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Sample records for invasive non-typhoidal salmonella

  1. Identification by PCR of non-typhoidal Salmonella enterica serovars associated with invasive infections among febrile patients in Mali.

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    Sharon M Tennant

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available In sub-Saharan Africa, non-typhoidal Salmonella (NTS are emerging as a prominent cause of invasive disease (bacteremia and focal infections such as meningitis in infants and young children. Importantly, including data from Mali, three serovars, Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium, Salmonella Enteritidis and Salmonella Dublin, account for the majority of non-typhoidal Salmonella isolated from these patients.We have extended a previously developed series of polymerase chain reactions (PCRs based on O serogrouping and H typing to identify Salmonella Typhimurium and variants (mostly I 4,[5],12:i:-, Salmonella Enteritidis and Salmonella Dublin. We also designed primers to detect Salmonella Stanleyville, a serovar found in West Africa. Another PCR was used to differentiate diphasic Salmonella Typhimurium and monophasic Salmonella Typhimurium from other O serogroup B, H:i serovars. We used these PCRs to blind-test 327 Salmonella serogroup B and D isolates that were obtained from the blood cultures of febrile patients in Bamako, Mali.We have shown that when used in conjunction with our previously described O-serogrouping PCR, our PCRs are 100% sensitive and specific in identifying Salmonella Typhimurium and variants, Salmonella Enteritidis, Salmonella Dublin and Salmonella Stanleyville. When we attempted to differentiate 171 Salmonella Typhimurium (I 4,[ 5],12:i:1,2 strains from 52 monophasic Salmonella Typhimurium (I 4,[5],12:i:- strains, we were able to correctly identify 170 of the Salmonella Typhimurium and 51 of the Salmonella I 4,[5],12:i:- strains.We have described a simple yet effective PCR method to support surveillance of the incidence of invasive disease caused by NTS in developing countries.

  2. O-Serotype Conversion in Salmonella Typhimurium Induces Protective Immune Responses against Invasive Non-Typhoidal Salmonella Infections

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    Pei Li

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Salmonella infections remain a big problem worldwide, causing enteric fever by Salmonella Typhi (or Paratyphi or self-limiting gastroenteritis by non-typhoidal Salmonella (NTS in healthy individuals. NTS may become invasive and cause septicemia in elderly or immuno-compromised individuals, leading to high mortality and morbidity. No vaccines are currently available for preventing NTS infection in human. As these invasive NTS are restricted to several O-antigen serogroups including B1, D1, C1, and C2, O-antigen polysaccharide is believed to be a good target for vaccine development. In this study, a strategy of O-serotype conversion was investigated to develop live attenuated S. Typhimurium vaccines against the major serovars of NTS infections. The immunodominant O4 serotype of S. Typhimurium was converted into O9, O7, and O8 serotypes through unmarked chromosomal deletion–insertion mutations. O-serotype conversion was confirmed by LPS silver staining and western blotting. All O-serotype conversion mutations were successfully introduced into the live attenuated S. Typhimurium vaccine S738 (Δcrp Δcya to evaluate their immunogenicity in mice model. The vaccine candidates induced high amounts of heterologous O-polysaccharide-specific functional IgG responses. Vaccinated mice survived a challenge of 100 times the 50% lethality dose (LD50 of wild-type S. Typhimurium. Protective efficacy against heterologous virulent Salmonella challenges was highly O-serotype related. Furthermore, broad-spectrum protection against S. Typhimurium, S. Enteritidis, and S. Choleraesuis was observed by co-vaccination of O9 and O7 O-serotype-converted vaccine candidates. This study highlights the strategy of expressing heterologous O-polysaccharides via genetic engineering in developing live attenuated S. Typhimurium vaccines against NTS infections.

  3. Multi-drug resistant non-typhoidal Salmonella associated with invasive disease in western Kenya.

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    Adam Akullian

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Non-typhoidal Salmonella (NTS is a leading cause of bloodstream infections in Africa, but the various contributions of host susceptibility versus unique pathogen virulence factors are unclear. We used data from a population-based surveillance platform (population ~25,000 between 2007-2014 and NTS genome-sequencing to compare host and pathogen-specific factors between individuals presenting with NTS bacteremia and those presenting with NTS diarrhea. Salmonella Typhimurium ST313 and Salmonella Enteritidis ST11 were the most common isolates. Multi-drug resistant strains of NTS were more commonly isolated from patients presenting with NTS bacteremia compared to NTS diarrhea. This relationship was observed in patients under age five [aOR = 15.16, 95% CI (2.84-81.05, P = 0.001], in patients five years and older, [aOR = 6.70 95% CI (2.25-19.89, P = 0.001], in HIV-uninfected patients, [aOR = 21.61, 95% CI (2.53-185.0, P = 0.005], and in patients infected with Salmonella serogroup B [aOR = 5.96, 95% CI (2.28-15.56, P < 0.001] and serogroup D [aOR = 14.15, 95% CI (1.10-182.7, P = 0.042]. Thus, multi-drug-resistant NTS was strongly associated with bacteremia compared to diarrhea among children and adults. This association was seen in HIV-uninfected individuals infected with either S. Typhimurium or S. Enteritidis. Risk of developing bacteremia from NTS infection may be driven by virulence properties of the Salmonella pathogen.

  4. Non-Typhoidal Salmonella Aortitis in a transplant patient

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    Tarif, N.; Azam, M.N.; Mitwalli, Ahmad H.; Al-Wakeel, Jamal S.; El-Kheder, A. Al-Aboud

    2002-01-01

    Non-typhoidal salmonella bacteremia may result in extra gastrointestinallocalization of infection. Aortitis due to non-typhoidal salmonella wasreported to be the cause of 38-42% of all infected abdominal aortitis.Underlying atherosclerosis is a frequent site for salmonella aortitis. Wedescribe here a case of possible salmonella aortitis in a renal transplantpatient. (author)

  5. Modeling the Potential for Vaccination to Diminish the Burden of Invasive Non-typhoidal Salmonella Disease in Young Children in Mali, West Africa.

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    Bornstein, Kristin; Hungerford, Laura; Hartley, David; Sorkin, John D; Tapia, Milagritos D; Sow, Samba O; Onwuchekwa, Uma; Simon, Raphael; Tennant, Sharon M; Levine, Myron M

    2017-02-01

    In sub-Saharan Africa, systematic surveillance of young children with suspected invasive bacterial disease (e.g., septicemia, meningitis) has revealed non-typhoidal Salmonella (NTS) to be a major pathogen exhibiting high case fatality (~20%). Where infant vaccination against Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) and Streptococcus pneumoniae has been introduced to prevent invasive disease caused by these pathogens, as in Bamako, Mali, their burden has decreased markedly. In parallel, NTS has become the predominant invasive bacterial pathogen in children aged vaccines to prevent invasive NTS (iNTS) disease. We developed a mathematical model to estimate the potential impact of NTS vaccination programs in Bamako. A Markov chain transmission model was developed utilizing age-specific Bamako demographic data and hospital surveillance data for iNTS disease in children aged vaccine coverage and efficacy similar to the existing, successfully implemented, Hib vaccine. Annual iNTS hospitalizations and deaths in children vaccine, were the model's outcomes of interest. Per the model, high coverage/high efficacy iNTS vaccination programs would drastically diminish iNTS disease except among infants age vaccination shifts as disease burden, vaccine coverage, and serovar distribution vary. Our model shows that implementing an iNTS vaccine through an analogous strategy to the Hib vaccination program in Bamako would markedly reduce cases and deaths due to iNTS among the pediatric population. The model can be adjusted for use elsewhere in Africa where NTS epidemiologic patterns, serovar prevalence, and immunization schedules differ from Bamako.

  6. Modeling the Potential for Vaccination to Diminish the Burden of Invasive Non-typhoidal Salmonella Disease in Young Children in Mali, West Africa.

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    Kristin Bornstein

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available In sub-Saharan Africa, systematic surveillance of young children with suspected invasive bacterial disease (e.g., septicemia, meningitis has revealed non-typhoidal Salmonella (NTS to be a major pathogen exhibiting high case fatality (~20%. Where infant vaccination against Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib and Streptococcus pneumoniae has been introduced to prevent invasive disease caused by these pathogens, as in Bamako, Mali, their burden has decreased markedly. In parallel, NTS has become the predominant invasive bacterial pathogen in children aged <5 years. While NTS is believed to be acquired orally via contaminated food/water, epidemiologic studies have failed to identify the reservoir of infection or vehicles of transmission. This has precluded targeting food chain interventions to diminish disease transmission but conversely has fostered the development of vaccines to prevent invasive NTS (iNTS disease. We developed a mathematical model to estimate the potential impact of NTS vaccination programs in Bamako.A Markov chain transmission model was developed utilizing age-specific Bamako demographic data and hospital surveillance data for iNTS disease in children aged <5 years and assuming vaccine coverage and efficacy similar to the existing, successfully implemented, Hib vaccine. Annual iNTS hospitalizations and deaths in children <5 years, with and without a Salmonella Enteritidis/Salmonella Typhimurium vaccine, were the model's outcomes of interest. Per the model, high coverage/high efficacy iNTS vaccination programs would drastically diminish iNTS disease except among infants age <8 weeks.The public health impact of NTS vaccination shifts as disease burden, vaccine coverage, and serovar distribution vary. Our model shows that implementing an iNTS vaccine through an analogous strategy to the Hib vaccination program in Bamako would markedly reduce cases and deaths due to iNTS among the pediatric population. The model can be adjusted for

  7. Non-typhoidal salmonella (NTS) bacteraemia in Malawian adults: a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Non-typhoidal salmonella (NTS) bacteraemia is a common, recurrent illness in HIV-infected African adults. We aimed to describe the presentation and outcome of NTS bacteraemia, the pattern of recurrence, and to determine whether recurrence results from re‑infection or recrudescence. 100 consecutive adult inpatients ...

  8. A decline in the incidence of invasive non-typhoidal Salmonella infection in The Gambia temporally associated with a decline in malaria infection.

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    Grant Mackenzie

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Malaria is a risk factor for invasive non-typhoidal Salmonella (NTS infection in children. In the last 10 years, indices of malaria infection in The Gambia have fallen substantially.We compared temporal trends of childhood malaria and NTS infection in two Gambian locations. In Fajara, on the coast, the incidence of NTS infection at three time points between 1979 and 2005 was compared to the percentage of malaria positive outpatient thick blood films and the percentage of admissions associated with malaria over time. In Basse, in the eastern part of the country, the incidence of NTS infection at three time points between 1989 and 2008 was compared to the prevalence of malaria parasitaemia at four time points between 1992 and 2008.The estimated incidence of NTS infection in Fajara fell from 60 (1979-1984 to 10 (2003-05 cases per 100,000 person years. The proportion of outpatients in Fajara with suspected malaria who were parasitaemic fell from 33% (1999 to 6% (2007 while the proportion of admissions associated with malaria fell from 14.5% (1999 to 5% (2007. In Basse, the estimated incidence of NTS infection fell from 105 (1989-1991 to 29 (2008 cases per 100,000 person years while the prevalence of malaria parasitaemia fell from 45% (1992 to 10% (2008. The incidence of pneumococcal bacteraemia in Fajara and Basse did not fall over the study period.These data support an association between malaria and NTS infection. Reductions in malaria infection may be associated with reduced rates of invasive childhood NTS infection.

  9. Invasive Non-typhoidal Salmonella Infections in Asia: Clinical Observations, Disease Outcome and Dominant Serovars from an Infectious Disease Hospital in Vietnam.

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    Nguyen Phu Huong Lan

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Invasive non-typhoidal Salmonella (iNTS infections are now a well-described cause of morbidity and mortality in children and HIV-infected adults in sub-Saharan Africa. In contrast, the epidemiology and clinical manifestations of iNTS disease in Asia are not well documented. We retrospectively identified >100 cases of iNTS infections in an infectious disease hospital in Southern Vietnam between 2008 and 2013. Clinical records were accessed to evaluate demographic and clinical factors associated with iNTS infection and to identify risk factors associated with death. Multi-locus sequence typing and antimicrobial susceptibility testing was performed on all organisms. Of 102 iNTS patients, 71% were HIV-infected, >90% were adults, 71% were male and 33% reported intravenous drug use. Twenty-six/92 (28% patients with a known outcome died; HIV infection was significantly associated with death (p = 0.039. S. Enteritidis (Sequence Types (ST11 (48%, 43/89 and S. Typhimurium (ST19, 34 and 1544 (26%, 23/89 were the most commonly identified serovars; S. Typhimurium was significantly more common in HIV-infected individuals (p = 0.003. Isolates from HIV-infected patients were more likely to exhibit reduced susceptibility against trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole than HIV-negative patients (p = 0.037. We conclude that iNTS disease is a severe infection in Vietnam with a high mortality rate. As in sub-Saharan Africa, HIV infection was a risk factor for death, with the majority of the burden in this population found in HIV-infected adult men.

  10. Antimicrobial resistance in invasive non-typhoid Salmonella from the Democratic Republic of the Congo: emergence of decreased fluoroquinolone susceptibility and extended-spectrum beta lactamases.

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    Octavie Lunguya

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Co-resistance against the first-line antibiotics ampicillin, chloramphenicol and trimethoprim/sulphamethoxazole or multidrug resistance (MDR is common in non typhoid Salmonella (NTS. Use of alternative antibiotics, such as fluoroquinolones or third generation cephalosporins is threatened by increasing resistance, but remains poorly documented in Central-Africa. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: As part of a microbiological surveillance study in DR Congo, blood cultures were collected between 2007 and 2011. Isolated NTS were assessed for serotype and antimicrobial resistance including decreased ciprofloxacin susceptibility and extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL production. In total, 233 NTS isolates (representing 23.6% of clinically significant organisms were collected, mainly consisting of Salmonella Typhimurium (79% and Salmonella Enteritidis (18%. The majority of NTS were isolated in the rainy season, and recovered from children ≤2 years old. MDR, decreased ciprofloxacin susceptibility, azithromycin and cefotaxime resistance were 80.7%, 4.3%, 3.0% and 2.1% respectively. ESBL production was noted in three (1.3% isolates. Decreased ciprofloxacin susceptibility was associated with mutations in codon 87 of the gyrA gene, while ESBLs all belonged to the SHV-2a type. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Presence of almost full MDR among NTS isolates from blood cultures in Central Africa was confirmed. Resistance to fluoroquinolones, azithromycin and third generation cephalosporins is still low, but emerging. Increased microbiological surveillance in DR Congo is crucial for adapted antibiotic therapy and the development of treatment guidelines.

  11. Modelling the Contributions of Malaria, HIV, Malnutrition and Rainfall to the Decline in Paediatric Invasive Non-typhoidal Salmonella Disease in Malawi.

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    Nicholas A Feasey

    Full Text Available Nontyphoidal Salmonellae (NTS are responsible for a huge burden of bloodstream infection in Sub-Saharan African children. Recent reports of a decline in invasive NTS (iNTS disease from Kenya and The Gambia have emphasised an association with malaria control. Following a similar decline in iNTS disease in Malawi, we have used 9 years of continuous longitudinal data to model the interrelationships between iNTS disease, malaria, HIV and malnutrition.Trends in monthly numbers of childhood iNTS disease presenting at Queen's Hospital, Blantyre, Malawi from 2002 to 2010 were reviewed in the context of longitudinal monthly data describing malaria slide-positivity among paediatric febrile admissions, paediatric HIV prevalence, nutritional rehabilitation unit admissions and monthly rainfall over the same 9 years, using structural equation models (SEM.Analysis of 3,105 iNTS episodes identified from 49,093 blood cultures, showed an 11.8% annual decline in iNTS (p < 0.001. SEM analysis produced a stable model with good fit, revealing direct and statistically significant seasonal effects of malaria and malnutrition on the prevalence of iNTS disease. When these data were smoothed to eliminate seasonal cyclic changes, these associations remained strong and there were additional significant effects of HIV prevalence.These data suggest that the overall decline in iNTS disease observed in Malawi is attributable to multiple public health interventions leading to reductions in malaria, HIV and acute malnutrition. Understanding the impacts of public health programmes on iNTS disease is essential to plan and evaluate interventions.

  12. Third-Generation Cephalosporin-Resistant Non-Typhoidal Salmonella Isolated from Human Feces in Japan.

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    Saito, Satomi; Koori, Yoshio; Ohsaki, Yusuke; Osaka, Shunsuke; Oana, Kozue; Nagano, Yukiko; Arakawa, Yoshichika; Nagano, Noriyuki

    2017-05-24

    β-lactamase genes were detected and characterized from 10 non-typhoidal Salmonella (NTS) clinical isolates resistant to third-generation cephalosporins collected between 2012 and 2014 in Japan. Five strains showed cefotaxime minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) ≥ 64 μg/ml and positive clavulanic acid inhibition results. The bla CTX-M-2 was detected in 3 strains (serotypes Stanley and Muenchen), whereas bla TEM-52 (serotype Manhattan) and bla SHV-12 (serotype Infantis) were each found in 1 strain. bla CMY-2 was detected in the remaining 5 strains (serotypes Infantis, Rissen, Newport, and Saintpaul) with cefotaxime MICs of 4-32 μg/ml and positive cloxacillin- and 3-aminophenylboronic acid- based inhibition tests. ISEcp1 was located upstream of the bla CMY-2 in 4 strains and of the bla CTX-M-2 in 1 strain. Incompatibility (Inc)A/C, IncP, and IncI1 plasmids were present in the strains harboring bla CMY-2 , which were detected predominantly in this study. Acquisition of resistance to third-generation cephalosporins by invasive NTS may limit therapeutic options for severe systemic infections and causing serious public health problems. Though such resistant clinical isolates are still rare in Salmonella species in Japan, our findings reveal the presence of cephem-resistant NTS in food handlers, thus emphasizing the necessity of more systematic nationwide investigations.

  13. Non-typhoidal Salmonella and Campylobacter infections among HIV-positive patients in Denmark

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    Larsen, I.K.; Gradel, Kim Oren; Helms, M.

    2011-01-01

    Non-typhoidal Salmonella (NTS) and Campylobacter are common causes of diarrhoea in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-positive patients. To investigate if incidence has changed since the introduction of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART), we combined data from The Danish Surveillance Re...... population. Moreover our study suggests that there is an increased incidence of Campylobacter-related illness among homosexual men in the HIV-positive population....

  14. Non-typhoid Salmonella bacteraemia in Greater Copenhagen 1984 to 1988

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    Lester, Anne; Eriksen, N H; Nielsen, H

    1991-01-01

    A retrospective survey of non-typhoid Salmonella bacteraemia in the period 1984 to 1988 was carried out by the five departments of clinical microbiology in Greater Copenhagen. A total of 168 patients were identified. A gradual increase was observed from 11 cases in 1984 to 58 cases in 1988....... The corresponding incidence per 100,000 inhabitants in Copenhagen rose from 0.9 in 1984 to 5.0 in 1988. During the same period the total registered incidence of human Salmonella infections in Denmark increased from 17.6 to 67.4 per 100,000 inhabitants. The serotype most often isolated from bacteraemic patients...

  15. Epidemiology of Non-Typhoidal Salmonella (NTS in Humans and Animals in the Gambia and Senegal

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    Dione, M.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Non-Typhoidal Salmonella (NTS species are important food-borne pathogens. Although acute gastroenteritis is the most common clinical symptom, complications can occur resulting in bacteraemia with or without focal infections. Food products, especially food of animal origin such as poultry are associated with the transmission to humans. In Africa, NTS are among the most common cause of bloodstream infections in children younger than 5 years. Epidemiological data on NTS are lacking in Africa both for human and animal infections. Therefore, a study providing a better understanding of the factors that lead to the emergence of NTS is a prerequisite for the design of improved intervention strategies to control these pathogens. The aim of this thesis was to study the epidemiology of NTS pathogens in humans and animals in The Gambia and Senegal. Chapter 1 reviews the current status of knowledge on NTS infections in Africa with focus on The Gambia and Senegal. It also provides the background against which these studies were conducted. Chapter 2 describes the prevalence of NTS along the poultry production chain in Casamance, Senegal. Fifty seven randomly selected broiler farms, 42 street restaurants and 285 chicken carcasses were studied. The following farm prevalences were reported: 35.1, 38.6 and 29.8% in chicken faeces, on carcass skin, and in muscles, respectively. NTS were found in chicken meat servings of 14.3% of the 42 street restaurants and in 40.4% of the 285 chicken carcasses examined. The most prevalent serotypes among the eighteen identified were Salmonella Brancaster (57.9%, Salmonella Goelzau (10.7%, Salmonella Kentucky (8.4%, and Salmonella Hadar (7.3%. The following serotypes were for the first time identified in Senegal: Salmonella Bandia, Salmonella Bessi, Salmonella Brunei, Salmonella Hull, Salmonella Istanbul, Salmonella Javiana, Salmonella Magherafelt, Salmonella Molade, Salmonella oxford, Salmonella Poona, Salmonella Rubislaw

  16. Non-typhoidal Salmonella isolates from livestock and food samples, in and around Kolkata, India

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    Sudhanthiramani Sudhanthirakodi, Priyanka Jain, Utpal Kumar Chattopadhyay, Shanta Dutta

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Non-typhoidal Salmonella (NTS is a major foodborne pathogen in both developed and developing countries. The study was undertaken to determine the prevalence, serotype distribution and antimicrobial resistance profiles of NTS isolates from livestock and food samples collected in and around Kolkata during 2012-2013. Materials and methods: A total of 500 samples (animal, poultry and raw food from 12 different places randomly collected in and around Kolkata were processed as per standard procedures and analyzed for NTS. Serotyping of the isolates was done followed by determination of antimicrobial resistance profiles and Minimum inhibitory concentrations following disc diffusion and E-test methods. Results: A total of 53 (10.6% NTS isolates were recovered, with highest isolation from chicken (40%, followed by beef and poultry cloacal samples (22% each. Total 11 Salmonella serovars were identified with predominance of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium (S. Typhimurium (30.2% followed by S. Kentucky (22.6%, S. Idikan (15.1% and other serovars. This is the first report of isolation of S. Idikan from India. Thirty-two (60.4% isolates were pan susceptible to all drugs tested. Percentage distribution of resistant NTS against antimicrobials were: nalidixic acid (24.5%, ampicillin (17%, amoxicillin (17%, streptomycin (15.1%, tetracycline (11.3%, chloramphenicol (9.4%, co-trimoxazole (9.4% and ciprofloxacin (5.7%. Only one isolate (S. Senftenberg was resistant to both fluroquinolones and third generation cephalosporins. Multidrug resistance (≥3 classes of antimicrobials was observed in 13.2% NTS isolates. Conclusion: High prevalence of NTS in poultry and meat samples in Kolkata poses a potential risk of foodborne disease in humans. J Microbiol Infect Dis 2016;6(3: 113-120

  17. Diversity and Antimicrobial Resistance Genotypes in Non-Typhoidal Salmonella Isolates from Poultry Farms in Uganda

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    Terence Odoch

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Non-typhoidal Salmonella (NTS are foodborne pathogens of global public health significance. The aim of this study was to subtype a collection of 85 NTS originating from poultry farms in Uganda, and to evaluate a subgroup of phenotypically resistant isolates for common antimicrobial resistance genes and associated integrons. All isolates were subtyped by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE. Phenotypically resistant isolates (n = 54 were screened by PCR for the most relevant AMR genes corresponding to their phenotypic resistance pattern, and all 54 isolates were screened by PCR for the presence of integron class 1 and 2 encoding genes. These genes are known to commonly encode resistance to ampicillin, tetracycline, ciprofloxacin, trimethoprim, sulfonamide and chloramphenicol. PFGE revealed 15 pulsotypes representing 11 serotypes from 75 isolates, as 10 were non-typable. Thirty one (57.4% of the 54 resistant isolates carried at least one of the seven genes (blaTEM-1, cmlA, tetA, qnrS, sul1, dhfrI, dhfrVII identified by PCR and six (11% carried class 1 integrons. This study has shown that a diversity of NTS-clones are present in Ugandan poultry farm settings, while at the same time similar NTS-clones occur in different farms and areas. The presence of resistance genes to important antimicrobials used in human and veterinary medicine has been demonstrated, hence the need to strengthen strategies to combat antimicrobial resistance at all levels.

  18. Non-Typhoidal Salmonella Colonization in Chickens and Humans in the Mekong Delta of Vietnam.

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    Trung, N V; Carrique-Mas, J J; Nghia, N H; Tu, L T P; Mai, H H; Tuyen, H T; Campbell, J; Nhung, N T; Nhung, H N; Minh, P V; Chieu, T T B; Hieu, T Q; Mai, N T N; Baker, S; Wagenaar, J A; Hoa, N T; Schultsz, C

    2017-03-01

    Salmonellosis is a public health concern in both the developed and developing countries. Although the majority of human non-typhoidal Salmonella enterica (NTS) cases are the result of foodborne infections or person-to-person transmission, NTS infections may also be acquired by environmental and occupational exposure to animals. While a considerable number of studies have investigated the presence of NTS in farm animals and meat/carcasses, very few studies have investigated the risk of NTS colonization in humans as a result of direct animal exposure. We investigated asymptomatic NTS colonization in 204 backyard chicken farms, 204 farmers and 306 matched individuals not exposed to chicken farming, in southern Vietnam. Pooled chicken faeces, collected using boot or handheld swabs on backyard chicken farms, and rectal swabs from human participants were tested. NTS colonization prevalence was 45.6%, 4.4% and 2.6% for chicken farms, farmers and unexposed individuals, respectively. Our study observed a higher prevalence of NTS colonization among chicken farmers (4.4%) compared with age-, sex- and location- matched rural and urban individuals not exposed to chickens (2.9% and 2.0%). A total of 164 chicken NTS strains and 17 human NTS strains were isolated, and 28 serovars were identified. Salmonella Weltevreden was the predominant serovar in both chickens and humans. NTS isolates showed resistance (20-40%) against tetracycline, chloramphenicol, sulfamethoxazole-trimethoprim and ampicillin. Our study reflects the epidemiology of NTS colonization in chickens and humans in the Mekong delta of Vietnam and emphasizes the need of larger, preferably longitudinal studies to study the transmission dynamics of NTS between and within animal and human host populations. © 2016 The Authors. Zoonoses and Public Health Published by Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  19. Emerging nalidixic acid and ciprofloxacin resistance in non-typhoidal Salmonella isolated from patients having acute diarrhoeal disease

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    Panhotra, B.R.; Saxena, A.K.; Al-Arabi, Ali M.

    2004-01-01

    Non-typhoidal Salmonella are one of the key etiological agents of diarrhoeal disease. The appearence of multiple drung resistance along with resistance to quinolones in this bacterium poses a serious therapeutic problem. We determined the prevalence of nalidixic acid and ciprofloxacin resistance in non-typhodial Salmonella isolated from faecal samples of patients with acute diarroheal disease attending the outpatient and inpatient department of a hospital in Saudi Arabia during the years 1999 to 2002. Non-typhodial Salmonella were isolated from faecal samples. Antimicrobial susceptibility was tested by the disc diffusion test. MICs to nalidixic acid and ciprofloxacinwere determined by the agar dilution method. During the study period , 524 strains of non-typhoidal Salmonella were isolated. Strains belonging to serogroup C1were the commonest (41.4%) followed by serogroups B and D (15.6% and 14.5%, respectively). Resistance to ampicillin was observed in 22.9% and to trimethoprim/sulphamethoxazole in 18.5%of the strains. Nalidixic acid resistance was encounterd in 9.9% and ciprofloxacin esistance in 2.3% of the strains. Resistance to nalidixic acid significantly increased from 0.1% in 1999 to 5.51% in 2002 ( p=0.0007)and ciprofloxacin resistance increased significantly from 0.1% in 1999 to 0.9% in 2002( p=0.0001). MICs to nalidixic acid and ciprofloxacin were determined among 29 nalidixic acid-resistant strains of non-typhoidal salmonella isolated during 2002. The MIC was >256 ug /ml to nalidixic acid and 8 to 16 ug/ml to ciprofloxacin. The increasing rate of antimicrobial resistance encountered among non-tyophoidal Salmonella necessiate the judicious use of these drugs in humans. Moreover, these findings support the concern that the use of quinolones in animal feed may lead to an increasein resistance and should should be restricted. (author)

  20. High occurrence and unusual serotype diversity of non-typhoidal Salmonella in non-clinical niches, Angola.

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    Antunes, P; Campos, J; Mourão, J; Ribeiro, T G; Novais, C; Peixe, L

    2017-04-01

    Non-typhoidal Salmonella is an important burden, particularly in developing countries of the African region. We report for the first time in Angola, a sub-Saharan African country with commercial/travel relationships with Europe, an unexpectedly high occurrence of Salmonella (n = 12/63, 19%) from a high diversity of sources, particularly farm and wild animals. The detection of diverse serotypes (n = 12), involving putative new S. enterica subsp. salamae serotypes, is also of note, reinforcing the need for a comprehensive surveillance in Angola critical to identify animal/food/environmental sources of salmonellosis with impact on animal health, local people, tourists and exported products.

  1. Resistance to Carbapenems in Non-Typhoidal Salmonella enterica Serovars from Humans, Animals and Food.

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    Fernández, Javier; Guerra, Beatriz; Rodicio, M Rosario

    2018-04-08

    Non-typhoidal serovars of Salmonella enterica (NTS) are a leading cause of food-borne disease in animals and humans worldwide. Like other zoonotic bacteria, NTS have the potential to act as reservoirs and vehicles for the transmission of antimicrobial drug resistance in different settings. Of particular concern is the resistance to critical "last resort" antimicrobials, such as carbapenems. In contrast to other Enterobacteriaceae (e.g., Klebsiella pneumoniae , Escherichia coli , and Enterobacter , which are major nosocomial pathogens affecting debilitated and immunocompromised patients), carbapenem resistance is still very rare in NTS. Nevertheless, it has already been detected in isolates recovered from humans, companion animals, livestock, wild animals, and food. Five carbapenemases with major clinical importance-namely KPC ( Klebsiella pneumoniae carbapenemase) (class A), IMP (imipenemase), NDM (New Delhi metallo-β-lactamase), VIM (Verona integron-encoded metallo-β-lactamase) (class B), and OXA-48 (oxacillinase, class D)-have been reported in NTS. Carbapenem resistance due to the production of extended spectrum- or AmpC β-lactamases combined with porin loss has also been detected in NTS. Horizontal gene transfer of carbapenemase-encoding genes (which are frequently located on self-transferable plasmids), together with co- and cross-selective adaptations, could have been involved in the development of carbapenem resistance by NTS. Once acquired by a zoonotic bacterium, resistance can be transmitted from humans to animals and from animals to humans through the food chain. Continuous surveillance of resistance to these "last resort" antibiotics is required to establish possible links between reservoirs and to limit the bidirectional transfer of the encoding genes between S. enterica and other commensal or pathogenic bacteria.

  2. Prediction of Phenotypic Antimicrobial Resistance Profiles From Whole Genome Sequences of Non-typhoidal Salmonella enterica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neuert, Saskia; Nair, Satheesh; Day, Martin R; Doumith, Michel; Ashton, Philip M; Mellor, Kate C; Jenkins, Claire; Hopkins, Katie L; Woodford, Neil; de Pinna, Elizabeth; Godbole, Gauri; Dallman, Timothy J

    2018-01-01

    Surveillance of antimicrobial resistance (AMR) in non-typhoidal Salmonella enterica (NTS), is essential for monitoring transmission of resistance from the food chain to humans, and for establishing effective treatment protocols. We evaluated the prediction of phenotypic resistance in NTS from genotypic profiles derived from whole genome sequencing (WGS). Genes and chromosomal mutations responsible for phenotypic resistance were sought in WGS data from 3,491 NTS isolates received by Public Health England's Gastrointestinal Bacteria Reference Unit between April 2014 and March 2015. Inferred genotypic AMR profiles were compared with phenotypic susceptibilities determined for fifteen antimicrobials using EUCAST guidelines. Discrepancies between phenotypic and genotypic profiles for one or more antimicrobials were detected for 76 isolates (2.18%) although only 88/52,365 (0.17%) isolate/antimicrobial combinations were discordant. Of the discrepant results, the largest number were associated with streptomycin (67.05%, n = 59). Pan-susceptibility was observed in 2,190 isolates (62.73%). Overall, resistance to tetracyclines was most common (26.27% of isolates, n = 917) followed by sulphonamides (23.72%, n = 828) and ampicillin (21.43%, n = 748). Multidrug resistance (MDR), i.e., resistance to three or more antimicrobial classes, was detected in 848 isolates (24.29%) with resistance to ampicillin, streptomycin, sulphonamides and tetracyclines being the most common MDR profile ( n = 231; 27.24%). For isolates with this profile, all but one were S . Typhimurium and 94.81% ( n = 219) had the resistance determinants bla TEM-1, strA-strB, sul2 and tet (A). Extended-spectrum β-lactamase genes were identified in 41 isolates (1.17%) and multiple mutations in chromosomal genes associated with ciprofloxacin resistance in 82 isolates (2.35%). This study showed that WGS is suitable as a rapid means of determining AMR patterns of NTS for public health surveillance.

  3. Role of T3SS-1 SipD Protein in Protecting Mice against Non-typhoidal Salmonella Typhimurium.

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    Jneid, Bakhos; Moreau, Karine; Plaisance, Marc; Rouaix, Audrey; Dano, Julie; Simon, Stéphanie

    2016-12-01

    Salmonella enterica species are enteric pathogens that cause severe diseases ranging from self-limiting gastroenteritis to enteric fever and sepsis in humans. These infectious diseases are still the major cause of morbidity and mortality in low-income countries, especially in children younger than 5 years and immunocompromised adults. Vaccines targeting typhoidal diseases are already marketed, but none protect against non-typhoidal Salmonella. The existence of multiple non-typhoidal Salmonella serotypes as well as emerging antibiotic resistance highlight the need for development of a broad-spectrum protective vaccine. All Salmonella spp. utilize two type III Secretion Systems (T3SS 1 and 2) to initiate infection, allow replication in phagocytic cells and induce systemic disease. T3SS-1, which is essential to invade epithelial cells and cross the barrier, forms an extracellular needle and syringe necessary to inject effector proteins into the host cell. PrgI and SipD form, respectively, the T3SS-1 needle and the tip complex at the top of the needle. Because they are common and highly conserved in all virulent Salmonella spp., they might be ideal candidate antigens for a subunit-based, broad-spectrum vaccine. We investigated the immunogenicity and protective efficacy of PrgI and SipD administered by subcutaneous, intranasal and oral routes, alone or combined, in a mouse model of Salmonella intestinal challenge. Robust IgG (in all immunization routes) and IgA (in intranasal and oral immunization routes) antibody responses were induced against both proteins, particularly SipD. Mice orally immunized with SipD alone or SipD combined with PrgI were protected against lethal intestinal challenge with Salmonella Typhimurium (100 Lethal Dose 50%) depending on antigen, route and adjuvant. Salmonella T3SS SipD is a promising antigen for the development of a protective Salmonella vaccine, and could be developed for vaccination in tropical endemic areas to control infant

  4. A Comparison of Non-Typhoidal Salmonella from Humans and Food Animals Using Pulsed-Field Gel Electrophoresis and Antimicrobial Susceptibility Patterns

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    Sandt, Carol H.; Fedorka-Cray, Paula J.; Tewari, Deepanker; Ostroff, Stephen; Joyce, Kevin; M’ikanatha, Nkuchia M.

    2013-01-01

    Salmonellosis is one of the most important foodborne diseases affecting humans. To characterize the relationship between Salmonella causing human infections and their food animal reservoirs, we compared pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) and antimicrobial susceptibility patterns of non-typhoidal Salmonella isolated from ill humans in Pennsylvania and from food animals before retail. Human clinical isolates were received from 2005 through 2011 during routine public health operations in Pennsylvania. Isolates from cattle, chickens, swine and turkeys were recovered during the same period from federally inspected slaughter and processing facilities in the northeastern United States. We found that subtyping Salmonella isolates by PFGE revealed differences in antimicrobial susceptibility patterns and, for human Salmonella, differences in sources and invasiveness that were not evident from serotyping alone. Sixteen of the 20 most common human Salmonella PFGE patterns were identified in Salmonella recovered from food animals. The most common human Salmonella PFGE pattern, Enteritidis pattern JEGX01.0004 (JEGX01.0003ARS), was associated with more cases of invasive salmonellosis than all other patterns. In food animals, this pattern was almost exclusively (99%) found in Salmonella recovered from chickens and was present in poultry meat in every year of the study. Enteritidis pattern JEGX01.0004 (JEGX01.0003ARS) was associated with susceptibility to all antimicrobial agents tested in 94.7% of human and 97.2% of food animal Salmonella isolates. In contrast, multidrug resistance (resistance to three or more classes of antimicrobial agents) was observed in five PFGE patterns. Typhimurium patterns JPXX01.0003 (JPXX01.0003 ARS) and JPXX01.0018 (JPXX01.0002 ARS), considered together, were associated with resistance to five or more classes of antimicrobial agents: ampicillin, chloramphenicol, streptomycin, sulfonamides and tetracycline (ACSSuT), in 92% of human and 80% of food

  5. The association between malaria and non-typhoid Salmonella bacteraemia in children in sub-Saharan Africa: a literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takem, Ebako Ndip; Roca, Anna; Cunnington, Aubrey

    2014-10-13

    Plasmodium falciparum malaria and non-typhoid Salmonella (NTS) bacteraemia are both major causes of morbidity and mortality in children in sub-Saharan Africa. Co-infections are expected to occur because of their overlapping geographical distribution, but accumulating evidence indicates that malaria is a risk factor for NTS bacteraemia. A literature review was undertaken to provide an overview of the evidence available for this association, the epidemiology of malaria-NTS co-infection (including the highest risk groups), the underlying mechanisms, and the clinical consequences of this association, in children in sub-Saharan Africa. The burden of malaria-NTS co-infection is highest in young children (especially those less than three years old). Malaria is one of the risk factors for NTS bacteraemia in children, and the risk is higher with severe malaria, especially severe malarial anaemia. There is insufficient evidence to determine whether asymptomatic parasitaemia is a risk factor for NTS bacteraemia. Many mechanisms have been proposed to explain how malaria causes susceptibility to NTS, ranging from macrophage dysfunction to increased gut permeability, but the most consistent evidence is that malarial haemolysis creates conditions which favour bacterial growth, by increasing iron availability and by impairing neutrophil function. Few discriminatory clinical features have been described for those with malaria and NTS co-infection, except for a higher risk of anaemia compared to those with either infection alone. Children with malaria and NTS bacteraemia co-infection have higher case fatality rates compared to those with malaria alone, and similar to those with bacteraemia alone. Antimicrobial resistance is becoming widespread in invasive NTS serotypes, making empirical treatment problematic, and increasing the need for prevention measures. Observational studies indicate that interventions to reduce malaria transmission might also have a substantial impact on

  6. Transient Loss of Protection Afforded by a Live Attenuated Non-typhoidal Salmonella Vaccine in Mice Co-infected with Malaria.

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    Jason P Mooney

    Full Text Available In immunocompetent individuals, non-typhoidal Salmonella serovars (NTS are associated with gastroenteritis, however, there is currently an epidemic of NTS bloodstream infections in sub-Saharan Africa. Plasmodium falciparum malaria is an important risk factor for invasive NTS bloodstream in African children. Here we investigated whether a live, attenuated Salmonella vaccine could be protective in mice, in the setting of concurrent malaria. Surprisingly, mice acutely infected with the nonlethal malaria parasite Plasmodium yoelii 17XNL exhibited a profound loss of protective immunity to NTS, but vaccine-mediated protection was restored after resolution of malaria. Absence of protective immunity during acute malaria correlated with maintenance of antibodies to NTS, but a marked reduction in effector capability of Salmonella-specific CD4 and CD8 T cells. Further, increased expression of the inhibitory molecule PD1 was identified on memory CD4 T cells induced by vaccination. Blockade of IL-10 restored protection against S. Typhimurium, without restoring CD4 T cell effector function. Simultaneous blockade of CTLA-4, LAG3, and PDL1 restored IFN-γ production by vaccine-induced memory CD4 T cells but was not sufficient to restore protection. Together, these data demonstrate that malaria parasite infection induces a temporary loss of an established adaptive immune response via multiple mechanisms, and suggest that in the setting of acute malaria, protection against NTS mediated by live vaccines may be interrupted.

  7. The epidemiology of non-typhoidal Salmonella gastroenteritis and Campylobacter gastroenteritis in pediatric inpatients in northern Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tseng, Chien-Fang; Chiu, Nan-Chang; Huang, Ching-Ying; Huang, Daniel Tsung-Ning; Chang, Lung; Kung, Yen-Hsin; Huang, Fu-Yuan; Chi, Hsin

    2017-09-27

    Campylobacter and Non-typhoidal Salmonella (NTS) are the two most common bacterial pathogens associated with acute gastroenteritis in children. This study aims to elucidate the epidemiology of Campylobacter and NTS gastroenteritis and develop a scoring system to differentiate them. This retrospective study enrolled 886 children ≤18 years of age, hospitalized due to acute gastroenteritis with stool culture-proven Campylobacter or NTS infection from July 2012 to December 2015. Pearson's chi-square test and multivariate logistic regression were used to compare clinical manifestations and laboratory data. Receiver operating characteristic curves were plotted to evaluate the scoring system. Seasonality was found in NTS gastroenteritis from May to September, but no seasonality in Campylobacter gastroenteritis. Campylobacter jejuni and Salmonella serogroup B were the most common pathogens. The median ages were 68.2 and 18.5 months and the incidence rates of bacteremia were 0.6% and 7.1% in the Campylobacter and NTS groups, respectively. Salmonella serogroup C2 infection had the highest risk of bacteremia (OR: 5.9, 95% CI: 2.8-12.7, p Campylobacter gastroenteritis, with sensitivity 75%, specificity 77%. The positive and negative predictive values were of 73.3% and 93.9% after validation. Campylobacter gastroenteritis is associated with older age and male sex, while NTS gastroenteritis is associated with moderate to severe dehydration and bacteremia. Salmonella serogroup C2 infection has the highest risk of bacteremia. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  8. Using next generation sequencing to tackle non-typhoidal Salmonella infections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wain, John; Keddy, Karen H.; Hendriksen, Rene S.

    2013-01-01

    The publication of studies using next generation sequencing to analyse large numbers of bacterial isolates from global epidemics is transforming microbiology, epidemiology and public health. The emergence of multidrug resistant Salmonella Typhimurium ST313 is one example. While the epidemiology...

  9. Prevalence of antimicrobial resistance of non-typhoidal Salmonella serovars in retail aquaculture products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jianmin; Yang, Xiaowei; Kuang, Dai; Shi, Xianming; Xiao, Wenjia; Zhang, Jing; Gu, Zhen; Xu, Xuebin; Meng, Jianghong

    2015-10-01

    Aquaculture products can become sources of Salmonella by exposure to contaminated water or through processing practices, thus representing a public health hazard. A study was conducted on Salmonella contamination in aquaculture products sampled from marketplaces and retailers in Shanghai, China. A total of 730 samples (including fish, shellfish, bullfrog, clam, shrimp and others) were obtained from 2006 to 2011. Among them, 217 (29.7%) were positive for Salmonella. Thirty-eight serovars were identified in the 217 Salmonella isolates. The most prevalent were Salmonella Aberdeen (18.4%), S. Wandsworth (12.0%), S. Thompson (9.2%), S. Singapore (5.5%), S. Stanley (4.6%), S. Schwarzengrund (4.6%), S. Hvittingfoss (4.1%) and S. Typhimurium (4.1%). Many resistant isolates were detected, with 69.6% resistant to at least one antimicrobial drug. We observed high resistance to sulfonamides (56.5%), tetracycline (34.1%), streptomycin (28.6%), ampicillin (23.5%) and nalidixic acid (21.2%). Lower levels of resistance were found for gentamicin (3.2%), ciprofloxacin (2.3%), ceftiofur (1.3%), cefotaxime (0.9%), ceftazidime (0.5%) and cefepime (0.5%). A total of 43.3% of the Salmonella isolates were multidrug-resistant and 44 different resistance patterns were found. This study provided data on the prevalence, serovars and antimicrobial resistance of Salmonella from retail aquaculture products in Shanghai, and indicated the need for monitoring programs for microbiologic safety in such projects and for more prudent drug use in aquaculture production in order to reduce the risk of development and spread of antimicrobial resistance. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Genomic Comparison of Non-Typhoidal Salmonella enterica Serovars Typhimurium, Enteritidis, Heidelberg, Hadar and Kentucky Isolates from Broiler Chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhanani, Akhilesh S; Block, Glenn; Dewar, Ken; Forgetta, Vincenzo; Topp, Edward; Beiko, Robert G; Diarra, Moussa S

    2015-01-01

    Non-typhoidal Salmonella enterica serovars, associated with different foods including poultry products, are important causes of bacterial gastroenteritis worldwide. The colonization of the chicken gut by S. enterica could result in the contamination of the environment and food chain. The aim of this study was to compare the genomes of 25 S. enterica serovars isolated from broiler chicken farms to assess their intra- and inter-genetic variability, with a focus on virulence and antibiotic resistance characteristics. The genomes of 25 S. enterica isolates covering five serovars (ten Typhimurium including three monophasic 4,[5],12:i:, four Enteritidis, three Hadar, four Heidelberg and four Kentucky) were sequenced. Most serovars were clustered in strongly supported phylogenetic clades, except for isolates of serovar Enteritidis that were scattered throughout the tree. Plasmids of varying sizes were detected in several isolates independently of serovars. Genes associated with the IncF plasmid and the IncI1 plasmid were identified in twelve and four isolates, respectively, while genes associated with the IncQ plasmid were found in one isolate. The presence of numerous genes associated with Salmonella pathogenicity islands (SPIs) was also confirmed. Components of the type III and IV secretion systems (T3SS and T4SS) varied in different isolates, which could explain in part, differences of their pathogenicity in humans and/or persistence in broilers. Conserved clusters of genes in the T3SS were detected that could be used in designing effective strategies (diagnostic, vaccination or treatments) to combat Salmonella. Antibiotic resistance genes (CMY, aadA, ampC, florR, sul1, sulI, tetAB, and srtA) and class I integrons were detected in resistant isolates while all isolates carried multidrug efflux pump systems regardless of their antibiotic susceptibility profile. This study showed that the predominant Salmonella serovars in broiler chickens harbor genes encoding adhesins

  11. Systemic bacteraemia in children presenting with clinical pneumonia and the impact of non-typhoid salmonella (NTS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwarz, Norbert G; Sarpong, Nimako; Hünger, Frank; Marks, Florian; Acquah, Samuel Ek; Agyekum, Alex; Nkrumah, Bernard; Loag, Wibke; Hagen, Ralf M; Evans, Jennifer A; Dekker, Denise; Fobil, Julius N; Meyer, Christian G; May, Jürgen; Adu-Sarkodie, Yaw

    2010-11-04

    The diagnosis and antimicrobial treatment of pneumonia in African children in the absence of diagnostic means such as x-ray facilities or microbiological laboratories relies primarily on clinical symptoms presented by the patients. In order to assess the spectrum of bacterial pathogens, blood cultures were performed in children fulfilling the clinical criteria of pneumonia. In total, 1032 blood cultures were taken from children between 2 months and 5 years of age who were admitted to a rural hospital in Ghana between September 2007 and July 2009. Pneumonia was diagnosed clinically and according to WHO criteria classified as "non-severe pneumonia" and "severe pneumonia" ("severe pneumonia" includes the WHO categories "severe pneumonia" and "very severe pneumonia"). The proportion of bacteriaemia with non-typhoid salmonella (NTS) was similar in children with pneumonia (16/173, 9.2%) compared to children hospitalized for other reasons (112/859, 13%). NTS were the predominant organisms isolated from children with clinical pneumonia and significantly more frequent than Streptococcus pneumoniae (8/173, 4.6%). Nine percent (9/101) of children presenting with severe pneumonia and 10% (7/72) of children with non-severe pneumonia were infected with NTS. Nineteen out of 123 NTS isolates (15%) were susceptible to aminopenicillins (amoxycillin/ampicillin), 23/127 (18%) to chlorampenicol, and 23/98 (23%) to co-trimoxazole. All NTS isolates were sensitive to ceftriaxone and ciprofloxacin. In Sub-saharan Africa, sepsis with NTS should be considered in children with symptoms of pneumonia and aminopenicillins might often not be the adequate drugs for treatment.

  12. Splenic abscess due to Salmonella enteritidis

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    Hatice Çabadak

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Splenic abscess is a very rare complication of non-typhoidal Salmonella infections. We report a case of splenic abscess caused by Salmonella enteritidis. The patient is a 63-year-old woman with diabetes mellitus and underwent splenectomy. This case suggests that the patients with comorbities are at increased risk for invasive infections in non-typhoidal Salmonella infections.

  13. Multiple transmissible genes encoding fluoroquinolone and third-generation cephalosporin resistance co-located in non-typhoidal Salmonella isolated from food-producing animals in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Hong-Xia; Song, Li; Liu, Ji; Zhang, Xiao-Hua; Ren, Yan-Na; Zhang, Wen-Hui; Zhang, Jing-Yuan; Liu, Ya-Hong; Webber, Mark A; Ogbolu, David O; Zeng, Zhen-Ling; Piddock, Laura J V

    2014-03-01

    The aim of this study was to identify genes conferring resistance to fluoroquinolones and extended-spectrum β-lactams in non-typhoidal Salmonella (NTS) from food-producing animals in China. In total, 31 non-duplicate NTS were obtained from food-producing animals that were sick. Isolates were identified and serotyped and the genetic relatedness of the isolates was determined by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis of XbaI-digested chromosomal DNA. Antimicrobial susceptibility was determined using Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute methodology. The presence of extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL) and fluoroquinolone resistance genes was established by PCR and sequencing. Genes encoded on transmissible elements were identified by conjugation and transformation. Plasmids were typed by PCR-based replicon typing. The occurrence and diversity of numerous different transmissible genes conferring fluoroquinolone resistance [qnrA, qnrD, oqxA and aac(6')-Ib-cr] and ESBLs (CTX-M-27 and CTX-M-14), and which co-resided in different isolates and serovars of Salmonella, were much higher than in European countries. Furthermore, different plasmids encoded fluoroquinolone resistance (ca. 6 kb) and β-lactam resistance (ca. 63 kb) and these co-resided in isolates with mutations in topoisomerase genes (gyrA and parC) giving very resistant Salmonella. The presence of multidrug-resistant bacteria in food-producing animals in countries that export foodstuffs suggests that global transfer of antibiotic resistances from country to country on food is possible. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. and the International Society of Chemotherapy. All rights reserved.

  14. Induction of Antimicrobial Resistance in Escherichia coli and Non-Typhoidal Salmonella Strains after Adaptation to Disinfectant Commonly Used on Farms in Vietnam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nhung, Nguyen T.; Thuy, Cao T.; Trung, Nguyen V.; Campbell, James; Baker, Stephen; Thwaites, Guy; Hoa, Ngo T.; Carrique-Mas, Juan

    2015-01-01

    In Vietnam, commercial disinfectants containing quaternary ammonium compounds (QACs) are commonly used in pig and poultry farms to maintain hygiene during production. We hypothesized that sustained exposure to sub-bactericidal concentrations of QAC-based disinfectants may result in increased levels of antimicrobial resistance (AMR) among Enterobacteriacea due to the increase of efflux pump expression. To test this hypothesis we exposed six antimicrobial-susceptible Escherichia coli (E. coli) and six antimicrobial-susceptible non-typhoidal Salmonella (NTS) isolates to increasing concentrations of a commonly used commercial disinfectant containing a mix of benzalkonium chloride and glutaraldehyde. Over the 12-day experiment, strains exhibited a significant change in their minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of the disinfectant product (mean increase of 31% (SD ± 40)) (p = 0.02, paired Wilcoxon test). Increases in MIC for the disinfectant product were strongly correlated with increases in MIC (or decreases in inhibition zone) for all antimicrobials (Pearson’s correlation coefficient 0.71–0.83, all p inhibitor, resulted in reductions in the prevalence of AMR ranging from 0.7% to 3.3% in these organisms, indicating a small contribution of efflux pumps on the observed prevalence of AMR on farms. These results suggest that the mass usage of commercial disinfectants, many of which contain QACs, is potentially a contributing factor on the generation and maintenance of AMR in animal production in Vietnam. PMID:27025637

  15. Non-typhoidal Salmonella serotypes, antimicrobial resistance and co-infection with parasites among patients with diarrhea and other gastrointestinal complaints in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eguale, Tadesse; Gebreyes, Wondwossen A; Asrat, Daniel; Alemayehu, Haile; Gunn, John S; Engidawork, Ephrem

    2015-11-04

    Non-typhoidal Salmonella (NTS) is an important public health problem worldwide. Consumption of animal-derived food products and direct and/or indirect contact with animals are the major routes of acquiring infection with NTS. Published information, particularly on the serotype distribution of NTS among human patients with gastroenteritis and associated risk factors, is scarce in Ethiopia. This study investigated the prevalence, risk factors, serotype distribution and antimicrobial susceptibility of Salmonella species among diarrheic out-patients attending health centers in Addis Ababa and patients with various gastrointestinal complaints at Tikur Anbessa Specialized Hospital (TASH). Stool samples were cultured for Salmonella species according to the WHO Global Foodborne Infections Network laboratory protocol. Salmonella serotyping was conducted using slide agglutination and microplate agglutination techniques. Antibiotic susceptibility testing was performed using the disk diffusion method according to Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute guidelines. A total of 59 (6.2 %) stool samples, out of 957 were culture positive for Salmonella species. Fifty-five (7.2 %) of 765 diarrheic patients from health centers and 4 (2.1 %) of 192 patients from TASH were culture positive for Salmonella species. Multivariable logistic regression analysis after adjusting for all other variables revealed statistically significant association of Salmonella infection with consumption of raw vegetables (OR = 1.91, 95 % CI = 1.29-2.83, χ(2) = 4.74, p = 0.025) and symptom of watery diarrhea (OR = 3.3, 95 % CI = 1.23-8.88, χ(2) = 10.54, p = 0.005). Eleven serotypes were detected, and the most prominent were S. Typhimurium (37.3 %), S. Virchow (34 %), and S. Kottbus (10.2 %). Other serotypes were S. Miami, S. Kentucky, S. Newport, S. Enteritidis, S. Braenderup, S. Saintpaul, S. Concord and S. V:ROUGH-O. Resistance to three or more antimicrobials was detected in 27 (40.3 %) of the

  16. Genetic markers associated with resistance to beta-lactam and quinolone antimicrobials in non-typhoidal Salmonella isolates from humans and animals in central Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tadesse Eguale

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Beta-lactam and quinolone antimicrobials are commonly used for treatment of infections caused by non-typhoidal Salmonella (NTS and other pathogens. Resistance to these classes of antimicrobials has increased significantly in the recent years. However, little is known on the genetic basis of resistance to these drugs in Salmonella isolates from Ethiopia. Methods Salmonella isolates with reduced susceptibility to beta-lactams (n = 43 were tested for genes encoding for beta-lactamase enzymes, and those resistant to quinolones (n = 29 for mutations in the quinolone resistance determining region (QRDR as well as plasmid mediated quinolone resistance (PMQR genes using PCR and sequencing. Results Beta-lactamase genes (bla were detected in 34 (79.1% of the isolates. The dominant bla gene was blaTEM, recovered from 33 (76.7% of the isolates, majority being TEM-1 (24, 72.7% followed by TEM-57, (10, 30.3%. The blaOXA-10 and blaCTX-M-15 were detected only in a single S. Concord human isolate. Double substitutions in gyrA (Ser83-Phe + Asp87-Gly as well as parC (Thr57-Ser + Ser80-Ile subunits of the quinolone resistance determining region (QRDR were detected in all S. Kentucky isolates with high level resistance to both nalidixic acid and ciprofloxacin. Single amino acid substitutions, Ser83-Phe (n = 4 and Ser83-Tyr (n = 1 were also detected in the gyrA gene. An isolate of S. Miami susceptible to nalidixic acid but intermediately resistant to ciprofloxacin had Thr57-Ser and an additional novel mutation (Tyr83-Phe in the parC gene. Plasmid mediated quinolone resistance (PMQR genes investigated were not detected in any of the isolates. In some isolates with decreased susceptibility to ciprofloxacin and/or nalidixic acid, no mutations in QRDR or PMQR genes were detected. Over half of the quinolone resistant isolates in the current study 17 (58.6% were also resistant to at least one of the beta-lactam antimicrobials

  17. Induction of Antimicrobial Resistance in Escherichia coli and Non-Typhoidal Salmonella Strains after Adaptation to Disinfectant Commonly Used on Farms in Vietnam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nguyen T. Nhung

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available In Vietnam, commercial disinfectants containing quaternary ammonium compounds (QACs are commonly used in pig and poultry farms to maintain hygiene during production. We hypothesized that sustained exposure to sub-bactericidal concentrations of QAC-based disinfectants may result in increased levels of antimicrobial resistance (AMR among Enterobacteriacea due to the increase of efflux pump expression. To test this hypothesis we exposed six antimicrobial-susceptible Escherichia coli (E. coli and six antimicrobial-susceptible non-typhoidal Salmonella (NTS isolates to increasing concentrations of a commonly used commercial disinfectant containing a mix of benzalkonium chloride and glutaraldehyde. Over the 12-day experiment, strains exhibited a significant change in their minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC of the disinfectant product (mean increase of 31% (SD ± 40 (p = 0.02, paired Wilcoxon test. Increases in MIC for the disinfectant product were strongly correlated with increases in MIC (or decreases in inhibition zone for all antimicrobials (Pearson’s correlation coefficient 0.71–0.83, all p < 0.01. The greatest increases in MIC (or decreases in inhibition zone were observed for ampicillin, tetracycline, ciprofloxacin, and chloramphenicol, and the smallest for gentamicin, trimethoprim/sulphamethoxazole. The treatment of 155 representative E. coli isolates from farmed and wild animals in the Mekong Delta (Vietnam with phenyl-arginine beta-naphthylamide (PAβN, a generic efflux pump inhibitor, resulted in reductions in the prevalence of AMR ranging from 0.7% to 3.3% in these organisms, indicating a small contribution of efflux pumps on the observed prevalence of AMR on farms. These results suggest that the mass usage of commercial disinfectants, many of which contain QACs, is potentially a contributing factor on the generation and maintenance of AMR in animal production in Vietnam.

  18. Antimicrobial residues and resistance against critically important antimicrobials in non-typhoidal Salmonella from meat sold at wet markets and supermarkets in Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nhung, Nguyen Thi; Van, Nguyen Thi Bich; Cuong, Nguyen Van; Duong, Truong Thi Quy; Nhat, Tran Thi; Hang, Tran Thi Thu; Nhi, Nguyen Thi Hong; Kiet, Bach Tuan; Hien, Vo Be; Ngoc, Pham Thi; Campbell, James; Thwaites, Guy; Carrique-Mas, Juan

    2018-02-02

    Excessive antimicrobial usage and deficiencies in hygiene in meat production systems may result in undesirable human health hazards, such as the presence of antimicrobial drug residues and non-typhoidal Salmonella (NTS), including antimicrobial resistant (AMR) NTS. Recently, Vietnam has witnessed the emergence of integrated intensive animal production systems, coexisting with more traditional, locally-sourced wet markets. To date no systematic studies have been carried out to compare health hazards in beef, pork and chicken in different production systems. We aimed to: (1) estimate the prevalence of antimicrobial residues in beef, pork and chicken meat; (2) investigate the prevalence and levels of NTS contamination; and (3) investigate serovar distribution and AMR against critically important antimicrobials by animal species and type of retail (wet market vs. supermarket) in Vietnam. Fresh pork, beef and chicken meat samples (N=357) sourced from wet markets and supermarkets in Ho Chi Minh City (HCMC), Hanoi and Dong Thap were screened for antimicrobial residues by PremiTest, and were further investigated by Charm II. Samples from HCMC (N=113) were cultured using ISO 6579:2002/Amd 1:2007. NTS bacteria were quantified using a minimum probable number (MPN) technique. NTS isolates were assigned to serovar by Multilocus Sequence Typing (MLST), and were investigated for their phenotypic susceptibility against 32 antimicrobials. A total of 26 (7.3%) samples tested positive by PremiTest (9.5% beef, 4.1% pork and 8.4% chicken meat). Sulfonamides, tetracyclines and macrolides were detected by Charm in 3.1%, 2.8% and 2.0% samples, respectively. Overall, meat samples from wet markets had a higher prevalence of residues than those from supermarkets (9.6% vs. 2.6%) (p=0.016). NTS were isolated from 68.4% samples from HCMC. Chicken samples from wet markets had by far the highest NTS counts (median 3.2 logMPN/g). NTS isolates displayed high levels of resistance against quinolones

  19. Severity of infection and seasonal variation of non-typhoid Salmonelle occurence in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gradel, K.O.; Dethlefsen, Claus; Schønheyder, H.C.

    2007-01-01

    Non-typhoid Salmonella infections may present as severe gastroenteritis necessitatinghospitalization and some patients become septic with bacteraemia. We hypothesized that theseasonal variation of non-typhoid Salmonella occurrence in humans diminishes with increasedseverity of infection. We...... examined the seasonal variation of non-typhoid Salmonella infections inthree patient groups with differing severity of infection: outpatients treated for gastroenteritis(n=1490); in-patients treated for gastroenteritis (n=492); and in-patients treated for bacteraemia(n=113). The study was population......-based and included all non-typhoid Salmonella patients ina Danish county from 1994 to 2003. A periodic regression model was used to compute thepeak-to-trough ratio for the three patient groups. The peak-to-trough ratios were 4·3 [95%confidence interval (CI) 3·6–5.0] for outpatients with gastroenteritis, 3·2 (95% CI...

  20. Characterization of Four Novel Bacteriophages Isolated from British Columbia for Control of Non-typhoidal Salmonella in Vitro and on Sprouting Alfalfa Seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen Fong

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Alfalfa sprouts have been linked to numerous North American outbreaks of Salmonella in recent years. Conventionally, treatments involving chlorine, heat, and irradiation are used for alfalfa seed sanitation. However, such treatments may be highly variable in their efficacy for pathogen control and/or detrimental to sprout quality, therefore negatively perceived by consumers advocating for natural alternatives. The usage of bacteriophages for pathogen control in sprouts has been previously explored, although with conflicting and inconsistent results. Lytic phages, viral predators of bacteria, represent an attractive approach as they provide several advantages compared to conventional treatments, such as their high specificity for bacterial targets and their ubiquity in nature. In this study, four Salmonella phages were isolated from British Columbia, Canada and characterized with respect to host range, burst size, latent period, and environmental stability to assess their potential to control Salmonella. Phage isolate SI1 showed the greatest host range, highest burst size and shortest latent period, greatest stability across all pH and temperatures and was the most effective in control of S. Enteritidis in vitro. Therefore, SI1 was chosen for treatment of sprouting alfalfa seeds artificially contaminated with S. Enteritidis with a multiplicity of infection (MOI of ∼110 PFU/CFU. A significant (p < 0.05 reduction of 38.3 ± 3.0% of viable Salmonella cells was observed following two h of phage treatment. On days two to six of the sprouting process, reductions of Salmonella were also observed, but were not significant compared to the control (p > 0.05. It was further demonstrated that the sprout yield was not significantly (p > 0.05 affected by phage treatment. These results highlight the potential of phages recovered from the British Columbia environment for use as biocontrol agents against Salmonella, although differing efficacies in vitro was

  1. Vaccines against invasive Salmonella disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacLennan, Calman A; Martin, Laura B; Micoli, Francesca

    2014-01-01

    Though primarily enteric pathogens, Salmonellae are responsible for a considerable yet under-appreciated global burden of invasive disease. In South and South-East Asia, this manifests as enteric fever caused by serovars Typhi and Paratyphi A. In sub-Saharan Africa, a similar disease burden results from invasive nontyphoidal Salmonellae, principally serovars Typhimurium and Enteritidis. The existing Ty21a live-attenuated and Vi capsular polysaccharide vaccines target S. Typhi and are not effective in young children where the burden of invasive Salmonella disease is highest. After years of lack of investment in new Salmonella vaccines, recent times have seen increased interest in the area led by emerging-market manufacturers, global health vaccine institutes and academic partners. New glycoconjugate vaccines against S. Typhi are becoming available with similar vaccines against other invasive serovars in development. With other new vaccines under investigation, including live-attenuated, protein-based and GMMA vaccines, now is an exciting time for the Salmonella vaccine field. PMID:24804797

  2. Live attenuated vaccines for invasive Salmonella infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tennant, Sharon M; Levine, Myron M

    2015-06-19

    Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi produces significant morbidity and mortality worldwide despite the fact that there are licensed Salmonella Typhi vaccines available. This is primarily due to the fact that these vaccines are not used in the countries that most need them. There is growing recognition that an effective invasive Salmonella vaccine formulation must also prevent infection due to other Salmonella serovars. We anticipate that a multivalent vaccine that targets the following serovars will be needed to control invasive Salmonella infections worldwide: Salmonella Typhi, Salmonella Paratyphi A, Salmonella Paratyphi B (currently uncommon but may become dominant again), Salmonella Typhimurium, Salmonella Enteritidis and Salmonella Choleraesuis (as well as other Group C Salmonella). Live attenuated vaccines are an attractive vaccine formulation for use in developing as well as developed countries. Here, we describe the methods of attenuation that have been used to date to create live attenuated Salmonella vaccines and provide an update on the progress that has been made on these vaccines. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  3. Salmonella er en sjælden årsag til meningitis hos nyfødte

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Lotte; Hoffmann, Thomas; Knudsen, Inge Jenny Dahl

    2013-01-01

    In developed countries, invasive disease caused by non typhoidal Salmonella spp. is rare. Here we present a Danish case of Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis (S. Enteritidis) meningitis in an infant who had no underlying diseases. The child had had no known expositions, and the source...... of the infection was never identified. The chance of finding uncommon microorganisms as cause of invasive infections such as meningitis and the choice of initial empiric antimicrobial treatments is discussed....

