium poppy substances in the present study. First, thebaine was included in the analyte list of our routine analytical method for the simultaneous quantification of codeine, morphine, norcodeine, normorphine and 6-acetylmorphine (6-AM) in hair, which was fully validated previously. Then, the incorporation of thebaine and other opiates into hair and the effect of hair pigmentation were examined using lean Zucker rats with both dark grey and white hair on the same body. Thebaine was also measured in hair samples from actual cases of opium poppy substance use. Consequently, thebaine in hair was demonstrated as a marker of chronic use of illegal opium poppy substances using an animal study and actual cases. Thebaine and other opiates were successfully measured in pigmented hair from rats that ingested raw opium suspension. Moreover, thebaine identified in hair excluded possibility of ingestion of pharmaceutical opiates in actual cases. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Debt and poppy cultivation : driving factors behind Afghan opium production

    OpenAIRE

    Willumsen, Fredrik Haldorsen

    2006-01-01

    In this master thesis I intend to study opium production in Afghanistan, and identify important drivers behind the opium production. The main aim is to test whether or not Afghan opium production is debt-induced. A claim often found in the literature on Afghan opium production is that the production of opium is debt–induced. In the first part of the thesis I provide a theoretical rationale for why this is the case, using a dynamic model of the cropping choice of a utility maximizing hou...

  10. The opium poppy as a symbol of sleep in Bertel Thorvaldsen's relief of 1815.

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    Tekiner, Halil; Kosar, Muberra

    2016-03-01

    Danish sculptor Bertel Thorvaldsen (1770-1844) is one of the most remarkable representatives of Neoclassicist sculptural art in Europe, which was largely inspired by the classical art and culture of Greek and Roman antiquity. A pair of marble reliefs, Night and Day, exhibited in the Thorvaldsen Museum (Copenhagen), marks the culmination of Thorvaldsen's relief art and is of particular interest to the history of sleep medicine. In the first relief, Night, an angel with her neck bent and eyes closed has two babies in her embrace and seems to be floating down in grief, with an owl hovering behind her. Her hair is also twined with opium poppies, the symbol of sleep and death in antiquity. Our findings suggest that this relief not only indicates a mythological association between the opium poppy and sleep but also has a strong connotation with the poppy's medicinal use for inducing sleep throughout the centuries. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. AFLP studies on downy-mildew-resistant and downy-mildew-susceptible genotypes of opium poppy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubey, Mukesh K; Shasany, Ajit K; Dhawan, Om P; Shukla, Ashutosh K; Khanuja, Suman P S

    2010-04-01

    Downy mildew (DM) caused by Peronospora arborescens, is a serious disease in opium poppy (Papaver somniferum), which has a world-wide spread. The establishment of DM-resistant cultivars appears to be a sustainable way to control the In this paper, we present the results of a study aimed at the identification of amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) markers for DM-resistance in opium poppy. Three opium poppy genotypes (inbred over about 10 years): Pps-1 (DM-resistant), Jawahar-16 (DM-susceptible) and H-9 (DM-susceptible) were crossed in a diallel manner and the F(1) progeny along with the parents were subjected to AFLP analysis of chloroplast (cp) and nuclear DNA with seven and nine EcoRI / MseI primer combinations, respectively. cpDNA AFLP analysis identified 24 Pps-1 (DM-resistant)-specific unique fragments that were found to be maternally inherited in both the crosses, Pps-1 x Jawahar-16 and Pps-1 x H-9. In the case of nuclear DNA AFLP analysis, it was found that 17 fragments inherited from Pps-1 were common to the reciprocal crosses of both (i) Pps-1 and Jawahar-16 as well as (ii) Pps-1 and H-9. This is the first molecular investigation on the identification of polymorphism between DM-resistant and DM-susceptible opium poppy genotypes and development of DM-resistant opium poppy genotypespecific AFLP markers. These AFLP markers could be used in future genetic studies for analysis of linkage to the downy mildew resistance trait.

  12. Tyrosine Aminotransferase Contributes to Benzylisoquinoline Alkaloid Biosynthesis in Opium Poppy1[W

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Eun-Jeong; Facchini, Peter J.

    2011-01-01

    Tyrosine aminotransferase (TyrAT) catalyzes the transamination of l-Tyr and α-ketoglutarate, yielding 4-hydroxyphenylpyruvic acid and l-glutamate. The decarboxylation product of 4-hydroxyphenylpyruvic acid, 4-hydroxyphenylacetaldehyde, is a precursor to a large and diverse group of natural products known collectively as benzylisoquinoline alkaloids (BIAs). We have isolated and characterized a TyrAT cDNA from opium poppy (Papaver somniferum), which remains the only commercial source for several pharmaceutical BIAs, including codeine, morphine, and noscapine. TyrAT belongs to group I pyridoxal 5′-phosphate (PLP)-dependent enzymes wherein Schiff base formation occurs between PLP and a specific Lys residue. The amino acid sequence of TyrAT showed considerable homology to other putative plant TyrATs, although few of these have been functionally characterized. Purified, recombinant TyrAT displayed a molecular mass of approximately 46 kD and a substrate preference for l-Tyr and α-ketoglutarate, with apparent Km values of 1.82 and 0.35 mm, respectively. No specific requirement for PLP was detected in vitro. Liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry confirmed the conversion of l-Tyr to 4-hydroxyphenylpyruvate. TyrAT gene transcripts were most abundant in roots and stems of mature opium poppy plants. Virus-induced gene silencing was used to evaluate the contribution of TyrAT to BIA metabolism in opium poppy. TyrAT transcript levels were reduced by at least 80% in silenced plants compared with controls and showed a moderate reduction in total alkaloid content. The modest correlation between transcript levels and BIA accumulation in opium poppy supports a role for TyrAT in the generation of alkaloid precursors, but it also suggests the occurrence of other sources for 4-hydroxyphenylacetaldehyde. PMID:21949209

  13. Stereochemical inversion of (S)-reticuline by a cytochrome P450 fusion in opium poppy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrow, Scott C; Hagel, Jillian M; Beaudoin, Guillaume A W; Burns, Darcy C; Facchini, Peter J

    2015-09-01

    The gateway to morphine biosynthesis in opium poppy (Papaver somniferum) is the stereochemical inversion of (S)-reticuline since the enzyme yielding the first committed intermediate salutaridine is specific for (R)-reticuline. A fusion between a cytochrome P450 (CYP) and an aldo-keto reductase (AKR) catalyzes the S-to-R epimerization of reticuline via 1,2-dehydroreticuline. The reticuline epimerase (REPI) fusion was detected in opium poppy and in Papaver bracteatum, which accumulates thebaine. In contrast, orthologs encoding independent CYP and AKR enzymes catalyzing the respective synthesis and reduction of 1,2-dehydroreticuline were isolated from Papaver rhoeas, which does not accumulate morphinan alkaloids. An ancestral relationship between these enzymes is supported by a conservation of introns in the gene fusions and independent orthologs. Suppression of REPI transcripts using virus-induced gene silencing in opium poppy reduced levels of (R)-reticuline and morphinan alkaloids and increased the overall abundance of (S)-reticuline and its O-methylated derivatives. Discovery of REPI completes the isolation of genes responsible for known steps of morphine biosynthesis.

  14. A Tale of Three Cell Types: Alkaloid Biosynthesis Is Localized to Sieve Elements in Opium Poppy

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    Bird, David A.; Franceschi, Vincent R.; Facchini, Peter J.

    2003-01-01

    Opium poppy produces a diverse array of pharmaceutical alkaloids, including the narcotic analgesics morphine and codeine. The benzylisoquinoline alkaloids of opium poppy accumulate in the cytoplasm, or latex, of specialized laticifers that accompany vascular tissues throughout the plant. However, immunofluorescence labeling using affinity-purified antibodies showed that three key enzymes, (S)-N-methylcoclaurine 3′-hydroxylase (CYP80B1), berberine bridge enzyme (BBE), and codeinone reductase (COR), involved in the biosynthesis of morphine and the related antimicrobial alkaloid sanguinarine, are restricted to the parietal region of sieve elements adjacent or proximal to laticifers. The localization of laticifers was demonstrated using antibodies specific to the major latex protein (MLP), which is characteristic of the cell type. In situ hybridization showed that CYP80B1, BBE, and COR gene transcripts were found in the companion cell paired with each sieve element, whereas MLP transcripts were restricted to laticifers. The biosynthesis and accumulation of alkaloids in opium poppy involves cell types not implicated previously in plant secondary metabolism and dramatically extends the function of sieve elements beyond the transport of solutes and information macromolecules in plants. PMID:14508000

  15. Pattern of quantitative inheritance of yield and component traits in opium poppy (Papaver somniferum L.

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    Maurya Krishna Nand

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Generation mean analysis of cross NB-5x58/1 and its reciprocal cross was carried out to understand the nature of gene action in opium poppy. The significance of A, B, C and D scaling tests indicated presence of non-allelic interaction in the inheritance of traits except capsule size and husk yield/plant for reciprocal cross. Additive as well as dominance components of gene action were found in both the crosses. Most of the traits had greater non fixable dominance ‘h’ and dominance x dominance effects ‘l’ than fixable additive (d and additive x additive effects (i except leaves/plant, branches/plant, capsules/plant, stem diameter, capsule weight/plant, husk yield/plant, opium yield/plant, codeine and narcotine content which showed greater importance of additive (d and additive x additive effects (i effects. Inter-mating of the best parents, diallel selective mating or biparental mating in early segregating generations followed by recurrent selections were suggested for genetic improvement of opium poppy.

  16. Inheritance of quantitative traits in opium poppy (Papaver somniferum L.

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    Yadav H.K.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Generation mean analysis was carried out using five parameter model on five cross combinations with five generations i.e. parents, F1s, F2s, and F3s randomly selected from partial diallel breeding experiment. The aim of study was to investigate the mode of gene actions involved in the inheritance of quantitative traits viz. days to 50% flowering, plant height, leaves/plant, capsules/plant, capsule size, capsule weight/plant, seed yield/plant and opium yield/plant. C and D scaling test showed the presence of non allelic interaction in the inheritance for all the traits except for plant height, seed yield/plant (ND1001xIS13 and capsule size (NBR5xND1002 which showed non interacting mode of inheritance. In general, the interaction effect together i.e. additive x additive [i] and dominance x dominance [l] found in higher magnitude than the combined main effects of additive [d] and dominance [h] effects for all the traits in all the five crosses. Dominance effect [h] was found pronounced for most of the traits except days to 50% flowering where additive effect [d] was found prevalent. Among the interaction effects dominance x dominance [l] was predominant over additive x additive [i] for all traits in all the five crosses except capsules/plant and capsule size in cross ND1001xNBRI11 and leaves/plant and opium yield/plant in cross NBRI5xND1002. As per sign of dominance (h and dominance x dominance (l duplicate epistasis were noticed for all the traits except plant height and leaves/plant in cross ND1001xUO1285. Potence ratio indicated presence of over dominance for almost all the traits. Substantial amount of realized heterosis, residual heterosis in F2 and F3 progenies and high heritability with moderate to high genetic advance in F2 progeny and significant correlation among important traits in desirable direction were observed. A breeding strategy of diallel selective mating or biparental mating in early segregating generation followed by recurrent

  17. Morphine Biosynthesis in Opium Poppy Involves Two Cell Types: Sieve Elements and Laticifers[W][OPEN

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    Onoyovwe, Akpevwe; Hagel, Jillian M.; Chen, Xue; Khan, Morgan F.; Schriemer, David C.; Facchini, Peter J.

    2013-01-01

    Immunofluorescence labeling and shotgun proteomics were used to establish the cell type–specific localization of morphine biosynthesis in opium poppy (Papaver somniferum). Polyclonal antibodies for each of six enzymes involved in converting (R)-reticuline to morphine detected corresponding antigens in sieve elements of the phloem, as described previously for all upstream enzymes transforming (S)-norcoclaurine to (S)-reticuline. Validated shotgun proteomics performed on whole-stem and latex total protein extracts generated 2031 and 830 distinct protein families, respectively. Proteins corresponding to nine morphine biosynthetic enzymes were represented in the whole stem, whereas only four of the final five pathway enzymes were detected in the latex. Salutaridine synthase was detected in the whole stem, but not in the latex subproteome. The final three enzymes converting thebaine to morphine were among the most abundant active latex proteins despite a limited occurrence in laticifers suggested by immunofluorescence labeling. Multiple charge isoforms of two key O-demethylases in the latex were revealed by two-dimensional immunoblot analysis. Salutaridine biosynthesis appears to occur only in sieve elements, whereas conversion of thebaine to morphine is predominant in adjacent laticifers, which contain morphine-rich latex. Complementary use of immunofluorescence labeling and shotgun proteomics has substantially resolved the cellular localization of morphine biosynthesis in opium poppy. PMID:24104569

  18. Short-chain dehydrogenase/reductase catalyzing the final step of noscapine biosynthesis is localized to laticifers in opium poppy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xue; Facchini, Peter J

    2014-01-01

    The final step in the biosynthesis of the phthalideisoquinoline alkaloid noscapine involves a purported dehydrogenation of the narcotinehemiacetal keto moiety. A short-chain dehydrogenase/reductase (SDR), designated noscapine synthase (NOS), that catalyzes dehydrogenation of narcotinehemiacetal to noscapine was identified in opium poppy and functionally characterized. The NOS gene was isolated using an integrated transcript and metabolite profiling strategy and subsequently expressed in Escherichia coli. Noscapine synthase is highly divergent from other characterized members of the NADPH-dependent SDR superfamily involved in benzylisoquinoline alkaloid metabolism, and it exhibits exclusive substrate specificity for narcotinehemiacetal. Kinetic analyses showed that NOS exhibits higher catalytic efficiency with NAD+ as the cofactor compared with NADP+. Suppression of NOS transcript levels in opium poppy plants subjected to virus-induced gene silencing resulted in a corresponding reduction in the accumulation of noscapine and an increase in narcotinehemiacetal levels in the latex. Noscapine and NOS transcripts were detected in all opium poppy organs, but both were most abundant in stems. Unlike other putative biosynthetic genes clustered in the opium poppy genome, and their corresponding proteins, NOS transcripts and the cognate enzyme were abundant in latex, indicating that noscapine metabolism is completed in a distinct cell type compared with the rest of the pathway.

  19. Genetic variability for different quantitative traits in M2 generations of opium poppy (Papaver somniferum L.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chatterjee, A.; Shukla, S.; Singh, S.P.

    2004-01-01

    An experiment on induced mutation in two varieties of opium poppy was laid out to create new genetic variability for isolation of high yielding genotypes. Varieties NBRI-1 and NBRI-5 were subjected to irradiation for five doses of gamma rays and NBRI-5 was also treated with four doses of EMS and 20 mixed doses of EMS plus gamma rays. The data were recorded on 15 plants/treatment for 10 polygenic characters as pooled in M1 and M2 generations separately as well as in each dose-wise in M2 population. The results indicated that GCV, heritability and genetic advance were higher in M1 than M2 in both the varieties for all the traits except for opium and seed yield. The genetic advance was consistently high for opium yield, seed yield and capsule weight in all the doses for both the varieties with some exception. The dose level of kR10 and kR30 in NBRI-1 revealed high GCV, heritability and genetic advance for seed weight. These treatment levels also had high values of all these three genetic parameters for capsules per plant, capsule size and capsule weight. The values of these three parameters were also high for all the doses in M2 generations of both the varieties for opium yield, seed weight, capsule weight and capsule size in comparison to control. The GCV, heritability and genetic advance were consistently high for all the mixed doses in NBRI-5 for opium yield, seed weight and capsule weight, with some exception [it

  20. People, Land and Poppy: the Political Ecology of Opium and the Historical Impact of Alternative Development in Northwest Thailand

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    Bobby Anderson

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Thailand’s near-total elimination of opium poppy cultivation is attributed to “alternative development” programming, which replaces illicit crops with licit ones. However, opium poppy cultivation was not drastically reduced because substitute crops earned the same income as opium: nothing can equal the price of opium to smallholder farmers, especially those without land tenure. Thailand’s reduction in poppy cultivation was achieved by the increased presence and surveillance capability of state security actors, who, year by year, were able to locate and destroy fields, and arrest cultivators, with increasing accuracy. This coercion was also accompanied by benefits to cultivators, including the provision of health and education services and the extension of roads; both stick and carrot constituted the encroachment of the Thai state. The provision of citizenship to hill tribe members also gave them a vested interest in the state, through their ability to hold land, access health care, education and work opportunities, amongst others. These initiatives did not occur without costs to hill tribe cultures for whom a symbiotic relationship with the land was and remains disrupted. These findings indicate that alternative development programming unlinked to broader state-building initiatives in Afghanistan, Myanmar and other opium poppy-producing areas will fail, because short-term, high-yield, high value, imperishable opium will remain the most logical choice for poor farmers, especially given the lack of a farmer’s vested interest in the state which compels them to reduce their income whilst offering them no other protections or services.

  1. Syncytes with premeiotic mitotic and cytomictic comportment in opium poppy (Papaver somniferum L.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patra, N.K.; Chauhan, S.P.; Srivastava, H.K.

    1987-01-01

    Variations in terms of mitosis at premeiotic stage and cytomixis in multiploid microsporocytes have been recorded in mutagen treated and untreated populations raised from an inbred line S4I30 of Papaver sominiferum L. (2n = 22). In premeiotic mitosis all the chromosomes in syncytes were found to align on a single metaphase plate and separate normally in anaphase. Ploidy levels in premeiotic syncytes varied considerably from 2N to 4N in control, from 2N to 6N in 5kR-M1 and 2N to 10N in combined dose (5kR + 0.6% EMS) M1. Specific heterochromatic chromosomes were observed to be involved in cytomictic events suggesting thereby that cytomixis is a genetically manoeuvred process for the generation of syncytes. The results have been discussed from the point of view that higher ploidy level coupled with less sterility in gametes may be instrumental for variation and evolution in opium poppy

  2. Crystallization and preliminary X-ray diffraction analysis of salutaridine reductase from the opium poppy Papaver somniferum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Higashi, Yasuhiro; Smith, Thomas J.; Jez, Joseph M.; Kutchan, Toni M.

    2010-01-01

    Recombinant P. somniferum salutaridine reductase (SalR) was purified and crystallized with NADPH using the hanging-drop vapor-diffusion method. Crystals of the SalR–NADPH complex diffracted X-rays to a resolution of 1.9 Å. The opium poppy Papaver somniferum is the source of the narcotic analgesics morphine and codeine. Salutaridine reductase (SalR; EC 1.1.1.248) reduces the C-7 keto group of salutaridine to the C-7 (S)-hydroxyl group of salutaridinol in the biosynthetic pathway that leads to morphine in the opium poppy plant. P. somniferum SalR was overproduced in Escherichia coli and purified using cobalt-affinity and size-exclusion chromatography. Hexagonal crystals belonging to space group P6 4 22 or P6 2 22 were obtained using ammonium sulfate as precipitant and diffracted to a resolution of 1.9 Å

  3. Characterization of a Flavoprotein Oxidase from Opium Poppy Catalyzing the Final Steps in Sanguinarine and Papaverine Biosynthesis*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagel, Jillian M.; Beaudoin, Guillaume A. W.; Fossati, Elena; Ekins, Andrew; Martin, Vincent J. J.; Facchini, Peter J.

    2012-01-01

    Benzylisoquinoline alkaloids are a diverse class of plant specialized metabolites that includes the analgesic morphine, the antimicrobials sanguinarine and berberine, and the vasodilator papaverine. The two-electron oxidation of dihydrosanguinarine catalyzed by dihydrobenzophenanthridine oxidase (DBOX) is the final step in sanguinarine biosynthesis. The formation of the fully conjugated ring system in sanguinarine is similar to the four-electron oxidations of (S)-canadine to berberine and (S)-tetrahydropapaverine to papaverine. We report the isolation and functional characterization of an opium poppy (Papaver somniferum) cDNA encoding DBOX, a flavoprotein oxidase with homology to (S)-tetrahydroprotoberberine oxidase and the berberine bridge enzyme. A query of translated opium poppy stem transcriptome databases using berberine bridge enzyme yielded several candidate genes, including an (S)-tetrahydroprotoberberine oxidase-like sequence selected for heterologous expression in Pichia pastoris. The recombinant enzyme preferentially catalyzed the oxidation of dihydrosanguinarine to sanguinarine but also converted (RS)-tetrahydropapaverine to papaverine and several protoberberine alkaloids to oxidized forms, including (RS)-canadine to berberine. The Km values of 201 and 146 μm for dihydrosanguinarine and the protoberberine alkaloid (S)-scoulerine, respectively, suggested high concentrations of these substrates in the plant. Virus-induced gene silencing to reduce DBOX transcript levels resulted in a corresponding reduction in sanguinarine, dihydrosanguinarine, and papaverine accumulation in opium poppy roots in support of DBOX as a multifunctional oxidative enzyme in BIA metabolism. PMID:23118227

  4. Characterization of a flavoprotein oxidase from opium poppy catalyzing the final steps in sanguinarine and papaverine biosynthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagel, Jillian M; Beaudoin, Guillaume A W; Fossati, Elena; Ekins, Andrew; Martin, Vincent J J; Facchini, Peter J

    2012-12-14

    Benzylisoquinoline alkaloids are a diverse class of plant specialized metabolites that includes the analgesic morphine, the antimicrobials sanguinarine and berberine, and the vasodilator papaverine. The two-electron oxidation of dihydrosanguinarine catalyzed by dihydrobenzophenanthridine oxidase (DBOX) is the final step in sanguinarine biosynthesis. The formation of the fully conjugated ring system in sanguinarine is similar to the four-electron oxidations of (S)-canadine to berberine and (S)-tetrahydropapaverine to papaverine. We report the isolation and functional characterization of an opium poppy (Papaver somniferum) cDNA encoding DBOX, a flavoprotein oxidase with homology to (S)-tetrahydroprotoberberine oxidase and the berberine bridge enzyme. A query of translated opium poppy stem transcriptome databases using berberine bridge enzyme yielded several candidate genes, including an (S)-tetrahydroprotoberberine oxidase-like sequence selected for heterologous expression in Pichia pastoris. The recombinant enzyme preferentially catalyzed the oxidation of dihydrosanguinarine to sanguinarine but also converted (RS)-tetrahydropapaverine to papaverine and several protoberberine alkaloids to oxidized forms, including (RS)-canadine to berberine. The K(m) values of 201 and 146 μm for dihydrosanguinarine and the protoberberine alkaloid (S)-scoulerine, respectively, suggested high concentrations of these substrates in the plant. Virus-induced gene silencing to reduce DBOX transcript levels resulted in a corresponding reduction in sanguinarine, dihydrosanguinarine, and papaverine accumulation in opium poppy roots in support of DBOX as a multifunctional oxidative enzyme in BIA metabolism.

  5. Detection of Verticillium wilt of olive trees and downy mildew of opium poppy using hyperspectral and thermal UAV imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calderón Madrid, Rocío; Navas Cortés, Juan Antonio; Montes Borrego, Miguel; Landa del Castillo, Blanca Beatriz; Lucena León, Carlos; Jesús Zarco Tejada, Pablo

    2014-05-01

    The present study explored the use of high-resolution thermal, multispectral and hyperspectral imagery as indicators of the infections caused by Verticillium wilt (VW) in olive trees and downy mildew (DM) in opium poppy fields. VW, caused by the soil-borne fungus Verticillium dahliae, and DM, caused by the biotrophic obligate oomycete Peronospora arborescens, are the most economically limiting diseases of olive trees and opium poppy, respectively, worldwide. V. dahliae infects the plant by the roots and colonizes its vascular system, blocking water flow and eventually inducing water stress. P. arborescens colonizes the mesophyll, appearing the first symptoms as small chlorotic leaf lesions, which can evolve to curled and thickened tissues and systemic infections that become deformed and necrotic as the disease develops. The work conducted to detect VW and DM infection consisted on the acquisition of time series of airborne thermal, multispectral and hyperspectral imagery using 2-m and 5-m wingspan electric Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) in spring and summer of three consecutive years (2009 to 2011) for VW detection and on three dates in spring of 2009 for DM detection. Two 7-ha commercial olive orchards naturally infected with V. dahliae and two opium poppy field plots artificially infected by P. arborescens were flown. Concurrently to the airborne campaigns, olive orchards and opium poppy fields were assessed "in situ" to assess actual VW severity and DM incidence. Furthermore, field measurements were conducted at leaf and crown level. The field results related to VW detection showed a significant increase in crown temperature (Tc) minus air temperature (Ta) and a decrease in leaf stomatal conductance (G) as VW severity increased. This reduction in G was associated with a significant increase in the Photochemical Reflectance Index (PRI570) and a decrease in chlorophyll fluorescence. DM asymptomatic leaves showed significantly higher NDVI and lower green/red index

  6. Atomic Structure of Salutaridine Reductase from the Opium Poppy (Papaver somniferum)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Higashi, Yasuhiro; Kutchan, Toni M.; Smith, Thomas J. (Danforth)

    2011-11-18

    The opium poppy (Papaver somniferum L.) is one of the oldest known medicinal plants. In the biosynthetic pathway for morphine and codeine, salutaridine is reduced to salutaridinol by salutaridine reductase (SalR; EC 1.1.1.248) using NADPH as coenzyme. Here, we report the atomic structure of SalR to a resolution of {approx}1.9 {angstrom} in the presence of NADPH. The core structure is highly homologous to other members of the short chain dehydrogenase/reductase family. The major difference is that the nicotinamide moiety and the substrate-binding pocket are covered by a loop (residues 265-279), on top of which lies a large 'flap'-like domain (residues 105-140). This configuration appears to be a combination of the two common structural themes found in other members of the short chain dehydrogenase/reductase family. Previous modeling studies suggested that substrate inhibition is due to mutually exclusive productive and nonproductive modes of substrate binding in the active site. This model was tested via site-directed mutagenesis, and a number of these mutations abrogated substrate inhibition. However, the atomic structure of SalR shows that these mutated residues are instead distributed over a wide area of the enzyme, and many are not in the active site. To explain how residues distal to the active site might affect catalysis, a model is presented whereby SalR may undergo significant conformational changes during catalytic turnover.

  7. Straightforward analytical method to determine opium alkaloids in poppy seeds and bakery products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López, Patricia; Pereboom-de Fauw, Diana P K H; Mulder, Patrick P J; Spanjer, Martien; de Stoppelaar, Joyce; Mol, Hans G J; de Nijs, Monique

    2018-03-01

    A straightforward method to determine the content of six opium alkaloids (morphine, codeine, thebaine, noscapine, papaverine and narceine) in poppy seeds and bakery products was developed and validated down to a limit of quantification (LOQ) of 0.1mg/kg. The method was based on extraction with acetonitrile/water/formic acid, ten-fold dilution and analysis by LC-MS/MS using a pH 10 carbonate buffer. The method was applied for the analysis of 41 samples collected in 2015 in the Netherlands and Germany. All samples contained morphine ranging from 0.2 to 240mg/kg. The levels of codeine and thebaine ranged from below LOQ to 348mg/kg and from below LOQ to 106mg/kg, respectively. Sixty percent of the samples exceeded the guidance reference value of 4mg/kg of morphine set by BfR in Germany, whereas 25% of the samples did not comply with the limits set for morphine, codeine, thebaine and noscapine by Hungarian legislation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Integration of deep transcriptome and proteome analyses reveals the components of alkaloid metabolism in opium poppy cell cultures

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    Schriemer David C

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Papaver somniferum (opium poppy is the source for several pharmaceutical benzylisoquinoline alkaloids including morphine, the codeine and sanguinarine. In response to treatment with a fungal elicitor, the biosynthesis and accumulation of sanguinarine is induced along with other plant defense responses in opium poppy cell cultures. The transcriptional induction of alkaloid metabolism in cultured cells provides an opportunity to identify components of this process via the integration of deep transcriptome and proteome databases generated using next-generation technologies. Results A cDNA library was prepared for opium poppy cell cultures treated with a fungal elicitor for 10 h. Using 454 GS-FLX Titanium pyrosequencing, 427,369 expressed sequence tags (ESTs with an average length of 462 bp were generated. Assembly of these sequences yielded 93,723 unigenes, of which 23,753 were assigned Gene Ontology annotations. Transcripts encoding all known sanguinarine biosynthetic enzymes were identified in the EST database, 5 of which were represented among the 50 most abundant transcripts. Liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS of total protein extracts from cell cultures treated with a fungal elicitor for 50 h facilitated the identification of 1,004 proteins. Proteins were fractionated by one-dimensional SDS-PAGE and digested with trypsin prior to LC-MS/MS analysis. Query of an opium poppy-specific EST database substantially enhanced peptide identification. Eight out of 10 known sanguinarine biosynthetic enzymes and many relevant primary metabolic enzymes were represented in the peptide database. Conclusions The integration of deep transcriptome and proteome analyses provides an effective platform to catalogue the components of secondary metabolism, and to identify genes encoding uncharacterized enzymes. The establishment of corresponding transcript and protein databases generated by next-generation technologies in a

  9. Integration of deep transcriptome and proteome analyses reveals the components of alkaloid metabolism in opium poppy cell cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desgagné-Penix, Isabel; Khan, Morgan F; Schriemer, David C; Cram, Dustin; Nowak, Jacek; Facchini, Peter J

    2010-11-18

    Papaver somniferum (opium poppy) is the source for several pharmaceutical benzylisoquinoline alkaloids including morphine, the codeine and sanguinarine. In response to treatment with a fungal elicitor, the biosynthesis and accumulation of sanguinarine is induced along with other plant defense responses in opium poppy cell cultures. The transcriptional induction of alkaloid metabolism in cultured cells provides an opportunity to identify components of this process via the integration of deep transcriptome and proteome databases generated using next-generation technologies. A cDNA library was prepared for opium poppy cell cultures treated with a fungal elicitor for 10 h. Using 454 GS-FLX Titanium pyrosequencing, 427,369 expressed sequence tags (ESTs) with an average length of 462 bp were generated. Assembly of these sequences yielded 93,723 unigenes, of which 23,753 were assigned Gene Ontology annotations. Transcripts encoding all known sanguinarine biosynthetic enzymes were identified in the EST database, 5 of which were represented among the 50 most abundant transcripts. Liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) of total protein extracts from cell cultures treated with a fungal elicitor for 50 h facilitated the identification of 1,004 proteins. Proteins were fractionated by one-dimensional SDS-PAGE and digested with trypsin prior to LC-MS/MS analysis. Query of an opium poppy-specific EST database substantially enhanced peptide identification. Eight out of 10 known sanguinarine biosynthetic enzymes and many relevant primary metabolic enzymes were represented in the peptide database. The integration of deep transcriptome and proteome analyses provides an effective platform to catalogue the components of secondary metabolism, and to identify genes encoding uncharacterized enzymes. The establishment of corresponding transcript and protein databases generated by next-generation technologies in a system with a well-defined metabolite profile facilitates

  10. Uncoupled defense gene expression and antimicrobial alkaloid accumulation in elicited opium poppy cell cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Facchini, P J; Johnson, A G; Poupart, J; de Luca, V

    1996-01-01

    Treatment of opium poppy (Papaver somniferum L.) cell cultures with autoclaved mycelial homogenates of Botrytis sp. resulted in the accumulation of sanguinarine. Elicitor treatment also caused a rapid and transient induction in the activity of tyrosine/dopa decarboxylase (TYDC, EC 4.1.1.25), which catalyzes the conversion of L-tyrosine and L-dopa to tyramine and dopamine, respectively, the first steps in sanguinarine biosynthesis. TYDC genes were differentially expressed in response to elicitor treatment. TYDC1-like mRNA levels were induced rapidly but declined to near baseline levels within 5 h. In contrast, TYDC2-like transcript levels increased more slowly but were sustained for an extended period. Induction of TYDC mRNAs preceded that of phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL, EC 4.3.1.5) mRNAs. An elicitor preparation from Pythium aphanidermatum was less effective in the induction of TYDC mRNA levels and alkaloid accumulation; however, both elicitors equally induced accumulation of PAL transcripts. In contrast, treatment with methyl jasmonate resulted in an induction of TYDC but not PAL mRNAs. The calmodulin antagonist N-(6-aminohexyl)-5-chloro-1-naphthalenesulfonamide and the protein kinase inhibitor staurosporine partially blocked the fungal elicitor-induced accumulation of sanguinarine. However, only staurosporine and okadaic acid, an inhibitor of protein phosphatases 1 and 2A, blocked the induction of TYDC1-like transcript levels, but they did not block the induction of TYDC2-like or PAL transcript levels. These data suggest that activation mechanisms for PAL, TYDC, and some later sanguinarine biosynthetic enzymes are uncoupled. PMID:8754678

  11. Dioxygenases Catalyze O-Demethylation and O,O-Demethylenation with Widespread Roles in Benzylisoquinoline Alkaloid Metabolism in Opium Poppy*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrow, Scott C.; Facchini, Peter J.

    2013-01-01

    In opium poppy, the antepenultimate and final steps in morphine biosynthesis are catalyzed by the 2-oxoglutarate/Fe(II)-dependent dioxygenases, thebaine 6-O-demethylase (T6ODM) and codeine O-demethylase (CODM). Further investigation into the biochemical functions of CODM and T6ODM revealed extensive and unexpected roles for such enzymes in the metabolism of protopine, benzo[c]phenanthridine, and rhoeadine alkaloids. When assayed with a wide range of benzylisoquinoline alkaloids, CODM, T6ODM, and the functionally unassigned paralog DIOX2, renamed protopine O-dealkylase, showed novel and efficient dealkylation activities, including regio- and substrate-specific O-demethylation and O,O-demethylenation. Enzymes catalyzing O,O-demethylenation, which cleave a methylenedioxy bridge leaving two hydroxyl groups, have previously not been reported in plants. Similar cleavage of methylenedioxy bridges on substituted amphetamines is catalyzed by heme-dependent cytochromes P450 in mammals. Preferred substrates for O,O-demethylenation by CODM and protopine O-dealkylase were protopine alkaloids that serve as intermediates in the biosynthesis of benzo[c]phenanthridine and rhoeadine derivatives. Virus-induced gene silencing used to suppress the abundance of CODM and/or T6ODM transcripts indicated a direct physiological role for these enzymes in the metabolism of protopine alkaloids, and they revealed their indirect involvement in the formation of the antimicrobial benzo[c]phenanthridine sanguinarine and certain rhoeadine alkaloids in opium poppy. PMID:23928311

  12. Dioxygenases catalyze O-demethylation and O,O-demethylenation with widespread roles in benzylisoquinoline alkaloid metabolism in opium poppy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrow, Scott C; Facchini, Peter J

    2013-10-04

    In opium poppy, the antepenultimate and final steps in morphine biosynthesis are catalyzed by the 2-oxoglutarate/Fe(II)-dependent dioxygenases, thebaine 6-O-demethylase (T6ODM) and codeine O-demethylase (CODM). Further investigation into the biochemical functions of CODM and T6ODM revealed extensive and unexpected roles for such enzymes in the metabolism of protopine, benzo[c]phenanthridine, and rhoeadine alkaloids. When assayed with a wide range of benzylisoquinoline alkaloids, CODM, T6ODM, and the functionally unassigned paralog DIOX2, renamed protopine O-dealkylase, showed novel and efficient dealkylation activities, including regio- and substrate-specific O-demethylation and O,O-demethylenation. Enzymes catalyzing O,O-demethylenation, which cleave a methylenedioxy bridge leaving two hydroxyl groups, have previously not been reported in plants. Similar cleavage of methylenedioxy bridges on substituted amphetamines is catalyzed by heme-dependent cytochromes P450 in mammals. Preferred substrates for O,O-demethylenation by CODM and protopine O-dealkylase were protopine alkaloids that serve as intermediates in the biosynthesis of benzo[c]phenanthridine and rhoeadine derivatives. Virus-induced gene silencing used to suppress the abundance of CODM and/or T6ODM transcripts indicated a direct physiological role for these enzymes in the metabolism of protopine alkaloids, and they revealed their indirect involvement in the formation of the antimicrobial benzo[c]phenanthridine sanguinarine and certain rhoeadine alkaloids in opium poppy.

  13. The Environmental footprint of morphine: a life cycle assessment from opium poppy farming to the packaged drug.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAlister, Scott; Ou, Yanjun; Neff, Elise; Hapgood, Karen; Story, David; Mealey, Philip; McGain, Forbes

    2016-10-21

    To examine the environmental life cycle from poppy farming through to production of 100 mg in 100 mL of intravenous morphine (standard infusion bag). 'Cradle-to-grave' process-based life cycle assessment (observational). Australian opium poppy farms, and facilities for pelletising, manufacturing morphine, and sterilising and packaging bags of morphine. The environmental effects (eg, CO 2 equivalent ('CO 2 e') emissions and water use) of producing 100 mg of morphine. All aspects of morphine production from poppy farming, pelletising, bulk morphine manufacture through to final formulation. Industry-sourced and inventory-sourced databases were used for most inputs. Morphine sulfate (100 mg in 100 mL) had a climate change effect of 204 g CO 2 e (95% CI 189 to 280 g CO 2 e), approximating the CO 2 e emissions of driving an average car 1 km. Water use was 7.8 L (95% CI 6.7- to 9.0 L), primarily stemming from farming (6.7 L). All other environmental effects were minor and several orders of magnitude less than CO 2 e emissions and water use. Almost 90% of CO 2 e emissions occurred during the final stages of 100 mg of morphine manufacture. Morphine's packaging contributed 95 g CO 2 e, which accounted for 46% of the total CO 2 e (95% CI 82 to 155 g CO 2 e). Mixing, filling and sterilisation of 100 mg morphine bags added a further 86 g CO 2 e, which accounted for 42% (95% CI 80 to 92 g CO 2 e). Poppy farming (6 g CO 2 e, 3%), pelletising and manufacturing (18 g CO 2 e, 9%) made smaller contributions to CO 2 emissions. The environmental effects of growing opium poppies and manufacturing bulk morphine were small. The final stages of morphine production, particularly sterilisation and packaging, contributed to almost 90% of morphine's carbon footprint. Focused measures to improve the energy efficiency and sources for drug sterilisation and packaging could be explored as these are relevant to all drugs. Comparisons of the environmental

  14. Combining ability of opium poppy genotypes over F1 and F2 generations of 8x8 diallel cross

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hemant Kumar Yadav

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Combining abilities for yield, its component traits and morphine content were examined in opium poppy tounderstand the inheritance pattern of these traits, and to identify genotypes suitable for genetic improvement of yield andmorphine content. The experiment comprising a total of 64 treatments (28 F1+28 F2 and 8 parents was evaluated in RBD. Theresults showed that most of the traits are governed by non additive gene action however additive gene action is also important.The parents BR-232, BR-245, BR-234 were found to be good general combiners for yield and its related traits and can beutilized in multiple breeding programs. SCA effects in relation to GCA effects of parents showed that most of the crosscombinations with high SCA effects involved high x high, high x low and low x low GCA combiners.

  15. Detection of a true breeding homeotic gene mutant Pps-1 with partially petaloid sepals in opium poppy (Papaver somniferum L.) and its genetic behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhawan, Om Prakash; Dubey, Mukesh Kumar; Khanuja, Suman Preet Singh

    2007-01-01

    A spontaneous true breeding homeotic gene mutant Pps-1 with distinct partial petaloid sepals was detected in the population of downy mildew (DM)-resistant elite accession I-14 during our studies for the identification of disease resistance sources in opium poppy. The trait was found to be stable and inherited truly in the subsequent generations. Genetic studies were carried out through systematic reciprocal crosses with the parental wild-type genotype I-14, and segregation pattern of phenotypic characteristics in F(1) and F(2) populations clearly indicated single recessive nuclear gene control of the mutant character. The studies have demonstrated that the mutant phenotype is due to mutations at the Pps-1 locus that possibly corresponds to B-class function (according to ABC model) with negative control function. The mutant Pps-1 being single-whorl homeotic mutant might greatly help in providing insight into mechanisms of flower development in opium poppy.

  16. Quantitative 1H NMR metabolomics reveals extensive metabolic reprogramming of primary and secondary metabolism in elicitor-treated opium poppy cell cultures

    OpenAIRE

    Zulak, Katherine G; Weljie, Aalim M; Vogel, Hans J; Facchini, Peter J

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Background Opium poppy (Papaver somniferum) produces a diverse array of bioactive benzylisoquinoline alkaloids and has emerged as a model system to study plant alkaloid metabolism. The plant is cultivated as the only commercial source of the narcotic analgesics morphine and codeine, but also produces many other alkaloids including the antimicrobial agent sanguinarine. Modulations in plant secondary metabolism as a result of environmental perturbations are often associated with the al...

  17. Short communication: Local infection of opium poppy leaves by Peronospora somniferi sporangia can give rise to systemic infections and seed infection in resistant cultivars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Montes-Borrego

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Downy mildew (DM of opium poppy (Papaver somniferum caused by Peronospora somniferi is one of the most destructive diseases of this crop due to the systemic nature of infection as compared with local infections caused by Peronospora meconopsidis, the other downy mildew pathogen of this crop. We developed an inoculation method using Peronospora somniferi sporangia as inoculum and demonstrated for the first time that local infection of leaves by sporangia give rise to systemic infections in the plant as well as of seeds. Our results also showed that this inoculation protocol was very effective in reproducing disease symptoms and assessing the resistance response to DM in opium poppy genotypes under field conditions. More interestingly, results indicate that up to 100% of seed samples from some genotypes showing a complete (symptomless resistant phenotype were infected by the pathogen when seeds were analyzed by a P. somniferi-specific nested-PCR protocol. This latter aspect deserves further attention while breeding opium poppy for resistance to P. somniferi.

  18. Quantitative 1H NMR metabolomics reveals extensive metabolic reprogramming of primary and secondary metabolism in elicitor-treated opium poppy cell cultures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vogel Hans J

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Opium poppy (Papaver somniferum produces a diverse array of bioactive benzylisoquinoline alkaloids and has emerged as a model system to study plant alkaloid metabolism. The plant is cultivated as the only commercial source of the narcotic analgesics morphine and codeine, but also produces many other alkaloids including the antimicrobial agent sanguinarine. Modulations in plant secondary metabolism as a result of environmental perturbations are often associated with the altered regulation of other metabolic pathways. As a key component of our functional genomics platform for opium poppy we have used proton nuclear magnetic resonance (1H NMR metabolomics to investigate the interplay between primary and secondary metabolism in cultured opium poppy cells treated with a fungal elicitor. Results Metabolite fingerprinting and compound-specific profiling showed the extensive reprogramming of primary metabolic pathways in association with the induction of alkaloid biosynthesis in response to elicitor treatment. Using Chenomx NMR Suite v. 4.6, a software package capable of identifying and quantifying individual compounds based on their respective signature spectra, the levels of 42 diverse metabolites were monitored over a 100-hour time course in control and elicitor-treated opium poppy cell cultures. Overall, detectable and dynamic changes in the metabolome of elicitor-treated cells, especially in cellular pools of carbohydrates, organic acids and non-protein amino acids were detected within 5 hours after elicitor treatment. The metabolome of control cultures also showed substantial modulations 80 hours after the start of the time course, particularly in the levels of amino acids and phospholipid pathway intermediates. Specific flux modulations were detected throughout primary metabolism, including glycolysis, the tricarboxylic acid cycle, nitrogen assimilation, phospholipid/fatty acid synthesis and the shikimate pathway, all of which

  19. Gene actions for yield and its attributes and their implications in the inheritance pattern over three generations in opium poppy (Papaver somniferum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Brij K; Mishra, R; Jena, S N; Shukla, Sudhir

    2016-09-01

    The gene actions for yield and its attributes and their inheritance pattern based on five parameter model have been explored in four single crosses (NBIHT-5 × NBIHT-6, NBIHT-5 × NBMHT-1, NBMHT-1 × NBIHT-6 and NBMHT-2 × NBMHT-1) obtained using thebaine rich pure lines of opium poppy (Papaver somniferum L.) for three consecutive generations. All the traits showed nonallelic mode of interaction, however, dominance effect (h) was more pronounced for all the traits except thebaine and papaverine. The dominance × dominance (l) effects were predominant over additive × additive (i) for all traits in all the four crosses except for papaverine. The seed and opium yield, and its contributing traits inherited quantitatively. The fixable gene effects (d) and (i) were lower in magnitude than nonfixable (h) and (l) gene effects. The estimates of heterosis were also higher in comparison to the respective parents which suggested preponderance of dominance gene action for controlling most of the traits. The phenotypic coefficient of variation was marginally higher than those of genotypic coefficient of variation for all the traits. The traits thebaine, narcotine, morphine and opium yield had high heritability coupled with high genetic advance. The leaf number, branches per plant and stem diameter showed positive correlation with opium and seed yields. The selection of plants having large number of leaves, branches and capsules with bigger size would be advantageous to enhance the yield potential.

  20. Isolation and characterization of a cDNA encoding (S)-cis-N-methylstylopine 14-hydroxylase from opium poppy, a key enzyme in sanguinarine biosynthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaudoin, Guillaume A W; Facchini, Peter J

    2013-02-15

    Sanguinarine is a benzo[c]phenenthridine alkaloid with potent antimicrobial properties found commonly in plants of the Papaveraceae, including the roots of opium poppy (Papaver somniferum). Sanguinarine is formed from the central 1-benzylisoquinoline intermediate (S)-reticuline via the protoberberine alkaloid (S)-scoulerine, which undergoes five enzymatic oxidations and an N-methylation. The first four oxidations from (S)-scoulerine are catalyzed by cytochromes P450, whereas the final conversion involves a flavoprotein oxidase. All but one gene in the biosynthetic pathway from (S)-reticuline to sanguinarine has been identified. In this communication, we report the isolation and characterization of (S)-cis-N-methylstylopine 14-hydroxylase (MSH) from opium poppy based on the transcriptional induction in elicitor-treated cell suspension cultures and root-specific expression of the corresponding gene. Along with protopine 6-hydroxylase, which catalyzes the subsequent and penultimate step in sanguinarine biosynthesis, MSH is a member of the CYP82N subfamily of cytochromes P450. The full-length MSH cDNA was expressed in Saccharomyces cerevisiae and the recombinant microsomal protein was tested for enzymatic activity using 25 benzylisoquinoline alkaloids representing a wide range of structural subgroups. The only enzymatic substrates were the N-methylated protoberberine alkaloids N-methylstylopine and N-methylcanadine, which were converted to protopine and allocryptopine, respectively. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  1. A nested-polymerase chain reaction protocol for detection and population biology studies of Peronospora arborescens, the downy mildew pathogen of opium poppy, using herbarium specimens and asymptomatic, fresh plant tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montes-Borrego, Miguel; Muñoz Ledesma, Francisco J; Jiménez-Díaz, Rafael M; Landa, Blanca B

    2009-01-01

    A sensitive nested-polymerase chain reaction (PCR) protocol was developed using either of two primer pairs that improves the in planta detection of Peronospora arborescens DNA. The new protocol represented an increase in sensitivity of 100- to 1,000-fold of detection of the oomycete in opium poppy tissue compared with the detection limit of single PCR using the same primer pairs. The new protocol allowed amplification of 5 to 0.5 fg of Peronospora arborescens DNA mixed with Papaver somniferum DNA. The protocol proved useful for amplifying Peronospora arborescens DNA from 96-year-old herbarium specimens of Papaver spp. and to demonstrate that asymptomatic, systemic infections by Peronospora arborescens can occur in wild Papaver spp. as well as in cultivated opium poppy. Also, the increase in sensitivity of the protocol made possible the detection of seedborne Peronospora arborescens in commercial opium poppy seed stocks in Spain with a high frequency, which poses a threat for pathogen spread. Direct sequencing of purified amplicons allowed alignment of a Peronospora arborescens internal transcribed spacer (ITS) ribosomal DNA (rDNA) sequence up to 730-bp long when combining the sequences obtained with the two primer sets. Maximum parsimony analysis of amplified Peronospora arborescens ITS rDNA sequences from specimens of Papaver dubium, P. hybridum, P. rhoeas, and P. somniferum from different countries indicated for the first time that a degree of host specificity may exist within populations of Peronospora arborescens. The reported protocol will be useful for epidemiological and biogeographical studies of downy mildew diseases as well as to unravel misclassification of Peronospora arborescens and Peronospora cristata, the reported causal agents of the opium poppy downy mildew disease.

  2. Disentangling Peronospora on Papaver: Phylogenetics, Taxonomy, Nomenclature and Host Range of Downy Mildew of Opium Poppy (Papaver somniferum) and Related Species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voglmayr, Hermann; Montes-Borrego, Miguel; Landa, Blanca B.

    2014-01-01

    Based on sequence data from ITS rDNA, cox1 and cox2, six Peronospora species are recognised as phylogenetically distinct on various Papaver species. The host ranges of the four already described species P. arborescens, P. argemones, P. cristata and P. meconopsidis are clarified. Based on sequence data and morphology, two new species, P. apula and P. somniferi, are described from Papaver apulum and P. somniferum, respectively. The second Peronospora species parasitizing Papaver somniferum, that was only recently recorded as Peronospora cristata from Tasmania, is shown to represent a distinct taxon, P. meconopsidis, originally described from Meconopsis cambrica. It is shown that P. meconopsidis on Papaver somniferum is also present and widespread in Europe and Asia, but has been overlooked due to confusion with P. somniferi and due to less prominent, localized disease symptoms. Oospores are reported for the first time for P. meconopsidis from Asian collections on Papaver somniferum. Morphological descriptions, illustrations and a key are provided for all described Peronospora species on Papaver. cox1 and cox2 sequence data are confirmed as equally good barcoding loci for reliable Peronospora species identification, whereas ITS rDNA does sometimes not resolve species boundaries. Molecular phylogenetic data reveal high host specificity of Peronospora on Papaver, which has the important phytopathological implication that wild Papaver spp. cannot play any role as primary inoculum source for downy mildew epidemics in cultivated opium poppy crops. PMID:24806292

  3. Simulating the Afghanistan-Pakistan opium supply chain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watkins, Jennifer H [Los Alamos National Laboratory; MacKerrow, Edward P [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Merritt, Terence M [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2010-04-08

    This paper outlines an opium supply chain using the Hilmand province of Afghanistan as exemplar. The opium supply chain model follows the transformation of opium poppy seed through cultivation and chemical alteration to brown heroin base. The purpose of modeling and simulating the Afghanistan-Pakistan opium supply chain is to discover and test strategies that will disrupt this criminal enterprise.

  4. Radiosensitivity of opium poppy (Papaver somniferum L.) and morphine content in the dry capsules of M1 as influenced by Cs137 gamma irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Popov, P.; Dimitrov, J.; Georgiev, S.; Deneva, T.

    1974-01-01

    Seeds of the poppy (Papaver somniferum L.) varieties P-360, S-188 and S-230 of ssp.turcicum, Novinka 198, Hatvani and Morfin mak of ssp.eurasiaticum were irradiated with Cs 137 gamma-ray doses of 5, 10, 15, 20, 25, 30, 35 and 40 krad at a dose-rate of 16 rad/min. The irradiated seeds were sown in the autumn of 1969 under field conditions and observed in M 1 . The following conclusions are made: (1) The lethal dose differs according to the individual poppy varieties. It is found to be above 40 krad for the varieties P-360 and S-188, 35 krad for Novinka 198 and 30 krad for S-230, Hatvani and Morfin mak. (2) In the M 1 generation the morphine content in the dry capsules shows a large variation depending on the variety and the irradiation dosis. (3) Irradiation-induced rise of the morphine content in the dry capsules of M 1 is higher in the varieties of ssp.turcicum than in the varieties of ssp.eurasiaticum. (M.Ts.)

  5. The Role of Narcotics (Opium) in the Local Economy of Afghanistan

    OpenAIRE

    Sajjad, Ahmed

    2011-01-01

    This study illustrates the role of narcotics (opium) in the local economy of Afghanistan, a landlocked country, stricken by decades of conflict, and prolonged periods of drought. However, poppy (opium) cultivation is a major strategy for as much as 10% of the rural population. Thus, Afghanistan has re-emerged as one of the largest poppy (opium 90%) producers in the world following the fall of the Taliban in 2001. In 2004, the narcotics economy equaled more than half of Afghanistan's Gross Dom...

  6. Counterproductive counternarcotic strategies? A study of the effects of opium eradication in the presence of imperfect capital markets and sharecropping arrangements

    OpenAIRE

    Andersson, Camilla

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, we model the economic incentives surrounding opium crop production at farm level in Afghanistan. Specifically, we examine the impact of eradication policies when opium is used as a means of obtaining credit, and when the crops are produced in sharecropping arrangements. The theoretical analysis suggests that when perfect credit markets are available, an increased risk of having the opium poppy eradicated will lead to less land being allocated to opium poppy. Thus, with perfect ...

  7. An interesting case of opium tea toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seyani, Chitsa; Green, Peregrine; Daniel, Lisa; Pegden, Amanda

    2017-04-28

    We present an unusual cause of respiratory arrest resulting from sole ingestion of home-brewed opium tea. A 64-year-old woman was found unresponsive and in respiratory arrest by a first responder. There were no obvious signs of regular recreational drug use. On presentation to the local district general hospital, the patient was in extremis, with severe physiological and biochemical derangements. A naloxone infusion was commenced and she later made a good recovery. It was subsequently discovered that she had brewed opium tea from opium buds she had picked from a nearby commercial poppy farm, a practice she had learnt while in Afghanistan. © BMJ Publishing Group Ltd (unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  8. Death in a legal poppy field in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez, María Antonia; Ballesteros, Salomé; Almarza, Elena; Garijo, Joaquín

    2016-08-01

    Opium is a substance extracted from Papaver somniferum L. Opium latex contains morphine, codeine, and thebaine and non-analgesic alkaloids such as papaverine and noscapine. In Spain opium growing is allowed only for scientific or pharmaceutical purposes and harvest is supervised by the Spanish Health Ministry. This work describes a sudden fatality involving opium consumption in a legal poppy field. The toxicological and autopsy findings, previous disease, paraphernalia, and scenario are discussed in order to clarify cause and manner of death. A 32-year-old white caucasian male was found unresponsive in a legal poppy field in the South of Spain. The emergency medical services responded to the scene where he was pronounced dead. The friends explained that the deceased had presented with about 30min of convulsions; in spite of trying to keep his airway tract open they noted that "he stayed airless". According to them the victim suffered from epilepsy. Tools found beside his body consisted of plain wood sticks with a blade razor, a fabric handle, and paper. A comprehensive toxicological screening for abuse and psychoactive drugs was performed in the deceased samples. This included ethanol and volatile analysis by HS-GC-FID in peripheral blood and urine, enzyme immunoassay in urine by CEDIA, and a basic drug screening in all samples (including paraphernalia) by GC-MS using modes full scan for screening/confirmation and selected ion monitoring for quantitation. The peripheral blood, urine, vitreous, and gastric content contained the following concentrations of opiates expressed in mg/L (gastric content additionally also expressed in mg total): 0.10, 7.12, 0.23, and 14.80 (2.81mg total) of thebaine, 0.13, 4.50, 0.13, and 6.60 (1.25mg total) of morphine (free), 0.48, 0.88, 0.17, and 1.50 (0.28mg total) of codeine. These tree opiates were also detected in the tools (paraphernalia) used by the deceased for opium consumption. Other toxicological findings were metabolites of

  9. PYRAMIDS AND POPPIES

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Flying. Cheetahs is recommended to those potential readers who do not have ready access to the original thesis. Major I.J. van der Waag, Documenta- tion Service, Private Bag X289, Pretoria. 0001. PYRAMIDS AND POPPIES. The 1st SA Infantry Brigade in Libya,. France and Flanders. 1915-1919. Peter K.A. Digby. 1993.

  10. Lethal Lullabies: A History of Opium Use in Infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obladen, Michael

    2016-02-01

    Poppy extract accompanied the human infant for more than 3 millenia. Motives for its use included excessive crying, suspected pain, and diarrhea. In antiquity, infantile sleeplessness was regarded as a disease. When treatment with opium was recommended by Galen, Rhazes, and Avicenna, baby sedation made its way into early medical treatises and pediatric instructions. Dabbing maternal nipples with bitter substances and drugging the infant with opium were used to hasten weaning. A freerider of gum lancing, opiates joined the treatment of difficult teething in the 17th century. Foundling hospitals and wet-nurses used them extensively. With industrialization, private use was rampant among the working class. In German-speaking countries, poppy extracts were administered in soups and pacifiers. In English-speaking countries, proprietary drugs containing opium were marketed under names such as soothers, nostrums, anodynes, cordials, preservatives, and specifics and sold at the doorstep or in grocery stores. Opium's toxicity for infants was common knowledge; thousands of cases of lethal intoxication had been reported from antiquity. What is remarkable is that the willingness to use it in infants persisted and that physicians continued to prescribe it for babies. Unregulated trade, and even that protected by governments, led to greatly increased private use of opiates during the 19th century. Intoxication became a significant factor in infant mortality. As late as 1912, the International Hague Convention forced governments to implement legislation that effectively curtailed access to opium and broke the dangerous habit of sedating infants. © The Author(s) 2015.

  11. The Opium Wars, Opium Legalization, and Opium Consumption in China

    OpenAIRE

    Jeffrey A. Miron; Chris Feige

    2005-01-01

    The effect of drug prohibition on drug consumption is a critical issue in debates over drug policy. One episode that provides information on the consumption-reducing effect of drug prohibition is the Chinese legalization of opium in 1858. In this paper we examine the impact of China's opium legalization on the quantity and price of British opium exports from India to China during the 19th century. We find little evidence that legalization increased exports or decreased price. Thus, the eviden...

  12. Poppies or Peace: The Relationship between Opium Production and Conflict

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-08

    Diplomacy and the United States Holocaust Memorial Museum convened the Genocide Prevention Task force as a joint effort. The Task Force aimed “to spotlight...population and its resources like a strategic enemy resource in a military conflict. Article 54 prohibits destruction, removal, spoiling or denial of...their systematic annihilation of the Jews during the Holocaust . BBC, Analysis: Defining genocide, BBC World News Online, http://www.bbc.co.uk/news

  13. Opium Field Detection in South Oxfordshire Using SAR Polarimetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Nick; Marino, Armando

    2011-03-01

    To-date the use of satellite imagery to monitor the growth of illicit crops such as marijuana, opium and coca has mostly been conducted using optical frequencies. However, it is well known that while optical imagery can be hampered by localised aerosols such as thin clouds, cirrus, haze and smoke, these do not present a problem for Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR). In recent years a new generation of satellite borne sensors have also been equipped with enhanced polarimetric capabilities, which can potentially help with detecting and classifying different terrain types. For these reasons we believe it is useful to consider whether high resolution polarimetric SAR data can be applied to illicit crop detection.In this paper we present the results of an experiment whereby opium poppy fields were successfully detected in the south Oxfordshire region in the UK using RadarSat-2 quad-polarisation imagery. It should be noted that these crops are not being grown illicitly but instead are being cultivated for medicinal reasons in parts of the UK. It is interesting to note that the poppies cultivated for opium in the UK have white flowers rather than the more familiar red as can be seen from the photograph in Figure 1, which was taken 11 days earlier in the season compared to Figure 4 and Figure 5.

  14. Was opium known in 18th dynasty ancient Egypt? An examination of materials from the tomb of the chief royal architect Kha.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bisset, N G; Bruhn, J G; Curto, S; Holmstedt, B; Nyman, U; Zenk, M H

    1994-01-01

    Examination by microscopy, thin-layer chromatography, gas-liquid chromatography alone and combined with mass spectrometry, and radioimmunoassay methods of materials from the tomb of the ancient Egyptian chief royal architect Kha, who is believed to have died about 1405 BC, has shown that there is no morphine--and hence no opium--present. This finding casts doubt on the results of an earlier analysis. Tropane alkaloids are likewise absent. The significance of the present findings for the history of the opium poppy, Papaver somniferum L., in the eastern Mediterranean region is discussed. Evidence (chemical, botanical, artefactual, and linguistic) for the supposed presence of the opium poppy and opium in Egypt in the Late Bronze Age is briefly reviewed. These considerations and the negative outcome of the present analyses mean that the earlier reported finding can no longer be accepted as evidence.

  15. Literary investigation on the origin of poppy and other narcotics Research Articles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lim Chung San

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Objectives : This study was performed to developing orally administered analgesics and locally injected pharmacopuncture analgesics like opioids. Methods : Literary investigation on the origin of poppy (Papaver somniferum L and other narcotics was conducted to examine the potential of developing orally administered analgesics and locally injected pharmacopuncture analgesics. Opium is a gum-like mass derived from air-dried white fluid of immature fruit of the poppy. Opium contains approximately 20 types of alkaloids including morphine, codeine, thebaine, papaverine and others. Natural opioids and synthetic alkaloid derivatives are the constituents of opioid analgesics and their effects and side-effects depend on the peculiarities of receptors. An extreme caution is required in the selection of proper dosage, proper analgesic types, and indications for successful pain management. Results and Discussion : With the enactment of "Narcotic control protocol", herbs such as cannibis and poppy are no longer available for use by Korean medicine doctors, and these doctors are faced with difficulty in managing severe pain in the clinical environment. A systematic consideration is inevitable for overcoming the limitation on these analgesics.

  16. Socio-climatic Exposure of an Afghan Poppy Farmer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mankin, J. S.; Diffenbaugh, N. S.

