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Sample records for invasive japanese beetles

  1. Hydrogen Isotopes as a Sentinel of Biological Invasion by the Japanese Beetle, Popillia japonica (Newman).

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    Hungate, Bruce A; Kearns, Diana N; Ogle, Kiona; Caron, Melanie; Marks, Jane C; Rogg, Helmuth W

    2016-01-01

    Invasive species alter ecosystems, threaten native and endangered species, and have negative economic impacts. Knowing where invading individuals are from and when they arrive to a new site can guide management. Here, we evaluated how well the stable hydrogen isotope composition (δ2H) records the recent origin and time since arrival of specimens of the invasive Japanese beetle (Popillia japonica Newman) captured near the Portland International Airport (Oregon, U.S.A.). The δ2H of Japanese beetle specimens collected from sites across the contiguous U.S.A. reflected the δ2H of local precipitation, a relationship similar to that documented for other organisms, and one confirming the utility of δ2H as a geographic fingerprint. Within weeks after experimental relocation to a new isotopic environment, the δ2H of beetles changed linearly with time, demonstrating the potential for δ2H to also mark the timing of arrival to a new location. We used a hierarchical Bayesian model to estimate the recent geographical origin and timing of arrival of each specimen based on its δ2H value. The geographic resolution was broad, with values consistent with multiple regions of origin in the eastern U.S.A., slightly favoring the southeastern U.S.A. as the more likely source. Beetles trapped from 2007-2010 had arrived 30 or more days prior to trapping, whereas the median time since arrival declined to 3-7 days for beetles trapped from 2012-2014. This reduction in the time between arrival and trapping at the Portland International Airport supports the efficacy of trapping and spraying to prevent establishment. More generally, our analysis shows how stable isotopes can serve as sentinels of biological invasions, verifying the efficacy of control measures, or, alternatively, indicating when those measures show signs of failure.

  2. Hydrogen Isotopes as a Sentinel of Biological Invasion by the Japanese Beetle, Popillia japonica (Newman.

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    Bruce A Hungate

    Full Text Available Invasive species alter ecosystems, threaten native and endangered species, and have negative economic impacts. Knowing where invading individuals are from and when they arrive to a new site can guide management. Here, we evaluated how well the stable hydrogen isotope composition (δ2H records the recent origin and time since arrival of specimens of the invasive Japanese beetle (Popillia japonica Newman captured near the Portland International Airport (Oregon, U.S.A.. The δ2H of Japanese beetle specimens collected from sites across the contiguous U.S.A. reflected the δ2H of local precipitation, a relationship similar to that documented for other organisms, and one confirming the utility of δ2H as a geographic fingerprint. Within weeks after experimental relocation to a new isotopic environment, the δ2H of beetles changed linearly with time, demonstrating the potential for δ2H to also mark the timing of arrival to a new location. We used a hierarchical Bayesian model to estimate the recent geographical origin and timing of arrival of each specimen based on its δ2H value. The geographic resolution was broad, with values consistent with multiple regions of origin in the eastern U.S.A., slightly favoring the southeastern U.S.A. as the more likely source. Beetles trapped from 2007-2010 had arrived 30 or more days prior to trapping, whereas the median time since arrival declined to 3-7 days for beetles trapped from 2012-2014. This reduction in the time between arrival and trapping at the Portland International Airport supports the efficacy of trapping and spraying to prevent establishment. More generally, our analysis shows how stable isotopes can serve as sentinels of biological invasions, verifying the efficacy of control measures, or, alternatively, indicating when those measures show signs of failure.

  3. 7 CFR 301.48-6 - Movement of live Japanese beetles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Movement of live Japanese beetles. 301.48-6 Section... INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE DOMESTIC QUARANTINE NOTICES Japanese Beetle Quarantine and Regulations § 301.48-6 Movement of live Japanese beetles. Regulations requiring a permit for and otherwise...

  4. DNA barcoding of Japanese click beetles (Coleoptera, Elateridae).

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    Oba, Yuichi; Ôhira, Hitoo; Murase, Yukio; Moriyama, Akihiko; Kumazawa, Yoshinori

    2015-01-01

    Click beetles (Coleoptera: Elateridae) represent one of the largest groups of beetle insects. Some click beetles in larval form, known as wireworms, are destructive agricultural pests. Morphological identification of click beetles is generally difficult and requires taxonomic expertise. This study reports on the DNA barcoding of Japanese click beetles to enable their rapid and accurate identification. We collected and assembled 762 cytochrome oxidase subunit I barcode sequences from 275 species, which cover approximately 75% of the common species found on the Japanese main island, Honshu. This barcode library also contains 20 out of the 21 potential pest species recorded in Japan. Our analysis shows that most morphologically identified species form distinct phylogenetic clusters separated from each other by large molecular distances. This supports the general usefulness of the DNA barcoding approach for quick and reliable identification of Japanese elaterid species for environmental impact assessment, agricultural pest control, and biodiversity analysis. On the other hand, the taxonomic boundary in dozens of species did not agree with the boundary of barcode index numbers (a criterion for sequence-based species delimitation). These findings urge taxonomic reinvestigation of these mismatched taxa.

  5. DNA barcoding of Japanese click beetles (Coleoptera, Elateridae.

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    Yuichi Oba

    Full Text Available Click beetles (Coleoptera: Elateridae represent one of the largest groups of beetle insects. Some click beetles in larval form, known as wireworms, are destructive agricultural pests. Morphological identification of click beetles is generally difficult and requires taxonomic expertise. This study reports on the DNA barcoding of Japanese click beetles to enable their rapid and accurate identification. We collected and assembled 762 cytochrome oxidase subunit I barcode sequences from 275 species, which cover approximately 75% of the common species found on the Japanese main island, Honshu. This barcode library also contains 20 out of the 21 potential pest species recorded in Japan. Our analysis shows that most morphologically identified species form distinct phylogenetic clusters separated from each other by large molecular distances. This supports the general usefulness of the DNA barcoding approach for quick and reliable identification of Japanese elaterid species for environmental impact assessment, agricultural pest control, and biodiversity analysis. On the other hand, the taxonomic boundary in dozens of species did not agree with the boundary of barcode index numbers (a criterion for sequence-based species delimitation. These findings urge taxonomic reinvestigation of these mismatched taxa.

  6. DNA Barcoding of Japanese Click Beetles (Coleoptera, Elateridae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oba, Yuichi; Ôhira, Hitoo; Murase, Yukio; Moriyama, Akihiko; Kumazawa, Yoshinori

    2015-01-01

    Click beetles (Coleoptera: Elateridae) represent one of the largest groups of beetle insects. Some click beetles in larval form, known as wireworms, are destructive agricultural pests. Morphological identification of click beetles is generally difficult and requires taxonomic expertise. This study reports on the DNA barcoding of Japanese click beetles to enable their rapid and accurate identification. We collected and assembled 762 cytochrome oxidase subunit I barcode sequences from 275 species, which cover approximately 75% of the common species found on the Japanese main island, Honshu. This barcode library also contains 20 out of the 21 potential pest species recorded in Japan. Our analysis shows that most morphologically identified species form distinct phylogenetic clusters separated from each other by large molecular distances. This supports the general usefulness of the DNA barcoding approach for quick and reliable identification of Japanese elaterid species for environmental impact assessment, agricultural pest control, and biodiversity analysis. On the other hand, the taxonomic boundary in dozens of species did not agree with the boundary of barcode index numbers (a criterion for sequence-based species delimitation). These findings urge taxonomic reinvestigation of these mismatched taxa. PMID:25636000

  7. Dosage response mortality of Japanese beetle, masked chafer, and June beetle (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae) adults when exposed to experimental and commercially available granules containing Metarhizium brunneum

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    Adult beetles of three different white grub species, Japanese beetle, Popillia japonica, June beetle, Phyllophaga spp., and masked chafer, Cyclocephala spp. were exposed to experimental and commercially available granules containing Metarhizium brunneum (Petch) strain F52, to determine susceptibilit...

  8. The Japanese jewel beetle: a painter's challenge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schenk, Franziska; Wilts, Bodo D; Stavenga, Doekele G

    2013-01-01

    Colours as dynamic as the metallic-like hues adorning the Japanese jewel beetle have never been captured on canvas before. Unlike, and unmatched by, the chemical pigments of the artist's palette, the effect is generated by layered microstructures that refract and reflect light to make colour visible. Exclusive to nature for millions of years, such jewel-like colouration is only now being introduced to art. Sustained scientific research into nature's iridescent multilayer reflectors has recently led to the development and manufacture of analogous synthetic structures, notably innovative light interference flakes. For the first time this novel technology offers artists the exciting, yet challenging, potential to accurately depict nature's iridescence. Mimicking the Japanese jewel beetle by using paints with embedded flakes, we demonstrate that the resulting painting, just like the model, displays iridescent colours that shift with minute variation of the angle of light and viewing. (paper)

  9. Evaluation of Metarhizium brunneum F52 (Hypocreales: Clavicipitaceae) for control of Japanese beetle larvae in turfgrass

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    Experimental and commercial preparations of Metarhizium brunneum strain F52 were evaluated for control of Japanese beetle Popillia japonica Newman (Coleoptera: Scarbaeidae) larvae (white grubs) in the laboratory and under field conditions. Experimental preparations consisted of granule and liquid f...

  10. Assessing meteorological key factors influencing crop invasion by pollen beetle (

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    Jürgen Junk

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The pollen beetle, Meligethes aeneus F. (Coleoptera: Nitidulidae, is a severe pest of winter oilseed rape. A phenological model to forecast the first spring invasion of crops in Luxembourg by M. aeneus was developed in order to provide a tool for improving pest management and for assessing the potential effects of climate change on this pest. The model was derived using long-term, multi-site observational datasets of pollen beetle migration and meteorological data, as the timing of crop invasion is determined mainly by meteorological variables. Daily values of mean air and soil temperature, accumulated sunshine duration and precipitation were used to create a threshold-based model to forecast crop invasion. Minimising of the root mean squared error (RMSE of predicted versus observed migration dates was used as the quality criterion for selecting the optimum combination of threshold values for meteorological variables. We identified mean air temperature 8.0 °C, mean soil temperature 4.6 °C, and sunshine duration of 3.4 h as the best threshold values, with a cut-off of 1 mm precipitation and with no need for persistence of those conditions for more than one day (RMSE=9.3days$RMSE=9.3\\,\\text{days}$. Only in six out of 30 cases, differences between observed and predicted immigration dates were >5$>5$ days. In the future, crop invasion by pollen beetles will probably be strongly affected by changes in air temperature and precipitation related to climate change. We used a multi-model ensemble of 15 regional climate models driven by the A1B emission scenario to assess meteorological changes in two 30‑year future periods, near future (2021–2050 and far future (2069–2098 in comparison with the reference period (1971–2000. Air temperature and precipitation were predicted to increase in the first three months of each year, both in the near future and the far future. The pollen beetle migration model indicated that this change would

  11. The spatial distribution of the Japanese beetle, Popillia japonica, in soybean fields.

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    Sara, Stacey A; McCallen, Emily B; Switzer, Paul V

    2013-01-01

    The Japanese beetle, Popillia japonica Newman (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae), is a serious pest of many agricultural and horticultural plants. Relatively little research has investigated the distributions of Japanese beetles in agricultural fields, and this lack of information makes pest management more difficult. In the present study, the spatial distribution of Japanese beetles in soybean fields was examined. Specifically, how the distribution and abundance of beetles was affected by distance from an edge, edge direction, and edge type was examined. An edge effect for density was discovered; beetle numbers decreased significantly with increasing distance from the field edge. The east and south sides averaged higher numbers of beetles than the north and west. Downwind edges, in particular downwind edges adjacent to hedgerows, also had significantly higher beetle densities. In addition, females relatively far from the edge had larger egg loads than those closer to the edge. Differences in aggregation seeking behavior, in combination with movement in relation to wind and obstructions such as hedgerows, are possible explanations for these spatial patterns.

  12. The Spatial Distribution of the Japanese Beetle, Popillia japonica, in Soybean Fields

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    Sara, Stacey A.; McCallen, Emily B.; Switzer, Paul V.

    2013-01-01

    The Japanese beetle, Popillia japonica Newman (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae), is a serious pest of many agricultural and horticultural plants. Relatively little research has investigated the distributions of Japanese beetles in agricultural fields, and this lack of information makes pest management more difficult. In the present study, the spatial distribution of Japanese beetles in soybean fields was examined. Specifically, how the distribution and abundance of beetles was affected by distance from an edge, edge direction, and edge type was examined. An edge effect for density was discovered; beetle numbers decreased significantly with increasing distance from the field edge. The east and south sides averaged higher numbers of beetles than the north and west. Downwind edges, in particular downwind edges adjacent to hedgerows, also had significantly higher beetle densities. In addition, females relatively far from the edge had larger egg loads than those closer to the edge. Differences in aggregation seeking behavior, in combination with movement in relation to wind and obstructions such as hedgerows, are possible explanations for these spatial patterns. PMID:23895634

  13. Co-occurence of Two Invasive Species: The Banded and European Elm Bark Beetles (Coleoptera: Scolytidae)

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    The invasive European elm bark beetle, Scolytus multistriatus (Marsham), was first detected a century ago and now occurs in most of the continental United States. The invasive banded elm bark beetle, Scolytus schevyrewi Semenov, native to Asia, was discovered in the United States in 2003 and is now...

  14. Japanese Interest in “Hotaru” (Fireflies and “Kabuto-Mushi” (Japanese Rhinoceros Beetles Corresponds with Seasonality in Visible Abundance

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    Kenta Takada

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Seasonal changes in the popularity of fireflies [usually Genji-fireflies (Luciola cruciata Motschulsky in Japan] and Japanese rhinoceros beetles [Allomyrina dichotoma (Linne] were investigated to examine whether contemporary Japanese are interested in visible emergence of these insects as seasonal events. The popularity of fireflies and Japanese rhinoceros beetles was assessed by the Google search volume of their Japanese names, “Hotaru” and “Kabuto-mushi” in Japanese Katakana script using Google Trends. The search volume index for fireflies and Japanese rhinoceros beetles was distributed across seasons with a clear peak in only particular times of each year from 2004 to 2011. In addition, the seasonal peak of popularity for fireflies occurred at the beginning of June, whereas that for Japanese rhinoceros beetles occurred from the middle of July to the beginning of August. Thus seasonal peak of each species coincided with the peak period of the emergence of each adult stage. These findings indicated that the Japanese are interested in these insects primarily during the time when the two species are most visibly abundant. Although untested, this could suggest that fireflies and Japanese rhinoceros beetles are perceived by the general public as indicators or symbols of summer in Japan.

  15. Cross-attraction between an exotic and a native pine bark beetle: a novel invasion mechanism?

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    Min Lu

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Aside from the ecological impacts, invasive species fascinate ecologists because of the unique opportunities that invasives offer in the study of community ecology. Some hypotheses have been proposed to illustrate the mechanisms that allow exotics to become invasive. However, positive interactions between exotic and native insects are rarely utilized to explain invasiveness of pests.Here, we present information on a recently formed association between a native and an exotic bark beetle on their shared host, Pinus tabuliformis, in China. In field examinations, we found that 35-40% of P. tabuliformis attacked by an exotic bark beetle, Dendroctonus valens, were also attacked by a native pine bark beetle, Hylastes parallelus. In the laboratory, we found that the antennal and walking responses of H. parallelus to host- and beetle-produced compounds were similar to those of the exotic D. valens in China. In addition, D. valens was attracted to volatiles produced by the native H. parallelus.We report, for the first time, facilitation between an exotic and a native bark beetle seems to involve overlap in the use of host attractants and pheromones, which is cross-attraction. The concept of this interspecific facilitation could be explored as a novel invasive mechanism which helps explain invasiveness of not only exotic bark beetles but also other introduced pests in principle. The results reported here also have particularly important implications for risk assessments and management strategies for invasive species.

  16. Bark and Ambrosia Beetles Show Different Invasion Patterns in the USA.

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    Rassati, Davide; Faccoli, Massimo; Haack, Robert A; Rabaglia, Robert J; Petrucco Toffolo, Edoardo; Battisti, Andrea; Marini, Lorenzo

    2016-01-01

    Non-native bark and ambrosia beetles represent a threat to forests worldwide. Their invasion patterns are, however, still unclear. Here we investigated first, if the spread of non-native bark and ambrosia beetles is a gradual or a discontinuous process; second, which are the main correlates of their community structure; third, whether those correlates correspond to those of native species. We used data on species distribution of non-native and native scolytines in the continental 48 USA states. These data were analyzed through a beta-diversity index, partitioned into species richness differences and species replacement, using Mantel correlograms and non-metric multidimensional scaling (NMDS) ordination for identifying spatial patterns, and regression on distance matrices to test the association of climate (temperature, rainfall), forest (cover area, composition), geographical (distance), and human-related (import) variables with β-diversity components. For both non-native bark and ambrosia beetles, β-diversity was mainly composed of species richness difference than species replacement. For non-native bark beetles, a discontinuous invasion process composed of long distance jumps or multiple introduction events was apparent. Species richness differences were primarily correlated with differences in import values while temperature was the main correlate of species replacement. For non-native ambrosia beetles, a more continuous invasion process was apparent, with the pool of non-native species arriving in the coastal areas that tended to be filtered as they spread to interior portions of the continental USA. Species richness differences were mainly correlated with differences in rainfall among states, while rainfall and temperature were the main correlates of species replacement. Our study suggests that the different ecology of bark and ambrosia beetles influences their invasion process in new environments. The lower dependency that bark beetles have on climate

  17. Bark and Ambrosia Beetles Show Different Invasion Patterns in the USA.

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    Davide Rassati

    Full Text Available Non-native bark and ambrosia beetles represent a threat to forests worldwide. Their invasion patterns are, however, still unclear. Here we investigated first, if the spread of non-native bark and ambrosia beetles is a gradual or a discontinuous process; second, which are the main correlates of their community structure; third, whether those correlates correspond to those of native species. We used data on species distribution of non-native and native scolytines in the continental 48 USA states. These data were analyzed through a beta-diversity index, partitioned into species richness differences and species replacement, using Mantel correlograms and non-metric multidimensional scaling (NMDS ordination for identifying spatial patterns, and regression on distance matrices to test the association of climate (temperature, rainfall, forest (cover area, composition, geographical (distance, and human-related (import variables with β-diversity components. For both non-native bark and ambrosia beetles, β-diversity was mainly composed of species richness difference than species replacement. For non-native bark beetles, a discontinuous invasion process composed of long distance jumps or multiple introduction events was apparent. Species richness differences were primarily correlated with differences in import values while temperature was the main correlate of species replacement. For non-native ambrosia beetles, a more continuous invasion process was apparent, with the pool of non-native species arriving in the coastal areas that tended to be filtered as they spread to interior portions of the continental USA. Species richness differences were mainly correlated with differences in rainfall among states, while rainfall and temperature were the main correlates of species replacement. Our study suggests that the different ecology of bark and ambrosia beetles influences their invasion process in new environments. The lower dependency that bark beetles have

  18. Genome of the Asian longhorned beetle, Anoplophora glabripennis), a globally significant invasive species, reveals key functional and evolutionary innovations at the beetle-plant interface

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    The Asian longhorned beetle (Anoplophora glabripennis; AGLAB) is a globally significant invasive species capable of inflicting severe feeding damage on many important orchard, ornamental and forest trees. Genome sequencing, annotation, gene expression assays, and functional and comparative genomic s...

  19. Biology of the invasive banded elm bark beetle (Coleoptera: Scolytidae) in the western United States

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    Jana C. Lee; Jose F. Negron; Sally J. McElwey; Livy Williams; Jeffrey J. Witcosky; John B. Popp; Steven J. Seybold

    2011-01-01

    The banded elm bark beetle, Scolytus schevyrewi Semenov (Coleoptera: Scolytidae), native to Asia, was detected in the United States in 2003, and as of 2011 it is known to occur in 28 states and four Canadian provinces. S. schevyrewi infests the same elm (Ulmus spp.) hosts as the longestablished invasive...

  20. Gut microbiota of an invasive subcortical beetle, Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire, across various life stages

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    Archana Vasanthakumar; Jo Handelsman; Patrick D. Schloss; Leah S. Bauer; Kenneth F. Raffa

    2008-01-01

    We characterized gut microbial communities in the emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire, an invasive phloem-feeding and wood-boring beetle that has caused extensive mortality to urban and forest ash trees. Analyses included both 16S rRNA gene-based and culture-based approaches. We estimated that the emerald ash borer gut harbors 44, 71,...

  1. Semiochemical-MediatedFlight Strategies of Two Invasive Elm Bark Beetles: A Potential Factor in Competitive Displacement

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    A recent seven-state survey revealed that the newly invasive banded elm bark beetle, Scolytus schevyrewi, was abundant in areas of Colorado and Wyoming, USA, whereas the long-established European elm bark beetle, S. multistriatus was not as abundant. Behavioral trials were conducted by hanging sm...

  2. Co-occurrence of the invasive banded and European elm bark beetles (Coleoptera: Scolytidae) in North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janna C. Lee; Ingrid Aguayo; Ray Aslin; Gail Durham; Shakeeb M. Hamud; Beruce D. Moltzan; A. Steve Munson; Jose F. Negron; Travis Peterson; Iral R. Ragenovich; Jeffrey J. Witcosky; Steven J. Seybold

    2009-01-01

    The invasive European elm bark beetle, Scolytus multistriatus (Marsham), was detected in Massachusetts a century ago, and it now occurs throughout the continental United States and southern Canada. The Asian banded elm bark beetle, Scolytus schevyrewi Semenov, was discovered in the United States in 2003, and now occurs in 28 states...

  3. Evaluating the impact of invasive species in forest landscapes: the southern pine beetle and the hemlock woolly adelgid

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    John D. Waldron; Robert N. Coulson; David M. Cairns; Charles W. Lafon; Maria D. Tchakerian; Weimin Xi; Kier Klepzig; Andrew. Birt

    2010-01-01

    The southern pine beetle, Dendroctonus frontalis (Zimmerman) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae) (SPB), is an indigenous invasive species that infests and causes mortality to pines (Pinus spp.) throughout the Southern United States. The hemlock woolly adelgid, Adelges tsugae (Annand) (Homoptera:...

  4. Effects of Biopesticides on Foliar Diseases and Japanese Beetle (Popillia japonica) Adults in Roses (Rosa spp.), Oakleaf Hydrangea (Hydrangea quercifolia), and Crapemyrtle (Lagerstroemia indica)

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    This study evaluated efficacy of biopesticides for reducing foliar diseases and feeding damage from Japanese beetle adults on hybrid T rose (Rosa spp.), oakleaf hydrangea (Hydrangea quercifolia), and crapemyrtle (Lagerstroemia indica). The materials tested included household soaps with Triclosan act...

  5. Invasion by a Japanese marine microorganism in western North America

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    McGann, M.; Sloan, D.; Cohen, A.N.

    2000-01-01

    The earliest record in western North America of Trochammina hadai Uchio, a benthic foraminifer common in Japanese estuaries, is from sediment collected in Puget Sound in 1971. It was first found in San Francisco Bay in sediment samples taken in 1983, and since 1986 has been collected at 91% of the sampled sites in the Bay, constituting up to 93% of the foraminiferal assemblage at individual sites. The species is also present in recent sediment samples from 12 other sites along the west coast of North America. The evidence indicates that T. hadai is a recent introduction to San Francisco Bay, and is probably also not native to the other North American sites. Trochammina hadai was probably transported from Japan in ships' ballast tanks, in mud associated with anchors, or in sediments associated with oysters imported for mariculture. Its remarkable invasion of San Francisco Bay suggests the potential for massive, rapid invasions by other marine microorganisms.

  6. Molecular analysis of predation by carabid beetles (Carabidae) on the invasive Iberian slug Arion lusitanicus.

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    Hatteland, B A; Symondson, W O C; King, R A; Skage, M; Schander, C; Solhøy, T

    2011-12-01

    The invasive Iberian slug, Arion lusitanicus, is spreading through Europe and poses a major threat to horticulture and agriculture. Natural enemies, capable of killing A. lusitanicus, may be important to our understanding of its population dynamics in recently invaded regions. We used polymerase chain reaction (PCR) to study predation on A. lusitanicus by carabid beetles in the field. A first multiplex PCR was developed, incorporating species-specific primers, and optimised in order to amplify parts of the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (cox1) gene of large Arion slugs, including A. lusitanicus from the gut contents of the predators. A second multiplex PCR, targeting 12S rRNA mtDNA, detected predation on smaller Arion species and the field slug Deroceras reticulatum. Feeding trials were conducted to measure the effects of digestion time on amplicon detectability. The median detection times (the time at which 50% of samples tested positive) for A. lusitanicus and D. reticulatum DNA in the foreguts of Carabus nemoralis were 22 h and 20 h, respectively. Beetle activity-densities were monitored using pitfall traps, and slug densities were estimated using quadrats. Predation rates on slugs in the field by C. nemoralis in spring ranged from 16-39% (beetles positive for slug DNA) and were density dependent, with numbers of beetles testing positive being positively correlated with densities of the respective slug species. Carabus nemoralis was shown to be a potentially important predator of the alien A. lusitanicus in spring and may contribute to conservation biological control.

  7. A variable-instar climate-driven individual beetle-based phenology model for the invasive Asian longhorned beetle (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae)

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    R. Talbot Trotter, III; Melody A. Keena

    2016-01-01

    Efforts to manage and eradicate invasive species can benefit from an improved understanding of the physiology, biology, and behavior of the target species, and ongoing efforts to eradicate the Asian longhorned beetle (Anoplophora glabripennis Motschulsky) highlight the roles this information may play. Here, we present a climate-driven phenology...

  8. Phenylacetonitrile from the Giant Knotweed, Fallopia sachalinensis, Infested by the Japanese Beetle, Popillia japonica, Is Induced by Exogenous Methyl Jasmonate

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    Koji Noge

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Phenylacetonitrile, (E-b-ocimene, linalool, (E-4,8-dimethyl-1,3,7-nonatriene and (E,E-a-farnesene were identified as Japanese beetle, Popillia japonica, feeding-induced volatiles from the leaves of the giant knotweed, Fallopia sachalinensis, but not by mechanical damage. Volatile emission was also induced by treatment with a cellular signaling molecule, methyl jasmonate. These results suggest that volatiles will be synthesized de novo by a biotic elicitor from P. japonica oral secretion.

  9. Invasive bark and ambrosia beetles in California Mediterranean forest ecosystems

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    Steven Seybold; Richard Penrose; Andrew Graves

    2016-01-01

    This chapter discusses the native ranges, histories of introduction, recent research efforts, and the potential impacts of some of 22 species of invasive scolytids in California’s Mediterranean forest ecosystems. The diversity of native and ornamental tree species, the varied climatic zones, and the widespread importation of nursery stock and packaged cargo have made...

  10. Single and combination insecticides evaluated as regulatory immersion treatments to eliminate third-instar Japanese beetle (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae) from small diameter field-grown and containerized nursery plants

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    Japanese beetles, Popillia japonica Newman, are a nursery regulatory pest. Immersion of field-grown plants harvested as balled and burlapped (B&B) or container plants grown in pine bark substrates in a solution of chlorpyrifos or bifenthrin is allowed for certification in the Domestic Japanese Beet...

  11. Diversification in a fluctuating island setting: rapid radiation of Ohomopterus ground beetles in the Japanese Islands.

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    Sota, Teiji; Nagata, Nobuaki

    2008-10-27

    The Japanese Islands have been largely isolated from the East Asian mainland since the Early Pleistocene, allowing the diversification of endemic lineages. Here, we explore speciation rates and historical biogeography of the ground beetles of the subgenus Ohomopterus (genus Carabus) based on nuclear and mitochondrial gene sequences. Ohomopterus diverged into 15 species during the Pleistocene. The speciation rate was 1.92 Ma(-1) and was particularly fast (2.37 Ma(-1)) in a group with highly divergent genitalia. Speciation occurred almost solely within Honshu, the largest island with complex geography. Species diversity is highest in central Honshu, where closely related species occur parapatrically and different-sized species co-occur. Range expansion of some species in the past has resulted in such species assemblages. Introgressive hybridization, at least for mitochondrial DNA, has occurred repeatedly between species in contact, but has not greatly disturbed species distinctness. Small-island populations of some species were separated from main-island populations only after the last glacial (or the last interglacial) period, indicating that island isolation had little role in speciation. Thus, the speciation and formation of the Ohomopterus assemblage occurred despite frequent opportunities for secondary contact and hybridization and the lack of persistent isolation. This radiation was achieved without substantial ecological differentiation, but with marked differentiation in mechanical agents of reproductive isolation (body size and genital morphology).

  12. Population dependent effects of photoperiod on diapause related physiological traits in an invasive beetle (Leptinotarsa decemlineata).

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    Lehmann, Philipp; Lyytinen, Anne; Sinisalo, Tuula; Lindström, Leena

    2012-08-01

    Organisms undergoing latitudinal range expansion face a change in the photoperiod which can lead to a mismatch between the timing of seasonal changes in physiological and life history traits with seasonal environmental changes. This mismatch can lead to lowered survival, for example, due to unsynchronized diapause timing. Successful range expansion even in recent introductions requires that organisms which use the photoperiod for seasonal predictions should show interpopulational differences in photoperiodic responses at different latitudes, as the photoperiod is a function of latitude. We investigated among population differences in photoperiodic responses of life history and physiological traits linked to diapause in the invasive beetle Leptinotarsa decemlineata. Beetles from a northern marginal and a southern European population were reared under short day (12:12L:D) and long day (18:6L:D) photoperiods. Both populations reacted similarly to the short day photoperiod. Their abdominal total lipid content increased and water content decreased which suggests that the beetles prepared for diapause. This was also indicated by low mortality during diapause. In the long day photoperiod large interpopulational differences were found, the southern population ceased lipid accumulation after 5 days, while the northern population continued lipid accumulation as beetles in the short day photoperiod. This indicates that the northern population has a longer critical photoperiod than the southern one. Abdominal total lipid stores in 10 day old beetles were shown to be predominantly composed of neutral lipids (85%), most likely representing storage triacylglycerols. Fatty acid profiles of both the neutral lipids and the phospholipids showed large shifts during the first 10 day of adult life, predominantly in the fractions of 18:0, 18:1ω9, 18:2ω6 and 18:3ω3. Although the degree of unsaturation increased with age, it was not higher in diapausing than non-diapausing beetles. This

  13. Preharvest quarantine treatments of Chlorantraniliprole,Clothianidin, & Imidacloprid-based insecticides for control of Japanese beetle Coleoptera:Scarabaeidae)& other scarab larvae in the root zone of field-grown nurserytrees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Japanese beetle, Popillia japonica Newman (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae), is an important quarantine pest of nurseries. Nursery plant movement from P. japonica-infested regions is regulated by the U.S. Domestic Japanese Beetle Harmonization Plan (DJHP), which classifies states by risk categories. Treatm...

  14. Unexpected variability of millennium green: structural color of Japanese jewel beetle resulted from thermosensitive porous organic multilayer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adachi, Eiki

    2007-09-01

    The Japanese jewel beetle (Chrysochroa fulgidissima) is one of the beautiful beetles showing metallic green color that is kept over a millennium. This is a typical structural color resulting from a multilayer, frequently seen in insects. It was found that the elytra unexpectedly change the color from original green to blue or red by heating at 200 degrees C or by immersing in bromoform for over 1 month. This variability implies that the multilayer consists of a thermosensitive porous material. The color change induced by heating was accompanied with elytron shrinkage; the sensitivity of the reflection peak was -0.6 nm/ degrees C in 30-65 degrees C. The porous structure was determined by positron annihilation lifetime spectroscopy; the averaged pore radius was around 0.25-0.30 nm, which is close to the size of the bromoform molecule. These features prove the thermosensitivity and porous structure of the multilayer although in unusual environments. (c) 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  15. Red turpentine beetle: innocuous native becomes invasive tree killer in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Jianghua; Lu, Min; Gillette, Nancy E; Wingfield, Michael J

    2013-01-01

    The red turpentine beetle (RTB), Dendroctonus valens LeConte (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae), is a secondary pest of pines in its native range in North and Central America. Outbreaks and tree mortality attributed to RTB alone are rare in its native range. RTB was introduced into China in the early 1980s and spread rapidly from Shanxi Province to four adjacent provinces; it has infested over 500,000 ha of pine forest and has caused extensive tree mortality since 1999. We provide a historical background on RTB outbreaks, explanations for its invasive success, management options, and economic impacts of RTB in China. Genetic variation in RTB fungal associates, interactions between RTB and its associated fungi, behavioral differences in Chinese RTB, and other factors favoring RTB outbreaks are considered in an effort to explain the invasiveness of RTB in China. The promise of semiochemicals as a management tool is also discussed.

  16. Influence of 60Co γ irradiation on fertility of Japanese pine sawyer beetle Monochamus alternatus hope (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma Peipei; Zhang Yong'an; Wang Yuzhu; Qu Liangjian; Wang Dengyuan; Jiang Ping; Mou Jianjun

    2008-01-01

    The fertility of the Japanese pine sawyer beetle Monochamus alternatus (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae) irradiated with 60 Co γ-rays was remarkable reduced at the doses of 30Gy, 35Gy and 40Gy, especially at 40Gy. When the non-irradiated females were coupled with the irradiated males first, and then coupled with non-irradiated males, the hatchability and the fertility had little higher but lower than the control. It explained that radiation has certain influence to the female gonad. It also has difference between the hatching rate and the amount of eggs in different match. (authors)

  17. Pre-invasion history and demography shape the genetic variation in the insecticide resistance-related acetylcholinesterase 2 gene in the invasive Colorado potato beetle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piiroinen Saija

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Invasive pest species offers a unique opportunity to study the effects of genetic architecture, demography and selection on patterns of genetic variability. Invasive Colorado potato beetle (Leptinotarsa decemlineata populations have experienced a rapid range expansion and intense selection by insecticides. By comparing native and invasive beetle populations, we studied the origins of organophosphate (OP resistance-associated mutations in the acetylcholinesterase 2 (AChE2 gene, and the role of selection and demography on its genetic variability. Results Analysis of three Mexican, two US and five European populations yielded a total of 49 haplotypes. Contrary to the expectations all genetic variability was associated with a point mutation linked to insecticide resistance (S291G, this mutation was found in 100% of Mexican, 95% of US and 71% of European beetle sequences analysed. Only two susceptible haplotypes, genetically very differentiated, were found, one in US and one in Europe. The genetic variability at the AChE2 gene was compared with two other genes not directly affected by insecticide selection, diapause protein 1 and juvenile hormone esterase. All three genes showed reduction in genetic variability indicative of a population bottleneck associated with the invasion. Conclusions Stochastic effects during invasion explain most of the observed patterns of genetic variability at the three genes investigated. The high frequency of the S291G mutation in the AChE2 gene among native populations suggests this mutation is the ancestral state and thus, either a pre-adaptation of the beetle for OP resistance or the AChE2 is not the major gene conferring OP resistance. The long historical association with host plant alkaloids together with recombination may have contributed to the high genetic variation at this locus. The genetic diversity in the AChE2 locus of the European beetles, in turn, strongly reflects founder effects

  18. Host Acceptance and Larval Competition between the Invasive Banded and European Elm Bark Beetles, Scolytus schevyrewi and S. multistriatus (Coleoptera: Scolytidae): Potential Mechanisms for Competitive Displacement

    Science.gov (United States)

    A recent survey revealed that the newly invasive banded elm bark beetle, Scolytus schevyrewi, was much more abundant than the long-established European elm bark beetle, S. multistriatus, in areas of Colorado and Wyoming, USA. This study sought to determine whether competitive displacement of S. mul...

  19. Fusarium euwallaceae sp. nov.--a symbiotic fungus of Euwallacea sp., an invasive ambrosia beetle in Israel and California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, S; Sharon, M; Maymon, M; Mendel, Z; Protasov, A; Aoki, T; Eskalen, A; O'Donnell, K

    2013-01-01

    The invasive Asian ambrosia beetle Euwallacea sp. (Coleoptera, Scolytinae, Xyleborini) and a novel Fusarium sp. that it farms in its galleries as a source of nutrition causes serious damage to more than 20 species of live trees and pose a serious threat to avocado production (Persea americana) in Israel and California. Adult female beetles are equipped with mandibular mycangia in which its fungal symbiont is transported within and from the natal galleries. Damage caused to the xylem is associated with disease symptoms that include sugar or gum exudates, dieback, wilt and ultimately host tree mortality. In 2012 the beetle was recorded on more than 200 and 20 different urban landscape species in southern California and Israel respectively. Euwallacea sp. and its symbiont are closely related to the tea shot-hole borer (E. fornicatus) and its obligate symbiont, F. ambrosium occurring in Sri Lanka and India. To distinguish these beetles, hereafter the unnamed xyleborine in Israel and California will be referred to as Euwallacea sp. IS/CA. Both fusaria exhibit distinctive ecologies and produce clavate macroconidia, which we think might represent an adaption to the species-specific beetle partner. Both fusaria comprise a genealogically exclusive lineage within Clade 3 of the Fusarium solani species complex (FSSC) that can be differentiated with arbitrarily primed PCR. Currently these fusaria can be distinguished only phenotypically by the abundant production of blue to brownish macroconidia in the symbiont of Euwallacea sp. IS/CA and their rarity or absence in F. ambrosium. We speculate that obligate symbiosis of Euwallacea and Fusarium, might have driven ecological speciation in these mutualists. Thus, the purpose of this paper is to describe and illustrate the novel, economically destructive avocado pathogen as Fusarium euwallaceae sp. nov. S. Freeman et al.

  20. Invader Competition with Local Competitors: Displacement or Coexistence among the Invasive Khapra Beetle, Trogoderma granarium Everts (Coleoptera: Dermestidae, and Two Other Major Stored-Grain Beetles?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nickolas G. Kavallieratos

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Local potential competitor species are important determinants of the invasibility of an environment even when widely recognized invasive species are concerned since it may compromise its establishment. Thus, the outcome of the direct competition among the invasive khapra beetle, Trogoderma granarium, and the cosmopolitan species lesser grain borer, Rhyzopertha dominica and rice weevil, Sitophilus oryzae, and thus the likelihood of establishment of T. granarium under their co-occurrence, was here explored in paddy rice and wheat, at temperatures between 25 and 35°C and through 200 days of storage. Insect infestations were higher in wheat rather than in paddy rice. Trogoderma granarium was unable to displace any of the competing species under two and three-species competition experiments retaining lower adult population than both local competitors at the lowest temperature level. Rhyzopertha dominica prevailed in paddy rice, while S. oryzae prevailed in wheat. Paradoxically, T. granarium adults retained low population growth but contributed more for the total frass production and grain loss, much more than that recorded for R. dominica. Nonetheless, T. granarium larvae exhibited high population numbers 130 days after the introduction of the parental individuals. At higher temperature levels (30 and 35°C the numbers of T. granarium larvae were extremely high even after 65 days, while the numbers of the other two species rapidly declined. Interestingly, the simultaneous presence of R. dominica and S. oryzae was beneficial for the population growth of T. granarium. Consequently, T. granarium has the ability to outperform other primary stored-product insects at high temperatures, while its presence at low temperatures remains for long periods apparently unaffected by other co-occurring species. Hence, T. granarium, in wheat, is able to outcompete other major species of stored-product insects at elevated temperatures, while at 25°C this species can

  1. Response of beetles (Coleoptera) at three heights to the experimental removal of an invasive shrub, Chinese privet (Lingustrum sinense), from floodplain forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael D. Ulyshen; Scott Horn; James L. Hanula

    2010-01-01

    Chinese privet (Ligustrum sinense Lour.), an invasive shrub from Asia, is well established in the southeastern United States where it dominates many floodplain forests. We used flight intercept traps to sample beetles at three heights (0.5, 5 and 15 m) in *2 ha plots in which L. sinense had (by chainsaws or mulching machine) or had not been removed...

  2. The impact of an invasive ambrosia beetle on the riparian habitats of the Tijuana River Valley, California

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John M. Boland

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The Tijuana River Valley is the first natural habitat in California to be substantially invaded by the Kuroshio Shot Hole Borer (KSHB, Euwallacea sp., an ambrosia beetle native to Southeast Asia. This paper documents the distribution of the KSHB in the riparian vegetation in the valley and assesses the damage done to the vegetation as of early 2016, approximately six months after the beetle was first observed in the valley. I divided the riparian habitats into 29 survey units so that the vegetation within each unit was relatively homogenous in terms of plant species composition, age and density. From a random point within each unit, I examined approximately 60 individuals of the dominant plant species for evidence of KSHB infestation and evidence of major damage such as limb breakage. In the 22 forested units,I examined the dominant arroyo and black willows (Salix lasiolepis Benth. and S. gooddingii C.R. Ball, and in the seven scrub units, I examined mule fat (Baccharis salicifolia (Ruiz & Pav. Pers.. Evidence of KSHB infestation was found in 25 of the 29 units. In the forest units, infestation rates ranged from 0 to 100% and were high (>60% in 16 of the units. In the scrub units, infestation rates ranged from 0 to 33%. Infestation rates were significantly correlated with the wetness of a unit; wetter units had higher infestation rates. Evidence of major physical damage was found in 24 units, and dense stands of willows were reduced to broken trunks in several areas. Overall, I estimated that more than 280,000 (70% of the willows in the valley were infested, and more than 140,000 had suffered major limb damage. In addition, I recorded evidence of KSHB infestation in the other common plant species in the valley; of the 23 species examined, 14 showed evidence of beetle attack. The four species with the highest rates of infestation were native trees in the Salicaceae family. The three species considered to be the worst invasive plants in the valley

  3. Non-invasive characterisation of SIX Japanese hand-guards (tsuba)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barzagli, Elisa; Grazzi, Francesco; Civita, Francesco; Scherillo, Antonella; Pietropaolo, Antonino; Festa, Giulia; Zoppi, Marco

    2013-12-01

    In this work we present a systematic study of Japanese sword hand-guards ( tsuba) carried out by means of non-invasive techniques using neutrons. Several tsuba from different periods, belonging to the Japanese Section of the Stibbert Museum, were analysed using an innovative approach to characterise the bulk of the samples, coupling two neutron techniques, namely Time of Flight Neutron Diffraction (ToF-ND) and Nuclear Resonance Capture Analysis (NRCA). The measurements were carried out on the same instrument: the INES beam-line at the ISIS spallation pulsed neutron source (UK). NRCA analysis allows identifying the elements present in the sample gauge volume, while neutron diffraction is exploited to quantify the phase distribution and other micro-structural parameters of the metal specimen. The results show that all samples are made of high-quality metal, either steel or copper alloy, with noticeable changes in composition and working techniques, depending on the place and time of manufacturing.

  4. Shifts in dynamic regime of an invasive lady beetle are linked to the invasion and insecticidal management of its prey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bahlai, C.A.; Werf, van der W.; O'Neal, M.; Hemerik, L.; Landis, D.A.