  4. An AIL family protein promotes type three secretion system-1-independent invasion and pathogenesis of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chowdhury, Rimi; Mandal, Rahul S; Ta, Atri; Das, Santasabuj

    2015-04-01

    Adhesion and invasion of Intestinal Epithelial Cells (IECs) are critical for the pathogenesis of Salmonella Typhi, the aetiological agent of human typhoid fever. While type three secretion system-1 (T3SS-1) is a major invasion apparatus of Salmonella, independent invasion mechanisms were described for non-typhoidal Salmonellae. Here, we show that T2942, an AIL-like protein of S. Typhi Ty2 strain, is required for adhesion and invasion of cultured IECs. That invasion was T3SS-1 independent was proved by ectopic expression of T2942 in the non-invasive E. coli BL21 and double-mutant Ty2 (Ty2Δt2942ΔinvG) strains. Laminin and fibronectin were identified as the host-binding partners of T2942 with higher affinity for laminin. Standalone function of T2942 was confirmed by cell adhesion of the recombinant protein, while the protein or anti-T2942 antiserum blocked adhesion/invasion of S. Typhi, indicating specificity. A 20-amino acid extracellular loop was required for invasion, while several loop regions of T2942 contributed to adhesion. Further, T2942 cooperates with laminin-binding T2544 for adhesion and T3SS-1 for invasion. Finally, T2942 was required and synergistically worked with T3SS-1 for pathogenesis of S. Typhi in mice. Considering wide distribution of T2942 among clinical strains, the protein or the 20-mer peptide may be suitable for vaccine development. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Animal contact as a source of human non-typhoidal salmonellosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Non-typhoidal Salmonella represents an important human and animal pathogen world-wide. Most human salmonellosis cases are foodborne, but each year infections are also acquired through direct or indirect animal contact in homes, veterinary clinics, zoological gardens, farm environments or other public, professional or private settings. Clinically affected animals may exhibit a higher prevalence of shedding than apparently healthy animals, but both can shed Salmonella over long periods of time. In addition, environmental contamination and indirect transmission through contaminated food and water may complicate control efforts. The public health risk varies by animal species, age group, husbandry practice and health status, and certain human subpopulations are at a heightened risk of infection due to biological or behavioral risk factors. Some serotypes such as Salmonella Dublin are adapted to individual host species, while others, for instance Salmonella Typhimurium, readily infect a broad range of host species, but the potential implications for human health are currently unclear. Basic hygiene practices and the implementation of scientifically based management strategies can efficiently mitigate the risks associated with animal contacts. However, the general public is frequently unaware of the specific disease risks involved, and high-risk behaviors are common. Here we describe the epidemiology and serotype distribution of Salmonella in a variety of host species. In addition, we review our current understanding of the public health risks associated with different types of contacts between humans and animals in public, professional or private settings, and, where appropriate, discuss potential risk mitigation strategies. PMID:21324103

  6. Seroincidence of non-typhoid Salmonella infections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Emborg, H-D; Simonsen, J; Jørgensen, C S

    2016-01-01

    donors (90% CrI 85-298) and 77/1000 in the community cohort (90% CrI 45-114). Although the differences between study populations decreased when accounting for different age distributions the estimates depend on the study population. It is important to be aware of this issue and define a certain...

  7. A Perspective on Invasive Salmonella Disease in Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crump, John A; Heyderman, Robert S

    2015-11-01

    Salmonella enterica is a leading cause of community-acquired bloodstream infection in Africa. The contribution of typhoidal and nontyphoidal Salmonella serovars to invasive disease varies considerably in place and time, even within the same country. Nonetheless, many African countries are now thought to experience typhoid fever incidence >100 per 100,000 per year with approximately 1% of patients dying. Invasive nontyphoidal Salmonella (iNTS) disease was estimated to cause 3.4 million illnesses and 681 316 deaths in 2010, with the most disease in Africa. Antimicrobial drug resistance is a growing problem in S. enterica that threatens to further compromise patient outcomes. Reservoirs for nontyphoidal Salmonella and the predominant routes of transmission for typhoidal and nontyphoidal Salmonella are not well understood in Africa, hampering the design of evidence-based, non-vaccine- and vaccine-based prevention measures. It is difficult to distinguish clinically invasive Salmonella disease from febrile illnesses caused by other pathogens. Blood cultures are the mainstay of laboratory diagnosis, but lack sensitivity due to the low magnitude of bacteremia, do not produce results at point of care, and are not widely available in Africa. Serologic approaches to diagnosis remain inaccurate, and nucleic acid amplification tests are also compromised by low concentrations of bacteria. High-throughput whole-genome sequencing, together with a range of novel analytic pipelines, has provided new insights into the complex pattern of epidemiology, pathogenesis, and host adaptation. Concerted efforts are therefore needed to apply these new tools in the context of high-quality field surveillance to improve diagnosis, patient management, control, and prevention of invasive Salmonella infections in Africa. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  8. Stably Integrated luxCDABE for Assessment of Salmonella Invasion Kinetics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelly N. Flentie

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Salmonella Typhimurium is a common cause of gastroenteritis in humans and also localizes to neoplastic tumors in animals. Invasion of specific eukaryotic cells is a key mechanism of Salmonella interactions with host tissues. Early stages of gastrointestinal cell invasion are mediated by a Salmonella type III secretion system, powered by the adenosine triphosphatase invC. The aim of this work was to characterize the invC dependence of invasion kinetics into disparate eukaryotic cells traditionally used as models of gut epithelium or neoplasms. Thus, a nondestructive real-time assay was developed to report eukaryotic cell invasion kinetics using lux+ Salmonella that contain chromosomally integrated luxCDABE genes. Bioluminescence-based invasion assays using lux+ Salmonella exhibited inoculum dose-response correlation, distinguished invasion-competent from invasion-incompetent Salmonella, and discriminated relative Salmonella invasiveness in accordance with environmental conditions that induce invasion gene expression. In standard gentamicin protection assays, bioluminescence from lux+ Salmonella correlated with recovery of colony-forming units of internalized bacteria and could be visualized by bioluminescence microscopy. Furthermore, this assay distinguished invasion-competent from invasion-incompetent bacteria independent of gentamicin treatment in real time. Bioluminescence reported Salmonella invasion of disparate eukaryotic cell lines, including neoplastic melanoma, colon adenocarcinoma, and glioma cell lines used in animal models of malignancy. In each case, Salmonella invasion of eukaryotic cells was invC dependent.

  9. Supplemental invasion of Salmonella from the perspective of Salmonella enterica serovars Kentucky and Typhimurium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howe, Kevin; Salehi, Sanaz; Hartford Bailey, R; Brooks, John P; Wills, Robert; Lawrence, Mark L; Karsi, Attila

    2017-04-05

    Critical to the development of Salmonellosis in humans is the interaction of the bacterium with the epithelial lining of the gastrointestinal tract. Traditional scientific reasoning held type III secretion system (T3SS) as the virulence factor responsible for bacterial invasion. In this study, field-isolated Salmonella enterica serovar Kentucky and a known human pathogen Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium were mutated and evaluated for the invasion of human colorectal adenocarcinoma epithelial cells. S. enterica serovar Kentucky was shown to actively invade a eukaryotic monolayer, though at a rate that was significantly lower than Typhimurium. Additionally, strains mutated for T3SS formation were less invasive than the wild-type strains, but the decrease in invasion was not significant in Kentucky. Strains mutated for T3SS formation were able to initiate invasion of the eukaryotic monolayer to varying degrees based on strain, In the case of Kentucky, the mutated strain initiated invasion at a level that was not significantly different from the wild-type strain. A different result was observed for Typhimurium as the mutation significantly lowered the rate of invasion in comparison to the wild-type strain.

  10. Incidence of invasive salmonella disease in sub-Saharan Africa: a multicentre population-based surveillance study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marks, Florian; von Kalckreuth, Vera; Aaby, Peter; Adu-Sarkodie, Yaw; El Tayeb, Muna Ahmed; Ali, Mohammad; Aseffa, Abraham; Baker, Stephen; Biggs, Holly M; Bjerregaard-Andersen, Morten; Breiman, Robert F; Campbell, James I; Cosmas, Leonard; Crump, John A; Espinoza, Ligia Maria Cruz; Deerin, Jessica Fung; Dekker, Denise Myriam; Fields, Barry S; Gasmelseed, Nagla; Hertz, Julian T; Van Minh Hoang, Nguyen; Im, Justin; Jaeger, Anna; Jeon, Hyon Jin; Kabore, Leon Parfait; Keddy, Karen H; Konings, Frank; Krumkamp, Ralf; Ley, Benedikt; Løfberg, Sandra Valborg; May, Jürgen; Meyer, Christian G; Mintz, Eric D; Montgomery, Joel M; Niang, Aissatou Ahmet; Nichols, Chelsea; Olack, Beatrice; Pak, Gi Deok; Panzner, Ursula; Park, Jin Kyung; Park, Se Eun; Rabezanahary, Henintsoa; Rakotozandrindrainy, Raphaël; Raminosoa, Tiana Mirana; Razafindrabe, Tsiriniaina Jean Luco; Sampo, Emmanuel; Schütt-Gerowitt, Heidi; Sow, Amy Gassama; Sarpong, Nimako; Seo, Hye Jin; Sooka, Arvinda; Soura, Abdramane Bassiahi; Tall, Adama; Teferi, Mekonnen; Thriemer, Kamala; Warren, Michelle R; Yeshitela, Biruk; Clemens, John D; Wierzba, Thomas F

    2017-03-01

    Available incidence data for invasive salmonella disease in sub-Saharan Africa are scarce. Standardised, multicountry data are required to better understand the nature and burden of disease in Africa. We aimed to measure the adjusted incidence estimates of typhoid fever and invasive non-typhoidal salmonella (iNTS) disease in sub-Saharan Africa, and the antimicrobial susceptibility profiles of the causative agents. We established a systematic, standardised surveillance of blood culture-based febrile illness in 13 African sentinel sites with previous reports of typhoid fever: Burkina Faso (two sites), Ethiopia, Ghana, Guinea-Bissau, Kenya, Madagascar (two sites), Senegal, South Africa, Sudan, and Tanzania (two sites). We used census data and health-care records to define study catchment areas and populations. Eligible participants were either inpatients or outpatients who resided within the catchment area and presented with tympanic (≥38·0°C) or axillary temperature (≥37·5°C). Inpatients with a reported history of fever for 72 h or longer were excluded. We also implemented a health-care utilisation survey in a sample of households randomly selected from each study area to investigate health-seeking behaviour in cases of self-reported fever lasting less than 3 days. Typhoid fever and iNTS disease incidences were corrected for health-care-seeking behaviour and recruitment. Between March 1, 2010, and Jan 31, 2014, 135 Salmonella enterica serotype Typhi (S Typhi) and 94 iNTS isolates were cultured from the blood of 13 431 febrile patients. Salmonella spp accounted for 33% or more of all bacterial pathogens at nine sites. The adjusted incidence rate (AIR) of S Typhi per 100 000 person-years of observation ranged from 0 (95% CI 0-0) in Sudan to 383 (274-535) at one site in Burkina Faso; the AIR of iNTS ranged from 0 in Sudan, Ethiopia, Madagascar (Isotry site), and South Africa to 237 (178-316) at the second site in Burkina Faso. The AIR of iNTS and typhoid

  11. Sources of human non-typhoid salmonellosis: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    OC de Freitas Neto

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Salmonellosis is a worldwide disease caused by bacteria of the genus Salmonella. Currently, there are over 2,500 identified serovars of Salmonella. A reduced number of these serovars, about eighty, are implicated in most animals and human diseases. Most cases of salmonellosis in humans are associated with the consumption of contaminated food products such as beef, pork, poultry meat, eggs, vegetables, juices and other kind of foods. It may also be associated with the contact between humans and infected pet animals. Therefore, the chain of human salmonellosis is very complex and in most cases the origin of the infection is difficult to establish. The use of antimicrobial agents to treat and to prevent bacterial infections in humans and animals, as well as as growth promoters in animal production, has favoured the selection and transference of resistance genes between different bacteria, including Salmonella serovars. Many studies have confirmed the role of foods of animal origin as a source of multi drugresistant Salmonella serovars. For this reason, continuous surveillance of these pathogens along the food chain together with the responsible use of antimicrobial agents is necessary.

  12. Quantitative comparison of intestinal invasion of zoonotic serotypes of Salmonella enterica in poultry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aabo, Søren; Christensen, J.P.; Chadfield, M.S.

    2002-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to compare the invasion of selected zoonotic Salmonella serotypes of poultry in an in vivo chicken intestinal loop model and also in vitro in epithelial cell cultures. Invasion was measured relative to a reference strain, Salmonella Typhimurium 4/74 invH201::Tnpho......A. Two serotypes demonstrated intracellular log(10) counts that differed significantly from all other serotypes tested: Salmonella Enteritidis PT4 being 1.5 log(10) colony forming units (CFU) ( 31-fold) higher, and Salmonella Tennessee being 0.7 log(10) CFU (fivefold) lower than the reference strain (P......, S. Enteritidis PT6, S. Enteritidis PT8, and Salmonella Berta. The serotypes Salmonella Hadar, Salmonella Virchow, S. 4,12: b:-, S. Typhimurium DT41, and Salmonella Infantis, most of which are considered horizontally transmitted, did not show significantly different intracellular counts from...

  13. Comparative virulence genotyping and antimicrobial susceptibility profiling of environmental and clinical Salmonella enterica from Cochin, India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Parvathi, A.; Vijayan, J.; Murali, G.; Chandran, P.

    Salmonella enterica serotype Newport is an important cause of non-typhoidal salmonellosis, a clinically less severe infection than typhoid fever caused by S. enterica serotype Typhi. In this investigation, the virulence genotypes of S. enterica...

  14. Development of an in vivo model for study of intestinal invasion by Salmonella enterica in chickens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aabo, Søren; Christensen, J.P.; Chadfield, M.S.

    2000-01-01

    , followed by a 1-h incubation with gentamicin in order to kill noninvading bacteria. After euthanasia, Salmonella invasiveness was measured as tissue-associated counts relative to a reference strain. The ability of Salmonella invasion was 1 log(10) CFU higher per 42-mm(2) mucosal tissue in the anterior than...

  15. The microbiological and clinical characteristics of invasive salmonella in gallbladders from cholecystectomy patients in kathmandu, Nepal.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabina Dongol

    Full Text Available Gallbladder carriage of invasive Salmonella is considered fundamental in sustaining typhoid fever transmission. Bile and tissue was obtained from 1,377 individuals undergoing cholecystectomy in Kathmandu to investigate the prevalence, characteristics and relevance of invasive Salmonella in the gallbladder in an endemic area. Twenty percent of bile samples contained a Gram-negative organism, with Salmonella Typhi and Salmonella Paratyphi A isolated from 24 and 22 individuals, respectively. Gallbladders that contained Salmonella were more likely to show evidence of acute inflammation with extensive neutrophil infiltrate than those without Salmonella, corresponding with higher neutrophil and lower lymphocyte counts in the blood of Salmonella positive individuals. Antimicrobial resistance in the invasive Salmonella isolates was limited, indicating that gallbladder colonization is unlikely to be driven by antimicrobial resistance. The overall role of invasive Salmonella carriage in the gallbladder is not understood; here we show that 3.5% of individuals undergoing cholecystectomy in this setting have a high concentration of antimicrobial sensitive, invasive Salmonella in their bile. We predict that such individuals will become increasingly important if current transmission mechanisms are disturbed; prospectively identifying these individuals is, therefore, paramount for rapid local and regional elimination.

  16. Invasion and transmission of Salmonella Kentucky in an adult dairy herd using approximate Bayesian computation

    Science.gov (United States)

    An outbreak of Salmonella Kentucky followed by a high level of sustained endemic prevalence was recently observed in a US adult dairy herd enrolled in a longitudinal study involving intensive fecal sampling. To understand the invasion ability and transmission dynamics of Salmonella Kentucky in dairy...

  17. A Rare Case of Salmonella typhi Meningitis in an Eleven Month Old ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Non-typhoidal Salmonella are infrequent causes of childhood meningitis. Most reports of Salmonella typhi meningeal infections are confined to neonates. A rare instance of S. typhi in an otherwise healthy eleven month old infant is being reported. Keywords: Salmonella typhi, meningitis, infant.

  18. Non—typhoidal salmonella (NTS) bacteraemia in Malawian

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Non-typhoidal salmonella (NTS) bacteraemia is a common, recurrent illness in HIV-infected African ... of infection (eg. damaged urinary tract, endothelium, joints, bones [10] or more unusual sites in HIV [1 ..... Cohen 11, Bartlett JA, Corey GR: Extra-intestinal manifestations of Salmonella infections. Medicine (Baltimore) 1987 ...

  19. Salmonella

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Aimin; Tymoszuk, Piotr; Haschka, David; Heeke, Simon; Dichtl, Stefanie; Petzer, Verena; Seifert, Markus; Hilbe, Richard; Sopper, Sieghart; Talasz, Heribert; Bumann, Dirk; Lass-Flörl, Cornelia; Theurl, Igor; Zhang, Keying; Weiss, Guenter

    2017-09-05

    Zinc sequestration by macrophages is considered a crucial host defense strategy against infection with the intracellular bacterium Salmonella Typhimurium. However, the underlying mechanisms remain elusive. In this study we found zinc to favor pathogen survival within macrophages. Salmonella -hosting macrophages contained higher free zinc levels than uninfected macrophages and cells that successfully eliminated bacteria, which was paralleled by impaired production of reactive oxygen (ROS) and nitrogen (RNS) species in bacteria-harboring cells. A profound, zinc-mediated inhibition of NF-κB p65 transcriptional activity affecting expression of the ROS- and RNS-forming enzymes phos47 and iNOS provided a mechanistic explanation for this phenomenon. Macrophages responded to infection by enhanced expression of zinc scavenging methallothioneins-1 and 2, whose genetic deletion caused a rise of free zinc levels, reduced ROS and RNS production and increased survival of Salmonella Our data suggest that Salmonella invasion of macrophages results in a bacteria-driven rise of intracellular zinc levels which weakens anti-microbial defense and the ability of macrophages to eradicate the pathogen. Thus, limitation of cytoplasmic zinc levels may help to control infection with intracellular bacteria. Copyright © 2017 Wu et al.

  20. Prognostic Factors and Clinical Features of Non-typhoid Salmonella Bacteremia in Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yung-Fong Yen

    2009-08-01

    Conclusion: S. enteritidis was the most frequently isolated serotype. High resistance rates of NTS to some readily available antimicrobials (ampicillin, chloramphenicol, TMP/SMX, fluoroquinolones were found. Patients with the factor of coma or inadequate antibiotic treatment had poor prognosis.

  1. Factors Associated with Sequelae of Campylobacter and Non-typhoidal Salmonella Infections: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esan, Oluwaseun B; Pearce, Madison; van Hecke, Oliver; Roberts, Nia; Collins, Dylan R J; Violato, Mara; McCarthy, Noel; Perera, Rafael; Fanshawe, Thomas R

    2017-02-01

    Despite the significant global burden of gastroenteritis and resulting sequelae, there is limited evidence on risk factors for sequelae development. We updated and extended previous systematic reviews by assessing the role of antibiotics, proton pump inhibitors (PPI) and symptom severity in the development of sequelae following campylobacteriosis and salmonellosis. We searched four databases, including PubMed, from 1 January 2011 to 29 April 2016. Observational studies reporting sequelae of reactive arthritis (ReA), Reiter's syndrome (RS), irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) and Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS) following gastroenteritis were included. The primary outcome was incidence of sequelae of interest amongst cases of campylobacteriosis and salmonellosis. A narrative synthesis was conducted where heterogeneity was high. Of the 55 articles included, incidence of ReA (n=37), RS (n=5), IBS (n=12) and GBS (n=9) were reported following campylobacteriosis and salmonellosis. A pooled summary for each sequela was not estimated due to high level of heterogeneity across studies (I2>90%). PPI usage and symptoms were sparsely reported. Three out of seven studies found a statistically significant association between antibiotics usage and development of ReA. Additional primary studies investigating risk modifying factors in sequelae of GI infections are required to enable targeted interventions. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. The microbiota mediates pathogen clearance from the gut lumen after non-typhoidal Salmonella diarrhea.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathrin Endt

    Full Text Available Many enteropathogenic bacteria target the mammalian gut. The mechanisms protecting the host from infection are poorly understood. We have studied the protective functions of secretory antibodies (sIgA and the microbiota, using a mouse model for S. typhimurium diarrhea. This pathogen is a common cause of diarrhea in humans world-wide. S. typhimurium (S. tm(att, sseD causes a self-limiting gut infection in streptomycin-treated mice. After 40 days, all animals had overcome the disease, developed a sIgA response, and most had cleared the pathogen from the gut lumen. sIgA limited pathogen access to the mucosal surface and protected from gut inflammation in challenge infections. This protection was O-antigen specific, as demonstrated with pathogens lacking the S. typhimurium O-antigen (wbaP, S. enteritidis and sIgA-deficient mice (TCRβ(-/-δ(-/-, J(H (-/-, IgA(-/-, pIgR(-/-. Surprisingly, sIgA-deficiency did not affect the kinetics of pathogen clearance from the gut lumen. Instead, this was mediated by the microbiota. This was confirmed using 'L-mice' which harbor a low complexity gut flora, lack colonization resistance and develop a normal sIgA response, but fail to clear S. tm(att from the gut lumen. In these mice, pathogen clearance was achieved by transferring a normal complex microbiota. Thus, besides colonization resistance ( = pathogen blockage by an intact microbiota, the microbiota mediates a second, novel protective function, i.e. pathogen clearance. Here, the normal microbiota re-grows from a state of depletion and disturbed composition and gradually clears even very high pathogen loads from the gut lumen, a site inaccessible to most "classical" immune effector mechanisms. In conclusion, sIgA and microbiota serve complementary protective functions. The microbiota confers colonization resistance and mediates pathogen clearance in primary infections, while sIgA protects from disease if the host re-encounters the same pathogen. This has implications for curing S. typhimurium diarrhea and for preventing transmission.

  3. Presentation of life-threatening invasive nontyphoidal Salmonella disease in Malawian children: A prospective observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacLennan, Calman A; Msefula, Chisomo L; Gondwe, Esther N; Gilchrist, James J; Pensulo, Paul; Mandala, Wilson L; Mwimaniwa, Grace; Banda, Meraby; Kenny, Julia; Wilson, Lorna K; Phiri, Amos; MacLennan, Jenny M; Molyneux, Elizabeth M; Molyneux, Malcolm E; Graham, Stephen M

    2017-12-01

    Nontyphoidal Salmonellae commonly cause invasive disease in African children that is often fatal. The clinical diagnosis of these infections is hampered by the absence of a clear clinical syndrome. Drug resistance means that empirical antibiotic therapy is often ineffective and currently no vaccine is available. The study objective was to identify risk factors for mortality among children presenting to hospital with invasive Salmonella disease in Africa. We conducted a prospective study enrolling consecutive children with microbiologically-confirmed invasive Salmonella disease admitted to Queen Elizabeth Central Hospital, Blantyre, in 2006. Data on clinical presentation, co-morbidities and outcome were used to identify children at risk of inpatient mortality through logistic-regression modeling. Over one calendar year, 263 consecutive children presented with invasive Salmonella disease. Median age was 16 months (range 0-15 years) and 52/256 children (20%; 95%CI 15-25%) died. Nontyphoidal serovars caused 248/263 (94%) of cases. 211/259 (81%) of isolates were multi-drug resistant. 251/263 children presented with bacteremia, 6 with meningitis and 6 with both. Respiratory symptoms were present in 184/240 (77%; 95%CI 71-82%), 123/240 (51%; 95%CI 45-58%) had gastrointestinal symptoms and 101/240 (42%; 95%CI 36-49%) had an overlapping clinical syndrome. Presentation at Salmonella disease in Malawi is characterized by high mortality and prevalence of multi-drug resistant isolates, along with non-specific presentation. Young infants, children with dyspnea and HIV-infected children bear a disproportionate burden of the Salmonella-associated mortality in Malawi. Strategies to improve prevention, diagnosis and management of invasive Salmonella disease should be targeted at these children.

  4. Emergence and clonal dissemination of Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis causing salmonellosis in Mauritius

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Issack, Mohammad I.; Hendriksen, Rene S.; Hyytiae-Trees, Eija

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: For decades, Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis has been among the most prevalent serovars reported worldwide. However, it was rarely encountered in Mauritius until 2007; since then the number of non-typhoidal Salmonella serogroup O:9 (including serovar Enteritidis) increased...... food specimens were characterized by antimicrobial susceptibility testing and Multiple-Locus Variable-number tandem repeat Analysis (MLVA). Results: With the exception of a single isolate which demonstrated intermediate susceptibility to streptomycin, all isolates were pansusceptible to the 14...... or closely related to blood and exudate isolates, indicating that, besides gastroenteritis, the same strain caused invasive infections. Control of S. Enteritidis by poultry breeders would lower the financial burden associated with morbidity in humans caused by this organism in Mauritius....

  5. Three Epidemics of Invasive Multidrug-Resistant Salmonella Bloodstream Infection in Blantyre, Malawi, 1998–2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feasey, Nicholas A.; Masesa, Clemens; Jassi, Chikondi; Faragher, E. Brian; Mallewa, Jane; Mallewa, Macpherson; MacLennan, Calman A.; Msefula, Chisomo; Heyderman, Robert S.; Gordon, Melita A.

    2015-01-01

    Background. The Malawi Liverpool Wellcome Trust Clinical Research Programme (MLW) has routinely collected specimens for blood culture from febrile patients, and cerebrospinal fluid from patients with suspected meningitis, presenting to Queen Elizabeth Central Hospital (QECH), Blantyre, Malawi, since 1998. Methods. We present bloodstream infection (BSI) and meningitis surveillance data from 1998 to 2014. Automated blood culture, manual speciation, serotyping, and antimicrobial susceptibility testing were performed at MLW. Population data for minimum-incidence estimates in urban Blantyre were drawn from published estimates. Results. Between 1998 and 2014, 167 028 blood cultures were taken from adult and pediatric medical patients presenting to QECH; Salmonella Typhi was isolated on 2054 occasions (1.2%) and nontyphoidal Salmonella (NTS) serovars were isolated 10 139 times (6.1%), of which 8017 (79.1%) were Salmonella Typhimurium and 1608 (15.8%) were Salmonella Enteritidis. There were 392 cases of NTS meningitis and 9 cases of Salmonella Typhi meningitis. There have been 3 epidemics of Salmonella BSI in Blantyre; Salmonella Enteritidis from 1999 to 2002, Salmonella Typhimurium from 2002 to 2008, and Salmonella Typhi, which began in 2011 and was ongoing in 2014. Multidrug resistance has emerged in all 3 serovars and is seen in the overwhelming majority of isolates, while resistance to third-generation cephalosporins and fluoroquinolones is currently uncommon but has been identified. Conclusions. Invasive Salmonella disease in Malawi is dynamic and not clearly attributable to a single risk factor, although all 3 epidemics were associated with multidrug resistance. To inform nonvaccine and vaccine interventions, reservoirs of disease and modes of transmission require further investigation. PMID:26449953

  6. Three Epidemics of Invasive Multidrug-Resistant Salmonella Bloodstream Infection in Blantyre, Malawi, 1998-2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feasey, Nicholas A; Masesa, Clemens; Jassi, Chikondi; Faragher, E Brian; Mallewa, Jane; Mallewa, Macpherson; MacLennan, Calman A; Msefula, Chisomo; Heyderman, Robert S; Gordon, Melita A

    2015-11-01

    The Malawi Liverpool Wellcome Trust Clinical Research Programme (MLW) has routinely collected specimens for blood culture from febrile patients, and cerebrospinal fluid from patients with suspected meningitis, presenting to Queen Elizabeth Central Hospital (QECH), Blantyre, Malawi, since 1998. We present bloodstream infection (BSI) and meningitis surveillance data from 1998 to 2014. Automated blood culture, manual speciation, serotyping, and antimicrobial susceptibility testing were performed at MLW. Population data for minimum-incidence estimates in urban Blantyre were drawn from published estimates. Between 1998 and 2014, 167,028 blood cultures were taken from adult and pediatric medical patients presenting to QECH; Salmonella Typhi was isolated on 2054 occasions (1.2%) and nontyphoidal Salmonella (NTS) serovars were isolated 10,139 times (6.1%), of which 8017 (79.1%) were Salmonella Typhimurium and 1608 (15.8%) were Salmonella Enteritidis. There were 392 cases of NTS meningitis and 9 cases of Salmonella Typhi meningitis. There have been 3 epidemics of Salmonella BSI in Blantyre; Salmonella Enteritidis from 1999 to 2002, Salmonella Typhimurium from 2002 to 2008, and Salmonella Typhi, which began in 2011 and was ongoing in 2014. Multidrug resistance has emerged in all 3 serovars and is seen in the overwhelming majority of isolates, while resistance to third-generation cephalosporins and fluoroquinolones is currently uncommon but has been identified. Invasive Salmonella disease in Malawi is dynamic and not clearly attributable to a single risk factor, although all 3 epidemics were associated with multidrug resistance. To inform nonvaccine and vaccine interventions, reservoirs of disease and modes of transmission require further investigation. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Infectious Diseases Society of America.

  7. Practical considerations on surveillance of Salmonella serovars other than Enteritidis and Typhimurium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wagenaar, J. A.; Hendriksen, Rene S.; Carrigue-Mas, J.

    2013-01-01

    Non-typhoid Salmonella serovars other than Salmonella enterica serovars S. Enteritidis (SE) and S. Typhimurium (ST) are isolated throughout the world with huge variations in prevalence. Besides the more generally occurring serovars, such as S. Infantis and S. Hadar, there are many examples of ser...

  8. Prevalence and antimicrobial resistance of Salmonella serovars isolated from poultry in Ghana

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andoh, Linda A.; Dalsgaard, Anders; Obiri-Danso, K.

    2016-01-01

    Poultry are possible sources of non-typhoidal Salmonella serovars which may cause foodborne human disease. We conducted a cross-sectional study to determine the prevalence of Salmonella serovars in egg-laying hens and broilers at the farm level and their susceptibility to antimicrobials commonly ...

  9. Loss of the lac operon contributes to Salmonella invasion of epithelial cells through derepression of flagellar synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Lingyan; Ni, Zhiwei; Wang, Lei; Feng, Lu; Liu, Bin

    2015-03-01

    Salmonella, a genus that is closely related to Escherichia coli, includes many pathogens of humans and other animals. A notable feature that distinguishes Salmonella from E. coli is lactose negativity, because the lac operon is lost in most Salmonella genomes. Here, we expressed the lac operon in Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium and compared the virulence of the Lac(+) strain to that of the wild-type strain in a murine model, invasion assays, and macrophage replication assays. We showed that the Lac(+) strain is attenuated in vivo and the attenuation of virulence is caused by its defect in epithelial cell invasion. However, the invasion-defective phenotype is unrelated to lactose utilization. Through sequencing and the comparison of the transcriptome profile between the Lac(+) and wild-type strains during invasion, we found that most flagellar genes were markedly downregulated in the Lac(+) strain, while other genes associated with invasion, such as the majority of genes encoded in Salmonella pathogenicity island 1, were not differentially expressed. Moreover, we discovered that lacA is the major repressor of flagellar gene expression in the lac operon. In conclusion, these data demonstrate that the lac operon decreases Salmonella invasion of epithelial cells through repression of flagellar biosynthesis. As the ability to invade epithelial cells is a critical virulence determinant of Salmonella, our results provide important evidence that the loss of the lac operon contributes to the evolution of Salmonella pathogenicity.

  10. Potential International Spread of Multidrug-Resistant Invasive Salmonella enterica Serovar Enteritidis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodicio, M. Rosario; Guerra, Beatriz; Hopkins, Katie L.

    2012-01-01

    In developing countries, Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis causes substantial illness and death, and drug resistance is increasing. Isolates from the United Kingdom containing virulence-resistance plasmids were characterized. They mainly caused invasive infections in adults linked to Africa. The common features in isolates from these continents indicate the role of human travel in their spread. PMID:22709653

  11. Presentation of life-threatening invasive nontyphoidal Salmonella disease in Malawian children: A prospective observational study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Msefula, Chisomo L.; Gondwe, Esther N.; Gilchrist, James J.; Pensulo, Paul; Mandala, Wilson L.; Mwimaniwa, Grace; Banda, Meraby; Kenny, Julia; Wilson, Lorna K.; Phiri, Amos; MacLennan, Jenny M.; Molyneux, Elizabeth M.; Molyneux, Malcolm E.; Graham, Stephen M.

    2017-01-01

    Nontyphoidal Salmonellae commonly cause invasive disease in African children that is often fatal. The clinical diagnosis of these infections is hampered by the absence of a clear clinical syndrome. Drug resistance means that empirical antibiotic therapy is often ineffective and currently no vaccine is available. The study objective was to identify risk factors for mortality among children presenting to hospital with invasive Salmonella disease in Africa. We conducted a prospective study enrolling consecutive children with microbiologically-confirmed invasive Salmonella disease admitted to Queen Elizabeth Central Hospital, Blantyre, in 2006. Data on clinical presentation, co-morbidities and outcome were used to identify children at risk of inpatient mortality through logistic-regression modeling. Over one calendar year, 263 consecutive children presented with invasive Salmonella disease. Median age was 16 months (range 0–15 years) and 52/256 children (20%; 95%CI 15–25%) died. Nontyphoidal serovars caused 248/263 (94%) of cases. 211/259 (81%) of isolates were multi-drug resistant. 251/263 children presented with bacteremia, 6 with meningitis and 6 with both. Respiratory symptoms were present in 184/240 (77%; 95%CI 71–82%), 123/240 (51%; 95%CI 45–58%) had gastrointestinal symptoms and 101/240 (42%; 95%CI 36–49%) had an overlapping clinical syndrome. Presentation at <7 months (OR 10.0; 95%CI 2.8–35.1), dyspnea (OR 4.2; 95%CI 1.5–12.0) and HIV infection (OR 3.3; 95%CI 1.1–10.2) were independent risk factors for inpatient mortality. Invasive Salmonella disease in Malawi is characterized by high mortality and prevalence of multi-drug resistant isolates, along with non-specific presentation. Young infants, children with dyspnea and HIV-infected children bear a disproportionate burden of the Salmonella-associated mortality in Malawi. Strategies to improve prevention, diagnosis and management of invasive Salmonella disease should be targeted at these children

  12. Presentation of life-threatening invasive nontyphoidal Salmonella disease in Malawian children: A prospective observational study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Calman A MacLennan

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Nontyphoidal Salmonellae commonly cause invasive disease in African children that is often fatal. The clinical diagnosis of these infections is hampered by the absence of a clear clinical syndrome. Drug resistance means that empirical antibiotic therapy is often ineffective and currently no vaccine is available. The study objective was to identify risk factors for mortality among children presenting to hospital with invasive Salmonella disease in Africa. We conducted a prospective study enrolling consecutive children with microbiologically-confirmed invasive Salmonella disease admitted to Queen Elizabeth Central Hospital, Blantyre, in 2006. Data on clinical presentation, co-morbidities and outcome were used to identify children at risk of inpatient mortality through logistic-regression modeling. Over one calendar year, 263 consecutive children presented with invasive Salmonella disease. Median age was 16 months (range 0-15 years and 52/256 children (20%; 95%CI 15-25% died. Nontyphoidal serovars caused 248/263 (94% of cases. 211/259 (81% of isolates were multi-drug resistant. 251/263 children presented with bacteremia, 6 with meningitis and 6 with both. Respiratory symptoms were present in 184/240 (77%; 95%CI 71-82%, 123/240 (51%; 95%CI 45-58% had gastrointestinal symptoms and 101/240 (42%; 95%CI 36-49% had an overlapping clinical syndrome. Presentation at <7 months (OR 10.0; 95%CI 2.8-35.1, dyspnea (OR 4.2; 95%CI 1.5-12.0 and HIV infection (OR 3.3; 95%CI 1.1-10.2 were independent risk factors for inpatient mortality. Invasive Salmonella disease in Malawi is characterized by high mortality and prevalence of multi-drug resistant isolates, along with non-specific presentation. Young infants, children with dyspnea and HIV-infected children bear a disproportionate burden of the Salmonella-associated mortality in Malawi. Strategies to improve prevention, diagnosis and management of invasive Salmonella disease should be targeted at these children.

  13. Characterization of Salmonella Gallinarum isolates from backyard poultry by polymerase chain reaction detection of invasion (invA and Salmonella plasmid virulence (spvC genes

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    Susmita Pal

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aim was to characterize Salmonella enterica serovar Gallinarum isolated from backyard poultry by polymerase chain reaction (PCR detection of virulence genes invasion (invA and Salmonella plasmid virulence C (spvC. Materials and Methods: Two strains of Salmonella serovar Gallinarum isolates used in this study were obtained from an outbreak of fowl typhoid in backyard Vanaraja fowl. PCR technique was used for detection of invA and spvC genes using standard methodology. The invA PCR product from one representative isolate was sequenced and compared with other related Salmonella serovars in GenBank data. Results: Salmonella Gallinarum produced expected amplicons of invA and spvC gene products. Nucleotide sequence of 285 bp invA gene was deposited in GenBank with accession no. KX788214. Sequence analysis of invA gene was found conserved in Salmonella serovars and demonstrated 100% homology with closely related serovars of Salmonella. Conclusion: Invasion gene (invA was found to be highly conserved in Salmonella Gallinarum and highly similar with closely related serovars. The isolates also contained plasmid-mediated spvC gene indicating possession of virulence plasmid.

  14. Salmonella

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... linked to Rose Acre Farms shell eggs Are guinea pigs the right pet for your family? Find out ... Multistate Outbreak of Salmonella Infections Linked to Pet Guinea Pigs Multistate Outbreak of Salmonella Infections Linked to Kratom ...

  15. Epidemiology, Clinical Presentation, Laboratory Diagnosis, Antimicrobial Resistance, and Antimicrobial Management of Invasive Salmonella Infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sjölund-Karlsson, Maria; Gordon, Melita A.; Parry, Christopher M.

    2015-01-01

    SUMMARY Salmonella enterica infections are common causes of bloodstream infection in low-resource areas, where they may be difficult to distinguish from other febrile illnesses and may be associated with a high case fatality ratio. Microbiologic culture of blood or bone marrow remains the mainstay of laboratory diagnosis. Antimicrobial resistance has emerged in Salmonella enterica, initially to the traditional first-line drugs chloramphenicol, ampicillin, and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole. Decreased fluoroquinolone susceptibility and then fluoroquinolone resistance have developed in association with chromosomal mutations in the quinolone resistance-determining region of genes encoding DNA gyrase and topoisomerase IV and also by plasmid-mediated resistance mechanisms. Resistance to extended-spectrum cephalosporins has occurred more often in nontyphoidal than in typhoidal Salmonella strains. Azithromycin is effective for the management of uncomplicated typhoid fever and may serve as an alternative oral drug in areas where fluoroquinolone resistance is common. In 2013, CLSI lowered the ciprofloxacin susceptibility breakpoints to account for accumulating clinical, microbiologic, and pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic data suggesting that revision was needed for contemporary invasive Salmonella infections. Newly established CLSI guidelines for azithromycin and Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi were published in CLSI document M100 in 2015. PMID:26180063

  16. The sensitivity of real-time PCR amplification targeting invasive Salmonella serovars in biological specimens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chau Tran

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background PCR amplification for the detection of pathogens in biological material is generally considered a rapid and informative diagnostic technique. Invasive Salmonella serovars, which cause enteric fever, can be commonly cultured from the blood of infected patients. Yet, the isolation of invasive Salmonella serovars from blood is protracted and potentially insensitive. Methods We developed and optimised a novel multiplex three colour real-time PCR assay to detect specific target sequences in the genomes of Salmonella serovars Typhi and Paratyphi A. We performed the assay on DNA extracted from blood and bone marrow samples from culture positive and negative enteric fever patients. Results The assay was validated and demonstrated a high level of specificity and reproducibility under experimental conditions. All bone marrow samples tested positive for Salmonella, however, the sensitivity on blood samples was limited. The assay demonstrated an overall specificity of 100% (75/75 and sensitivity of 53.9% (69/128 on all biological samples. We then tested the PCR detection limit by performing bacterial counts after inoculation into blood culture bottles. Conclusions Our findings corroborate previous clinical findings, whereby the bacterial load of S. Typhi in peripheral blood is low, often below detection by culture and, consequently, below detection by PCR. Whilst the assay may be utilised for environmental sampling or on differing biological samples, our data suggest that PCR performed directly on blood samples may be an unsuitable methodology and a potentially unachievable target for the routine diagnosis of enteric fever.

  17. Overcrowding stress decreases macrophage activity and increases Salmonella Enteritidis invasion in broiler chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes, A V S; Quinteiro-Filho, W M; Ribeiro, A; Ferraz-de-Paula, V; Pinheiro, M L; Baskeville, E; Akamine, A T; Astolfi-Ferreira, C S; Ferreira, A J P; Palermo-Neto, J

    2014-01-01

    Overcrowding stress is a reality in the poultry industry. Chickens exposed to long-term stressful situations present a reduction of welfare and immunosuppression. We designed this experiment to analyse the effects from overcrowding stress of 16 birds/m(2) on performance parameters, serum corticosterone levels, the relative weight of the bursa of Fabricius, plasma IgA and IgG levels, intestinal integrity, macrophage activity and experimental Salmonella Enteritidis invasion. The results of this study indicate that overcrowding stress decreased performance parameters, induced enteritis and decreased macrophage activity and the relative bursa weight in broiler chickens. When the chickens were similarly stressed and infected with Salmonella Enteritidis, there was an increase in feed conversion and a decrease in plasma IgG levels in the stressed and Salmonella-infected birds. We observed moderate enteritis throughout the duodenum of chickens stressed and infected with Salmonella. The overcrowding stress decreased the macrophage phagocytosis intensity and increased Salmonella Enteritidis counts in the livers of birds challenged with the pathogenic bacterium. Overcrowding stress via the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis that is associated with an increase in corticosterone and enteritis might influence the quality of the intestinal immune barrier and the integrity of the small intestine. This effect allowed pathogenic bacteria to migrate through the intestinal mucosa, resulting in inflammatory infiltration and decreased nutrient absorption. The data strengthen the hypothesis that control of the welfare of chickens and avoidance of stress from overcrowding in poultry production are relevant factors for the maintenance of intestinal integrity, performance and decreased susceptibility to Salmonella infection.

  18. Supplemental invasion of Salmonella from the perspective of Salmonella enterica serovars Kentucky and Typhimurium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background: Critical to the development of Salmonellosis in humans is the interaction of the bacterium with the epithelial lining of the gastrointestinal tract. Traditional scientific reasoning held type III secretion system (T3SS) as the virulence factor responsible for bacterial invasion. In this ...

  19. Variations of Invasive Salmonella Infections by Population Size in Asante Akim North Municipal, Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz Espinoza, Ligia M; Nichols, Chelsea; Adu-Sarkodie, Yaw; Al-Emran, Hassan M; Baker, Stephen; Clemens, John D; Dekker, Denise Myriam; Eibach, Daniel; Krumkamp, Ralf; Boahen, Kennedy; Im, Justin; Jaeger, Anna; von Kalckreuth, Vera; Pak, Gi Deok; Panzner, Ursula; Park, Se Eun; Park, Jin Kyung; Sarpong, Nimako; Schütt-Gerowitt, Heidi; Toy, Trevor; Wierzba, Thomas F; Marks, Florian; May, Jürgen

    2016-03-15

    The Typhoid Fever Surveillance in Africa Program (TSAP) estimated adjusted incidence rates (IRs) for Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi and invasive nontyphoidal S. enterica serovars (iNTS) of >100 cases per 100 000 person-years of observation (PYO) for children aged Municipal (AAN), Ghana, between March 2010 and May 2012. We analyzed how much these rates differed between rural and urban settings. Children recruited at the Agogo Presbyterian Hospital and meeting TSAP inclusion criteria were included in the analysis. Towns with >32 000 inhabitants were considered urban; towns with populations rates for children aged rate ratios (SRRs) to evaluate differences between settings. Eighty-eight percent (2651/3000) of recruited patients met inclusion criteria and were analyzed. IRs of Salmonella bloodstream infections in children 100 per 100 000 PYO in both settings. Among rural children, the Salmonella Typhi and iNTS rates were 2 times (SRR, 2.2; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.3-3.5) and almost 3 times (SRR, 2.8; 95% CI, 1.9-4.3) higher, respectively, than rates in urban children. IRs of Salmonella bloodstream infections in children rates in the less populated setting. Variations in the distribution of the disease should be considered to implement future studies and intervention strategies. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, e-mail journals.permissions@oup.com.

  20. Virulence of invasive Salmonella Typhimurium ST313 in animal models of infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Girish Ramachandran

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Salmonella Typhimurium sequence type (ST 313 produces septicemia in infants in sub-Saharan Africa. Although there are known genetic and phenotypic differences between ST313 strains and gastroenteritis-associated ST19 strains, conflicting data about the in vivo virulence of ST313 strains have been reported. To resolve these differences, we tested clinical Salmonella Typhimurium ST313 and ST19 strains in murine and rhesus macaque infection models. The 50% lethal dose (LD50 was determined for three Salmonella Typhimurium ST19 and ST313 strains in mice. For dissemination studies, bacterial burden in organs was determined at various time-points post-challenge. Indian rhesus macaques were infected with one ST19 and one ST313 strain. Animals were monitored for clinical signs and bacterial burden and pathology were determined. The LD50 values for ST19 and ST313 infected mice were not significantly different. However, ST313-infected BALB/c mice had significantly higher bacterial numbers in blood at 24 h than ST19-infected mice. ST19-infected rhesus macaques exhibited moderate-to-severe diarrhea while ST313-infected monkeys showed no-to-mild diarrhea. ST19-infected monkeys had higher bacterial burden and increased inflammation in tissues. Our data suggest that Salmonella Typhimurium ST313 invasiveness may be investigated using mice. The non-human primate results are consistent with clinical data, suggesting that ST313 strains do not cause diarrhea.

  1. Salmonella adhesion, invasion and cellular immune responses are differentially affected by iron concentrations in a combined in vitro gut fermentation-cell model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dostal, Alexandra; Gagnon, Mélanie; Chassard, Christophe; Zimmermann, Michael Bruce; O'Mahony, Liam; Lacroix, Christophe

    2014-01-01

    In regions with a high infectious disease burden, concerns have been raised about the safety of iron supplementation because higher iron concentrations in the gut lumen may increase risk of enteropathogen infection. The aim of this study was to investigate interactions of the enteropathogen Salmonella enterica ssp. enterica Typhimurium with intestinal cells under different iron concentrations encountered in the gut lumen during iron deficiency and supplementation using an in vitro colonic fermentation system inoculated with immobilized child gut microbiota combined with Caco-2/HT29-MTX co-culture monolayers. Colonic fermentation effluents obtained during normal, low (chelation by 2,2'-dipyridyl) and high iron (26.5 mg iron/L) fermentation conditions containing Salmonella or pure Salmonella cultures with similar iron conditions were applied to cellular monolayers. Salmonella adhesion and invasion capacity, cellular integrity and immune response were assessed. Under high iron conditions in pure culture, Salmonella adhesion was 8-fold increased compared to normal iron conditions while invasion was not affected leading to decreased invasion efficiency (-86%). Moreover, cellular cytokines IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8 and TNF-α secretion as well as NF-κB activation in THP-1 cells were attenuated under high iron conditions. Low iron conditions in pure culture increased Salmonella invasion correlating with an increase in IL-8 release. In fermentation effluents, Salmonella adhesion was 12-fold and invasion was 428-fold reduced compared to pure culture. Salmonella in high iron fermentation effluents had decreased invasion efficiency (-77.1%) and cellular TNF-α release compared to normal iron effluent. The presence of commensal microbiota and bacterial metabolites in fermentation effluents reduced adhesion and invasion of Salmonella compared to pure culture highlighting the importance of the gut microbiota as a barrier during pathogen invasion. High iron concentrations as

  2. Salmonella

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cullinan, Milo; Clarke, Michael; Dallman, Tim; Peart, Steven; Wilson, Deborah; Weiand, Daniel

    2017-08-01

    Introduction. It is estimated up to 6 % of prosthetic vascular grafts become infected. Staphylococcus aureus is predominant in early infection and coagulase-negative staphylococci are predominant in late infections. Enterobacteriaceae cause 14-40 % of prosthetic vascular graft infections. This is, to our knowledge the first reported case of Salmonella gastroenteritis causing chronic prosthetic vascular graft infection (PVGI). Case presentation. A 57 years old lady presented with signs and symptoms of prosthetic vascular graft infection. Three years earlier, she had undergone a prosthetic axillo-femoral bypass graft for critical limb ischaemia. The infected prosthetic vascular graft was removed and Salmonella Typhimurium was isolated on culture. In the intervening period, Salmonella Typhimurium was isolated from a faecal specimen, collected during an episode of acute gastroenteritis. Whole-genome sequencing (WGS) showed that the respective Salmonella Typhimurium isolates differed by only a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP). Salmonella Typhimurium was not isolated on culture of a faecal specimen collected five days following cessation of antimicrobial therapy. Six months after removal of the prosthetic graft, the patient remains under follow-up for her peripheral vascular disease, which currently requires no further surgical intervention. Conclusion. This case has clear implications for the management of chronic PVGI. It is vital to collect high-quality surgical specimens for microbiological analysis and empirical choices of antibiotics are unlikely to cover all potential pathogens. It may also be prudent to enquire about a history of acute gastroenteritis when assessing patients presenting with chronic PVGI.

  3. Lipopolysaccharide-induced biliary factors enhance invasion of Salmonella enteritidis in a rat model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, A F; Moss, N D; Dai, Y; Smith, M S; Collins, A M; Jackson, G D

    2000-01-01

    In this study, the role of the hepatobiliary system in the early pathogenesis of Salmonella enteritidis infection was investigated in a rat model. Intravenous (i.v.) challenge with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) has previously been shown to enhance the translocation of normal gut flora. We first confirmed that LPS can similarly promote the invasion of S. enteritidis. Oral infection of outbred Australian Albino Wistar rats with 10(6) to 10(7) CFU of S. enteritidis led to widespread tissue invasion after days. If animals were similarly challenged after intravenous administration of S. enteritidis LPS (3 to 900 microg/kg of body weight), significant invasion of the livers and mesenteric lymph nodes (MLN) occurred within 24 h, with invasion of the liver increasing in a dose-dependent fashion (P < 0.01). If bile was prevented from reaching the intestine by bile duct ligation or cannulation, bacterial invasion of the liver and MLN was almost totally abrogated (P < 0.001). As i.v. challenge with LPS could induce the delivery of inflammatory mediators into the bile, biliary tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) concentrations were measured by bioassay. Biliary concentrations of TNF-alpha rose shortly after LPS challenge, peaked with a mean concentration of 27.0 ng/ml at around 1 h postchallenge, and returned to baseline levels (3.1 ng/ml) after 2.5 h. Although TNF-alpha cannot be directly implicated in the invasion process, we conclude that the invasiveness of the enteric pathogen S. enteritidis is enhanced by the presence of LPS in the blood and that this enhanced invasion is at least in part a consequence of the delivery of inflammatory mediators to the gastrointestinal tract by the hepatobiliary system.

  4. Antimicrobial resistance in Salmonella that caused foodborne disease outbreaks: United States, 2003–2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    BROWN, A. C.; GRASS, J. E.; RICHARDSON, L. C.; NISLER, A. L.; BICKNESE, A. S.; GOULD, L. H.

    2016-01-01

    SUMMARY Although most non-typhoidal Salmonella illnesses are self-limiting, antimicrobial treatment is critical for invasive infections. To describe resistance in Salmonella that caused foodborne outbreaks in the United States, we linked outbreaks submitted to the Foodborne Disease Outbreak Surveillance System to isolate susceptibility data in the National Antimicrobial Resistance Monitoring System. Resistant outbreaks were defined as those linked to one or more isolates with resistance to at least one antimicrobial drug. Multidrug resistant (MDR) outbreaks had at least one isolate resistant to three or more antimicrobial classes. Twenty-one per cent (37/176) of linked outbreaks were resistant. In outbreaks attributed to a single food group, 73% (16/22) of resistant outbreaks and 46% (31/68) of non-resistant outbreaks were attributed to foods from land animals (P outbreaks from land animals and 8% (3/40) of outbreaks from plant products (P outbreaks attributed to foods from land animals than outbreaks from foods from plants or aquatic animals. Antimicrobial susceptibility data on isolates from foodborne Salmonella outbreaks can help determine which foods are associated with resistant infections. PMID:27919296

  5. Antimicrobial resistance in Salmonella that caused foodborne disease outbreaks: United States, 2003-2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, A C; Grass, J E; Richardson, L C; Nisler, A L; Bicknese, A S; Gould, L H

    2017-03-01

    Although most non-typhoidal Salmonella illnesses are self-limiting, antimicrobial treatment is critical for invasive infections. To describe resistance in Salmonella that caused foodborne outbreaks in the United States, we linked outbreaks submitted to the Foodborne Disease Outbreak Surveillance System to isolate susceptibility data in the National Antimicrobial Resistance Monitoring System. Resistant outbreaks were defined as those linked to one or more isolates with resistance to at least one antimicrobial drug. Multidrug resistant (MDR) outbreaks had at least one isolate resistant to three or more antimicrobial classes. Twenty-one per cent (37/176) of linked outbreaks were resistant. In outbreaks attributed to a single food group, 73% (16/22) of resistant outbreaks and 46% (31/68) of non-resistant outbreaks were attributed to foods from land animals (P outbreaks from land animals and 8% (3/40) of outbreaks from plant products (P outbreaks attributed to foods from land animals than outbreaks from foods from plants or aquatic animals. Antimicrobial susceptibility data on isolates from foodborne Salmonella outbreaks can help determine which foods are associated with resistant infections.

  6. Igg Subclasses Targeting the Flagella of Salmonella enterica Serovar Typhimurium Can Mediate Phagocytosis and Bacterial Killing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goh, Yun Shan; Armour, Kathryn L; Clark, Michael R; Grant, Andrew J; Mastroeni, Pietro

    2016-01-01

    Invasive non-typhoidal Salmonella are a common cause of invasive disease in immuno-compromised individuals and in children. Multi-drug resistance poses challenges to disease control, with a critical need for effective vaccines. Flagellin is an attractive vaccine candidate due to surface exposure and high epitope copy number, but its potential as a target for opsonophacytic antibodies is unclear. We examined the effect of targeting flagella with different classes of IgG on the interaction between Salmonella Typhimurium and a human phagocyte-like cell line, THP-1. We tagged the FliC flagellar protein with a foreign CD52 mimotope (TSSPSAD) and bacteria were opsonized with a panel of humanised CD52 antibodies with the same antigen-binding V-region, but different constant regions. We found that IgG binding to flagella increases bacterial phagocytosis and reduces viable intracellular bacterial numbers. Opsonisation with IgG3, followed by IgG1, IgG4, and IgG2, resulted in the highest level of bacterial uptake and in the highest reduction in the intracellular load of viable bacteria. Taken together, our data provide proof-of-principle evidence that targeting flagella with antibodies can increase the antibacterial function of host cells, with IgG3 being the most potent subclass. These data will assist the rational design of urgently needed, optimised vaccines against iNTS disease. PMID:27366588

  7. The effect of heat stress on intestinal integrity and Salmonella invasion in broiler birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alhenaky, Alhanof; Abdelqader, Anas; Abuajamieh, Mohannad; Al-Fataftah, Abdur-Rahman

    2017-12-01

    The intestinal mucosa works as a barrier to protect the internal environment of the animal from bacteria and bacterial toxins found in the gut lumen. Heat stress may harm this function. Therefore, we designed the current experiment to investigate the effect of heat stress on intestinal integrity, physiological and immunological responses and Salmonella invasion in broiler chickens. At 26 days of age, 72 birds were randomly distributed into 3 treatments, with 8 replicates per treatment and 3 birds per replicate. The three treatments were control treatment; kept at thermoneutral environmental conditions (20 ± 2°C), chronic heat stress treatment (exposed to 30 ± 2°C; 24h/day) and acute heat stress treatment (exposed to 35 ±2°C from 09:00 to 13:00 and kept at 20 ± 1°C from 13:00 to 09:00). The heat stress exposure was conducted for 10 successive days. Compared with the control treatment, birds subject to chronic and acute heat stress had reduced (P stress treatment. Rectal temperature and Δ rectal temperature (°C/h) increased (P stressed birds had increased (P stress impaired intestinal integrity which resulted in increased intestinal permeability to endotoxin, translocation of intestinal pathogens (Salmonella spp.) and serum inflammatory cytokines. Therefore, avoiding thermal dysfunction of intestinal barrier is a significant factor in maintaining welfare, immune status and meat safety of broiler birds. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. First report of iliacus abscess caused by Salmonella enterica serovar Othmarschen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jha, Babita; Kim, Choon-Mee; Kim, Dong-Min; Chung, Jong-Hoon; Yoon, Na-Ra; Jha, Piyush; Kim, Seok Won; Jang, Sook Jin; Kim, Seon Gyeong; Chung, Jae Keun

    2016-02-01

    The non-typhoidal bacterium Salmonella enterica subspecies enterica serovar Othmarschen (Salmonella Othmarschen) is a rare human pathogen. Abscess formation due to non-typhoidal Salmonella infections is a very rare complication in this antibiotic era. We report the first case of iliacus abscess after a short period of gastroenteritis which was caused by non-typhoidal Salmonella enterica belonging to group C1, serovar Othmarschen in a patient without any underlying conditions. A young female presented in our hospital complaining of pain in right hip joint area. She gave a history of watery diarrhea 3 days before the onset of pain. On examination the patient was ill-looking and there was tenderness in the right hip joint area. S. enterica was identified using 16S rRNA gene amplification by PCR and serotyped to be serovar Othmarschen from the pus sample of iliacus abscess. This is the first reported case of iliacus abscess due to Salmonella serover Othmarschen infection. Our case suggests that S. enterica serovar Othmarschen can cause severe focal infections associated with gastroenteritis. The literature on the rare association of Salmonella enterica and abscess formation is reviewed. Copyright © 2015 Japanese Society of Chemotherapy and The Japanese Association for Infectious Diseases. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. A Case Report of Salmonella muenchen Enteritis Causing Rhabdomyolysis and Myocarditis in a Previously Healthy 26-Year-Old Man.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapple, Will; Martell, Jon; Wilson, Joy S; Matsuura, Don T

    2017-04-01

    This case report examines an unusual presentation of a non-typhoidal Salmonella serovar with limited prevalence in the literature. This is the first case report to associate specifically the Salmonella muenchen serovar with rhabdomyolysis and myocarditis. This case report reviews the diagnostic criteria for myocarditis and explores the diagnostic dilemma of troponin elevation in the setting of rhabdomyolysis. It demonstrates that Salmonella muenchen has the ability to present in a broad range of individuals with complications extending beyond classical gastrointestinal symptoms. This report also concludes that diagnosis of the many possible complications from non-typhoidal Salmonella infections can be difficult due to patient comorbidities, variability in the severity of the illnesses, laboratory test limitations, and imaging limitations. When a patient presents with elevated troponins in the setting of rhabdomyolysis a careful workup should be done to evaluate for ischemic causes, myocarditis, or false elevation secondary to rhabdomyolysis.

  10. Salmonella

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juel, Helene B; Thomaides-Brears, Helena B; Darton, Thomas C; Jones, Claire; Jones, Elizabeth; Shrestha, Sonu; Sie, Rebecca; Eustace, Andrew; Galal, Ushma; Kurupati, Prathiba; Van, Tan T; Thieu, Nga T V; Baker, Stephen; Blohmke, Christoph J; Pollard, Andrew J

    2017-01-01

    Effective vaccines against Salmonella Typhi , a major cause of febrile illness in tropical regions, can have a significant effect as a disease control measure. Earlier work has shown that immunization with either of two Salmonella Typhi vaccines, licensed Ty21a or candidate M01ZH09, did not provide full immunity in a controlled human infection model. Here, we describe the human humoral immune responses to these oral vaccines and their functional role in protection after challenge with S . Typhi. Serum, obtained from healthy volunteers before and after vaccination with Ty21a or M01ZH09 or placebo and before and after oral challenge with wild-type S . Typhi, was assessed for bactericidal activity. Single-dose vaccination with M01ZH09 induced an increase in serum bactericidal antibodies ( p  = 0.001) while three doses of Ty21a did not. No association between bactericidal activity and protection against typhoid after challenge was seen in either vaccine arm. Bactericidal activity after vaccination correlated significantly with delayed disease onset ( p  = 0.013), lower bacterial burden ( p  = 0.006), and decreased disease severity scores ( p  = 0.021). Depletion of antibodies directed against lipopolysaccharide significantly reduced bactericidal activity ( p  = 0.009). We conclude that antibodies induced after ingestion of oral live-attenuated typhoid vaccines or after challenge with wild-type S . Typhi exhibit bactericidal activity. This bactericidal activity is mediated by anti-O:LPS antibodies and significantly reduces clinical symptoms but does not provide sterile immunity. This directs future vaccine studies toward other antigens or mechanisms of protection against typhoid.

  11. FUNCTIONS EXERTED BY THE VIRULENCE ASSOCIATED TYPE THREE SECRETION SYSTEMS DURING SALMONELLA ENTERICA SEROVAR ENTERITIDIS INFECTION OF CHICKEN OVIDUCT EPITHELIAL CELLS AND MACROPHAGES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salmonella enterica serovar, Enteritidis (SE) infection of chicken is a major contributing factor to non-typhoidal salmonellosis. The roles of the type three secretion systems (T3SS-1 and T3SS-2) in the pathogenesis of SE infection of chickens are poorly understood. In this study, the functions exer...

  12. Minimal SPI1-T3SS effector requirement for Salmonella enterocyte invasion and intracellular proliferation in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Kaiyi; Riba, Ambre; Nietschke, Monika; Torow, Natalia; Repnik, Urska; Pütz, Andreas; Fulde, Marcus; Dupont, Aline; Hensel, Michael; Hornef, Mathias

    2018-03-01

    Effector molecules translocated by the Salmonella pathogenicity island (SPI)1-encoded type 3 secretion system (T3SS) critically contribute to the pathogenesis of human Salmonella infection. They facilitate internalization by non-phagocytic enterocytes rendering the intestinal epithelium an entry site for infection. Their function in vivo has remained ill-defined due to the lack of a suitable animal model that allows visualization of intraepithelial Salmonella. Here, we took advantage of our novel neonatal mouse model and analyzed various bacterial mutants and reporter strains as well as gene deficient mice. Our results demonstrate the critical but redundant role of SopE2 and SipA for enterocyte invasion, prerequisite for transcriptional stimulation and mucosal translocation in vivo. In contrast, the generation of a replicative intraepithelial endosomal compartment required the cooperative action of SipA and SopE2 or SipA and SopB but was independent of SopA or host MyD88 signaling. Intraepithelial growth had no critical influence on systemic spread. Our results define the role of SPI1-T3SS effector molecules during enterocyte invasion and intraepithelial proliferation in vivo providing novel insight in the early course of Salmonella infection.

  13. A Salmonella small non-coding RNA facilitates bacterial invasion and intracellular replication by modulating the expression of virulence factors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hao Gong

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Small non-coding RNAs (sRNAs that act as regulators of gene expression have been identified in all kingdoms of life, including microRNA (miRNA and small interfering RNA (siRNA in eukaryotic cells. Numerous sRNAs identified in Salmonella are encoded by genes located at Salmonella pathogenicity islands (SPIs that are commonly found in pathogenic strains. Whether these sRNAs are important for Salmonella pathogenesis and virulence in animals has not been reported. In this study, we provide the first direct evidence that a pathogenicity island-encoded sRNA, IsrM, is important for Salmonella invasion of epithelial cells, intracellular replication inside macrophages, and virulence and colonization in mice. IsrM RNA is expressed in vitro under conditions resembling those during infection in the gastrointestinal tract. Furthermore, IsrM is found to be differentially expressed in vivo, with higher expression in the ileum than in the spleen. IsrM targets the mRNAs coding for SopA, a SPI-1 effector, and HilE, a global regulator of the expression of SPI-1 proteins, which are major virulence factors essential for bacterial invasion. Mutations in IsrM result in disregulation of expression of HilE and SopA, as well as other SPI-1 genes whose expression is regulated by HilE. Salmonella with deletion of isrM is defective in bacteria invasion of epithelial cells and intracellular replication/survival in macrophages. Moreover, Salmonella with mutations in isrM is attenuated in killing animals and defective in growth in the ileum and spleen in mice. Our study has shown that IsrM sRNA functions as a pathogenicity island-encoded sRNA directly involved in Salmonella pathogenesis in animals. Our results also suggest that sRNAs may represent a distinct class of virulence factors that are important for bacterial infection in vivo.

  14. Co-ordinate regulation of Salmonella typhimurium invasion genes by environmental and regulatory factors is mediated by control of hilA expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bajaj, V; Lucas, R L; Hwang, C; Lee, C A

    1996-11-01

    During infection of their hosts, salmonellae enter intestinal epithelial cells. It has been proposed that when Salmonella typhimurium is present in the intestinal lumen, several environmental and regulatory conditions modulate the expression of invasion factors required for bacterial entry into host cells. We report here that the expression of six different S. typhimurium invasion genes encoded on SPI1 (Salmonella pathogenicity island 1) is co-ordinately regulated by oxygen, osmolarity, pH, PhoPQ, and HilA. HilA is a transcriptional activator of the OmpR/ToxR family that is also encoded on SPI1. We have found that HilA plays a central role in the co-ordinated regulation of invasion genes by environmental and regulatory conditions. HilA can activate the expression of two invasion gene-lacZY fusions on reporter plasmids in Escherichia coll, suggesting that HilA acts directly at invasion-gene promoters in S. typhimurium. We have found that the regulation of invasion genes by oxygen, osmolarity, pH, and PhoPQ is indirect and is mediated by regulation of hilA expression by these environmental and regulatory factors. We hypothesize that the complex and co-ordinate regulation of Invasion genes by HilA is an important feature of salmonella pathogenesis and allows salmonellae to enter intestinal epithelial cells.

  15. Genotypic and phenotypic characterization of multidrug resistant Salmonella Typhimurium and Salmonella Kentucky strains recovered from chicken carcasses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rizwana Tasmin

    Full Text Available Salmonella Typhimurium is the leading cause of human non-typhoidal gastroenteritis in the US. S. Kentucky is one the most commonly recovered serovars from commercially processed poultry carcasses. This study compared the genotypic and phenotypic properties of two Salmonella enterica strains Typhimurium (ST221_31B and Kentucky (SK222_32B recovered from commercially processed chicken carcasses using whole genome sequencing, phenotype characterizations and an intracellular killing assay. Illumina MiSeq platform was used for sequencing of two Salmonella genomes. Phylogenetic analysis employing homologous alignment of a 1,185 non-duplicated protein-coding gene in the Salmonella core genome demonstrated fully resolved bifurcating patterns with varying levels of diversity that separated ST221_31B and SK222_32B genomes into distinct monophyletic serovar clades. Single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP analysis identified 2,432 (ST19 SNPs within 13 Typhimurium genomes including ST221_31B representing Sequence Type ST19 and 650 (ST152 SNPs were detected within 13 Kentucky genomes including SK222_32B representing Sequence Type ST152. In addition to serovar-specific conserved coding sequences, the genomes of ST221_31B and SK222_32B harbor several genomic regions with significant genetic differences. These included phage and phage-like elements, carbon utilization or transport operons, fimbriae operons, putative membrane associated protein-encoding genes, antibiotic resistance genes, siderophore operons, and numerous hypothetical protein-encoding genes. Phenotype microarray results demonstrated that ST221_31B is capable of utilizing certain carbon compounds more efficiently as compared to SK222_3B; namely, 1,2-propanediol, M-inositol, L-threonine, α-D-lactose, D-tagatose, adonitol, formic acid, acetoacetic acid, and L-tartaric acid. ST221_31B survived for 48 h in macrophages, while SK222_32B was mostly eliminated. Further, a 3-fold growth of ST221_31B was

  16. A role for the non-canonical Wnt-ß-Catenin and TGF-ß signaling pathways in the induction of tolerance during the establishment of a Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis persistent cecal infection in chickens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Non-typhoidal Salmonella enterica induce an early pro-inflammatory response in chickens. However, the response is short-lived, asymptomatic of disease, resulting in a persistent colonization of the ceca, and fecal shedding of bacteria. The underlying mechanisms that control this persistent infecti...