    2011-12-01

    Many posit that climate impacts from anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions will have consequences for the natural and agricultural systems on which humans rely for food, energy, and livelihoods, and therefore, on stability and human security. However, many of the potential mechanisms of action in climate impacts and human systems response, as well as the differential vulnerabilities of such systems, remain underexplored and unquantified. Here I present two initial steps necessary to characterize and quantify the consequences of climate change for farmer livelihood in Afghanistan, given both climate impacts and farmer vulnerabilities. The first is a conceptual model mapping the potential relationships between Afghanistan's climate, the winter agricultural season, and the country's political economy of violence and instability. The second is a utility-based decision model for assessing farmer response sensitivity to various climate impacts based on crop sensitivities. A farmer's winter planting decision can be modeled roughly as a tradeoff between cultivating the two crops that dominate the winter growing season-opium poppy (a climate tolerant cash crop) and wheat (a climatically vulnerable crop grown for household consumption). Early sensitivity analysis results suggest that wheat yield dominates farmer decision making variability; however, such initial results may dependent on the relative parameter ranges of wheat and poppy yields. Importantly though, the variance in Afghanistan's winter harvest yields of poppy and wheat is tightly linked to household livelihood and thus, is indirectly connected to the wider instability and insecurity within the country. This initial analysis motivates my focused research on the sensitivity of these crops to climate variability in order to project farmer well-being and decision sensitivity in a warmer world.

  17. Medicinal aspects of opium as described in Avicenna's Canon of Medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heydari, Mojtaba; Hashempur, Mohammad Hashem; Zargaran, Arman

    2013-01-01

    Throughout history, opium has been used as a base for the opioid class of drugs used to suppress the central nervous system. Opium is a substance extracted from the opium poppy (Papaver somniferum L.). Its consumption and medicinal application date back to antiquity. In the medieval period, Avicenna, a famous Persian scholar (980-1037 AD) described poppy under the entry Afion of his medical encyclopedia Canon of Medicine. Various effects of opium consumption, both wanted and unwanted are discussed in the encyclopedia. The text mentions the effects of opioids such as analgesic, hypnotic, antitussive, gastrointestinal, cognitive, respiratory depression, neuromuscular disturbance, and sexual dysfunction. It also refers to its potential as a poison. Avicenna describes several methods of delivery and recommendations for doses of the drug. Most of opioid effects described by Avicenna have subsequently been confirmed by modern research, and other references to opium use in medieval texts call for further investigation. This article highlights an important aspect of the medieval history of medicine.

  18. Presence of lead in opium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aghaee-Afshar, Mahmoud; Khazaeli, Payam; Behnam, Behzad; Rezazadehkermani, Mohammad; Ashraf-Ganjooei, Narges

    2008-09-01

    Opium addiction is a common form of addiction in Middle East countries such as Iran. Recently several reports suggested some kinds of pathologic findings such as abdominal pain, nephropathy, and anemia in opium addict patients. Such pathologic findings suggest lead poisoning in the patients. In this study, the concentration of lead in 10 opium samples was evaluated. The mean concentration of lead in the opium samples was 1.88 ppm. This may explain some of the pathologic findings found in addict patients. The authors would suggest further investigations to evaluate the lead concentration in opium addicts' sera and also routine screening for lead poisoning in opium addict patients.

  19. For peace and pain: the medical legitimisation of Afghanistan's poppy crop.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attaran, Amir; Boozary, Andrew

    2011-05-01

    Since the overthrow of the Taliban in 2001, there has been an overall increase in illicit opium production in Afghanistan and mounting human losses. The United Nations has attributed 1 million human deaths to Afghan opiates over the past decade. As the war in Afghanistan nears a crucial mark, the NATO coalition forces and Afghan people can no longer afford the same ineffective counternarcotics strategy. This commentary proposes a strategic revision that reframes Afghanistan's poppy problem as an opportunity for global public health. Specifically, The Afghan poppy crop could be repurposed away from illicit drug production, and towards manufacturing licit opioid analgesics to address unmet needs for pain palliation, particularly for diseases such as HIV/AIDS and cancer in the developing world--that is, illegal opium could be converted into legal pain medicine, solving two problems at once. We present a supply-and-demand that illustrates how this useful exchange could be made, and discuss the political opposition that now stands in the way and perpetuates the unsatisfactory status quo in Afghanistan.

  20. The Economy of Opium and Heroin Production in Afghanistan and Its Impact on HIV Epidemiology in Central Asia

    OpenAIRE

    Nader Ghotbi; Tsuneo Tsukatani

    2007-01-01

    The dramatic increase of poppy cultivation and opium production in Afghanistan has led to a serious drug addiction problem in te world. The rising heroin use, because of needle sharing, may lead to a much higher incidence of HIV infection and AIDS in Afghanistan in the future. We organized two expeditions into Afghanistan itself, one through the capital, Kabul and the other through Tajik border on Amu‐Darya River and along the regions bordering the Central Asian countries. These expeditions i...

  1. Cardiotoxic Effects of Raw Opium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garg, Piyush; Hitawala, Asif Ali; Agarwal, Manoj

    2018-01-01

    While opioid drug toxicity and side effects of long-term opioid use during medical care are well studied, there is little information regarding effects of ingestion of raw opium. Characterization of the effects to a particular alkaloid is difficult since raw opium contains a number of alkaloids. Here, we present a case of poisoning due to ingestion of raw opium leading to severe myocardial suppression.

  2. Cardiotoxic Effects of Raw Opium

    OpenAIRE

    Garg, Piyush; Hitawala, Asif Ali; Agarwal, Manoj

    2018-01-01

    While opioid drug toxicity and side effects of long-term opioid use during medical care are well studied, there is little information regarding effects of ingestion of raw opium. Characterization of the effects to a particular alkaloid is difficult since raw opium contains a number of alkaloids. Here, we present a case of poisoning due to ingestion of raw opium leading to severe myocardial suppression.

  3. The poppy seed test for colovesical fistula: big bang, little bucks!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Eric O; Armenakas, Noel A; Scharf, Stephen C; Panagopoulos, Georgia; Fracchia, John A

    2008-04-01

    Diagnosis of a colovesical fistula is often challenging, and usually involves numerous invasive and expensive tests and procedures. The poppy seed test stands out as an exception to this rule. We evaluated the accuracy and cost-effectiveness of various established diagnostic tests used to evaluate a suspected colovesical fistula. We identified 20 prospectively entered patients with surgically confirmed colovesical fistulas between 2000 and 2006. Each patient was evaluated preoperatively with a (51)chromium nuclear study, computerized tomography of the abdomen and pelvis with oral and intravenous contrast medium, and the poppy seed test. Costs were calculated using institutional charges, 2006 Medicare limiting approved charges and the market price, respectively. The z test was used to compare the proportion of patients who tested positive for a fistula with each of these modalities. The chromium study was positive in 16 of 20 patients (80%) at a cost of $490.83 per study. Computerized tomography was positive in 14 of 20 patients (70%) at a cost of $652.92 per study. The poppy seed test was positive in 20 of 20 patients (100%) at a cost of $5.37 per study. The difference in the proportion of patients who tested positive for a fistula on computerized tomography and the poppy seed test was statistically significant (p = 0.03). There was no difference between the chromium group and the computerized tomography or poppy seed group (p = 0.72 and 0.12, respectively). The poppy seed test is an accurate, convenient and inexpensive diagnostic test. It is an ideal initial consideration for evaluating a suspected colovesical fistula.

  4. The rules of drug taking: wine and poppy derivatives in the ancient world. VII. A ritual use of poppy derivatives?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nencini, P

    1997-08-01

    Besides fertility, poppies have been used to symbolize sleep, night, and death. Consistent with the agrarian origin of their ritual use, poppies also became a symbol of reincarnation. Several literary and iconographic sources, in particular of the early Roman imperial age, are here interpreted as evidence that poppy derivatives were ingested during mystery rites. The reversible narcotic effects of poppy derivatives should have allowed a "realistic" representation of death and reincarnation, as intended by the Orphic belief of the transmigration of souls.

  5. Estimation of dinitrogen fixation by cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) using residual soil 15N in poppy (Papaver somniferum L) cowpea sequence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patra, D.D.; Chand, Sukhmal; Anwar, M.

    1994-01-01

    Estimation of dinitrogen fixation by cowpea was carried out under greenhouse conditions using pots each containing 12 kg soil. Different 15 N sources included residual soil 15 N where urea was applied to opium poppy before planting of cowpea as fixing and maize as non-fixing crop. Other N sources were labelled urea, 15 N labelled poppy straw, and labelled urea + unlabelled poppy straw. The amount of N 2 fixed varied with the source of 15 N in soil. Plant material treatment gave a higher estimate at 40 days, whereas the estimate was highest with residual 15 N at 75 days. Such variation is attributed to variation in 1 5N enrichment which can be reduced by utilizing the residual 15 N which gives a more stable enrichment of soil 15 N with time. It may also alleviate the errors resulting from the differential pattern of 15 N uptake by fixing and nonfixing plant due to temporal variation in 15 N enrichment in soil. (author). 8 refs., 3 tabs

  6. Opium as a fatal substance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Besharat, Sima; Jabbari, Ali; Besharat, Mahsa

    2008-11-01

    Poisoning does the most serious damages in pediatrics. In the northeast of Iran (Golestan province), opium is used widely for symptomatic therapy of routine illnesses in young children by parents. In the present study, opium toxicity was assessed in young children referred to pediatric centers in our area. This survey was done as a prospective cross-sectional study. At first, a pilot study was undertaken to estimate the condition of opium intoxicated children and evaluate the validity of questionnaire. We collected data in collaboration with committee of Adverse Drug Reactions (ADR) in Golestan Province. All members of ADR committee in pediatric centers were trained to complete questionnaires in referred or admitted children under-5-year. Data was entered into computer and analyzed by Chi-square and Fisher exact test. In this survey, 67 opium-intoxicated children were recruited. Minimum age of the cases was 6 days and maximum 5-year. Uneducated mothers, in most cases, gave opium to the child. Most of them were from the low socio-economic level. Ethnic was disparity was observed. Four deaths occurred. As the results showed, opioids are dangerous in pediatric population, especially under 5-year. Respiratory depression, bradypnea, coma and death are the serious outcomes of opium toxicity in pediatrics. Such a practice of unrestricted use of opium contributes to children mortality and so it is essential to launch educational programs.

  7. Afghanistan, poppies, and the global pain crisis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Peter A; Sillup, George P; Capo, Joseph A

    2010-03-01

    The World Health Organization has reported that somewhere between 30-86 million people suffer from moderate to severe pain due to cancer, HIV/AIDS, burns, wounds and other illnesses annually and do not have access to proper opiate anesthetics to control the pain [1]. The vast majority of these people live in poor nations where medicinal opiates are either too expensive or not readily available. In this paper, it is argued that access to adequate healthcare is a human right and that adequate healthcare includes management of pain. The solution to this problem may be in Afghanistan, a country now overwhelmed with poverty and war. Afghanistan is the world's leading producer of heroin. The increase in heroin production in Afghanistan has caused the United States and the international community to begin to eradicate Afghanistan's poppy fields leading to increased poverty among poppy farmers. This paper proposed a paradigm that can be implemented in Afghanistan which would allow for Afghan farmers to continue growing their poppy crop for medicinal opiates like morphine for poor nations. The paradigm covers all parameters of medicinal opiates production including licensing, security, cultivation, harvest, and factory production of medicinal opiates. The paradigm proposed is less expensive than eradication, brings honest income to Afghan farmers and the new Afghan nation, and can eventually lead to Afghanistan acquiring a respectable role in the world community. In closing, a full ethical analysis of the paradigm is included to justify the arguments made in the paper.

  8. Somatic Embryogenesis, Rhizogenesis, and Morphinan Alkaloids Production in Two Species of Opium Poppy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    My Abdelmajid Kassem

    2001-01-01

    Morphine was only detected in aerial parts of Papaver somniferum album. Codeine and thebaine were detected in the rhizogenous but no embryonic callus. These results suggest that root organogenesis is causally related to alkaloid biosynthesis.

  9. Chemometric approach for development, optimization, and validation of different chromatographic methods for separation of opium alkaloids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acevska, J; Stefkov, G; Petkovska, R; Kulevanova, S; Dimitrovska, A

    2012-05-01

    The excessive and continuously growing interest in the simultaneous determination of poppy alkaloids imposes the development and optimization of convenient high-throughput methods for the assessment of the qualitative and quantitative profile of alkaloids in poppy straw. Systematic optimization of two chromatographic methods (gas chromatography (GC)/flame ionization detector (FID)/mass spectrometry (MS) and reversed-phase (RP)-high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC)/diode array detector (DAD)) for the separation of alkaloids from Papaver somniferum L. (Papaveraceae) was carried out. The effects of various conditions on the predefined chromatographic descriptors were investigated using chemometrics. A full factorial linear design of experiments for determining the relationship between chromatographic conditions and the retention behavior of the analytes was used. Central composite circumscribed design was utilized for the final method optimization. By conducting the optimization of the methods in very rational manner, a great deal of excessive and unproductive laboratory research work was avoided. The developed chromatographic methods were validated and compared in line with the resolving power, sensitivity, accuracy, speed, cost, ecological aspects, and compatibility with the poppy straw extraction procedure. The separation of the opium alkaloids using the GC/FID/MS method was achieved within 10 min, avoiding any derivatization step. This method has a stronger resolving power, shorter analysis time, better cost/effectiveness factor than the RP-HPLC/DAD method and is in line with the "green trend" of the analysis. The RP-HPLC/DAD method on the other hand displayed better sensitivity for all tested alkaloids. The proposed methods provide both fast screening and an accurate content assessment of the six alkaloids in the poppy samples obtained from the selection program of Papaver strains.

  10. Opium the Best Remedy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harold Merskey

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Sydenham was the leading English physician of the 17th century and probably to the present time. He was using a well tried remedy. It had been known by then for about 4000 years, frequently mentioned by Hippocrates, and recognized in use in medieval Europe where it probably came through Arabic traders and was well established in use in Paris by the 12th century (2. Professional concerns up to the time of Sydenham were not about addiction. As can be seen from his text, they were about whether the drug was available in adequate preparations, whether there was any difference between opium and other narcotics, particularly comparing the natural juice with "its artificial preparations" (1 (all of which he thought to be about equal in effect, whether it was stimulant or restorative and invigorating, and whether it was being properly used for all the conditions in which it could be helpful. Addiction, dependence and insanity are not mentioned, although the fact that it could occasionally promote excitement ("frenzy" was known.

  11. On the history of opium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kłys, Małgorzata; Maciów-Głab, Martyna; Rojek, Sebastian

    2013-01-01

    Most likely, opium was the first narcotic substance discovered at the dawn of humankind. The history of drug addiction is immensely rich and allows for tracing the long way humankind had to travel to reach the contemporary level of consciousness with respect to narcotic substances. A retrospective view of drug addiction that takes into consideration the historical context, while extending our knowledge, also allows for a better understanding of today's problems. The report presents elements of a retrospective view of problems associated with addiction to opium, morphine and heroin over the centuries, what is a subject of scientific interest in contemporary toxicology.

  12. Effects of opium consumption on cardiometabolic diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masoudkabir, Farzad; Sarrafzadegan, Nizal; Eisenberg, Mark J

    2013-12-01

    Opium is the second-most-commonly abused substance (after tobacco) in developing countries of the Middle East region, and in many Asian nations. One of the reasons for the high prevalence of opium abuse in these countries is a traditional belief among Eastern people, even including some medical staff, that opium might have beneficial effects on cardiovascular health and in the control of diabetes mellitus, hypertension, and dyslipidaemia. In this Perspectives article, we summarize the current understanding of the pharmacotoxicology of opium and its specific effects on glycaemic control, blood pressure, lipid profile, and atherosclerosis. On the basis of the available evidence, we believe not only that opium has no ameliorating effect on cardiovascular diseases, but also that the use of this drug might have adverse effects on these conditions. Therefore, people should be educated about the hazardous effects of opium consumption on cardiometabolic diseases.

  13. [Biochemical diagnostics of fatal opium intoxication].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papyshev, I P; Astashkina, O G; Tuchik, E S; Nikolaev, B S; Cherniaev, A L

    2013-01-01

    Biochemical diagnostics of fatal opium intoxication remains a topical problem in forensic medical science and practice. We investigated materials obtained in the course of forensic medical expertise of the cases of fatal opium intoxication. The study revealed significant differences between myoglobin levels in blood, urine, myocardium, and skeletal muscles. The proposed approach to biochemical diagnostics of fatal opium intoxication enhances the accuracy and the level of evidence of expert conclusions.

  14. Hematological changes in opium addicted diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asadikaram, Gholamreza; Sirati-Sabet, Majid; Asiabanha, Majid; Shahrokhi, Nader; Jafarzadeh, Abdollah; Khaksari, Mohammad

    2013-01-01

    Chronic opioid treatment in animal models has shown to alter hematological parameters. The aim of this study was to evaluate the biological effects of opium on the number of peripheral blood cells and red blood cells (RBCs) indices in diabetic rats. Peripheral blood samples were collected from diabetic, opium-addicted, diabetic opium-addicted and normal male and female rats and hematological parameters were measured. The mean number of white blood cells (WBCs) was significantly higher in diabetic opium-addict females compared to diabetic non-addict female group. In both male and female, the mean number of neutrophils was significantly higher and the mean number of lymphocytes was lower in diabetic opium-addicted rats than those observed in diabetic non-addicted group. In diabetic opium-addicted male group the mean counts of RBC significantly increased as compared with diabetic male group. However, in diabetic addicted female, the mean number of RBCs was significantly lower than diabetic non-addicted female group. In both males and females, the mean number of platelets was significantly lower in diabetic addict rats compared to diabetic non-addict group. Generally, the results indicated that opium addiction has different effects on male and female rats according to the number of WBC, RBC and RBC indices. It could also be concluded that in the opium-addicts the risk of infection is enhanced due to the weakness of immune system as a result of the imbalance effect of opium on the immune cells.

  15. [Milk of paradise? Opium and opiates in nineteenth and twentieth century literature].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schäfer, D

    2007-08-01

    One cannot have an idea of this multifaceted theme without its medical and cultural-historical background. After a history of several thousand years as a remedy and consumer good, around 1800 this poppy drug was in the focus of public attention due to Brownianism, at first as an often self-prescribed unspecific remedy against physical and mental pain. Many representatives of the early Romanticism knew it from personal experience. However, it was the publication of Thomas de Quincey's Confessions of an English Opium-Eater (1821/1822) which made it a subject of international debate in accordance with the programmatic statements of writers of that epoque and corresponding to the antibourgeois attitude of these men. It became a motif of a counter-world experience and a subject and cause of lyric-subjective reflection as well as a possible premise of poetic creativity.

  16. Lipid Profile Comparison between Opium Addicts and Non-Addicts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyedeh Seddigheh Fatemi

    2008-09-01

    Conclusion: Opium does not seem to have any impact on triglyceride, low density lipoprotein, and high density lipoprotein. Despite the lower total cholesterol levels in opium addicts (as a known side effect of opium on different body systems, it is not advisable that opium and its extracts be recommended to decrease the risk of IHD.

  17. Analysis of Taliban Revenue and the Importance of the Opium Trade to the Insurgency

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-01

    encouraging education, including scholar exchanges programs and U.S. universities sponsoring studies at Afghan institutions. In 1952, the Afghan School...As described in Chapter II, the extensive orchards of the pre- Soviet invasion time were destroyed in order to prevent ambush sites. This now has...cultivation areas provided incentives for farmers to permanently move away from planting poppy crops by promoting orchards or vine crops, as opposed to

  18. Multivariate analysis in relation to breeding system in opium popy, Papaver somniferum L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Singh S.P.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The opium poppy (Papaver somniferum L. is an important medicinal plant of great pharmacopoel uses. 101 germplasm lines of different eco-geographical origin maintained at National Botanical Research Institute, Lucknow were evaluated to study the genetic divergence for seed yield/plant, opium yield/plant and its 8 component traits following multivariate and canonical analysis. The genotypes were grouped in 13 clusters and confirmed by canonical analysis. Sixty eight percent genotypes (69/101 were genetically close to each other and grouped in 6 clusters (II, III, IV, V, VIII, XII while apparent diversity was noticed for 32 percent (32/101 of the genotypes who diversed into rest 7 clusters (I, VI, VII, IX, X, XI, XIII. Inter cluster distance ranged from 47.28 to 234.55. The maximum was between IX and X followed by VII and IX (208.30 and IX and XI (205.53. The genotypes in cluster IX, X. XI, and XII had greater potential as breeding stock by virtue of high mean values of one or more component characters and high statistical distance among them. Based on findings of high cluster mean of component trait and inter-cluster distance among clusters, a breeding plan has been discussed.

  19. Opium consumption and risk of bladder cancer: A case-control analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosseini, Seyyed Yousof; Safarinejad, Mohammad Reza; Amini, Erfan; Hooshyar, Hassan

    2010-01-01

    We evaluated the relationship between opium consumption and bladder cancer (BC) in a case-control study of an Iranian population. In a hospital-based case-control study of 179 patients with BC and 179 cancer-free controls frequency-matched by age, sex, and smoking status, we investigated the relationship between opium consumption and BC. A comprehensive epidemiologic interview was conducted on all participants to collect personal information, such as demographics and smoking status. Overall, we found significant age, sex, cigarette smoking adjusted association between BC risk and opium consumption, [odds ratio (OR) = 4.60; 95% confidence interval (CI) = 3.53-6.28]. The elevated risk was more evident in older individuals (OR = 5.42; 95% CI, 4.12-7.28) than younger individuals (OR = 3.65; 95% CI, 2.76-4.76) (P = 0.01). Heavy smokers with the opium consumption exhibited a 6-fold elevated risk for BC (OR = 6.16; 95% CI, 3.34-8.32) (P = 0.0001). When stratified according to different grades of BC, a 3.4-fold increased risk was associated with the opium consumption in grade III with an OR of 3.44 (95% CI, 2.82-8.28) (P = 0.001). A similar but slightly higher risk was also seen in case of grade IV tumors (OR = 3.86; 95% CI, 2.14-10.16) (P = 0.001). Invasive bladder tumors were more common among the opiates users (OR = 2.6; 95% CI, 1.44-5.42) (P = 0.01). Cumulative risk of BC in women with opium consumption (OR = 4.10 95% CI, 3.54-5.88) (P = 0.001) was slightly less than in men (OR = 5.10 95% CI, 3.54-5.88) (P = 0.0001). Based on Pearson correlations, the risk of BC significantly correlated with opium dependence duration (r = 0.74, P = 0.001), type of opiate used (r = 0.65, P = 0.001), and simultaneous cigarette smoking (r = 0.74, P = 0.0001). The results indicated that there is about 5-fold increase in risk of developing this cancer in the presence of opium consumption. Further research is needed to investigate the functional implications of the opium consumption in BC

  20. Religion is the Opium of the People

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Esther Oluffa

    2015-01-01

    Marx is notorious for his claim that religion is the opium of the people and thus become famous as one of modern thought's most uncompromising critics of religion. In this article I look deeper into the philosophical connotations of Marx's opium metaphor by presenting and discussing other prominent...... thinkers' employment of similar metaphors. Thus, the article follows the trail of opium imagery in connection with different approaches to the criticism of religion. This leads to a discussion of the influence on Marx by G.W.F. Hegel, Bruno Bauer, Moses Hess, Ludwig Feuerbach and emphasizes the influence...... of Heinrich Heine and Immanuel Kant. The ensuing analysis of Marx's opium metaphor establishes thatMarx's thinking in A Contribution to a Critique of Hegel's Philosophy of Right: Introduction is at a cross road. His dependence on German philosophy in 1843 is highlighted as the contextual background for...

  1. Managing opium: Policy choices for Afghanistan | IDRC ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2011-01-27

    sleep-bringing poppy” — is a seemingly innocuous flowering plant, its seedpods can deliver opium as well as powerful narcotic derivatives like heroin, morphine, and codeine. During the millennia since these anaesthetic effects ...

  2. Iranian Common Attitude Toward Opium Consumption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarghami, Mehran

    2015-01-01

    Iran is suffering from the 2nd most severe addiction to opioids in the world. While the explanation of this enormous drug problem is refutably related to drug trafficking, the drug dilemma also illustrates the chain reaction of the imposed war with Iraq in 1980 - 88; the problems of poverty, unemployment, urbanization, homelessness, adultery, family crises, divorce, domestic violence, and runaway children. Although opium addiction often linked to these factors, drug use is common among all social classes. It seems that a positive traditional attitude is another reason for widespread raw opium use in this country. A survey in Iranian literature reveals that famous Iranian poets, who have a substantial contribution on cultural attitude formation of Iranian population, have used the phrase “Teriac” (raw opium) as a means of “antidote” a substance that treats every disease. It seems that a concrete deduction from the literature has been leaden to a positive attitude towards opium consumption in Persian culture. Recent research also supports this idea. Many patients use raw opium as a pain killer or for treating hyperlipidemia, hypertension, diabetes and other chronic diseases; most of them had started the use after developing the disease and the remaining had increased the consumption after developing the disease. Regarding this superstitious common belief, drug control headquarters should focus on education and correction of the faulty unhealthy attitude toward opium consumption. PMID:26288642

  3. Production of both esters and biogas from Mexican poppy | Singh ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper details a dynamic evaluation of a procedure for extracting both, ester and biogas from seeds and waste of Mexican poppy (Argemone mexicana) using simple and inexpensive technique. Results showed that A. mexicana seed contains 30% oil. Through the process of transestrification, oil extracted from seed, ...

  4. Opium: The Evolution of Policies, the Tolerance of the Vice, and the Proliferation of Contraband Trade in the Philippines, 1843-1908

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alma N. Bamero

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available This research entitled “Opium: The Evolution of Policies, the Tolerance of the Vice, and the Proliferation of Contraband Trade in the Philippines, 1843-1908” presents a discussion of the opium trade in Asia, the commercial networks it created, the political ties it strengthened, and the social relations itfostered. It also aims to reconstruct an aspect of Philippine social history in the nineteenth century through the use of archival materials that bear witness to the distribution and exploitation of a substance which some people stillclassify as taboo. The poppy was not endemic to the Philippines but opium, its derivative substance, was known to numb pain and could induce a “natural high” that left one with feelings of ease and contentment. A more complete introduction to the drug necessitates a discussion of the way it was extractedand processed. It is a cash crop that does not require complex devices and is, therefore, within the reach of farmers and common folk. From the eighteenth to the nineteenth centuries opium became very popular among the Chinese who discovered that their markets were being flooded with it by the British sothat the latter could pay for the tea that they craved.The Spanish Bourbons, in an effort to boost Philippine economy, allowed the trading of this substance. Initially this was supervised by the officials of the Alcaiceria de San Fernando but in 1843 the meticulous examination of the country’s finances merited the creation of an opium revenuefarm through municipal franchising. Opium could only be used by the Chinese who were migrating in big groups. This paper presents the details of the monopoly contract, identifies some of the wealthier contratistas of the period, and discusses the consequences of such a commercial venture. Smuggling orcontraband trade proliferated and by way of illustration the events namely, the Scandal of 1843 and the Gunga Incident, have been narrated. The creation of an over

  5. Opium dependency in recurrent painful renal lithiasis colic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ketabchi, Ali Asghar; Ebad-Zadeh, Mohammad Reza; Parvaresh, Saeedeh; Moshtaghi-Kashanian, Golam Reza

    2012-01-01

    The main goal of this study is to determine the relationship between opium dependency and frequency of urolithiasis renal colics. In a cross sectional study we compared opium dependency in urolithiasis patients (case group) with non-urolithiasis patients (control group) and assessed urolithiasis related renal colics as risk factor to opium dependency prevalence. Dependency was defined as the diagnostic criteria specified in DSM-IV questionnaire and Urolithiasis was diagnosed by standard methods (imaging modalities as US, X-Ray). From 450 urolithiasis adult patients (120 female and 370 male with the age range of 18-67 years) 157 (34.88%) were opium addicts, however from the 340 non-urolithiasis patients (matched age group and gender ratios) only16 (4.70%) were opium addicts (P pain, perception and faith of patients in the therapeutic effects of opium or local availability of opium were also effective in opium dependency.

  6. Effects of Opium Smoking Cessation on the Nasopharyngeal Microbial Flora

    OpenAIRE

    Golshiri, Ali; Mokhtaree, Mohammad Reza; Shabani, Ziba; Tabatabaee, Sayed Taghi; Rahnama, Amir; Moradi, Mohammad; Sayadi, Ahamad Reza; Faezi, Hadi

    2009-01-01

    Background: To determine the effect of opium smoking cessation on the frequency and type of microorganisms in the nasopharynx of opium smokers. Methods: This was a cross-sectional study performed in psychology and ENT department of Moradi Hospital of Rafsanjan University of Medical Sciences in 2008 (Kerman, Iran). Nasopharyngeal cultures were taken from 50 opium smokers before and 2 to 3 months after cessation of opium smoking. Potential pathogens were identified. Findings: Eight potential pa...

  7. The Opium Must Go Thru The Opium Must Go Thru

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anita Flanders Rebello

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available In The Opium Must Go Thru, Charles Potts' "potty" poetic prose puns away in an irreverential anti-civilization protest against everything that is new-old to sublime the old-new - but the dark and light of Yin and Yang are the same that bothered Shakespeare in his day. This book, as the drawings by Robert McNealy illustrate, is a mad socio-economic philosophic chess game. . . an intel lectual whooped up hippy riddle. You ask yourself if Potts is a brain or a bum. The words and the thought behind the words are an exasperating jumble, until you get the "beat" - the mood - maybe a couple of beers, a little "pot". . . No,that won't help because it's too haphardly logical "The water buffalo who bailed out the hot green house once turned to an underfucked cow and murmured "Nobody here understands what I say". And Potts can jump from this hurly-burly into crystal clear statements such as, "But the children can think circles around them. Children have always been the redeemers."

  8. Enhanced prolactin levels in opium smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moshtaghi-Kashanian, Ghollam-Reza; Esmaeeli, Farzaneh; Dabiri, Shahriar

    2005-12-01

    In Iran, opium is smoked for pleasure or as a medication by some people. It is a complex mixture of 40 different alkaloids, including morphine and codeine along with many impurities. Although it is well established that opioids or tobacco affect many physiological functions in humans, to our knowledge there has been no specific study looking at these effects in opium smokers. To assess that, we investigated the circulating levels of prolactin, TSH, LH, FSH and testosterone in male opium smokers who also smoke cigarettes (n=23, aged 28.4+/- 4.1 years), and comparing this with the corresponding values for nicotine abusers (n=12, 15-25 cigarettes/day) or a healthy control group (n=20) of the same age. Our results showed that 86.96% of the opium-dependent and 41.67 % of the nicotine-dependent group displayed high prolactin values (popium and the plasma prolactin level of opium dependents (p=0.748, popium smokers and 50% of the cigarette smokers (popium smokers was also lower than that of the other two groups (popium and cigarette smoking may synergistically influence pituitary hormone production through the effects on neuropeptides produced either locally or systemic.

  9. Opium Syrup Distribution, Limitation and Challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mostafa Dahmardehei

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Addiction is one of dilemmas in the current society. Formal statistics report of 2 million addict people in the country. Among important activities for addiction prevention and therapy is implementation of protecting treatment. Protecting treatments are done through Methadone, Buprenorphine and tincture-opium. Tincture-opium is a solution of 10 g morphine in one litter liquid containing 20% alcohol. The first report about using this medicine has been in 1994, in French in connection with successful therapy of 18 patients. A study in Australia, in 2004, proposed detoxification with tincture-opium in 15 migrated Vietnamese, in high dosage for therapy. In Iran, since 1384 many researches were done, which 34% responded the therapy appropriately; and in 1387, 130 people reached final treatment.

  10. 76 FR 77254 - Importer of Controlled Substances; Notice of Registration

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-12

    ...) II Dihydroetorphine (9334) II Opium, raw (9600) II Opium extracts (9610) II Opium fluid extract (9620) II Opium tincture (9630) II Powdered opium (9639) II Opium, granulated (9640) II Levo-alphacetylmethadol (9648) II Opium poppy/Poppy Straw (9650) II Oxymorphone (9652) II Poppy Straw Concentrate (9670...

  11. Effect of opium addiction on diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azod, Laila; Rashidi, Maryam; Afkhami-Ardekani, Mohammad; Kiani, Golchehr; Khoshkam, Fariba

    2008-01-01

    Type 2 diabetes is a common disorder that is recognized as a major health problem in Iran. Diabetes is a major cause of morbidity, mortality, and economic burden to the society. Some people believe that smoking opium can reduce serum glucose and lipids in diabetes mellitus. This study was designed to compare blood glucose and lipids in opium addicts with non-addicts among patients with type 2 diabetes. In this case, control study subjects were chosen from type 2 diabetic patients. Twenty-three males with type 2 diabetes and addicted to opium were selected as the case group, and 46 patients with no addiction to opioid drugs were chosen as control group. Blood Sugar (BS), glycated hemoglobin (HbA1C), lipids and microalbumin in urine were measured in two groups. Our results showed that the mean FBS and 2-hour post prandial were significantly different between two groups. (P = .04). No significant difference was observed in HbA1C, triglyceride, total cholesterol, LDL, and HDL between the two groups (P > .05). Our finding showed that while opium might decrease blood glucose temporarily, it had no clear and long-lasting effects on blood glucose, as it had no significant effect on HbA1c.

  12. Tall Poppies: Bullying Behaviors Faced by Australian High-Performance School-Age Athletes

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Neill, Maureen; Calder, Angela; Allen, Bill

    2014-01-01

    Little is known about Australian high-performance school-age athletes' experiences as victims of the tall poppy syndrome. Tall poppies are successful individuals bullied by those who are less successful in order to "normalize them." Nineteen current or previous national or international high-performance school-age athletes were…

  13. Opium tincture versus methadone syrup in management of acute raw opium withdrawal: A randomized, double-blind, controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabassomi, Farzaneh; Zarghami, Mehran; Shiran, Mohammad-Reza; Farnia, Samaneh; Davoodi, Mohsen

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of opium tincture versus methadone syrup in the management of acute withdrawal syndrome in opium dependent patients during the detoxification period. In this double-blind randomized controlled study, a total of 74 adult male raw opium dependent patients were treated with opium tincture or methadone syrup 2 times daily for 5 consecutive days. Detoxification was initiated by tapered dose reductions to reach abstinence. At the end of the 10th day, the medications were discontinued. The Objective Opioid Withdrawal Scale was used to assess withdrawal symptoms every day. Significant decreases on the Objective Opioid Withdrawal Scale were found for both treatment methods during the study period (p Opium tincture can be considered as a potential substitute for methadone syrup for suppression of raw opium withdrawal symptoms, with minimal adverse effects.

  14. Opium use: an emerging risk factor for cancer?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamangar, Farin; Shakeri, Ramin; Malekzadeh, Reza; Islami, Farhad

    2014-02-01

    An estimated 16·5 million people worldwide illicitly use opiates, of whom 4 million use raw opium. We did a systematic review to investigate the association between opium use and cancer incidence and mortality. Opium use was associated with an increased risk of cancers of the oesophagus, stomach, larynx, lung, and urinary bladder. Although the present evidence suggests that these associations are possibly causal, further epidemiological studies (particularly prospective studies that collect detailed data about lifetime opium use and control for a broad range of potential confounders) are needed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Effect of opium smoking cessation on the nasopharyngeal microbial flora.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golshiri, Ali; Shabani, Ziba; Mokhtaree, Mohammad R; Sayadi, Ahmad R; Faezi, Hadi

    2010-01-01

    To determine the effect of opium smoking cessation on the frequency and type of microorganisms in the nasopharynx of opium smokers. This cross-sectional study was performed in the Psychiatry, and Ear, Nose, and Throat Departments, Moradi Hospital, Rafsanjan University of Medical Sciences, Rafsanjan, Iran from June to November 2008. Nasopharyngeal cultures were taken from 50 opium smokers before, and 2-3 months after cessation of opium smoking. Potential pathogens were identified. Patients were not advised to change their number of cigarettes, and we used methadone for the substitution of opium. Eight potential pathogens were isolated from nasopharyngeal cultures obtained from 43 individuals before opium smoking cessation, and 4 were recovered from 33 individuals after cessation (p=0.03). Streptococcus pneumoniae, Staphylococcus saprophyticus, Streptococcus alpha hemolytic, and Staphylococcus aureus were not found in the second culture. The most sensitivity to antibiotics was for ceftriaxone (84%), ciprofloxacin (74%), and cloxacillin (72%), and the most resistance for amoxicillin (26%) and the least resistance for chloramphenicol. Some potential pathogens decrease or are even absent after opium cessation. Opium smoking affects the nasopharyngeal flora.

  16. The relationship of opium addiction with coronary artery disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masoomi, Mohammad; Ramezani, Mohammad Arash; Karimzadeh, Hadi

    2010-01-01

    There is some controversy regarding the effect of opium addiction on the coronary artery disease (CAD). The aim of this study was to determine the association between chronic opium consumption and CAD. This study had a case-control design. The patients recruited to the study were selected from angiography files in Department of Cardiology in Kerman University of Medical Sciences, Kerman, Iran. The comparison was done between CAD patients and normal subjects. Opium addiction was diagnosed by patient self-report and confirmed with interview based on DSM-IV criteria. Odds ratio with 95% confidence interval were estimated by unconditional logistic regression. The risk factor of CAD was the same in the two study groups. The significant difference in opium consumption was demonstrated between CAD patients and normal coronary artery subjects (OR=3.8, 95%CI=1.5-9.5). Because of the strong association between cigarette smoking and opium addiction, analysis was done in smoker and non-smoker groups separately. Logistic regression showed opium addiction was the independent risk factor for CAD in non-smokers after adjusting to other CAD risk factors (OR=38, 95%CI=2.7-531.7), but in cigarette smokers opium was not a significant risk factor (OR=13.2, 95%CI=0.85-206.5). We confirmed that the opium was an independent risk factor for CAD. Health managers and policy makers should try to aware general population and prepare many preventive programs against substance abuse.

  17. Determination of thebaine in water samples, biological fluids, poppy capsule, and narcotic drugs, using electromembrane extraction followed by high-performance liquid chromatography analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seidi, Shahram; Yamini, Yadollah; Heydari, Akbar; Moradi, Morteza; Esrafili, Ali; Rezazadeh, Maryam

    2011-09-09

    Opium determination is of great importance from toxicological and pharmaceutical standpoints. In present work, electromembrane extraction (EME) coupled with high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and ultraviolet (UV) detection was developed for determination of thebaine as a natural alkaloid, in different matrices containing water, urine, poppy capsule, street heroine, and codeine tablet. Thebaine migrated from 3 mL of sample solutions, through a thin layer of 2-nitrophenyl octyl ether (NPOE) immobilized in the pores of a porous hollow fiber, and into a 15 μL acidic aqueous acceptor solution present inside the lumen of the fiber. The variables of interest, such as chemical composition of the organic liquid membrane, stirring speed, extraction time and voltage, pH of donor and acceptor phases and salt effect in the EME process were optimized. Under optimal conditions, thebaine was effectively extracted from different matrices with recoveries in the range of 45-55%, which corresponded to preconcentration factors in the range of 90-110. Good linearity was achieved for calibration curves with a coefficient of estimation higher than 0.997. Detection limits and intra-day precision (n=3) were less than 15 μg L(-1) and 8.9%, respectively. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Natural opium as one of the possibilities for drug abusers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klusonová, Hana; Vlková, Jana; Visnovský, Peter

    2005-12-01

    Natural opium is a popular seasonal alternation for substance dependent people. Its processing, way of using, experience and change of habits was the aim of our study carried out via anonymous questionnaire and directed interview. 47 questionnaires were obtained. According to our results natural opium has been abused by people 19-42 years old, more than a half of them were male. Basic drug were pervitin in 57 %, marihuana in 33 %, a considerable part (30 %) was natural opium. Each grower produced approximately 35 g of raw opium in one season. The most frequent way of application was smoking, injecting and "opium tea" drinking. Almost a half of the clients (40 %) felt attenuation after application; relaxation, hallucination and central stimulation admitted 25 % of respondents. Health troubles had majority of the users. Combinations of natural opium with other drugs (alcohol, marihuana, pervitin) declared 45 % respondents, the effects of the combinations admitted one third of users. The examination for viral hepatitis confirmed more than a half of the clients; the major part of users from Olomouc, but only 25 % of users from Prostejov were tested for HIV. Opium consumption influenced habits of personal hygiene of more than a half of the users (57 %). Routine servicing of the spot of the needle insertion practiced a half of the responders. Majority of the abusers (79 %) obtained and closed out paraphernalia throw to the "harm reduction" program.

  19. IS OPIUM ADDICTION A RISK FACTOR FOR ACUTE MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    "S. M. Sadr Bafghi

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available There is a misconception among our people that opioids may prevent or have ameliorating effects in the occurrence of cardiovascular diseases. In this study we evaluated 556 consecutive male patients hospitalized due to acute myocardial infarction (MI in city of Yazd, from May 2000 to October 2001 and compared the characteristics of opium addicts to non opium users. Prevalence of opium addiction in MI patients was 19% in comparison with 2-2.8% in general population. There were not any differences in prevalence of traditional risk factors between opium users and non-users. Overall, in-hospital mortality was 18.6 percent among opium users and 6.2 percent among non-opium users (unadjusted odd ratio, 1.3; 95% confidence interval, 0.7 to 2.7, P = 0.2. After adjustment for the differences in the baseline features (age and other risk factors, odds ratio increased to 2.2 (95 percent confidence interval, 0.9 to 5.1. It seems that opium addiction may work as a risk factor in cardiovascular disease.

  20. Cytokine profiles in long-term smokers of opium (Taryak).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghazavi, Ali; Solhi, Hassan; Moazzeni, Seyed Mohammad; Rafiei, Mohammad; Mosayebi, Ghasem

    2013-01-01

    There are few studies with conflicting results on the effects of in vivo administration of opioids on immune function. The aim of this study was to evaluate the serum levels of interferon (IFN)-γ, interleukin (IL)-4, IL-10, IL-17, and hs-C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) in opium smokers. The study was conducted between 44 male opium addicts and 44 controls aged 20 to 40 years. The control group was healthy individuals with no lifetime history of substance abuse. All the opium abusers were selected from those who had a history of use of opium, as a regular habit, at least for 1 year, with a daily opium dosage of not less than 2 g. Addicts known to abuse alcohol or other drugs were excluded. Serum samples were collected from all participants and tested for the cytokine and hs-CRP levels by ELISA (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay) method. Statistical analysis was performed using the Student t test. The mean serum levels of IFN-γ, IL-10, and IL-17 in the opium addicts were significantly higher than those observed in the control group. The mean concentration of serum IL-4 in opium addicts did not differ from that in the control group. Systemic IL-10 levels correlated positively and significantly with CRP in opium addicts. Long-term, daily use of opium is associated with higher Th1 (IFN-γ), Tr1 (IL-10), and Th17 (IL-17) cytokines concentration in serum. Interferon-γ and IL-17 are involved in inducing and mediating proinflammatory responses. Our data suggest that an immunoregulatory response is occurring with the upregulation of IL-10.

  1. [The national anti-opium-smoking campaigns across the country in the Republican Period].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Z J; Chang, F Q; Xu, Q S

    2017-11-28

    Anti-opium-smoking had been the key policy of successive central and local governments from the late Qing Dynasty to the Republican Period. Since the establishment of the Nanjing Provisional Government in January 1912, the Anti-opium-smoking campaign had culminated across the country. Under the support of the government, the "National Anti-Opium Association of China" and "Association of Chinese People Rejecting Opium" were established which made an important contribution to China's anti-opium-smoking campaign.Yunnan, Shaanxi, Heilongjiang, Zhejiang, Shanghai and other local governments also combined with local specific circumstances to make anti-opium-smaking policy for punishing severely the opium cultivation, trade and opium smoking, thus, the overrun of opium began to be brought under an overall control.

  2. Lead Toxicity Resulting from Chronic Ingestion of Opium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jalili, Mohammad

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available A 32-year-old man presented to the emergency department (ED with lower abdominal pain and constipation. He related chronic ingestion of large amounts of opium. Physical examination showed mild abdominal tenderness and gingival discoloration. Diagnostic studies showed a mild hypochromic, microcytic anemia with basophilic stippling of the red blood cells. Abdominal imaging showed no intra-abdominal pathology. A diagnosis of lead toxicity was confirmed through serum lead levels. The patient was put on chelation therapy and his signs and symptoms started to resolve. As a comprehensive search for other sources of lead was unsuccessful, opium adulterants were considered as the culprit. Chemical analysis of the opium confirmed this. Contaminated drugs have been reported as a source of exposure to toxins such as arsenic or lead. While other reports deal with patients from clinics, this report illustrates lead toxicity from ingestion of contaminated opium in the ED.[West J Emerg Med. 2009;10(4:244-246.

  3. Opium usage as an etiologic factor of oral cavity cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razmpa, Ebrahim; Saedi, Babak; Motiee-langroudi, Maziar; Garajei, Ata; Hoseinpor, Sareh; Motamedi, Mohammad Hosein Kalantar

    2014-09-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the role of opium in causing oral cancer. Eighty patients and 80 selected matched controls who were referred to the ear-nose-throat department of an academic hospital were included in this study between October 2008 and September 2010. In addition to demographic data, information regarding alcohol, tobacco, and opium use was documented in the subjects. Finally, the effect of each risk factor was assessed. There was no significant difference in patient demographics between the 2 groups. Smoking (P = 0.042) and poor oral hygiene (P = 0.016) significantly correlated with cancer. Finally, opium addiction showed a significant relationship with oral cavity cancer with an odds ratio of 4 (95% confidence interval, 1.2-13.6). Opium use is among the possible risk factors for oral cancer.

  4. The association of opium with coronary artery disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadeghian, Saeed; Darvish, Soodabeh; Davoodi, Gholamreza; Salarifar, Mojtaba; Mahmoodian, Mehran; Fallah, Nader; Karimi, Abbas Ali

    2007-10-01

    The effects of opium consumption on coronary artery disease are still unknown. A cross-sectional study was conducted on 2405 patients admitted to the Angiographic Ward at Tehran Heart Center from 7 May 2005 to 13 August 2005. After adjusting for conventional cardiovascular risk factors, opium consumption was a significant risk factor for coronary artery disease (P=0.01 and odds ratio=1.8). Moreover, the amount of opium consumption was associated significantly with the severity of coronary atherosclerosis, as measured by clinical vessel score (r=0.2, P=0.002). To our knowledge, this is the first time that the adverse effects of opium consumption on coronary arteries was defined.

  5. Opium and Afghanistan: Reassessing U.S. Counternarcotics Strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-10-01

    access to safe drinking water, and only 6 percent to electricity.8 The 2004 U.N. Development Program ranked Afghanistan number 173 of 177 countries...UNODC predicts that increasing opium production in Afghanistan will result in an increase in heroin overdoses worldwide because greater supply...currently inadequate to support an opium-free economy. Energy production facilities, water systems, and roads need to be rebuilt and expanded to

  6. OPIUM USE IN TRANSITIONAL CELL CARCINOMA OF THE URINARY BLADDER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Nourbakhsh

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Opium use is one of the most common forms of substance abuse in Iran and there are some evidence indicating it is a risk factor of transitional cell carcinoma (TCC of the urinary bladder. The majority of opium users are also cigarette smokers, so consideration of the high prevalence of smoking which is the most important risk factor of TCC of the urinary bladder among opium users is essential to assess the role of opium use as a possible risk factor of TCC. This study was done to evaluate the role of opium as a risk factor of TCC. A case-control study was performed on 255 individuals diagnosed with TCC of the urinary bladder by pathologic light microscopic examination of the tumor biopsies. Control population was chosen from individuals who had no history or presenting signs or symptoms of urinary problems. Case and control groups were matched by sex and age and also by cigarette smoking habits. Forty-one (18.1% of the cases and 12 (5% of controls were recognized to be opium users. Mantel-Haenszel analysis showed an odds ratio of 3.88, with 95% confidence interval of 1.99-7.57 and P value of < 0.001. Results indicate that opium use is a risk factor for TCC. The majority of opium users are also cigarette smokers, which is another important risk factor for TCC. Routine urine cytology and early evaluation in the patients presenting with any of the symptoms of urinary bladder malignancy by means of cystoscopy and urine cytology are highly recommended.

  7. Opium and heroin alter biochemical parameters of human's serum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kouros, Divsalar; Tahereh, Haghpanah; Mohammadreza, Afarinesh; Minoo, Mahmoudi Zarandi

    2010-05-01

    Iran is a significant consumer of opium, and, generally, of opioids, in the world. Addiction is one of the important issues of the 21st century and is an imperative issue in Iran. Long-term consumption of opioids affects homeostasis. To determine the effects of opium and heroin consumption on serum biochemical parameters. In a cross-sectional study, subjects who had consumed heroin (n = 35) or opium (n = 42) for more than two years and 35 nonaddict volunteers as the control group were compared in regard to various biochemical parameters such as fasting blood sugar (FBS), Na(+), K(+), Ca(2+), blood urea nitrogen (BUN), uric acid (UA), triglyceride (TG), cholesterol, creatinine, and total protein. Chromatography was used to confirm opioid consumption, and the concentration of biochemical parameters was determined by laboratory diagnostic tests on serum. No significant differences were found in Na(+), Ca(2+), BUN, UA, TG, creatinine, and total protein concentrations among the three groups. FBS, K(+), and UA levels were significantly lower in opium addicts compared to the control group. Serum Ca(2+) concentration of heroin addicts showed a significant decrease compared to that of the control group. Both addict groups showed a significant decrease in serum cholesterol levels. Chronic use of opium and heroin can change serum FBS, K(+), Ca(2+), UA, and cholesterol. This study, one of few on the effects of opium on serum biochemical parameters in human subjects, has the potential to contribute to the investigation of new approaches for further basic studies.

  8. Effects of Opium Addiction and Cigarette Smoking on Hematological Parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahabinejad, Gholamabbas; Sirati-Sabet, Majid; Kazemi-Arababadi, Mohammad; Nabati, Saeideh; Asadikaram, Gholamreza

    2016-07-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of opium addiction and cigarette smoking on the complete blood count (CBC). Eighty-six male subjects, including 31 opium-addicted cigarette smokers (OACS), 19 opium-addicted non-cigarette smokers (OANCS), 17 non-opium-addicted cigarette smokers (NOACS), and 19 non-opium-addicted non-cigarette smokers (NOANCS) participated in this study. The CBC test was measured in all individuals. The OACS had significantly higher white blood cell (WBC), lymphocyte, and red blood cell (RBC) count but lower in mean corpuscular volume (MCV) compared to NOANCS. The OANCS had significantly higher lymphocyte in comparison with NOACS. Our results demonstrated that the number of WBC, lymphocytes, and RBC were significantly higher, while, MCV was lower in OANCS subjects when compared to NOACS. The OACS had significantly higher level of lymphocyte in comparison with NOACS. The mean number of lymphocyte in OANCS was found significantly higher than NOACS. The smokers were shown to have significantly higher levels of WBC compared to NOANCS. Our results showed that opium-addiction, especially when associated with cigarette smoking, has intensive effects on hematological factors and these alteration might leads to greater risk for developing atherosclerosis, cardiovascular diseases, and imbalance in immune system.

  9. The opium wars revisited as US forces tobacco exports in Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, T T; Winder, A E

    1990-01-01

    The tobacco industry has lobbied successfully to obtain the support of the United States government for opening Asian Markets to American tobacco products. This paper comments on two issues arising from these efforts: the development of an atmosphere of invasion and resistance to invasion in Asia; and the change in the image of the United States in Asian nations from that of a leader in health to that of an exporter of death. The threat of sanctions and the effects of the open market and United States tobacco company advertising in Japan, Taiwan, and South Korea are noted. Parallels are drawn between the opium wars a century and a half ago in China and the current threat of trade sanctions. Reacting to American policy, an Asia-Pacific Association for Control of Tobacco has been formed and linked with the US Coalition Against Smoking. PMID:2343946

  10. The opium wars revisited as US forces tobacco exports in Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, T T; Winder, A E

    1990-06-01

    The tobacco industry has lobbied successfully to obtain the support of the United States government for opening Asian Markets to American tobacco products. This paper comments on two issues arising from these efforts: the development of an atmosphere of invasion and resistance to invasion in Asia; and the change in the image of the United States in Asian nations from that of a leader in health to that of an exporter of death. The threat of sanctions and the effects of the open market and United States tobacco company advertising in Japan, Taiwan, and South Korea are noted. Parallels are drawn between the opium wars a century and a half ago in China and the current threat of trade sanctions. Reacting to American policy, an Asia-Pacific Association for Control of Tobacco has been formed and linked with the US Coalition Against Smoking.

  11. Acute Intoxication by Transdermal Opium Application in Infants: Two Case Reports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iraj Sedighi

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Acute opium intoxication is one of the most common causes of poisoning in children in Iran. Although most cases are accidental, traditional misuse of opium for symptomatic therapy of various childhood diseases also contributes to high rate of opium intoxication in Iran. Cases: Here, we report two cases of opium intoxication in infants resulted from transdermal application of opium on burned skin. To our knowledge this is the first case report of intoxication from transdermal misuse of opium. Conclusion: Health care providers should be aware about signs and symptoms of opium intoxication in children. Opium intoxication should be suspected in each child with history of a recent burn injury that presented with decreased level of consciousness.

  12. Hallmarks of opium poisoning in infants and toddlers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamani, Nasim; Sanaei-Zadeh, Hossein; Mostafazadeh, Babak

    2010-10-01

    Accidental opium intoxication in children is an extremely dangerous poisoning if it remains undiagnosed and untreated. The classic triad of miosis, decreased level of consciousness and bradypnea, which are the hallmarks of opiate intoxication, are used for the diagnosis of opium poisoning in adults and children. Little attention has been paid to the signs of opium intoxication in children and no published study has explored the frequency of hallmarks of this type of poisoning in the paediatric population. We conducted a study in order to evaluate the prevalence of major signs of opium poisoning in infants and toddlers. In this study, a total of 228 infants and 82 toddlers who had been admitted to Loghman Hakim Hospital as a result of opium poisoning between 2001 and 2009 were evaluated, retrospectively. The most usual sign of opium poisoning was miosis (90%) followed by a decreased level of consciousness (88.4%), bradypnea (28.4%) and seizure (10.3%). The prevalence of the triad of miosis, bradypnea and a decreased level of consciousness was 25.2%. Miosis in association with decreased level of consciousness was detected in 82.6% of our patients. Bradypnea was present in 74 infants and 14 toddlers, which shows a statistically significant difference (P = 0.01). The mean age and weight of the patients with bradypnea were significantly less than those without bradypnea (P = 0.008 and P = 0.0001, respectively). Bradypnea and seizure were significantly more common in females (36.7% versus 26%; P = 0.05 and 15.2% versus 6.5%; P = 0.01, respectively). Miosis in association with a decreased level of consciousness is the most useful indicator of opium poisoning in infants and toddlers. Furthermore, seizure is a more common feature of this type of poisoning in infants, especially in those who are less than 1 month old.

  13. A comparative study of characteristics and risky behaviors among the Iranian opium and opium dross addicts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noohi, Sima; Azar, Mahyar; Behzadi, Ashkan Heshmatzade; Sedaghati, Mahsa; Panahi, Sepideh Akbari; Dehghan, Nasir; Honarbakhsh, Yasamin; Akasheh, Amirpoya; Tahoori, Armin; Wilson, Denis

    2011-03-01

    Iran ranks first per capita in the use of opiates, but we have little information about possible differences regarding the 2 most commonly used illicit drugs, namely opium and its dross (residue). This is a cross-sectional study. A cross-sectional study about drug abuse and drug dependence in Iran was conducted from April 2006 to August 2008 in the prisons of 28 Iranian provinces, in the treatment centers, and in the streets. To pursue the objectives of this research, participants included 2979 opiate addicts including opium users (n = 2636) and dross users (n = 343), who were not significantly different by gender (P = 0.269) or age (P = 0.452). An anonymous questionnaire was completed through an interview that gathered sociodemographic characteristics and information about some high-risk behaviors. : By the end of the study, we concluded that dross addicts, in comparison with opium addicts, were mostly immigrants from rural areas to urban areas (P = 0.031 χ test, 95% confidence interval [CI]), mostly uneducated, illiterate, or semiliterate (P = 0.04 χ test, 95% CI), had illegal occupations (P = 0.048 χ test, 95% CI), were cigarette smokers (P < 0.000 χ test, 95% CI), and had experienced drug injections (P = 0.032 χ test, 95% CI) and drug overdose (P = 0.007 χ test, 95% CI). They also had a history of hospital admission within the preceding year because of drug overdose (P < 0.000) and a record of being arrested and jailed in the past year (P = 0.028 χ test, 95% CI). These results indicated the need for more intensive and effective care for the opioid addicts in Iran.

  14. Lead poisoning among opium users in Iran: an emerging health hazard

    OpenAIRE

    Hayatbakhsh, Mohammad Mahdi; Oghabian, Zohreh; Conlon, Elvira; Nakhaee, Samaneh; Amirabadizadeh, Ali Reza; Zahedi, Mohammad Javad; Moghadam, Sodief Darvish; Ahmadi, Bighan; Soroush, Somayeh; Aaseth, Jan; Mehrpour, Omid

    2017-01-01

    Background Lead (Pb) poisoning among people using opium has been an increasing problem in Iran. The present study highlights the clinical effects of lead toxicity associated with opium use in Iran, Kerman province. Methods Between January 2016 and June 2016, patients with signs and symptoms of Pb poisoning were questioned to assess whether they had a history of opium dependency. In total, 249 patients were enrolled onto this cross-sectional study, all were opium dependent. Para-clinical data ...

  15. Potential Effect of Opium Consumption on Controlling Diabetes and Some Cardiovascular Risk Factors in Diabetic Patients

    OpenAIRE

    Rahimi, Najmeh; Gozashti, Mohamad Hossain; Najafipour, Hamid; Shokoohi, Mostafa; Marefati, Hamid

    2014-01-01

    Background Due to this belief that opium may have beneficial effects on diabetes or cardiovascular risk factors, the present study aimed to assess the potential and possible effects of opium consumption on diabetes control and some cardiovascular risk factors in diabetic patients. Methods This study enrolled 374 diabetic subjects from diabetes care centers in Kerman, Iran, including opium user group (n = 179) and a non-opium user group (n = 195). The data were collected through a questionnair...

  16. The Risk of Using Poppy Seed Tea Made from Several Varieties Available on the Romanian Market

    OpenAIRE

    Croitoru Mircea Dumitru; Fülöp Ibolya; Irimia-Constantin Maria-Raluca; Varga Erzsébet; Kelemen Hajnal; Fogarasi Erzsébet; Faliboga Luana-Maria

    2017-01-01

    Objective: the number of alkaloids like morphine and codeine found in poppy seeds used in food industry are monitored by a directive given by European Food Safety Authority. Based on this regulation the aim of the study was to determine the quantity of morphine and codeine from several brands of poppy seeds. Methods: an HPLC-UV method (205 nm) was developed to measure the quantity of morphine and codeine. Sample preparation was made using recipes posted on Drugs Forum by some users. Limits of...

  17. Effect of opium on glucose metabolism and lipid profiles in rats with streptozotocin-induced diabetes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sadeghian, Saeed; Boroumand, Mohammad Ali; Sotoudeh-Anvari, Maryam; Rahbani, Shahram; Sheikhfathollahi, Mahmood; Abbasi, Ali

    2009-01-01

    Background: This experimental study was performed to determine the impact of opium use on serum lipid profile and glucose metabolism in rats with streptozotocin-induced diabetes. Material and methods: To determine the effect of opium, 20 male rats were divided into control (n = 10) and opium-treated

  18. Study On Harmful Effects Of Opium On Liver And Lungs In Chronic Opium Addicts Of Western Rajasthan

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    M Kamla

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Today opium dependence is widely prevalent in certain states of India, especially Rajasthan, Punjab, Haryana, Madhya Pradesh (MP etc. In rural areas of western Rajasthan crude opium is consumed with a social acceptance by a notable proportion (8.0% of adult male population. Later on they become addicted to it.Objective: to observe the changes in some liver and lung function parameters in opium addicted subjects of Barmer city of Western Rajasthan.Methods: The present study was conducted in district hospital of Barmer, Rajasthan. Total fifty (50 adult male subjects with age ranged from 30 to 50 years were participated in this study. Among them 25 were opium addicted and were considered as study group (Group B and another 25 apparently healthy adult male of same age group were designated as control group (Group A. Opium addicts were consuming about 5–11 gm/day opium for >2 years. Then liver function tests were evaluated by estimating serum aspartate amino transferase (AST, alanine amino transferase (ALT, alkaline phosphatase and lung function tests by measuring FVC, FEV1 , FEV1/FVC% , PEF, FEF 25-75% of both the groups.Results: In this study AST, ALT and alkaline phosphatase levels were found significantly (p<.05 higher in group B as compared to those of group A. Again, FVC, FEV1, FEV1/ FVC were significantly (p<.05 lower in group B as compared to those of group A. PEF (L/sec and FEF 25-75% were also significantly (p<0.001 lower in group B as compared to those of group A.Conclusion: it is concluded that chronic long term use of opium, increases the risk of hepatic and pulmonary damage.