    2015-01-01

    The spread and impact of invasive species may vary over time in relation to changes in the species itself, the biological community of which it is part, or external controls on the system. Here we investigate whether there have been changes in dynamic regimes over the last 20 years of two invasive

  5. A non-invasive study of alopecia in Japanese macaques Macaca fuscata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peng ZHANG

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available This article provides information on the phenomenon of alopecia in Japanese macaques, Macaca fuscata, in various environments and proposes a 3-step scoring system for a quantitative assessment of hair loss. Results suggest that alopecia is commonly observed in Japanese macaques, with 20.5% of individuals showing head alopecia and 4.7% showing back alopecia across eight study groups. Alopecia was more commonly observed in adult females (30.8% individuals showing head alopecia and 15.3% showing back alopecia than in other age-sex classes. Seasonal variation of back alopecia was noted, in particular, individuals with patchy back hair were more frequently observed in winter than in summer. Seasonal variation was not observed in head hair. The distribution of alopecia was also different among study groups. The wild population generally had better hair condition than provisioned populations and captive populations. The present study used a non-invasive alopecia scoring system which can be a useful, rapid and non-invasive tool to monitor animal health and well-being at a population level [Current Zoology 57 (1: 26–35, 2011].

  6. Is a change in juvenile hormone sensitivity involved in range expansion in an invasive beetle?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehmann, Philipp; Lyytinen, Anne; Piiroinen, Saija; Lindström, Leena

    2015-01-01

    It has been suggested that rapid range expansion could proceed through evolution in the endocrinological machinery controlling life-history switches. Based on this we tested whether the Colorado potato beetle, Leptinotarsa decemlineata, which has rapidly expanded its range across latitudinal regions in Europe, and shows photoperiodic adaptation in overwintering initiation, has different sensitivities to juvenile hormone (JH) manipulation along a latitudinal gradient. A factorial experiment where beetles were reared either under a long or short day photoperiod was performed. Hormone levels were manipulated by topical applications. An allatostatin mimic, H17, was used to decrease and a juvenile hormone III analogue, pyriproxyfen, was used to increase the hormone levels. The effects of photoperiod and hormone manipulations on fecundity and overwintering related burrowing were monitored. Application of H17 decreased fecundity but did not induce overwintering related burrowing. Manipulation with pyriproxyfen increased fecundity and delayed burrowing. While small population-dependent differences in responsiveness to the topical application treatments were observed in fecundity, none were seen in overwintering related burrowing. The results indicate that the rapid photoperiodic adaptation manifested in several life-history and physiological traits in L. decemlineata in Europe is unlikely a result of population dependent differences in JH III sensitivity. While other endocrine factors cannot be ruled out, more likely mechanisms could be genetic changes in upstream elements, such as the photoperiodic clock or the insulin signaling pathway.

  7. Invasive Community-Acquired Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus in a Japanese Girl with Disseminating Multiple Organ Infection: A Case Report and Review of Japanese Pediatric Cases

    OpenAIRE

    Yonezawa, Ryuta; Kuwana, Tsukasa; Kawamura, Kengo; Inamo, Yasuji

    2015-01-01

    Pediatric invasive community-acquired methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (CA-MRSA) infection is very serious and occasionally fatal. This infectious disease is still a relatively rare and unfamiliar infectious disease in Japan. We report a positive outcome in a 23-month-old Japanese girl with meningitis, osteomyelitis, fasciitis, necrotizing pneumonia, urinary tract infection, and bacteremia due to CA-MRSA treated with linezolid. PCR testing of the CA-MRSA strain was positive for PVL...

  8. Complex interactions among host pines and fungi vectored by an invasive bark beetle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Min Lu; Michael J. Wingfield; Nancy E. Gillette; Sylvia R. Mori; Jian-Hua Sun

    2010-01-01

    Recent studies have investigated the relationships between pairs or groups of exotic species to illustrate invasive mechanisms, but most have focused on interactions at a single trophic level.Here, we conducted pathogenicity tests, analyses of host volatiles and fungal growth tests to elucidate an intricate network of interactions between the host...

  9. Body size and the rate of spread of invasive ladybird beetles in North America

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hemptinne, J. L.; Magro, A.; Evans, E.W.; Dixon, Anthony F. G.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 14, č. 3 (2012), s. 595-605 ISSN 1387-3547 Institutional support: RVO:67179843 Keywords : Invasiveness * Body size * Reproductive rate * Coccinella septempunctata * Harmonia axyridis Subject RIV: EH - Ecology , Behaviour Impact factor: 2.509, year: 2012

  10. Ectoparasitic mite and fungus on an invasive lady beetle: parasite coexistence and influence on host survival

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harmonia axyridis is an invasive generalist predator originating in Asia, but now distributed in North and South America, Europe and southern Africa. The naturally occurring enemies (parasites, pathogens, parasitoids) that attack H. axyridis are not well-known. A parasitic mite, Coccipolipus hippoda...

  11. Interaction of an invasive bark beetle with a native forest pathogen: Potential effect of dwarf mistletoe on range expansion of mountain pine beetle in jack pine forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jennifer Klutsch; Nadir Erbilgin

    2012-01-01

    In recent decades, climate change has facilitated shifts in species ranges that have the potential to significantly affect ecosystem dynamics and resilience. Mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae) is expanding east from British Columbia, where it has killed millions of pine trees, primarily lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta...

  12. Characterization of two non-native invasive bark beetles, Scolytus schevyrewi and Scolytus multistriatus (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patricia L. Johnson; Jane L. Hayes; John E. Rinehart; Walter S. Sheppard

    2008-01-01

    Scolytus schevyrewi Semenov, the banded elm bark beetle, and S. multistriatus Marsham, the smaller European elm bark beetle, are morphologically similar. Reliance on adult external morphological characters for identification can be problematic because of wide within species variability and the need for good-quality specimens....

  13. Invasive Asian Fusarium – Euwallacea ambrosia beetle mutualists pose a serious threat to forests, urban landscapes and the avocado industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Several species of the ambrosia beetle Euwallacea (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae) cultivate Ambrosia Fusarium Clade (AFC) species in their galleries as a source of food. Like all other scolytine beetles in the tribe Xyleborini, Euwallacea are thought to be obligate mutualists with their fung...

  14. Fatty Acid Composition of Novel Host Jack Pine Do Not Prevent Host Acceptance and Colonization by the Invasive Mountain Pine Beetle and Its Symbiotic Fungus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishangulyyeva, Guncha; Najar, Ahmed; Curtis, Jonathan M.

    2016-01-01

    Fatty acids are major components of plant lipids and can affect growth and development of insect herbivores. Despite a large literature examining the roles of fatty acids in conifers, relatively few studies have tested the effects of fatty acids on insect herbivores and their microbial symbionts. Particularly, whether fatty acids can affect the suitability of conifers for insect herbivores has never been studied before. Thus, we evaluated if composition of fatty acids impede or facilitate colonization of jack pine (Pinus banksiana) by the invasive mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae) and its symbiotic fungus (Grosmannia clavigera). This is the first study to examine the effects of tree fatty acids on any bark beetle species and its symbiotic fungus. In a novel bioassay, we found that plant tissues (hosts and non-host) amended with synthetic fatty acids at concentrations representative of jack pine were compatible with beetle larvae. Likewise, G. clavigera grew in media amended with lipid fractions or synthetic fatty acids at concentrations present in jack pine. In contrast, fatty acids and lipid composition of a non-host were not suitable for the beetle larvae or the fungus. Apparently, concentrations of individual, rather than total, fatty acids determined the suitability of jack pine. Furthermore, sampling of host and non-host tree species across Canada demonstrated that the composition of jack pine fatty acids was similar to the different populations of beetle’s historical hosts. These results demonstrate that fatty acids composition compatible with insect herbivores and their microbial symbionts can be important factor defining host suitability to invasive insects. PMID:27583820

  15. Predation by carabid beetles on the invasive slug Arion vulgaris in an agricultural semi-field experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pianezzola, E; Roth, S; Hatteland, B A

    2013-04-01

    Arion vulgaris Moquin-Tandon 1855 is one of the most important invasive species in Europe, affecting both biodiversity and agriculture. The species is spreading in many parts of Europe, inflicting severe damage to horticultural plants and cultivated crops partly due to a lack of satisfactory and effective management solutions. Molluscicides have traditionally been used to manage slug densities, although the effects are variable and some have severe side-effects on other biota. Thus, there is a need to explore potential alternatives such as biological control. The nematode Phasmarhabditis hermaphrodita is the only biological agent that has been applied commercially so far. However, other biological control agents such as carabid beetles have also been found to be promising. In addition, some carabid species have been shown to feed on A. vulgaris in the field as well as in the laboratory. Two species in particular have been found to be important predators of A. vulgaris, and these species are also common in agricultural environments: Pterostichus melanarius and Carabus nemoralis. This study is the first to use semi-field experiments in a strawberry field, manipulating densities, to investigate how P. melanarius and C. nemoralis affect densities of A. vulgaris eggs and juveniles, respectively. Gut contents of C. nemoralis were analysed using multiplex PCR methods to detect DNA of juvenile slugs. Results show that both P. melanarius and C. nemoralis significantly affect densities of slug eggs and juvenile slugs under semi-field conditions and that C. nemoralis seems to prefer slugs smaller than one gram. Carabus nemoralis seems to be especially promising in reducing densities of A. vulgaris, and future studies should investigate the potential of using this species as a biological control agent.

  16. Invasive Community-Acquired Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus in a Japanese Girl with Disseminating Multiple Organ Infection: A Case Report and Review of Japanese Pediatric Cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryuta Yonezawa

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Pediatric invasive community-acquired methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (CA-MRSA infection is very serious and occasionally fatal. This infectious disease is still a relatively rare and unfamiliar infectious disease in Japan. We report a positive outcome in a 23-month-old Japanese girl with meningitis, osteomyelitis, fasciitis, necrotizing pneumonia, urinary tract infection, and bacteremia due to CA-MRSA treated with linezolid. PCR testing of the CA-MRSA strain was positive for PVL and staphylococcal enterotoxin b and negative for ACME. SCC mec was type IVa. This case underscores the selection of effective combinations of antimicrobial agents for its treatment. We need to be aware of invasive CA-MRSA infection, which rapidly progresses with a serious clinical course, because the incidence of the disease may be increasing in Japan.

  17. Invasive Community-Acquired Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus in a Japanese Girl with Disseminating Multiple Organ Infection: A Case Report and Review of Japanese Pediatric Cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yonezawa, Ryuta; Kuwana, Tsukasa; Kawamura, Kengo; Inamo, Yasuji

    2015-01-01

    Pediatric invasive community-acquired methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (CA-MRSA) infection is very serious and occasionally fatal. This infectious disease is still a relatively rare and unfamiliar infectious disease in Japan. We report a positive outcome in a 23-month-old Japanese girl with meningitis, osteomyelitis, fasciitis, necrotizing pneumonia, urinary tract infection, and bacteremia due to CA-MRSA treated with linezolid. PCR testing of the CA-MRSA strain was positive for PVL and staphylococcal enterotoxin b and negative for ACME. SCC mec was type IVa. This case underscores the selection of effective combinations of antimicrobial agents for its treatment. We need to be aware of invasive CA-MRSA infection, which rapidly progresses with a serious clinical course, because the incidence of the disease may be increasing in Japan.

  18. Host preference of the vector beetle, host resistance, and expanding patterns of Japanese oak wilt in a stand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazuyoshi Futai; Hiroaki Kiku; Hong-ye Qi; Hagus Tarn; Yuko Takeuchi; Michimasa. Yamasaki

    2012-01-01

    Since the early 1980s, an epidemic forest disease, Japanese Oak Wilt (JOW), has been spreading from coastal areas along the Sea of Japan to the interior of Honshu island and has been devastating huge areas of forests by killing an enormous number of oak trees in urban fringe mountains, gardens, and parks. The disease is caused by a fungus, Raffaelea...

  19. Bacillus trypoxylicola sp. nov., xylanase-producing alkaliphilic bacteria isolated from the guts of Japanese horned beetle larvae (Trypoxylus dichotomus septentrionalis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aizawa, Tomoko; Urai, Makoto; Iwabuchi, Noriyuki; Nakajima, Mutsuyasu; Sunairi, Michio

    2010-01-01

    Three xylanase-producing alkaliphilic strains, SU1(T), 36AC4 and 36AC6, were isolated from the guts of larvae of the Japanese horned beetle (Trypoxylus dichotomus septentrionalis). The isolates stained Gram-positive and were aerobic, spore-forming, non-motile and rod-shaped and grew optimally at 30 degrees C and pH 9. They contained MK-7 as the major isoprenoid quinone and iso-C(15 : 0), anteiso-C(15 : 0), anteiso-C(17 : 0) and iso-C(17 : 0) as the major fatty acids. The DNA G+C contents of the strains were 37.4-37.7 mol%. On the basis of 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity, these strains were shown to belong to the genus Bacillus. Although their 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity to the type strains of the alkaliphilic species Bacillus pseudalcaliphilus and B. alcalophilus was 97 %, the novel isolates formed a distinct group in the phylogenetic trees and DNA-DNA relatedness values to the type strains of these species were less than 30 %. Results of physiological and biochemical tests, including salt preference, enabled these strains to be differentiated phenotypically from described Bacillus species. Therefore, strains SU1(T), 36AC4 and 36AC6 represent a novel species for which the name Bacillus trypoxylicola sp. nov. is proposed; the type strain is SU1(T) (=NBRC 102646(T) =KCTC 13244(T)).

  20. The invasion risk of species associated with Japanese Tsunami Marine Debris in Pacific North America and Hawaii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Therriault, Thomas W; Nelson, Jocelyn C; Carlton, James T; Liggan, Lauran; Otani, Michio; Kawai, Hiroshi; Scriven, Danielle; Ruiz, Gregory M; Clarke Murray, Cathryn

    2018-01-25

    Marine debris from the Great Tsunami of 2011 represents a unique transport vector for Japanese species to reach Pacific North America and Hawaii. Here we characterize the invasion risk of invertebrate species associated with tsunami debris using a screening-level risk assessment tool - the Canadian Marine Invasive Screening Tool (CMIST). Higher-risk invertebrate invaders were identified for each of five different ecoregions. Some of these are well-known global invaders, such as the mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis and the ascidian Didemnum vexillum which already have invasion histories in some of the assessed ecoregions, while others like the sea star Asterias amurensis and the shore crab Hemigrapsus sanguineus have yet to invade large portions of the assessed ecoregions but also are recognized global invaders. In general, the probability of invasion was lower for the Gulf of Alaska and Hawaii, in part due to lower climate matches and the availability of other invasion vectors. Crown Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Survey of foliar monoterpenes across the range of jack pine reveal three widespread chemotypes: implications to host expansion of invasive mountain pine beetle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Spencer eTaft

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The secondary compounds of pines (Pinus can strongly affect the physiology, ecology and behaviors of the bark beetles (Coleoptera: Curculionidae, Scolytinae that feed on sub-cortical tissues of hosts. Jack pine (Pinus banksiana has a wide natural distribution range in North America (Canada and USA and thus variations in its secondary compounds, particularly monoterpenes, could affect the host expansion of invasive mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae, which has recently expanded its range into the novel jack pine boreal forest. We investigated monoterpene composition of 601 jack pine trees from natural and provenance forest stands representing 63 populations from Alberta to the Atlantic coast. Throughout its range, jack pine exhibited three chemotypes characterized by high proportions of α-pinene, β-pinene, or limonene. The frequency with which the α-pinene and β-pinene chemotypes occurred at individual sites was correlated to climatic variables, such as continentality and mean annual precipitation, as were the individual α-pinene and β-pinene concentrations. However, other monoterpenes were generally not correlated to climatic variables or geographic distribution. Finally, while the enantiomeric ratios of β-pinene and limonene remained constant across jack pine’s distribution, (‒:(+-α-pinene exhibited two separate trends, thereby delineating two α-pinene phenotypes, both of which occurred across jack pine’s range. These significant variations in jack pine monoterpene composition may have cascading effects on the continued eastward spread and success of D. ponderosae in the Canadian boreal forest.

  2. Asparagus Beetle and Spotted Asparagus Beetle

    OpenAIRE

    Hodgson, Erin W.; Drost, Dan

    2007-01-01

    Asparagus beetle, Crioceris asparagi, and spotted asparagus beetle, C. duodecimpunctata are leaf beetles in the family Chrysomelidae. These beetles feed exclusively on asparagus and are native to Europe. Asparagus beetle is the more economically injurious of the two species.

  3. Simple and Efficient Trap for Bark and Ambrosia Beetles (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) to Facilitate Invasive Species Monitoring and Citizen Involvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steininger, M S; Hulcr, J; Šigut, M; Lucky, A

    2015-06-01

    Bark and ambrosia beetles (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae & Platypodinae) are among the most damaging forest pests worldwide, and monitoring is essential to damage prevention. Unfortunately, traps and attractants that are currently used are costly, and agencies rely on limited field personnel for deployment. The situation can be greatly aided by 1) the development of cost-effective trapping techniques, and 2) distribution of the effort through the Citizen Science approach. The goal of this study was to test a simple, effective trap that can be made and deployed by anyone interested in collecting bark and ambrosia beetles. Three trap types made from 2-liter soda bottles and, separately, four attractants were compared. Simple, one-window traps performed comparably at capturing species in traps painted or with multiple windows. A comparison of attractants in two-window traps found that 95% ethanol attracted the highest number of species but that Purell hand sanitizer (70% ethanol) and then Germ-X hand sanitizer (63% ethanol) were also effective. A perforated zip-top plastic bag containing Purell hanging over a trap filled with automobile antifreeze attracted the fewest species and individual specimens. Overall, >4,500 bark and ambrosia beetles, including 30 species were captured, representing a third of the regional species diversity. More than three quarters of the specimens were nonnative, representing nearly half of the known regional exotic species. These results suggest that simple one-window soda bottle traps baited with ethanol-based hand sanitizer will be effective and inexpensive tools for large-scale monitoring of bark and ambrosia beetles. © The Authors 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  4. Interspecific Interactions between the Invasive Beetle Harmonia axyridis, Native Anthocorids and Entomopathogenic Fungi

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Howe, Andrew Gordon

    The Earth’s biodiversity encompasses dynamic arrangements of ecosystems, species and their inherent genetic diversity. Biodiversity is an integral component underlying functional ecosystems. Human well-being is dependent on a variety of services provided by ecosystems, e.g. climate regulation, pest....... The harlequin ladybird Harmonia axyridis Pallas (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) was introduced to North America from Asia in the early 20th century as a biological control agent against insect agricultural pests. In the late 20th century a specific population in eastern North America became invasive. Invasive H...... light on the role of insect behaviour in biological invasions, a supplementary dataset compared behavioural 8 traits (tendency to fly/mate and activity) relevant to successful invasion between five native/invasive H. axyridis populations. Findings from laboratory assays strongly suggested interspecific...

  5. A dynamical model for bark beetle outbreaks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Křivan, Vlastimil; Lewis, Mark; Bentz, Barbara J; Bewick, Sharon; Lenhart, Suzanne M; Liebhold, Andrew

    2016-10-21

    Tree-killing bark beetles are major disturbance agents affecting coniferous forest ecosystems. The role of environmental conditions on driving beetle outbreaks is becoming increasingly important as global climatic change alters environmental factors, such as drought stress, that, in turn, govern tree resistance. Furthermore, dynamics between beetles and trees are highly nonlinear, due to complex aggregation behaviors exhibited by beetles attacking trees. Models have a role to play in helping unravel the effects of variable tree resistance and beetle aggregation on bark beetle outbreaks. In this article we develop a new mathematical model for bark beetle outbreaks using an analogy with epidemiological models. Because the model operates on several distinct time scales, singular perturbation methods are used to simplify the model. The result is a dynamical system that tracks populations of uninfested and infested trees. A limiting case of the model is a discontinuous function of state variables, leading to solutions in the Filippov sense. The model assumes an extensive seed-bank so that tree recruitment is possible even if trees go extinct. Two scenarios are considered for immigration of new beetles. The first is a single tree stand with beetles immigrating from outside while the second considers two forest stands with beetle dispersal between them. For the seed-bank driven recruitment rate, when beetle immigration is low, the forest stand recovers to a beetle-free state. At high beetle immigration rates beetle populations approach an endemic equilibrium state. At intermediate immigration rates, the model predicts bistability as the forest can be in either of the two equilibrium states: a healthy forest, or a forest with an endemic beetle population. The model bistability leads to hysteresis. Interactions between two stands show how a less resistant stand of trees may provide an initial toe-hold for the invasion, which later leads to a regional beetle outbreak in the

  6. The invasion history, distribution and colour pattern forms of the harlequin ladybird beetle Harmonia axyridis (Pall.) (Coleoptera, Coccinellidae) in Slovakia, Central Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panigaj, Lubomír; Zach, Peter; Honěk, Alois; Nedvěd, Oldřich; Kulfan, Ján; Martinková, Zdenka; Selyemová, Diana; Viglášová, Sandra; Roy, Helen E

    2014-01-01

    The harlequin ladybird beetle Harmonia axyridis (Coleoptera, Coccinellidae) has invaded and established in Slovakia. Following unintentional introduction in 2008, the spread of the alien coccinellid was very fast. By the end of 2009, it was recorded across the whole country, and by the end of 2012 it was widely distributed and common in various habitats, particularly gardens, orchards and urban areas, where it was most frequent on trees. The rate of eastward spread was approximately 200 km year(-1), similar to the overall rate of spread in Europe. Between 2008 and 2012, the coccinellid was recorded in a total of 153 localities, in altitudes ranging from 98 to 1,250 m. Most records of this species were made in lowlands, hilly areas and valleys separating mountain ridges. However, it was only rarely documented in areas above 700 m a.s.l. The non-melanic colour form (f. succinea) was dominant along a longitudinal transect including eight urban areas across Slovakia, with the frequency of melanic forms (f. spectabilis and f. conspicua together) between 6.3 and 19.2% and a median equal to 10.5%. The invasion history and distribution of H. axyridis in Slovakia are discussed with regard to the time sequence of records, rate of spread, altitudinal distribution, anthropogenic dispersal, effective recording, proportion of melanic forms and other relevant aspects associated with the spread of this successful invader.

  7. The invasion history, distribution and colour pattern forms of the harlequin ladybird beetle Harmonia axyridis (Pall. (Coleoptera, Coccinellidae in Slovakia, Central Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ľubomír Panigaj

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The harlequin ladybird beetle Harmonia axyridis (Coleoptera, Coccinellidae has invaded and established in Slovakia. Following unintentional introduction in 2008, the spread of the alien coccinellid was very fast. By the end of 2009, it was recorded across the whole country, and by the end of 2012 it was widely distributed and common in various habitats, particularly gardens, orchards and urban areas, where it was most frequent on trees. The rate of eastward spread was approximately 200 km year-1, similar to the overall rate of spread in Europe. Between 2008 and 2012, the coccinellid was recorded in a total of 153 localities, in altitudes ranging from 98 to 1,250 m. Most records of this species were made in lowlands, hilly areas and valleys separating mountain ridges. However, it was only rarely documented in areas above 700 m a.s.l. The non-melanic colour form (f. succinea was dominant along alongitudinal transect including eight urban areas across Slovakia, with the frequency of melanic forms (f. spectabilis and f. conspicua together between 6.3 and 19.2% and a median equal to 10.5%. The invasion history and distribution of H. axyridis in Slovakia are discussed with regard to the time sequence of records, rate of spread, altitudinal distribution, anthropogenic dispersal, effective recording, proportion of melanic forms and other relevant aspects associated with the spread of this successful invader.

  8. The importance of relative humidity and trophic resources in governing ecological niche of the invasive carabid beetle Merizodus soledadinus in the Kerguelen archipelago.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouisse, Tiphaine; Bonte, Dries; Lebouvier, Marc; Hendrickx, Frederik; Renault, David

    Comprehensive studies to identify species-specific drivers of survival to environmental stress, reproduction, growth, and recruitment are vital to gaining a better understanding of the main ecological factors shaping species habitat distribution and dispersal routes. The present study performed a field-based assessment of habitat distribution in the invasive carabid beetle Merizodus soledadinus for the Kerguelen archipelago. The results emphasised humid habitats as a key element of the insect's realised niche. In addition, insects faced food and water stress during dispersal events. We evaluated quantitatively how water availability and trophic resources governed the spatial distribution of this invasive predatory insect at Îles Kerguelen. Food and water stress survival durations [in 100%, 70%, and 30% relative humidity (RH) conditions] and changes in a set of primary metabolic compounds (metabolomics) were determined. Adult M. soledadinus supplied with water ad libitum were highly tolerant to prolonged starvation (LT 50 =51.7±6.2d). However, food-deprived insect survival decreased rapidly in moderate (70% RH, LT 50 =30.37±1.39h) and low (30% RH, LT 50 =13.03±0.48h) RH conditions. Consistently, body water content decreased rapidly in insects exposed to 70% and 30% RH. Metabolic variation evidenced the effects of food deprivation in control insects (exposed to 100% RH), which exhibited a progressive decline of most glycolytic sugars and tricarboxylic acid cycle intermediates. Most metabolite levels were elevated levels during the first few hours of exposure to 30% and 70% RH. Augmented alanine and lactate levels suggested a shift to anaerobic metabolism. Simultaneously, peaks in threonine and glycolytic sugars pointed to metabolic disruption and a progressive physiological breakdown in dehydrating individuals. Overall, the results of our study indicate that the geographic distribution of M. soledadinus populations is highly dependent on habitat RH and water

  9. Preharvest quarantine treatments of chlorantraniliprole, clothianidin, and imidacloprid-based insecticides for control of Japanese beetle (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae) and other scarab larvae in the root zone of field-grown nursery trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliver, Jason B; Ranger, Christopher M; Reding, Michael E; Moyseenko, James J; Youssef, Nadeer N; Bray, Alicia M

    2013-06-01

    Japanese beetle, Popillia japonica Newman (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae), is an important quarantine pest of nurseries. Nursery plant movement from P. japonica-infested regions is regulated by the U.S. Domestic Japanese Beetle Harmonization Plan (DJHP), which classifies states by risk categories. Treatments for category 2 states include preharvest soil surface treatment of nursery plants grown in field soil using Discus SC, Marathon (1G or 60 WP), or Flagship (0.22G or 25 WG). In this study, Discus, Marathon 60 WP, or Flagship 0.22G DJHP standards were compared with labeled rates of non-DJHP-approved insecticides, including neonicotinoids clothianidin (Arena 50WDG), generic imidacloprid (Quali-Pro Imidacloprid 2 F T&O Insecticide, Mallet 2 F T&O Insecticide, and Lada 2 F Insecticide), and imidacloprid + bifenthrin (Allectus SC), as well as the anthranilic diamide, chlorantraniliprole (Acelepryn Insecticide). Arena provided 100% P. japonica control in May, June, and July over four test years, but had one larva recovered during August in two of those 4 yr. Acelepryn did not provide DJHP-acceptable P. japonica control. During July, Allectus provided 100% P. japonica control in three of four test years, but had four larvae in one test year. Other treatments tested only during July, which provided 100% P. japonica control, included Discus (five tests); Marathon, Quali-Pro, and Mallet (two tests); and Lada and Flagship (one test). Generic imidacloprid 2 F formulations were equivalent in P. japonica control to DJHP-approved insecticides. Insecticides generally performed poorly on other scarabs or curculionid larvae. The study supports Arena, Allectus, and generic imidacloprid 2 F products as suitable candidates for the DJHP.

  10. Walnut twig beetle: update on the biology and chemical ecology of a vector of an invasive fatal disease of walnut in the western U.S.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steven J. Seybold; Andrew D. Graves; Tom W. Coleman

    2011-01-01

    The walnut twig beetle, Pityophthorus juglandis Blackman (Coleoptera: Scolytidae) (sensu Wood 2007), is a native North American bark beetle that has been recently implicated as the vector of thousand cankers disease of walnut trees in the western U.S. (Tisserat et al. 2009, Utley et al. 2009, Seybold et al. 2010).

  11. Beneficial Insects: Beetles

    OpenAIRE

    Hodgson, Erin W.; Patterson, Ron

    2007-01-01

    There are many beneficial beetles in Utah besides lady beetles or ladybugs. Beetles can significantly reduce common insect and weed problems and in some cases eliminate the need for chemical control. Examples of beneficial beetles include: ground beetles, rove beetles, tiger beetles and tortoise beetles. Many of these beetles are native to Utah, while others have been purposely introduced to help control damage from exotic insect and weed pests.

  12. Sexual reproduction of Japanese knotweed (Fallopia japonica s.l.) at its northern distribution limit: new evidence of the effect of climate warming on an invasive species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groeneveld, Elisabeth; Belzile, François; Lavoie, Claude

    2014-03-01

    In response to climate warming, plant species may shift their distribution northward, but such a process is slow and hard to detect. Alternatively, phenological changes (earlier flowering) are expected as first adaptations for populations located near their distribution limit. That could be the case for the invasive Japanese knotweed (Fallopia japonica s.l., including the hybrid Bohemian knotweed F. ×bohemica). We hypothesized that climate warming now allows the species to produce viable seeds in the northernmost populations. Seeds were collected along a 550 km long transect in Quebec, Canada, and tested for germination. The genetic diversity of a population was determined using polymorphic microsatellite markers to verify whether the species is actually producing new individuals through sexual reproduction. Japanese knotweed produces, in Quebec, a large number of seeds with a high germination rate (up to 93%). The geographical limit for viable seed production in North America has been extended to Quebec City, about 500 km north of the formerly reported limit. Bohemian knotweeds are genetically diverse, while true Japanese knotweeds all share a common multilocus genotype. This suggests that Bohemian knotweed stands mostly arose from seed, while true Japanese knotweeds result only from the propagation of rhizome or stem fragments. The effect of climate change is already palpable on the phenology of invasive plant species at their northern distribution limit. Bohemian knotweed, which until recently was rare in Quebec, could rapidly spread in the near future with the help of an additional diaspore type (seeds).

  13. Laparoscopic Versus Open Nephroureterectomy in Muscle-Invasive Upper Tract Urothelial Carcinoma: Subanalysis of the Multi-Institutional National Database of the Japanese Urological Association.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyazaki, Jun; Nishiyama, Hiroyuki; Fujimoto, Hiroyuki; Ohyama, Chikara; Koie, Takuya; Hinotsu, Shiro; Kikuchi, Eiji; Sakura, Mizuaki; Inokuchi, Junichi; Hara, Tomohiko

    2016-05-01

    Open nephroureterectomy (ONU) is the current standard for muscle-invasive upper tract urothelial carcinoma (UTUC) in the European Association of Urology/Japanese Urological Association (JUA) guidelines. In this study, we compared the postsurgical survival of muscle-invasive UTUC patients treated with ONU or with laparoscopic nephroureterectomy (LNU), using the multi-institutional national database of the JUA. The 1509 patients with UTUC who were diagnosed at 348 Japanese institutions in 2005 were registered. We collected the clinical data of the patients in 2011. The muscle-invasive UTUC patients who underwent ONU or LNU were identified, and survival curves were estimated using the Kaplan-Meier method. Overall, 749 pT2≥cNxM0 patients underwent a nephroureterectomy (ONU, n = 527 and LNU, n = 222). The overall survival and cause-specific survival rates were not significantly different between the ONU and LNU groups (p = 0.1263 and p = 0.0893, respectively). In addition, 459 of the 749 (61.3%) patients experienced disease recurrence (bladder recurrence, local recurrence, or distant metastasis), with no significant difference between the ONU and LNU groups. Even when patients were stratified by pT3/pT4 and/or pN+, overall survival was not significantly different between the ONU and LNU groups (p = 0.2876). The results of a univariate analysis showed that lymphovascular invasion was an independent prognostic factor for overall survival, but the surgical approaches were not found to be associated with overall survival. Our data suggest that there is no evidence that the oncologic outcome of LNU is inferior to that of ONU in muscle-invasive UTUC, when the appropriate patients are selected.

  14. Origin and diversification of hindwingless Damaster ground beetles within the Japanese islands as deduced from mitochondrial ND5 gene sequences (Coleoptera, Carabidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Z H; Tominaga, O; Okamoto, M; Osawa, S

    1998-08-01

    Genealogical trees have been constructed using mitochondrial ND5 gene sequences of 78 Damaster (s. str.) specimens from all over the Japanese Islands. Eight lineages (called races in this paper) have been recognized. The races are tightly linked to geography with sharp distribution boundaries between them. The races and their distribution ranges do not coincide with those of classical morphology. Based on the observed distribution of the mitochondrial DNA haplotypes and the geohistorical data, we propose a diversification scenario of Damaster.

  15. Mountain Pine Beetle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gene D. Amman; Mark D. McGregor; Robert E. Jr. Dolph

    1989-01-01

    The mountain pine beetle, Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins, is a member of a group of beetles known as bark beetles: Except when adults emerge and attack new trees, the mountain pine beetle completes its life cycle under the bark. The beetle attacks and kills lodgepole, ponderosa, sugar, and western white pines. Outbreaks frequently develop in lodgepole pine stands that...

  16. A Role for Intercept Traps in the Ambrosia Beetle (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae) IPM Strategy at Ornamental Nurseries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Invasive ambrosia beetles (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae) cause significant damage to ornamental nursery tree crops throughout the Eastern U. S. Depending on surrounding habitat, some nurseries can undergo large influxes of ambrosia beetles from the forest to susceptible nursery stock. Eth...

  17. Description of an establishment event by the invasive Asian longhorned beetle (Anoplophora glabripennis in a suburban landscape in the northeastern United States.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helen Hull-Sanders

    Full Text Available The establishment of non-native species is commonly described as occurring in three phases: arrival, establishment, and dispersal. Both arrival and dispersal by the Asian longhorned beetle (Anoplophora glabripennis Motschulsky, a xylophagous Cerambycid native to China and the Korean peninsula, has been documented for multiple locations in both North America and Europe, however the transitional phase, establishment, is not well understood for this species due to the need to rapidly remove populations to prevent dispersal and assist eradication, and the evident variation in the behavior of populations. Here we describe the dynamics of an establishment event for the Asian longhorned beetle in a small, isolated population within the regulated quarantine zone near Worcester, Massachusetts, USA. These data were collected during an opportunity afforded by logistical limits on the Cooperative Asian Longhorned Beetle Eradication Program administered by state, federal, and local government partners. Seventy-one infested red maple (Acer rubrum trees and 456 interspersed un-infested trees were surveyed in an isolated, recently established population within a ~0.29 ha stand in a suburban wetland conservation area in which nearly 90% of the trees were host species, and nearly 80% were Acer rubrum. Tree-ring analyses show that within this establishing population, Asian longhorned beetles initially infested one or two A. rubrum, before moving through the stand to infest additional A. rubrum based not on distance or direction, but on tree size, with infestation biased towards trees with larger trunk diameters. Survey data from the larger landscape suggest this population may have generated long-distance dispersers (~1400 m, and that these dispersal events occurred before the originally infested host trees were fully exploited by the beetle. The distribution and intensity of damage documented in this population suggest dispersal here may have been spatially more

  18. Evidence for recent adaptative evolution in mid-Atlantic populations of an invasive exotic grass, Microstegium vimineum, Japanese stiltgrass

    Science.gov (United States)

    The establishment and spread of invasive plants has often been associated with a ‘general-purpose genotype,’ and a corresponding high degree of phenotypic plasticity when introduced to a new environment. However, changes in evolutionary potential of invasive species need to be considered in additio...

  19. The Japanese alga Polysiphonia morrowii (Rhodomelaceae, Rhodophyta) on the South Atlantic Ocean: first report of an invasive macroalga inhabiting oyster reefs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Croce, M. Emilia; Parodi, Elisa R.

    2014-06-01

    Conspicuous tufts of the filamentous algae Polysiphonia Greville inhabit the reefs of Crassostrea gigas on the Atlantic Patagonian coast. The population was recorded for the first time in 1994 and identified as P. argentinica. This study exhaustively investigated the morphology and reproduction of specimens and the seasonality of the population. The results revealed the identity of the specimens as the invasive Japanese macroalga Polysiphonia morrowii Harvey, on the basis of several striking features: the setaceous and tufted thalli, the corymbose growing apices, the endogenous axillary branches, the urceolate cystocarps and the sharply pointed branches. Sexual reproduction was evidenced; however, fertile male gametophytes were absent in the samples. The population was found almost all year round, but its abundance became higher in autumn and winter. The present study constitutes the first record of this invasive macroalga on the South Atlantic Ocean; the fourth record of an exotic macroalgal species on the Atlantic Patagonian coast; and the first record of an invasive species related to the establishment of C. gigas in Atlantic Patagonia.

  20. Chemical ecology and lure development for redbay ambrosia beetle

    Science.gov (United States)

    The exotic redbay ambrosia beetle, Xyleborus glabratus Eichhoff, has become a serious invasive pest in the U.S., currently established in nine southeastern states. Female beetles are the primary vectors of a pathogenic fungus (Raffaelea lauricola) that causes laurel wilt. This lethal vascular dise...

  1. Comparative resistance of Russian and Italian honey bees (Hymenoptera: Apidae) to small hive beetles (Coleoptera: Nitidulidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frake, Amanda M; De Guzman, Lilia I; Rinderer, Thomas E

    2009-02-01

    To compare resistance to small hive beetles (Coleoptera: Nitidulidae) between Russian and commercial Italian honey bees (Hymenoptera: Apidae), the numbers of invading beetles, their population levels through time and small hive beetle reproduction inside the colonies were monitored. We found that the genotype of queens introduced into nucleus colonies had no immediate effect on small hive beetle invasion. However, the influence of honey bee stock on small hive beetle invasion was pronounced once test bees populated the hives. In colonies deliberately freed from small hive beetle during each observation period, the average number of invading beetles was higher in the Italian colonies (29 +/- 5 beetles) than in the Russian honey bee colonies (16 +/- 3 beetles). A similar trend was observed in colonies that were allowed to be freely colonized by beetles throughout the experimental period (Italian, 11.46 +/- 1.35; Russian, 5.21 +/- 0.66 beetles). A linear regression analysis showed no relationships between the number of beetles in the colonies and adult bee population (r2 = 0.1034, P = 0.297), brood produced (r2 = 0.1488, P = 0.132), or amount of pollen (P = 0.1036, P = 0.295). There were more Italian colonies that supported small hive beetle reproduction than Russian colonies. Regardless of stock, the use of entrance reducers had a significant effect on the average number of small hive beetle (with reducer, 16 +/- 3; without reducer, 27 +/- 5 beetles). However, there was no effect on bee population (with reducer, 13.20 +/- 0.71; without reducer, 14.60 +/- 0.70 frames) or brood production (with reducer, 6.12 +/- 0.30; without reducer, 6.44 +/- 0.34 frames). Overall, Russian honey bees were more resistant to small hive beetle than Italian honey bees as indicated by fewer invading beetles, lower small hive beetle population through time, and lesser reproduction.

  2. Northward range expansion requires synchronization of both overwintering behaviour and physiology with photoperiod in the invasive Colorado potato beetle (Leptinotarsa decemlineata).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehmann, Philipp; Lyytinen, Anne; Piiroinen, Saija; Lindström, Leena

    2014-09-01

    Photoperiodic phenological adaptations are prevalent in many organisms living in seasonal environments. As both photoperiod and growth season length change with latitude, species undergoing latitudinal range expansion often need to synchronize their life cycle with a changing photoperiod and growth season length. Since adaptive synchronization often involves a large number of time-consuming genetic changes, behavioural plasticity might be a faster way to adjust to novel conditions. We compared behavioural and physiological traits in overwintering (diapause) preparation in three latitudinally different European Colorado potato beetle (Leptinotarsa decemlineata) populations reared under two photoperiods. Our aim was to study whether behavioural plasticity could play a role in rapid range expansion into seasonal environments. Our results show that while burrowing into the soil occurred in the southernmost studied population also under a non-diapause-inducing long photoperiod, the storage lipid content of these beetles was very low compared to the northern populations. However, similar behavioural plasticity was not found in the northern populations. Furthermore, the strongest suppression of energy metabolism was seen in pre-diapause beetles from the northernmost population. These results could indicate accelerated diapause preparation and possibly energetic adjustments due to temporal constraints imposed by a shorter, northern, growth season. Our results indicate that behavioural plasticity in burrowing may have facilitated initial range expansion of L. decemlineata in Europe. However, long-term persistence at high latitudes has required synchronization of burrowing behaviour with physiological traits. The results underline that eco-physiological life-history traits of insects, such as diapause, should be included in studies on range expansion.

  3. Whole-genome analysis of human papillomavirus genotypes 52 and 58 isolated from Japanese women with cervical intraepithelial neoplasia and invasive cervical cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tenjimbayashi, Yuri; Onuki, Mamiko; Hirose, Yusuke; Mori, Seiichiro; Ishii, Yoshiyuki; Takeuchi, Takamasa; Tasaka, Nobutaka; Satoh, Toyomi; Morisada, Tohru; Iwata, Takashi; Miyamoto, Shingo; Matsumoto, Koji; Sekizawa, Akihiko; Kukimoto, Iwao

    2017-01-01

    Human papillomavirus genotypes 52 and 58 (HPV52/58) are frequently detected in patients with cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) and invasive cervical cancer (ICC) in East Asian countries including Japan. As with other HPV genotypes, HPV52/58 consist of multiple lineages of genetic variants harboring less than 10% differences between complete genome sequences of the same HPV genotype. However, site variations of nucleotide and amino acid sequences across the viral whole-genome have not been fully examined for HPV52/58. The aim of this study was to investigate genetic variations of HPV52/58 prevalent among Japanese women by analyzing the viral whole-genome sequences. The entire genomic region of HPV52/58 was amplified by long-range PCR with total cellular DNA extracted from cervical exfoliated cells isolated from Japanese patients with CIN or ICC. The amplified DNA was subjected to next generation sequencing to determine the complete viral genome sequences. Phylogenetic analyses were performed with the whole-genome sequences to assign variant lineages/sublineages to the HPV52/58 isolates. The variability in amino acid sequences of viral proteins was assessed by calculating the Shannon entropy scores at individual amino acid positions of HPV proteins. Among 52 isolates of HPV52 (CIN1, n  = 20; CIN2/3, n  = 21; ICC, n  = 11), 50 isolates belonged to lineage B (sublineage B2) and two isolates belonged to lineage A (sublineage A1). Among 48 isolates of HPV58 (CIN1, n  = 21; CIN2/3, n  = 19; ICC, n  = 8), 47 isolates belonged to lineage A (sublineages A1/A2/A3) and one isolate belonged to lineage C. Single nucleotide polymorphisms specific for individual variant lineages were determined throughout the viral genome based on multiple sequence alignments of the Japanese HPV52/58 isolates and reference HPV52/58 genomes. Entropy analyses revealed that the E1 protein was relatively variable among the HPV52 isolates, whereas the E7, E4, and L2 proteins showed

  4. Development times and age-specific life table parameters of the native lady beetle species Coccinella novemnotata (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) and its invasive congener Coccinella septempunctata (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ugine, Todd A; Losey, John E

    2014-08-01

    To determine if differences in life history parameters contribute to native species exclusion, immature development times, larval survivorship, reproductive life history parameters, and age-specific life tables were determined for two populations (eastern United States and western United States) of ninespotted lady beetles (Coccinella novemnotata Herbst) and one population of sevenspotted lady beetles (Coccinella septempunctata L.). Developing larvae were provided an ad libitum diet of pea aphids (Acyrthosiphon pisum Harris) at a constant temperature of 25°C. The first and fourth larval stadia of C. novemnotata were significantly longer than that of C. septempunctata, as was their total development time from egg to newly eclosed adult. Stage-specific developmental mortality was low for both species and did not exceed 7% for the entire development period. The preoviposition period of the two C. novemnotata populations was significantly shorter (15-20%) than that of C. septempunctata. C. novemnotata from both locations laid significantly fewer total eggs than C. septempunctata (34-40% fewer) over the 31-d test period, and also fewer eggs per day (37-43% fewer). The net reproductive rate of the C. novemnotata populations was 42-50% lower than that of C. septempunctata as was C. novemnotata's intrinsic rate of natural increase (rm: 0.1716 and 0.1840 vs. 0.1959 for western and eastern C. novemnotata and C. septempunctata, respectively).