  17. Salmonella enterica serovar Kentucky flagella are required for broiler skin adhesion and Caco-2 cell invasion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nontyphoidal Salmonella strains are the main source of pathogenic bacterial contamination in the poultry industry. Recently, Salmonella enterica serovar Kentucky has been recognized as the most prominent serovar on carcasses in poultry-processing plants. Previous studies showed that flagella are one...

  18. Quantitative comparison of intestinal invasion of zoonotic serotypes of Salmonella enterica in poultry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aabo, Søren; Christensen, J.P.; Chadfield, M.S.

    2002-01-01

    A. Two serotypes demonstrated intracellular log(10) counts that differed significantly from all other serotypes tested: Salmonella Enteritidis PT4 being 1.5 log(10) colony forming units (CFU) ( 31-fold) higher, and Salmonella Tennessee being 0.7 log(10) CFU (fivefold) lower than the reference strain (P...

  19. Salmonella transiently reside in luminal neutrophils in the inflamed gut.

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    Yvonne Loetscher

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Enteric pathogens need to grow efficiently in the gut lumen in order to cause disease and ensure transmission. The interior of the gut forms a complex environment comprising the mucosal surface area and the inner gut lumen with epithelial cell debris and food particles. Recruitment of neutrophils to the intestinal lumen is a hallmark of non-typhoidal Salmonella enterica infections in humans. Here, we analyzed the interaction of gut luminal neutrophils with S. enterica serovar Typhimurium (S. Tm in a mouse colitis model. RESULTS: Upon S. Tm(wt infection, neutrophils transmigrate across the mucosa into the intestinal lumen. We detected a majority of pathogens associated with luminal neutrophils 20 hours after infection. Neutrophils are viable and actively engulf S. Tm, as demonstrated by live microscopy. Using S. Tm mutant strains defective in tissue invasion we show that pathogens are mostly taken up in the gut lumen at the epithelial barrier by luminal neutrophils. In these luminal neutrophils, S. Tm induces expression of genes typically required for its intracellular lifestyle such as siderophore production iroBCDE and the Salmonella pathogenicity island 2 encoded type three secretion system (TTSS-2. This shows that S. Tm at least transiently survives and responds to engulfment by gut luminal neutrophils. Gentamicin protection experiments suggest that the life-span of luminal neutrophils is limited and that S. Tm is subsequently released into the gut lumen. This "fast cycling" through the intracellular compartment of gut luminal neutrophils would explain the high fraction of TTSS-2 and iroBCDE expressing intra- and extracellular bacteria in the lumen of the infected gut. CONCLUSION: In conclusion, live neutrophils recruited during acute S. Tm colitis engulf pathogens in the gut lumen and may thus actively engage in shaping the environment of pathogens and commensals in the inflamed gut.

  20. InvS Coordinates Expression of PrgH and FimZ and Is Required for Invasion of Epithelial Cells by Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Lu; Cai, Xia; Wu, Shuyan; Bomjan, Rajdeep; Nakayasu, Ernesto S.; Händler, Kristian; Hinton, Jay C. D.; Zhou, Daoguo; DiRita, Victor J.

    2017-04-24

    ABSTRACT

    Deep sequencing has revolutionized our understanding of the bacterial RNA world and has facilitated the identification of 280 small RNAs (sRNAs) inSalmonella. Despite the suspicions that sRNAs may play important roles inSalmonellapathogenesis, the functions of most sRNAs remain unknown. To advance our understanding of RNA biology inSalmonellavirulence, we searched for sRNAs required for bacterial invasion into nonphagocytic cells. After screening 75 sRNAs, we discovered that the ablation of InvS caused a significant decrease ofSalmonellainvasion into epithelial cells. A proteomic analysis showed that InvS modulated the levels of several type III secretedSalmonellaproteins. The level of PrgH, a type III secretion apparatus protein, was significantly lower in the absence of InvS, consistent with the known roles of PrgH in effector secretion and bacterial invasion. We discovered that InvS modulatesfimZexpression and hence flagellar gene expression and motility. We propose that InvS coordinates the increase of PrgH and decrease in FimZ that promote efficientSalmonellainvasion into nonphagocytic cells.

    IMPORTANCESalmonellosis continues to be the most common foodborne infection reported by the CDC in the United States. Central toSalmonellapathogenesis is the ability to invade nonphagocytic cells and to replicate inside host cells. Invasion genes are known to be regulated by protein transcriptional networks, but little is known

  1. Sub-Inhibitory Concentrations of the Antibiotic Florfenicol Reduces Invasion in Isolates of Multi-Drug Resistant Salmonella Typhimurium DT104

    Science.gov (United States)

    Virulence can be enhanced in certain bacteria that are exposed to sub-lethal levels of antibiotics. Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium DT104 is resistant to five different antibiotics, including florfenicol. Using real-time PCR and a tissue culture invasion assay, we investigated the impact of ...

  2. The Role of the spv Genes in Salmonella Pathogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donald G. Guiney

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Salmonella strains cause three main types of diseases in people: gastroenteritis, enteric (typhoid fever, and non-typhoid extra-intestinal disease with bacteremia. Genetic analysis indicates that each clinical syndrome requires distinct sets of virulence genes, and Salmonella isolates differ in their constellation of virulence traits. The spv locus is strongly associated with strains that cause non-typhoid bacteremia, but are not present in typhoid strains. The spv region contains three genes required for the virulence phenotype in mice: the positive transcriptional regulator spvR and two structural genes spvB and spvC. SpvB and SpvC are translocated into the host cell by the SPI-2 type-three secretion system. SpvB prevents actin polymerization by ADP-ribosylation of actin monomers, while SpvC has phosphothreonine lyase activity and has been shown to inhibit MAP kinase signaling. The exact mechanisms by which SpvB and SpvC act in concert to enhance virulence are still unclear. SpvB exhibits a cytotoxic effect on host cells and is required for delayed cell death by apoptosis following intracellular infection. Strains isolated from systemic infections of immune compromised patients, particularly HIV patients, usually carry the spv locus, strongly suggesting that CD4 T cells are required to control disease due to Salmonella that are spv positive. This association is not seen with typhoid fever, indicating that the pathogenesis and immunology of typhoid have fundamental differences from the syndrome of non-typhoid bacteremia.

  3. Data for: Millennia of genomic stability within the invasive Para C Lineage of Salmonella enterica

    OpenAIRE

    Zhou, Zhemin; Lundstrøm, Inge; Dien, Alicia Tran; Duchêne, Sebastián; Alikhan, Nabil-Fareed; Sergeant, Martin J.; Langridge, Gemma; Fotakis, Anna K.; Nair, Satheesh; Stenøien, Hans K.; Hamre, Stian S.; Casjens, Sherwood; Green, Monica H.; Christophersen, Axel; Quince, Christopher

    2017-01-01

    Salmonella enterica serovar Paratyphi C causes enteric (paratyphoid) fever in humans. Its presentation can range from asymptomatic infections of the blood stream to gastrointestinal or urinary tract infection or even a fatal septicemia. Paratyphi C is very rare in Europe and North America, except for occasional travelers from South and East Asia or Africa where the disease is more common. However, early 20th century observations in Eastern Europe suggest that Paratyphi C enteric fever may onc...

  4. Poultry body temperature contributes to invasion control through reduced expression of Salmonella pathogenicity island 1 genes in Salmonella enterica serovars Typhimurium and Enteritidis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Troxell, Bryan; Petri, Nicholas; Daron, Caitlyn; Pereira, Rafaela; Mendoza, Mary; Hassan, Hosni M; Koci, Matthew D

    2015-12-01

    Salmonella enterica serovars Typhimurium (S. Typhimurium) and Enteritidis (S. Enteritidis) are foodborne pathogens, and outbreaks are often associated with poultry products. Chickens are typically asymptomatic when colonized by these serovars; however, the factors contributing to this observation are uncharacterized. Whereas symptomatic mammals have a body temperature between 37°C and 39°C, chickens have a body temperature of 41°C to 42°C. Here, in vivo experiments using chicks demonstrated that numbers of viable S. Typhimurium or S. Enteritidis bacteria within the liver and spleen organ sites were ≥4 orders of magnitude lower than those within the ceca. When similar doses of S. Typhimurium or S. Enteritidis were given to C3H/HeN mice, the ratio of the intestinal concentration to the liver/spleen concentration was 1:1. In the avian host, this suggested poor survival within these tissues or a reduced capacity to traverse the host epithelial layer and reach liver/spleen sites or both. Salmonella pathogenicity island 1 (SPI-1) promotes localization to liver/spleen tissues through invasion of the epithelial cell layer. Following in vitro growth at 42°C, SPI-1 genes sipC, invF, and hilA and the SPI-1 rtsA activator were downregulated compared to expression at 37°C. Overexpression of the hilA activators fur, fliZ, and hilD was capable of inducing hilA-lacZ at 37°C but not at 42°C despite the presence of similar levels of protein at the two temperatures. In contrast, overexpression of either hilC or rtsA was capable of inducing hilA and sipC at 42°C. These data indicate that physiological parameters of the poultry host, such as body temperature, have a role in modulating expression of virulence. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  5. blaCTX-M-I group extended spectrum beta lactamase-producing Salmonella typhi from hospitalized patients in Lagos, Nigeria

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    Akinyemi KO

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Kabiru O Akinyemi,1 Bamidele A Iwalokun,2 Olajide O Alafe,1 Sulaiman A Mudashiru,1 Christopher Fakorede,11Department of Microbiology, Lagos State University, Ojo, Lagos, Nigeria; 2Biochemistry and Nutrition Division, Nigerian Institute of Medical Research, Yaba, Lagos, NigeriaPurpose: The global spread of blaCTX-M-I extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL-producing Salmonella spp. remains a major threat to treatment and control. Evidence of emergence and spread of this marker are lacking in Nigeria. This study investigated blaCTX-M-I ESBL production among Salmonella isolates from hospitalized patients.Methods: Patients (158 total made up of two groups were evaluated. Group A was composed of 135 patients with persistent pyrexia and group B was composed of 23 gastroenteritis patients and their stool samples. Samples were cultured, and isolates were identified and were subjected to antibiotic susceptibility testing by standard methods. Isolates were further screened for ESBL production, blaCTX-M-I genes and transferability by double disk synergy test, plasmid extraction, polymerase chain reaction, and conjugation experiment.Results: Thirty-five (25.9% Salmonella isolates were identified from group A, of which 74.3% were S. typhi, 22.9% were S. paratyphi and two (5.7% were invasive non-typhoidal S. enteritidis. Nine Plasmodium falciparum infections were recorded, four of which were identified as co-infections with typhoidal Salmonella. Only two (8.7% S. enteritidis samples were obtained from group B (P>0.05. A total of 24 isolates were ESBL-positive, eliciting resistance to five to seven antibiotics, and were multiple-drug resistant. ESBL production due to the blaCTX-M-I gene cluster was detected in eleven (45.8% Salmonella isolates. Nine (81.8% of the eleven blaCTX-M-I ESBL producers were S. typhi and two (18.2% isolates were S. enteritidis. Four of nine S. typhi blaCTX-M-I ESBL-producing strains harbored 23 kb self-transmissible plasmid that was co

  6. Pathogenicity, Epidemiology and Virulence Factors of Salmonella species: A Review

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    Tamègnon Victorien DOUGNON

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Salmonella infections are major public health problems worldwide. The hereby review aimed to establish an overview on the pathogenicity, epidemiology and virulence factors of Salmonella spp. in the world. A systematic search was conducted online using the keywords ‘Salmonella’, ‘Salmonella spp.’, ‘Salmonella spp. Epidemiology’, ‘virulence factors of Salmonella spp. in the world’, ‘bacteria responsible for the contamination of meat products’, ‘non-typhoid salmonella’. These keywords were entered into databases such as PubMed and Google Scholar using mainly French language. The obtained articles were included based on the reliability of their source, the study area (usually Benin and Africa and the subject. The review revealed that Salmonella spp. is motile Gram-negative rod-shaped bacteria, of the family Enterobacteriaceae, currently counting more than 2,600 serovars. Human contamination occurs through the ingestion of contaminated water and food and can cause gastroenteritis or typhoid fever, which are two serious public health problems. A gene set constituting the pathogenicity islands determines the pathogenesis of Salmonella spp. The diagnosis is based on bacteriological, serological and molecular techniques. Salmonella infections are usually treated using antibiotics; however, emergence of antibiotic resistance in these microorganisms suggests that the anti-salmonella control should explore new sources such as medicinal plants

  7. Signal transduction pathway mediated by the novel regulator LoiA for low oxygen tension induced Salmonella Typhimurium invasion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Lingyan; Feng, Lu; Yang, Bin; Zhang, Wenwen; Wang, Peisheng; Jiang, Xiaohan; Wang, Lei

    2017-06-01

    Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium (S. Typhimurium) is a major intestinal pathogen of both humans and animals. Salmonella pathogenicity island 1 (SPI-1)-encoded virulence genes are required for S. Typhimurium invasion. While oxygen (O2) limitation is an important signal for SPI-1 induction under host conditions, how the signal is received and integrated to the central SPI-1 regulatory system in S. Typhimurium is not clear. Here, we report a signal transduction pathway that activates SPI-1 expression in response to low O2. A novel regulator encoded within SPI-14 (STM14_1008), named LoiA (low oxygen induced factor A), directly binds to the promoter and activates transcription of hilD, leading to the activation of hilA (the master activator of SPI-1). Deletion of loiA significantly decreased the transcription of hilA, hilD and other representative SPI-1 genes (sipB, spaO, invH, prgH and invF) under low O2 conditions. The response of LoiA to the low O2 signal is mediated by the ArcB/ArcA two-component system. Deletion of either arcA or arcB significantly decreased transcription of loiA under low O2 conditions. We also confirmed that SPI-14 contributes to S. Typhimurium virulence by affecting invasion, and that loiA is the virulence determinant of SPI-14. Mice infection assays showed that S. Typhimurium virulence was severely attenuated by deletion of either the entire SPI-14 region or the single loiA gene after oral infection, while the virulence was not affected by either deletion after intraperitoneal infection. The signal transduction pathway described represents an important mechanism for S. Typhimurium to sense and respond to low O2 conditions of the host intestinal tract for invasion. SPI-14-encoded loiA is an essential element of this pathway that integrates the low O2 signal into the SPI-1 regulatory system. Acquisition of SPI-14 is therefore crucial for the evolution of S. Typhimurium as an intestinal pathogen.

  8. Signal transduction pathway mediated by the novel regulator LoiA for low oxygen tension induced Salmonella Typhimurium invasion.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lingyan Jiang

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium (S. Typhimurium is a major intestinal pathogen of both humans and animals. Salmonella pathogenicity island 1 (SPI-1-encoded virulence genes are required for S. Typhimurium invasion. While oxygen (O2 limitation is an important signal for SPI-1 induction under host conditions, how the signal is received and integrated to the central SPI-1 regulatory system in S. Typhimurium is not clear. Here, we report a signal transduction pathway that activates SPI-1 expression in response to low O2. A novel regulator encoded within SPI-14 (STM14_1008, named LoiA (low oxygen induced factor A, directly binds to the promoter and activates transcription of hilD, leading to the activation of hilA (the master activator of SPI-1. Deletion of loiA significantly decreased the transcription of hilA, hilD and other representative SPI-1 genes (sipB, spaO, invH, prgH and invF under low O2 conditions. The response of LoiA to the low O2 signal is mediated by the ArcB/ArcA two-component system. Deletion of either arcA or arcB significantly decreased transcription of loiA under low O2 conditions. We also confirmed that SPI-14 contributes to S. Typhimurium virulence by affecting invasion, and that loiA is the virulence determinant of SPI-14. Mice infection assays showed that S. Typhimurium virulence was severely attenuated by deletion of either the entire SPI-14 region or the single loiA gene after oral infection, while the virulence was not affected by either deletion after intraperitoneal infection. The signal transduction pathway described represents an important mechanism for S. Typhimurium to sense and respond to low O2 conditions of the host intestinal tract for invasion. SPI-14-encoded loiA is an essential element of this pathway that integrates the low O2 signal into the SPI-1 regulatory system. Acquisition of SPI-14 is therefore crucial for the evolution of S. Typhimurium as an intestinal pathogen.

  9. Cell invasion of poultry-associated Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis isolates is associated with pathogenicity, motility and proteins secreted by the type III secretion system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Devendra H; Zhou, Xiaohui; Addwebi, Tarek; Davis, Margaret A; Orfe, Lisa; Call, Douglas R; Guard, Jean; Besser, Thomas E

    2011-05-01

    Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis (S. Enteritidis) is a major cause of food-borne gastroenteritis in humans worldwide. Poultry and poultry products are considered the major vehicles of transmission to humans. Using cell invasiveness as a surrogate marker for pathogenicity, we tested the invasiveness of 53 poultry-associated isolates of S. Enteritidis in a well-differentiated intestinal epithelial cell model (Caco-2). The method allowed classification of the isolates into low (n = 7), medium (n = 18) and high (n = 30) invasiveness categories. Cell invasiveness of the isolates did not correlate with the presence of the virulence-associated gene spvB or the ability of the isolates to form biofilms. Testing of representative isolates with high and low invasiveness in a mouse model revealed that the former were more invasive in vivo and caused more and earlier mortalities, whereas the latter were significantly less invasive in vivo, causing few or no mortalities. Further characterization of representative isolates with low and high invasiveness showed that most of the isolates with low invasiveness had impaired motility and impaired secretion of either flagella-associated proteins (FlgK, FljB and FlgL) or type III secretion system (TTSS)-secreted proteins (SipA and SipD) encoded on Salmonella pathogenicity island-1. In addition, isolates with low invasiveness had impaired ability to invade and/or survive within chicken macrophages. These data suggest that not all isolates of S. Enteritidis recovered from poultry may be equally pathogenic, and that the pathogenicity of S. Enteritidis isolates is associated, in part, with both motility and secretion of TTSS effector proteins.

  10. The architecture and ppGpp-dependent expression of the primary transcriptome of Salmonella Typhimurium during invasion gene expression

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    Ramachandran Vinoy K

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Invasion of intestinal epithelial cells by Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium (S. Typhimurium requires expression of the extracellular virulence gene expression programme (STEX, activation of which is dependent on the signalling molecule guanosine tetraphosphate (ppGpp. Recently, next-generation transcriptomics (RNA-seq has revealed the unexpected complexity of bacterial transcriptomes and in this report we use differential RNA sequencing (dRNA-seq to define the high-resolution transcriptomic architecture of wild-type S. Typhimurium and a ppGpp null strain under growth conditions which model STEX. In doing so we show that ppGpp plays a much wider role in regulating the S. Typhimurium STEX primary transcriptome than previously recognised. Results Here we report the precise mapping of transcriptional start sites (TSSs for 78% of the S. Typhimurium open reading frames (ORFs. The TSS mapping enabled a genome-wide promoter analysis resulting in the prediction of 169 alternative sigma factor binding sites, and the prediction of the structure of 625 operons. We also report the discovery of 55 new candidate small RNAs (sRNAs and 302 candidate antisense RNAs (asRNAs. We discovered 32 ppGpp-dependent alternative TSSs and determined the extent and level of ppGpp-dependent coding and non-coding transcription. We found that 34% and 20% of coding and non-coding RNA transcription respectively was ppGpp-dependent under these growth conditions, adding a further dimension to the role of this remarkable small regulatory molecule in enabling rapid adaptation to the infective environment. Conclusions The transcriptional architecture of S. Typhimurium and finer definition of the key role ppGpp plays in regulating Salmonella coding and non-coding transcription should promote the understanding of gene regulation in this important food borne pathogen and act as a resource for future research.

  11. Salmonella enterocolitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salmonellosis; Nontyphoidal salmonella; Food poisoning - salmonella; Gastroenteritis - salmonella ... Salmonella infection is one of the most common types of food poisoning . It occurs when you swallow ...

  12. Loss of Humoral and Cellular Immunity to Invasive Nontyphoidal Salmonella during Current or Convalescent Plasmodium falciparum Infection in Malawian Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyirenda, Tonney S; Nyirenda, James T; Tembo, Dumizulu L; Storm, Janet; Dube, Queen; Msefula, Chisomo L; Jambo, Kondwani C; Mwandumba, Henry C; Heyderman, Robert S; Gordon, Melita A; Mandala, Wilson L

    2017-07-01

    Invasive nontyphoidal Salmonella (iNTS) infections are commonly associated with Plasmodium falciparum infections, but the immunologic basis for this linkage is poorly understood. We hypothesized that P. falciparum infection compromises the humoral and cellular immunity of the host to NTS, which increases the susceptibility of the host to iNTS infection. We prospectively recruited children aged between 6 and 60 months at a Community Health Centre in Blantyre, Malawi, and allocated them to the following groups; febrile with uncomplicated malaria, febrile malaria negative, and nonfebrile malaria negative. Levels of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium-specific serum bactericidal activity (SBA) and whole-blood bactericidal activity (WBBA), complement C3 deposition, and neutrophil respiratory burst activity (NRBA) were measured. Levels of SBA with respect to S Typhimurium were reduced in febrile P. falciparum -infected children (median, -0.20 log10 [interquartile range {IQR}, -1.85, 0.32]) compared to nonfebrile malaria-negative children (median, -1.42 log10 [IQR, -2.0, -0.47], P = 0.052). In relation to SBA, C3 deposition on S Typhimurium was significantly reduced in febrile P. falciparum -infected children (median, 7.5% [IQR, 4.1, 15.0]) compared to nonfebrile malaria-negative children (median, 29% [IQR, 11.8, 48.0], P = 0.048). WBBA with respect to S Typhimurium was significantly reduced in febrile P. falciparum -infected children (median, 0.25 log10 [IQR, -0.73, 1.13], P = 0.0001) compared to nonfebrile malaria-negative children (median, -1.0 log10 [IQR, -1.68, -0.16]). In relation to WBBA, S Typhimurium-specific NRBA was reduced in febrile P. falciparum -infected children (median, 8.8% [IQR, 3.7, 20], P = 0.0001) compared to nonfebrile malaria-negative children (median, 40.5% [IQR, 33, 65.8]). P. falciparum infection impairs humoral and cellular immunity to S Typhimurium in children during malaria episodes, which may explain the increased risk of iNTS observed

  13. Caco-2 Invasion byCronobacter sakazakiiandSalmonella entericaExposed to Drying and Heat Treatments in Dried State in Milk Powder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, Emilie; Guyot, Stéphane; Alvarez-Martin, Pablo; Perrier-Cornet, Jean-Marie; Gervais, Patrick

    2017-01-01

    Due to the ability of foodborne pathogens to survive in low moisture food, the decontamination of milk powder is an important issue in food protection. The safety of food products is, however, not always insured and the different steps in the processing of food involve physiological and metabolic changes in bacteria. Among these changes, virulence properties may also be affected. In this study, the effect of drying and successive thermal treatments on the invasion capacity of Salmonella Typhimurium, Salmonella Senftenberg, and Cronobacter sakazakii was assessed. Bacteria were dried on milk powder at three different water activity levels (0.25, 0.58, and 0.80) and heated at two different temperatures (90°C and 100°C) for 30 and 120 s. After recovery, stressed bacterial populations were placed in contact with Caco-2 cells to estimate their invasion capacity. Our results show that drying increases the invasion capacity of foodborne pathogens, but that heat treatment in the dried state did not exert a selective pressure on bacterial cells depending on their invasion capacity after drying. Taken together, our findings add to the sum of knowledge on food safety in dried food products and provide insight into the effects of food processing.

  14. Caco-2 Invasion by Cronobacter sakazakii and Salmonella enterica Exposed to Drying and Heat Treatments in Dried State in Milk Powder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emilie Lang

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Due to the ability of foodborne pathogens to survive in low moisture food, the decontamination of milk powder is an important issue in food protection. The safety of food products is, however, not always insured and the different steps in the processing of food involve physiological and metabolic changes in bacteria. Among these changes, virulence properties may also be affected. In this study, the effect of drying and successive thermal treatments on the invasion capacity of Salmonella Typhimurium, Salmonella Senftenberg, and Cronobacter sakazakii was assessed. Bacteria were dried on milk powder at three different water activity levels (0.25, 0.58, and 0.80 and heated at two different temperatures (90°C and 100°C for 30 and 120 s. After recovery, stressed bacterial populations were placed in contact with Caco-2 cells to estimate their invasion capacity. Our results show that drying increases the invasion capacity of foodborne pathogens, but that heat treatment in the dried state did not exert a selective pressure on bacterial cells depending on their invasion capacity after drying. Taken together, our findings add to the sum of knowledge on food safety in dried food products and provide insight into the effects of food processing.

  15. Whole genome sequencing of multidrug-resistant Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium isolated from humans and poultry in Burkina Faso.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kagambèga, Assèta; Lienemann, Taru; Frye, Jonathan G; Barro, Nicolas; Haukka, Kaisa

    2018-01-01

    Multidrug-resistant Salmonella is an important cause of morbidity and mortality in developing countries. The aim of this study was to characterize and compare multidrug-resistant Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium isolates from patients and poultry feces. Salmonella strains were isolated from poultry and patients using standard bacteriological methods described in previous studies. The strains were serotype according to Kaufmann-White scheme and tested for antibiotic susceptibility to 12 different antimicrobial agents using the disk diffusion method. The whole genome of the S. Typhimurium isolates was analyzed using Illumina technology and compared with 20 isolates of S. Typhimurium for which the ST has been deposited in a global MLST database.The ResFinder Web server was used to find the antibiotic resistance genes from whole genome sequencing (WGS) data. For comparative genomics, publicly available complete and draft genomes of different S. Typhimurium laboratory-adapted strains were downloaded from GenBank. All the tested Salmonella serotype Typhimurium were multiresistant to five commonly used antibiotics (ampicillin, chloramphenicol, streptomycin, sulfonamide, and trimethoprim). The multilocus sequence type ST313 was detected from all the strains. Our sequences were very similar to S. Typhimurium ST313 strain D23580 isolated from a patient with invasive non-typhoid Salmonella (NTS) infection in Malawi, also located in sub-Saharan Africa. The use of ResFinder web server on the whole genome of the strains showed a resistance to aminoglycoside associated with carriage of the following resistances genes: strA , strB , and aadA1 ; resistance to β-lactams associated with carriage of a bla TEM-1B genes; resistance to phenicol associated with carriage of catA1 gene; resistance to sulfonamide associated with carriage of sul1 and sul2 genes; resistance to tetracycline associated with carriage of tet B gene; and resistance to trimethoprim associated to dfrA1 gene

  16. Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium DT104 invasion is not enhanced by sub-inhibitory concentrations of the antibiotic florfenicol

    Science.gov (United States)

    The incidence of multi-drug resistant Salmonella has increased globally over the past several decades. Isolates of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium DT104 are resistant to five or more antibiotics, including florfenicol, and have been associated with enhanced virulence in livestock and humans....

  17. Rice bran extracts inhibit invasion and intracellular replication of Salmonella typhimurium in mouse and porcine intestinal epithelial cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dietary rice bran supplementation has been shown to inhibit Salmonella fecal shedding in animals. The aim of this study was to determine if bran extracts from two distinct rice varieties, Lijiangxintuanheigu (LTH) and Sanhuangzhan-2 (SHZ-2), differentially inhibit Salmonella enterica serover Typhimu...

  18. What’s in a Name? Species-Wide Whole-Genome Sequencing Resolves Invasive and Noninvasive Lineages of Salmonella enterica Serotype Paratyphi B

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    Thomas R. Connor

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available For 100 years, it has been obvious that Salmonella enterica strains sharing the serotype with the formula 1,4,[5],12:b:1,2—now known as Paratyphi B—can cause diseases ranging from serious systemic infections to self-limiting gastroenteritis. Despite considerable predicted diversity between strains carrying the common Paratyphi B serotype, there remain few methods that subdivide the group into groups that are congruent with their disease phenotypes. Paratyphi B therefore represents one of the canonical examples in Salmonella where serotyping combined with classical microbiological tests fails to provide clinically informative information. Here, we use genomics to provide the first high-resolution view of this serotype, placing it into a wider genomic context of the Salmonella enterica species. These analyses reveal why it has been impossible to subdivide this serotype based upon phenotypic and limited molecular approaches. By examining the genomic data in detail, we are able to identify common features that correlate with strains of clinical importance. The results presented here provide new diagnostic targets, as well as posing important new questions about the basis for the invasive disease phenotype observed in a subset of strains.

  19. Isolation and Determination of Antibiotic Resistance Patterns in Nontyphoid Salmonella spp isolated from chicken

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    Seyyedeh Hoorieh Fallah

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Salmonellosis is one of the most common food borne diseases in industrial and developing countries. In recent years, an increase in antimicrobial drug resistance, among non-typhoid Salmonella spp has been observed. Objectives: The aim of this study was to isolate and determine antibiotic resistance pattern in non-typhoid Salmonella spp. Materials and Methods: This descriptive study was done on 100 samples of chickens collected from 196 retail markets and was examined for the presence of Salmonella using standard bacteriological procedures and stereotyping kit. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing was performed by disk diffusion methods according to the National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards (CLSI. The data were analyzed by using the SPSS software version 18. Result: Forty- four percent of samples were contaminated with Salmonella infection and 56% didn’t have any contamination. The stereotyping results showed that 34 of 44 isolates of Salmonella belonged to Salmonella infantis (79.5 %, one strain (2.3% of group C and 8 strain (18.2% of group D. However, all these strains were sensitive to Cefotaxime and Ciprofloxacin, and 100% were resistant to Nalidixic acid, Tetracyclin and Sterptomycin. The most common resistance pattern (34.1% was towards six antibiotics, and 6.8% of strains were resistant to at least three antibiotics. Conclusion: High levels of resistance to antibiotics that are used commonly for human and poultry can be a warning for our community health and this information must be used to form important strategies for improvement of infection control.

  20. Outbreak investigation: Salmonella food poisoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunwar, R; Singh, Harpreet; Mangla, Vipra; Hiremath, R

    2013-10-01

    An outbreak of food poisoning was reported from a Military establishment on 29 May 2011 when 43 cases of food poisoning reported sick in a span of few hours. A retrospective-prospective study was conducted. Data regarding the onset of symptoms, presenting features and history of food items consumed was collected. A detailed inspection of the mess for hygiene and sanitary status, cooking and storage procedure, and rodent nuisance was also carried out. A total of 53 cases of food poisoning occurred between 29 and 31 May 2011. All cases had symptoms of diarrohea followed by fever (96.2%), headache (84.9%), abdominal pain (50.1%), nausea and vomiting (49.1%) and bodyache (39.6%) respectively. Based on the Attributable Risk (AR = 46.67%) and Relative Risk (RR = 4.5, 95% CI = 1.22-16.54) Potato-bitter gourd vegetable served during dinner on 28 May 2011 was incriminated as the food item responsible for outbreak. Symptomatology, incubation period and presence of rodent nuisance suggested contamination of Potato-bitter gourd vegetable with non-typhoidal Salmonella spp.

  1. Isolation and Characterization of Salmonella Enterica Serovar Typhimurium Circulating Among Healthy Chickens of Bangladesh

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    Md. Shafiullah Parvej

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Salmonella is considered as a global problem ranking first among food borne diseases. All motile Salmonella of poultry origin are zoonotic and readily transmit to human via meat and eggs but reports on non - typhoidal Salmonella serovars circulating in layer chickens is very limited in South-East Asian countries including Bangladesh. Salmonella serovars isolated from apparently healthy chickens were characterized in the present study. Of 170 samples (cloacal swab 150 and feed 20 collected from commercial layer farms, motile Salmonella was isolated 4% (6/150 and 50% (10/20 respectively by cultural, biochemical, motility test and by detection of hisJ gene. About 5% (8/170 samples possessed serovar-specific gene fimA, suggesting that isolates were Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing demonstrated that the isolated serovars were multidrug resistant. Therefore apparently healthy layer chickens harbour and transmit S. Typhimurium to the environment, although little is alarming since it has zoonotic significance and the isolates were resistant to commonly used first line of antibiotic in Salmonella infection.

  2. Salmonella Infections in Childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bula-Rudas, Fernando J; Rathore, Mobeen H; Maraqa, Nizar F

    2015-08-01

    Salmonella are gram-negative bacilli within the family Enterobacteriaceae. They are the cause of significant morbidity and mortality worldwide. Animals (pets) are an important reservoir for nontyphoidal Salmonella, whereas humans are the only natural host and reservoir for Salmonella Typhi. Salmonella infections are a major cause of gastroenteritis worldwide. They account for an estimated 2.8 billion cases of diarrheal disease each year. The transmission of Salmonella is frequently associated with the consumption of contaminated water and food of animal origin, and it is facilitated by conditions of poor hygiene. Nontyphoidal Salmonella infections have a worldwide distribution, whereas most typhoidal Salmonella infections in the United States are acquired abroad. In the United States, Salmonella is a common agent for food-borne–associated infections. Several outbreaks have been identified and are most commonly associated with agricultural products. Nontyphoidal Salmonella infection is usually characterized by a self-limited gastroenteritis in immunocompetent hosts in industrialized countries, but it may also cause invasive disease in vulnerable individuals (eg, children less than 1 year of age, immunocompromised). Antibiotic treatment is not recommended for treatment of mild to moderate gastroenteritis by nontyphoidal Salmonella in immunocompetent adults or children more than 1 year of age. Antibiotic treatment is recommended for nontyphoidal Salmonella infections in infants less than 3 months of age, because they are at higher risk for bacteremia and extraintestinal complications. Typhoid (enteric) fever and its potential complications have a significant impact on children, especially those who live in developing countries. Antibiotic treatment of typhoid fever has become challenging because of the emergence of Salmonella Typhi strains that are resistant to classically used first-line agents: ampicillin, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, and chloramphenicol. The

  3. Vaccines for viral and bacterial pathogens causing acute gastroenteritis: Part II: Vaccines for Shigella, Salmonella, enterotoxigenic E. coli (ETEC) enterohemorragic E. coli (EHEC) and Campylobacter jejuni

    Science.gov (United States)

    O’Ryan, Miguel; Vidal, Roberto; del Canto, Felipe; Carlos Salazar, Juan; Montero, David

    2015-01-01

    In Part II we discuss the following bacterial pathogens: Shigella, Salmonella (non-typhoidal), diarrheogenic E. coli (enterotoxigenic and enterohemorragic) and Campylobacter jejuni. In contrast to the enteric viruses and Vibrio cholerae discussed in Part I of this series, for the bacterial pathogens described here there is only one licensed vaccine, developed primarily for Vibrio cholerae and which provides moderate protection against enterotoxigenic E. coli (ETEC) (Dukoral®), as well as a few additional candidates in advanced stages of development for ETEC and one candidate for Shigella spp. Numerous vaccine candidates in earlier stages of development are discussed. PMID:25715096

  4. Vaccines for viral and bacterial pathogens causing acute gastroenteritis: Part II: Vaccines for Shigella, Salmonella, enterotoxigenic E. coli (ETEC) enterohemorragic E. coli (EHEC) and Campylobacter jejuni.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Ryan, Miguel; Vidal, Roberto; del Canto, Felipe; Carlos Salazar, Juan; Montero, David

    2015-01-01

    In Part II we discuss the following bacterial pathogens: Shigella, Salmonella (non-typhoidal), diarrheogenic E. coli (enterotoxigenic and enterohemorragic) and Campylobacter jejuni. In contrast to the enteric viruses and Vibrio cholerae discussed in Part I of this series, for the bacterial pathogens described here there is only one licensed vaccine, developed primarily for Vibrio cholerae and which provides moderate protection against enterotoxigenic E. coli (ETEC) (Dukoral(®)), as well as a few additional candidates in advanced stages of development for ETEC and one candidate for Shigella spp. Numerous vaccine candidates in earlier stages of development are discussed.

  5. Characterization of extended-spectrum beta-lactamase-producing Salmonella enterica serotype Brunei and Heidelberg at the Hussein Dey hospital in Algiers (Algeria).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kermas, Rachida; Touati, Abdelaziz; Brasme, Lucien; Le Magrex-Debar, Elisabeth; Mehrane, Sadjia; Weill, François-Xavier; De Champs, Christophe

    2012-09-01

    The purpose of this work was to study the genetic determinants responsible for extended-spectrum cephalosporin (ESC) resistance of Salmonella collected during the period of 1995-2008 at the Hussein Dey hospital in Algiers (Algeria). Fourteen ESC-resistant Salmonella isolates were tested towards 22 antimicrobial agents. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and sequencing were used to determine the underlying genetic determinants responsible for the extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL) phenotypes. Enterobacterial Repetitive Intergenic Consensus PCR was employed to type the isolates. All tested isolates were resistant to ticarcillin, ticarcillin-clavulanate, piperacillin, cefuroxime, aztreonam, ceftazidime, cefotaxime (except two isolates), cefepime, and cefpirome. PCR and DNA sequencing identified these ESBLs as TEM-48 (n=6), TEM-4 (n=3), CTX-M-15 (n=4), and one new TEM, designated TEM-188. Thus, continued surveillance for the presence of ESBL-producing (non-typhoidal) salmonellae in Algeria is essential.

  6. Antimicrobial sensitivity pattern of Salmonella: comparison of isolates from HIV-infected and HIV-uninfected patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolday, D; Erge, W

    1998-07-01

    A retrospective analysis of all cases of Salmonella infections occurring between 1991 and 1995 was undertaken in order to evaluate the antimicrobial sensitivity pattern of the isolates from both human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infected and uninfected Ethiopian patients. During the 5-year study period, we identified 147 cases of Salmonella infections. Only in 49 cases was the HIV serostatus known; 22 (44.9%) of the infections were in HIV seronegative patients while 27 (55.9%) were in HIV seropositive patients. The strains were isolated from blood (71.4%), urine (18.4%) and stool (8.2%). Salmonella infection was found to be more frequent (55.15% versus 44.9%) among HIV positive than HIV-negative patients. Moreover, Salmonella isolates recovered from HIV-seropositive patients were significantly resistant to many of the antibiotics tested when compared to the isolates from HIV-seronegative patients. The only chloramphenicol resistant Salmonella typhi occurred in a patient who was seropositive for HIV. According to these results, Ethiopian patients infected with HIV may be at risk of acquiring infections, especially non-typhoidal salmonellas, that are multi-drug resistant (MDR) strains than HIV-uninfected subjects. The emergence of MDR Salmonella infection among HIV-positive patients requires reassessment of chemotherapeutic approaches in this patient population, and warrants continued laboratory surveillance.

  7. Effects of minimal exposures to atmospheric pressure plasma on the activity of Salmonella Typhimurium: Deactivation of bacterial motility and suppression of host-cell invasion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jin-Sung; Kim, Kijung; Han, Je-Hyun; Gweon, Bomi; Ko, Ung Hyun; Yoo, Suk Jae; Choe, Wonho; Shin, Jennifer H

    2016-09-01

    Atmospheric pressure plasma (APP) has been shown effective in sterilization by reducing the number of viable microbes during surface cleaning, food processing, or human tissue treatment. For safe conduct, the majority of previous research focused on complete abolition of microbes, which may require severe treatments. Our aim is to investigate the minimal treatment conditions necessary for effective inactivation of bacteria in such a manner that the APP treated bacteria would not be able to harm the host cells. For this, we ought to identify the objective criteria to make the bacteria dysfunctional. We choose the motile properties and the host-cell invasion capability as two measures to quantify the pathogenic state of bacteria. In this paper, we investigated how the APP treatment in a minimal dosage affects the activity of Salmonella Typhimurium. At 100 W and 15 kHz for 20 s, the APP treatment effectively suppressed active "run and tumble" type motility and induced formation of abnormally long structures. With 20 s exposure, the bacterial cells failed to cause pyroptosis in the host cells with >90% survival after 12 h of co-incubation. Our results suggest novel measures to evaluate the functional pathogenic state for identifying safe APP treatment conditions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Salmonella osteomyelitis

    OpenAIRE

    Somsri Wiwanitkit; Viroj Wiwanitkit

    2016-01-01

    Salmonella infection can cause four predominant clinical syndromes: enteric fever, acute gastroenteritis, bacteraemia with or without metastatic infection, and the asymptomatic carrier state. Salmonella as an aetiological agent in osteomyelitis is essentially rare and salmonella osteomyelitis in itself is predominantly seen in patients with haemoglobinopathies such as sickle cell disease or thalassemia. There are very few cases reported in the literature in which salmonella osteomyelitis is s...

  9. Salmonella: Salmonellosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Löfström, Charlotta; Hansen, Trine; Maurischat, Sven

    2015-01-01

    Salmonella remains one of the most important zoonotic pathogenic bacteria and is the causative agents of salmonellosis. The aim of this article is to give an overview of Salmonella and salmonellosis, starting by describing the characteristics of the microorganism Salmonella, including biochemical...

  10. Free-Living Species of Carnivorous Mammals in Poland: Red Fox, Beech Marten, and Raccoon as a Potential Reservoir of Salmonella, Yersinia, Listeria spp. and Coagulase-Positive Staphylococcus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowakiewicz, Aneta; Zięba, Przemysław; Ziółkowska, Grażyna; Gnat, Sebastian; Muszyńska, Marta; Tomczuk, Krzysztof; Majer Dziedzic, Barbara; Ulbrych, Łukasz; Trościańczyk, Aleksandra

    2016-01-01

    The objective of the study was to examine a population of free-living carnivorous mammals most commonly found in Poland (red fox, beech marten, and raccoon) for the occurrence of bacteria that are potentially pathogenic for humans and other animal species and to determine their virulence potential (the presence of selected virulence genes). From the total pool of isolates obtained (n = 328), we selected 90 belonging to species that pose the greatest potential threat to human health: Salmonella spp. (n = 19; 4.51%), Yersinia enterocolitica (n = 10; 2.37%), Listeria monocytogenes and L. ivanovii (n = 21), and Staphylococcus aureus (n = 40; 9.5%). The Salmonella spp. isolates represented three different subspecies; S. enterica subsp. enterica accounted for a significant proportion (15/19), and most of the serotypes isolated (S. Typhimurium, S. Infantis, S. Newport and S. Enteritidis) were among the 10 non-typhoidal Salmonella serotypes that are most often responsible for infections in Europe, including Poland. Y. enterococlitica was detected in the smallest percentage of animals, but 60% of strains among the isolates tested possessed the ail gene, which is responsible for attachment and invasion. Potentially pathogenic Listeria species were isolated from approx. 5% of the animals. The presence of all tested virulence genes was shown in 35% of L. monocytogenes strains, while in the case of the other strains, the genes occurred in varying numbers and configurations. The presence of the inlA, inlC, hlyA, and iap genes was noted in all strains, whereas the genes encoding PI-PLC, actin, and internalin Imo2821 were present in varying percentages (from 80% to 55%). S. aureus was obtained from 40 individuals. Most isolates possessed the hla, hld (95% for each), and hlb (32.5%) genes encoding hemolysins as well as the gene encoding leukotoxin lukED (70%). In a similar percentage of strains (77.5%), the presence of at least one gene encoding enterotoxin was found, with 12

  11. Free-Living Species of Carnivorous Mammals in Poland: Red Fox, Beech Marten, and Raccoon as a Potential Reservoir of Salmonella, Yersinia, Listeria spp. and Coagulase-Positive Staphylococcus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aneta Nowakiewicz

    Full Text Available The objective of the study was to examine a population of free-living carnivorous mammals most commonly found in Poland (red fox, beech marten, and raccoon for the occurrence of bacteria that are potentially pathogenic for humans and other animal species and to determine their virulence potential (the presence of selected virulence genes. From the total pool of isolates obtained (n = 328, we selected 90 belonging to species that pose the greatest potential threat to human health: Salmonella spp. (n = 19; 4.51%, Yersinia enterocolitica (n = 10; 2.37%, Listeria monocytogenes and L. ivanovii (n = 21, and Staphylococcus aureus (n = 40; 9.5%. The Salmonella spp. isolates represented three different subspecies; S. enterica subsp. enterica accounted for a significant proportion (15/19, and most of the serotypes isolated (S. Typhimurium, S. Infantis, S. Newport and S. Enteritidis were among the 10 non-typhoidal Salmonella serotypes that are most often responsible for infections in Europe, including Poland. Y. enterococlitica was detected in the smallest percentage of animals, but 60% of strains among the isolates tested possessed the ail gene, which is responsible for attachment and invasion. Potentially pathogenic Listeria species were isolated from approx. 5% of the animals. The presence of all tested virulence genes was shown in 35% of L. monocytogenes strains, while in the case of the other strains, the genes occurred in varying numbers and configurations. The presence of the inlA, inlC, hlyA, and iap genes was noted in all strains, whereas the genes encoding PI-PLC, actin, and internalin Imo2821 were present in varying percentages (from 80% to 55%. S. aureus was obtained from 40 individuals. Most isolates possessed the hla, hld (95% for each, and hlb (32.5% genes encoding hemolysins as well as the gene encoding leukotoxin lukED (70%. In a similar percentage of strains (77.5%, the presence of at least one gene encoding enterotoxin was found, with 12

  12. Molecular study on some antibiotic resistant genes in Salmonella spp. isolates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nabi, Ari Q.

    2017-09-01

    Studying the genes related with antimicrobial resistance in Salmonella spp. is a crucial step toward a correct and faster treatment of infections caused by the pathogen. In this work Integron mediated antibiotic resistant gene IntI1 (Class I Integrase IntI1) and some plasmid mediated antibiotic resistance genes (Qnr) were scanned among the isolated non-Typhoid Salmonellae strains with known resistance to some important antimicrobial drugs using Sybr Green real time PCR. The aim of the study was to correlate the multiple antibiotics and antimicrobial resistance of Salmonella spp. with the presence of integrase (IntI1) gene and plasmid mediated quinolone resistant genes. Results revealed the presence of Class I Integrase gene in 76% of the isolates with confirmed multiple antibiotic resistances. Moreover, about 32% of the multiple antibiotic resistant serotypes showed a positive R-PCR for plasmid mediated qnrA gene encoding for nalidixic acid and ciprofloxacin resistance. No positive results could be revealed form R-PCRs targeting qnrB or qnrS. In light of these results we can conclude that the presence of at least one of the qnr genes and/or the presence of Integrase Class I gene were responsible for the multiple antibiotic resistance to for nalidixic acid and ciprofloxacin from the studied Salmonella spp. and further studies required to identify the genes related with multiple antibiotic resistance of the pathogen.

  13. Drastic decrease of Salmonella Enteritidis isolated from humans in Belgium in 2005, shift in phage types and influence on foodborne outbreaks

    Science.gov (United States)

    COLLARD, J. M.; BERTRAND, S.; DIERICK, K.; GODARD, C.; WILDEMAUWE, C.; VERMEERSCH, K.; DUCULOT, J.; VAN IMMERSEEL, F.; PASMANS, F.; IMBERECHTS, H.; QUINET, C.

    2008-01-01

    SUMMARY In Belgium, non-typhoidal salmonellosis and campylobacteriosis are the two most frequently reported foodborne illnesses. During 2005, a 71% decrease of Salmonella Enteritidis infections compared with the average annual number cases in the period 2000–2004 was recorded by the Belgian National Reference Centre for Salmonella and Shigella. After the peak of 1999, the total number of salmonellosis cases decreased gradually, with the exception of 2003 when an increase was again recorded due to the rise of isolates belonging to the serotype Enteritidis. PT4, the predominant phage type of serotype Enteriditis over recent years (except in 2003), became the second most prevalent phage type in 2005 after PT21. We present in this paper the epidemiology (incidence and trends) of human salmonellosis in Belgium and assess the role of the vaccination programme in layer flocks on the decline of the incidence of human salmonellosis and foodborne outbreaks due to S. Enteritidis. PMID:17645812

  14. Identification and characterization of novel Salmonella mobile elements involved in the dissemination of genes linked to virulence and transmission.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea I Moreno Switt

    Full Text Available The genetic diversity represented by >2,500 different Salmonella serovars provides a yet largely uncharacterized reservoir of mobile elements that can contribute to the frequent emergence of new pathogenic strains of this important zoonotic pathogen. Currently, our understanding of Salmonella mobile elements is skewed by the fact that most studies have focused on highly virulent or common serovars. To gain a more global picture of mobile elements in Salmonella, we used prediction algorithms to screen for mobile elements in 16 sequenced Salmonella genomes representing serovars for which no prior genome scale mobile element data were available. From these results, selected mobile elements underwent further analyses in the form of validation studies, comparative analyses, and PCR-based population screens. Through this analysis we identified a novel plasmid that has two cointegrated replicons (IncI1-IncFIB; this plasmid type was found in four genomes representing different Salmonella serovars and contained a virulence gene array that had not been previously identified. A Salmonella Montevideo isolate contained an IncHI and an IncN2 plasmid, which both encoded antimicrobial resistance genes. We also identified two novel genomic islands (SGI2 and SGI3, and 42 prophages with mosaic architecture, seven of them harboring known virulence genes. Finally, we identified a novel integrative conjugative element (ICE encoding a type IVb pilus operon in three non-typhoidal Salmonella serovars. Our analyses not only identified a considerable number of mobile elements that have not been previously reported in Salmonella, but also found evidence that these elements facilitate transfer of genes that were previously thought to be limited in their distribution among Salmonella serovars. The abundance of mobile elements encoding pathogenic properties may facilitate the emergence of strains with novel combinations of pathogenic traits.

  15. Prevalence, risk factors and antimicrobial resistance of Salmonella diarrhoeal infection among children in Thi-Qar Governorate, Iraq.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harb, A; O'Dea, M; Hanan, Z K; Abraham, S; Habib, I

    2017-12-01

    We conducted a hospital-based cross-sectional study among children aged Salmonella infection. From 320 diarrhoea cases enrolled between March and August 2016, 33 (10·3%, 95% confidence interval (CI) 8·4-12·4) cases were stool culture-positive for non-typhoidal Salmonella enterica. The most commonly identified serovar was Typhimurium (54%). Multivariable logistic regression analysis indicated that the odds of Salmonella infection in children from households supplied by pipe water was 4·7 (95% CI 1·6-13·9) times higher compared with those supplied with reverse osmosis treated water. Similarly, children from households with domestic animals were found to have a higher odds (OR 10·5; 95% CI 3·8-28·4) of being Salmonella stool culture-positive. The likelihood of Salmonella infection was higher (OR 3·9; 95% CI 1·0-6·4) among children belonging to caregiver with primary vs. tertiary education levels. Lower odds (OR 0·4; 95% CI 0·1-0·9) of Salmonella infection were associated with children exclusively breast fed as compared with those exclusively bottle fed. Salmonella infection was three times lower (95% CI 0·1-0·7) in children belonging to caregiver who reported always washing hands after cleaning children following defecation, vs. those belonging to caregivers who did not wash hands. The antimicrobial resistance profile by disc diffusion revealed that non-susceptibility to tetracycline (78·8%), azithromycin (66·7%) and ciprofloxacin (57·6%) were the most commonly seen, and 84·9% of Salmonella isolates were classified as multi-drug resistant. This is the first study on prevalence and antimicrobial resistance of Salmonella infection among children in this setting. This work provides specific epidemiological data which are crucial to understand and combat paediatric diarrhoea in Iraq.

  16. Molecular epidemiology of fluoroquinolone resistant Salmonella in Africa: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tadesse, Getachew; Tessema, Tesfaye S; Beyene, Getenet; Aseffa, Abraham

    2018-01-01

    Wide-ranging evidence on the occurrence of fluoroquinolone (FQ) resistance genetic determinants in African Salmonella strains is not available. The main objectives of this study were to assess the heterogeneity, estimate pooled proportions and describe the preponderance of FQ-resistance determinants in typhoidal and non-typhoidal Salmonella (NTS) isolates of Africa. Genetic and phenotypic data on 6103 Salmonella isolates were considered. Meta- and frequency analyses were performed depending on the number of studies by category, number of isolates and risks of bias. A random effects model was used to assess heterogeneity and estimate pooled proportions. Relative and cumulative frequencies were calculated to describe the overall preponderance of FQ-resistance determinants in quinolone resistant isolates. The pooled proportion of gyrA mutants (Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi, Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium, and Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis) was estimated at 5.7% (95% Confidence interval (CI) = 2.6, 9.8; Tau squared (T2) = 0.1105), and was higher in S. Typhi than in S. Typhimurium (odds ratio (OR) = 3.3, 95%CI = 2, 5.7). The proportions of each of gyrB and parC mutants, and strains with Plasmid Mediated Quinolone Resistance genes (qnrA, qnrB and qnrS) were low (≤ 0.3%). Overall, 23 mutant serotypes were identified, and most strains had mutations at codons encoding Ser83 and Asp87 of gyrA (82%, 95%CI = 78, 86). Mutations at gyrA appear to account for ciprofloxacin non-susceptibility in most clinical Salmonella strains in Africa. The estimates could be harnessed to develop a mismatch-amplification mutation-assay for the detection of FQ-resistant strains in Africa.

  17. Salmonella biofilms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Castelijn, G.A.A.

    2013-01-01

    Biofilm formation by Salmonellaspp. is a problem in the food industry, since biofilms may act as a persistent source of product contamination. Therefore the aim of this study was to obtain more insight in the processes involved and the factors contributing to Salmonellabiofilm

  18. Typing of Typhoidal Salmonella Using Extraction of Water Soluble Whole Cell Proteins and Analysing by SDS-PAGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Yousefi Mashouf

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction & Objective : Salmonella is one of the most important genus of Enterobacteriacea family. The aim of this study was typing of typhoidal Salmonella by SDS-PAGE and comparing the results with those of serotyping method.Materials and Methods: In this study, 4 reference strains of Salmonella species, 5 reference strains of Enterobacteriacea family and 100 clinical isolates of Salmonella that were previously collected from laboratories of Hamadan medical centers were studied. Serotyping of strains were performed by Biomereux and Difco monovalent antisera. Whole-cell proteins of strains were also separated on 10% poly acrylamide gel. Gels were stained by Coomassie Brilliant Blue and analyzed by densitometry. Results: Of 100 cases of Salmonella species, 43 cases (43% were S. typhi, 20 cases (20% were S. typhymurium, 12 cases (12% were S. para typhi B, 10 cases (10% were S. para typhi C, S. para typhi A 1 case (1% and other cases were non-typhoidal Salmonella. The results of serotyping were compared with the results obtained by SDS-PAGE. Many protein bands from 220 KDa to 18.5 KDa were detected by SDS-PAGE and they were used to differentiate the strains. S. typhi serotypes were divided into 5 sub-species and S. para typhi B and C were divided each into 3 sub-species. Protein profiles of the reference strains of Salmonella were compared with protein profiles of Enterobacteriaceae species and showed some differences in major protein bands, however, they had a very similar protein band in 43 KDa area. Conclusion: Since our data was able to divide Salmonella species to sub-types and differentiate them from Enterobacteriacea species, we concluded that analsying SDS-PAGE profile of water soluble whole-cell proteins can be used for typing of these organisms and it is comparble with serotyping, nevertheless, further researches are needed to establish SDS-PAGE method and to replace it with serotyping method.

  19. E. coli Nissle 1917 Affects Salmonella adhesion to porcine intestinal epithelial cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Schierack

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The probiotic Escherichia coli strain Nissle 1917 (EcN has been shown to interfere in a human in vitro model with the invasion of several bacterial pathogens into epithelial cells, but the underlying molecular mechanisms are not known. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In this study, we investigated the inhibitory effects of EcN on Salmonella Typhimurium invasion of porcine intestinal epithelial cells, focusing on EcN effects on the various stages of Salmonella infection including intracellular and extracellular Salmonella growth rates, virulence gene regulation, and adhesion. We show that EcN affects the initial Salmonella invasion steps by modulating Salmonella virulence gene regulation and Salmonella SiiE-mediated adhesion, but not extra- and intracellular Salmonella growth. However, the inhibitory activity of EcN against Salmonella invasion always correlated with EcN adhesion capacities. EcN mutants defective in the expression of F1C fimbriae and flagellae were less adherent and less inhibitory toward Salmonella invasion. Another E. coli strain expressing F1C fimbriae was also adherent to IPEC-J2 cells, and was similarly inhibitory against Salmonella invasion like EcN. CONCLUSIONS: We propose that EcN affects Salmonella adhesion through secretory components. This mechanism appears to be common to many E. coli strains, with strong adherence being a prerequisite for an effective reduction of SiiE-mediated Salmonella adhesion.

  20. Detection of Salmonella enterica Serovar Montevideo and Newport in Free-ranging Sea Turtles and Beach Sand in the Caribbean and Persistence in Sand and Seawater Microcosms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ives, A-K; Antaki, E; Stewart, K; Francis, S; Jay-Russell, M T; Sithole, F; Kearney, M T; Griffin, M J; Soto, E

    2017-09-01

    Salmonellae are Gram-negative zoonotic bacteria that are frequently part of the normal reptilian gastrointestinal flora. The main objective of this project was to estimate the prevalence of non-typhoidal Salmonella enterica in the nesting and foraging populations of sea turtles on St. Kitts and in sand from known nesting beaches. Results suggest a higher prevalence of Salmonella in nesting leatherback sea turtles compared with foraging green and hawksbill sea turtles. Salmonella was cultured from 2/9 and identified by molecular diagnostic methods in 3/9 leatherback sea turtle samples. Salmonella DNA was detected in one hawksbill turtle, but viable isolates were not recovered from any hawksbill sea turtles. No Salmonella was detected in green sea turtles. In samples collected from nesting beaches, Salmonella was only recovered from a single dry sand sample. All recovered isolates were positive for the wzx gene, consistent with the O:7 serogroup. Further serotyping characterized serovars Montevideo and Newport present in cloacal and sand samples. Repetitive-element palindromic PCR (rep-PCR) fingerprint analysis and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis of the 2014 isolates from turtles and sand as well as archived Salmonella isolates recovered from leatherback sea turtles in 2012 and 2013, identified two distinct genotypes and four different pulsotypes, respectively. The genotyping and serotyping were directly correlated. To determine the persistence of representative strains of each serotype/genotype in these environments, laboratory-controlled microcosm studies were performed in water and sand (dry and wet) incubated at 25 or 35°C. Isolates persisted for at least 32 days in most microcosms, although there were significant decreases in culturable bacteria in several microcosms, with the greatest reduction in dry sand incubated at 35°C. This information provides a better understanding of the epizootiology of Salmonella in free-ranging marine reptiles and the potential

  1. FAKTOR VIRULENSI Salmonella enterica SEROVAR TYPHI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marvy Khrisna Pranamartha

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRAK Demam tifoid disebabkan oleh bakteri Salmonella typhi, dengan gejala umum berupa demam tinggi dan nyeri perut. Tifoid adalah penyakit infeksi yang disebabkan oleh bakteri Salmonella typhi, yang masuk ke dalam tubuh melalui mulut dan saluran cerna.1 Untuk bisa memahami patogenesis dari demam tifoid sampai ke tingkat selular dan molekular, ada 5 hal penting yang harus digaris bawahi, yaitu: 1.\tTipe 3 Sistem Sekresi (T3SS 2.\tVirulence Genes dari Salmonella yang mengkode 5 SIP (Salmonella Invasion Protein SIP A, B, C, D, dan E. 3.\tToll R2 dan toll R3 yang merupakan lapisan luar dari makrofag. 4.\tSistem imun lumen usus sampai ke organ dalam 5.\tFungsi endotelial sel dalam inflamasi. Infeksi Salmonella dapat berakibat fatal kepada bayi, balita, ibu hamil dan kandungannya serta orang lanjut usia. Hal ini disebabkan karena kekebalan tubuh mereka yang menurun. Virulensi salmonella tidak lepas dari peranan SPI, yang terletak di dalam kromosom dan plasmid bakteri. Dimana SPI 1 dan SPI 2 telah dikaji cukup mendalam karena keterkaitannya dengan T3SS, dan berperan sangat penting pada invasi awal serta siklus hidup intrasel dari bakteri Salmonella. Kontaminasi Salmonella dapat dicegah dengan mencuci tangan dan menjaga kebersihan makanan yang dikonsumsi. Selalu menjaga kebersihan lingkungan hidup kita agar terhindar dari kontaminasi dengan bakteri Salmonella typhi. Agar mewaspadai sejak dini pencegahan dan pengobatan penyakit typhus. Studi mendalam perlu dilakukan agar kita mampu lebih memahami proses kompleks antara patogen dan sel inang. Mengingat dari 15 SPI yang sudah diketahui, hanya SPI 1 dan SPI 2 yang sudah dikaji secara mendalam. Kata Kunci: Salmonella, Salmonella Invasion Protein, Typhi.

  2. Pulsed-field profile diversities of Salmonella Enteritidis, S. Infantis, and S. Corvallis in Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murakami, Koichi; Noda, Tamie; Onozuka, Daisuke; Kimura, Hirokazu; Fujimoto, Shuji

    2017-01-01

    The diversity of pulsed-field profiles (PFPs) within non-typhoidal Salmonella subtypes influences epidemiological analyses of Salmonella outbreaks. Therefore, determining the PFP diversity of each Salmonella serovar is important when evaluating current circulating strains. This study examined the PFP diversity of three important public health Salmonella enterica subspecies enterica serovars, S. Enteritidis (n=177), S. Infantis (n=205), and S. Corvallis (n=90), using pulsed-field gel electrophoresis. Isolates were collected from several sources, primarily from chicken-derived samples, in the Kyushu-Okinawa region of Japan between 1989 and 2005. S. Enteritidis isolates displayed 51 distinct PFPs (E-PFPs), with 92 (52.0%) and 32 (18.1%) isolates displaying types E-PFP1 and E-PFP10, respectively. The 205 S. Infantis isolates showed 54 distinct PFPs (I-PFPs), with 87 (42.4%) and 36 (17.6%) isolates being I-PFP4 and I-PFP2, respectively. I-PFP18 was the dominant I-PFP of layer chicken isolates across a 5-year period. Fourteen distinct S. Corvallis PFPs were detected. Simpson’s index results for the genetic diversities of S. Enteritidis, S. Infantis, and S. Corvallis isolates were 0.70, 0.79, and 0.78, respectively. None of the E-PFPs or I-PFPs of layer chicken isolates overlapped with those of broiler chicken isolates, and the dominant clonal lines existed for >10 years. In conclusion, limited PFP diversities were detected amongst S. Enteritidis, S. Infantis, and S. Corvallis isolates of primarily chicken-derived origins in the Kyushu-Okinawa region of Japan. Therefore, it is important to take into account these limitations in PFP diversities in epidemiological analyses of Salmonella outbreaks. PMID:29071243

  3. Pulsed-field profile diversities of Salmonella Enteritidis, S. Infantis, and S. Corvallis in Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koichi Murakami

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The diversity of pulsed-field profiles (PFPs within non-typhoidal Salmonella subtypes influences epidemiological analyses of Salmonella outbreaks. Therefore, determining the PFP diversity of each Salmonella serovar is important when evaluating current circulating strains. This study examined the PFP diversity of three important public health Salmonella enterica subspecies enterica serovars, S. Enteritidis (n=177, S. Infantis (n=205, and S. Corvallis (n=90, using pulsed-field gel electrophoresis. Isolates were collected from several sources, primarily from chicken-derived samples, in the Kyushu-Okinawa region of Japan between 1989 and 2005. S. Enteritidis isolates displayed 51 distinct PFPs (E-PFPs, with 92 (52.0% and 32 (18.1% isolates displaying types EPFP1 and E-PFP10, respectively. The 205 S. Infantis isolates showed 54 distinct PFPs (I-PFPs, with 87 (42.4% and 36 (17.6% isolates being I-PFP4 and I-PFP2, respectively. I-PFP18 was the dominant I-PFP of layer chicken isolates across a 5-year period. Fourteen distinct S. Corvallis PFPs were detected. Simpson’s index results for the genetic diversities of S. Enteritidis, S. Infantis, and S. Corvallis isolates were 0.70, 0.79, and 0.78, respectively. None of the EPFPs or I-PFPs of layer chicken isolates overlapped with those of broiler chicken isolates, and the dominant clonal lines existed for >10 years. In conclusion, limited PFP diversities were detected amongst S. Enteritidis, S. Infantis, and S. Corvallis isolates of primarily chicken-derived origins in the Kyushu-Okinawa region of Japan. Therefore, it is important to take into account these limitations in PFP diversities in epidemiological analyses of Salmonella outbreaks.

  4. Typhoid fever: “You can’t hit what you can’t see”

    OpenAIRE

    Wangdi, Tamding; Winter, Sebastian E.; Bäumler, Andreas J.

    2012-01-01

    The host restricts dissemination of invasive enteric pathogens, such as non-typhoidal Salmonella serovars, by mounting acute inflammatory responses characterized by the recruitment of neutrophils. However, some enteric pathogens, such as Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi (S. typhi), can bypass these defenses and cause an invasive bloodstream infection known as typhoid fever. Recent studies on virulence mechanisms of S. typhi suggest that tight regulation of virulence gene expression during th...

  5. Roles of the Outer Membrane Protein AsmA of Salmonella enterica in the Control of marRAB Expression and Invasion of Epithelial Cells▿

    OpenAIRE

    Prieto, Ana I.; Hernández, Sara B.; Cota, Ignacio; Pucciarelli, M. Graciela; Orlov, Yuri; Ramos-Morales, Francisco; García-del Portillo, Francisco; Casadesús, Josep

    2009-01-01

    A genetic screen for suppressors of bile sensitivity in DNA adenine methylase (dam) mutants of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium yielded insertions in an uncharacterized locus homologous to the Escherichia coli asmA gene. Disruption of asmA suppressed bile sensitivity also in phoP and wec mutants of S. enterica and increased the MIC of sodium deoxycholate for the parental strain ATCC 14028. Increased levels of marA mRNA were found in asmA, asmA dam, asmA phoP, and asmA wec strains of S....