  19. Lead Poisoning in Opium Abuser in Iran: A Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soltaninejad, Kambiz; Shadnia, Shahin

    2018-01-01

    Substance abuse and its consequences are major health hazards in the world. Opium addiction is a common form of substance abuse in Iran. Adulteration of illegal substances in the process of production and distribution of the drug in black market with many types of materials have been reported. One of the main goals of the adulteration of illegal substances is cutting of the substance for deal and increase of the weight for more benefit. However, adding of adulterating agents to illegal drugs could be considered as a cause of nonspecific and rare toxicity during substance abuse. Although the presence of lead in street-level heroin, marijuana, and amphetamines has been reported from some countries previously, recently, several reports suggested lead poisoning in Iranian opium addicts. Adulteration of opium with lead is a new source of lead poisoning in Iran in which the opium abuse is frequent and it could be a new health problem in the future. In this regard, evaluation of blood lead level would be important for early diagnosis of lead poisoning in opium addicts. PMID:29416839

  20. Induction of apoptosis by opium in some tumor cell lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khaleghi, M; Farsinejad, A; Dabiri, S; Asadikaram, G

    2016-09-30

    The current study is aimed at investigation of the opium effects on the apoptosis of different cell lines in culture medium and compares such effects with one another. The study is carried out on over 8 cell lines (AA8, AGS, Hela, HepG2, MCF7, N2a, PC12, WEHI). A 2.86 x 10-4 g/ml opium concentration was prepared and added to the culture medium of the cell lines for 48 hours. Cytotoxicity was tested by 3-[4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl]-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay. The apoptotic effect of opium on the cell lines was analyzed by Annexin-PI test. Opium with concentration of 2.86 x 10-4 g/ml in 48 hours significantly induces apoptosis in certain cell lines (i.e. AA8, N2a, WEHI), apoptosis and necrosis in some others (i.e. Hela, HepG2, MCF7, and PC12), and also solely necrosis in the AGS cell line. One could infer that the usage of opium with different levels in different tissues leads to certain disorders in some tissues and may have therapeutic effects under distinctive conditions (i.e. unchecked growth of cells) as confirmed by the results.

  1. Lead poisoning in opium abuser in Iran: A systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kambiz Soltaninejad

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Substance abuse and its consequences are major health hazards in the world. Opium addiction is a common form of substance abuse in Iran. Adulteration of illegal substances in the process of production and distribution of the drug in black market with many types of materials have been reported. One of the main goals of the adulteration of illegal substances is cutting of the substance for deal and increase of the weight for more benefit. However, adding of adulterating agents to illegal drugs could be considered as a cause of nonspecific and rare toxicity during substance abuse. Although the presence of lead in street-level heroin, marijuana, and amphetamines has been reported from some countries previously, recently, several reports suggested lead poisoning in Iranian opium addicts. Adulteration of opium with lead is a new source of lead poisoning in Iran in which the opium abuse is frequent and it could be a new health problem in the future. In this regard, evaluation of blood lead level would be important for early diagnosis of lead poisoning in opium addicts.

  2. Opium Consumption and the Incidence of Cancer: Does Opium Account as an Emerging Risk Factor for Gastrointestinal Cancer?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alzaidi, Mohammed Azeez; Arab, Hossein Ali; Amanpour, Saeid; Shirkoohi, Reza; Muhammadnejad, Samad; Sasani, Farhang

    2018-01-24

    Some epidemiological studies have shown an association between opium consumption and the incidence of gastrointestinal (GI) cancer. The present study was designed to investigate the effects of opium on the initiation of GI cancer in rats. Forty-five rats were randomly divided into three groups; each received different treatment for 40 weeks. The rats in group 1 received purified water, while animals in group 2 were treated with 5 mg/kg diethylnitrosamine (DEN) orally for 8 weeks and continued with purified water by the end of the experiment. The third experimental group received 300 mg/kg opium for 16 weeks and then continued with 50 mg/kg phenobarbital by the end of the 40th week. The growth of tumors in the treated groups was assessed by histological changes and the up/down expression of p53, cdkn1, cdk2, e-cdh, and n-cdh genes in different parts of GI tract. Histological examinations revealed that DEN was able to induce the growth of tumor in GI tract as shown by active mitotic figure in different regions of GI system and hyperplasia of hepatocytes associated with infiltration of inflammatory cells, intestinal villous hypertrophy, and colorectal adenoma. There was also significant (p opium-treated group. The results of this study suggest that the opium does not promote the initiation of cancer in GI tract.

  3. The Risk of Using Poppy Seed Tea Made from Several Varieties Available on the Romanian Market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Croitoru Mircea Dumitru

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: the number of alkaloids like morphine and codeine found in poppy seeds used in food industry are monitored by a directive given by European Food Safety Authority. Based on this regulation the aim of the study was to determine the quantity of morphine and codeine from several brands of poppy seeds. Methods: an HPLC-UV method (205 nm was developed to measure the quantity of morphine and codeine. Sample preparation was made using recipes posted on Drugs Forum by some users. Limits of detection were not determined because the lowest concentration from the reference (0.1 μg/ml detected morphine concentrations that are far lower than a limit of toxicological concern. Results: The concentrations, which were found, ranged between Below the Level of Toxicological Concern (BLTC - 243.26 mg/kg for morphine and BLTC - 88.58 mg/kg for codeine using several methods of preparation. Conclusions: one can observe that there are some brands of poppy seeds which do not respect the regulation about the amount of morphine and codeine. The high amount of morphine in some samples suggests that there are different varieties of poppy seeds, which can be used for an illicit purpose and can lead to addiction or even overdose in some cases.

  4. The duration of spinal anesthesia with 5% lidocaine in chronic opium abusers compared with nonabusers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vosoughian, Maryam; Dabbagh, Ali; Rajaei, Samira; Maftuh, Hassan

    2007-08-01

    It has been demonstrated that chronic opium abusers have lower thresholds for pain. In this study we sought to determine whether chronic opium abuse has any effect on the duration of spinal block by local anesthetics. In a case-controlled study, 50 opium abusers and 50 nonabusers undergoing lower abdomen operations were selected from among the patients admitted to a university hospital for elective surgery. All patients received 100 mg hyperbaric preservative-free 5% lidocaine in dextrose, intrathecally. The duration of anesthesia was much shorter in the opium abusers (60 +/- 7 min) than in the nonabusers (83 +/- 10 min) (P opium abusers.

  5. Opium; an emerging risk factor for gastric adenocarcinoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shakeri, Ramin; Malekzadeh, Reza; Etemadi, Arash; Nasrollahzadeh, Dariush; Aghcheli, Karim; Sotoudeh, Masoud; Islami, Farhad; Pourshams, Akram; Pawlita, Michael; Boffetta, Paolo; Dawsey, Sanford M.; Abnet, Christian C.; Kamangar, Farin

    2013-01-01

    Opium use has been associated with higher risk of cancers of the esophagus, bladder, larynx, and lung; however, no previous study has examined its association with gastric cancer. There is also little information on the associations between hookah (water pipe) smoking or the chewing of tobacco products and the risk of gastric cancer. In a case-control study in Golestan Province of Iran, we enrolled 309 cases of gastric adenocarcinoma (118 noncardia, 161 cardia, and 30 mixed-location adenocarcinomas) and 613 matched controls. Detailed information on long-term use of opium, tobacco products, and other covariates were collected using structured and validated lifestyle and food frequency questionnaires. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) were obtained using conditional logistic regression models. Opium use was associated with an increased risk of gastric adenocarcinoma, with an adjusted OR (95% CI) of 3.1 (1.9 – 5.1), and this increased risk was apparent for both anatomic subsites (cardia and noncardia). There was a dose-response effect, and individuals with the highest cumulative opium use had the strongest association (OR: 4.5; 95%CI: 2.3-8.5). We did not find a statistically significant association between the use of any of the tobacco products and risk of gastric adenocarcinoma, overall or by anatomic subsite. We showed, for the first time, an association between opium use and gastric adenocarcinoma. Given that opium use is a traditional practice in many parts of the world, these results are of public health significance. PMID:23319416

  6. Opium: an emerging risk factor for gastric adenocarcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shakeri, Ramin; Malekzadeh, Reza; Etemadi, Arash; Nasrollahzadeh, Dariush; Aghcheli, Karim; Sotoudeh, Masoud; Islami, Farhad; Pourshams, Akram; Pawlita, Michael; Boffetta, Paolo; Dawsey, Sanford M; Abnet, Christian C; Kamangar, Farin

    2013-07-15

    Opium use has been associated with higher risk of cancers of the esophagus, bladder, larynx, and lung; however, no previous study has examined its association with gastric cancer. There is also little information on the associations between hookah (water pipe) smoking or the chewing of tobacco products and the risk of gastric cancer. In a case-control study in Golestan Province of Iran, we enrolled 309 cases of gastric adenocarcinoma (118 noncardia, 161 cardia and 30 mixed-location adenocarcinomas) and 613 matched controls. Detailed information on long-term use of opium, tobacco products and other covariates were collected using structured and validated lifestyle and food frequency questionnaires. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) were obtained using conditional logistic regression models. Opium use was associated with an increased risk of gastric adenocarcinoma, with an adjusted OR (95% CI) of 3.1 (1.9-5.1), and this increased risk was apparent for both anatomic subsites (cardia and noncardia). There was a dose-response effect, and individuals with the highest cumulative opium use had the strongest association (OR: 4.5; 95% CI: 2.3-8.5). We did not find a statistically significant association between the use of any of the tobacco products and risk of gastric adenocarcinoma, overall or by anatomic subsite. We showed, for the first time, an association between opium use and gastric adenocarcinoma. Given that opium use is a traditional practice in many parts of the world, these results are of public health significance. Copyright © 2013 UICC.

  7. The same difference: Jesusa Palancares and Poppie Nongena’s testimonies of oppression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Wenzel

    1994-05-01

    Full Text Available Two women's texts from postcolonial countries, Mexico and South Africa, on different continents show surprising correspondences in subject matter and style. Elena Poniatowska’s Hasta no verte Jesús mío (Till I meet you, my Jesus and Elsa Joubert's Die swerfjare van Poppie Nongena (The journey of Poppie Nongena examples of testimonial writing, both address issues of gender and politics in an innovative way. They combine autobiography and biography to render a dramatic account of social injustice despite their disparate backgrounds/cultures and subtle differences in style. In comparison, the texts not only affirm the validity of women’s writing and contribute to its enrichment, but also constitute a valuable contribution towards the formulation of a general feminist aesthetics. In fact, they illustrate conclusively that comparative literature fulfils a vital function in the exploration and interpretation of women's literature from different cultures.

  8. Morphine and Codeine in Oral Fluid after Controlled Poppy Seed Administration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Concheiro, Marta; Newmeyer, Matthew N.; da Costa, Jose Luiz; Flegel, Ron; Gorelick, David A.; Huestis, Marilyn A.

    2014-01-01

    Opiates are an important drug class in drug testing programs. Ingestion of poppy seeds containing morphine and codeine can yield positive opiate tests and mislead result interpretation in forensic and clinical settings. Multiple publications evaluated urine opiate concentrations following poppy seed ingestion, but only 2 addressed oral fluid (OF) results; neither provided the ingested morphine and codeine dosage. We administered two 45g raw poppy seed doses, each containing 15.7mg morphine and 3.1mg codeine, 8h apart to 17 healthy adults. All OF specimens were screened by on-site OF immunoassay Draeger DrugTest 5000, and confirmed with OF collected with Oral-Eze® device and quantified by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (1μg/L morphine and codeine limits of quantification). Specimens (n=459) were collected before and up to 32h after the first dose. All specimens screened positive 0.5h after dosing and remained positive for 0.5-13h at Draeger 20μg/L morphine cutoff. Maximum OF morphine and codeine concentrations (Cmax) were 177 and 32.6μg/L, with times to Cmax (Tmax) of 0.5-1h and 0.5-2.5h post-dose, respectively. Windows of detection after the second dose extended at least 24h for morphine and to 18h for codeine. After both doses, the last morphine positive OF result was 1h with 40μg/L 2004 proposed US Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration cutoff, and 0.5h with 95μg/L cutoff, recently recommended by the Driving Under the Influence of Drugs and Medicines project. Positive OF morphine results are possible 0.5-1h after ingestion of 15.7mg of morphine in raw poppy seeds, depending upon the cutoff employed. PMID:25345619

  9. Cholangiographic Features in Opium-Addicted Patients at a Tertiary Hospital in Iran

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammad Alizadeh, Amir Houshang; Shams Afzali, Esmaeal; Sanati, Azar; Shahnazi, Anahita; Mirsattari, Dariush; Zali, Mohammad Reza

    2012-01-01

    Background/Aims. Destructive and metabolic changes in hepatobiliary system have been demonstrated following opium use; however, cholangiographic features of bile ducts in opium-addicted patients with sphincter of Oddi dysfunction are not clearly determined. We described these differences and assessed the effects of opium use on postendoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography complications. Methodology. One hundred and nineteen patients with the diagnosis of sphinctre of Oddi dysfunction ac...

  10. Opium in Afghanistan lessons learned from the counterdrug strategies of Colombia

    OpenAIRE

    Whittenburg, Scott R.

    2009-01-01

    Approved for public release, distribution unlimited The paper conducts an analysis of the current counterdrug operation in Afghanistan and analyzes how these operations affect the counterinsurgent operations against the Taliban. This analysis will be conducted by examining the Taliban's control of opium cultivation to support their operations, determine how the people of Afghanistan rely upon the profits of opium for their livelihood, and identify possible solutions to the opium trade tha...

  11. The Comparison of Risky Decision Making in Opium Abuser and Healthy Matched Individuals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vahid Nejati

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Risky decision making is one of the most basic mechanisms of impulsive and addictive behaviors. The purpose of present study was the comparison of risky decision making in opium abuser and healthy matched individuals. Method: In present cross sectional study, 50 opium abusers compared to 50 healthy who were matched on age and gender. Balloon Analogue Risk Taking Task was used for evaluation of risk taking in participant of both groups. Results: The results showed that opium abusers have had higher scores on number of plumbing balloon and exploded balloon in BART task than normal individuals. Conclusion: Opium abusers have higher risk taking than normal individuals.

  12. The Mortality Rate of Myocardial Infraction Patients With and Without Opium Dependen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harati, Hani; Shamsi, Alireza; Firouzkouhi Moghadam, Mahboubeh; Seyed Zadeh, Fatemeh Sadat; Ghazi, Arash

    2015-09-01

    Myocardial infarction (MI) is a heart condition caused by the suspension of blood circulation in a part of the myocardium. There are different risk factors contributing to a heart attack. Some believe that endorphins and endogenous opioids play an important role in causing MIs. This study intended to determine the relationship between opium dependency and mortality rate among patients with MI. This retrospective study investigated patients who had MI for the first time and were hospitalized in the coronary care unit (CCU) of Khatamolanbia hospital in Zahedan, Iran, from 2007 to 2010. These patients were either opium dependent or not. Four hundred patients were selected. The patients' possibilities of death and re-hospitalization after the first MI were confirmed over the phone. Data was analyzed through t-test and chi-squared test. Of all the patients, 19.5% were opium-dependent. The mortality rate in the non-opium-dependent group was 5.9%, while in the dependent group this rate was 11.5% (P = 0.072). The number of re-hospitalizations due to heart problems was higher in the opium-dependent patients (P opium-dependent or non-opium-dependent. The number of re-hospitalizations due to heart problems was meaningfully higher in the opium-dependent patients; hence, educating people and training them on the destructive effects of opium, specifically in patients with heart conditions is highly recommended.

  13. Potential effect of opium consumption on controlling diabetes and some cardiovascular risk factors in diabetic patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahimi, Najmeh; Gozashti, Mohamad Hossain; Najafipour, Hamid; Shokoohi, Mostafa; Marefati, Hamid

    2014-01-01

    Due to this belief that opium may have beneficial effects on diabetes or cardiovascular risk factors, the present study aimed to assess the potential and possible effects of opium consumption on diabetes control and some cardiovascular risk factors in diabetic patients. This study enrolled 374 diabetic subjects from diabetes care centers in Kerman, Iran, including opium user group (n = 179) and a non-opium user group (n = 195). The data were collected through a questionnaire completed by interviewing, physical examination and laboratory assessment. Opium did not show any statistically significant effect on blood glucose, glycated hemoglobin (HbA1C), fasting blood sugar (FBS), low-density lipoprotein (LDL) and diastolic blood pressure. However, systolic blood pressure (SBP) and prevalence of high SBP were significantly higher in opium user group (P opium user group (P opium does not seem to have beneficial effects on diabetes control or cardiovascular risk factors. Therefore, it would not be advisable to consume opium as an anti-diabetes or cardioprotective agent.

  14. Harms caused by China's 1906-17 opium suppression intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Windle, James

    2013-09-01

    Between 1906 and 1917 China (under the Imperial and then Republican regimes) enacted a highly effective intervention to suppress the production of opium. Evidence from British Foreign Office records suggest that the intervention was centred, in many areas, upon a highly repressive incarnation of law enforcement in which rural populations had their property destroyed, their land confiscated and/or were publically tortured, humiliated and executed. Crops were forcefully eradicated and resistance was often brutally suppressed by the military. As few farmers received compensation or support for alternative livelihood creation the intervention pushed many deeper into poverty. Importantly, the repressive nature of the opium ban appears to have been a contributing factor to the fragmentation of China, highlighting the counter-productivity of repressive interventions to reduce drug crop production. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Opium use and risk of mortality from digestive diseases: a prospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malekzadeh, Masoud M; Khademi, Hooman; Pourshams, Akram; Etemadi, Arash; Poustchi, Hossein; Bagheri, Mohammad; Khoshnia, Masoud; Sohrabpour, Amir Ali; Aliasgari, Ali; Jafari, Elham; Islami, Farhad; Semnani, Shahryar; Abnet, Christian C; Pharoah, Paul D P; Brennan, Paul; Boffetta, Paolo; Dawsey, Sanford M; Malekzadeh, Reza; Kamangar, Farin

    2013-11-01

    Opium use, particularly in low doses, is a common practice among adults in northeastern Iran. We aimed to investigate the association between opium use and subsequent mortality from disorders of the digestive tract. We used data from the Golestan Cohort Study, a prospective cohort study in northeastern Iran, with detailed, validated data on opium use and several other exposures. A total of 50,045 adults were enrolled during a 4-year period (2004-2008) and followed annually until December 2012, with a follow-up success rate of 99%. We used Cox proportional hazard regression models to evaluate the association between opium use and outcomes of interest. In all, 8,487 (17%) participants reported opium use, with a mean duration of 12.7 years. During the follow-up period 474 deaths from digestive diseases were reported (387 due to gastrointestinal cancers and 87 due to nonmalignant etiologies). Opium use was associated with an increased risk of death from any digestive disease (adjusted hazard ratio (HR)=1.55, 95% confidence interval (CI)=1.24-1.93). The association was dose dependent, with a HR of 2.21 (1.57-3.31) for the highest quintile of cumulative opium use vs. no use (Ptrend=0.037). The HRs (95% CI) for the associations between opium use and malignant and nonmalignant causes of digestive mortality were 1.38 (1.07-1.76) and 2.60 (1.57-4.31), respectively. Increased risks were seen both for smoking opium and for ingestion of opium. Long-term opium use, even in low doses, is associated with increased risk of death from both malignant and nonmalignant digestive diseases.

  16. Opium Use and Risk of Mortality from Digestive Diseases -- A Prospective Cohort Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malekzadeh, Masoud M.; Khademi, Hooman; Pourshams, Akram; Etemadi, Arash; Poustchi, Hossein; Bagheri, Mohammad; Khoshnia, Masoud; Sohrabpour, Amir Ali; Aliasgari, Ali; Jafari, Elham; Islami, Farhad; Semnani, Shahryar; Abnet, Christian C.; Pharoah, Paul DP.; Brennan, Paul; Boffetta, Paolo; Dawsey, Sanford M.; Malekzadeh, Reza; Kamangar, Farin

    2017-01-01

    Background Opium use, particularly in low doses, is a common practice among adults in northeastern Iran. We aimed to investigate the association between opium use and subsequent mortality from disorders of the digestive tract. Methods We used data from the Golestan Cohort Study (GCS), a prospective cohort study in northeastern Iran, with detailed, validated data on opium use and several other exposures. A total of 50,045 adults were enrolled during a four-year period (2004–2008) and followed annually until December 2012, with a follow-up success rate of 99%. We used Cox proportional hazard regression models to evaluate the association between opium use and outcomes of interest. Results 8,487 (17%) participants reported opium use, with a mean duration of 12.7 years. During the follow-up period 474 deaths from digestive diseases were reported (387 due to gastrointestinal cancers and 87 due to nonmalignant etiologies). Opium use was associated with an increased risk of death from any digestive disease (adjusted hazard ratio (HR) = 1.55, 95% CI 1.24 – 1.93). The association was dose-dependent, with a HR of 2.21 (1.57–3.31) for the highest quintile of cumulative opium use vs. no use (Ptrend = 0.037). The hazard ratios (95% CI) for the associations between opium use and malignant and nonmalignant causes of digestive mortality were 1.38 (1.07 – 1.76) and 2.60 (1.57 – 4.31), respectively. Increased risks were seen both for smoking opium and for ingestion of opium. Conclusion Long-term opium use, even in low doses, is associated with increased risk of death from both malignant and nonmalignant digestive diseases. PMID:24145676

  17. Opium consumption and coronary atherosclerosis in diabetic patients: a propensity score-matched study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosseini, Seyed Kianoosh; Masoudkabir, Farzad; Vasheghani-Farahani, Ali; Alipour-Parsa, Saeed; Sheikh Fathollahi, Mahmood; Rahimi-Foroushani, Abbas; Hakki, Elham; Goodarzynejad, Hamidreza; Eftekhar, Hassan

    2011-11-01

    There is a traditional belief among Eastern people that opium may have ameliorating effects on cardiovascular risk factors, especially diabetes; thus, it is widely used among diabetic patients. We attempted to investigate the association of opium consumption with coronary artery disease (CAD) in diabetic patients. A cross-sectional study was conducted on diabetic patients undergoing coronary angiography in our center. Out of 1925 diabetic patients included in the study, 228 were opium users, and the remaining 1697 non-opium users were used as a pool of potential comparators. Propensity scores were used to match the 228 opium consumers with 228 matched comparators for age, sex, and smoking status. The Gensini score and extent score were respectively used to assess the angiographic severity and extent of CAD. The mean Gensini score (86.9 ± 62.7 vs. 59.6 ± 43.4, p opium user diabetic patients than in non-opium users. After adjustment for potential confounders, a dose-response relationship was observed between dose of opium and the Gensini score ( β = 0.27, p = 0.04). There were no significant differences between the routes of opium administration (inhalation vs. oral) regarding the severity and extent of CAD. In conclusion, exposure to opium in diabetic patients may be positively associated with the risk of CAD, and with the angiographically determined severity and extent of the disease. Furthermore, dosage of opium consumption may correlate with severity of CAD. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  18. Thomas de Quincey and his restless legs symptoms as depicted in "Confessions of an English Opium-Eater".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miranda, Marcelo; Williams, Anne-Marie; Garcia-Borreguero, Diego

    2010-10-15

    Thomas de Quincey, a British writer of 19th century, suffered insomnia from the age of 17 years. In his famous "Confessions of an English-Opium Eater" (1822), he described a symptomatology that could concord with restless legs syndrome long before he became addicted to opium. In this report, we analyze his clinical description and the circumstances leading to his opium addiction.

  19. Effect of opium use on short-term outcome in patients undergoing coronary artery bypass surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safaii, Nasser; Kazemi, Babak

    2010-02-01

    Data regarding the effect of opium use on short-term outcome in patients undergoing coronary artery bypass surgery are limited. We sought to assess the morbidity and in-hospital mortality of current and past users compared the data with those from nonusers of opium after coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG). This is a descriptive analytical review of prospectively collected data on 782 consecutive male patients who underwent isolated CABG between January 2005 and December 2007. Of these, 708 (90.5%) were nonusers, 56 (7.1%) were current users, and 18 (2.3%) were former opium users of more than 4 weeks. The effect of opium usage on clinical, admission, and outcome variables were analyzed. Current opium users were younger (P = 0.004) and more likely to be cigarette smokers (P = 0.0004). Other demographic characteristics, major coronary risk factors, rates of postoperative complications, intensive care unit readmission, postoperative length of stay, and in-hospital mortality did not differ among the three groups. Current opium users needed less analgesic postoperatively (P = 0.0001), were significantly less compliant with medical and dietary recommendations after discharge (P opium (P opium is a significant predictor of rehospitalization with a cardiac cause within 6 months of CABG surgery. This may be partly due to the low compliance of these patients with treatment recommendations.

  20. The Impact of Opium Consumption on Blood Glucose, Serum Lipids and Blood Pressure, and Related Mechanisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Najafipour, Hamid; Beik, Ahmad

    2016-01-01

    Aim: Substance abuse has become a universal crisis in our modern age. Among illegal substances, opium and its derivatives have been ranked second in terms of usage after cannabis in the world. In many Asian regions, the use of opium enjoys a high social acceptance; hence, some common people and even medical practitioners believe that opium lowers blood glucose and pressure and treat dyslipidemia. How much this belief is scientifically justified? Method: The results of available studies on both humans and animals searched in different search engines up to mid-2016 were integrated (78 articles). Upon the findings we try to offer a more transparent picture of the effects of opium on the mentioned factors along with the probable underlying mechanisms of its action. Results: Taken together, a variety of evidences suggest that the consumption of opium has no scientific justification for amendment of these biochemical variables. The mechanisms proposed so far for the action of opium in the three above disorders are summarized at the end of the article. Short term effects seems to be mostly mediated through central nervous system (neural and hormonal mechanisms), but long term effects are often due to the structural and functional alterations in some body organs. Conclusion: Although opium may temporarily reduce blood pressure, but it increases blood glucose and most of blood lipids. Moreover its long term use has negative impacts and thus it aggravates diabetes, dyslipidemia and hypertension. Accordingly, it is necessary to inform societies about the potential disadvantages of unauthorized opium consumption. PMID:27790151

  1. Mortality from Respiratory Diseases Associated with Opium Use – A Population Based Cohort Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahmati, Atieh; Shakeri, Ramin; Khademi, Hooman; Poustchi, Hossein; Pourshams, Akram; Etemadi, Arash; Khoshnia, Masoud; Sohrabpour, Amir Ali; Aliasgari, Ali; Jafari, Elham; Islami, Farhad; Semnani, Shahryar; Gharavi, Samad; Abnet, Christian C.; Pharoah, Paul DP; Brennan, Paul; Boffetta, Paolo; Dawsey, Sanford M.; Malekzadeh, Reza; Kamangar, Farin

    2018-01-01

    Background Recent studies have suggested that opium use may increase mortality from cancer and cardiovascular diseases. However, no comprehensive study of opium use and mortality from respiratory diseases has been published. We aimed to study the association between opium use and mortality from respiratory disease using prospectively collected data. Methods We used data from the Golestan Cohort Study (GCS), a prospective cohort study in northeastern Iran, with detailed, validated data on opium use and several other exposures. A total of 50,045 adults were enrolled from 2004 to 2008, and followed annually until June 2015, with a follow-up success rate of 99%. We used Cox proportional hazard regression models to evaluate the association between opium use and outcomes of interest. Results During the follow-up period 331 deaths from respiratory disease were reported (85 due to respiratory malignancies and 246 due to nonmalignant etiologies). Opium use was associated with an increased risk of death from any respiratory disease (adjusted hazard ratio (HR) 95% CI; 3.13 (2.42-4.04)). The association was dose-dependent with a HR of 3.84 (2.61-5.67) for the highest quintile of cumulative opium use vs. never use (Ptrendopium use and malignant and nonmalignant causes of respiratory mortality were 1.96 (1.18-3.25) and 3.71 (2.76-4.96), respectively. Conclusion Long-term opium use is associated with increased mortality from both malignant and nonmalignant respiratory diseases. PMID:27885167

  2. Classification of Opium by UPLC-Q-TOF Analysis of Principal and Minor Alkaloids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Cuimei; Hua, Zhendong; Bai, Yanping

    2016-11-01

    Opium is the raw material for the production of heroin, and the characterization of opium seizures through laboratory analysis is a valuable tool for law enforcement agencies to trace clandestine opium production and trafficking. In this work, a method for opium profiling based on the relative content of five principal and 14 minor opium alkaloids was developed and validated. UPLC-Q-TOF was adopted in alkaloid analysis for its high selectivity and sensitivity, which facilitated the sample preparation and testing. The authentic sample set consisted of 100 "Myanmar" and 45 "Afghanistan" opium seizures; based on the data set of the 19 alkaloid variables in them, a partial least squares discriminant analysis classification model was successfully achieved. Minor alkaloids were found to be vitally important for opium profiling, although combined use of both principal and minor alkaloids resulted in the best geographical classification result. The developed method realized a simple and accurate way to differentiate opium from Myanmar and Afghanistan, which may find wide application in forensic laboratories. © 2016 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  3. The Impact of Opium Consumption on Blood Glucose, Serum Lipids and Blood Pressure, and Related Mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Najafipour, Hamid; Beik, Ahmad

    2016-01-01

    Aim: Substance abuse has become a universal crisis in our modern age. Among illegal substances, opium and its derivatives have been ranked second in terms of usage after cannabis in the world. In many Asian regions, the use of opium enjoys a high social acceptance; hence, some common people and even medical practitioners believe that opium lowers blood glucose and pressure and treat dyslipidemia. How much this belief is scientifically justified? Method: The results of available studies on both humans and animals searched in different search engines up to mid-2016 were integrated (78 articles). Upon the findings we try to offer a more transparent picture of the effects of opium on the mentioned factors along with the probable underlying mechanisms of its action. Results: Taken together, a variety of evidences suggest that the consumption of opium has no scientific justification for amendment of these biochemical variables. The mechanisms proposed so far for the action of opium in the three above disorders are summarized at the end of the article. Short term effects seems to be mostly mediated through central nervous system (neural and hormonal mechanisms), but long term effects are often due to the structural and functional alterations in some body organs. Conclusion: Although opium may temporarily reduce blood pressure, but it increases blood glucose and most of blood lipids. Moreover its long term use has negative impacts and thus it aggravates diabetes, dyslipidemia and hypertension. Accordingly, it is necessary to inform societies about the potential disadvantages of unauthorized opium consumption.

  4. The Impact of opium consumption on blood glucose, serum lipids and blood pressure, and related mechanisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamid Najafipour

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available AbstractAim: Substance abuse has become a universal crisisin our modern age. Among illegal substances, opium and its derivatives have been ranked second in terms of usage after cannabis in the world. In many Asian regions, the use of opium enjoys a high social acceptance; hence, some common people and even medical practitioners believe that opium lowers blood glucose and pressure and treat dyslipidemia. How much this belief is scientifically justified? Method: The results of available studies on both humans and animals searched in different search engines up to mid-2016 were integrated (77 articles. Upon the findings we try to offer a more transparent picture of the effects of opium on the mentioned factors along with the probable underlying mechanisms of its action. Results: Taken together, a variety of evidences suggest that the consumption of opium has no scientific justification for amendment of these biochemical variables. The mechanisms proposed so far for the action of opium in the three above disorders are summarized at the end of the article. Short term effects seems to be mostly mediated through central nervous system (neural and hormonal mechanisms, but long term effects are often due to the structural and functional alterations in some body organs. Conclusion: Although opium may temporarily reduce blood pressure, but it increases blood glucose and most of blood lipids. Moreover its long term use has negative impacts and thus it aggravates diabetes, dyslipidemia and hypertension. Accordingly, it is necessary to inform societies about the potential disadvantages of unauthorized opium consumption.

  5. [Exploring the opium prohibition campaign led by LIN Ze-xu, a medical perspective].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Sun-Biao; Wang, Ping

    2013-03-01

    Opium destruction in Humen, a feat of the national hero, LIN Ze-xu turned a new page of modern history of China. In the past researches, the campaign always basically studied under a political historical background. In fact, it was also related closely to medicine. During the reign of the Dao Guang Emperor of the Qing Dynasty, there was always mentioning of the risk of doping opium and its addiction process and mechanism in his serial reports and letters to the imperial government. During this inhibition process, he took measures, such as providing the medicines to conquer the addiction of opium, asking the effective prescriptions for prohibiting opium from physicians and strove to popularize them. As viewed from a medical and historical perspective, the opium prohibition campaign led by LIN Ze-xu still reveals some enlightening significance even for the current society.

  6. Nature cures nature: Hypericum perforatum attenuates physical withdrawal signs in opium dependent rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Munasib; Subhan, Fazal; Khan, Arif-Ullah; Abbas, Muzaffar; Ali, Gowhar; Rauf, Khalid; Gilani, Anwarul Hassan

    2014-05-01

    Hypericum perforatum Linn. (Hypericaceae) (St. John's wort) attenuates opium withdrawal signs. To explore the therapeutic potential of Hypericum perforatum in the management of opium-induced withdrawal syndrome. The effect of the Hypericum perforatum hydro-ethanol extract was investigated for potential to reverse naloxone (0.25 mg/kg)-induced opium withdrawal physical signs. Rats received opium extract (80-650 mg/kg) twice daily for 8 days along with Hypericum perforatum (20 mg/kg, orally) twice daily in chronic treatment and the same single dose 1 h before induction of withdrawal syndrome in the acute treated group. Hypericum perforatum reduced stereotype jumps and wet dog shake number in the chronic treatment compared to the saline control group (F(2, 24) = 3.968, p opium withdrawal syndrome possibly through direct or indirect interaction with opioid receptors. Further study is needed to clarify its mechanism.

  7. The Effects of Maternal Opium Abuse on Fetal Heart Rate using Non-Stress Test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keikha, Fatemeh; Vahdani, Fahimeh Ghotbizadeh; Latifi, Sahar

    2016-11-01

    Opium is one of the most commonly abused opiates in developing countries including Iran. Considering the importance of maternal health on the newborn, we aimed to assess the effect of opium abuse on fetal heart rate (FHR) characteristics in a sample of pregnant women in Zahedan, Southeast Iran. This cross-sectional study was done on 100 pregnant women referring to Ali-Ibn-Abi Talib Hospital in Zahedan, during 2011-2013. The participants were divided into two groups comprising of opium abusers and healthy individuals. The participants received 500cc intravenous fluid containing dextrose and then non-stress test results were recorded for 20 minutes. We found no significant difference between the two groups with respect to their demographic characteristics. Fetal movements, variability, acceleration, and reactivity were significantly higher among addicted women (Popium abusers compared with the healthy women. Abnormal variability or oscillations of opium abuser group, mothers addicted to opium need specific prenatal care.

  8. Semen evaluation in opium addicts and non addicts: A case-control study

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    eraj Shahramian

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Opioids such as opium deteriorate sexual organs activities. The effect of opium on the spermatogenesis of men was assessed in a region where it is abused more than any opioids. Materials and methods: In this case–control study, we studied 224 subjects, divided into 2 groups: 112 opium dependant and 112 non-addicts. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of opium dependency on semen analysis. Results: There were significant differences between two groups in count, motility, morphology, viscosity and liquefaction. Conclusion: These results showed pathological effects of opium on semen analysis. This semen pathology is probably secondary to decreased testosterone production, with relative malfunction of the seminal tracts and the accessory glands.

  9. Unacceptable but Indispensable: Opium Law and Regulations in Guangdong, 1912–1936

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    Xavier Paulès

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available During most of the period from 1912 to 1936, Guangdong Province was independent from the central government. The local authorities there were facing a dilemma regarding opium, as others were elsewhere in China. On the one hand, opium was considered the symbol of China’s weakness, and its suppression was a top priority; on the other hand, opium taxes represented an indispensable source of fiscal income. Some Guangdong power holders were truly committed to a suppression agenda, especially from 1913 to 1924. During this period, with the exception of a brief interlude from 1915 to 1916, opium laws were prohibition laws. Even if these laws were not always enforced with full vigor, the drug remained illegal in Guangdong. After 1924, opium was legalized, and the authorities openly ruled an opium monopoly. They came out with increasingly comprehensive regulations, which proved successful in increasing opium revenues. Yet, as this article makes clear, there was nothing like direct government control: traditional tax-farming arrangements with local opium merchants (though under stricter supervision remained the backbone of the monopoly. The article also pays attention to the influence of the Six-Year Plan (1935–1940 launched by the Nanking government. As a credible set of suppression laws, it appealed to the Guangdong progressive elites who were hostile to opium. They urged the local autocrat Chen Jitang to take similar action. Chen made attempts to launch his own plans for suppressing opium, but they were unconvincing and nothing concrete came out of them. This article suggests that, in order to obtain a better understanding of how easily Chen Jitang was driven out of power in the summer of 1936, it is necessary to take into account the significant contribution of the Six-Year Plan in undermining his legitimacy.

  10. Opium Use and Risk of Pancreatic Cancer: A Prospective Cohort Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moossavi, Shirin; Mohamadnejad, Mehdi; Pourshams, Akram; Poustchi, Hossein; Islami, Farhad; Sharafkhah, Maryam; Mirminachi, Babak; Nasseri-Moghaddam, Siavosh; Semnani, Shahryar; Shakeri, Ramin; Etemadi, Arash; Merat, Shahin; Khoshnia, Masoud; Dawsey, Sanford M.; Pharoah, Paul D.; Brennan, Paul; Abnet, Christian C.; Boffetta, Paolo; Kamangar, Farin; Malekzadeh, Reza

    2018-01-01

    Background We examined the association between opium consumption and pancreatic cancer incidence in a large-scale prospective cohort of the general population in Northeast of Iran. Methods A total of 50,045 adults were systematically followed-up (median of 7.4 years) and incident cases of pancreatic cancer were identified. Self-reported data on opium consumption was collected at baseline. Cumulative use (-year) was defined as number of nokhods (a local unit, approximately 0.2 g) of opium consumed per day multiplied by number of years consuming. Adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for the association between opium consumption and pancreatic cancer were calculated using Cox proportional hazards regression models. Results Overall, 54 confirmed cases of pancreatic cancer were identified. Opium use of more than 81 nokhod-years (high cumulative use), compared to never use, was strongly associated with pancreatic cancer even after adjustments for multiple potential confounding factors [HR=3.01; 95% CI 1.25-7.26]. High cumulative consumption of opium was significantly associated with risk of pancreatic cancer after adjusting for cumulative dose of cigarette smoking [HR=3.56; 95% CI 1.49-8.50]. In a sensitivity analysis, we excluded participants (including 2 pancreatic cancer cases) who were recruited within the first 5 years of starting opium consumption; high cumulative use of opium was still associated with pancreatic cancer risk [HR=2.75; 95% CI 1.14-6.64]. Conclusion Our results showed a positive association between opium consumption and pancreatic cancer. Impact This is the first prospective large-scale study to show the association of opium consumption with pancreatic cancer as a risk factor. PMID:29263189

  11. Opium use during pregnancy and risk of preterm delivery: A population-based cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maghsoudlou, Siavash; Cnattingius, Sven; Montgomery, Scott; Aarabi, Mohsen; Semnani, Shahriar; Wikström, Anna-Karin; Bahmanyar, Shahram

    2017-01-01

    Use of narcotic or "recreational" drugs has been associated with adverse pregnancy outcomes such as preterm delivery. However, the associations might be confounded by other factors related to high-risk behaviours. This is the first study to investigate the association between traditional opium use during pregnancy and risk of preterm delivery. We performed a population-based cohort study in the rural areas of the Golestan province, Iran between 2008 and 2010. We randomly selected 920 women who used (usually smoked) opium during pregnancy and 920 women who did not. Logistic regression models were used to estimate odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for the associations between the opium use during pregnancy and preterm delivery and adjustment was made for potential confounding factors. This study shows compared with non-use of opium and tobacco, use of only opium during pregnancy was associated with an increased risk of preterm delivery (OR = 1.56; 95% CI 1.05-2.32), and the risk was more than two-fold increased among dual users of opium and tobacco (OR = 2.31; 95% CI 1.37-3.90). We observed that opium use only was associated with a doubled risk for preterm caesarean delivery (OR = 2.05; 95% CI 1.10-3.82) but not for preterm vaginal delivery (OR = 1.25; 95% CI 0.75-2.07). Dual use of opium and tobacco was associated with a substantially increased risk of vaginal preterm delivery (OR = 2.58; 95% CI 1.41-4.71). Opium use during pregnancy among non-tobacco smokers is associated with an increased risk of preterm caesarean delivery, indicating an increased risk of a compromised foetus before or during labour. Women who use both opium and smoked during pregnancy have an increased risk of preterm vaginal delivery, indicating an increased risk of spontaneous preterm delivery.

  12. Abrupt opium discontinuation has no significant triggering effect on acute myocardial infarction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masoomi, Mohammad; Zare, Jahangir; Nasri, Hamidreza; Mirzazadeh, Ali; Sheikhvatan, Mehrdad

    2011-04-01

    A deleterious effect of withdrawal symptoms due to abrupt discontinuation of opium on the cardiovascular system is one of the recent interesting topics in the cardiovascular field. The current study hypothesized that the withdrawal syndrome due to discontinuing opium might be an important trigger for the appearance of acute myocardial infarction. Eighty-one opium-addicted individuals who were candidates for cardiovascular clinical evaluation and consecutively hospitalized in the coronary care unit (CCU) ward of Shafa Hospital in Kerman between January and July 2009 were included in the study and categorized in the case group, including patients experiencing withdrawal symptoms within 6-12 h after the reduced or discontinued use of opium according to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-revised IV version (DSM-IV-R) criteria for opium dependence and withdrawal, and the control group, without opium withdrawal symptoms. The appearance of acute myocardial infarction was compared between the two groups using multivariable regression models. Acute myocardial infarction occurred in 50.0% of those with withdrawal symptoms and in 45.1% of patients without evidence of opium withdrawal (P = 0.669). Multivariable analysis showed that opium withdrawal symptoms were not a trigger for acute myocardial infarction adjusting for demographic characteristics, marital status, education level and common coronary artery disease risk profiles [odds ratio (OR) = 0.920, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.350-2.419, P = 0.866]. Also, daily dose of opium before reducing or discontinuing use did not predict the appearance of myocardial infarction in the presence of confounder variables (OR = 0.975, 95% CI = 0.832-1.143, P = 0.755). Withdrawal syndrome due to abrupt discontinuation of opium does not have a triggering role for appearance of acute myocardial infarction.

  13. Lead poisoning among opium users in Iran: an emerging health hazard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayatbakhsh, Mohammad Mahdi; Oghabian, Zohreh; Conlon, Elvira; Nakhaee, Samaneh; Amirabadizadeh, Ali Reza; Zahedi, Mohammad Javad; Darvish Moghadam, Sodief; Ahmadi, Bighan; Soroush, Somayeh; Aaseth, Jan; Mehrpour, Omid

    2017-10-05

    Lead (Pb) poisoning among people using opium has been an increasing problem in Iran. The present study highlights the clinical effects of lead toxicity associated with opium use in Iran, Kerman province. Between January 2016 and June 2016, patients with signs and symptoms of Pb poisoning were questioned to assess whether they had a history of opium dependency. In total, 249 patients were enrolled onto this cross-sectional study, all were opium dependent. Para-clinical data including blood lead level (BLL), demographic information, user preferences, and symptoms were obtained. The patients used either opium (83.9%), refined opium (6.4%) or a combination of both (9.7%) via ingestion (71.9%), smoking (8.4%) or a combination of both (19.7%). The overall median BLL was 80.0 μg/dL [IQR: 51.7-119.0]. The median BLL did not differ significantly between opium and refined opium users. Further, BLL was not significantly affected by the type of substance, route of use, duration of use, or daily quantity consumed. Common symptoms included abdominal pain (86.9%), constipation (75.8%), anorexia (71.5%) and nausea (54.7%). Linear regression analysis showed log of BLL was significantly associated with abdominal pain, myalgia and anorexia. The study unravelled an increase in opium-related Pb poisoning in the Kerman province. Raised awareness of this emerging Pb source and investigation of its aetiology is recommended. Pb poisoning should be considered among the primary differential diagnosis of opium users with gastrointestinal symptoms.

  14. Oral opium: an unusual cause of lead poisoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meybodi, Farid Aghaee; Eslick, Guy D; Sasani, Sanaz; Abdolhoseyni, Mohammad; Sazegar, Sasan; Ebrahimi, Farzaneh

    2012-06-01

    The number of cases of lead poisoning (LP), a widely known disease with various aetiologies, being reported globally has decreased over the years due to both limited domestic applications of lead and enforcement of stringent safety measures. However, a new presentation of lead poisoning, lead-contaminated opium (LCO), is gradually emerging in our region. This study aimed to determine the prevalence and clinical effects of lead toxicity associated with opium use. Between November 2006 and December 2007, all patients diagnosed with LP at a central laboratory in Tehran, Iran, were assessed for potential causes of poisoning. Patients with a history of LCO abuse were evaluated and recruited for the study. Overall, there were 240 patients with LP, and poisoning from LCO was diagnosed in 25 patients. The duration of addiction was between three months and 40 years, and the duration of symptoms was 28.1 ± 17.7 days. Mean blood lead levels of the patients were 145 ± 61 (range 61-323) μg/dL. The average creatinine and haemoglobin levels were 77.4 ± 8.1 μmol/L and 105 ± 25 g/L, respectively. The association between the duration of addiction and levels of lead in blood was not statistically significant (r = -0.142, p = 0.54). The most common symptoms were gastrointestinal complaints, followed by musculoskeletal complaints with muscle weakness (92%). Anorexia was also a leading complaint. The results of our study suggest that the possibility of LP should be considered with high suspicion among opium users presenting with acute abdominal symptoms.

  15. Lung disease with chronic obstruction in opium smokers in Singapore

    Science.gov (United States)

    Da Costa, J. L.; Tock, E. P. C.; Boey, H. K.

    1971-01-01

    Fifty-four opium smokers with chronic obstructive lung disease were studied for two-and-a-half years. Forty-eight patients had a cough for at least two years before the onset of inappropriate exertional dyspnoea. Fine, bubbling adventitious sounds suggesting small airway disease were heard on auscultation over the middle and lower lobes in 38 patients. The prevalence of inflammatory lung disease and chronic respiratory failure in this series is suggested as the main cause for the frequent finding of right ventricular hypertrophy and congestive heart failure. Physiological studies revealed moderate to severe airways obstruction with gross over-inflation and, in 32 patients, an additional restrictive defect probably due to peribronchiolar fibrosis. Radiological evidence of chronic bronchitis and bronchiolitis was observed in 45 patients, `pure' chronic bronchiolitis in six patients, and `widespread' emphysema in 25 patients respectively. Necropsy examinations in nine patients, however, showed destructive emphysema of variable severity in all. Chronic bronchiolitis often associated with striking bronchiolectasis was present in six cases. More severe bronchiolar rather than bronchial inflammation was noted. The heavy opium smokers had characteristic nodular shadows on chest radiography, sometimes associated with a striking reticular pattern not seen in `pure' cigarette smokers. This was due to gross pigmented dust (presumably carbon) deposition in relation to blood vessels, lymphatics, and bronchioles, and also within the alveoli. It is speculated that the initial lesion is an acquired bronchiolitis. Opium smoking induces an irritative bronchopathy favouring repeated attacks of acute bronchiolitis and eventually resulting in obliterative bronchiolitis, peribronchiolar fibrosis, chronic bronchitis, and destructive emphysema. Images PMID:5134057

  16. The association of opium dependence and postoperative complications following coronary artery bypass graft surgery: a propensity-matched study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadeghian, Saeed; Karimi, Abbasali; Dowlatshahi, Samaneh; Ahmadi, Seyed Hossein; Davoodi, Saeed; Marzban, Mehrab; Movahedi, Namvar; Abbasi, Kyomars; Tazik, Mokhtar; Fathollahi, Mahmood Sheikh

    2009-01-01

    Opium is an overwhelming public health problem in some countries. Different studies have suggested this drug as a risk factor for cardiovascular disease. Although the effect of opium on immune system, lung disease, nephropathy, stroke, and cardiac arrhythmia has been found in different studies, its effect on postoperation complications is not clear yet. The authors conducted this study to assess the effect of opium on post operation in hospital complications among patients who underwent coronary artery bypass graft. The authors retrospectively analyzed the data in this study. This study has been done at Tehran Heart Center. A total of 4,398 patients who had undergone isolated CABG were studied. Patients who fulfilled the DSM-IV-TR criteria for opium dependence (by smoking) were enrolled as Opium Dependent Patients. Also outcome variables were: Perioperative MI, septicemia, UTI, TIA, continuous coma, prolonged ventilation, pulmonary embolism, renal failure, acute limb ischemia, heart block, AF, mortality. The prevalence of opium dependence was 15.6percent among patients. The authors used a propensity matched model to analyze the relationship between opium and post operation complications. The authors adjusted opium and non-opium dependent patients in all of the baseline preoperative risk factors, so all of the matched patients were same and there was no bias in assessment. Opium dependent patients had significantly longer resource utilization. However, no significant relationship was found between opium dependence and other cardiac and non cardiac in hospital complications.

  17. Chronic Opium Treatment Can Differentially Induce Brain and Liver Cells Apoptosis in Diabetic and Non-diabetic Male and Female Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Asiabanha, Majid; Asadikaram, Gholamreza; Rahnema, Amir; Mahmoodi, Mehdi; Hasanshahi, Gholamhosein; Hashemi, Mohammad; Khaksari, Mohammad

    2011-01-01

    It has been shown that some opium derivatives promote cell death via apoptosis. This study was designed to examine the influence of opium addiction on brain and liver cells apoptosis in male and female diabetic and non-diabetic Wistar rats. This experimental study was performed on normal, opium-addicted, diabetic and diabetic opium-addicted male and female rats. Apoptosis was evaluated by TUNEL and DNA fragmentation assays. Results of this study showed that apoptosis in opium-addicted and dia...

  18. Oil content and fatty acids composition of poppy seeds cultivated in two localities of Slovakia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lančaričová Andrea

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Oil content, fatty acids profile, acid and saponification values of poppy seeds grown on two localities of the Slovak Republic were evaluated in the study. Statistically significant effects of locality, genotype and their interaction (P < 0.05 for numerous descriptors were proved by non-parametric tests. Results confirmed that variation in the analysed parameters was influenced by the colour of seeds. Ochre variety Redy contained the highest oil level in both localities (49.9 and 52.4% and linoleic acid level (74.3 and 71.6%. White-seeded Racek and Albín had the highest acid value (2.8 and 2.4% of free fatty acids and grey-seeded Malsar and blue-seeded Maratón contained the highest saponification value. Buddha, a high-morphine poppy variety, differed significantly in all monitored parameters. High negative interrelation between linoleic and oleic acids levels was observed. Oil content was positively correlated with linoleic acid and negatively with oleic acid. Weather conditions at the end of vegetation influenced the accumulation of oil and essential linoleic acid.

  19. Effect of unconventional oilseeds (safflower, poppy, hemp, camelina) on in vitro ruminal methane production and fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shaopu; Kreuzer, Michael; Braun, Ueli; Schwarm, Angela

    2017-08-01

    Dietary supplementation with oilseeds can reduce methane emission in ruminants, but only a few common seeds have been tested so far. This study tested safflower (Carthamus tinctorius), poppy (Papaver somniferum), hemp (Cannabis sativa), and camelina (Camelina sativa) seeds in vitro using coconut (Cocos nucifera) oil and linseed (Linum usitatissimum) as positive controls. All the tested oilseeds suppressed methane yield (mL g -1 dry matter, up to 21%) compared to the non-supplemented control when provided at 70 g oil kg -1 dry matter, and they were as effective as coconut oil. Safflower and hemp were more effective than linseed (21% and 18% vs. 10%), whereas the effects of poppy and camelina were similar to linseed. When methane was related to digestible organic matter, only hemp and safflower seeds and coconut oil were effective compared to the non-supplemented control (up to 11%). The level of methanogenesis and the ratios of either the n-6:n-3 fatty acids or C 18 :2 :C 18 :3 in the seed lipids were not related. Unconventional oilseeds widen the spectrum of oilseeds that can be used in dietary methane mitigation. In vivo confirmation of their methane mitigating effect is still needed, and their effects on animal performance still must be determined. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  20. Determination of seed and oil properties of some poppy (Papaver somniferum L. varieties

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    Atalay, Çigdem

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Physical and chemical properties of seven poppy varieties (2001 mavi hat, Ankara 94, Kocatepe 96, Kemerkaya, Karahisar 96, S¸uhut 94, Afyon Kalesi 95 were investigated.Weight of 1000 seeds, moisture, crude protein, crude ash, crude fibre, HCl-insoluble ash, crude energy and crude oil contents of all seven varities of poppy seeds were established between 0.29-0.429 g, 3.39-4.76%, 11.94- 13.58%, 4.92-6.25%, 22.63-30.08%, 0.72-1.68%, 6367.0- 6740.5 kcal/100g and 32.43-45.52%, respectively. P,Ca, K, Mg, Na and Fe contents were established in the samples. Free fatty acid, iodine value, refractive index, unsaponifiable material, saponification number, pH and tocopherol contents of these 7 poppy seed oils were measured.The poppy seed oils contained an appreciable amount of β-tocopherol (309.5 ppm-567.3 ppm. Stearic, palmitic, oleic, linoleic and linolenic were determined as the main fatty acids. Poppy seed and oil having high nutritive value were recommended for processing as healthy food products. Linoleic acid was established as the dominant fatty acid in all varieties.Se han investigado las propiedades físicas y químicas de siete variedades de amapolas (2001 mavi hat, Ankara 94, Kocatepe 96, Kemerkaya, Karahisar 96, S¸uhut 94, Afyon Kalesi 95. El peso de 1000 semillas, humedad, proteína cruda, ceniza cruda, fibra cruda, ceniza insoluble en HCl, energía cruda y contenido de aceite crudo de todas las variedades de semilla se establecieron entre 0,29-0,429 g, 3.39- 4.76%, 11.94-13.58%, 4.92-6.25%, 22.63-30.08%, 0.72- 1.68%, 6367.0-6740.5 kcal/100g y 32.43-45.52%, respectivamente. También se determinaron los contenidos en P, Ca, K, Mg, Na y Fe en las muestras. Los ácidos grasos libres, índice de iodo, índice de refracción, materia insaponificable, índice de saponificación, pH y contenido en tocoferoles de estos siete aceites de semilla de amapola han sido medidos. Estos aceites de semilla contuvieron una cantidad apreciable de

  1. Exfoliative cytology of oral mucosa among smokers, opium addicts and non-smokers: a cytomorphometric study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashemipour, Maryam Alsadat; Aghababaie, Mahbobeh; Mirshekari, Toraj Reza; Asadi-Shekaari, Majid; Tahmasbi-Arashlow, Mehrnaz; Tahmasbi-Arashlow, Farzad; Gandjalikhan Nassab, Sayed Amir Hossein

    2013-12-01

    The present study was conducted to evaluate keratinization as well as nuclear and cytoplasmic changes of oral epithelial cells among smokers, opium addicts and non-smokers through exfoliative cytology technique. Smears of buccal mucosa and mouth floor were collected from 300 males (100 smokers, 100 opium addicts and 100 non-smokers). The nucleus and cytoplasm sizes were determined using image analysis software. Data was analyzed with Mann-Whitney test and Student's t-test on SPSS version 13 statistical software. Statistical significance was defined as P opium addicts and non-smokers in different age groups. The mean size of the nucleus compared to that of cytoplasm was significantly higher in smokers and opium addicts compared to non-smokers after correction for age. The results of this study indicate different rates of epithelial cell keratinization in oral cavity among smokers, opium addicts and non-smokers. Also, our results suggest a possible relationship between the number of cigarettes per day, daily opium consumption and an increase in the rate of cellular proliferation of oral mucosal cells. The present study indicated a decrease in cellular diameter as well as an increase in nuclear diameter and nuclear/cytoplasmic ratio in smears taken from both smokers and opium addicts compared to non-smokers.

  2. Opium could be considered an independent risk factor for lung cancer: a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masjedi, Mohammad Reza; Naghan, Parisa Adimi; Taslimi, Shervin; Yousefifard, Mahmoud; Ebrahimi, Seyyed Meisam; Khosravi, Adnan; Karimi, Shirin; Hosseini, Mostafa; Mortaz, Esmaeil

    2013-01-01

    Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer-related death worldwide, and half of all incident lung cancers are believed to occur in the developing countries, including Iran. We investigated the association of opium with the risk of lung cancer in a case-control study. We enrolled 242 cases and 484 matched controls in this study. A questionnaire was developed, containing questions on basic demographic characteristics, as well as lifelong history of smoking cigarettes, exposure to passive smoking, opium use and alcohol consumption. For smoking cigarettes and opium and also oral opium intake frequency, duration and cumulative use were categorized into three groups: no use, low use and high use. Conditional logistic regression was used to calculate the odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Multivariate analysis in men showed that after adjusting for the effect of ethnicity, education and pack years of smoking cigarettes, smoking opium remained as a significant independent risk factor with an OR of 3.1 (95% CI 1.2-8.1). In addition, concomitant heavy smoking of cigarettes and opium dramatically increased the risk of lung cancer to an OR of 35.0 (95% CI 11.4-107.9). This study demonstrated that smoking opium is associated with a high risk of lung cancer as an independent risk factor. Copyright © 2012 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  3. Cholangiographic Features in Opium-Addicted Patients at a Tertiary Hospital in Iran

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    Amir Houshang Mohammad Alizadeh

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims. Destructive and metabolic changes in hepatobiliary system have been demonstrated following opium use; however, cholangiographic features of bile ducts in opium-addicted patients with sphincter of Oddi dysfunction are not clearly determined. We described these differences and assessed the effects of opium use on postendoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography complications. Methodology. One hundred and nineteen patients with the diagnosis of sphinctre of Oddi dysfunction according to the Geenen-Hogan classification were studied. Eight patients were confirmed opium-addicted and others were nonaddicted. Change of serum amylase concentrations after endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography and clinical diagnosis of addicted and non-addicted patients were compared. Results. Serum concentrations of liver aminotransferases and alkaline phosphatase were similar between the two groups. Serum concentration of amylase before endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography was similar between them, whereas concentration of this enzyme was higher in nonaddicted ones after endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography. Regarding pathologic changes in papilla, opium addiction group in comparison with control group statistically showed more tumoral features (25.0% versus 5.4% and ulcerated changes (12.5% versus 0.0%. Conclusions. Opium use can increase probability of papilla ulcerative and tumoral changes in patients with sphinctre of Oddi dysfunction. Postendoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography serum amylase level may be reduced following opium addiction.

  4. Mortality from respiratory diseases associated with opium use: a population-based cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahmati, Atieh; Shakeri, Ramin; Khademi, Hooman; Poutschi, Hossein; Pourshams, Akram; Etemadi, Arash; Khoshnia, Masoud; Sohrabpour, Amir Ali; Aliasgari, Ali; Jafari, Elham; Islami, Farhad; Semnani, Shahryar; Gharravi, Abdolsamad; Abnet, Christian C; Pharoah, Paul D P; Brennan, Paul; Boffetta, Paolo; Dawsey, Sanford M; Malekzadeh, Reza; Kamangar, Farin

    2017-11-01

    Recent studies have suggested that opium use may increase mortality from cancer and cardiovascular diseases. However, no comprehensive study of opium use and mortality from respiratory diseases has been published. We aimed to study the association between opium use and mortality from respiratory disease using prospectively collected data. We used data from the Golestan Cohort Study, a prospective cohort study in northeastern Iran, with detailed, validated data on opium use and several other exposures. A total of 50 045 adults were enrolled from 2004 to 2008, and followed annually until June 2015, with a follow-up success rate of 99%. We used Cox proportional hazard regression models to evaluate the association between opium use and outcomes of interest. During the follow-up period, 331 deaths from respiratory disease were reported (85 due to respiratory malignancies and 246 due to non-malignant aetiologies). Opium use was associated with an increased risk of death from any respiratory disease (adjusted HR 95% CI 3.13 (2.42 to 4.04)). The association was dose-dependent with a HR of 3.84 (2.61 to 5.67) for the highest quintile of cumulative opium use versus never use (P trend opium use and malignant and non-malignant causes of respiratory mortality were 1.96 (1.18 to 3.25) and 3.71 (2.76 to 4.96), respectively. Long-term opium use is associated with increased mortality from both malignant and non-malignant respiratory diseases. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  5. The Effects of Opium Addiction on the Immune System Function in Patients with Fungal Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayatollahi-Mousavi, Seyyed Amin; Asadikaram, Gholamreza; Nakhaee, Nouzar; Izadi, Alireza; Keikha, Nasser

    2016-01-01

    The use of narcotics such as opium exposes addicts as susceptible targets of different diseases so that they might easily be exposed to different diseases such as fungal infections. The present study aimed to investigate the effects of addiction to opium and fungal infection on plasma levels of certain cytokines including interleukin-4 (IL-4), IL-6, IL-17, Interferon gamma (IFN-γ) and transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β). Present study included 72 individuals who were divided into 4 groups: 1) opium-addicted with fungal infection; 2) opium-addicted without fungal infection; 3) non-opium-addicted with fungal infection; and 4) normal individuals (non-opium-addicted and non-fungal infection). The fungal samples, after being detected and confirmed by a physician, were prepared based on clinical symptoms and then analyzed by direct smear and culture method. The measurement of the plasma level of cytokines was done by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) method. The comparison of the mean of the plasma level of cytokines showed that addiction to opium and fungal infection had significant effect on the plasma levels of IL-17, IFN-γ, TGF-β cytokines in all studied groups. The interaction of addiction to opium and fungal infection was only significant in the case of plasma level of IL-6. Addiction to opium and fungal infection, either separately or simultaneously, poses significant effect on the immune system and causes disorders in the cytokine network and the immune system and also provides a suitable environment for fungal infection.