  5. Invasão de áreas de savana intra-amazônicas por Digitonthophagus gazella (Fabricius, 1787 (Insecta: Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae Invasion of intra-Amazonian savannas by the dung beetle Digintonthophagus gazella (Fabricius, 1787 (Insecta: Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Augusto Matavelli

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Neste estudo, foi avaliada a invasão da comunidade de Scarabaeinae detritívoros de uma savana amazônica pela espécie africana Digitonthophagus gazella (Fabricius 1787. O estudo foi realizado nas proximidades da vila de Alter do Chão (2º 31' S e 55º 00' W, localizada a aproximadamente 36 km a sudoeste de Santarém, Pará, Brasil. Vinte e duas áreas de savanas de 3,75 ha (250 x 150 m distribuídas em 30.000 ha foram amostradas, no período de 21 de julho a 13 de agosto de 2003, utilizando 66 armadilhas de queda com três tipos de iscas (fezes bovinas, fezes humanas e carcaças. Foram encontrados indivíduos de D. gazella em quatro das vinte e duas áreas amostradas. Procurou-se explicar a presença da espécie nas áreas de savana através de análises de regressão logística, onde as variáveis explicativas foram: ocorrência de queimada nos últimos seis anos, diversidade e abundância total de Scarabaeidae nativos presentes na área, abundância de Canthon sp.1, (espécie de Scarabaeidae mais abundante na região. Exceto pela abundância total de indivíduos de Scarabaeidae nativos, nenhuma das variáveis bióticas e abióticas tiveram efeito estatisticamente significativo na presença do D. gazella. Estes resultados podem ser explicados por: (a algum fator ainda não analisado, relacionado à invasão da área pelo D. gazella; (b Não houve tempo para a dispersão e estabelecimento da espécie em todas as áreas; (c A comunidade nativa de Scarabaeinae apresenta resistência à invasão pelo D. gazella.This work aimed to verify the invasion of the dung beetles community from intra-Amazonian savanna by the African species Digitonthophagus gazella (Fabricius 1787. The research was carried out near Alter do Chão village (2º 31' S; 55º 00' W, 36 Km Southwest of Santarém, Pará, Brazil. Twenty two areas were sampled, from 21 July to 13 August 2003, using 66 baited pitfall traps (cattle dung, human faeces and carcass bait. D. gazella

  6. Asian longhorned beetle complicates the relationship ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urban foresters routinely emphasise the importance of taxonomic diversity to reduce the vulnerability of tree assemblages to invasive pests, but it is unclear to what extent diversity reduces vulnerability to polyphagous (i.e. generalist) pests. Drawing on field data from seven communities in metropolitan Cincinnati, Ohio, USA, we tested the hypothesis that communities with higher diversity would exhibit lower vulnerability to the polyphagous Asian longhorned beetle, which currently threatens the region. Based on street tree compositions and the beetle?s host preferences, Asian longhorned beetle threatened up to 35.6% of individual street trees and 47.5% of the total basal area across the study area, but we did not see clear connections between taxonomic diversity and beetle vulnerability among study communities. For example, the city of Fairfield was among the least diverse communities but had the lowest proportion of trees vulnerable to Asian longhorned beetle, whereas the city of Wyoming exhibited high diversity and high vulnerability. On the other hand, Forest Park aligned with our original hypothesis, as it was characterised by low diversity and high vulnerability. Our results demonstrate that relatively high taxonomic diversity in street tree assemblages does not necessarily lead to reduced vulnerability to a polyphagous pest. Considering the threats posed by polyphagous pests, selecting a set of relatively pest resistant trees known to perform well in urb

  7. Jeffrey Pine Beetle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard H. Smith

    1971-01-01

    The Jeffrey pine beetle (Dendroctonus jeffreyi Hopk.), one of the bark beetles that kill trees by mining between the bark and the wood, is the principal insect enemy of Jeffrey pine. The beetle is of economic importance chiefly in California, where most of the Jeffrey pine grows, and is most destructive in old-growth stands in the timber-producing areas of northeastern...

  8. Impact of an Invasive Longhorned Beetle, Tetropium fuscum (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae), on Community Structure of Subcortical and Wood-Associated Insects in Eastern Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heustis, Allyson; Moise, Eric R D; Johns, Rob; Pureswaran, Deepa S; Heard, Stephen B

    2018-02-08

    Tetropium fuscum (Fabricius) (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae), a phloem-feeding and wood-boring beetle introduced from Eurasia, attacks spruce in eastern Canada alongside its native congener Tetropium cinnamopterum Kirby. We reared phloem- and wood-feeding insects (and their predators) from bolts of red and Norway spruce (Picea rubens and Picea abies) in Nova Scotia, comparing insect communities between bolts with added eggs of T. fuscum or T. cinnamopterum and bolts without added Tetropium (controls). We tested for impacts of each Tetropium on insect community structure (Simpson's diversity, richness, and evenness). We also asked whether, consistent with Darwin's Naturalization Hypothesis, Tetropium spp. would have greater impacts on emergence of its closer relatives (which might be most likely to compete and/or share natural enemies). Addition of Tetropium eggs (either species) to bolts lowered insect diversity in both host trees. Both richness and evenness components of diversity were always lower in +Tetropium treatments, although different components reached statistical significance in different Tetropium species × host combinations. Addition of Tetropium spp. significantly reduced emergence of some species: Evodinus monticola (Randall) (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae) was reduced by T. fuscum on both hosts and by T. cinnamopterum on Norway spruce; Hylobius congener Dalla Torre, Schenkling, and Marshall was reduced by T. fuscum on red spruce; and Xylophagus sp. (Diptera: Xylophagidae) was reduced by T. cinnamopterum on Norway spruce. However, there was no relationship between Tetropium's impact on a community member and their phylogenetic relatedness, and the overall impacts of Tetropium presence were not very different between T. fuscum and T. cinnamopterum. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  9. Uncharismatic Invasives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clark, Jonathan L.

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Although philosophers have examined the ethics of invasive species management, there has been little research approaching this topic from a descriptive, ethnographic perspective. In this article I examine how invasive species managers think about the moral status of the animals they seek to manage. I do so through a case study of Oregon’s efforts to manage the invasive species that are rafting across the Pacific attached to tsunami debris in the wake of the Japanese tsunami of 2011. Focusing on the state’s response to a dock that washed ashore on Agate Beach with various marine invertebrates attached to it, I argue that these animals’ position on two intersecting scales of moral worth—the sociozoologic scale and the phylogenetic scale—rendered them unworthy of moral consideration.

  10. Things Japanese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shigeta, Jessie M.

    Presented in this booklet are brief descriptions of items and activities that are symbolic of Japanese culture. Some of the items and activities described include Japanese musical instruments and records, toys and crafts, traditional clothing and accessories, and food utensils. Several recipes for Japanese dishes are provided. Lists of pertinent…

  11. Multitrophic interactions between insects, fungi and plants: Using naturally produced chemicals to solve an invasive species problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    The beekeeping industry is critical to many agricultural crops. Recently, an invasive pest, the Small Hive Beetle, was introduced into North America. Beetles invade hives feed on pollen, bee brood, and ruin honey. Thus, the beetle has had a dramatic effect on the $14 billion/year apiculture and pol...

  12. The impacts of feeding in a resistant tree on the Asian longhorned beetle (Anoplophora glabripennis) and its gut microbiota

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Asian longhorned beetle (ALB; Anoplophora glabripennis) is an invasive, wood-boring beetle capable of thriving in the heartwood of a broad range of angiospermous trees. Here, it faces a number of nutritional and digestive challenges, including the presence of highly recalcitrant lignocellulose a...

  13. Japanese language and Japanese science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanikawa, Kiyotaka

    2003-08-01

    Japanese mathematical scientists including astronomers, physicists, and mathematicians obtain ideas in Japanese, discuss their problems in Japanese, and arrive at conclusions in Japanese, and yet they write their results in foreign languages such as English. This uncomfortable situation has continued for nearly one hundred years and has had serious effects on Japanese science. In this short report, the author discusses and analyses these effects. In order to put Japanese science on a sound basis, the author proposes to increase the number of articles, reviews and textbooks in Japanese, first by translation and second by the voluntary efforts of scientists themselves. As centers devoted to this activity, the author proposes to construct "Airborne Libraries" which are maintained and accumulate in an electronic form the scientific documents written in Japanese.

  14. Southern Pine Bark Beetle Guild

    Science.gov (United States)

    T. Evan Nebeker

    2011-01-01

    Dendroctonus frontalis (southern pine beetle), D. terebrans (black turpentine beetle), Ips avulsus (small southern pine engraver or four-spined engraver), I. grandicollis (five-spined engraver), and I. calligraphus (six-spined engraver) comprise the southern pine bark beetle guild. Often they are found sharing the same hosts in the Southeastern United States. They...

  15. Chasing your honey: Worldwide diaspora of the small hive beetle, a parasite of honey bee colonies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Endemic to sub-Saharan Africa, small hive beetles (Aethina tumida) are now an invasive pest of honey bee colonies in Australia and North America. Knowledge on the introduction(s) from Africa into and between the current ranges will shed light on pest populations, invasion pathways and contribute to ...

  16. The effect of Beetle leaves (Piper Betle Linn for dental caries formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adi Kurniawan

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Dental caries is still the main problem in dental and oral health. Caries is caused by several factors working simultaneously. The main principle of management caries is by prioritizing preventive action and avoiding invasive action. Beetle leaves are medicamentous plant which are widely cultivated and very beneficial for Indonesian people. Its active content enable beetle leaves to be used as antimicrobial, antiseptic, antifungal, antioxidant, and disinfectant. The government of Indonesia and WHO greatly support the utilization of natural resources as medical cure. Currently we can find a lot of toothpaste and mouthwash products which use beetle leaves as additional ingredient. Various researches have proved that the use of beetle leaves extract as mouthwash, toothpaste and chewing beetle leaves may decrease plaque score. Chavicol and chavibetol content enable beetle leaves to function as very good antimicrobial. Beetle leaves also contain charvacrol, eugenol, methyl eugenol, cadinene, and seskuiterpene, which can function as antiseptic. Beetle leaves may effect salivary function and secretion and also impede the forming of dental caries.

  17. Evolution of the carabid ground beetles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osawa, S; Su, Z H; Kim, C G; Okamoto, M; Tominaga, O; Imura, Y

    1999-01-01

    The phylogenetic relationships of the carabid ground beetles have been estimated by analysing a large part of the ND5 gene sequences of more than 1,000 specimens consisting of the representative species and geographic races covering most of the genera and subgenera known in the world. From the phylogenetic analyses in conjunction with the mtDNA-based dating, a scenario of the establishment of the present habitats of the respective Japanese carabids has been constructed. The carabid diversification took place ca. 40 MYA as an explosive radiation of the major genera. During evolution, occasional small or single bangs also took place, sometimes accompanied by parallel morphological evolution in phylogenetically remote as well as close lineages. The existence of silent periods, in which few morphological changes took place, has been recognized during evolution. Thus, the carabid evolution is discontinuous, alternatively having a phase of rapid morphological change and a silent phase.

  18. Fire and bark beetle interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ken Gibson; Jose F. Negron

    2009-01-01

    Bark beetle populations are at outbreak conditions in many parts of the western United States and causing extensive tree mortality. Bark beetles interact with other disturbance agents in forest ecosystems, one of the primary being fires. In order to implement appropriate post-fire management of fire-damaged ecosystems, we need a better understanding of...

  19. Effect of tree species and end seal on attractiveness and utility of cut bolts to the redbay Ambrosia beetle and granulate Ambrosia beetle (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albert E. Mayfield; James L. Hanula

    2012-01-01

    The redbay ambrosia beetle, Xyleborus glabratus Eichhoff, is a non-native invasive pest and vector of the fungus that causes laurel wilt disease in certain trees of the family Lauraceae. This study assessed the relative attractiveness and suitability of cut bolts of several tree species to X. glabratus. In 2009, female X. glabratus were equally attracted to traps...

  20. Short-term results of microhook ab interno trabeculotomy, a novel minimally invasive glaucoma surgery in Japanese eyes: initial case series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanito, Masaki; Sano, Ichiya; Ikeda, Yoshifumi; Fujihara, Etsuko

    2017-08-01

    To report the first early postoperative results and safety profile after microhook ab interno trabeculotomy (μLOT). This initial retrospective observational case series included 24 consecutive glaucomatous eyes of 17 Japanese patients (7 men, 10 women; mean age ± standard deviation, 66.7 ± 17.9 years) who underwent μLOT. The trabeculotomy extent, surgical time, perioperative complications, interventions for complications and additional glaucoma surgeries during the follow-up for more than 3 months were collected by reviewing the medical and surgical records. The intraocular pressure (IOP), numbers of antiglaucoma medications, logarithm of the minimum angle of resolution visual acuity (VA), anterior chamber (AC) flare and corneal endothelial cell density (CECD) were compared preoperatively and postoperatively. The trabecular meshwork was incised for a mean of 3.6 ± 0.5 clock hours temporally, 3.7 ± 0.5 clock hours nasally and total 7.3 ± 0.6 clock hours during the 6.2 ± 1.6-min surgery. The mean preoperative IOP of 25.9 ± 14.3 mmHg and number of antiglaucoma medication of 3.3 ± 1.0 decreased significantly (p = 0.0002 and p = 0.005, respectively) to 14.7 ± 3.6 mmHg and 2.8 ± 0.8 at the final visit at 188.6 ± 68.8 days postoperatively. Compared with preoperatively, the final VA, AC flare and CECD did not change significantly. Hyphema with niveau formation (nine eyes, 38%) and washout of hyphema (two eyes, 8%) were the most common postoperative complication and intervention, respectively. At the final visit, 19 eyes (79%) achieved successful IOP control of 18 mmHg or less and a 15% reduction or greater. Microhook trabeculotomy normalizes the IOP during the early postoperative period in patients with glaucoma. © 2016 Acta Ophthalmologica Scandinavica Foundation. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Eucalyptol is an attractant of the Redbay ambrosia beetle, Xyleborus glabratus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhns, Emily H; Martini, Xavier; Tribuiani, Yolani; Coy, Monique; Gibbard, Christopher; Peña, Jorge; Hulcr, Jiri; Stelinski, Lukasz L

    2014-04-01

    The redbay ambrosia beetle, Xyleborus glabratus, is an invasive wood-boring beetle that has become established in the southeastern United States. The beetle transmits the causal pathogen of lethal laurel wilt to susceptible host trees, which include redbay, an important forest community species, and avocado, a valuable food crop. By examining odors of redbay wood, we developed an artificial lure that captured X. glabratus in redbay forests. Eucalyptol was a critical component of the blend for beetle attraction, and eucalyptol alone in large quantities attracted X. glabratus. Furthermore, eucalyptol stimulated boring by X. glabratus into paper arenas. The results suggest that eucalyptol contributes to host selection behavior of X. glabratus and may be useful for management of this pathogen vector.

  2. Geosmithia associated with bark beetles and woodborers in the western USA: taxonomic diversity and vector specificity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolařík, Miroslav; Hulcr, Jiri; Tisserat, Ned; De Beer, Wilhelm; Kostovčík, Martin; Kolaříková, Zuzana; Seybold, Steven J; Rizzo, David M

    2017-01-01

    Fungi in the genus Geosmithia (Ascomycota: Hypocreales) are frequent associates of bark beetles and woodborers that colonize hardwood and coniferous trees. One species, Geosmithia morbida, is an economically damaging invasive species. The authors surveyed the Geosmithia species of California and Colorado, USA, to (i) provide baseline data on taxonomy of Geosmithia and beetle vector specificity across the western USA; (ii) investigate the subcortical beetle fauna for alternative vectors of the invasive G. morbida; and (iii) interpret the community composition of this region within the emerging global biogeography of Geosmithia. Geosmithia was detected in 87% of 126 beetle samples obtained from 39 plant species. Twenty-nine species of Geosmithia were distinguished, of which 13 may be new species. Bark beetles from hardwoods, Cupressus, and Sequoia appear to be regular vectors, with Geosmithia present in all beetle gallery systems examined. Other subcortical insects appear to vector Geosmithia at lower frequencies. Overall, most Geosmithia have a distinct level of vector specificity (mostly high, sometimes low) enabling their separation to generalists and specialists. Plant pathogenic Geosmithia morbida was not found in association with any other beetle besides Pityophthorus juglandis. However, four additional Geosmithia species were found in P. juglandis galleries. When integrated with recent data from other continents, a global pattern of Geosmithia distribution across continents, latitudes, and vectors is emerging: of the 29 Geosmithia species found in the western USA, 12 have not been reported outside of the USA. The most frequently encountered species with the widest global distribution also had the broadest range of beetle vectors. Several Geosmithia spp. with very narrow vector ranges in Europe exhibited the similar degree of specialization in the USA. Such strong canalization in association could reflect an ancient origin of each individual association, or a

  3. Japanese dreams

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sejrup, Jens

    2018-01-01

    in contemporary Dutch- and Japanese-language sources, I argue that changing claims and public perceptions of Japan reflected the country’s shifting economic fortunes and international position during the period. The sources consistently framed the Japanese-designed building within a language of dreams. However......, the dreams gradually transformed from desires and nostalgic projections to sleepiness and inactivity. Japan, and the annex as its symbolic embodiment, remained a ‘place of dreams’, but the nature of those ‘dreams’ changed dramatically over the period studied....

  4. High-dose-rate intra-cavitary brachytherapy combined with external beam radiation therapy for under 40-year-old patients with invasive uterine cervical carcinoma. Clinical outcomes in 118 patients in a Japanese multi-institutional study, JASTRO

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamashita, Hideomi; Niibe, Yuzuru; Toita, Takafumi

    2013-01-01

    The current study was designed to evaluate the clinical outcomes of curative intent radiation therapy for young patients with invasive uterine cervical carcinoma in Japan. One hundred and eighteen patients aged ≤40 were registered in the multi-institutional study of the Japanese Society of Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology (JASTRO) from 26 major institutions in Japan. The age range was 24-39 years and the maximum tumor diameter was 2.0-9.2 cm. The International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics clinical stages were Ib, IIa, IIb, IIIa, IIIb and IVa in 17, 6, 40, 2, 50 and 3, respectively. Curative intent radiation therapy consisted of the combination of external beam radiation therapy and high-dose rate intra-cavitary brachytherapy. The total dose of external beam radiation therapy ranged between 44 and 68 Gy. Both the median and mode of total high-dose-rate intra-cavitary brachytherapy dose to point A were 24 Gy in four fractions. Ninety-six patients (58%) received chemotherapy. The 5-year overall survival rate and local control rate of all patients were 61 and 65%, respectively. The 5-year overall survival rates of International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics Stage Ib, IIa, IIb, IIIa, IIIb and IVa were 88, 100, 75, 100, 37 and 0%, respectively. The 5-year local control rates of International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics Stage Ib, IIa, IIb, IIIa, IIIb and IVa were 82, 75, 75, 100, 51 and 0%, respectively. Sixteen patients experienced grade 3 or greater late radiation morbidity. The 5-year overall survival rate of young patients with Stage IIIb was comparatively low at 37%. (author)

  5. Effects of host wood moisture on the life cycle development of the Asian longhorned beetle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexandra N. Whitney; Melody A. Keena

    2011-01-01

    The Asian longhorned beetle, Anoplophora glabripennis, is an alien invasive species recently introduced to the United States in larval form within solid wood packing material from China. Larvae develop within the xylem of apparently healthy trees. In the U.S., the species has been found infesting 21 species of hardwoods, across 12 genera, with maple...

  6. Ambrosia beetle communities in forest and agriculture ecosystems with laurel wilt disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    The invasive redbay ambrosia beetle, Xyleborus glabratus, is an exotic wood-boring pest first detected in 2002 near Savannah, Georgia. The beetle’s dominant fungal symbiont, Raffaelea lauricola, is the pathogen that causes laurel wilt, a lethal disease of trees in the family Lauraceae. Redbay ambro...

  7. Are bark beetles chewing up our forests? What about our coffee?

    Science.gov (United States)

    A write-up for the Elsevier SciTech Connect blog on the recently published book entitled "Bark Beetles: Biology and Ecology of Native and Invasive Species," edited by Fernando E. Vega and Richard W. Hofstetter. The book was published by Academic Press in January 2015....

  8. Development of host-based lures for redbay ambrosia beetle (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The redbay ambrosia beetle, Xyleborus glabratus, a species endemic to Southeast Asia, was first detected in the USA in 2002 near Savannah, GA. Since then, it has become a serious invasive pest, now established in nine southeastern states. Females vector Raffaelea lauricola, the fungus that causes ...

  9. Public reaction to invasive plant species in a disturbed Colorado landscape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael T. Daab; Courtney G. Flint

    2010-01-01

    Invasive plant species degrade ecosystems in many ways. Controlling invasive plants is costly for government agencies, businesses, and individuals. North central Colorado is currently experiencing large-scale disturbance, and millions of acres are vulnerable to invasion because of natural and socioeconomic processes. Mountain pine beetles typically endemic to this...

  10. Impact of climate and host availability on future distribution of Colorado potato beetle

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Cong; Hawthorne, David; Qin, Yujia; Pan, Xubin; Li, Zhihong; Zhu, Shuifang

    2017-01-01

    Colorado Potato Beetle (CPB) is a devastating invasive pest of potato both in its native North America and now across Eurasia. It also damages eggplant, tomato and feeds on several wild species in the Solanaceae, such as S. eleagnifolium and S. rostratum Dunal (SR). Since first categorized as a pest in 1864, CPB has spread rapidly across North America, Europe and Asia. In light of its invasiveness and economic importance, it is necessary to study how climate change and host availability may a...

  11. Japanese dreams

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sejrup, Jens

    2018-01-01

    This paper traces the history of a Japanese-funded annex to the Van Gogh Museum in Amsterdam over the past twenty-five years. The analysis focuses on three key years in the building’s history: 1991, 1999, and 2015. Critically examining public debate and media coverage of the building in contempor......This paper traces the history of a Japanese-funded annex to the Van Gogh Museum in Amsterdam over the past twenty-five years. The analysis focuses on three key years in the building’s history: 1991, 1999, and 2015. Critically examining public debate and media coverage of the building......, the dreams gradually transformed from desires and nostalgic projections to sleepiness and inactivity. Japan, and the annex as its symbolic embodiment, remained a ‘place of dreams’, but the nature of those ‘dreams’ changed dramatically over the period studied....

  12. Japanese Nationalism

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-06-01

    1880s, emphasizing the Confucian obligation of filial piety and the national obligation of loyalty. This, along with compulsory military drill...materialized in the form of kokutai ( the national essence; what it means to be Japanese) discussions, reactions against official Confucianism, classical ...feeling of loyalty to the imperial house. Kokugaku, or national learning, developed as a reaction against the dominating Chinese classics and philosophy

  13. Antifungal actinomycetes associated with the pine bark beetle, Orthotomicus erosus, in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zander R. Human

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Actinomycete bacteria are often associated with insects that have a mutualistic association with fungi. These bacteria are believed to be important to this insect–fungus association as they produce antibiotics that exclude other saprophytic fungi from the immediate environment. The aim of this study was to investigate the presence of potentially protective actinomycetes associated with Orthotomicus erosus, an alien invasive pine bark beetle, in South Africa. This bark beetle and its relatives have an association with Ophiostomatales species which are often the only fungi found in the bark beetle galleries. We hypothesised that antibiotic-producing actinomycetes could be responsible for the paucity of other fungi in the galleries by producing compounds to which the Ophiostoma spp. are tolerant. Several actinomycetes in the genus Streptomyces and one Gordonia sp. were isolated from the beetle. Interestingly, most isolates were from the same species as actinomycetes associated with other pine-infesting insects from other parts of the world, including bark beetles and the woodwasp Sirex noctilio. Most actinomycetes isolated had strong antifungal properties against the selected test fungi, including Ophiostoma ips, which is the most common fungal symbiont of Orthotomicus erosus. Although the actinomycetes did not benefit Ophiostoma ips and the hypothesis was not supported, their sporadic association with Orthotomicus erosus suggests that they could have some impact on the composition of the fungal communities present in the bark beetle galleries, which is at present poorly understood.

  14. Charles Darwin, beetles and phylogenetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beutel, Rolf G; Friedrich, Frank; Leschen, Richard A B

    2009-11-01

    Here, we review Charles Darwin's relation to beetles and developments in coleopteran systematics in the last two centuries. Darwin was an enthusiastic beetle collector. He used beetles to illustrate different evolutionary phenomena in his major works, and astonishingly, an entire sub-chapter is dedicated to beetles in "The Descent of Man". During his voyage on the Beagle, Darwin was impressed by the high diversity of beetles in the tropics, and he remarked that, to his surprise, the majority of species were small and inconspicuous. However, despite his obvious interest in the group, he did not get involved in beetle taxonomy, and his theoretical work had little immediate impact on beetle classification. The development of taxonomy and classification in the late nineteenth and earlier twentieth century was mainly characterised by the exploration of new character systems (e.g. larval features and wing venation). In the mid-twentieth century, Hennig's new methodology to group lineages by derived characters revolutionised systematics of Coleoptera and other organisms. As envisioned by Darwin and Ernst Haeckel, the new Hennigian approach enabled systematists to establish classifications truly reflecting evolution. Roy A. Crowson and Howard E. Hinton, who both made tremendous contributions to coleopterology, had an ambivalent attitude towards the Hennigian ideas. The Mickoleit school combined detailed anatomical work with a classical Hennigian character evaluation, with stepwise tree building, comparatively few characters and a priori polarity assessment without explicit use of the outgroup comparison method. The rise of cladistic methods in the 1970s had a strong impact on beetle systematics. Cladistic computer programs facilitated parsimony analyses of large data matrices, mostly morphological characters not requiring detailed anatomical investigations. Molecular studies on beetle phylogeny started in the 1990s with modest taxon sampling and limited DNA data. This has

  15. Partnerships Between Ambrosia Beetles and Fungi: Lineage-Specific Promiscuity Among Vectors of the Laurel Wilt Pathogen, Raffaelea lauricola.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saucedo-Carabez, J R; Ploetz, Randy C; Konkol, J L; Carrillo, D; Gazis, R

    2018-04-20

    Nutritional mutualisms that ambrosia beetles have with fungi are poorly understood. Although these interactions were initially thought to be specific associations with a primary symbiont, there is increasing evidence that some of these fungi are associated with, and move among, multiple beetle partners. We examined culturable fungi recovered from mycangia of ambrosia beetles associated with trees of Persea humilis (silk bay, one site) and P. americana (avocado, six commercial orchards) that were affected by laurel wilt, an invasive disease caused by a symbiont, Raffaelea lauricola, of an Asian ambrosia beetle, Xyleborus glabratus. Fungi were isolated from 20 adult females of X. glabratus from silk bay and 70 each of Xyleborus affinis, Xyleborus bispinatus, Xyleborus volvulus, Xyleborinus saxesenii, and Xylosandrus crassiusculus from avocado. With partial sequences of ribosomal (LSU and SSU) and nuclear (β-tubulin) genes, one to several operational taxonomic units (OTUs) of fungi were identified in assayed individuals. Distinct populations of fungi were recovered from each of the examined beetle species. Raffaelea lauricola was present in all beetles except X. saxesenii and X. crassiusculus, and Raffaelea spp. predominated in Xyleborus spp. Raffaelea arxii, R. subalba, and R. subfusca were present in more than a single species of Xyleborus, and R. arxii was the most abundant symbiont in both X. affinis and X. volvulus. Raffaelea aguacate was detected for the first time in an ambrosia beetle (X. bispinatus). Yeasts (Ascomycota, Saccharomycotina) were found consistently in the mycangia of the examined beetles, and distinct, putatively co-adapted populations of these fungi were associated with each beetle species. Greater understandings are needed for how mycangia in ambrosia beetles interact with fungi, including yeasts which play currently underresearched roles in these insects.

  16. Southern Pine Beetle Information System (SPBIS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valli Peacher

    2011-01-01

    The southern pine beetle (SPB) is the most destructive forest insect in the South. The SPB attacks all species of southern pine, but loblolly and shortleaf are most susceptible. The Southern Pine Beetle Information System (SPBIS) is the computerized database used by the national forests in the Southern Region for tracking individual southern pine beetle infestations....

  17. Where Have All the Beetles Gone?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard A. Goyer; Kier D. Klepzig

    2002-01-01

    Without a doubt, bark beetles are the most destructive insect pests of Southern pines. Among these, the Southern pine beetle (SPB), Dendroctonus frontalis, isi the most notable and most noticed. During outbreak years, this small, but very aggresive, beetle can cause catastrophic losses.

  18. Ground beetle populations near a kraft mill

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freitag, R.; Hastings, L.; Mercer, W.R.; Smith, A.

    1973-02-01

    Twenty species of ground beetles (Family Carabidae) and one species of carrion beetle (Family Silphidae) were collected in six stations east of a kraft paper mill in Thunder Bay, Ontario, from May to August, 1971. The beetle population decreased markedly towards the mill. There was no apparent statistical difference in size variation of specimens near the mill and those further away.

  19. Do novel genotypes drive the success of an invasive bark beetle–fungus complex? Implications for potential reinvasion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Min Lu; Michael J. Wingfield; Nancy Gillette; Jiang-Hua Sun

    2011-01-01

    Novel genotypes often arise during biological invasions, but their role in invasion success has rarely been elucidated. Here we examined the population genetics and behavior of the fungus, Leptographium procerum, vectored by a highly invasive bark beetle, Dendroctonus valens, to determine whether genetic changes in the fungus...

  20. A maladaptive intermediate form: a strong trade-off revealed by hybrids between two forms of a snail-feeding beetle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konuma, Junji; Sota, Teiji; Chiba, Satoshi

    2013-11-01

    Although trade-off curves between fitness components are essential in theoretical studies of ecological specialization, few empirical studies have actually determined these curves experimentally. Using the snail-feeding carabid beetle Damaster blaptoides, which is endemic to the Japanese archipelago, we estimated the trade-off curve for feeding success with alternative foraging behaviors that are linked to varying morphology. First, we crossed a stout-bodied and a slender-bodied subspecies and produced their F1 and backcross hybrids, which exhibited intermediate body shapes. Then we compared the snail-feeding success of these beetles. Stout beetles could eat small snails by crushing shells, whereas slender beetles could eat large snails by inserting their heads into shells. Although hybrids with intermediate body shapes attempted to employ both strategies, they frequently failed at both. The relationship between feeding success rate and beetle body shape was represented by an inward bending curve, which implies a strong trade-off that can cause disruptive selection, leading to ecological specialization. We suggest that the intermediately shaped beetles were maladapted for snail-feeding and that disruptive selection may have played an important role in the morphological divergence of these beetles.

  1. The influence of Tamarix ramosissima defoliation on population movements of the northern tamarisk beetle (Diorhabda carinulata) within the Colorado Plateau: Chapter 18

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamison, Levi R.; van Riper, Charles; Bean, Dan W.

    2015-01-01

    The northern tamarisk beetle (Diorhabda carinulata) was introduced to the Colorado Plateau within the Colorado River Basin in 2004, in an effort to control invasive/exotic tamarisk (Tamarix ramosissima) plants. Since release, there has been rapid beetle colonization and subsequent defoliation of tamarisk along the Colorado River corridor. We collected plant phenology and beetle abundance data from the Dolores and San Juan rivers, two major tributaries of the Colorado River, to document tamarisk defoliation and beetle movement patterns. We found D. carinulata population movement patterns to be highly influenced by the availability of food resources, with local beetle boom and bust events appearing common. Beetles were able to defoliate from 35-65 km of river corridor tamarisk habitat each year. Following intensive tamarisk defoliation of large riparian reaches, beetles displayed a pattern of temporary abandonment in the following year with recolonization of that habitat in the subsequent year. Larvae were found primarily in areas that had partial defoliation, while adults occurred throughout the river corridor but most often on the leading edge of defoliated habitats. Understanding this type of beetle behavior and movement patterns will be useful in the management of areas where D. carinulata has been established, and in areas where it has not yet colonized. This will also assist land managers to further understand how defoliation and the presence of D. carinulata influence tamarisk-dominated habitats within Colorado Plateau riparian ecosystems.

  2. Predation and bark beetle dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    John D. Reeve

    1997-01-01

    Bark beetle populations may undergo dramatic fluctuations and are often important pests in coniferous forests.Their dynamics are thought to be primarily driven by factors affecting the resistance of the host tree to attack, i.e., bottom-up forces, while natural enemies are usually assigned a minor role in these systems.I present behavioral experiments that suggest that...

  3. Tree physiology and bark beetles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael G. Ryan; Gerard Sapes; Anna Sala; Sharon Hood

    2015-01-01

    Irruptive bark beetles usually co-occur with their co-evolved tree hosts at very low (endemic) population densities. However, recent droughts and higher temperatures have promoted widespread tree mortality with consequences for forest carbon, fire and ecosystem services (Kurz et al., 2008; Raffa et al., 2008; Jenkins et al., 2012). In this issue of New Phytologist,...

  4. Associations of Conifer-Infesting Bark Beetles and Fungi in Fennoscandia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linnakoski, Riikka; de Beer, Z Wilhelm; Niemelä, Pekka; Wingfield, Michael J

    2012-02-15

    Bark beetles (Coleoptera, Scolytinae) have a widespread association with fungi, especially with ophiostomatoid fungi (Ascomycota) that cause blue staining of wood, and in some cases, serious tree diseases. In Fennoscandia, most studies of these fungi have focused on economically important bark beetle species and this is likely to have led to a biased view of the fungal biodiversity in the region. Recently, the associations between fungi and bark beetles in Fennoscandia have been shown to be more diverse than previously thought. Furthermore, they form complex and dynamic associations that are only now beginning to emerge. This review examines the current knowledge of the rather poorly known interactions between bark beetles, fungi and their conifer host trees in Fennoscandia. The diversity of ophiostomatoid species is discussed and the possible factors that influence the assemblages of fungal associates are considered for all species that are known to occur in the region. For many ophiostomatoid species found in Fennoscandia, little or nothing is known regarding their pathogenicity, particularly if they were to be transferred to new environments. We, therefore, draw attention to the possible threats of timber trade and climate change-induced invasions of new habitats by bark beetles and the fungi that can be moved along with them.

  5. Associations of Conifer-Infesting Bark Beetles and Fungi in Fennoscandia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael J. Wingfield

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Bark beetles (Coleoptera, Scolytinae have a widespread association with fungi, especially with ophiostomatoid fungi (Ascomycota that cause blue staining of wood, and in some cases, serious tree diseases. In Fennoscandia, most studies of these fungi have focused on economically important bark beetle species and this is likely to have led to a biased view of the fungal biodiversity in the region. Recently, the associations between fungi and bark beetles in Fennoscandia have been shown to be more diverse than previously thought. Furthermore, they form complex and dynamic associations that are only now beginning to emerge. This review examines the current knowledge of the rather poorly known interactions between bark beetles, fungi and their conifer host trees in Fennoscandia. The diversity of ophiostomatoid species is discussed and the possible factors that influence the assemblages of fungal associates are considered for all species that are known to occur in the region. For many ophiostomatoid species found in Fennoscandia, little or nothing is known regarding their pathogenicity, particularly if they were to be transferred to new environments. We, therefore, draw attention to the possible threats of timber trade and climate change-induced invasions of new habitats by bark beetles and the fungi that can be moved along with them.

  6. Evolution of marginal populations of an invasive vine increases the likelihood of future spread

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francis F. Kilkenny; Laura F. Galloway

    2015-01-01

    The prediction of invasion patterns may require an understanding of intraspecific differentiation in invasive species and its interaction with climate change. We compare Japanese honeysuckle (Lonicera japonica) plants from the core (100-150 yr old) and northern margin (evolution...

  7. Predation by Flat Bark Beetles (Coleoptera: Silvanidae and Laemophloeidae) on Coffee Berry Borer (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) in Hawaii coffee

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coffee berry borer(CBB), Hypothenemus hampei, is a serious pest of coffee worldwide and a new invasive pest in Hawaii. Adult flat bark beetles, mainly Leptophloeus sp.(75%) and Cathartus quadricollis(21%) (Coleoptera: Laemophloeidae and Silvanidae, respectively), were found feeding in CBB-infested c...

  8. A model species for agricultural pest genomics: the genome of the Colorado potato beetle, Leptinotarsa decemlineata (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Colorado potato beetle, Leptinotarsa decemlineata Say, is one of the most challenging agricultural pests to manage and has shown a spectacular ability to rapidly adapt to a broad range of solanaceaeous (nightshade/potato) plants, variable climate during its global invasion, and, most notably, an...

  9. Japanese wives in Japanese-Australian intermarriages

    OpenAIRE

    Jared Denman

    2009-01-01

    The diasporic experiences of Japanese partners married to Australians and living in Australia are largely unexamined. This article is based on a study, conducted for an honours thesis, which invited four Japanese wives living in South East Queensland to describe, together with their Australian husbands, their family’s interactions with Japan, its language and culture, and the local Japanese community. It was recognised that the extensive social networks these wives had established and maintai...

  10. Invasion genetics of emerald ash borer in North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alicia M. Bray; Leah S. Bauer; Robert A. Haack; Therese Poland; James J. Smith

    2006-01-01

    Emerald ash borer (EAB) was first detected in Michigan and Canada in 2002. Efforts to eradicate this destructive pest by federal and state regulatory agencies continue. Knowledge of EAB genetics will be useful in understanding the invasion dynamics of the beetle and to help identify geographic localities of potential biocontrol agents.

  11. Pheromone production in bark beetles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blomquist, Gary J; Figueroa-Teran, Rubi; Aw, Mory; Song, Minmin; Gorzalski, Andrew; Abbott, Nicole L; Chang, Eric; Tittiger, Claus

    2010-10-01

    The first aggregation pheromone components from bark beetles were identified in 1966 as a mixture of ipsdienol, ipsenol and verbenol. Since then, a number of additional components have been identified as both aggregation and anti-aggregation pheromones, with many of them being monoterpenoids or derived from monoterpenoids. The structural similarity between the major pheromone components of bark beetles and the monoterpenes found in the host trees, along with the association of monoterpenoid production with plant tissue, led to the paradigm that most if not all bark beetle pheromone components were derived from host tree precursors, often with a simple hydroxylation producing the pheromone. In the 1990 s there was a paradigm shift as evidence for de novo biosynthesis of pheromone components began to accumulate, and it is now recognized that most bark beetle monoterpenoid aggregation pheromone components are biosynthesized de novo. The bark beetle aggregation pheromones are released from the frass, which is consistent with the isoprenoid aggregation pheromones, including ipsdienol, ipsenol and frontalin, being produced in midgut tissue. It appears that exo-brevocomin is produced de novo in fat body tissue, and that verbenol, verbenone and verbenene are produced from dietary α-pinene in fat body tissue. Combined biochemical, molecular and functional genomics studies in Ips pini yielded the discovery and characterization of the enzymes that convert mevalonate pathway intermediates to pheromone components, including a novel bifunctional geranyl diphosphate synthase/myrcene synthase, a cytochrome P450 that hydroxylates myrcene to ipsdienol, and an oxidoreductase that interconverts ipsdienol and ipsdienone to achieve the appropriate stereochemistry of ipsdienol for pheromonal activity. Furthermore, the regulation of these genes and their corresponding enzymes proved complex and diverse in different species. Mevalonate pathway genes in pheromone producing male I. pini

  12. How tight are beetle hugs? Attachment in mating leaf beetles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voigt, Dagmar; Tsipenyuk, Alexey; Varenberg, Michael

    2017-09-01

    Similar to other leaf beetles, rosemary beetles Chrysolina americana exhibit a distinct sexual dimorphism in tarsal attachment setae. Setal discoid terminals occur only in males, and they have been previously associated with a long-term attachment to the female's back (elytra) during copulation and mate guarding. For the first time, we studied living males and females holding to female's elytra. Pull-off force measurements with a custom-made tribometer featuring a self-aligning sample holder confirmed stronger attachment to female elytra compared with glass in both males and females; corresponding to 45 and 30 times the body weight, respectively. In line with previous studies, males generated significantly higher forces than females on convex elytra and flat glass, 1.2 times and 6.8 times, respectively. Convex substrates like elytra seem to improve the attachment ability of rosemary beetles, because they can hold more strongly due to favourable shear angles of legs, tarsi and adhesive setae. A self-aligning sample holder is found to be suitable for running force measurement tests with living biological samples.

  13. Population dynamics of an invasive forest insect and associated natural enemies in the aftermath of invasion: implications for biological control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Understanding the population dynamics of exotic pests and associated natural enemies is important in developing sound management strategies in invaded forest ecosystems. The emerald ash borer (EAB), Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire (Coleoptera: Buprestidae), is an invasive phloem-feeding beetle that h...

  14. Population dynamics of an invasive forest insect and associated natural enemies in the aftermath of invasion: implications for biological control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jian J. Duan; Leah S. Bauer; Kristopher J. Abell; Michael D. Ulyshen; Roy G. Van Driesche

    2015-01-01

    1. Understanding the population dynamics of exotic pests and associated natural enemies is important in developing sound management strategies in invaded forest ecosystems. The emerald ash borer (EAB) Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire is an invasive phloem-feeding beetle that has killed tens of millions of ash Fraxinus trees in North...

  15. The dilemma for Japanese students

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martinsen, Anders

    2014-01-01

    The Japanese job hunting system inhibits Japanese students from studying abroad. A Japanese professor says it is a huge dilemma for the students.......The Japanese job hunting system inhibits Japanese students from studying abroad. A Japanese professor says it is a huge dilemma for the students....

  16. Indirect effects of emerald ash borer-induced ash mortality and canopy gap formation on epigaeic beetles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gandhi, Kamal J K; Smith, Annemarie; Hartzler, Diane M; Herms, Daniel A

    2014-06-01

    Exotic herbivorous insects have drastically and irreversibly altered forest structure and composition of North American forests. For example, emerald ash borer (Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire) from Asia has caused wide-scale mortality of ash trees (Fraxinus spp.) in eastern United States and Canada. We studied the effects of forest changes resulting from emerald ash borer invasion on epigaeic or ground beetles (Coleoptera: Carabidae) along a gradient of ash dieback and gap sizes in southeastern Michigan. Ground beetles were sampled in hydric, mesic, and xeric habitats in which black (Fraxinus nigra Marshall), green (Fraxinus pennsylvanica Marshall), and white (Fraxinus americana L.) ash were the most common species, respectively. During 2006-2007, we trapped 2,545 adult ground beetles comprising 52 species. There was a negative correlation between percent ash tree mortality in 2006 and catches of all beetles. Catches of Agonum melanarium Dejean (in 2006) and Pterostichus mutus (Say) (in 2006-2007) were negatively correlated with tree mortality and gap size, respectively. However, catches of Pterostichus corvinus Dejean were positively correlated with gap size in 2006. As ash mortality and average gap size increased from 2006 to 2007, catches of all beetles as well as P. mutus and Pterostichus stygicus (Say) increased (1.3-3.9 times), while species diversity decreased, especially in mesic and xeric stands. Cluster analysis revealed that beetle assemblages in hydric and mesic stand diverged (25 and 40%, respectively) in their composition from 2006 to 2007, and that hydric stands had the most unique beetle assemblages. Overall, epigaeic beetle assemblages were altered in ash stands impacted by emerald ash borer; however, these impacts may dissipate as canopy gaps close.