  6. Interactions of Salmonella with animals and plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiedemann, Agnès; Virlogeux-Payant, Isabelle; Chaussé, Anne-Marie; Schikora, Adam; Velge, Philippe

    2015-01-01

    Salmonella enterica species are Gram-negative bacteria, which are responsible for a wide range of food- and water-borne diseases in both humans and animals, thereby posing a major threat to public health. Recently, there has been an increasing number of reports, linking Salmonella contaminated raw vegetables and fruits with food poisoning. Many studies have shown that an essential feature of the pathogenicity of Salmonella is its capacity to cross a number of barriers requiring invasion of a large variety of cells and that the extent of internalization may be influenced by numerous factors. However, it is poorly understood how Salmonella successfully infects hosts as diversified as animals or plants. The aim of this review is to describe the different stages required for Salmonella interaction with its hosts: (i) attachment to host surfaces; (ii) entry processes; (iii) multiplication; (iv) suppression of host defense mechanisms; and to point out similarities and differences between animal and plant infections. PMID:25653644

  7. An outbreak of Salmonella gastrointestinal illness in a military camp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Vernon J; Ong, Alan E S; Auw, Matthew

    2009-03-01

    Non-typhoidal Salmonellae are important causes of bacterial food-borne infection, especially in institutional settings. An outbreak of gastrointestinal infection occurred in a military camp in January 2007, and an epidemiological outbreak investigation was conducted. A survey was conducted on soldiers in the camp on their clinical symptoms, and recent meals consumed. After determining the affected meal, a subsequent survey was conducted on those who had eaten the meal. A case-control study was then performed to determine the outbreak's likely food source. Laboratory tests were also conducted to determine the bacteriological cause. Of the 94 responders, 55 (58.5%) met our case definition of gastrointestinal illness. The dinner on 9 January was the most likely affected meal, with the onset of symptoms occurring within 6 to 36 hours. The mashed potato was the most likely food source with an attack rate of 80.7% for those who consumed it versus 32.7% for those who did not (P <0.01). From the multivariate analysis, the mashed potato remained the only food item independently and significantly associated with infection, with a relative risk of infection 9.49 times those who did not consume it (95% CI, 2.73-32.97). Salmonella group E was cultured from 4 individuals. Although no specific contamination was identified, the mashed potato was stored for more than 5 hours before the last serving. Risk during preparation of large quantities of food should be identified a priori, and measures taken to reduce them, to prevent outbreaks.

  8. High prevalence of ceftriaxone resistance among invasive Salmonella enterica serotype Choleraesuis isolates in Thailand: The emergence and increase of CTX-M-55 in ciprofloxacin-resistant S. Choleraesuis isolates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luk-In, Sirirat; Chatsuwan, Tanittha; Pulsrikarn, Chaiwat; Bangtrakulnonth, Aroon; Rirerm, Ubolrat; Kulwichit, Wanla

    2018-03-23

    S. Choleraesuis is a highly invasive zoonotic pathogen that causes a serious systemic infection in humans. The emergence and increase of resistance to ceftriaxone and ciprofloxacin among S. Choleraesuis has become a serious therapeutic problem. The present study demonstrated high frequency of antimicrobial resistance in Salmonella Choleraesuis among 414 nontyphoidal Salmonella isolates from bacteremic patients in Thailand. High rates of ceftriaxone (58.3%) and ciprofloxacin (19.6%) resistances were observed in S. Choleraesuis isolates. The dissemination of the self-transferable bla CTX-M-14 -carrying IncFII s , IncFII, and IncI1 plasmids and bla CMY-2 -carrying IncA/C plasmid along with the clonal spread of bla CMY-2 -harbouring S. Choleraesuis isolates contributed to the high frequency of resistance to extended-spectrum cephalosporins (ESCs; third- and fourth-generation cephalosporins) during 2005-2007. We reported the first occurrence of ceftazidime-hydrolysing CTX-M-55 in S. Choleraesuis isolates which dramatically increased and became the most abundant CTX-M variant among ESC-resistant S. Choleraesuis isolates during 2012-2016. The spread of clone pulsotype B3 was due to the dissemination of IncA/C plasmids carrying both bla CTX-M-55 and qnrS1 among ciprofloxacin-resistant S. Choleraesuis isolates harbouring D87G in GyrA. These isolates were apparently responsible for the high rates of co-resistance to ESCs and ciprofloxacin (51.3%) during 2012-2016. This study emphasizes the importance to have an action plan to control the dissemination of antimicrobial resistance in S. Choleraesuis since this poses a threat to global health due to travel and trade in animal food products. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  9. SALMONELLA SPECIES

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR. AMINU

    (Ngozi and Onyenekwe, 2003; Edward and Ewing,. 2003). Conclusion and Recommendations. The children in the older age bracket of 20-24 months were found to be most susceptible to salmonellosis. The risk of infection reduces in lower age group. The. Salmonella typhimurium remains the prominent causative agent in ...

  10. Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis brain abscess mimicking meningitis after surgery for glioblastoma multiforme: a case report and review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luciani, Léa; Dubourg, Grégory; Graillon, Thomas; Honnorat, Estelle; Lepidi, Hubert; Drancourt, Michel; Seng, Piseth; Stein, Andreas

    2016-07-07

    Salmonella brain abscess associated with brain tumor is rare. Only 11 cases have been reported to date. Here we report a case of brain abscess caused by Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis mimicking post-surgical meningitis in a patient with glioblastoma multiforme. A 60-year-old Algerian woman was admitted through an emergency department for a 4-day history of headache, nausea and vomiting, and behavioral disorders. Surgery for cerebral tumor excision was performed and histopathological analysis revealed glioblastoma multiforme. On the seventh day post-surgery, she presented a sudden neurological deterioration with a meningeal syndrome, confusion, and fever of 39.8°C. Her cerebrospinal fluid sample and blood cultures were positive for S. enterica Enteritidis. She was treated with ceftriaxone and ciprofloxacin. On the 17th day post-surgery, she presented a new neurological disorder and purulent discharge from the surgical wound. Brain computed tomography revealed a large cerebral abscess located at the operative site. Surgical drainage of the abscess was performed and microbial cultures of surgical deep samples were positive for the same S. enterica Enteritidis isolate. She recovered and was discharged 6 weeks after admission. In this case report, a brain abscess was initially diagnosed as Salmonella post-surgical meningitis before the imaging diagnosis of the brain abscess. The diagnosis of brain abscess should be considered in all cases of non-typhoidal Salmonella meningitis after surgery for brain tumor. Surgical brain abscess drainage followed by prolonged antibiotic treatment remains a major therapeutic option.

  11. Roles of the outer membrane protein AsmA of Salmonella enterica in the control of marRAB expression and invasion of epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prieto, Ana I; Hernández, Sara B; Cota, Ignacio; Pucciarelli, M Graciela; Orlov, Yuri; Ramos-Morales, Francisco; García-del Portillo, Francisco; Casadesús, Josep

    2009-06-01

    A genetic screen for suppressors of bile sensitivity in DNA adenine methylase (dam) mutants of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium yielded insertions in an uncharacterized locus homologous to the Escherichia coli asmA gene. Disruption of asmA suppressed bile sensitivity also in phoP and wec mutants of S. enterica and increased the MIC of sodium deoxycholate for the parental strain ATCC 14028. Increased levels of marA mRNA were found in asmA, asmA dam, asmA phoP, and asmA wec strains of S. enterica, suggesting that lack of AsmA activates expression of the marRAB operon. Hence, asmA mutations may enhance bile resistance by inducing gene expression changes in the marRAB-controlled Mar regulon. In silico analysis of AsmA structure predicted the existence of one transmembrane domain. Biochemical analysis of subcellular fractions revealed that the asmA gene of S. enterica encodes a protein of approximately 70 kDa located in the outer membrane. Because AsmA is unrelated to known transport and/or efflux systems, we propose that activation of marRAB in asmA mutants may be a consequence of envelope reorganization. Competitive infection of BALB/c mice with asmA(+) and asmA isogenic strains indicated that lack of AsmA attenuates Salmonella virulence by the oral route but not by the intraperitoneal route. Furthermore, asmA mutants showed a reduced ability to invade epithelial cells in vitro.

  12. Inferring source attribution from a multiyear multisource data set of Salmonella in Minnesota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahlstrom, C; Muellner, P; Spencer, S E F; Hong, S; Saupe, A; Rovira, A; Hedberg, C; Perez, A; Muellner, U; Alvarez, J

    2017-12-01

    Salmonella enterica is a global health concern because of its widespread association with foodborne illness. Bayesian models have been developed to attribute the burden of human salmonellosis to specific sources with the ultimate objective of prioritizing intervention strategies. Important considerations of source attribution models include the evaluation of the quality of input data, assessment of whether attribution results logically reflect the data trends and identification of patterns within the data that might explain the detailed contribution of different sources to the disease burden. Here, more than 12,000 non-typhoidal Salmonella isolates from human, bovine, porcine, chicken and turkey sources that originated in Minnesota were analysed. A modified Bayesian source attribution model (available in a dedicated R package), accounting for non-sampled sources of infection, attributed 4,672 human cases to sources assessed here. Most (60%) cases were attributed to chicken, although there was a spike in cases attributed to a non-sampled source in the second half of the study period. Molecular epidemiological analysis methods were used to supplement risk modelling, and a visual attribution application was developed to facilitate data exploration and comprehension of the large multiyear data set assessed here. A large amount of within-source diversity and low similarity between sources was observed, and visual exploration of data provided clues into variations driving the attribution modelling results. Results from this pillared approach provided first attribution estimates for Salmonella in Minnesota and offer an understanding of current data gaps as well as key pathogen population features, such as serotype frequency, similarity and diversity across the sources. Results here will be used to inform policy and management strategies ultimately intended to prevent and control Salmonella infection in the state. © 2017 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  13. Antibiotic resistance determinants and genetic analysis of Salmonella enterica isolated from food in Morocco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murgia, Manuela; Bouchrif, Brahim; Timinouni, Mohammed; Al-Qahtani, Ahmed; Al-Ahdal, Mohammed N; Cappuccinelli, Pietro; Rubino, Salvatore; Paglietti, Bianca

    2015-12-23

    Antimicrobial-resistant non-typhoidal Salmonella (NTS) are an important cause of infection in Africa, but there is a lack of information on their molecular mechanisms of resistance and epidemiology. This study contributes to fill this gap through the characterization by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), multilocus sequence typing (MLST), plasmid profiling and analysis of antibiotic-resistance determinants of 94 Salmonella enterica strains isolated from food in Morocco. PFGE revealed considerable heterogeneity among the strains, showing 32 pulsotypes. MLST of strains representative of the different serovars evidenced 13 sequence types (STs), three of which were newly identified (ST1694, ST1768 and ST1818) and nine not previously reported in Morocco. Thirty-four strains harbored from one to four plasmids, of IncI1 group in S. Mbandaka, IncFIIA in S. Typhimurium, IncL/M in S. Hadar and S. Blockley. For the first time in Morocco an intact Salmonella Genomic Island 1 (SGI1) carrying the resistance genes aadA2, floR, tetG, blaPSE-1 and sul1 was detected in S. Typhimurium DT104. In serovar Hadar resistance to ampicillin, tetracycline and streptomycin was associated to blaTEM-1, tetA and strA genes respectively, whereas one mutation in gyrA (Asp87Asn) and one in parC (Thr54Ser) genes conferred resistance to nalidixic acid. These findings improve the information on foodborne Salmonella in Morocco, evidencing the presence of MDR strains potentially dangerous to humans, and provide useful data for future studies. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Intestinal invasion of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium in the avian host is dose dependent and does not depend on motility and chemotaxis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, John Elmerdahl; Hoegh-Andersen, Kirsten Hobolt; Rosenkrantz, Jesper Tjørnholt

    2013-01-01

    it depended on motility and chemotaxis.Wild type and previously well-characterized transposon mutants in flagella genes fliC and fljB and in chemotaxis genes cheA, cheB and cheR were used as challenge strains in intestinal loop experiments. Invasion was shown to be dose dependent, but did not require...

  15. Salmonella biofilms

    OpenAIRE

    Castelijn, G.A.A.

    2013-01-01

    Biofilm formation by Salmonellaspp. is a problem in the food industry, since biofilms may act as a persistent source of product contamination. Therefore the aim of this study was to obtain more insight in the processes involved and the factors contributing to Salmonellabiofilm formation. A collection of SalmonellaTyphimurium clinical, outbreak-related and retail product isolates, was used to determine biofilm formation capacity and to identify cellular parameters contributing to surface colon...

  16. Salmonella typhi

    OpenAIRE

    Mochammad, Hatta

    2008-01-01

    This manuscript could use as research on infectious diseases Multi-locus variable-number tandem repeat analysis differentiated 297 Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi blood culture isolates from Makassar in 76 genotypes and a single unique S. Typhi genotype was isolated from the cholecystectomy specimens of four patients with cholelithiasis. The high diversity in S. Typhi genotypes circulating in Makassar indicates that the number of carriers could be very large, which may complicat...

  17. Salmonella Populations inside Host Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sónia Castanheira

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Bacteria of the Salmonella genus cause diseases ranging from gastroenteritis to life-threatening typhoid fever and are among the most successful intracellular pathogens known. After the invasion of the eukaryotic cell, Salmonella exhibits contrasting lifestyles with different replication rates and subcellular locations. Although Salmonella hyper-replicates in the cytosol of certain host cell types, most invading bacteria remain within vacuoles in which the pathogen proliferates at moderate rates or persists in a dormant-like state. Remarkably, these cytosolic and intra-vacuolar intracellular lifestyles are not mutually exclusive and can co-exist in the same infected host cell. The mechanisms that direct the invading bacterium to follow the cytosolic or intra-vacuolar “pathway” remain poorly understood. In vitro studies show predominance of either the cytosolic or the intra-vacuolar population depending on the host cell type invaded by the pathogen. The host and pathogen factors controlling phagosomal membrane integrity and, as consequence, the egress into the cytosol, are intensively investigated. Other aspects of major interest are the host defenses that may affect differentially the cytosolic and intra-vacuolar populations and the strategies used by the pathogen to circumvent these attacks. Here, we summarize current knowledge about these Salmonella intracellular subpopulations and discuss how they emerge during the interaction of this pathogen with the eukaryotic cell.

  18. Applications of microscopy in Salmonella research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malt, Layla M; Perrett, Charlotte A; Humphrey, Suzanne; Jepson, Mark A

    2015-01-01

    Salmonella enterica is a Gram-negative enteropathogen that can cause localized infections, typically resulting in gastroenteritis, or systemic infection, e.g., typhoid fever, in humans and many other animals. Understanding the mechanisms by which Salmonella induces disease has been the focus of intensive research. This has revealed that Salmonella invasion requires dynamic cross-talk between the microbe and host cells, in which bacterial adherence rapidly leads to a complex sequence of cellular responses initiated by proteins translocated into the host cell by a type 3 secretion system. Once these Salmonella-induced responses have resulted in bacterial invasion, proteins translocated by a second type 3 secretion system initiate further modulation of cellular activities to enable survival and replication of the invading pathogen. Elucidation of the complex and highly dynamic pathogen-host interactions ultimately requires analysis at the level of single cells and single infection events. To achieve this goal, researchers have applied a diverse range of microscopy techniques to analyze Salmonella infection in models ranging from whole animal to isolated cells and simple eukaryotic organisms. For example, electron microscopy and high-resolution light microscopy techniques such as confocal microscopy can reveal the precise location of Salmonella and its relationship to cellular components. Widefield light microscopy is a simpler approach with which to study the interaction of bacteria with host cells and often has advantages for live cell imaging, enabling detailed analysis of the dynamics of infection and cellular responses. Here we review the use of imaging techniques in Salmonella research and compare the capabilities of different classes of microscope to address specific types of research question. We also provide protocols and notes on some microscopy techniques used routinely in our own research.

  19. Salmonella Infections - Multiple Languages

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Are Here: Home → Multiple Languages → All Health Topics → Salmonella Infections URL of this page: https://medlineplus.gov/ ... V W XYZ List of All Topics All Salmonella Infections - Multiple Languages To use the sharing features ...

  20. Salmonella Diagnosis and Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... FDA) USDA Food Safety and Inspection Service Follow Salmonella RSS Diagnosis and Treatment Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir How Can Salmonella Infections Be Diagnosed? Diagnosing salmonellosis requires testing a ...

  1. 78 FR 42526 - Salmonella

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-16

    ...] Salmonella Contamination of Dry Dog Food; Withdrawal of Compliance Policy Guide AGENCY: Food and Drug... the withdrawal of the compliance policy guide (CPG) entitled ``Sec. 690.700 Salmonella Contamination... entitled ``Sec. 690.700 Salmonella Contamination of Dry Dog Food (CPG 690.700)'' on October 1, 1980. CPG...

  2. Lactobacillus bulgaricus, Lactobacillus rhamnosus and Lactobacillus paracasei Attenuate Salmonella Enteritidis, Salmonella Heidelberg and Salmonella Typhimurium Colonization and Virulence Gene Expression In Vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muyyarikkandy, Muhammed Shafeekh; Amalaradjou, Mary Anne

    2017-11-09

    Salmonella Enteritidis (SE), Salmonella Typhimurium (ST), and Salmonella Heidelberg (SH) have been responsible for numerous outbreaks associated with the consumption of poultry meat and eggs. Salmonella colonization in chicken is characterized by initial attachment to the cecal epithelial cells (CEC) followed by dissemination to the liver, spleen, and oviduct. Since cecal colonization is critical to Salmonella transmission along the food chain continuum, reducing this intestinal association could potentially decrease poultry meat and egg contamination. Hence, this study investigated the efficacy of Lactobacillus delbreuckii sub species bulgaricus (NRRL B548; LD), Lactobacillus paracasei (DUP-13076; LP), and Lactobacillus rhamnosus (NRRL B442; LR) in reducing SE, ST, and SH colonization in CEC and survival in chicken macrophages. Additionally, their effect on expression of Salmonella virulence genes essential for cecal colonization and survival in macrophages was evaluated. All three probiotics significantly reduced Salmonella adhesion and invasion in CEC and survival in chicken macrophages ( p < 0.05). Further, the probiotic treatment led to a significant reduction in Salmonella virulence gene expression ( p < 0.05). Results of the study indicate that LD, LP, and LR could potentially be used to control SE, ST, and SH colonization in chicken. However, these observations warrant further in vivo validation.

  3. Lactobacillus bulgaricus, Lactobacillus rhamnosus and Lactobacillus paracasei Attenuate Salmonella Enteritidis, Salmonella Heidelberg and Salmonella Typhimurium Colonization and Virulence Gene Expression In Vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammed Shafeekh Muyyarikkandy

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Salmonella Enteritidis (SE, Salmonella Typhimurium (ST, and Salmonella Heidelberg (SH have been responsible for numerous outbreaks associated with the consumption of poultry meat and eggs. Salmonella colonization in chicken is characterized by initial attachment to the cecal epithelial cells (CEC followed by dissemination to the liver, spleen, and oviduct. Since cecal colonization is critical to Salmonella transmission along the food chain continuum, reducing this intestinal association could potentially decrease poultry meat and egg contamination. Hence, this study investigated the efficacy of Lactobacillus delbreuckii sub species bulgaricus (NRRL B548; LD, Lactobacillus paracasei (DUP-13076; LP, and Lactobacillus rhamnosus (NRRL B442; LR in reducing SE, ST, and SH colonization in CEC and survival in chicken macrophages. Additionally, their effect on expression of Salmonella virulence genes essential for cecal colonization and survival in macrophages was evaluated. All three probiotics significantly reduced Salmonella adhesion and invasion in CEC and survival in chicken macrophages (p < 0.05. Further, the probiotic treatment led to a significant reduction in Salmonella virulence gene expression (p < 0.05. Results of the study indicate that LD, LP, and LR could potentially be used to control SE, ST, and SH colonization in chicken. However, these observations warrant further in vivo validation.

  4. Genomics of Three New Bacteriophages Useful in the Biocontrol of Salmonella

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bardina, Carlota; Colom, Joan; Spricigo, Denis A.; Otero, Jennifer; Sánchez-Osuna, Miquel; Cortés, Pilar; Llagostera, Montserrat

    2016-01-01

    Non-typhoid Salmonella is the principal pathogen related to food-borne diseases throughout the world. Widespread antibiotic resistance has adversely affected human health and has encouraged the search for alternative antimicrobial agents. The advances in bacteriophage therapy highlight their use in controlling a broad spectrum of food-borne pathogens. One requirement for the use of bacteriophages as antibacterials is the characterization of their genomes. In this work, complete genome sequencing and molecular analyses were carried out for three new virulent Salmonella-specific bacteriophages (UAB_Phi20, UAB_Phi78, and UAB_Phi87) able to infect a broad range of Salmonella strains. Sequence analysis of the genomes of UAB_Phi20, UAB_Phi78, and UAB_Phi87 bacteriophages did not evidence the presence of known virulence-associated and antibiotic resistance genes, and potential immunoreactive food allergens. The UAB_Phi20 genome comprised 41,809 base pairs with 80 open reading frames (ORFs); 24 of them with assigned function. Genome sequence showed a high homology of UAB_Phi20 with Salmonella bacteriophage P22 and other P22likeviruses genus of the Podoviridae family, including ST64T and ST104. The DNA of UAB_Phi78 contained 44,110 bp including direct terminal repeats (DTR) of 179 bp and 58 putative ORFs were predicted and 20 were assigned function. This bacteriophage was assigned to the SP6likeviruses genus of the Podoviridae family based on its high similarity not only with SP6 but also with the K1-5, K1E, and K1F bacteriophages, all of which infect Escherichia coli. The UAB_Phi87 genome sequence consisted of 87,669 bp with terminal direct repeats of 608 bp; although 148 ORFs were identified, putative functions could be assigned to only 29 of them. Sequence comparisons revealed the mosaic structure of UAB_Phi87 and its high similarity with bacteriophages Felix O1 and wV8 of E. coli with respect to genetic content and functional organization. Phylogenetic analysis of large

  5. Genomics of three new bacteriophages useful in the biocontrol of Salmonella

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlota eBardina

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Non-typhoid Salmonella is the principal pathogen related to food-borne diseases throughout the world. Widespread antibiotic resistance has adversely affected human health and has encouraged the search for alternative antimicrobial agents. The advances in bacteriophage therapy highlight their use in controlling a broad spectrum of food-borne pathogens. One requirement for the use of bacteriophages as antibacterials is the characterization of their genomes. In this work, complete genome sequencing and molecular analyses were carried out for three new virulent Salmonella-specific bacteriophages (UAB_Phi20, UAB_Phi78, and UAB_Phi87 able to infect a broad range of Salmonella strains. Sequence analysis of the genomes of UAB_Phi20, UAB_Phi78, and UAB_Phi87 bacteriophages did not evidence the presence of known virulence-associated and antibiotic resistance genes, and potential immunoreactive food allergens. The UAB_Phi20 genome comprised 41,809 base pairs with 80 open reading frames (ORFs; 24 of them with assigned function. Genome sequence showed a high homology of UAB_Phi20 with Salmonella bacteriophage P22 and other P22likeviruses genus of the Podoviridae family, including ST64T and ST104. The DNA of UAB_Phi78 contained 44,110 bp including direct terminal repeats of 179 bp and 58 putative ORFs were predicted and 20 were assigned function. This bacteriophage was assigned to the SP6likeviruses genus of the Podoviridae family based on its high similarity not only with SP6 but also with the K1-5, K1E, and K1F bacteriophages, all of which infect Escherichia coli. The UAB_Phi87 genome sequence consisted of 87,669 bp with terminal direct repeats of 608 bp; although 148 ORFs were identified, putative functions could be assigned to only 29 of them. Sequence comparisons revealed the mosaic structure of UAB_Phi87 and its high similarity with bacteriophages Felix O1 and wV8 of E. coli with respect to genetic content and functional organization. Phylogenetic

  6. Prevalence and antimicrobial resistance of Salmonella serovars isolated from poultry in Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andoh, L A; Dalsgaard, A; Obiri-Danso, K; Newman, M J; Barco, L; Olsen, J E

    2016-11-01

    Poultry are possible sources of non-typhoidal Salmonella serovars which may cause foodborne human disease. We conducted a cross-sectional study to determine the prevalence of Salmonella serovars in egg-laying hens and broilers at the farm level and their susceptibility to antimicrobials commonly used in the poultry industry in Ghana. Sampling of faeces by a sock method (n = 75), dust (n = 75), feed (n = 10) and drinking water (n = 10) was performed at 75 commercial egg-laying and broiler farms in two regions of Ghana and skin neck (n = 30) at a local slaughterhouse from broilers representing different flocks. Salmonella was detected in 94/200 (47%) samples with an overall flock prevalence of 44·0%. Sixteen different serovars were identified with S. Kentucky (18·1%), S. Nima (12·8%), S. Muenster (10·6%), S. Enteritidis (10·6%) and S. Virchow (9·6 %) the most prevalent types. The predominant phage type of S. Enteritidis was PT1. All strains were susceptible to cefotaxime, ceftazidime and cefoxitin. Fifty-seven (60·6%) strains were resistant to one or more of the remaining nine antimicrobials tested by disk diffusion, of which 23 (40·4%) showed multi-resistance (resistance to ⩾3 classes of antimicrobials). Of the resistant strains (n = 57), the most significant were to nalidixic acid (89·5%), tetracycline (80·7%), ciprofloxacin (64·9%), sulfamethazole (42·1%), trimethoprim (29·8%) and ampicillin (26·3%). All S. Kentucky strains were resistant to more than two antimicrobials and shared common resistance to nalidixic acid or ciprofloxacin and tetracycline, often in combinations with other antimicrobials. PFGE analysis using XbaI of S. Kentucky demonstrated one dominant clone in the country. In conclusion, poultry produced in Ghana has a high prevalence of multi-resistant Salmonella and the common finding of clonal S. Kentucky in the Kumasi area warrants further investigations into the epidemiology of this serovar. There is an urgent need for surveillance

  7. Salmonella isolated from chicken carcasses from a slaughterhouse in the state of Mato Grosso, Brazil: antibiotic resistance profile, serotyping, and characterization by repetitive sequence-based PCR system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunha-Neto, Adelino da; Carvalho, Larrayane Albuês; Carvalho, Ricardo César Tavares; Dos Prazeres Rodrigues, Dália; Mano, Sergio Borges; Figueiredo, Eduardo Eustáquio de Souza; Conte-Junior, Carlos Adam

    2018-04-01

    Salmonella is one of the major causative agents of foodborne infections. Salmonellosis becomes more dangerous when strains resistant to several antibiotics are found in food, especially in chicken, one of the primary transmission vehicles of this pathogen for humans. The present study aimed to estimate the occurrence of Salmonella in chicken carcasses from the state of Mato Grosso, Brazil, as well as determine the antibiotic resistance profile and genotypic characteristic of multi-drug resistant (MDR) isolates. During a 15-month period, from 01/2014 to 05/2015, 850 samples of chilled fresh chicken carcasses were sampled from a slaughterhouse and submitted to Salmonella determinations according to the ISO-6579/2002 method, serotyping and multiplex PCR. The disc diffusion test was applied for 17 antibiotics, according to CLSI (2014). Five isolates were genotyped by repetitive sequence-based PCR using the semi-automated DiversiLab (bioMérieux®) system. The occurrence of Salmonella in chicken carcasses was of 3.7% (31/850), with only 4 strains (12.9%) presenting as MDR, and 6 strains (19.35%) displaying ESBL. The predominant serovars were Salmonella Infantis (35.4%, 11/31), and S. Abony (25.8%, 8/31), followed by serovars S. Agona (12.9%, 4/31), S. Schwarzengrund (9.7%, 3/31), S. Anatum and Salmonella enterica O:4,5 (6.5%, 2/31), and only one Salmonella enterica O:6,7 strain (3.2%, 1/31). All isolates were resistant to one to 5 classes of antibiotics in decreasing order: folate pathway inhibitors, β-lactams (cephalosporins, penicillin, monobactams), tetracyclines, chloramphenicol, and gentamicin. However, strains sensitive to florfenicol, streptomycin, nalidixic acid, ciprofloxacin, enrofloxacin, and nitrofurantoin were also found in this study. Genotyping revealed 98 to 99% homology between 3 Salmonella strains, which displayed high phenotypic resistance similarity to β-lactams and folate pathway inhibitors. Detection of MDR non-typhoid Salmonella in chicken

  8. Outbreak of food borne Salmonella among guests of a wedding ceremony: The role of cultural factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdullah S Aljoudi

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: In response to a large number of cases of gastroenteritis reporting to Sulyyel hospital, an outbreak investigation was conducted to identify its source, to assess its extent and to make recommendations on the prevention of such outbreaks in the future. Material and Methods: A case was defined as any individual who developed diarrhea with any of the following symptoms: Abdominal pain, fever or vomiting within three days of eating at the wedding ceremony. A retrospective cohort study was conducted to identify food items and circumstances responsible for this outbreak. Results: A total of 283 individuals were interviewed, 88 of whom developed gastroenteritis, most commonly manifested by diarrhea (100%, abdominal pain (94.3% and fever (86.4%. The majority of persons interviewed were Saudis (89.1% and 21.6% were males. The median incubation period was 20.6 ΁ 2.77 hours and the epidemic curve suggested a common point source outbreak. Out of 9 food items and drinks served at the wedding ceremony, 3 food items were significantly associated with illness: meat ranked first (RR=16.7, 95% CI=2.37-115.8, followed by rice (RR=13.6 95% CI=1.95-93.61, and restaurant made sweets (RR=1.9, 95% CI=1.35-2.58. Out of 62 stool samples collected from cases, 40 (64.5 % grew Salmonella group C non-typhoid. Conclusion: Salmonella was considered the causative agent of this food-borne outbreak. Meat and rice served at the wedding party were the food items incriminated. Time, temperature misuse, inadequate heat treatment, and unhygienic handling were the most important factors causing this outbreak.

  9. Outbreak of food borne Salmonella among guests of a wedding ceremony: The role of cultural factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aljoudi, Abdullah S; Al-Mazam, Abdulaziz; Choudhry, Abdul J

    2010-01-01

    In response to a large number of cases of gastroenteritis reporting to Sulyyel hospital, an outbreak investigation was conducted to identify its source, to assess its extent and to make recommendations on the prevention of such outbreaks in the future. A CASE WAS DEFINED AS ANY INDIVIDUAL WHO DEVELOPED DIARRHEA WITH ANY OF THE FOLLOWING SYMPTOMS: Abdominal pain, fever or vomiting within three days of eating at the wedding ceremony. A retrospective cohort study was conducted to identify food items and circumstances responsible for this outbreak. A total of 283 individuals were interviewed, 88 of whom developed gastroenteritis, most commonly manifested by diarrhea (100%), abdominal pain (94.3%) and fever (86.4%). The majority of persons interviewed were Saudis (89.1%) and 21.6% were males. The median incubation period was 20.6 ± 2.77 hours and the epidemic curve suggested a common point source outbreak. Out of 9 food items and drinks served at the wedding ceremony, 3 food items were significantly associated with illness: meat ranked first (RR=16.7, 95% CI=2.37-115.8), followed by rice (RR=13.6 95% CI=1.95-93.61), and restaurant made sweets (RR=1.9, 95% CI=1.35-2.58). Out of 62 stool samples collected from cases, 40 (64.5 %) grew Salmonella group C non-typhoid. Salmonella was considered the causative agent of this food-borne outbreak. Meat and rice served at the wedding party were the food items incriminated. Time, temperature misuse, inadequate heat treatment, and unhygienic handling were the most important factors causing this outbreak.

  10. Distribution and Diversity of Salmonella Strains in Shipments of Hatchling Poultry, United States, 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habing, G G; Kessler, S E; Mollenkopf, D F; Wittum, T E; Anderson, T C; Barton Behravesh, C; Joseph, L A; Erdman, M M

    2015-08-01

    Multistate outbreaks of salmonellosis associated with live poultry contact have been occurring with increasing frequency. In 2013, multistate outbreaks of salmonellosis were traced back to exposure to live poultry, some of which were purchased at a national chain of farm stores (Farm store chain Y). This study was conducted at 36 stores of Farm store chain Y and was concurrent with the timing of exposure for the human outbreaks of salmonellosis in 2013. We used environmental swabs of arriving shipment boxes of hatchling poultry and shipment tracking information to examine the distribution, diversity and anti-microbial resistance of non-typhoidal Salmonella (NTS) across farm stores and hatcheries. Isolates recovered from shipment boxes underwent serotyping, anti-microbial resistance (AMR) testing and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). Postal service tracking codes from the shipment boxes were used to determine the hatchery of origin. The PFGE patterns were compared with the PFGE patterns of NTS causing outbreaks of salmonellosis in 2013. A total of 219 hatchling boxes from 36 stores in 13 states were swabbed between 15 March 2013 and 18 April 2013. NTS were recovered from 59 (27%) of 219 hatchling boxes. Recovery was not significantly associated with species of hatchlings, number of birds in the shipment box, or the presence of dead, injured or sick birds. Four of the 23 PFGE patterns and 23 of 50 isolates were indistinguishable from strains causing human outbreaks in 2013. For serotypes associated with human illnesses, PFGE patterns most frequently recovered from shipment boxes were also more frequent causes of human illness. Boxes positive for the same PFGE pattern most frequently originated from the same mail-order hatchery. Only one of 59 isolates was resistant to anti-microbials used to treat Salmonella infections in people. This study provides critical information to address recurrent human outbreaks of salmonellosis associated with mail-order hatchling

  11. Plasmodium-Salmonella Co-Infection Induces Intense Inflammatory Responsanirban Pal, Phd, Cisr-Central Institute of Medicinal and Aromatic Plants, Lucknow, Uttar Pradesh Indiae, Oxidative Stress and Liver Damage: A Mice Model Study for Therapeutic Strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Dinesh Kumar; Mittal, Sandeep; Tiwari, Nimisha; Maurya, Anil Kumar; Singh, Dhirendra; Pandey, Alok Kumar; Pal, Anirban

    2018-02-01

    Impairment of host immune response in malaria favours bacteraemia caused by typhoidal or non-typhoidal serovars of Salmonella enterica. Ofloxacin and Artesunate are the drugs that are clinically proven for treating typhoid and malaria respectively. The study evaluates the host responses upon treatment with antibiotic (Ofloxacin) and anti-malarial (Artesunate) in a standardized mice model harbouring co-infection. BALB/c mice (18-22 gm) were simultaneously co-infected with Plasmodium yoelii nigeriensis (Pyn) and Salmonella enterica Serovar Typhimurium (STm) and then treated with Ofloxacin or/and Artesunate from day 4 to day 7. The bacterial burden, Liver function enzymes, oxidative stress, m-RNA expression of Toll Like Receptors (TLR-2 and TLR-4), Th1/Th2 cytokines, Heme Oxygenase -1 and NFкB were assessed. Ofloxacin treatment failed to counter the bacterial proliferation in Pyn-STm co-infected mice. However, upon controlling parasitemia with anti-malarial, the efficacy of Ofloxacin could be regained. Elevated bacterial burden with malaria induces the expression of TLR-2 and TLR-4 triggering intense inflammatory response (NFκB, Th1/Th2 cytokines) in co-infected mice. This results in critical liver damage (ALT, AST and ALP), oxidative stress (Lipid peroxidation, Total GSH, Catalase and Super oxide dismutase) and Heme-oxygenase-1 (HO-1). The study concludes that malaria infection aggravates the secondary infection of Salmonella serovars and the control of septicaemia is critical in recovery of the co-infected subject.

  12. Butyrate Specifically Down-Regulates Salmonella Pathogenicity Island 1 Gene Expression

    OpenAIRE

    Gantois, I.; Ducatelle, R.; Pasmans, F.; Haesebrouck, F.; Hautefort, I.; Thompson, A.; Hinton, J. C.; Van Immerseel, F.

    2006-01-01

    Invasion of intestinal epithelial cells by Salmonella enterica is decreased after exposure to butyric acid. To understand the molecular mechanisms of this phenomenon, a comparative transcriptomic analysis of Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis and Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium grown in medium supplemented with butyrate was performed. We found that butyrate down-regulated the expression of 19 genes common to both serovars by a factor of twofold or more, and 17 of these genes loca...

  13. Swiss Army Pathogen: The Salmonella Entry Toolkit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter J. Hume

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Salmonella causes disease in humans and animals ranging from mild self-limiting gastroenteritis to potentially life-threatening typhoid fever. Salmonellosis remains a considerable cause of morbidity and mortality globally, and hence imposes a huge socio-economic burden worldwide. A key property of all pathogenic Salmonella strains is the ability to invade non-phagocytic host cells. The major determinant of this invasiveness is a Type 3 Secretion System (T3SS, a molecular syringe that injects virulence effector proteins directly into target host cells. These effectors cooperatively manipulate multiple host cell signaling pathways to drive pathogen internalization. Salmonella does not only rely on these injected effectors, but also uses several other T3SS-independent mechanisms to gain entry into host cells. This review summarizes our current understanding of the methods used by Salmonella for cell invasion, with a focus on the host signaling networks that must be coordinately exploited for the pathogen to achieve its goal.

  14. Transmisión de Salmonella enterica a través de huevos de gallina y su importancia en salud pública Transmission of Salmonella enterica through chicken eggs and their importance in public health.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Paola Rincón Acero

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available La salmonelosis producida por especies de Salmonella sp. no tíficas, se manifiesta en humanos como una gastroenteritis o enterocolitis aguda de inicio repentino, cuyos síntomas aparecen de 6 a 48 horas después de la ingestión de alimentos o agua contaminada. Salmonella se transmite principalmente por el consumo de productos avícolas contaminados o por contaminación cruzada a través de manipuladores de alimentos o utensilios de cocina. La presente revisión se fundamenta en la interacción de Salmonella con el sistema reproductivo de la gallina y trata importantes aspectos como las formas de trasmisión al huevo, la epidemiología y prevención de este evento. Lo anterior con el fin de destacar la importancia de este patógeno en la generación de enfermedades trasmitidas por alimentos y el impacto que tiene el control de puntos críticos en la cadena de producción de los huevos y la vigilancia epidemiológica como mecanismos de control. Salud UIS 2011; 43 (2: 167-177Salmonellosis caused by non-typhoidal Salmonella species manifests in human like an acute gastroenteritis or enterocolitis that suddenly happens, whose symptoms occur between 6 to 48 hours after ingestion of contaminated food or water. Salmonella is mainly transmitted through consumption of contaminated poultry products, or crossed contamination by food handlers or kitchen utensils. This review is based on the interaction of Salmonella with the hen's reproductive system and presents important aspects such as the routes of transmission to the egg, epidemiology and prevention of this event. This in order to highlight the importance of this pathogen like source of foodborne diseases and the impact of the critical control points in the eggs production and epidemiological surveillance like control mechanisms. Salud UIS 2011; 43 (2: 167-177

  15. Antimicrobial susceptibility to azithromycin among Salmonella enterica isolated from the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Due to emerging resistance to traditional antimicrobial agents such as ampicillin, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole and chloramphenicol, azithromycin is increasingly used for the treatment of invasive Salmonella infections. In the present study, 696 isolates of non-Typhi Salmonella collected from human...

  16. Multiple‐locus variable‐number tandem repeat analysis of Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar Dublin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjeldsen, M. K.; Torpdahl, M.; Campos, J.

    2014-01-01

    Salmonella serovar Dublin causes disease in cattle and leads to considerable production losses. In humans, severe invasive disease and high mortality rates are reported. The presently available typing methods provide insufficient discrimination within Salm. Dublin for epidemiological investigatio...

  17. Salmonellae in health foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomason, B M; Cherry, W B; Dodd, D J

    1977-11-01

    Various health food products of different brands were purchased from stores in the metropolitan Atlanta area. These foods were examined for the presence of salmonellae by fluorescent-antibody and cultural methods. Included in the study were tablets of alfalfa, parsley, kelp, wheat bran, enzyme, bone meal, and vitamins. Beef liver powder and tablets and granola cereal were also studied. Salmonella minnesota, Salmonella anatum, and Salmonella derby were isolated from two of three lots of beef liver powder from one manufacturer. All other products were negative.

  18. Genomics of Salmonella Species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canals, Rocio; McClelland, Michael; Santiviago, Carlos A.; Andrews-Polymenis, Helene

    Progress in the study of Salmonella survival, colonization, and virulence has increased rapidly with the advent of complete genome sequencing and higher capacity assays for transcriptomic and proteomic analysis. Although many of these techniques have yet to be used to directly assay Salmonella growth on foods, these assays are currently in use to determine Salmonella factors necessary for growth in animal models including livestock animals and in in vitro conditions that mimic many different environments. As sequencing of the Salmonella genome and microarray analysis have revolutionized genomics and transcriptomics of salmonellae over the last decade, so are new high-throughput sequencing technologies currently accelerating the pace of our studies and allowing us to approach complex problems that were not previously experimentally tractable.

  19. Salmonella Sepsis in African Children

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Infection with both Salmonella typhiand non-typhi salmonella. (NTS) is common among children in many African countries. Salmonella typhi predominates among older children and adults with the typical localising features of enteric fever. Nontyphoid salmonellae species are more often reported among children under 5 ...

  20. Complete Genome Sequence of a Human-Invasive Salmonella enterica Serovar Typhimurium Strain of the Emerging Sequence Type 213 Harboring a Multidrug Resistance IncA/C Plasmid and a blaCMY-2-Carrying IncF Plasmid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Claudia; Calva, Edmundo; Calva, Juan J; Wiesner, Magdalena; Fernández-Mora, Marcos; Puente, José L; Vinuesa, Pablo

    2015-11-12

    Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar Typhimurium strain 33676 was isolated in Mexico City, Mexico, from a patient with a systemic infection, and its complete genome sequence was determined using PacBio single-molecule real-time technology. Strain 33676 harbors an IncF plasmid carrying the extended-spectrum cephalosporin gene blaCMY-2 and a multidrug resistance IncA/C plasmid. Copyright © 2015 Silva et al.

  1. Characterization of Salmonella enterica Ituri isolated from diseased ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    2013-04-17

    Apr 17, 2013 ... food borne diseases in England and Wales (Adak et al.,. 2002). In the USA, about one million ... as a source of human foodborne diseases (Humphrey,. 2000; Adak et al., 2005). Apart from the .... rumen protozoan-mediated enhancement of invasion for multiple- antibiotic-resistant Salmonella enterica ...

  2. Engineering and Preclinical Evaluation of Attenuated Nontyphoidal Salmonella Strains Serving as Live Oral Vaccines and as Reagent Strains▿†

    OpenAIRE

    Tennant, Sharon M.; Wang, Jin-Yuan; Galen, James E.; Simon, Raphael; Pasetti, Marcela F.; Gat, Orit; Levine, Myron M.

    2011-01-01

    While nontyphoidal Salmonella (NTS) has long been recognized as a cause of self-limited gastroenteritis, it is becoming increasingly evident that multiple-antibiotic-resistant strains are also emerging as important causes of invasive bacteremia and focal infections, resulting in hospitalizations and deaths. We have constructed attenuated Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium and Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis strains that can serve as live oral vaccines and as “reagent strains” for...

  3. Salmonella Infections (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... pigs, and reptiles (such as turtles, lizards, and iguanas). Another, rarer form — called Salmonella typhi — causes typhoid ... a baby. Even healthy reptiles (especially turtles and iguanas) are not safe pets for small children and ...

  4. Salmonella Questions and Answers

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... that pass from the feces of people or animals to other people or other animals. The Salmonella family includes over ... human infections. Strains that cause no symptoms in animals can make people sick, and vice versa. If present in food, ...

  5. Immunometabolic phenotype alterations associated with the induction of disease tolerance and persistent asymptomatic infection of Salmonella in the chicken intestine

    Science.gov (United States)

    The adaptation of Salmonella enterica to the eukaryotic host is a key process that enables the bacterium to survive in a hostile environment. Salmonella has evolved an intimate relationship with its host that extends to their cellular and molecular levels. Colonization, invasion, and replication o...

  6. Pathogenicity of Salmonella Strains Isolated from Egg Shells and the Layer Farm Environment in Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    McWhorter, Andrea R.; Davos, Dianne

    2014-01-01

    In Australia, the egg industry is periodically implicated during outbreaks of Salmonella food poisoning. Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium and other nontyphoidal Salmonella spp., in particular, are a major concern for Australian public health. Several definitive types of Salmonella Typhimurium strains, but primarily Salmonella Typhimurium definitive type 9 (DT9), have been frequently reported during egg-related food poisoning outbreaks in Australia. The aim of the present study was to generate a pathogenicity profile of nontyphoidal Salmonella isolates obtained from Australian egg farms. To achieve this, we assessed the capacity of Salmonella isolates to cause gastrointestinal disease using both in vitro and in vivo model systems. Data from in vitro experiments demonstrated that the invasion capacity of Salmonella serovars cultured to stationary phase (liquid phase) in LB medium was between 90- and 300-fold higher than bacterial suspensions in normal saline (cultured in solid phase). During the in vivo infection trial, clinical signs of infection and mortality were observed only for mice infected with either 103 or 105 CFU of S. Typhimurium DT9. No mortality was observed for mice infected with Salmonella serovars with medium or low invasive capacity in Caco-2 cells. Pathogenicity gene profiles were also generated for all serovars included in this study. The majority of serovars tested were positive for selected virulence genes. No relationship between the presence or absence of virulence genes by PCR and either in vitro invasive capacity or in vivo pathogenicity was detected. Our data expand the knowledge of strain-to-strain variation in the pathogenicity of Australian egg industry-related Salmonella spp. PMID:25362057

  7. Salmonella in sesame seed products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brockmann, Stefan O; Piechotowski, Isolde; Kimmig, Peter

    2004-01-01

    In the context of an international outbreak of multiresistant Salmonella Typhimurium DT 104 that was correlated to the consumption of halvah ("helva," an Asian candy made from sesame seed), we examined several sesame seed products for the occurrence of Salmonella. Of 117 ready-to-eat food items containing sesame, we isolated salmonellae from 11 (9.4%) samples. In addition to finding Salmonella Typhimurium DT 104 in the halvah involved in the outbreak, we also isolated different Salmonella Typhimurium strains out of halvah from other manufacturers and countries of origin, as well as Salmonella Offa, Salmonella Tennessee, and Salmonella Poona from sesame paste (tahini) and sesame seed, which is sold for raw consumption in cereals.

  8. The Arf GTPase-activating protein family is exploited by Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium to invade nonphagocytic host cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidson, Anthony C; Humphreys, Daniel; Brooks, Andrew B E; Hume, Peter J; Koronakis, Vassilis

    2015-02-10

    To establish intracellular infections, Salmonella bacteria trigger host cell membrane ruffling and invasion by subverting cellular Arf guanine nucleotide exchange factors (GEFs) that activate Arf1 and Arf6 GTPases by promoting GTP binding. A family of cellular Arf GTPase-activating proteins (GAPs) can downregulate Arf signaling by stimulating GTP hydrolysis, but whether they do this during infection is unknown. Here, we uncovered a remarkable role for distinct Arf GAP family members in Salmonella invasion. The Arf6 GAPs ACAP1 and ADAP1 and the Arf1 GAP ASAP1 localized at Salmonella-induced ruffles, which was not the case for the plasma membrane-localized Arf6 GAPs ARAP3 and GIT1 or the Golgi-associated Arf1 GAP1. Surprisingly, we found that loss of ACAP1, ADAP1, or ASAP1 impaired Salmonella invasion, revealing that GAPs cannot be considered mere terminators of cytoskeleton remodeling. Salmonella invasion was restored in Arf GAP-depleted cells by expressing fast-cycling Arf derivatives, demonstrating that Arf GTP/GDP cycles facilitate Salmonella invasion. Consistent with this view, both constitutively active and dominant-negative Arf derivatives that cannot undergo GTP/GDP cycles inhibited invasion. Furthermore, we demonstrated that Arf GEFs and GAPs colocalize at invading Salmonella and collaborate to drive Arf1-dependent pathogen invasion. This study revealed that Salmonella bacteria exploit a remarkable interplay between Arf GEFs and GAPs to direct cycles of Arf GTPase activation and inactivation. These cycles drive Salmonella cytoskeleton remodeling and enable intracellular infections. To initiate infections, the Salmonella bacterial pathogen remodels the mammalian actin cytoskeleton and invades host cells by subverting host Arf GEFs that activate Arf1 and Arf6 GTPases. Cellular Arf GAPs deactivate Arf GTPases and negatively regulate cell processes, but whether they target Arfs during infection is unknown. Here, we uncovered an important role for the Arf GAP

  9. Bakteriaemi forårsaget af zoonotiske Salmonella-typer i Storkøbenhavn 1984-1988

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lester, Anne; Eriksen, N H; Nielsen, H

    1990-01-01

    The five departments of clinical microbiology in Greater Copenhagen have together carried out a retrospective review of bacteraemia caused by the zoonotic Salmonella serotypes in the period 1984-1988 in the municipalities of Copenhagen and Frederiksberg and in the County of Copenhagen. A gradual...... increase in frequency was observed from 11 cases in 1984 to 58 cases in 1988. The serotype most commonly isolated was Salmonella dublin followed by Salmonella enteritidis and Salmonella typhimurium. S. dublin was found to be more invasive and more virulent than the other serotypes. Predisposing factors...

  10. Regulatory principles governing Salmonella and Yersinia virulence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erhardt, Marc; Dersch, Petra

    2015-01-01

    Enteric pathogens such as Salmonella and Yersinia evolved numerous strategies to survive and proliferate in different environmental reservoirs and mammalian hosts. Deciphering common and pathogen-specific principles for how these bacteria adjust and coordinate spatiotemporal expression of virulence determinants, stress adaptation, and metabolic functions is fundamental to understand microbial pathogenesis. In order to manage sudden environmental changes, attacks by the host immune systems and microbial competition, the pathogens employ a plethora of transcriptional and post-transcriptional control elements, including transcription factors, sensory and regulatory RNAs, RNAses, and proteases, to fine-tune and control complex gene regulatory networks. Many of the contributing global regulators and the molecular mechanisms of regulation are frequently conserved between Yersinia and Salmonella. However, the interplay, arrangement, and composition of the control elements vary between these closely related enteric pathogens, which generate phenotypic differences leading to distinct pathogenic properties. In this overview we present common and different regulatory networks used by Salmonella and Yersinia to coordinate the expression of crucial motility, cell adhesion and invasion determinants, immune defense strategies, and metabolic adaptation processes. We highlight evolutionary changes of the gene regulatory circuits that result in different properties of the regulatory elements and how this influences the overall outcome of the infection process. PMID:26441883

  11. Phenotypic and virulence traits of E. coli and Salmonella strains isolated from vegetables and fruits from India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Preeti; Saharan, Vijay Veer; Nimesh, Surendra; Singh, Arvind Pratap

    2018-03-07

    The present study was designed to assess the phenotypic traits and virulence determinants of vegetables/fruits-origin E. coli and Salmonella strains. A total of 520 fresh vegetables/fruits samples were analyzed for the presence of E. coli, including Shiga-toxin producing E. coli (STEC), and Salmonella. The vegetables/fruits-origin E. coli and Salmonella strains were further assessed for antimicrobial resistance, biofilm formation, extracellular matrix production, and in-vitro invasion/intracellular survivability assays. A total of 73 E. coli, including 4 STEC, and 26 Salmonella strains were recovered from vegetables/fruits in the present study. Most of the E. coli and Salmonella isolates were able to form biofilm with higher production of cellulose/curli-fimbriae. Further, more resistance was observed in E. coli isolates (61.6%) than in Salmonella isolates (38.5%) against tested antimicrobials. Additionally, invasion/intracellular survival results showed that majority of the E. coli and Salmonella isolates were able to efficiently invade/replicate intracellularly in the human epithelial cells. Our results demonstrate that vegetables/fruits-origin E. coli and Salmonella significantly exhibited distinct phenotypic/virulence traits which could be linked to their plant-associated lifestyle with food safety issues. The present study provides valuable baseline information that E. coli and Salmonella may use plants as alternative host with significant clinical importance. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  12. Coconut and Salmonella Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaffner, Carl P.; Mosbach, Klaus; Bibit, Venuso C.; Watson, Colin H.

    1967-01-01

    Raw, unprocessed coconut supports the growth of salmonellae as well as that of other enteric bacteria, salmonellae being particularly resistant to subsequent desiccation. Original contamination is not due to carriers or to polluted water supplies, but to contact with bacteria-containing soils followed by dispersion via infected coconut milk and shells. Pasteurization of raw coconut meat in a water bath at 80 C for 8 to 10 min effectively killed such bacteria, did not injure the product, and provided a prophylactic method now widely used by the coconut industry. PMID:5340650

  13. The risk of salmonellae shedding by dogs fed Salmonella-contaminated commercial raw food diets

    OpenAIRE

    Finley, Rita; Ribble, Carl; Aramini, Jeff; Vandermeer, Meredith; Popa, Maria; Litman, Marcus; Reid-Smith, Richard

    2007-01-01

    Twenty-eight research dogs were enrolled to determine the prevalence of salmonellae shedding after consumption of 1 Salmonella-contaminated commercial raw food diet meal. Sixteen dogs were exposed to Salmonella-contaminated commercial raw food diets and 12 to Salmonella-free commercial raw food diets. Seven of the exposed dogs shed salmonellae 1–7 days after consumption of Salmonella-contaminated raw food diets. None of the dogs fed Salmonella-free diets shed salmonellae. No clinical signs we...

  14. Salmonella Interaction with and Passage through the Intestinal Mucosa: Through the Lens of the Organism

    OpenAIRE

    Hallstrom, Kelly; McCormick, Beth A.

    2011-01-01

    Salmonella enterica serotypes are invasive enteric pathogens spread through fecal contamination of food and water sources, and represent a constant public health threat around the world. The symptoms associated with salmonellosis and typhoid disease are largely due to the host response to invading Salmonella, and to the mechanisms these bacteria employ to survive in the presence of, and invade through the intestinal mucosal epithelia. Surmounting this barrier is required for survival within t...

  15. Emergence of a Clonal Lineage of Multidrug-Resistant ESBL-Producing Salmonella Infantis Transmitted from Broilers and Broiler Meat to Humans in Italy between 2011 and 2014.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessia Franco

    Full Text Available We report the spread of a clone of multidrug-resistant (MDR, ESBL-producing (blaCTX-M-1 Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar Infantis, in the Italian broiler chicken industry and along the food-chain. This was first detected in Italy in 2011 and led to human infection in Italy in 2013-2014.A set (n = 49 of extended-spectrum cephalosporin (ESC-resistant (R isolates of S. Infantis (2011-2014 from humans, food-producing animals and meat thereof, were studied along with a selected set of earlier and more recent ESC-susceptible (ESC-S isolates (n = 42, 2001-2014. They were characterized by macrorestriction-PFGE analysis and genetic environment of ESC-resistance. Isolates representative of PFGE-patterns and origin were submitted to Whole Genome Sequencing. The emerging ESC-R clone, detected mainly from broiler chickens, broiler meat and humans, showed a minimum pattern of clinical resistance to cefotaxime, tetracycline, sulfonamides, and trimethoprim, beside ciprofloxacin microbiological resistance (MIC 0.25 mg/L. All isolates of this clone harbored a conjugative megaplasmid (~ 280-320 Kb, similar to that described in ESC-susceptible S. Infantis in Israel (pESI-like in 2014. This megaplasmid carried the ESBL gene blaCTX-M-1, and additional genes [tet(A, sul1, dfrA1 and dfrA14] mediating cefotaxime, tetracycline, sulfonamide, and trimethoprim resistance. It also contained genes conferring enhanced colonization capability, virulence (fimbriae, yersiniabactin, resistance and fitness (qacE1, mer in the intensive-farming environment. This emerging clone of S. Infantis has been causing infections in humans, most likely through the broiler industry. Since S. Infantis is among major serovars causing human infections in Europe and is an emerging non-typhoidal Salmonella globally, further spread of this lineage in primary productions deserves quick and thorough risk-management strategies.

  16. Salmonella serovar-specific interaction with jejunal epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razzuoli, Elisabetta; Amadori, Massimo; Lazzara, Fabrizio; Bilato, Dania; Ferraris, Monica; Vito, Guendalina; Ferrari, Angelo

    2017-08-01

    Gut is often a receptacle for many different pathogens in feed and/or the environment, such as Salmonella spp. The current knowledge about pathogenicity of Salmonella is restricted to few serotypes, whereas other important ones like S. Coeln, S. Thompson, S. Veneziana, have not been investigated yet in human and animal models. Therefore, the aim of our work was to verify the ability of widespread environmental Salmonella strains to penetrate and modulate innate immunity in pig intestinal IPEC-J2 cells. Our results outline the different ability of Salmonella strains to modulate innate immunity; the expression of the IFN-β gene was increased by S. Typhimurium, S. Ablogame and S. Diarizonae 2, that also caused an inflammatory response in terms of Interleukin (IL)-1β and/or IL-8 gene espression. In particular, IL-8 gene expression and protein release were significantly modulated by 5 Salmonella strains out of 7. Interestingly, S. Typhimurium, S. Coeln and S. Thompson strains, characterized by a peculiar ability to penetrate into IPEC-J2 cells, up-regulated both IL-8 and TNF-α gene expression. Accordingly, blocking IL-8 was shown to decrease the penetration of S. Typhimurium. On the contrary, S. Diarizonae strain 1, showing lesser invasion of IPEC-J2 cells, down-regulated the p38-MAPK pathway, and it did not induce an inflammatory response. Our results confirm that IPEC-J2 cells are a useful model to evaluate host-gut pathogen interaction and indicate IL-8 and TNF-α as possible predictive markers of invasiveness of Salmonella strains in enterocytes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Salmonella Typhimurium induces SPI-1 and SPI-2 regulated and strain dependent downregulation of MHC II expression on porcine alveolar macrophages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Van Parys Alexander

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Foodborne salmonellosis is one of the most important bacterial zoonotic diseases worldwide. Salmonella Typhimurium is the serovar most frequently isolated from persistently infected slaughter pigs in Europe. Circumvention of the host’s immune system by Salmonella might contribute to persistent infection of pigs. In the present study, we found that Salmonella Typhimurium strain 112910a specifically downregulated MHC II, but not MHC I, expression on porcine alveolar macrophages in a Salmonella pathogenicity island (SPI-1 and SPI-2 dependent way. Salmonella induced downregulation of MHC II expression and intracellular proliferation of Salmonella in macrophages were significantly impaired after opsonization with Salmonella specific antibodies prior to inoculation. Furthermore, the capacity to downregulate MHC II expression on macrophages differed significantly among Salmonella strains, independently of strain specific differences in invasion capacity, Salmonella induced cytotoxicity and altered macrophage activation status. The fact that strain specific differences in MHC II downregulation did not correlate with the extent of in vitro SPI-1 or SPI-2 gene expression indicates that other factors are involved in MHC II downregulation as well. Since Salmonella strain dependent interference with the pig’s immune response through downregulation of MHC II expression might indicate that certain Salmonella strains are more likely to escape serological detection, our findings are of major interest for Salmonella monitoring programs primarily based on serology.

  18. Salmonella from Baby Turtles

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2017-01-09

    Dr. Stacey Bosch, a veterinarian with CDC, discusses her article on Salmonella infections associated with baby turtles.  Created: 1/9/2017 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 1/9/2017.

  19. Salmonella Taking Charge

    OpenAIRE

    Weigele, Bethany A.; Alto, Neal M.

    2010-01-01

    Pathogens develop creative ways to undermine host defenses. In this issue of Cell Host & Microbe, Bakowski et al. (2010) have unveiled a mechanism by which Salmonella evades lysosomal fusion by using a bacterial protein, SopB, that depletes the phagosomal membrane of negative charge.

  20. Antagonistic Activity of Lactobacillus Isolates against Salmonella typhi In Vitro

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel-Daim, Amira; Hassouna, Nadia; Hafez, Mohamed; Ashor, Mohamed Seif Aldeen; Aboulwafa, Mohammad M.

    2013-01-01

    Background. Enteric fever is a global health problem, and rapidly developing resistance to various drugs makes the situation more alarming. The potential use of Lactobacillus to control typhoid fever represents a promising approach, as it may exert protective actions through various mechanisms. Methods. In this study, the probiotic potential and antagonistic activities of 32 Lactobacillus isolates against Salmonella typhi were evaluated. The antimicrobial activity of cell free supernatants of Lactobacillus isolates, interference of Lactobacillus isolates with the Salmonella adherence and invasion, cytoprotective effect of Lactobacillus isolates, and possibility of concurrent use of tested Lactobacillus isolates and antibiotics were evaluated by testing their susceptibilities to antimicrobial agents, and their oxygen tolerance was also examined. Results. The results revealed that twelve Lactobacillus isolates could protect against Salmonella typhi infection through interference with both its growth and its virulence properties, such as adherence, invasion, and cytotoxicity. These Lactobacillus isolates exhibited MIC values for ciprofloxacin higher than those of Salmonella typhi and oxygen tolerance and were identified as Lactobacillus plantarum. Conclusion. The tested Lactobacillus plantarum isolates can be introduced as potential novel candidates that have to be subjected for in vivo and application studies for treatment and control of typhoid fever. PMID:24191248

  1. Thermal inactivation of eight Salmonella serotypes on dry corn flour.

    OpenAIRE

    VanCauwenberge, J E; Bothast, R J; Kwolek, W F

    1981-01-01

    Dry heat was used to inactivate Salmonella newington, Salmonella typhimurium, Salmonella anatum, Salmonella kentucky, Salmonella cubana, Salmonella seftenberg, Salmonella thompson, and Salmonella tennessee in corn flour at 10 and 15% moisture. The flour was spray inoculated at 10(5) Salmonella cells per g and then stored at 49 degrees C (120 degrees F); viable Salmonella cells were counted on Trypticase (BBL Microbiology Systems) soy agar plates every 30 min for the first 4 h and then at 4-h ...

  2. Occurrence of ß-lactamase genes among non-Typhi Salmonella enterica isolated from humans, food animals, and retail meats in the United States and Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Non-Typhi Salmonella cause over 1.7 million cases of gastroenteritis in North America each year, and food-animal products are commonly implicated in human infections. For invasive infections, antimicrobial therapy is implicated. In North America, the antimicrobial susceptibility of Salmonella is m...

  3. Detection of Typhoidal and Paratyphoidal Salmonella in Blood by Real-time Polymerase Chain Reaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tennant, Sharon M; Toema, Deanna; Qamar, Farah; Iqbal, Najeeha; Boyd, Mary Adetinuke; Marshall, Joanna M; Blackwelder, William C; Wu, Yukun; Quadri, Farheen; Khan, Asia; Aziz, Fatima; Ahmad, Kumail; Kalam, Adil; Asif, Ehtisham; Qureshi, Shahida; Khan, Erum; Zaidi, Anita K; Levine, Myron M

    2015-11-01

    The gold standard for diagnosis of enteric fever caused by Salmonella Typhi or Salmonella Paratyphi A or B is bone marrow culture. However, because bone marrow aspiration is highly invasive, many hospitals and large health centers perform blood culture instead. As blood culture has several limitations, there is a need for novel typhoid diagnostics with improved sensitivity and more rapid time to detection. We developed a clyA-based real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) method to detect Salmonella Typhi and Salmonella Paratyphi A simultaneously in blood. The sensitivity and specificity of this probeset was first evaluated in vitro in the laboratory and then in a typhoid-endemic population, in Karachi, Pakistan, and in healthy US volunteers. We optimized a DNA extraction and real-time PCR-based method that could reliably detect 1 colony-forming unit/mL of Salmonella Typhi. The probe set was able to detect clinical Salmonella Typhi and Salmonella Paratyphi A strains and also diarrheagenic Escherichia coli, but not invasive E. coli or other invasive bacteria. In the field, the clyA qPCR diagnostic was 40% as sensitive as blood culture. However, when qPCR-positive specimens were considered to be true positives, blood culture only exhibited 28.57% sensitivity. Specificity was ≥90% for all comparisons and in the healthy US volunteers. qPCR was significantly faster than blood culture in terms of detection of typhoid and paratyphoid. Based on lessons learned, we recommend that future field trials of this and other novel diagnostics that detect typhoidal and nontyphoidal Salmonella employ multiple methodologies to define a "positive" sample. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  4. Dynamics of Salmonella Shedding and Welfare of Hens in Free-Range Egg Production Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gole, Vaibhav C; Woodhouse, Rebecca; Caraguel, Charles; Moyle, Talia; Rault, Jean-Loup; Sexton, Margaret; Chousalkar, Kapil

    2017-03-01

    The current study investigated the effect of environmental stressors (i.e., weather changes) on Salmonella shedding in free-range production systems and the correlations with behavioral and physiological measures (i.e., fecal glucocorticoid metabolites). This involved longitudinal and point-in-time surveys of Salmonella shedding and environmental contamination on four commercial free-range layer farms. The shedding of Salmonella was variable across free-range farms and in different seasons. There was no significant effect of season on the Salmonella prevalence during this investigation. In this study, the combined Salmonella most probable number (MPN) counts in environmental (including feces, egg belt, dust, nest box, and ramp) samples were highest in samples collected during the summer season (4th sampling, performed in February). The predominant serovars isolated during this study were Salmonella enterica serovar Mbandaka and Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium phage types 135 and 135a. These two phage types were involved in several egg product-related Salmonella outbreaks in humans. Multilocus variable-number tandem-repeat analysis (MLVA) results indicated that MLVA types detected from human food poisoning cases exhibited MLVA patterns similar to the strains isolated during this study. All Salmonella isolates ( n = 209) were tested for 15 different genes involved in adhesion, invasion, and survival of Salmonella spp. We also observed variations for sopA , ironA , and misL There were no positive correlations between fecal corticosterone metabolite (FCM) and Salmonella prevalence and/or shedding in feces. Also, there were no positive correlations between Salmonella prevalence and Salmonella count (log MPN) and any of the other welfare parameters. IMPORTANCE In this study, the welfare of laying hens and Salmonella shedding were compared over a prolonged period of time in field conditions. This study investigated the long-term shedding of Salmonella serovars in

  5. Protective effect of probiotics on Salmonella infectivity assessed with combined in vitro gut fermentation-cellular models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zihler Annina

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Accurate assessment of probiotics with targeted anti-Salmonella activity requires suitable models accounting for both, microbe-microbe and host-microbe interactions in gut environments. Here we report the combination of two original in vitro intestinal models closely mimicking the complex in vivo conditions of the large intestine. Effluents from continuous in vitro three-stage fermentation colonic models of Salmonella Typhimurium infection inoculated with immobilized child microbiota and Salmonella were directly applied to confluent mucus-secreting HT29-MTX cell layers. The effects of Salmonella, addition of two bacteriocinogenic strains, Bifidobacterium thermophilum RBL67 (thermophilicin B67 and Escherichia coli L1000 (microcin B17, and inulin were tested on Salmonella growth and interactions with epithelial cell layers. Salmonella adhesion and invasion were investigated and epithelial integrity assessed by transepithelial electrical resistance (TER measurements and confocal microscopy observation. Data from complex effluents were compared with pure Salmonella cultures. Results Salmonella in effluents of all reactors of the colonic fermentation model stabilized at mean values of 5.3 ± 0.8 log10 cfu/ml effluent. Invasion of cell-associated Salmonella was up to 50-fold lower in complex reactor samples compared to pure Salmonella cultures. It further depended on environmental factors, with 0.2 ± 0.1% being measured with proximal, 0.6 ± 0.2% with transverse and 1.3 ± 0.7% with distal reactor effluents, accompanied by a similar high decrease of TER across cell monolayers (minus 45% and disruption of tight junctions. Subsequent addition of E. coli L1000 stimulated Salmonella growth (6.4 ± 0.6 log10 cfu/ml effluent of all 3 reactors and further decreased TER, but led to 10-fold decreased invasion efficiency when tested with distal reactor samples. In contrast, presence of B. thermophilum RBL67 revealed a protective effect on

  6. [Investigation of pathogenic phenotypes and virulence determinants of food-borne Salmonella enterica strains in Caenorhabditis elegans animal model].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aksoy, Deniz; Şen, Ece

    2015-10-01

    Salmonellosis, caused by non-typhoidal Salmonella enterica serovars with the consumption of contaminated food, is one of the leading food-borne disease that makes microbial food safety an important public health issue. This study was performed in order to determine the antibiotic resistance, serotyping, plasmid profiles and pathogenicity potentials of food-borne Salmonella isolates in Caenorhabditis elegans animal model system in Edirne province, located at Thrace region of Turkey. In this study, 32 Salmonella isolates, of which 26 belonged to Infantis, four to Enteritidis, one to Telaviv and one to Kentucky serovars, isolated from chicken carcasses were used. Antibiotic resistance profiles were determined by disc diffusion and broth microdilution methods. A new C.elegans nematode animal model system was used to determine the pathogenicity potential of the isolates. The antibiotic resistance profiles revealed that one (3.1%) isolate was resistant to gentamicin, two (6.2%) to ciprofloxacin, three (9.4%) to ampicillin, 18 (56.3%) to kanamycin, 19 (60.8%) to neomycin, 25 (78.1%) to tetracycline, 25 (78.1%) to trimethoprim, 26 (81.25%) to nalidixic acid, 27 (84.4%) to streptomycin and 32 (100%) to sulfonamide. All of the 32 strains were susceptible to chloramphenicol and ampicillin/sulbactam. High levels of resistance to streptomycin, nalidixic acid, tetracycline, trimethoprim, sulfonamide, kanamycin and neomycin was determined. According to the plasmid analysis, six isolates (18.75%) harboured 1-3 plasmids with sizes between 1.2 and 42.4 kb. In C.elegans nematode animal model system, the time (in days) required to kill 50% (TD50) of nematodes was calculated for each experimental group. TD50 values of the nematode group fed with S.Typhimurium ATCC 14028 that was used as the positive control and another group fed with E.coli OP50 as the negative control were 4.2 ± 0.5 days and 8.0 ± 0.02 days, respectively. TD50 of the groups fed with Salmonella isolates ranged

  7. Detection of Salmonella in Meat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Löfström, Charlotta; Hansen, Flemming; Mansdal, Susanne

    2012-01-01

    Cost-effective and rapid monitoring of Salmonella in the meat production chain can contribute to food safety. The objective of this study was to validate an easy-to-use pre-PCR sample preparation method based on a simple boiling protocol for screening of Salmonella in meat and carcass swab samples...