  6. Use of opium as antiepileptic in patient with frontal lobe epilepsy: A case report

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    Naresh Nebhinani

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Frontal lobe epilepsy (FLE manifests with brief, nocturnal seizures arising in the frontal lobe along with unusual behavioral symptoms or postures, frequently misdiagnosed as a psychogenic nonepileptic seizure (PNES or a sleep disorder. Ancient literature has rarely mentioned the antiepileptic effect of opium or different opioids. Here we are presenting a case with FLE, though initially diagnosed PNES, who had significant relief in his symptoms on using opium, and this led to opium dependence. Index case further emphasizes concern and caution as misdiagnosis of FLE may lead to substance dependenc.

  7. Des roues pour le robot Poppy Torso : 2ème édition du projet étudiant de l'ENSAM

    OpenAIRE

    Schindowsky, Kelian

    2017-01-01

    Toujours sur la thématique THEMA du projet de l’an dernier, de nouveaux étudiants en Bachelor 2 de technologie de l’ENSAM (Talence) ont pu travailler sur le robot Poppy Torso, dont l’objectif cette fois-ci était de le doter d’une plateforme mobile.; Poppy Torso augmenté de l'ENSAM, le retour. Toujours sur la thématique THEMA du projet de l'an dernier, de nouveaux étudiants en Bachelor 2 de technologie de l'ENSAM (Talence) ont pu travailler sur le robot Poppy Torso, dont l'objectif cette fois-...

  8. The medieval Persian manuscript of Afyunieh: the first individual treatise on the opium and addiction in history.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moosavyzadeh, Abdolali; Ghaffari, Farzaneh; Mosavat, Seyed Hamdollah; Zargaran, Arman; Mokri, Azarakhsh; Faghihzadeh, Soghrat; Naseri, Mohsen

    2018-03-01

    According to historical evidence, the abuse of opium has been reported all over the globe-specifically throughout Eastern nations-since the sixteenth century. Before that, opium had mostly been applied as medication. Reference has been made in traditional Persian medical literature to the method of cultivation, properties, side effects and toxicity. In sixteenth century Iran, during the reign of the Safavids, opium abuse began. It was from then that prominent Persian scholars started to think of solutions to this societal problem. One of the most famous scholars was Imad al-Din Mahmud ibn Mas'ud Shirazi, who composed a book concerning addiction-Afyunieh, a comprehensive book on the topic of opium and all issues of opium. Furthermore, he recommended methods for reducing opium dose as well as substitution with other medications that had a narrower range of side effects, in order to eradicate dependency upon opium and opium-derived materials. This is most likely the first book that comprehensively addressed opium and discussed drug rehabilitation methodology, in traditional Persian medical literature. In this historical review, the authors have introduced the book Afyunieh, which presents methods for treating addiction to and giving up opium; the text comprises a synthesis of the author's opinions, professional experience and references to the work of other famous physicians. Copyright © 2018 Shanghai Changhai Hospital. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. The plasma levels of the cytokines in opium-addicts and the effects of opium on the cytokines secretion by their lymphocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nabati, Saeedeh; Asadikaram, Gholamreza; Arababadi, Mohammad Kazemi; Shahabinejad, Gholamabbas; Rezaeian, Mohsen; Mahmoodi, Mehdi; Kennedy, Derek

    2013-04-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of opium addiction on the secretion of IL-4, IFN-γ, IL-6 and TGF-β under in vivo and in vitro conditions. The blood samples were collected and PBMCs were cultured in RPMI1640 with and without opium for 48 h. The levels of the cytokines were measured using ELISA technique. The results showed that plasma levels of IL-4 and IFN-γ were significantly lower and IL-6 and TGF-β were higher in plasma taken from opium-addicted subjects. The concentrations of all the cytokines in opium-addicted subjects in in vitro condition were significantly lower than the control group. Addicted subjects cultured lymphocytes significantly decrease secreted IL-4, IL-6 and TGF-β but not IFN-γ in response to being cultured with opium, where as IFN-γ was increased in controls. These results may explain the frequent microbial infections and an increased tumor incidence seen in addicted patients. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Acute Cerebellitis Following Opium Intoxication: A Case Report and Literature Review

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    Firozeh Hosseini

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Acute cerebellitis (AC is a rare potentially life-threatening condition in children. Some viral infections, vaccines and neuroimmunologic disorders are the most common causes of AC. Opium poisoning is an unusual cause of this condition. Case presentation A 2-year-old girl was referred with loss of consciousness. She was ataxic just a few minutes after opium ingestion and after 1 hour, she became unconscious. We only found pinpoint pupils. After naloxone drip, her condition had been better but she was still obtunded and her urine was positive for opium products (morphine. MRI of the brain showed marked bilateral cerebellar swelling that respond to high-dose steroid dramatically. Conclusion This case shows that opium intoxication should be considered as a rare cause of acute cerebellitis in children.

  11. Comparison of Emotion Recognition and Mind Reading Abilities in Opium Abusers and Healthy Matched Individuals

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    Vahid Nejati

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The purpose of this study is to compare the emotion recognition and mind reading in opium abusers and healthy individuals. Method: In this causative-comparative study, with a non probability sampling method, 30 opium abusers compared with 30 healthy individuals that were matched in sex and education. Neurocognitive tests of reading mind from eyes and emotion recognition from face were used for evaluation. Independent T-Test was used for analysis. Findings: The results showed that opium abusers had significantly lower abilities in mind reading than healthy matched individuals. Also opium abusers had significantly lower performance in recognition of emotional experience of happy, sad and angry faces. Conclusion: Based on weak performance of mind reading and emotion recognition in addicts, it is advised that social cognition evaluation considered in drug abusers evaluation. Future interventional study could propose social cognition rehabilitation programs for addicts.

  12. Travelling Through a Sea of Poppies: from the Geographical to the Cultural Frontier

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisabetta Zurru

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The paper focuses on the relation between the concepts of geographical and cultural frontiers, using Sea of Poppies (2008, Amitav Ghosh’s last novel, as a case study. Indeed, the journey of the ship Ibis from the Gulf of Bengal to the Mauritius islands provides the backdrop against which the theme of the crossing of religious, social and caste boundaries is developed: as the Ibis crosses the frontier which divides India from the Mauritius, the men and women on board, embodiments of both colonizing and colonized values, are subjected to a series of (religious, linguistic, social negotiation processes. The aim of the paper will be to analyze some of these processes in order to show that in the novel negotiation and contamination become synonymic with cultural resource and new beginnings.

  13. Risks of herbalism: a case report of Mexican poppy (Argemone mexicana L induced liver toxicity

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    Carlos Alfredo Meléndez González

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The increasing consumption of alternative medicines has lead to a greater awareness about the deleterious effects and interactions that these products can induce. Consequently, medical literature reports liver toxicity from Aloe, Camellia sinensis (green tea, Rhammus purshianus, Aesculus hippocastanum (buckeye and Valeriana officinalis (valerian, among others. This article reports a female patient who twice consumed Mexican poppy (Argemone mexicana L with a one-year interval between ingestions. Both times she developed diarrhea, jaundice and general malaise with impaired liver function tests. Other causes of liver disease were ruled out. Questionnaires were used to assess the possibility of drug-induced liver damage. Clinical information was collected from the patient’s medical record and the literature on the subject was reviewed. We conclude that, at least in this case, the most likely cause of liver toxicity was Argemone mexicana L consumption.

  14. Cold pressed poppy seed oils: sensory properties, aromatic profiles and consumer preferences

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    Emir, D. D.

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The sensory descriptions, aromatic profiles and consumer preferences of poppy seed oils produced from three poppy varieties (ofis3, ofis4, and ofis8 by cold pressing were studied. Roasting and enzyme treatments were applied to the seeds prior to cold pressing. In addition, 75 different volatiles were quantified by GC-MS analysis. A flavor profile analysis was made with 9 panelists and 12 terms were identified for the description of the oil. The results shown that, only earthy term scores were different among the seed varieties, while treatments have caused differences in roasted, hazelnut, hay and sweet aromatic terms. Roasting and enzyme treatments decreased hay and increased sweet aromatic values. The enzyme treatment of the poppy seeds enhanced fermented and waxy scores in the cold press oils. 1-hexanol, 2-heptanone, 2-pentanone, 2-pentyl furan, 3-ethyl- 2-methyl 1,3-hexadiene, 2-(dimethylamino-3-phenylbenzo[b]thiophene, 3-octen-2-one, 4-hydroxyphenylacetic acid, alpha-pinene, limonene, dimethyl sulfone, mercaptoacetic acid, hexanal and nonanal were quantified as the major volatiles in all treatment groups. Consumer test results indicated that roasted samples are more liked, and the yellow (ofis4 roasted sample was identified as the most preferred (53.55% oil by consumers. This study provides the first sensory descriptive definitions and consumer preferences for poppy seed oils.En este trabajo, se analizan las descripciones sensoriales, perfiles aromáticos y preferencias de los consumidores de aceites de semillas de amapola producidosmediante prensado en frío a partir de tres variedades (ofis3, ofis4, y ofis8.Previo al prensado en frío, a las semillas se aplicóuna fase de tostado y un tratamiento enzimático. Además del análisis GC-MS donde se cuantificaron 75 compuestos volátiles, el perfil del sabor,realizado con 9 panelistas,logra identificar 12 términos descriptores. Los resultados muestran que, solamente la puntuación del t

  15. Lessons in ambivalence: The Shanghai Municipal Council's opium policies, 1906-1917.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yong-An; Du, Yilun

    2016-11-01

    Shanghai was considered to be a "capital of opium" in modern China, hence the history of opium in the city has received significant attention. In the Shanghai International Settlement, where Chinese and foreigners lived as neighbours, drugs were considered by the administration as both "trouble maker", and important financial resource. This paper explores how the Shanghai Municipal Council (SMC), the most senior governing body in the settlement, used its position to maximize political and economic profit from the trade and consumption of opium. The paper is based on documentary analysis of records of the SMC board meetings and other related material stored at Shanghai Municipal Archives. Interpretive approaches were used to analyze the shifting SMC strategies on opium consumption, the competing power relations and the way they were negotiated between actors with a stake in the region, including semi-colonialism and world systems analysis. With the dual purpose of preventing damage and enhancing municipal management, the SMC introduced a licensing system permitting the consumption and trade of drugs. However, the anti-opium policies of the late Qing government and the Anglo-Chinese 10 Year Agreement meant SMC had to shut down opium "houses" (opium dens) and "shops" (for the sale of opium to be consumed off the premises). Over almost a decade, the SMC shifted emphasis from political regulation of a social, recreational practice to maximizing financial benefit. In the process, SMC made full use of the opportunities it gained from a period of ambivalent Chinese and British power relations and local community rule. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Serum markers of inflammation and oxidative stress in chronic opium (Taryak) smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghazavi, Ali; Mosayebi, Ghasem; Solhi, Hassan; Rafiei, Mohammad; Moazzeni, Seyed Mohammad

    2013-06-01

    A relationship between the expression of inflammation markers, oxidative stress and opium use has not been clearly established. This study was done to determine serum high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP), quantity of C3 and C4 complement factors, immunoglobulins, nitric oxide (NO) and total antioxidant capacity (TAC) in opium smokers and non-drug-using control participants. The present study was done on 44 male opium smokers and 44 controls of the same sex and age (20-40 years). The control group was healthy individuals with no lifetime history of drug abuse or dependence. All of the opium abusers were selected from those who had a history of opium use, for at least one year, with a daily opium dosage not less than 2g. Addicts known to abuse alcohol or other drugs were excluded. Serum hs-CRP concentration was measured using ELISA method and serum C3, C4 and immunoglobulins concentration were determined by Single Radial Immunodiffusion (SRID) method. NO production was estimated through Griess reaction and TAC was assessed by Ferric Reducing/Antioxidant Power (FRAP) test. Serum hs-CRP, complement factors (C3 and C4) and FRAP levels were significantly higher in the opium smokers (8.93 ± 1.93; 138.47 ± 13.39; 68.79 ± 7.02 and 972.75 ± 11.55, respectively) relative to the control group (0.72 ± 0.09; 93.36 ± 8.73; 33.08 ± 7.39 and 761.95 ± 18.61, respectively). These results permit us to conclude that opium smokers indeed present with a low to moderate grade inflammation, which is defined by an increase in acute phase proteins. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Opium can differently alter blood glucose, sodium and potassium in male and female rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karam, Gholamreza Asadi; Rashidinejad, Hamid Reza; Aghaee, Mohammad Mehdi; Ahmadi, Jafar; Rahmani, Mohammad Reza; Mahmoodi, Mehdi; Azin, Hosein; Mirzaee, Mohammad Reza; Khaksari, Mohammad

    2008-04-01

    To determine the effects of opium on serum glucose, potassium and sodium in male and female Wistar rat, opium solution (60 mg/kg) injected intraperitoneally and the same volume of distilled water was used as control (7 rats in each group). Blood samples were collected at 0, 30, 60, 120, 240 and 360 minutes after injection from orbit cavity and the values of serum glucose, sodium (Na(+)) and potassium (K(+)) were measured. The data were then analyzed by the repeated measure ANOVA based on sex and case-control group. P opium solution injection, in female rats compared to a control group. However, the male rats had this rise at 30, 60 and 120 minutes after opium solution injection compared to control group. While serum glucose in male rats was significantly higher than females at 30, 60 and 120 minutes, this value was higher in the female rats at 360 minutes. Therefore, serum glucose alterations following opium injection was significantly different in groups and in the sexes at different times. Sodium (Na(+)) rose at 60, 240 and 360 minutes significantly in all rats compared to control group. However, sodium alteration following opium injection was significantly different only between treated and control groups but sex-independent at all times. Potassium (K(+)) increased significantly at 60, 120, 240 and 360 minutes in male rats, compared to a control group. In female rats K(+) significantly raised at 30, 120, 240 and 360 minutes. Therefore, the alteration of K(+) in male and female rats was found time dependent and sex independent. According to our results, opium increased serum glucose in male and female rats differently, and it interferes with metabolic pathways differently on a gender dependent basis. Opium raised serum Na(+) and K(+), thus it interfere with water regulation and blood pressure via different mechanism.

  18. Is opium addiction a risk factor for ischemic heart disease and ischemic stroke?

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    Mohammad Reza Rezvani

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The main source of studies about effects of opium consumption on heart and brain attacks originates from Iran Therefore the aim of the present study was to assess opium addiction as a probable influencing factor for ischemic heart disease and ischemic stroke. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was carried out in two Cardiology and Neurology clinics in Eastern Iran in 2011. Diagnosis of Ischemic Heart Disease (IHD and Ischemic Stroke (IS was made by Cardiologist and Stroke Neurologist respectively. The influence of gender, hypertension, diabetes, hyperlipidemia, cigarette smoking, oral and inhaled opium consumption on distribution of IHD and IS were evaluated. Results: Five hundred fifty eight patients (307 females, 251 males with mean age 56.2 years enrolled the study. On adjusted odds ratios of our whole 558 patients, only hypertension and diabetes had a significant influence on occurrence of IHD; (P = 0.000 and P = 0.000 respectively. Oral and inhaled routes of opium addiction did not have a significant effect on occurrence of IHD; [OR = 1.172, 95% CI = 0.624-2.203, P = 0.621] and [OR = 1.820, 95% CI = 0.811-4.085, P = 0.147] respectively. Hypertension and diabetes were significant risk factors of IS in our 558 patients at multivariate analysis; (P = 0.000, P = 0.020. Oral opium addiction was as significant protective factor of IS in our study group; OR = 0.211, 95% CI = 0.079-0.564, P = 0.002, while inhaled opium addiction did not have a significant effect on occurrence of IS in our patients at; OR = 1.760, 95% CI = 0.760-4.076, P = 0.187. Conclusion: Oral opium consumption is a protective factor of IS but not IHD. Inhaled opium addiction does not have a significant influence on occur r ence of IS and IHD.

  19. Is opium addiction a risk factor for ischemic heart disease and ischemic stroke?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezvani, Mohammad Reza; Ghandehari, Kavian

    2012-10-01

    The main source of studies about effects of opium consumption on heart and brain attacks originates from Iran Therefore the aim of the present study was to assess opium addiction as a probable influencing factor for ischemic heart disease and ischemic stroke. A cross-sectional study was carried out in two Cardiology and Neurology clinics in Eastern Iran in 2011. Diagnosis of Ischemic Heart Disease (IHD) and Ischemic Stroke (IS) was made by Cardiologist and Stroke Neurologist respectively. The influence of gender, hypertension, diabetes, hyperlipidemia, cigarette smoking, oral and inhaled opium consumption on distribution of IHD and IS were evaluated. Five hundred fifty eight patients (307 females, 251 males) with mean age 56.2 years enrolled the study. On adjusted odds ratios of our whole 558 patients, only hypertension and diabetes had a significant influence on occurrence of IHD; (P = 0.000 and P = 0.000) respectively. Oral and inhaled routes of opium addiction did not have a significant effect on occurrence of IHD; [OR = 1.172, 95% CI = 0.624-2.203, P = 0.621] and [OR = 1.820, 95% CI = 0.811-4.085, P = 0.147] respectively. Hypertension and diabetes were significant risk factors of IS in our 558 patients at multivariate analysis; (P = 0.000, P = 0.020). Oral opium addiction was as significant protective factor of IS in our study group; OR = 0.211, 95% CI = 0.079-0.564, P = 0.002, while inhaled opium addiction did not have a significant effect on occurrence of IS in our patients at; OR = 1.760, 95% CI = 0.760-4.076, P = 0.187. Oral opium consumption is a protective factor of IS but not IHD. Inhaled opium addiction does not have a significant influence on occurrence of IS and IHD.

  20. Evaluation of Bladder Cancer in Opium Addicted Patients in the Kerman Province, Iran, from 1999 to 2003

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    A Ketabchi

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: It seems that there may be a relation between opium addiction and bladder cancer. This study has been performed to find this relationship in Kerman province.
    Methods: We evaluated opium addiction in 150 patients with bladder cancer (study group and150 tumor-free patients (control group and compared them by two-tailed t-test and X2 test.
    Results: The rate, duration, amounts and methods of opium abusing in the study group were significantly higher than control group.
    Conclusion: The results suggest that the carcinogenic effects of opium addiction may be related to the amount, duration and the method of opium abuse.
    Keywords: bladder tumor, addiction, opium

  1. The Construction and Validation of Opium Attitude Questionnaire among Guidance and High School Students

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    Ali Mohammad Rezaee

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The study was aimed to determine the validity and reliability of opium attitudes questionnaire. Method: 6108 of guidance school (3th grades and high school students filled the opium attitude questionnaire in all of the country. The validity of questionnaire assessed by group discrimination and confirmatory factor analysis method. Results: the results of group discrimination showed that the questions can be discriminated of past and current opium addicts and normal groups. On the basis of factor analysis results 5 factors extracted. These factors with consideration of literature review and loaded items content named: interest to consume, attitude to dangers, attitude to physiological effects, attitude to psychic effects, attitude to social effects to opium. Reliability of subscales examined by Cronbakh’s alpha. The minimum measure of reliability was 0.77 and maximum was 0.86. Altogether, the validity and reliability of questionnaire were satisfied. Conclusion: On the basis of present research results, opium attitude questionnaire is appropriate for assessing of students’ attitude to opium among guidance and high school students.

  2. Opium addiction in patients with coronary artery disease: a grounded theory study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farahani, Mansoureh A; Ghaffari, Fatemeh; Seyed Fatemi, Naiemeh

    2015-01-01

    Background: There are widespread misconceptions about the positive effects of opium on coronary artery disease (CAD). Thus, we performed a study to explore the opium addiction process contributing factors among CAD patients using a grounded theory approach. Methods: The sample comprised 30 addicted CAD patients and their family members, physicians, nurses and friends. Purposive and theoretical sampling was employed; semi-structured interviews were conducted. Coding and constant comparative analysis techniques were as proposed by Strauss and Corbin (1998). Results: The core category was ‘Fighting for Survival’, comprising three main themes, namely, ‘the gateway’, ‘blowing into the fire’ and ‘getting stuck in the mud’. Conclusion: Increasing knowledge about the adverse effects of opium on the cardiovascular system would reinforce prevention and rehabilitation measures. Involving patients’ family-members in addiction prevention and rehabilitation programs and referring patients to specialized rehabilitation centres could help patients quit opium. Healthcare providers (HCPs) should notice to the effects of opium consumption among CAD patients; nursing care must be holistic in nature. Although opium is stigmatised in Iran, HCPs must treat addicted CAD patients similar to other patients. Nursing students’ must be aware of the negative effects of illegal drugs on CAD patients and the misconceptions regarding the positive effects thereof. Any misconceptions must be probed and clarified. Rehabilitation centres must be supervised by cardiologists and HCPs. PMID:26793658

  3. Effect of opium on glucose metabolism and lipid profiles in rats with streptozotocin-induced diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadeghian, Saeed; Boroumand, Mohammad Ali; Sotoudeh-Anvari, Maryam; Rabbani, Shahram; Sheikhfathollahi, Mahmood; Abbasi, Ali

    2009-01-01

    This experimental study was performed to determine the impact of opium use on serum lipid profile and glucose metabolism in rats with streptozotocin-induced diabetes. To determine the effect of opium, 20 male rats were divided into control (n = 10) and opium-treated (n = 10) groups. After diabetes induction, the animals were investigated for daily glucose measurements for 35 days. Serum lipid profile and haemoglobin A1c (HbA(1c)) were assayed at the baseline (before induction of diabetes) and at 35-day follow-up. The glycaemia levels in the rats treated with opium were similar to the levels measured in the control rats (544.8 +/- 62.2 mg/dl v. 524.6 +/- 50.0 mg/dl, P = 0.434). In addition, there was no difference between the opium-treated rats and control rats in HbA(1c) (6.5 +/- 0.5% v. 6.6 +/- 0.2%, P = 0.714). Compared to the control rats, the serum total cholesterol, high density lipoprotein (HDL), triglyceride and lipoprotein (a) in the test animals were similar. Opium use has no significant effect on glucose metabolism and serum lipid profile in rats with induced diabetes.

  4. Combination of opium smoking and hypercholesterolemia augments susceptibility for lethal cardiac arrhythmia and atherogenesis in rabbit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Najafipour, Hamid; Joukar, Siyavash

    2012-09-01

    Opium consumption is increasing in some eastern societies, where it is grown. We investigated the effect of opium smoking on plasma atherogenic index and incidence of lethal cardiac arrhythmia, i.e. ventricular tachycardia (VT) and ventricular fibrillation (VF) in rabbits. Animals were divided into two-, normo- and hyper-cholesterolemic main groups fed with normal or high cholesterol diet prior and during short-term and long-term exposure to opium smoke. Then, isoproterenol (3mg/kg, i.p.) was injected to induce cardiac ischemia and animals were followed for 3h for counting of lethal arrhythmia incidence. Long-term opium smoking significantly increased the plasma atherogenic index. In ischemic hearts, opium smoking along with hypercholesterolemia significantly enhanced the incidence of fatal arrhythmia. This vulnerability was not mediated by changes in QT interval. These data suggest that opium smoking, especially in hypercholesterolemic conditions, can be a predisposing factor for atherogenesis and lethal arrhythmia. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Opium addiction increases interleukin 1 receptor antagonist (IL-1Ra) in the coronary artery disease patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saadat, Habibollah; Ziai, Seyed Ali; Ghanemnia, Maryam; Namazi, Mohammad Hasan; Safi, Morteza; Vakili, Hosein; Dabbagh, Ali; Gholami, Omid

    2012-01-01

    There is evidence that opium addiction has immunosuppressant effects. Coronary artery disease (CAD) is a condition resulted from atherosclerosis which is dependent on the immune response. To evaluate plasma levels of interleukin-6 and interleukin-1Ra in 30 patients with three-vessel coronary artery disease, ejection fraction of more than 35% and to evaluate their changes after prognostic treadmill test in 15 opium addicted and 15 non-addicted patients. The participants underwent prognostic treadmill test and plasma levels of interleukin-6 (IL-6) and interleukin-1Ra (IL-1Ra) were evaluated with ELISA method before, just after and 4 hours after the test. IL-1Ra (2183 pg/ml) tended to decrease over time in the opium addicted group (1372 pg/ml after prognostic treadmill test and 1034 pg/ml 4 hours after that), although such decrease did not reach the statistical significance. IL-1Ra levels were significantly higher in opium addicted than in non addicted patients. Opium addiction had no significant effect on IL-6 changes. Consumption of opium in CAD patients is associated with higher IL-1Ra levels.

  6. The Effects of Maternal Opium Abuse on Fetal Heart Rate using Non-Stress Test

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    Fatemeh Keikha

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Opium is one of the most commonly abused opiates in developing countries including Iran. Considering the importance of maternal health on the newborn, we aimed to assess the effect of opium abuse on fetal heart rate (FHR characteristics in a sample of pregnant women in Zahedan, Southeast Iran. Methods: This cross-sectional study was done on 100 pregnant women referring to Ali-Ibn-Abi Talib Hospital in Zahedan, during 2011-2013. The participants were divided into two groups comprising of opium abusers and healthy individuals. The participants received 500cc intravenous fluid containing dextrose and then non-stress test results were recorded for 20 minutes. Results: We found no significant difference between the two groups with respect to their demographic characteristics. Fetal movements, variability, acceleration, and reactivity were significantly higher among addicted women (P<0.0001 for all. Periodic change was 9.8 times higher among opium abusers compared with the healthy women. Abnormal variability or oscillations of <15 beats/min, which indicates lack of beat-to-beat variability, was significantly higher in the fetuses of addicted mothers (P<0.0001. Conclusion: Considering significant abnormal patterns in FHR characteristics among the opium abuser group, mothers addicted to opium need specific prenatal care.

  7. Changes in serum biochemical factors associated with opium addiction after addiction desertion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afarinesh, Mohammad Reza; Haghpanah, Tahereh; Divsalar, Kouros; Dehyadegary, Elham; Shaikh-Aleslami, Azar; Mahmoodi, Majid

    2014-01-01

    The long time use of opium has some effects on serums biochemical factors, the determination of this variation is a new approach in understanding off addiction and relive of drug abuser health. Hence in this study, these indicators in person who were withdrawing of opium have been studied. In this cross-sectional study bloods biochemical factors such as fasting blood sugar (FBS), sodium (Na), calcium (Ca), uric acid (UA), blood urea nitrogen (BUN), creatinine, cholesterol, total protein, and fibrinogen in three groups serum were studied: (1) Who had been permanent opium users more than 2 years (case). (2) Dependent person who has taken one month addiction withdrawal course (control). (3) A healthy group that had been demographically similar to the other groups. According to these study findings, FBS serum level in the case group is lower than control group. Serum level of Na, creatinine, and blood triglyceride (TG) in case study are higher than group control. Concentration of potassium, Ca, UA, BUN, cholesterol, total serum protein, fibrinogen, and thrombin time in case study and group control showed no significant difference. Also, in withdrawing case serum level of Na, Ca, UA, BUN, creatinine, and TG significantly increase and thrombin time decrease. According to this study not only the longtime use of opium but also opium with drawerin opium dependent people can change their serum biochemical factors. So recognition, treatment, and prevention of this change could be a new step in improving of health and condition of patients.

  8. Opium addiction increases interleukin 1 receptor antagonist (IL-1Ra in the coronary artery disease patients.

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    Habibollah Saadat

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: There is evidence that opium addiction has immunosuppressant effects. Coronary artery disease (CAD is a condition resulted from atherosclerosis which is dependent on the immune response. PURPOSE: To evaluate plasma levels of interleukin-6 and interleukin-1Ra in 30 patients with three-vessel coronary artery disease, ejection fraction of more than 35% and to evaluate their changes after prognostic treadmill test in 15 opium addicted and 15 non-addicted patients. METHODS: The participants underwent prognostic treadmill test and plasma levels of interleukin-6 (IL-6 and interleukin-1Ra (IL-1Ra were evaluated with ELISA method before, just after and 4 hours after the test. RESULTS: IL-1Ra (2183 pg/ml tended to decrease over time in the opium addicted group (1372 pg/ml after prognostic treadmill test and 1034 pg/ml 4 hours after that, although such decrease did not reach the statistical significance. IL-1Ra levels were significantly higher in opium addicted than in non addicted patients. Opium addiction had no significant effect on IL-6 changes. CONCLUSION: Consumption of opium in CAD patients is associated with higher IL-1Ra levels.

  9. Opium addiction in patients with coronary artery disease: a grounded theory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farahani, Mansoureh A; Ghaffari, Fatemeh; Seyed Fatemi, Naiemeh

    2015-01-01

    There are widespread misconceptions about the positive effects of opium on coronary artery disease (CAD). Thus, we performed a study to explore the opium addiction process contributing factors among CAD patients using a grounded theory approach. The sample comprised 30 addicted CAD patients and their family members, physicians, nurses and friends. Purposive and theoretical sampling was employed; semi-structured interviews were conducted. Coding and constant comparative analysis techniques were as proposed by Strauss and Corbin (1998). The core category was 'Fighting for Survival', comprising three main themes, namely, 'the gateway', 'blowing into the fire' and 'getting stuck in the mud'. Increasing knowledge about the adverse effects of opium on the cardiovascular system would reinforce prevention and rehabilitation measures. Involving patients' family-members in addiction prevention and rehabilitation programs and referring patients to specialized rehabilitation centres could help patients quit opium. Healthcare providers (HCPs) should notice to the effects of opium consumption among CAD patients; nursing care must be holistic in nature. Although opium is stigmatised in Iran, HCPs must treat addicted CAD patients similar to other patients. Nursing students' must be aware of the negative effects of illegal drugs on CAD patients and the misconceptions regarding the positive effects thereof. Any misconceptions must be probed and clarified. Rehabilitation centres must be supervised by cardiologists and HCPs.

  10. Opium and bladder cancer: A systematic review and meta-analysis of the odds ratios for opium use and the risk of bladder cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afshari, Mahdi; Janbabaei, Ghasem; Bahrami, Mohammad Amin; Moosazadeh, Mahmood

    2017-01-01

    The association between opium use and bladder cancer has been investigated in many studies, with varying reporting results reported. This study aims to estimate the total odds ratio for the association between bladder cancer and opium consumption using meta-analysis. The study was designed according to PRISMA guidelines. Two independent researchers searched for the relevant studies using PubMed, Web of Science, Scopus, OVID, Embase, and Google Scholar. After systematic screening of the studies identified during the first step, Cochrane risk of bias tool was determined for the selected studies. The case-control and the cohort studies were investigated to assess risk of bladder cancer due to opium use. In addition, the cross-sectional studies were analysed separately to assess frequency of opium consumption. These estimates were combined using the inverse variance method. Fixed or random effect models were applied to combine the point odds ratios. The heterogeneity between the primary results was assessed using the Cochran test and I-square index. The suspected factors for heterogeneity were investigated using meta-regression models. An Egger test was conducted to identify any probable publication bias. Forest plots illustrated the point and pooled estimates. All analyses were performed using Stata version 14 software and RevMan version 5.3. We included 17 primary studies (11 case-control, one cohort and five cross-sectional) in the final meta-analysis. The total odds ratios (95% confidence intervals) for developing bladder cancer by opium use alone, and concurrent use of opium and cigarettes were estimated as 3.85 (3.05-4.87) and 5.7 (1.9-16.3) respectively. The odds ratio (95% confidence interval) for opium use with or without cigarette smoking was estimated as 5.3 (3.6-7.7). This meta-analysis showed that opium use similar to cigarette smoking and maybe with similar mechanisms can be a risk factor for bladder cancer. It is therefore expected to be a risk factor

  11. Comparison of serum lead level in oral opium addicts with healthy control group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salehi, Hossein; Sayadi, Ahmad Reza; Tashakori, Mahnaz; Yazdandoost, Rokhsareh; Soltanpoor, Narges; Sadeghi, Hossein; Aghaee-Afshar, Mahmood

    2009-11-01

    Drug abuse and its consequences are major health problems in Middle-East countries such as Iran. Salesmen and smugglers may add lead to opium during the process of opium preparation to increase the weight of opium for more profit. Several reports have found lead poisoning symptoms in opium addicted patients and there are many nonspecific symptoms mimicking lead poisoning in opium addicted patients. As far as the literature review is concerned, there is no comparative study about blood lead level (BLL) in addicted patients with healthy controls. Therefore, it seems evaluation of blood lead level in opium addicted patients to be important. In this study, the BLL of forty-four subjects in two patient and control groups was evaluated. The patient group (22 subjects) was comprised of patients who used oral opium. Control group (22 subjects) was matched with the patient group for age and sex, considering inclusion and exclusion criteria with a mean age of 38.8+/-6.7. For blood lead assay, 3 mL of whole blood was obtained from both groups by venipuncture and BLL was assessed immediately using an atomic absorption spectrophotometer. The BLL in patient group had a range of 7.2 to 69.9 g/dL with a mean of 21.9+/-13.2. In the healthy control group, BLL was between 4.1 to 17.4 g/dL with a mean of 8.6+/-3.5. The mean difference of both groups (t=4.56) was statistically significant (Popium ingested (r=0.65, Popium ingestion in the patient group. It would be concluded that opium addicts have an elevated BLL compared to healthy controls. Therefore, screening of blood lead concentration is helpful for opium addicted people especially with non-specific symptoms. In this regard, a similar investigation with a larger sample size of opium addicted patients (including both oral and inhaled) and a control group is suggested to confirm the findings of this research.

  12. POPPY SEED (PAPAVER SOMNIFERUM L.: EFFECT OF GENOTYPE AND YEAR OF CULTIVATION ON VARIABILITY IN ITS LIPID COMPOSITION

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    Michaela Havrlentová

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Poppy seeds have a high nutritive value and are used as a food and a source of edible oil. This oil is a rich source of polyunsaturated fatty acids. It is known that polyunsaturated fatty acids present not only basic nutriments for human body, but its taking to the organism is very important in term of protection against cardiovascular diseases, heart attacks and many inflammatory diseases. The goal of the study was to determine lipid content and fatty acids composition in eight selected poppy genotypes grown in experimental fields of the Plant Production Research Centre Piešťany – Research and Breeding Station at Malý Šariš (Slovak Republic in two years. Seed oils were analyzed by gas chromatography (GC-FID from prepared methylesters of fatty acids. The highest lipid content in 2007 was detected for genotype Opál (49.9%. In 2009, genotype ZB-6 contained the highest lipid content (50.1%. Linoleic acid was dominant fatty acid in all analyzed poppy oils. Its highest level contained the genotype ZB-5 (68.1% in 2007 and ZB-1 (66.5% in 2009. Other major fatty acids were palmitic and oleic acids. As minority fatty acids were presented stearic, alpha-linolenic and palmitoleic acids. Myristic, arachidic and gadoleic acids were observed in trace amounts. Furthermore, the effect of year of cultivation on the fatty acids content in poppy seed oils was examined by Student t-test and appropriate non-parametric Mann-Whitney test.

  13. Determination of fatty acid, tocopherol and phyto sterol contents of the oils of various poppy (Papaver somniferum L.) seeds.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Enric, H.; Tekin, A.; Musa Ozcan, M.

    2009-07-01

    The fatty acid, tocopherol and sterol contents of the oils of several poppy seeds were investigated. The main fatty acids in poppy seed oils were linoleic (687.6-739.2 g kg{sup -}1), oleic (141.3-192.8 g kg{sup -}1) and palmitic (76.8-92.8 g kg{sup -}1). The oils contained an appreciable amount of {gamma}-tocopherol (195.37-280.85 mg kg{sup -}1), with a mean value of 261.31 mg kg-1 and {alpha}-tocopherol (21.99-45.83 mg kg{sup -}1), with a mean value of 33.03 mg kg{sup -}1. The concentrations of total sterol ranged from 1099.84 mg kg{sup -}1 (K.pembe) to 4816.10 mg kg-1 (2. sinif beyaz), with a mean value of 2916.20 mg kg{sup -}1. The major sterols were {beta}-sitosterol, ranging from 663.91 to 3244.39 mg kg{sup -}1; campesterol, ranging from 228.59 to 736.50 mg kg{sup -}1; and {delta}{sup 5}-avenasterol, ranging from 103.90 to 425.02 mg kg{sup -}1. The studied varieties of poppy seeds from Turkey were found to be a potential source of valuable oil. (Author) 31 refs.

  14. Antioxidants in Varieties of Chicory (Cichorium intybus L. and Wild Poppy (Papaver rhoeas L. of Southern Italy

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    Anna Montefusco

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We report the hydrophilic and lipophilic antioxidant activities, as well as the total phenol, flavonoid, tocochromanol (tocopherol and tocotrienol, and carotenoid contents in the edible portion of wild and cultivated varieties of chicory (Cichorium intybus L. and in the basal rosette leaves of the wild species of poppy (Papaver rhoeas L., known by natives as “paparina,” collected in the countryside of Salento (South Apulia, Italy. We analyzed (1 two cultivars of chicory, the “Catalogna” harvested in the area between S. Pietro Vernotico and Tuturano (Brindisi and the “Otrantina” harvested in Otranto (Lecce; (2 two wild chicory ecotypes harvested in S. Pietro Vernotico (Brindisi and Statte (Taranto, respectively; (3 the basal leaves of wild poppy harvested in Sternatia (Lecce. In all samples, our results showed that the hydrophilic antioxidant activity is, generally, higher than the lipophilic activity. Poppy leaves exhibited the highest hydrophilic and lipophilic antioxidant activities and the highest concentration of total phenols and flavonoids. Tocopherols were detected only as traces. Among the extracted carotenoids, lutein and β-carotene were the most abundant in all analyzed samples. Total carotenoid content was greater in wild than in cultivated plants.

  15. Outcomes and long-term survival of coronary artery surgery: The controversial role of opium as risk marker

    Science.gov (United States)

    Najafi, Mahdi; Jahangiry, Leila; Mortazavi, Seyedeh Hamideh; Jalali, Arash; Karimi, Abbasali; Bozorgi, Ali

    2016-01-01

    AIM To study survival in isolated coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) patients and to evaluate the impact of preoperative chronic opium consumption on long-term outcome. METHODS Cohort of 566 isolated CABG patients as Tehran Heart Center cardiac output measurement was conducted. Daily evaluation until discharge as well as 4- and 12-mo and 6.5-year follow-up information for survival status were fulfilled for all patients. Long-term 6.5-year overall and opium-stratified survival, adjusted survival curves based on opium consumption as well as possible predictors of all-cause mortality using multiple cox regression were determined by statistical analysis. RESULTS Six point five-year overall survival was 91.8%; 86.6% in opium consumers and 92.7% in non-opium consumers (P = 0.035). Patients with positive history of opium consumption significantly tended to have lower ejection fraction (EF), higher creatinine level and higher prevalence of myocardial infarction. Multiple predictors of all-cause mortality included age, body mass index, EF, diabetes mellitus and cerebrovascular accident. The hazard ratio (HR) of 2.09 for the risk of mortality in opium addicted patients with a borderline P value (P = 0.052) was calculated in this model. Further adjustment with stratification based on smoking and opium addiction reduced the HR to 1.20 (P = 0.355). CONCLUSION Simultaneous impact of smoking as a confounding variable in most of the patients prevents from definitive judgment on the role of opium as an independent contributing factor in worse long-term survival of CABG patients in addition to advanced age, low EF, diabetes mellitus and cerebrovascular accident. Meanwhile, our findings do not confirm any cardio protective role for opium to improve outcome in coronary patients with the history of smoking. Further studies are needed to clarify pure effect of opium and warrant the aforementioned findings. PMID:27957254

  16. Randomized controlled trial of postoperative belladonna and opium rectal suppositories in vaginal surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, Kristina; Yi, John; Wasson, Megan; Klauschie, Jennifer; Ryan, Debra; Hentz, Joseph; Cornella, Jeffrey; Magtibay, Paul; Kho, Roseanne

    2017-05-01

    After vaginal surgery, oral and parenteral narcotics are used commonly for pain relief, and their use may exacerbate the incidence of sedation, nausea, and vomiting, which ultimately delays convalescence. Previous studies have demonstrated that rectal analgesia after surgery results in lower pain scores and less intravenous morphine consumption. Belladonna and opium rectal suppositories may be used to relieve pain and minimize side effects; however, their efficacy has not been confirmed. We aimed to evaluate the use of belladonna and opium suppositories for pain reduction in vaginal surgery. A prospective, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial that used belladonna and opium suppositories after inpatient or outpatient vaginal surgery was conducted. Vaginal surgery was defined as (1) vaginal hysterectomy with uterosacral ligament suspension or (2) posthysterectomy prolapse repair that included uterosacral ligament suspension and/or colporrhaphy. Belladonna and opium 16A (16.2/60 mg) or placebo suppositories were administered rectally immediately after surgery and every 8 hours for a total of 3 doses. Patient-reported pain data were collected with the use of a visual analog scale (at 2, 4, 12, and 20 hours postoperatively. Opiate use was measured and converted into parenteral morphine equivalents. The primary outcome was pain, and secondary outcomes included pain medication, antiemetic medication, and a quality of recovery questionnaire. Adverse effects were surveyed at 24 hours and 7 days. Concomitant procedures for urinary incontinence or pelvic organ prolapse did not preclude enrollment. Ninety women were randomly assigned consecutively at a single institution under the care of a fellowship-trained surgeon group. Demographics did not differ among the groups with mean age of 55 years, procedure time of 97 minutes, and prolapse at 51%. Postoperative pain scores were equivalent among both groups at each time interval. The belladonna and opium group used a

  17. Effect of opium dependency on secondary intention wound healing in a rat model: an experimental study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vahedian, Jalal; Mirshekari, Tooraj-Reza; Nabavizadeh, Fatemeh

    2013-06-01

    Opium dependency is a social and health problem in some middle eastern countries like Iran. Many of these people may require surgery. This study investigates the effects of opium dependency on histological parameters of secondary intention wound healing in rat. A full-thickness wound (2 × 2 cm in diameters) was created on the dorsum of two groups of rats, a normal control group and a second group of rat depended to opium (Badawy's method). Several times during 14 days postwounding, the wound was excised with peripheral margins of normal skin and was evaluated for cellular population, reepithelialisation and revascularisation. Results are presented as the mean ± standard error. Data were compared by an unpaired t-test or analysis of variance. Histological examination of the wound tissue showed evidence of increased population of fibroblasts, decreased recruitment of neutrophile and plateau of macrophage cells in opium depended animals comparing with control group. In the depended animals, reepithelialisation was seen to be enhanced significantly, while prohibiting progression of revascularisation. This study shows that opium dependency enhances reepitheliazation as well as tissue recruitment of fibroblasts; thereby probable enhancement of secondary intention wound healing. © 2012 The Authors. International Wound Journal © 2012 John Wiley & Sons Ltd and Medicalhelplines.com Inc.

  18. Effects of opium addiction on bleeding after coronary artery bypass graft surgery: report from Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nemati, Mohammad Hassan; Astaneh, Behrooz; Ardekani, Gholamreza Safaee

    2010-09-01

    Opium abuse is a major type of drug abuse in Iran. This study was designed to find the possible relation between opium addiction and excessive bleeding after coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) surgery. In a historical cohort study during a 1.5-year period, consecutive patients scheduled for elective CABG surgery were assigned to two group on the basis of having or not having the criteria for inhalational opium addiction. Before and after operations, the complete blood count, bleeding time, prothrombin time, partial thromboplastin time, and platelet count were checked for all patients. The volumes of infused red blood cells during and after the operation were recorded. After operations, the volumes of bleeding through the patients' chest tubes were recorded. The recorded data were analyzed using SPSS software version 11.5. Independent t, chi-square and repeated measure tests were used; and P Opium-addicted patients received more packed red blood cells during and after the operations. Inhalational opium addiction might lead to more hemorrhage after CABG surgery. It is recommended that cardiac surgeons consider these patients at high risk for major complications after surgery.

  19. The global diversion of pharmaceutical drugs. India: the third largest illicit opium producer?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paoli, Letizia; Greenfield, Victoria A; Charles, Molly; Reuter, Peter

    2009-03-01

    This paper explores India's role in the world illicit opiate market, particularly its role as a producer. India, a major illicit opiate consumer, is also the sole licensed exporter of raw opium: this unique status may be enabling substantial diversion to the illicit market. Participant observation and interviews were carried out at eight different sites. Information was also drawn from all standard secondary sources and the analysis of about 180 drug-related criminal proceedings reviewed by Indian High Courts and the Supreme Court from 1985 to 2001. Diversion from licit opium production takes place on such a large scale that India may be the third largest illicit opium producer after Afghanistan and Burma. With the possible exceptions of 2005 and 2006, 200-300 tons of India's opium may be diverted yearly. After estimating India's opiate consumption on the basis of UN-reported prevalence estimates, we find that diversion from licit production might have satisfied a quarter to more than a third of India's illicit opiate demand to 2004. India is not only among the world's largest consumer of illicit opiates but also one of the largest illicit opium producers. In contrast to all other illicit producers, India owes the latter distinction not to blatantly illicit cultivation but to diversion from licit cultivation. India's experience suggests the difficulty of preventing substantial leakage, even in a relatively well-governed nation.

  20. Opium use, cigarette smoking, and alcohol consumption in relation to pancreatic cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shakeri, Ramin; Kamangar, Farin; Mohamadnejad, Mehdi; Tabrizi, Reza; Zamani, Farhad; Mohamadkhani, Ashraf; Nikfam, Sepideh; Nikmanesh, Arash; Sotoudeh, Masoud; Sotoudehmanesh, Rasoul; Shahbazkhani, Bijan; Ostovaneh, Mohammad Reza; Islami, Farhad; Poustchi, Hossein; Boffetta, Paolo; Malekzadeh, Reza; Pourshams, Akram

    2016-07-01

    Although several studies have suggested opium as a risk factor for cancers of the esophagus, stomach, larynx, lung, and bladder, no previous study has examined the association of opium with pancreatic cancer. We aimed to study the association between opium use and risk of pancreatic cancer in Iran, using a case-control design. We also studied the association of cigarette smoking and alcohol consumption with pancreatic cancer, for which little information was available from this population. Cases and controls were selected from patients who were referred to 4 endoscopic ultrasound centers in Tehran, Iran. We recruited 316 histopathologically (all adenocarcinoma) and 41 clinically diagnosed incident cases of pancreatic cancer, as well as 328 controls from those with a normal pancreas in enodosonography from January 2011 to January 2015. We used logistic regression models to calculate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). After adjustment for potential confounders, opium use (OR 1.91; 95% CI 1.06-3.43) and alcohol consumption (OR 4.16; 95% CI 1.86-9.31) were significantly associated with an increased risk of pancreatic cancer. We did not find an association between ever tobacco smoking and pancreatic cancer risk (OR 0.93; 95% CI 0.62-1.39). In our study, opium use and alcohol consumption were associated with an increased risk of pancreatic cancer, whereas cigarette smoking was not.

  1. Neglected role of hookah and opium in gastric carcinogenesis : A cohort study on risk factors and attributable fractions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sadjadi, Alireza; Derakhshan, Mohammad H.; Yazdanbod, Abbas; Boreiri, Majid; Parsaeian, Mahbubeh; Babaei, Masoud; Alimohammadian, Masoomeh; Samadi, Fatemeh; Etemadi, Arash; Pourfarzi, Farhad; Ahmadi, Emad; Delavari, Alireza; Islami, Farhad; Farzadfar, Farshad; Sotoudeh, Masoud; Nikmanesh, Arash; Alizadeh, Behrooz Z.; de Bock, Geertruida H.; Malekzadeh, Reza

    2014-01-01

    A recent study showed an association between hookah/opium use and gastric cancer but no study has investigated the relationship with gastric precancerous lesions. We examined the association between hookah/opium and gastric precancerous lesions and subsequent gastric cancer. In a population-based

  2. Opium use and mortality in Golestan Cohort Study: prospective cohort study of 50,000 adults in Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khademi, Hooman; Malekzadeh, Reza; Pourshams, Akram; Jafari, Elham; Salahi, Rasool; Semnani, Shahryar; Abaie, Behrooz; Islami, Farhad; Nasseri-Moghaddam, Siavosh; Etemadi, Arash; Byrnes, Graham; Abnet, Christian C; Dawsey, Sanford M; Day, Nicholas E; Pharoah, Paul D; Boffetta, Paolo; Brennan, Paul; Kamangar, Farin

    2012-04-17

    To investigate the association between opium use and subsequent risk of death. Prospective cohort study. The Golestan Cohort Study in north-eastern Iran collected detailed validated data on opium use and other exposures at baseline. Participants were enrolled between January 2004 and June 2008 and were followed to May 2011, with a follow-up success rate of over 99%. 50,045 participants aged 40-75 at baseline. Mortality, all cause and major subcategories. 17% (n = 8487) of the participants reported opium use, with a mean duration of 12.7 years. During the follow-up period 2145 deaths were reported. The adjusted hazard ratio for all cause mortality associated with ever use of opium was 1.86 (95% confidence interval 1.68 to 2.06). Opium consumption was significantly associated with increased risks of deaths from several causes including circulatory diseases (hazard ratio 1.81) and cancer (1.61). The strongest associations were seen with deaths from asthma, tuberculosis, and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (11.0, 6.22, and 5.44, respectively). After exclusion of people who self prescribed opium after the onset of major chronic illnesses, the associations remained strong with a dose-response relation. Opium users have an increased risk of death from multiple causes compared with non-users. Increased risks were also seen in people who used low amounts of opium for a long period and those who had no major illness before use.

  3. Do Consumers Substitute Opium for Hashish? An Economic Analysis of Simultaneous Cannabinoid and Opiate Consumption in a Legal Regime

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandra, Madhur

    2015-01-01

    Aim To analyze interrelationships in the consumption of opiates and cannabinoids in a legal regime and, specifically, whether consumers of opiates and cannabinoids treat them as substitutes for each other. Method Econometric dynamic panel data models for opium consumption are estimated using the generalized method of moments (GMM). A unique dataset containing information about opiate (opium) consumption from the Punjab province of British India for the years 1907–1918 is analyzed (n=272) as a function of its own price, the prices of two forms of cannabis (the leaf (bhang), and the resin (charas, or hashish)), and wage income. Cross-price elasticities are examined to reveal substitution or complementarity between opium and cannabis. Results Opium is a substitute for charas (or hashish), with a cross price elasticity (β3) of 0.14 (p 0.10). Opium consumption (β1 = 0.47 to 0.49, p opium is slightly responsive (inelastic) to changes in its own price (β2 = −0.34 to −0.35, p Opium and hashish, a form of cannabis, are substitutes. In addition, opium consumption displays properties of habit persistence and slight price and wage income responsiveness (inelasticity) consistent with an addictive substance. PMID:26455552

  4. Determination of alkaloids in capsules, milk and ethanolic extracts of poppy (Papaver somniferum L.) by ATR-FT-IR and FT-Raman spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulz, Hartwig; Baranska, Malgorzata; Quilitzsch, Rolf; Schütze, Wolfgang

    2004-10-01

    Fourier transform (FT) infrared spectroscopy using a diamond composite ATR crystal and NIR-FT-Raman spectroscopy techniques were applied for the simultaneous identification and quantification of the most important alkaloids in poppy capsules. Most of the characteristic Raman signals of the alkaloids can be identified in poppy milk isolated from unripe capsules. But also poppy extracts present specific bands relating clearly to the alkaloid fraction. Raman spectra obtained by excitation with a Nd:YAG laser at 1064 nm show no disturbing fluorescence effects; therefore the plant tissue can be recorded without any special preparation. The used diamond ATR technique allows to measure very small sample amounts (5-10 microL or 2-5 mg) without the necessity to perform time-consuming pre-treatments. When applying cluster analysis a reliable discrimination of "low-alkaloid" and "high-alkaloid" poppy single-plants can be easily achieved. The examples presented in this study provide clear evidence of the benefits of Raman and ATR-IR spectroscopy in efficient quality control, forensic analysis and high-throughput evaluation of poppy breeding material.

  5. Spinal anesthesia reduces postoperative delirium in opium dependent patients undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabatabaie, O; Matin, N; Heidari, A; Tabatabaie, A; Hadaegh, A; Yazdanynejad, S; Tabatabaie, K

    2015-01-01

    We investigated the effect of high spinal anesthesia on postoperative delirium in opium dependent patients undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG). The study was conducted in a tertiary referral university hospital on a population of 60 opium dependent patients undergoing CABG surgery. Patients were divided into two groups based on anesthesia protocol. One group were given general anesthesia (GA Group), the other group additionally received intrathecal morphine and bupivacaine (SGA Group). Postoperative delirium (POD) was defined as the main outcome of interest. Incidence of POD was significantly higher in patients of GA Group as compared with those in SGA Group (47% and 17% for GA and SGA respectively; P-value = 0.01). Time to extubation was on average 2.2 h shorter in SGA than in GA (7.1 h and 9.3 h respectively, P-value opium dependent patients.

  6. The Effect of Opium Dependency of Parent (s) on Offspring's Spatial Learning & Memory in Adult Male Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saberi Moghadam, Arezoo; Sepehri, Gholamreza; Sheibani, Vahid; Haghpanah, Tahereh; Divsalar, Kouros; Hajzadeh, Mousa-Al-Reza; Afarineshkhaki, Mohammadreza

    2013-05-01

    As far as we know, there has been no report regarding the effects of opium addiction or dependency of both parents on the learning and memory process in offspring. The aim of this study was to examine the learning and memory changes of adult male offspring whose mothers, fathers and/or both parents had dependency to opium before and during pregnancy. Materials and Methods : All experiments were carried out on Wistar rats. Opium dependency was induced by daily injections of opium (10 mg/kg/SC, bid/10 d) before mating. The presence of a vaginal plug was designated as gestation day. Treatment with opium continued through breeding and gestation until parturition. Spatial memory was tested in male offspring of control, saline and prenatal opium treated groups by a training trial and the probe test in the Morris water maze. Swimming escape latency in the maze and the ability to find the platform in the training trial were recorded. The time spent in the trigger zone and number of times the rats crossed the platform during the probe phase and swimming speed were measured. The data revealed increased escape latency and a greater distance traveled to find the hidden platform in the offspring's whose mother, father and /or both parents were exposed to opium. Crossings to target quadrant at probe trials was significantly reduced in all of the prenatal opium exposed offsprings. The swimming speed showed a significant increase in father and parent's opium exposed offspring. Prenatal opium exposure of either parent may cause deficits in spatial learning, but the precise mechanism(s) remain largely unknown.

  7. The Effect of Opium Dependency of Parent (s on Offspring’s Spatial Learning & Memory in Adult Male Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arezoo Saberi Moghadam

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective(s:As far as we know,there has been no report regarding the effects of opium addiction or dependency of both parents on the learning and memory process in offspring. The aim of this study was to examine the learning and memory changes of adult male offspring whose mothers, fathers and/or both parents had dependency to opium before and during pregnancy. Materials and Methods: All experiments were carried out on Wistar rats. Opium dependency was induced by daily injections of opium (10 mg/kg/SC, bid/10 d before mating. The presence of a vaginal plug was designated as gestation day. Treatment with opium continued through breeding and gestation until parturition. Spatial memory was tested in male offspring of control, saline and prenatal opium treated groups by a training trial and the probe test in the Morris water maze. Swimming escape latency in the maze and the ability to find the platform in the training trial were recorded. The time spent in the trigger zone and number of times the rats crossed the platform during the probe phase and swimming speed were measured. Results:Thedata revealed increased escape latency and a greater distance traveled to find the hidden platform in the offspring’s whose mother, father and /or both parents were exposed to opium. Crossings to target quadrant at probe trials was significantly reduced in all of the prenatal opium exposed offsprings. The swimming speed showed a significant increase in father and parent’s opium exposed offspring.  Conclusion:Prenatal opium exposure of either parent may cause deficits in spatial learning, but the precise mechanism(s remain largely unknown.

  8. Opium addiction and severity of coronary artery disease; a case-control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Massomi

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Cardiovascular disease (CAD is the leading cause of morbidity and mortality in the world. So, determination of the risk factors and high risk groups plays an important role in the prevention and controlling programs. The aim of present study was determine the relationship between the opium consumption and the severity of CAD. Methods: In this hospital based case-control study, we recruited 299 patients candidate for coronary angiography from 2006 to 2007.The history of opium addiction was asked in all subjects. According to the duration of opium consumption, we categorized the individuals into three groups, non-users, occasional users and currently-users .The relationship between opium addiction and severity of CAD was analyzed using logistic regression model. Results: we analyzed the data of 299 cases, which included 84 (28.09% as the control group, 81 (27.09% as non-significant and monovessel CAD and the remaining 134 (44.82% as multivessel CAD group. Univariat analysis showed that currently users had a higher odds of severity CAD in compare to control group with OR=2.06 (CI95% 1.22-3.49, P=0.007. Multivariate analysis showed a significant relationship between age, diabetes, hyperlipidemia, male gender and severity of coronary artery stenosis. Currently users had a higher odds of severity CAD in compare to the control group with the adjusted OR 1.82 (CI95% 0.93 – 3.58, P=0.08, but anymore wasn’t significant Conclusion: The findings indicated that currently opium users – in compare to non-users - have a higher risk for severe CAD .But it is roughly confounded by other co-factors such as cigar smoking, age and sex. We have seen a dose-response between the type of opium consumption and the severity of CAD, but the relationship was not significant.

  9. Blood lead level in opium dependents and its association with anemia: A cross-sectional study from the capital of Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Behrooz Hashemi Domeneh

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Opium dependence is one of the most challenging health problems in the developing countries as well as Iran. Among several health problems due to opium dependence, there are limited reports indicating the presence of lead in opium. The aim of this study is to investigate the blood lead level (BLL in oral and inhalational opium dependents and its association with anemia. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was done among 86 opium dependent patients who were referred to five large detoxification centers in Tehran city and 48 healthy individuals. BLL was assessed using the atomic absorption spectrometry technique. Multivariate analysis of variance and binary logistic regression analysis were performed for statistical assessment using SPSS version 18 for Windows. Results: The highest BLL was detected in oral opium dependent group (mean = 11.75, standard deviation (SD = 6.06 in comparison to inhalational opium dependent group (mean = 7.07, SD = 3.61 and healthy control group (mean = 6.05, SD = 1.83. Anemia was detected in 38% of oral-opium dependent and 43% of inhalational-opium dependent group. Age (odds ratio (OR: 1.06, 95% confidence interval (CI: 1.03-1.09 and opium dependence (OR: 3.59, 95% CI: 1.69-7.59 were significant predictors of anemia in these patients (P < 0.001. Conclusion: The results of this study confirmed the higher BLL in opium dependents, especially with an oral form of consumption.

  10. Urinary excretion study following consumption of various poppy seed products and investigation of the new potential street heroin marker ATM4G.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maas, Alexandra; Krämer, Michael; Sydow, Konrad; Chen, Pai-Shan; Dame, Torsten; Musshoff, Frank; Diehl, Bernd W K; Madea, Burkhard; Hess, Cornelius

    2017-03-01

    Discrimination between street heroin consumption and poppy seed ingestion represents a major toxicological challenge in daily routine work. Several difficulties associated with conventional street heroin markers originate from their versatile occurrence in various poppy seed products and medications, respectively, as well as to small windows of detection. A novel opportunity to overcome these hindrances is represented by the new potential street heroin marker acetylated-thebaine-4-metabolite glucuronide (ATM4G), originating from thebaine during street heroin synthesis followed by metabolic reactions after administration. In this study, urine samples after consumption of different German poppy seed products and urine samples from subjects with suspicion of preceding heroin consumption were tested for ATM4G, 6-AC (6-acetylcodeine), papaverine, noscapine, 6-MAM (6-monoacetylmorphine), morphine, and codeine. Neither 6-AC and 6-MAM nor ATM4G but morphine and codeine could be detected in urine samples following poppy seed ingestion. As well, neither papaverine nor noscapine could be observed even after consumption of poppy seeds containing up to 37 µg noscapine and up to 9.8 µg papaverine, respectively. Concerning the urine samples with suspicion of preceding heroin consumption, ATM4G could be detected in 9 of 43 cases. By contrast, evidence of 6-AC and 6-MAM, respectively, could only be seen in 7 urine samples. In conclusion, ATM4G should be measured additionally in cases requiring discrimination of street heroin consumption from poppy seed intake. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  11. Opium induces apoptosis in Jurkat cells via promotion of pro-apoptotic and inhibition of anti-apoptotic molecules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arababadi, Mohammad Kazemi; Asadikaram, Gholamreza

    2016-02-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the important molecules involved in apoptosis induction by opium in Jurkat cell line. Jurkat cells were incubated 48 hrs with 2.86×10(-5) g/ml concentration of opium and apoptosis as well as expression levels of related molecules were measured. Our results demonstrated that 50.3±0.2 percent of opium treated Jurkat cells were revealed apoptotic features. The levels of mRNA of several pro-apoptotic and anti-apoptotic molecules were increased and decreased, respectively, in the opium treated cells. The results also demonstrated that expression levels of BCL2, DFFA and NOL3 as anti-apoptotic molecules were increased in the opium treated cells. It seems that opium induces apoptosis in Jurkat cells via both intrinsic and extrinsic pathways. Although opium induces apoptosis in the cells but increased expression of some anti-apoptotic molecules may be a normal resistance of the cell for death.