  17. Defensive Glands of the Darkling Beetle Mesomorphus villiger Blanchard (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Seena, C. M.; Thomas, Sabu K.

    2013-01-01

    Massive home invasion by the darkling beetle Mesomorphus villiger Blanchard 1853 (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae) during monsoon season make it a nuisance pest in many regions of south India. Morphology of defensive glands and mode of release and dispersal of the defensive secretion were analysed. Defensive glands were separated from the abdominal sternites by cutting along the posterior margin of the seventh sternite. Glands are evaginations of intersegmental membrane between the seventh and eigh...

  18. Mites associated with bark beetles and their hyperphoretic ophiostomatoid fungi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard W. Hofstetter; John Moser; Stacy Blomquist

    2014-01-01

    The role that mites play in many ecosystems is often overlooked or ignored. Within bark beetle habitats, more than 100 mite species exist and they have important impacts on community dynamics, ecosystem processes, and biodiversity of bark beetle systems. Mites use bark beetles to access and disperse among beetle-infested trees and the associations may range from...

  19. Some ecological, economic, and social consequences of bark beetle infestations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert A. Progar; Adris Eglitis; John E. Lundquist

    2009-01-01

    Bark beetles are powerful agents of change in dynamic forest ecosystems. Most assessments of the effects of bark beetle outbreaks have been based on negative impacts on timber production. The positive effects of bark beetle activities are much less well understood. Bark beetles perform vital functions at all levels of scale in forest ecosystems. At the landscape...

  20. Competitive interactions among symbiotic fungi of the southern pine beetle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kier D. Klepzig; Richard T. Wilkens

    1997-01-01

    The southern pine beetle, a damaging pest of conifers, is intimately linked to three symbiotic fungi.Two fungi, Ceratocystiopsis ranaculosus and Entomocorticium sp. A, are transported within specialized structures (mycangia) in the beetle exoskeleton and are mutualists of the beetle.A third fungus, Ophiostoma minus, is transported externally on the beetle exoskeleton (...

  1. Walnut Twig Beetle (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae) Colonization of Eastern Black Walnut Nursery Trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Audley, Jackson; Klingeman, William E; Mayfield, Albert; Myers, Scott; Taylor, Adam

    2017-05-01

    Thousand cankers disease, caused by the invasive bark beetle Pityophthorus juglandis Blackman and an associated fungal pathogen Geosmithia morbida M.Kolařík, E. Freeland, C. Utley, N. Tisserat, currently threatens the health of eastern black walnut (Juglans nigra L.) in North America. Both the beetle and pathogen have expanded beyond their native range via transport of infested walnut wood. Geosmithia morbida can develop in seedlings following inoculation, but the ability of P. juglandis to colonize young, small diameter trees has not been investigated. This study assessed the beetle's colonization behavior on J. nigra nursery trees. Beetles were caged directly onto the stems of walnut seedlings from five nursery sources representing a range of basal stem diameter classes. Seedlings were also exposed to P. juglandis in a limited choice, field-based experiment comparing pheromone-baited and unbaited stems. When beetles were caged directly onto stems, they probed and attempted to colonize seedlings across the range of diameters and across sources tested, including stems as small as 0.5 cm in diameter. In the field experiment, beetles only attempted to colonize seedlings that were baited with a pheromone lure and appeared to prefer (though not statistically significant) the larger diameter trees. Despite several successful penetrations into the phloem, there was no evidence of successful progeny development within the young trees in either experiment. Further investigation is recommended to better elucidate the risk nursery stock poses as a pathway for thousand cankers disease causal organisms. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Entomological Society of America.

  2. Biological pest control in beetle agriculture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aanen, D.K.; Slippers, B.; Wingfield, M.J.

    2009-01-01

    Bark beetles are among the most destructive tree pests on the planet. Their symbiosis with fungi has consequently been studied extensively for more than a century. A recent study has identified actinomycete bacteria that are associated with the southern pine beetle and produce specific antibiotics

  3. Interactions of Root Disease and Bark Beetles

    Science.gov (United States)

    George T. Ferrell; J. Richard Parmeter Jr.

    1989-01-01

    Associations between root diseases and bark beetles (Scolytidae) constitute some of the most serious pest complexes affecting forests in North America and elsewhere. The interactive functioning of these pests derives from the following relationships: 1) root diseases predispose trees to bark beetle infestation by lowering resistance, and perhaps...

  4. Modelling spruce bark beetle infestation probability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paulius Zolubas; Jose Negron; A. Steven Munson

    2009-01-01

    Spruce bark beetle (Ips typographus L.) risk model, based on pure Norway spruce (Picea abies Karst.) stand characteristics in experimental and control plots was developed using classification and regression tree statistical technique under endemic pest population density. The most significant variable in spruce bark beetle...

  5. Bark beetles in a changing climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    John E. Lundquist; Barbara J. Bentz

    2009-01-01

    Over the past decade, native bark beetles (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) have killed billions of trees across millions of hectares of forest from Alaska to Mexico. Although bark beetle infestations are a regular force of natural change in forested ecosystems, several current outbreaks occurring simultaneously across western North America are the largest and most...

  6. Monitoring Asian longhorned beetles in Massachusetts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maya Nehme; Melody Keena; Aijun Zhang; Alan Sawyer; Kelli. Hoover

    2011-01-01

    An operationally effective trap to monitor the Asian longhorned beetle (Anoplophora glabripennis or ALB) has been a goal of the ALB eradication program since the first beetle was found in New York in 1996. Ground surveying is only ~20 percent effective at identifying infested trees and, although tree climbing is more effective, it is also...

  7. Book review: Methods for catching beetles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beetles are the most speciose animal group and found in virtually all habitats on Earth. Methods for Catching Beetles is a comprehensive general sourcebook about where and how to collect members of this diverse group. The book makes a compelling case in its Introduction about the value of scientif...

  8. Short-Term Responses of Ground Beetles to Forest Changes Caused by Early Stages of Emerald Ash Borer (Coleoptera: Buprestidae)-Induced Ash Mortality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, Kayla I; Herms, Daniel A

    2016-04-22

    Emerald ash borer (Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire), an invasive wood-boring beetle native to Asia, has killed hundreds of millions of ash trees since its accidental introduction into North America, resulting in widespread formation of canopy gaps and accumulations of coarse woody debris (CWD) in forests. The objective was to quantify effects of canopy gaps and CWD caused by early stages of emerald ash borer-induced ash mortality, and their interaction on ground beetle assemblages. The impact of canopy gaps and CWD varied, as gaps affected beetle assemblages in 2011, while effects of CWD were only observed in 2012. Gaps decreased beetle activity-abundance, and marginally decreased richness, driving changes in species composition, but evenness and diversity were unaffected. Effects of the CWD treatment alone were minimal, but CWD interacted with the canopy treatment, resulting in an increase in activity-abundance of ground beetles in canopy gaps without CWD, and a marginal increase in species richness in canopy gaps with CWD. Although there were some initial changes in species composition, these were ephemeral, suggesting that ground beetle assemblages may be resilient to disturbance caused by emerald ash borer. This study contributes to our understanding of the cascading ecological impacts of biological invasions on forest ecosystems. © The Authors 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  9. Japanese wives in Japanese-Australian intermarriages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jared Denman

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The diasporic experiences of Japanese partners married to Australians and living in Australia are largely unexamined. This article is based on a study, conducted for an honours thesis, which invited four Japanese wives living in South East Queensland to describe, together with their Australian husbands, their family’s interactions with Japan, its language and culture, and the local Japanese community. It was recognised that the extensive social networks these wives had established and maintained with local Japanese women from other Japanese-Australian intermarriage families were an important part of their migrant experience. This article will firstly review the literature on contemporary Japanese- Australian intermarriage in Australia and Japanese lifestyle migration to Australia. It will then describe and examine the involvement and motivations of the four wives in their social networks. Entry into motherhood was found to be the impetus for developing and participating in informal, autonomous networks. Additionally, regular visits to Japan were focused on engagement with existing family and friendship networks. The contemporary experience of intermarriage for these women is decidedly transnational and fundamentally different from that of the war brides, or sensō hanayome.

  10. Invasive Species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Invasive species have significantly changed the Great Lakes ecosystem. An invasive species is a plant or animal that is not native to an ecosystem, and whose introduction is likely to cause economic, human health, or environmental damage.

  11. Revealing historic invasion patterns and potential invasion sites for two non-native plant species.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacob N Barney

    Full Text Available The historical spatio-temporal distribution of invasive species is rarely documented, hampering efforts to understand invasion dynamics, especially at regional scales. Reconstructing historical invasions through use of herbarium records combined with spatial trend analysis and modeling can elucidate spreading patterns and identify susceptible habitats before invasion occurs. Two perennial species were chosen to contrast historic and potential phytogeographies: Japanese knotweed (Polygonum cuspidatum, introduced intentionally across the US; and mugwort (Artemisia vulgaris, introduced largely accidentally to coastal areas. Spatial analysis revealed that early in the invasion, both species have a stochastic distribution across the contiguous US, but east of the 90(th meridian, which approximates the Mississippi River, quickly spread to adjacent counties in subsequent decades. In contrast, in locations west of the 90(th meridian, many populations never spread outside the founding county, probably a result of encountering unfavorable environmental conditions. Regression analysis using variables categorized as environmental or anthropogenic accounted for 24% (Japanese knotweed and 30% (mugwort of the variation in the current distribution of each species. Results show very few counties with high habitat suitability (>/=80% remain un-invaded (5 for Japanese knotweed and 6 for mugwort, suggesting these perennials are reaching the limits of large-scale expansion. Despite differences in initial introduction loci and pathways, Japanese knotweed and mugwort demonstrate similar historic patterns of spread and show declining rates of regional expansion. Invasion mitigation efforts should be concentrated on areas identified as highly susceptible that border invaded regions, as both species demonstrate secondary expansion from introduction loci.

  12. Remote sensing of tamarisk beetle (Diorhabda carinulata) impacts along 412 km of the Colorado River in the Grand Canyon, Arizona, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bedford, Ashton; Sankey, Temuulen T.; Sankey, Joel B.; Durning, Laura E.C.; Ralston, Barbara

    2018-01-01

    Tamarisk (Tamarix spp.) is an invasive plant species that is rapidly expanding along arid and semi-arid rivers in the western United States. A biocontrol agent, tamarisk beetle (Diorhabda carinulata), was released in 2001 in California, Colorado, Utah, and Texas. In 2009, the tamarisk beetle was found further south than anticipated in the Colorado River ecosystem within the Grand Canyon National Park and Glen Canyon National Recreation Area. Our objectives were to classify tamarisk stands along 412 km of the Colorado River from the Glen Canyon Dam through the Grand Canyon National Park using 2009 aerial, high spatial resolution multispectral imagery, and then quantify tamarisk beetle impacts by comparing the pre-beetle images from 2009 with 2013 post-beetle images. We classified tamarisk presence in 2009 using the Mahalanobis Distance method with a total of 2500 training samples, and assessed the classification accuracy with an independent set of 7858 samples across 49 image quads. A total of 214 ha of tamarisk were detected in 2009 along the Colorado River, where each image quad, on average, included an 8.4 km segment of the river. Tamarisk detection accuracies varied across the 49 image quads, but the combined overall accuracy across the entire study region was 74%. Using the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) from 2009 and 2013 with a region-specific ratio of >1.5 decline between the two image dates (2009NDVI/2013NDVI), we detected tamarisk defoliation due to beetle herbivory. The total beetle-impacted tamarisk area was 32 ha across the study region, where tamarisk defoliation ranged 1–86% at the local levels. Our tamarisk classification can aid long-term efforts to monitor the spread and impact of the beetle along the river and the eventual mortality of tamarisk due to beetle impacts. Identifying areas of tamarisk defoliation is a useful ecological indicator for managers to plan restoration and tamarisk removal efforts.

  13. Bark beetles and pinhole borers (Curculionidae, Scolytinae, Platypodinae alien to Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lawrence Kirkendall

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Invasive bark beetles are posing a major threat to forest resources around the world. DAISIE’s web-based and printed databases of invasive species in Europe provide an incomplete and misleading picture of the alien scolytines and platypodines. We present a review of the alien bark beetle fauna of Europe based on primary literature through 2009. We find that there are 18 Scolytinae and one Platypodinae species apparently established in Europe, from 14 different genera. Seventeen species are naturalized. We argue that Trypodendron laeve, commonly considered alien in Europe, is a native species; conversely, we hypothesize that Xyleborus pfeilii, which has always been treated as indigenous, is an alien species from Asia. We also point out the possibility that the Asian larch bark beetle Ips subelongatus is established in European Russia. We show that there has been a marked acceleration in the rate of new introductions to Europe, as is also happening in North America: seven alien species were first recorded in the last decade. We present information on the biology, origins, and distributions of the alien species. All but four are polyphagous, and 11 are inbreeders: two traits which increase invasiveness. Eleven species are native to Asia, six to the Americas, and one is from the Canary Islands. The Mediterranean is especially favorable for invasives, hosting a large proportion of the aliens (8/18. Italy, Spain and France have the largest numbers of alien species (15, 10 and 7 respectively. We point out that the low numbers for at least some countries is likely due to under-reporting. Finally, we discuss the difficulties associated with identifying newly invasive species. Lack of good illustrations and keys hinder identification, particularly for species coming from Asia and Oceania.

  14. Reference Japanese man

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanaka, Giichiro

    1985-01-01

    To make real and accurate dose assessment method so far, it is necessitated to provide ''Reference Japanese Man'' based on anotomical, physiological and biochemical data of Japanese people instead of the Reference Man presented in ICRP Publications 23 and 30. This review describes present status of researched for the purpose of establishing of Reference Japanese Man. The Reference Japanese Man is defined as a male or female adult who lives in Japan with a Japanese life-style and food custom. His stature and body weight, and the other data was decided as mean values of male or female people of Japan. As for food custom, Japanese people take significantly smaller amount of meat and milk products than Western people, while larger intake amount of cereals and marine products such as fish or seaweeds. Weight of organs is a principal factor for internal dose assessment and mean values for living Japanese adult has been investigated and the value employable for dose assessment for organs and tissues are shown. To employ these values of Reference Japanese Man, it should be taken into account of age. Metabolic parameters should also be considered. Iodine metabolism in Japanese is quite different from that of Western people. The above-mentioned data are now tentatively employing in modification of table of MIRD method and others. (Takagi, S.)

  15. [Mexico and Japanese emigrants].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanaguida, T; Akagui, T

    1995-08-01

    "Japanese immigration to Mexico began in the last decade of the 19th century with a coffee growing project, and proved a failure. Subsequent attempts [at] sending contract labor migrants by emigration agencies, which involved 10,000 Japanese emigrants in 1901-1908, were also unsuccessful, and Mexico turned for Japanese emigrants into a short step on their way to the United States. The evolution of those who remained in Mexico and the different developments of the Japanese communities in Mexico [are] analyzed here until the period after World War II." (SUMMARY IN ENG) excerpt

  16. Japanese Heraldry: Who Am I?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeni, Claire M.

    1991-01-01

    Uses Japanese family crests to motivate students to construct a family history. Includes background information on Japanese history and culture. Provides an outline for the student research project. Supplies a list of Japanese emblems and their symbolism. (NL)

  17. Japanese Encephalitis: Frequently Asked Questions

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the vaccine, what should I do? What is Japanese encephalitis? Japanese encephalitis (JE) is a potentially severe ... cause inflammation of the brain (encephalitis). Where does Japanese encephalitis occur? JE occurs in Asia and parts ...

  18. Mitochondrial DNA polymorphism in invasive and native populations of Harmonia axyridis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilya A. Zakharov

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The Asian ladybird beetle, Harmonia axyridis (Pallas (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae, is one of the most invasive insects in the world. Originally introduced into the USA and Europe for the biological control of pest insects, it has recently gained the status of an invasive species. There is little data on the differences between invasive and non-invasive populations at the genetic level. In this research mtDNA sequences of the COI gene from specimens of native and non-native populations were compared. The results indicate that individuals from invasive populations are similar to those from Far Eastern native populations.

  19. Attraction of bark beetle predator, Thanasimus undatulus (Coleoptera: Cleridae), to pheromones of the spruce beetle and two secondary bark beetles (Coleoptera: Scolytidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Therese M. Poland; John H. Borden

    1997-01-01

    The bark beetle predator Thanasimus undatulus Say was captured in statistically significant numbers (total catch = 470, 713, and 137) in three field experiments using multiple-funnel traps baited with various combinations of pheromones for the spruce beetle, Dendroctonus rufipennis Kirby, and the secondary bark beetles ...

  20. Management of Western North American Bark Beetles with Semiochemicals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seybold, Steven J; Bentz, Barbara J; Fettig, Christopher J; Lundquist, John E; Progar, Robert A; Gillette, Nancy E

    2018-01-07

    We summarize the status of semiochemical-based management of the major bark beetle species in western North America. The conifer forests of this region have a long history of profound impacts by phloem-feeding bark beetles, and species such as the mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae) and the spruce beetle (D. rufipennis) have recently undergone epic outbreaks linked to changing climate. At the same time, great strides are being made in the application of semiochemicals to the integrated pest management of bark beetles. In this review, we synthesize and interpret these recent advances in applied chemical ecology of bark beetles for scientists and land managers.

  1. Evaluating the virulence and longevity of non-woven fiber bands impregnated with Metarhizium anisopliae against the Asian longhorned beetle, Anoplophora glabripennis (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan P. Shanley; Melody Keena; Micheal M. Wheeler; Jarrod Leland; Ann E. Hajek

    2009-01-01

    Fiber bands impregnated with entomopathogenic fungi (=fungal bands) provide an effective method for controlling the invasive Asian longhorned beetle, Anoplophora glabripennis (Motschulsky) (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae). In this study we investigated the effective longevity of fungal bands for use against A. glabripennis, using...

  2. Geographical variation in seasonality and life history of pine sawyer beetles Monochamus spp: its relationship with phoresy by the pinewood nematode Bursaphelenchus xylophilus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carla S. Pimentel; Matthew P. Ayres; Vallery Erich; Chris Young; Douglas Streett

    2014-01-01

    Bursaphelenchus xylophilus (Steiner & Buhrer) (Nematoda: Aphelenchoididae), the pinewood nematode and the causal agent of the pine wilt disease, is a globally important invasive pathogen of pine forests. It is phoretic in woodborer beetles of the genus Monochamus (Megerle) (Coleoptera, Cerambycidae) and has been able to exploit novel indigenous species of...

  3. RNA interference in the Asian Longhorned Beetle:Identification of Key RNAi Genes and Reference Genes for RT-qPCR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asian longhorned beetle (ALB), Anoplophora glabripennis, is a serious invasive forest pest in several countries including the United States, Canada, and Europe. RNA interference (RNAi)technology is being developed as a novel method for pest management. Here, we identified the ALB core RNAi genes in...

  4. Antioxidant defences of Norway spruce bark against bark beetles and its associated blue-stain fungus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felicijan Mateja

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Bark beetles and their fungal associates are integral parts of forest ecosystems, the European spruce bark beetle (Ips typographus Linnaeus, 1758 and the associated pathogenic blue stain fungus Ceratocystis polonica (SIEM. C. MOREAU, are the most devastating pests regarding Norway spruce [Picea abies (L. H. KARST.]. Bark beetles commonly inhabit weakened and felled trees as well as vital trees. They cause physiological disorders in trees by destroying a phloem and cambium or interrupt the transpiration -ow in the xylem. Conifers have a wide range of effective defence mechanisms that are based on the inner bark anatomy and physiological state of the tree. The basic function of bark defences is to protect the nutrient-and energy-rich phloem, the vital meristematic region of the vascular cambium, and the transpiration -ow in the sapwood. The main area of defence mechanisms is secondary phloem, which is physically and chemically protected by polyphenolic parenchyma (PP cells, sclerenchyma, calcium oxalate crystals and resin ducts. Conifer trunk pest resistance includes constitutive, inducible defences and acquired resistance. Both constitutive and inducible defences may deter beetle invasion, impede fungal growth and close entrance wounds. During a successful attack, systemic acquired resistance (SAR becomes effective and represents a third defence strategy. It gradually develops throughout the plant and provides a systemic change within the whole tree’s metabolism, which is maintained over a longer period of time. The broad range of defence mechanisms that contribute to the activation and utilisation of SAR, includes antioxidants and antioxidant enzymes, which are generally linked to the actions of reactive oxygen species (ROS. The presented review discusses the current knowledge on the antioxidant defence strategies of spruce inner bark against the bark beetle (Ips typographus and associated blue stain fungus (Ceratocystis polonica.

  5. Japanese Media in English.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Sachiko Oda

    1995-01-01

    Describes the use of English in the media in Japan, focusing on the role and history of English-language newspapers, radio, and television programs, as well as the proliferation of English-language films shown in Japanese cinemas. Discusses the implications of English in the Japanese media. (20 references) (MDM)

  6. Southern Pine Beetle Handbook: Southern Pine Beetles Can Kill Your Ornamental Pine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert C. Thatcher; Jack E. Coster; Thomas L. Payne

    1974-01-01

    Southern pine beetles are compulsive eaters. Each year in the South from Texas to Virginia the voracious insects conduct a movable feast across thousands of acres of pine forests. Most trees die soon after the beetles sink their teeth into them.

  7. Treating Japanese barberry (Berberis thunbergii) during the dormant season

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeffrey S. Ward; Scott C. Williams

    2013-01-01

    Japanese barberry (Berberis thunbergii) is an invasive shrub that can suppress forest regeneration and increase the risk of exposure to Lyme disease. In 2008, we began a study in central Connecticut to examine the efficacy of treating barberry infestations during the dormant season (October-March). Techniques included basal spray (triclopyr in oil)...

  8. Controlling Japanese barberry: Alternative methods and impact on tick populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeffrey S. Ward; Scott C. Williams; Thomas E. Worthley

    2011-01-01

    Japanese barberry (Berberis thunbergii) is classified as invasive in 20 states and four Canadian provinces. It is also established in another 11 states. In addition to forming dense thickets that can inhibit forest regeneration and native herbaceous plant populations, barberry understories can harbor greatly enhanced levels of blacklegged ticks (

  9. Pheromone biosynthesis in bark beetles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tittiger, Claus; Blomquist, Gary J

    2017-12-01

    Pine bark beetles rely on aggregation pheromones to coordinate mass attacks and thus reproduce in host trees. The structural similarity between many pheromone components and those of defensive tree resin led to early suggestions that pheromone components are metabolic derivatives of ingested precursors. This model has given way to our current understanding that most pheromone components are synthesized de novo. Their synthesis involves enzymes that modify products from endogenous metabolic pathways; some of these enzymes have been identified and characterized. Pheromone production is regulated in a complex way involving multiple signals, including JH III. This brief review summarizes progress in our understanding of this highly specialized metabolic process. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. THE INVASIVE COLEOPTEROFAUNA FOR REPUBLIC OF MOLDOVA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asea M. Timuş

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The invasive coleopterofauna for Republic of Moldova consists of the 100 species. After correlation local database with Fauna Europaea for our country registered are 31 of species, but for 69 mentioned with the „absent” and 38 „no date”. In the meantime 24 species were recorded for our country: Acanthoscelides abtectus, A.pallidipennis, Alphitobius diaperinus, Alphitophagus bifasciatus, Bruchus pisorum, B.rufimanus, Caulophilus latinasus, Diabrotica virgifera, Gnathocerus cornutus, Harmonia axyridis, Lasioderma serricorne, Leptinotarsa decemlineata, Lignyodes bischoffi, Lithocharis nigriceps, Oryzaephilus surinamensis, Rhyzopertha dominica, Sitophilus granarius, S. oryzae, S. zeamais, Tenebrio molitor, Tenebrioides mauritanicus, Tribolium castaneum, T. destructor, Trogoderma granarium. According periods penetration the invasive beetles it was found that 2 species have entered the XVIII century, 16 species in the XIX, 53 species in the XX and 29 species in the XXI century. The registration invasive beetles in countries of interest to the our country is in: Bulgaria – 54 species; Poland – 39; România – 3; other countries- 4.

  11. Differences in the Structure of the Gut Bacteria Communities in Development Stages of the Chinese White Pine Beetle (Dendroctonus armandi)

    OpenAIRE

    Hu, Xia; Wang, Chunyan; Chen, Hui; Ma, Junning

    2013-01-01

    The Chinese white pine beetle Dendroctonus armandi Tsai and Li, is arguably the most destructive forest insect in the Qinling Mountains in Northern China. Little is known about the structure of the bacterial communities associated with D. armandi even though this wood-boring insect plays important roles in ecosystem and biological invasion processes that result in huge economic losses in pine forests. The aim of this study was to investigate the composition of the bacterial communities presen...

  12. Tamarisk Water Flux Patterns Before, During and After Episodic Defoliation by the Salt Cedar Leaf Beetle on the Colorado Plateau, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hultine, K. R.; Nagler, P. L.; Dennison, P. E.

    2008-12-01

    Tamarisk (Tamarix) species are among the most successful plant invaders in the western United States, and has had significant impacts on watershed hydrology and water resources. Accordingly, local, state and federal agencies have undertaken considerable efforts to eradicate tamarisk and restore riparian habitats to pre-invasion status. A biological control - the saltcedar leaf beetle (Diorhabda elongata) - was released in the summer of 2004 at several locations in eastern Utah, USA to control the spread and impact of tamarisk within the Colorado River watershed. Beginning in April of 2008, sap flux techniques were used to monitor changes in transpiration fluxes in response to canopy defoliation by the beetle. Specifically we installed modified (10 mm length) heat dissipation probes into the main stem of 20 mature tamarisk trees within a single stand on the Colorado Plateau. In July, the saltcedar leaf beetle reduced the total leaf area to near 0% of pre-beetle invasion status. Consequently, sap flux declined by up to 80% compared to pre-beetle invasion fluxes. By mid-August, refoliation of the canopy occurred, and sap flux rates returned to pre- defoliation status. Sap flux rates prior to defoliation were modeled against atmospheric vapor pressure deficit in order to predict the amount of water salvage from defoliation. Sap flux from June 1 through September 1 was on average 36% lower than predicted values. Combined with scaling techniques, the heat dissipation approach shows a high potential for monitoring changes in watershed hydrology in response to tamarisk defoliation by the saltcedar leaf beetle. Nevertheless, tamarisk sap flux studies with heat dissipation probes presents several challenges, including, narrow sapwood depth, low flux rates in response to defoliation, and large thermal gradients that are inevitable in warm climates (particularly after defoliation removes canopy shading). We will present results from ongoing research to address these potential

  13. Phoretic symbionts of the mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Javier E. Mercado; Richard W. Hofstetter; Danielle M. Reboletti; Jose F. Negron

    2014-01-01

    During its life cycle, the tree-killing mountain pine beetle Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins interacts with phoretic organisms such as mites, nematodes, fungi, and bacteria. The types of associations these organisms establish with the mountain pine beetle (MPB) vary from mutualistic to antagonistic. The most studied of these interactions are those between beetle and...

  14. New data on flea beetle management in cranberry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Report of two trials conducted this summer for flea beetle management. The first one, conducted in the greenhouse, compares efficacy of native WI nematodes to chemical insecticides for flea beetle control. In this trial, nematodes provided similar control for flea beetles as both insecticides (Belay...

  15. Asian Longhorned Beetle - A New Introduction, Pest Alert

    Science.gov (United States)

    USDA Forest Service, State and Private Forestry, Northeastern Area; Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service

    2008-01-01

    The Asian longhorned beetle (ALB) has been discovered attacking trees in the United States. Tunneling by beetle larvae girdles tree stems and branches. Repeated attacks lead to dieback of the tree crown and, eventually, death of the tree. ALB probably traveled to the United States inside solid wood packing material from China. The beetle has been intercepted at ports...

  16. The ground-beetles (Coleoptera, Carabidae) of Nukatlinskiy watershed

    OpenAIRE

    G. M. Nahibasheva; Sh. M. Imanaliev

    2008-01-01

    The article is devoted to studying of ground-beetles fauna of Nukatlinskiy watershed of Republic Dagestan. For the first time the specific structure of ground-beetles this area, the numbering 109 kinds concerning 31 sort is resulted. The analysis of sexual structure of populations and seasonal dynamics of activity ground-beetles is lead.

  17. Climate warming affects biological invasions by shifting interactions of plants and herbivores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Xinmin; Siemann, Evan; Shao, Xu; Wei, Hui; Ding, Jianqing

    2013-08-01

    Plants and herbivorous insects can each be dramatically affected by temperature. Climate warming may impact plant invasion success directly but also indirectly through changes in their natural enemies. To date, however, there are no tests of how climate warming shifts the interactions among invasive plants and their natural enemies to affect invasion success. Field surveys covering the full latitudinal range of invasive Alternanthera philoxeroides in China showed that a beetle introduced for biocontrol was rare or absent at higher latitudes. In contrast, plant cover and mass increased with latitude. In a 2-year field experiment near the northern limit of beetle distribution, we found the beetle sustained populations across years under elevated temperature, dramatically decreasing A. philoxeroides growth, but it failed to overwinter in ambient temperature. Together, these results suggest that warming will allow the natural enemy to expand its range, potentially benefiting biocontrol in regions that are currently too cold for the natural enemy. However, the invader may also expand its range further north in response to warming. In such cases where plants tolerate cold better than their natural enemies, the geographical gap between plant and herbivorous insect ranges may not disappear but will shift to higher latitudes, leading to a new zone of enemy release. Therefore, warming will not only affect plant invasions directly but also drive either enemy release or increase that will result in contrasting effects on invasive plants. The findings are also critical for future management of invasive species under climate change. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Long-horned Beetles (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae and Tortoise Beetles (Chrysomelidae: Cassidinae of Tripura, northeastern India with some new additions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B.K. Agarwala

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports the occurrence of nineteen species of Long-horned Beetles (Cerambycidae and eleven species of Tortoise Beetles (Cassidinae from Tripura state, northeastern India. These include 11 species of Cerambycidae and seven species of Cassidinae, respectively, as new records from the state. Distribution of these beetles in different parts of the state are provided.

  19. Travelers' Health: Japanese Encephalitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... human cases in north, central, and southern Laos Malaysia Endemic in Sarawak; sporadic cases reported from all ... of a booster dose of inactivated Vero cell culture-derived Japanese encephalitis vaccine: advisory committee on immunization ...

  20. Japanese supercomputer technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buzbee, B.L.; Ewald, R.H.; Worlton, W.J.

    1982-01-01

    In February 1982, computer scientists from the Los Alamos National Laboratory and Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory visited several Japanese computer manufacturers. The purpose of these visits was to assess the state of the art of Japanese supercomputer technology and to advise Japanese computer vendors of the needs of the US Department of Energy (DOE) for more powerful supercomputers. The Japanese foresee a domestic need for large-scale computing capabilities for nuclear fusion, image analysis for the Earth Resources Satellite, meteorological forecast, electrical power system analysis (power flow, stability, optimization), structural and thermal analysis of satellites, and very large scale integrated circuit design and simulation. To meet this need, Japan has launched an ambitious program to advance supercomputer technology. This program is described

  1. Japanese views on ASSET

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirano, M.

    1997-01-01

    The presentation briefly reviews the following aspects directed to ensuring NPP safety: Japanese participation in ASSET activities; views to ASSET activities; recent operating experience in Japan; future ASSET activities

  2. 2011 Japanese Nuclear Incident

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA’s RadNet system monitored the environmental radiation levels in the United States and parts of the Pacific following the Japanese Nuclear Incident. Learn about EPA’s response and view historical laboratory data and news releases.

  3. Conservation status of the forest beetles (Insecta, Coleoptera) from Azores, Portugal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borges, Paulo Alexandre Vieira; Lamelas-López, Lucas; Amorim, Isabel R; Danielczak, Anja; Nunes, Rui; Serrano, Artur R M; Boieiro, Mário; Rego, Carla; Hochkirch, Axel; Vieira, Virgílio

    2017-01-01

    Island biodiversity is under considerable pressure due to the ongoing threats of invasive alien species, land use change or climate change. The few remnants of Azorean native forests harbour a unique set of endemic beetles, some of them possibly already extinct or under severe long term threat due to the small areas of the remaining habitats or climatic changes. In this contribution we present the IUCN Red List profiles of 54 forest adapted beetle species endemic to the Azorean archipelago, including species belonging to four speciose families: Zopheridae (12 species), Carabidae (11 species), Curculionidae (11 species) and Staphylinidae (10 species). Most species have a restricted distribution (i.e. 66% occur in only one island) and a very small extent of occurrence (EOO) and area of occupancy (AOO). Also common to most of the species is the severe fragmentation of their populations, and a continuing decline in EOO, AOO, habitat quality, number of locations and subpopulations caused by the ongoing threat from pasture intensification, forestry, invasive species and future climatic changes. Therefore, we suggest as future measures of conservation: (1) a long-term monitoring plan for the species; (2) control of invasive species; (3) species-specific conservation action for the most highly threatened species.

  4. Reference Japanese man

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanaka, G.-I.; Kawamura, H.; Nakahara, Y.

    1979-01-01

    The weight of organs from autopsy cases of normal Japanese adults, children, and infants is presented for the purpose of approaching a Reference Japanese Man. The skeletal content and the daily intake of alkaline earth elements are given. A lower rate of transfer (K 2 ) to the thyroid gland of ingested radioiodine, as well as a remarkably shorter biological half-life than the data adopted by ICRP, is also proved as a result of this study. (author)

  5. Emerald Ash Borer: Invasion of the Urban Forest and the Threat to North America's Ash Resource

    Science.gov (United States)

    Therese M. Poland; Deborah G. McCullough

    2006-01-01

    The emerald ash borer (EAB), a phloem-feeding beetle native to Asia, was discovered killing ash trees in southeastern Michigan and Windsor, Ontario, in 2002. Like several other invasive forest pests, the EAB likely was introduced and became established in a highly urbanized setting, facilitated by international trade and abundant hosts. Up to 15 million ash trees in...

  6. Invasion Genetics of Emerald Ash Borer (Agrilus planipennis FAIRMAIRE) in North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alicia M. Bray; Leah S. Bauer; Robert A. Haack; Therese Poland; James J. Smith

    2007-01-01

    Emerald ash borer (EAB) was first detected in Michigan and Canada in 2002. Efforts by federal and state regulatory agencies to control this destructive pest have been challenged by the biology of the pest and the speed in which it has spread. Invasion dynamics of the beetle and identifying source populations from Asia may help identify geographic localities of...

  7. The Role of Biocontrol of Emerald Ash Borer in Protecting Ash Regeneration after Invasion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emerald ash borer (EAB) is an invasive Asian beetle that is destroying ash in forests over much of eastern North America because of the high susceptibility of our native ash and a lack of effective natural enemies. To increase mortality of EAB larvae and eggs, the USDA (FS, ARS and APHIS) is carryin...

  8. Teaching Japanese Popular Culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deborah Shamoon

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Japanese popular culture has arrived on American college campuses as never before. Student interest in Japanese manga (comic books, anime (animated films and television shows, and video games drives much of the enrollment in Japanese courses and Japanese majors and minors. In response to student interest, as well as the establishment of popular culture as a topic of serious academic scholarship, the demand for courses on Japanese popular culture has never been higher. Yet the number of scholars specializing in the study of popular culture is still relatively small. This can potentially create problems, as faculty teach outside their expertise, and perhaps face an uncomfortable situation in which the students know more about the topic than the professor. In this article, I will offer some suggestions and advice for faculty creating a popular culture course for the first time, based on my experiences teaching undergraduates at the University of Notre Dame. The course I developed reflects my background in Japanese literature and film, and is but one example of many possible approaches to the topic. The sample syllabus and list of resources at the end of this article provide citations for all text and media sources mentioned.

  9. Egg Predation by the Introduced Lady Beetle, Coccinella septempunctata (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae), Lowers Mortality but Raises Relative Risk for the Native Lady Beetle, Coccinella novemnotata

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turnipseed, Rakim; Ugine, Todd A.; Losey, John E.

    2015-01-01

    Populations of the native ninespotted lady beetle, Coccinella novemnotata Herbst, have undergone precipitous declines in North America following the establishment of the exotic sevenspotted lady beetle, Coccinella septempunctata L. Recent volunteer efforts have made it possible to establish colonies of the now-rare C. novemnotata and test mechanisms contributing to its decline. We evaluated the relative frequencies of intraguild predation and cannibalism of eggs between these two species. A single C. novemnotata or C. septempunctata adult was exposed to conspecific and heterospecific eggs in either the presence or absence of pea aphids. The study revealed two expected results: 1) eggs of C. novemnotata were consumed more frequently than eggs of C. septempunctata by both species, and 2) egg consumption was higher when aphids were absent, independent of predator and egg species. There were also two unexpected results from the study: 1) the asymmetry between egg predation rates was higher when aphids were present, and 2) higher predation rates on C. novemnotata eggs in the absence of alternate prey was due to a relatively higher rate of intraspecific cannibalism. This implies that C. novemnotata would have suffered higher egg mortality rates before the invasion of C. septempunctata, but even though the aggregate rate of egg predation on C. novemnotata eggs is lower post-invasion, it is still significantly higher than the aggregate rate of predation of C. septempunctata eggs. This differential pattern of asymmetric predation could contribute to habitat compression and the overall decline of C. novemnotata. PMID:26090935

  10. Egg Predation by the Introduced Lady Beetle, Coccinella septempunctata (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae, Lowers Mortality but Raises Relative Risk for the Native Lady Beetle, Coccinella novemnotata.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rakim Turnipseed

    Full Text Available Populations of the native ninespotted lady beetle, Coccinella novemnotata Herbst, have undergone precipitous declines in North America following the establishment of the exotic sevenspotted lady beetle, Coccinella septempunctata L. Recent volunteer efforts have made it possible to establish colonies of the now-rare C. novemnotata and test mechanisms contributing to its decline. We evaluated the relative frequencies of intraguild predation and cannibalism of eggs between these two species. A single C. novemnotata or C. septempunctata adult was exposed to conspecific and heterospecific eggs in either the presence or absence of pea aphids. The study revealed two expected results: 1 eggs of C. novemnotata were consumed more frequently than eggs of C. septempunctata by both species, and 2 egg consumption was higher when aphids were absent, independent of predator and egg species. There were also two unexpected results from the study: 1 the asymmetry between egg predation rates was higher when aphids were present, and 2 higher predation rates on C. novemnotata eggs in the absence of alternate prey was due to a relatively higher rate of intraspecific cannibalism. This implies that C. novemnotata would have suffered higher egg mortality rates before the invasion of C. septempunctata, but even though the aggregate rate of egg predation on C. novemnotata eggs is lower post-invasion, it is still significantly higher than the aggregate rate of predation of C. septempunctata eggs. This differential pattern of asymmetric predation could contribute to habitat compression and the overall decline of C. novemnotata.

  11. First Evidence of a Volatile Sex Pheromone in Lady Beetles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fassotte, Bérénice; Fischer, Christophe; Durieux, Delphine; Lognay, Georges; Haubruge, Eric; Francis, Frédéric; Verheggen, François J.

    2014-01-01

    To date, volatile sex pheromones have not been identified in the Coccinellidae family; yet, various studies have suggested that such semiochemicals exist. Here, we collected volatile chemicals released by virgin females of the multicolored Asian lady beetle, Harmonia axyridis (Pallas), which were either allowed or not allowed to feed on aphids. Virgin females in the presence of aphids, exhibited “calling behavior”, which is commonly associated with the emission of a sex pheromone in several Coleoptera species. These calling females were found to release a blend of volatile compounds that is involved in the remote attraction (i.e., from a distance) of males. Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS) analyses revealed that (–)-β-caryophyllene was the major constituent of the volatile blend (ranging from 80 to 86%), with four other chemical components also being present; β-elemene, methyl-eugenol, α-humulene, and α-bulnesene. In a second set of experiments, the emission of the five constituents identified from the blend was quantified daily over a 9-day period after exposure to aphids. We found that the quantity of all five chemicals significantly increased across the experimental period. Finally, we evaluated the activity of a synthetic blend of these chemicals by performing bioassays which demonstrated the same attractive effect in males only. The results confirm that female H. axyridis produce a volatile sex pheromone. These findings have potential in the development of more specific and efficient biological pest-control management methods aimed at manipulating the behavior of this invasive lady beetle. PMID:25514321

  12. First evidence of a volatile sex pheromone in lady beetles.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bérénice Fassotte

    Full Text Available To date, volatile sex pheromones have not been identified in the Coccinellidae family; yet, various studies have suggested that such semiochemicals exist. Here, we collected volatile chemicals released by virgin females of the multicolored Asian lady beetle, Harmonia axyridis (Pallas, which were either allowed or not allowed to feed on aphids. Virgin females in the presence of aphids, exhibited "calling behavior", which is commonly associated with the emission of a sex pheromone in several Coleoptera species. These calling females were found to release a blend of volatile compounds that is involved in the remote attraction (i.e., from a distance of males. Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS analyses revealed that (--β-caryophyllene was the major constituent of the volatile blend (ranging from 80 to 86%, with four other chemical components also being present; β-elemene, methyl-eugenol, α-humulene, and α-bulnesene. In a second set of experiments, the emission of the five constituents identified from the blend was quantified daily over a 9-day period after exposure to aphids. We found that the quantity of all five chemicals significantly increased across the experimental period. Finally, we evaluated the activity of a synthetic blend of these chemicals by performing bioassays which demonstrated the same attractive effect in males only. The results confirm that female H. axyridis produce a volatile sex pheromone. These findings have potential in the development of more specific and efficient biological pest-control management methods aimed at manipulating the behavior of this invasive lady beetle.

  13. Ground beetles of the Ukraine (Coleoptera, Carabidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putchkov, Alexander

    2011-01-01

    A review of the ground beetles of the Ukrainian fauna is given. Almost 750 species from 117 genera of Carabidae are known to occur in the Ukraine. Approximately 450 species of ground beetles are registered in the Carpathian region. No less than 300 species of ground beetles are found in the forest zone. Approximately 400 species of Carabidae present in the forest-steppe zone are relatively similar in species composition to those in the forest territories. Some 450 species of Carabidae are inhabitants of the steppe zone. Representatives of many other regions of heterogeneous biotopes such as forest, semi desert, intrazonal, etc. can be found in the steppe areas. The fauna of Carabidae (ca. 100 species) of the lowlands of southern Ukraine (sandy biotopes), situated mostly in the Kherson region, is very peculiar. The fauna of the Crimean mountains contains about 300 species. Conservation measures for the Carabidae are discussed.