  8. Effect of Propionibacterium freudenreichii on Salmonella multiplication, motility, and association with avian epithelial cells1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    V T Nair, Divek; Kollanoor-Johny, A

    2017-05-01

    We investigated the effects of a probiotic bacterium, Propionibacterium freudenreichii, on Salmonella multiplication, motility, and association to and invasion of avian epithelial cells in vitro. Two subspecies of P. freudenreichii (P. freudenreichii subsp. freudenreichii and P. freudenreichii subsp. shermanii) were tested against 3 Salmonella serotypes in poultry, namely, S. Enteritidis, S. Typhimurium, and S. Heidelberg, using co-culture-, motility, multiplication, cell association, and invasion assays. Both strains of P. freudenreichii were effective in reducing or inhibiting multiplication of all 3 Salmonella serotypes in co-culture and turkey cecal contents (P ≤ 0.05). P. freudenreichii significantly reduced Salmonella motility (P ≤ 0.05). Cell culture studies revealed that P. freudenreichii associated with the avian epithelial cells effectively and reduced S. Enteritidis, S. Heidelberg, and S. Typhimurium cell association in the range of 1.0 to 1.6 log10 CFU/mL, and invasion in the range of 1.3 to 1.5 log10 CFU/mL (P ≤ 0.05), respectively. Our current in vitro results indicate the potential of P. freudenreichii against Salmonella in poultry. Follow-up in vivo studies are underway to evaluate this possibility. © 2016 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  9. Independent bottlenecks characterize colonization of systemic compartments and gut lymphoid tissue by salmonella.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Chee Han; Voedisch, Sabrina; Wahl, Benjamin; Rouf, Syed Fazle; Geffers, Robert; Rhen, Mikael; Pabst, Oliver

    2014-07-01

    Vaccination represents an important instrument to control typhoid fever in humans and protects mice from lethal infection with mouse pathogenic serovars of Salmonella species. Mixed infections with tagged Salmonella can be used in combination with probabilistic models to describe the dynamics of the infection process. Here we used mixed oral infections with tagged Salmonella strains to identify bottlenecks in the infection process in naïve and vaccinated mice. We established a next generation sequencing based method to characterize the composition of tagged Salmonella strains which offers a fast and reliable method to characterise the composition of genome-tagged Salmonella strains. We show that initial colonization of Salmonella was distinguished by a non-Darwinian selection of few bacteria setting up the infection independently in gut associated lymphoid tissue and systemic compartments. Colonization of Peyer's patches fuels the sustained spread of bacteria into mesenteric lymph nodes via dendritic cells. In contrast, infection of liver and spleen originated from an independent pool of bacteria. Vaccination only moderately reduced invasion of Peyer's patches but potently uncoupled bacterial populations present in different systemic compartments. Our data indicate that vaccination differentially skews the capacity of Salmonella to colonize systemic and gut immune compartments and provide a framework for the further dissection of infection dynamics.

  10. Independent bottlenecks characterize colonization of systemic compartments and gut lymphoid tissue by salmonella.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chee Han Lim

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Vaccination represents an important instrument to control typhoid fever in humans and protects mice from lethal infection with mouse pathogenic serovars of Salmonella species. Mixed infections with tagged Salmonella can be used in combination with probabilistic models to describe the dynamics of the infection process. Here we used mixed oral infections with tagged Salmonella strains to identify bottlenecks in the infection process in naïve and vaccinated mice. We established a next generation sequencing based method to characterize the composition of tagged Salmonella strains which offers a fast and reliable method to characterise the composition of genome-tagged Salmonella strains. We show that initial colonization of Salmonella was distinguished by a non-Darwinian selection of few bacteria setting up the infection independently in gut associated lymphoid tissue and systemic compartments. Colonization of Peyer's patches fuels the sustained spread of bacteria into mesenteric lymph nodes via dendritic cells. In contrast, infection of liver and spleen originated from an independent pool of bacteria. Vaccination only moderately reduced invasion of Peyer's patches but potently uncoupled bacterial populations present in different systemic compartments. Our data indicate that vaccination differentially skews the capacity of Salmonella to colonize systemic and gut immune compartments and provide a framework for the further dissection of infection dynamics.

  11. A novel Salmonella serovar isolated from Peregrine Falcon (Falco peregrinus) nestlings in Sweden: Salmonella enterica enterica serovar Pajala (Salmonella Pajala)

    OpenAIRE

    Hernández, Jorge; Lindberg, Peter; Waldenström, Jonas; Drobni, Mirva; Olsen, Björn

    2012-01-01

    A novel Salmonella serovar was isolated from Peregrine falcon (Falco peregrinus) nestlings in northern Sweden in 2006. Three isolates of the same clone was retrieved from three falcon siblings and characterized as Salmonella enterica sub-species enterica: O-phase 13, 23:-: e, n, z 15 and the H-phase was not present. We propose the geographical name Salmonella enterica, sub-species entericaserovar Pajala to this novel Salmonella.Keywords: Salmonella; epidemiology; ecology; peregrine falcon; no...

  12. Construction of genetic markers for the study of Salmonella typhimurium infection of murine macrophages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jelsbak, Lotte; Olsen, John Elmerdahl

    effectors and host cell regulators and is a prokaryotic developmental program that follows a strict temporal and spatial path. Immediately following invasion, individual Salmonella cells are found within discrete vacuoles. Subsequently, intracellular bacterial replication begins after an initial lag period......  Salmonella pathogenesis is dependent on its ability to invade and replicate within a variety of host cells. Upon bacterial uptake by macrophages, maturation of the Salmonella Containing Vacuole (the SCV) initiates. The process of SCV maturation depends on the interactions between Salmonella...... and is accompanied by the formation of extensive membrane tubules (Salmonella-induced filaments, Sifs), which project from the SCVs and extend throughout the host cell. These events are coupled to interactions with host cell components and can be divided into discrete temporal and spatial steps: (1) Initial contact...

  13. Recovery rates, serotypes, and antimicrobial susceptibility patterns of Salmonellae isolated from cloacal swabs of wild Nile crocodiles (Crocodylus niloticus) in Zimbabwe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Mogens; Hangartner, P.; West, K.

    1998-01-01

    Samples from the cloaca and the ventral skin surface of 67 Nile crocodiles (Crocodylus niloticus) captured in four uninhabited areas at Lake Kariba, Zimbabwe, were cultured for Salmonella. All the skin samples tested negative for Salmonella, whereas 18 of 67 (26.9%) cloacal samples grew Salmonella...... to subspecies enterica displayed invasive properties in an experimental mouse model and thus exhibited pathogenic potential, whereas none of the other isolates were invasive. In general, isolates were sensitive to a number of commonly used antimicrobials, except for three isolates that were resistant...

  14. Prevalence of Salmonella in Australian reptiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheelings, T Franciscus; Lightfoot, Dianne; Holz, Peter

    2011-01-01

    From January 2007 until June 2008, 504 reptiles of four families and 57 species were examined for Salmonella by using cloacal or intestinal swabs. Salmonella was identified in 139 (28%) of the 504 animals tested. Of the 504 reptiles examined, 210 were captive and 294 were wild. Ninety-eight (47%) of the captive reptiles were shedding Salmonella at the time of sampling. In contrast, only 41 (14%) of the wild reptiles were shedding Salmonella. The higher prevalence of Salmonella in captive reptiles was statistically significant (Preptiles in Australia are not natural carriers of Salmonella and that diet and captivity may influence Salmonella excretion in other species.

  15. Invasive Species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Invasive species have significantly changed the Great Lakes ecosystem. An invasive species is a plant or animal that is not native to an ecosystem, and whose introduction is likely to cause economic, human health, or environmental damage.

  16. Salmonella, Shigella, and Yersinia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dekker, John; Frank, Karen

    2015-01-01

    Synopsis Salmonella, Shigella, and Yersinia cause a well-characterized spectrum of disease in humans, ranging from asymptomatic carriage to hemorrhagic colitis and fatal typhoidal fever. These pathogens are responsible for millions of cases of food-borne illness in the U.S. each year, with substantial costs measured in hospitalizations and lost productivity. In the developing world, illness caused by these pathogens is not only more prevalent, but is also associated with a greater case-fatality rate. Classical methods for identification rely on selective media and serology, but newer methods based on mass spectrometry and PCR show great promise for routine clinical testing. PMID:26004640

  17. Eleventh CRL-Salmonella interlaboratory comparison study on typing of Salmonella spp.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berk PA; Maas HME; de Pinna E; Mooijman KA; MGB

    2006-01-01

    Het elfde ringonderzoek voor de typering van Salmonella werd in maart 2006 georganiseerd door het Communautair Referentie Laboratorium voor Salmonella (CRL-Salmonella, Bilthoven, Nederland) in samenwerking met de Health Protection Agency (HPA, Londen, Verenigd Koninkrijk). 26 Nationale Referentie

  18. Tenth CRL-Salmonella interlaboratory comparison study on typing of Salmonella spp.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Korver H; Maas HME; Ward LR; Mevius DJ; Mooijman KA; MGB

    2006-01-01

    Het tiende ringonderzoek voor de typering van Salmonella werd in maart 2005 georganiseerd door het Communautair Referentie Laboratorium voor Salmonella (CRL-Salmonella, Bilthoven, Nederland) in samenwerking met de Health Protection Agency (HPA, Londen, Verenigd Koninkrijk) en het Centraal Instituut

  19. Emergence of blaCTX-M-15, blaTEM-169 and blaPER-1 extended-spectrum β-lactamase genes among different Salmonella enterica serovars from human faecal samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tajbakhsh, Mercedeh; Avini, Mohammad Yaghoobi; Alikhajeh, Jahan; Tajeddin, Elahe; Rahbar, Mohammad; Eslami, Parisa; Alebouyeh, Masoud; Zali, Mohammad Reza

    2016-07-01

    Broad-spectrum β-lactams are used for empirical therapy of severe infections with non-typhoid Salmonella serotypes; however, activities of these drugs against the strains producing different β-lactamase is not so clear. This study investigated the prevalence of β-lactamase genes among isolates of S. enterica serovars from human faecal samples and determined their diversity in activity against different β-lactams. Antimicrobial resistance of faecal isolates of S. enterica to extended-spectrum cephalosporins was analysed and MIC values were determined for the strains presenting extended-spectrum β-lactamases (ESBLs) phenotypes. The β-lactamase genes were identified by PCR and sequencing. β-lactamase activity of the Salmonella strains exhibiting ESBL phenotype was detected by biological, iodometric, spectrophotometry and nitrocefin assays. Out of 202 S. enterica isolates, ESBLs phenotype was detected among 3.4% (7/202) of the strains. blaTEM-1 and blaCTX-M-15 were among the frequent β-lactamase genes. Detection of blaTEM-169 in S. enterica serovar Typhimurium and S. enterica serovar Bredeney and blaPER-1 in S. enterica serovar Infantis was a new finding in this experiment. Location of blaCTX-M-15/blaTEM-169/blaPER-1 genes on plasmid was confirmed in a transformation experiment. While crude extracts of the enzymes from each strain showed higher activity against cephalothin and cefotaxime, the lowest activity was detected against ceftazidime. The greatest synergistic activity was seen in a strain of S. enterica that carried blaCTX-M-15 and blaPER-1 genes compared with those presenting blaCTX-M-15/blaTEM-169 or blaCTX-M-15/blaTEM-1 genotypes. The results show dissemination of ESBLs encoding genes and their combined activity among different serovars of S. enterica that are a threat for future treatment options.

  20. Evolution of Salmonella enterica Virulence via Point Mutations in the Fimbrial Adhesin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kisiela, Dagmara I.; Chattopadhyay, Sujay; Libby, Stephen J.; Karlinsey, Joyce E.; Fang, Ferric C.; Tchesnokova, Veronika; Kramer, Jeremy J.; Beskhlebnaya, Viktoriya; Samadpour, Mansour; Grzymajlo, Krzysztof; Ugorski, Maciej; Lankau, Emily W.; Mackie, Roderick I.; Clegg, Steven; Sokurenko, Evgeni V.

    2012-01-01

    Whereas the majority of pathogenic Salmonella serovars are capable of infecting many different animal species, typically producing a self-limited gastroenteritis, serovars with narrow host-specificity exhibit increased virulence and their infections frequently result in fatal systemic diseases. In our study, a genetic and functional analysis of the mannose-specific type 1 fimbrial adhesin FimH from a variety of serovars of Salmonella enterica revealed that specific mutant variants of FimH are common in host-adapted (systemically invasive) serovars. We have found that while the low-binding shear-dependent phenotype of the adhesin is preserved in broad host-range (usually systemically non-invasive) Salmonella, the majority of host-adapted serovars express FimH variants with one of two alternative phenotypes: a significantly increased binding to mannose (as in S. Typhi, S. Paratyphi C, S. Dublin and some isolates of S. Choleraesuis), or complete loss of the mannose-binding activity (as in S. Paratyphi B, S. Choleraesuis and S. Gallinarum). The functional diversification of FimH in host-adapted Salmonella results from recently acquired structural mutations. Many of the mutations are of a convergent nature indicative of strong positive selection. The high-binding phenotype of FimH that leads to increased bacterial adhesiveness to and invasiveness of epithelial cells and macrophages usually precedes acquisition of the non-binding phenotype. Collectively these observations suggest that activation or inactivation of mannose-specific adhesive properties in different systemically invasive serovars of Salmonella reflects their dynamic trajectories of adaptation to a life style in specific hosts. In conclusion, our study demonstrates that point mutations are the target of positive selection and, in addition to horizontal gene transfer and genome degradation events, can contribute to the differential pathoadaptive evolution of Salmonella. PMID:22685400

  1. Complete genome sequence of a multiple drug resistant Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi CT18

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Parkhill, J.; Dougan, G.; James, K.D.

    2001-01-01

    Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi (S. typhi) is the aetiological agent of typhoid fever, a serious invasive bacterial disease of humans with an annual global burden of approximately 16 million cases, leading to 600,000 fatalities(1). Many S. enterica serovars actively invade the mucosal surface o...... plasmid of Yersinia pestis....

  2. Prevalence, molecular and antimicrobial resistance of Salmonella isolated from sausages in Meknes, Morocco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ed-Dra, Abdelaziz; Filali, Fouzia Rhazi; Karraouan, Bouchra; El Allaoui, Abdellah; Aboulkacem, Amal; Bouchrif, Brahim

    2017-04-01

    Salmonella is among the most important food borne pathogens worldwide contaminating a wide range of animal products including meat products. The aims of this study go through two steps: The first step is to estimate the proportion of sausages products contaminated with Salmonella in Meknes city (Morocco), which were collected from various shopping sites: butchery, street vendors, supermarket and souk (Weekly market combines the population of the small villages around Meknes city). The second one is to identify serovars, to determine the antimicrobials resistance patterns of isolates and to detect the invA and spvC genes. 34 (21.79%) Salmonella were isolated, recovered 4 serogroups and 12 serotypes. The most prevalent serotypes were Salmonella Corvallis (23.53%) and Salmonella Kentucky (17.65%). All Salmonella isolates were tested for their susceptibility to 18 selected antimicrobials agents, of which 100% were resistant to at least one antimicrobial, 85.30% (29/34) were resistant to two or more antimicrobials and 44.12% (15/34) were resistant to at least three antimicrobials. All Salmonella are resistant to ampicillin, 76.47% to streptomycin, 20.59% to sulfonamides, 17.65% to Tetracycline and 11.77% to Ofloxacin. The "ACSSuT" penta-resistance pattern was observed in tow of the Salmonella Typhimurium strains. In addition, this study showed that all Salmonella strains (34) were positive for invasion gene invA and negative for the virulence gene spvC. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Heterogeneity of type III secretion system (T3SS)-1-independent entry mechanisms used by Salmonella Enteritidis to invade different cell types.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosselin, Manon; Abed, Nadia; Virlogeux-Payant, Isabelle; Bottreau, Elisabeth; Sizaret, Pierre-Yves; Velge, Philippe; Wiedemann, Agnès

    2011-03-01

    Salmonella causes a wide range of diseases from acute gastroenteritis to systemic typhoid fever, depending on the host. To invade non-phagocytic cells, Salmonella has developed different mechanisms. The main invasion system requires a type III secretion system (T3SS) known as T3SS-1, which promotes a Trigger entry mechanism. However, other invasion factors have recently been described in Salmonella, including Rck and PagN, which were not expressed under our bacterial culture conditions. Based on these observations, we used adhesion and invasion assays to analyse the respective roles of Salmonella Enteritidis T3SS-1-dependent and -independent invasion processes at different times of infection. Diverse cell lines and cell types were tested, including endothelial, epithelial and fibroblast cells. We demonstrated that cell susceptibility to the T3SS-1-independent entry differs by a factor of nine between the most and the least permissive cell lines tested. In addition, using scanning electron and confocal microscopy, we showed that T3SS-1-independent entry into cells was characterized by a Trigger-like alteration, as for the T3SS-1-dependent entry, and also by Zipper-like cellular alteration. Our results demonstrate for what is believed to be the first time that Salmonella can induce Trigger-like entry independently of T3SS-1 and can induce Zipper-like entry independently of Rck. Overall, these data open new avenues for discovering new invasion mechanisms in Salmonella.

  4. Do Salmonella carry spare tyres?

    Science.gov (United States)

    McQuiston, John R; Fields, Patricia I; Tauxe, Robert V; Logsdon, John M

    2008-04-01

    Salmonellae are enterobacteria that have the unique ability to change their flagellar composition by switching expression among two loci that encode the major flagellin protein. This property is not available to all Salmonella, but is species, subspecies and serotype specific. Curiously, the subsequent loss of the second locus in some lineages of Salmonella has apparently been tolerated and, indeed, has led to considerable success for some lineages. We discuss here an evolutionary model for maintenance of this unique function and the possible evolutionary advantages of loss or preservation of this mechanism. We hypothesize that the second flagellin locus is a genetic 'spare tyre' used in particular environmental circumstances.

  5. Enteric Helminths Promote Salmonella Coinfection by Altering the Intestinal Metabolome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, Lisa A; Redpath, Stephen A; Yurist-Doutsch, Sophie; Gill, Navkiran; Brown, Eric M; van der Heijden, Joris; Brosschot, Tara P; Han, Jun; Marshall, Natalie C; Woodward, Sarah E; Valdez, Yanet; Borchers, Christoph H; Perona-Wright, Georgia; Finlay, B Brett

    2017-04-15

    Intestinal helminth infections occur predominantly in regions where exposure to enteric bacterial pathogens is also common. Helminth infections inhibit host immunity against microbial pathogens, which has largely been attributed to the induction of regulatory or type 2 (Th2) immune responses. Here we demonstrate an additional 3-way interaction in which helminth infection alters the metabolic environment of the host intestine to enhance bacterial pathogenicity. We show that an ongoing helminth infection increased colonization by Salmonella independently of T regulatory or Th2 cells. Instead, helminth infection altered the metabolic profile of the intestine, which directly enhanced bacterial expression of Salmonella pathogenicity island 1 (SPI-1) genes and increased intracellular invasion. These data reveal a novel mechanism by which a helminth-modified metabolome promotes susceptibility to bacterial coinfection. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  6. Salmonella Control Programs in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wegener, Henrik Caspar; Hald, Tine; Wong, Danilo Lo Fo

    2003-01-01

    We describe Salmonella control programs of broiler chickens, layer hens, and pigs in Denmark. Major reductions in the incidence of foodborne human salmonellosis have occurred by integrated control of farms and food processing plants. Disease control has been achieved by monitoring the herds...... and flocks, eliminating infected animals, and diversifying animals (animals and products are processed differently depending on Salmonella status) and animal food products according to the determined risk. In 2001, the Danish society saved U.S.$25.5 million by controlling Salmonella. The total annual...... Salmonella control costs in year 2001 were U.S.$14.1 million (U.S.$0.075/kg of pork and U.S.$0.02/kg of broiler or egg). These costs are paid almost exclusively by the industry. The control principles described are applicable to most industrialized countries with modern intensive farming systems....

  7. Salmonella in Sheep in Iceland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gunnarsson E

    2002-03-01

    Full Text Available In 1995 several outbreaks of food poisoning in humans occurred in Iceland, that were traced to salmonella contamination of singed sheep heads. This prompted us to study the prevalence of salmonella infection in sheep and to trace where and how infection might have occurred. Faecal, intestinal contents and tonsillar samples were collected in the spring and autumn from sheep on 50 farms in the southwestern part of the country, where salmonellosis had been detected and from 5 farms in the northwestern part of the country. All faecal samples from the southwest were negative, whereas samples from 3 farms obtained in the autumn in the northwest were positive. Tonsillae taken in the autumn were positive in sheep from 3 farms in the southwest and 2 in the northwest. Our results show that salmonella infection is rare in Icelandic sheep but healthy carriers may harbour the bacteria in tonsillae. Salmonella was not detected in drainage from slaughterhouses nor in singed sheep heads.

  8. Osteomielitis por salmonella

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alicia Velázquez Pérez

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Se presenta el caso de una paciente femenina de color blanco y dos años de edad, con diagnóstico prenatal de sicklemia, que desde edades tempranas tiene problemas de la enfermedad. Ingresó en esta ocasión por una de las complicaciones infecciosas que ocasiona este padecimiento, una osteomielitis del húmero izquierdo, aislándose el germen en el hemocultivo realizado, una salmonella. Necesitó de tratamiento enérgico y prolongado; se obtuvo un resultado satisfactorio en la evolución de la enfermedad y se sigue sistemáticamente por consulta externa en la actualidad

  9. Modification of Salmonella Typhimurium motility by the probiotic yeast strain Saccharomyces boulardii.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodolphe Pontier-Bres

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Motility is an important component of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium (ST pathogenesis allowing the bacteria to move into appropriate niches, across the mucus layer and invade the intestinal epithelium. In vitro, flagellum-associated motility is closely related to the invasive properties of ST. The probiotic yeast Saccharomyces boulardii BIOCODEX (S.b-B is widely prescribed for the prophylaxis and treatment of diarrheal diseases caused by bacteria or antibiotics. In case of Salmonella infection, S.b-B has been shown to decrease ST invasion of T84 colon cell line. The present study was designed to investigate the impact of S.b-B on ST motility. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Experiments were performed on human colonic T84 cells infected by the Salmonella strain 1344 alone or in the presence of S.b-B. The motility of Salmonella was recorded by time-lapse video microscopy. Next, a manual tracking was performed to analyze bacteria dynamics (MTrackJ plugin, NIH image J software. This revealed that the speed of bacterial movement was modified in the presence of S.b-B. The median curvilinear velocity (CLV of Salmonella incubated alone with T84 decreased from 43.3 µm/sec to 31.2 µm/sec in the presence of S.b-B. Measurement of track linearity (TL showed similar trends: S.b-B decreased by 15% the number of bacteria with linear tract (LT and increased by 22% the number of bacteria with rotator tract (RT. Correlation between ST motility and invasion was further established by studying a non-motile flagella-deficient ST strain. Indeed this strain that moved with a CLV of 0.5 µm/sec, presented a majority of RT and a significant decrease in invasion properties. Importantly, we show that S.b-B modified the motility of the pathogenic strain SL1344 and significantly decreased invasion of T84 cells by this strain. CONCLUSIONS: This study reveals that S.b-B modifies Salmonella's motility and trajectory which may account for the modification

  10. the genetic and molecular basis of bacterial invasion of epithelial cells

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR. AMINU

    invasin. Salmonella typhi was found to have four invasion loci; inv A-D, but H genes are contained in 33kb DNA fragment. Enteropathogenic E. coli (EPEC) achieve invasion by assembly of highly organized cytoskeletal structures in the epithelial cells just beneath the adherent bacteria, while. Shigella flexneri was found to ...

  11. Inhibitory Effects of Several Essential Oils towards Salmonella typhimurium, Salmonella paratyphi A and Salmonella paratyphi B

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.F. Mazhar

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Plant essential oils are natural products extracted from plants and because of their antimicrobial properties can be used as natural additives in foods. They are also useful for decontamination of food-borne pathogens and can be a safe additive in foods. The antimicrobial activities of essential oils belonging to Saturiea hortensis, Thymus vulgaris, Mentha polegium, Cuminum cyminum, Lavandula officinalis and Mentha viridis L. (spearmint were investigated at different concentrations (0.1, 0.3, 0.5, 1, 2, 5 and 10%v/v against Salmonella typhimurium, Salmonella paratyphi A and Salmonella paratyphi B by using the agar well diffusion method. Essential oils showed inhibitory effect on Salmonella spp. in the agar well diffusion assay. In addition, the capability of essential oils for decontamination of minced row beef, ground beef, minced raw chicken and minced raw fish inoculated with Salmonella spp. at 0.1 and 0.5%v/v were assessed. Reduction of the Salmonella spp. population was observed following the inoculation of the cultures with 0.1 and 0.5%v/v essential oils.

  12. The Emergence of Reduced Ciprofloxacin Susceptibility in Salmonella enterica Causing Bloodstream Infections in Rural Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eibach, Daniel; Al-Emran, Hassan M; Dekker, Denise Myriam; Krumkamp, Ralf; Adu-Sarkodie, Yaw; Cruz Espinoza, Ligia Maria; Ehmen, Christa; Boahen, Kennedy; Heisig, Peter; Im, Justin; Jaeger, Anna; von Kalckreuth, Vera; Pak, Gi Deok; Panzner, Ursula; Park, Se Eun; Reinhardt, Alexander; Sarpong, Nimako; Schütt-Gerowitt, Heidi; Wierzba, Thomas F; Marks, Florian; May, Jürgen

    2016-03-15

    Salmonella ranks among the leading causes of bloodstream infections in sub-Saharan Africa. Multidrug resistant typhoidal and nontyphoidal Salmonella (NTS) isolates have been previously identified in this region. However, resistance to ciprofloxacin has rarely been reported in West Africa. This study aims to assess susceptibility against ciprofloxacin in Salmonella causing invasive bloodstream infections among children in rural Ghana. From May 2007 until May 2012, children attending a rural district hospital in central Ghana were eligible for recruitment. Salmonella enterica isolated from blood cultures were assessed for ciprofloxacin susceptibility by Etest (susceptible minimum inhibitory concentration [MIC] ≤ 0.06 µg/mL). The gyrA, gyrB, parC, and parE genes were sequenced to identify mutations associated with changes in susceptibility to fluoroquinolones. Two hundred eighty-five Salmonella enterica isolates from 5211 blood cultures were most commonly identified as Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium (n = 129 [45%]), Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi (n = 89 [31%]), Salmonella enterica serovar Dublin (n = 20 [7%]), and Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis (n = 19 [7%]). All S. Typhi and S. Dublin were susceptible to ciprofloxacin. Reduced susceptibility (MIC >0.06 µg/mL) was found in 53% (10/19) of S. Enteritidis and in 2% (3/129) of S. Typhimurium isolates. Sequencing detected a single gyrB mutation (Glu466Asp) and a single gyrA mutation (Ser83Tyr) in all 3 S. Typhimurium isolates, while 9 of 10 S. Enteritidis harbored single gyrA mutations (Asp87Gly, Asp87Asn, or Asp87Tyr). No mutations were found in the parC and parE genes. Ciprofloxacin susceptibility in invasive NTS in rural Ghana is highly dependent on serotype. Although reduced ciprofloxacin susceptibility is low in S. Typhimurium, more than half of all S. Enteritidis isolates are affected. Healthcare practitioners in Ghana should be aware of potential treatment failure in patients with invasive

  13. The risk of salmonellae shedding by dogs fed Salmonella-contaminated commercial raw food diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finley, Rita; Ribble, Carl; Aramini, Jeff; Vandermeer, Meredith; Popa, Maria; Litman, Marcus; Reid-Smith, Richard

    2007-01-01

    Twenty-eight research dogs were enrolled to determine the prevalence of salmonellae shedding after consumption of 1 Salmonella-contaminated commercial raw food diet meal. Sixteen dogs were exposed to Salmonella-contaminated commercial raw food diets and 12 to Salmonella-free commercial raw food diets. Seven of the exposed dogs shed salmonellae 1-7 days after consumption of Salmonella-contaminated raw food diets. None of the dogs fed Salmonella-free diets shed salmonellae. No clinical signs were observed in either group. Five of the 7 dogs shed the same serotypes as those recovered from food samples used for feeding. Results showed the same serotypes and antimicrobial resistance pattern in 2 of the 7 shedders. Dogs fed Salmonella-contaminated raw food diets can shed salmonellae and may, therefore, be a source of environmental contamination potentially leading to human or animal illness.

  14. Salmonella Typhimurium transcription profiles in space flight

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Salmonella transcription profiles were obtained from samples flown on space shuttle mission STS-115 and compared to profiles from Salmonella grown under identical...

  15. Selected Lactobacillus strains isolated from sugary and milk kefir reduce Salmonella infection of epithelial cells in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zavala, L; Golowczyc, M A; van Hoorde, K; Medrano, M; Huys, G; Vandamme, P; Abraham, A G

    2016-09-01

    The isolation of potentially probiotic strains and the subsequent study of their properties are very important steps to gain insight in the health benefits ascribed to sugary and milk kefir. The aim of the present study was to characterise fifteen Lactobacillus strains isolated from these beverages by determining some surface properties and their ability to antagonise enterocyte cell damage after Salmonella infection in vitro. Lactobacillus surface properties were determined by hydrophobicity, autoaggregation, and coaggregation assays with Salmonella. In addition, lactobacilli adhesion to Caco-2/TC-7 cells and the effect on Salmonella invasion were evaluated. Finally, the disassembly of F-actin cytoskeleton on intestinal epithelial cells was assayed in vitro when Salmonella infection was performed in the presence of selected Lactobacillus strains. Ten out of the 15 strains showed a high adhesion capacity to Caco-2/TC-7 cells. Most of the strains were hydrophilic and non-autoaggregating. Strains isolated from sugary kefir were non-coaggregating with Salmonella, while strains Lactobacillus paracasei CIDCA 83120, 83121, 83123, 83124, 8339, 83102 isolated from milk kefir were able to coaggregate after 1 h. L. paracasei CIDCA 8339 and Lactobacillus kefiri CIDCA 83102 were able to diminish Salmonella invasion to the enterocytes. An antagonistic effect on cytoskeleton disruption elicited by the pathogen was also demonstrated. Our results suggest that both strains isolated from milk kefir could be considered as appropriate probiotic candidates.

  16. Phenotypic and molecular characterization of Salmonella serotypes ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The presence of Salmonella and human pathogens in unpasteurized milk remains a public health hazard. The study reported the phenotypic and molecular characterization of Salmonella serotypes in cow raw milk, cheese and traditional yoghurt marketed for man's consumption in Nigeria. Isolation of Salmonella was done ...

  17. Genotypic and epidemiologic characterization of extended-spectrum cephalosporin resistant Salmonella enterica from US beef feedlots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mollenkopf, D F; Mathys, D A; Dargatz, D A; Erdman, M M; Habing, G G; Daniels, J B; Wittum, T E

    2017-10-01

    In the US, nontyphoidal Salmonellae are a common foodborne zoonotic pathogen causing gastroenteritis. Invasive Salmonella infections caused by extended-spectrum cephalosporin resistant (ESCR) phenotypes are more likely to result in treatment failure and adverse health outcomes, especially in severe pediatric Salmonella infections where the extended-spectrum β-lactams are the therapy of choice. To examine the genetic and epidemiologic characteristics of ESCR Salmonellae which may enter the food chain, we characterized 44 ceftiofur-resistant Salmonella isolates from the National Animal Health Monitoring System (NAHMS) 2011 beef cattle feedlot health and management study. As part of the NAHMS Feedlot 2011 study, 5050 individual fecal samples from 68 large (1000+ head capacity) feedlots were cultured for Salmonella spp. The resulting 460 positive samples yielded 571 Salmonella isolates with 44 (8%) expressing an AmpC β-lactamase phenotype. These phenotypic bla CMY-2 Salmonella isolates represented 8 serotypes, most commonly S. Newport (n=14, 32%), S. Typhimurium (n=13, 30%), and S. Reading (n=5, 11%), followed by S. Dublin, S. Infantis, S. Montevideo, S. Rough O:i;v:1;7, and S. Uganda. Carriage of the bla CMY-2 gene was confirmed for all isolates expressing an AmpC β-lactamase phenotype by PCR. Additionally, all 44 isolates were shown to carry the bla CMY-2 gene on a large IncA/C plasmid, a gene/plasmid combination which has been previously reported in multiple species. Other plasmids, including IncN, FIC, and FIIA, were also detected in some isolates. Cattle fed chlortetracycline were less likely to be positive for a bla CMY-2 Salmonella isolate in their enteric flora compared to those not receiving chlortetracycline during the feeding period. Carriage of bla CMY-2 was more prevalent in Salmonella isolates originating from lighter weight cattle, cattle fed tylosin and dairy breeds. Our characterization of the NAHMS Feedlot 2011 study Salmonella isolates with ESCR

  18. Salmonella Interaction with and Passage through the Intestinal Mucosa: Through the Lens of the Organism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallstrom, Kelly; McCormick, Beth A

    2011-01-01

    Salmonella enterica serotypes are invasive enteric pathogens spread through fecal contamination of food and water sources, and represent a constant public health threat around the world. The symptoms associated with salmonellosis and typhoid disease are largely due to the host response to invading Salmonella, and to the mechanisms these bacteria employ to survive in the presence of, and invade through the intestinal mucosal epithelia. Surmounting this barrier is required for survival within the host, as well as for further dissemination throughout the body, and subsequent systemic disease. In this review, we highlight some of the major hurdles Salmonella must overcome upon encountering the intestinal mucosal epithelial barrier, and examine how these bacteria surmount and exploit host defense mechanisms.

  19. Salmonella interaction with and passage through the intestinal mucosa: through the lens of the organism.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelly eHallstrom

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Salmonella enterica serotypes are invasive enteric pathogens spread through fecal contamination of food and water sources, and represent a constant public health threat around the world. The symptoms associated with salmonellosis and typhoid disease are largely due to the host response to invading Salmonella, and to the mechanisms these bacteria employ to survive in the presence of, and invade through the intestinal mucosal epithelia. Surmounting this barrier is required for survival within the host, as well as for further dissemination throughout the body, and subsequent systemic disease. In this review, we highlight some of the major hurdles Salmonella must overcome upon encountering the intestinal mucosal epithelial barrier, and examine how these bacteria surmount and exploit host defense mechanisms.

  20. DNA-Based diagnostic tests for Salmonella strains targeting hilA, agfA, spvC and sef Genes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Craciunafl, C.; Keul, A. L.; Flonta, M.; Cristea, M.

    2009-07-01

    Salmoneleae are invasive enteropathogens of humans and animals. During the past decade, a dramatic increase in the occurrence of Salmonella spp infections was principally responsible for the rise of food-borne salmonellosis. The goal of this study was to evaluate the suitability of the, hilA, agfA, spvC, sef, gene amplification by PCR as a specific method for detection of Salmonella strains. (Author)

  1. Polyamines Are Required for Virulence in Salmonella enterica Serovar Typhimurium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jelsbak, Lotte; Thomsen, Line Elnif; Wallrodt, Inke

    2012-01-01

    Sensing and responding to environmental cues is a fundamental characteristic of bacterial physiology and virulence. Here we identify polyamines as novel environmental signals essential for virulence of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium, a major intracellular pathogen and a model organism......, we show that an S. Typhimurium polyamine mutant is defective for invasion, intracellular survival, killing of the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans and systemic infection of the mouse model of typhoid fever. Virulence of the mutant could be restored by genetic complementation, and invasion...... and intracellular survival could, as well, be complemented by the addition of exogenous putrescine and spermidine to the bacterial cultures prior to infection. Interestingly, intracellular survival of the polyamine mutant was significantly enhanced above the wild type level by the addition of exogenous putrescine...

  2. Prevalence and susceptibility of salmonella Typhi and salmonella ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Methods: Blood samples collected from presumptive typhoid fever patients from Ahmadu Bello University (ABU), Federal College of Education (FCE) and presumptive typhoid fever patients that attended two private clinics (Salama Clinics and Savanna Polyclinics) in Zaria were cultured for Salmonella species and identified ...

  3. Development of ceftriaxone resistance in Salmonella enterica serotype Oranienburg during therapy for bacteremia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Wei-Chiun; Chan, Oi-Wa; Wu, Tsu-Lan; Chen, Chyi-Liang; Su, Lin-Hui; Chiu, Cheng-Hsun

    2016-02-01

    The majority of nontyphoid Salmonella infection is identified in children. When an invasive or severe Salmonella infection is encountered, ceftriaxone is recommended for such patients. A 2-year-old girl was hospitalized for the treatment of Salmonella bacteremia and discharged with standard ceftriaxone treatment. She was readmitted to the hospital after 2 days due to the recurrence of the Salmonella bacteremia. The study aimed to unveil the mechanism for the relapse. Six isolates (4 blood and 2 stool) were recovered from the patient, with the last two blood isolates being ceftriaxone-resistant. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis was used for genotyping. Ceftriaxone resistance genes and transferability of the resistance plasmid were examined by molecular methods. All isolates were identified as Salmonella enterica serotype Oranienburg. Five isolates demonstrated almost identical electrophoresis patterns, except that in the two ceftriaxone-resistant isolates an extra band (>100 kb) was noted. A blaCMY-2 gene, carried by a 120-kb conjugative IncI1 plasmid of the sequence type 53, was identified in the two ceftriaxone-resistant isolates. Transfer of the resistance plasmid from one blood isolate to Escherichia coli J53 resulted in the increase of ceftriaxone minimum inhibitory concentration from 0.125 μg/mL to 32 μg/mL in the recipient. Ceftriaxone is the standard therapeutic choice for invasive or serious Salmonella infections in children. Pediatricians should be aware of the possibility of resistance development during therapy, especially in areas with a widespread of ceftriaxone resistance genes that are carried by a self-transferrable plasmid, such as the blaCMY-2-carrying IncI1 plasmid identified herein. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  4. Draft Genome Sequences of Four Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica Serovar Enteritidis Strains Implicated in Infections of Avian and Human Hosts

    KAUST Repository

    An, Ran

    2018-01-24

    Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar Enteritidis is a wide-host-range pathogen. Occasionally, it is involved in invasive infections, leading to a high mortality rate. Here, we present the draft genome sequences of four S Enteritidis strains obtained from human and avian hosts that had been involved in bacteremia, gastroenteritis, and primary infections.

  5. Predictive Modeling for the Growth of Salmonella Enteritidis in Chicken Juice by Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noviyanti, Fia; Hosotani, Yukie; Koseki, Shigenobu; Inatsu, Yasuhiro; Kawasaki, Susumu

    2018-04-02

    The goals of this study were to monitor the growth kinetics of Salmonella Enteritidis in chicken juice using real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and to evaluate its efficacy by comparing the results with an experimental database. Salmonella Enteritidis was inoculated in chicken juice samples at an initial inoculum of 10 4 CFU/mL with inoculated samples incubated at six different temperatures (10, 15, 20, 25, 30, and 35°C). Sampling was carried out for 36 h to observe the growth of Salmonella Enteritidis. The total DNA was extracted from the samples, and the copy number of the Salmonella invasion gene (invA) was quantified by real-time PCR and converted to Salmonella Enteritidis cell concentration. Growth kinetics data were analyzed by the Baranyi and Roberts model to obtain growth parameters, whereas the Ratkowsky's square-root model was used to describe the effect of the interactions between growth parameters and temperature on the growth of Salmonella Enteritidis. The growth parameters of Salmonella Enteritidis obtained from an experiment conducted at a constant temperature were validated with growth data from chicken juice samples that were incubated under fluctuating temperature conditions between 5°C and 30°C for 30-min periods. A high correlation was observed between maximum growth rate (μ max ) and storage temperature, indicating that the real-time PCR-monitoring method provides a precise estimation of Salmonella Enteritidis growth in food material with a microbial flora. Moreover, the μ max data reflected data from microbial responses viewer database and ComBase. The results of this study suggested that real-time PCR monitoring provides a precise estimation of Salmonella Enteritidis growth in food materials with a background microbial flora.

  6. Salmonella Sepsis in African Children

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    studies of childhood septic arthritis in Malawi, Kenya and Zambia. (11-13). The salmonella arthritis occurred in the rainy season and occurred in young children who were often malnourished and anaemic. The shoulder was the most frequently affected joint and. Molyneux postulated that the repeated minor trauma sustained.

  7. Salmonella Infection and Water Frogs

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2010-01-12

    This podcast, featuring lead investigator Shauna Mettee, discusses the first known outbreak of Salmonella in people due to contact with water frogs.  Created: 1/12/2010 by National Center for Zoonotic, Vector-Borne, and Enteric Diseases (NCZVED).   Date Released: 1/12/2010.

  8. Salmonella radicidation of poultry carcasses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mulder, R.W.A.W.

    1982-01-01

    Validity of methods

    Experiments were carried out In which it was assessed which Salmonella isolation method is the most productive one In the examination of broiler carcasses. Refrigerated, refrigerated and radiated (2.50 kGy), frozen and frozen and

  9. Salmonella-secreted Virulence Factors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heffron, Fred; Niemann, George; Yoon, Hyunjin; Kidwai, Afshan S.; Brown, Roslyn N.; McDermott, Jason E.; Smith, Richard D.; Adkins, Joshua N.

    2011-05-01

    In this short review we discuss secreted virulence factors of Salmonella, which directly affect Salmonella interaction with its host. Salmonella secretes protein to subvert host defenses but also, as discussed, to reduce virulence thereby permitting the bacteria to persist longer and more successfully disperse. The type III secretion system (TTSS) is the best known and well studied of the mechanisms that enable secretion from the bacterial cytoplasm to the host cell cytoplasm. Other secretion systems include outer membrane vesicles, which are present in all Gram-negative bacteria examined to date, two-partner secretion, and type VI secretion will also be addressed. Excellent reviews of Salmonella secreted effectors have focused on themes such as actin rearrangements, vesicular trafficking, ubiquitination, and the activities of the virulence factors themselves. This short review is based on S. Typhimurium infection of mice because it is a model of typhoid like disease in humans. We have organized effectors in terms of events that happen during the infection cycle and how secreted effectors may be involved.

  10. Bactericidal Immunity to Salmonella in Africans and Mechanisms Causing Its Failure in HIV Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goh, Yun Shan; Necchi, Francesca; O’Shaughnessy, Colette M.; Micoli, Francesca; Gavini, Massimiliano; Young, Stephen P.; Msefula, Chisomo L.; Gondwe, Esther N.; Mandala, Wilson L.; Gordon, Melita A.; Saul, Allan J.; MacLennan, Calman A.

    2016-01-01

    Background Nontyphoidal strains of Salmonella are a leading cause of death among HIV-infected Africans. Antibody-induced complement-mediated killing protects healthy Africans against Salmonella, but increased levels of anti-lipopolysaccharide (LPS) antibodies in some HIV-infected African adults block this killing. The objective was to understand how these high levels of anti-LPS antibodies interfere with the killing of Salmonella. Methodology/Principal Findings Sera and affinity-purified antibodies from African HIV-infected adults that failed to kill invasive S. Typhimurium D23580 were compared to sera from HIV-uninfected and HIV-infected subjects with bactericidal activity. The failure of sera from certain HIV-infected subjects to kill Salmonella was found to be due to an inherent inhibitory effect of anti-LPS antibodies. This inhibition was concentration-dependent and strongly associated with IgA and IgG2 anti-LPS antibodies (pbactericidal, while at very high concentrations, anti-LPS antibodies of all classes inhibit in vitro killing of Salmonella. This could be due to a variety of mechanisms relating to the poor ability of IgA and IgG2 to activate complement, and deposition of complement at sites where it cannot insert in the bacterial membrane. Vaccine trials are required to understand the significance of lack of in vitro killing by anti-LPS antibodies from a minority of HIV-infected individuals with impaired immune homeostasis. PMID:27057743

  11. Prevalence and antimicrobial resistance of Salmonella in chicken carcasses at retail in 15 Brazilian cities Prevalencia y resistencia a los antimicrobianos de Salmonella en pollos congelados de venta al por menor en 15 ciudades del Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Augusto Nunes Medeiros

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To describe the prevalence and antimicrobial resistance of Salmonella spp. in frozen chicken carcasses at retail from 15 Brazilian cities. METHODS: A descriptive study of data from the Brazilian National Program for Monitoring the Prevalence of Bacterial Resistance in Chicken (PREBAF was conducted from September 2004 to July 2006. The program collected chicken carcasses in 15 state capitals of Brazil in the five geographic regions of the country. Standardized methodologies were used to isolate Salmonella­spp. and identify serotypes. The minimal inhibitory concentration method was used to test resistance to 18 antimicrobials. RESULTS: In 2 679 carcasses examined, the prevalence of Salmonella spp. was 2.7% (range 0.0%-8.9%. São Paulo State produced 50.6% of positive samples. Eighteen serotypes were identified. The most frequently occurring were Salmonella Enteritidis (48.8%, Salmonella Infantis (7.6%, Salmonella Typhimurium (7.2%, and Salmonella Heidelberg (6.4%. All 250 strains tested were resistant to one or more antibiotics, and 133 (53.2% were multidrug resistant (≥ 3 classes. S. Heidelberg was resistant to ceftriaxone (75.0% and to ceftiofur(43.8%. CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence of Salmonella spp. found in this study was relatively low. However, there were a high proportion of multidrug-resistant strains, including third-generation cephalosporins used to treat invasive salmonellosis. The results confirm the relevanceof the PREBAF program. It is recommended that PREBAF be improved, including a timely data analysis. A review of permitted limits for Salmonella spp. in retail chicken in Brazil is also needed.OBJETIVO: Describir la prevalencia y la resistencia a los antibióticos de Salmonella spp. en canales de pollo congeladas de venta al por menor en 15 ciudades del Brasil. MÉTODOS: Entre septiembre del 2004 y julio del 2006 se llevó a cabo un estudio descriptivo de los datos del Programa Nacional Brasileño de Vigilancia de la

  12. Salmonella – A Brief Summary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurmi Esko

    2002-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Salmonellosis is the main cause of human bacterial gastroenteritis in most European countries. Infections with Salmonella is usually subclinical, whereas clinical cases show symptoms with a wide range of severity. Infection is most commonly associated with the consumption of meat, especially poultry or pork, and eggs and their products. Salmonella can enter the food chain at any point throughout its length. The principal reservoir of Salmonellae is the gastrointestinal tract of mammals and birds, but Salmonellae are able to survive and even multiply in many external environments. In Norway, Sweden and Finland cost effective prevention methods have been used for several years to prevent and control Salmonellea infections. In addition, competitive exclusion (CE and vaccination might be relevant as biological methods to prevent colonisation of bird intestines by enteropathogens, especially Salmonella. Antibiotic drug resistance has been a problem since the start of the antibiotic era. The cause for anxiety is that more and more bacteria are becoming resistant, often to a whole range of antibiotics. The debate on the use of antimicrobials in veterinary medicine and animal production dates back almost as long as the use itself. There is a clear evidence to show that antibacterial agents given to animals for growth promotion, prophylactic purposes or treatment induce a rise in the number of antibiotic resistant strains isolated from the animals. These bacteria may be transmitted to humans by several possible routes. There are thus strong arguments for preventive efforts which have to be directed towards identifying real critical control points (HACCP throughout the whole food chain, which starts from the farm and ends at the consumer's table.

  13. Uncharismatic Invasives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clark, Jonathan L.

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Although philosophers have examined the ethics of invasive species management, there has been little research approaching this topic from a descriptive, ethnographic perspective. In this article I examine how invasive species managers think about the moral status of the animals they seek to manage. I do so through a case study of Oregon’s efforts to manage the invasive species that are rafting across the Pacific attached to tsunami debris in the wake of the Japanese tsunami of 2011. Focusing on the state’s response to a dock that washed ashore on Agate Beach with various marine invertebrates attached to it, I argue that these animals’ position on two intersecting scales of moral worth—the sociozoologic scale and the phylogenetic scale—rendered them unworthy of moral consideration.

  14. Salmonella risk to consumers via pork is related to the Salmonella prevalence in pig feed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rönnqvist, M; Välttilä, V; Ranta, J; Tuominen, P

    2018-05-01

    Pigs are an important source of human infections with Salmonella, one of the most common causes of sporadic gastrointestinal infections and foodborne outbreaks in the European region. Feed has been estimated to be a significant source of Salmonella in piggeries in countries of a low Salmonella prevalence. To estimate Salmonella risk to consumers via the pork production chain, including feed production, a quantitative risk assessment model was constructed. The Salmonella prevalence in feeds and in animals was estimated to be generally low in Finland, but the relative importance of feed as a source of Salmonella in pigs was estimated as potentially high. Discontinuation of the present strict Salmonella control could increase the risk of Salmonella in slaughter pigs and consequent infections in consumers. The increased use of low risk and controlled feed ingredients could result in a consistently lower residual contamination in pigs and help the tracing and control of the sources of infections. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. 75 FR 48973 - Draft Guidance for Industry: Prevention of Salmonella

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-12

    ...] Draft Guidance for Industry: Prevention of Salmonella Enteritidis in Shell Eggs During Production... entitled ``Prevention of Salmonella Enteritidis in Shell Eggs During Production, Storage, and... on how to comply with certain provisions contained in FDA's final rule ``Prevention of Salmonella...

  16. 76 FR 81513 - Guidance for Industry: Prevention of Salmonella

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-28

    ...] Guidance for Industry: Prevention of Salmonella Enteritidis in Shell Eggs During Production, Storage, and... ``Prevention of Salmonella Enteritidis in Shell Eggs During Production, Storage, and Transportation.'' The... final rule ``Prevention of Salmonella Enteritidis in Shell Eggs During Production, Storage, and...

  17. Identification and characterization of salmonella serotypes using DNA spectral characteristics by fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Analysis of DNA samples of Salmonella serotypes (Salmonella Typhimurium, Salmonella Enteritidis, Salmonella Infantis, Salmonella Heidelberg and Salmonella Kentucky) were performed using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) spectrometer by placing directly in contact with a diamond attenua...

  18. Genomic and Phenotypic Analyses Reveal the Emergence of an Atypical Salmonella enterica Serovar Senftenberg Variant in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abd El Ghany, Moataz; Shi, Xiaolu; Li, Yinghui; Ansari, Hifzur R; Hill-Cawthorne, Grant A; Ho, Y S; Naeem, Raeece; Pickard, Derek; Klena, John D; Xu, Xuebing; Pain, Arnab; Hu, Qinghua

    2016-08-01

    Human infections with Salmonella enterica subspecies enterica serovar Senftenberg are often associated with exposure to poultry flocks, farm environments, or contaminated food. The recent emergence of multidrug-resistant isolates has raised public health concerns. In this study, comparative genomics and phenotypic analysis were used to characterize 14 Salmonella Senftenberg clinical isolates recovered from multiple outbreaks in Shenzhen and Shanghai, China, between 2002 and 2011. Single-nucleotide polymorphism analyses identified two phylogenetically distinct clades of S Senftenberg, designated SC1 and SC2, harboring variations in Salmonella pathogenicity island 1 (SPI-1) and SPI-2 and exhibiting distinct biochemical and phenotypic signatures. Although the two variants shared the same serotype, the SC2 isolates of sequence type 14 (ST14) harbored intact SPI-1 and -2 and hence were characterized by possessing efficient invasion capabilities. In contrast, the SC1 isolates had structural deletion patterns in both SPI-1 and -2 that correlated with an impaired capacity to invade cultured human cells and also the year of their isolation. These atypical SC1 isolates also lacked the capacity to produce hydrogen sulfide. These findings highlight the emergence of atypical Salmonella Senftenberg variants in China and provide genetic validation that variants lacking SPI-1 and regions of SPI-2, which leads to impaired invasion capacity, can still cause clinical disease. These data have identified an emerging public health concern and highlight the need to strengthen surveillance to detect the prevalence and transmission of nontyphoidal Salmonella species. Copyright © 2016, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  19. Genomic and Phenotypic Analyses Reveal the Emergence of an Atypical Salmonella enterica Serovar Senftenberg Variant in China

    KAUST Repository

    Abd El Ghany, Moataz

    2016-05-25

    Human infections with Salmonella enterica subspecies enterica serovar Senftenberg are often associated with exposure to poultry flocks, farm environments, or contaminated food. The recent emergence of multidrug-resistant isolates has raised public health concerns. In this study, comparative genomics and phenotypic analysis were used to characterize 14 Salmonella Senftenberg clinical isolates recovered from multiple outbreaks in Shenzhen and Shanghai, China, between 2002 and 2011. Single-nucleotide polymorphism analyses identified two phylogenetically distinct clades of S. Senftenberg, designated SC1 and SC2, harboring variations in Salmonella pathogenicity island 1 (SPI-1) and SPI-2 and exhibiting distinct biochemical and phenotypic signatures. Although the two variants shared the same serotype, the SC2 isolates of sequence type 14 (ST14) harbored intact SPI-1 and -2 and hence were characterized by possessing efficient invasion capabilities. In contrast, the SC1 isolates had structural deletion patterns in both SPI-1 and -2 that correlated with an impaired capacity to invade cultured human cells and also the year of their isolation. These atypical SC1 isolates also lacked the capacity to produce hydrogen sulfide. These findings highlight the emergence of atypical Salmonella Senftenberg variants in China and provide genetic validation that variants lacking SPI-1 and regions of SPI-2, which leads to impaired invasion capacity, can still cause clinical disease. These data have identified an emerging public health concern and highlight the need to strengthen surveillance to detect the prevalence and transmission of nontyphoidal Salmonella species.

  20. Isolation and Evaluation Virulence Factors of Salmonella typhimurium and Salmonella enteritidis in Milk and Dairy Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shima Shaigan nia

    2014-06-01

    Conclusions: To our best knowledge the present study is the first prevalence report of Salmonella spp., Salmonella enteritidis and Salmonella typhimurium in raw sheep and goat samples in Iran. Consumption of pasteurized milk and dairy products can reduce the risk of salmonellosis.

  1. Use of Attenuated but Metabolically Competent Salmonella as a Probiotic To Prevent or Treat Salmonella Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabag-Daigle, Anice; Blunk, Henry M.; Gonzalez, Juan F.; Steidley, Brandi L.; Boyaka, Prosper N.

    2016-01-01

    Salmonella enterica is among the most burdensome of foodborne disease agents. There are over 2,600 serovars that cause a range of disease manifestations ranging from enterocolitis to typhoid fever. While there are two vaccines in use in humans to protect against typhoid fever, there are none that prevent enterocolitis. If vaccines preventing enterocolitis were to be developed, they would likely protect against only one or a few serovars. In this report, we tested the hypothesis that probiotic organisms could compete for the preferred nutrient sources of Salmonella and thus prevent or treat infection. To this end, we added the fra locus, which encodes a utilization pathway for the Salmonella-specific nutrient source fructose-asparagine (F-Asn), to the probiotic bacterium Escherichia coli Nissle 1917 (Nissle) to increase its ability to compete with Salmonella in mouse models. We also tested a metabolically competent, but avirulent, Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium mutant for its ability to compete with wild-type Salmonella. The modified Nissle strain became more virulent and less able to protect against Salmonella in some instances. On the other hand, the modified Salmonella strain was safe and effective in preventing infection with wild-type Salmonella. While we tested for efficacy only against Salmonella Typhimurium, the modified Salmonella strain may be able to compete metabolically with most, if not all, Salmonella serovars, representing a novel approach to control of this pathogen. PMID:27185789

  2. Risks involved in the use of Enrofloxacin for Salmonella Enteritidis or Salmonella Heidelberg in commercial poultry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Morales-Barrera

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of the present study were to evaluate the risks involved in the use of Enrofloxacin for Salmonella Enteritidis (SE or Salmonella Heidelberg (SH in commercial poultry and determine the effects of a probiotic as an antibiotic alternative. Two experiments were conducted to evaluate the risks involved in the use of Enrofloxacin for SE or SH in commercial poultry. Exp 1 consisted of 2 trials. In each trial, chickens were assigned to one of three groups; control + SE challenged; Enrofloxacin 25 mg/kg + SE; Enrofloxacin 50 mg/kg + SE. Chickens received Enrofloxacin in the drinking water from days 1 to 5 of age. On day 6, all groups received fresh water without any treatment. All chickens were orally gavaged with 107 cfu/chick of SE at 7 days of age and euthanized on 8 days of age. In Exp 2, turkey poults were assigned to one of the three groups; control + SH; probiotic + SH; Enrofloxacin 50 mg/kg + SH. Poults received probiotic or Enrofloxacin in the drinking water from days 1 to 5 of age. On day 6, poults received fresh water without any treatment. Poults were orally gavaged with 107 cfu/poult of SH at 7 days of age. Poults were weighted and humanely killed 24 h post-SH challenge to evaluate serum concentration of FITC-D to evaluate intestinal permeability, metagenomics and SH infection. In both trials of Exp 1, chickens treated with Enrofloxacin were more susceptible to SE organ invasion and intestinal colonization when compared with control non-treated chickens (P < 0.05. In Exp 2, poults treated with 50 mg/kg of Enrofloxacin showed an increase in body weight, however, this group also showed an increase in SH susceptibility, intestinal permeability and lower proportion of Firmicutes and Bacteroidetes, but with control group had the highest proportion of Proteobacteria. In contrast, poults that received the probiotic had the highest proportion of Firmicutes and Bacteroidetes, but lowest Proteobacteria. The results of the present study

  3. Evaluation of the protective efficacy of Salmonella Gallinarum 9R ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Evaluation of the protective efficacy of Salmonella Gallinarum 9R strain vaccine against Salmonella strains isolated from cases suspected of salmonellosis outbreaks in poultry farms in central Ethiopia.

  4. Salmonella Typhimurium infection in the porcine intestine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schauser, Kirsten; Olsen, John Elmerdahl; Larsson, Lars-Inge

    2005-01-01

    The normal intestinal epithelium is renewed with a turnover rate of 3-5 days. During Salmonella infection increased cell loss is observed, possibly as a result of programmed cell death (PCD). We have, therefore, studied the effects of Salmonella Typhimurium infection on three elements involved...... in scattered epithelial cells and the number of positive cells increased with increasing times of exposure to Salmonella (P

  5. Typhoid fever: "you can't hit what you can't see".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wangdi, Tamding; Winter, Sebastian E; Bäumler, Andreas J

    2012-01-01

    The host restricts dissemination of invasive enteric pathogens, such as non-typhoidal Salmonella serovars, by mounting acute inflammatory responses characterized by the recruitment of neutrophils. However, some enteric pathogens, such as Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi (S. typhi), can bypass these defenses and cause an invasive bloodstream infection known as typhoid fever. Recent studies on virulence mechanisms of S. typhi suggest that tight regulation of virulence gene expression during the transition from the intestinal lumen into the intestinal mucosa enables this pathogen to evade detection by the innate immune system, thereby penetrating defenses that prevent bacterial dissemination. This example illustrates how the outcome of host pathogen interaction at the intestinal mucosal interface can alter the clinical presentation and dictate the disease outcome.

  6. Crosstalk between virulence loci: regulation of Salmonella enterica pathogenicity island 1 (SPI-1) by products of the std fimbrial operon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Garrido, Javier; Casadesús, Josep

    2012-01-01

    Invasion of intestinal epithelial cells is a critical step in Salmonella infection and requires the expression of genes located in Salmonella pathogenicity island 1 (SPI-1). A key factor for SPI-1 expression is DNA adenine (Dam) methylation, which activates synthesis of the SPI-1 transcriptional activator HilD. Dam-dependent regulation of hilD is postranscriptional (and therefore indirect), indicating the involvement of unknown cell functions under Dam methylation control. A genetic screen has identified the std fimbrial operon as the missing link between Dam methylation and SPI-1. We show that all genes in the std operon are part of a single transcriptional unit, and describe three previously uncharacterized ORFs (renamed stdD, stdE, and stdF). We present evidence that two such loci (stdE and stdF) are involved in Dam-dependent control of Salmonella SPI-1: in a Dam(-) background, deletion of stdE or stdF suppresses SPI-1 repression; in a Dam(+) background, constitutive expression of StdE and/or StdF represses SPI-1. Repression of SPI-1 by products of std operon explains the invasion defect of Salmonella Dam(-) mutants, which constitutively express the std operon. Dam-dependent repression of std in the ileum may be required to permit invasion, as indicated by two observations: constitutive expression of StdE and StdF reduces invasion of epithelial cells in vitro (1,000 fold) and attenuates Salmonella virulence in the mouse model (>60 fold). In turn, crosstalk between std and SPI-1 may play a role in intestinal infections by preventing expression of SPI-1 in the caecum, an intestinal compartment in which the std operon is known to be expressed.

  7. Potassium transport of Salmonella is important for type III secretion and pathogenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yehao; Ho, Katharina Kim; Su, Jing; Gong, Hao; Chang, Alexander C.

    2013-01-01

    Intracellular cations are essential for the physiology of all living organisms including bacteria. Cations such as potassium ion (K+), sodium ion (Na+) and proton (H+) are involved in nearly all aspects of bacterial growth and survival. K+ is the most abundant cation and its homeostasis in Escherichia coli and Salmonella is regulated by three major K+ transporters: high affinity transporter Kdp and low affinity transporters Kup and Trk. Previous studies have demonstrated the roles of cations and cation transport in the physiology of Escherichia coli; their roles in the virulence and physiology of pathogenic bacteria are not well characterized. We have previously reported that the Salmonella K+ transporter Trk is important for the secretion of effector proteins of the type III secretion system (TTSS) of Salmonella pathogenicity island 1 (SPI-1). Here we further explore the role of Salmonella cation transport in virulence in vitro and pathogenesis in animal models. Impairment of K+ transport through deletion of K+ transporters or exposure to the chemical modulators of cation transport, gramicidin and valinomycin, results in a severe defect in the TTSS of SPI-1, and this defect in the TTSS was not due to a failure to regulate intrabacterial pH or ATP. Our results also show that K+ transporters are critical to the pathogenesis of Salmonella in mice and chicks and are involved in multiple growth and virulence characteristics in vitro, including protein secretion, motility and invasion of epithelial cells. These results suggest that cation transport of the pathogenic bacterium Salmonella, especially K+ transport, contributes to its virulence in addition to previously characterized roles in maintaining homeostasis of bacteria. PMID:23728623

  8. Anaerobiosis induced virulence of Salmonella typhi

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kapoor, Sarika; Singh, R D; Sharma, P C

    2002-01-01

    , we examined the effect of anaerobiosis on the virulence of Salmonella Typhi, a Gram negative bacteria which invades through the gut mucosa and is responsible for typhoid fever. METHODS: Salmonella Typhi (ty2) was cultured in aerobic and anaerobic conditions to compare its virulence by rabbit ileal...

  9. Effect of Salmonella thyphymurium Infection on the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effect of Salmonella thyphymurium Infection on the Pharmacokinetics of Ceftriaxone in. Sokoto Red Goats. * O. J. Abdulgafar ... ABSTRACT: This study was designed to investigate the effect of Salmonella thyphimurium infection on the plasma kinetics of ..... oxytetracycline disposition in calves with experimental pneumonic ...

  10. Seroprevalence of Salmonella Gallinarum Infection in Chicken ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ethiopia owns a large poultry population whose growth is highly constrained by diseases. Fowl typhoid is a serious concern in growing and adult poultry and results from infection by Salmonella Gallinarum (Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar Gallinarum biovar Gallinarum). Knowledge of the prevalence of the ...

  11. antimicrobial susceptibility pattern of Salmonella species

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    ABSTRACT. Treatment of enteric fever is increasingly becoming very challenging due to the increasing wave of antibiotic resistance. This study is a review of the contemporary antimicrobial susceptibility pattern of. Salmonella species. The antimicrobial susceptibility pattern of Salmonella species to a wide range of.

  12. Case Report: Salmonella lung infection | Ohanu | International ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A case of an 84 year old man admitted because of fever, abdominal discomfort, weakness, past history of cough wheezing and abuse of prednisolone and Erythromycin. He had Bronchopneumonia and diabetes. Salmonella typhimurium was isolated from both his sputum and blood while stool was negative for salmonella.