  12. Do consumers substitute opium for hashish? An economic analysis of simultaneous cannabinoid and opiate consumption in a legal regime.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandra, Siddharth; Chandra, Madhur

    2015-11-01

    To analyze interrelationships in the consumption of opiates and cannabinoids in a legal regime and, specifically, whether consumers of opiates and cannabinoids treat them as substitutes for each other. Econometric dynamic panel data models for opium consumption are estimated using the generalized method of moments (GMM). A unique dataset containing information about opiate (opium) consumption from the Punjab province of British India for the years 1907-1918 is analyzed (n=252) as a function of its own price, the prices of two forms of cannabis (the leaf (bhang), and the resin (charas, or hashish)), and wage income. Cross-price elasticities are examined to reveal substitution or complementarity between opium and cannabis. Opium is a substitute for charas (or hashish), with a cross price elasticity (βˆ3) of 0.14 (p0.10). Opium consumption (βˆ1=0.47 to 0.49, popium is slightly responsive (inelastic) to changes in its own price (βˆ2=-0.34 to -0.35, pOpium and hashish, a form of cannabis, are substitutes. In addition, opium consumption displays properties of habit persistence and slight price and wage income responsiveness (inelasticity) consistent with an addictive substance. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Comparing cardiovascular factors in opium abusers and non-users candidate for coronary artery bypass graft surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aghadavoudi, Omid; Eizadi-Mood, Nastaran; Najarzadegan, Mohammad Reza

    2015-01-01

    In some opinions, opium consumption has traditionally been considered to be a means to lower blood lipids and to put off heart diseases. In this study, the relationship between opium consumption and risk factors of coronary artery diseases, hemodynamic factors and cardiac related functions before and after surgery was evaluated. In a cross-sectional study 325 patient's candidate for elective coronary artery bypass grafting were enrolled in a period of 6 months. Opium addicted patients were recognized based on taking history from the patients by an anaesthesiologist. Serum lipid profile was determined at the beginning of the study. Frequency and distribution of coronary artery diseases were assessed according to the pre-operative coronary angiography. From 325 patients, 117 patients were opium abusers and 208 patients were not. Mean duration of opium abuse was 12.6 ± 7.7 years. Mean total serum cholesterol levels were not significantly different in abusers and non-users patients (185 ± 47 vs. 190 ± 49, P > 0.05). Mean level of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol was significantly higher in addicted group (121 ± 27 vs. 81 ± 22, P opium addicted cases. Mean body mass index was also lower in addicted patients significantly (25.3 ± 3.7 vs. 27.5 ± 4.1, P opium abuse and aggravating lipid profile and hypercholesterolemia and coronary artery disease.

  14. 76 FR 17967 - Importer of Controlled Substances; Notice of Registration

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-31

    ... basic classes of controlled substances: Drug Schedule Raw Opium (9600) II Concentrate of Poppy Straw... substances that are manufactured from raw opium, poppy straw, and concentrate of poppy straw. No comments or... treaties, conventions, or protocols in effect on May 1, 1971. DEA has investigated Cody Laboratories, Inc...

  15. La culture du pavot à opium : quelle politique pour l'Afghanistan ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    27 janv. 2011 ... La culture illicite du pavot à opium contribue à la subsistance de millions de paysans afghans, mais il se trouve qu'elle constitue également une source de revenus importants pour les bandes criminalisées.

  16. Socio-Cultural Factors Associated with the Initiation of Opium Use in Darab, Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jafari, Siavash; Movaghar, Afarin Rahimi; Craib, Kevin; Baharlou, Souzan; Mathias, Richard

    2009-01-01

    This study aimed to identify socio-cultural factors facilitating initiation of opium use among drug users in Darab, Iran. A qualitative study using in-depth interviews was conducted. The study began in June 2006 and included 76 drug users, aged 20-43, of whom 95% (72) were male, and 5% (4) were female. The five most common factors facilitating…

  17. Opium addiction as a new risk factor of sphincter of Oddi dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mousavi, Shahrokh; Toussy, Jafar; Zahmatkesh, Mehrdad

    2007-11-01

    Sphincter of Oddi dysfunction (SOD) refers to an abnormality of SO contractility. It is a benign, non-calculus obstruction to the flow of bile or pancreatic juice through the pancreaticobiliary junction. Although morphine can cause an excitatory effect on SO motility, there are no comprehensive data about opium as a risk factor in inducing SOD in chronic opium abusers. The aim of the study was to assess potential risk factors, especially opium addiction (OA), in patients with SOD. In a case-control study, opium addiction, cigarette smoking, cholecystectomy, and periampullary diverticulum in patients with SOD were recorded and compared with healthy subjects. SOD was diagnosed by the Geenen-Hogan classification (type I). OA (p=0.001) and cholecystectomy (p<0.001) were two independent risk factors in patients with SOD. Chronic use of opiates by the oral or inhalational route may induce SOD, but whether chronic use of other morphine derivatives or i.v. drug abuse induce this disorder is not clear and needs further evaluation.

  18. Implementing harm reduction for heroin users in Afghanistan, the worldwide opium supplier.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maguet, Olivier; Majeed, Murtaza

    2010-03-01

    Afghanistan has suffered decades of war, occupation and unrest. It is also the world's greatest producer of opium and drug production and trafficking account for a third of the total Afghan economy. Currently alongside the "War on Terrorism", the control and eradication of opium production and related trafficking is a main concern of the international community. However, this focus on supply reduction has meant scant attention has been paid to increasing drug use problems within the country; it is estimated there are up to 25,000 opium users and 20,000 heroin users in Kabul city. Drug use is often a response to war, poverty and under-development, however, street opium and heroin manufactured in the country are widely available, affordable and of high purity. This paper documents the efforts of non-governmental organisations to promote and develop harm reduction and treatment services for problem drug users in Afghanistan in this difficult context. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Unravelling the resistance mechanisms to 2,4-D (2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid) in corn poppy (Papaver rhoeas).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rey-Caballero, Jordi; Menéndez, Julio; Giné-Bordonaba, Jordi; Salas, Marisa; Alcántara, Ricardo; Torra, Joel

    2016-10-01

    In southern Europe, the intensive use of 2,4-D (2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid) and tribenuron-methyl in cereal crop systems has resulted in the evolution of resistant (R) corn poppy (Papaver rhoeas L.) biotypes. Experiments were conducted to elucidate (1) the resistance response to these two herbicides, (2) the cross-resistant pattern to other synthetic auxins and (3) the physiological basis of the auxin resistance in two R (F-R213 and D-R703) populations. R plants were resistant to both 2,4-D and tribenuron-methyl (F-R213) or just to 2,4-D (D-R703) and both R populations were also resistant to dicamba and aminopyralid. Results from absorption and translocation experiment revealed that R plants translocated less [14C]-2,4-D than S plants at all evaluation times. There was between four and eight-fold greater ethylene production in S plants treated with 2,4-D, than in R plants. Overall, these results suggest that reduced 2,4-D translocation is the resistance mechanism in synthetic auxins R corn poppy populations and this likely leads to less ethylene production and greater survival in R plants. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Pain and Poppies: The Good, the Bad, and the Ugly of Opioid Analgesics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trang, Tuan; Al-Hasani, Ream; Salvemini, Daniela; Salter, Michael W; Gutstein, Howard; Cahill, Catherine M

    2015-10-14

    Treating pain is one of the most difficult challenges in medicine and a key facet of disease management. The isolation of morphine by Friedrich Sertürner in 1804 added an essential pharmacological tool in the treatment of pain and spawned the discovery of a new class of drugs known collectively as opioid analgesics. Revered for their potent pain-relieving effects, even Morpheus the god of dreams could not have dreamt that his opium tincture would be both a gift and a burden to humankind. To date, morphine and other opioids remain essential analgesics for alleviating pain. However, their use is plagued by major side effects, such as analgesic tolerance (diminished pain-relieving effects), hyperalgesia (increased pain sensitivity), and drug dependence. This review highlights recent advances in understanding the key causes of these adverse effects and explores the effect of chronic pain on opioid reward. Chronic pain is pervasive and afflicts >100 million Americans. Treating pain in these individuals is notoriously difficult and often requires opioids, one of the most powerful and effective classes of drugs used for controlling pain. However, their use is plagued by major side effects, such as a loss of pain-relieving effects (analgesic tolerance), paradoxical pain (hyperalgesia), and addiction. Despite the potential side effects, opioids remain the pharmacological cornerstone of modern pain therapy. This review highlights recent breakthroughs in understanding the key causes of these adverse effects and explores the cellular control of opioid systems in reward and aversion. The findings will challenge traditional views of the good, the bad, and the ugly of opioids. Copyright © 2015 the authors 0270-6474/15/3513879-10$15.00/0.

  1. Pain and Poppies: The Good, the Bad, and the Ugly of Opioid Analgesics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Hasani, Ream; Salvemini, Daniela; Salter, Michael W.; Gutstein, Howard

    2015-01-01

    Treating pain is one of the most difficult challenges in medicine and a key facet of disease management. The isolation of morphine by Friedrich Sertürner in 1804 added an essential pharmacological tool in the treatment of pain and spawned the discovery of a new class of drugs known collectively as opioid analgesics. Revered for their potent pain-relieving effects, even Morpheus the god of dreams could not have dreamt that his opium tincture would be both a gift and a burden to humankind. To date, morphine and other opioids remain essential analgesics for alleviating pain. However, their use is plagued by major side effects, such as analgesic tolerance (diminished pain-relieving effects), hyperalgesia (increased pain sensitivity), and drug dependence. This review highlights recent advances in understanding the key causes of these adverse effects and explores the effect of chronic pain on opioid reward. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Chronic pain is pervasive and afflicts >100 million Americans. Treating pain in these individuals is notoriously difficult and often requires opioids, one of the most powerful and effective classes of drugs used for controlling pain. However, their use is plagued by major side effects, such as a loss of pain-relieving effects (analgesic tolerance), paradoxical pain (hyperalgesia), and addiction. Despite the potential side effects, opioids remain the pharmacological cornerstone of modern pain therapy. This review highlights recent breakthroughs in understanding the key causes of these adverse effects and explores the cellular control of opioid systems in reward and aversion. The findings will challenge traditional views of the good, the bad, and the ugly of opioids. PMID:26468188

  2. Coercion, Cash-Crops and Culture: From Insurgency to Proto-State in Asia’s Opium Belt

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-06-01

    2002), 58 and 228. 119 Graeme Smith, “Talking to the Taliban.” 120 Mao Zedong , Selected Works, Volume II (Peking, China: Foreign Languages Press...Hopkins University Press, 2005. Zedong , Mao . Selected Works, Volume II. Peking, China: Foreign Languages Press, 1954. 103 INITIAL DISTRIBUTION LIST...next major opium production-increasing event occurred when World War II ( WWII ) trade route disruptions cut off the supply of opium flowing from Persia

  3. Opium use and mortality in Golestan Cohort Study: prospective cohort study of 50 000 adults in Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khademi, Hooman; Pourshams, Akram; Jafari, Elham; Salahi, Rasool; Semnani, Shahryar; Abaie, Behrooz; Islami, Farhad; Nasseri-Moghaddam, Siavosh; Etemadi, Arash; Byrnes, Graham; Abnet, Christian C; Dawsey, Sanford M; Day, Nicholas E; Pharoah, Paul D; Boffetta, Paolo; Kamangar, Farin

    2012-01-01

    Objectives To investigate the association between opium use and subsequent risk of death. Design Prospective cohort study. Setting The Golestan Cohort Study in north-eastern Iran collected detailed validated data on opium use and other exposures at baseline. Participants were enrolled between January 2004 and June 2008 and were followed to May 2011, with a follow-up success rate of over 99%. Participants 50 045 participants aged 40-75 at baseline. Main outcomes Mortality, all cause and major subcategories. Results 17% (n=8487) of the participants reported opium use, with a mean duration of 12.7 years. During the follow-up period 2145 deaths were reported. The adjusted hazard ratio for all cause mortality associated with ever use of opium was 1.86 (95% confidence interval 1.68 to 2.06). Opium consumption was significantly associated with increased risks of deaths from several causes including circulatory diseases (hazard ratio 1.81) and cancer (1.61). The strongest associations were seen with deaths from asthma, tuberculosis, and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (11.0, 6.22, and 5.44, respectively). After exclusion of people who self prescribed opium after the onset of major chronic illnesses, the associations remained strong with a dose-response relation. Conclusion Opium users have an increased risk of death from multiple causes compared with non-users. Increased risks were also seen in people who used low amounts of opium for a long period and those who had no major illness before use. PMID:22511302

  4. Opium decreases the age at myocardial infarction and sudden cardiac death: a long- and short-term outcome evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roohafza, Hamidreza; Talaei, Mohammad; Sadeghi, Masoumeh; Haghani, Poone; Shokouh, Pedram; Sarrafzadegan, Nizal

    2013-03-01

      Opium dependence is a recognized individual and public health threat, but little is known about its association with acute myocardial infarction (AMI) or sudden cardiac death (SCD). In a cross-sectional study followed by a one-year matched longitudinal cohort, all 569 men hospitalized with AMI in all Cardiac Care Units (CCU) of Isfahan, Iran, were recruited in a six-month period. In addition, 123 out-of-hospital deaths were included that were diagnosed as SCD at the same duration. Among those discharged alive, 126 opium dependents were matched with 126 nondependents (mostly nonusers) according to age and smoking status, and were followed for one year. Opium dependence was measured using the ICD10 criteria and Severity of Dependence Scale (SDS) questionnaire. The method was validated by morphine blood levels. Biochemical measurements, blood pressure, blood cell counts, anthropometrics, and ejection fraction were measured at baseline and repeated at the end of follow-up.  There were 118 (17.1%) patients with an average of 17.4 ± 10.4 years of abuse who met the criteria for opium dependency. Opium dependence decreased the age at event by 3.6 (95% CI: 1.2 - 6.0) years and was independent of smoking (P = 0.003). In terms of cardiovascular risk factors such as ejection fraction, in addition to post-AMI mortality and morbidity, no significant associations were noted at baseline or after one year of follow-up. The odds ratio of sustained smoking after AMI was 1.92 (95% CI: 1.04 - 3.52) in opium dependents (P = 0.033). Despite public opinion, opium did not improve cardiovascular risk factors, or post-AMI mortality and morbidity. Conversely, there were irrefutable findings regarding the detrimental effects of opium dependence.

  5. Neglected role of hookah and opium in gastric carcinogenesis: a cohort study on risk factors and attributable fractions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadjadi, Alireza; Derakhshan, Mohammad H; Yazdanbod, Abbas; Boreiri, Majid; Parsaeian, Mahbubeh; Babaei, Masoud; Alimohammadian, Masoomeh; Samadi, Fatemeh; Etemadi, Arash; Pourfarzi, Farhad; Ahmadi, Emad; Delavari, Alireza; Islami, Farhad; Farzadfar, Farshad; Sotoudeh, Masoud; Nikmanesh, Arash; Alizadeh, Behrooz Z; de Bock, Geertruida H; Malekzadeh, Reza

    2014-01-01

    A recent study showed an association between hookah/opium use and gastric cancer but no study has investigated the relationship with gastric precancerous lesions. We examined the association between hookah/opium and gastric precancerous lesions and subsequent gastric cancer. In a population-based cohort study, 928 randomly selected, healthy, Helicobacter pylori-infected subjects in Ardabil Province, Iran, were followed for 10 years. The association between baseline precancerous lesions and lifestyle risk factors (including hookah/opium) was analyzed using logistic regression and presented as odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). We also calculated hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% CIs for the associations of lifestyle risk factors and endoscopic and histological parameters with incident gastric cancers using Cox regression models. Additionally, the proportion of cancers attributable to modifiable risk factors was calculated. During 9,096 person-years of follow-up, 36 new cases of gastric cancer were observed (incidence rate: 3.96/1,000 persons-years). Opium consumption was strongly associated with baseline antral (OR: 3.2; 95% CI: 1.2-9.1) and body intestinal metaplasia (OR: 7.3; 95% CI: 2.5-21.5). Opium (HR: 3.2; 95% CI: 1.4-7.7), hookah (HR: 3.4; 95% CI: 1.7-7.1) and cigarette use (HR: 3.2; 95% CI: 1.4-7.5), as well as high salt intake, family history of gastric cancer, gastric ulcer and histological atrophic gastritis and intestinal metaplasia of body were associated with higher risk of gastric cancer. The fraction of cancers attributable jointly to high salt, low fruit intake, smoking (including hookah) and opium was 93% (95% CI: 83-98). Hookah and opium use are risk factors for gastric cancer as well as for precancerous lesions. Hookah, opium, cigarette and high salt intake are important modifiable risk factors in this high-incidence gastric cancer area. © 2013 UICC.

  6. A Review on Hematological Factors in Opioid-Dependent People (Opium and Heroin) after the Withdrawal Period

    OpenAIRE

    Haghpanah, Tahereh; Afarinesh, Mohammadreza; Divsalar, Kouros

    2010-01-01

    Background: Long-term use of opioids has acute effects on homeostasis of the body. Discovering the impacts of opioids on hematological parameters of narcotics withdrawal and dependents blood may be helpful in recognizing the homeostasis condition of their body for the useful treatment. Methods: In this study a cross-sectional method was applied. The abusers of opium and heroin for more than two consecutive years were considered as opium and heroin dependent groups, respectively. The dependent...

  7. Opium, tobacco, and alcohol use in relation to oesophageal squamous cell carcinoma in a high-risk area of Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasrollahzadeh, D; Kamangar, F; Aghcheli, K; Sotoudeh, M; Islami, F; Abnet, C C; Shakeri, R; Pourshams, A; Marjani, H A; Nouraie, M; Khatibian, M; Semnani, S; Ye, W; Boffetta, P; Dawsey, S M; Malekzadeh, R

    2008-01-01

    The very high incidence of oesophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) in Golestan Province in northeastern Iran was suggested by studies in the 1970s as partly due to opium use, which is not uncommon in this area, but based on limited numbers. From December 2003 to June 2007, we administered a validated structured questionnaire to 300 ESCC cases and 571 controls, matched on neighbourhood of residence, age (±2 years), and sex. We used conditional logistic regression models to calculate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) adjusted for potential confounders. Compared with those who used neither tobacco nor opium, risk of ESCC was increased in those who used tobacco only (OR, 95% CI: 1.70, 1.05–2.73), in those who used opium only (2.12, 1.21–3.74), and in those who used both tobacco and opium (2.35, 1.50–3.67). All forms of tobacco use (cigarettes, hookah, and nass) were associated with higher ESCC risk. Similarly, use of both crude opium and other forms of opium were associated with higher risk. Alcohol consumption was seen in only 2% of the cases and 2% of the controls, and was not associated with ESCC risk. PMID:18475303

  8. The Effect of Concomitant Ethanol and Opium Consumption on Lipid Profiles and Atherosclerosis in Golden Syrian Hamster's Aorta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahryari, Jahanbanoo; Poormorteza, Moein; Noori-Sorkhani, Arash; Divsalar, Kouros; Abbasi-Oshaghi, Ebrahim

    2013-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the main cause of mortality in the world and is normally argued as the third cause of all mortalities. Opium and alcohol every day consumption can cause people to have many health problems. The present study aimed to assess the effect of ethanol and opium consumption on lipid profiles and atherosclerosis in aorta. Twenty four male golden Syrian hamsters were randomly divided into four treatment groups (n = 6): Control, addicted (40 mg/kg), alcohol (6.0 g/kg) and combination of opium and alcohol. All of the hamsters were scarified and their livers were removed immediately and fixed in formalin solution 10%. The plasma levels of the lipid profiles were measured enzymatically. Aorta sections were examined by a pathologist. The amount of the total cholesterol significantly increased in ethanol (P opium group. Serum triglyceride significantly increased in ethanol (P opium group but it was not significant. Low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) markedly increased in the combination group (P opium plus alcohol has harmful effects on lipid profile; however, it had no effect on aorta histology that was maybe due to the short period of the treatment.

  9. Effects of Clonidine Premedication on Intraoperative Blood Loss in Patients With and Without Opium Addiction During Elective Femoral Fracture Surgeries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ommi, Davood; Teymourian, Houman; Zali, Alireza; Ashrafi, Farzad; Jabbary Moghaddam, Morteza; Mirkheshti, Alireza

    2015-08-01

    Opium is an addictive agent and one of the most common narcotics With great challenges of intraoperative hemodynamic instabilities. The current study aimed to assess the effects of clonidine on intraoperative blood loss in patients with and without opium addiction in femoral fracture surgeries. In a randomized clinical trial, 160 candidates for elective femoral fracture operations under general anesthesia were divided into four groups of 40 subjects: group 1 (placebo 1), subjects without addiction received placebo 90 minutes before the operation; group 2 (placebo 2), patients with opium addiction received placebo as group 1; group 3 (Clonidine 1), patients without addiction received clonidine 90 minutes before the operation and group 4 (Clonidine 2), patients with opium addiction received clonidine as premedication. Intraoperative blood loss in clonidine recipient groups, patients with and without addiction, was less than that of the placebos (both P values opium addiction. Premedication with clonidine to decrease intraoperative blood loss can be more effective in patients with opium addiction than the ones without addiction.

  10. Effect of gamma radiation on the germination of Papaver somniferum and P. rhoeas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grover, I.S.; Dhanju, M.S.

    1979-01-01

    The germination of opium poppy (P. somniferum) was increased whereas those of red poppy (P.rhoeas) decreased considerably. The differential radiosensitivity may be the cause of different result obtained in these two species. (auth.)

  11. 21 CFR 1301.34 - Application for importation of Schedule I and II substances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... protocols in effect on May 1, 1971. In determining the public interest, the following factors shall be... will be permitted to import only: (i) Such amounts of crude opium, poppy straw, concentrate of poppy...

  12. 77 FR 31389 - Importer of Controlled Substances; Notice of Registration; Penick Corporation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-25

    ... Opium (9600) II Poppy Straw (9650) II Poppy Straw Concentrate (9670) II The company plans to import the..., conventions, or protocols in effect on May 1, 1971. DEA has investigated Penick Corporation to ensure that the...

  13. Opium consumption is negatively associated with serum prostate-specific antigen (PSA), free PSA, and percentage of free PSA levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safarinejad, Mohammad Reza; Asgari, Seyyed Alaeddin; Farshi, Alireza; Iravani, Shahrokh; Khoshdel, Alireza; Shekarchi, Babak

    2013-01-01

    Addiction to opium continues to be a major worldwide medical and social problem. The study addressing the association between opium consumption and serum prostate-specific antigen (PSA) level is lacking. We determined the effects of opium consumption on serum PSA levels in opium-addict men. Our study subjects comprised 438 opium-addict men with a mean age of 52.2 ± 6.4 years (group 1). We compared these men with 446 men who did not indicate current or past opium use (group 2). Serum total PSA (tPSA), free PSA (fPSA), % fPSA, and sex hormones were compared between the 2 groups. The mean serum tPSA level was significantly lower in group 1 (1.05 ng/mL) than in controls (1.45 ng/mL) (P = 0.001). Opium consumption was also associated with lower fPSA (P = 0.001) and % fPSA (P = 0.001). Serum free testosterone level in opium-addict patients (132.5 ± 42 pg/mL) was significantly lower than that in controls (156.2 ± 43 pg/mL) (P = 0.03). However, no significant correlation existed between tPSA and free testosterone levels (r = 0.28, 95% CI, -0.036 to 0.51, P = 0.34). Among the patients with cancer in group 1, 35% were found to have high-grade tumor (Gleason score ≥ 7) compared with 26.7% in group 2 (P = 0.02). Total PSA and fPSA were strongly correlated with duration of opium use (r = -0.06, 95% CI, -0.04 to -0.08, P = 0.0001; and r = -0.05, 95% CI, -0.03 to -0.07, P = 0.0001, respectively). Opium consumption is independently and negatively associated with serum tPSA, fPSA, and % fPSA levels.

  14. First case report of atypical disseminated cutaneous leishmaniasis in an opium abuser in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Ahmad Hashemi

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Leishmaniasis is a worldwide tropical infectious disease caused by different species of intracellular protozoa parasites of the genus Leishmania . Herein, we report a 78-year-old man with unusual diffuse cutaneous leishmaniasis (DCL who had a history of opium abuse and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD. He had multiple papular, crusted and severely ulcerated lesions extended to his arm and chest. Direct smears and skin punch biopsy of the lesions were suggestive of leishmaniasis. Parasite DNA was amplified from ulcers, and identified as Leishmania major by PCR-RFLP, confirmed by sequencing analyses. The aim of the current study was to bring to attention this atypical form of disease in CL endemic countries. Thus, this is the first case of DCL in an opium abuser with COPD due to L. major in Northeastern Iran indicating that atypical and extensive forms of CL (DCL owing to L. major are increasing in Iran.

  15. Chronic lead poisoning in an Iranian opium smoker resident in London.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azizi, Alex; Ferguson, Katie; Dluzewski, Sam; Hussain, Tajammul; Klein, Martin

    2016-11-01

    A 46-year-old man of Iranian origin presented with a 4-day history of colicky abdominal pain and absolute constipation on a background of several weeks of irritability and malaise. He had smoked 10 g of opium per week for a year and a half. On examination, he had diffuse abdominal tenderness and faecal loading. This was cleared, but the abdominal pain, nausea and vomiting persisted. He had extravascular haemolytic anaemia with punctate basophilic stippling on blood film. The patient's serum lead concentration was substantially elevated and he perhaps demonstrated Burton's line. The patient underwent chelation therapy and has recovered clinically and biochemically. Public health experts were notified and conducted an assessment of the risk to the patient and others; their lead exposure questionnaire was subsequently amended. This is an important case report of a UK resident describing lead toxicity secondary to the inhalation of opium. 2016 BMJ Publishing Group Ltd.

  16. Age at diagnosis in bladder cancer: does opium addiction play a role?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karbakhsh, Mojgan; Dabbagh, Najmeh; Shabani, Azadeh; Tabibi, Ali; Akhavizadegan, Hamed

    2013-01-01

    Bladder cancer is a major health problem, especially among men. Opium addiction can be an important risk factor. One important question is whether it can affect the age of onset of bladder cancer .We performed this study to evaluate this question. In a cross-section study, records of patients diagnosed with bladder carcinoma in Shahid Labbafinejad Medical Center, within 1999-2008 were included. Data were extracted from records regarding age at onset, gender, smoking status, and opioid addiction and analyzed with SPSS 13. Within 10 years, 920 cases were diagnosed with bladder cancer of which 97 percent were transitional cell carcinoma. In 698 cases, opium addiction status was recorded in 21.3% (n=149). Age at diagnosis was 59.7±11.51 (median: 60) among opioid addicts which was significantly lower than non- addicts (63.1±13.65, Median: 65) (POpium addiction can decrease the age of onset of bladder cancer.

  17. Preliminary Report : The Treatment of Withdrawal Symptoms of Opium Addicts with Vitamin " E " in Ten Cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Davidian

    1957-01-01

    Full Text Available The treatment of addiction to opiates, apart from psychological and social problems, has presented up to now a therapeutic prohlem. Various methods are used and each has its disadvantages. Residual symptoms of abstinence from opiates are present in all methods and there is a prolonged period of convalescence which seems to be one of the causes of relapses to addiction. Vitamin E however- has given remarkable results in aiding recovery from the withdrawal symptoms. With vitamin E the period of treatment is shortened, abstinence symptoms are bearable and the convalescent period is eliminated. Patients treated with vitamin E solely are in good health and spirits and appear contented. This treatment also seems to reduce 1he number of relapses. The administration of vitamin E after a complete withdrawal from opium probably compensates Some of the opium's effects on the nervous system, and remedies the hypoxia of the tissues, thus restoring the patient to a normal physiological state.

  18. Effect of opium addiction on lipid profile and atherosclerosis formation in hypercholesterolemic rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammadi, Abbas; Darabi, Maryam; Nasry, Mohammad; Saabet-Jahromi, Mohammad-Javad; Malek-Pour-Afshar, Reza; Sheibani, Hassan

    2009-03-01

    In some Asian and Middle Eastern societies, opium consumption has traditionally been regarded as a way to lower blood lipids and to prevent heart diseases. This could eventually lead to addiction. In this study, the effect of oral opium consumption on serum lipids and atherogenesis in rabbits was investigated. Twenty-eight male New Zealand white rabbits were divided into control, hypercholesterolemic, addicted, and hypercholesterolemic-addicted groups and were studied for 3 months. Serum lipid profile was determined at the beginning of the study and at 1 month intervals thereafter. At the end of the study period, aortic plaque formation was assessed. Compared with control, in the hypercholesterolemic and hypercholesterolemic-addicted groups, cholesterol, triglycerides, and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels were significantly increased (Popium consumption can have aggravating effects in atherosclerosis formation related with hypercholesterolemia, mainly affecting lipid profile.

  19. Investigating the Effects of Adding Fentanyl to Bupivacaine in Spinal Anesthesia of Opium-addicted Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H Satari

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Spinal anesthesia in opium-addicted patients can be associated with many complications. Hence, this study aimed to investigate sensory and motor block characteristics, duration of postoperative analgesia, hemodynamic and side effects by adding Fentanyl to bupivacaine in spinal Anesthesia of opium-addicted patients. Methods: In a double-blind randomized clinical trial, 60 American society of Anesthesiology (ASA class I and II opium-addicted patients under spinal anesthesia in lower abdominal and lower limb operations were randomly classified into two groups of spinal anesthesia with bupivacaine and bupivacaine-fentanyl. Clinical symptoms, side effects, the duration of sensory and motor block, initiation of analgesia requirement and sensory block were assessed. Results: The study results indicated no significant difference between bupivacaine and bupivacaine-fentanyl groups in regard with demographic, side effects, blood pressure and heart rate, though a significant difference was observed in respiratory rate 5min, 10min, 45min, 75min and 90 min after block. Duration of sensory (100.33 to 138.83 and motor block (93.43 to 107.66 and , initiation of analgesia requirement (165.33 to 187.76 was significantly longer in bupivacaine-fentanyl, though initiation of sensory block (8.83 to 4.93 was significantly longer in bupivacaine. Conclusion: Addition of fentanyl to bupivacaine in spinal anesthesia increases the duration of sensory and motor block and initiation of analgesia requirement in opium-addicted patients and also decreases initiation of sensory block in these patients.

  20. Cannabis and Opium Abuse Patterns and Their Associated Complications in a Sample of Young Iranians

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attari, Mohammad Ali; Asgary, Sedigheh; Shahrokhi, Shahnaz; Naderi, Gholam Ali; Shariatirad, Schwann

    2012-01-01

    The prevalence of drug abuse has been reported to be up to 17.0% in Iran. The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of two frequently abused substances--cannabis and opium--in samples of the young population in Isfahan, Iran. In a survey done from January 2005 to December 2006, 537 individuals aged 13-20 years were recruited using a…

  1. Opium trade and the spread of HIV in the Golden Crescent

    OpenAIRE

    Farooq, Syeda Ayesha; Rasooly, Mohammad Hafiz; Abidi, Syed Hani; Modjarrad, Kayvon; Ali, Syed

    2017-01-01

    The Golden Crescent region of South Asia?comprising Afghanistan, Iran, and Pakistan?is a principal global site for opium production and distribution. Over the past few decades, war, terrorism, and a shifting political landscape have facilitated an active heroin trade throughout the region. Protracted conflict has exacerbated already dire socio-economic conditions and political strife within the region and contributed to a consequent rise in opiate trafficking and addiction among the region?s ...

  2. Comparison of Quantitative and Qualitative Dermatoglyphic Characteristics of Opium Addicts with Healthy Individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehrpour, Omid; Sheikhazadi, Ardeshir; Barzegar, Afsoon; Husein, Afzal; Malic, Claudia; Sheikhazadi, Elham; Saberi-Anary, Seyed Hossein

    2016-04-01

    Recreational drugs have a significant impact on the lives of drug users, their close families andfriends, as well as their society. Social, psychological, biological, and genetic factors could make a personmore prone to using recreational drugs. Finger and A-B ridges (dermatoglyphics) are formed during the firstand second trimesters of fetal development, under the influence of environmental and genetic factors. Theaim of our study was to investigate and evaluate a possible link between dermatoglyphics and opium usage. The pattern of dermatoglyphics - finger and A-B prints - obtained from a group of opium users(121 patients) was compared to those obtained from a group of opium non-users (121 patients) from Birjand,Iran. The results were analyzed using chi-square, t and Mann-Whitney tests. The results showed that although A-B ridges of palms and fingers in our study group were highercompared to the control group, there was no significant difference between these groups. The only significantdifference was the fingerprint patterns of the left ring finger in the study group, which lacked the arch patternand had less loop patterns. The dominant type of fingerprint in the left ring finger was the whorl. In ouropium user group, the arch and loop fingerprint patterns were heterogeneous and significantly different incomparison with the control group (P < 0.01). These findings suggest that a genetic factor may increase the predisposition to recreational drugusage. Further research is required to confirm this possible impact of genetic factors on the addiction process.

  3. Opium trade and the spread of HIV in the Golden Crescent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farooq, Syeda Ayesha; Rasooly, Mohammad Hafiz; Abidi, Syed Hani; Modjarrad, Kayvon; Ali, Syed

    2017-07-21

    The Golden Crescent region of South Asia-comprising Afghanistan, Iran, and Pakistan-is a principal global site for opium production and distribution. Over the past few decades, war, terrorism, and a shifting political landscape have facilitated an active heroin trade throughout the region. Protracted conflict has exacerbated already dire socio-economic conditions and political strife within the region and contributed to a consequent rise in opiate trafficking and addiction among the region's inhabitants. The worsening epidemic of injection drug use has paralleled the rising incidence of HIV and other blood-borne infections in the region and drawn attention to the broader implications of the growing opiate trade in the Golden Crescent. The first step in addressing drug use is to recognize that it is not a character flaw but a form of mental illness, hence warranting humane treatment of drug users. It is also recommended that the governments of the Golden Crescent countries encourage substitution of opium with licit crops and raise awareness among the general public about the perils of opium use.

  4. Sprcial discussion: Future Roles for Tincture of Opium in Medical Intervention for Opioid Dependence Treads and Hopes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Opium tincture or tincture of opium (TOP, also known as Laudanum, is an alcoholic herbal preparation of opium. It is made by combining ethanol with opium latex or powder. After works of Paracelsus, the 16th century Swiss-German alchemist, who discovered that the alkaloids in opium are far more soluble in alcohol compared to water and named Opium tincture as Laudanum, this drug has been found a broad range of applications as the drug of choice for practically every ailment through 17th to 19th centuries. The early 20th century brought increased regulation of all manner of narcotics, including laudanum, as the addictive properties of opium became more widely understood. By the late 20th century, TOP's use was almost exclusively confined to treating severe diarrhea. During these thirty years, The efficacy and cost-effectiveness of opioid substitution therapy for the treatment of opioid addiction has been well documented by methadone and buprenorphine. Based on the idea of substitution therapy, TOP and slow releasing oral morphine (SROM have been proposed as the new alternatives. TOP could be used in three different ways in interventions for opioid dependency, first, as a supportive drug to reduce withdrawal syndrome during detoxification programs, second, as a substitution drug in long term maintenance, third, as a legal form of opioid drugs for harm reduction purposes. A little but growing evidences are supporting effectiveness of TOP for detoxification programs, in Iran, some preliminary open label studies showed effectiveness of TOP as a detoxifying drug in three to six month program, Now another open label study is evaluating TOP in a specific detoxification program with monthly evaluation and providing long term follow up after reaching to abstinence. There are a strong debate among the policy makers and clinicians on implementation of TOP in Iranian National Substance Abuse Treatment Facilities. In this article, We reviewed the proposed

  5. No association betweenGSTM1andGSTT1genetic polymorphisms and susceptibility to opium sap dependence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saify, Khyber; Khalighinasab, Mohammad Rashid; Saadat, Mostafa

    2016-03-01

    Glutathione S-transferases (GSTs; EC: 2.5.1.18) are a ubiquitous family of eukaryotic and prokaryotic phase II metabolic isozymes. Genes encoding GSTM1 (OMIM: 138350), and GSTT1 (OMIM: 600436) are members of class mu and theta, respectively. The most common polymorphism in the GSTM1 is a deletion of the whole GSTM1 gene with a lack of enzyme activity. A homozygous deletion in the GSTT1 has also been reported (null genotypes of GSTT1). The aim of the present study was to investigate the association between GSTM1 and GSTT1 polymorphisms and risk of dependency to opium sap. The present study was performed in Shiraz (southern Iran). In total, 71 males dependent to opium sap and 590 healthy males (as a control group) were included in this study. The genotypes of GSTM1 and GSTT1 polymorphisms were determined by PCR. Our data indicate that neither GSTM1 (OR=0.78, 95% CI: 0.47-1.27, P=0.325) nor GSTT1 (OR=1.25, 95% CI: 0.70-2.21, P=0.442) null genotypes significantly associated with the risk of opium sap dependence. There is no additive effect of the null genotypes of GSTT1 and GSTM1 in relation to the risk of dependency to opium sap. The present study indicated that the null genotypes of GSTT1 and GSTM1 are not risk factor for opium sap dependence.

  6. Can opium abuse be a risk factor for carotid stenosis in patients who are candidates for coronary artery bypass grafting?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirani, Shapour; Shakiba, Madjid; Soleymanzadeh, Maryam; Esfandbod, Maryam

    2010-01-01

    Over the centuries, opium has been the most frequent substance abused in the Middle East. There are many controversial aspects about the effects of opioids on the atherosclerosis process, which is still unclear. All patients who were candidates for coronary artery bypass graft in Tehran Heart Center were registered and evaluated for risk factors such as diabetes mellitus, hypertension, smoking status and duration, opium abuse, involved coronary arteries and left main branch lesion > 50%, carotid stenosis > or = 70%. A total of 1,339 patients were enrolled in the study, of whom 400 (29.9%) were female and the other 939 (70.1%) male. Female patients were omitted from analysis due to the low numbers of female opium addicts. Our study revealed that in the addicted population, the risk of diabetes and hypertension was lower than in the non-addicted group (p 50% and extent of carotid stenosis was not significantly different between the two groups. Our investigations demonstrate that opium is not cardioprotective, as has been claimed by some previous studies, and does not even decelerate atherosclerosis of carotid arteries in opium-addicted patients, but more evidence is still needed to completely prove the case.

  7. Quality of life in opium-addicted patients with coronary artery disease as measured with WHOQOL-BREF.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Najafi, Mahdi; Sheikhvatan, Mehrdad; Montazeri, Ali; Sheikhfathollahi, Mahmood

    2009-05-01

    Several factors can influence the quality of life in patients with coronary artery disease (CAD). The goal of this research was to measure quality of life in opium-addicted patients with CAD in order to assess the effect of CAD risk factors on their quality of life. The WHOQOL-BREF questionnaire was completed through interviews with 275 patients who underwent isolated coronary artery bypass surgery in Tehran Heart Centre between May and September 2006. No significant differences were found in the mean scores of the four domains of quality of life between the addicted and non-addicted patients. Furthermore, the evaluation of QOL in the groups with CAD risk factors showed that the mean QOL domains were statistically similar between opium addicted and non-opium addicted patients. In the addicted group, men had a higher psychological health score than women. A previous history of myocardial infarction reduced the psychological score in this group. Also, in the addicted patients with a history of diabetes mellitus, social functioning was better than that of the non-diabetics. The different domains of quality of life in our opium-addicted and non-addicted patients with CAD were similar; and among all the major risk factors for coronary artery disease, only female gender and a previous history of myocardial infarction could influence quality of life in the opium-addicted patients.

  8. Association between Tooth Loss and Opium Addiction: Results of a Community-Based Study on 5900 Adult Individuals in South East of Iran in 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammadi, Tayebeh Malek; Hasheminejad, Naimeh; Salari, Hamid Reza; Rostamizadeh, Mohammad Reza; Najafipour, Hamid

    2017-01-01

    Like any other drug abuse, opium use is known to have detrimental effects on oral health. Oral hygiene neglect in opium users can lead to tooth loss resulting in further functional, esthetic, and dieting problems. Therefore, the aim of this study was to assess the association between tooth loss and opium addiction in a large-scale population. This study was part of an extensive study related to the risk factors of cardiovascular disease and conducted by the center for physiological research during 2012-2015 in Kerman. A total of 5900, 15-75-year-old individuals, were recruited by a single-stage random cluster sampling method. Factors including opium and smoking consumption, factors related to oral health, hygiene, and the number of missing teeth were examined. Data were collected through questionnaires, interviews, and physical examination. Of 5900 individuals, 2662 (45.1%) were men and the rest were women, which 1011 individuals (17.1%) consumed opium. The prevalence of opium abuse was significantly higher in men. Regarding the oral dental indicators, the numbers of missing teeth ( P Opium addiction is associated with higher tooth loss, especially, in women opium users. Dental practitioners and health politicians should pay special attention to the oral health of addicts before tooth loss occurs.

  9. Effects of Different Concentrations of Opium on the Secretion of Interleukin-6, Interferon-γ and Transforming Growth Factor Beta Cytokines from Jurkat Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asadikaram, Gholamreza; Igder, Somayeh; Jamali, Zahra; Shahrokhi, Nader; Najafipour, Hamid; Shokoohi, Mostafa; Jafarzadeh, Abdollah; Kazemi-Arababadi, Mohammad

    2015-01-01

    The risk of infectious, autoimmune and immunodeficiency diseases and cancers rise in opioid addicts due to changes in innate and acquired immune responses. Three types of opioid receptors (К-δ-μ) are expressed on the surface of lymphocytes and mononuclear phagocytes. The present study was designed to examine the effects of different concentrations of opium on the secretion of some cytokines produced by lymphocyte cells. Jurkat cells were exposed to different concentrations of opium for periods of 6, 24 and 72 h in cell culture medium. The amount of interleukin-6 (IL-6), interferon-γ (IFN-γ) and transforming growth factor-b (TGF-β) were then measured using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) method. The results showed that opium increases the secretion of IL-6 in different concentration of opium in 6 h. The amount of IFN-γ decreased in 6 h and increased in 24 h significantly compared with control. On the other hand, opium had an inhibitory effect on the TGF-β secretion in 6, 24 and 72 h. Overall, the study showed that opium stimulates pro-inflammatory and suppressed anti-inflammatory cytokine secretion in Jurkat cells. This may account for the negative effect of opium on the immune system leading to chronic inflammation and a base for many disorders in opium addicts.

  10. The effect of opium addiction on serum adiponectin and leptin levels in male subjects: a case control study from Kerman Coronary Artery Disease Risk Factors Study (KERCADRS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahouzehi, Beydolah; Shokoohi, Mostafa; Najafipour, Hamid

    2013-01-01

    Serum adiponectin and leptin levels have been shown to be related to obesity, insulin resistance and cardiovascular diseases (CVD). Opium addiction has a positive association with endocrine system disorders. The relationship between adipokines and opium addiction is unclear. In the present study, we aimed to determine serum adiponectin and leptin levels in opium addicted subjects. 176 men, 88 opium addicts and 88 non- addicts were randomly selected from subjects who participated in Kerman Coronary Artery Disease Risk factors Study (KERCADRS); a population-based study. Serum adiponectin and leptin levels were measured using ELISA and compared between two groups. We adjusted the effect of some confounding factors such as the patients' demographic, clinical and medical history in multivariate analysis model. The serum level of adiponectin in opium addicts was significantly lower than control group (6.5±3.6 vs. 9.8±8.1 µg/ml, Popium addicts, p = 0.80). In the multivariate analysis, after adjusting for age, cigarette smoking, body mass index, type 2 diabetes, hypertension, cholesterol, triglyceride and high and low density lipoproteins, the negative association between opium addiction and decreased adiponectin level was still present (β = -0.144, P value = 0.005). The results showed that opium addiction reduces serum adiponectin level. Since adiponectin has been shown to have anti-diabetic and anti-atherogenic effects, its reduction may account for increase in the risk of metabolic disorders such as insulin resistance and CVD amongst opium addicted patients.

  11. Biotypes of scentless chamomile Matricaria maritima (L.) ssp. inodora (L.) Dostal and common poppy Papaver rhoeas (L.) resistant to tribenuron methyl, in Poland

    OpenAIRE

    Adamczewski Kazimierz; Kierzek Roman; Matysiak Kinga

    2014-01-01

    Scentless chamomile Matricaria maritima (L.) ssp. inodora (L.) Dostal and common poppy Papaver rhoeas (L.) are species which very often infest winter cereal and winter rape crops. Inhibitors of acetolactate synthase (ALS) are commonly used for control of these weeds. The herbicides are characterised by a single site of action in the plant, which has an influence on selection of the weed population and may result in a rapid development of resistance. In 2012, five seed samples of scen...

  12. Amitav ghoshs Sea of poppies (2008): a web of gender, cultural and mythic relations in the nineteenth-century colonial India

    OpenAIRE

    Regiane Corrêa de Oliveira Ramos

    2016-01-01

    This doctoral dissertation focuses on Amitav Ghoshs Sea of Poppies (2008) to investigate, from a postcolonial perspective, the way in which the writer deconstructs gender in the nineteenth-century India. In Chapter I, I analyze men and women within the Indian familial space in the nineteenth century, demonstrating how both are subjected to the disempowering effects of traditional rituals (such as sati), structures of Brahminical morality and patriarchal violence. The main character pair Deet...

  13. Determination of fatty acid, tocopherol and phytosterol contents of the oils of various poppy (Papaver somniferum L. seeds.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Musa Özcan, Mehmet

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available The fatty acid, tocopherol and sterol contents of the oils of several poppy seeds were investigated. The main fatty acids in poppy seed oils were linoleic (687.6-739.2 g kg-1, oleic (141.3-192.8 g kg-1 and palmitic (76.8-92.8 g kg-1. The oils contained an appreciable amount of -tocopherol (195.37-280.85 mg kg-1, with a mean value of 261.31 mg kg-1 and α-tocopherol (21.99-45.83 mg kg-1, with a mean value of 33.03 mg kg-1. The concentrations of total sterol ranged from 1099.84 mg kg-1 (K.pembe to 4816.10 mg kg-1 (2. sınıf beyaz, with a mean value of 2916.20 mg kg-1. The major sterols were -sitosterol, ranging from 663.91 to 3244.39 mg kg-1; campesterol, ranging from 228.59 to 736.50 mg kg-1; and Δ5-avenasterol, ranging from 103.90 to 425.02 mg kg-1. The studied varieties of poppy seeds from Turkey were found to be a potential source of valuable oil.El contenido en ácidos grasos, tocoferoles y esteroles de aceites de varias semillas de adormidera fueron investigadas. Los principales ácidos grasos en el aceite de semilla de adormidera fueron el ácido linoleico (687.6-739.2 g kg-1, ácido oleico (141.3-192.8 g kg-1 y ácidos palmítico (76.8- 92.8 g kg-1. Los aceites contienen una cantidad apreciable de -tocoferol (195.37-280.85 mg kg-1, con un valor medio de 261.31 mg kg-1 y α-tocoferol (21.99-45.83 mg kg-1, con un valor medio de 33.03 mg kg-1. La concentración total de esteroles varió desde 1099.84 mg kg-1 (K.pembe a 4816.10 mg kg-1 (2. sınıf beyaz, con un valor medio de 2916.20 mg kg-1. El principal esterol fue el -sitosterol, que varió desde 663.91 a 3244.39 mg kg-1; el campesterol, que varió desde 228.59 a 736.50 mg kg-1; y el Δ5-avenasterol, que varió desde 103.90 a 425.02 mg kg-1. Las semillas estudiadas de las diferentes variedades de adormidera de Turquía pueden ser una fuente potencial de aceites con valor añadido.

  14. Opium, Insurgency, and U.S. Counterdrug Strategy in Afghanistan: A Case for Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-05-14

    the counterdrug successes of Pakistan and India where reductions in illegal opium production, or conversion to licit pharmaceutical enterprises...U.S. Policy, 32. 64 Thom Shanker, “Pentagon Sees Antidrug Effort in Afghanistan,” New York Times, 25 March 2005, http://query.nytimes.com/ gst ...Effort in Afghanistan.” New York Times, 25 March 2005. http://query.nytimes.com/ gst /fullpage.html?res=9B03E6D6173FF936A157 50C0A9639C8B63&sec=&spon

  15. Did the Taliban's opium eradication campaign cause a decline in HIV infections in Russia?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenblum, Daniel; Jones, Maggie

    2013-04-01

    We offer a new hypothesis for why HIV infections fell rapidly after 2001 in Russia: the Taliban's opium eradication campaign in Afghanistan reduced the supply of heroin, causing use to fall and, thus, transmission of HIV to fall. We present evidence of the impact of the eradication campaign on the heroin market and show that the fall in HIV infections happened simultaneously in Russia and surrounding countries soon after the eradication campaign. We also show that the decline in HIV infections only occurred in injecting drug users, while other risk groups were unaffected. Limitations to our analysis are discussed.

  16. Effects of clonidine premedication upon postoperative shivering and recovery time in patients with and without opium addiction after elective leg fracture surgeries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jabbary Moghaddam, Morteza; Ommi, Davood; Mirkheshti, Alireza; Dabbagh, Ali; Memary, Elham; Sadeghi, Afsaneh; Yaseri, Mehdi

    2013-01-01

    Opium is a highly addictive agent and the most common narcotic often misused in Iran. The pharmacokinetic of anesthetic drugs in patients with opium addiction is one of the great challenges for anesthesiologists. Hemodynamic instability and postoperative side effects are of these challenges which should be managed correctly. In this study we aimed to assess the effects of clonidine upon post anesthesia shivering and recovery time in patients with and without opium addiction after general anesthesia to decrease the subsequent complications related to the shivering and elongation of recovery time. In a randomized clinical trial, 160 patients candidates for elective leg fracture operations under general anesthesia were studied in four groups of 40 patients: Group 1 (placebo 1) were patients without addiction who got placebo 90 minutes before the operation. Group 2 (placebo 2) were patients with opium addiction which received placebo as group 1. Group 3 (Clonidine 1) patients without addiction who got clonidine 90 minutes before the operation and group 4 (Clonidine 2) who were opium addicted ones which received clonidine as premedication. None of the patients with and without addiction in clonidine groups had shivering after the operation but in placebo groups shivering was observed and the difference between clonidine and placebo groups was statistically significant (P opium addicted than non-addicted patients (P = 0.04). Premedication with clonidine in patients with and without opium addiction can be effective to decrease the incidence of shivering and recovery time after operation.

  17. The effects of co-administration of opium and morphine with nicotine during pregnancy on spatial learning and memory of adult male offspring rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sepehri, Gholamreza; Parsania, Shahrnaz; Hajzadeh, Mousa-Al-Reza; Haghpanah, Tahereh; Sheibani, Vahid; Divsalar, Kouros; Shekarforoush, Shahnaz; Afarinesh, Mohammad Reza

    2014-09-01

    Smoking opium/cigarette is a global health concern. The aim of this study was to examine learning and memory of rat male offsprings whose mothers had been exposed to either opium or morphine with nicotine during pregnancy. Wistar rats were used for the experiments. In the female rats, opium, morphine and nicotine dependencies were induced by daily injections of drug solution for 10 days before mating. Spatial memory was tested by Morris water maze test in male pups at the postnatal day 60. The duration that took until the rats found the platform in the maze and also their swimming speed were recorded. An increase in the platform finding duration was observed for the pups of dependent mothers in comparison with the control in the training trial (Popium/morphine and nicotine significantly decreased the time spent in the trigger zone to find the hidden platform (Peffect on the swimming speed in the probe test. However, no significant difference was observed in the learning and memory behavior of offspring whose mothers received morphine, opium, nicotine or the co-administration of either morphine or opium with nicotine. The present study showed that the opium, morphine and nicotine abuse and co-administration of opium/morphine with nicotine during pregnancy may cause deficits in spatial learning of male rat offspring. Based on our data, no synergistic effects of co-drug administration were observed on learning and memory in male rat offspring.

  18. Effects of opium addiction on level of sensory block in spinal anesthesia with bupivacaine for lower abdomen and limb surgery: a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karbasy, Seyyed Hasan; Derakhshan, Pooya

    2014-12-01

    In clinical practice, the level of sensory block in spinal anesthesia in opium abusers is lower than that in non-abusers because of adaptive changes caused by opium use. The aim of this study was to investigate the level of sensory block resulting from the intrathecal administration of 0.5% bupivacaine in opium abuser patients undergoing lower extremity and lower abdominal surgeries. A total of 100 patients who were candidates of elective lower extremity orthopedic and lower abdominal surgeries were recruited and assigned to two groups based on their history of opium addiction (Case or control). Both groups underwent the same anesthesia procedure and pinprick test was used to assess the level of anesthesia. No statistically significant difference was observed between groups regarding age, duration of the surgery, and type of surgery. The frequency of addiction was higher in males than in females. The level of sensory block at three minutes was significantly lower in the opium abuser group (P = 0.006). The mean time to achieve T10 sensory block was 10.33 ± 5.79 minutes in the opium abusers and 6.89 ± 3.88 minutes in the controls (P = 0.001). The level of the highest sensory block was lower in the opium abuser group (P = 0.002). The findings of this study suggested that after induction of spinal anesthesia with intrathecal administration of bupivacaine, chronic opium abusers would have a lower level of sensory block in comparison with patients without a history of opium abuse.

  19. Association between opium use and metabolic syndrome among an urban population in Southern Iran: Results of the Kerman Coronary Artery Disease Risk Factor Study (KERCADRS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yousefzadeh, Gholamreza; Shokoohi, Mostafa; Najafipour, Hamid; Eslami, Mahmood; Salehi, Farank

    2015-01-01

    Along with the established effects of opium on metabolic parameters, stimulatory or inhibitory effects of opium on metabolic syndrome are also predictable. This study aimed to examine the association of opium use with metabolic syndrome and its components. This study was conducted on 5332 out of 5900 original sample participants enrolled in a population-based cohort entitled the Kerman Coronary Artery Disease Risk Study in Iran from 2009 to 2011. The subjects were divided into three groups of "non-opium users" (NOUs = 4340 subjects), "former opium users" (FOUs = 176 subjects), and dependent and occasional people named "current opium users" (COUs = 811 subjects). Metabolic syndrome was defined according to two International Diabetes Federation (IDF) and National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III (NCEP ATP III) definition criteria. The overall prevalence of IDF defined-metabolic syndrome among NOUs, FOUs, and COUs was 36.4%, 27.3%, and 39.0%, respectively; which was significantly higher in the COUs group (P = 0.012). However, no significant difference was revealed across the three groups in prevalence of NCEP defined-metabolic syndrome (NOUs = 37.2%, FOUs = 30.1%, and COUs = 39.6%, P = 0.058). The odds for IDF defined-metabolic syndrome was higher in both COUs [odd ratio (OR) = 1.28, P = 0.028)] and FOUs (OR = 1.57, P = 0.045) compared with NOUs as the reference adjusting gender, age, body mass index, and cigarette smoking. However, the appearance of NCEP defined-metabolic syndrome could not be predicted by opium use. Opium use can be associated with an increased risk for metabolic syndrome based on IDF criteria and thus preventing the appearance of metabolic syndrome by avoiding opium use can be a certain approach to preventing cardiovascular disease.

  20. Relationships of dissociative disorders and personality traits in opium addicts on methadone treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghafarinezhad, Alireza; Rajabizadeh, Ghodratollah; Shahriari, Vahid

    2013-01-01

    Drug abuse is a major public health problem. Some believe that when dissociation fails to defend against emotional, physical, or sexual trauma, the person will find relief from unpleasant thoughts and emotions in opium use. On the other hand, personality disorders are considered as important predictors of treatment outcomes in drug abusers. Due to lack of adequate research in this regard, we evaluated dissociative disorders and personality traits of opium addicts on methadone treatment. This cross-sectional analytic study included 111 non-psychotic subjects on methadone treatment (case group) and 69 non-addicts (control group). After recording demographic characteristics, Dissociative Experiences Scale (DES) and Millon Multiaxial Inventory III were applied to assess dissociative symptoms and clinical personality patterns of all participants. Dissociative symptoms were significantly more common in the case group than in the control group (P = 0.044). While hysterionic personality disorder was more frequent in the control group (P = 0.008), sadistic, antisocial, and schizotypal personality disorders were significantly more common in the case group (P = 0.008, 0.002, and 0.023, respectively). We found relations between history of drug dependence, dissociative symptoms, and personality disorders. Therefore, the mentioned disorders need to be kept in mind while planning addiction treatment modalities and identifying high risk groups.

  1. Evaluation of hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography stationary phases for analysis of opium alkaloids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagheri, Mohsen; Taheri, Mohammadreza; Farhadpour, Mohsen; Rezadoost, Hassan; Ghassempour, Alireza; Aboul-Enein, Hassan Y

    2017-08-18

    The separation of a mixture containing five major opium alkaloids, namely morphine, codeine, thebaine, noscapine and papaverine has been investigated in hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography (HILIC) mode using five different stationary phases: bare silica, zwitterion, aminopropyl, diol and cyanopropyl. In order to propose the appropriate column for separation and purification, retention behaviors of the five natural opioids have been studied on mentioned HILIC stationary phases. The mechanism of separation in diverse HILIC media, based on the formation of water-rich layer on surface of the HILIC stationary phases and the physicochemical properties of opium alkaloids, such as pKa (acidic pK) and the octanol-water distribution coefficient (log Do/w) are discussed. Chromatographic responses including modified limit of detection LOD m , signal to noise ratio (S/N) m , and defined modified R Sm have considered for suggestion of the suitable column for quantitative/qualitative and preparative purposes. According to the obtained results, diol stationary phase is best suited for analytical chromatography, whereas bare silica and zwitterionic stationary phases are appropriate for preparative applications. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Comparison of tincture of opium and methadone to control opioid withdrawal in a Thai treatment centre

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jittiwutikarn, Jaroon; Ali, Robert; White, Jason M; Bochner, Felix; Somogyi, Andrew A; Foster, David J R

    2004-01-01

    Aims To evaluate the effectiveness of oral tincture of opium (TOP) and methadone to control opioid withdrawal in patients in northern Thailand. Methods Open label, parallel group study in an inpatient facility compared 15 former heroin users receiving methadone 5–20 mg 12 hourly with 15 former opium smokers receiving TOP (3.33–10 mg morphine equivalents 12 hourly). At 0, 1, 3 and 8 h, blood, withdrawal scores and subjective opioid effects were collected. Results There was a reciprocal association between withdrawal scores/direct subjective opioid effects and plasma (R)-methadone, but not plasma morphine, concentrations. Withdrawal scores at the time of dosing were higher in the TOP patients (9.1 ± 3) than in the methadone patients (4.5 ± 4.6) and in the TOP patients were significantly (P = 0.001) attenuated at 3 and 8 h. Conclusions At the doses used, TOP was inferior to methadone in suppressing withdrawal. It could prove to be a cost effective and valuable drug, but only after dose size and frequency are further investigated. PMID:15521902

  3. Common Bile Duct (CBD) diameter in opium-addicted men: Comparison with non-addict controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zahedi-Nejad, Nina; Narouei, Shahin; Fahimy, Farnaz

    2010-07-01

    Opium and its derivatives are widely abused throughout the world. Recent case reports and a few limited studies have suggested that opiates cause dilation of the common bile duct of the abusers. Our case-control study, lasting 7.5 months, investigated 121 male adult addicts and 142 non-addicted controls for biliary tract diameters, using ultrasonography. The study was conducted in Bahonar Hospital in Kerman. Neither the addiction cases nor the non-addict controls revealed any hepatobiliary tract symptoms. The subjects were asked to fill in a questionnaire. After the exclusion of the symptomatic cases, ultrasound examinations were carried out and the findings from questionnaires and US examinations were recorded. The mean ±SD diameter of the common bile duct was 4.78±2.58 for addicts and 3.37±2.25 for non-addicts. CBD wall thickness was 1.969±0.61 mm in addicts versus 1.73±0.631 in non-addicts. The differences were statistically significant. According to the multivariate analysis, the duration of opium abuse was a significant factor. We concluded that CBD dilation and increased CBD wall thickness can be expected in people with a prolonged history of opiate addiction.

  4. Common Bile Duct (CBD) diameter in opium-addicted men: Comparison with non-addict controls

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zahedi-Nejad, N.; Narouei, S.; Fahimy, F.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Opium and its derivatives are widely abused throughout the world. Recent case reports and a few limited studies have suggested that opiates cause dilation of the common bile duct of the abusers. Material/Methods: Our case-control study, lasting 7.5 months, investigated 121 male adult addicts and 142 non addicted controls for biliary tract diameters, using ultrasonography. The study was conducted in Bahonar Hospital in Kerman. Neither the addiction cases nor the non-addict controls revealed any hepatobiliary tract symptoms. The subjects were asked to fill in a questionnaire. After the exclusion of the symptomatic cases, ultrasound examinations were carried out and the findings from questionnaires and US examinations were recorded. Results: The mean ± SD diameter of the common bile duct was 4.78 ± 2.58 for addicts and 3.37 ± 2.25 for non-addicts. CBD wall thickness was 1.969 ± 0.61 mm in addicts versus 1.73 ± 0.631 in non-addicts. The differences were statistically significant. According to the multivariate analysis, the duration of opium abuse was a significant factor. Conclusions: We concluded that CBD dilation and increased CBD wall thickness can be expected in people with a prolonged history of opiate addiction. (authors)

  5. Opium and opioid abuse in orthopedic inpatients: a cross sectional study in Urmia University of Medical Sciences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afshar, Ahmadreza; Asadzadeh, Mina; Kargar, Hakimeh; Aghdashi, Mir Mosa; Mirzatolooei, Fardin

    2012-01-01

    During a cross-sectional study, patients who were admitted to the orthopedic department of the Urmia University of Medical Sciences were asked about opium/opioid abuse. Demographic characteristics, the pattern of consumption, the substance, the duration of the use, the duration of hospital stay and the cause of their injuries were recorded. Among 2,867 patients, 74 (2.5%) patients (71 men and 3 women) with the mean age of 38 were opium/opioid users. Most of the patients used opium through inhalation. The mean duration of the substance use was 7.4 years. The mean duration of hospital stay between the regular orthopedic patients and the opium/opioid abuser orthopedic patients was statistically significant. (P=000). Among four Hepatitis C Virus (HCV) infected patients, three subjects were injection users and Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) also infected two of them. Road traffic accidents (37.8%), and work related injuries (17.5%) were the two most common reasons for the patient's injuries.