  14. Ground beetles of the Ukraine (Coleoptera, Carabidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Putchkov

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available A review of the ground beetles of the Ukrainian fauna is given. Almost 750 species from 117 genera of Carabidae are known to occur in the Ukraine. Approximately 450 species of ground beetles are registered in the Carpathian region. No less than 300 species of ground beetles are found in the forest zone. Approximately 400 species of Carabidae present in the forest-steppe zone are relatively similar in species composition to those in the forest territories. Some 450 species of Carabidae are inhabitants of the steppe zone. Representatives of many other regions of heterogeneous biotopes such as forest, semi desert, intrazonal, etc. can be found in the steppe areas. The fauna of Carabidae (ca. 100 species of the lowlands of southern Ukraine (sandy biotopes, situated mostly in the Kherson region, is very peculiar. The fauna of the Crimean mountains contains about 300 species. Conservation measures for the Carabidae are discussed.

  15. Northern tamarisk beetle (Diorhabda carinulata) and tamarisk (Tamarix spp.) interactions in the Colorado River basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagler, Pamela L.; Nguyen, Uyen; Bateman, Heather L.; Jarchow, Christopher; Glenn, Edward P.; Waugh, William J.; van Riper, Charles

    2018-01-01

    Northern tamarisk beetles (Diorhabda carinulata) were released in the Upper Colorado River Basin in the United States in 2004–2007 to defoliate introduced tamarisk shrubs (Tamarix spp.) in the region’s riparian zones. The primary purpose was to control the invasive shrub and reduce evapotranspiration (ET) by tamarisk in an attempt to increase stream flows. We evaluated beetle–tamarisk interactions with MODIS and Landsat imagery on 13 river systems, with vegetation indices used as indicators of the extent of defoliation and ET. Beetles are widespread and exhibit a pattern of colonize–defoliate–emigrate, so that riparian zones contain a mosaic of completely defoliated, partially defoliated, and refoliated tamarisk stands. Based on satellite data and ET algorithms, mean ET before beetle release (2000–2006) was 416 mm/year compared to postrelease (2007–2015) ET of 355 mm/year (pBasin has shown a steady decline since 2007 and equilibrium has not yet been reached. Defoliation is now proceeding from the Upper Basin into the Lower Basin at a rate of 40 km/year, much faster than initially projected.

  16. Studies on tiger beetles : 84. Additions to the tiger beetle fauna of Sulawesi, Indonesia (Coleoptera: Cicindelidae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cassola, F.

    1996-01-01

    Distributional new data are provided for several interesting or poorly known tiger beetle species from Sulawesi, Indonesia. The generic attribution of Wallacedela brendelli Cassola, 1991, is confirmed, and moreover two new species, Wallacedela? problematica spec. nov. and Wallacedela butonensis

  17. Volatile Organic Compounds Emitted by Fungal Associates of Conifer Bark Beetles and their Potential in Bark Beetle Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kandasamy, Dineshkumar; Gershenzon, Jonathan; Hammerbacher, Almuth

    2016-09-01

    Conifer bark beetles attack and kill mature spruce and pine trees, especially during hot and dry conditions. These beetles are closely associated with ophiostomatoid fungi of the Ascomycetes, including the genera Ophiostoma, Grosmannia, and Endoconidiophora, which enhance beetle success by improving nutrition and modifying their substrate, but also have negative impacts on beetles by attracting predators and parasites. A survey of the literature and our own data revealed that ophiostomatoid fungi emit a variety of volatile organic compounds under laboratory conditions including fusel alcohols, terpenoids, aromatic compounds, and aliphatic alcohols. Many of these compounds already have been shown to elicit behavioral responses from bark beetles, functioning as attractants or repellents, often as synergists to compounds currently used in bark beetle control. Thus, these compounds could serve as valuable new agents for bark beetle management. However, bark beetle associations with fungi are very complex. Beetle behavior varies with the species of fungus, the stage of the beetle life cycle, the host tree quality, and probably with changes in the emission rate of fungal volatiles. Additional research on bark beetles and their symbiotic associates is necessary before the basic significance of ophiostomatoid fungal volatiles can be understood and their applied potential realized.

  18. Population dynamics of the northern tamarisk beetle (Diorhabda carinulata) in the Colorado River Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamison, Levi R.; van Riper, Charles

    2018-05-01

    Throughout the Southwestern United States, riparian systems contain narrow belts of vegetation along streams and rivers. Although only a small percentage of the total land cover, this ecosystem is important for maintaining high species diversity and population densities of birds. Anthropogenic changes to Western riverine systems have enhanced their susceptibility to invasion by introduced plant species, in particular, ornamental plants from the genus Tamarix (or saltcedar), which can establish itself in dry, salty conditions and spread rapidly. Recently, the central Asian saltcedar leaf beetle (Diorhabda carinulata) was released as a biocontrol for tamarisk. Since its release on the Colorado Plateau, tamarisk beetle populations in Nevada, Utah, Colorado, and Wyoming have widely expanded, leading to widespread tamarisk defoliation, and concerns from land managers regarding the consequences of the environmental impact. Defoliation can also negatively impact avian communities in the short term by decreasing insect abundance and nesting success, owing to increased solar radiation or loss of camouflage. This report details two studies that examine the spread of the introduced tamarisk beetle over parts of the Southwestern United States. The first chapter documents plant phenology and beetle abundance and movement along the Dolores and San Juan Rivers, two major tributaries of the Colorado River. This study demonstrates that D. carinulata population-movement patterns can be highly influenced by the availability of beetle food resources and that local beetle “boom and bust” events are common. The second study demonstrates that the extent and timing of tamarisk defoliation are predictable on the basis of (1) abiotic cues for D. carinulata activity, (2) spatial distributions and abundances of D. carinulata across a site, and (3) movement of D. carinulata as a result of available tamarisk foliage. A significant positive correlation exists between the

  19. Transcriptomic and functional resources for the small hive beetle Aethina tumida, a worldwide parasite of honey bees

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    Matthew R. Tarver

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The small hive beetle (SHB, Aethina tumida, is a major pest of managed honey bee (Apis mellifera colonies in the United States and Australia, and an emergent threat in Europe. While strong honey bee colonies generally keep SHB populations in check, weak or stressed colonies can succumb to infestations. This parasite has spread from a sub-Saharan Africa to three continents, leading to immense management and regulatory costs. We performed a transcriptomic analysis involving deep sequencing of multiple life stages and both sexes of this species. The assembled transcriptome appears to be nearly complete, as judged by conserved insect orthologs and the ability to find plausible homologs for 11,952 proteins described from the genome of the red flour beetle. Expressed genes include each of the major metabolic, developmental and sensory groups, along with genes for proteins involved with immune defenses and insecticide resistance. We also present a total of 23,085 high-quality SNP's for the assembled contigs. We highlight potential differences between this beetle and its honey bee hosts, and suggest mechanisms of future research into the biology and control of this species. SNP resources will allow functional genetic analyses and analyses of dispersal for this invasive pest. All resources are posted as Supplemental Tables at https://data.nal.usda.gov/dataset/data-transcriptomic-and-functional-resources-small-hive-beetle-aethina-tumida-worldwide, and at NCBI under Bioproject PRJNA256171.

  20. A catalogue of Lithuanian beetles (Insecta, Coleoptera)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamutis, Vytautas; Tamutė, Brigita; Ferenca, Romas

    2011-01-01

    Abstract This paper presents the first complete and updated list of all 3597 species of beetles (Insecta: Coleoptera) belonging to 92 familiesfound and published in Lithuania until 2011, with comments also provided on the main systematic and nomenclatural changes since the last monographic treatment in two volumes (Pileckis and Monsevičius 1995, 1997). The introductory section provides a general overview of the main features of the territory of Lithuania, the origins and formation of the beetle fauna and their conservation, the faunistic investigations in Lithuania to date revealing the most important stages of the faunistic research process with reference to the most prominent scientists, an overview of their work, and their contribution to Lithuanian coleopteran faunal research. Species recorded in Lithuania by some authors without reliable evidence and requiring further confirmation with new data are presented in a separate list, consisting of 183 species. For the first time, analysis of errors in works of Lithuanian authors concerning data on coleopteran fauna has been conducted and these errors have been corrected. All available published and Internet sources on beetles found in Lithuania have been considered in the current study. Over 630 literature sources on species composition of beetles, their distribution in Lithuania and neighbouring countries, and taxonomic revisions and changes are reviewed and cited. An alphabetical list of these literature sources is presented. After revision of public beetle collections in Lithuania, the authors propose to remove 43 species from the beetle species list of the country on the grounds, that they have been wrongly identified or published by mistake. For reasons of clarity, 19 previously noted but later excluded species are included in the current checklist with comments. Based on faunal data from neighbouring countries, species expected to occur in Lithuania are matnioned. In total 1390 species are attributed to this

  1. A catalogue of Lithuanian beetles (Insecta: Coleoptera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vytautas Tamutis

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the first complete and updated list of all 3597 species of beetles (Insecta: Coleoptera belonging to 92 families found and published in Lithuania until 2011, with comments also provided on the main systematic and nomenclatural changes since the last monograic treatment (Pileckis and Monsevičius 1995, 1997. The introductory section provides a general overview of the main features of territory of the Lithuania, the origins and formation of the beetle fauna and their conservation, the faunistic investigations in Lithuania to date revealing the most important stages of the faunistic research process with reference to the most prominent scientists, an overview of their work, and their contribution to Lithuanian coleopteran faunal research.Species recorded in Lithuania by some authors without reliable evidence and requiring further confirmation with new data are presented in a separate list, consisting of 183 species. For the first time, analysis of errors in works of Lithuanian authors concerning data on coleopteran fauna has been conducted and these errors have been corrected. All available published and Internet sources on beetles found in Lithuania have been considered in the current study. Over 630 literature sources on species composition of beetles, their distribution in Lithuania and neighbouring countries, and taxonomic revisions and changes are reviewed and cited. An alphabetical list of these literature sources is presented. After revision of public beetle collections in Lithuania, the authors propose to remove 43 species from the beetle species list of the country on the grounds, that they have been wrongly identified or published by mistake. For reasons of clarity, 19 previously noted but later excluded species are included in the current checklist with comments. Based on faunal data from neighbouring countries, species expected to occur in Lithuania are also mentioned. In total 1390 species are attributed to this

  2. Comparison of postmenopausal endogenous sex hormones among Japanese, Japanese Brazilians, and non-Japanese Brazilians

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    Maciel Maria

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Differences in sex hormone levels among populations might contribute to the variation in breast cancer incidence across countries. Previous studies have shown higher breast cancer incidence and mortality among Japanese Brazilians than among Japanese. To clarify the difference in hormone levels among populations, we compared postmenopausal endogenous sex hormone levels among Japanese living in Japan, Japanese Brazilians living in the state of São Paulo, and non-Japanese Brazilians living in the state of São Paulo. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted using a control group of case-control studies in Nagano, Japan, and São Paulo, Brazil. Participants were postmenopausal women older than 55 years of age who provided blood samples. We measured estradiol, estrone, androstenedione, dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEAS, testosterone and free testosterone by radioimmunoassay; bioavailable estradiol by the ammonium sulfate precipitation method; and sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG by immunoradiometric assay. A total of 363 women were included for the present analyses, comprising 185 Japanese, 44 Japanese Brazilians and 134 non-Japanese Brazilians. Results Japanese Brazilians had significantly higher levels of estradiol, bioavailable estradiol, estrone, testosterone and free testosterone levels, and lower SHBG levels, than Japanese. Japanese Brazilians also had significantly higher levels of bioavailable estradiol, estrone and DHEAS and lower levels of SHBG and androstenedione than non-Japanese Brazilians. Levels of estradiol, testosterone and free testosterone, however, did not differ between Japanese Brazilians and non-Japanese Brazilians. These differences were observed even after adjustment for known breast cancer risk factors. We also found an increase in estrogen and androgen levels with increasing body mass index, but no association for most of the other known risk factors. Conclusions We found higher levels of

  3. Attraction of the redbay ambrosia beetle, Xyleborus glabratus, to avocado, lychee, and essential oil Lures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kendra, Paul E; Montgomery, Wayne S; Niogret, Jerome; Peña, Jorge E; Capinera, John L; Brar, Gurpreet; Epsky, Nancy D; Heath, Robert R

    2011-09-01

    The redbay ambrosia beetle, Xyleborus glabratus Eichhoff, is an exotic wood-boring insect that vectors the mycopathogen responsible for laurel wilt, a lethal vascular disease of trees in the Lauraceae. High mortality has occurred in native Persea species in the southeastern U.S., and the vector-pathogen complex poses an imminent threat to the production of commercial avocado, P. americana, in south Florida. There is a critical need for effective attractants to detect, monitor, and control this invasive pest. This study combined field tests and laboratory bioassays to evaluate the response of female X. glabratus to host-based volatiles from wood of avocado (cultivars of West Indian, Guatemalan, and Mexican races); from wood of lychee (Litchi chinensis, a presumed non-host that is high in the sesquiterpene α-copaene, a putative attractant); and to commercial lures containing manuka and phoebe oils, two reported attractive baits. Volatile collections and GC-MS analyses were performed to quantify the sesquiterpene content of test substrates. In the field, traps baited with lychee wood captured more beetles than those with wood from avocado cultivars; traps baited with phoebe oil lures captured more beetles than those with manuka oil lures (the current monitoring tool). In field and laboratory tests, X. glabratus did not show a preference among avocado races in either attraction or host acceptance (initiation of boring). In choice tests, lychee was more attractive than avocado initially, but a higher percentage of beetles bored into avocado, suggesting that lychee emits more powerful olfactory/visual cues, but that avocado contains more of the secondary cues necessary for host recognition. Emissions of α-copaene, β-caryophyllene, and α-humulene were correlated with field captures, and lychee wood may be a source of additional semiochemicals for X. glabratus.

  4. Initial Response by a Native Beetle, Chrysochus auratus (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae), to a Novel Introduced Host-Plant, Vincetoxicum rossicum (Gentianales: Apocynaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    deJonge, R B; Bourchier, R S; Smith, S M

    2017-06-01

    Native insects can form novel associations with introduced invasive plants and use them as a food source. The recent introduction into eastern North America of a nonnative European vine, Vincetoxicum rossicum (Kleopow) Barbar., allows us to examine the initial response of a native chrysomelid beetle, Chrysochus auratus F., that feeds on native plants in the same family as V. rossicum (Apocynaceae). We tested C. auratus on V. rossicum and closely related or co-occurring native plants (Apocynum spp., Asclepias spp., and Solidago canadensis L.) using all life stages of the beetle in lab, garden, and field experiments. Experiments measured feeding (presence or absence and amount), survival, oviposition, and whether previous exposure to V. rossicum in the lab or field affected adult beetle feeding. Beetles fed significantly less on V. rossicum than on native Apocynum hosts. Adult beetles engaged in exploratory feeding on leaves of V. rossicum and survived up to 10 d. Females oviposited on V. rossicum, eggs hatched, and larvae fed initially on the roots; however, no larvae survived beyond second instar. Beetles collected from Apocynum cannabinum L. field sites intermixed with V. rossicum were less likely to feed on this novel nonnative host than those collected from colonies further from and less likely to be exposed to V. rossicum (>5 km). Our experimental work indicates that V. rossicum may act as an oviposition sink for C. auratus and that this native beetle has not adapted to survive on this recently introduced novel host plant. © The Authors 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  5. Overwintering biology and tests of trap and relocate as a conservation measure for burying beetles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    Burying beetles are carrion beetles and utilize dead animal carcasses for feeding : and reproductive efforts. They assist with decomposition, prevent the spread of disease, : and reduce the number of pest species. The largest species of carrion beetl...

  6. The fossil record and macroevolutionary history of the beetles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Dena M; Marcot, Jonathan D

    2015-04-22

    Coleoptera (beetles) is the most species-rich metazoan order, with approximately 380 000 species. To understand how they came to be such a diverse group, we compile a database of global fossil beetle occurrences to study their macroevolutionary history. Our database includes 5553 beetle occurrences from 221 fossil localities. Amber and lacustrine deposits preserve most of the beetle diversity and abundance. All four extant suborders are found in the fossil record, with 69% of all beetle families and 63% of extant beetle families preserved. Considerable focus has been placed on beetle diversification overall, however, for much of their evolutionary history it is the clade Polyphaga that is most responsible for their taxonomic richness. Polyphaga had an increase in diversification rate in the Early Cretaceous, but instead of being due to the radiation of the angiosperms, this was probably due to the first occurrences of beetle-bearing amber deposits in the record. Perhaps, most significant is that polyphagan beetles had a family-level extinction rate of zero for most of their evolutionary history, including across the Cretaceous-Palaeogene boundary. Therefore, focusing on the factors that have inhibited beetle extinction, as opposed to solely studying mechanisms that may promote speciation, should be examined as important determinants of their great diversity today. © 2015 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.

  7. Japanese Tarot Cards

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    Laura Miller

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available This essay looks at selected images from tarot decks designed in Japan. Tarot decks reflect a deliberate adaptation process across both cultural and temporal borders, with visual components created and customized for a Japanese viewer. My aim is to consider the nature of these changes in imagery and to focus attention on an under-analyzed and mostly female-gendered domain. In particular, I look at the way the medieval European people and elements originally found on the cards are replaced with images from the world of Japanese art, history, and popular culture. These substitutions either gloss over the gaps between Western and Japanese world views or meld them into a new form, allowing the tarot entry into a different or hybrid metaphysical culture. Attention to tarot cards is important because of their great economic and cultural impact in contemporary Japan. A widespread love of tarot in Japan provides insight into domains of pleasure, spiritual exploration, and fandom.

  8. Scymnus (Neopullus) lady beetles from China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael E. Montgomery; Melody A. Keena

    2011-01-01

    In 1995, we found our first Scymnus (Neopullus) lady beetle in China (Neopullus is a subgenus of Scymnus, the largest genus in the family Coccinellidae). At that time there were just a few known species in the subgenus and very little was known of their biology. By the end of the project, 14...

  9. A dynamical model for bark beetle outbreaks

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Křivan, Vlastimil; Lewis, M.; Bentz, B. J.; Bewick, S.; Lenhart, S. M.; Liebhold, A.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 407, OCT 21 (2016), s. 25-37 ISSN 0022-5193 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : bistability * bark beetle * Dendroctonus ponderosae Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 2.113, year: 2016 http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0022519316301928

  10. Bark beetle responses to vegetation management practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joel D. McMillin; Christopher J. Fettig

    2009-01-01

    Native tree-killing bark beetles (Coleoptera: Curculionidae, Scolytinae) are a natural component of forest ecosystems. Eradication is neither possible nor desirable and periodic outbreaks will occur as long as susceptible forests and favorable climatic conditions co-exist. Recent changes in forest structure and tree composition by natural processes and management...

  11. Risk Assessment for the Southern Pine Beetle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrew Birt

    2011-01-01

    The southern pine beetle (SPB) causes significant damage (tree mortality) to pine forests. Although this tree mortality has characteristic temporal and spatial patterns, the precise location and timing of damage is to some extent unpredictable. Consequently, although forest managers are able to identify stands that are predisposed to SPB damage, they are unable to...

  12. Economic Impacts of the Southern Pine Beetle

    Science.gov (United States)

    John M. Pye; Thomas P. Holmes; Jeffrey P. Prestemon; David N. Wear

    2011-01-01

    This paper provides an overview of the timber economic impacts of the southern pine beetle (SPB). Although we anticipate that SPB outbreaks cause substantial economic losses to households that consume the nonmarket economic services provided by healthy forests, we have narrowly focused our attention here on changes in values to timber growers and wood-products...

  13. Parasitoids of the Southern Pine Beetle

    Science.gov (United States)

    C. Wayne Berisford

    2011-01-01

    Hymenopterous parasitoids make up a significant portion of the natural enemy complex associated with the southern pine beetle (SPB). Collectively, parasitoids can affect the growth of individual SPB infestations and area populations by reducing the survival rates of developing SPB larval/pupal broods. A substantial body of information on parasitoids has been...

  14. Dung beetles (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae: Scarabaeinae) of the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The dung beetle fauna of the subfamily Scarabaeinae (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae) occurring in the Laikipia District of Kenya was surveyed. A total of 79 species were found which are diagnosed, keyed, and known dung preferences discussed. Seven species are new records for Kenya, namely Allogymnopleurus ...

  15. Floral associations of cyclocephaline scarab beetles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Matthew Robert; Jameson, Mary Liz

    2013-01-01

    The scarab beetle tribe Cyclocephalini (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae: Dynastinae) is the second largest tribe of rhinoceros beetles, with nearly 500 described species. This diverse group is most closely associated with early diverging angiosperm groups (the family Nymphaeaceae, magnoliid clade, and monocots), where they feed, mate, and receive the benefit of thermal rewards from the host plant. Cyclocephaline floral association data have never been synthesized, and a comprehensive review of this ecological interaction was necessary to promote research by updating nomenclature, identifying inconsistencies in the data, and reporting previously unpublished data. Based on the most specific data, at least 97 cyclocephaline beetle species have been reported from the flowers of 58 plant genera representing 17 families and 15 orders. Thirteen new cyclocephaline floral associations are reported herein. Six cyclocephaline and 25 plant synonyms were reported in the literature and on beetle voucher specimen labels, and these were updated to reflect current nomenclature. The valid names of three unavailable plant host names were identified. We review the cyclocephaline floral associations with respect to inferred relationships of angiosperm orders. Ten genera of cyclocephaline beetles have been recorded from flowers of early diverging angiosperm groups. In contrast, only one genus, Cyclocephala, has been recorded from dicot flowers. Cyclocephaline visitation of dicot flowers is limited to the New World, and it is unknown whether this is evolutionary meaningful or the result of sampling bias and incomplete data. The most important areas for future research include: (1) elucidating the factors that attract cyclocephalines to flowers including floral scent chemistry and thermogenesis, (2) determining whether cyclocephaline dicot visitation is truly limited to the New World, and (3) inferring evolutionary relationships within the Cyclocephalini to rigorously test vicarance hypotheses

  16. Cultural Competence in Business Japanese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koike, Shohei

    Cultural competence in business Japanese requires more than superficial knowledge of business etiquette. One must truly understand why Japanese people think and act differently from their American counterparts. For example, instruction in the use of Japanese taxis must be accompanied by instruction in the concept and implications of seating order…

  17. Zombie soldier beetles: Epizootics in the goldenrod soldier beetle, Chauliognathus pensylvanicus (Coleoptera: Cantharidae) caused by Eryniopsis lampyridarum (Entomophthoromycotina: Entomophthoraceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinkraus, Donald C; Hajek, Ann E; Liebherr, Jim K

    2017-09-01

    Adult goldenrod soldier beetles, Chauliognathus pensylvanicus, were found infected by the fungus Eryniopsis lampyridarum (Entomophthoromycotina) in Arkansas during September - October (1996, 2001, 2015 and 2016). Living and dead infected beetles were found on flowering frost aster, Symphyotrichum pilosum, common boneset, Eupatorium perfoliatum, and Canada goldenrod, Solidago canadensis. Live and dead beetles (n=446) were collected in 1996 from S. pilosum flowers and held individually in the laboratory for determination of fungal prevalence. Of the beetles collected, 281 (63%) were males and 165 (37%) were females. A total of 90 beetles were infected with E. lampyridarum, an overall prevalence of 20.2%. Prevalence in males was 19.6% (n=55 infected/281 males total) and prevalence in females was 21.2% (n=35 infected /165 females total). Conidia were produced from 57% of the infected beetles, 23% of the infected beetles produced resting spores, and 20% contained the hyphal body stage. Infected beetles produced either conidia or resting spores but never both in the same host. Post-mortem morphological changes in the hosts due to E. lampyridarum were observed periodically for 24h. Shortly before death, by unknown mechanisms, dying infected beetles tightly clamped their mandibles into flower heads and ca. 15-22h later (between 2400 and 0700h) the fungus caused dead beetles to raise their elytra and expand their metathoracic wings. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  18. Host range validation, molecular identification, and release and establishment of a Chinese biotype of the Asian leaf beetle Lilioceris cheni (Coleoptera:Chrysomelidae:Criocerinae) for control of Dioscorea bulbifera L. in ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dioscorea bulbifera, an Asian vine, is invasive in the southeastern USA. It rarely flowers but propagates from potato-like bulbils formed in leaf axils, which persist into the subsequent growing season. Lilioceris cheni Gressitt and Kimoto, a foliage-feeding beetle (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae: Crio...

  19. Deep phylogeographical structure and parallel host range evolution in the leaf beetle Agelasa nigriceps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohyama, Tetsuo I; Matsumoto, Kazuma; Katakura, Haruo

    2014-02-01

    To understand the mechanisms behind the diversification of herbivorous insects through insect-plant interactions, it is important to know how the insects change their diet breadth in response to environmental changes. In this study, we investigated the phylogeographical pattern of the leaf beetle Agelasa nigriceps to infer the evolutionary history of its host range. While this beetle commonly uses Actinidia arguta (Actinidiaceae) as a host plant, it has been recorded recently on Pterostyrax hispidus (Styracaceae), which is now increasing in abundance at some localities in Japan due to the indirect effects of high population size of a mammalian herbivore. Considerable variation among populations in the ability of Ag. nigriceps to use P. hispidus suggests that P. hispidus is a newly acquired host plant for this beetle. Phylogenetic analyses using mitochondrial DNA sequences and amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) revealed a high degree of phylogeographical structure in Ag. nigriceps throughout Japan, which is consistent with the hypothesis that several glacial refugia existed in the Japanese archipelago. In contrast, no genetic structure associated with the host plants was detected. Both the mitochondrial DNA and AFLP analyses showed that populations that can use P. hispidus are polyphyletic. These results and geographical variation in host use suggest that the host range expansion to a novel host, P. hispidus, is a very recent and possibly ongoing phenomenon and has occurred independently in several regions. Our study illustrates that the host range of herbivorous insects can evolve repeatedly in response to similar environmental changes. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. JAPANESE READERS (TITLE SUPPLIED).

    Science.gov (United States)

    THREE JAPANESE READERS ARE PRESENTED WHICH CONTAIN VOCABULARY, NOTES, AND DRILL SENTENCES. THE THREE READERS--(1) ARU SARARIIMAN NO ITI-NITI, (2) OTOOSAN WA KAMI-SAMA, AND (3) ARU GAKUSEI NO HANNITI--ARE WRITTEN IN THE ROMAJI ALPHABET. EACH READER HAS A VOCABULARY LISTING WITH ENGLISH EXPLANATIONS AND DRILL SENTENCES. AN ENGLISH WORD DEFINITION…

  1. Effect of tree species and end seal on attractiveness and utility of cut bolts to the redbay ambrosia beetle and granulate ambrosia beetle (coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayfield, A E; Hanula, J L

    2012-04-01

    The redbay ambrosia beetle, Xyleborus glabratus Eichhoff, is a non-native invasive pest and vector of the fungus that causes laurel wilt disease in certain trees of the family Lauraceae. This study assessed the relative attractiveness and suitability of cut bolts of several tree species to X. glabratus. In 2009, female X. glabratus were equally attracted to traps baited with swampbay (Persea palustris (Rafinesque) Sargent) and camphortree (Cinnamomum camphora (L.) J. Presl), which were more attractive than avocado (Persea americana Miller), lancewood (Ocotea coriacea (Swartz) Britton), and sweetbay (Magnolia virginiana L.). These species were more attractive than loblolly bay (Gordonia lasianthus (L.) J. Ellis). X. glabratus entrance hole density and emergence from caged bolts were highest on swampbay and camphortree. In 2010, swampbay was significantly more attractive to X. glabratus than sassafras (Sassafras albidum (Nuttall) Nees), yellow poplar (Liriodendron tulipifera L.), and eastern redbud (Cercis canadensis L.). Sassafras bolts end sealed with a liquid wax-and-water emulsion were more attractive to X. glabratus than end-sealed bolts of yellow poplar and redbud. Relative to unsealed bolts, end seal decreased X. glabratus entrance hole density on swampbay and decreased granulate ambrosia beetle (Xylosandrus crassiusculus (Motschulsky)) trap catch, entrance hole density, and adult emergence from swampbay. X. crassiusculus was not attracted to sassafras, yellow poplar, and redbud and was not more attracted to manuka oil than to unbaited traps. Sassafras was more attractive to X. glabratus than previously reported and supported reproducing populations of the insect. End sealing bolts with a wax-and-water emulsion may not be optimal for attracting and rearing ambrosia beetles in small logs.

  2. The Mexican bean beetle (Epilachna varivestis regurgitome and insights into beetle-borne virus specificity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cassidy R Gedling

    Full Text Available For nearly 400 million years, insects and plants have been embattled in an evolutionary arms race. Insects have developed diverse feeding strategies and behaviors in an effort to circumvent and overcome an extensive collection of plant defense tactics. Sap-sucking insects often inject saliva into hosts plants, which contains a suite of effector proteins and even microbial communities that can alter the plant's defenses. Lacking salivary glands, leaf-feeding beetles represent an interesting group of phytophagous insects. Feeding beetles regurgitate onto leaf surfaces and it is thought that these oral secretions influence insect-plant interactions and even play a role in virus-vector specificity. Since the molecular and biological makeup of the regurgitant is virtually unknown, we carried out RNA sequencing and 16S rDNA analysis on a major soybean pest, Epilachna varivestis, to generate the first ever beetle "regurgitome" and characterize its microbiome. Interestingly, the regurgitant is comprised of a rich molecular assortment of genes encoding putative extracellular proteins involved in digestion, molting, immune defense, and detoxification. By carrying out plant inoculation assays, we reinforced the fundamental role of the regurgitant in beetle-borne virus specificity. Ultimately, these studies begin to characterize the importance of regurgitant in virus transmission and beetle-plant interactions.

  3. Prison construction and guarding behaviour by European honeybees is dependent on inmate small hive beetle density.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, J D; Hepburn, H R; Ellis, A M; Elzen, P J

    2003-08-01

    Increasing small hive beetle (Aethina tumida Murray) density changes prison construction and guarding behaviour in European honeybees (Apis mellifera L.). These changes include more guard bees per imprisoned beetle and the construction of more beetle prisons at the higher beetle density. Despite this, the number of beetles per prison (inmate density) did not change. Beetles solicited food more actively at the higher density and at night. In response, guard bees increased their aggressive behaviour towards beetle prisoners but did not feed beetles more at the higher density. Only 5% of all beetles were found among the combs at the low density but this percentage increased five-fold at the higher one. Successful comb infiltration (and thus reproduction) by beetles is a possible explanation for the significant damage beetles cause to European honeybee colonies in the USA.

  4. Species groups occupying different trophic levels respond differently to the invasion of semi-natural vegetation by Solidago canadensis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groot, de M.; Kleijn, D.; Jogan, N.

    2007-01-01

    We studied the impact of the invasive plant species Solidago canadensis on the species richness of vascular plants and the abundance, species richness and diversity of butterflies, hoverflies and carabid beetles in herbaceous semi-natural habitats near Ljubljana, Slovenia. The species groups were

  5. Sanitation options for managing oak wood infested with the invasive goldspotted oak borer (Coleoptera: Buprestidae) in Southern California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael I. Jones; Tom W. Coleman; Andrew D. Graves; Mary Louise. Flint; Steven J. Seybold

    2013-01-01

    Movement of invasive wood-boring insects in wood products presents a threat to forest health and a management challenge for public and private land managers. The goldspotted oak borer, Agrilus auroguttatus Schaeffer (Coleoptera: Buprestidae), is a new pest in San Diego and Riverside Cos., CA, believed to have been introduced on firewood. This beetle...

  6. Effects of the emerald ash borer invasion on the community composition of arthropods associated with ash tree boles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emerald ash borer (EAB), Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire is an invasive non-native wood-boring beetle that has killed hundreds of millions of ash trees (Fraxinus spp.) in North America, and threatens to extirpate the ecological services provided by the genus. Identifying the arthropod community assoc...

  7. Fungal Symbionts of the Spruce Bark Beetle Synthesize the Beetle Aggregation Pheromone 2-Methyl-3-buten-2-ol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Tao; Axelsson, Karolin; Krokene, Paal; Borg-Karlson, Anna-Karin

    2015-09-01

    Tree-killing bark beetles depend on aggregation pheromones to mass-attack their host trees and overwhelm their resistance. The beetles are always associated with phytopathogenic ophiostomatoid fungi that probably assist in breaking down tree resistance, but little is known about if or how much these fungal symbionts contribute to the beetles' aggregation behavior. In this study, we determined the ability of four major fungal symbionts of the spruce bark beetle Ips typographus to produce beetle aggregation pheromones. The fungi were incubated on Norway spruce Picea abies bark, malt agar, or malt agar amended with 0.5% (13)C glucose. Volatiles present in the headspace of each fungus were analyzed for 7 days after incubation using a SPME autosampler coupled to a GC/MS. Two Grosmannia species (G. penicillata and G. europhioides) produced large amounts of 2-methyl-3-buten-2-ol (MB), the major component in the beetles' aggregation pheromone blend, when growing on spruce bark or malt agar. Grosmannia europhioides also incorporated (13)C glucose into MB, demonstrating that the fungi can synthesize MB de novo using glucose as a carbon source. This is the first clear evidence that fungal symbionts of bark beetles can produce components in the aggregation pheromone blend of their beetle vectors. This provides new insight into the possible ecological roles of fungal symbionts in bark beetle systems and may deepen our understanding of species interactions and coevolution in these important biological systems.

  8. Plasticity of mycangia in Xylosandrus ambrosia beetles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, You; Ruan, Yong-Ying; Stanley, Edward L; Skelton, James; Hulcr, Jiri

    2018-03-23

    Insects that depend on microbial mutualists evolved a variety of organs to transport the microsymbionts while dispersing. The ontogeny and variability of such organs is rarely studied, and the microsymbiont's effects on the animal tissue development remain unknown in most cases. Ambrosia beetles (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae or Platypodinae) and their mutualistic fungi are an ideal system to study the animal-fungus interactions. While the inter-specific diversity of their fungus transport organ-mycangia-is well-known, their developmental plasticity has been poorly described. To determine the ontogeny of the mycangium and the influence of the symbiotic fungus on the tissue development, we dissected by hand or scanned with micro-CT the mycangia in various developmental stages in five Xylosandrus ambrosia beetle species that possess a large, mesonotal mycangium: Xylosandrus amputatus, Xylosandrus compactus, Xylosandrus crassiusculus, Xylosandrus discolor and Xylosandrus germanus. We processed 181 beetle samples from the USA and China. All five species displayed three stages of the mycangium development: (1) Young teneral adults had an empty, deflated and cryptic mycangium without fungal mass; (2) In fully mature adults during dispersal, the pro-mesonotal membrane was inflated, and most individuals developed a mycangium mostly filled with the symbiont, though size and symmetry varied; (3) After successful establishment of their new galleries, most females discharged the bulk of the fungal inoculum and deflated the mycangium. Experimental aposymbiotic individuals demonstrated that the pronotal membrane invaginated independently of the presence of the fungus, but the fungus was required for inflation. Mycangia are more dynamic than previously thought, and their morphological changes correspond to the phases of the symbiosis. Importantly, studies of the fungal symbionts or plant pathogen transmission in ambrosia beetles need to consider which developmental stage

  9. Impacts of invasive riparian knotweed on litter decomposition, aquatic fungi, and macroinvertebrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shannon M. Claeson; Carri J. LeRoy; Jacob R. Barry; Kevin A. Kuehn

    2014-01-01

    Bohemian knotweed (Polygonum X bohemicum), the hybrid between Japanese and giant knotweed, is the most common invasive knotweed species in western North America and the most difficult to control. Invasive knotweed congeners spread aggressively along streams and establish dense monotypic stands, reducing riparian plant species diversity....

  10. Japanese Rinzai Zen Buddhism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borup, Jørn

    and how different kinds of Zen Buddhists (monks, nuns, priest, lay people) interact and define themselves within the religious organization. Living Zen portrays a living Zen Buddhism being both uniquely interesting and interestingly typical for common Buddhist and Japanese religiosity......Zen Buddhist ideas and practices in many ways are unique within the study of religion, and artists, poets and Buddhists practitioners worldwide have found inspiration from this tradition. Until recent years, representations of Zen Buddhism have focussed almost entirely on philosophical, historical...... or "spiritual" aspects. This book investigates the contemporary living reality of the largest Japanese Rinzai Zen Buddhist group, Myōshinji. Drawing on textual studies and ethnographic fieldwork, Jørn Borup analyses how its practitioners use and understand their religion, how they practice their religiosity...

  11. Japanese Tarot Cards

    OpenAIRE

    Laura Miller

    2017-01-01

    This essay looks at selected images from tarot decks designed in Japan. Tarot decks reflect a deliberate adaptation process across both cultural and temporal borders, with visual components created and customized for a Japanese viewer. My aim is to consider the nature of these changes in imagery and to focus attention on an under-analyzed and mostly female-gendered domain. In particular, I look at the way the medieval European people and elements originally found on the cards are replaced wit...

  12. Mortality due to Japanese oak wilt disease and surrounding forest compositions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michio Oguro

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Japanese oak wilt (Raffaelea quercivora is a vector-borne disease transmitted by the flying ambrosia beetle, Platypus quercivorus, and causes mass mortality in the fagaceous species of Japan. The data described in this article are available in Mendeley Data, DOI: 10.17632/xwj98nb39r.1 [1] and include the mortality status of 1089 Quercus crispula and 846 Quercus serrata trees and surrounding forest conditions. The findings using this dataset were published in M. Oguro, S. Imahiro, S. Saito, T. Nakashizuka, Relative importance of multiple scale factors to oak tree mortality due to Japanese oak wilt disease, For. Ecol. Manag. (2015 doi:10.1016/j.foreco.2015.07.016 [2].

  13. Japanese Nuclear Waste Avatars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wynn Kirby, Peter; Stier, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    Japan's cataclysmic 2011 tsunami has become a vast, unwanted experiment in waste management. The seismic event and resulting Fukushima Daiichi radiation crisis created an awkwardly fortuitous rupture in Japanese nuclear practice that exposed the lax and problematic management of nuclear waste in this country to broader scrutiny, as well as distortions in its very conception. This article looks at the full spectrum of nuclear waste in post-tsunami Japan, from spent fuel rods to contorted reactor containment, and the ways that nuclear waste mirrors or diverges from more quotidian waste practices in Japanese culture. Significantly, the Fukushima Daiichi plant itself and its erstwhile banal surroundings have themselves transmuted into an unwieldy form of nuclear waste. The immense challenges of the Fukushima Daiichi site have stimulated a series of on-the-fly innovations that furnish perspective on more everyday nuclear waste practices in the industry. While some HLW can be reprocessed for limited use in today's reactors, it cannot be ignored that much of Japan's nuclear waste is simply converted into other forms of waste. In a society that has long been fixated on segregating filth, maintaining (imagined) purity, and managing proximity to pollution, the specter of nuclear waste looms over contemporary Japan and its ongoing debates over resources, risk, and Japanese nuclear identity itself

  14. Comparison of lodgepole and jack pine resin chemistry: implications for range expansion by the mountain pine beetle, Dendroctonus ponderosae (Coleoptera: Curculionidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Erin L; Pitt, Caitlin; Carroll, Allan L; Lindgren, B Staffan; Huber, Dezene P W

    2014-01-01

    The mountain pine beetle, Dendroctonus ponderosae, is a significant pest of lodgepole pine in British Columbia (BC), where it has recently reached an unprecedented outbreak level. Although it is native to western North America, the beetle can now be viewed as a native invasive because for the first time in recorded history it has begun to reproduce in native jack pine stands within the North American boreal forest. The ability of jack pine trees to defend themselves against mass attack and their suitability for brood success will play a major role in the success of this insect in a putatively new geographic range and host. Lodgepole and jack pine were sampled along a transect extending from the beetle's historic range (central BC) to the newly invaded area east of the Rocky Mountains in north-central Alberta (AB) in Canada for constitutive phloem resin terpene levels. In addition, two populations of lodgepole pine (BC) and one population of jack pine (AB) were sampled for levels of induced phloem terpenes. Phloem resin terpenes were identified and quantified using gas chromatography. Significant differences were found in constitutive levels of terpenes between the two species of pine. Constitutive α-pinene levels - a precursor in the biosynthesis of components of the aggregation and antiaggregation pheromones of mountain pine beetle - were significantly higher in jack pine. However, lower constitutive levels of compounds known to be toxic to bark beetles, e.g., 3-carene, in jack pine suggests that this species could be poorly defended. Differences in wounding-induced responses for phloem accumulation of five major terpenes were found between the two populations of lodgepole pine and between lodgepole and jack pine. The mountain pine beetle will face a different constitutive and induced phloem resin terpene environment when locating and colonizing jack pine in its new geographic range, and this may play a significant role in the ability of the insect to persist in

  15. Density of Emerald Ash Borer (Coleoptera: Buprestidae) Adults and Larvae at Three Stages of the Invasion Wave.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burr, Stephen J; McCullough, Deborah G; Poland, Therese M

    2018-02-08

    Emerald ash borer (EAB) (Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire) (Coleoptera: Buprestidae), an invasive phloem-feeding buprestid, has killed hundreds of millions of ash (Fraxinus spp.) trees in the United States and two Canadian provinces. We evaluated EAB persistence in post-invasion sites and compared EAB adult captures and larval densities in 24 forested sites across an east-west gradient in southern Michigan representing the Core (post-invasion), Crest (high EAB populations), and Cusp (recently infested areas) of the EAB invasion wave. Condition of green ash (Fraxinus pennsylvanica Marsh) trees were recorded in fixed radius plots and linear transects in each site. Ash mortality was highest in Core sites in the southeast, moderate in Crest sites in central southern Michigan, and low in Cusp sites in the southwest. Traps and trap trees in Crest sites accounted for 75 and 60% of all EAB beetles captured in 2010 and 2011, respectively. Populations of EAB were present in all Core sites and traps in these sites captured 13% of all beetles each year. Beetle captures and larval densities at Cusp sites roughly doubled between 2010 and 2011, reflecting the increasing EAB populations. Sticky bands on girdled trees captured the highest density of EAB beetles per m2 of area, while baited double-decker traps had the highest detection rates and captured the most beetles. Larval densities were higher on girdled ash than on similar ungirdled trees and small planted trees. Woodpecker predation and a native larval parasitoid were present in all three invasion regions but had minor effects on ash survival and EAB densities. © The Author(s) 2018. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  16. Ecological interactions of bark beetles with host trees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Certain species of bark beetles in the insect order Coleoptera, family Curculionidae (formerly Scolytidae) are keystone species in forest ecosystems. However, the tree-killing and woodboring bark and ambrosia beetles are also among the most damaging insects of forest products including lumber, paper...

  17. Efficacy of plant extracts against the cowpea beetle, Callosobruchus maculatus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boeke, S.J.; Barnaud, B.; Loon, van J.J.A.; Kossou, D.K.; Huis, van A.; Dicke, M.

    2004-01-01

    Traditionally used African plant powders, with a known effect against the cowpea beetle Callosobruchus maculatus in stored cowpea, were extracted with water. The extracts, 13 volatile oils, 2 non-volatile oils and 8 slurries, were evaluated for their toxic and repellent effects against the beetle.

  18. Method for continuously rearing Coccinella lady beetles (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coccinella novemnotata L., the ninespotted lady beetle, and Coccinella transversoguttata richardsoni Brown, the transverse lady beetle, are predatory species whose abundance has declined significantly over the last few decades in North America. An ex situ system for continuously rearing these two b...