  13. Rapid detection and characterization of Salmonella enterica ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was used for molecular typing of Salmonella enterica serovars in Egypt. During the summer of 2010, a total of 1075 samples were collected from cattle, sheep and poultry farms to be subjected for isolation of Salmonella (290 rectal swabs from cattle, 335 rectal swabs from sheep ...

  14. Salmonella infection acquired from reptilian pets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanyal, D; Douglas, T; Roberts, R

    1997-10-01

    Two children presented with signs and symptoms of gastroenteritis. Salmonella chameleon was isolated from the stool of one child and also from an iguana kept in the home as a pet. Salmonella arizonae was isolated from the stool of the other child and also from four snakes sharing the same household. Exotic reptiles are unsuitable pets to share the home environment with infants.

  15. Antibiotic susceptibilities of Salmonella species prevalent among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was conducted to assess the prevalence of Salmonella species among children having diarrhea in Katsina State, Nigeria. A total of 220 diarrhea stool samples of children aged five years and below (0-5 years) were collected and screened for Salmonella species using culture technique. Presumptively positive ...

  16. Antimicrobial susceptibility patterns of Salmonella typhi and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of this study was to determine antimicrobial susceptibility testing patterns of Candida Albicans and Salmonella typhi isolates. Fifteen isolates of each microorganism were collected from three hospitals located in Dar es Salaam region within a 3-month period in the year 2005. Candida Albicans and Salmonella typhi ...

  17. Biochemical and cultural characteristics of invasive Escherichia coli.

    OpenAIRE

    Silva, R M; Toledo, M R; Trabulsi, L R

    1980-01-01

    The biochemical characteristics of 97 invasive Escherichia coli strains of different O serogroups were studied. Considered as a group, the behavior of the strains was quite variable. However, none of them decarboxylated lysine and all but seven strains, belonging to the O124 serogroup, were nonmotile. The growth of 25 strains obtained on MacConkey, salmonella-shigella, xylose-lysine-desoxycholate, and Hektoen enteric agars was compared. MacConkey and Hektoen enteric agars yielded the highest ...

  18. Dose determination for acute Salmonella infection in pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loynachan, A T; Harris, D L

    2005-05-01

    Pigs were exposed to various levels of Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar Typhimurium by either intranasal inoculation or by subjecting them to a contaminated environment. More than 10(3) salmonellae were required to induce acute Salmonella infection. These results indicate that intervention against acute Salmonella infection in lairage may be more readily achieved than previously thought.

  19. Dose Determination for Acute Salmonella Infection in Pigs

    OpenAIRE

    Loynachan, A. T.; Harris, D. L.

    2005-01-01

    Pigs were exposed to various levels of Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar Typhimurium by either intranasal inoculation or by subjecting them to a contaminated environment. More than 103 salmonellae were required to induce acute Salmonella infection. These results indicate that intervention against acute Salmonella infection in lairage may be more readily achieved than previously thought.

  20. 9 CFR 113.123 - Salmonella Dublin Bacterin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Salmonella Dublin Bacterin. 113.123... Inactivated Bacterial Products § 113.123 Salmonella Dublin Bacterin. Salmonella Dublin Bacterin shall be prepared from a culture of Salmonella dublin which has been inactivated and is nontoxic. Each serial of...

  1. 9 CFR 113.122 - Salmonella Choleraesuis Bacterin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Salmonella Choleraesuis Bacterin. 113... REQUIREMENTS Inactivated Bacterial Products § 113.122 Salmonella Choleraesuis Bacterin. Salmonella Choleraesuis Bacterin shall be prepared from a culture of Salmonella choleraesuis which has been inactivated and is...

  2. 9 CFR 113.120 - Salmonella Typhimurium Bacterin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Salmonella Typhimurium Bacterin. 113... REQUIREMENTS Inactivated Bacterial Products § 113.120 Salmonella Typhimurium Bacterin. Salmonella Typhimurium Bacterin shall be prepared from a culture of Salmonella typhimurium which has been inactivated and is...

  3. Serotyping and antimicrobial drug resistance of Salmonella isolated ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Conclusion: This study showed the diversity of Salmonella serotypes from both clinical and environmental samples and emergence of multiresistant Salmonella to antibiotics in Burkina Faso. A lettuce is a potential source of transmission of Salmonella causing diarrhea among human in Burkina Faso. Keywords: Salmonella ...

  4. The Giant Adhesin SiiE of Salmonella enterica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Britta Barlag

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Salmonella enterica is a Gram-negative, food-borne pathogen, which colonizes the intestinal tract and invades enterocytes. Invasion of polarized cells depends on the SPI1-encoded type III secretion system (T3SS and the SPI4-encoded type I secretion system (T1SS. The substrate of this T1SS is the non-fimbrial giant adhesin SiiE. With a size of 595 kDa, SiiE is the largest protein of the Salmonella proteome and consists of 53 repetitive bacterial immunoglobulin (BIg domains, each containing several conserved residues. As known for other T1SS substrates, such as E. coli HlyA, Ca2+ ions bound by conserved D residues within the BIg domains stabilize the protein and facilitate secretion. The adhesin SiiE mediates the first contact to the host cell and thereby positions the SPI1-T3SS to initiate the translocation of a cocktail of effector proteins. This leads to actin remodeling, membrane ruffle formation and bacterial internalization. SiiE binds to host cell apical membranes in a lectin-like manner. GlcNAc and α2–3 linked sialic acid-containing structures are ligands of SiiE. Since SiiE shows repetitive domain architecture, we propose a zipper-like binding mediated by each individual BIg domain. In this review, we discuss the characteristics of the SPI4-T1SS and the giant adhesin SiiE.

  5. Salmonella Sofia differs from other poultry-associated Salmonella serovars with respect to cell surface hydrophobicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chia, T W R; Fegan, N; McMeekin, T A; Dykes, G A

    2008-12-01

    Salmonella enterica is one of the most important foodborne pathogens. Salmonella enterica subsp. II 4,12:b:- (Salmonella Sofia) is commonly found in Australian poultry. It has been suggested that physicochemical properties such as surface charge and hydrophobicity may affect bacterial attachment to surfaces and their ability to persist in food systems. A possible link between hydrophobicity cell surface charge and persistence of Salmonella from the poultry system was examined. Hydrophobicity of Salmonella Sofia (n = 14), Salmonella Typhimurium (n = 6), Salmonella Infantis (n = 3), and Salmonella Virchow (n = 2) was assayed using hydrophobic interaction chromatography, bacterial adherence to hydrocarbons (BATH), using xylene or hexadecane, and the contact angle method (CAM). Cellular surface charge (CSC) of the isolates was determined using zeta potential measurements. The majority (12 of 14) of Salmonella Sofia isolates were found to be hydrophobic when assayed using BATH with xylene, except isolates S1635 and S1636, and the other serovars were found to be hydrophilic. Salmonella Sofia isolates were not significantly different (P > 0.05) from isolates of other serovars as measured by hydrophobic interaction, BATH with hexadecane, or the CAM. No significant differences (P > 0.05) in zeta potential measurements were observed between isolates. Principal component analysis using results from all four measures of hydrophobicity allowed clear differentiation between isolates of the serovar Salmonella Sofia (except S1635 and S1636) and those of other Salmonella serovars. Differences in physicochemical properties may be a contributing factor to the Salmonella Sofia serovar's ability to attach to surfaces and persist in a food system.

  6. MTMR4 is required for the stability of the Salmonella-containing vacuole

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Xuan Teo

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The intracellular pathogen Salmonella enterica servovar Typhimurium (S. typhimurium modulates the host cell’s phosphoinositide (PI metabolism to establish its intracellular replicative niche, the Salmonella-containing vacuole (SCV. Upon invasion, phosphoinositide 3-phosphate (PI(3P and other early endosomal markers are rapidly recruited to and remain associated with the SCV throughout its early maturation. While the phosphoinositide 3-phosphatase myotubularin 4 (MTMR4 has an established role in regulating autophagy and cellular PI(3P-content, two processes associated with the intracellular survival of S. typhimurium, a direct role for MTMR4 in Salmonella biology has not been examined. Here we demonstrate that GFP-tagged MTMR4 is recruited to the SCV and infection of cells depleted of endogenous MTMR4 results in a decrease in viable intracellular Salmonella. This reflects a significant increase in the proportion of SCVs with compromised integrity, which targets the compartment for autophagy and consequent bacterial cell death. These findings highlight the importance of PI(3P regulation to the integrity of the SCV and reveal a novel role for the myotubularins in bacterial pathogenesis.

  7. Salmonella enterica Serovar Typhimurium Skills To Succeed in the Host: Virulence and Regulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fàbrega, Anna

    2013-01-01

    SUMMARY Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium is a primary enteric pathogen infecting both humans and animals. Infection begins with the ingestion of contaminated food or water so that salmonellae reach the intestinal epithelium and trigger gastrointestinal disease. In some patients the infection spreads upon invasion of the intestinal epithelium, internalization within phagocytes, and subsequent dissemination. In that case, antimicrobial therapy, based on fluoroquinolones and expanded-spectrum cephalosporins as the current drugs of choice, is indicated. To accomplish the pathogenic process, the Salmonella chromosome comprises several virulence mechanisms. The most important virulence genes are those located within the so-called Salmonella pathogenicity islands (SPIs). Thus far, five SPIs have been reported to have a major contribution to pathogenesis. Nonetheless, further virulence traits, such as the pSLT virulence plasmid, adhesins, flagella, and biofilm-related proteins, also contribute to success within the host. Several regulatory mechanisms which synchronize all these elements in order to guarantee bacterial survival have been described. These mechanisms govern the transitions from the different pathogenic stages and drive the pathogen to achieve maximal efficiency inside the host. This review focuses primarily on the virulence armamentarium of this pathogen and the extremely complicated regulatory network controlling its success. PMID:23554419

  8. Salmonella Effectors SseF and SseG Interact with Mammalian Protein ACBD3 (GCP60) To Anchor Salmonella-Containing Vacuoles at the Golgi Network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Xiu-Jun; Liu, Mei; Holden, David W

    2016-07-12

    Following infection of mammalian cells, Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium (S Typhimurium) replicates within membrane-bound compartments known as Salmonella-containing vacuoles (SCVs). The Salmonella pathogenicity island 2 type III secretion system (SPI-2 T3SS) translocates approximately 30 different effectors across the vacuolar membrane. SseF and SseG are two such effectors that are required for SCVs to localize close to the Golgi network in infected epithelial cells. In a yeast two-hybrid assay, SseG and an N-terminal variant of SseF interacted directly with mammalian ACBD3, a multifunctional cytosolic Golgi network-associated protein. Knockdown of ACBD3 by small interfering RNA (siRNA) reduced epithelial cell Golgi network association of wild-type bacteria, phenocopying the effect of null mutations of sseG or sseF Binding of SseF to ACBD3 in infected cells required the presence of SseG. A single-amino-acid mutant of SseG and a double-amino-acid mutant of SseF were obtained that did not interact with ACBD3 in Saccharomyces cerevisiae When either of these was produced together with the corresponding wild-type effector by Salmonella in infected cells, they enabled SCV-Golgi network association and interacted with ACBD3. However, these properties were lost and bacteria displayed an intracellular replication defect when cells were infected with Salmonella carrying both mutant genes. Knockdown of ACBD3 resulted in a replication defect of wild-type bacteria but did not further attenuate the growth defect of a ΔsseFG mutant strain. We propose a model in which interaction between SseF and SseG enables both proteins to bind ACBD3, thereby anchoring SCVs at the Golgi network and facilitating bacterial replication. Upon invasion of epithelial cells, the majority of vacuoles containing Salmonella enterica migrate to the perinuclear region-located Golgi network and remain in this region of the cell during the first few rounds of bacterial replication, forming a

  9. Using In Vitro Immunomodulatory Properties of Lactic Acid Bacteria for Selection of Probiotics against Salmonella Infection in Broiler Chicks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junchang Feng

    Full Text Available Poultry is known to be a major reservoir of Salmonella. The use of lactic acid bacteria has become one of successful strategies to control Salmonella in poultry. The purpose of this study was to select lactic acid bacteria strains by their in vitro immunomodulatory properties for potential use as probiotics against Salmonella infection in broiler chicks. Among 101 isolated lactic acid bacteria strains, 13 strains effectively survived under acidic (pH 2.5 and bile salt (ranging from 0.1% to 1.0% conditions, effectively inhibited growth of 6 pathogens, and adhered to Caco-2 cells. However, their in vitro immunomodulatory activities differed significantly. Finally, three strains with higher in vitro immunomodulatory properties (Lactobacillus plantarum PZ01, Lactobacillus salivarius JM32 and Pediococcus acidilactici JH231 and three strains with lower in vitro immunomodulatory activities (Enterococcus faecium JS11, Lactobacillus salivarius JK22 and Lactobacillus salivarius JM2A1 were compared for their inhibitory effects on Salmonella adhesion and invasion to Caco-2 cells in vitro and their antimicrobial effects in vivo. The former three strains inhibited Salmonella adhesion and invasion to Caco-2 cells in vitro, reduced the number of Salmonella in intestinal content, spleen and liver, reduced the levels of lipopolysaccharide-induced TNF-α factor (LITAF, IL-1β, IL-6 and IL-12 in serum and increased the level of IL-10 in serum during a challenge study in vivo more efficiently than the latter three strains. These results suggest that in vitro immunomodulatory activities could be used as additional parameters to select more effective probiotics as feed supplements for poultry.

  10. Salmonella radicidation of poultry carcasses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mulder, R.W.A.W.

    1982-01-01

    This thesis reports investigations using gamma-radiation to decontaminate poultry carcasses. The application to foods of doses of ionizing radiation sufficient to reduce the number of viable specific non-sporeforming pathogenic microorganisms so that none is detectable in the treated food by any standard method is termed radicidation. The doses used in this study were at such a level that no undesirable or unfavourable side-effects occurred. The effects of these doses were studied on salmonellae and other microorganisms present in, or associated with poultry carcasses and in liquid and on solid culture media as well. Decimal reduction (D 10 ) values were estimated. These represent the dose (kGy) required to achieve a reduction in initial colony count from N 0 to 0.1 N 0 . Together with the estimation of the numbers of Salmonella present per carcass the data were used to predict the effect of an ionizing radiation treatment of poultry. Data on the effect of ionizing radiation on the total microflora of poultry carcasses were also collected. (Auth.)

  11. Pleural Empyema due to Group D Salmonella

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer C. Kam

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Non-typhi Salmonella normally presents as a bacteremia, enterocolitis, and endovascular infection but rarely manifests as pleuropulmonary disease. We present a case of a 66-year-old female with underlying pulmonary pathology, secondary to an extensive smoking history, who presented with a left-sided pleural effusion. The causative agent was identified as being group D Salmonella. Decortication of the lung was performed and the patient was discharged on antibiotics with resolution of her symptoms. This case helps to support the inclusion of Salmonella group D as a possible etiological agent of infection in the differential causes of exudative pleural effusions.

  12. Salmonella bongori provides insights into the evolution of the Salmonellae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Fookes

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The genus Salmonella contains two species, S. bongori and S. enterica. Compared to the well-studied S. enterica there is a marked lack of information regarding the genetic makeup and diversity of S. bongori. S. bongori has been found predominantly associated with cold-blooded animals, but it can infect humans. To define the phylogeny of this species, and compare it to S. enterica, we have sequenced 28 isolates representing most of the known diversity of S. bongori. This cross-species analysis allowed us to confidently differentiate ancestral functions from those acquired following speciation, which include both metabolic and virulence-associated capacities. We show that, although S. bongori inherited a basic set of Salmonella common virulence functions, it has subsequently elaborated on this in a different direction to S. enterica. It is an established feature of S. enterica evolution that the acquisition of the type III secretion systems (T3SS-1 and T3SS-2 has been followed by the sequential acquisition of genes encoding secreted targets, termed effectors proteins. We show that this is also true of S. bongori, which has acquired an array of novel effector proteins (sboA-L. All but two of these effectors have no significant S. enterica homologues and instead are highly similar to those found in enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC. Remarkably, SboH is found to be a chimeric effector protein, encoded by a fusion of the T3SS-1 effector gene sopA and a gene highly similar to the EPEC effector nleH from enteropathogenic E. coli. We demonstrate that representatives of these new effectors are translocated and that SboH, similarly to NleH, blocks intrinsic apoptotic pathways while being targeted to the mitochondria by the SopA part of the fusion. This work suggests that S. bongori has inherited the ancestral Salmonella virulence gene set, but has adapted by incorporating virulence determinants that resemble those employed by EPEC.

  13. Prevalence of Salmonella Excretion in Stool: A Community Survey in 2 Sites, Guinea-Bissau and Senegal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Im, Justin; Nichols, Chelsea; Bjerregaard-Andersen, Morten; Sow, Amy Gassama; Løfberg, Sandra; Tall, Adama; Pak, Gi Deok; Aaby, Peter; Baker, Stephen; Clemens, John D; Espinoza, Ligia Maria Cruz; Konings, Frank; May, Jürgen; Monteiro, Mario; Niang, Aissatou; Panzner, Ursula; Park, Se Eun; Schütt-Gerowitt, Heidi; Wierzba, Thomas F; Marks, Florian; von Kalckreuth, Vera

    2016-03-15

    Chronic and convalescent carriers play an important role in the transmission and endemicity of many communicable diseases. A high incidence of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi and invasive nontyphoidal Salmonella (NTS) infection has been reported in parts of sub-Saharan Africa, yet the prevalence of Salmonella excretion in the general population is unknown. Stool specimens were collected from a random sample of households in 2 populations in West Africa: Bissau, Guinea-Bissau, and Dakar, Senegal. Stool was cultured to detect presence of Salmonella, and antimicrobial susceptibility testing was performed on the isolated organisms. Stool was cultured from 1077 and 1359 individuals from Guinea-Bissau and Senegal, respectively. Salmonella Typhi was not isolated from stool samples at either site. Prevalence of NTS in stool samples was 24.1 (95% confidence interval [CI], 16.5-35.1; n = 26/1077) per 1000 population in Guinea-Bissau and 10.3 (95% CI, 6.1-17.2; n = 14/1359) per 1000 population in Senegal. Evidence of NTS excretion in stool in both study populations indicates a possible NTS transmission route in these settings. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, e-mail journals.permissions@oup.com.

  14. The tenth CRL-Salmonella workshop; 28 and 29 April 2005, Bilthoven, the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mooijman KA; MGB

    2006-01-01

    De tiende workshop georganiseerd door het Communautair Referentie Laboratorium voor Salmonella (CRL-Salmonella) werd gehouden op 28 en 29 April 2005 in Bilthoven, Nederland. Deelnemers betroffen vertegenwoordigers van de Nationale Referentie Laboratoria voor Salmonella (NRLs-Salmonella) van de

  15. PREVALENCE OF SALMONELLA IN CAPTIVE REPTILES FROM CROATIA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lukac, Maja; Pedersen, Karl; Prukner-Radovcic, Estella

    2015-06-01

    Salmonellosis transmitted by pet reptiles is an increasing public health issue worldwide. The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of Salmonella strains from captive reptiles in Croatia. From November 2009 to November 2011 a total of 292 skin, pharyngeal, cloacal, and fecal samples from 200 apparently healthy reptiles were tested for Salmonella excretions by bacteriologic culture and serotyping. These 200 individual reptiles included 31 lizards, 79 chelonians, and 90 snakes belonging to private owners or housed at the Zagreb Zoo, Croatia. Salmonella was detected in a total of 13% of the animals, among them 48.4% lizards, 8.9% snakes, and 3.8% turtles. Representatives of five of the six Salmonella enterica subspecies were identified with the following proportions in the total number of isolates: Salmonella enterica enterica 34.6%, Salmonella enterica houtenae 23.1%, Salmonella enterica arizonae 23.1%, Salmonella enterica diarizonae 15.4%, and Salmonella enterica salamae 3.8%. The 14 different serovars isolated included several rarely occurring serovars such as Salmonella Apapa, Salmonella Halle, Salmonella Kisarawe, and Salmonella Potengi. These findings confirm that the prevalence of Salmonella is considerable in captive reptiles in Croatia, indicating that these animals may harbor serovars not commonly seen in veterinary or human microbiologic practice. This should be addressed in the prevention and diagnostics of human reptile-transmitted infections.

  16. Effects of Climate Change on Salmonella Infections

    OpenAIRE

    Akil, Luma; Ahmad, H. Anwar; Reddy, Remata S.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Climate change and global warming have been reported to increase spread of foodborne pathogens. To understand these effects on Salmonella infections, modeling approaches such as regression analysis and neural network (NN) were used.

  17. antimicrobial susceptibility pattern of Salmonella species

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    Empirical treatment for enteric fevers should, therefore, be discouraged while quinolones, cefepime, carbapenem, azithromycin and third generation cephalosporins be given preference. KEY WORDS: Susceptibility, Antimicrobial, Salmonella species, Enteric fever. INTRODUCTION. In the 21st century, enteric fever in the.

  18. Elimination of salmonella from animal glandular products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Fiebre, C W; Burck, K T; Feldman, D

    1969-03-01

    Methods for the elimination of salmonellae from selected powdered pharmaceuticals of animal glandular origin were studied. Terminal heat treatment under carefully controlled conditions was effective for pancreatin-a powder containing proteolytic, amylolytic, and lipolytic enzymes prepared from hog pancreas glands. Use of this method resulted in a significant reduction in the number of salmonella-positive batches and also reduced the testing procedures required to confirm the absence of viable salmonellae among the majority of samples tested. Powders such as stomach substance and thyroid, in which the biological activity is not enzyme in nature, were treated successfully with acidified organic solvents. Other methods were investigated but were not suitable because of a deleterious effect on the biological activity or physical properties of the product or an inability to effect salmonella elimination.

  19. Elimination of Salmonellae from Animal Glandular Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Fiebre, Conrad W.; Burck, Kenneth T.; Feldman, David

    1969-01-01

    Methods for the elimination of salmonellae from selected powdered pharmaceuticals of animal glandular origin were studied. Terminal heat treatment under carefully controlled conditions was effective for pancreatin—a powder containing proteolytic, amylolytic, and lipolytic enzymes prepared from hog pancreas glands. Use of this method resulted in a significant reduction in the number of salmonella-positive batches and also reduced the testing procedures required to confirm the absence of viable salmonellae among the majority of samples tested. Powders such as stomach substance and thyroid, in which the biological activity is not enzyme in nature, were treated successfully with acidified organic solvents. Other methods were investigated but were not suitable because of a deleterious effect on the biological activity or physical properties of the product or an inability to effect salmonella elimination. PMID:5780395

  20. The Salmonella enterica Pan-genome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Annika; Hendriksen, Rene S.; Aarestrup, Frank Møller

    2011-01-01

    Salmonella enterica is divided into four subspecies containing a large number of different serovars, several of which are important zoonotic pathogens and some show a high degree of host specificity or host preference. We compare 45 sequenced S. enterica genomes that are publicly available (22......, and the core and pan-genome of Salmonella were estimated to be around 2,800 and 10,000 gene families, respectively. The constructed pan-genomic dendrograms suggest that gene content is often, but not uniformly correlated to serotype. Any given Salmonella strain has a large stable core, whilst...... there is an abundance of accessory genes, including the Salmonella pathogenicity islands (SPIs), transposable elements, phages, and plasmid DNA. We visualize conservation in the genomes in relation to chromosomal location and DNA structural features and find that variation in gene content is localized in a selection...

  1. A carbon nanotube immunosensor for Salmonella

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lerner, Mitchell B.; Goldsmith, Brett R.; McMillon, Ronald; Dailey, Jennifer; Pillai, Shreekumar; Singh, Shree R.; Johnson, A. T. Charlie

    2011-12-01

    Antibody-functionalized carbon nanotube devices have been suggested for use as bacterial detectors for monitoring of food purity in transit from the farm to the kitchen. Here we report progress towards that goal by demonstrating specific detection of Salmonella in complex nutrient broth solutions using nanotube transistors functionalized with covalently-bound anti-Salmonella antibodies. The small size of the active device region makes them compatible with integration in large-scale arrays. We find that the on-state current of the transistor is sensitive specifically to the Salmonella concentration and saturates at low concentration (Salmonella and other bacteria types, with no sign of saturation even at much larger concentrations (108 cfu/ml).

  2. Invasive amebiasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grecu, F; Bulgariu, Teodora; Blanaru, Oana; Dragomir, C; Lunca, Claudia; Stratan, I; Manciuc, Carmen; Luca, V

    2006-01-01

    Digestive amoebiasis with his invasive form is an unusual pathology encountered in the temperate zone. This could lead to a life threatening complication: systemic amoebiasis. A 55-year-old male was treated successfully of systemic amoebiasis in a third referral hospital. The diagnosis was established based on epidemiology data and microscopical identification of trophozoites of Entamoeba histolytica. The amoebicidal, antibiotic and supportive treatments was firstly administrated. The clinical picture of intestinal amoebiasis raised from dysenteric syndrome to necrotizing enteritis. The bowel perforation with localized peritonitis was followed by chronic enteric fistula. Amoebic liver abscess, as the most frequent extraintestinal complication, was concomitantly diagnosed and treated. Urinary amoebiasis was considered as complication in the context of systemic dissemination: any other location could become a site of an amoebic abscess. Multidisciplinary approach was the successful key in the management of the patient, including antiparasitic therapy and antibiotic prophylaxis, intensive care and multiple surgical approaches. The diagnosis of digestive amoebiasis and systemic complication may be delayed in nonendemic areas, leading to advanced and complicated stages of the disease. The surgical approach is most efficiently to treat a large liver amoebic abscess and intraperitoneal collections.

  3. Potential Sources and Transmission of Salmonella and Antimicrobial Resistance in Kampala, Uganda.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josephine A Afema

    Full Text Available In sub‒Saharan Africa, non‒typhoidal Salmonellae (NTS cause invasive disease particularly in children and HIV infected adults, but the disease epidemiology is poorly understood. Between 2012 and 2013, we investigated NTS sources and transmission in Kampala. We detected Salmonella in 60% of the influent and 60% of the effluent samples from a wastewater treatment plant and 53.3% of the influent and 10% of the effluent samples from waste stabilization ponds that serve the human population; 40.9% of flush‒water samples from ruminant slaughterhouses, 6.6% of the poultry fecal samples from live bird markets and 4% of the fecal samples from swine at slaughter; and in 54.2% of the water samples from a channel that drains storm-water and effluents from the city. We obtained 775 Salmonella isolates, identified 32 serovars, and determined resistance to 15 antimicrobials. We genotyped common serovars using multiple‒locus variable number tandem repeats analysis or pulsed‒field gel electrophoresis. In addition, we analyzed 49 archived NTS isolates from asymptomatic livestock and human clinical cases. Salmonella from ruminant and swine sources were mostly pan‒susceptible (95% while poultry isolates were generally more resistant. Salmonella Kentucky isolated from poultry exhibited extensive drug resistance characterized by resistance to 10 antimicrobials. Interestingly, similar genotypes of S. Kentucky but with less antimicrobial resistance (AMR were found in poultry, human and environmental sources. The observed AMR patterns could be attributed to host or management factors associated with production. Alternatively, S. Kentucky may be prone to acquiring AMR. The factors driving AMR remain poorly understood and should be elucidated. Overall, shared genotypes and AMR phenotypes were found in NTS from human, livestock and environmental sources, suggesting zoonotic and environmental transmissions most likely occur. Information from this study could be

  4. Experimental reproduction of rotavirus and Salmonella pullorum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Group A chicks were inoculated with 1 X 106 pfu/ml of rotavirus, group B chicks were inoculated with 1 X 106 cfu/ml of Salmonella pullorum, group C chicks were inoculated with 1 X 106 pfu/ml of rotavirus and 1 X 106 cfu/ml of Salmonella pullorum, while group D birds were given 1ml of PBS alone. Birds in all groups were ...

  5. Disseminated Salmonella Infection Coexisting with Thymoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saheer, S; Immanuel, Subash; Balamugesh, T; Christopher, D J

    2015-01-01

    A 21-year-old boy presented with high grade fever, diffuse chest pain and exertional breathlessness of one month duration. Radiologically he had a large lobulated anterior mediastinal mass with necrotic thick enhancing septaes. Histopathology of the mass was suggestive of thymoma and culture from the necrotic aspirate yielded Salmonella typhi. The same pathogen was isolated in subsequent blood and sputum cultures. This current report describes the rare association of salmonella infection with thymoma.

  6. Salmonella in beef and produce from honduras.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maradiaga, Martha; Miller, Mark F; Thompson, Leslie; Pond, Ansen; Gragg, Sara E; Echeverry, Alejandro; Garcia, Lyda G; Loneragan, Guy H; Brashears, Mindy M

    2015-03-01

    Salmonella continues to cause a considerable number of foodborne illnesses worldwide. The sources of outbreaks include contaminated meat and produce. The purpose of this study was to establish an initial investigation of the burden of Salmonella in produce and beef from Honduras by sampling retail markets and abattoirs. Retail produce samples (cantaloupes, cilantro, cucumbers, leafy greens, peppers, and tomatoes; n = 573) were purchased in three major cities of Honduras, and retail whole-muscle beef (n = 555) samples were also purchased in four major cities. Additionally, both hide and beef carcass (n = 141) samples were collected from two Honduran abattoirs. Whole-muscle beef samples were obtained using a sponge hydrated with buffered peptone water, and 10 ml of the buffered peptone water rinsate of each produce sample was collected with a dry sponge and placed in a bag to be transported back to the United States. Salmonella was detected using a commercially available, closeplatform PCR system, and positive samples were subjected to culture on selective media to obtain isolates. Overall, the prevalence of Salmonella-positive samples, based on PCR detection in Honduras (n = 555) retail beef was 10.1% (95% confidence interval = 7.8, 12.9), whereas 7.8% (n = 141) of beef carcass and hides samples were positive in both beef plants. The overall Salmonella prevalence for all produce samples (n = 573) collected was 2.1% (95% confidence interval = 1.2, 3.6). The most common serotypes identified in Honduras were Salmonella Typhimurium followed by Derby. These results provide an indication of Salmonella contamination of beef and produce in Honduras. Developing a Salmonella baseline for Latin America through an initial investigation like the one presented here contributes to a broader global understanding of the potential exposure through food, thus providing insight into the needs for control strategies.

  7. lac repressor is an antivirulence factor of Salmonella enterica: its role in the evolution of virulence in Salmonella.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandeepa M Eswarappa

    Full Text Available The genus Salmonella includes many pathogens of great medical and veterinary importance. Bacteria belonging to this genus are very closely related to those belonging to the genus Escherichia. lacZYA operon and lacI are present in Escherichia coli, but not in Salmonella enterica. It has been proposed that Salmonella has lost lacZYA operon and lacI during evolution. In this study, we have investigated the physiological and evolutionary significance of the absence of lacI in Salmonella enterica. Using murine model of typhoid fever, we show that the expression of LacI causes a remarkable reduction in the virulence of Salmonella enterica. LacI also suppresses the ability of Salmonella enterica to proliferate inside murine macrophages. Microarray analysis revealed that LacI interferes with the expression of virulence genes of Salmonella pathogenicity island 2. This effect was confirmed by RT-PCR and Western blot analysis. Interestingly, we found that SBG0326 of Salmonella bongori is homologous to lacI of Escherichia coli. Salmonella bongori is the only other species of the genus Salmonella and it lacks the virulence genes of Salmonella pathogenicity island 2. Overall, our results demonstrate that LacI is an antivirulence factor of Salmonella enterica and suggest that absence of lacI has facilitated the acquisition of virulence genes of Salmonella pathogenicity island 2 in Salmonella enterica making it a successful systemic pathogen.

  8. Non-Saccharomyces yeasts protect against epithelial cell barrier disruption induced by Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar Typhimurium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, I M; Baker, A; Arneborg, N; Jespersen, L

    2015-11-01

    The human gastrointestinal epithelium makes up the largest barrier separating the body from the external environment. Whereas invasive pathogens cause epithelial barrier disruption, probiotic micro-organisms modulate tight junction regulation and improve epithelial barrier function. In addition, probiotic strains may be able to reduce epithelial barrier disruption caused by pathogenic species. The aim of this study was to explore non-Saccharomyces yeast modulation of epithelial cell barrier function in vitro. Benchmarking against established probiotic strains, we evaluated the ability of four nonpathogenic yeast species to modulate transepithelial electrical resistance (TER) across a monolayer of differentiated human colonocytes (Caco-2 cells). Further, we assessed yeast modulation of a Salmonella Typhimurium-induced epithelial cell barrier function insult. Our findings demonstrate distinct patterns of non-Saccharomyces yeast modulation of epithelial cell barrier function. While the established probiotic yeast Saccharomyces boulardii increased TER across a Caco-2 monolayer by 30%, Kluyveromyces marxianus exhibited significantly stronger properties of TER enhancement (50% TER increase). In addition, our data demonstrate significant yeast-mediated modulation of Salmonella-induced epithelial cell barrier disruption and identify K. marxianus and Metschnikowia gruessii as two non-Saccharomyces yeasts capable of protecting human epithelial cells from pathogen invasion. This study demonstrates distinct patterns of non-Saccharomyces yeast modulation of epithelial cell barrier function in vitro. Further, our data demonstrate significant yeast-mediated modulation of Salmonella Typhimurium-induced epithelial cell barrier disruption and identify Kluyveromyces marxianus and Metschnikowia gruessii as two non-Saccharomyces yeasts capable of protecting human epithelial cells from pathogen invasion. This study is the first to demonstrate significant non-Saccharomyces yeast

  9. Tentative Colistin Epidemiological Cut-Off Value for Salmonella spp

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agersø, Yvonne; Torpdahl, Mia; Zachariasen, Camilla

    2012-01-01

    . Interestingly, Salmonella Dublin and Salmonella Enteritidis belong to the same O-group (O:1, 9,12), suggesting that surface lipopolysaccharides (LPS) of the cell (O-antigen) play a role in colistin susceptibility. The epidemiological cut-off value of >2 mg/L for colistin suggested by European Committee...... on Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing (EUCAST) is placed inside the distribution for both Salmonella Dublin and Salmonella Enteritidis. All tested Salmonella Dublin isolates, regardless of MIC colistin value, had identical pmrA and pmrB sequences. Missense mutations were found only in pmrA in one Salmonella...

  10. Salmonella Vaccination in Pigs: A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wales, A D; Davies, R H

    2017-02-01

    The control of Salmonella enterica in pig production is necessary for both public and animal health. The persistent and frequently asymptomatic nature of porcine Salmonella infection and the organism's abilities to colonize other animal species and to survive in the environment mean that effective control generally requires multiple measures. Vaccination is one such measure, and the present review considers its role and its future, drawing on studies in pigs from the 1950s to the present day. Once established in the body as an intracellular infectious agent, Salmonella can evade humoral immunity, which goes some way to explaining the often disappointing performance of inactivated Salmonella vaccines. More recent approaches, using mucosal presentation of antigens, live vaccines and adjuvants to enhance cell-mediated immunity, have met with more success. Vaccination strategies that involve stimulating both passive immunity from the dam plus active immunity in offspring appear to be most efficacious, although either approach alone can yield significant control of Salmonella. Problems that remain include relatively poor control of Salmonella serovars that are dissimilar to the vaccine antigen mix, and difficulties in measuring and predicting the performance of candidate vaccines in ways that are highly relevant to their likely use in commercial production. © 2016 Crown copyright. Zoonoses and Public Health published by Blackwell Verlag GmbH.This article is published with the permission of the Controller of HMSO and the Queen's Printer for Scotland.

  11. Influence of On-farm pig Salmonella status on Salmonella Shedding at Slaughter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casanova-Higes, A; Andrés-Barranco, S; Mainar-Jaime, R C

    2017-08-01

    The risk of Salmonella shedding among pigs at slaughter with regard to their previous on-farm Salmonella status was assessed in a group of pigs from a farm from NE of Spain. A total of 202 pigs that had been serologically monitored monthly during the fattening period and from which mesenteric lymph nodes (MLN) and faecal (SFEC) samples were collected at slaughter for Salmonella isolation were included. A repeated-measures anova was used to assess the relationship between mean OD% values during the fattening period and sampling time and bacteriology on MLN and SFEC. Pigs were also grouped into four groups, that is pigs seronegative during the fattening period and Salmonella negative in MLN (group A; n = 69); pigs seronegative during the fattening period but Salmonella positive in MLN (B; n = 36); pigs seropositive at least once and Salmonella positive in MLN (C; n = 50); and pigs seropositive at least once but Salmonella negative in (D; n = 47). Pigs shedding at slaughter seroconverted much earlier and showed much higher mean OD% values than non-shedders pigs. The proportion of Salmonella shedders in groups A and D was high and similar (26.1% and 29.8%, respectively), but significantly lower than that for groups B and C. The odds of shedding Salmonella for groups B and C were 4.8 (95% CI = 1.5-15.5) and 20.9 (3.7-118) times higher, respectively, when compared to A. It was concluded that a large proportion of Salmonella seronegative pigs may shed Salmonella at slaughter, which would be likely associated to previous exposure with contaminated environments (i.e. transport and lairage). For pigs already infected at farm, the likelihood of shedding Salmonella was much higher and may depend on whether the bacterium has colonized the MLN or not. The odds of shedding Salmonella spp. were always much higher for pigs in which Salmonella was isolated from MLN. © 2016 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  12. Control and monitoring of Salmonella in egg-laying chickens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Contaminated eggs have been internationally significant sources for the transmission of Salmonella infection to humans for several decades. Both the public and private sectors have invested substantial resources in comprehensive risk reduction and monitoring programs for Salmonella in commercial egg...

  13. Tips to Reduce Your Risk of Salmonella from Eggs

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this? Submit What's this? Submit Button Past Emails Salmonella and Eggs Language: English (US) Español (Spanish) Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir ALERT: Salmonella Outbreak Linked to shell eggs CDC, FDA, and ...

  14. Autophagy Facilitates Salmonella Replication in HeLa Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Hong B.; Croxen, Matthew A.; Marchiando, Amanda M.; Ferreira, Rosana B. R.; Cadwell, Ken; Foster, Leonard J.; Finlay, B. Brett

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Autophagy is a process whereby a double-membrane structure (autophagosome) engulfs unnecessary cytosolic proteins, organelles, and invading pathogens and delivers them to the lysosome for degradation. We examined the fate of cytosolic Salmonella targeted by autophagy and found that autophagy-targeted Salmonella present in the cytosol of HeLa cells correlates with intracellular bacterial replication. Real-time analyses revealed that a subset of cytosolic Salmonella extensively associates with autophagy components p62 and/or LC3 and replicates quickly, whereas intravacuolar Salmonella shows no or very limited association with p62 or LC3 and replicates much more slowly. Replication of cytosolic Salmonella in HeLa cells is significantly decreased when autophagy components are depleted. Eventually, hyperreplication of cytosolic Salmonella potentiates cell detachment, facilitating the dissemination of Salmonella to neighboring cells. We propose that Salmonella benefits from autophagy for its cytosolic replication in HeLa cells. PMID:24618251

  15. Enjoying Homemade Ice Cream without the Risk of Salmonella Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Contaminants Buy, Store & Serve Safe Food Enjoying Homemade Ice Cream without the Risk of Salmonella Infection Share Tweet ... it Email Print August 2004 Every year homemade ice cream causes several outbreaks of Salmonella infection with up ...

  16. Test results of Salmonella typing by the National Reference Laboratories for Salmonella in the Member States of the European Union and the EnterNet Laboratories - Collaborative study VII on typing of Salmonella

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Korver H; Maas HME; Ward LR; Wannet WJB; Henken AM; MGB; LIS

    2003-01-01

    Het Communautair Referentie Laboratorium voor Salmonella (CRL-Salmonella, Bilthoven, Nederland) organiseerde in samenwerking met Public Health Laboratory Services (PHLS), London, Verenigd Koninkrijk een zevende ringonderzoek aangaande de typering van Salmonella. Zeventien Nationale Referentie

  17. Test results of Salmonella typing by the NRLs-Salmonella in the Member States of the EU and the EnterNet Laboratories - Collaborative study VI on typing of Salmonella

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Korver H; Raes M; Maas HME; Ward LR; Wannet WJB; Henken AM; MGB; LIS

    2002-01-01

    Test resultaten van Salmonella sero- en faagtypering en antimicrobiele gevoeligheidsbepalingen door de Nationale Referentie Laboratoria voor Salmonella in de Lidstaten van de Europese Unie en EnterNet Laboratoria: Ringonderzoek VI (2001) voor Salmonella. Een zesde ringonderzoek betreffende de

  18. Subversion of the cytoskeleton by intracellular bacteria: lessons from Listeria, Salmonella, and Vibrio

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Souza Santos, Marcela; Orth, Kim

    2018-01-01

    Summary Entry into host cells and intracellular persistence by invasive bacteria are tightly coupled to the ability of the bacterium to disrupt the eukaryotic cytoskeletal machinery. Herein we review the main strategies used by three intracellular pathogens to harness key modulators of the cytoskeleton. Two of these bacteria, namely Listeria monocytogenes and Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium, exhibit quite distinct intracellular lifestyles, and therefore, provide a comprehensive panel for the understanding of the intricate bacteria-cytoskeleton interplay during infections. The emerging intracellular pathogen Vibrio parahaemolyticus is depicted as a developing model for the uncovering of novel mechanisms used to hijack the cytoskeleton. PMID:25440316

  19. Detection and classification of salmonella serotypes using spectral signatures collected by fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spectral signatures of Salmonella serotypes namely Salmonella Typhimurium, Salmonella Enteritidis, Salmonella Infantis, Salmonella Heidelberg and Salmonella Kentucky were collected using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR). About 5-10 µL of Salmonella suspensions with concentrations of 1...

  20. Salmonellae in avian wildlife in Norway from 1969 to 2000

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Refsum, T.; Handeland, K.; Baggesen, Dorte Lau

    2002-01-01

    Postmortem records of wild-living birds in Norway with laboratory-confirmed findings of salmonella infection were summarized for the period from 1969 to 2000. Salmonella spp. were isolated from 470 birds belonging to 26 species. The salmonella-positive birds included 441 small passerines, 15 gull...

  1. Molecular detection of salmonella species from selected vegetables ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Molecular detection of salmonella species from selected vegetables sold in a north-central Nigerian setting. ... This finding shows that virulent Salmonella strains pose a major health hazard and public health concern to the affected population. Our study shows that there is a high prevalence rate of virulent Salmonella ...

  2. Epidemiology and control measures for Salmonella in pigs and pork

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wong, Danilo Lo Fo; Hald, Tine; Wolf, P. J. van der

    2002-01-01

    at the abattoir and during lairage, exposing negative pigs to Salmonella. Positive pigs carry Salmonella on the skin, in the gastro-intestinal system or in the mouth. The (cross-)contamination of carcasses is basically a matter of redistributing the Salmonella bacteria from the positive pigs during the various...

  3. 9 CFR 113.30 - Detection of Salmonella contamination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Detection of Salmonella contamination... REQUIREMENTS Standard Procedures § 113.30 Detection of Salmonella contamination. The test for detection of Salmonella contamination provided in this section shall be conducted when such a test is prescribed in an...

  4. 21 CFR 866.3550 - Salmonella spp. serological reagents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Salmonella spp. serological reagents. 866.3550... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3550 Salmonella spp. serological reagents. (a) Identification. Salmonella spp. serological reagents are devices that...

  5. Detection of Salmonella typhi agglutinins in sera of patients with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background and Purpose: Widal test is frequently applied for the detection of Salmonella agglutinins to diagnose Salmonella enterica serotype Typhi infection. There are however a number of controversies challenging the diagnostic utility of this test. This study was performed to determine the prevalence of Salmonella ...

  6. 76 FR 16425 - Draft Guidance for Industry: Testing for Salmonella

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-23

    ...] Draft Guidance for Industry: Testing for Salmonella Species in Human Foods and Direct-Human-Contact... ``Testing for Salmonella Species in Human Foods and Direct-Human-Contact Animal Foods.'' The draft guidance... ``Prevention of Salmonella Enteritidis in Shell Eggs During Production, Storage, and Transportation.'' The...

  7. Characterization of a multidrug resistant Salmonella enterica give ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Salmonella enterica Give is one of the serotypes that have been incriminated in Salmonella infections; sometimes associated with hospitalization and mortalities in humans and animals in some parts of the world. In this work, we characterized one Salmonella Give isolated from cloaca swab of an Agama agama lizard ...

  8. Mechanism of Salmonella reduction in fermented pig feed

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Winsen, van R.L.; Lipman, L.J.A.; Biesterveld, S.; Urlings, B.A.P.; Snijders, J.M.A.; Knapen, van F.

    2001-01-01

    To protect consumers from Salmonella infection acquired through the consumption of pork meat, it is necessary to eradicate Salmonella from pork. In order to achieve this, the whole pork production chain should be free from Salmonella, including the pigs at the farm. In epidemiological studies it was

  9. Multiple antimicrobial resistance of Escherichia coli and Salmonella ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Presumptive isolates were subjected to antimicrobial susceptibility testing using 13 panels of antibiotics for both E. coli and Salmonella spp. Results showed that the overall isolation rate of Salmonella spp. was 12 (11.4%), broiler chickens had higher isolation rate 9 (12.0%) of Salmonella than local chickens. However, the ...

  10. Salmonella surrogate reduction using industrial peanut dry roasting parameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Studies were conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of industrial peanut dry roasting parameters in Salmonella reduction using a Salmonella surrogate, Enterococcus faecium, which is slightly more heat tolerant than Salmonella. Runner-type peanuts were inoculated with E. faecium and roasted in a lab...

  11. Biofilm formation of Salmonella species isolated from fresh cabbage ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of the study was to isolate Salmonella from fresh cabbage and spinach vegetables, determine antimicrobial resistance and biofilm formation of the isolates. Spinach and cabbage farm vegetables were found to harbour Salmonella. A total of eighty-two Salmonella isolates were recovered from both vegetables and ...

  12. 78 FR 42451 - Animal Feeds Contaminated With Salmonella Microorganisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-16

    .... FDA-2013-N-0253] Animal Feeds Contaminated With Salmonella Microorganisms AGENCY: Food and Drug... revoking an advisory opinion on animal feeds contaminated with Salmonella microorganisms. This action is... articulated in a final compliance policy guide (CPG) on Salmonella in food for animals. DATES: This rule is...

  13. Salmonella and Eggs: From Production to Plate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harriet Whiley

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Salmonella contamination of eggs and egg shells has been identified as a public health concern worldwide. A recent shift in consumer preferences has impacted on the egg industry, with a push for cage-free egg production methods. There has also been an increased desire from consumers for raw and unprocessed foods, potentially increasing the risk of salmonellosis. In response to these changes, this review explores the current literature regarding Salmonella contamination of eggs during the production processing through to food handling protocols. The contamination of eggs with Salmonella during the production process is a complex issue, influenced by many variables including flock size, flock age, stress, feed, vaccination, and cleaning routines. Currently there is no consensus regarding the impact of caged, barn and free range egg production has on Salmonella contamination of eggs. The literature regarding the management and control strategies post-collection, during storage, transport and food handling is also reviewed. Pasteurisation and irradiation were identified as the only certain methods for controlling Salmonella and are essential for the protection of high risk groups, whereas control of temperature and pH were identified as potential control methods to minimise the risk for foods containing raw eggs; however, further research is required to provide more detailed control protocols and education programs to reduce the risk of salmonellosis from egg consumption.

  14. Salmonella and eggs: from production to plate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whiley, Harriet; Ross, Kirstin

    2015-02-26

    Salmonella contamination of eggs and egg shells has been identified as a public health concern worldwide. A recent shift in consumer preferences has impacted on the egg industry, with a push for cage-free egg production methods. There has also been an increased desire from consumers for raw and unprocessed foods, potentially increasing the risk of salmonellosis. In response to these changes, this review explores the current literature regarding Salmonella contamination of eggs during the production processing through to food handling protocols. The contamination of eggs with Salmonella during the production process is a complex issue, influenced by many variables including flock size, flock age, stress, feed, vaccination, and cleaning routines. Currently there is no consensus regarding the impact of caged, barn and free range egg production has on Salmonella contamination of eggs. The literature regarding the management and control strategies post-collection, during storage, transport and food handling is also reviewed. Pasteurisation and irradiation were identified as the only certain methods for controlling Salmonella and are essential for the protection of high risk groups, whereas control of temperature and pH were identified as potential control methods to minimise the risk for foods containing raw eggs; however, further research is required to provide more detailed control protocols and education programs to reduce the risk of salmonellosis from egg consumption.

  15. Salmonella capture using orbiting magnetic microbeads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owen, Drew; Ballard, Matthew; Mills, Zachary; Hanasoge, Srinivas; Hesketh, Peter; Alexeev, Alexander

    2014-11-01

    Using three-dimensional simulations and experiments, we examine capture of salmonella from a complex fluid sample flowing through a microfluidic channel. Capture is performed using orbiting magnetic microbeads, which can easily be extracted from the system for analysis after salmonella capture. Numerical simulations are used to model the dynamics of the system, which consists of a microchannel filled with a viscous fluid, model salmonella, magnetic microbeads and a series of angled parallel ridges lining the top of the microchannel. Simulations provide a statistical measure of the ability of the system to capture target salmonella. Our modeling findings guide the design of a lab-on-a-chip experimental device to be used for the detection of salmonella from complex food samples, allowing for the detection of the bacteria at the food source and preventing the consumption of contaminated food. Such a device can be used as a generic platform for the detection of a variety of biomaterials from complex fluids. This work is supported by a grant from the United States Department of Agriculture.

  16. Test results of Salmonella serotyping in the Member States of the European Union. (Collaborative study III amongst the National Reference Laboratories for Salmonella)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Voogt N; Maas HME; Leeuwen WJ van; Henken AM; MGB

    1998-01-01

    Het Communautair Referentie Laboratorium (CRL) voor Salmonella heeft een derde ringonderzoek voor de serotypering van Salmonella georganiseerd. Alle Nationale Referentie Laboratoria (NRLs) voor Salmonella van de Europese Unie deden aan het onderzoek mee. Het belangrijkste doel was het

  17. Integrative analysis of Salmonellosis in Israel reveals association of Salmonella enterica Serovar 9,12:l,v:- with extraintestinal infections, dissemination of endemic S. enterica Serovar Typhimurium DT104 biotypes, and severe underreporting of outbreaks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marzel, Alex; Desai, Prerak T; Nissan, Israel; Schorr, Yosef Ilan; Suez, Jotham; Valinsky, Lea; Reisfeld, Abraham; Agmon, Vered; Guard, Jean; McClelland, Michael; Rahav, Galia; Gal-Mor, Ohad

    2014-06-01

    Salmonella enterica is the leading etiologic agent of bacterial food-borne outbreaks worldwide. This ubiquitous species contains more than 2,600 serovars that may differ in their host specificity, clinical manifestations, and epidemiology. To characterize salmonellosis epidemiology in Israel and to study the association of nontyphoidal Salmonella (NTS) serovars with invasive infections, 48,345 Salmonella cases reported and serotyped at the National Salmonella Reference Center between 1995 and 2012 were analyzed. A quasi-Poisson regression was used to identify irregular clusters of illness, and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis in conjunction with whole-genome sequencing was applied to molecularly characterize strains of interest. Three hundred twenty-nine human salmonellosis clusters were identified, representing an annual average of 23 (95% confidence interval [CI], 20 to 26) potential outbreaks. We show that the previously unsequenced S. enterica serovar 9,12:l,v:- belongs to the B clade of Salmonella enterica subspecies enterica, and we show its frequent association with extraintestinal infections, compared to other NTS serovars. Furthermore, we identified the dissemination of two prevalent Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium DT104 clones in Israel, which are genetically distinct from other global DT104 isolates. Accumulatively, these findings indicate a severe underreporting of Salmonella outbreaks in Israel and provide insights into the epidemiology and genomics of prevalent serovars, responsible for recurring illness. Copyright © 2014, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  18. SopB-Mediated Recruitment of SNX18 Facilitates Salmonella Typhimurium Internalization by the Host Cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liebl, David; Qi, Xiaying; Zhe, Yang; Barnett, Timothy C.; Teasdale, Rohan D.

    2017-01-01

    To invade epithelial cells, Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium (S. Typhimurium) induces macropinocytosis through the action of virulence proteins delivered across the host cell membrane via a type III secretion system. We show that after docking at the plasma membrane S. Typhimurium triggers rapid recruitment of cytosolic SNX18, a SH3-PX-BAR domain sorting nexin protein, to the bacteria-induced membrane ruffles and to the nascent Salmonella-containing vacuole. SNX18 recruitment required the inositol-phosphatase activity of the Salmonella effector SopB and an intact phosphoinositide-binding site within the PX domain of SNX18, but occurred independently of Rho-GTPases Rac1 and Cdc42 activation. SNX18 promotes formation of the SCV from the plasma membrane by acting as a scaffold to recruit Dynamin-2 and N-WASP in a process dependent on the SH3 domain of SNX18. Quantification of bacteria uptake revealed that overexpression of SNX18 increased bacteria internalization, whereas a decrease was detected in cells overexpressing the phosphoinositide-binding mutant R303Q, the ΔSH3 mutant, and in cells where endogenous levels of SNX18 were knocked-down. This study identifies SNX18 as a novel target of SopB and suggests a mechanism where S. Typhimurium engages host factors via local manipulation of phosphoinositide composition at the site of invasion to orchestrate the internalization process. PMID:28664153

  19. Plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance in Salmonella serotypes isolated from chicken carcasses in Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zafer Ata

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Quinolones have been extensively used for treatment of a variety of invasive and systemic infections of salmonellosis. Widespread use of these agents has been associated with the emergence and dissemination of quinolone-resistant pathogens. The quinolone resistance and plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance determinants (qnrA, qnrB, qnrS and aac(6’-Ib-cr of 85 Salmonella isolates from chicken carcasses were investigated in this study. Isolates were serotyped according to the Kauffman-White-Le Minor scheme, and broth microdilution method was used to determine quinolone resistance. Plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance genes were investigated by real-time PCR and positive results were confirmed by sequencing. Among the Salmonella isolates, 30/85 (35% and 18/85 (21% were found to be resistant to enrofloxacin (MIC ≥ 2 mg/ml, and danofloxacin (MIC ≥ 2 mg/ml, respectively. All the isolates were negative for qnrA, qnrB and aac(6’-Ib-cr genes, nevertheless 2% (S. Brandenburg and S. Dabou were positive for qnrS (qnrS1 determinant. This study is the first and unique investigating the plasmid- mediated quinolone resistance determinants of Salmonella isolated from chicken carcasses in Turkey.

  20. The Stability of Complement-Mediated Bactericidal Activity in Human Serum against Salmonella

    Science.gov (United States)

    O’Shaughnessy, Colette M.; Cunningham, Adam F.; MacLennan, Calman A.

    2012-01-01

    The complement cascade includes heat-labile proteins and care is required when handling serum in order to preserve its functional integrity. We have previously used a whole human serum bactericidal assay to show that antibody and an intact complement system are required in blood for killing of invasive isolates of Salmonella. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the conditions under which human serum can be stored and manipulated while maintaining complement integrity. Serum bactericidal activity against Salmonella was maintained for a minimum of 35 days when stored at 4°C, eight days at 22°C and 54 hours at 37°C. Up to three freeze-thaw cycles had no effect on the persistence of bactericidal activity and hemolytic complement assays confirmed no effect on complement function. Delay in the separation of serum for up to four days from clotted blood stored at 22°C did not affect bactericidal activity. Dilution of serum resulted in an increased rate of loss of bactericidal activity and so serum should be stored undiluted. These findings indicate that the current guidelines concerning manipulation and storage of human serum to preserve complement integrity and function leave a large margin for safety with regards to bactericidal activity against Salmonella. The study provides a scheme for determining the requirements for serum handling in relation to functional activity of complement in other systems. PMID:23145102

  1. Salmonella Typhimurium metabolism affects virulence in the host - A mini-review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrero-Fresno, Ana; Olsen, John Elmerdhahl

    2018-05-01

    Salmonella enterica remains an important food borne pathogen in all regions of the world with S. Typhimurium as one of the most frequent serovars causing food borne disease. Since the majority of human cases are caused by food of animal origin, there has been a high interest in understanding how S. Typhimurium interacts with the animal host, mostly focusing on factors that allow it to breach host barriers and to manipulate host cells to the benefit of itself. Up to recently, such studies have ignored the metabolic factors that allow the bacteria to multiply in the host, but this is changing rapidly, and we are now beginning to understand that virulence and metabolism in the host are closely linked. The current review highlights which metabolic factors that are essential for Salmonella Typhimurium growth in the intestine, in cultured epithelial and macrophage-like cell lines, at systemic sites during invasive salmonellosis, and during long term asymptomatic colonization of the host. It also points to the limitations in our current knowledge, most notably that most studies have been carried out with few well-characterized laboratory strains, that we do not know how much the in vivo metabolism differs between serotypes, and that most results are based on challenges in the mouse model of infection. It will be very important to realize whether the current understanding of Salmonella metabolism in the host is true for all serotypes and all possible hosts. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Exploiting host immunity: the Salmonella paradigm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behnsen, Judith; Perez-Lopez, Araceli; Nuccio, Sean-Paul; Raffatellu, Manuela

    2014-01-01

    Pathogens have evolved clever strategies to evade and in some cases exploit the attacks of an activated immune system. Salmonella enterica is one such pathogen, exploiting multiple aspects of host defense to promote its replication in the host. Here we review recent findings on the mechanisms by which Salmonella establishes systemic and chronic infection, including strategies involving manipulation of innate immune signaling and inflammatory forms of cell death, as well as immune evasion by establishing residency in M2 macrophages. We also examine recent evidence showing that the oxidative environment and the high levels of antimicrobial proteins produced in response to localized Salmonella gastrointestinal infection enable the pathogen to successfully outcompete the resident gut microbiota. PMID:25582038

  3. Salmonella Typhi Vertebral Osteomyelitis and Epidural Abscess

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hau Wei Khoo

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Salmonella vertebral osteomyelitis is an uncommon complication of Salmonella infection. We report a case of a 57-year-old transgender male who presented with lower back pain for a period of one month following a fall. Physical examination only revealed tenderness over the lower back with no neurological deficits. MRI of the thoracic and lumbar spine revealed a spondylodiscitis at T10-T11 and T12-L1 and right posterior epidural collection at the T9-T10 level. He underwent decompression laminectomy with segmental instrumentation and fusion of T8 to L3 vertebrae. Intraoperatively, he was found to have acute-on-chronic osteomyelitis in T10 and T11, epidural abscess, and discitis in T12-L1. Tissue and wound culture grew Salmonella Typhi and with antibiotics susceptibility guidance he was treated with intravenous ceftriaxone for a period of six weeks. He recovered well with no neurological deficits.

  4. Salmonella epidemiology: A whirlwind of change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Besser, John M

    2018-05-01

    The field of infectious disease epidemiology for Salmonella and other enteric pathogens is undergoing some of the most profound changes since the time of Kauffman and White. Rapid advances in "big data" technologies such as genomics and metagenomics are making it possible to monitor and control salmonellosis in new and exciting ways. Epidemiological methods are becoming increasingly robust through the routine use of standardized hypothesis-generating questionnaires, iterative open-ended interviewing, informational trace-backs and new modeling techniques for describing the attribution of disease to food sources. In addition, Salmonella epidemiology is facing important challenges and new opportunities due to the rapid adoption of culture independent diagnostic test panels by clinical laboratories. Where is this unprecedented wave of change taking us? This chapter will examine emerging trends in Salmonella epidemiology, and take a peek into the not-so-distant future. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  5. Antibody response to the lipopolysaccharide and protein antigens of Salmonella typhi during typhoid infection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsang, R.S.W.; Chau, P.Y.; Lam, S.K.

    1981-01-01

    Serum antibody responses to the lipopolysaccharide and protein antigens of S. typhi in typhoid patients were studied using a solid-phase radioimmunoassay technique with 125 I labelled anti-immunoglobulin antibody. Sera from 24 adult typhoid patients and 20 non-typhoid adult controls were compared. As a group, sera from typhoid patients showed increased IgA, IgG and IgM immunoglobulin levels and gave significantly higher anti-LPS and anti-protein antibody titres in all three major immunoglobulin classes than did non-typhoid controls. Levels of antibodies against LPS or protein in sera of typhoid patients were highly variable with a skew distribution. A good correlation was found between antibody titres to the LPS antigen and those to a protein antigen. No correlation, however, was found between the anti-LPS antibody titres measured by radioimmunoassay and the anti-O antibody titres measured by the Widal agglutination test. Titration of anti-LPS or anti-protein antibodies by radioimmunoassay was found to be more sensitive and specific than Widal test for the serological diagnosis of typhoid fever. The advantages of measuring antibody response by radioimmunoassay over conventional Widal test are discussed. (author)

  6. Inactivation of Salmonellae in Frozen Catfish by Gamma Irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nouchpramoon, Kovit; Amsiri, Jarurat

    2003-06-01

    The effect of gamma irradiation on salmonellae viability in frozen catfish was investigated using fresh cut of catfish artificially contaminated with stationary phase cells of salmonellae, frozen at-18 οC and irradiated with does ranging from 0.0 to 2.4 kGy. The D 10 values for ten serovars of salmonellae ranged from 0.47 to 0.77 kGy. Salmonella Enteritidis was the most resistant serovars found in frozen catfish. Dosage at 2.5 kGy would be sufficient to kill 10 3 . 2 Salmonella Enteritidis that may occasionally present in frozen catfish

  7. Assessment of Salmonella survival in dry-cured Italian salami.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonardi, S; Bruini, I; Bolzoni, L; Cozzolino, P; Pierantoni, M; Brindani, F; Bellotti, P; Renzi, M; Pongolini, S

    2017-12-04

    The inactivation of Salmonella during curing of Italian traditional pork salami was investigated. A total of 150 batches of ground raw meat (GRM) used for salami manufacturing by four producers were tested for Salmonella by real-time PCR followed by ISO 6579 cultural confirmation and MPN enumeration. Salami produced with Salmonella positive GRMs were re-tested at the end of their curing period. Aw, pH and NaCl content were also measured. Detection of Salmonella was performed testing both 25 and 50g of the samples. By Real-Time PCR 37% of the GRMs resulted positive, but cultural detection of Salmonella was obtained in 14% of the samples only. Salmonella enumeration ranged from 31 MPN/g to Salmonella in 100% of all positive samples, vs. 62% of ISO-25g. Salami made of the contaminated GRMs were 29% Salmonella-positive, as most batches of salami produced with Salmonella-positive GRMs resulted negative after regular curing (20-48days). Overall, 13% of salami produced with Salmonella-contaminated GRMs were positive. They belonged to six batches, which turned out negative after prolonged curing ranging between 49 and 86days. Salmonella enumeration in salami ranged from 8.7 MPN/g to Salmonella in cured salami (p value: >0.05). The most common Salmonella serovars in GRMs were Derby (52%), Typhimurium monophasic variant 4, (Barbuti et al., 1993), 12:i:- (19%) and Stanley (10%). Salmonella Derby (56%), London, Branderup, Panama (13%, respectively) and Goldcoast (6%) were most frequent in cured salami. The study showed negative correlation between real-time CT values and cultural confirmation of Salmonella, as well as the importance of sample size for Salmonella detection. Among considered factors with possible effect on the occurrence of Salmonella in salami, statistical analysis revealed a role for aw in salami and for Salmonella load in GRMs, while pH and NaCl content did not significantly affect the probability of finding Salmonella in dry-cured salami in the context of

  8. Septic arthritis of the ankle due to Salmonella enteritidis.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Dineen, Patrick F

    2011-06-01

    Salmonella septic arthritis in healthy, immunocompetent patients is extremely rare. We present the case of a 70-year-old man who presented with a one-day history of painful swelling of his ankle from which was aspirated pus which subsequently grew Salmonella enteritidis. There was no history of trauma or symptoms consistent with Salmonella enterocolitis. Our patient recovered fully after two weeks on intravenous ceftriaxone and six weeks on oral ciprofloxacin. Salmonella is a notifiable disease in the European Union and the United States of America, and is associated with outbreaks as a result of food contamination. The nature of Salmonella arthritis and its appropriate management are outlined.

  9. Oxidoreductases that act as conditional virulence suppressors in Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naeem Anwar

    Full Text Available In Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium, oxidoreductases of the thioredoxin superfamily contribute to bacterial invasiveness, intracellular replication and to the virulence in BALB/c mice as well as in the soil nematode Caenorhabditis elegans. The scsABCD gene cluster, present in many but not all enteric bacteria, codes for four putative oxidoreductases of the thioredoxin superfamily. Here we have analyzed the potential role of the scs genes in oxidative stress tolerance and virulence in S. Typhimurium. An scsABCD deletion mutant showed moderate sensitization to the redox-active transition metal ion copper and increased protein carbonylation upon exposure to hydrogen peroxide. Still, the scsABCD mutant was not significantly affected for invasiveness or intracellular replication in respectively cultured epithelial or macrophage-like cells. However, we noted a significant copper chloride sensitivity of SPI1 T3SS mediated invasiveness that strongly depended on the presence of the scs genes. The scsABCD deletion mutant was not attenuated in animal infection models. In contrast, the mutant showed a moderate increase in its competitive index upon intraperitoneal challenge and enhanced invasiveness in small intestinal ileal loops of BALB/c mice. Moreover, deletion of the scsABCD genes restored the invasiveness of a trxA mutant in epithelial cells and its virulence in C. elegans. Our findings thus demonstrate that the scs gene cluster conditionally affects virulence and underscore the complex interactions between oxidoreductases of the thioredoxin superfamily in maintaining host adaptation of S. Typhimurium.

  10. Prevalence of Salmonella spp. in reptiles

    OpenAIRE

    加藤, 行男; 村上, 賢

    2006-01-01

    A total of 291 fecal samples from 252 wild reptiles and 39 pet reptiles were examined for the prevalence of Salmonella spp. in Japan. Salmonella spp. were isolated from 29 (11.5%) of 252 wild reptiles and 22 (55.6%) of 39 pet reptiles. The isolates were identified into subspecies I to IV. The majority of isolates (43.6%) belonged to subspecies I and these isolates could be identified into 9 serovars. The serovars isolated were found to be S. Newport, S. Litchifield and S. Thompson which cause...

  11. Salmonella-infektion kompliceret med akut nyreinsufficiens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thøgersen, Thøger; Jensen, Jørgen Erik; Jespersen, Bente

    2003-01-01

    Acute renal failure is a known complication to Salmonella gastroenteritis, and patients with chronic renal failure or impaired host defence are at increased risk. In the two presented cases there had been a few days of gastroenteritis before the hospitalisation, but the only symptoms...... at the admission were fatigue and dyspnoea. In both cases severe uraemia had developed and the patients and their physicians did not expect the episode of gastroenteritis to be the only etiology of acute renal failure. Both patients had normal renal histology and Salmonella was grown in their faeces. Subsequently...