  6. The post-opium scenario and rubber in northern Laos: Alternative Western and Chinese models of development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Paul T

    2009-09-01

    In the past few years rubber planting has spread rapidly throughout northern Laos, especially in Luang Namtha province that borders China. The impetus for this boom has come partly from the spiralling demand for rubber in China (now the world's largest rubber consumer), the high world prices for rubber, and China's promotion of overseas investment through its opium-replacement policy. These economic factors have converged with the desperate need of impoverished highlanders in northern Laos to replace opium as a cash crop as a consequence of a recent opium-eradication campaign and inadequate alternative development. This paper draws upon ethnographic and agro-economic research in northern Laos and neighbouring regions and reports of international development organisations operating in Laos. The rubber boom in northern Laos represents a fundamental clash between Western drug-oriented alternative development, on the one hand, and China's national economic strategies abroad and investment-led narcotics policy, on the other. China's opium-replacement policy has contributed to a type of unregulated frontier capitalism with socio-economic and environmental effects that threaten the principles and goals of alternative development and even to marginalise the role international development organisations in northern Laos.

  7. Invasive Species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Invasive species have significantly changed the Great Lakes ecosystem. An invasive species is a plant or animal that is not native to an ecosystem, and whose introduction is likely to cause economic, human health, or environmental damage.

  8. Effect of opium addiction on new and traditional cardiovascular risk factors: do duration of addiction and route of administration matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asgary, Sedigheh; Sarrafzadegan, Nizal; Naderi, Gholam-Ali; Rozbehani, Reza

    2008-11-03

    There is a belief among some society that opium has a number of beneficial effects on cardiovascular disease. The aim of the present investigation as a cross-sectional study was to assess this hypothesis. Several biochemical factors (Fasting blood sugar, Cholesterol, Triglyceride, LDL-Cholesterol, HDL-Cholesterol, HbA1C, CRP, Fibrinogen, Factor VII, SGOT, SGPT, Lpa, apo A and apo B were evaluated in opium-addicted men (case) against non opium-addicted men(control). Three hundred and sixty opium-addicted men were divided into three groups according to the route of administration (Orally, Vafour and Sikh-Sang) and each group was divided into four subgroups according to the duration of addiction (5 months, 1 year, 2 years and 5 years). Blood morphine concentration was measured by ELISA method. The results show that morphine concentration was significantly higher in orally administration. In all routes, there was a direct correlation between blood morphine concentration and period of addiction. Regardless to the period and route of administration, the level of HbA1C, CRP, factor VII, Fibrinogen, apo B, Lpa, SGOT, and SGPT were significantly higher in the case subjects as compared with controls and HDL-Cholesterol and apo a were significantly lower in the case subjects. This study demonstrated the deleterious effects of opium on some traditional and new cardiovascular disease risk factors. These deleterious effects are related to the period of addiction and their levels are significantly increased after 2 years of addiction. Route of administration impresses cardiovascular risk factors and "Sikh-Sang" showed the worst effect.

  9. Identifications of Opium and Heroin Body Packing by Medical Imaging in the Poisoned and Non-poisoned Drug Smuggler

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balali-Mood, M.; Zare, G.

    2007-01-01

    Opium and heroin body packing is a social and health problem in Mashhad since the city is in the vicinity of Afghanistan border. We aimed to compare abdominal X-ray (AXR) and computed tomography (CT) scan for diagnosis. All body packers referred to the center between 2003 and 2006 were hospitalized. Defecation of packets was considered as the gold standard for diagnosis. AXR and CT scan results were classified into 3 groups (highly suggestive, suggestive, and false positive) and compared with each other, using Chi-Square test. A total of 56 body packers (54 M and 2 F) aged 32.1 ± 11.3 years were studied. A mean of 44.4 ± 35.1 opium and 52.0 ± 20.0 heroin packets weighed 8-15 g were retrieved from 46 and 10 patients, respectively. Mean period of hospitalization was 4.7 ± 2.7 and 4.1 ± 0.6 days for opium and heroin packers, respectively. Urine morphine test was positive in 82 percent of the patients. Nine patients underwent surgical operation and death occurred in only 3 opium packers. AXR and CT scan results were significantly different (p less than 0.001) in terms of highly suggestive (16 and 40), suggestive (36 and 1) and false negative (4 and 0), respectively. However, sensitivity of AXR and CT scan in diagnosis of body packing was determined as 92 percent and 100 percent, respectively. Although AXR is a simple and more available technique for the diagnosis of opium and heroin body packing, CT scan revealed more significant sensitive diagnostic tool and should be employed as the confirmatory method.(author)

  10. Effect of opium addiction on new and traditional cardiovascular risk factors: do duration of addiction and route of administration matter?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naderi Gholam-Ali

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is a belief among some society that opium has a number of beneficial effects on cardiovascular disease. The aim of the present investigation as a cross-sectional study was to assess this hypothesis. Several biochemical factors (Fasting blood sugar, Cholesterol, Triglyceride, LDL-Cholesterol, HDL-Cholesterol, HbA1C, CRP, Fibrinogen, Factor VII, SGOT, SGPT, Lpa, apo A and apo B were evaluated in opium-addicted men (case against non opium-addicted men(control. Three hundred and sixty opium-addicted men were divided into three groups according to the route of administration (Orally, Vafour and Sikh-Sang and each group was divided into four subgroups according to the duration of addiction (5 months, 1 year, 2 years and 5 years. Blood morphine concentration was measured by ELISA method. Results The results show that morphine concentration was significantly higher in orally administration. In all routes, there was a direct correlation between blood morphine concentration and period of addiction. Regardless to the period and route of administration, the level of HbA1C, CRP, factor VII, Fibrinogen, apo B, Lpa, SGOT, and SGPT were significantly higher in the case subjects as compared with controls and HDL-Cholesterol and apo a were significantly lower in the case subjects. Conclusion This study demonstrated the deleterious effects of opium on some traditional and new cardiovascular disease risk factors. These deleterious effects are related to the period of addiction and their levels are significantly increased after 2 years of addiction. Route of administration impresses cardiovascular risk factors and "Sikh-Sang" showed the worst effect.

  11. 75 FR 32506 - Importer of Controlled Substances; Notice of Registration

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-08

    ... of controlled substances listed in schedule II: Drug Schedule Raw Opium (9600) II Concentrate of... substances that are manufactured from raw opium, poppy straw, and concentrate of poppy straw. No comments or... treaties, conventions, or protocols in effect on May 1, 1971. DEA has investigated Cody Laboratories, Inc...

  12. 77 FR 5846 - Importer of Controlled Substances; Notice of Registration

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-06

    ... following basic classes of controlled substances: Drug Schedule Opium, raw (9600) II Poppy Straw Concentrate... substances that are manufactured from opium, raw, and poppy straw concentrate. Comments and requests for... and with United States obligations under international treaties, conventions, or protocols in effect...

  13. 78 FR 17230 - Importer of Controlled Substances, Notice of Registration, Noramco, Inc.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-20

    ... basic classes of controlled substances: Drug Schedule Phenylacetone (8501) II Opium, raw (9600) II Poppy Straw Concentrate (9670) II Tapentadol (9780) II The company plans to import raw Opium (9600) and Poppy... treaties, conventions, or protocols in effect on May 1, 1971, at this time. DEA has investigated Noramco...

  14. 77 FR 43862 - Importer of Controlled Substances; Notice of Registration; Noramco, Inc.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-26

    ... basic classes of controlled substances: Drug Schedule Phenylacetone (8501) II Opium, raw (9600) II Poppy Straw Concentrate (9670) II Tapentadol (9780) II The company plans to import the Opium (9600) and Poppy... treaties, conventions, or protocols in effect on May 1, 1971, at this time. DEA has investigated Noramco...

  15. AFLP studies on downy-mildew-resistant and downy-mildew ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    between DM-resistant and DM-susceptible opium poppy genotypes and development of DM-resistant opium poppy genotype- specific AFLP ... Keywords. AFLP; disease resistance; DNA markers; downy mildew; Papaver somniferum; Peronospora arborescens. ...... 1996 Identification of molecular markers in soybean.

  16. A survey of causes of the opium tendency and addiction in patients with the diagnosis of opium poisoning in Khorramabad educational hospitals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ghafar ali Mahmoudi

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Background : Less phenomenon, such as addiction has threatened the human societies. Despite the risks and complications of addiction, victims of this deadly trap are added every day. So we decided to study the causes of tendency to opium substances in patients with the diagnosis of drug poisoning and addiction in educational hospitals of Khorramabad city. Materials and Methods: A descriptive epidemiologic study on 100 patients diagnosed with addiction and intoxication with informed consent conducted in 2014. The research instrument was a questionnaire consisting of two parts, the first part of the information on individual characteristics and the second was to determine the factors associated with opioid use in patients, the questions in the field of employment, economic, educational, family and social factors. After data collecting, statistical analysis was performed. Results: 11 females and 89 males were studied, and the most frequent age group was 30-39 years. 81% were urban and 19% rural. Enjoyment and physical capacity for work, to get rid of the problems of life, relieve mental and neurological disorders, colored with bad friends, unemployment, low cost and availability of opiates, were the most common causes of fendency to substance use. Conclusion: Individual, familial, economic and social factors coordinated toward substance use. It is hoped that the results of this study to increase the awareness of officials and planners in the policy implementation and provide preventive and controlling measures to prevent addiction and its consequences.

  17. [Treating pain after dental surgery: a randomised, controlled, double-blind trial to assess a new formulation of paracetamol, opium powder and caffeine versus tramadol or placebo].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borel, Jean-François; Deschaumes, Christophe; Devoize, Laurent; Huard, Cédric; Orliaguet, Thierry; Dubray, Claude; Baudet-Pommel, Martine; Dallel, Radhouane

    2010-05-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the analgesic efficacy and the safety of the association, paracetamol, opium prepared and caffeine, in two different dosages as compared to the conventional analgesic tramadol hydrochloride, on acute postoperative dental pain. We conducted a randomised, double-blind, multicentre, parallel-group clinical trial to test the efficacy and safety of single doses of two associations; paracetamol 500 mg, caffeine 50mg, opium prepared 25, and paracetamol 500 mg, caffeine 50mg, opium prepared 50mg, as compared to tramadol hydrochloride 100mg (called hereafter tramadol 100), and placebo, in the control of postoperative pain following the removal of 2 ipsilateral impacted third molars. The primary efficacy criterion was the sum of pain intensity differences as assessed every 30 minutes within 3 hours after the baseline assessment and administration of study treatment (SPID(0-3h)). Of the 232 randomised patients, 228 (98%) completed the study. Analysis of the primary efficacy criterion (SPID(0-3h)) established: (i) the superiority of the 3 active study treatments vs. placebo (popium 25mg, and paracetamol, caffeine, and opium 50mg vs. tramadol. Besides, both formulations of paracetamol, caffeine, and opium showed: (i) a faster onset of analgesic effect as compared to tramadol 100; (ii) a significantly stronger analgesic efficacy than tramadol 100, as measured 1 hour after the treatment intake; this superiority lasted all over the study duration for paracetamol, caffeine, and opium 50mg but not for paracetamol, caffeine, and opium 25mg. No unexpected safety concerns occurred, the two formulations of paracetamol, caffeine, and opium showed a good safety profile especially with paracetamol, caffeine, and opium 25mg as compared to tramadol. This study evidenced the non-inferiority of the paracetamol, caffeine, and opium 25mg or 50mg vs. tramadol 100, and even though the strengths of the tested formulations were higher than that of the 2009

  18. Impact of methamphetamine and opium use in sexual satisfaction and body image in married substance and non-substance user men

    OpenAIRE

    Anahita Khodabakhshi Koolaee; Ali Sarvestani; Ladan Mansour; Hassan Habibi; Masoumeh Rahmatizadeh

    2015-01-01

    Background: sexual satisfaction is a vital component in marital satisfaction and life quality. The appraisal has influence sexual satisfaction. The previous study shows that people use methamphetamine and opium for enhancing sexual functioning.Objectives: The current study was designed to examine the impact of methamphetamine and opium use in sexual satisfaction and body image.Patients and Methods: The respondents were 100 non-substance user men with available  method and 53 methamphetamine u...

  19. Epidemiologic Study of Opium Use in Pars Cohort Study: A Study of 9000 Adults in a Rural Southern Area of Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fallahzadeh, Mohammad Amin; Salehi, Alireza; Naghshvarian, Mojtaba; Fallahzadeh, Mohammad Hossein; Poustchi, Hossein; Sepanlou, Sadaf G; Gandomkar, Abdullah; Malekzadeh, Reza

    2017-04-01

    Opium is one of the most common substances used worldwide with variable epidemiologic features in different regions. This study was performed in southern Iran, to find the epidemiology of opium use and its association with different factors and diseases. This cross-sectional study was performed on baseline data extracted from Pars Cohort Study performed in Valashahr, a rural area in southern Iran. For any subject, information was collected about demographic factors, some common diseases including heart disease, stroke and hypertension and the state of using opium, other substances and cigarettes. There were 4276 males and 4988 females, with a mean age of 52.6 ± 9.7 years of whom 8.4% reported opium use (17.3% of males and 0.7% of females). In men, the history of stroke and heart disease were significantly more common in opium users (12.6% vs. 8.8%, P = 0.001 and 2.8% vs. 1.5%, P = 0.01, respectively) while the history of hypertension was significantly more common in non-opium users (7.8% vs. 10.3%, P = 0.04). Younger age, male gender, being non-married and positive history of joint pain, cigarette smoking and alcohol consumption were the factors associated with opium use. Opium use is common in non-married men who have a positive history of cigarette smoking and alcohol consumption in the rural population of southern Iran. It is associated with increased risk of heart disease and stroke and decreased risk of hypertension in males. Global interventional and preventive measures are required to control this complicated social problem.

  20. [Foreign firms and dissemination of western medicine in China before the Opium War].

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, L P; Wang, L

    2016-11-28

    From the beginning of the 19th century to the Opium War, by taking the advantages of free entering and departing China, and to protect themselves, the foreign firms introduced vaccination technique into China. This is the beginning of the introduction of western medicine to China. After 1807, following the arrival of protestant missionaries, foreign firms became the stronghold for the missionaries to conceal their missionary status so as to propagate the principles of Christianity. With the aid of the business firms employee's legal identity, the missionaries started their activities of delivering western medicines and practices. Later, the business firms gained commercial profits through the subsidizing medical services and infiltration. Although western medicine objectively improved the medical conditions in China and promoted the modernization of Chinese health career, but it cast an important aspect of western aggression against China at the same time.

  1. Opium trade, insurgency, and HIV/AIDS in Afghanistan: relationships and regional consequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffin, Nevada; Khoshnood, Kaveh

    2010-07-01

    Global health and conflict studies share key linkages that have important research and policy implications but for which data are currently lacking. This analytical review examines the ongoing conflict in Afghanistan, using it as a basis to develop a conceptual framework that integrates security and public health concepts. The analysis draws on recent peer-reviewed and gray literature to assess the interrelationship among 3 variable clusters and their impact on the emergence of the HIV epidemic in Afghanistan. The evidence suggests that there is a complex indirect relationship linking illicit opium trade, the ongoing insurgency, and forced and spontaneous migration to the emergence of an injection drug use-driven HIV epidemic in Afghanistan. These findings demonstrate a clear need for an integrated cross-disciplinary and regional approach to the emerging threat of HIV/AIDS in Afghanistan, to inform more balanced and effective policy making in this and other regions of strategic global import.

  2. Utility of opium seed extract tests in preventing hypersensitivity reactions during surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armentia, A; Pineda, F; Palacios, R; Martín-Gil, F-J; Miguel, A S; Arenal, J J; Tejedor, J; Tef, B M

    2014-01-01

    Anaphylaxis during anaesthesia is fatal in 3-9% of patients and analgesics, including opioids, and is the second most common medicament-related cause, although the prevalence is underestimated. We recently found that patients may generate IgE antibodies to opium seeds. To determine the diagnostic accuracy of specific antibodies to morphine, codeine, rocuronium and oil body and aqueous fractions of Papaver somniferum seeds in the diagnosis and prevention of allergy to opioids. Patients with hypersensitivity reactions during surgery, and severe clinical allergy (pollen, tobacco), and illicit heroin users were selected. The sensitivity, specificity and predictive values of in vivo and in vitro diagnostic techniques including oil body and aqueous fractions of P. somniferum seeds were measured. We studied 203 patients, with mean age 35.1±17.1 and 200 healthy controls. Patients sensitised to heroin or with hypersensitivity reactions during surgery responded to P. somniferum seed tests. Of patients not known to be sensitised to opioids, the highest positivity was in patients sensitised to tobacco (pOpium seed skin tests and IgE, especially the oil body fraction, were more sensitive (64.2%) and specific (98.4%) than morphine, codeine and rocuronium tests for opioid sensitivity. Pollen allergy was not a risk factor for sensitisation to morphine. Sensitivity to opioids and intraoperative anaphylaxis can be diagnosed by routine tests. IgE and skin tests for the oil body fraction of P. somniferum had the highest sensitivity for sensitisation to opioids. Copyright © 2012 SEICAP. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  3. Activation analysis of rare-earth elements in opium and cannabis samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henke, G.

    1977-01-01

    Rare-earth concentrations in 65 Opium, Cannabis and Cannabis resin samples seized from various parts of the world were determined by destructive NAA. Because of the greater concentrations of Ca, P, K, Fe, Na and Si in plant materials, rare-earth elements were isolated after neutron irradiation and determined by gamma-spectrometry. The main steps of the method are: Preashing of 1 g Cannabis resin, 2.5 g Cannabis or 7.5 g Opium, respectively, in quartz ampoules (5 h, 500 deg C). Neutron irradiation, 24 h at 5x10 13 n cm -2 sec -1 . Cooling period 2-3 days. After addition of 0.1 μCi 139 Ce and rare-earth carriers wet ashing of irradiated samples with H 2 SO 4 /HNO 3 , followed by alternate addition of HNO 3 and H 2 O 2 (30%). Precipitation and removal of silicates, precipitation of fluorides, precipitation of hydroxides. Dissolution of hydroxides in HCl. Extraction with di-(2-ethylhexyl)phosphate (DEHP)/toluene and twice back-extraction of rare earths, gamma-spectrometry of HCl phase. Due to sample activity and half-life of nuclides, three measurements were made on each sample: 2 days (for La, Sm, Gd, Ho, Er, Yb); 14 days (for Nd, Lu) and 30 days after irradiation (for Ce, Eu, Tb). Great variations in absolute element concentrations, but only small significant differences of rare earth concentration ratios were found, indicating inconsiderable biogeochemical fractionation. The mean values of these ratios correspond to the relative abundances of the rare earths in the upper continental earth's crust. (T.G.)

  4. Tincture of opium for treating opioid dependence: a systematic review of safety and efficacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikoo, Mohammadali; Nikoo, Nooshin; Anbardan, Sanam Javid; Amiri, Afshar; Vogel, Marc; Choi, Fiona; Sepehry, Amir Ali; Bagheri Valoojerdi, Amir Hooshang; Jang, Kerry; Schütz, Christian; Akhondzadeh, Shahin; Krausz, Michael

    2017-03-01

    Recently, there has been a growing interest in using opium tincture (OT) for treating opioid dependence in certain regions. We aimed to assess the evidence on its safety and efficacy for this indication. We searched several databases (CENTRAL, Medline, EMBASE, Web of Science, PsychINFO, ProQuest Dissertation and Theses Database, Iran Medex, clinicaltrials.gov and who.int/trialsearch) with no language or publication date limitations. Two reviewers selected randomized controlled trials (RCT), cohort/case-control/cross-sectional studies and case-series on safety or efficacy of OT for treating opioid dependence and then extracted reported measures of mentioned outcomes from selected studies. We used the Effective Public Health Practice Project (EPHPP) Quality Assessment tool for appraisal. From nine selected studies; in three RCTs and one cohort analytical analysis on detoxification, 110 patients were treated with 15-140 morphine equivalents/day (mEq/d) of OT; in four prospective and one retrospective uncontrolled case-series on long-term/maintenance treatment, 570 patients were treated with 100-400 mEq/d of OT. Only two studies on detoxification included a comparison: one concluded equal efficacy of OT and methadone in suppressing withdrawal symptoms (P = 0.32) and the other concluded OT to be less efficacious than buprenorphine/naloxone in suppressing withdrawal [OT = 12.20, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 11.00, 13.40]; control: 5.20 (95% CI = 4.69, 5.71) and craving (OT = 303.0, 95% CI = -144.664, 750.664; control: 0.0) but not significantly different (P = 0.26) in retaining participants in treatment. No major adverse events were reported. Conclusive recommendations about the safety and efficacy of opium tincture for treating opioid dependence are not possible at this time. © 2016 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  5. Poisoned Opium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khair, Tabish

    2015-01-01

    In the wake of the murder of a man for what he ate, Tabish Khair looks at how the darker aspects of ideologies and religions end up sanctioning brutality......In the wake of the murder of a man for what he ate, Tabish Khair looks at how the darker aspects of ideologies and religions end up sanctioning brutality...

  6. Impact of opium on the serum levels of TGF-β in diabetic, addicted and addicted-diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asadikaram, Gholamreza; Asiabanha, Majid; Sayadi, Ahmadreza; Jafarzadeh, Abdollah; Hassanshahi, Gholamhossein

    2010-09-01

    Several cells of immune system such as regulatory T cells and macrophages secrete transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) in response to different stimuli. This cytokine has inhibitory effect on immune system and diminished production of this cytokine is associated with autoimmune disorders. The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of opium addiction on serum level of TGF-β in male and female diabetic and non-diabetic Wistar rats. This experimental study was performed on normal, opium addicted, diabetic and addicted-diabetic male and female rats. Serum level of TGF-β was measured by ELISA. The results of our study indicated that the mean serum level of TGF-β in female addicted rats was significantly increased compared to control group (popium and its derivatives have differential inductive effects on the cytokine expression in male and female rats.

  7. Cytotoxicity of leukocytes from normal and Shigella-susceptible (opium-treated) guinea pigs against virulent Shigella sonnei.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, D R; DuPont, H L; Wood, L V; Kohl, S

    1984-01-01

    Intraepithelial lymphocytes were collected from the ileum of adult Hartley strain guinea pigs and used as effector cells in a 60-min bactericidal assay with virulent Shigella sonnei as target cells. Natural killer cytotoxicity (NKC) and antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC) were measured and correlated with the resistance of the animals to infection by S. sonnei. Normal guinea pig intraepithelial lymphocytes exhibited mean NKC and ADCC values of 22.8 +/- 5.0 and 34.1 +/- 13.6, respectively. These animals were resistant to oral challenge with virulent S. sonnei. Intraepithelial lymphocytes from guinea pigs which were fasted for 4 days demonstrated NKC and ADCC values similar to those of normal animals (31.0 +/- 8.1 and 41.7 +/- 6.7, respectively). These animals also were resistant to oral challenge. Intraepithelial lymphocytes from guinea pigs which were given 1 ml of deodorized tincture of opium 2 h before cell collection demonstrated deficient NKC (4.7 +/- 4.2) and ADCC (5.3 +/- 4.9) values but remained resistant to infection by S. sonnei. When guinea pigs were fasted for 4 days and given opium, deficient NKC (2.0 +/- 2.0) and ADCC (1.3 +/- 1.3) values were demonstrated; this group of animals was susceptible to infection by S. sonnei (P less than 0.04). These experiments demonstrated that opium treatment depresses one form of gut immunity. When combined with starvation, opium treatment may increase susceptibility to infection by shigellae by modulation of immunity in addition to the effects on gut motility and bacterial flora. PMID:6384044

  8. Simultaneous determination of 14N and 15N isotopes in opium by proton induced γ-ray emission technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pritty Rao; Reddy, G.L.N.; Vikram Kumar, S.; Ramana, J.V.; Raju, V.S.; Sanjiv Kumar

    2012-01-01

    The paper describes the simultaneous determination of 14 N and 15 N isotopes in opium by proton induced γ-ray emission (PIGE) technique. The isotopic ratio of 14 N and 15 N is a useful parameter for assigning provenance of (seized) illicit drugs. The measurement, non-destructive in nature, is performed on pellets made up of opium powders and is based on the prompt detection of 2.313 and 4.4 MeV γ-rays emanating from 14 N(p,p'γ) 14 N and 15 N(p,αγ) 12 C nuclear reactions respectively, induced simultaneously by 3.6-3.8 MeV proton beam. Positive as well as negative deviations from the natural isotopic abundance (99.63:0.37) were observed in the samples. The precision of the measurements is about 4%. The methodology provides an easy and rapid approach to determine the isotopic ratio of 14 N and 15 N and has been used for the first time in the analysis of opium. (author)

  9. Opium as a risk factor for upper gastrointestinal cancers: a population-based case-control study in Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naghibzadeh Tahami, Ahmad; Khanjani, Narges; Yazdi Feyzabadi, Vahid; Varzandeh, Masoomeh; Haghdoost, Ali-Akbar

    2014-01-01

    Gastrointestinal cancers, including esophageal, gastric, liver and pancreatic are relatively common in Iran. Furthermore, consumption of opium and its derivatives (O&D) are considerable. This study, aimed to examine the association between consumption of O&D and the incidence of upper gastrointestinal (UGI) cancers. In a matched case-control study in Kerman (located in southeast of Iran), 142 patients with UGI cancers and 284 healthy people (matched in terms of age, sex and residence (urban/rural)) were recruited. Variables (using O&D, smoking, alcohol use and diet) were collected using a structured questionnaire. Conditional logistic regression models were used to assess the above mentioned association. Opium use was associated with an increased risk of UGI cancers with an adjusted OR 4.0 (95% CI=2.2-7.0). A very strong dose-response relation was observed between consumption of O&D and the incidence of UGI cancers. (Three consumption levels-none, low and high; OR=18.7; 95% CI=5.5-63.3). This dose-response relationship was also strong even in patients with gastric cancers (OR=9.2; 95% CI=2.5-33.7). The results of this study showed that opium consumption can be a strong risk factor for UGI cancers in Iran.

  10. Effects of opium consumption on coronary artery disease risk factors and oral health: Results of Kerman Coronary Artery Disease Risk factors Study a population-based survey on 5900 subjects aged 15-75 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Najafipour, Hamid; Masoomi, Mohammad; Shahesmaeili, Armita; Haghdoost, Ali Akbar; Afshari, Mahdi; Nasri, Hamid Reza; Kahnooji, Masoomeh; Samadi, Sadra; Mirzazadeh, Ali

    2015-01-01

    Opium abuse as a relatively common behavior among Iranian population may have an association with the other coronary artery disease (CAD) risk factors. Here, we reported the prevalence of opium abuse and its co-exposures with oral health and other CAD risk factors. We recruited 5900 inhabitant aged 15-75 years using a randomized cluster household survey. All were interviewed for level of physical activity (PA), depression, anxiety and opium use and assessed for hypertension, diabetes, hyperlipidemia, and oral health status. Regarding to opium abuse, participants were grouped into: "Non-," "occasional," and "dependent" users. Using logistic regression model for every CAD risk factor, we assessed whether the co-exposure of opium and CAD risk factor is significant. Overall, 10.6% reported ever opium use including 5.6% dependent and 5% occasional users. The prevalence of opium abuse was increased from 2.1% in 15-25 years to 24.5% in 55-64 years group. Opium abuse, in occasional and dependent forms, was associated with depression (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] 1.81 and 2.49) and low PS (AOR 1.43 and 1.71 respectively). Dependents were less obese than nonusers (P Opium abuse had no significant association with hypertension, diabetes, oral health status and lipid profile. Opium abuse was associated with depression and low PA. No ameliorative effect was observed on hypertension, diabetes, and plasma lipid profile. Therefore, positive association of opium with depression and LPA and the incorrectness of belief on its ameliorative effect on three other important risk factors of CAD should be clearly highlighted in public health messages to the community.

  11. Passive opium smoking does not have beneficial effect on plasma lipids and cardiovascular indices in hypercholesterolemic rabbits with ischemic and non-ischemic hearts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Najafipour, Hamid; Joukar, Siyavash; Malekpour-Afshar, Reza; Mirzaeipour, Fateme; Nasri, Hamid Reza

    2010-02-03

    To scientifically test a traditionally belief of some Asian countries residents that opium may prevent or have ameliorating effects on cardiovascular diseases (CVD) we investigated the effect of passive opium smoking (POS) on plasma lipids and some cardiovascular parameters in hypercholesterolemic rabbits with ischemic and non-ischemic hearts. 40 rabbits were fed for 2 weeks with cholesterol-enriched diet and divided to control (CTL), short-term opium (SO) and long-term opium (LO) groups. SO and LO groups were exposed to POS for 3 days and 4 weeks respectively. ECG, blood pressure (BP) and left ventricular pressure recorded and serum lipid and cardiac troponin I levels were measured. Isoproterenol (ISO) injected for induction of cardiac ischemia and after 4h the above variables were measured along with cardiac histopathology assessment. HDL cholesterol decreased significantly in LO compared to CTL group (35+/-5 vs 53+/-5mg/dl). Groups treated with ISO showed significantly higher increments in troponin I level (POpium exposure caused a trend of increase in blood pressure, LDL cholesterol and ECG disturbances, attenuated ISO induced myonecrosis but augmented tissue congestion and hemorrhage. POS can be considered as a CVD risk factor. Opium does not reduce BP or cholesterol level, as is anticipated by its users. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Does analgesic effect of opium hamper the adverse effects of severe coronary artery disease on quality of life in addicted patients?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Najafi, Mahdi; Sheikhvatan, Mehrdad

    2012-01-01

    Opium is a unique substance, regarding its analgesic effects. This may change the deteriorating effects of coronary artery disease (CAD) on quality of life (QOL) in addicted patients. We studied the QOL in opium-addicted and non-addicted CAD patients so as to determine the relationship between CAD risk factors and the subscales of their QOL. Demographic and laboratory data as well as coronary artery risk factors were obtained and SF-36 questionnaire was completed through interviews with 268 (38 opium-addicted and 230 non-addicted) patients with CAD who were candidates for isolated coronary artery bypass at Tehran Heart Center. Mean Euro SCORE in addicted and non-addicted patients were 3.7 ± 7.6 and 2.4 ± 2.2 respectively (P = 0.036). In addicted group, higher preoperative HbA1c was associated with low physical function score (β = -0.395, P = 0.021). Low ejection fraction could negatively affect the general health (β = 0.394, P = 0.014) and mental health (β = 0.292, P = 0.015) subscales in the addicted group. Despite higher rate of morbidities in opium-addicted patients compared to non-addicted ones, subscales of QOL were similar between the two groups. High preoperative HbA1c and low ejection fraction appeared to be determinants of poor QOL in the opium-addicted patients.

  13. Effects of opium consumption on coronary artery disease risk factors and oral health: Results of Kerman Coronary Artery Disease Risk factors Study a population-based survey on 5900 subjects aged 15-75 years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamid Najafipour

    2015-01-01

    Conclusions: Opium abuse was associated with depression and low PA. No ameliorative effect was observed on hypertension, diabetes, and plasma lipid profile. Therefore, positive association of opium with depression and LPA and the incorrectness of belief on its ameliorative effect on three other important risk factors of CAD should be clearly highlighted in public health messages to the community.

  14. Occupation, smoking, opium, and bladder cancer: A case–control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tayeb Ghadimi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The aim of this study was to investigate occupational risk factors associated with bladder cancer. Materials and Methods: In this case–control study, control group included patients who referred to a specialized clinic in the same city and hospitals where patients had been registered. Data were entered into SPSS software. Odds ratios (OR were calculated for occupational variables and other characteristics. Then, using logistic regression, the association between cancer and drugs was studied while smoking was controlled. Results: Cigarette smoking, even after quitting, was also associated with bladder cancer (OR = 2.549. Considering the classification of occupations, the OR of working in metal industry in patients was 10.629. Multivariate analysis showed that use of the drug by itself can be a risk factor for bladder cancer. Drug abuse together with the control of smoking increased the risk of bladder cancer by 4.959. Conclusion: According to the findings of this study, contact with metal industries such as welding, and working with tin was found as a risk factor for bladder cancer. In addition, cigarette smoking and opium abuse individually were associated with bladder cancer.

  15. Treatment of opium alkaloid containing wastewater in sequencing batch reactor (SBR)-Effect of gamma irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bural, Cavit B.; Demirer, Goksel N. [Middle East Technical University, Department of Environmental Engineering, 06531 Ankara (Turkey); Kantoglu, Omer [Turkish Atomic Energy Authority, Saraykoy Nuclear Research and Training Center, 06982, Kazan, Ankara (Turkey); Dilek, Filiz B., E-mail: fdilek@metu.edu.t [Middle East Technical University, Department of Environmental Engineering, 06531 Ankara (Turkey)

    2010-04-15

    Aerobic biological treatment of opium alkaloid containing wastewater as well as the effect of gamma irradiation as pre-treatment was investigated. Biodegradability of raw wastewater was assessed in aerobic batch reactors and was found highly biodegradable (83-90% degradation). The effect of irradiation (40 and 140 kGy) on biodegradability was also evaluated in terms of BOD{sub 5}/COD values and results revealed that irradiation imparted no further enhancement in the biodegradability. Despite the highly biodegradable nature of wastewater, further experiments in sequencing batch reactors (SBR) revealed that the treatment operation was not possible due to sludge settleability problem observed beyond an influent COD value of 2000 mg dm{sup -3}. Possible reasons for this problem were investigated, and the high molecular weight, large size and aromatic structure of the organic pollutants present in wastewater was thought to contribute to poor settleability. Initial efforts to solve this problem by modifying the operational conditions, such as SRT reduction, failed. However, further operational modifications including addition of phosphate buffer cured the settleability problem and influent COD was increased up to 5000 mg dm{sup -3}. Significant COD removal efficiencies (>70%) were obtained in both SBRs fed with original and irradiated wastewaters (by 40 kGy). However, pre-irradiated wastewater provided complete thebain removal and a better settling sludge, which was thought due to degradation of complex structure by radiation application. Degradation of the structure was observed by GC/MS analyses and enhancement in filterability tests.

  16. Quality of life, social desirability and their relationship in opium addicted persons in southeast of Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arab, Mansour; Kohan, Mehri; Ranjbar, Hadi; Arab, Nanaz; Rayani, Masoud; Mirrashidi, Salehe Sadat; Rafiei, Hossein; Amiri, Masoud

    2014-02-22

    Addiction leads to many problems which may adversely affect addicted people, their families and impose health care agencies with many challenges. This study aimed to examined quality of life (QoL), social desirability and their relationship among opium addicted persons in southeast of Iran. In a cross-sectional study conducted from September 2012 to January 2013, 123 addicted people were studied. Date collection tools were; checklist of demographic data, Iranian version of the 36-item short form QoL (SF-36) and Marlowe-Crowne Social Desirability Scale (MC-SDS). While mean score of QoL was 60.4±29.5, mean score of social desirability were 14.2±3.7. Low, moderate and high levels of social desirability were observed in 4.9%, 90.2% and 4.9% of participants, respectively. Pearson's correlation were not significant between mean score of social desirability and mean score of QoL (p=0.969, r=0.004). Addicted participants of present study showed a moderate level of QoL and social desirability, without any significant relationship between QoL and social desirability. Further research is suggested in addicts with social and cultural differences.

  17. Opium as a Literary Stimulant: The Case of Samuel Taylor Coleridge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vickers, Neil

    2015-01-01

    In our era, the idea of a stimulant is synonymous with its biochemical properties. A stimulant, we think, is a substance that enhances the activity of the central and peripheral nervous systems. But in the eighteenth century, a new family of theories about the workings of stimulants took shape, based on exciting but erroneous assumptions. Proponents of these theories thought that many more diseases were "nervous" in origin than had previously been supposed. They hoped that the workings of the "nervous power" could be aided by the judicious use of stimulants and narcotics. Practitioners working within this broad "neuropathological" paradigm equated the workings of stimulation with those of gravity. Stimulation, they believed, was a kind of master principle in nature. Some hoped it would help refound medicine on Newtonian, mathematical lines. For patients, the most visible legacy of the neuropathological revolution was the abandonment of bloodletting or "cupping" and the increasingly widespread use of opium and alcohol in medical treatments. In this chapter, I explore the career of one of the most famous writers of the Romantic era, Samuel Taylor Coleridge (1772-1834) who had the misfortune to live through this therapeutic revolution. I describe the circumstances under which he came to take opiates and the development of his opinions about their effect on him. © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Treatment of opium alkaloid containing wastewater in sequencing batch reactor (SBR)-Effect of gamma irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bural, Cavit B.; Demirer, Goksel N.; Kantoglu, Omer; Dilek, Filiz B.

    2010-01-01

    Aerobic biological treatment of opium alkaloid containing wastewater as well as the effect of gamma irradiation as pre-treatment was investigated. Biodegradability of raw wastewater was assessed in aerobic batch reactors and was found highly biodegradable (83-90% degradation). The effect of irradiation (40 and 140 kGy) on biodegradability was also evaluated in terms of BOD 5 /COD values and results revealed that irradiation imparted no further enhancement in the biodegradability. Despite the highly biodegradable nature of wastewater, further experiments in sequencing batch reactors (SBR) revealed that the treatment operation was not possible due to sludge settleability problem observed beyond an influent COD value of 2000 mg dm -3 . Possible reasons for this problem were investigated, and the high molecular weight, large size and aromatic structure of the organic pollutants present in wastewater was thought to contribute to poor settleability. Initial efforts to solve this problem by modifying the operational conditions, such as SRT reduction, failed. However, further operational modifications including addition of phosphate buffer cured the settleability problem and influent COD was increased up to 5000 mg dm -3 . Significant COD removal efficiencies (>70%) were obtained in both SBRs fed with original and irradiated wastewaters (by 40 kGy). However, pre-irradiated wastewater provided complete thebain removal and a better settling sludge, which was thought due to degradation of complex structure by radiation application. Degradation of the structure was observed by GC/MS analyses and enhancement in filterability tests.

  19. Uncharismatic Invasives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clark, Jonathan L.

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Although philosophers have examined the ethics of invasive species management, there has been little research approaching this topic from a descriptive, ethnographic perspective. In this article I examine how invasive species managers think about the moral status of the animals they seek to manage. I do so through a case study of Oregon’s efforts to manage the invasive species that are rafting across the Pacific attached to tsunami debris in the wake of the Japanese tsunami of 2011. Focusing on the state’s response to a dock that washed ashore on Agate Beach with various marine invertebrates attached to it, I argue that these animals’ position on two intersecting scales of moral worth—the sociozoologic scale and the phylogenetic scale—rendered them unworthy of moral consideration.

  20. Opium - chemické složení, využití a možnosti zneužívání

    OpenAIRE

    Štenclová, Andrea

    2010-01-01

    Štenclová, A.: Opium - chemical composition, use and potentialities of drug abuse. A diploma thesis, Charles University in Prague, Faculty of Pharmacy in Hradec Králové, Department of Pharmaceutical Botany and Ecology, Hradec Králové 2010, 94 pages This retrieval diploma thesis focuses on the processing of the facts about opium. The issue is examined from several points of view. The thesis deals with the question of the origin of this drug, its historical conception in various civilisations; ...

  1. Study and Comparison Between Personality Traits and Coping Strategies Among Opium Addicts (within the age of 30-36

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alireza Jazayeri

    2003-05-01

    Full Text Available The research is looking into the study and comparison between personality traits and coping strategies and their relationship with one another among opium addicts within the age of 30-36. For this purpose, a research group comprising 50 opium addicts was selected with respect to control variables. In order to compare the results, 50 other individuals were selected as a observation group and with regard to control variables both groups were matched together. The five-factor personality trait inventory (NEO-FFI and the coping strategy inventory of Carver and Shearer were used. Moreover, in order to control the effects of depression and anxiety on personality traits, Beck’s test for anxiety and depression was used. The results indicated that without taking the effects of depression and anxiety into account, the addicts showed higher neuroticism trait but lower extraversion, agreeableness and conscientious traits. But when the effects of depression and anxiety were taken into account, the two groups showed a meaningful difference in the conscientious trait. Furthermore, addicts rarely use concentrated coping strategies and usually use non-effective strategies. Non-effective strategies had direct relationship with neuroticism and opposite relationship with conscientiousness.

  2. Psychological Outcomes following a nurse-led Preventative Psychological Intervention for critically ill patients (POPPI): protocol for a cluster-randomised clinical trial of a complex intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards-Belle, Alvin; Mouncey, Paul R; Wade, Dorothy; Brewin, Chris R; Emerson, Lydia M; Grieve, Richard; Harrison, David A; Harvey, Sheila; Howell, David; Mythen, Monty; Sadique, Zia; Smyth, Deborah; Weinman, John; Welch, John; Rowan, Kathryn M

    2018-02-08

    Acute psychological stress, as well as unusual experiences including hallucinations and delusions, are common in critical care unit patients and have been linked to post-critical care psychological morbidity such as post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), depression and anxiety. Little high-quality research has been conducted to evaluate psychological interventions that could alleviate longer-term psychological morbidity in the critical care unit setting. Our research team developed and piloted a nurse-led psychological intervention, aimed at reducing patient-reported PTSD symptom severity and other adverse psychological outcomes at 6 months, for evaluation in the POPPI trial. This is a multicentre, parallel group, cluster-randomised clinical trial with a staggered roll-out of the intervention. The trial is being carried out at 24 (12 intervention, 12 control) NHS adult, general, critical care units in the UK and is evaluating the clinical effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of a nurse-led preventative psychological intervention in reducing patient-reported PTSD symptom severity and other psychological morbidity at 6 months. All sites deliver usual care for 5 months (baseline period). Intervention group sites are then trained to carry out the POPPI intervention, and transition to delivering the intervention for the rest of the recruitment period. Control group sites deliver usual care for the duration of the recruitment period. The trial also includes a process evaluation conducted independently of the trial team. This protocol was reviewed and approved by the National Research Ethics Service South Central - Oxford B Research Ethics Committee (reference: 15/SC/0287). The first patient was recruited in September 2015 and results will be disseminated in 2018. The results will be presented at national and international conferences and published in peer reviewed medical journals. ISRCTN53448131; Pre-results. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless

  3. Evaluation of the quality consistency of powdered poppy capsule extractive by an averagely linear-quantified fingerprint method in combination with antioxidant activities and two compounds analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yujing; Sun, Guoxiang; Hou, Zhifei; Yan, Bo; Zhang, Jing

    2017-12-01

    A novel averagely linear-quantified fingerprint method was proposed and successfully applied to monitor the quality consistency of alkaloids in powdered poppy capsule extractive. Averagely linear-quantified fingerprint method provided accurate qualitative and quantitative similarities for chromatographic fingerprints of Chinese herbal medicines. The stability and operability of the averagely linear-quantified fingerprint method were verified by the parameter r. The average linear qualitative similarity SL (improved based on conventional qualitative "Similarity") was used as a qualitative criterion in the averagely linear-quantified fingerprint method, and the average linear quantitative similarity PL was introduced as a quantitative one. PL was able to identify the difference in the content of all the chemical components. In addition, PL was found to be highly correlated to the contents of two alkaloid compounds (morphine and codeine). A simple flow injection analysis was developed for the determination of antioxidant capacity in Chinese Herbal Medicines, which was based on the scavenging of 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical by antioxidants. The fingerprint-efficacy relationship linking chromatographic fingerprints and antioxidant activities was investigated utilizing orthogonal projection to latent structures method, which provided important pharmacodynamic information for Chinese herbal medicines quality control. In summary, quantitative fingerprinting based on averagely linear-quantified fingerprint method can be applied for monitoring the quality consistency of Chinese herbal medicines, and the constructed orthogonal projection to latent structures model is particularly suitable for investigating the fingerprint-efficacy relationship. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  4. Prickles, latex, and tolerance in the endemic Hawaiian prickly poppy (Argemone glauca): variation between populations, across ontogeny, and in response to abiotic factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barton, Kasey E

    2014-04-01

    Covariance among plant defense traits is predicted to occur both within and among plant species, potentially leading to characteristic defense syndromes. I examined patterns of variation in prickle density, latex exudation, and tolerance in order to assess whether traits varied between populations, across plant ontogeny, and as phenotypic plasticity in response to water and light limitation and physical damage using the endemic Hawaiian prickly poppy, Argemone glauca, as a model system. Plants produced copious latex, had extremely variable prickle densities, and were generally tolerant of 50% defoliation. However, expression patterns differed among defense traits. Prickle density was consistent across ontogeny and was not induced by either water limitation or mechanical damage, but was significantly induced under high light conditions. In contrast, latex exudation increased significantly across ontogeny and was reduced by water limitation, but had no response to mechanical damage or light. Prickles, latex, and tolerance differed considerably between populations, suggesting different evolutionary histories for these populations. These disparate patterns indicate that latex and prickles are unlinked within A. glauca, potentially as a result of differences in their function, and providing little evidence that they jointly function as a defense syndrome. Moreover, this study provides the first description patterns of variation for multiple defense traits in an island endemic, and high levels of prickles, latex, and tolerance suggest that A. glauca is well defended against herbivores. Future research in the field will provide additional insights into the functional ecology of these traits in A. glauca.

  5. Effectiveness of group cognitive therapy about opium addict complications on attitude of adolescents with drug dependent parents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaveh Hojjat

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: Statistics show that 30% to 40 % of  opium addicted fathers’ children are prone to substance abuse in the future. The present study aimed at assessing the effectiveness of cognitive therapy approach  to attitude changing of adolescents with substance dependent fathers. Materials and Methods:  In this controlled. field-trail randomized study. .data collection tool was “attitude to addiction questionnaire”. The study population was all male students in the first grade of high school in Maneh - Samalghan city. . Six sessions of group cognitive therapy based on the effectiveness of drug side-effects in drug-addicted fathers’ adolescent children’s attitude were held. The above-mentioned questionnaire was filled out before and after intervention. The obtained data  was fed into SPSS software (V: 16 using. Independent t-test .and paired t-test were used for analysis and P<0.05 was taken as the significant level. Results:  There were no significant differences between the two groups in pre-test regarding their attitude about drug abuse (P=.20%. Mean score variance from pre-test to post-test in the intervention group decreased, but in the control group, it showed a slight increase. This means that the intervention reduced the positive attitude towards drugs, but the changes were not statistically significant (p=0.57. Besides, among ten factors decisive in an individual’s attitude about addiction, only group cognitive therapy  was able  to decrease mean points of an individual’s attitude about drug abuse .. Significantly (P = 0.04. Conclusion: It was found that group cognitive therapy education about opium  addict complicationsdidn`t have a significant effect on the attitude of the students with addicted fathers. Thus, a change of adolescents’ attitude requires more research.

  6. 7 CFR 400.677 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... including, but not limited to, cacti of the genus (lophophora), coca bushes (erythroxylum coca), marijuana (cannabis sativa), opium poppies (papaver somniferum), and other drug-producing plants, the planting and...

  7. 7 CFR 400.46 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... drug-producing plants including, but not limited to, cacti of the genus lophophora, coca bushes (erythroxylum coca), marijuana (cannabis satiua), opium poppies (papauer somniferum), and other drug-producing...

  8. Environ: E00017 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ine [CPD:C06533], Noscapine [CPD:C09592] Papaver somniferum [TAX:3469] Same as: D03444 Papaveraceae (poppy family) opium extract Major component: Morphine [CPD:C01516] CAS: 8008-60-4

  9. 78 FR 33440 - Importer of Controlled Substances, Notice of Registration; Rhodes Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-04

    ... importer of the following basic classes of controlled substances: Drug Schedule Opium Raw (9600) II Poppy... States obligations under international treaties, conventions, or protocols in effect on May 1, 1971. DEA...

  10. Heroin overdose

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... drug that is found in the seedpods of opium poppy plants. These plants are grown around the ... called naloxone (brand name Narcan) to reverse the effects of a heroin overdose. This type of medicine ...

  11. 78 FR 39337 - Importer of Controlled Substances; Notice Of Registration; Mallinckrodt, LLC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-01

    ... Phenylacetone (8501) II Coca Leaves (9040) II Opium, raw (9600) II Poppy Straw Concentrate (9670) II The company... States obligations under international treaties, conventions, or protocols in effect on May 1, 1971. DEA...

  12. 75 FR 10312 - Importer of Controlled Substances Notice of Registration

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-05

    ... classes of controlled substances listed in schedule II: Drug Schedule Opium, raw (9600) II Poppy Straw..., or protocols in effect on May 1, 1971, at this time. DEA has investigated Cambrex Charles City, Inc...

  13. 77 FR 55503 - Importer of Controlled Substances; Notice of Registration; Cambrex Charles City, Inc.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-10

    ...-piperidine (8333).. II Phenylacetone (8501) II Opium, raw (9600) II Poppy Straw Concentrate (9670) II The... protocols in effect on May 1, 1971. DEA has investigated Cambrex Charles City, Inc. to ensure that the...

  14. 76 FR 30969 - Importer of Controlled Substances; Notice of Registration

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-27

    ... Opium, raw (9600) II Poppy Straw Concentrate (9670) II The company plans to import the listed controlled... international treaties, conventions, or protocols in effect on May 1, 1971. DEA has investigated Mallinckrodt...

  15. 78 FR 69131 - Importer of Controlled Substances, Notice of Registration, Chattem Chemicals, Inc.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-18

    ...-Anilino-N-phenethyl-4-piperidine (8333).. II Phenylacetone (8501) II Opium, raw (9600) II Poppy Straw..., or protocols in effect on May 1, 1971. DEA has investigated Chattem Chemicals, Inc., to ensure that...

  16. 76 FR 51400 - Importer of Controlled Substances; Notice of Registration

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-18

    ... classes of controlled substances: Drug Schedule Raw Opium (9600) II Concentrate of Poppy Straw II (9670... treaties, conventions, or protocols in effect on May 1, 1971. DEA has investigated Rhodes Technologies to...

  17. 78 FR 5498 - Importer of Controlled Substances; Notice of Registration; Chattem Chemicals, Inc.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-25

    ...-Anilino-N-phenethyl-4-piperidine (8333).. II Phenylacetone (8501) II Opium, raw (9600) II Poppy Straw... treaties, conventions, or protocols in effect on May 1, 1971. DEA has investigated Chattem Chemicals, Inc...

  18. 76 FR 42732 - Importer of Controlled Substances; Notice of Registration

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-19

    ... classes of controlled substances: Drug Schedule Coca Leaves (9040) II Opium, raw (9600) II Poppy Straw... with United States obligations under international treaties, conventions, or protocols in effect on May...

  19. 76 FR 62447 - Importer of Controlled Substances; Notice of Registration

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-07

    ...-phenethyl-4-piperidine (8333)... II Phenylacetone (8501) II Opium, raw (9600) II Poppy Straw Concentrate... under international treaties, conventions, or protocols in effect on May 1, 1971. DEA has investigated...

  20. 77 FR 35057 - Importer of Controlled Substances; Notice of Registration; Rhodes Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-12

    ... importer of the basic classes of controlled substances: Drug Schedule Opium, raw (9600) II Poppy Straw... obligations under international treaties, conventions, or protocols in effect on May 1, 1971. DEA has...

  1. 75 FR 69462 - Importer of Controlled Substances; Notice of Registration

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-12

    ... of controlled substances listed in schedule II: Drug Schedule Opium, raw (9600) II Poppy Straw... treaties, conventions, or protocols in effect on May 1, 1971. DEA has investigated Cambrex Charles City...

  2. 75 FR 14186 - Importer of Controlled Substances; Notice of Registration

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-24

    ... Opium (9600) II Concentrate of Poppy Straw (9670) II The company plans to import the listed controlled... protocols in effect on May 1, 1971, at this time. DEA has investigated Rhodes Technologies to ensure that...

  3. 77 FR 19717 - Importer of Controlled Substances; Notice of Registration Mallinckrodt LLC

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-02

    ...) II Opium, raw (9600) II Poppy Straw Concentrate (9670) II The company plans to import the listed... international treaties, conventions, or protocols in effect on May 1, 1971. DEA has investigated Mallinckrodt...

  4. 75 FR 14187 - Importer of Controlled Substances; Notice of Registration

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-24

    ... (9040) II Opium, raw (9600) II Poppy Straw Concentrate (9670) II The company plans to import the listed... international treaties, conventions, or protocols in effect on May 1, 1971, at this time. DEA has investigated...

  5. Invasive amebiasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grecu, F; Bulgariu, Teodora; Blanaru, Oana; Dragomir, C; Lunca, Claudia; Stratan, I; Manciuc, Carmen; Luca, V

    2006-01-01

    Digestive amoebiasis with his invasive form is an unusual pathology encountered in the temperate zone. This could lead to a life threatening complication: systemic amoebiasis. A 55-year-old male was treated successfully of systemic amoebiasis in a third referral hospital. The diagnosis was established based on epidemiology data and microscopical identification of trophozoites of Entamoeba histolytica. The amoebicidal, antibiotic and supportive treatments was firstly administrated. The clinical picture of intestinal amoebiasis raised from dysenteric syndrome to necrotizing enteritis. The bowel perforation with localized peritonitis was followed by chronic enteric fistula. Amoebic liver abscess, as the most frequent extraintestinal complication, was concomitantly diagnosed and treated. Urinary amoebiasis was considered as complication in the context of systemic dissemination: any other location could become a site of an amoebic abscess. Multidisciplinary approach was the successful key in the management of the patient, including antiparasitic therapy and antibiotic prophylaxis, intensive care and multiple surgical approaches. The diagnosis of digestive amoebiasis and systemic complication may be delayed in nonendemic areas, leading to advanced and complicated stages of the disease. The surgical approach is most efficiently to treat a large liver amoebic abscess and intraperitoneal collections.

  6. Concentration profiling of minerals in iliac crest bone tissue of opium addicted humans using inductively coupled plasma and discriminant analysis techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mani-Varnosfaderani, Ahmad; Jamshidi, Mahbobeh; Yeganeh, Ali; Mahmoudi, Mani

    2016-02-20

    Opium addiction is one of the main health problems in developing countries and induces serious defects on the human body. In this work, the concentrations of 32 minerals including alkaline, heavy and toxic metals have been determined in the iliac crest bone tissue of 22 opium addicted individuals using inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectroscopy (ICP-OES). The bone tissues of 30 humans with no physiological and metabolomic diseases were used as the control group. For subsequent analyses, the linear and quadratic discriminant analysis techniques have been used for classification of the data into "addicted" and "non-addicted" groups. Moreover, the counter-propagation artificial neural network (CPANN) has been used for clustering of the data. The results revealed that the CPANN is a robust model and thoroughly classifies the data. The area under the curve for the receiver operating characteristic curve for this model was more than 0.91. Investigation of the results revealed that the opium consumption causes a deficiency in the level of Calcium, Phosphate, Potassium and Sodium in iliac crest bone tissue. Moreover, this type of addiction induces an increment in the level of toxic and heavy metals such as Co, Cr, Mo and Ni in iliac crest tissue. The correlation analysis revealed that there were no significant dependencies between the age of the samples and the mineral content of their iliac crest, in this study. The results of this work suggest that the opium addicted individuals need thorough and restricted dietary and medical care programs after recovery phases, in order to have healthy bones. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Is opium a real risk factor for esophageal cancer or just a methodological artifact? Hospital and neighborhood controls in case-control studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shakeri, Ramin; Kamangar, Farin; Nasrollahzadeh, Dariush; Nouraie, Mehdi; Khademi, Hooman; Etemadi, Arash; Islami, Farhad; Marjani, Hajiamin; Fahimi, Saman; Sepehr, Alireza; Rahmati, Atieh; Abnet, Christian C; Dawsey, Sanford M; Brennan, Paul; Boffetta, Paolo; Malekzadeh, Reza; Majdzadeh, Reza

    2012-01-01

    Control selection is a major challenge in epidemiologic case-control studies. The aim of our study was to evaluate using hospital versus neighborhood control groups in studying risk factors of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC). We compared the results of two different case-control studies of ESCC conducted in the same region by a single research group. Case definition and enrollment were the same in the two studies, but control selection differed. In the first study, we selected two age- and sex-matched controls from inpatient subjects in hospitals, while for the second we selected two age- and sex-matched controls from each subject's neighborhood of residence. We used the test of heterogeneity to compare the results of the two studies. We found no significant differences in exposure data for tobacco-related variables such as cigarette smoking, chewing Nass (a tobacco product) and hookah (water pipe) usage, but the frequency of opium usage was significantly different between hospital and neighborhood controls. Consequently, the inference drawn for the association between ESCC and tobacco use did not differ between the studies, but it did for opium use. In the study using neighborhood controls, opium use was associated with a significantly increased risk of ESCC (adjusted OR 1.77, 95% CI 1.17-2.68), while in the study using hospital controls, this was not the case (OR 1.09, 95% CI 0.63-1.87). Comparing the prevalence of opium consumption in the two control groups and a cohort enrolled from the same geographic area suggested that the neighborhood controls were more representative of the study base population for this exposure. Hospital and neighborhood controls did not lead us to the same conclusion for a major hypothesized risk factor for ESCC in this population. Our results show that control group selection is critical in drawing appropriate conclusions in observational studies.

  8. Is opium a real risk factor for esophageal cancer or just a methodological artifact? Hospital and neighborhood controls in case-control studies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramin Shakeri

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Control selection is a major challenge in epidemiologic case-control studies. The aim of our study was to evaluate using hospital versus neighborhood control groups in studying risk factors of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We compared the results of two different case-control studies of ESCC conducted in the same region by a single research group. Case definition and enrollment were the same in the two studies, but control selection differed. In the first study, we selected two age- and sex-matched controls from inpatient subjects in hospitals, while for the second we selected two age- and sex-matched controls from each subject's neighborhood of residence. We used the test of heterogeneity to compare the results of the two studies. We found no significant differences in exposure data for tobacco-related variables such as cigarette smoking, chewing Nass (a tobacco product and hookah (water pipe usage, but the frequency of opium usage was significantly different between hospital and neighborhood controls. Consequently, the inference drawn for the association between ESCC and tobacco use did not differ between the studies, but it did for opium use. In the study using neighborhood controls, opium use was associated with a significantly increased risk of ESCC (adjusted OR 1.77, 95% CI 1.17-2.68, while in the study using hospital controls, this was not the case (OR 1.09, 95% CI 0.63-1.87. Comparing the prevalence of opium consumption in the two control groups and a cohort enrolled from the same geographic area suggested that the neighborhood controls were more representative of the study base population for this exposure. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Hospital and neighborhood controls did not lead us to the same conclusion for a major hypothesized risk factor for ESCC in this population. Our results show that control group selection is critical in drawing appropriate conclusions in observational

  9. The effect of pretreatment with clonidine on propofol consumption in opium abuser and non-abuser patients undergoing elective leg surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morteza Jabbari Moghadam

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Clonidine, an alpha-2 adrenergic agonist, increases the quality of perioperative sedation and analgesia with a few side effects. This study was designed to assess the effect of clonidine premedication on the anesthesics used for elective below knee surgeries in opium abusers and non-abusers. Materials and Methods: In a randomized clinical trial, 160 patients were selected and assigned into four groups. Eighty patients among the opium abusers were divided randomly into clonidine and no clonidine groups, with 40 patients in each, and 80 among the non-abusers were again divided randomly into clonidine and no clonidine groups, with 40 patients in each group. All were anesthetized for elective orthopedic operation using the same predetermined method. The total administered dose of propofol and other variables were compared. Results: The total propofol dose in a decreasing order was as follows: Abuser patients receiving placebo (862 ± 351 mg, non-abuser patients receiving placebo (806 ± 348 mg, abuser patients receiving clonidine (472 ± 175 mg, and non-abuser patients receiving clonidine (448 ± 160 mg. Hence, a statistically significant difference was observed among the four study groups (P value for ANOVA = 0.0001. Conclusion: Adding clonidine as a preoperative medication decreases the patient′s anesthetic needs; this decrease was even more considerable on the anesthetic needs than the effect of opium abuse history on anesthetic dose.

  10. 76 FR 587 - Manufacturer of Controlled Substances; Notice of Registration

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-05

    ... laws, and a review of the company's background and history. Therefore, pursuant to 21 U.S.C. 823(a...) II Opium, granulated (9640) II Poppy Straw (9650) II Oxymorphone (9652) II Concentrate of Poppy Straw (9670) II Sufentanil (9740) II Fentanyl (9801) II The company plans to manufacture the listed controlled...