  19. Bark beetle outbreaks in western North America: Causes and consequences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bentz, Barbara; Logan, Jesse; MacMahon, James A.; Allen, Craig D.; Ayres, Matt; Berg, Edward E; Carroll, Allan; Hansen, Matt; Hicke, Jeff H.; Joyce, Linda A.; Macfarlane, Wallace; Munson, Steve; Negron, Jose; Paine, Tim; Powell, Jim; Raffa, Kenneth; Regniere, Jacques; Reid, Mary; Romme, Bill; Seybold, Steven J.; Six, Diana; Vandygriff, Jim; Veblen, Tom; White, Mike; Witcosky, Jeff; Wood, David

    2005-01-01

    Since 1990, native bark beetles have killed billions of trees across millions of acres of forest from Alaska to northern Mexico. Although bark beetle infestations are a regular force of natural change in forested ecosystems, several of the current outbreaks, which are occurring simultaneously across western North America, are the largest and most severe in recorded history.

  20. Bark Beetle-Fungal Symbiosis: Context Dependency in Complex Associations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kier D. Klepzig; D.L. Six

    2004-01-01

    Recent thinking in symbiosis research has emphasized a holistic consideration of these complex interactions. Bark beetles and their associated microbes are one group which has previously not been addressed in this manner. We review the study of symbiotic interactions among bark beetles and microbes in light of this thinking. We describe the considerable progress...

  1. Symbiosis and competition: complex interactions among beetles, fungi, and mites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kier D. Klepzig; J.C. Moser; F.J. Lombardero; R.W. Hofstetter; M.P. Ayres

    2001-01-01

    Symbioses among bark beetles and their fungal and mite associates involve complex, multi-level interactions. Dendroctonus frontalis attacks and kills southern pines, introducing fungi into the tree. Ophiostoma minus may initially aid beetles in killing trees, but later this "bluestain" fungus becomes an antagonist,...

  2. Book review of advances in insect physiology: pine bark beetles

    Science.gov (United States)

    If not the most destructive forest pest, bark beetles are probably a close second in their culpability for killing millions of trees in the Northern Hemisphere. This volume provides an aptly-timed interdisciplinary review on aspects of bark beetle physiology, especially how it relates to selecting, ...

  3. Mountain pine beetle infestations in relation to lodgepole pine diameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walter E. Cole; Gene D. Amman

    1969-01-01

    Tree losses resulting from infestation by the mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins) were measured in two stands of lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta Dougl.) where the beetle population had previously been epidemic. Measurement data showed that larger diameter trees were infested and killed first. Tree losses...

  4. Effects of bark beetle-caused tree mortality on wildfire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeffrey A Hicke; Morris C. Johnson; Jane L. Hayes; Haiganoush K. Preisler

    2012-01-01

    Millions of trees killed by bark beetles in western North America have raised concerns about subsequent wildfire, but studies have reported a range of conclusions, often seemingly contradictory, about effects on fuels and wildfire. In this study, we reviewed and synthesized the published literature on modifications to fuels and fire characteristics following beetle-...

  5. an assessment of methods for sampling carabid beetles

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mgina

    ground beetles. The number of samples, total number of individual carabid beetles, total number of species and species complementality for the six replicates are shown in Table 1. The total number of individuals caught using the two methods was 3025 for ground-searching methods. (mean of 4.97 individuals per one-hour.

  6. Japanese physicist during the war

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, L.; Nambu, Y.

    1999-01-01

    The japanese interest for the science is comparatively recent and one of the first japanese physicist is Hantoro Nagaoka with an atomic model in 1903. During the war the physicist take refuge in the theory and two universities proper in spite of difficult working conditions. This paper goes over the historical aspects of the japanese scientific research and contributions to the nucleus physic. (A.L.B.)

  7. Curcurbita pepo subspecies delineates striped cucumber beetle (Acalymma vittatum) preference

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brzozowski, L; Leckie, B M; Gardner, J; Hoffmann, M P; Mazourek, M

    2016-01-01

    The striped cucumber beetle (Acalymma vittatum (F.)) is a destructive pest of cucurbit crops, and management could be improved by host plant resistance, especially in organic farming systems. However, despite the variation in striped cucumber beetle preference observed within the economically important species, Cucurbita pepo L., plant breeders and entomologists lacked a simple framework to classify and exploit these differences. This study used recent phylogenetic evidence and bioassays to organize striped cucumber beetle preference within C. pepo. Our results indicate preference contrasts between the two agriculturally relevant subspecies: C. pepo subsp. texana and C. pepo subsp. pepo. Plants of C. pepo subsp. pepo were more strongly preferred than C. pepo subsp. texana plants. This structure of beetle preference in C. pepo will allow plant breeders and entomologists to better focus research efforts on host plant non-preference to control striped cucumber beetles. PMID:27347423

  8. Japanese reference man 1988, 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanaka, Gi-ichiro

    1988-01-01

    Quantitative description of physical properties and other characteristics of the human body is one of the basic data for estimating dose equivalent and calculating Annual Limit on Intake of radionuclides. The exact mass weight of organs and tissues are measured from about 1000 autopsy cases of normal Japanese adults and physical properties are obtained from recent Japanese Government publications. Japanese (Asian) Reference Man is completed by establishing the Normal Japanese, harmonizing with Caucasian Reference Man and coinciding with the ICRP Reference Man Task Group members concept. (author)

  9. Thermal constraints on the emerald ash borer invasion of North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeSantis, R.; Moser, W. K.; Gormanson, D. D.; Bartlett, M. G.

    2012-12-01

    Emerald ash borer (Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire; EAB), a non-native invasive beetle, has caused substantial damage to green (Fraxinus pennsylvanica Marsh.), white (Fraxinus americana L.), and black ash (Fraxinus nigra Marsh.), the major ash species of North America. In the absence of effective methods for controlling or eradicating the beetle, EAB continues to spread unimpeded across North America. Evidence indicates the mortality rate for EAB-infested trees near the epicenter of the infestation in southeast Michigan exceeds 99 percent for the major ash species. One possible climatic limitation on the spread of the infestation is suggested by recent work indicating that beetles cannot survive exposure to temperatures below -35.3 degrees Celsius. We considered whether this thermal constraint will limit the spread and distribution of EAB in North America. Historical climatic data for the United States and Canada were employed along with thermal models of the conditions beneath likely winter snowpack and beneath tree bark to predict the potential geographic distribution of the invasion. Results suggested the thermal mortality constraint will not lead to the protection of ash stands across most of North America. However, recent work indicates the majority of beetles cannot survive exposure to temperatures below -30 degrees Celsius. Along with our results, this suggests thermal constraints near the northern and western edges of the ranges of ash might limit EAB survival to some extent, thereby reducing the EAB population, the likelihood of EAB infestation, and subsequent ash mortality.

  10. Pallidus beetle, Delphastus pallidus LeConte (Insecta: Coleoptera: Coccinellidae), a native predatory beetle of whitefly species in Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beetles in the genus Delphastus Casey are small whitefly-specific predatory ladybird beetles belonging to the coccinellid tribe Serangiini. They feed on all immature stages of whitefly and are reared and sold commercially all over the world for this purpose. They are compatible with the application ...

  11. Bark beetle conditions in western forests and formation of the Western Bark Beetle Research Group

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert J. Cain; Jane L. Hayes

    2009-01-01

    The recent dramatic impacts of bark beetle outbreaks across conifer forests of the West have been mapped and reported by entomology and pathology professionals with Forest Health Protection (FHP), a component of USDA Forest Service's State and Private Forestry, and their state counterparts. These forest conditions set the stage for the formation of the Western...

  12. Spatial spread and infestation risk assessment in the Asian longhorned beetle, Anoplophora glabripennis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Favaro, Riccardo; Wichmann, Lars; Ravn, Hans Peter

    2015-01-01

    The Asian longhorned beetle (ALB), Anoplophora glabripennis (Motschulsky) (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae), is recognised as potentially one of the most damaging invasive insects in Europe and North America. International trade has increased the risk of accidental introduction of ALB. An eradication...... programme was initiated in Northeast Italy in June 2009, when an ALB infestation was discovered. The infestation was monitored by annual surveys of all host-tree species growing in the eradication area. Infested trees were cut down and chipped. This study analyses the spatiotemporal distribution of infested...

  13. Northern tamarisk beetle (Diorhabda carinulata) and tamarisk (Tamarix spp.) interactions in the Colorado River basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagler, Pamela L.; Nguyen, Uyen; Bateman, Heather L.; Jarchow, Christopher; Glenn, Edward P.; Waugh, William J.; van Riper, Charles

    2018-01-01

    Northern tamarisk beetles (Diorhabda carinulata) were released in the Upper Colorado River Basin in the United States in 2004–2007 to defoliate introduced tamarisk shrubs (Tamarix spp.) in the region’s riparian zones. The primary purpose was to control the invasive shrub and reduce evapotranspiration (ET) by tamarisk in an attempt to increase stream flows. We evaluated beetle–tamarisk interactions with MODIS and Landsat imagery on 13 river systems, with vegetation indices used as indicators of the extent of defoliation and ET. Beetles are widespread and exhibit a pattern of colonize–defoliate–emigrate, so that riparian zones contain a mosaic of completely defoliated, partially defoliated, and refoliated tamarisk stands. Based on satellite data and ET algorithms, mean ET before beetle release (2000–2006) was 416 mm/year compared to postrelease (2007–2015) ET of 355 mm/year (p<0.05) for a net reduction of 61 mm/year. This is lower than initial literature projections that ET would be reduced by 300–460 mm/year. Reasons for the lower-than-expected ET reductions are because baseline ET rates are lower than initially projected, and percentage ET reduction is low because tamarisk stands tend to regrow new leaves after defoliation and other plants help maintain canopy cover. Overall reductions in tamarisk green foliage during the study are 21%. However, ET in the Upper Basin has shown a steady decline since 2007 and equilibrium has not yet been reached. Defoliation is now proceeding from the Upper Basin into the Lower Basin at a rate of 40 km/year, much faster than initially projected.

  14. Negative feedbacks on bark beetle outbreaks: widespread and severe spruce beetle infestation restricts subsequent infestation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah J Hart

    Full Text Available Understanding disturbance interactions and their ecological consequences remains a major challenge for research on the response of forests to a changing climate. When, where, and how one disturbance may alter the severity, extent, or occurrence probability of a subsequent disturbance is encapsulated by the concept of linked disturbances. Here, we evaluated 1 how climate and forest habitat variables, including disturbance history, interact to drive 2000s spruce beetle (Dendroctonus rufipennis infestation of Engelmann spruce (Picea engelmannii across the Southern Rocky Mountains; and 2 how previous spruce beetle infestation affects subsequent infestation across the Flat Tops Wilderness in northwestern Colorado, which experienced a severe landscape-scale spruce beetle infestation in the 1940s. We hypothesized that drought and warm temperatures would promote infestation, whereas small diameter and non-host trees, which may reflect past disturbance by spruce beetles, would inhibit infestation. Across the Southern Rocky Mountains, we found that climate and forest structure interacted to drive the 2000s infestation. Within the Flat Tops study area we found that stands infested in the 1940s were composed of higher proportions of small diameter and non-host trees ca. 60 years later. In this area, the 2000s infestation was constrained by a paucity of large diameter host trees (> 23 cm at diameter breast height, not climate. This suggests that there has not been sufficient time for trees to grow large enough to become susceptible to infestation. Concordantly, we found no overlap between areas affected by the 1940s infestation and the current infestation. These results show a severe spruce beetle infestation, which results in the depletion of susceptible hosts, can create a landscape template reducing the potential for future infestations.

  15. Spatiotemporal analysis of predation by carabid beetles (Carabidae on nematode infected and uninfected slugs in the field.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bjørn Arild Hatteland

    Full Text Available The dynamics of predation on parasites within prey has received relatively little attention despite the profound effects this is likely to have on both prey and parasite numbers and hence on biological control programmes where parasites are employed. The nematode Phasmarhabditis hermaphrodita is a commercially available biological agent against slugs. Predation on these slugs may, at the same time, result in intraguild predation on slug-parasitic nematodes. This study describes, for the first time, predation by carabid beetles on slugs and their nematode parasites on both spatial and temporal scales, using PCR-based methods. The highest nematode infection levels were found in the slugs Deroceras reticulatum and Arion silvaticus. Numbers of infected slugs decreased over time and no infected slugs were found four months after nematode application. The density of the most abundant slug, the invasive Arion vulgaris, was positively related to the activity-density of the carabid beetle, Carabus nemoralis. Predation on slugs was density and size related, with highest predation levels also on A. vulgaris. Predation on A. vulgaris decreased significantly in summer when these slugs were larger than one gram. Predation by C. nemoralis on slugs was opportunistic, without any preferences for specific species. Intraguild predation on the nematodes was low, suggesting that carabid beetles such as C. nemoralis probably do not have a significant impact on the success of biological control using P. hermaphrodita.

  16. The implications of habitat management on the population viability of the endangered Ohlone tiger beetle (Cicindela ohlone metapopulation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tara M Cornelisse

    Full Text Available Despite their role in providing ecosystem services, insects remain overlooked in conservation planning, and insect management approaches often lack a rigorous scientific basis. The endangered Ohlone tiger beetle (Cicindela ohlone occurs in a 24-km(2 area in Santa Cruz County, California. The once larger metapopulation now consists of subpopulations inhabiting five patches of coastal prairie where it depends on bare ground for mating, foraging, and oviposition. Human activities have eliminated natural disturbances and spread invasive grasses, reducing C. ohlone's bare-ground habitat. Management actions to restore critical beetle habitat consist of cattle and horse grazing, maintaining slow bicycle speeds on occupied public trails, and artificial creation of bare-ground plots. Recreational biking trails help maintain bare ground, but can cause beetle mortality if left unregulated. We tracked C. ohlone survivorship and estimated fecundity for three years. We then constructed a stage-structured population projection matrix model to estimate population viability among the five patches, and to evaluate the success of management interventions. We demonstrate that habitat creation, regulation of bicycle speed, and migration between patches increase C. ohlone survival and population viability. Our results can be directly applied to management actions for conservation outcomes that will reduce species extinction risk and promote recolonization of extirpated patches.

  17. The Japanese feudalism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martha Loaiza Becerra

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores some peculiarities of Japanese feudalism following postwar theoretical debate that came out of academic circles in Japan as well in Europe and the United States. Contemporary thought schools influenced by historical materialism from Marxism have pointed out that feudalism effectively happened in Japan since 12th Century until 16th Century. Gradual changes and transitions, in the same way as the European case, are the key to explain main economic changes that caused the emergence of capitalism in Japan.

  18. Interactions between the Multicolored Asian Lady Beetle Harmonia axyridis and the Parasitoid Dinocampus coccinellae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dindo, Maria Luisa; Francati, Santolo; Lanzoni, Alberto; di Vitantonio, Cinzia; Marchetti, Elisa; Burgio, Giovanni; Maini, Stefano

    2016-01-01

    Harmonia axyridis (Pallas) has been introduced either intentionally or accidentally in different areas outside its native range, where it is often regarded as invasive. Dinocampus coccinellae (Schrank) has been recorded to parasitize H. axyridis in the field, both in the native and introduced areas, Italy included. The percent of parasitism found in our field investigation was low (four percent). The effect of exposure time of H. axyridis to D. coccinellae and the impact of parasitization on host longevity, oviposition capacity and egg fertility were evaluated in the laboratory. The acceptance and suitability of H. axyridis as host for D. coccinellae were then studied, in comparison with the native coccinellid Adalia bipunctata (L.), which shares the same ecological niche. The effects of parasitization on female longevity and reproduction capacity in the exotic vs. the indigenous lady beetle were also investigated. The overall results showed that D. coccinellae negatively affected the fitness of H. axyridis, more than that of A. bipunctata. The parasitoid may thus play a marginal role in controlling the populations of the Asian lady beetle, without representing a threat to A. bipunctata. PMID:27886136

  19. Invasive amebiasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grecu, F; Bulgariu, Teodora; Blanaru, Oana; Dragomir, C; Lunca, Claudia; Stratan, I; Manciuc, Carmen; Luca, V

    2006-01-01

    Digestive amoebiasis with his invasive form is an unusual pathology encountered in the temperate zone. This could lead to a life threatening complication: systemic amoebiasis. A 55-year-old male was treated successfully of systemic amoebiasis in a third referral hospital. The diagnosis was established based on epidemiology data and microscopical identification of trophozoites of Entamoeba histolytica. The amoebicidal, antibiotic and supportive treatments was firstly administrated. The clinical picture of intestinal amoebiasis raised from dysenteric syndrome to necrotizing enteritis. The bowel perforation with localized peritonitis was followed by chronic enteric fistula. Amoebic liver abscess, as the most frequent extraintestinal complication, was concomitantly diagnosed and treated. Urinary amoebiasis was considered as complication in the context of systemic dissemination: any other location could become a site of an amoebic abscess. Multidisciplinary approach was the successful key in the management of the patient, including antiparasitic therapy and antibiotic prophylaxis, intensive care and multiple surgical approaches. The diagnosis of digestive amoebiasis and systemic complication may be delayed in nonendemic areas, leading to advanced and complicated stages of the disease. The surgical approach is most efficiently to treat a large liver amoebic abscess and intraperitoneal collections.

  20. Metabarcoding of fungal communities associated with bark beetles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Kirsten E; Hopkins, Kevin; Inward, Daegan J G; Vogler, Alfried P

    2016-03-01

    Many species of fungi are closely allied with bark beetles, including many tree pathogens, but their species richness and patterns of distribution remain largely unknown. We established a protocol for metabarcoding of fungal communities directly from total genomic DNA extracted from individual beetles, showing that the ITS3/4 primer pair selectively amplifies the fungal ITS. Using three specimens of bark beetle from different species, we assess the fungal diversity associated with these specimens and the repeatability of these estimates in PCRs conducted with different primer tags. The combined replicates produced 727 fungal Operational Taxonomic Units (OTUs) for the specimen of Hylastes ater, 435 OTUs for Tomicus piniperda, and 294 OTUs for Trypodendron lineatum, while individual PCR reactions produced on average only 229, 54, and 31 OTUs for the three specimens, respectively. Yet, communities from PCR replicates were very similar in pairwise comparisons, in particular when considering species abundance, but differed greatly among the three beetle specimens. Different primer tags or the inclusion of amplicons in separate libraries did not impact the species composition. The ITS2 sequences were identified with the Lowest Common Ancestor approach and correspond to diverse lineages of fungi, including Ophiostomaceae and Leotiomycetes widely found to be tree pathogens. We conclude that Illumina MiSeq metabarcoding reliably captures fungal diversity associated with bark beetles, although numerous PCR replicates are recommended for an exhaustive sample. Direct PCR from beetle DNA extractions provides a rapid method for future surveys of fungal species diversity and their associations with bark beetles and environmental variables.

  1. Importance of Secondary Metabolites for Leaf Beetles (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. N. EKİZ

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Leaf beetles (Chrysomelidae are one of the most diverse families of herbivorous insects. Many of them are important agricultural pests and cause remarkable loss of crop and money as well. Plant leaves and roots are primary food source of both larva and adults of leaf beetles. Plants produce many secondary metabolites in reaction to herbivore insects. It is a well-known phenomenon that quantity and variety of secondary metabolites in plant leaves may change in response to insect attacks. Herbivore insects have to deal with such defensive secondary chemicals and overcome either by detoxifying or storing them. Accordingly, many specialist herbivores coevolved with their host plant. Certain phenolic glycosides may reduce leaf beetle feeding. Condensed tannins are anti-herbivore defenses against leaf chewing beetles, including leaf beetles. Flavonoid compounds are feeding deterrents for many flea leaf beetles. Cinnamic acid derivatives are other known feeding deterrents for leaf beetles. Secondary metabolites quantity and nutritional quality of host plants are not only important for feeding but also for providing enemy-free space and suitable oviposition sites.

  2. Managing Japanese stiltgrass dominated communities in the ridge and valley physiographic province in eastern West Virginia

    Science.gov (United States)

    David W. McGill; William N. Grafton; Jonathan A. Pomp

    2008-01-01

    Japanese stiltgrass (Microstegium vimineum) is an exotic invasive species that can dominate forest understories and suppress native herbaceous and woody species. This study had two objectives: 1) to assess directed spray herbicides for controlling M. vimineum; and 2) to collect a set of factors that affect management of M...

  3. Quantifying dispersal of a non-aggressive saprophytic bark beetle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meurisse, Nicolas; Pawson, Stephen

    2017-01-01

    Long distance dispersal to locate suitable breeding sites is recognized as a key trait influencing the population dynamics and distribution of bark beetles and other saprophytic insects. While dispersal behavior has been studied for a range of aggressive 'tree killing' bark beetles, few have considered the dispersal behaviour of non-aggressive saprophytic bark beetles that utilize kairomones (host volatiles). We present the results of a mark-recapture experiment that examined adult dispersal patterns of the saprophytic bark beetle Hylurgus ligniperda. Releases took place in summer and autumn 2014, in a clearcut pine forest in the central North Island, New Zealand. Both flight-experienced and flight-naïve adults were marked and released in the center of a circular trap grid that extended to 960 m with 170 or 200 panel traps baited with a kairomone blend of alpha-pinene and ethanol. Of the 18,464 released H. ligniperda, 9,209 (49.9%) of the beetles flew, and 96 (1.04%) of the beetles that flew were recaptured. Individuals were recaptured at all distances. The recapture of flight-experienced beetles declined with dispersal distance, and a diffusion model showed heterogeneous dispersal tendencies within the population. Our best model estimated that 46% of flight-experienced beetles disperse > 1 km, and 1.6% > 5 km. Conversely, no declining pattern was shown in the recapture of flight-naïve beetles, suggesting that emerging H. ligniperda may require a period of flight to initiate chemotropic orientation behavior and subsequent attraction to traps. We discuss the implications of these findings for the management of phytosanitary risks. For instance, combining landscape knowledge of source populations with dispersal processes facilitates estimation of pest pressure at economically sensitive areas such as harvest and timber storage sites. Quantitative dispersal estimates also inform pest risk assessments by predicting spread rates for H. ligniperda that has proven

  4. Quantifying dispersal of a non-aggressive saprophytic bark beetle.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolas Meurisse

    Full Text Available Long distance dispersal to locate suitable breeding sites is recognized as a key trait influencing the population dynamics and distribution of bark beetles and other saprophytic insects. While dispersal behavior has been studied for a range of aggressive 'tree killing' bark beetles, few have considered the dispersal behaviour of non-aggressive saprophytic bark beetles that utilize kairomones (host volatiles. We present the results of a mark-recapture experiment that examined adult dispersal patterns of the saprophytic bark beetle Hylurgus ligniperda. Releases took place in summer and autumn 2014, in a clearcut pine forest in the central North Island, New Zealand. Both flight-experienced and flight-naïve adults were marked and released in the center of a circular trap grid that extended to 960 m with 170 or 200 panel traps baited with a kairomone blend of alpha-pinene and ethanol. Of the 18,464 released H. ligniperda, 9,209 (49.9% of the beetles flew, and 96 (1.04% of the beetles that flew were recaptured. Individuals were recaptured at all distances. The recapture of flight-experienced beetles declined with dispersal distance, and a diffusion model showed heterogeneous dispersal tendencies within the population. Our best model estimated that 46% of flight-experienced beetles disperse > 1 km, and 1.6% > 5 km. Conversely, no declining pattern was shown in the recapture of flight-naïve beetles, suggesting that emerging H. ligniperda may require a period of flight to initiate chemotropic orientation behavior and subsequent attraction to traps. We discuss the implications of these findings for the management of phytosanitary risks. For instance, combining landscape knowledge of source populations with dispersal processes facilitates estimation of pest pressure at economically sensitive areas such as harvest and timber storage sites. Quantitative dispersal estimates also inform pest risk assessments by predicting spread rates for H. ligniperda that

  5. Ground beetles (Coleoptera, Carabidae agrocenoses of spring and winter wheat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luboš Purchart

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available On two monitoring areas of the Central Institute for Supervising and Testing in Agriculture (ÚKZÚZ loaded with risk elements we carried out investigations of beetles of the family Carabidae (Coleoptera in agricultural stands of winter and spring wheat. The focus of the present study is on synecological characteristics and in some extent on the impact of agricultural practise on the population and seasonal dynamics of the most important representatives of ground beetles. This paper precedes the following article aimed to contents of heavy metals in ground beetles.

  6. Photonic nanoarchitectures of biologic origin in butterflies and beetles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biro, L.P., E-mail: biro@mfa.kfki.h [Research Institute for Technical Physics and Materials Science, H-1525 Budapest, POB 49 (Hungary)

    2010-05-25

    Photonic nanoarchitectures occurring in butterflies and beetles, which produce structural color in the visible range of the electromagnetic spectrum by the selective reflection of light, are investigated under the aspect of being used as possible 'blueprints' for artificial, bioinspired nanoarchitectures. The role of order and disorder and of regularity/irregularity in photonic nanoarchitectures of biologic origin is discussed. Three recent case studies are briefly reviewed for butterflies (Albulina metallica, Cyanophrys remus, Troides magellanus) and three for beetles (Hoeplia coerulea, Chrysochroa vittata, Charidotella egregia). The practical realization of bioinspired artificial structures is discussed for the A. metallica butterfly and for the C. vittata beetle.

  7. EFFECT OF STARVATION AND INFESTATION BEHAVIOR OF LARVAE KHAPRA BEETLE, Trogoderma granarium Everts (COLEOPTERA : DERMESTIDAE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haris Setyaningrum

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The Khapra beetle Trogoderma granarium Everts is very destructive pest in various stored product and nominated as one of the hundred worst invasive species in the world. The study of starvation and infestation behaviors are important for improvement of insect control method. This study represent the number of molting as fact of regressive molting in starved condition, the larva of T. granarium within 68 days periods can be molted 1-3 times. The infestation behavior on three diets treatment presented. In grain wheat their larva are laid off the casting skin over the surface of product and distributed randomly in whole part of stored product. Respectively in flour casting skin are laid down in bottom of the container as effect of feeding. In flour the casting skin are laid on mostly over surface of the flour mixed with frass. In toilet tissue the infestation is present in hole over the surface and randomly position of casting skin.

  8. Defensive Glands of the Darkling Beetle Mesomorphus villiger Blanchard (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. M. Seena

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Massive home invasion by the darkling beetle Mesomorphus villiger Blanchard 1853 (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae during monsoon season make it a nuisance pest in many regions of south India. Morphology of defensive glands and mode of release and dispersal of the defensive secretion were analysed. Defensive glands were separated from the abdominal sternites by cutting along the posterior margin of the seventh sternite. Glands are evaginations of intersegmental membrane between the seventh and eighth sternites consisting of two long sac-like reservoirs, and glandular secretion is released by exudation and spread through epipleural gutter of elytra. Gradual release of the secretion is a strategy to repel the predators for a longer duration.

  9. Cuticle hydrocarbons in saline aquatic beetles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Botella-Cruz

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Hydrocarbons are the principal component of insect cuticle and play an important role in maintaining water balance. Cuticular impermeability could be an adaptative response to salinity and desiccation in aquatic insects; however, cuticular hydrocarbons have been poorly explored in this group and there are no previous data on saline species. We characterized cuticular hydrocarbons of adults and larvae of two saline aquatic beetles, namely Nebrioporus baeticus (Dytiscidae and Enochrus jesusarribasi (Hydrophilidae, using a gas chromatograph coupled to a mass spectrometer. The CHC profile of adults of both species, characterized by a high abundance of branched alkanes and low of unsaturated alkenes, seems to be more similar to that of some terrestrial beetles (e.g., desert Tenebrionidae compared with other aquatic Coleoptera (freshwater Dytiscidae. Adults of E. jesusarribasi had longer chain compounds than N. baeticus, in agreement with their higher resistance to salinity and desiccation. The more permeable cuticle of larvae was characterized by a lower diversity in compounds, shorter carbon chain length and a higher proportion of unsaturated hydrocarbons compared with that of the adults. These results suggest that osmotic stress on aquatic insects could exert a selection pressure on CHC profile similar to aridity in terrestrial species.

  10. Patterns of movement of radioactive carabid beetles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baars, M.A.

    1980-01-01

    Tracking of individual 192 Ir-labelled ground beetles released in the field revealed that both the day-active and night-active species studied showed periods of small distances covered per day in random directions, alternating with periods of directed movement with large distances covered per day. This pattern occurred not only in the reproductive period but outside the breeding season as well in juvenile Pterostichus versicolor and spent Calathus melanocephalus. Although mean locomotory activity increased with temperature, great daily differences occurred between individuals, pointing to asynchronous behaviour. In an unfavorable habitat directed movement occurred both more frequently and more extremely, sometimes resulting in escape to more favorable areas. Most of the radioactive beetles died within 7 weeks due to radiation effects, but independent field experiments and simulations showed that the recorded patterns were valid. Simulated individuals of P. versicolor living on 1 ha spread over 49 ha, whereas simulated C. melanocephalus covered only 9 ha after one activity season. Normal locomotory activities lead to both exchange of individuals between subpopulations and dispersal out of the habitat. The significance of these phenomena for population stability and for the survival of the species is discussed. (orig.) [de

  11. Atlas of Iberian water beetles (ESACIB database)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Fernández, David; Millán, Andrés; Abellán, Pedro; Picazo, Félix; Carbonell, José A.; Ribera, Ignacio

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The ESACIB (‘EScarabajos ACuáticos IBéricos’) database is provided, including all available distributional data of Iberian and Balearic water beetles from the literature up to 2013, as well as from museum and private collections, PhD theses, and other unpublished sources. The database contains 62,015 records with associated geographic data (10×10 km UTM squares) for 488 species and subspecies of water beetles, 120 of them endemic to the Iberian Peninsula and eight to the Balearic Islands. This database was used for the elaboration of the “Atlas de los Coleópteros Acuáticos de España Peninsular”. In this dataset data of 15 additional species has been added: 11 that occur in the Balearic Islands or mainland Portugal but not in peninsular Spain and an other four with mainly terrestrial habits within the genus Helophorus (for taxonomic coherence). The complete dataset is provided in Darwin Core Archive format. PMID:26448717

  12. Establishment and abundance of Tetrastichus planipennisi (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae) in Michigan: potential for success in classical biocontrol of the invasive emerald ash borer (Coleoptera: Buprestidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jian J. Duan; Leah S. Bauer; Kristopher J. Abell; Jonathan P. Lelito; Roy. Van Driesche

    2013-01-01

    Tetrastichus planipennisi Yang is a gregarious larval endoparasitoid native to China and has been introduced to the United States since 2007 for classical biological control of the invasive emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire, an exotic beetle responsible for widespread ash mortality. Between 2007-2010, T....

  13. Impact of food source on survival of red flour beetles and confused flour beetles (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae) exposed to diatomaceous earth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arthur, F H

    2000-08-01

    A series of experiments was conducted to determine the effect of a flour food source on survival of red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum (Herbst), and confused flour beetle, Tribolium confusum (DuVal), exposed to the labeled rate (0.5 mg/cm2) of Protect-It, a marine formulation of diatomaceous earth. Beetles were exposed at 27 degrees C, and 40, 57, and 75% RH in 62-cm2 petri dishes. When beetles were exposed for 1 or 2 d in dishes with the labeled rate (0.5 mg/cm2, or 31 mg per dish) of diatomaceous earth or in dishes containing flour at varying levels from 0 to 200 mg mixed with the labeled rate of diatomaceous earth, survival of both species increased as the amount of flour increased, and quickly plateaued at levels approaching 100%. In a second set of experiments, beetles were transferred to dishes containing flour at varying levels from 0 to 200 mg after they were exposed for 1 or 2 d in dishes with the labeled rate of diatomaceous earth alone. There were no significant differences in beetle survival among the levels of flour, however, survival in dishes with flour was usually greater than survival in dishes with diatomaceous earth alone. In a third test, beetles were exposed for 1, 2, and 3 d in dishes with either the labeled rate of diatomaceous earth alone (clean dishes), dishes with diatomaceous earth and empty straws, or dishes with diatomaceous earth and approximately 300 mg of flour packed in the straws. Survival was not significantly different between clean dishes or dishes with straws, but survival in dishes containing the straws with flour was usually 100%, regardless of exposure interval. In all experiments, confused flour beetles were less susceptible to diatomaceous earth than red flour beetles. In addition, survival was negatively related to exposure interval and positively related to relative humidity.

  14. Secondary invasions of noxious weeds associated with control of invasive Tamarix are frequent, idiosyncratic and persistent

    Science.gov (United States)

    González, Eduardo; Sher, Anna A.; Anderson, Robert M.; Bay, Robin F.; Bean, Daniel W.; Bissonnete, Gabriel J.; Cooper, David J.; Dohrenwend, Kara; Eichhorst, Kim D.; El Waer, Hisham; Kennard, Deborah K.; Harms-Weissinger, Rebecca; Henry, Annie L.; Makarick, Lori J.; Ostoja, Steven M.; Reynolds, Lindsay V.; Robinson, W. Wright; Shafroth, Patrick B.; Tabacchi, Erich

    2017-01-01

    Control of invasive species within ecosystems may induce secondary invasions of non-target invaders replacing the first alien. We used four plant species listed as noxious by local authorities in riparian systems to discern whether 1) the severity of these secondary invasions was related to the control method applied to the first alien; and 2) which species that were secondary invaders persisted over time. In a collaborative study by 16 research institutions, we monitored plant species composition following control of non-native Tamarix trees along southwestern U.S. rivers using defoliation by an introduced biocontrol beetle, and three physical removal methods: mechanical using saws, heavy machinery, and burning in 244 treated and 79 untreated sites across six U.S. states. Physical removal favored secondary invasions immediately after Tamarix removal (0–3 yrs.), while in the biocontrol treatment, secondary invasions manifested later (> 5 yrs.). Within this general trend, the response of weeds to control was idiosyncratic; dependent on treatment type and invader. Two annual tumbleweeds that only reproduce by seed (Bassia scoparia and Salsola tragus) peaked immediately after physical Tamarix removal and persisted over time, even after herbicide application. Acroptilon repens, a perennial forb that vigorously reproduces by rhizomes, and Bromus tectorum, a very frequent annual grass before removal that only reproduces by seed, were most successful at biocontrol sites, and progressively spread as the canopy layer opened. These results demonstrate that strategies to control Tamarix affect secondary invasions differently among species and that time since disturbance is an important, generally overlooked, factor affecting response.

  15. Mesostigmatic Mites (Acari) Associated with Ground, Burying, Roving Carrion and Dung Beetles (Coleoptera) in Sapporo and Tomakomai, Hokkaido, Northern Japan

    OpenAIRE

    Takaku, Gen; Katakura, Haruo; Yoshida, Nobuyo

    1994-01-01

    A total of 19 species belonging to 5 families of mesostigmatic mites were collected in Sapporo and Tomakomai, northern Japan, on four groups of beetles, i.e., ground beetles (Carabinae, Carabidae), burying beetles (Nicrophorini, Silphinae, Silphidae), roving carrion beetles (Silphini, Silphinae, Silphidae) and dung beetles (Scarabaeidae and Geotrupidae), all of which mainly forage on the ground surface. No mite species was found on more than one group of beetles except for Poecilochirus carab...

  16. Mesostigmatic Mites (Acari) Associated with Ground, Burying, Roving Carrion and Dung Beetles (Coleoptera) in Sapporo and Tomakomai, Hokkaido, Northern Japan

    OpenAIRE

    Gen, Takaku; Haruo, Katakura; Nobuyo, Yoshida; Division of Biological Sciences, Graduate School of Science, Hokkaido University; Division of Biological Sciences, Graduate School of Science, Hokkaido University; Tohoku Agricultural Experiment Station

    1994-01-01

    A total of 19 species belonging to 5 families of mesostigmatic mites were collected in Sapporo and Tomakomai, northern Japan, on four groups of beetles, i. e. , ground beetles (Carabinae, Carabidae), burying beetles (Nicrophorini, Silphinae, Silphidae), roving carrion beetles (Silphini, Silphinae, Silphidae) and dung beetles (Scarabaeidae and Geotrupidae), all of which mainly forage on the ground surface. No mite species was found on more than one group of beetles except for Poecilochirus car...

  17. Japanese magnetic confinement fusion research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McKenney, B.L.; McGrain, M.; Horton, C.W.; Rutherford, P.H.

    1990-01-01

    This report is the work of six US scientists who surveyed and assessed Japanese research and development in magnetic fusion. All of the panelists are very familiar with Japanese fusion research through their knowledge of the published scientific literature and through personal contacts with Japanese colleagues and with US colleagues who have visited Japanese research facilities. This report concentrates on the period from the early 1980s through June 1989. The technical accomplishments during this period are reviewed, and the Japanese capabilities and outlook for future contributions are assessed. Detailed evaluations are provided in the areas of basic and applied plasma physics, tokamak confinement, alternate confinement approaches, plasma technology, and fusion nuclear technology and materials. With a sustained national commitment, Japan will surpass US and West European capabilities in the early to middle 1990s in several important areas of fusion research and development. For example, it is expected that the planned upgrade of the Japanese JT-60 tokamak will surpass both the US Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR) and the Joint European tours (JET) in the usual measures of plasma performance in the 1992 to 1993 timeframe, and will take a clear international lead in large-tokamak research by 1994 to 1995. The Japanese fusion program has the human and technological resources required to build and operate a fusion engineering test reactor without external participation. By the same measure, Japan would be a highly desirable partner in the bilateral undertaking of such a project

  18. Impact of climate and host availability on future distribution of Colorado potato beetle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Cong; Hawthorne, David; Qin, Yujia; Pan, Xubin; Li, Zhihong; Zhu, Shuifang

    2017-07-03

    Colorado Potato Beetle (CPB) is a devastating invasive pest of potato both in its native North America and now across Eurasia. It also damages eggplant, tomato and feeds on several wild species in the Solanaceae, such as S. eleagnifolium and S. rostratum Dunal (SR). Since first categorized as a pest in 1864, CPB has spread rapidly across North America, Europe and Asia. In light of its invasiveness and economic importance, it is necessary to study how climate change and host availability may alter the distribution of the CPB. Maximum Entropy (MaxEnt) models were used to anticipate global range expansion as influenced by environmental conditions, and by the possibility of cooperative invasion of CPB and its wild host SR. The results indicate that both CPB and SR can occupy warm areas of North America, South Africa, Europe, China, and Australia. Future climate conditions may promote CPB expansion into northern regions and SR into the circumpolar latitudes. The existing range and continued spread of SR may also assist the global expansion of CPB. Future management of this pest should consider the impacts of global climate change and host availability on its potential global distribution.

  19. Cost-Benefit Analysis of Managing the Papuana uninodis (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae) Taro Beetle in Fiji.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, P; Daigneault, A

    2014-10-01

    Taro (Colocasia esculenta (L.) Schott) plays a prominent role in the economies and cultures of Pacific Island countries such as Fiji. Unfortunately, taro is highly susceptible to invasion from taro beetles, which burrow into the corms and weaken the plants, rendering them unmarkable and prone to rot. Papuana uninodis Prell, an invasive alien species that is native to the Solomon Islands and Vanuatu, was first reported on Viti Levu (Fiji's largest island) in 1984. Since that time, taro production on Viti Levu has fallen substantially. In this paper, we employ data from surveys of households and communities to document the impacts of P. uninodis on Viti Levu. We then identify three management approaches-chemical controls, cultural controls, and switching from taro to another staple crop-and conduct a cost-benefit analysis of each. We find strong arguments for pursuing chemical control, which derives a net present value of monetised benefits of about FJ$139,500 per hectare over 50 yr, or >FJ$21 for each FJ$1 spent. Still, any of the three management options is more efficient than no management, even without any attempt to quantify the benefits to biodiversity or forest protection, underscoring the value of actively managing this invasive alien species. © 2014 Entomological Society of America.

  20. Japanese Hadron Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamazaki, Toshimitsu

    1990-01-01

    The Japanese Hadron Project (JHP) is aimed at producing various kinds of unstable secondary beams based on high-intensity protons from a new accelerator complex. The 1 GeV protons, first produced from a 1 GeV linac, are transferred to a compressor/stretcher ring, where a sharply-pulsed beam or a stretched continuous beam will be produced. The pulsed beam will be used for a pulsed muon source (M arena) and a spallation neutron source (N arena). A part of the proton beam will be used to produce unstable nuclei, which will be accelerated to several MeV/nucleon (E arena). The purpose and impact of JHP will be described in view of future applications of hadronic beams to nuclear energy and material science. (author)

  1. Japanese energy policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsukamoto, Osamu

    2004-01-01

    Japanese energy situation, policy and the government budget plan for fiscal 2004 are explained. The degree of self-sufficiency of primary energy of Japan is about 4% (about 20% included with nuclear power), very small value. 90% oil, about 50% of energy in Japan, depend on the Middle East. The basic object of energy policy is to realize stabilized supply of energy corresponding to the request of environmental protection and efficiency. Three basic policies of energy plan consisted of 1) securing stabilized supply, 2) adapting to environment and 3) application of market principles. The measures contained 1) countermeasure of energy demand, 2) development, introduction and application of various kinds of energies such as nuclear power, new energy, natural gas and coal, 3) stabilized supply of oil, 4) electric and gas service system and 5) development of researches. (S.Y.)

  2. Species Distribution Model for Management of an Invasive Vine in Forestlands of Eastern Texas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsiao-Hsuan Wang

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Invasive plants decrease biodiversity, modify vegetation structure, and inhibit growth and reproduction of native species. Japanese honeysuckle (Lonicera japonica Thunb. is the most prevalent invasive vine in the forestlands of eastern Texas. Hence, we aimed to identify potential factors influencing the distribution of the species, quantify the relative importance of each factor, and test possible management strategies. We analyzed an extensive dataset collected as part of the Forest Inventory and Analysis Program of the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA Forest Service to quantify the range expansion of Japanese honeysuckle in the forestlands of eastern Texas from 2006 to 2011. We then identified potential factors influencing the likelihood of presence of Japanese honeysuckle using boosted regression trees. Our results indicated that the presence of Japanese honeysuckle on sampled plots almost doubled during this period (from 352 to 616 plots, spreading extensively, geographically. The probability of invasion was correlated with variables representing landscape conditions, climatic conditions, forest features, disturbance factors, and forest management activities. Habitats most at risk to invasion under current conditions occurred primarily in northeastern Texas, with a few invasion hotspots in the south. Estimated probabilities of invasion were reduced most by artificial site regeneration, with habitats most at risk again occurring primarily in northeastern Texas.