  12. Salmonella in Brazilian and imported pet reptiles

    OpenAIRE

    Sá,Isabel Valéria Abalem de; Solari,Claude André

    2001-01-01

    The presence of salmonellae in fecal samples or cloacal swabs of 97 pet reptiles (15 snakes, 24 lizards and 58 chelonians) was investigated. Thirty seven animals had national origin and 60 were imported. Salmonella spp was detected in 39.1% of the reptiles, being 62.5% in lizards, 53.3% in snakes and 25.8% in chelonians. Strains belonged to subspecies I (44.7%), II (10.5%), IIIa (5.2%), IIIb (21.0%) and IV (18.5%) of the enterica species, with predominance (55.3%) of subspecies usually found ...

  13. Backyard Farms Represent a Source of Wide Host Range Salmonella Phages That Lysed the Most Common Salmonella Serovars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivera, Dácil; Toledo, Viviana; Pillo, Francisca DI; Dueñas, Fernando; Tardone, Rodolfo; Hamilton-West, Christopher; Vongkamjan, Kitiya; Wiedmann, Martin; Switt, Andrea I Moreno

    2018-02-01

    The genus Salmonella has more than 2,600 serovars, and this trait is important when considering interventions for Salmonella control. Bacteriophages that are used for biocontrol must have an exclusively lytic cycle and the ability to lyse several Salmonella serovars under a wide range of environmental conditions. Salmonella phages were isolated and characterized from 34 backyard production systems (BPSs) with a history of Salmonella infections. BPSs were visited once, and cloacal or fecal samples were processed for phage isolation. Four hosts, Salmonella serovars Enteritidis, Heidelberg, Infantis, and Typhimurium, were used for phage isolation. The host range of the phages was later characterized with a panel of 23 Salmonella serovars (serovar diversity set) and 31 isolates obtained from the same farms (native set). Genetic relatedness for 10 phages with a wide host range was characterized by restriction fragment length polymorphism, and phages clustered based on the host range. We purified 63 phages, and 36 phage isolates were obtained on Salmonella Enteritidis, 16 on Salmonella Heidelberg, and 11 on Salmonella Infantis. Phages were classified in three clusters: (i) phages with a wide host range (cluster I), (ii) phages that lysed the most susceptible Salmonella serovars (serogroup D) and other isolates (cluster II), and (iii) phages that lysed only isolates of serogroup D (cluster III). The most susceptible Salmonella serovars were Enteritidis, Javiana, and Dublin. Seven of 34 farms yielded phages with a wide host range, and these phages had low levels of genetic relatedness. Our study showed an adaptation of the phages in the sampled BPSs to serogroup D Salmonella isolates and indicated that isolation of Salmonella phages with wide host range differs by farm. A better understanding of the factors driving the Salmonella phage host range could be useful when designing risk-based sampling strategies to obtain phages with a wide lytic host range for biocontrol

  14. Prevalence, serovars and antimicrobial susceptibility of Salmonella spp. from wild and domestic green iguanas (Iguana iguana) in Grenada, West Indies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sylvester, W R B; Amadi, V; Pinckney, R; Macpherson, C N L; McKibben, J S; Bruhl-Day, R; Johnson, R; Hariharan, H

    2014-09-01

    Cloacal swabs from 62 green iguanas (Iguana iguana), including 47 wild and 15 domestic ones from five parishes of Grenada, were sampled during a 4-month period of January to April 2013 and examined by enrichment and selective culture for the presence of Salmonella spp. Fifty-five per cent of the animals were positive, and eight serovars of Salmonella were isolated. The most common serovar was Rubislaw (58.8%), a serovar found recently in many cane toads in Grenada, followed by Oranienburg (14.7%), a serovar that has been causing serious human disease outbreaks in Japan. Serovar IV:48:g,z51 :- (formerly, S. Marina) highly invasive and known for serious infections in children in the United States, constituted 11.8% of the isolates, all of them being from domestic green iguanas. Salmonella Newport, a serovar recently found in a blue land crab in Grenada, comprised 11.8% of the isolates from the green iguanas. The remaining four less frequent serovars included S. Javiana and S. Glostrup. Antimicrobial susceptibility tests conducted by a disc diffusion method against amoxicillin-clavulanic acid, ampicillin, cefotaxime, ceftazidime, ciprofloxacin, enrofloxacin, gentamicin, nalidixic acid, streptomycin, tetracycline and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole showed that drug resistance is minimal, with intermediate susceptibility, mainly to streptomycin, tetracycline and cefotaxime. This is the first report of isolation and antimicrobial susceptibilities of various Salmonella serovars from wild and domestic green iguanas in Grenada, West Indies. © 2013 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  15. Bactericidal Immunity to Salmonella in Africans and Mechanisms Causing Its Failure in HIV Infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yun Shan Goh

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Nontyphoidal strains of Salmonella are a leading cause of death among HIV-infected Africans. Antibody-induced complement-mediated killing protects healthy Africans against Salmonella, but increased levels of anti-lipopolysaccharide (LPS antibodies in some HIV-infected African adults block this killing. The objective was to understand how these high levels of anti-LPS antibodies interfere with the killing of Salmonella.Sera and affinity-purified antibodies from African HIV-infected adults that failed to kill invasive S. Typhimurium D23580 were compared to sera from HIV-uninfected and HIV-infected subjects with bactericidal activity. The failure of sera from certain HIV-infected subjects to kill Salmonella was found to be due to an inherent inhibitory effect of anti-LPS antibodies. This inhibition was concentration-dependent and strongly associated with IgA and IgG2 anti-LPS antibodies (p<0.0001 for both. IgG anti-LPS antibodies, from sera of HIV-infected individuals that inhibit killing at high concentration, induced killing when diluted. Conversely, IgG, from sera of HIV-uninfected adults that induce killing, inhibited killing when concentrated. IgM anti-LPS antibodies from all subjects also induced Salmonella killing. Finally, the inhibitory effect of high concentrations of anti-LPS antibodies is seen with IgM as well as IgG and IgA. No correlation was found between affinity or avidity, or complement deposition or consumption, and inhibition of killing.IgG and IgM classes of anti-S. Typhimurium LPS antibodies from HIV-infected and HIV-uninfected individuals are bactericidal, while at very high concentrations, anti-LPS antibodies of all classes inhibit in vitro killing of Salmonella. This could be due to a variety of mechanisms relating to the poor ability of IgA and IgG2 to activate complement, and deposition of complement at sites where it cannot insert in the bacterial membrane. Vaccine trials are required to understand the significance of

  16. National invasive species program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anna Rinick

    2007-01-01

    The structure and function of the National Invasive Species Council was presented below. The names and contact information for the USDA Invasive Species coordinators as of February 2006 were presented on the next page.

  17. Rapid radiometric method for detection of Salmonella in foods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stewart, B.J.; Eyles, M.J.; Murrell, W.G.

    1980-01-01

    A radiometric method for the detection of Salmonella in foods has been developed which is based on Salmonella poly H agglutinating serum preventing Salmonella from producing 14CO2 from [14C] dulcitol. The method will detect the presence or absence of Salmonella in a product within 30 h compared to 4 to 5 days by routine culture methods. The method has been evaluated against a routine culture method using 58 samples of food. The overall agreement was 91%. Five samples negative for Salmonella by the routine method were positive by the radiometric method. These may have been false positives. However, the routine method may have failed to detect Salmonella due to the presence of large numbers of lactose-fermenting bacteria which hindered isolation of Salmonella colonies on the selective agar plates

  18. Salmonella-S. mansoni ASSOCIATION IN PATIENTS WITH ACQUIRED IMMUNODEFICIENCY SYNDROME

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Roberto LAMBERTUCCI

    1998-07-01

    Full Text Available Two young men with Salmonella bacteraemia, active schistosomiasis and the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome are reported. The clinical presentation comprised nonspecific signs and symptoms, such as fatigue, malaise, weight loss, diarrhoea, prolonged fever, and hepatosplenomegaly. In one patient, liver biopsy showed poorly formed granulomata around Schistosoma mansoni eggs and hepatitis. Treatment of schistosomiasis alone induced consistent clinical improvement with eventual cure of both Salmonella and S. mansoni infections. Recognition of the Salmonella-S. mansoni association in patients with AIDS is important because treatment of schistosomiasis makes a difference, improving the prognosis of this otherwise, recurrent, potentially fatal bacteraemia.Apresentam-se os casos de dois jovens com bacteriemia por Salmonella associada a esquistossomose mansoni ativa em pacientes com a síndrome da imunodeficiência adquirida. A apresentação clínica incluiu sintomas e sinais inespecíficos como fadiga, perda de peso, diarréia, febre prolongada e hepatoesplenomegalia. A biópsia hepática em um paciente revelou granulomas mal formados em torno de ovos de S. mansoni e hepatite de intensidade moderada. O tratamento da esquistossomose com a oxamniquine induziu melhora clínica progressiva culminando com a cura da salmonelose e da esquistossomose. O reconhecimento da associação Salmonella-S. mansoni em pacientes com AIDS mostra-se importante nesses casos pois o tratamento da esquistossomose melhora o prognóstico da bacteriemia por Salmonella que pode tornar-se recorrente e fatal nos pacientes com AIDS.

  19. Ultraviolet (UV-C) inactivation of Enterococcus faecium, Salmonella choleraesuis and Salmonella typhimurium in porcine plasma

    OpenAIRE

    Bl?zquez, Elena; Rodr?guez, Carmen; R?denas, Jes?s; P?rez de Rozas, Ana; Segal?s, Joaquim; Pujols, Joan; Polo, Javier

    2017-01-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the effectiveness of an ultraviolet (UV-C, 254 nm) irradiation system on reducing the load of Salmonella typhimurium (S. typhimurium), Salmonella choleraesuis (S. choleraesuis) resistant to streptomycin and Enterococcus faecium (E. faecium) inoculated in sterile porcine plasma and then subjected to different UV-C irradiation doses (750, 1500, 3000, 6000 and 9000 J/L) using a pilot plant UV-C device working under turbulent flow. Results indicated that ...

  20. Evaluation of the respiratory route as a viable portal of entry for Salmonella in poultry via intratracheal challenge of Salmonella Enteritidis and Salmonella Typhimurium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kallapura, G; Morgan, M J; Pumford, N R; Bielke, L R; Wolfenden, A D; Faulkner, O B; Latorre, J D; Menconi, A; Hernandez-Velasco, X; Kuttappan, V A; Hargis, B M; Tellez, G

    2014-02-01

    Experimental and epidemiological evidence suggests that primary infection of Salmonella is by the oral-fecal route for poultry. However, the airborne transmission of Salmonella and similar enteric zoonotic pathogens has been historically neglected. Increasing evidence of Salmonella bioaerosol generation in production facilities and studies suggesting the vulnerabilities of the avian respiratory architecture together have indicated the possibility of the respiratory system being a potential portal of entry for Salmonella in poultry. Presently, we evaluated this hypothesis through intratracheal (IT) administration of Salmonella Enteritidis and Salmonella Typhimurium, as separate challenges, in a total of 4 independent trials, followed by enumeration of cfu recovery in ceca-cecal tonsils and recovery incidence in liver and spleen. In all trials, both Salmonella Enteritidis and Salmonella Typhimurium, challenged IT colonized cecae to a similar or greater extent than oral administration at identical challenge levels. In most trials, chickens cultured for cfu enumeration from IT-challenged chicks at same dose as orally challenged, resulted in an increase of 1.5 log higher Salmonella Enteritidis from ceca-cecal tonsils and a much lower dose IT of Salmonella Enteritidis could colonize ceca to the same extent than a higher oral challenge. This trend of increased cecal colonization due to IT challenge was observed with all trails involving week-old birds (experiment 2 and 3), which are widely considered to be more difficult to infect via the oral route. Liver-spleen incidence data showed 33% of liver and spleen samples to be positive for Salmonella Enteritidis administered IT (10(6) cfu/chick), compared with 0% when administered orally (experiment 2, trial 1). Collectively, these data suggest that the respiratory tract may be a largely overlooked portal of entry for Salmonella infections in chickens.

  1. Evaluation of the respiratory route as a viable portal of entry for Salmonella in poultry via intratracheal challenge of Salmonella Enteritidis and Salmonella Typhimurium1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kallapura, G.; Morgan, M. J.; Pumford, N. R.; Bielke, L. R.; Wolfenden, A. D.; Faulkner, O. B.; Latorre, J. D.; Menconi, A.; Hernandez-Velasco, X.; Kuttappan, V. A.; Hargis, B. M.; Tellez, G.

    2014-01-01

    Experimental and epidemiological evidence suggests that primary infection of Salmonella is by the oral-fecal route for poultry. However, the airborne transmission of Salmonella and similar enteric zoonotic pathogens has been historically neglected. Increasing evidence of Salmonella bioaerosol generation in production facilities and studies suggesting the vulnerabilities of the avian respiratory architecture together have indicated the possibility of the respiratory system being a potential portal of entry for Salmonella in poultry. Presently, we evaluated this hypothesis through intratracheal (IT) administration of Salmonella Enteritidis and Salmonella Typhimurium, as separate challenges, in a total of 4 independent trials, followed by enumeration of cfu recovery in ceca-cecal tonsils and recovery incidence in liver and spleen. In all trials, both Salmonella Enteritidis and Salmonella Typhimurium, challenged IT colonized cecae to a similar or greater extent than oral administration at identical challenge levels. In most trials, chickens cultured for cfu enumeration from IT-challenged chicks at same dose as orally challenged, resulted in an increase of 1.5 log higher Salmonella Enteritidis from ceca-cecal tonsils and a much lower dose IT of Salmonella Enteritidis could colonize ceca to the same extent than a higher oral challenge. This trend of increased cecal colonization due to IT challenge was observed with all trails involving week-old birds (experiment 2 and 3), which are widely considered to be more difficult to infect via the oral route. Liver-spleen incidence data showed 33% of liver and spleen samples to be positive for Salmonella Enteritidis administered IT (106 cfu/chick), compared with 0% when administered orally (experiment 2, trial 1). Collectively, these data suggest that the respiratory tract may be a largely overlooked portal of entry for Salmonella infections in chickens. PMID:24570455

  2. Report on the seventh workshop organised by CRL-Salmonella. Ploufragan (France), 28 May 2002

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Korver H; Raamsdonk EC van; Henken AM; MGB

    2002-01-01

    At 28 May 2002 a workshop was organised by the Community Reference Laboratory for Salmonella (CRL-Salmonella) in Ploufragan, France. All National Reference Laboratories for Salmonella (NRLs-Salmonella) of the EU Member States, with the exception of the Greek and the Northern-Ireland NRLs-Salmonella,

  3. Screening of immunomodulatory and adhesive Lactobacillus with antagonistic activities against Salmonella from fermented vegetables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Junchang; Liu, Pilong; Yang, Xin; Zhao, Xin

    2015-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to select strains of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) by their in vitro adhesive and immunomodulatory properties for potential use as probiotics. In this study, 16 randomly selected LAB strains from fermented vegetables (sauerkraut, bean and cabbage) were first screened for their tolerance to acid, bile salts, pepsin and pancreatin, bacterial inhibitory activities and abilities to adherence to Caco-2 cells. Then, 4 strains with the highest adhesion abilities were selected for further studies of their immunomodulatory properties and inhibitory effects against Salmonella adhesion and invasion to Caco-2 cells in vitro. The results showed that these 16 LAB strains effectively survived in simulated gastrointestinal condition and inhibited growth of six tested pathogens. Lactobacillus rhamnosus P1, Lactobacillus plantarum P2, Lactobacillus rhamnosus P3 and Lactobacillus casei P4 had the highest abilities to adhere to Caco-2 cells. Furthermore, L. plantarum P2 strain showed higher abilities to induce expression of tumor necrosis factor-α and interleukin-12 by splenic monocytes and strongly inhibited the adhesion and invasion of S. enteritidis ATCC13076 to Caco-2 cells. These results suggest that Lactobacillus strains P2 could be used as a probiotic candidate in food against Salmonella infection.

  4. Thirteenth CRL-Salmonella interlaboratory comparison study on typing of Salmonella spp. : Dertiende CRL-Salmonella ringonderzoek voor de typering van Salmonella spp.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berk PA; Maas HME; de Pinna E; Mooijman KA; LZO; cib

    2010-01-01

    De Nationale Referentie Laboratoria (NRL's) van de 27 Europese lidstaten scoorden goed bij de kwaliteitscontrole op Salmonella-typering in 2008. Vier laboratoria hadden hiervoor een herkansing nodig. Daarnaast is een analyse van alle NRL's als groep uitgevoerd, waaruit bleek dat zij 97 %

  5. Water Frogs, Aquariums, and Salmonella -- Oh My!

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2009-12-09

    This CDC Kidtastics podcast discusses how people can get Salmonella from water frogs and aquariums.  Created: 12/9/2009 by National Center for Zoonotic, Vector-Borne, and Enteric Diseases (NCZVED).   Date Released: 12/9/2009.

  6. Salmonella outbreak in a nursing home.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, M; Yoshikawa, T T; Bridge, J; Schlaifer, A; Osterweil, D; Reid, D; Norman, D C

    1990-05-01

    We performed a retrospective review of an outbreak of Salmonella gastroenteritis that occurred in a community nursing home in 1987. Forty-four of 199 residents had a diarrheal illness; Salmonella heidelberg was isolated from the stool in 19 cases. Although the distribution of cases suggested a common source for the outbreak, no common source of infection could be demonstrated, despite extensive investigation. The clinical presentation of symptomatic individuals ranged from mild diarrhea to a severe gastrointestinal illness, and 26% of symptomatic, culture-positive patients required hospitalization. The median duration of pathogen excretion during convalescence in untreated residents was six weeks, but six patients who were treated with antibiotics shed S. heidelberg for a median duration of 14.5 weeks. We conclude that (1) the clinical spectrum of Salmonella gastroenteritis in nursing-home patients is variable, ranging from mild to severe illness; and (2) nursing-home Salmonella outbreaks impose a high economic burden because of expense of epidemiologic investigation, prolonged isolation measures, hospitalization for severely ill residents, and potential institutional closure.

  7. Inhibition of Escherichia Coli, Salmonella and Staphylococcus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Escherichia coli O157:H7, Salmonella typhimurium and Staphylococcus. aureus are of great concern to the food industry, especially in foods stored under refrigerated conditions where, unlike most food-borne pathogens are able to multiply. This investigation was conducted to study the inhibitory effect of some spice ...

  8. Abscesso esplênico causado por Salmonella

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno von Glen Herkenhoff

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Relatar as características demográficas, clínicas, diagnóstica e terapêutica de pacientes com abscesso esplênico (AE causado por Salmonella. MÉTODO: Análise retrospectiva de dados de pacientes atendidos no Serviço de Cirurgia Geral e Aparelho Digestivo do Hospital Universitário Gaffrée-Guinle no período de janeiro de 2001 a dezembro de 2005, a estes se incluiu um caso tratado em outro hospital em época anterior. RESULTADOS: Dentre 4823 pacientes recentemente atendidos, dois apresentaram AE causado por Salmonella enteritidis, enquanto o caso mais antigo o agente responsável foi a Salmonella typhi. Todos eram homens, com idade média de 45 anos. Em nenhum deles foi identificada condição predisponente à formação do abscesso; os exames de imagem foram capazes de diagnosticar o AE. Todos foram tratados por esplenectomia e antibioticoterapia e evoluíram para cura. CONCLUSÕES: A Salmonella, apesar de infrequente, pode ser o agente causal do AE. Caracteristicamente os abscessos eram grandes e apresentavam material necrótico em seu interior. Nesta condição, a esplenectomia associada a antibioticoterapia mostrou-se eficaz no tratamento.

  9. drug resistant strains of Salmonella enterica

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Conclusions: The aqueous extract of Thonningia sanguinea can provide an alternative therapy for the treatment of salmonellosis, mainly for typhoid fever caused by MDR strains of S. Typhi.The extract also inhibits S.Hadar a MDR emerging strain in Ivory Coast. Keywords: Thonningia sanguinea; Salmonella, MDR strains, ...

  10. Fate of Salmonella Species and E

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    ... are suggested. In addition, it would be appropriate to determine the microbiological quality and safety of other fruit juices sold in various vending houses as made available for consumption in order to establish their role in the epidemiology of food- borne diseases in the country. Key words: Fruits juice, Salmonella, E. coli.

  11. Antibiotic and disinfectant resistance of Salmonella serovars ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Salmonella isolates tested displayed multiple antibiotic resistance to a number of antibiotics used to treat both humans and animals. No resistance was seen to disinfectants used at the manufacturer\\'s recommended rate of dilution. The bacteria were resistant, though, at lower dilutions, highlighting the necessity of ...

  12. Thirteenth CRL-Salmonella interlaboratory comparison study on typing of Salmonella spp. : Dertiende CRL-Salmonella ringonderzoek voor de typering van Salmonella spp.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berk PA; Maas HME; de Pinna E; Mooijman KA; LZO; cib

    2010-01-01

    De Nationale Referentie Laboratoria (NRL's) van de 27 Europese lidstaten scoorden goed bij de kwaliteitscontrole op Salmonella-typering in 2008. Vier laboratoria hadden hiervoor een herkansing nodig. Daarnaast is een analyse van alle NRL's als groep uitgevoerd, waaruit bleek dat zij 97 % van de

  13. Sixteenth EURL-Salmonella interlaboratory comparison study on typing of Salmonella spp. : Zestiende EURL-Salmonella ringonderzoek voor de typering van Salmonella spp.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jacobs-Reitsma WF; Pol-Hofstad IE; Maas HME; de Pinna E; Mooijman KA; LZO; cib

    2012-01-01

    De 28 Nationale Referentie Laboratoria (NRL's) van de 27 Europese lidstaten scoorden in 2011 goed bij de kwaliteitscontrole om Salmonella te typeren. Twee laboratoria hadden hiervoor een herkansing nodig. Alle NRL's samen konden gemiddeld genomen aan 97 procent van de geteste stammen de juiste naam

  14. Salmonella typhi time to change empiric treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gade, C.; Engberg, J.; Weis, N.

    2008-01-01

    In the present case series report we describe seven recent cases of typhoid fever. All the patients were travellers returning from Pakistan, where typhoid is endemic. Salmonella typhi isolated from the patients by blood culture were reported as intermediary susceptible to fluoroquinolones in six...

  15. Attachment of Salmonella spp. to pork meat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Trine; Riber, Leise; Löfström, Charlotta

    2011-01-01

    Five strains of Salmonella, one wildtype and four knock-out mutants (the prg, flhDC, yhjH and fliC genes) were investigated based on their probability to attach and subsequently detach from a surface of pork fillet. The attachment followed by detachment was measured and modelled for two different...

  16. Effect of Salmonella thyphymurium Infection on the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was designed to investigate the effect of Salmonella thyphimurium infection on the plasma kinetics of ceftriaxone in Sokoto red goats. In a randomised two-way study, 10 healthy male goats were divided into two groups of five each, and either received a single intramuscular (IM) injection of 1g ceftriaxone only or ...

  17. Incidence and antimicrobial susceptibility pattern of salmonella ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A study was carried out to investigate the incidence of Salmonella species among 300 children using stool samples from six hospitals in the metropolitan Kano. The organisms were investigated using cultural, serological biochemical characterization and sensitivity to some antimicrobial agents. The incidence of the bacteria ...

  18. Colicinogeny in Salmonella serovars isolated in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leila Carvalho Campos

    1988-06-01

    Full Text Available A study of colicinogeny was made in 748 strains of Salmonella (97 serovars isolated from different sources; human (291, animal (119, environmental (141, food (102 and animal feed (95. Colicin production was detected in 64 strains (8.6%, particularly isolated from foods (30.4%. Col. E1 (53 and Ia (44 were the most frequently observed, especially in S. agona for environment and food sources. Col V production was identified in 5 strains of S. typhimurium within 8 producer cultures isolated from humans. Its relationship with the sources and serovars of Salmonella are discussed.Investigou-se a produção de colicina em 748 amostras de Salmonella (97 sorovares advindas de díferentes fontes: humana (291, animal (119, ambiental (141, de alimentos (102 e rações (95. Detectaram-se 64 amostras (8,6% colicinogênicas, particularmente isoladas de alimentos (30,4%. ColE1 (53 e Ia (44 foram as mais freqüentes, especialmente no sorovar S, agona, de origem ambiental e de alimentos. Identificou-se também a produção de col V em 5 amostras de S. typhimurium dentre 8 culturas produtoras de origem humana. Discute-se a relação entre a capacidade colicinogênica e as fontes e sorovares de Salmonella.

  19. Quinolone resistance in Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Introduction. The human restricted bacteria, Salmonella enterica serovar. Typhi is the major cause of typhoid fever (or enteric fever), a characteristic severe systemic illness [1]. In 2010, typhoid fever accounted for an estimated global burden of. 27 million new cases and 200,000 deaths [2]. For over two decades, S. enterica ...

  20. Persistence of salmonella typhimurium in nopal cladodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fresh produce associated outbreaks have increased in the last few years. E.coli O157:H7 and Salmonella have been causative agents of infection in these outbreaks. Fresh produce is consumed raw, and in the absence of terminal kill treatment, it is imperative to understand sources of contamination o...

  1. Persistence of salmonella Typhimurium in Nopal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Having documented information available on the capability of Salmonella to remain in the cladode tissue it is important to understand the role of nopal on the lifecycle of enteropathogenic bacteria in humans, as well as for management and control programs of theses pathogens in plants. Because of th...

  2. Role of inflammasomes in Salmonella infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luigi eFranchi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Pattern recognition receptors (PRRs play a crucial role in both the detection of pathogens and the activation of the innate immune system. NLR family members are cytosolic PRRs that sense bacterial products or endogenous danger signals. Recent evidence suggests that NLRs contribute to the detection of Salmonella through the activation of inflammasomes, molecular platforms that promotes the maturation of the proinflammatory cytokines IL-1 and IL-18. During enteric Salmonella infection the activation of caspase-1 and the production of IL-1 and IL-18 result in a protective host response. In macrophages, the activation of caspase-1 induced by Salmonella is mainly mediated by the NLR family member Nlrc4 that senses cytosolic flagellin. Recent data suggest that an effective innate immune response against Salmonella requires the engagement of multiple inflammasomes in both hematopoietic and non-hematopoietic cell lineages. Further understanding of the innate immune response mediated by inflammasomes should provide new insights into the mechanisms of host defense and the pathogenesis of inflammatory diseases.

  3. In vivo Radiodetoxification of Salmonella minnesota ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Alasia Datonye

    multiple sclerosis and Parkinson's disease (PD) . The Nigerian Health Journal, Vol. 10, No 1 -2, January - June 2010. In vivo Radiodetoxification of Salmonella minnesota Lipopolysaccharides with radio-labeled Leucine Enkephalin cures sensory polyneuropathy: A Case report. Introduction to Parkinson's disease and LPS.

  4. Salmonella osteomyelitis by sickle cell anemia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rausch, H.; Tran, V.T.; Boeckmann, U.; Duesseldorf Univ.

    1985-01-01

    Case report of a 28 year old black sickle cell anemia patient with salmonella osteomyelitis of the radius. Aside from sickle cell anemia patients this skeletal complication of enteric salmonellosis is an extreme rarity. Description of the typical roentgenological features includes intracortical fissures and sequestration. (orig.) [de

  5. Experimental Salmonella typhimurium infections in rats. I

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hougen, H P; Jensen, E T; Klausen, B

    1989-01-01

    The course of experimentally induced Salmonella typhimurium infection was studied in three groups of inbred LEW rats: homozygous +/+, athymic rnu/rnu and isogeneic thymus-grafted rnu/rnu rats. In the first experiment the animals were inoculated intraperitoneally with 10(8) bacteria and all animals...

  6. Engineering and preclinical evaluation of attenuated nontyphoidal Salmonella strains serving as live oral vaccines and as reagent strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tennant, Sharon M; Wang, Jin-Yuan; Galen, James E; Simon, Raphael; Pasetti, Marcela F; Gat, Orit; Levine, Myron M

    2011-10-01

    While nontyphoidal Salmonella (NTS) has long been recognized as a cause of self-limited gastroenteritis, it is becoming increasingly evident that multiple-antibiotic-resistant strains are also emerging as important causes of invasive bacteremia and focal infections, resulting in hospitalizations and deaths. We have constructed attenuated Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium and Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis strains that can serve as live oral vaccines and as "reagent strains" for subunit vaccine production in a safe and economical manner. Prototype attenuated vaccine strains CVD 1921 and CVD 1941, derived from the invasive wild-type strains S. Typhimurium I77 and S. Enteritidis R11, respectively, were constructed by deleting guaBA, encoding guanine biosynthesis, and clpP, encoding a master protease regulator. The clpP mutation resulted in a hyperflagellation phenotype. An additional deletion in fliD yielded reagent strains CVD 1923 and CVD 1943, respectively, which export flagellin monomers. Oral 50% lethal dose (LD₅₀) analyses showed that the NTS vaccine strains were all highly attenuated in mice. Oral immunization with CVD 1921 or CVD 1923 protected mice against lethal challenge with wild-type S. Typhimurium I77. Immunization with CVD 1941 but not CVD 1943 protected mice against lethal infection with S. Enteritidis R11. Immune responses induced by these strains included high levels of serum IgG anti-lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and anti-flagellum antibodies, with titers increasing progressively during the immunization schedule. Since S. Typhimurium and S. Enteritidis are the most common NTS serovars associated with invasive disease, these findings can pave the way for development of a highly effective, broad-spectrum vaccine against invasive NTS.

  7. Engineering and Preclinical Evaluation of Attenuated Nontyphoidal Salmonella Strains Serving as Live Oral Vaccines and as Reagent Strains▿†

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tennant, Sharon M.; Wang, Jin-Yuan; Galen, James E.; Simon, Raphael; Pasetti, Marcela F.; Gat, Orit; Levine, Myron M.

    2011-01-01

    While nontyphoidal Salmonella (NTS) has long been recognized as a cause of self-limited gastroenteritis, it is becoming increasingly evident that multiple-antibiotic-resistant strains are also emerging as important causes of invasive bacteremia and focal infections, resulting in hospitalizations and deaths. We have constructed attenuated Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium and Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis strains that can serve as live oral vaccines and as “reagent strains” for subunit vaccine production in a safe and economical manner. Prototype attenuated vaccine strains CVD 1921 and CVD 1941, derived from the invasive wild-type strains S. Typhimurium I77 and S. Enteritidis R11, respectively, were constructed by deleting guaBA, encoding guanine biosynthesis, and clpP, encoding a master protease regulator. The clpP mutation resulted in a hyperflagellation phenotype. An additional deletion in fliD yielded reagent strains CVD 1923 and CVD 1943, respectively, which export flagellin monomers. Oral 50% lethal dose (LD50) analyses showed that the NTS vaccine strains were all highly attenuated in mice. Oral immunization with CVD 1921 or CVD 1923 protected mice against lethal challenge with wild-type S. Typhimurium I77. Immunization with CVD 1941 but not CVD 1943 protected mice against lethal infection with S. Enteritidis R11. Immune responses induced by these strains included high levels of serum IgG anti-lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and anti-flagellum antibodies, with titers increasing progressively during the immunization schedule. Since S. Typhimurium and S. Enteritidis are the most common NTS serovars associated with invasive disease, these findings can pave the way for development of a highly effective, broad-spectrum vaccine against invasive NTS. PMID:21807911

  8. A naturally occurring single nucleotide polymorphism in the Salmonella SPI-2 type III effector srfH/sseI controls early extraintestinal dissemination.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshua M Thornbrough

    Full Text Available CD18 expressing phagocytes associated with the gastro-intestinal (GI epithelium can shuttle Salmonella directly into the bloodstream within a few minutes following microbial ingestion. We have previously demonstrated that Salmonella controls the CD18 pathway to deeper tissue, manipulating the migratory properties of infected cells as an unappreciated component of its pathogenesis. We have observed that one type III effector, SrfH (also called SseI that Salmonella secretes into infected phagocytes manipulates the host protein TRIP6 to stimulate their migration. Paradoxically, SrfH was shown in another study to subvert a different host protein, IQGAP1, in a manner that inhibits the productive motility of such cells, perhaps to avoid interactions with T cells. Here, we resolve the discrepancy. We report that one naturally occurring allele of srfH promotes the migration of infected phagocytes into the bloodstream, while another naturally occurring allele that differs by only a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP does not. This SNP determines if the protein contains an aspartic acid or a glycine residue at position 103 and may determine if SrfH binds TRIP6. SrfH Gly103 is a rare allele, but is present in the highly invasive strain Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium UK-1 (stands for universal killer. It is also present in the genome of the only sequenced strain belonging to the emerging pandemic Salmonella enterica serovar 4, [5],12,i:-, which is frequently associated with septicemia. Finally, we present evidence that suggests that Gifsy-2, the bacteriophage upon which srfH resides, is present in a clinical isolate of the human-specific pathogen, Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi. These observations may have interesting implications for our understanding of Salmonella pathogenesis.

  9. Characterization of Resistance Genes and Plasmids from Outbreaks and Illness Clusters Caused by Salmonella Resistant to Ceftriaxone in the United States, 2011-2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Folster, Jason P; Grass, Julian E; Bicknese, Amelia; Taylor, Julia; Friedman, Cindy R; Whichard, Jean M

    2017-03-01

    Salmonella is an important cause of foodborne illness; however, quickly identifying the source of these infections can be difficult, and source identification is a crucial step in preventing additional illnesses. Although most infections are self-limited, invasive salmonellosis may require antimicrobial treatment. Ceftriaxone, an extended-spectrum cephalosporin, is commonly used for treatment of salmonellosis. Previous studies have identified a correlation between the food animal/retail meat source of ceftriaxone-resistant Salmonella and the type of resistance gene and plasmid it carries. In this study, we examined seven outbreaks of ceftriaxone-resistant Salmonella infections, caused by serotypes Typhimurium, Newport, Heidelberg, and Infantis. All isolates were positive for a plasmid-encoded bla CMY gene. Plasmid incompatibility typing identified five IncI1 and two IncA/C plasmids. Both outbreaks containing bla CMY -IncA/C plasmids were linked to consumption of cattle products. Three of five outbreaks with bla CMY -IncI1 (ST12) plasmids were linked to a poultry source. The remaining IncI1 outbreaks were associated with ground beef (ST20) and tomatoes (ST12). In addition, we examined isolates from five unsolved clusters of ceftriaxone-resistant Salmonella infections and used our plasmid-encoded gene findings to predict the source. Overall, we identified a likely association between the source of ceftriaxone-resistant Salmonella outbreaks and the type of resistance gene/plasmid it carries.

  10. Isolation of Salmonella paratyphi A from renal abscess

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D'Cruz Sanjay

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Intrarenal abscesses remain a significant cause of morbidity and mortality as well as a diagnostic dilemma because a plethora of microorganisms can cause this condition. A definitive diagnosis is made by demonstrating the organisms from the aspirate and the success or failure of therapy depends upon the antimicrobial sensitivity pattern. Enteric fever is a multisystem disorder caused by invasive strains of salmonella. Salmonellosis continues to be a major public health problem, especially in developing countries. Classic enteric fever is caused by S. typhi and usually less severe enteric fevers are caused by S. paratyphi A, B, or C. However, at times S. paratyphi is capable of causing serious and often life-threatening infections like infective endocarditis, pericarditis, empyma, sino-venous thrombosis, osteomyelitis, meningitis, bone marrow infiltration, hepatitis and pancreatitis. There are anecdotal case reports in world literature of abscesses being caused by this organism. Renal involvement like bacteriuria, nephrotic syndrome and acute renal failure have been reported due to S. parayphi A. S. paratyphi A has never been implicated in renal abscess, we report one such case that was managed successfully with medical therapy.

  11. Salmonella DIVA vaccine reduces disease, colonization and shedding due to virulent S. Typhimurium infection in swine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Non-host adapted Salmonella serovars are opportunistic pathogens that can colonize food-producing animals without causing overt disease, including the frequent foodborne pathogen Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium (S. Typhimurium). Interventions against Salmonella need to both enhance food safe...

  12. 76 FR 41157 - Guidance for Industry: Questions and Answers Regarding the Final Rule, Prevention of Salmonella...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-13

    ..., Prevention of Salmonella Enteritidis in Shell Eggs During Production, Storage, and Transportation... Industry: Questions and Answers Regarding the Final Rule, Prevention of Salmonella Enteritidis in Shell... Salmonella Enteritidis in Shell Eggs During Production, Storage, and Transportation'' (the final rule). The...

  13. Comparing human-Salmonella with plant-Salmonella protein-protein interaction predictions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sylvia eSchleker

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Salmonellosis is the most frequent food-borne disease world-wide and can be transmitted to humans by a variety of routes, especially via animal and plant products. Salmonella bacteria are believed to use not only animal and human but also plant hosts despite their evolutionary distance. This raises the question if Salmonella employs similar mechanisms in infection of these diverse hosts. Given that most of our understanding comes from its interaction with human hosts, we investigate here to what degree knowledge of Salmonella-human interactions can be transferred to the Salmonella-plant system. Reviewed are recent publications on analysis and prediction of Salmonella-host interactomes. Putative protein-protein interactions (PPIs between Salmonella and its human and Arabidopsis hosts were retrieved utilizing purely interolog-based approaches in which predictions were inferred based on available sequence and domain information of known PPIs, and machine learning approaches that integrate a larger set of useful information from different sources. Transfer learning is an especially suitable machine learning technique to predict plant host targets from the knowledge of human host targets. A comparison of the prediction results with transcriptomic data shows a clear overlap between the host proteins predicted to be targeted by PPIs and their gene ontology enrichment in both host species and regulation of gene expression. In particular, the cellular processes Salmonella interferes with in plants and humans are catabolic processes. The details of how these processes are targeted, however, are quite different between the two organisms, as expected based on their evolutionary and habitat differences. Possible implications of this observation on evolution of host-pathogen communication are discussed.

  14. Recent Trends in Salmonella Outbreaks and Emerging Technology for Biocontrol of Salmonella Using Phages in Foods: A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Jun-Hyun; Park, Mi-Kyung

    2017-12-28

    Salmonella is one of the principal causes of foodborne outbreaks. As traditional control methods have shown less efficacy against emerging Salmonella serotypes or antimicrobialresistant Salmonella , new approaches have been attempted. The use of lytic phages for the biocontrol of Salmonella in the food industry has become an attractive method owing to the many advantages offered by the use of phages as biocontrol agents. Phages are natural alternatives to traditional antimicrobial agents; they have proven effective in the control of bacterial pathogens in the food industry, which has led to the development of different phage products. The treatment with specific phages in the food industry can prevent the decay of products and the spread of bacterial diseases, and ultimately promotes safe environments for animal and plant food production, processing, and handling. After an extensive investigation of the current literature, this review focuses predominantly on the efficacy of phages for the successful control of Salmonella spp. in foods. This review also addresses the current knowledge on the pathogenic characteristics of Salmonella , the prevalence of emerging Salmonella outbreaks, the isolation and characterization of Salmonella -specific phages, the effectiveness of Salmonella -specific phages as biocontrol agents, and the prospective use of Salmonella -specific phages in the food industry.

  15. FECAL EXCRETION OF Salmonella Enteritidis IN BROILER LINES ROSS AND ISA LABEL EXCREÇÃO FECAL de Salmonella Enteritidis EM DUAS LINHAGENS DE FRANGOS DE CORTE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adson Santa Cruz Oliveira

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available

    The invasive capacity and persistence of this pathogen, crop and ceca in apparently healthy birds of two broiler lines raised without growth promoter antibiotics in ration and originated from eggs inoculated eggshell and in allantoidal cavity with Salmonella Enteritidis. Histological and bacteriological exams from cecal and crop were performed with one, seven, 14 and 21 days of age after hatch in broilers of fast and slow growing rate. Bacterio-logical exams were performed fecal excretion with one, eigth, 22 and 35 days. The Salmonella Enteritidis invaded and colonizated the gastrointestinal tract of the two lines tested, but the the infection reduced with age, and was more persistant in Ross broilers. The results were different for two lines. The pathogen was excreted from just one chick of ISA Label at 22 days of age and four Ross chicks until 35 days of age. In order, Salmonella was detected in 87.5% (14/16 and 38,1% (5/16 of ceca; in 81.2% (13/16 and 12.5% (2/16 of crops; in fast and slow growing rate lines, respectively. In apparent healthy organs, excepted the crop, an inflammatory process with predominance of macrophage and lymphocytes. The slow growing rate line was effective to eliminate bacteria in the organism.

    Key-words: Ceca, crop, fecal excretion, inflammation.

    Avaliaram-se, neste estudo, a capacidade inva-siva, a persistência e a freqüência de excreção fecal da Salmonella Enteritidis em aves aparentemente saudáveis de duas linhagens de frango de corte, criadas sem antibióticos promotores de crescimento na ração e oriundas de ovos inoculados na casca ou na cavidade alantóide com Salmonella Enteritidis fagotipo 4. Realizaram-se exames bacteriológicos das excretas com um, oito, 22 e 35 dias, e histológicos e bacteriológicos do inglúvio e ceco, com um, sete, quatorze e 21 dias pós-eclosão em frangos de crescimento rápido e lento. Salmonella

  16. Relationship of Salmonella infection and inflammatory intestinal response with hematological and serum biochemical values in laying hens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soria, Mario Alberto; Bonnet, María Agustina; Bueno, Dante Javier

    2015-06-15

    There are few studies about the blood serum of laying hens infected with Salmonella. The differential leukocyte count and blood chemistry values are an important aid in the diagnosis of human diseases, but blood parameters in the avian species are not well known. On the other hand, invasive forms of bacterial gastroenteritis, like Salmonella, often cause intestinal inflammation so this study was undertaken to find a biomarker of Salmonella infection and inflammatory intestinal response in the hematological or serum biochemical parameters in laying hens. Furthermore, we evaluated the association of some farm characteristics with Salmonella infection and fecal leukocytes (FL). A fecal sample with at least one fecal leukocyte per field was considered positive for inflammatory intestinal response. False positive serum reactions for Salmonella infection, by serum plate agglutination (SPA) test, were reduced by heating the sample to 56°C for 30 min and then diluting it 5-fold. The range of hematological and biochemical parameter values was very wide, in addition, there was a poor agreement between the SPA and FL results. Comparison of the positive and negative samples in SPA and FL showed that 1.3% and 79.8% of the laying hens were positive and negative in both tests, respectively. Hens with a positive SPA result showed a higher percentage of monocytes than those with a negative SPA result. Hens with a positive FL test had a higher percentage of heterophils, ratio of heterophils to lymphocytes and aspartate aminotransferase values, while the percentage of lymphocytes was significantly lower (P laying hens and the number of hens per poultry house was greater than or equal to 18 months old and 10,000 laying hens, compared to less than 18 months old and 10,000 laying hens, respectively. On the other hand, the risk of inflammatory intestinal response was higher in laying hens ≥ 18 months old than in hens laying hens. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Interaction of Saccharomyces boulardii with Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium protects mice and modifies T84 cell response to the infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flaviano S Martins

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Salmonella pathogenesis engages host cells in two-way biochemical interactions: phagocytosis of bacteria by recruitment of cellular small GTP-binding proteins induced by the bacteria, and by triggering a pro-inflammatory response through activation of MAPKs and nuclear translocation of NF-kappaB. Worldwide interest in the use of functional foods containing probiotic bacteria for health promotion and disease prevention has increased significantly. Saccharomyces boulardii is a non-pathogenic yeast used as a probiotic in infectious diarrhea. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In this study, we reported that S. boulardii (Sb protected mice from Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium (ST-induced death and prevented bacterial translocation to the liver. At a molecular level, using T84 human colorectal cancer cells, we demonstrate that incubation with Sb before infection totally abolished Salmonella invasion. This correlates with a decrease of activation of Rac1. Sb preserved T84 barrier function and decreased ST-induced IL-8 synthesis. This anti-inflammatory effect was correlated with an inhibitory effect of Sb on ST-induced activation of the MAPKs ERK1/2, p38 and JNK as well as on activation of NF-kappaB. Electron and confocal microscopy experiments showed an adhesion of bacteria to yeast cells, which could represent one of the mechanisms by which Sb exerts its protective effects. CONCLUSIONS: Sb shows modulating effects on permeability, inflammation, and signal transduction pathway in T84 cells infected by ST and an in vivo protective effect against ST infection. The present results also demonstrate that Sb modifies invasive properties of Salmonella.

  18. Conservation of Salmonella infection mechanisms in plants and animals.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam Schikora

    Full Text Available Salmonella virulence in animals depends on effectors injected by Type III Secretion Systems (T3SSs. In this report we demonstrate that Salmonella mutants that are unable to deliver effectors are also compromised in infection of Arabidopsis thaliana plants. Transcriptome analysis revealed that in contrast to wild type bacteria, T3SS mutants of Salmonella are compromised in suppressing highly conserved Arabidopsis genes that play a prominent role during Salmonella infection of animals. We also found that Salmonella originating from infected plants are equally virulent for human cells and mice. These results indicate a high degree of conservation in the defense and infection mechanism of animal and plant hosts during Salmonella infection.

  19. Ludwig′s angina by Salmonella Typhi: A clinical dilemma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R K Mahajan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Salmonella Typhi has rarely been associated with focal abscesses; and in literature, there is no evidence of its association with abscesses in the neck spaces. Ability of Salmonella Typhi to invade and localise in the neck spaces not only poses a diagnostic challenge but also underscores the necessity to understand the mechanisms that facilitate Salmonella Typhi to establish infections at sites completely non-traditional to the organism.

  20. Increased colon cancer risk after severe Salmonella infection

    OpenAIRE

    Mughini-Gras, Lapo; Schaapveld, Michael; Kramers, Jolanda; Mooij, Sofie; Neefjes-Borst, E. Andra; van Pelt, Wilfrid; Neefjes, Jacques

    2018-01-01

    Background Colon cancer constitutes one of the most frequent malignancies. Previous studies showed that Salmonella manipulates host cell signaling pathways and that Salmonella Typhimurium infection facilitates colon cancer development in genetically predisposed mice. This epidemiological study examined whether severe Salmonella infection, usually acquired from contaminated food, is associated with increased colon cancer risk in humans. Methods and findings We performed a nationwide registry-b...

  1. Real-time reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction for the rapid detection of Salmonella using invA primers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Souza, Doris H; Critzer, Faith J; Golden, David A

    2009-11-01

    Recent outbreaks of Salmonella linked to fresh produce emphasize the need for rapid detection methods to help control the spread of disease. Reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) can detect the presence of mRNA (shorter half-life than DNA) with greater potential for detecting viable pathogens. The chromosomally located invA gene required for host invasion by Salmonella is widely used for detection of this pathogen by PCR. Detection of Salmonella was undertaken by real-time RT-PCR (rt-RT-PCR) using newly designed invA gene primers to develop a sensitive and specific assay. Salmonella serovars Typhimurium and Enteritidis were grown (7.68 log(10) CFU/mL) in Luria-Bertani broth overnight at 37 degrees C, and RNA was extracted, followed by rt-RT-PCR with and without SYBR green I and agarose gel electrophoresis. All experiments were replicated at least thrice. Detection for both serovars using traditional RT-PCR was lower ( approximately 10(5) CFU/mL) than rt-RT-PCR (10(3) CFU/mL) by gel electrophoresis. Melt curve analysis showed melt temperatures at 87.5 degrees C with Ct values from 12 to 15 for up to 10(3) CFU/mL and improved to 10(2) CFU/mL after further optimization. Further, addition of RNA internal amplification control constructed using in vitro transcription with a T7 RNA polymerase promoter, to the RT-PCR assay also gave detection limits of 10(2) CFU/mL. Cross-reactivity was not observed against a panel of 21 non-Salmonella bacteria. Heat-inactivated (autoclaved) Salmonella showed faint or no detection by rt-RT-PCR or gel electrophoresis. This method has potential to be applied for the detection of Salmonella serovars in fresh produce and the simultaneous detection of foodborne viral (RNA viruses) and bacterial pathogens in a multiplex format.

  2. Salmonella enterica Induces And Subverts The Plant Immune System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Victoria Garcia

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Infections with Salmonella enterica belong to the most prominent causes of food poisoning and infected fruits and vegetables represent important vectors for salmonellosis. Whereas it was shown that plants raise defense responses against Salmonella, these bacteria persist and proliferate in various plant tissues. Recent reports shed light into the molecular interaction between plants and Salmonella, highlighting the defense pathways induced and the means used by the bacteria to escape the plant immune system and accomplish colonization. It was recently shown that plants detect Salmonella pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs, such as the flagellin peptide flg22, and activate hallmarks of the defense program known as PAMP-triggered immunity (PTI. Interestingly, certain Salmonella strains carry mutations in the flg22 domain triggering PTI, suggesting that a strategy of Salmonella is to escape plant detection by mutating PAMP motifs. Another strategy may rely on the type III secretion system (T3SS as T3SS mutants were found to induce stronger plant defense responses than wild type bacteria. Although Salmonella effector delivery into plant cells has not been shown, expression of Salmonella effectors in plant tissues shows that these bacteria also possess powerful means to manipulate the plant immune system. Altogether, the data gathered suggest that Salmonella triggers PTI in plants and evolved strategies to avoid or subvert plant immunity.

  3. [Advances in tumor-therapy using genetically modified Salmonella].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Kang; Zhao, Xinxin; Yi, Jie; Liu, Qiong; Liu, Qing; Kong, Qingke

    2016-05-25

    Tumor is a neoplasm formed by the abnormal proliferation of local tissue cells under the effects of different tumorigenic factors. Tumor-therapy has always been a difficult clinical issue, while regular cancer treatments, such as radiotherapy, chemotherapy and surgery, have obvious limitations. Earlier studies have shown that some obligate anaerobes or facultative anaerobes have anti-tumor effects, for example, Salmonella typhymurium as facultative anaerobic bacteria can selectively colonize tumors and inhibit their growth. Besides, Salmonella has many advantages in tumor-therapy. In the past decade or two, many researchers have carried out genetic manipulation to attenuate the virulence of Salmonella, to improve their specificity of tumor colonization and specially to use attenuated Salmonella as carriers to deliver a variety of anti-tumor therapeutic molecules, and these genetically modified Salmonella have shown good anti-tumor effects in many animal experiments. Along with further research of Salmonella-mediated antitumor treatment, applications of genetically modified Salmonella for more effective tumor-therapy are promising. We reviewed the anti-tumor mechanisms of Salmonella, the research progress in tumor-therapy using genetically modified Salmonella, and current problems and possible solutions.

  4. Salmonella enterica induces and subverts the plant immune system

    KAUST Repository

    García, Ana V.

    2014-04-04

    Infections with Salmonella enterica belong to the most prominent causes of food poisoning and infected fruits and vegetables represent important vectors for salmonellosis. Although it was shown that plants raise defense responses against Salmonella, these bacteria persist and proliferate in various plant tissues. Recent reports shed light into the molecular interaction between plants and Salmonella, highlighting the defense pathways induced and the means used by the bacteria to escape the plant immune system and accomplish colonization. It was recently shown that plants detect Salmonella pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs), such as the flagellin peptide flg22, and activate hallmarks of the defense program known as PAMP-triggered immunity (PTI). Interestingly, certain Salmonella strains carry mutations in the flg22 domain triggering PTI, suggesting that a strategy of Salmonella is to escape plant detection by mutating PAMP motifs. Another strategy may rely on the type III secretion system (T3SS) as T3SS mutants were found to induce stronger plant defense responses than wild type bacteria. Although Salmonella effector delivery into plant cells has not been shown, expression of Salmonella effectors in plant tissues shows that these bacteria also possess powerful means to manipulate the plant immune system. Altogether, these data suggest that Salmonella triggers PTI in plants and evolved strategies to avoid or subvert plant immunity. 2014 Garca and Hirt.

  5. Salmonella serotype distribution in the Dutch broiler supply chain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Asselt, E D; Thissen, J T N M; van der Fels-Klerx, H J

    2009-12-01

    Salmonella serotype distribution can give insight in contamination routes and persistence along a production chain. Therefore, it is important to determine not only Salmonella prevalence but also to specify the serotypes involved at the different stages of the supply chain. For this purpose, data from a national monitoring program in the Netherlands were used to estimate the serotype distribution and to determine whether this distribution differs for the available sampling points in the broiler supply chain. Data covered the period from 2002 to 2005, all slaughterhouses (n = 22), and the following 6 sampling points: departure from hatchery, arrival at the farm, departure from the farm, arrival at the slaughterhouse, departure from the slaughterhouse, and end of processing. Furthermore, retail data for 2005 were used for comparison with slaughterhouse data. The following serotypes were followed throughout the chain: Salmonella Enteritidis, Salmonella Typhimurium, Salmonella Paratyphi B var. Java (Salmonella Java), Salmonella Infantis, Salmonella Virchow, and Salmonella Mbandaka. Results showed that serotype distribution varied significantly throughout the supply chain (P supply chain up to the retail phase.

  6. Salmonella in Wastes Produced at Commercial Poultry Farms1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraft, D. J.; Olechowski-Gerhardt, Carolyn; Berkowitz, J.; Finstein, M. S.

    1969-01-01

    Composite samples of freshly voided excreta from 91 poultry houses were tested qualitatively for Salmonella; 26 (29%) were positive. The houses were located on 36 farms, 18 of which (50%) yielded one or more positive samples. In a separate, quantitative study, Salmonella densities ranged from less than 1 to over 34,000 per g of excreta (dry weight). High densities were noted in waste from cage houses, but not in waste from floor houses (litter or wire floors). Salmonella-shedding chickens were located in only one small area of the row of cages examined in detail. A total of 15 Salmonella serotypes were identified during the study. PMID:5370457

  7. Salmonella in wastes produced at commercial poultry farms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraft, D J; Olechowski-Gerhardt, C; Berkowitz, J; Finstein, M S

    1969-11-01

    Composite samples of freshly voided excreta from 91 poultry houses were tested qualitatively for Salmonella; 26 (29%) were positive. The houses were located on 36 farms, 18 of which (50%) yielded one or more positive samples. In a separate, quantitative study, Salmonella densities ranged from less than 1 to over 34,000 per g of excreta (dry weight). High densities were noted in waste from cage houses, but not in waste from floor houses (litter or wire floors). Salmonella-shedding chickens were located in only one small area of the row of cages examined in detail. A total of 15 Salmonella serotypes were identified during the study.

  8. Protective immunity to Salmonella enterica is partially serogroup specific.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foss, Dennis L; Agin, Tonia S; Bade, Donald; Dearwester, Don A; Jolie, Rika; Keich, Robin L; Lohse, Robert M; Reed, Maryke; Rosey, Everett L; Schneider, Patricia A; Taylor, Lucas P; Willy, Michael S

    2013-09-01

    Pre-harvest reduction of Salmonella carriage by swine would benefit both animal health and food quality. While vaccination is an attractive pre-harvest intervention to reduce Salmonella levels in swine, the large number of potential Salmonella enterica serovars found in swine makes it critical that vaccines provide broad serotype efficacy. In order to directly compare the relative efficacy of Salmonella vaccines against serogroup-matched and serogroup-unmatched Salmonella, we vaccinated pigs with two commercially available Salmonella vaccines (either serogroup B or serogroup C1) and challenged with serovar-matched, serogroup-matched or serogroup-unmatched challenge strains. We found that while serogroup-matched vaccines provided relatively better efficacy than unmatched vaccines, serotype-unmatched vaccines also provided significant reduction of Salmonella carriage and shed. In addition, by measuring serogroup specific cell mediated (IFN-γ ELISPOT) and humoral (anti-LPS ELISA) immunity, we found that this serogroup specific efficacy correlates primarily with humoral immunity, while cell mediated immunity was mostly non-serogroup specific. While the practical relevance to pork quality of this serogroup-specific efficacy remains to be demonstrated, the large predominance of serogroup B Salmonella in swine suggests that a serogroup B Salmonella vaccine for swine would be of value to pre-harvest food safety interventions in swine. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Whole Genome Epidemiological Typing of Salmonella

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leekitcharoenphon, Pimlapas

    including various cut-off values. In addition, all the tools require bioinformatics skill. In order to apply WGS in routine typing, an automatic and user-friendly tool is needed. Therefor, snpTree has been developed as a server for online-automatic SNP analysis. snpTree can identify SNPs and construct......Salmonella is one of the most common foodborne pathogens worldwide. In the US alone, salmonellosis was estimated to cause 1.4 million cases effecting 17,000 hospitalization and almost 600 deaths each year. Particularly, Salmonella enterica is a common cause of minor and large food borne outbreaks...... investigation compared to the traditional typing, PFGE. An online tool to construct phylogenetic tree based on SNPs has also been developed. Furthermore, it has revealed the application of WGS in epidemiological study of global and local occurrences of S. Typhimurium DT104....

  10. Salmonella Dublin kan give store tab

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Torben Dahl; Nielsen, Liza Rosenbaum; Kudahl, Anne Margrethe Braad

    2012-01-01

    Store besætninger lider størst økonomisk tab ved infektion med Salmonella Dublin. Selv i en veldrevet besætning kan tabet løbe op i mellem 1,3 og 3,3 millioner kr. over en tiårs periode. Ved uhensigtsmæssige hygiejne- og managementrutiner kan tabet nemt blive meget højere.......Store besætninger lider størst økonomisk tab ved infektion med Salmonella Dublin. Selv i en veldrevet besætning kan tabet løbe op i mellem 1,3 og 3,3 millioner kr. over en tiårs periode. Ved uhensigtsmæssige hygiejne- og managementrutiner kan tabet nemt blive meget højere....

  11. Organoid and Enteroid Modeling of Salmonella Infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuebang Yin

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Salmonella are Gram-negative rod-shaped facultative anaerobic bacteria that are comprised of over 2,000 serovars. They cause gastroenteritis (salmonellosis with headache, abdominal pain and diarrhea clinical symptoms. Salmonellosis brings a heavy burden for the public health in both developing and developed countries. Antibiotics are usually effective in treating the infected patients with severe gastroenteritis, although antibiotic resistance is on the rise. Understanding the molecular mechanisms of Salmonella infection is vital to combat the disease. In vitro immortalized 2-D cell lines, ex vivo tissues/organs and several animal models have been successfully utilized to study Salmonella infections. Although these infection models have contributed to uncovering the molecular virulence mechanisms, some intrinsic shortcomings have limited their wider applications. Notably, cell lines only contain a single cell type, which cannot reproduce some of the hallmarks of natural infections. While ex vivo tissues/organs alleviate some of these concerns, they are more difficult to maintain, in particular for long term experiments. In addition, non-human animal models are known to reflect only part of the human disease process. Enteroids and induced intestinal organoids are emerging as effective infection models due to their closeness in mimicking the infected tissues/organs. Induced intestinal organoids are derived from iPSCs and contain mesenchymal cells whereas enteroids are derive from intestinal stem cells and are comprised of epithelial cells only. Both enteroids and induced intestinal organoids mimic the villus and crypt domains comparable to the architectures of the in vivo intestine. We review here that enteroids and induced intestinal organoids are emerging as desired infection models to study bacterial-host interactions of Salmonella.

  12. Experimental Adaptation of Salmonella typhimurium to Mice

    OpenAIRE

    Nilsson, Annika I.; Kugelberg, Elisabeth; Berg, Otto G.; Andersson, Dan I.

    2004-01-01

    Experimental evolution is a powerful approach to study the dynamics and mechanisms of bacterial niche specialization. By serial passage in mice, we evolved 18 independent lineages of Salmonella typhimurium LT2 and examined the rate and extent of adaptation to a mainly reticuloendothelial host environment. Bacterial mutation rates and population sizes were varied by using wild-type and DNA repair-defective mutator (mutS) strains with normal and high mutation rates, respectively, and by varying...

  13. Chlortetracycline and florfenicol induce expression of genes associated with pathogenicity in multidrug-resistant Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holman, Devin B; Bearson, Shawn M D; Bearson, Bradley L; Brunelle, Brian W

    2018-01-01

    Multidrug-resistant (MDR) Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium ( S . Typhimurium) is a serious public health threat as infections caused by these strains are more difficult and expensive to treat. Livestock serve as a reservoir for MDR Salmonella , and the antibiotics chlortetracycline and florfenicol are frequently administrated to food-producing animals to treat and prevent various diseases. Therefore, we evaluated the response of MDR S . Typhimurium after exposure to these two antibiotics. We exposed four MDR S . Typhimurium isolates to sub-inhibitory concentrations of chlortetracycline (16 and 32 µg/ml) or florfenicol (16 µg/ml) for 30 min during early-log phase. Differentially expressed genes following antibiotic treatment were identified using RNA-seq, and genes associated with attachment and those located within the Salmonella pathogenicity islands were significantly up-regulated following exposure to either antibiotic. The effect of antibiotic exposure on cellular invasion and motility was also assessed. Swimming and swarming motility were decreased due to antibiotic exposure. However, we observed chlortetracycline enhanced cellular invasion in two strains and florfenicol enhanced invasion in a third isolate. Chlortetracycline and florfenicol exposure during early-log growth altered the expression of nearly half of the genes in the S . Typhimurium genome, including a large number of genes associated with virulence and pathogenesis; this transcriptional alteration was not due to the SOS response. The results suggest that exposure to either of these two antibiotics may lead to the expression of virulence genes that are typically only transcribed in vivo, as well as only during late-log or stationary phase in vitro.

  14. Ecology of forest insect invasions

    Science.gov (United States)

    E.G. Brockerhoff; A.M. Liebhold

    2017-01-01

    Forests in virtually all regions of the world are being affected by invasions of non-native insects. We conducted an in-depth review of the traits of successful invasive forest insects and the ecological processes involved in insect invasions across the universal invasion phases (transport and arrival, establishment, spread and impacts). Most forest insect invasions...

  15. Cryptic invasions: a review

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Morais, Pedro Miguel; Reichard, Martin

    613-614, February (2018), s. 1438-1448 ISSN 0048-9697 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-05872S Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : Conspecific invader * Biological invasions * Bibliometric * Invasiveness Subject RIV: EG - Zoology OBOR OECD: Environmental science s (social aspects to be 5.7) Impact factor: 4.900, year: 2016

  16. Study of Salmonella Typhimurium infection in laying hens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kapil eChousalkar

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Members of Salmonella enterica are frequently involved in egg and egg product related human food poisoning outbreaks worldwide. In Australia, Salmonella Typhimurium is frequently involved in egg and egg product related foodborne illness and Salmonella Mbandaka has also been found to be a contaminant of the layer farm environment. The ability possessed by Salmonella Enteritidis to colonise reproductive organs and contaminate developing eggs has been well described. However, there are few studies investigating this ability for Salmonella Typhimurium. The hypothesis of this study was that the Salmonella Typhimurium can colonise the gut for a prolonged period of time and that horizontal infection through feces is the main route of egg contamination. At 14 weeks of age hens were orally infected with either S. Typhimurium PT 9 or S. Typhimurium PT 9 and Salmonella Mbandaka. Salmonella shedding in feces and eggs was monitored for 15 weeks post infection. Egg shell surface and internal contents of eggs laid by infected hens were cultured independently for detection of Salmonella spp. The mean Salmonella load in feces ranged from 1.54 to 63.35 and 0.31 to 98.38 most probable number/g (MPN/g in the S. Typhimurium and S. Typhimurium + S. Mbandaka group respectively. No correlation was found between mean fecal Salmonella load and frequency of egg shell contamination. Egg shell contamination was higher in S. Typhimurium + S. Mbandaka infected group (7.2% Typhimurium, 14.1% Mbandaka compared to birds infected with S. Typhimurium (5.66% however, co-infection had no significant impact on egg contamination by S. Typhimurium. Throughout the study Salmonella was not recovered from internal contents of eggs laid by hens. Salmonella was isolated from different segments of oviduct of hens from both the groups, however pathology was not observed on microscopic examination. This study investigated Salmonella shedding for up to 15 weeks p.i which is a longer period of

  17. Survival of Salmonella during baking of peanut butter cookies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lathrop, Amanda A; Taylor, Tiffany; Schnepf, James

    2014-04-01

    Peanuts and peanut-based products have been the source of recent Salmonella outbreaks worldwide. Because peanut butter is commonly used as an ingredient in baked goods, such as cookies, the potential risk of Salmonella remaining in these products after baking needs to be assessed. This research examines the potential hazard of Salmonella in peanut butter cookies when it is introduced via the peanut-derived ingredient. The survival of Salmonella during the baking of peanut butter cookies was determined. Commercial, creamy-style peanut butter was artificially inoculated with a five-strain Salmonella cocktail at a target concentration of 10(8) CFU/g. The inoculated peanut butter was then used to prepare peanut butter cookie dough following a standard recipe. Cookies were baked at 350 °F (177 °C) and were sampled after 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, and 15 min. Temperature profiles of the oven and cookies were monitored during baking. The water activity and pH of the inoculated and uninoculated peanut butter, raw dough, and baked cookies were measured. Immediately after baking, cookies were cooled, and the survival of Salmonella was determined by direct plating or enrichment. After baking cookies for 10 min, the minimum reduction of Salmonella observed was 4.8 log. In cookies baked for 13 and 14 min, Salmonella was only detectable by enrichment reflecting a Salmonella reduction in the range of 5.2 to 6.2 log. Cookies baked for 15 min had no detectable Salmonella. Results of this study showed that proper baking will reduce Salmonella in peanut butter cookies by 5 log or more.

  18. An atypical presentation of salmonella typhi - A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jayakumar K

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Breast abscess due to Salmonella typhi is an extremely rare occurrence. A lady with a lump in the left breast was diagnosed to have a fibroadenoma and was subjected to a surgical procedure. She was found to have an abscess due to Salmonella typhi as confirmed by conventional bacteriological methods. She was treated with ciprofloxacin and responded favourably.

  19. Salmonella serovars differentially stimulate bovine leukocyte responses in vitro

    Science.gov (United States)

    The majority of Salmonella serovars cause no clinical signs in cattle, while some serovars, such as Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium (ST) and Dublin (SD), may cause severe disease. Mechanisms underlying the difference in pathogenesis between different serovars are not clear. The objective of ...

  20. Nontyphoidal Salmonella: An Occupational Hazard for Clinical Laboratory Workers

    OpenAIRE

    Barker, Anna; Duster, Megan; Van Hoof, Sarah; Safdar, Nasia

    2015-01-01

    Laboratory-acquired infections due to nontyphoidal Salmonella are rare. Yet, recent outbreaks in microbiology teaching laboratories show that these species are still an appreciable occupational hazard for laboratory employees. This article presents two cases of nontyphoidal Salmonella that occurred at the authors' institution—an infected patient and a clinical laboratory worker who acquired the infection by handling this patient's specimens.

  1. Antibiotic Resistance in Salmonella sp and Escherichia coli Isolated ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Strains of Salmonella sp and E. coli isolated were significantly resistant to gentamicin, erythromycin, chloramphenicol, tetracycline, streptomycin, cefixine and ampicillin. Resistance to gentamicin was the least with 33-71% in Salmonella sp and 25-80% in E. coli. The level of drug resistance in these organisms is ascribed to ...