  11. Mechanistic Population Pharmacokinetics of Morphine in Neonates With Abstinence Syndrome After Oral Administration of Diluted Tincture of Opium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Tao; Lewis, Tamorah; Gauda, Estelle; Gobburu, Jogarao; Ivaturi, Vijay

    2016-08-01

    Conducting and analyzing clinical trials in vulnerable neonates are extremely challenging. The aim of this analysis is to develop a morphine population pharmacokinetics (PK) model using data collected during a randomized control trial in neonates with abstinence syndrome (NAS). A 3-compartment morphine structural PK model after intravenous (IV) administration from previously published work was utilized as prior, whereas an allometric scaling method with physiological consideration was used to extrapolate a PK profile from adults to pediatrics. The absorption rate constant and bioavailability were estimated in NAS after oral administration of diluted tincture of opium (DTO). Goodness-of-fit plots along with normalized prediction distribution error and bootstrap method were performed for model evaluation. We successfully extrapolated the PK profile from adults to pediatrics after IV administration. The estimated first-order absorption rate constant and bioavailability were 0.751 hour(-1) and 48.5%, respectively. Model evaluations showed that the model can accurately and precisely describe the observed data. The population pharmacokinetic model we derived for morphine after oral administration of DTO is reasonable and acceptable; therefore, it can be used to describe the PK and guide future studies. The integration of the previous population PK knowledge as prior information successfully overcomes the logistic and practical issue in vulnerable neonate population. © 2016, The American College of Clinical Pharmacology.

  12. Treatment of opium alkaloid containing wastewater in sequencing batch reactor (SBR)—Effect of gamma irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bural, Cavit B.; Demirer, Goksel N.; Kantoglu, Omer; Dilek, Filiz B.

    2010-04-01

    Aerobic biological treatment of opium alkaloid containing wastewater as well as the effect of gamma irradiation as pre-treatment was investigated. Biodegradability of raw wastewater was assessed in aerobic batch reactors and was found highly biodegradable (83-90% degradation). The effect of irradiation (40 and 140 kGy) on biodegradability was also evaluated in terms of BOD 5/COD values and results revealed that irradiation imparted no further enhancement in the biodegradability. Despite the highly biodegradable nature of wastewater, further experiments in sequencing batch reactors (SBR) revealed that the treatment operation was not possible due to sludge settleability problem observed beyond an influent COD value of 2000 mg dm -3. Possible reasons for this problem were investigated, and the high molecular weight, large size and aromatic structure of the organic pollutants present in wastewater was thought to contribute to poor settleability. Initial efforts to solve this problem by modifying the operational conditions, such as SRT reduction, failed. However, further operational modifications including addition of phosphate buffer cured the settleability problem and influent COD was increased up to 5000 mg dm -3. Significant COD removal efficiencies (>70%) were obtained in both SBRs fed with original and irradiated wastewaters (by 40 kGy). However, pre-irradiated wastewater provided complete thebain removal and a better settling sludge, which was thought due to degradation of complex structure by radiation application. Degradation of the structure was observed by GC/MS analyses and enhancement in filterability tests.

  13. National invasive species program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anna Rinick

    2007-01-01

    The structure and function of the National Invasive Species Council was presented below. The names and contact information for the USDA Invasive Species coordinators as of February 2006 were presented on the next page.

  14. Bio-Research - Vol 4, No 2 (2006)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Persavation of Morphine in Opium by Spraying Preservative Chemicals on Capsules and Latex of Opium Poppy (Papaver somniferum L.) cv. Dhawla Chotta · EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT. MO Obasi, HI Usman, 123-126 ...

  15. Browse Title Index

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 151 - 200 of 267 ... Vol 4, No 2 (2006), Persavation of Morphine in Opium by Spraying Preservative Chemicals on Capsules and Latex of Opium Poppy (Papaver somniferum L.) cv. Dhawla Chotta, Abstract. MO Obasi, HI Usman. Vol 3, No 1 (2005), Pests and diseases of African yam bean, Sphenostylis stenocarpa ...

  16. Inde | Page 85 | CRDI - Centre de recherches pour le ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Income from illegal opium poppy cultivation helps sustain the livelihoods of millions of rural Afghans, but also provides significant revenues to criminals and armed groups fighting the government. Read more about Managing opium: Policy choices for Afghanistan. Langue English. In Sri Lanka, a grassroots pilot study ...

  17. 77 FR 60143 - Importer of Controlled Substances; Notice of Registration; Cody Laboratories, Inc.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-02

    ... importer of the following basic classes of controlled substances: Drug Schedule Opium, raw (9600) II... several controlled substances that are manufactured from opium raw, and poppy straw concentrate. The..., or protocols in effect on May 1, 1971. DEA has investigated Cody Laboratories, Inc., to ensure that...

  18. 76 FR 586 - Importer of Controlled Substances; Notice of Registration

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-05

    ... importer of the following basic classes of controlled substances: Drug Schedule Opium, raw (9600) II Concentrate of Poppy Straw (9670) II Tapentadol (9780) II The company plans to import the Raw Opium (9600) and... under international treaties, conventions, or protocols in effect on May 1, 1971. DEA has investigated...

  19. 21 CFR 1312.13 - Issuance of import permit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... drug listed in Schedule III, IV, or V if he finds: (1) That the substance is crude opium, poppy straw... shall render it void and of no effect. Permits are not transferable. Each copy of the permit shall have... the Act (21 U.S.C. 952(a)(1) or (a)(2)(A)), the importation of approved narcotic raw material (opium...

  20. Determinants of Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease, Including Hookah Smoking and Opium Use– A Cross-Sectional Analysis of 50,000 Individuals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islami, Farhad; Nasseri-Moghaddam, Siavosh; Pourshams, Akram; Poustchi, Hossein; Semnani, Shahryar; Kamangar, Farin; Etemadi, Arash; Merat, Shahin; Khoshnia, Masoud; Dawsey, Sanford M.; Pharoah, Paul D.; Brennan, Paul; Abnet, Christian C.; Boffetta, Paolo; Malekzadeh, Reza

    2014-01-01

    Background Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) is a common cause of discomfort and morbidity worldwide. However, information on determinants of GERD from large-scale studies in low- to medium-income countries is limited. We investigated the factors associated with different measures of GERD symptoms, including frequency, patient-perceived severity, and onset time. Methods We performed a cross-sectional analysis of the baseline data from a population-based cohort study of ∼50,000 individuals in in Golestan Province, Iran. GERD symptoms in this study included regurgitation and/or heartburn. Results Approximately 20% of participants reported at least weekly symptoms. Daily symptoms were less commonly reported by men, those of Turkmen ethnicity, and nass chewers. On the other hand, age, body mass index, alcohol drinking, cigarette smoking, opium use, lower socioeconomic status, and lower physical activity were associated with daily symptoms. Most of these factors showed similar associations with severe symptoms. Women with higher BMI and waist to hip ratio were more likely to report frequent and severe GERD symptoms. Hookah smoking (OR 1.34, 95% CI 1.02–1.75) and opium use (OR 1.70, 95% CI 1.55–1.87) were associated with severe symptoms, whereas nass chewing had an inverse association (OR 0.87, 95% CI 0.76–0.99). After exclusion of cigarette smokers, hookah smoking was still positively associated and nass chewing was inversely associated with GERD symptoms (all frequencies combined). Conclusion GERD is common in this population. The associations of hookah and opium use and inverse association of nass use with GERD symptoms are reported for the first time. Further studies are required to investigate the nature of these associations. Other determinants of GERD were mostly comparable to those reported elsewhere. PMID:24586635

  1. Determinants of gastroesophageal reflux disease, including hookah smoking and opium use- a cross-sectional analysis of 50,000 individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islami, Farhad; Nasseri-Moghaddam, Siavosh; Pourshams, Akram; Poustchi, Hossein; Semnani, Shahryar; Kamangar, Farin; Etemadi, Arash; Merat, Shahin; Khoshnia, Masoud; Dawsey, Sanford M; Pharoah, Paul D; Brennan, Paul; Abnet, Christian C; Boffetta, Paolo; Malekzadeh, Reza

    2014-01-01

    Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) is a common cause of discomfort and morbidity worldwide. However, information on determinants of GERD from large-scale studies in low- to medium-income countries is limited. We investigated the factors associated with different measures of GERD symptoms, including frequency, patient-perceived severity, and onset time. We performed a cross-sectional analysis of the baseline data from a population-based cohort study of ∼ 50,000 individuals in in Golestan Province, Iran. GERD symptoms in this study included regurgitation and/or heartburn. Approximately 20% of participants reported at least weekly symptoms. Daily symptoms were less commonly reported by men, those of Turkmen ethnicity, and nass chewers. On the other hand, age, body mass index, alcohol drinking, cigarette smoking, opium use, lower socioeconomic status, and lower physical activity were associated with daily symptoms. Most of these factors showed similar associations with severe symptoms. Women with higher BMI and waist to hip ratio were more likely to report frequent and severe GERD symptoms. Hookah smoking (OR 1.34, 95% CI 1.02-1.75) and opium use (OR 1.70, 95% CI 1.55-1.87) were associated with severe symptoms, whereas nass chewing had an inverse association (OR 0.87, 95% CI 0.76-0.99). After exclusion of cigarette smokers, hookah smoking was still positively associated and nass chewing was inversely associated with GERD symptoms (all frequencies combined). GERD is common in this population. The associations of hookah and opium use and inverse association of nass use with GERD symptoms are reported for the first time. Further studies are required to investigate the nature of these associations. Other determinants of GERD were mostly comparable to those reported elsewhere.

  2. Preoperative Belladonna and Opium Suppository for Ureteral Stent Pain: A Randomized, Double-blinded, Placebo-controlled Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Franklin C; Holt, Sarah K; Hsi, Ryan S; Haynes, Brandon M; Harper, Jonathan D

    2017-02-01

    To investigate whether the use of a belladonna and opium (B&O) rectal suppository administered immediately before ureteroscopy (URS) and stent placement could reduce stent-related discomfort. A randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled study was performed from August 2013 to December 2014. Seventy-one subjects were enrolled and randomized to receive a B&O (15 mg/30 mg) or a placebo suppository after induction of general anesthesia immediately before URS and stent placement. Baseline urinary symptoms were assessed using the American Urological Association Symptom Score (AUASS). The Ureteral Stent Symptom Questionnaire and AUASS were completed on postoperative days (POD) 1, 3, and after stent removal. Analgesic use intraoperatively, in the recovery unit, and at home was recorded. Of the 71 subjects, 65 had treatment for ureteral (41%) and renal (61%) calculi, 4 for renal urothelial carcinoma, and 2 were excluded for no stent placed. By POD3, the B&O group reported a higher mean global quality of life (QOL) score (P = .04), a better mean quality of work score (P = .05), and less pain with urination (P = .03). The B&O group reported an improved AUASS QOL when comparing POD1 with post-stent removal (P = .04). There was no difference in analgesic use among groups (P = .67). There were no episodes of urinary retention. Age was associated with unplanned emergency visits (P <.00) and "high-pain" measure (P = .02) CONCLUSION: B&O suppository administered preoperatively improved QOL measures and reduced urinary-related pain after URS with stent. Younger age was associated with severe stent pain and unplanned hospital visits. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Ecology of forest insect invasions

    Science.gov (United States)

    E.G. Brockerhoff; A.M. Liebhold

    2017-01-01

    Forests in virtually all regions of the world are being affected by invasions of non-native insects. We conducted an in-depth review of the traits of successful invasive forest insects and the ecological processes involved in insect invasions across the universal invasion phases (transport and arrival, establishment, spread and impacts). Most forest insect invasions...

  4. Cryptic invasions: a review

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Morais, Pedro Miguel; Reichard, Martin

    613-614, February (2018), s. 1438-1448 ISSN 0048-9697 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-05872S Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : Conspecific invader * Biological invasions * Bibliometric * Invasiveness Subject RIV: EG - Zoology OBOR OECD: Environmental science s (social aspects to be 5.7) Impact factor: 4.900, year: 2016

  5. Moderate hypothermia and its effects in reducing the applied dose of anesthetics for patients with opium dependence in cardiac surgery: A randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taghadomi, Reza Jalaian; Golmakani, Ebrahim; Alizadeh, Kambiz; Mottahedi, Behrooz; Rahdari, Ali; Sheybani, Shima

    2016-09-01

    An increasing number of patients addicted to opium are experiencing awareness during coronary artery bypass surgery (CABG) as a result of tolerance to anesthetics. This research was primarily intended to determine the potential diminishing effects of moderate hypothermia on anesthetic dosage and recall of anesthesia during the procedure. In this double-blind randomized controlled trial, a total of 80 CABG candidates with known addiction to opium were divided into two groups: one normothermic (N) and the other moderately hypothermic (H), both undergoing induction as well as close monitoring from September 2014 to January 2016. The candidates were initially set for a target bispectral index (BIS) score of between 40 and 60. As the score rose to 60, an additional dose of propofol was administered, alongside rise in blood pressure and tear-shedding. To enhance the accuracy of our evaluation of anesthetic depth, we also used two questionnaires to test candidates' recall filled with the assistance of a colleague 24 hours following surgery. Independent-samples t-test and chi-square test were used by SPSS v 18 for data analysis. Eighty patients were studied in two groups of normothermic (N) (n = 40) and hypothermic (H) (n = 40). Given similar demographic data as well as the duration of surgery, we arrived at a propofol dose of 122.52±13.11 cc for normothermic patients and 101.28±14.06 cc for hypothermic subjects (p=0.001). As for fentanyl, the total required sum came up to 39.60±21.04 cc and 31.72±5.81 cc for the above-mentioned groups in order (p=0.025). Moreover, the post-operative interview showed that there was no report of a patient with memory recall following surgery. Moderate hypothermia can substantially reduce the need for anesthetics in patients with addiction to opium when undergoing CABG surgery. This study is registered in Iranian Registry of Clinical Trials with registration number of IRCT2014050513159N5. This research was supported financially by the

  6. Opium addiction as an independent risk factor for coronary microvascular dysfunction: A case-control study of 250 consecutive patients with slow-flow angina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esmaeili Nadimi, Ali; Pour Amiri, Farah; Sheikh Fathollahi, Mahmood; Hassanshahi, Gholamhossien; Ahmadi, Zahra; Sayadi, Ahmad Reza

    2016-09-15

    Approximately 20% to 30% of patients who undergo coronary angiography for assessment of typical cardiac chest pain display microvascular coronary dysfunction (MCD). This study aimed to determine potential relationships between baseline clinical characteristics and likelihood of MCD diagnosis in a large group of patients with stable angina symptoms, positive exercise test and angiographic ally normal epicardial coronary arteries. This cross-sectional study included 250 Iranian with documented evidence of cardiac ischemia on exercise testing, class I or II indication for coronary angiography, and either: (1) angiographically normal coronary arteries and diagnosis of MCD with slow-flow phenomenon, or (2) normal angiogram and no evidence of MCD. All patients completed a questionnaire designed to capture key data including clinical demographics, past medical history, and social factors. Data was evaluated using single and multivariable logistic regression models to identify potential individual patient factors that might help to predict a diagnosis of MCD. 125 (11.2% of total) patients were subsequently diagnosed with MCD. 125 consecutive control subjects were selected for comparison. The mean age was similar among the two groups (52.38 vs. 53.26%, p=ns), but there was a higher proportion of men in the study group compared to control (42.4 vs. 27.2%, p=0.012). No significant relationships were observed between traditional cardiovascular risk factors (diabetes, hypertension, and dyslipidemia) or body mass index (BMI), and likelihood of MCD diagnosis. However, opium addiction was found to be an independent predictor of MCD on single and multivariable logistic regression model (OR=3.575, 95%CI: 1.418-9.016; p=0.0069). We observed a significant relationship between opium addiction and microvascular angina. This novel finding provides a potential mechanistic insight into the pathogenesis of MCD with slow-flow phenomenon. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights

  7. Invasion biology of thrips.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morse, Joseph G; Hoddle, Mark S

    2006-01-01

    Thrips are among the stealthiest of insect invaders due to their small size and cryptic habits. Many invasive thrips are notorious for causing extensive crop damage, vectoring viral diseases, and permanently destabilizing IPM systems owing to irruptive outbreaks that require remediation with insecticides, leading to the development of insecticide resistance. Several challenges surface when attempting to manage incursive thrips species. Foremost among these is early recognition, followed by rapid and accurate identification of emergent pest species, elucidation of the region of origin, development of a management program, and the closing of conduits for global movement of thrips. In this review, we examine factors facilitating invasion by thrips, damage caused by these insects, pre- and post-invasion management tactics, and challenges looming on the horizon posed by invasive Thysanoptera, which continually challenge the development of sustainable management practices.

  8. After the flowers are gone. . .what happens next?

    OpenAIRE

    Kuo, Irene; Strathdee, Steffanie

    2005-01-01

    Farrell and Thorne (2005) provide a thoughtful and compelling review of the evidence to explain a major decline in opium production in Afghanistan in 2001, a country which has been a leader in global production of opium poppy for the last decade (Farrell & Thorne, 2005). We agree with the authors that while the Taliban’s opium ban appears to have been primarily responsible for the dramatic drop in heroin production, the oppressive policies the Taliban used to enforce its opium ban cannot be e...

  9. Emergent Minimally Invasive Esophagogastrectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Fabian

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Esophageal perforation in the setting of a malignancy carries a high morbidity and mortality. We describe our management of such a patient using minimally invasive approach. Methods. An 83-year-old female presented with an iatrogenic esophageal perforation during the workup of dysphagia. She was referred for surgical evaluation immediately after the event which occurred in the endoscopy suite. Minimally invasive esophagectomy was chosen to provide definitive treatment for both her malignancy and esophageal perforation. Results. Following an uncomplicated operative course, she was eventually discharged to extended care for rehabilitation and remains alive four years after her resection. Conclusion. Although traditional open techniques are the accepted gold standard of treatment for esophageal perforation, minimally invasive esophagectomy plays an important role in experienced hands and may be offered to such patients.

  10. Over-invasion by functionally equivalent invasive species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, James C; Sataruddin, Nurul S; Heard, Allison D

    2014-08-01

    Multiple invasive species have now established at most locations around the world, and the rate of new species invasions and records of new invasive species continue to grow. Multiple invasive species interact in complex and unpredictable ways, altering their invasion success and impacts on biodiversity. Incumbent invasive species can be replaced by functionally similar invading species through competitive processes; however the generalized circumstances leading to such competitive displacement have not been well investigated. The likelihood of competitive displacement is a function of the incumbent advantage of the resident invasive species and the propagule pressure of the colonizing invasive species. We modeled interactions between populations of two functionally similar invasive species and indicated the circumstances under which dominance can be through propagule pressure and incumbent advantage. Under certain circumstances, a normally subordinate species can be incumbent and reject a colonizing dominant species, or successfully colonize in competition with a dominant species during simultaneous invasion. Our theoretical results are supported by empirical studies of the invasion of islands by three invasive Rattus species. Competitive displacement is prominent in invasive rats and explains the replacement of R. exulans on islands subsequently invaded by European populations of R. rattus and R. norvegicus. These competition outcomes between invasive species can be found in a broad range of taxa and biomes, and are likely to become more common. Conservation management must consider that removing an incumbent invasive species may facilitate invasion by another invasive species. Under very restricted circumstances of dominant competitive ability but lesser impact, competitive displacement may provide a novel method of biological control.

  11. Exotic invasive plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carolyn Hull Sieg; Barbara G. Phillips; Laura P. Moser

    2003-01-01

    Ecosystems worldwide are threatened by nonnative plant invasions that can cause undesirable, irreversible changes. They can displace native plants and animals, out-cross with native flora, alter nutrient cycling and other ecosystem functions, and even change an ecosystem's flammability (Walker and Smith 1997). After habitat loss, the spread of exotic species is...

  12. Mechanisms Regulating Glioma Invasion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paw, Ivy; Carpenter, Richard C.; Watabe, Kounosuke; Debinski, Waldemar; Lo, Hui-Wen

    2015-01-01

    Glioblastoma (GBM) is the most aggressive, deadliest, and most common brain malignancy in adults. Despite the advances made in surgical techniques, radiotherapy and chemotherapy, the median survival for GBM patients has remained at a mere 14 months. GBM poses several unique challenges to currently available treatments for the disease. For example, GBM cells have the propensity to aggressively infiltrate/invade into the normal brain tissues and along the vascular tracks, which prevents complete resection of all malignant cells and limits the effect of localized radiotherapy while sparing normal tissue. Although anti-angiogenic treatment exerts anti-edematic effect in GBM, unfortunately, tumors progress with acquired increased invasiveness. Therefore, it is an important task to gain a deeper understanding of the intrinsic and post-treatment invasive phenotypes of GBM in hopes that the gained knowledge would lead to novel GBM treatments that are more effective and less toxic. This review will give an overview of some of the signaling pathways that have been shown to positively and negatively regulate GBM invasion, including, the PI3K/Akt, Wnt, sonic hedgehog-GLI1, and microRNAs. The review will also discuss several approaches to cancer therapies potentially altering GBM invasiveness. PMID:25796440

  13. Minimally invasive distal pancreatectomy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Røsok, Bård I.; de Rooij, Thijs; van Hilst, Jony; Diener, Markus K.; Allen, Peter J.; Vollmer, Charles M.; Kooby, David A.; Shrikhande, Shailesh V.; Asbun, Horacio J.; Barkun, Jeffrey; Besselink, Marc G.; Boggi, Ugo; Conlon, Kevin; Han, Ho Seong; Hansen, Paul; Kendrick, Michael L.; Kooby, David; Montagnini, Andre L.; Palanivelu, Chinnasamy; Wakabayashi, Go; Zeh, Herbert J.

    2017-01-01

    The first International conference on Minimally Invasive Pancreas Resection was arranged in conjunction with the annual meeting of the International Hepato-Pancreato-Biliary Association (IHPBA), in Sao Paulo, Brazil on April 19th 2016. The presented evidence and outcomes resulting from the session

  14. Management of invasive species

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schou, Jesper Sølver; Jensen, Frank

    In this paper, we conduct a number of cost-benefit analyses to clarify whether the establishment of invasive species should be prevented or the damage of such species should be mitigated after introduction. We use the potential establishment of ragweed in Denmark as an empirical case. The main...... of information externalities, altruistic preferences, possible catastrophic events and ethical considerations....

  15. Invasive Plants -- A Horticultural Perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Niemiera, Alexander Xavier, 1951-; Von Holle, Betsy

    2009-01-01

    This publication explains how nonnative invasive plants are harmful and why you should care, how to predict the invasive potential of a plant, and how gardeners and landscape professionals can make informed choices when choosing plants.

  16. Methadone Detoxification Versus Traditional Gradual Decrease in the Consumed Amount of Refined Opium Dross (Shireh: The Preferred Method for Controlling Withdrawal Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammadreza Farsinejad

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: The aim of this study was to compare the effectiveness of methadone detoxification with traditional method of gradual decrement in the abused amount of the refined opium dross (Shireh to control withdrawal syndrome in Shireh-addicted patients. Methods: In this study, two groups of Shireh addicts were compared. The first group was treated by methadone and the second group by gradual decrement in the amount of consumed Shireh. Those experiencing the adverse effects of the treatment were excluded from the study. Methadone dose was calculated based on the amount of the Shireh consumed and detoxification was performed during a 21-day period. In the second group, the amount of the consumed Shireh was gradually decreased within 21 days and some of the withdrawal symptoms were selected as indicators for patient evaluation. Results: A total of 35 patients (16 versus 19 patients in the first and second groups were evaluated. Their mean age was 43 ± 4 years and all were male. A statistically significant difference was found between these two groups in terms of severity and duration of withdrawal symptoms within the first five days and their duration after the 21st day of the onset of detoxification (P< 0.05. Conclusion: In comparison with methadone detoxification, traditional method of gradually decreasing the consumed amount of Shireh controls the severity and duration of withdrawal symptoms better in the course of detoxification.

  17. Minimally Invasive Abdominal Surgery

    OpenAIRE

    Richardson, William S.; Carter, Kristine M.; Fuhrman, George M.; Bolton, John S.; Bowen, John C.

    2000-01-01

    In the last decade, laparoscopy has been the most innovative surgical movement in general surgery. Minimally invasive surgery performed through a few small incisions, laparoscopy is the standard of care for the treatment of gallbladder disease and the gold standard for the treatment of reflux disease. The indications for a laparoscopic approach to abdominal disease continue to increase, and many diseases may be treated with laparoscopic techniques. At Ochsner, laparoscopic techniques have dem...

  18. Plant invasions: Merging the concepts of species invasiveness and community invasibility

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Richardson, D. M.; Pyšek, Petr

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 30, č. 3 (2006), s. 409-431 ISSN 0309-1333 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60050516 Keywords : plant invasions * species invasiveness * community invasibility Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 1.278, year: 2006

  19. Minimally Invasive Parathyroidectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee F. Starker

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Minimally invasive parathyroidectomy (MIP is an operative approach for the treatment of primary hyperparathyroidism (pHPT. Currently, routine use of improved preoperative localization studies, cervical block anesthesia in the conscious patient, and intraoperative parathyroid hormone analyses aid in guiding surgical therapy. MIP requires less surgical dissection causing decreased trauma to tissues, can be performed safely in the ambulatory setting, and is at least as effective as standard cervical exploration. This paper reviews advances in preoperative localization, anesthetic techniques, and intraoperative management of patients undergoing MIP for the treatment of pHPT.

  20. Cell invasion through basement membrane

    OpenAIRE

    Morrissey, Meghan A; Hagedorn, Elliott J; Sherwood, David R

    2013-01-01

    Cell invasion through basement membrane is an essential part of normal development and physiology, and occurs during the pathological progression of human inflammatory diseases and cancer. F-actin-rich membrane protrusions, called invadopodia, have been hypothesized to be the “drill bits” of invasive cells, mediating invasion through the dense, highly cross-linked basement membrane matrix. Though studied in vitro for over 30 y, invadopodia function in vivo has remained elusive. We have recent...

  1. Combination of electrochemistry with chemometrics to introduce an efficient analytical method for simultaneous quantification of five opium alkaloids in complex matrices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gholivand, Mohammad-Bagher; Jalalvand, Ali R; Goicoechea, Hector C; Gargallo, Raimundo; Skov, Thomas; Paimard, Giti

    2015-01-01

    For the first time, an analytical methodology based on differential pulse voltammetry (DPV) at a glassy carbon electrode (GCE) and integration of three efficient strategies including variable selection based on ant colony optimization (ACO), mathematical pre-processing selection by genetic algorithm (GA), and sample selection (SS) through a distance-based procedure to improve partial least squares-1 (PLS-1, ACO-GA-SS-PLS-1) multivariate calibration (MVC) for the simultaneous determination of five opium alkaloids including morphine (MOP), noscapine (NOP), thebaine (TEB), codeine (COD), and papaverine (PAP) was used and validated. The baselines of the DPV signals were modeled as a smooth curve, using P-splines, a combination of B-splines and a discrete roughness penalty. After subtraction of the baseline we got a signal with a two-component probability density. One component was for the peaks and it was approximated by a uniform distribution on the potential axis. The other component was for the observed noise around the baseline. Some sources of bi-linearity deviation for electrochemical data were discussed and analyzed. The lack of bi-linearity was tackled by potential shift correction using correlation optimized warping (COW) algorithm. The MVC model was developed as a quinternary calibration model in a blank human serum sample (drug-free) provided by a healthy volunteer to regard the presence of a strong matrix effect which may be caused by the possible interferents present in the serum, and it was validated and tested with two independent sets of analytes mixtures in the blank and actual human serum samples, respectively. Fortunately, the proposed methodology was successful in simultaneous determination of MOP, NOP, TEB, COD, and PAP in both blank and actual human serum samples and its results were satisfactory comparable to those obtained by applying the reference method based on high performance liquid chromatography-ultraviolet detection (HPLC-UV). Copyright

  2. The comparison of Updating function of Working Memory in Three Groups of Substance Abusers (Heroin, Opium, Those Treated with Methadone and normal controls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gholamrezayee S

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Chronic use of opiates is associated with a wide range of neuropsychological deficits. Therefore, this study aimed to evaluate one of the neuropsychological functions, updating function of working memory, in three groups, including substance abusers (heroin and opium, those under treatment with methadone, and normal controls. Methods:The method of this study was causal-comparative. Ninty individuals in three groups, including substance abusers (n = 30, those under treatment with methadone (n = 30, and normal controls (n = 30 were selected from people referred to the addiction treatment Clinics in Shiraz (2015 with the purposeful sampling method. All subjects were evaluated regarding working memory updating and self-reported mental effort scale and the results were analyzed by Multiple Analysis of Variance (MANOVA test and Tukey post hoc test with SPSS software (version 23. Results:The results showed a significant difference between the three groups in the updating function of working memory; so that effectiveness and efficiency of processing in the normal group was better than the other two groups and the performance effectiveness and efficiency of processing in the group under methadone treatment was better than substance abusers group. conclusions:substance abuse has a negative effect on neurological function. Given that the group of methadone treatment had better performance in the updating function of working memory than the group of substance abusers, these results provide hope that the effects of examined drugs on working memory is not permanent and we can look for psychological interventions to treat these patients and prevent problems recurrence.

  3. A comparison of non-invasive versus invasive methods of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Puneet Khanna

    for Hb estimation from the laboratory [total haemoglobin mass (tHb)] and arterial blood gas (ABG) machine (aHb), using ... A comparison of non-invasive versus invasive methods of haemoglobin estimation in patients undergoing intracranial surgery. 161 .... making decisions for blood transfusions based on these results.

  4. Invasive v. non-invasive blood pressure measurements the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A reasonable correlation exists between invasive and noninvasive methods of measuring systemic blood pressure. However, there are frequent individual differences between these methods and these variations have often caused the validity of the non-invasive measurement to be questioned. The hypothesis that certain ...

  5. Dietary Flexibility Aids Asian Earthworm Invasion in North American Forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    On a local scale, invasiveness of introduced species and invasibility of habitats together determine invasion success. A key issue in invasion ecology has been how to quantify the contribution of species invasiveness and habitat invasibility separately. Conventional approaches, s...

  6. Klebsiella pneumoniae Invasive Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasco Evangelista

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Klebsiella pneumoniae invasive syndrome (KPIS is a rare clinical condition characterized by primary liver abscess associated with metastatic infection. Most case reports are from Southeast Asia, with only one case described in Portugal. The Authors present the case of a 44-year-old man with a history of fever, dry cough and cervicalgia. A thoracic computed tomography (CT scan showed multiple pulmonary and hepatic nodules, suggestive of metastatic malignancy. Both blood cultures and bronchoalveolar lavage were positive for Klebsiella pneumoniae. Imaging studies were repeated during his hospital stay, showing a reduction in both number and volume of identified lesions, thus revealing their infectious nature. This case illustrates how much this entity can mimic other illnesses.

  7. Microbial ecology of biological invasions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Putten, van der W.H.; Klironomos, J.N.; Wardle, D.A.

    2007-01-01

    Invasive microbes, plants and animals are a major threat to the composition and functioning of ecosystems; however, the mechanistic basis of why exotic species can be so abundant and disruptive is not well understood. Most studies have focused on invasive plants and animals, although few have

  8. Prioritizing invasive plant management strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Invasive plants are seriously impacting rangelands by displacing desirable species. Management of these species is expensive and careful allocation of scarce dollars is necessary. Ecologically-based invasive plant management (EBIPM) has the potential to provide an improved decision-making process ...

  9. Cell invasion through basement membrane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrissey, Meghan A; Hagedorn, Elliott J; Sherwood, David R

    2013-01-01

    Cell invasion through basement membrane is an essential part of normal development and physiology, and occurs during the pathological progression of human inflammatory diseases and cancer. F-actin-rich membrane protrusions, called invadopodia, have been hypothesized to be the “drill bits” of invasive cells, mediating invasion through the dense, highly cross-linked basement membrane matrix. Though studied in vitro for over 30 y, invadopodia function in vivo has remained elusive. We have recently discovered that invadopodia breach basement membrane during anchor cell invasion in C. elegans, a genetically and visually tractable in vivo invasion event. Further, we found that the netrin receptor DCC localizes to the initial site of basement membrane breach and directs invasion through a single gap in the matrix. In this commentary, we examine how the dynamics and structure of AC-invadopodia compare with in vitro invadopodia and how the netrin receptor guides invasion through a single basement membrane breach. We end with a discussion of our surprising result that the anchor cell pushes the basement membrane aside, instead of completely dissolving it through proteolysis, and provide some ideas for how proteases and physical displacement may work together to ensure efficient and robust invasion. PMID:24778942

  10. Interstitial guidance of cancer invasion.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gritsenko, P.G.; Ilina, O.; Friedl, P.H.

    2012-01-01

    Cancer cell invasion into healthy tissues develops preferentially along pre-existing tracks of least resistance, followed by secondary tissue remodelling and destruction. The tissue scaffolds supporting or preventing guidance of invasion vary in structure and molecular composition between organs. In

  11. Earthworm invasions in the tropics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grizelle Gonzalez; Ching Yu Huang; Xiaoming Zou; Carlos Rodriguez

    2006-01-01

    The effects and implications of invasive species in belowground terrestrial ecosystems are not well known in comparison with aboveground terrestrial and marine environments. The study of earthworm invasions in the tropics is limited by a lack of taxonomic knowledge and the potential for loss of species in native habitats due to anthropogenic land use change. Alteration...

  12. Invasive tightly coupled processor arrays

    CERN Document Server

    LARI, VAHID

    2016-01-01

    This book introduces new massively parallel computer (MPSoC) architectures called invasive tightly coupled processor arrays. It proposes strategies, architecture designs, and programming interfaces for invasive TCPAs that allow invading and subsequently executing loop programs with strict requirements or guarantees of non-functional execution qualities such as performance, power consumption, and reliability. For the first time, such a configurable processor array architecture consisting of locally interconnected VLIW processing elements can be claimed by programs, either in full or in part, using the principle of invasive computing. Invasive TCPAs provide unprecedented energy efficiency for the parallel execution of nested loop programs by avoiding any global memory access such as GPUs and may even support loops with complex dependencies such as loop-carried dependencies that are not amenable to parallel execution on GPUs. For this purpose, the book proposes different invasion strategies for claiming a desire...

  13. Invasive meningococcal disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa L. Strelow

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Invasive meningococcal disease (IMD is a major public health and continues to cause substantial mortality and morbidity. Serotype C is the most frequent in Brazil. The clinical spectrum of IMD is broad (meningitis, meningococcemia or both and the clinical evolution may be unpredictable. Main features associated with mortality are: age higher than 50 years old, seizures, shock, and meningococcemia without meningitis. Blood cultures should be obtained immediately. Lumbar puncture can be performed without previous computed tomography scan (CT in most cases. Clinical features can be useful to predic patients where an abnormal CT scan is likely. Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF culture and Gram stain should always be required. Latex agglutination sensitivity is highly variable. Polymerase chain reaction is specially useful when other methods are negative or delayed. Usually ceftriaxone should not be delayed while awaiting CSF study or CT. Dexamethasone can be used in meningococcal meningitis. Early suspicion of IMD and antibiotic in primary care before hospitalization, rapid transportation to a hospital, and stabilization in an intensive-care unit has substantially reduced the case-fatality rate. Vaccines against serotypes A, C, W-135, and Y are available while vaccines against serotype B are expected.

  14. Non-invasive hemoglobin monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph, Bellal; Haider, Ansab; Rhee, Peter

    2016-09-01

    Technology has transformed the practice of medicine and surgery in particular over the last several decades. This change in practice has allowed diagnostic and therapeutic tests to be performed less invasively. Hemoglobin monitoring remains one of the most commonly performed diagnostic tests in the United States. Recently, non-invasive hemoglobin monitoring technology has gained popularity. The aim of this article is to review the principles of how this technology works, pros and cons, and the implications of non-invasive hemoglobin technology particularly in trauma surgery. Copyright © 2015 IJS Publishing Group Ltd. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. The mathematics behind biological invasions

    CERN Document Server

    Lewis, Mark A; Potts, Jonathan R

    2016-01-01

    This book investigates the mathematical analysis of biological invasions. Unlike purely qualitative treatments of ecology, it draws on mathematical theory and methods, equipping the reader with sharp tools and rigorous methodology. Subjects include invasion dynamics, species interactions, population spread, long-distance dispersal, stochastic effects, risk analysis, and optimal responses to invaders. While based on the theory of dynamical systems, including partial differential equations and integrodifference equations, the book also draws on information theory, machine learning, Monte Carlo methods, optimal control, statistics, and stochastic processes. Applications to real biological invasions are included throughout. Ultimately, the book imparts a powerful principle: that by bringing ecology and mathematics together, researchers can uncover new understanding of, and effective response strategies to, biological invasions. It is suitable for graduate students and established researchers in mathematical ecolo...

  16. Cheatgrass invasion and wildlife habitat

    Science.gov (United States)

    The introduction and subsequent invasion of cheatgrass (Bromus tectorum) has altered native plant communities and the wildlife species that depend on these communities. Cheatgrass has truncated secondary succession by outcompeting native plant species for limited resources, thus building persistent...

  17. Invasive Meningococcal Men Y Disease

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2012-04-18

    Dr. Leonard Mayer, a public health microbiologist at CDC, discusses invasive meningococcal disease.  Created: 4/18/2012 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 4/23/2012.

  18. AFLP studies on downy-mildew-resistant and downy-mildew ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Downy mildew (DM) caused by Peronospora arborescens, is a serious disease in opium poppy (Papaver somniferum), which has a world-wide spread. The establishment of DM-resistant cultivars appears to be a sustainable way to control the disease. In this paper, we present the results of a study aimed at the identification ...

  19. 78 FR 64020 - Manufacturer of Controlled Substances, Notice of Registration, Siegfried USA, LLC

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-25

    ... security systems; verification of the company's compliance with state and local laws; and a review of the...), and Poppy Straw Concentrate (9670). On August 6, 2013, Siegfried (USA), LLC., subsequently withdrew this request for drug code Opium, raw (9600). The company plans to manufacture the listed controlled...

  20. 77 FR 47111 - Manufacturer of Controlled Substances; Notice of Registration; Research Triangle Institute

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-07

    ... physical security systems, verification of the company's compliance with state and local laws, and a review... Poppy Straw Concentrate (9670) II Opium, granulated (9640) II Oxycodone (9143) II Oxymorphone (9652) II... company plans to import small quantities of the listed controlled substances for the National Institute on...

  1. 77 FR 5849 - Manufacturer of Controlled Substances; Notice of Registration

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-06

    ... physical security systems, verification of the company's compliance with state and local laws, and a review... (9330) II Thebaine (9333) II Opium raw (9600) II Oxymorphone (9652) II Poppy Straw Concentrate (9670) II Sufentanil (9740) II Fentanyl (9801) II The company will manufacture the listed controlled substances in bulk...

  2. 76 FR 7233 - Importer of Controlled Substances; Notice of Registration

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-09

    ... Phenylacetone (8501) II Opium, raw (9600) II Concentrate of Poppy Straw (9670) II The company plans to import..., verification of the company's compliance with state and local laws, and a review of the company's background... Chattem Chemicals, Inc. to ensure that the company's registration is consistent with the public interest...

  3. Integrating Space Systems Operations at the Marine Expeditionary Force Level

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-06-01

    during the fog of war. The space domain and various SFE areas augment the command and control function by contributing to the commander’s overall...income for insurgents in Afghanistan was generated mostly from harvesting and trading of opium derived from the many poppy fields located in the

  4. Nature of gene action and genetic parameters for yield and its ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Reza

    2013-12-18

    Dec 18, 2013 ... Euphytica 147:311-315. Walters DE, Morton JR (1978) On the analysis of variance of a half diallel table. Biometrics, 34:91-94. Yadav HK, Maurya KN, Shukla S, Singh SP (2009). Combining ability of opium poppy genotypes over F1 and F2 generations of 8×8 diallel crosses. Crop Breeding Appl. Biotechnol.

  5. Opioid use in palliative care

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Repro

    276 C M E May 2003 Vol.21 No.5. ORAL MORPHINE —. INFORM AT ION FOR. PAT IENTS AND FA MIL IES. Morphine is obtained from the juice of the opium poppy and acts on pain centres in the brain and spinal cord. Millions of people have used morphine for pain after surgi- cal operations and for pain caused by cancer.

  6. High efficiency indirect shoot regeneration and hypericin content in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    2010-04-12

    Apr 12, 2010 ... opium poppy. Support of hormone-free medium on shoot regeneration from callus has also been underlined for sugarbeet (Doley and Saunders, 1989). In our study, obtained regenerants acclimatized readily, alived (94%) and are still continuing to grow in the greenhouse of our department. Cell or callus ...

  7. Callus production and regeneration of the medicinal plant Papaver ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    2011-09-19

    Sep 19, 2011 ... and morphinan alkaloids production in two species of opium poppy. Biomed. Biotechnol. 1(2): 70-78. Murashige T, Skoog F (1962). A revised medium for rapid growth and bioassays with tobacco tissue cultures. Physiol. Plant, 15: 473-497. Rao AQ, Hussain SS, Shahzad MS, Bokhari SYA, Raza MH, Rakha ...

  8. Journal of Genetics | Indian Academy of Sciences

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Downy mildew (DM) caused by Peronospora arborescens, is a serious disease in opium poppy (Papaver somniferum), which has a world-wide spread. The establishment of DM-resistant cultivars appears to be a sustainable way to control the disease. In this paper, we present the results of a study aimed at the identification ...

  9. Gene actions for yield and its attributes and their implications in the ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Since, improvement in crop plants is a continuous process so as to develop better plant types, information on genetic parameters. Keywords. gene action; global demand; heterosis; inheritance; opium poppy; Papaver somniferum L. Journal of Genetics, DOI 10.1007/s12041-016-0689-z, Vol. 95, No. 3, September 2016. 705 ...

  10. 75 FR 4973 - Registration Requirements for Importers and Manufacturers of Prescription Drug Products...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-01

    ... contains regulatory documents #0;having general applicability and legal effect, most of which are keyed #0..., and phenylpropanolamine as are imposed on narcotic raw materials--crude opium, poppy straw... Registration and Effect of This Rule Regarding DEA Registration The CSA defines the term ``manufacture'' to...

  11. What You Need to Know About Drugs: Heroin

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... You Need to Know About Drugs: Heroin Print en español Lo que necesitas saber sobre las drogas: La heroína What It Is: Heroin (say: HAIR-uh-win) comes from the opium poppy, a flower that grows in Asia, Mexico, and South America. Pure heroin is a white ...

  12. Lessons Learned from the Soviet Withdrawal from Afghanistan: Examples for U.S. Policy Concerning Central Asia and Afghanistan after 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-12-01

    withdrawal, Najibullah stated, “We only took help from one infidel [Russia]. The other side has taken help from several infidels [United States...growing poppy is one of the few means for providing a viable income for their survival. Afghan opium production predates the rise of warlords and

  13. Publications | Page 271 | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Through books, articles, research publications, and studies, we aim to widen the impact of our investment and advance development research. ... Income from illegal opium poppy cultivation helps sustain the livelihoods of millions of rural Afghans, but also provides significant revenues to criminals and armed groups fighting ...

  14. Publications | Page 268 | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Through books, articles, research publications, and studies, we aim to widen the impact of our investment and advance development research. ... Income from illegal opium poppy cultivation helps sustain the livelihoods of millions of rural Afghans, but also provides significant revenues to criminals and armed groups fighting ...

  15. The Nexus of Terrorism and Drug Trafficking in the Golden Crescent: Afghanistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-03-15

    The nexus of terrorism and drug trafficking in the Golden Crescent region of Southwest Asia and the broader Middle East is Afghanistan. As the...Afghanistan’s narcotics problem; increases in opium poppy production and price after the fall of the Taliban; and the relationship between drug trafficking , the

  16. Journal of Genetics | Indian Academy of Sciences

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    mildew-susceptible genotypes of opium poppy · Mukesh K. Dubey Ajit K. Shasany Om P. Dhawan Ashutosh K. Shukla Suman P. S. Khanuja · More Details Abstract Fulltext PDF. Downy mildew (DM) caused by Peronospora arborescens, is a ...

  17. Colombia and the United States - The Partnership: But What Is the Endgame

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-02-01

    primer paso,” Foreign Affairs en Espanol , September 2001, pp. 11-15. 4. Ibid. Also see: Mark S. Steinitz, “Insurgents, Terrorists, and the Drug Trade...cultivate the opium poppy, and Colombia also began to supply heroin to the U.S. market . Colombians controlled drug dealer networks along the U.S

  18. Non-Invasive Prenatal Testing

    OpenAIRE

    Ekici, Cemal

    2015-01-01

    The rate of newborns with trisomy 21 (Down syndrome) who have been referred to our pediatric newborn clinic is very high. This shows that prenatal screening in the region is not carried out well. Prenatal diagnosis and screening methods include invasive prenatal diagnosis methods (amniocentesis, chorionic villus sampling (CVS), and cordocentesis) and non-invasive prenatal diagnosis (NIPT) which cell free fetal DNA (cffDNA) screening of maternal blood samples. After the discovery of the signs ...

  19. Non-Invasive Prenatal Testing

    OpenAIRE

    McGillivray, Barbara C.

    1988-01-01

    The rate of newborns with trisomy 21 (Down syndrome) who have been referred to our pediatric newborn clinic is very high. This shows that prenatal screening in the region is not carried out well. Prenatal diagnosis and screening methods include invasive prenatal diagnosis methods (amniocentesis, chorionic villus sampling (CVS), and cordocentesis) and non-invasive prenatal diagnosis (NIPT) which cell free fetal DNA (cffDNA) screening of maternal blood samples. After the discovery of the signs ...

  20. Quantifying the invasiveness of species

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Colautti, R. I.; Parker, J. D.; Cadotte, M. W.; Pyšek, Petr; Brown, C. S.; Sax, D. F.; Richardson, D. M.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 21, č. 1 (2014), s. 7-27 ISSN 1619-0033 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP505/11/1112; GA ČR(CZ) GAP504/11/1028 Grant - others:AV ČR(CZ) AP1002 Program:Akademická prémie - Praemium Academiae Institutional support: RVO:67985939 Keywords : biological invasions * biogeographical comparison * invasiveness Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour

  1. 75 FR 69698 - Invasive Species Advisory Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-15

    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Office of the Secretary Invasive Species Advisory Committee AGENCY: Office of the Secretary, Interior. ACTION: Notice of public meetings of the Invasive Species Advisory... of meetings of the Invasive Species Advisory Committee (ISAC). Comprised of 30 nonfederal invasive...

  2. 76 FR 68776 - Invasive Species Advisory Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-07

    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Office of the Secretary Invasive Species Advisory Committee AGENCY: Office of the Secretary, Interior. ACTION: Notice of public meetings of the Invasive Species Advisory... of meetings of the Invasive Species Advisory Committee (ISAC). Comprised of 29 nonfederal invasive...

  3. 77 FR 23740 - Invasive Species Advisory Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-20

    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Office of the Secretary Invasive Species Advisory Committee AGENCY: Office of the Secretary, Interior. ACTION: Notice of Public Meetings of the Invasive Species Advisory... of meetings of the Invasive Species Advisory Committee (ISAC). Comprised of 30 nonfederal invasive...

  4. Invasive amphibians in southern Africa: A review of invasion pathways

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Measey

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Globally, invasive amphibians are known for their environmental and social impacts that range from poisoning of local fauna and human populations to direct predation on other amphibians. Although several countries on most continents have had multiple introductions of many species, southern Africa appears to have escaped allochthonous introductions. Instead, it has a small number of domestic exotic species that have rapidly expanded their ranges and established invasive populations within South Africa. Objectives & methods: We used the literature to provide a historical overview of dispersal by some of the world’s major invasive amphibians, give examples of species that are commonly moved as stowaways and discuss historical and current amphibian trade in the region. In addition, we give an overview of new South African legislation and how this is applied to amphibian invasions, as well as providing updates on the introduced populations of three domestic exotics: Hyperolius marmoratus, Sclerophrys gutturalis and Xenopus laevis. Results: We show that frogs are mainly moved around southern Africa through ‘jump’ dispersal, although there are a number of records of ‘cultivation’, ‘leading-edge’ and ‘extreme long-distance’ dispersal types. Important pathways include trade in fruit and vegetables, horticultural products and shipping containers. Conclusion: We suggest that southern Africa is becoming more vulnerable to amphibian invasions because of an increase in trade, agricultural and domestic impoundments as well as global climate change. Increasing propagule pressure suggests that preventing new introductions will become a key challenge for the future. Currently, trade in amphibians in the region is practically non-existent, suggesting potential for best practice to prevent importation of species with high invasion potential and to stop the spread of disease.

  5. Anesthesia for minimally invasive neurosurgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prabhakar, Hemanshu; Mahajan, Charu; Kapoor, Indu

    2017-10-01

    With an ultimate aim of improving patients overall outcome and satisfaction, minimally invasive surgical approach is becoming more of a norm. The related anesthetic evidence has not expanded at the same rate as surgical and technological advancement. This article reviews the recent evidence on anesthesia and perioperative concerns for patients undergoing minimally invasive neurosurgery. Minimally invasive cranial and spinal surgeries have been made possible only by vast technological development. Points of surgical interest can be precisely located with the help of stereotaxy and neuronavigation and special endoscopes which decrease the tissue trauma. The principles of neuroanethesia remain the same, but few concerns are specific for each technique. Dexmedetomidine has a favorable profile for procedures carried out under sedation technique. As the new surgical techniques are coming up, lesser known anesthetic concerns may also come into light. Over the last year, little new information has been added to existing literature regarding anesthesia for minimally invasive neurosurgeries. Neuroanesthesia goals remain the same and less invasive surgical techniques do not translate into safe anesthesia. Specific concerns for each procedure should be taken into consideration.

  6. Interstitial guidance of cancer invasion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gritsenko, Pavlo G; Ilina, Olga; Friedl, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Cancer cell invasion into healthy tissues develops preferentially along pre-existing tracks of least resistance, followed by secondary tissue remodelling and destruction. The tissue scaffolds supporting or preventing guidance of invasion vary in structure and molecular composition between organs. In the brain, the guidance is provided by myelinated axons, astrocyte processes, and blood vessels which are used as invasion routes by glioma cells. In the human breast, containing interstitial collagen-rich connective tissue, disseminating breast cancer cells preferentially invade along bundled collagen fibrils and the surface of adipocytes. In both invasion types, physical guidance prompted by interfaces and space is complemented by molecular guidance. Generic mechanisms shared by most, if not all, tissues include (i) guidance by integrins towards fibrillar interstitial collagen and/or laminins and type IV collagen in basement membranes decorating vessels and adipocytes, and, likely, CD44 engaging with hyaluronan; (ii) haptotactic guidance by chemokines and growth factors; and likely (iii) physical pushing mechanisms. Tissue-specific, resticted guidance cues include ECM proteins with restricted expression (tenascins, lecticans), cell-cell interfaces, and newly secreted matrix molecules decorating ECM fibres (laminin-332, thrombospondin-1, osteopontin, periostin). We here review physical and molecular guidance mechanisms in interstitial tissue and brain parenchyma and explore shared principles and organ-specific differences, and their implications for experimental model design and therapeutic targeting of tumour cell invasion. Copyright © 2011 Pathological Society of Great Britain and Ireland. Published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  7. Feeding outside the forest: the importance of crop raiding and an invasive weed in the diet of gallery forest ring-tailed lemurs (Lemur catta) following a cyclone at the Beza Mahafaly special reserve, Madagascar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaFleur, M; Gould, L

    2009-01-01

    In January 2005, a cyclone hit southern Madagascar, including the Beza Mahafaly Special Reserve, disrupting the flowering/fruiting cycle of Tamarindus indica, leaving Lemur catta without its major food resource during reproductive periods. We studied two adjacent groups of L. catta during the late gestation period, and both groups ventured outside the reserve to feed. The Red group (RG) fed daily on cultivated sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas) leaves in a nearby field, and both groups consumed leaves and stems of the invasive terrestrial flowering herb Mexican prickly poppy (Argemone mexicana), growing outside the reserve. The Green group (GG) spent significantly more time feeding than did RG, and more time feeding inside the forest compared to outside. The members of RG spent half of their time feeding in the crops, and nearly half of their diet consisted of easy-to-process sweet potato leaves. Additionally, RG defended and restricted GG's access to the crop territory. Of the two non-forest foods, A. mexicana leaves were higher in protein and most minerals (P, Mg, K and Na, but not Ca) and lower in fiber than sweet potato leaves, but sweet potato leaves were preferred by RG. L. catta is a markedly flexible primate with respect to diet, and switches to fallback foods from outside the forest during periods of low food availability. In the highly seasonal and unpredictable climate of southern Madagascar, such behavioral adaptations are important to the survival of this species.

  8. Optic nerve invasion of uveal melanoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindegaard, Jens; Isager, Peter; Prause, Jan Ulrik

    2007-01-01

    The aim of the study was to identify the histopathological characteristics associated with the invasion of the optic nerve of uveal melanoma and to evaluate the association between invasion of the optic nerve and survival. In order to achieve this, all uveal melanomas with optic nerve invasion...... in Denmark between 1942 and 2001 were reviewed (n=157). Histopathological characteristics and depth of optic nerve invasion were recorded. The material was compared with a control material from the same period consisting of 85 cases randomly drawn from all choroidal/ciliary body melanomas without optic nerve...... invasion. Prelaminar/laminar optic nerve invasion was in multivariate analysis associated with focal retinal invasion, neovascularization of the chamber angle, and scleral invasion. Postlaminar invasion was further associated with non-spindle cell type and rupture of the inner limiting membrane...

  9. Strategies to Combat Afghan Opium

    OpenAIRE

    Looney, Robert

    2009-01-01

    As everyone who pays attention to the news already knows, the war in Afghanistan is not going well. Long overshadowed by the conflict in Iraq, Afghanistan’s trials drew little attention in the years after the deceptively easy overthrow of the Taliban in 2001. Afghans are paying the price: violence has been escalating since 2006, and insurgents operate freely in much of the country.

  10. Invasive exotic plants suffer less herbivory than non-invasive exotic plants

    OpenAIRE

    Cappuccino, Naomi; Carpenter, David

    2005-01-01

    We surveyed naturally occurring leaf herbivory in nine invasive and nine non-invasive exotic plant species sampled in natural areas in Ontario, New York and Massachusetts, and found that invasive plants experienced, on average, 96% less leaf damage than non-invasive species. Invasive plants were also more taxonomically isolated than non-invasive plants, belonging to families with 75% fewer native North American genera. However, the relationship between taxonomic isolation at the family level ...

  11. Non-invasive mechanical ventilation

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nicky

    failure may benefit from a trial of NIV. Increased work of breathing, as noted by use of accessory breathing. SAJCC. 10. July 2005, V ol. 21, No. 1. University of Manitoba and Manitoba Institute of Child Health, Winnipeg, Canada. B Louise Giles, MD, FRCPC. Non-invasive ventilation (NIV) is a modality of providing airway and ...

  12. Vaccines against invasive Salmonella disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacLennan, Calman A; Martin, Laura B; Micoli, Francesca

    2014-01-01

    Though primarily enteric pathogens, Salmonellae are responsible for a considerable yet under-appreciated global burden of invasive disease. In South and South-East Asia, this manifests as enteric fever caused by serovars Typhi and Paratyphi A. In sub-Saharan Africa, a similar disease burden results from invasive nontyphoidal Salmonellae, principally serovars Typhimurium and Enteritidis. The existing Ty21a live-attenuated and Vi capsular polysaccharide vaccines target S. Typhi and are not effective in young children where the burden of invasive Salmonella disease is highest. After years of lack of investment in new Salmonella vaccines, recent times have seen increased interest in the area led by emerging-market manufacturers, global health vaccine institutes and academic partners. New glycoconjugate vaccines against S. Typhi are becoming available with similar vaccines against other invasive serovars in development. With other new vaccines under investigation, including live-attenuated, protein-based and GMMA vaccines, now is an exciting time for the Salmonella vaccine field. PMID:24804797

  13. Invasive cranial mycosis our experiences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tapas Kumbhkar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Fungi can cause serious cranial infections in immunocompromised and diabetic patients. Common pathogens mainly include Aspergillus and Mucor. These organisms cause tissue invasion and destruction of adjacent structures (e.g. orbit, ethmoid, sphenoid, maxillary & cavernous sinuses. Mortality and morbidity rate is high despite combined surgical, antifungal and antidiabetic treatment. We present our experience of six cases with such infection.

  14. Biological invasions in forest ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrew M. Liebhold; Eckehard G. Brockerhoff; Susan Kalisz; Martin A. Nuñez; David A. Wardle; Michael J. Wingfield

    2017-01-01

    Forests play critical roles in global ecosystem processes and provide numerous services to society. But forests are increasingly affected by a variety of human influences, especially those resulting from biological invasions. Species invading forests include woody and herbaceous plants, many animal species including mammals and invertebrates, as well as a variety of...

  15. Approaching invasive species in Madagascar | Kull | Madagascar ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    invasive', the topic of invasive species has until recently received less attention here than in other island contexts. Some species, often alien to Madagascar and introduced by humans, have expanded their range rapidly and have had both ...

  16. Invasive thymoma: CT diagnosis and evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun Zhonghua; Yu Hong; Liu Hengshun; Yan Hongzhen; Zhang Shurong

    1998-01-01

    Purpose: To study the CT manifestation of invasive thymoma for staging and treatment planning. Materials and methods: The authors reviewed and analyzed the CT scans of 26 patients with invasive thymoma confirmed by surgery and pathology with emphasis on lesion density, invasion of adjacent mediastinal structures, pleural seeding mediastinal nodes and extra-mediastinal metastases. Results: In 26 cases of invasive thymoma, all CT scans demonstrated the soft tissue mass in anterior mediastinum, with heterogeneous density in 16 patients. Irregular invasion to adjacent organs was found in 24 patients. The main findings were mediastinal pleura invasion in 7, lung invasion 9, pleural implants 3, cardiovascular involvement in 20, and cardiophrenic and abdominal invasion in 3. CT is especially effective in detecting the involvement of pleura, pericardium and lung. Conclusion: Computed tomography provides the most reliable assessment of the extent of the disease. Conventional CT scan allows accurate staging and treatment planning

  17. Uma breve história do ópio e dos opióides Una historia breve del opio y de los opioides Opium and opioids: a brief history

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danilo Freire Duarte

    2005-02-01

    alcaloides del opio y las facilidades para el empleo de esas substancias por vía parenteral, hubo aumento del interés por el uso criterioso de los opioides en la área médica y del análisis de las consecuencias sociales de su uso abusivo. Se justifica, por lo expuesto, una revisión histórica del opio y de sus derivados. CONTENIDO: La evolución de los conocimientos sobre el opio, producto natural extraído del Papaver somniferum, y sobre los opioides, substancias naturales, semi-sintéticas y sintéticas extraídas del opio, bien como las principales referencias a esas substancias desde la Antiguedad fueron evaluadas. Fue enfatizado el progreso logrado desde los trabajos de Setürner que resultaron en el aislamiento de la morfina. Las averiguaciones acarreadas por otros autores en la busca de substancias sintéticas que presentasen ventajas sobre los productos naturales fueron mencionadas. La importancia del hallazgo de los receptores opioides y de sus ligantes endógenos fue subrayada. CONCLUSIONES: En el amanecer del tercer milenio, a despecho de las pesquisas realizadas con drogas analgésicas de otros grupos farmacológicos, los opioides continúan siendo los analgésicos más potentes, aunque su eficacia sea contestada en ciertos tipos de dolor. Los actuales conocimientos de Farmacología Clínica permiten seleccionar el opioide a ser administrado, considerando la enfermedad y las condiciones del paciente, en la busca de la mejor relación costo-beneficio.BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: In addition to their major influence on human behavior, opium and opioids have been used for a long time as sedative and analgesic drugs. As from the 19th century, with the isolation of opium alkaloids and easy parenteral administration of these substances, there has been increased interest in the judicious medical use of opioids and in the analysis of social consequences of their abuse, which has justified a historical review of opium and opioids. CONTENTS: Further understanding of

  18. Invasive plant species in hardwood tree plantations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rochelle R. Beasley; Paula M. Pijut

    2010-01-01

    Invasive plants are species that can grow and spread aggressively, mature quickly, and invade an ecosystem causing economic and environmental damage. Invasive plants usually invade disturbed areas, but can also colonize small areas quickly, and may spread and dominate large areas in a few short years. Invasive plant species displace native or desirable forest...

  19. Invasive plants in 21st Century landscapes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valerie. Rapp

    2005-01-01

    A plant species is defined as invasive if it is nonnative to the ecosystem under consideration, and if it causes or is likely to cause economic or environmental harm or harm to human health. Nonnative plant invasions are generally considered to have reached the Pacific Northwest in the mid-1800s with the arrival of European-American settlers. Invasive species such as...

  20. Invasive Species Science Update (No. 9)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Justin Runyon

    2017-01-01

    This newsletter is designed to keep managers and other users up-to-date with recently completed and ongoing research by RMRS scientists, as well as to highlight breaking news related to invasive species issues. The newsletter is produced by the RMRS Invasive Species Working Group (ISWG), a core group of scientists who volunteer to disseminate RMRS invasive species...

  1. Do invasive plant species alter soil health?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Invasive species may alter soil characteristics or interact with the soil microbial community to yield a competitive advantage. Our objectives were to determine: if invasive plant species alter soil properties important to soil health; and the long-term effects of invasive plant species on soil pro...

  2. 78 FR 70317 - Invasive Species Advisory Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-25

    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Office of the Secretary Invasive Species Advisory Committee AGENCY..., notice is hereby given of meetings of the Invasive Species Advisory Committee. The purpose of the Advisory Committee is to provide advice to the National Invasive Species Council, as authorized by...

  3. Invasive species and climate change (Chapter 7)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Justin B. Runyon; Jack L. Butler; Megan M. Friggens; Susan E. Meyer; Sharlene E. Sing

    2012-01-01

    Invasive species present one of the greatest threats to the health and sustainability of ecosystems worldwide. Invasive plants, animals, and diseases are known to have significant negative effects on biological diversity and the ecological structure and functions of native ecosystems. Moreover, the economic cost imposed by invasive species is enormous—the damage...