  3. Photostimulation of Japanese quail.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molino, A B; Garcia, E A; Santos, G C; Vieira Filho, J A; Baldo, G A A; Almeida Paz, I C L

    2015-02-01

    To adapt commercial poultry production to a new scenario of energy savings and to develop specific practices for quail production aimed at reducing costs while maintaining or improving productivity, four experiments were conducted. In the first experiment, birds were allocated to four treatments (photoperiod duration): T1: 14 L:10 D; T2: 15 L:9 D; T3: 16 L:8 D; and T4: 17 L:7 D. In the second experiment, birds were subjected to four levels of brightness: T1: 5 lux; T2: 10 lux; T3:15 lux; and T4: 22 lux (control). In the third experiment, four types of lamps were evaluated: T1: compact fluorescent lamp (color temperature: 6,500 K); T2: compact fluorescent lamp (color temperature: 2,700 K); T3: incandescent lamp; and T4: yellow LED. In the last experiment, four lighting programs were compared: T1: continuous program (control), in which there was a single photoperiod of 15 h; the other treatments consisted of intermittent lighting programs, as follows: T2: 1 h of light provided 1 h after dusk; T3: 1 h of light provided 2 h before dawn; T4: half an hour of light provided 1 h after dusk and half an hour of light provided 1.5 h before dawn. In each experiment, 1,296 Japanese quail were evaluated for four 28-d cycles, totaling 112 experimental days. A completely randomized experimental design of 4 treatments with 12 replicates of 27 birds each was applied in all trials. Performance and egg quality were evaluated in each experiment. Higher egg production and adequate egg quality, as well as energy savings, can be obtained with Japanese quail using compact fluorescent lamps or LEDs and a photoperiod of 15 h/d supplied using an intermittent lighting program, with 1 h of artificial light 2 h before dawn at a brightness of 5 lux. © 2015 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  4. Characterization of two Japanese ancient swords through neutron imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grazzi, Francesco; Zoppi, Marco; Salvemini, Filomena; Kaestner, Anders; Lehmann, Eberhard; Civita, Francesco

    2015-01-01

    Japanese blades are culturally interesting objects both from the stylistic point of view and because of their fantastic performances. In this work, we present new results, using a non-invasive approach, concerning these peculiar artefacts. Two integer Japanese swords, pertaining to Kyoto (987-1596) and Shinto (1596-1781) periods have been analysed through neutron-imaging techniques. The experiments have been performed at the ICON beam line, operating at the spallation neutron source SINQ, Paul Scherrer Institut in Switzerland. The reconstruction of projection data into neutron tomographic slices or volumes, allowed us to identify some very peculiar characteristics, related to the forging methods and to the different thermal treatments applied to produce the cutting edge and its unique feature. (author)

  5. Monitoring of saproxylic beetles in Croatia: following the path of the stag beetle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luka Katušić

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available As a member of the European Union, Croatia is obliged to report on the conservation status of 220 animal non-bird species listed in the annexes of the Habitats Directive (92/43/EEC, for which purpose a monitoring system is being established. Concerning saproxylic beetles, seven species present in its territory have to be monitored: Lucanus cervus, Cerambyx cerdo, Morimus funereus, Rhysodes sulcatus, Cucujus cinnaberinus, Rosalia alpina and Osmoderma eremita complex. Out of these species, a monitoring programme has only been established for Lucanus cervus, which partially includes participation of non-experts. In 2015 and 2016, a public campaign was organised in order to collect observations of Lucanus cervus and two other saproxylic beetles that are easily recognisable by the public: Morimus funereus and Rosalia alpina. Data gathered through this campaign serve as an addition to the mapping activities and monitoring of the species’ range. So far, more than 650 citizen observations have been collected, providing data on species presence in 216 10×10 km2 grid cells intended for reporting on the species’ range. Besides the public campaign, since 2014, public institutions for managing nature protected values have been involved in population monitoring for which they received education through several workshops. Altogether, 21 sites have been included in the monitoring of the stag beetle so far. Data collected for Lucanus cervus on standard transects, by tree and ground pitfall traps and tree trunk surveys at night will be discussed. To the present time, eight public institutions have been involved in stag beetle population monitoring and the number has been continuously increasing.

  6. Physiological benefits of nectar-feeding by a predatory beetle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Extrafloral nectar is an important food source for many animals, including predatory lady beetles (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae), although the physiological benefits of nectar consumption are poorly understood for most consumers. Under laboratory conditions, we confined new females of Coleomegilla macu...

  7. Irregular fog as a water source for desert dune beetles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seely, M K

    1979-09-01

    Three methods of fog-water uptake have been observed in three tribes of Namib desert dune tenebrionid beetles, Adesmiini, Eurychorini and Zophosini. The methods used correlate with distribution and gross morphology of each species but cut across phylogenetic affinities. Of the three methods described, none involve obvious fine anatomical or physical adaptations of the beetles for fog-water uptake. Rather, the beetles have evolved specific behavioural patterns for drinking water condensed on vegetation, their own dorsum or sand.Use of fog-water necessitates surface activity at times when surface temperatures and wind velocities are not optimal for these diurnal or crepuscular species. Behavioural adaptation has enabled these beetles to use irregular and unpredictable fogs as a moisture source.

  8. Pheromone Chemistry of the Smaller European Elm Bark Beetle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, Keith

    1978-01-01

    Discusses the aggregation pheromone of the smaller European elm bark beetle, Scolytus multistriatus (Marsham), with emphasis on information that could be used in the classroom as a practical application of organic chemistry. (Author/GA)

  9. A new soldier beetle from Eocene Baltic amber

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabrizio Fanti

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The family Cantharidae is a worldwide distributed group of flattened and soft-bodied beetles displaying aposematic colouration. These beetles, commonly known as soldier beetles, have an extensive fossil record dating back to the Lower Cretaceous. The majority of fossil material, referred to Cantharidae, is known from amber inclusions. In this paper we describe and illustrate a new soldier beetle Kuskaella macroptera gen. et sp. nov. from the Baltic amber. It is characterised by pronotum of the male parallel-sided in basal third and abruptly narrowed towards apex, and of the female gradually and steadily narrowing from the basal margin to the apex; globular head; unequal maxillary palpomeres with the last segment elongated-globular and pointed; long elytra slightly surpassing the last abdominal segment. This finding is the first described species of both sexes preserved in a single amber piece.

  10. The artificial beetle, or a brief manifesto for engineered biomimicry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartl, Michael H.; Lakhtakia, Akhlesh

    2015-03-01

    The artificial beetle is possibly the Holy Grail for practitioners of engineered biomimicry. An artificial beetle could gather and relay data and images from compromised environments on earth and other planets to decision makers. It could also be used for surveillance of foes and friends alike, and will require ethical foresight and oversight. What would it take to develop an artificial beetle? Several biotemplating techniques can be harnessed for the replication of external structural features of beetle bodies, and thus preserve functionalities such as coloration of the exoskeleton and the hydrophobicity of wings. The body cavity must host a power supply, motors to move the wings for flight, sensors to capture ambient conditions and images, and data transmitters and receivers to communicate with a remote command center. All of these devices must be very small and reliable.

  11. Identifying ponderosa pines infested with mountain pine beetles

    Science.gov (United States)

    William F. McCambridge

    1974-01-01

    Trees successfully and unsuccessfully attacked by mountain pine beetles have several symptoms in common, so that proper diagnosis is not always easy. Guidelines presented here enable the observer to correctly distinguish nearly all attacked trees.

  12. Olfactory host location in beetle bruchid parasitoid Dinarmus basalis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Rond.) was investigated in bioassays by measuring response to stimuli associated with one of its hosts, the larvae of beetle bruchid, Bruchidius atrolineatus (Pic.) infesting Vigna unguiculata (L. Walp.) seeds. Orientation of parasitoid females was ...

  13. Mechanical properties of the beetle elytron, a biological composite material

    Science.gov (United States)

    We determined the relationship between composition and mechanical properties of elytral (modified forewing) cuticle of the beetles Tribolium castaneum and Tenebrio molitor. Elytra of both species have similar mechanical properties at comparable stages of maturation (tanning). Shortly after adult ecl...

  14. Japanese Management as Applied in the Philippines

    OpenAIRE

    Teruhiko Tomita

    1985-01-01

    This paper attempts to examine how the Japanese management system is applied in a different social and cultural framework such as that of the Philippines. The outstanding characteristics of the Japanese management system are described, and its economic rationality for Japanese employers and employees, explained. On the basis of survey results which covered top Japanese managers stationed in the Philippines and Filipino managers, the paper examines the basic Japanese management policy and the ...

  15. Comparison of lodgepole and jack pine resin chemistry: implications for range expansion by the mountain pine beetle, Dendroctonus ponderosae (Coleoptera: Curculionidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erin L. Clark

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The mountain pine beetle, Dendroctonus ponderosae, is a significant pest of lodgepole pine in British Columbia (BC, where it has recently reached an unprecedented outbreak level. Although it is native to western North America, the beetle can now be viewed as a native invasive because for the first time in recorded history it has begun to reproduce in native jack pine stands within the North American boreal forest. The ability of jack pine trees to defend themselves against mass attack and their suitability for brood success will play a major role in the success of this insect in a putatively new geographic range and host. Lodgepole and jack pine were sampled along a transect extending from the beetle’s historic range (central BC to the newly invaded area east of the Rocky Mountains in north-central Alberta (AB in Canada for constitutive phloem resin terpene levels. In addition, two populations of lodgepole pine (BC and one population of jack pine (AB were sampled for levels of induced phloem terpenes. Phloem resin terpenes were identified and quantified using gas chromatography. Significant differences were found in constitutive levels of terpenes between the two species of pine. Constitutive α-pinene levels – a precursor in the biosynthesis of components of the aggregation and antiaggregation pheromones of mountain pine beetle – were significantly higher in jack pine. However, lower constitutive levels of compounds known to be toxic to bark beetles, e.g., 3-carene, in jack pine suggests that this species could be poorly defended. Differences in wounding-induced responses for phloem accumulation of five major terpenes were found between the two populations of lodgepole pine and between lodgepole and jack pine. The mountain pine beetle will face a different constitutive and induced phloem resin terpene environment when locating and colonizing jack pine in its new geographic range, and this may play a significant role in the ability of the

  16. Japanese for Tourism and Trade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klarberg, F.

    1974-01-01

    Discusses the desirability of Japanese as a second language for Australians in tourism and trade industries. Initial instruction using Roman alphabet followed by job training in Japan is recommended. (RM)

  17. Japanese attitudes towards foreign languages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abe, Keiko

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to clarify Japanese attitudes towards foreign languages based on the kinds and changes of TV and radio programs that aired on the Japanese national broadcasting station (NHK) between 1955 and 2000. Foreign language programs are classified into three groups according to their content: 1) cultivation, 2) education, or 3) communication. For Japanese people, foreign languages are the measures of intelligence and intellect. Studying a foreign language is considered a sign of intelligence whether or not it is used for actual communication. The number of foreign language programs has increased tremendously since 1965 in part because the global economy has brought many countries in such close contact. Since 1990, programs for the purpose of communication have increased because of the necessity to communicate with foreign people. Japanese attitudes towards studying foreign languages have been changing gradually from an intellectual purpose to a communication purpose.

  18. Fungal associates of the lodgepole pine beetle, Dendroctonus murrayanae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Six, Diana L; de Beer, Z Wilhelm; Duong, Tuan A; Carroll, Allan L; Wingfield, Michael J

    2011-08-01

    Bark beetles are well known vectors of ophiostomatoid fungi including species of Ophiostoma, Grosmannia and Ceratocystis. In this study, the most common ophiostomatoid fungi associated with the lodgepole pine beetle, Dendroctonus murrayanae, were characterized. Pre-emergent and post-attack adult beetles were collected from lodgepole pines at four sites in British Columbia, Canada. Fungi were isolated from these beetles and identified using a combination of morphology and DNA sequence comparisons of five gene regions. In all four populations, Grosmannia aurea was the most common associate (74-100% of all beetles) followed closely by Ophiostoma abietinum (29-75%). Other fungi isolated, in order of their relative prevalence with individual beetles were an undescribed Leptographium sp. (0-13%), Ophiostoma ips (0-15%), Ophiostoma piliferum (0-11%), a Pesotum sp. (0-11%) and Ophiostoma floccosum (0-1%). Comparisons of the DNA sequences of Leptographium strains isolated in this study, with ex-type isolates of G. aurea, Grosmannia robusta, Leptographium longiclavatum, and Leptographium terebrantis, as well as with sequences from GenBank, revealed a novel lineage within the Grosmannia clavigera complex. This lineage included some of the D. murrayane isolates as well as several isolates from previous studies referred to as L. terebrantis. However, the monophyly of this lineage is not well supported and a more comprehensive study will be needed to resolve its taxonomic status as one or more novel taxa.

  19. Metabolism of elements in Japanese

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uchiyama, Masafumi

    1990-01-01

    The metabolism of cesium and iodine in Japanese is reviewed regarding with assessing the internal dose from their radioisotopes. Cesium: A two-component model can depict the time-relating retention in the whole-body. The half-time in adult male is shorter for Japanese than for the ICRP Reference Man. The half-time is shorter in woman and shortest in infants. The difference in half-time between Japanese and Caucasian becomes larger with aging. The half-time is successfully related with other biological parameters. A use of the estimation model for biological half-time by Cryer and Baverstock is recommendable for Japanese. The cesium half-time has a wide difference as mush as 3 times among individuals even within the limited sexual and age-group. Iodine: ICRP recommended a model of iodine for Reference Man. However, uptake of iodine in thyroid depends on the concentration of iodine in blood in the same way as with the half-time. It is indicated that concentration of thyroxine in blood is kept constant when thyroid has an extraordinary amount of iodine supply. The amount of stable iodine in thyroid indicated no difference between Japanese and Caucasian. Considering these characteristic conditions for Japanese, a model was established in which another route for the release of inorganic iodine from thyroid is included beside those assumed in the ICRP model. The estimated half-time agreed with the observed values in Japanese who were administered iodine-131. The observed smaller uptake of iodine in thyroid for Japanese was also well explained. The uptake begins around 13 weeks after conception and increases with age upto the time of delivery. The rate of metabolism in newborn is 3 times higher than in adult. The biological half-time in thyroid increases with age. (author)

  20. Toxicity of diatomaceous earth to red flour beetles and confused flour beetles (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae): effects of temperature and relative humidity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arthur, F H

    2000-04-01

    Red flour beetles, Tribolium castaneum (Herbst), and confused flour beetles, Tribolium confusum (DuVal), were exposed for 8-72 h to diatomaceous earth (Protect-It) at 22, 27, and 32 degrees C and 40, 57, and 75% RH (9 combinations). Insects were exposed to the diatomaceous earth at 0.5 mg/cm2 on filter paper inside plastic petri dishes. After exposure, beetles were held for 1 wk without food at the same conditions at which they were exposed. Mortality of both species after initial exposure was lowest at 22 degrees C but increased as temperature and exposure interval increased, and within each temperature decreased as humidity increased. With 2 exceptions, all confused flour beetles were still alive after they were exposed at 22 degrees C, 57 and 75% RH. Mortality of both species after they were held for 1 wk was greater than initial mortality for nearly all exposure intervals at each temperature-humidity combination, indicating delayed toxic effects from exposure to diatomaceous earth. For both species, the relationship between mortality and exposure interval for initial and 1-wk mortality was described by linear, nonlinear, quadratic, and sigmoidal regression. Mortality of confused flour beetles was lower than mortality of red flour beetles exposed for the same time intervals for 46.7% of the total comparisons at the various temperature-relative humidity combinations.

  1. Significantly higher Carabid beetle (Coleoptera: Carabidae) catch in conventionally than in organically managed Christmas tree plantations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bagge, Søren; Lund, Malthe; Rønn, Regin

    2012-01-01

    trapped carabid beetles (Coleoptera, Carabidae) varied between conventionally and organically managed Caucasian Fir (Abies nordmanniana (Stev.)) plantations, in northern Zealand, Denmark. We recorded significantly higher numbers of carabid beetle specimens and species at conventionally than at organically...

  2. Interaction of insecticide and media moisture on ambrosia beetle (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) attacks on ornamental trees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Exotic ambrosia beetles, particularly Xylosandrus crassiusculus (Motschulsky) and Xylosandrus germanus (Blandford), are among the most economically damaging pests of ornamental trees in nurseries. Growers have had few tactics besides insecticide applications to reduce ambrosia beetle attacks but rec...

  3. The Japanese Balloon Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishimura, J.

    The Japanese scientific ballooning program has been organized by ISAS since the institute was founded in mid 1960s. Since then, the balloon group of ISAS has been engaged in the development of the balloon technologies and scientific observations in collaboration with scientists and engineers in other universities and organizations. Here, I describe several subjects of recent activities, the details of some items will also be reported in the separate papers in this meeting.Preparation of a new mobile receiving station.Balloons of made of the EVAL (Ethylene-Vinyl-Alcohol) films. EVAL film has specific Infra-red absorption bands, and is expected to be useful for saving the ballast for a long duration flight.A high altitude balloon with thin polyethylene films achieving at an altitude of above 50km. Further improvement of this type of balloons is continued by inventing how to extrude thin films less than 5 microns of thickness.Recent achievement of Antarctica Flights under the collaboration of ISAS and National Polar Institute.Other new efforts to long duration flights such as satellite link boomerang balloon systems and others.New balloon borne scientific instrumentation for observations of high energy electrons and Anti-protons in cosmic-rays.

  4. Structure of Phoretic Mite Assemblages Across Subcortical Beetle Species at a Regional Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfammatter, Jesse A; Coyle, David R; Gandhi, Kamal J K; Hernandez, Natalie; Hofstetter, Richard W; Moser, John C; Raffa, Kenneth F

    2016-02-01

    Mites associated with subcortical beetles feed and reproduce within habitats transformed by tree-killing herbivores. Mites lack the ability to independently disperse among these habitats, and thus have evolved characteristics that facilitate using insects as transport between resources. Studies on associations between mites and beetles have historically been beetle-centric, where an assemblage of mite species is characterized on a single beetle species. However, available evidence suggests there may be substantial overlap among mite species on various species of beetles utilizing similar host trees. We assessed the mite communities of multiple beetle species attracted to baited funnel traps in Pinus stands in southern Wisconsin, northern Arizona, and northern Georgia to better characterize mite dispersal and the formation of mite-beetle phoretic associations at multiple scales. We identified approximately 21 mite species totaling 10,575 individuals on 36 beetle species totaling 983 beetles. Of the mites collected, 97% were represented by eight species. Many species of mites were common across beetle species, likely owing to these beetles' common association with trees in the genus Pinus. Most mite species were found on at least three beetle species. Histiostoma spp., Iponemus confusus Lindquist, Histiogaster arborsignis Woodring and Trichouropoda australis Hirschmann were each found on at least seven species of beetles. While beetles had largely similar mite membership, the abundances of individual mite species were highly variable among beetle species within each sampling region. Phoretic mite communities also varied within beetle species between regions, notably for Ips pini (Say) and Ips grandicollis (Eichhoff). © The Authors 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  5. Structure of domination and dynamics of activity of ground-beetles in agroecosistems of Derbent area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. M. Nahibasheva

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available For the first time for area of research 61 kind of ground-beetles, concerning to 28 sorts and 13 vital  structure of ground-beetles of agroecosistems are studied. New data about structure and character biotopical are obtained distributions, seasonal dynamics of activity of ground-beetles. Phenological change prepotent of ground-beetles ofagroecosistems of Derbent area is revealed.

  6. Structure of domination and dynamics of activity of ground-beetles in agroecosistems of Derbent area

    OpenAIRE

    G. M. Nahibasheva; A. A. Bagomaev; R. A. Musaeva

    2008-01-01

    For the first time for area of research 61 kind of ground-beetles, concerning to 28 sorts and 13 vital  structure of ground-beetles of agroecosistems are studied. New data about structure and character biotopical are obtained distributions, seasonal dynamics of activity of ground-beetles. Phenological change prepotent of ground-beetles ofagroecosistems of Derbent area is revealed.

  7. Invasion patterns of ground-dwelling arthropods in Canarian laurel forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arndt, Erik; Perner, Jörg

    2008-09-01

    Patterns of invasive species in four different functional groups of ground-dwelling arthropods (Carnivorous ground dwelling beetles; Chilopoda; Diplopoda; Oniscoidea) were examined in laurel forests of the Canary Islands. The following hypotheses were tested: (A) increasing species richness is connected with decreasing invasibility as predicted by the Diversity-invasibility hypothesis (DIH); (B) disturbed or anthropogenically influenced habitats are more sensitive for invasions than natural and undisturbed habitats; and (C) climatic differences between laurel forest sites do not affect the rate of invasibility. A large proportion of invasives (species and abundances) was observed in most of the studied arthropod groups. However, we did not find any support for the DIH based on the examined arthropod groups. Regarding the impact of the extrinsic factors 'disturbance' and 'climate' on invasion patterns, we found considerable differences between the studied functional groups. Whereas the 'disturbance parameters' played a minor role and only affected the relative abundances of invasive centipedes (positively) and millipedes (negatively), the 'climate parameters' were significantly linked with the pattern of invasive detritivores. Interactions between native and invading species have not been observed thus far, but cannot completely be excluded.

  8. Long-term changes in communities of native coccinellids: population fluctuations and the effect of competition from an invasive non-native species

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Honěk, A.; Martínková, Z.; Dixon, Anthony F. G.; Roy, H. E.; Pekárek, S.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 9, č. 3 (2016), s. 202-209 ISSN 1752-458X R&D Projects: GA ČR GA14-26561S; GA MŠk(CZ) ED1.1.00/02.0073 Institutional support: RVO:67179843 Keywords : ladybird harmonia-axyridis * coleoptera-coccinellidae * intraguild predation * habitat preferences * central-europe * spread * ladybeetle * beetles * history * decline * Adalia * Anatis * Calvia * Coccinella * Halyzia * Harmonia * intraguild predation * invasive alien species * ladybird beetles * Propylea Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 1.840, year: 2016

  9. Distance and sex determine host plant choice by herbivorous beetles.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel J Ballhorn

    Full Text Available Plants respond to herbivore damage with the release of volatile organic compounds (VOCs. This indirect defense can cause ecological costs when herbivores themselves use VOCs as cues to localize suitable host plants. Can VOCs reliably indicate food plant quality to herbivores?We determined the choice behavior of herbivorous beetles (Chrysomelidae: Gynandrobrotica guerreroensis and Cerotoma ruficornis when facing lima bean plants (Fabaceae: Phaseolus lunatus with different cyanogenic potential, which is an important constitutive direct defense. Expression of inducible indirect defenses was experimentally manipulated by jasmonic acid treatment at different concentrations. The long-distance responses of male and female beetles to the resulting induced plant volatiles were investigated in olfactometer and free-flight experiments and compared to the short-distance decisions of the same beetles in feeding trials.Female beetles of both species were repelled by VOCs released from all induced plants independent of the level of induction. In contrast, male beetles were repelled by strongly induced plants, showed no significant differences in choice behavior towards moderately induced plants, but responded positively to VOCs released from little induced plants. Thus, beetle sex and plant VOCs had a significant effect on host searching behavior. By contrast, feeding behavior of both sexes was strongly determined by the cyanogenic potential of leaves, although females again responded more sensitively than males. Apparently, VOCs mainly provide information to these beetles that are not directly related to food quality. Being induced by herbivory and involved in indirect plant defense, such VOCs might indicate the presence of competitors and predators to herbivores. We conclude that plant quality as a food source and finding a potentially enemy-free space is more important for female than for male insect herbivores, whereas the presence of a slightly damaged

  10. Entomopathogenic fungi in predatory beetles (Col: Carabidae and Staphylinidae) from agricultural fields

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steenberg, T; Langer, V; Esbjerg, P

    1995-01-01

    Prevalence of entomopathogenic fungi was studied in overwintering ground beetles (Col.: Carabidae) and rove beetles (Col.: Staphylinidae) collected from fields of lucerne, white cabbage and white cabbage undersown with white clover. In general infection levels in adult ground beetles and rove bee...

  11. Recognition of imported lady beetles in the tribe Scymnini released in Eastern North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynn A. Jones; Michael Montgomery; Guoyue Yu; Wenhau. Lu

    2002-01-01

    Adults of lady beetles in the tribe Scymnini imported for biological control of hemlock woolly adelgid, Adelges tsugae Annand, in eastern North America can be readily distinguished from native lady beetles (Coccinellidae). The imported lady beetles are in the genera Pseudoscymnus and Scymnus (Neopullus...

  12. Dutch elm disease pathogen transmission by the banded elm bark beetle Scolytus schevyrewi

    Science.gov (United States)

    W. R. Jacobi; R. D. Koski; J. F. Negron

    2013-01-01

    Dutch Elm Disease (DED) is a vascular wilt disease of Ulmus species (elms) incited in North America primarily by the exotic fungus Ophiostoma novo-ulmi. The pathogen is transmitted via root grafts and elm bark beetle vectors, including the native North American elm bark beetle, Hylurgopinus rufipes and the exotic smaller European elm bark beetle, Scolytus multistriatus...

  13. Semiochemical sabotage: behavioral chemicals for protection of western conifers from bark beetles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nancy. E. Gillette; A. Steve Munson

    2009-01-01

    The discovery and elucidation of volatile behavioral chemicals used by bark beetles to locate hosts and mates has revealed a rich potential for humans to sabotage beetle host-finding and reproduction. Here, we present a description of currently available semiochemical methods for use in monitoring and controlling bark beetle pests in western conifer forests. Delivery...

  14. Fires following bark beetles: Factors controlling severity and disturbance interactions in ponderosa pine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carolyn H. Sieg; Rodman R. Linn; Francois Pimont; Chad M. Hoffman; Joel D. McMillin; Judith Winterkamp; L. Scott Baggett

    2017-01-01

    Previous studies have suggested that bark beetles and fires can be interacting disturbances, whereby bark beetle-caused tree mortality can alter the risk and severity of subsequent wildland fires. However, there remains considerable uncertainty around the type and magnitude of the interaction between fires following bark beetle attacks, especially in drier forest types...

  15. Effects of available water on growth and competition of southern pine beetle associated fungi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kier D. Klepzig; J. Flores-Otero; R.W. Hofstetter; M.P. Ayers

    2004-01-01

    Competitive interactions among bark beetle associated fungi are potentially influenced by abiotic factors. Water potential, in particular, undergoes marked changes over the course of beetle colonization of tree hosts. To investigate the impact of water potential on competition among three southern pine beetle associated fungi, Ophiostoma minus,

  16. The importance of streamside sandbars to ground beetle (Coleoptera, Carabidae) communities in a deciduous forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    S. Horn; M.D. Ulyshen

    2009-01-01

    We used pitfall traps to sample ground beetles on sandbars along a small woodland stream and in the adjacent floodplain forest (Oglethorpe Co., GA, USA). We captured a total of 1,477 ground beetles representing 41 species. Twenty-two species were exclusive to sandbars, while eight were found only in the forested habitat. Ground beetles...

  17. National invasive species program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anna Rinick

    2007-01-01

    The structure and function of the National Invasive Species Council was presented below. The names and contact information for the USDA Invasive Species coordinators as of February 2006 were presented on the next page.

  18. Health Information in Japanese (日本語)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Japanese) PDF Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Benefits of Exercise Starting an Exercise Program - 日本語 (Japanese) ... Japanese) Bilingual PDF Health Information Translations Blood Sugar Fasting Blood Sugar Test - 日本語 (Japanese) Bilingual PDF Health ...

  19. Japanese respond to campaign.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-08-01

    A unique campaign launched by JOICFP in August 1993 had by the end of June 1994 netted US $41,200 to support activities of the integrated Project (IP) in developing countries. Under the campaign, the public, institutions, organizations, and businesses have been sending in used prepaid cards for sale to collectors in Japan and abroad. Prepaid cards are widely used throughout Japan for phones, subways, railways and highways. Nippon Telegraph and Telephone Corporation (NTT) alone issues 20 million cards annually. The campaign, which has been widely featured in the media, has proved effective for drawing attention to JOICFP and to population and family planning issues. Gaining the understanding of the Japanese public about population issues has grown in importance since the government's announcement of the new Global Issues Initiative (GII). Word about the campaign was carried by radio, television, newspapers, and magazines nationwide. The number of cards sent in escalated with the attention. By the end of June, JOICFP had received around 700,000 cards, of which 550,000 have been exchanged for cash. The funds generated by the card sales have been allocated to support grassroots IP activities and encourage the self-reliance of projects in China, Ghana, Guatemala, Nepal, Tanzania, and Zambia. Responses to the campaign have come from individuals as well as local governments, hospitals, enterprises, and educational institutions. Many of these have initiated their own card-collection system and information-dissemination activities to support JOICFP. Over 5000 different organizations are now collaborating with JOICFP for the campaign, including Tenmaya Department Store in Okayama City.

  20. Color constancy in Japanese animation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ichihara, Yasuyo G.

    2006-01-01

    In this study, we measure the colors used in a Japanese Animations. The result can be seen on CIE-xy color spaces. It clearly shows that the color system is not a natural appearance system but an imagined and artistic appearance system. Color constancy of human vision can tell the difference in skin and hair colors between under moonlight and day light. Human brain generates a match to the memorized color of an object from daylight viewing conditions to the color of the object in different viewing conditions. For example, Japanese people always perceive the color of the Rising Sun in the Japanese flag as red even in a different viewing condition such as under moonlight. Color images captured by a camera cannot present those human perceptions. However, Japanese colorists in Animation succeeded in painting the effects of color constancy not only under moonlight but also added the memory matching colors. They aim to create a greater impact on viewer's perceptions by using the effect of the memory matching colors. In this paper, we propose the Imagined Japanese Animation Color System. This system in art is currently a subject of research in Japan. Its importance is that it could also provide an explanation on how human brain perceives the same color under different viewing conditions.

  1. Origin and Diversification of Dung Beetles in Madagascar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreia Miraldo

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Madagascar has a rich fauna of dung beetles (Scarabaeinae and Aphodiinae withalmost 300 species described to date. Like most other taxa in Madagascar, dung beetles exhibit an exceptionally high level of endemism (96% of the species. Here,we review the current knowledge of the origin and diversification of Malagasy dung beetles. Based on molecular phylogenies, the extant dung beetles originate from eight colonizations, of which four have given rise to extensive radiations. These radiations have occurred in wet forests, while the few extant species in the less successfulradiations occur in open and semi-open habitats. We discuss the likely mechanisms of speciation and the ecological characteristics of the extant communities, emphasizing the role of adaptation along environmental gradients and allopatric speciation in generating the exceptionally high beta diversity in Malagasy dung beetles. Phylogeographic analyses of selected species reveal complex patterns with evidence for genetic introgression between old taxa. The introduction of cattle to Madagascar 1500 years ago created a new abundant resource, onto which a few species haveshifted and thereby been able to greatly expand their geographical ranges.

  2. Metagenomic profiling reveals lignocellulose degrading system in a microbial community associated with a wood-feeding beetle.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erin D Scully

    Full Text Available The Asian longhorned beetle (Anoplophoraglabripennis is an invasive, wood-boring pest that thrives in the heartwood of deciduous tree species. A large impediment faced by A. glabripennis as it feeds on woody tissue is lignin, a highly recalcitrant biopolymer that reduces access to sugars and other nutrients locked in cellulose and hemicellulose. We previously demonstrated that lignin, cellulose, and hemicellulose are actively deconstructed in the beetle gut and that the gut harbors an assemblage of microbes hypothesized to make significant contributions to these processes. While lignin degrading mechanisms have been well characterized in pure cultures of white rot basidiomycetes, little is known about such processes in microbial communities associated with wood-feeding insects. The goals of this study were to develop a taxonomic and functional profile of a gut community derived from an invasive population of larval A. glabripennis collected from infested host trees and to identify genes that could be relevant for the digestion of woody tissue and nutrient acquisition. To accomplish this goal, we taxonomically and functionally characterized the A. glabripennis midgut microbiota through amplicon and shotgun metagenome sequencing and conducted a large-scale comparison with the metagenomes from a variety of other herbivore-associated communities. This analysis distinguished the A. glabripennis larval gut metagenome from the gut communities of other herbivores, including previously sequenced termite hindgut metagenomes. Genes encoding enzymes were identified in the A. glabripennis gut metagenome that could have key roles in woody tissue digestion including candidate lignin degrading genes (laccases, dye-decolorizing peroxidases, novel peroxidases and β-etherases, 36 families of glycoside hydrolases (such as cellulases and xylanases, and genes that could facilitate nutrient recovery, essential nutrient synthesis, and detoxification. This community

  3. Loneliness among Japanese and American college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearl, T; Klopf, D W

    1990-08-01

    Both Japanese and American college students (ns = 100), away from home at their first year in college, showed high scores in the Differential Loneliness Scale, with Japanese students scoring higher on all subscales.

  4. Vaccines for preventing Japanese encephalitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schiøler, Karin Linda; Samuel, Miny; Wai, Kim Lay

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Vaccination is recognized as the only practical measure for preventing Japanese encephalitis. Production shortage, costs, and issues of licensure impair vaccination programmes in many affected countries. Concerns over vaccine effectiveness and safety also have a negative impact...... on acceptance and uptake. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate vaccines for preventing Japanese encephalitis in terms of effectiveness, adverse events, and immunogenicity. SEARCH STRATEGY: In March 2007, we searched the Cochrane Infectious Diseases Group Specialized Register, CENTRAL (The Cochrane Library 2007, Issue 1......), MEDLINE, EMBASE, LILACS, BIOSIS, and reference lists. We also attempted to contact corresponding authors and vaccine companies. SELECTION CRITERIA: Randomized controlled trials (RCTs), including cluster-RCTs, comparing Japanese encephalitis vaccines with placebo (inert agent or unrelated vaccine...

  5. Japanese efforts in international cooperation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawaguchi, M.; Uchida, T.; Yoshikawa, M.

    1983-01-01

    The Science and Technology Agency of the Japanese Governmentreviews the present status of cooperative activities. The International Atomic Energy Meetings are discussed, as well as the INTOR workshop, atomic and molecular data activities, and progress in international cooperation. Other functions of the International Energy Agency include the promotion of cooperation programs which involve transfer or joint utilization of hardware contributed by the participating organizations. Meetings and ducting magnets for fusion power, RandD on plasma-wall interactions in the TEXTOR, and RandD on radiation damage in fusion materials. A section on Japanese-U.S. cooperation is highlighted, and includes the personnel exchange program, the Japanese research project using Doublet-III, joint research for plasma physics, and promotion of joint planning. Cooperation with the USSR and other countries is discussed

  6. JABEE in Japanese Engineering Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeda, Kunihiko; Ishikawa, Tomoyuki

    JABEE in Japanese engineering education is discussed by focusing on the status and treatment of engineers in Japanese society and their achievements. The entrance fee and tuition of the engineering departments of higher education facilities are higher than those of the law, economy and literature departments. On the other hand, an engineer's lifelong wage is smaller than that of those who have graduated from the latter fields. Although engineering students must study for a longer period of time, the scholarship system to support these students in Japan falls far behind that in the U.S.A. The achievements of Japanese engineering were summarized from the viewpoint of economic indications such as 1) production of steel, 2) energy consumption per person as a function of GDP, 3) income 4) real estate abroad and miscellaneous factors such as the life spans and criminal rates of many countries. These analyses made it clear that Japanese engineers have the highest ability even compared to advanced countries and this is because of the higher engineering education in Japan ; but their status is unreasonably low in Japanese society. The four points by which the present status of Japanese engineers can be improved were discussed in relation to the introduction and the achievement of the JABEE system. The true aim of education reform by JABEE is that the engineering education in Japan should shift “from government to non-government”, “from organization to individual” and “from control to interdependency.” The expected points of improvement are discussed.

  7. Chemically mediated group formation in soil-dwelling larvae and pupae of the beetle Trypoxylus dichotomus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kojima, Wataru; Ishikawa, Yukio; Takanashi, Takuma

    2014-09-01

    Many insects form groups through interactions among individuals, and these are often mediated by chemical, acoustic, or visual cues and signals. In spite of the diversity of soil-dwelling insects, their aggregation behaviour has not been examined as extensively as that of aboveground species. We investigated the aggregation mechanisms of larvae of the Japanese rhinoceros beetle Trypoxylus dichotomus, which live in groups in humus soil. In two-choice laboratory tests, 2nd- and 3rd-instar larvae gathered at conspecific larvae irrespective of the kinship. The ablation of maxillae, which bear chemosensilla, abolished aggregation behaviour. Intact larvae also exhibited aggregation behaviour towards a larval homogenate. These results suggest that larval aggregation is mediated by chemical cues. We also demonstrated that the mature larvae of T. dichotomus built their pupal cells close to a mesh bag containing a conspecific pupal cell, which indicated that larvae utilize chemical cues emanating from these cells to select the pupation site. Thus, the larvae of T. dichotomus may use chemical cues from the conspecifics in two different contexts, i.e. larval aggregation and pupation site selection. Using conspecific cues, larvae may be able to choose suitable locations for foraging or building pupal cells. The results of the present study highlight the importance of chemical information in belowground ecology.

  8. "Sport Guts" in Japanese Girl Anime

    OpenAIRE

    Miho Tsukamoto

    2015-01-01

    "Sport Guts" in Japanese anime developed not only to strengthen mentality but also to challenge for objectives. This paper helps to understand the development of Japanese girl anime, and its philosophical concepts of Japanese amine. This paper focuses on girls' sport anime "Sport Guts,", which is the major philosophy of Japanese girl anime and centers on a girl who is enthusiastic about volleyball and makes an effort to compete in the World Series by focusing on girl anime b...

  9. Epenthetic vowels in Japanese: A perceptual illusion?

    OpenAIRE

    Emmanuel, Dupoux; Kazohiko, Kakehi; Yuki, Hirose; Christophe, Pallier; Jacques, Mehler

    1998-01-01

    In four cross-linguistic experiments comparing French and Japanese hearers, we found that the phonotactic properties of Japanese (very reduced set of syllable types) induce Japanese listeners to perceive ``illusory'' vowels inside consonant clusters in VCCV stimuli. In Experiments 1 and 2, we used a continuum of stimuli ranging from no vowel (e.g. ebzo) to a full vowel between the consonants (e.g. ebuzo). Japanese, but not French participants, reported the presence of a vowel [u] between cons...

  10. Japanese situations to emerging themes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kubota, Ryuji

    2011-01-01

    Japanese regulatory body has audited more than ten cases of licensee's RCA since December 2007. We approve of opinions to emerging themes in 'CSNI Activity Plan', and based on achievements of these audits, Japanese situations to emerging themes are explained. As our conclusion, the more experience to identify HOF licensees have, the more problems may be solved. But as CA is difficult to measure for effectiveness, we propose to develop the outcome indicators such as the frequency of events. (author)

  11. A history of Japanese mathematics

    CERN Document Server

    Smith, David E

    2004-01-01

    One of the first books to show Westerners the nature of Japanese mathematics, this survey highlights the leading features in the development of the wasan, the Japanese system of mathematics. Topics include the use of the soroban, or abacus; the application of sangi, or counting rods, to algebra; the discoveries of the 17th-century sage Seki Kowa; the yenri, or circle principle; the work of 18th-century geometer Ajima Chokuyen; and Wada Nei's contributions to the understanding of hypotrochoids. Unabridged republication of the classic 1914 edition. 74 figures. Index.

  12. Japanese couples' opinions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozaki, M

    1993-06-01

    The Japanese National Survey on Family Planning has been conducted since 1950 by the Mainichi Newspapers. The 21st survey, which included approximately 3400 persons, was conducted in 1992 in conjunction with various family planning organizations. The results reported include the ideal number of children, care for the elderly, tolerance for induced abortion, beliefs about the side effects of oral contraceptives, attitudes of husbands toward their wives working outside the home, sexual harassment, and elderly husband's concern about contracting AIDS. 45% of respondents supported Japan's involvement in FP efforts in developing countries, and 20.9% disapproved of involvement. Fertility declined from 1.54 in 1990 to 1.53 in 1991. There was an 5% increase to 75.3% in the number of women concerned about declining fertility for such reasons as the loss of social vitality and the increased burden of support in old age. However, 60.9% of wives and 56.8% of husbands felt that the government should not take action to prevent further fertility decline. Public policies for reducing the cost of education were supported by 39.6% of wives and 43.6% of husbands. A similar number supported increases in child allowance, and a smaller percentage of husbands and wives wanted the government to subsidize housing expenses. The ideal number of children was 3 for 45.7% of those surveyed, which was more than those desiring 2 children. The ideal of 3 children was held by survey participants who were more than 35 years old and by those with a high education. Part-time workers and office clerks were more likely to report that 2 children were ideal. An increasing number of respondents (60.4%) do not intend to rely on their children in old age. There has been a shift in family planning methods from induced abortions to increased contraceptive use. The highest rate of contraceptive use is among wives 35-39 years old. 75.3% use condoms. 67.7% reported concern about side effects from oral

  13. Entomopathogenic fungi in predatory beetles (Col: Carabidae and Staphylinidae) from agricultural fields

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steenberg, T; Langer, V; Esbjerg, P

    1995-01-01

    Prevalence of entomopathogenic fungi was studied in overwintering ground beetles (Col.: Carabidae) and rove beetles (Col.: Staphylinidae) collected from fields of lucerne, white cabbage and white cabbage undersown with white clover. In general infection levels in adult ground beetles and rove...... angustatus. Beauveria bassiana was the predominant fungus isolated from ground beetles and rove beetles from all studied sites. Other fungal species included the hyphomycetes Metarhizium anisopliae, Paecilomyces farinosus and Verticillium lecanii as well as Zoophthora radicans and Zoophthora philonthi...

  14. Molecular phylogeny reveals food plasticity in the evolution of true ladybird beetles (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae: Coccinellini).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escalona, Hermes E; Zwick, Andreas; Li, Hao-Sen; Li, Jiahui; Wang, Xingmin; Pang, Hong; Hartley, Diana; Jermiin, Lars S; Nedvěd, Oldřich; Misof, Bernhard; Niehuis, Oliver; Ślipiński, Adam; Tomaszewska, Wioletta

    2017-06-26

    The tribe Coccinellini is a group of relatively large ladybird beetles that exhibits remarkable morphological and biological diversity. Many species are aphidophagous, feeding as larvae and adults on aphids, but some species also feed on other hemipterous insects (i.e., heteropterans, psyllids, whiteflies), beetle and moth larvae, pollen, fungal spores, and even plant tissue. Several species are biological control agents or widespread invasive species (e.g., Harmonia axyridis (Pallas)). Despite the ecological importance of this tribe, relatively little is known about the phylogenetic relationships within it. The generic concepts within the tribe Coccinellini are unstable and do not reflect a natural classification, being largely based on regional revisions. This impedes the phylogenetic study of important traits of Coccinellidae at a global scale (e.g. the evolution of food preferences and biogeography). We present the most comprehensive phylogenetic analysis of Coccinellini to date, based on three nuclear and one mitochondrial gene sequences of 38 taxa, which represent all major Coccinellini lineages. The phylogenetic reconstruction supports the monophyly of Coccinellini and its sister group relationship to Chilocorini. Within Coccinellini, three major clades were recovered that do not correspond to any previously recognised divisions, questioning the traditional differentiation between Halyziini, Discotomini, Tytthaspidini, and Singhikaliini. Ancestral state reconstructions of food preferences and morphological characters support the idea of aphidophagy being the ancestral state in Coccinellini. This indicates a transition from putative obligate scale feeders, as seen in the closely related Chilocorini, to more agile general predators. Our results suggest that the classification of Coccinellini has been misled by convergence in morphological traits. The evolutionary history of Coccinellini has been very dynamic in respect to changes in host preferences, involving

  15. Antennal Transcriptome Analysis of Odorant Reception Genes in the Red Turpentine Beetle (RTB, Dendroctonus valens.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-Cui Gu

    Full Text Available The red turpentine beetle (RTB, Dendroctonus valens LeConte (Coleoptera: Curculionidae, Scolytinae, is a destructive invasive pest of conifers which has become the second most important forest pest nationwide in China. Dendroctonus valens is known to use host odors and aggregation pheromones, as well as non-host volatiles, in host location and mass-attack modulation, and thus antennal olfaction is of the utmost importance for the beetles' survival and fitness. However, information on the genes underlying olfaction has been lacking in D. valens. Here, we report the antennal transcriptome of D. valens from next-generation sequencing, with the goal of identifying the olfaction gene repertoire that is involved in D. valens odor-processing.We obtained 51 million reads that were assembled into 61,889 genes, including 39,831 contigs and 22,058 unigenes. In total, we identified 68 novel putative odorant reception genes, including 21 transcripts encoding for putative odorant binding proteins (OBP, six chemosensory proteins (CSP, four sensory neuron membrane proteins (SNMP, 22 odorant receptors (OR, four gustatory receptors (GR, three ionotropic receptors (IR, and eight ionotropic glutamate receptors. We also identified 155 odorant/xenobiotic degradation enzymes from the antennal transcriptome, putatively identified to be involved in olfaction processes including cytochrome P450s, glutathione-S-transferases, and aldehyde dehydrogenase. Predicted protein sequences were compared with counterparts in Tribolium castaneum, Megacyllene caryae, Ips typographus, Dendroctonus ponderosae, and Agrilus planipennis.The antennal transcriptome described here represents the first study of the repertoire of odor processing genes in D. valens. The genes reported here provide a significant addition to the pool of identified olfactory genes in Coleoptera, which might represent novel targets for insect management. The results from our study also will assist with evolutionary

  16. Japanese management. Implications for nursing administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, H L; Reinow, F D; Reid, R A

    1984-09-01

    Does Japanese management possess sufficient practical validity to warrant retraining of nursing administrators and their staffs? Can Japanese management really address the complexities of contemporary nursing administration? Before espousing the benefits of Theory Z and implementing quality circles in your hospital, read this analysis of the advantages and disadvantages of Japanese management--the benefits can be substantial but so can the costs!