  2. Prevalence and antibiogram of Shigella and Salmonella spp. from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Diarrheal diseases remain the major cause of morbidity and mortality in children under five years of age. Salmonella and Shigella species are among the leading causes of diarrhea in children. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence and antimicrobial profiles of Salmonella and Shigella spp. in children less ...

  3. Food contamination with salmonella and human health in Kinshasa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SARAH

    2015-10-31

    Oct 31, 2015 ... Objectives: The objective of this study was to assess the level of salmonella contamination of fish and meat .... The prevalence of. Salmonella contamination for beef carcasses at the public abattoir was 27.5% (Table 4) with a mean value of 5.76 ± 2.71 log10 .... Listeria and Enteric bacteria of public health.

  4. Detection and isolation of salmonella in broiler chickens around the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Detection and isolation of salmonella in broiler chickens around the slaughter time. ES Soliman, E Taha, WS Abdella, MA Sobieh, PG Reddy. Abstract. Crop contents may serve as important sources of Salmonella carcass contamination within processing plants. This study, evaluated the effect of feed withdrawal before the ...

  5. Diagnosis of Salmonella Enteritidis Infection in Broiler Chickens ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Diagnosis of Salmonella Enteritidis Infection in Broiler Chickens Using Elisa. ES Soliman, E Taha, WS Abdella, C KilPatrick, AN Wise, MAA Sobieh, PG Reddy. Abstract. The program for the eradication of Salmonella Enteritidis from chickens was based on bacteriological examination of breeding flocks. There is a great need ...

  6. About sensititvity: salmonella biofi lms’ resistance to disinfectants action

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. F. Marievsky

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Salmonella biofi lms’ resistance to the action of the disinfectants was studied. It was founded that Salmonella biofi lms, which were formed on the hard carriers during 24 hours of incubation, demanded 32-fold increase of the minimal bactericide concentration of the disinfectant with quaternary ammonium compound.

  7. Prevalence and antimicrobial profiles of Salmonella serovars from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ADEYEYE

    2014-01-21

    Jan 21, 2014 ... nematodes, amoebas and Salmonella. Journal of the Association of Official. Analytical Chemists 67(3): 613–615. Sirichote P, Bangtrakulnonth A, Tianmanee K,. Unahalekhaka A, Oulai A, Chittaphithakchai. S, Kheorwrod W & Hendriksen RS (2010). Serotypes and antimicrobial resistance of. Salmonella ...

  8. The occurrence and epidemiology of Salmonella in European pig slaughterhouses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hald, Tine; Wingstrand, Anne; Swanenburg, M.

    2003-01-01

    from 12 slaughterhouses in five European countries. Isolates were characterized by serotyping, phage typing and antimicrobial susceptibility. In one country, no Salmonella was found. Salmonella was isolated from 5.3% of 3485 samples of pork and from 13.8% of 3573 environmental samples from the seven...

  9. Transcriptional response of turkeys to MDR Salmonella enterica serovar heidelberg

    Science.gov (United States)

    Food-producing animals such as swine, cattle and poultry are a major reservoir of the human foodborne pathogen Salmonella. While some Salmonella serovars can cause disease in food-producing animals, most serovars colonize these animals asymptomatically, resulting in the hosts becoming carriers and ...

  10. Modeling of Salmonella Contamination in the Pig Slaughterhouse

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Swart, A.N.; Evers, E.G.; Simons, R.L.L.; Swanenburg, M.

    2016-01-01

    In this article we present a model for Salmonella contamination of pig carcasses in the slaughterhouse. This model forms part of a larger QMRA (quantitative microbial risk assessment) on Salmonella in slaughter and breeder pigs, which uses a generic model framework that can be parameterized for

  11. Isolation of Salmonella and Shigella species from house flies ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Salmonella and Shigella species were isolated from House flies (Musca domestica L.) from various sampling sites using selective media. Out of 34 pooled samples Shigella species were isolated in all (100%) of the samples while Salmonella species were isolated in 21 (61.7%) of the samples. The flies pooled from the ...

  12. Characterization of Salmonella enterica Ituri isolated from diseased ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Salmonella enterica Ituri is an uncommon serotype associated with poultry disease. One of the serotype isolated from a poultry disease in Nigeria was characterized by serotyping and screening for the presence of Salmonella genomic island 1(SGI1) as a possible factor responsible for its involvement in a poultry disease ...

  13. Effect of Carvacrol on Salmonella Saintpaul Biofilms on Stainless ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To evaluate the effect of carvacrol against Salmonella Saintpaul biofilms on stainless steel surface. Methods: The effects of carvacrol on planktonic cells were evaluated by determining the minimum inhibitory concentration and minimal bactericidal concentration. The action of carvacrol on Salmonella Saintpaul ...

  14. Molecular and biochemical diagnosis of Salmonella in wastewater ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study aimed to employ biochemical and molecular assays to detect and diagnose Salmonella in wastewater. For this reason, two water samples were collected from Alexandria wastewater treatment plant (S1) and septic tank of a hospital at Alexandria governorate (S2). Selective culture media specific for Salmonella ...

  15. 21 CFR 118.4 - Salmonella Enteritidis (SE) prevention measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Salmonella Enteritidis (SE) prevention measures. 118.4 Section 118.4 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN....4 Salmonella Enteritidis (SE) prevention measures. You must follow the SE prevention measures set...

  16. Effects of challenge dose on faecal shedding of Salmonella ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Experimental infection of chickens with Salmonella enteritidis is often achieved by oral inoculation of live bacteria to caged chickens. Less information is available on influence of amount of Salmonella a chicken is exposed to during infection on the proportion that is eventually eliminated in faeces. This study evaluated the ...

  17. Salmonella Enteritidis experimental infection in chickens: Effects of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-10-20

    Oct 20, 2008 ... most of the chickens by 2 weeks post-infection, highest group mean optical density values of 2.177 and. 0.984 were observed at 5 weeks for 108 and 104 cfu Salmonella Enteritidis infected groups, respectively. Chickens exposed to few Salmonella colonies during infection do not produce high IgG antibody ...

  18. Prevalence of Salmonella on Sheep Carcasses Slaughtered at ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... indicated that Salmonella is a common problem in slaughtered sheep carcasses in Adama municipal abattoir. Therefore, Sources of pathogens in food animals need to be investigated and a further study of pathogens in the food chain is recommended. Keywords: Adama Carcass Ethiopia Prevalence Salmonella Sheep.

  19. [The gentic principles for the design of live Salmonella vaccines].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrovskaia, V G; Marakusha, B I; Bondarenko, V M

    1996-01-01

    The presently known methods of obtaining Salmonella vaccine strains are characterized, their advantages and drawbacks are noted. Great importance of the genetic safety of Salmonella attenuated strains to be controlled is emphasized, taking into account that they are also used as carrier strains for obtaining hybrid and gene-engineering (vector) vaccines carrying immunogenicity factors of other species of pathogenic microorganisms.

  20. [Survival of Salmonella in spices and growth in cooked food].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urabe, Yurie; Minai, Yuji; Haga, Minoru; Sugita-Konishi, Yoshiko; Ishiguro, Atsushi; Hara-Kudo, Yukiko

    2008-04-01

    Contamination of spices with pathogens has been reported worldwide, and Salmonella might result in foodborne infections. In this study, we investigated the survival of Salmonella in black pepper and red pepper, and the growth of the surviving Salmonella in cooked food. Salmonella Enteritidis, Salmonella Weltevreden and Salmonella Senftenberg were inoculated into spices, and their survival during storage was examined. In black pepper, S. Enteritidis was no longer viable after storage for 28 days, but S. Weltevreden and S. Senftenberg remained viable. In red pepper, S. Weltevreden and S. Senftenberg survived for 28 days although S. Enteritidis was not viable after 7 days. Salmonella Weltevreden and Salmonella Senftenberg were inoculated into cooked food, and their survival during storage was determined. In potato salad, egg salad, namul and kimchi as cooked foods, both pathogens grew at 30 degrees C, but not at 10 degrees C. Our results indicate that cooked food should be stored at low temperature after addition of spices, such as black pepper and red pepper, following the cooking.

  1. Multidrug resistant Salmonellae isolated from blood culture samples ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study investigates the prevalence of R-plasmids in Salmonella sp. isolated from blood samples of suspected typhoid patients in Warri, Nigeria. A total of 136 blood samples were collected between May and December,2009 and screened for the presence of Salmonellae using standard blood culture techniques of which ...

  2. Serological prevalence and associated risk factors of Salmonella ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... to identify risk factors associated with Salmonella infections in chickens. The overall sero-prevalence established using serum plate agglutination test was 16.7% (98/588). Using a univariate logistic analysis, factors significantly associated with Salmonella infections at p < 0.05 were presence of other birds in poultry farms ...

  3. Food contamination with salmonella and human health in Kinshasa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objectives: The objective of this study was to assess the level of salmonella contamination of fish and meat from public markets, meat from butcheries and beef carcasses offered for retail sale in Kinshasa, the capital city of the Democratic Republic of Congo Methodology and results: Salmonella spp. in fish and meat was ...

  4. The prevalance of salmonella species among poultry birds in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Fowl typhoid is acute infectious enteritis causing heavy mortality in growers or adult birds; though chicks can be affected. It is caused by the bacterium salmonella enteric Serovars Gallinarum, a member of the family enterobacteriaceae. This research was designed to determine the prevalence of salmonella species among ...

  5. Multiple antimicrobial-resistant Salmonella serotypes isolated from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Antimicrobial-resistant Salmonella and other zoonotic bacterial pathogens can be transferred from animals to humans through consumption of contaminated food and food products and thus present a public health risk. The increase in Salmonella resistance to the commonly used antimicrobials both in the ...

  6. Antimicrobial Resistance Pattern of Salmonella Isolates from Gondar ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Salmonellosis is a major health problem, especially in developing countries. Moreover, Salmonella species are becoming resistant to the commonly used antimicrobials in most parts of the world. Nevertheless, studies on Salmonella are limited in Ethiopia. The aim of this paper is, therefore to determine the antibiotic ...

  7. Survival of Salmonella spp. In Waste Egg Wash Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    The survival of salmonellae under various environmental conditions has been subject of numerous research studies. Due to low densities of these organisms in natural samples, laboratory or clinical cultures were used to ensure that the initial density of salmonellae was sufficien...

  8. Nontyphoidal Salmonella Septic arthritis of the elbow in a healthy ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A case of rarely encountered nontyphoidal Salmonella septic arthritis of the elbow in an infant with no preexisting disease is reported. Salmonella etiology was not suspected in this case, and the diagnosis was made only after bacterial isolation. Aspiration of the infected joint with radiological guidance initially failed to give a ...

  9. Serotyping of Salmonella Isolates from Broiler Vertical Integrations in Colombia

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study analyzed 106 Salmonella isolates from different points in broiler vertical integrations of two important poultry areas of Colombia. It was possible to identify the presence of Salmonella in five categories: breeder farm (17.9%), hatchery (6.6 %), broiler farm (38.7 %), processing plant (9...

  10. The Agricultural Antibiotic Carbadox Induces Phage-mediated Gene Transfer in Salmonella

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bradley L. Bearson

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Antibiotics are used for disease therapeutic or preventative effects in humans and animals, as well as for enhanced feed conversion efficiency in livestock. Antibiotics can also cause undesirable effects in microbial populations, including selection for antibiotic resistance, enhanced pathogen invasion, and stimulation of horizontal gene transfer. Carbadox is a veterinary antibiotic used in the U.S. during the starter phase of swine production for improved feed efficiency and control of swine dysentery and bacterial swine enteritis. Carbadox has been shown in vitro to induce phage-encoded Shiga toxin in Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli and a phage-like element transferring antibiotic resistance genes in Brachyspira hyodysenteriae, but the effect of carbadox on prophages in other bacteria is unknown. This study examined carbadox exposure on prophage induction and genetic transfer in Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium, a human foodborne pathogen that frequently colonizes swine without causing disease. S. Typhimurium LT2 exposed to carbadox induced prophage production, resulting in bacterial cell lysis and release of virions that were visible by electron microscopy. Carbadox induction of phage-mediated gene transfer was confirmed by monitoring the transduction of a sodCIII::neo cassette in the Fels-1 prophage from LT2 to a recipient Salmonella strain. Furthermore, carbadox frequently induced generalized transducing phages in multidrug-resistant phage type DT104 and DT120 isolates, resulting in the transfer of chromosomal and plasmid DNA that included antibiotic resistance genes. Our research indicates that exposure of Salmonella to carbadox induces prophages that can transfer virulence and antibiotic resistance genes to susceptible bacterial hosts. Carbadox-induced, phage-mediated gene transfer could serve as a contributing factor in bacterial evolution during animal production, with prophages being a reservoir for bacterial fitness

  11. DNA sequence analysis of plasmids from multidrug resistant Salmonella enterica serotype Heidelberg isolates.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Han

    Full Text Available Salmonella enterica serovar Heidelberg is among the most detected serovars in swine and poultry, ranks among the top five serotypes associated with human salmonellosis and is disproportionately associated with invasive infections and mortality in humans. Salmonella are known to carry plasmids associated with antimicrobial resistance and virulence. To identify plasmid-associated genes in multidrug resistant S. enterica serovar Heidelberg, antimicrobial resistance plasmids from five isolates were sequenced using the 454 LifeSciences pyrosequencing technology. Four of the isolates contained incompatibility group (Inc A/C multidrug resistance plasmids harboring at least eight antimicrobial resistance genes. Each of these strains also carried a second resistance plasmid including two IncFIB, an IncHI2 and a plasmid lacking an identified Inc group. The fifth isolate contained an IncI1 plasmid, encoding resistance to gentamicin, streptomycin and sulfonamides. Some of the IncA/C plasmids lacked the full concert of transfer genes and yet were able to be conjugally transferred, likely due to the transfer genes carried on the companion plasmids in the strains. Several non-IncA/C resistance plasmids also carried putative virulence genes. When the sequences were compared to previously sequenced plasmids, it was found that while all plasmids demonstrated some similarity to other plasmids, they were unique, often due to differences in mobile genetic elements in the plasmids. Our study suggests that Salmonella Heidelberg isolates harbor plasmids that co-select for antimicrobial resistance and virulence, along with genes that can mediate the transfer of plasmids within and among other bacterial isolates. Prevalence of such plasmids can complicate efforts to control the spread of S. enterica serovar Heidelberg in food animal and human populations.

  12. Streptomycin Induced Stress Response in Salmonella enterica Serovar Typhimurium Shows Distinct Colony Scatter Signature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Atul K; Drolia, Rishi; Bai, Xingjian; Bhunia, Arun K

    2015-01-01

    We investigated the streptomycin-induced stress response in Salmonella enterica serovars with a laser optical sensor, BARDOT (bacterial rapid detection using optical scattering technology). Initially, the top 20 S. enterica serovars were screened for their response to streptomycin at 100 μg/mL. All, but four S. enterica serovars were resistant to streptomycin. The MIC of streptomycin-sensitive serovars (Enteritidis, Muenchen, Mississippi, and Schwarzengrund) varied from 12.5 to 50 μg/mL, while streptomycin-resistant serovar (Typhimurium) from 125-250 μg/mL. Two streptomycin-sensitive serovars (Enteritidis and Mississippi) were grown on brain heart infusion (BHI) agar plates containing sub-inhibitory concentration of streptomycin (1.25-5 μg/mL) and a streptomycin-resistant serovar (Typhimurium) was grown on BHI containing 25-50 μg/mL of streptomycin and the colonies (1.2 ± 0.1 mm diameter) were scanned using BARDOT. Data show substantial qualitative and quantitative differences in the colony scatter patterns of Salmonella grown in the presence of streptomycin than the colonies grown in absence of antibiotic. Mass-spectrometry identified overexpression of chaperonin GroEL, which possibly contributed to the observed differences in the colony scatter patterns. Quantitative RT-PCR and immunoassay confirmed streptomycin-induced GroEL expression while, aminoglycoside adenylyltransferase (aadA), aminoglycoside efflux pump (aep), multidrug resistance subunit acrA, and ribosomal protein S12 (rpsL), involved in streptomycin resistance, were unaltered. The study highlights suitability of the BARDOT as a non-invasive, label-free tool for investigating stress response in Salmonella in conjunction with the molecular and immunoassay methods.

  13. PCR-RFLP Analysis of a fliC Gene Fragment in Avian Salmonella Isolates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zohreh Ebrahimvandi

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Salmonella are a genus of zoonotic bacteria of worldwide economic and health importance. Members of Salmonella enterica subspecies enterica are mainly associated with warm-blooded vertebrates and are usually transmitted by ingestion of food or watercontaminated by infected feces. Objectives: The aim of this study was to apply a PCR-RFLP method based on the fliC gene to identify the serotypes of Salmonella isolates from Karaj, Iran. Materials and Methods: A total of 30 Salmonella isolates were serotyped by specific antisera. For the PCR-RFLP method based on the fliC gene, extracted DNA was used as the template for amplifying the fliC gene (1500 bp using specific primers. PCR products were subjected to digestion using HhaI restriction endonuclease. Results: This study determined 30 serotypes as Salmonella durban (56.6%, Salmonella uno (23.3%, Salmonella enteritidis (3.3%, Salmonella tinda (3.3%, Salmonella mjimweme (3.3%, Salmonella Thompson (3.3%, Salmonella sIIO8 (3.3 % and Salmonella sIIO7 (3.3%. Observations indicated that HhaI is able to discriminate Salmonella tinda and Salmonella thompson, yet Salmonella enteritidis, Salmonella durban and Salmonella mjimweme had the same pattern with this enzyme. Also Salmonella sIIO8, Salmonella sIIO7 and Salmonella uno showed the same pattern. Thus, regarding the size and the number of resulting fragments from this enzyme, four patterns were obtained for HhaI. Conclusion: A large number of Salmonella serotypes need to be analyzed by the PCR-RFLP method and different enzymes must be used to give reliable results.

  14. Salmonella enterica isolated from wildlife at two Ohio rehabilitation centers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jijón, Steffani; Wetzel, Amy; LeJeune, Jeffrey

    2007-09-01

    Between May and September 2004, fecal samples from various wildlife species admitted to two rehabilitation centers in Ohio were cultured for Salmonella enterica and Escherichia coli O157:H7. Eight of 71 (11%) samples, including specimens from three opossums (Didelphis virginiana), two gray squirrels (Sciurus carolinensis), a woodchuck (Marmota monax), a Harris hawk (Parabuteo unicinctus), and a screech owl (Otus asio) tested positive for Salmonella serovars Braenderup, Senftenberg, Oranienburg, and Kentucky. The Salmonella Oranienburg isolates were indistinguishable by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis. Most isolates were susceptible to commonly used antibiotics; however, the Salmonella Kentucky isolate was resistant to multiple beta-lactam antibiotics (amoxicillin/clavulanic acid and ampicillin), cefoxitin, and ceftiofur, a third-generation cephalosporin. Escherichia coli O157:H7 was not isolated from any sample. Transmission of Salmonella from wildlife may occur between animals at rehabilitation centers.

  15. Effects of propolis from Brazil and Bulgaria on Salmonella serovars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. O. Orsi

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Propolis shows biological properties such as antibacterial action. This bee product has a complex chemical composition, which depends on the local flora where it is produced. Salmonella serovars are responsible for human diseases that range from localized gastroenteritis to systemic infections. The aim of the present study was to investigate the susceptibility of Salmonella strains, isolated from food and infectious processes, to the antibacterial action of Brazilian and Bulgarian propolis, as well as to determine the behavior of these bacteria, according to the incubation period, in medium plus propolis. Dilution of ethanolic extract of propolis in agar was the used method. Brazilian and Bulgarian propolis showed an antibacterial action against all Salmonella serovars. The minimal inhibitory concentrations (MIC of propolis were similar, although they were collected in different geographic regions. Salmonella typhimurium, isolated from human infection, was more resistant to propolis than Salmonella enteritidis.

  16. Salmonella Typhimurium and Salmonella Sofia: Growth in and Persistence on Eggs under Production and Retail Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAuley, Catherine M; Duffy, Lesley L; Subasinghe, Nela; Hogg, Geoff; Coventry, John; Fegan, Narelle

    2015-01-01

    Salmonellosis in Australia has been linked to eggs and egg products with specific serotypes associated with outbreaks. We compared attachment to and survival on egg shells and growth in eggs of two Salmonella serotypes, an egg outbreak associated Salmonella Typhimurium and a non-egg-associated Salmonella enterica ssp. II 1,4,12,27:b:[e,n,x] (S. Sofia). Experiments were conducted at combinations of 4, 15, 22, 37 and 42 °C. No significant differences occurred between the serotypes in maximum growth rates, which were significantly greater (P Sofia after 1 min at 4 °C and S. Typhimurium ATCC 14028 attaching at higher (P < 0.05) levels at 22 °C. Survival on egg shells was not significantly different across isolates. Salmonella serotypes behaved similarly regarding growth in egg contents, attachment to egg shells and survival on eggs, indicating that other factors more likely contributed to reasons for S. Typhimurium being implicated in multiple egg-associated outbreaks.

  17. Salmonella gene rma (ramA) and multiple-drug-resistant Salmonella enterica serovar typhimurium

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Straaten, van T.; Janssen, R.; Mevius, D.J.; Dissel, van J.T.

    2004-01-01

    MarA and its homologue, RamA, have been implicated in multidrug resistance (MDR). RamA overexpression in Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium and Escherichia coli conferred MDR independently of marA. Inactivation of ramA did not affect the antibiotic susceptibilities of wild-type S. enterica

  18. Do microbial interactions and cultivation media decrease the accuracy of Salmonella surveillance systems and outbreak investigations?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singer, Randall S; Mayer, Anne E; Hanson, Timothy E; Isaacson, Richard E

    2009-04-01

    Cultivation methods are commonly used in Salmonella surveillance systems and outbreak investigations, and consequently, conclusions about Salmonella evolution and transmission are highly dependent on the performance characteristics of these methods. Past studies have shown that Salmonella serotypes can exhibit different growth characteristics in the same enrichment and selective media. This could lead not only to biased conclusions about the dominant strain present in a sample with mixed Salmonella populations, but also to a low sensitivity for detecting a Salmonella strain in a sample with only a single strain present. The objective of this study was to determine whether cultivation media select preferentially for specific strains of Salmonella in heterogeneous cultures. In this study, four different Salmonella strains (one Salmonella Newport, two Salmonella Typhimurium, and one Salmonella Enteritidis) were competed in a broth-based experiment and a bovine fecal experiment with varied combinations and concentrations of each strain. In all experiments, the strain of Salmonella Newport was the most competitive, regardless of the starting concentration and cultivation protocol. One strain of Salmonella Typhimurium was rarely detected in competition, even when it was the only strain present in bovine feces. Overall, the probability of detecting a specific Salmonella strain had little to do with its starting concentration in the sample. The bias introduced by culture could be dramatically biasing Salmonella surveillance systems and hindering traceback investigations during Salmonella outbreaks. Future studies should focus on the microbiological explanations for this Salmonella interstrain variability, approaches for minimizing the bias, and estimations of the public health significance of this bias.

  19. Direct feeding of microencapsulated bacteriophages to reduce Salmonella colonization in pigs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salmonella shedding often increases in pigs following pre-slaughter transportation and/or lairage. We previously showed that administering anti-Salmonella bacteriophages to pigs by gavage significantly reduced Salmonella colonization when the pigs were exposed to a Salmonella-contaminated pen. In ...

  20. The eleventh CRL-Salmonella workshop, 9 May 2006, Saint Malo, France

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mooijman KA; MGB

    2006-01-01

    De elfde workshop georganiseerd door het Communautair Referentie Laboratorium voor Salmonella (CRL-Salmonella) werd gehouden op 9 mei 2006 in Saint Malo, Frankrijk. Deelnemers waren vertegenwoordigers van de nationale Referentie Laboratoria voor Salmonella (NRLs-Salmonella) van de lidstaten van de

  1. Evaluation of different analysis and identification methods for Salmonella detection in surface drinking water sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hsu, Bing-Mu, E-mail: bmhsu@ccu.edu.tw [Department of Earth and Environmental Sciences, National Chung Cheng University, Chiayi, Taiwan, ROC (China); Huang, Kuan-Hao; Huang, Shih-Wei [Department of Earth and Environmental Sciences, National Chung Cheng University, Chiayi, Taiwan, ROC (China); Tseng, Kuo-Chih [Department of Internal Medicine, Buddhist Dalin Tzu Chi General Hospital, Chiayi, Taiwan, ROC (China); Su, Ming-Jen [Department of Clinical Pathology, Buddhist Dalin Tzu Chi General Hospital, Chiayi, Taiwan, ROC (China); Lin, Wei-Chen; Ji, Dar-Der [Research and Diagnostic Center, Centers for Disease Control, Taipei, Taiwan, ROC (China); Shih, Feng-Cheng; Chen, Jyh-Larng [Department of Environmental Engineering and Health, Yuanpei University of Science and Technology, HsinChu, Taiwan, ROC (China); Kao, Po-Min [Department of Earth and Environmental Sciences, National Chung Cheng University, Chiayi, Taiwan, ROC (China)

    2011-09-15

    The standard method for detecting Salmonella generally analyzes food or fecal samples. Salmonella often occur in relatively low concentrations in environmental waters. Therefore, some form of concentration and proliferation may be needed. This study compares three Salmonella analysis methods and develops a new Salmonella detection procedure for use in environmental water samples. The new procedure for Salmonella detection include water concentration, nutrient broth enrichment, selection of Salmonella containing broth by PCR, isolation of Salmonella strains by selective culture plates, detection of possible Salmonella isolate by PCR, and biochemical testing. Serological assay and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) can be used to identify Salmonella serotype and genotype, respectively. This study analyzed 116 raw water samples taken from 18 water plants and belonging to 5 watersheds. Of these 116, 10 water samples (8.6%) taken from 7 water plants and belonging to 4 watersheds were positive for a Salmonella-specific polymerase chain reaction targeting the invA gene. Guided by serological assay results, this study identified 7 cultured Salmonella isolates as Salmonella enterica serovar: Alnaby, Enteritidis, Houten, Montevideo, Newport, Paratyphi B var. Java, and Victoria. These seven Salmonella serovars were identified in clinical cases for the same geographical areas, but only one of them was 100% homologous with clinical cases in the PFGE pattern. - Research highlights: {yields} A new Salmonella detecting procedure for environmental water is developed. {yields} Salmonella isolates are identified by serological assay and PFGE. {yields} A total of seven Salmonella serovars is isolated from environmental water.

  2. Evaluation of different analysis and identification methods for Salmonella detection in surface drinking water sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hsu, Bing-Mu; Huang, Kuan-Hao; Huang, Shih-Wei; Tseng, Kuo-Chih; Su, Ming-Jen; Lin, Wei-Chen; Ji, Dar-Der; Shih, Feng-Cheng; Chen, Jyh-Larng; Kao, Po-Min

    2011-01-01

    The standard method for detecting Salmonella generally analyzes food or fecal samples. Salmonella often occur in relatively low concentrations in environmental waters. Therefore, some form of concentration and proliferation may be needed. This study compares three Salmonella analysis methods and develops a new Salmonella detection procedure for use in environmental water samples. The new procedure for Salmonella detection include water concentration, nutrient broth enrichment, selection of Salmonella containing broth by PCR, isolation of Salmonella strains by selective culture plates, detection of possible Salmonella isolate by PCR, and biochemical testing. Serological assay and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) can be used to identify Salmonella serotype and genotype, respectively. This study analyzed 116 raw water samples taken from 18 water plants and belonging to 5 watersheds. Of these 116, 10 water samples (8.6%) taken from 7 water plants and belonging to 4 watersheds were positive for a Salmonella-specific polymerase chain reaction targeting the invA gene. Guided by serological assay results, this study identified 7 cultured Salmonella isolates as Salmonella enterica serovar: Alnaby, Enteritidis, Houten, Montevideo, Newport, Paratyphi B var. Java, and Victoria. These seven Salmonella serovars were identified in clinical cases for the same geographical areas, but only one of them was 100% homologous with clinical cases in the PFGE pattern. - Research highlights: → A new Salmonella detecting procedure for environmental water is developed. → Salmonella isolates are identified by serological assay and PFGE. → A total of seven Salmonella serovars is isolated from environmental water.

  3. EURL-Salmonella 8th interlaboratory comparison study Food 2016 : Detection of Salmonella in minced chicken me

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuijpers AFA; Mooijman KA; VDL; Z&O

    2018-01-01

    In 2016, it was shown that all 34 National Reference Laboratories (NRLs), 30 of which are located in the European Union, were able to detect high and low levels of Salmonella in minced chicken meat. Three NRLs reported Salmonella in one 'blank' minced meat sample. This was probably caused by the

  4. Microbial population profiles of the microflora associated with pre- and postharvest tomatoes contaminated with Salmonella typhimurium or Salmonella montevideo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, X; Wu, Z; Namvar, A; Kostrzynska, M; Dunfield, K; Warriner, K

    2009-07-01

    To determine the microflora profiles of pre- and postharvest tomatoes contaminated with Salmonella montevideo or S. typhimurium DT104. Salmonella montevideo or S. typhimurium was inoculated onto the flowers of tomato plants with the microflora of the subsequent fruit examined using a combination of Source Carbon Utilization and 16S rDNA-PCR profiling. From 16S rDNA profiles it was evident that tomatoes derived from Salmonella inoculated plants harboured a different microbial population compared to nontreated controls. The same result was observed for tomatoes inoculated at postharvest and subsequently stored for 14 days at 15 degrees C. From sequencing analysis it was found that tomatoes derived from Salmonella inoculated plants but testing negative for the enteric pathogen, frequently harboured Enterobacter and Bacillus spp. In contrast, both bacterial types were not found associated with tomatoes testing positive for Salmonella. Salmonella introduced onto tomatoes at pre- or postharvest alters the composition of the microbial community. The presence of Enterobacter and Bacillus spp negatively affects the persistence of Salmonella on preharvest tomatoes. Salmonella appears to modify rather than become integrated into the microbial communities associated with tomatoes. Yet, the presence of antagonistic bacteria appears to reduce the persistence of the enteric pathogen.

  5. EURL-Salmonella 8th interlaboratory comparison study Food 2016 : Detection of Salmonella in minced chicken meat

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuijpers AFA; Mooijman KA; VDL; I& V

    2018-01-01

    In 2016 waren alle 34 Nationale Referentie Laboratoria (NRL's), waarvan dertig in de Europese Unie, in staat om verschillende concentraties Salmonella in kippengehakt aan te tonen. Drie NRL's rapporteerden dat er Salmonella zit in een van hun monsters met 'blanco' gehakt. Zeer

  6. A questionnaire-based, retrospective field study of persistence of Salmonella Enteritidis and Salmonella Typhimurium in Danish broiler houses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gradel, K.O.; Rattenborg, Erik

    2003-01-01

    with house status-but that were beyond the control of the farmer-were the salmonella type and the percentage of salmonella positive samples in the first crop. Factors which could be controlled by the farmer and which were associated with reduced prevalence of multiple-infection houses included antiseptic...

  7. Faecal Salmonella shedding in fattening pigs in relation to the presence of Salmonella antibodies in three pig production systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonde, Marianne Kjær; Sørensen, Jan Tind

    2012-01-01

    Human salmonellosis originating from pork is an important zoonotic disease, and the production of outdoor pigs may increase the risk of contaminating the food chain with Salmonella from environmental sources. The prevalence of faecal Salmonella shedding has therefore been compared in organic...

  8. Results of Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serotype identification by Salmonella Check&Trace microarray in international External Quality Assurance Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madaczak, Grzegorz; Szych, Jolanta; Wasiak, Monika

    2015-01-01

    Traditionally Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serotypes are identified by slide agglutination with specific antisera for somatic, flagellar and sometimes capsular antigens. An alternative way is genoserotyping using for example a microarray, eg. commercially available test Check&Trace Salmonella. The goal of this study was to evaluate the Check&Trace Salmonella microarray for Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serotype identification, using Salmonella strains provided by reference laboratories during External Quality Assurance Systems organized for national reference laboratories by ECDC and WHO GFN. 80 Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica have been tested using Check & Trace Salmonella (Check-Points BC, Netherlands). Also classical slide agglutination was performed according to EN ISO 6579:2003/Al:2007 norm, used as reference method. In the group of 80 tested strains, 66% were identified correctly, 4% gave uncertain results and 29% showed "Salmonella, genovar" without a serotype, of which 69% were not included in the CTS list of serotypes. Finally one strain has been recognized incorrectly. Because of IVD certification lack, the CTS test could not be recommended to clinical laboratories. AOAC-RI and OIE certification for test cause, that CTS could be used in most food, environmental and veterinary laboratories with the condition, that all unrecognized strains should be sent to a reference laboratory, to type according to EN ISO 6579:2003/Al:2007 norm, by KWM serotyping or other equal alternative methods.

  9. EURL-Salmonella 8th interlaboratory comparison study Food 2016 : Detection of Salmonella in minced chicken meat

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuijpers AFA; Mooijman KA; VDL; Z&O

    2018-01-01

    In 2016, it was shown that all 34 National Reference Laboratories (NRLs), 30 of which are located in the European Union, were able to detect high and low levels of Salmonella in minced chicken meat. Three NRLs reported Salmonella in one 'blank' minced meat sample. This was probably caused by the

  10. Salmonella infection and carriage in reptiles in a zoological collection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clancy, Meredith M; Davis, Meghan; Valitutto, Marc T; Nelson, Kenrad; Sykes, John M

    2016-05-01

    OBJECTIVE To identify important subspecies and serovars of Salmonella enterica in a captive reptile population and clinically relevant risk factors for and signs of illness in Salmonella-positive reptiles. DESIGN Retrospective cross-sectional study. ANIMALS 11 crocodilians (4 samples), 78 snakes (91 samples), 59 lizards (57 samples), and 34 chelonians (23 samples) at the Bronx Zoo from 2000 through 2012. PROCEDURES Data pertaining to various types of biological samples obtained from reptiles with positive Salmonella culture results and the reptiles themselves were analyzed to determine period prevalence of and risk factors for various Salmonella-related outcomes. RESULTS Serovar distribution differences were identified for sample type, reptile phylogenetic family, and reptile origin and health. Salmonella enterica subsp enterica was the most common subspecies in Salmonella cultures (78/175 [45%]), identified across all reptilian taxa. Salmonella enterica subsp diarizonae was also common (42/175 [24%]) and was recovered almost exclusively from snakes (n = 33), many of which had been clinically ill (17). Clinically ill reptiles provided 37% (64) of Salmonella cultures. Factors associated with an increased risk of illness in reptiles with a positive culture result were carnivorous diet and prior confiscation. Snakes had a higher risk of illness than other reptile groups, whereas lizards had a lower risk. Bony changes, dermatitis, and anorexia were the most common clinical signs. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE This study provided new information on Salmonella infection or carriage and associated clinical disease in reptiles. Associations identified between serovars or subspecies and reptile groups or clinical disease can guide management of Salmonella-positive captive reptiles.

  11. Fate of Salmonella throughout Production and Refrigerated Storage of Tahini.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yangjunna; Keller, Susanne E; Grasso-Kelley, Elizabeth M

    2017-06-01

    Tahini, a low-moisture food that is made from sesame seeds, has been implicated in outbreaks of salmonellosis. In this study, the fate of Salmonella was determined through an entire process for the manufacture of tahini, including a 24-h seed soaking period before roasting, subsequent grinding, and storage at refrigeration temperature. Salmonella populations increased by more than 3 log CFU/g during a 24-h soaking period, reaching more than 7 log CFU/g. Survival of Salmonella during roasting at three temperatures, 95, 110, and 130°C, was assessed using seeds on which Salmonella was grown. Salmonella survival was impacted both by temperature and the water activity (a w ) at the beginning of the roasting period. When roasted at 130°C with a high initial a w (≥0.90) and starting Salmonella populations of ∼8.5 log CFU/g, populations quickly decreased below detection limits within the first 10 min. However, when the seeds were reduced to an a w of 0.45 before roasting at the same temperature, 3.5 log CFU/g remained on the seeds after 60 min. In subsequent storage studies, seeds were roasted at 130°C for 15 min before processing into tahini. For the storage studies, tahini was inoculated using two methods. The first method used seeds on which Salmonella was first grown before roasting. In the second method, Salmonella was inoculated into the tahini after manufacture. All tahini was stored for 119 days at 4°C. No change in Salmonella populations was recorded for tahini throughout the entire 119 days regardless of the inoculation method used. These combined results indicate the critical importance of a w during a roasting step during tahini manufacture. Salmonella that survive roasting will likely remain viable throughout the normal shelf life of tahini.

  12. [Rapid methods for the genus Salmonella bacteria detection in food and raw materials].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sokolov, D M; Sokolov, M S

    2013-01-01

    The article considers sanitary and epidemiological aspects and the impact of Salmonella food poisoning in Russia and abroad. The main characteristics of the agent (Salmonella enterica subsp. Enteritidis) are summarized. The main sources of human Salmonella infection are products of poultry and livestock (poultry, eggs, dairy products, meat products, etc.). Standard methods of identifying the causative agent, rapid (alternative) methods of analysis of Salmonella using differential diagnostic medium (MSRV, Salmosyst, XLT4-agar, agar-Rambach et al.), rapid tests Singlepath-Salmonella and PCR (food proof Salmonella) in real time were stated. Rapid tests provide is a substantial (at 24-48 h) reducing the time to identify Salmonella.

  13. Molecular Approaches to Understanding Transmission and Source Attribution in Nontyphoidal Salmonella and Their Application in Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mather, Alison E; Vaughan, Timothy G; French, Nigel P

    2015-11-01

    Nontyphoidal Salmonella (NTS) is a frequent cause of diarrhea around the world, yet in many African countries it is more commonly associated with invasive bacterial disease. Various source attribution models have been developed that utilize microbial subtyping data to assign cases of human NTS infection to different animal populations and foods of animal origin. Advances in molecular microbial subtyping approaches, in particular whole-genome sequencing, provide higher resolution data with which to investigate these sources. In this review, we provide updates on the source attribution models developed for Salmonella, and examine the application of whole-genome sequencing data combined with evolutionary modeling to investigate the putative sources and transmission pathways of NTS, with a focus on the epidemiology of NTS in Africa. This is essential information to decide where, what, and how control strategies might be applied most effectively. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  14. Survival and transmission of Salmonella enterica serovar typhimurium in an outdoor organic pig farming environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Annette Nygaard; Dalsgaard, Anders; Stockmarr, Anders

    2006-01-01

    , which caused substantial contamination of the environment. This suggests that isolation of animals as soon as a Salmonella infection is indicated by clinical symptoms of diarrhea could be a means of reducing and controlling the spread and persistence of Salmonella in outdoor organic pig production......It was investigated how organic rearing conditions influence the Salmonella enterica infection dynamics in pigs and whether Salmonella persists in the paddock environment. Pigs inoculated with S. enterica serovar Typhimurium were grouped with Salmonella-negative tracer pigs. Bacteriological...... of Salmonella-negative pigs into four naturally Salmonella-contaminated paddocks caused Salmonella infections of pigs in two paddocks. In one of these paddocks, all tracer pigs (n = 10) became infected, coinciding with a previous high Salmonella infection rate and high Salmonella excretion level. Our results...

  15. Invasion biology of thrips.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morse, Joseph G; Hoddle, Mark S

    2006-01-01

    Thrips are among the stealthiest of insect invaders due to their small size and cryptic habits. Many invasive thrips are notorious for causing extensive crop damage, vectoring viral diseases, and permanently destabilizing IPM systems owing to irruptive outbreaks that require remediation with insecticides, leading to the development of insecticide resistance. Several challenges surface when attempting to manage incursive thrips species. Foremost among these is early recognition, followed by rapid and accurate identification of emergent pest species, elucidation of the region of origin, development of a management program, and the closing of conduits for global movement of thrips. In this review, we examine factors facilitating invasion by thrips, damage caused by these insects, pre- and post-invasion management tactics, and challenges looming on the horizon posed by invasive Thysanoptera, which continually challenge the development of sustainable management practices.

  16. Fermented milk with probiotic Lactobacillus rhamnosus S1K3 (MTCC5957) protects mice from salmonella by enhancing immune and nonimmune protection mechanisms at intestinal mucosal level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemgang, Tanedjeu Sonfack; Kapila, Suman; Shanmugam, Venkatesa Perumal; Reddi, Srinu; Kapila, Rajeev

    2016-04-01

    We investigated the mechanism by which an Indian indigenous probiotic culture, Lactobacillus rhamnosus S1K3, could overcome the pathogenic strain Salmonella enterica with an emphasis on the response at the intestinal mucosal level after long-term (30days) consumption. S1K3 was able to produce antimicrobial compounds against the pathogens. The probiotic adhered strongly to intestinal epithelium and maintained its integrity in presence of Salmonella through stimulation of tight junction and antimicrobial peptide genes in vitro. Mice prefed for 30days with S1K3-fermented milk exhibited low incidence of pathogenic Salmonella at mucosal and systemic levels. The probiotic induced TLRs transcripts at the Peyer's patches, followed by an increase in the Secretory-IgA in intestinal fluid, the IgA-secreting cells in lamina propria of small intestine and the IgA level in serum. Moreover, S1K3 maintained the protein level of IL-12, increased the IL-4 and reduced the TGF-β level in intestinal fluid/serum at the later stage of infection. All these actions concurred to lower the count of Salmonella in feces, its invasion in spleen, liver and intestine tissues and improved the health status of probiotic-fed group. In view of this performance, S1K3 appears to be a suitable candidate for the development of nutraceutical food. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. NMR identification of the binding surfaces involved in the Salmonella and Shigella Type III secretion tip-translocon protein-protein interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McShan, Andrew C; Kaur, Kawaljit; Chatterjee, Srirupa; Knight, Kevin M; De Guzman, Roberto N

    2016-08-01

    The type III secretion system (T3SS) is essential for the pathogenesis of many bacteria including Salmonella and Shigella, which together are responsible for millions of deaths worldwide each year. The structural component of the T3SS consists of the needle apparatus, which is assembled in part by the protein-protein interaction between the tip and the translocon. The atomic detail of the interaction between the tip and the translocon proteins is currently unknown. Here, we used NMR methods to identify that the N-terminal domain of the Salmonella SipB translocon protein interacts with the SipD tip protein at a surface at the distal region of the tip formed by the mixed α/β domain and a portion of its coiled-coil domain. Likewise, the Shigella IpaB translocon protein and the IpaD tip protein interact with each other using similar surfaces identified for the Salmonella homologs. Furthermore, removal of the extreme N-terminal residues of the translocon protein, previously thought to be important for the interaction, had little change on the binding surface. Finally, mutations at the binding surface of SipD reduced invasion of Salmonella into human intestinal epithelial cells. Together, these results reveal the binding surfaces involved in the tip-translocon protein-protein interaction and advance our understanding of the assembly of the T3SS needle apparatus. Proteins 2016; 84:1097-1107. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Role of the sseK1 gene in the pathogenicity of Salmonella enterica serovar enteritidis in vitro and in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yadong; Yu, Chuan; Ding, Ke; Zhang, Chunjie; Liao, Chengshui; Jia, Yanyan; Li, Jing; Cheng, Xiangchao

    2018-04-01

    Salmonella enteritidis is a common food-borne pathogen associated with consumption of contaminated poultry meat and eggs, which frequently causes gastroenteritis in humans. Salmonella secreted effector K1 (SseK1), as a translocated and secreted protein has been identified to be essential for the virulence of Salmonella typhimurium in host cells. However, the role of the sseK1 gene in the pathogenicity of S. enteritidis remain unclear. In this study, a sseK1 deletion mutant of S. enteritidis was constructed and its biological characteristics were examined. It was found that the sseK1 deletion mutant did not affect the growth, adherence and invasion of Salmonella enteritidis when compared to the wild-type S. enteritidis. However, the mutant showed decreased formation of biofilm and significantly reduced intracellular survival of bacteria in activated mouse peritoneal macrophages, as well as showed reduced pathogenicity to a murine model by increasing the lethal dose 50% (LD 50 ) value and decreasing the proliferation ratio of bacteria in vivo. Taken together, this study determined an important role for SseK1 in the pathogenicity of S. enteritidis in vitro and in vivo. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Risk of nontyphoidal Salmonella bacteraemia in African children is modified by STAT4.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilchrist, James J; Rautanen, Anna; Fairfax, Benjamin P; Mills, Tara C; Naranbhai, Vivek; Trochet, Holly; Pirinen, Matti; Muthumbi, Esther; Mwarumba, Salim; Njuguna, Patricia; Mturi, Neema; Msefula, Chisomo L; Gondwe, Esther N; MacLennan, Jenny M; Chapman, Stephen J; Molyneux, Malcolm E; Knight, Julian C; Spencer, Chris C A; Williams, Thomas N; MacLennan, Calman A; Scott, J Anthony G; Hill, Adrian V S

    2018-03-09

    Nontyphoidal Salmonella (NTS) is a major cause of bacteraemia in Africa. The disease typically affects HIV-infected individuals and young children, causing substantial morbidity and mortality. Here we present a genome-wide association study (180 cases, 2677 controls) and replication analysis of NTS bacteraemia in Kenyan and Malawian children. We identify a locus in STAT4, rs13390936, associated with NTS bacteraemia. rs13390936 is a context-specific expression quantitative trait locus for STAT4 RNA expression, and individuals carrying the NTS-risk genotype demonstrate decreased interferon-γ (IFNγ) production in stimulated natural killer cells, and decreased circulating IFNγ concentrations during acute NTS bacteraemia. The NTS-risk allele at rs13390936 is associated with protection against a range of autoimmune diseases. These data implicate interleukin-12-dependent IFNγ-mediated immunity as a determinant of invasive NTS disease in African children, and highlight the shared genetic architecture of infectious and autoimmune disease.

  20. SEROTYPES AND ANTIMICROBIAL RESISTANCE OF SALMONELLA ENTERICA SSP IN CENTRAL THAILAND, 2001-2006

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pantip, Sirichote; Aroon, B.; Kanokwan, Tienmanee

    2010-01-01

    . Schwarzengrund, S. Choleraesuis, S. Anatum, S. Stanley, S. Rissen, and S. Typhimurium were the most resistant serovars observed. The invasive serovar, S. Choleraesuis was resistant to cefotaxime and norfloxacin. Antimicrobial resistance to cefotaxime, was observed in S. Agona, S. Rissen, S. Typhimurium, S......This study was carried out to elucidate the epidemiological trends and antimicrobial susceptibilities against Salmonella serovars among Thai patients and asymptomatic carriers during 2001-2006 in central Thailand. A total of 1,401 human and 260 non-human isolates from various sources were included....... The isolates were characterized using serotyping and antimicrobial susceptibility testing. The most common serovars in patients submitting stool samples were S. Weltevreden, S. Stanley, S. Anatum, and S. Rissen. Significantly higher odds ratios were observed in blood samples versus stool sample for S...

  1. Acute gastroenterocolitis caused by Salmonella Chester

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tajda Keber

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Turtles are common as pets and represent a known reservoir for salmonellosis. There are few epidemic outbreaks of salmonellosis linked to ingestion of undercooked turtle meat described in the literature. A few cases of pet turtle borne infection and infection due to aquarium water contamination have been described. We present cases of two female patients hospitalized due to acute gastroenterocolitis caused by Salmonella Chester and the epidemiological report of events related to the infection outbreak. The infection was transmitted from the water of a private aquarium with two pet turtles.

  2. [Evaluation of PremiTest Salmonella kit for identification of not-typable by conventional methods Salmonella].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madajczak, Grzegorz; Szych, Jolanta

    2010-01-01

    Despite the downward trend, Salmonella is still one of the most important bacterial intestinal infections agents. For example, in 2007 y. in Poland over 14 thousands human salmonelosis cases were notified, in 2008 y.--over 10 thousands. Among all Salmonella isolated from human source, most common (more then 80%) are two serotypes--S. Enteritidis and S. Typhimurium, but every year the number of non-typable (because of the lack I or II phase flagellar antigens, autoagglutinative or non-motility properties) Salmonella is growing. This work describes the results of the evaluation of commercially available kit PremiTest Salmonella (DSM, Netherlands), which uses the microarray hybridization in ArrayTube, for serological identification of non-typable Salmonella strains. All 37 researched strains were submitted to the Department of Bacteriology in 2007-2008 y, were reidentified according to standard operating procedures and serotyped by slide agglutination for somatic and flagellar antigens if it was possible. All strains were tested using the PremiTest Salmonella Kit, according to manufacturer instructions. In 21 cases (56%) full identification were achieved, in 5 cases (14%) additional tests were required for precise identification (Salmonella Choleraesuis or Paratyphi C, what was detailed using examination of additional biochemical features), 5 strains (14%) achieved an incomplete identification (three of them--S. diarizonae were confirmed in National Reference Laboratory for Salmonella) and 6 cases (16%) were not identified at all. The total number of recognized strains is 30 (81%). The results of present studies show, that PremiTest Salmonella Kit is useful for non-typable Salmonella identification.

  3. Immediate differentiation of salmonella-resembling colonies on brilliant green agar

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Annette Nygaard; Hoorfar, Jeffrey

    2000-01-01

    A rapid biochemical system (OBIS) based on immediate enzymatic differentiation of Citrobacter, Proteus, Providencia, Hafnia and Morganella spp. from Salmonella on brilliant green agar was evaluated A total of 96 field isolates from various Salmonella serotypes, 18 Citrobacter freundii and 25...... isolates of other Enterobacteriaceae were tested All Salmonella isolates were identified correctly by the kit, and none of the Enterobacteriaceae isolates were identified as Salmonella. The results indicate complete specificity for Salmonella colonies on brilliant green agar....

  4. Virulence characterisation of Salmonella enterica isolates of differing antimicrobial resistance recovered from UK livestock and imported meat samples.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roderick eCard

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Salmonella enterica is a foodborne zoonotic pathogen of significant public health concern. We have characterised the virulence and antimicrobial resistance gene content of 95 Salmonella isolates from 11 serovars by DNA microarray recovered from UK livestock or imported meat. Genes encoding resistance to sulphonamides (sul1, sul2, tetracycline (tet(A, tet(B, streptomycin (strA, strB, aminoglycoside (aadA1, aadA2, beta-lactam (blaTEM, and trimethoprim (dfrA17 were common. Virulence gene content differed between serovars; S. Typhimurium formed two subclades based on virulence plasmid presence. Thirteen isolates were selected by their virulence profile for pathotyping using the Galleria mellonella pathogenesis model. Infection with a chicken invasive S. Enteritidis or S. Gallinarum isolate, a multidrug resistant S. Kentucky, or a S. Typhimurium DT104 isolate resulted in high mortality of the larvae; notably presence of the virulence plasmid in S. Typhimurium was not associated with increased larvae mortality. Histopathological examination showed that infection caused severe damage to the Galleria gut structure. Enumeration of intracellular bacteria in the larvae 24 hours post-infection showed increases of up to 7 log above the initial inoculum and transmission electron microscopy (TEM showed bacterial replication in the haemolymph. TEM also revealed the presence of vacuoles containing bacteria in the haemocytes, similar to Salmonella containing vacuoles observed in mammalian macrophages; although there was no evidence from our work of bacterial replication within vacuoles. This work shows that microarrays can be used for rapid virulence genotyping of S. enterica and that the Galleria animal model replicates some aspects of Salmonella infection in mammals. These procedures can be used to help inform on the pathogenicity of isolates that may be antibiotic resistant and have scope to aid the assessment of their potential public and animal health risk.

  5. Test results of Salmonella typing by the NRLs-Salmonella in the Member States of the EU and the EnterNet Laboratories - Collaborative study VI on typing of Salmonella

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Korver H; Raes M; Maas HME; Ward LR; Wannet WJB; Henken AM; PHLS-Colindale/London; MGB; LIS

    2002-01-01

    Test results of Salmonella sero- and phage typing and antimicrobial susceptibility testing by the National Reference Laboratories for Salmonella in the Member States of the European Union and the EnterNet Laboratories: Collaborative study VI (2001) for Salmonella. The sixth collaborative typing

  6. Salmonella detection in a microfluidic channel using orbiting magnetic beads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballard, Matt; Mills, Zachary; Owen, Drew; Hanasoge, Srinivas; Hesketh, Peter; Alexeev, Alexander

    2015-03-01

    We use three-dimensional simulations to model the detection of salmonella in a complex fluid sample in a microfluidic channel. Salmonella is captured using magnetic microbeads orbiting around soft ferromagnetic discs at the microchannel bottom subjected to a rotating external magnetic field. Numerical simulations are used to model the dynamics of salmonella and microbeads throughout the detection process. We examine the effect of the channel geometry on the salmonella capture, and the forces applied to the salmonella as it is dragged through the fluid after capture. Our findings guide the design of a lab-on-a-chip device to be used for detection of salmonella in food samples in a way that ensures that salmonella captured by orbiting microbeads are preserved until they can be extracted from the system for testing, and are not washed away by the fluid flow or damaged due to the experience of excessive stresses. Such a device is needed to detect bacteria at the food source and prevention of consumption of contaminated food, and also can be used for the detection of a variety of biomaterials of interest from complex fluid samples. Support from USDA and NSF is gratefully acknowledged.

  7. Salmonella bacteraemia among healthcare workers and their dependents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raza, A.; Sultan, F.; Mahboob, A.; Nazeer, S. H.; Nizammudin, S.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: To determine the incidence and resistance pattern of Salmonella infection in healthcare workers and their dependents. Methods: The retrospective analysis was conducted at Shaukat Khanum Memorial Cancer Hospital and Research Centre, Lahore, and comprised records of employees and their dependents with bacteraemia from January 2007 to December 2011. Person-years were calculated using data from the human resources department. SPSS 19 was used for statistical analyses. Results: Of the total 2532 records available, 82(3.23%) patients were identified with Salmonella bacteraemia. Of them, 34(41.5%) patients were in age group 1-10, 15(18.3%) in 11-20, 26(31.7%) in 21-30, and 7(8.5%) were above 30 years. Besides, 48(58.5%) were males. Salmonella typhi was found in 44(53.7%) patients, Salmonella paratyphi A in 35(42.7%) and Salmonella species in 3(3.7%) patients. The yearly incidence of Salmonella infection in the study population ranged from 206 to 596 per 100000 person-years. Ciprofloxacin resistance was noted to be 56 (68.2%) followed by Ampicillin 29 (35.3%) and Co-trimoxazole 24 (29.2%). No strains were resistant to Cefiximeor Ceftriaxone. Conclusion: The yearly incidence of Salmonella bacteraemia ranged from 200 to 600 per 100000 person years. There was significant quinolone resistance among the isolates. (author)

  8. Elimination of salmonella from fermented pork by gamma irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noochpramul, K.; Loaharanu, P.

    1974-01-01

    A fermented pork product, locally known as ''Nham'', is usually contaminated with salmonella and occasionally with Trichinella spiralis and Taenea solium. This product is always eaten raw as cooking destroys its delicate flavour. A survey made on the MPN of salmonella revealed that much less than 100 salmonella was found in one gram of the product. Nham was inoculated with S. derby, S. anatum, S. newport, or S. paratyphi B, the most common serotypes of salmonella found in this product, at 10 6 , 10 4 , or 10 2 per gram. The inoculated product was irradiated by the gamma beam-650 Co-60 irradiator at 0, 0.1, 0.2, 0.3 or 0.4 Mrad. Dosage at 0.4 Mrad eliminated salmonella as much as 10 6 per g; 0.3 Mrad eliminated 10 6 /g of S. newport and S. paratyphi B and 10 4 /g of S. derby and S. anatum; and 0.2 Mrad eliminated 10 2 /g of all serotypes of salmonella in the product. No changes in the organoleptic properties of irradiated Nham was found when irradiated at 0.3 Mrad or less. Dosage at 0.2 Mrad appeared to be sufficient for commercial irradiation of Nham for the elimination of salmonella

  9. A DIVA vaccine for cross-protection against Salmonella.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bearson, Bradley L; Bearson, Shawn M D; Kich, Jalusa D

    2016-03-04

    Swine are often asymptomatic carriers of Salmonella spp., a leading cause of human bacterial foodborne disease. Vaccination against Salmonella is effective for protecting animal health and enhancing food safety. However, with >2500 Salmonella serovars, current vaccines for swine offer limited cross-protection against heterologous serovars. Also, existing vaccines can interfere with surveillance programs that monitor the Salmonella status of swine herds. To overcome Salmonella vaccine limitations, we rationally designed and constructed an attenuated Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium vaccine (BBS 866) by deleting multiple small regulatory RNA (sRNA) genes (omrA, omrB, rybB, micA, and invR) in combination with an rfaH mutation. We vaccinated swine intranasally at 3-weeks of age with PBS (mock-vaccinated), BBS 866 or BBS 202 (S. Typhimurium rfaH, Bearson et al., Front Vet Sci 2014;1:9.) and challenged at 7-weeks of age with virulent S. Choleraesuis, a swine pathogen. Vaccination with BBS 866 enhanced protection against S. Choleraesuis by significantly limiting the duration of fever, weight loss, the levels of circulating INFγ, and the total number of swine with S. Choleraesuis septicemia. Vaccination with either BBS 866 or BBS 202 significantly reduced S. Choleraesuis colonization of both systemic (spleen and liver) and gastrointestinal (Peyer's Patch, Ileocecal lymph nodes, and cecum) tissues. Similar to our earlier report for BBS 202, the BBS 866 vaccine strain can be used in swine without compromising the differentiation of infected from vaccinated animals (DIVA). Therefore, the attenuated S. Typhimurium BBS 866 strain, containing mutations in rfaH and multiple sRNAs, addresses the limitations of current Salmonella vaccines by providing cross-protection against Salmonella serovars in swine without interfering with established monitoring programs for Salmonella surveillance. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  10. Vaccination against Salmonella Infection: the Mucosal Way.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gayet, Rémi; Bioley, Gilles; Rochereau, Nicolas; Paul, Stéphane; Corthésy, Blaise

    2017-09-01

    Salmonella enterica subspecies enterica includes several serovars infecting both humans and other animals and leading to typhoid fever or gastroenteritis. The high prevalence of associated morbidity and mortality, together with an increased emergence of multidrug-resistant strains, is a current global health issue that has prompted the development of vaccination strategies that confer protection against most serovars. Currently available systemic vaccine approaches have major limitations, including a reduced effectiveness in young children and a lack of cross-protection among different strains. Having studied host-pathogen interactions, microbiologists and immunologists argue in favor of topical gastrointestinal administration for improvement in vaccine efficacy. Here, recent advances in this field are summarized, including mechanisms of bacterial uptake at the intestinal epithelium, the assessment of protective host immunity, and improved animal models that closely mimic infection in humans. The pros and cons of existing vaccines are presented, along with recent progress made with novel formulations. Finally, new candidate antigens and their relevance in the refined design of anti- Salmonella vaccines are discussed, along with antigen vectorization strategies such as nanoparticles or secretory immunoglobulins, with a focus on potentiating mucosal vaccine efficacy. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Microbiology.

  11. Interaction of Salmonella spp. with the intestinal microbiota

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian MM Ahmer

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Salmonella spp. are major cause of human morbidity and mortality worldwide. Upon entry into the human host, Salmonella spp. must overcome the resistance to colonization mediated by the gut microbiota and the innate immune system. They successfully accomplish this by inducing inflammation and mechanisms of innate immune defense. Many models have been developed to study Salmonella spp. interaction with the microbiota that have helped to identify factors necessary to overcome colonization resistance and to mediate disease. Here we review the current state of studies into this important pathogen/microbiota/host interaction in the mammalian gastrointestinal tract.

  12. A Salmonella virulence protein that inhibits cellular trafficking.

    OpenAIRE

    Uchiya, K; Barbieri, M A; Funato, K; Shah, A H; Stahl, P D; Groisman, E A

    1999-01-01

    Salmonella enterica requires a type III secretion system, designated Spi/Ssa, to survive and proliferate within macrophages. The Spi/Ssa system is encoded within the SPI-2 pathogenicity island and appears to function intracellularly. Here, we establish that the SPI-2-encoded SpiC protein is exported by the Spi/Ssa type III secretion system into the host cell cytosol where it interferes with intracellular trafficking. In J774 macrophages, wild-type Salmonella inhibited fusion of Salmonella-con...

  13. Behaviour of temperate phage Mu in Salmonella typhi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soberon, M; Gama, M J; Richelle, J; Martuscelli, J

    1986-01-01

    We have developed a convenient system for genetic analysis of Salmonella typhi exploiting the properties of the mutator phage Mu. In spite of the fact that wild-type Salmonella typhi strains do not allow Mu to form plaques on them, we have shown that these strains are actually sensitive to the phage. It proved possible to use Mu to induce mutations and to promote intra- and interspecific genetic transfer, without having to introduce the phage into the bacteria by means other than infection. Furthermore, we isolated Salmonella typhi derivatives on which Mu formed plaques, and studied the behaviour of Mu in these and wild-type strains.

  14. Towards standardization of microarray-based genotyping of Salmonella

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Löfström, Charlotta; Grønlund, Hugo Ahlm; Riber, Leise

    2010-01-01

    Genotyping is becoming an increasingly important tool to improve risk assessments of Salmonella. DNA microarray technology is a promising diagnostic tool that can provide high resolution genomic profile of many genes simultaneously. However, standardization of DNA microarray analysis is needed...... of Salmonella at two different laboratories. The low-density array contained 281 of 57-60-mer oligonucleotide probes for detecting a wide range of specific genomic markers associated with antibiotic resistance, cell envelope structures, mobile genetic elements and pathogenicity. Several test parameters...... for a decentralized and simple-to-implement DNA microarray as part of a pan-European source-attribution model for risk assessment of Salmonella....

  15. Complete Genome and Methylome Sequences of Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica Serovar Panama (ATCC 7378) and Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica Serovar Sloterdijk (ATCC 15791)

    OpenAIRE

    Yao, Kuan; Muruvanda, Tim; Roberts, Richard J.; Payne, Justin; Allard, Marc W.; Hoffmann, Maria

    2016-01-01

    Salmonella enterica spp. are pathogenic bacteria commonly associated with food-borne outbreaks in human and animals. Salmonella enterica spp. are characterized into more than 2,500 different serotypes, which makes epidemiological surveillance and outbreak control more difficult. In this report, we announce the first complete genome and methylome sequences from two Salmonella type strains associated with food-borne outbreaks, Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar Panama (ATCC 7378) and S...

  16. Test results of Salmonella sero- and phage typing by the National Reference Laboratories in the Member States of the European Union

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Raes M; Ward LR; Maas HME; Wannet WJB; Henken AM; MGB; PHLS/LEP; LIS

    2001-01-01

    Het vijfde Salmonella typerings ringonderzoek is georganiseerd door het Communautair Referentie Laboratorium voor Salmonella (CRL-Salmonella, Bilthoven) in samenwerking met de Public Health Laboratory Services (PHLS, Londen). Alle 17 Nationale Referentie Laboratoria voor Salmonella

  17. Test results of serotyping Salmonella strains in the Member States of the European Union (A collaborative study amongst the National Reference Laboratories for Salmonella)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Voogt N; Maas HME; Leeuwen WJ van; Henken AM; MGB

    1997-01-01

    A second collaborative study on Salmonella serotyping was organised by the Community Reference Laboratory (CRL) for Salmonella, with participation of the National Reference Laboratories (NRLs) for Salmonella from 14 of the 15 Member States of the European Union. The objective of the study was to

  18. Test results of serotyping Salmonella strains in the Member States of the European Union (A collaborative study amongst the National Reference Laboratories for Salmonella)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Voogt N; Maas HME; Leeuwen WJ van; Henken AM; MGB

    1997-01-01

    Het Communautair Referentie Laboratorium (CRL) voor Salmonella heeft een ringonderzoek voor de serotypering van Salmonella georganiseerd. De Nationale Referentie Laboratoria (NRLs) voor Salmonella uit 14 van de 15 lidstaten van de Europese Unie deden aan het onderzoek mee. Het doel was te

  19. CLINICAL AND ANATOMOHISTOPATOLOGICAL ASPECTS OF TWO BROILER ORIGINATED FROM EXPERIMENTALLY INOCULATED EGGS WITH Salmonella Enteritidis FAGOTIPO 4 ASPECTOS CLÍNICOS E ANATOMOHISTOPATOLÓGICOS DE PINTOS DE CORTE ORIUNDOS DE OVOS INOCULADOS EXPERIMENTALMENTE COM Salmonella Enteritidis FAGOTIPO 4

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Auxiliadora Andrade

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available

    In order to evaluate the invasive capacity of Salmonella enterica sorovar Enteritidis phagotipe 4 of avian origin, in two broiler lines, two experiments were carried out. The experiment 1 was done with Ross line (fast growing rate and experiment 2 was done with ISA Label (slow growing rate. In two experiments the same 1.5 X 102 UFC/0,1mL de Salmonella Enteritidis phagotipe 4 was inoculated in egg through the eggshell or albume at the incubation to averiguate the clinical signs, the macro and microscopical lesions and mortality rate until three weeks of age. The Salmonella Enteritidis invaded and colonizated the gastrointestinal tract of the two lines tested general clinical signs allied to intestinal disfunction were more pronounced in Ross broilers. The mortality observed was 25.0% (15/60 in Ross and just 1.7% (1/60 ISA Label broilers during three weeks. Onphalitis, enteritis, pericarditis, perihepatitis constituted the main macroscopic lesions in Ross. At histological exam, inflamatory process observed with infiltrates of mononuclear cells with predominance of macrophage and lymphocytes in heart, duodenum, jejunum, ileum, ceca and liver. It is possible to conclude the gastrointestinal tract, invaded organs of both genetic lines, but ISA Label was resistant to infection compared to Ross lines.

    KEY WORDS: Chickens, colonization, infection, invasion, genetic resistance, organs.

    Desenvolveram-se dois experimentos para avaliar a capacidade invasiva e os efeitos da Salmonella enterica sorovar Enteritidis fagotipo 4 de origem aviária, inoculada in ovo de linhagens de frango de corte. O experimento 1 foi realizado com a linhagem Ross (crescimento rápido e o experimento 2 com a

  20. Isolamento de Salmonella Braenderup em arara-azul (Anodorhynchus hyacinthinus) Salmonella Braenderup isolation in Hyacinth macaw (Anodorhynchus hyacinthinus)

    OpenAIRE

    Mariangela Costa Allgayer; Sérgio José de Oliveira; Vanessa Daniele Mottin; Márcia Regina Loiko; Fernanda Abilleira; Neiva Maria Robaldo Guedes; Daniel Thompsen Passos; Tania de Azevedo Weimer

    2009-01-01

    O monitoramento sanitário de populações de arara-azul (Anodorhynchus hyacinthinus) de vida livre visa a permitir ajustes de manejo em ambiente natural alterado. Para avaliar a ocorrência de Salmonella spp. em filhotes dessa espécie, foram coletados swabs de cloaca no Pantanal de Miranda, Mato Grosso do Sul (MS). Uma colônia morfológica e bioquimicamente compatível com Salmonella spp. foi isolada e sorotipada como Salmonella Braenderup. Devido ao alto potencial zoonótico desse microrganismo, é...