  4. Invasive Species Science Update (No. 4)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ned B. Klopfenstein; Brian W. Geils

    2010-01-01

    The fourth issue of Invasive Species Science Update has finally arrived. This newsletter has no set publication schedule, but our intent is to deliver invasive species information on a timely basis. The RMRS Invasive Species Working Group (ISWG) has been reorganized and recharged. General information on the ISWG is presented in a publication by Butler and others (2009...

  5. Invasive Species Science Update (No. 7)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dean Pearson; Yvette Ortega; Jack Butler

    2014-01-01

    Invasive Species Science Updates are designed to keep managers and other users up-to-date with recently completed and ongoing research by RMRS scientists, as well as highlight breaking news related to invasive species issues. The newsletter is produced by the RMRS Invasive Species Working Group (ISWG), which is a core group of scientists who volunteer to coordinate...

  6. Invasive Species Science Update (No. 5)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dean Pearson; Yvette Ortega

    2011-01-01

    Welcome to the fifth issue of the Rocky Mountain Research Station's (RMRS) Invasive Species Science Update. The newsletter is produced by the RMRS Invasive Species Working Group (ISWG), which is a core group of scientists who volunteer to coordinate outreach of RMRS invasive species science to managers and the public. After publishing the past four newsletters, we...

  7. 78 FR 11899 - Invasive Species Advisory Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-20

    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Office of the Secretary Invasive Species Advisory Committee AGENCY... notice of public meetings of the Invasive Species Advisory Committee. The document contained incorrect..., March 6, 2013; 9 a.m. to 1:45 p.m. Meeting of the Invasive Species Advisory Committee (OPEN): Thursday...

  8. Invasive Species Science Update (No. 8)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dean Pearson; Yvette Ortega; Jack Butler

    2015-01-01

    Invasive Species Science Updates are designed to keep managers and other users up-to-date with recently completed and ongoing research by RMRS scientists, as well as highlight breaking news related to invasive species issues. The newsletter is produced by the RMRS Invasive Species Working Group (ISWG), which is a core group of scientists who volunteer to coordinate...

  9. Terrestrial animals as invasive species and as species at risk from invasions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deborah M. Finch; Dean Pearson; Joseph Wunderle; Wayne Arendt

    2010-01-01

    Including terrestrial animal species in the invasive species strategy plan is an important step in invasive species management. Invasions by nonindigenous species threaten nearly 50 percent of imperiled native species in the United States and are the Nation's second leading cause of species endangerment. Invasion and conversion of native habitats by exotic species...

  10. The risk of establishment of aquatic invasive species: joining invasibility and propagule pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, Brian; Mandrak, Nicholas E

    2007-10-22

    Invasive species are increasingly becoming a policy priority. This has spurred researchers and managers to try to estimate the risk of invasion. Conceptually, invasions are dependent both on the receiving environment (invasibility) and on the ability to reach these new areas (propagule pressure). However, analyses of risk typically examine only one or the other. Here, we develop and apply a joint model of invasion risk that simultaneously incorporates invasibility and propagule pressure. We present arguments that the behaviour of these two elements of risk differs substantially--propagule pressure is a function of time, whereas invasibility is not--and therefore have different management implications. Further, we use the well-studied zebra mussel (Dreissena polymorpha) to contrast predictions made using the joint model to those made by separate invasibility and propagule pressure models. We show that predictions of invasion progress as well as of the long-term invasion pattern are strongly affected by using a joint model.

  11. Invasive procedures with questionable indications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergei V. Jargin

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Insufficient coordination of medical research and partial isolation from the international scientific community can result in application of invasive methods without sufficient indications. Here is presented an overview of renal and pancreatic biopsy studies performed in the course of the operations of pancreatic blood shunting into the systemic blood flow in type 1 diabetic patients. Furthermore a surgical procedure of lung denervation as a treatment method of asthma as well as the use of bronchoscopy for research in asthmatics are discussed here. Today, the upturn in Russian economy enables acquisition of modern equipment; and medical research is on the increase. Under these circumstances, the purpose of this letter was to remind that, performing surgical or other invasive procedures, the risk-to-benefit ratio should be kept as low as possible.

  12. Radiologic aspects in invasive aspergillosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feger, C.; Kerviler, E. de; Zagdanski, A.M.; Attal, P.; Cyna-Gorse, F.; Frija, J.; Laval-Jeantet, M.

    1994-01-01

    Invasive aspergillosis is a life-threatening illness, whose diagnosis is difficult: clinical signs are indeed not specific, and biological and mycological exams are not always conclusive. Radiological exams are essential for the diagnosis of this disease allowing to start an early intensive appropriate therapy. According to the literature and to their own experience the authors report the main radiological patterns with emphasis on the pulmonary and cerebral affections. (authors). 26 refs., 5 figs

  13. Non-invasive extending prosthesis

    OpenAIRE

    Meswania, Jayantilal Mohanlal

    2006-01-01

    Most sarcomas of the bone occur in patients of a relatively young age including skeletally immature patients. Approximately 50 child sarcomas are treated with limb salvage surgery per year in the United Kingdom. These children need an extendible implant that can be lengthened periodically to keep pace with the growth in the opposite limb. Surgically, invasive devices have been used for the past thirty years with intrinsic problems of infection and long-term recurrent trauma to the patient. To...

  14. Biological invasions, ecological resilience and adaptive governance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaffin, Brian C.; Garmestani, Ahjond S.; Angeler, David G.; Herrmann, Dustin L.; Stow, Craig A.; Nystrom, Magnus; Sendzimir, Jan; Hopton, Matthew E.; Kolasa, Jurek; Allen, Craig R.

    2016-01-01

    In a world of increasing interconnections in global trade as well as rapid change in climate and land cover, the accelerating introduction and spread of invasive species is a critical concern due to associated negative social and ecological impacts, both real and perceived. Much of the societal response to invasive species to date has been associated with negative economic consequences of invasions. This response has shaped a war-like approach to addressing invasions, one with an agenda of eradications and intense ecological restoration efforts towards prior or more desirable ecological regimes. This trajectory often ignores the concept of ecological resilience and associated approaches of resilience-based governance. We argue that the relationship between ecological resilience and invasive species has been understudied to the detriment of attempts to govern invasions, and that most management actions fail, primarily because they do not incorporate adaptive, learning-based approaches. Invasive species can decrease resilience by reducing the biodiversity that underpins ecological functions and processes, making ecosystems more prone to regime shifts. However, invasions do not always result in a shift to an alternative regime; invasions can also increase resilience by introducing novelty, replacing lost ecological functions or adding redundancy that strengthens already existing structures and processes in an ecosystem. This paper examines the potential impacts of species invasions on the resilience of ecosystems and suggests that resilience-based approaches can inform policy by linking the governance of biological invasions to the negotiation of tradeoffs between ecosystem services.

  15. Invasive predators and global biodiversity loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doherty, Tim S; Glen, Alistair S; Nimmo, Dale G; Ritchie, Euan G; Dickman, Chris R

    2016-10-04

    Invasive species threaten biodiversity globally, and invasive mammalian predators are particularly damaging, having contributed to considerable species decline and extinction. We provide a global metaanalysis of these impacts and reveal their full extent. Invasive predators are implicated in 87 bird, 45 mammal, and 10 reptile species extinctions-58% of these groups' contemporary extinctions worldwide. These figures are likely underestimated because 23 critically endangered species that we assessed are classed as "possibly extinct." Invasive mammalian predators endanger a further 596 species at risk of extinction, with cats, rodents, dogs, and pigs threatening the most species overall. Species most at risk from predators have high evolutionary distinctiveness and inhabit insular environments. Invasive mammalian predators are therefore important drivers of irreversible loss of phylogenetic diversity worldwide. That most impacted species are insular indicates that management of invasive predators on islands should be a global conservation priority. Understanding and mitigating the impact of invasive mammalian predators is essential for reducing the rate of global biodiversity loss.

  16. Will climate change promote future invasions?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellard, Celine; Thuiller, Wilfried; Leroy, Boris; Genovesi, Piero; Bakkenes, Michel; Courchamp, Franck

    2013-12-01

    Biological invasion is increasingly recognized as one of the greatest threats to biodiversity. Using ensemble forecasts from species distribution models to project future suitable areas of the 100 of the world's worst invasive species defined by the International Union for the Conservation of Nature, we show that both climate and land use changes will likely cause drastic species range shifts. Looking at potential spatial aggregation of invasive species, we identify three future hotspots of invasion in Europe, northeastern North America, and Oceania. We also emphasize that some regions could lose a significant number of invasive alien species, creating opportunities for ecosystem restoration. From the list of 100, scenarios of potential range distributions show a consistent shrinking for invasive amphibians and birds, while for aquatic and terrestrial invertebrates distributions are projected to substantially increase in most cases. Given the harmful impacts these invasive species currently have on ecosystems, these species will likely dramatically influence the future of biodiversity. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. 3D-CRT, Proton, or Brachytherapy APBI in Treating Patients With Invasive and Non-invasive Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-12-29

    Ductal Breast Carcinoma In Situ; Estrogen Receptor Positive; Grade 1 Invasive Breast Carcinoma; Grade 2 Invasive Breast Carcinoma; Grade 3 Invasive Breast Carcinoma; Invasive Ductal and Lobular Carcinoma In Situ; Mucinous Breast Carcinoma; Tubular Breast Carcinoma

  18. The valve of CT in diagnosing the invasive and non-invasive thymoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tang Wenyan; Jiang Kuiming; Song Ting; Lin Wenjian; Chen Zhanhang

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To Study CT features of thymoma and its value in differentiating the invasive from non-invasive thymoma. Methods: CT findings of 17 cases with thymoma (11 non-invasive and 6 invasive) confirmed by surgery and pathology were analyzed retrospectively. Results: 11 cases were non-invasive thymoma. On CT, the tumors were round or oval in 6 cases, lobulate in 4 cases, and irregular in 1 case. The lesions showed homogeneous density and mild enhancement in 9 cases. 10 of them showed complete capsules without invasion. The mass-cardiovascular interface was: convex type in 5 cases, flat type in 3 cases and concave type in 2 cases. 6 cases were invasive thymoma, tumors were irregular and heterogeneous in 5 cases. Significant and inhomogeneous enhancement on post contrast CT was found. Conclusion: The CT features of thymoma was specific, and CT is of great value in differentiating the invasive from non-invasive thymoma. (authors)

  19. A subcontinental view of forest plant invasions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher M. Oswalt

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Over the last few decades, considerable attention has focused on small-scale studies of invasive plants and invaded systems. Unfortunately, small scale studies rarely provide comprehensive insight into the complexities of biological invasions at macroscales. Systematic and repeated monitoring of biological invasions at broad scales are rare. In this report, we highlight a unique invasive plant database from the national Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA program of the United States Forest Service. We demonstrate the importance and capability of this subcontinental-wide database by showcasing several critical macroscale invasion patterns that have emerged from its initial analysis: (1 large portion of the forests systems (39% in the United States are impacted by invasive plants, (2 forests in the eastern United States harbor more invasive species than the western regions, (3 human land-use legacies at regional to national scales may drive large-scale invasion patterns. This accumulated dataset, which continues to grow in temporal richness with repeated measurements, will allow the understanding of invasion patterns and processes at multi-spatial and temporal scales. Such insights are not possible from smaller-scale studies, illustrating the benefit that can be gained by investing in the development of regional to continental-wide invasion monitoring programs elsewhere.

  20. Secretome signature of invasive glioblastoma multiforme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Formolo, Catherine A; Williams, Russell; Gordish-Dressman, Heather; MacDonald, Tobey J; Lee, Norman H; Hathout, Yetrib

    2011-07-01

    The incurability of malignant glioblastomas is mainly attributed to their highly invasive nature coupled with resistance to chemo- and radiation therapy. Because invasiveness is partially dictated by the proteins these tumors secrete we used SILAC to characterize the secretomes of four glioblastoma cell lines (LN18, T98, U118 and U87). Although U87 and U118 cells both secreted high levels of well-known invasion promoting proteins, a Matrigel invasion assay showed U87 cells to be eight times more invasive than U118 cells, suggesting that additional proteins secreted by U87 cells may contribute to the highly invasive phenotype. Indeed, we identified a number of proteins highly or exclusively expressed by U87 cells as compared to the less invasive cell lines. The most striking of these include ADAM9, ADAM10, cathepsin B, cathepsin L1, osteopontin, neuropilin-1, semaphorin-7A, suprabasin, and chitinase-3-like protein 1. U87 cells also expressed significantly low levels of some cell adhesion proteins such as periostin and EMILIN-1. Correlation of secretome profiles with relative levels of invasiveness using Pavlidis template matching further indicated potential roles for these proteins in U87 glioblastoma invasion. Antibody inhibition of CH3L1 reduced U87 cell invasiveness by 30%.

  1. Invasive ductal carcinoma vs. invasive lobular carcinoma; mammographic findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Eun Chun; Do, Young Soo; Oh, Hoon Il; Han, Yoon Hee; Kim, Ki Soo; Chin, Soo Yil [Korea Cancer Center Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1996-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate mammographic findings of invasive ductal carcinoma (IDC) and invasive lobular carcinoma(ILC) and to find differential points between the two. 239 patients, who underwent mammography prior to surgery and were proved to have IDC(patients) or ILC(15 patients) pathologically, were analized retrospectively. On mammogram, presence of mass and microcalcification were analized. When there was a mass on mammogram, lesion opacity was classified into high, equal, or low opacity and border of the mass was classified into spiculated, poorly marginated, and well-marginated. When there was no definite mass, mammographic findings were classifie into asymmetric opacity and no mass. Masses were observed in 168 patients(75%) of IDC and 12 patients(80%) of ILC. Border of the masses were spiculated(n=50, 22.3%), poorly marginated(n=112, 50%), or well-marginated(n=6, 2.7%) in patients with IDC. Spiculated and poorly marginated borders were observed in 8 patients(53.3%) and 4 patients(26.7%) respectively, in patients with ILC. Microcalcifications were seen in 88 patients(17.3%) of IDC and patients(33.3%) of ILC. Although equal or low opacities were observed more frequently in ILC and microcalcifications were noted more frequently in IDC, it was difficult to differentiate the two diseases based on mammographic findings.

  2. Invasive ductal carcinoma vs. invasive lobular carcinoma; mammographic findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Eun Chun; Do, Young Soo; Oh, Hoon Il; Han, Yoon Hee; Kim, Ki Soo; Chin, Soo Yil

    1996-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate mammographic findings of invasive ductal carcinoma (IDC) and invasive lobular carcinoma(ILC) and to find differential points between the two. 239 patients, who underwent mammography prior to surgery and were proved to have IDC(patients) or ILC(15 patients) pathologically, were analized retrospectively. On mammogram, presence of mass and microcalcification were analized. When there was a mass on mammogram, lesion opacity was classified into high, equal, or low opacity and border of the mass was classified into spiculated, poorly marginated, and well-marginated. When there was no definite mass, mammographic findings were classifie into asymmetric opacity and no mass. Masses were observed in 168 patients(75%) of IDC and 12 patients(80%) of ILC. Border of the masses were spiculated(n=50, 22.3%), poorly marginated(n=112, 50%), or well-marginated(n=6, 2.7%) in patients with IDC. Spiculated and poorly marginated borders were observed in 8 patients(53.3%) and 4 patients(26.7%) respectively, in patients with ILC. Microcalcifications were seen in 88 patients(17.3%) of IDC and patients(33.3%) of ILC. Although equal or low opacities were observed more frequently in ILC and microcalcifications were noted more frequently in IDC, it was difficult to differentiate the two diseases based on mammographic findings

  3. The Invasive Species Forecasting System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnase, John; Most, Neal; Gill, Roger; Ma, Peter

    2011-01-01

    The Invasive Species Forecasting System (ISFS) provides computational support for the generic work processes found in many regional-scale ecosystem modeling applications. Decision support tools built using ISFS allow a user to load point occurrence field sample data for a plant species of interest and quickly generate habitat suitability maps for geographic regions of management concern, such as a national park, monument, forest, or refuge. This type of decision product helps resource managers plan invasive species protection, monitoring, and control strategies for the lands they manage. Until now, scientists and resource managers have lacked the data-assembly and computing capabilities to produce these maps quickly and cost efficiently. ISFS focuses on regional-scale habitat suitability modeling for invasive terrestrial plants. ISFS s component architecture emphasizes simplicity and adaptability. Its core services can be easily adapted to produce model-based decision support tools tailored to particular parks, monuments, forests, refuges, and related management units. ISFS can be used to build standalone run-time tools that require no connection to the Internet, as well as fully Internet-based decision support applications. ISFS provides the core data structures, operating system interfaces, network interfaces, and inter-component constraints comprising the canonical workflow for habitat suitability modeling. The predictors, analysis methods, and geographic extents involved in any particular model run are elements of the user space and arbitrarily configurable by the user. ISFS provides small, lightweight, readily hardened core components of general utility. These components can be adapted to unanticipated uses, are tailorable, and require at most a loosely coupled, nonproprietary connection to the Web. Users can invoke capabilities from a command line; programmers can integrate ISFS's core components into more complex systems and services. Taken together, these

  4. Non-invasive neural stimulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyler, William J.; Sanguinetti, Joseph L.; Fini, Maria; Hool, Nicholas

    2017-05-01

    Neurotechnologies for non-invasively interfacing with neural circuits have been evolving from those capable of sensing neural activity to those capable of restoring and enhancing human brain function. Generally referred to as non-invasive neural stimulation (NINS) methods, these neuromodulation approaches rely on electrical, magnetic, photonic, and acoustic or ultrasonic energy to influence nervous system activity, brain function, and behavior. Evidence that has been surmounting for decades shows that advanced neural engineering of NINS technologies will indeed transform the way humans treat diseases, interact with information, communicate, and learn. The physics underlying the ability of various NINS methods to modulate nervous system activity can be quite different from one another depending on the energy modality used as we briefly discuss. For members of commercial and defense industry sectors that have not traditionally engaged in neuroscience research and development, the science, engineering and technology required to advance NINS methods beyond the state-of-the-art presents tremendous opportunities. Within the past few years alone there have been large increases in global investments made by federal agencies, foundations, private investors and multinational corporations to develop advanced applications of NINS technologies. Driven by these efforts NINS methods and devices have recently been introduced to mass markets via the consumer electronics industry. Further, NINS continues to be explored in a growing number of defense applications focused on enhancing human dimensions. The present paper provides a brief introduction to the field of non-invasive neural stimulation by highlighting some of the more common methods in use or under current development today.

  5. [Minimally invasive approach for cervical spondylotic radiculopathy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Liang; Sun, Taicun; Huang, Yonghui

    2010-01-01

    To summarize the recent minimally invasive approach for cervical spondylotic radiculopathy (CSR). The recent literature at home and abroad concerning minimally invasive approach for CSR was reviewed and summarized. There were two techniques of minimally invasive approach for CSR at present: percutaneous puncture techniques and endoscopic techniques. The degenerate intervertebral disc was resected or nucleolysis by percutaneous puncture technique if CSR was caused by mild or moderate intervertebral disc herniations. The cervical microendoscopic discectomy and foraminotomy was an effective minimally invasive approach which could provide a clear view. The endoscopy techniques were suitable to treat CSR caused by foraminal osteophytes, lateral disc herniations, local ligamentum flavum thickening and spondylotic foraminal stenosis. The minimally invasive procedure has the advantages of simple handling, minimally invasive and low incidence of complications. But the scope of indications is relatively narrow at present.

  6. [Interactions between invasive plants and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi: a review].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Yan-fang; Guo, Shao-xia; Li, Min

    2011-09-01

    The invasion of invasive plants changes the biological community structure in their invaded lands, leading to the biodiversity loss. As an important component of soil microorganisms in terrestrial ecosystem, arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi can affect the growth performance of invasive plants. This kind of specific relations between AM fungi and invasive plants also implies that AM fungi can affect plant invasion. On the other hand, the invasion of invasive plants can affect the community structure and function of AM fungi. This paper summarized the species and harms of invasive plants in China, and discussed the relationships between AM fungi and invasive plants invasion, including the roles of AM fungi in the processes of invasive plants invasion, the effects of the invasion on AM fungi, and the interactive mechanisms between the invasion and AM fungi.

  7. Invasive plants have broader physiological niches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higgins, Steven I; Richardson, David M

    2014-07-22

    Invasive species cost the global economy billions of dollars each year, but ecologists have struggled to predict the risk of an introduced species naturalizing and invading. Although carefully designed experiments are needed to fully elucidate what makes some species invasive, much can be learned from unintentional experiments involving the introduction of species beyond their native ranges. Here, we assess invasion risk by linking a physiologically based species distribution model with data on the invasive success of 749 Australian acacia and eucalypt tree species that have, over more than a century, been introduced around the world. The model correctly predicts 92% of occurrences observed outside of Australia from an independent dataset. We found that invasiveness is positively associated with the projection of physiological niche volume in geographic space, thereby illustrating that species tolerant of a broader range of environmental conditions are more likely to be invasive. Species achieve this broader tolerance in different ways, meaning that the traits that define invasive success are context-specific. Hence, our study reconciles studies that have failed to identify the traits that define invasive success with the urgent and pragmatic need to predict invasive success.

  8. Secretome Signature of Invasive Glioblastoma Multiforme

    OpenAIRE

    Formolo, Catherine A.; Williams, Russell; Gordish-Dressman, Heather; MacDonald, Tobey J.; Lee, Norman H.; Hathout, Yetrib

    2011-01-01

    The incurability of malignant glioblastomas is mainly attributed to their highly invasive nature coupled with resistance to chemo- and radiation therapy. Because invasiveness is partially dictated by the proteins these tumors secrete we used SILAC to characterize the secretomes of four glioblastoma cell lines (LN18, T98, U118 and U87). Although U87 and U118 cells both secreted high levels of well-known invasion promoting proteins, a Matrigel invasion assay showed U87 cells to be eight times m...

  9. Intraspecies differenes in phenotypic plasticity: Invasive versus non-invasive populations of Ceratophyllum demersum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hyldgaard, Benita; Brix, Hans

    2012-01-01

    High phenotypic plasticity has been hypothesized to affect the invasiveness of plants, as high plasticity may enlarge the breath of environments in which the plants can survive and reproduce. Here we compare the phenotypic plasticity of invasive and non-invasive populations of the same species...... in response to growth temperature. Populations of the submerged macrophyte Ceratophyllum demersum from New Zealand, where the species is introduced and invasive, and from Denmark, where the species is native and non-invasive, were grown in a common garden setup at temperatures of 12, 18, 25 and 35 ◦C. We...... hypothesized that the phenotypic plasticity in fitness-related traits like growth and photosynthesis were higher in the invasive than in the non-invasive population. The invasive population acclimated to elevated temperatures through increased rates of photosynthesis (range: Pamb: 8–452 mol O2 g−1 DM h−1...

  10. Comparison of the Invasion of Crete and the Proposed Invasion in Malta

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kavanaugh, Stephen L

    2006-01-01

    .... The invasion of Crete was executed from 20 May to 1 June 1941 with heavy German losses. The invasion of Malta never took place even though the senior military leaders in the Oberkommando der Wehrmacht (OKW...

  11. Alabama invasive plant council: list of invasive plants by cultural use categories

    Science.gov (United States)

    James H. Miller; Nancy J. Loewenstein; Curtis J. Hansen

    2006-01-01

    Shortly after formation of the Alabama Invasive Plant Council (ALIPC) in 2003, a committee dedicated to assessment and listing of invasive plants was convened – the ALIPC Invasive Plant Listing Committee. Committee members were drawn from the wide diversity of expertise of the Council, which welcomes participation by all land-use and water-use managers, owners,...

  12. Comparative anatomy of invasive and non-invasive species in the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The foliar and stem micromorphological study of the invasive and non-invasive species were undertaken using Light Microscope (LM). The occurrence of vessels in the pillar of the abundant sclerenchyma tissues are important component of the skeletal system in the invasive species. The prominent tiles of parenchymatous ...

  13. Invasion of a mined landscape: what habitat characteristics are influencing the occurrence of invasive plants?

    Science.gov (United States)

    D. Lemke; I.A. Tazisong; Y. Wang; J.A. Brown

    2012-01-01

    Throughout the world, the invasion of alien plants is an increasing threat to native biodiversity. Invasion is especially prevalent in areas affected by land transformation and anthropogenic disturbance. Surface mines are a major disturbance, and thus may promote the establishment and expansion of invasive plant communities. Environmental and habitat factors that may...

  14. Unconventional gas development facilitates plant invasions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barlow, Kathryn M; Mortensen, David A; Drohan, Patrick J; Averill, Kristine M

    2017-11-01

    Vegetation removal and soil disturbance from natural resource development, combined with invasive plant propagule pressure, can increase vulnerability to plant invasions. Unconventional oil and gas development produces surface disturbance by way of well pad, road, and pipeline construction, and increased traffic. Little is known about the resulting impacts on plant community assembly, including the spread of invasive plants. Our work was conducted in Pennsylvania forests that overlay the Marcellus and Utica shale formations to determine if invasive plants have spread to edge habitat created by unconventional gas development and to investigate factors associated with their presence. A piecewise structural equation model was used to determine the direct and indirect factors associated with invasive plant establishment on well pads. The model included the following measured or calculated variables: current propagule pressure on local access roads, the spatial extent of the pre-development road network (potential source of invasive propagules), the number of wells per pad (indicator of traffic density), and pad age. Sixty-one percent of the 127 well pads surveyed had at least one invasive plant species present. Invasive plant presence on well pads was positively correlated with local propagule pressure on access roads and indirectly with road density pre-development, the number of wells, and age of the well pad. The vast reserves of unconventional oil and gas are in the early stages of development in the US. Continued development of this underground resource must be paired with careful monitoring and management of surface ecological impacts, including the spread of invasive plants. Prioritizing invasive plant monitoring in unconventional oil and gas development areas with existing roads and multi-well pads could improve early detection and control of invasive plants. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. E-commerce trade in invasive plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humair, Franziska; Humair, Luc; Kuhn, Fabian; Kueffer, Christoph

    2015-12-01

    Biological invasions are a major concern in conservation, especially because global transport of species is still increasing rapidly. Conservationists hope to anticipate and thus prevent future invasions by identifying and regulating potentially invasive species through species risk assessments and international trade regulations. Among many introduction pathways of non-native species, horticulture is a particularly important driver of plant invasions. In recent decades, the horticultural industry expanded globally and changed structurally through the emergence of new distribution channels, including internet trade (e-commerce). Using an automated search algorithm, we surveyed, on a daily basis, e-commerce trade on 10 major online auction sites (including eBay) of approximately three-fifths of the world's spermatophyte flora. Many recognized invasive plant species (>500 species) (i.e., species associated with ecological or socio-economic problems) were traded daily worldwide on the internet. A markedly higher proportion of invasive than non-invasive species were available online. Typically, for a particular plant family, 30-80% of recognized invasive species were detected on an auction site, but only a few percentages of all species in the plant family were detected on a site. Families that were more traded had a higher proportion of invasive species than families that were less traded. For woody species, there was a significant positive relationship between the number of regions where a species was sold and the number of regions where it was invasive. Our results indicate that biosecurity is not effectively regulating online plant trade. In the future, automated monitoring of e-commerce may help prevent the spread of invasive species, provide information on emerging trade connectivity across national borders, and be used in horizon scanning exercises for early detection of new species and their geographic source areas in international trade. © 2015 Society for

  16. Benefits of non invasive ventilation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millar, D; Kirpalani, H

    2004-10-01

    Mechanical ventilation of the newborn infant has increased neonatal survival. However, this increased survival has come at the expense of increased morbidity, in the form of bronchopulmonary dysplasia, and at the cost of an expensive technology. Continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) is accepted as conferring clinical benefit in supporting the recently extubated preterm infant and in the management of apnea of prematurity. Attention is now being drawn to physiologic and clinical evidence to support CPAP use, with or without early surfactant, as a primary treatment of hyaline membrane disease. The purpose of this review is to explore these proposed benefits of non invasive ventilation and place them in the context of current clinical evidence.

  17. Minimally invasive aortic valve replacement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foghsgaard, Signe; Schmidt, Thomas Andersen; Kjaergard, Henrik K

    2009-01-01

    In this descriptive prospective study, we evaluate the outcomes of surgery in 98 patients who were scheduled to undergo minimally invasive aortic valve replacement. These patients were compared with a group of 50 patients who underwent scheduled aortic valve replacement through a full sternotomy...... operations were completed as mini-sternotomies, 4 died later of noncardiac causes. The aortic cross-clamp and perfusion times were significantly different across all groups (P replacement...... is an excellent operation in selected patients, but its true advantages over conventional aortic valve replacement (other than a smaller scar) await evaluation by means of randomized clinical trial. The "extended mini-aortic valve replacement" operation, on the other hand, is a risky procedure that should...

  18. Invasive alien birds in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fox, Anthony David; Heldbjerg, Henning; Nyegaard, Timme

    2015-01-01

    Avian Introduced Alien Species (IAS) constitute a threat to the integrity of native biodiversity, the economy and human health, so here we briefly review some of the problems posed by such species around the world in relation to such bird species in Denmark. A new European Union Regulation...... on Invasive Alien Species implemented in January 2015 establishes a framework for actions to combat alien species, which requires Member States to prevent the spread of alien species, provide early warning and rapid responses to their presence and management of established alien species where they occur. We...... show the importance of mechanisms such as DOF’s (Dansk Ornitologisk Forening, BirdLife Denmark) Atlas project, Common Bird Census (breeding and wintering species) and DOFbasen to contribute data on the current geographical and numerical distribution of the few serious alien avian species already...

  19. Invasive alien birds in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nyegaard, Timme; Heldbjerg, Henning; Fox, Anthony David

    Avian Introduced Alien Species (IAS) constitute a threat to the integrity of native biodiversity, the economy and human health, so here we briefly review some of the problems posed by such species around the world in relation to bird species in Denmark. A new European Union Regulation on Invasive...... Alien Species implemented in January 2015 requires a framework for actions to combat alien species, which requires Member States to prevent the spread of alien species, provide early warning and rapid responses to their presence and management of established alien species where they occur. We show...... the importance of mechanisms such as DOFs (Danish Ornithological Society, BirdLife Denmark) Atlas project, Common Bird Monitoring (breeding and wintering species) and DOFbasen to contribute data on the current geographical and numerical distribution of the few serious alien avian species already present...

  20. Chapter 8: Invasive fungal rhinosinusitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duggal, Praveen; Wise, Sarah K

    2013-01-01

    Invasive fungal rhinosinusitis (IFRS) is a disease of the paranasal sinuses and nasal cavity that typically affects immunocompromised patients in the acute fulminant form. Early symptoms can often mimic rhinosinusitis, while late symptoms can cause significant morbidity and mortality. Swelling and mucosal thickening can quickly progress to pale or necrotic tissue in the nasal cavity and sinuses, and the disease can rapidly spread and invade the palate, orbit, cavernous sinus, cranial nerves, skull base, carotid artery, and brain. IFRS can be life threatening if left undiagnosed or untreated. While the acute fulminant form of IFRS is the most rapidly progressive and destructive, granulomatous and chronic forms also exist. Diagnosis of IFRS often mandates imaging studies in conjunction with clinical, endoscopic, and histopathological examination. Treatment of IFRS consists of reversing the underlying immunosuppression, antifungal therapy, and aggressive surgical debridement. With early diagnosis and treatment, IFRS can be treated and increase patient survival.

  1. A minimally invasive smile enhancement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peck, Fred H

    2014-01-01

    Minimally invasive dentistry refers to a wide variety of dental treatments. On the restorative aspect of dental procedures, direct resin bonding can be a very conservative treatment option for the patient. When tooth structure does not need to be removed, the patient benefits. Proper treatment planning is essential to determine how conservative the restorative treatment will be. This article describes the diagnosis, treatment options, and procedural techniques in the restoration of 4 maxillary anterior teeth with direct composite resin. The procedural steps are reviewed with regard to placing the composite and the variety of colors needed to ensure a natural result. Finishing and polishing of the composite are critical to ending with a natural looking dentition that the patient will be pleased with for many years.

  2. Chapter 8: Invasive fungal rhinosinusitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duggal, Praveen; Wise, Sarah K

    2013-05-01

    Invasive fungal rhinosinusitis (IFRS) is a disease of the paranasal sinuses and nasal cavity that typically affects immunocompromised patients in the acute fulminant form. Early symptoms can often mimic rhinosinusitis, while late symptoms can cause significant morbidity and mortality. Swelling and mucosal thickening can quickly progress to pale or necrotic tissue in the nasal cavity and sinuses, and the disease can rapidly spread and invade the palate, orbit, cavernous sinus, cranial nerves, skull base, carotid artery, and brain. IFRS can be life threatening if left undiagnosed or untreated. While the acute fulminant form of IFRS is the most rapidly progressive and destructive, granulomatous and chronic forms also exist. Diagnosis of IFRS often mandates imaging studies in conjunction with clinical, endoscopic, and histopathological examination. Treatment of IFRS consists of reversing the underlying immunosuppression, antifungal therapy, and aggressive surgical debridement. With early diagnosis and treatment, IFRS can be treated and increase patient survival.

  3. Understanding macroscale invasion patterns and processes with FIA data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Songlin Fei; Basil V. Iannone III; Christopher M. Oswalt; Qinfeng Guo; Kevin M. Potter; Sonja N. Oswalt; Bryan C. Pijanowski; Gabriela C. Nunez-Mir

    2015-01-01

    Using empirical data from FIA, we modeled invasion richness and invasion prevalence as functions of 22 factors reflective of propagule pressure and/or habitat invasibility across the continental US. Our statistical models suggest that both propagule pressure and habitat invasibility contribute to macroscale patterns of forest plant invasions. Our investigation provides...

  4. The Invasive Plant Species Education Guide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, Kevin; James, Krista; Carlson, Kitrina; D'Angelo, Jean

    2010-01-01

    To help high school students gain a solid understanding of invasive plant species, university faculty and students from the University of Wisconsin-Stout (UW-Stout) and a local high school teacher worked together to develop the Invasive Plant Species (IPS) Education Guide. The IPS Education Guide includes nine lessons that give students an…

  5. Liver injury in invasive aspergillus. Echographic findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Otero Fernandez, R.; Garcia Revillo, J.; Paez Moreno, J.; Zurera Tendero, L.J.

    1994-01-01

    Aspergillus is the second most common mycoses in immuno compromised patients. The invasive form is associated with a mortality of approximately 100%. We present a case of invasive aspergillus in a heart transplant recipient in whom ultrasound disclosed the presence of liver injury which was later confirmed by necropsy. We review the available literature. (Author) 15 refs

  6. A proposed unified framework for biological invasions

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Blackburn, T. M.; Pyšek, Petr; Bacher, S.; Carlton, J. T.; Duncan, R. P.; Jarošík, Vojtěch; Wilson, J. R. U.; Richardson, D. M.

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 26, č. 7 (2011), s. 333-339 ISSN 0169-5347 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA206/09/0563; GA MŠk LC06073 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60050516 Keywords : biological invasions * invasion process * general framework Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 15.748, year: 2011

  7. Principles for ecologically based invasive plant management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeremy J. James; Brenda S. Smith; Edward A. Vasquez; Roger L. Sheley

    2010-01-01

    Land managers have long identified a critical need for a practical and effective framework for designing restoration strategies, especially where invasive plants dominate. A holistic, ecologically based, invasive plant management (EBIPM) framework that integrates ecosystem health assessment, knowledge of ecological processes, and adaptive management into a successional...

  8. Invasive Species Science Update (No. 1)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mee-Sook Kim; Jack Butler

    2008-01-01

    This electronic newsletter (Invasive Species Science Update) is published by the Rocky Mountain Research Station (RMRS) Cross-Program, Interdisciplinary Project team on Invasive Species. This newsletter will be published 3 times per year and is intended to enhance communication among RMRS scientists, wildland managers, other partners, stakeholders, and customers about...

  9. Invasive Species Science Update (No. 6)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paula Fornwalt

    2013-01-01

    The sixth issue of the Rocky Mountain Research Station's (RMRS) Invasive Species Science Update is now complete. Published approximately once per year, this newsletter keeps managers and other users up-to-date with recently completed and ongoing research by RMRS scientists, and covers breaking news related to invasive species issues. The newsletter is produced by...

  10. Book review: Encyclopedia of biological invasions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qinfeng Guo

    2011-01-01

    Species introductions and consequent biotic invasions and homogenization are major components of global change that are drawing increasing concern and various levels of actions and reactions around the world. Invasion ecology has advanced rapidly during the last few decades, and the discipline is now increasingly integrated with the social and economic sciences. A...

  11. Invasion of erythrocytes by Babesia bovis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gaffar, Fasila Razzia

    2004-01-01

    In this thesis we investigated the invasion of erythrocytes taking place during the asexual erythrocytic blood stage of the apicomplexan parasites Babesia bovis parasite. Host cell invasion by apicomplexan parasites is a complex process requiring multiple receptor-ligand interactions, involving

  12. Allelopathic effects of invasive Eucalyptus camaldulensis on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Eucalyptus camaldulensis Dehnh. (red river gum; Myrtaceae) is an invasive tree in riparian habitats of the Western Cape, South Africa, where it replaces indigenous vegetation and affects ecosystem functioning. These invasions lead to changes in river geomorphology and reduction in stream flow. The mechanisms that ...

  13. Economic Analysis of Biological Invasions in Forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomas P. Holmes; Julian Aukema; Jeffrey Englin; Robert G. Haight; Kent Kovacs; Brian Leung

    2014-01-01

    Biological invasions of native forests by nonnative pests result from complex stochastic processes that are difficult to predict. Although economic optimization models describe efficient controls across the stages of an invasion, the ability to calibrate such models is constrained by lack of information on pest population dynamics and consequent economic damages. Here...

  14. Domestic exotics and the perception of invasibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qinfeng Guo; Robert Ricklefs

    2010-01-01

    Susceptibility of an area to invasion by exotic species is often judged by the fraction of introduced species in the local biota. However, the degree of invasion, particularly in mainland areas, has often been underestimated because of the exclusion of ‘domestic exotics’ (those introduced to internal units from within the national border) in calculations. Because all...

  15. Impact of the invasive parasitic copepod

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goedknegt, M.A.; Bedolfe; Drent, J.; van der Meer, J.; Thieltges, D.W.

    2018-01-01

    Invasive species can indirectly affect native species by modifying parasite–host dynamics and disease occurrence. This scenario applies to European coastal waters where the invasive Pacific oyster (Magallana gigas) co-introduced the parasitic copepod Mytilicola orientalis that spills

  16. 76 FR 30955 - Invasive Species Advisory Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-27

    ... broad array of issues related to preventing the introduction of invasive species and providing for their... primarily on invaders in the intermountain West. The meeting will focus on adapting management of invasive... ecology, climate change, land development, introduction pathways, and new invaders. ISAC will also consult...

  17. Invasive behaviour and depolarization effect of Pseudomonas ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... of a constitutive calcium dependent NOS and that of an inducible NOS activated by LPS. Ours results also suggest that P. fluorescens cytotoxicity and invasion are not mutually exclusive events. Key Words: Cytotoxicity, Lipopolysaccharide, Patch-clamp, Invasion, Pseudomonas fluorescens. Afr. J. Clin. Exper. Microbiol.

  18. The evolution of invasiveness in garden ants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cremer, Sylvia; Ugelvig, Line Vej; Drijfhout, Falko P

    2008-01-01

    It is unclear why some species become successful invaders whilst others fail, and whether invasive success depends on pre-adaptations already present in the native range or on characters evolving de-novo after introduction. Ants are among the worst invasive pests, with Lasius neglectus and its...... rapid spread through Europe and Asia as the most recent example of a pest ant that may become a global problem. Here, we present the first integrated study on behavior, morphology, population genetics, chemical recognition and parasite load of L. neglectus and its non-invasive sister species L. turcicus....... We find that L. neglectus expresses the same supercolonial syndrome as other invasive ants, a social system that is characterized by mating without dispersal and large networks of cooperating nests rather than smaller mutually hostile colonies. We conclude that the invasive success of L. neglectus...

  19. A human breast cell model of pre-invasive to invasive transition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bissell, Mina J; Rizki, Aylin; Weaver, Valerie M.; Lee, Sun-Young; Rozenberg, Gabriela I.; Chin, Koei; Myers, Connie A.; Bascom, Jamie L.; Mott, Joni D.; Semeiks, Jeremy R.; Grate, Leslie R.; Mian, I. Saira; Borowsky, Alexander D.; Jensen, Roy A.; Idowu, Michael O.; Chen, Fanqing; Chen, David J.; Petersen, Ole W.; Gray, Joe W.; Bissell, Mina J.

    2008-03-10

    A crucial step in human breast cancer progression is the acquisition of invasiveness. There is a distinct lack of human cell culture models to study the transition from pre-invasive to invasive phenotype as it may occur 'spontaneously' in vivo. To delineate molecular alterations important for this transition, we isolated human breast epithelial cell lines that showed partial loss of tissue polarity in three-dimensional reconstituted-basement membrane cultures. These cells remained non-invasive; however, unlike their non-malignant counterparts, they exhibited a high propensity to acquire invasiveness through basement membrane in culture. The genomic aberrations and gene expression profiles of the cells in this model showed a high degree of similarity to primary breast tumor profiles. The xenograft tumors formed by the cell lines in three different microenvironments in nude mice displayed metaplastic phenotypes, including squamous and basal characteristics, with invasive cells exhibiting features of higher grade tumors. To find functionally significant changes in transition from pre-invasive to invasive phenotype, we performed attribute profile clustering analysis on the list of genes differentially expressed between pre-invasive and invasive cells. We found integral membrane proteins, transcription factors, kinases, transport molecules, and chemokines to be highly represented. In addition, expression of matrix metalloproteinases MMP-9,-13,-15,-17 was up regulated in the invasive cells. Using siRNA based approaches, we found these MMPs to be required for the invasive phenotype. This model provides a new tool for dissection of mechanisms by which pre-invasive breast cells could acquire invasiveness in a metaplastic context.

  20. What makes the plant invasion possible? Paradigm of invasion mechanisms, theories and attributes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prabhat Kumar Rai

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Plant invasion is the second most severe threat to biodiversity after habitat fragmentation. Invasive species are alien species whose introduction and spread threatens ecosystems, habitats or species with socio-cultural, economic and/or environmental harm, and harm to human health. Present review precisely describes the global problems of invasion in different ecosystems, continents and its multifaceted impacts. Plant invasion is now increasingly being recognized as global problem and various continents are adversely affected, although to a differential scale. Quest for the ecological mechanism lying behind the success of invasive species over native species has drawn the attention of researches worldwide particularly in context of diversity-stability relationship. Transport, colonization, establishment and landscape spread may be different steps in success of invasive plants and each and every step is checked through several ecological attributes. Further, several ecological attribute and hypothesis (enemy release, novel weapon, empty niche, evolution of increased competitive ability etc. were proposed pertaining to success of invasive plant species. However, single theory will not be able to account for invasion success among all environments as it may vary spatially and temporally. Therefore, in order to formulate a sustainable management plan for invasive plants, it is necessary to develop a synoptic view of the dynamic processes involved in the invasion process. Moreover, invasive species can act synergistically with other elements of global change, including land-use change, climate change, increased concentrations of atmospheric carbon dioxide and nitrogen deposition. Henceforth, a unified framework for biological invasions that reconciles and integrates the key features of the most commonly used invasion frame-works into a single conceptual model that can be applied to all human-mediated invasions.

  1. Invasive aspergillosis in two patients with Pearson syndrome.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Warris, A.; Verweij, P.E.; Barton, R.C.; Crabbe, D.C.G.; Evans, E.G.V.; Meis, J.F.G.M.

    1999-01-01

    Invasive aspergillosis is a serious opportunistic infection in the immunocompromised host. In the pediatric population invasive aspergillosis is seen predominantly in patients with hematologic malignancie, chronic granullamotous disease (CGD) and AIDS. Invasive aspergillosis carries a high case

  2. Invasive cancer cells and metastasis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mierke, Claudia Tanja

    2013-12-01

    The physics of cancer is a relatively new emerging field of cancer research. In the last decade it has become a focus of biophysical research as well as becoming a novel focus for classical cancer research. This special section of Physical Biology focusing on invasive cancer cells and metastasis (physical oncology) will give greater insight into the different subfields where physical approaches are being applied to cancer research. This focus on the physical aspects of cancer is necessary because novel approaches in the field of genomics and proteomics have not altered the field of cancer research dramatically, due to the fact that few breakthroughs have been made. It is still not understood why some primary tumors metastasize and thus have a worse outcome compared to others that do not metastasize. As biophysicists, we and others suggest that the mechanical properties of the cancer cells, which possess the ability to transmigrate, are quite different compared to non-metastatic and non-invasive cancer cells. Furthermore, we hypothesize that these cancer cells undergo a selection process within the primary tumor that enables them to weaken their cell-cell adhesions and to alter their cell-matrix adhesions in order to be able to cross the outermost boundary of the primary tumor, as well as the surrounding basement membrane, and to invade the connective tissue. This prerequisite may also help the cancer cells to enter blood or lymph vessels, get transported with the vessel flow and form secondary tumors either within the vessel, directly on the endothelium, or in a different organ after crossing the endothelial lining a second time. This special section begins with a paper by Mark F Coughlin and Jeffrey J Fredberg on the changes in cytoskeletal dynamics and nonlinear rheology due to the metastatic capability of cancer cells from different cancer tissue types such as skin, bladder, prostate and kidney [1]. The hypothesis was that the metastatic outcome is impacted by

  3. Global threat to agriculture from invasive species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paini, Dean R; Sheppard, Andy W; Cook, David C; De Barro, Paul J; Worner, Susan P; Thomas, Matthew B

    2016-07-05

    Invasive species present significant threats to global agriculture, although how the magnitude and distribution of the threats vary between countries and regions remains unclear. Here, we present an analysis of almost 1,300 known invasive insect pests and pathogens, calculating the total potential cost of these species invading each of 124 countries of the world, as well as determining which countries present the greatest threat to the rest of the world given their trading partners and incumbent pool of invasive species. We find that countries vary in terms of potential threat from invasive species and also their role as potential sources, with apparently similar countries sometimes varying markedly depending on specifics of agricultural commodities and trade patterns. Overall, the biggest agricultural producers (China and the United States) could experience the greatest absolute cost from further species invasions. However, developing countries, in particular, Sub-Saharan African countries, appear most vulnerable in relative terms. Furthermore, China and the United States represent the greatest potential sources of invasive species for the rest of the world. The analysis reveals considerable scope for ongoing redistribution of known invasive pests and highlights the need for international cooperation to slow their spread.

  4. Assessing biofuel crop invasiveness: a case study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher Evan Buddenhagen

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: There is widespread interest in biofuel crops as a solution to the world's energy needs, particularly in light of concerns over greenhouse-gas emissions. Despite reservations about their adverse environmental impacts, no attempt has been made to quantify actual, relative or potential invasiveness of terrestrial biofuel crops at an appropriate regional or international scale, and their planting continues to be largely unregulated. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Using a widely accepted weed risk assessment system, we analyzed a comprehensive list of regionally suitable biofuel crops to show that seventy percent have a high risk of becoming invasive versus one-quarter of non-biofuel plant species and are two to four times more likely to establish wild populations locally or be invasive in Hawaii or in other locations with a similar climate. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Because of climatic and ecological similarities, predictions of biofuel crop invasiveness in Hawaii are applicable to other vulnerable island and subtropical ecosystems worldwide. We demonstrate the utility of an accessible and scientifically proven risk assessment protocol that allows users to predict if introduced species will become invasive in their region of interest. Other evidence supports the contention that propagule pressure created by extensive plantings will exacerbate invasions, a scenario expected with large-scale biofuel crop cultivation. Proactive measures, such as risk assessments, should be employed to predict invasion risks, which could then be mitigated via implementation of appropriate planting policies and adoption of the "polluter-pays" principle.

  5. Non invasive wearable sensor for indirect glucometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zilberstein, Gleb; Zilberstein, Roman; Maor, Uriel; Righetti, Pier Giorgio

    2018-04-02

    A non-invasive mini-sensor for blood glucose concentration assessment has been developed. The monitoring is performed by gently pressing a wrist or fingertip onto the chemochromic mixture coating a thin glass or polymer film positioned on the back panel of a smart watch with PPG/HRM (photoplethysmographic/heart rate monitoring sensor). The various chemochromic components measure the absolute values of the following metabolites present in the sweat: acetone, acetone beta-hydroxybutirate, aceto acetate, water, carbon dioxide, lactate anion, pyruvic acid, Na and K salts. Taken together, all these parameters give information about blood glucose concentration, calculated via multivariate analysis based on neural network algorithms built into the sensor. The Clarke Error Grid shows an excellent correlation between data measured by the standard invasive glucose analyser and the present non-invasive sensor, with all points aligned along a 45 degree diagonal and contained almost exclusively in sector A. Graphs measuring glucose levels five times a day (prior, during and after breakfast and prior, during and after lunch), for different individuals (male and female) show a good correlation between the two curves of conventional, invasive meters vs. the non-invasive sensor, with an error of ±15%. This novel, non-invasive sensor for indirect glucometry is fully miniaturized, easy to use and operate and could represent a valid alternative in clinical settings and for individual, personal users, to current, invasive tools. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  6. Study of melanoma invasion by FTIR spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Y.; Sulé-Suso, J.; Sockalingum, G. D.

    2008-02-01

    Compared to other forms of skin cancer, a malignant melanoma has a high risk of spreading to other parts of the body. Melanoma invasion is a complex process involving changes in cell-extracellular matrix (ECM) interaction and cell-cell interactions. To fully understand the factors which control the invasion process, a human skin model system was reconstructed. HBL (a commercially available cell line) melanoma cells were seeded on a skin model with and without the presence of keratinocytes and/or fibroblasts. After 14 days culture, the skin specimens were fixed, parafin embedded and cut into 7 µm sections. The de-parafinised sections were investigated by synchrotron Fourier transformed infrared (FTIR) microspectroscopy to study skin cell invasion behaviour. The advantage of using FTIR is its ability to obtain the fingerprint information of the invading cells in terms of protein secondary structure in comparison to non-invading cells and the concentration of the enzyme (matrix-metalloproteinase) which digests protein matrix, near the invading cells. With aid of the spectral mapping images, it is possible to pinpoint the cells in non-invasion and invasion area and analyse the respective spectra. It has been observed that the protein bands in cells and matrix shifted between non-invasive and invasive cells in the reconstructed skin model. We hypothesise that by careful analysis of the FTIR data and validation by other models, FTIR studies can reveal information on which type of cells and proteins are involved in melanoma invasion. Thus, it is possible to trace the cell invasion path by mapping the spectra along the interface of cell layer and matrix body by FTIR spectroscopy.

  7. Invasion exponents in biological networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demetrius, Lloyd; Gundlach, Volker Matthias; Ochs, Gunter

    2009-03-01

    This article is concerned with the characterization of invasion exponents in biological networks defined by a population of replicating elements: molecules, cells, higher organisms. We show that the outcome of competition between an invader and a resident population is a stochastic process, determined by the rate at which a population returns to its steady state after a random perturbation in the parameters that characterize the replicating elements. This return rate is defined by the macroscopic parameter evolutionary entropy, a measure of the diversity of the interaction between the individuals in the population. We also show that the evolutionary stability of a population, that is the invulnerability of a resident to the introduction of an invader competing for the available resources, are given by extremal states of entropy. These results which pertain to networks of interacting molecules, cells and higher organisms, are generalizations of results established for demographic networks, that is populations of replicating organisms parametrized by the ages at which they reproduce and die.

  8. Robotic assisted minimally invasive surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Palep Jaydeep

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The term "robot" was coined by the Czech playright Karel Capek in 1921 in his play Rossom′s Universal Robots. The word "robot" is from the check word robota which means forced labor.The era of robots in surgery commenced in 1994 when the first AESOP (voice controlled camera holder prototype robot was used clinically in 1993 and then marketed as the first surgical robot ever in 1994 by the US FDA. Since then many robot prototypes like the Endoassist (Armstrong Healthcare Ltd., High Wycombe, Buck, UK, FIPS endoarm (Karlsruhe Research Center, Karlsruhe, Germany have been developed to add to the functions of the robot and try and increase its utility. Integrated Surgical Systems (now Intuitive Surgery, Inc. redesigned the SRI Green Telepresence Surgery system and created the daVinci Surgical System ® classified as a master-slave surgical system. It uses true 3-D visualization and EndoWrist ® . It was approved by FDA in July 2000 for general laparoscopic surgery, in November 2002 for mitral valve repair surgery. The da Vinci robot is currently being used in various fields such as urology, general surgery, gynecology, cardio-thoracic, pediatric and ENT surgery. It provides several advantages to conventional laparoscopy such as 3D vision, motion scaling, intuitive movements, visual immersion and tremor filtration. The advent of robotics has increased the use of minimally invasive surgery among laparoscopically naοve surgeons and expanded the repertoire of experienced surgeons to include more advanced and complex reconstructions.

  9. Invasive clonal plant species have a greater root-foraging plasticity than non-invasive ones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keser, Lidewij H; Dawson, Wayne; Song, Yao-Bin; Yu, Fei-Hai; Fischer, Markus; Dong, Ming; van Kleunen, Mark

    2014-03-01

    Clonality is frequently positively correlated with plant invasiveness, but which aspects of clonality make some clonal species more invasive than others is not known. Due to their spreading growth form, clonal plants are likely to experience spatial heterogeneity in nutrient availability. Plasticity in allocation of biomass to clonal growth organs and roots may allow these plants to forage for high-nutrient patches. We investigated whether this foraging response is stronger in species that have become invasive than in species that have not. We used six confamilial pairs of native European clonal plant species differing in invasion success in the USA. We grew all species in large pots under homogeneous or heterogeneous nutrient conditions in a greenhouse, and compared their nutrient-foraging response and performance. Neither invasive nor non-invasive species showed significant foraging responses to heterogeneity in clonal growth organ biomass or in aboveground biomass of clonal offspring. Invasive species had, however, a greater positive foraging response in terms of root and belowground biomass than non-invasive species. Invasive species also produced more total biomass. Our results suggest that the ability for strong root foraging is among the characteristics promoting invasiveness in clonal plants.

  10. Excluding access to invasion hubs can contain the spread of an invasive vertebrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Florance, Daniel; Webb, Jonathan K; Dempster, Tim; Kearney, Michael R; Worthing, Alex; Letnic, Mike

    2011-10-07

    Many biological invasions do not occur as a gradual expansion along a continuous front, but result from the expansion of satellite populations that become established at 'invasion hubs'. Although theoretical studies indicate that targeting control efforts at invasion hubs can effectively contain the spread of invasions, few studies have demonstrated this in practice. In arid landscapes worldwide, humans have increased the availability of surface water by creating artificial water points (AWPs) such as troughs and dams for livestock. By experimentally excluding invasive cane toads (Bufo marinus) from AWP, we show that AWP provide a resource subsidy for non-arid-adapted toads and serve as dry season refuges and thus invasion hubs for cane toads in arid Australia. Using data on the distribution of permanent water in arid Australia and the dispersal potential of toads, we predict that systematically excluding toads from AWP would reduce the area of arid Australia across which toads are predicted to disperse and colonize under average climatic conditions by 38 per cent from 2,242,000 to 1,385,000 km(2). Our study shows how human modification of hydrological regimes can create a network of invasion hubs that facilitates a biological invasion, and confirms that targeted control at invasion hubs can reduce landscape connectivity to contain the spread of an invasive vertebrate.

  11. Fort Collins Science Center: Invasive Species Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stohlgren, Tom

    2004-01-01

    Invasive, non-native species of plants, animals, and disease organisms adversely affect the ecosystems they enter. Like "biological wildfires," they can quickly spread, and they affect nearly all terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems. Invasive species have become the greatest environmental challenge of the 21st century in terms of economic, environmental, and human health costs, with an estimated impact in the U.S. of over $138 billion per year. Managers of Department of the Interior and other public and private lands and waters rank invasive species as their top resource management problem.

  12. Candida albicans hyphal invasion: thigmotropism or chemotropism?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, J M; Stacey, A J; Gilligan, C A

    1999-02-15

    Hyphae of the human pathogenic fungus Candida albicans exhibit thigmotropic behaviour in vitro, in common with phytopathogenic and saprotrophic fungi. An examination of the literature on C. albicans hyphal penetration of epithelial and endothelial membranes does not support the premise that hyphal thigmotropism plays a major role in tissue invasion. Further experimentation is now required to assess thigmotropic behaviour on host membranes and vaginal epithelial cells are suggested as a test model. It is proposed that while thigmotropism may and invasion of tissue invaginations, chemotropism can explain C. albicans hyphal invasion patterns of both endothelium and epithelium.

  13. Aquatic invasive species: Lessons from cancer research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sepulveda, Adam; Ray, Andrew; Al-Chokhachy, Robert K.; Muhlfeld, Clint C.; Gresswell, Robert E.; Gross, Jackson A.; Kershner, Jeffrey L.

    2014-01-01

    Aquatic invasive species are disrupting ecosystems with increasing frequency. Successful control of these invasions has been rare: Biologists and managers have few tools for fighting aquatic invaders. In contrast, the medical community has long worked to develop tools for preventing and fighting cancer. Its successes are marked by a coordinated research approach with multiple steps: prevention, early detection, diagnosis, treatment options and rehabilitation. The authors discuss how these steps can be applied to aquatic invasive species, such as the American bullfrog (Lithobates catesbeianus), in the Northern Rocky Mountain region of the United States, to expedite tool development and implementation along with achievement of biodiversity conservation goals.

  14. How can phytochemists benefit from invasive plants?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Peihong; Marston, Andrew

    2009-10-01

    The phenomenon of invasive alien species has become one of the greatest threats to the biological diversity of the planet, placing major constraints on development. In order to provide the tools needed to address this pervasive issue, the current knowledge on invasive species must be further developed with a cross-sectoral and multi-disciplinary approach. Recent theories of invasion propose that exotic plants probably produce secondary metabolites which can be allelopathic, anti-herbivore, anti-microbial and which are either unique or underrepresented in the plants' new range. This review attempts to attract the attention of phytochemists to study either the mechanisms of plant invasion or to use this widespread plant resource for humans.

  15. The social dimensions of invasive plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Head, Lesley

    2017-06-06

    Invasive plants pose a major environmental management issue. Research into the social dimensions of this issue has flourished over the past decade, as part of the critical examination of relations between human and nonhuman worlds. The social sciences and humanities have made substantial contributions to conceptualizing invasiveness and nativeness; understanding the perceptions, attitudes and values of diverse stakeholders; and analysing the politics and practices of invasive plant management. Cultural analysis allows areas of conflict and commonality to be identified. Social complexity must be added to ecological complexity to understand the causal relationships underlying invasions; and linear understandings of science-policy relationships are too simplistic. Productive connections have been established between recent social and natural science approaches in the context of rapid environmental change and unpredictable futures. Nonetheless, the prevalence of human exceptionalism in the ecological sciences constitutes a major point of divergence between social and natural science perspectives.

  16. Invasive aspergillosis in near drowning nonneutropenic patient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munta, Kartik; Gopal, Palepu B N; Vigg, Ajit

    2015-12-01

    Invasive aspergillosis in immunosuppressed people has been well documented, but to diagnose and treat in an immunocompetent individual after near drowning, it requires early suspicion and proper empirical treatment. We report a case diagnosed to have invasive aspergillosis with systemic dissemination of the infection to the brain, gluteal muscles, and kidneys after a fall in a chemical tank of a paper manufacturing company. He was ventilated for acute respiratory distress syndrome and managed with antibiotics and vasopressors. Due to nonresolving pneumonia and positive serum galactomannan, trans-tracheal biopsy was performed which confirmed invasive aspergillosis and was treated with antifungals. With the availability of galactomannan assay and better radiological investigative modalities, occurrence of such invasive fungal infections in cases of drowning patients should be considered early in such patients and treated with appropriate antifungals.

  17. Heart bypass surgery - minimally invasive - discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... invasive direct coronary artery bypass - discharge; MIDCAB - discharge; Robot assisted coronary artery bypass - discharge; RACAB - discharge; Keyhole ... M. is also a founding member of Hi-Ethics and subscribes to the principles of the Health ...

  18. NNDSS - Table II. Invasive Pneumococcal to Legionellosis

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — NNDSS - Table II. Invasive Pneumococcal to Legionellosis - 2016. In this Table, provisional* cases of selected†notifiable diseases (≥1,000 cases reported during...

  19. NNDSS - Table II. Invasive Pneumococcal to Legionellosis

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — NNDSS - Table II. Invasive Pneumococcal to Legionellosis - 2015.In this Table, provisional cases of selected notifiable diseases (≥1,000 cases reported during the...

  20. [Invasive yeast infections in neutropenic patients].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz Camps, Isabel; Jarque, Isidro

    2016-01-01

    Invasive fungal diseases caused by yeasts still play an important role in the morbidity and mortality in neutropenic patients with haematological malignancies. Although the overall incidence of invasive candidiasis has decreased due to widespread use of antifungal prophylaxis, the incidence of non-Candida albicans Candida species is increasing compared with that of C.albicans, and mortality of invasive candidiasis continues to be high. In addition, there has been an increase in invasive infections caused by an array of uncommon yeasts, including species of the genus Malassezia, Rhodotorula, Trichosporon and Saprochaete, characterised by their resistance to echinocandins and poor prognosis. Copyright © 2016 Asociación Española de Micología. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.