  17. Developing Instructional Materials for Business Japanese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koike, Shohei

    Business Japanese should be the study of Japanese language and culture for business communication and should include values and beliefs and institutional constraints on which the Japanese act as well as business etiquette and terminology. Topics to be covered in instruction will vary depending on the role (seller, buyer, or colleague) played by…

  18. The Progressive in English and Japanese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Takashi

    1996-01-01

    Compares and contrasts the progressive constructions in English and Japanese, concluding that whereas an English sentence of this type refers to a dynamic state, this need not be the case in Japanese. The article argues that the progressive operators in both English (be-ing) and Japanese (-teiru) can be characterized as stativizer. (18 references)…

  19. Arsenic accumulation in bark beetles and forest birds occupying mountain pine beetle infested stands treated with monosodium methanearsonate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrissey, Christy A; Albert, Courtney A; Dods, Patti L; Cullen, William R; Lai, Vivian W M; Elliott, John E

    2007-02-15

    The arsenic-based pesticide, monosodium methanearsonate (MSMA), is presently being evaluated for re-registration in Canada and the United States and has been widely used in British Columbia to help suppress Mountain Pine Beetle (MPB) outbreaks. We assessed the availability and exposure of MSMA to woodpeckers and other forest birds that may prey directly on contaminated bark beetles. Total arsenic residues in MPB from MSMA treated trees ranged from 1.3-700.2 microg g(-1) dw (geometric mean 42.0 microg g(-1)) with the metabolite monomethyl arsonic acid (MMAA) contributing 90-97% to the total arsenic extracted. Live adult and larval beetles were collected from treated trees and reached concentrations up to 327 microg g(-1) dw. MPBs from reference trees had significantly lower arsenic concentrations averaging 0.19 microg g(-1) dw. Woodpeckers foraged more heavily on MSMAtreesthat contained beetles with lower arsenic residues, suggesting those trees had reduced MSMAtranslocation and possibly greater live beetle broods. Blood samples from five species of woodpeckers and other forest passerines breeding within 1 km of MSMA stands contained elevated levels of total arsenic but with large individual variability (geometric mean = 0.18 microg g(-1) dw, range 0.02-2.20 microg g(-1). The results indicate that there is significant accumulation and transfer of organic arsenic within the food chain at levels that may present a toxicity risk to avian wildlife.

  20. Changes in food resources and conservation of scarab beetles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carpaneto, Giuseppe Maria; Mazziotta, Adriano; Piattella, Emanuele

    2005-01-01

    to dog dung, an impoverishment of the total richness was observed (from 19 to 9 species) together with an increase of individuals (by 7 times). Dog dung harboured 20% of the current scarab dung beetle fauna of Rome, probably as a consequence of the dog mixed diet, rich in cellulose. Both the communities...... showed a high percentage of tunnellers, probably because of the food shortage and, for dog scats, of the high dehydration rate. A comparison with other Roman scarab communities enhanced that: (1) the change in food resource determined a higher difference in species composition respect to other parameters......The aim of the research was to show how a change in land use influences the structure of a dung beetle assemblage and affect its conservation. In the Pineto Urban Regional Park (Rome), dog dung is the sole food resource currently available for scarab dung beetles, after the recent removal of wild...

  1. Ancient symbiosis confers desiccation resistance to stored grain pest beetles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engl, Tobias; Eberl, Nadia; Gorse, Carla; Krüger, Theresa; Schmidt, Thorsten H P; Plarre, Rudy; Adler, Cornel; Kaltenpoth, Martin

    2017-11-08

    Microbial symbionts of insects provide a range of ecological traits to their hosts that are beneficial in the context of biotic interactions. However, little is known about insect symbiont-mediated adaptation to the abiotic environment, for example, temperature and humidity. Here, we report on an ancient clade of intracellular, bacteriome-located Bacteroidetes symbionts that are associated with grain and wood pest beetles of the phylogenetically distant families Silvanidae and Bostrichidae. In the saw-toothed grain beetle Oryzaephilus surinamensis, we demonstrate that the symbionts affect cuticle thickness, melanization and hydrocarbon profile, enhancing desiccation resistance and thereby strongly improving fitness under dry conditions. Together with earlier observations on symbiont contributions to cuticle biosynthesis in weevils, our findings indicate that convergent acquisitions of bacterial mutualists represented key adaptations enabling diverse pest beetle groups to survive and proliferate under the low ambient humidity that characterizes dry grain storage facilities. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Detecting Symbioses in Complex Communities: the Fungal Symbionts of Bark and Ambrosia Beetles Within Asian Pines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skelton, James; Jusino, Michelle A; Li, You; Bateman, Craig; Thai, Pham Hong; Wu, Chengxu; Lindner, Daniel L; Hulcr, Jiri

    2018-02-24

    Separating symbioses from incidental associations is a major obstacle in symbiosis research. In this survey of fungi associated with Asian bark and ambrosia beetles, we used quantitative culture and DNA barcode identification to characterize fungal communities associated with co-infesting beetle species in pines (Pinus) of China and Vietnam. To quantitatively discern likely symbioses from coincidental associations, we used multivariate analysis and multilevel pattern analysis (a type of indicator species analysis). Nearly half of the variation in fungal community composition in beetle galleries and on beetle bodies was explained by beetle species. We inferred a spectrum of ecological strategies among beetle-associated fungi: from generalist multispecies associates to highly specialized single-host symbionts that were consistently dominant within the mycangia of their hosts. Statistically significant fungal associates of ambrosia beetles were typically only found with one beetle species. In contrast, bark beetle-associated fungi were often associated with multiple beetle species. Ambrosia beetles and their galleries were frequently colonized by low-prevalence ambrosia fungi, suggesting that facultative ambrosial associations are commonplace, and ecological mechanisms such as specialization and competition may be important in these dynamic associations. The approach used here could effectively delimit symbiotic interactions in any system where symbioses are obscured by frequent incidental associations. It has multiple advantages including (1) powerful statistical tests for non-random associations among potential symbionts, (2) simultaneous evaluation of multiple co-occurring host and symbiont associations, and (3) identifying symbionts that are significantly associated with multiple host species.

  3. Evaluating leaf litter beetle data sampled by Winkler extraction from Atlantic forest sites in southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philipp Werner Hopp

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Evaluating leaf litter beetle data sampled by Winkler extraction from Atlantic forest sites in southern Brazil. To evaluate the reliability of data obtained by Winkler extraction in Atlantic forest sites in southern Brazil, we studied litter beetle assemblages in secondary forests (5 to 55 years after abandonment and old-growth forests at two seasonally different points in time. For all regeneration stages, species density and abundance were lower in April compared to August; but, assemblage composition of the corresponding forest stages was similar in both months. We suggest that sampling of small litter inhabiting beetles at different points in time using the Winkler technique reveals identical ecological patterns, which are more likely to be influenced by sample incompleteness than by differences in their assemblage composition. A strong relationship between litter quantity and beetle occurrences indicates the importance of this variable for the temporal species density pattern. Additionally, the sampled beetle material was compared with beetle data obtained with pitfall traps in one old-growth forest. Over 60% of the focal species captured with pitfall traps were also sampled by Winkler extraction in different forest stages. Few beetles with a body size too large to be sampled by Winkler extraction were only sampled with pitfall traps. This indicates that the local litter beetle fauna is dominated by small species. Hence, being aware of the exclusion of large beetles and beetle species occurring during the wet season, the Winkler method reveals a reliable picture of the local leaf litter beetle community.

  4. The original colours of fossil beetles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNamara, Maria E; Briggs, Derek E G; Orr, Patrick J; Noh, Heeso; Cao, Hui

    2012-03-22

    Structural colours, the most intense, reflective and pure colours in nature, are generated when light is scattered by complex nanostructures. Metallic structural colours are widespread among modern insects and can be preserved in their fossil counterparts, but it is unclear whether the colours have been altered during fossilization, and whether the absence of colours is always real. To resolve these issues, we investigated fossil beetles from five Cenozoic biotas. Metallic colours in these specimens are generated by an epicuticular multi-layer reflector; the fidelity of its preservation correlates with that of other key cuticular ultrastructures. Where these other ultrastructures are well preserved in non-metallic fossil specimens, we can infer that the original cuticle lacked a multi-layer reflector; its absence in the fossil is not a preservational artefact. Reconstructions of the original colours of the fossils based on the structure of the multi-layer reflector show that the preserved colours are offset systematically to longer wavelengths; this probably reflects alteration of the refractive index of the epicuticle during fossilization. These findings will allow the former presence, and original hue, of metallic structural colours to be identified in diverse fossil insects, thus providing critical evidence of the evolution of structural colour in this group.

  5. Fungi associated with the beetles of Ips typographus on Norway spruce in southern Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Jankowiak

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The mycobiota of the beetles of the phloem-feeding spruce bark beetle, Ips typographus was studied. The most important group of fungi were the ophiostomatoid fungi. Among them O. penicillatum was very frequent ophiostomatoid species. Other common fungi were O. ainoae, O. bicolor, O. piceaperdum and O. piceae. The ophiostomatoid fungi were often more frequent in beetles collected in galleries than in the beetles caught With a trap. Generally the ophiostomatoid fungi were more ofien isolated from the beetle.s bathed in sterile water for 30 seconds. However C. polonica, O. ainoae, and O. minutum occurred most abundantly in the beetles disinfected in 96% ethyl alcohol for 15 and 30 seconds.

  6. Photochemical oxidant injury and bark beetle coleoptera scolytidae infestation of ponderosa pine. I. Incidence of bark beetle infestation in injured trees

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stark, R.W.; Miller, P.R.; Cobb, F.W. Jr.; Wood, D.L.; Parmeter, J.R. Jr.

    1968-05-01

    A total of 107 beetle-killed and 963 nearest-neighbor ponderosa pines were examined to determine the association between severity of atmospheric pollution injury and infestation by bark beetles. Trees exhibiting advanced symptoms of pollution injury were most frequently infested by the western pine beetle, Dendroctonus brevicomis, and the mountain pine beetle, D. ponderosae. The degree of injury and incidence of bark beetle infestation were not related to total height, diameter, length of live and dead crown or crown class. As severity of oxidant injury increased, live crown ratio decreased and incidence of bark beetle infestation increased. One hundred noninfested trees in each of three disease categories, advanced, intermediate, and healthy, were examined for evidence of prior beetle attacks. Thirty-six percent of the advanced-diseased trees versus only 5% of the healthy trees were attacked. Thus, the beetles may discriminate between healthy and diseased trees at a distance, upon contact with the host, or both. These studies indicate strongly that atmospheric pollution injury predisposes ponderosa pine to bark beetle infestations. 3 references, 7 tables.

  7. Patterns of functional enzyme activity in fungus farming ambrosia beetles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    De Fine Licht Henrik H

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction In wood-dwelling fungus-farming weevils, the so-called ambrosia beetles (Curculionidae: Scolytinae and Platypodinae, wood in the excavated tunnels is used as a medium for cultivating fungi by the combined action of digging larvae (which create more space for the fungi to grow and of adults sowing and pruning the fungus. The beetles are obligately dependent on the fungus that provides essential vitamins, amino acids and sterols. However, to what extent microbial enzymes support fungus farming in ambrosia beetles is unknown. Here we measure (i 13 plant cell-wall degrading enzymes in the fungus garden microbial consortium of the ambrosia beetle Xyleborinus saxesenii, including its primary fungal symbionts, in three compartments of laboratory maintained nests, at different time points after gallery foundation and (ii four specific enzymes that may be either insect or microbially derived in X. saxesenii adult and larval individuals. Results We discovered that the activity of cellulases in ambrosia fungus gardens is relatively small compared to the activities of other cellulolytic enzymes. Enzyme activity in all compartments of the garden was mainly directed towards hemicellulose carbohydrates such as xylan, glucomannan and callose. Hemicellulolytic enzyme activity within the brood chamber increased with gallery age, whereas irrespective of the age of the gallery, the highest overall enzyme activity were detected in the gallery dump material expelled by the beetles. Interestingly endo-β-1,3(4-glucanase activity capable of callose degradation was identified in whole-body extracts of both larvae and adult X. saxesenii, whereas endo-β-1,4-xylanase activity was exclusively detected in larvae. Conclusion Similar to closely related fungi associated with bark beetles in phloem, the microbial symbionts of ambrosia beetles hardly degrade cellulose. Instead, their enzyme activity is directed mainly towards comparatively more easily

  8. Japanese national reference reprocessing plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-08-01

    This paper gives a general description of the proposed Japanese national reprocessing plant and of the design philosophy. The plant is in most respects similar to the base case reprocessing plant, with an annual throughput of 100-1500 tU. The plant would be co-located with a fuel fabrication facility

  9. Japanese Attitudes toward English Accents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiba, Reiko; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Examined the attitudes of 169 Japanese university students toward varieties of spoken English. Results found that the students with more instrumental motivation were more positive toward nonnative English accents than those with less instrumental motivation, and that the students' familiarity with accents had an influence on their acceptance of…

  10. The Japanese Copula: A Dummy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wenck, G.

    1973-01-01

    Discussion of whether the Japanese copula can adequately be described as a dummy, i.e., as an element which although existing in the surface structure can be dispensed with in the deep structure of a sentence; based on a paper read at the 1970 meeting of the Societas Linguistica Europaea, Prague, Czechoslovakia. (RS)

  11. Japanese Logic Puzzles and Proof

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wanko, Jeffrey J.

    2009-01-01

    An understanding of proof does not start in a high school geometry course. Rather, attention to logical reasoning throughout a student's school experience can help the development of proof readiness. In the spirit of problem solving, the author has begun to use some Japanese logic puzzles other than sudoku to help students develop additional…

  12. Status of Japanese university reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujita, Yoshiaki

    1999-01-01

    Status of Japanese university reactors, their role and value in research and education, and the spent fuel problem are presented. Some of the reactors are now faced by severe difficulties in continuing their operation services. The point of measures to solve the difficulties is suggested. (author)

  13. Look Who Invented Japanese Management!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chait, Richard P.

    1982-01-01

    The Japanese theory of participatory management is seen as thriving on American campuses under the rubrics of shared governance and collegiality. Participatory management, quality control circles, lifetime employment, superordinate goals, and interdependent leadership are discussed. More commerce between academic administrators and corporate…

  14. The extent of selected nonnative invasive plants on southern forest lands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonja N. Oswalt; Christopher M. Oswalt

    2011-01-01

    Studies suggest that the southern United States is an area of primary concern with regards to the spread of nonnative invasive plant species. Recent data show that species such as Japanese honeysuckle (Lonicera japonica) and Nepalese browntop (Microstegium vimineum) are invading forests and displacing native species throughout the...

  15. Daily mineral intakes for Japanese

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shiraishi, Kunio

    1990-01-01

    Recently it became necessary to assess the dietary intake of both stable and radioactive elements for non-radiation workers. But data of mineral intake in the literature are not good enough for this assessment. ICRP Pub. 23 in 'Reference Man' is one of the best references in this field. ICRP Reference Man was selected as the standard for Caucasian by using values reported during early 1970s or before. Moreover it seems not to be suitable for Japanese (Mongolian). In this report, analytical methods of minerals in total diet samples for Japanese were described. Furthermore, daily intakes for Japanese (Reference Japanese Man) and ICRP Reference Man were compared. After collected by a duplicate portion study and a model diet study, diet samples were dry-ashed followed by wet-digestion with a mixture of HNO 3 and HClO 4 . Diet sample solutions thus prepared were analysed by using atomic absorption spectrometry (AAS), inductively-coupled plasma atomic-emission spectrometry (ICP-AES), and inductively-coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Matrix effects of major elements (Na, K, P, Ca and Mg) in diet samples were compensated by a matrix-matching method. About 20 elements were simultaneously determined by ICP-AES and ICP-MS, more easily than by AAS. Most of dietary mineral intakes, except for Na, Mn, and Sr, for Japanese were lower than those of ICRP Reference Man. But, dietary intakes were found to be different depending on countries, even among European and American countries. New representative data for as many elements as possible are necessary now. (author)

  16. A model species for agricultural pest genomics: the genome of the Colorado potato beetle, Leptinotarsa decemlineata (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoville, Sean D; Chen, Yolanda H; Andersson, Martin N; Benoit, Joshua B; Bhandari, Anita; Bowsher, Julia H; Brevik, Kristian; Cappelle, Kaat; Chen, Mei-Ju M; Childers, Anna K; Childers, Christopher; Christiaens, Olivier; Clements, Justin; Didion, Elise M; Elpidina, Elena N; Engsontia, Patamarerk; Friedrich, Markus; García-Robles, Inmaculada; Gibbs, Richard A; Goswami, Chandan; Grapputo, Alessandro; Gruden, Kristina; Grynberg, Marcin; Henrissat, Bernard; Jennings, Emily C; Jones, Jeffery W; Kalsi, Megha; Khan, Sher A; Kumar, Abhishek; Li, Fei; Lombard, Vincent; Ma, Xingzhou; Martynov, Alexander; Miller, Nicholas J; Mitchell, Robert F; Munoz-Torres, Monica; Muszewska, Anna; Oppert, Brenda; Palli, Subba Reddy; Panfilio, Kristen A; Pauchet, Yannick; Perkin, Lindsey C; Petek, Marko; Poelchau, Monica F; Record, Éric; Rinehart, Joseph P; Robertson, Hugh M; Rosendale, Andrew J; Ruiz-Arroyo, Victor M; Smagghe, Guy; Szendrei, Zsofia; Thomas, Gregg W C; Torson, Alex S; Vargas Jentzsch, Iris M; Weirauch, Matthew T; Yates, Ashley D; Yocum, George D; Yoon, June-Sun; Richards, Stephen

    2018-01-31

    The Colorado potato beetle is one of the most challenging agricultural pests to manage. It has shown a spectacular ability to adapt to a variety of solanaceaeous plants and variable climates during its global invasion, and, notably, to rapidly evolve insecticide resistance. To examine evidence of rapid evolutionary change, and to understand the genetic basis of herbivory and insecticide resistance, we tested for structural and functional genomic changes relative to other arthropod species using genome sequencing, transcriptomics, and community annotation. Two factors that might facilitate rapid evolutionary change include transposable elements, which comprise at least 17% of the genome and are rapidly evolving compared to other Coleoptera, and high levels of nucleotide diversity in rapidly growing pest populations. Adaptations to plant feeding are evident in gene expansions and differential expression of digestive enzymes in gut tissues, as well as expansions of gustatory receptors for bitter tasting. Surprisingly, the suite of genes involved in insecticide resistance is similar to other beetles. Finally, duplications in the RNAi pathway might explain why Leptinotarsa decemlineata has high sensitivity to dsRNA. The L. decemlineata genome provides opportunities to investigate a broad range of phenotypes and to develop sustainable methods to control this widely successful pest.

  17. DNA barcoding of bark and ambrosia beetles reveals excessive NUMTs and consistent east-west divergence across Palearctic forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordal, Bjarte H; Kambestad, Marius

    2014-01-01

    A comprehensive DNA barcoding library is very useful for rapid identification and detection of invasive pest species. We tested the performance of species identification in the economically most damaging group of wood-boring insects - the bark and ambrosia beetles - with particular focus on broad geographical sampling across the boreal Palearctic forests. Neighbour-joining and Bayesian analyses of cytochrome oxidase I (COI) sequences from 151 species in 40 genera revealed high congruence between morphology-based identification and sequence clusters. Inconsistencies with morphological identifications included the discovery of a likely cryptic Nearctic species of Dryocoetes autographus, the possible hybrid origin of shared mitochondrial haplotypes in Pityophthorus micrographus and P. pityographus, and a possible paraphyletic Xyleborinus saxeseni. The first record of Orthotomicus suturalis in North America was confirmed by DNA barcoding. The mitochondrial data also revealed consistent divergence across the Palearctic or Holarctic, confirmed in part by data from the large ribosomal subunit (28S). Some populations had considerable variation in the mitochondrial barcoding marker, but were invariant in the nuclear ribosomal marker. These findings must be viewed in light of the high number of nuclear insertions of mitochondrial DNA (NUMTs) detected in eight bark beetle species, suggesting the possible presence of additional cryptic NUMTs. The occurrence of paralogous COI copies, hybridization or cryptic speciation demands a stronger focus on data quality assessment in the construction of DNA barcoding databases. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. The Communicative Competence Required of Japanese Language Teachers

    OpenAIRE

    黒崎, 佐仁子

    2012-01-01

    This study examines the communicative competence required of Japanese teachers. The aim of Japanese language education isto help learnersacquire communication-oriented Japanese. In other words, Japanese language learners are expected to acquire communicative competence in Japanese. However, the Agency for Cultural Affairs sets “Communication” as the center of training-course curriculums for Japanese language teachers. This paper examines descriptions in booksfor Japanese teacher traineesregar...

  19. Spatio-Temporal Distribution of Bark and Ambrosia Beetles in a Brazilian Tropical Dry Forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macedo-Reis, Luiz Eduardo; Novais, Samuel Matos Antunes de; Monteiro, Graziela França; Flechtmann, Carlos Alberto Hector; Faria, Maurício Lopes de; Neves, Frederico de Siqueira

    2016-01-01

    Bark and the ambrosia beetles dig into host plants and live most of their lives in concealed tunnels. We assessed beetle community dynamics in tropical dry forest sites in early, intermediate, and late successional stages, evaluating the influence of resource availability and seasonal variations in guild structure. We collected a total of 763 beetles from 23 species, including 14 bark beetle species, and 9 ambrosia beetle species. Local richness of bark and ambrosia beetles was estimated at 31 species. Bark and ambrosia composition was similar over the successional stages gradient, and beta diversity among sites was primarily determined by species turnover, mainly in the bark beetle community. Bark beetle richness and abundance were higher at intermediate stages; availability of wood was the main spatial mechanism. Climate factors were effectively non-seasonal. Ambrosia beetles were not influenced by successional stages, however the increase in wood resulted in increased abundance. We found higher richness at the end of the dry and wet seasons, and abundance increased with air moisture and decreased with higher temperatures and greater rainfall. In summary, bark beetle species accumulation was higher at sites with better wood production, while the needs of fungi (host and air moisture), resulted in a favorable conditions for species accumulation of ambrosia. The overall biological pattern among guilds differed from tropical rain forests, showing patterns similar to dry forest areas. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Entomological Society of America.

  20. Damage by yam beetle heteroligus meles ( Coleoptera:Dynastidae ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Damage by yam beetle heteroligus meles (Coleoptera:Dynastidae) under different population in yam cropping system. FO Tobih, SO Emosairue. Abstract. No Abstract. Global Journal of Pure and Applied Physics Vol. 14 (1) 2008 pp. 5-8. Full Text: EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL ...

  1. Genetic Gain for Adzuki Bean Beetle ( Callosobruchus chinensis L ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Number of uninfested seeds (%) and percent seed coat weight showed strong negative correlations with seed weight loss. Selection of genotypes could improve resistance to the beetle in this gene pool, but with a compromise for seed quality. A search for more suitable sources of variability and selection criteria would be ...

  2. The Pied Piper: A Parasitic Beetle's Melodies Modulate Ant Behaviours.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Di Giulio

    Full Text Available Ants use various communication channels to regulate their social organisation. The main channel that drives almost all the ants' activities and behaviours is the chemical one, but it is long acknowledged that the acoustic channel also plays an important role. However, very little is known regarding exploitation of the acoustical channel by myrmecophile parasites to infiltrate the ant society. Among social parasites, the ant nest beetles (Paussus are obligate myrmecophiles able to move throughout the colony at will and prey on the ants, surprisingly never eliciting aggression from the colonies. It has been recently postulated that stridulatory organs in Paussus might be evolved as an acoustic mechanism to interact with ants. Here, we survey the role of acoustic signals employed in the Paussus beetle-Pheidole ant system. Ants parasitised by Paussus beetles produce caste-specific stridulations. We found that Paussus can "speak" three different "languages", each similar to sounds produced by different ant castes (workers, soldiers, queen. Playback experiments were used to test how host ants respond to the sounds emitted by Paussus. Our data suggest that, by mimicking the stridulations of the queen, Paussus is able to dupe the workers of its host and to be treated as royalty. This is the first report of acoustic mimicry in a beetle parasite of ants.

  3. Elytra boost lift, but reduce aerodynamic efficiency in flying beetles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johansson, L Christoffer; Engel, Sophia; Baird, Emily; Dacke, Marie; Muijres, Florian T; Hedenström, Anders

    2012-10-07

    Flying insects typically possess two pairs of wings. In beetles, the front pair has evolved into short, hardened structures, the elytra, which protect the second pair of wings and the abdomen. This allows beetles to exploit habitats that would otherwise cause damage to the wings and body. Many beetles fly with the elytra extended, suggesting that they influence aerodynamic performance, but little is known about their role in flight. Using quantitative measurements of the beetle's wake, we show that the presence of the elytra increases vertical force production by approximately 40 per cent, indicating that they contribute to weight support. The wing-elytra combination creates a complex wake compared with previously studied animal wakes. At mid-downstroke, multiple vortices are visible behind each wing. These include a wingtip and an elytron vortex with the same sense of rotation, a body vortex and an additional vortex of the opposite sense of rotation. This latter vortex reflects a negative interaction between the wing and the elytron, resulting in a single wing span efficiency of approximately 0.77 at mid downstroke. This is lower than that found in birds and bats, suggesting that the extra weight support of the elytra comes at the price of reduced efficiency.

  4. Are bark beetle outbreaks less synchronous than forest Lepidoptera outbreaks?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bjorn Okland; Andrew M. Liebhold; Ottar N. Bjornstad; Nadir Erbilgin; Paal Krokene; Paal Krokene

    2005-01-01

    Comparisons of intraspecific spatial synchrony across multiple epidemic insect species can be useful for generating hypotheses about major determinants of population patterns at larger scales. The present study compares patterns of spatial synchrony in outbreaks of six epidemic bark beetle species in North America and Europe. Spatial synchrony among populations of the...

  5. Management strategies for bark beetles in conifer forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christopher Fettig; Jacek  Hilszczański

    2015-01-01

    Several species of bark beetles (Coleoptera: Curculionidae, Scolytinae) are capable of causing significant amounts of tree mortality in conifer forests throughout much of the world.  In most cases, these events are part of the ecology of conifer forests and positively influence many ecological processes, but the economic and social implications can be...

  6. Diapause and overwintering of two spruce bark beetle species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, E. Matthew; Schopf, Axel; Ragland, Gregory J.; Stauffer, Christian; Bentz, Barbara J.

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Diapause, a strategy to endure unfavourable conditions (e.g. cold winters) is commonly found in ectothermic organisms and is characterized by an arrest of development and reproduction, a reduction of metabolic rate, and an increased resistance to adversity. Diapause, in addition to adaptations for surviving low winter temperatures, significantly influences phenology, voltinism and ultimately population growth. We review the literature on diapause and overwintering behaviour of two bark beetle species that affect spruce‐dominated forests in the northern hemisphere, and describe and compare how these strategies can influence population dynamics. The European spruce bark beetle Ips typographus (L.) (Coleoptera, Curculionidae) is the most important forest pest of Norway spruce in Europe. It enters an adult reproductive diapause that might be either facultative or obligate. Obligate diapausing beetles are considered strictly univoltine, entering this dormancy type regardless of environmental cues. Facultative diapausing individuals enter diapause induced by photoperiod, modified by temperature, thus being potentially multivoltine. The spruce beetle Dendroctonus rufipennis (Kirby) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) infests all spruce species in its natural range in North America. A facultative prepupal diapause is averted by relatively warm temperatures, resulting in a univoltine life cycle, whereas cool temperatures induce prepupal diapause leading to a semivoltine cycle. An adult obligate diapause in D. rufipennis could limit bi‐ or multivoltinism. We discuss and compare the influence of diapause and overwinter survival on voltinism and population dynamics of these two species in a changing climate and provide an outlook on future research. PMID:28979060

  7. Evaluation of resistance of the groundnut seed beetle, Caryedon ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objectives: This study aimed to determine the level of resistance of different strains of the groundnut seed beetle, Caryedon serratus against some synthetic insecticides formulas and to compare their biodemographic parameters. Methodology and results: The insecticides tests were done in three localities of Senegal (Mpal, ...

  8. Absence of endothermy in flightless dung beetles from southern Africa

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1987-06-19

    Jun 19, 1987 ... Bartholomew & Heinrich (1978) found that when the diurnal species were rolling dung balls their Tmth was increased by endothermic means and then further elevated by solar radiation. However, these beetles still. Table 1 Metathoracic temperatures of Circe/lium bacchus during various activities. Activity.

  9. Impact of Stand Management Practices on Beetle Diversity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephen P. Cook

    2004-01-01

    Abstract - Insects are useful indicators of change within ecosystems because of their abundance, richness and functional importance. Stand management practices impact the insect community within a forest. Therefore, the objective of the project is to determine the impact of various stand management practices on the diversity of beetles within...

  10. Bark beetle management after a mass attack - some Swiss experiences

    Science.gov (United States)

    B. Forster; F. Meier; R. Gall

    2003-01-01

    In 1990 and 1999, heavy storms accompanied by the worst gales ever recorded in Switzerland, struck Europe and left millions of cubic metres of windthrown Norway spruce trees; this provided breeding material for the eight-toothed spruce bark beetle (Ips typographus L.) and led to mass attacks in subsequent years which resulted in the additional loss...

  11. Historic forests and endemic mountain pine beetle and dwarf mistletoe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jose Negron

    2012-01-01

    Mountain pine beetle has always been a significant disturbance agent in ponderosa and lodgepole pine forests in Colorado. Most studies have examined the impacts to forest structure associated with epidemic populations of a single disturbance agent. In this paper we address the role of endemic populations of mountain pine and their interactions with dwarf mistletoe...

  12. Population Dynamics of Southern Pine Beetle in Forest Landscapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrew Birt

    2011-01-01

    Southern pine beetle (SPB) is an important pest of Southeastern United States pine forests. Periodic regional outbreaks are characterized by localized areas of tree mortality (infestations) surrounded by areas with little or no damage. Ultimately, this spatiotemporal pattern of tree mortality is driven by the dynamics of SPB populations—more specifically, by rates of...

  13. Use of infochemicals to attract carrion beetles into pitfall traps

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Podskalská, H.; Růžička, J.; Hoskovec, Michal; Šálek, M.

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 132, č. 1 (2009), s. 59-64 ISSN 0013-8703 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40550506 Keywords : burying beetles * dimethylsulfide * dimethyldisulfide * dimethyltrisulfide Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry Impact factor: 1.568, year: 2009

  14. Current status of small hive beetle infestation in the Philippines

    Science.gov (United States)

    The distribution of the small hive beetle (SHB, Aethina tumida) is rapidly expanding. From sub-Saharan Africa where it is considered indigenous, SHB has successfully invaded other continents, is prevalent in Australia and North America, and has recently been introduced into Europe (summarized by FE...

  15. Transgenic resistance of eggplants to the Colorado potato beetle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arpaia, S.

    1999-01-01

    The subject of this thesis is the use of transgenic plant resistance as a method to control the Colorado potato beetle, Leptinotarsa decemlineata Say in eggplant. The gene conferring resistance is coding for a Cry3B toxin and it is a synthetic version of a wild-type

  16. Ambrosia beetles associated with laurel wilt of avocado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redbay ambrosia beetle, Xyleborus glabratus, is an exotic wood-boring pest first detected in 2002 near Savannah, Georgia. The beetle’s dominant fungal symbiont, Raffaelea lauricola, is the pathogen that causes laurel wilt, a lethal disease of trees in the family Lauraceae. Laurel wilt has since spr...

  17. Molecular genetic pathway analysis of Asian longhorned beetle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evan. Braswell

    2011-01-01

    The Asian longhorned beetle, Anoplophora glabripennis, is a destructive pest of hardwood trees. Historically, A. glabripennis was geographically restricted within China and Korea and not of economic importance. However, as a result of massive reforestation programs designed to combat desertification, the species emerged as a pest...

  18. Quantification of motility of carabid beetles in farmland

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Allema, A.B.; Werf, van der W.; Groot, J.C.J.; Hemerik, L.; Gort, G.; Rossing, W.A.H.; Lenteren, van J.C.

    2015-01-01

    Quantification of the movement of insects at field and landscape levels helps us to understand their ecology and ecological functions. We conducted a meta-analysis on movement of carabid beetles (Coleoptera: Carabidae), to identify key factors affecting movement and population redistribution. We

  19. East African dung beetles (Scarabaeidae) attracted by defensive ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dung beetles of six species of the genus Onthophagus (Scarabaeidae) were attracted by millipede carcasses in Laikipia, Central Kenya. One of these species (Onthophagus gibbus) was lured by the quinonoid defensive secretions of the millipedes. The attractive effect of quinonoid millipede secretions to necrophagous ...

  20. Social and Political Impact of the Southern Pine Beetle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert N. Coulson; James R. Meeker

    2011-01-01

    Impact is defined broadly to mean any effect on the forest environment resulting from the activities of the southern pine beetle (SPB). In this chapter we focus on social and political impact. Social impact deals with effects of the SPB on aesthetic, moral, and metaphysical values associated with forests. Two aspects of social impact are investigated: how the SPB...

  1. Using Malaise traps to sample ground beetles (Coleoptera: Carabidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael D. Ulyshen; James L. Hanula; Scott Horn

    2005-01-01

    Pitfall traps provide an easy and inexpensive way to sample ground-dwelling arthropods (Spence and Niemela 1994; Spence et al. 1997; Abildsnes and Tommeras 2000) and have been used exclusively in many studies of the abundance and diversity of ground beetles (Coleoptera: Carabidae). Despite the popularity of this trapping technique, pitfall traps have many disadvantages...

  2. Checklist of the Iranian Ground Beetles (Coleoptera; Carabidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azadbakhsh, Saeed; Nozari, Jamasb

    2015-09-30

    An up-to-date checklist of the ground beetles of Iran is presented. Altogether 955 species and subspecies in 155 genera belonging to 26 subfamilies of Carabidae are reported; 25 taxa are recorded for Iran for the fist time. New localities are listed and some previous distributional records are discussed.

  3. "Sea Turtles" and "Ground Beetles" [Land Turtles] Should Shake Hands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kan, Da

    2004-01-01

    This article talks about those who come back to China after studies abroad, characterized as "sea turtles" and those scholars who have remained in China to arduously pursue their studies, characterized as "ground beetles". " Sea turtles" are those foreign MBAs and Ph.D.s who are objects of praise, admiration and are…

  4. Aspects of host-plant relationship of the Colorado beetle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bongers, W.

    1970-01-01

    Host plant choice, suitability of and conditioning to the host in Leptinotarsa decemlineata SAY were studied under controlled conditions.

    The literature on historical and geographical distribution of the Colorado beetle has been reviewed and an extensive survey is given of the

  5. The Pied Piper: A Parasitic Beetle's Melodies Modulate Ant Behaviours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Giulio, Andrea; Maurizi, Emanuela; Barbero, Francesca; Sala, Marco; Fattorini, Simone; Balletto, Emilio; Bonelli, Simona

    2015-01-01

    Ants use various communication channels to regulate their social organisation. The main channel that drives almost all the ants' activities and behaviours is the chemical one, but it is long acknowledged that the acoustic channel also plays an important role. However, very little is known regarding exploitation of the acoustical channel by myrmecophile parasites to infiltrate the ant society. Among social parasites, the ant nest beetles (Paussus) are obligate myrmecophiles able to move throughout the colony at will and prey on the ants, surprisingly never eliciting aggression from the colonies. It has been recently postulated that stridulatory organs in Paussus might be evolved as an acoustic mechanism to interact with ants. Here, we survey the role of acoustic signals employed in the Paussus beetle-Pheidole ant system. Ants parasitised by Paussus beetles produce caste-specific stridulations. We found that Paussus can "speak" three different "languages", each similar to sounds produced by different ant castes (workers, soldiers, queen). Playback experiments were used to test how host ants respond to the sounds emitted by Paussus. Our data suggest that, by mimicking the stridulations of the queen, Paussus is able to dupe the workers of its host and to be treated as royalty. This is the first report of acoustic mimicry in a beetle parasite of ants.

  6. Evaluation of resistance of the groundnut seed beetle, Caryedon ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SARAH

    2016-05-31

    May 31, 2016 ... beetle, Caryedon serratus against some synthetic insecticides formulas and to compare their biodemographic parameters. Methodology ... half of the arable surfaces, and reported each year for a value of 80 billion CFA ... dosage brought back to 1L of water allowed to determine the concentration Cx from ...

  7. Applied chemical ecology of the mountain pine beetle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert A. Progar; Nancy Gillette; Christopher J. Fettig; Kathryn Hrinkevich

    2014-01-01

    Mountain pine beetle, Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins, is a primary agent of forest disturbance in western North America. Episodic outbreaks occur at the convergence of favorable forest age and size class structure and climate patterns. Recent outbreaks have exceeded the historic range of variability of D. ponderosae-caused tree mortality affecting ecosystem goods and...

  8. Patterns of saproxylic beetle succession in loblolly pine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael Ulyshen; James Hanula

    2010-01-01

    Patterns of insect succession in dead wood remain unclear, particularly beyond the first several years of decay. In the present study, saproxylic beetles were sampled from loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) logs aged between 1 month and 9 years old using both emergence traps attached to logs in the field and rearing bags in the laboratory.

  9. A deficiency of the homeotic complex of the beetle Tribolium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stuart, J. J.; Brown, S. J.; Beeman, R. W.; Denell, R. E.; Spooner, B. S. (Principal Investigator)

    1991-01-01

    In Drosophila, the establishment of regional commitments along most of the anterior/posterior axis of the developing embryo depends on two clusters of homeotic genes: the Antennapedia complex (ANT-C) and the bithorax complex (BX-C). The red flour beetle has a single complex (HOM-C) representing the homologues of the ANT-C and BX-C in juxtaposition. Beetles trans-heterozygous for two particular HOM-C mutations spontaneously generate a large deficiency, presumably by an exchange within the common region of two overlapping inversions. Genetic and molecular results indicate that this deficiency spans at least the interval between the Deformed and abdominal-A homologues. In deficiency homozygous embryos, all gnathal, thoracic and abdominal segments develop antennal appendages, suggesting that a gene(s) has been deleted that acts to distinguish trunk from head. There is no evidence that beetles have a homologue of the segmentation gene fushi tarazu of similar genomic location and function. On the basis of the genetic tractability, convenient genome size and organization of Tribolium, and its relatively long phylogenetic divergence from Drosophila (>300 million years), we have integrated developmental genetic and molecular analyses of the HOM-C. We isolated about 70 mutations in the complex representing at least six complementation groups. The homeotic phenotypes of adults and lethal embryos lead us to believe that these beetle genes are homologous with the Drosophila genes indicated in Fig. 1 (see text).

  10. Monitoring of Small Hive Beetle (Aethina Tumida Murray in Calabria (Italy from 2014 to 2016: Practical Identification Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rivera-Gomis Jorge

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The Small Hive Beetle (SHB, Aethina tumida, is an invasive pest of honey bee colonies that causes significant damage to the beekeeping sector. SHB was detected in southern Italy (EU in 2014 and despite adopted eradication measures, is still present there. After three years of observations of SHB in Calabria (2014-2016, we provide here some practical tips for improving control measures. A new time-saving colony examination method, including the use of an internal divider reduced the time needed for hive inspections by 31.86 % on average. Prioritizating the inspection of pollen and honey combs rather than brood combs is advised. Sentinel apiaries with no more than five colonies without supers are suggested for each beekeeping location in order to attract and to monitor the early appearance of SHB. The use of these methods will enable early detection and prompt control measures application before this destructive pest can spread in the region.

  11. Ecology of forest insect invasions

    Science.gov (United States)

    E.G. Brockerhoff; A.M. Liebhold

    2017-01-01

    Forests in virtually all regions of the world are being affected by invasions of non-native insects. We conducted an in-depth review of the traits of successful invasive forest insects and the ecological processes involved in insect invasions across the universal invasion phases (transport and arrival, establishment, spread and impacts). Most forest insect invasions...

  12. Cryptic invasions: a review

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Morais, Pedro Miguel; Reichard, Martin

    613-614, February (2018), s. 1438-1448 ISSN 0048-9697 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-05872S Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : Conspecific invader * Biological invasions * Bibliometric * Invasiveness Subject RIV: EG - Zoology OBOR OECD: Environmental science s (social aspects to be 5.7) Impact factor: 4.900, year: 2016

  13. Variegated tropical landscapes conserve diverse dung beetle communities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiane Costa

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Background Conserving biodiversity in tropical landscapes is a major challenge to scientists and conservationists. Current rates of deforestation, fragmentation, and land use intensification are producing variegated landscapes with undetermined values for the conservation of biological communities and ecosystem functioning. Here, we investigate the importance of tropical variegated landscapes to biodiversity conservation, using dung beetle as focal taxa. Methods The study was carried out in 12 variegated landscapes where dung beetles were sampled using six pitfall traps, 30 m apart from each other, along a transect in each studied landscape use and cover classes—LUCC (forest fragment and corridor, coffee plantation, and pasture. We baited each pitfall trap with 30 g of human feces and left open for a 48 h period. We also measured three environmental variables reflecting structural differences among the studied classes: canopy cover, local vegetation heterogeneity and soil sand content. Results We collected 52 species and 2,695 individuals of dung beetles. We observed significant differences in the mean species richness, abundance and biomass among classes, with forest fragments presenting the highest values, forest corridors and coffee plantations presenting intermediate values, and pastures the lowest values. Regarding community structure, we also found significant differences among classes. Canopy cover was the only variable explaining variation in dung beetle species richness, abundance, biomass, and community structure. The relative importance of spatial turnover was greater than nestedness-resultant component in all studied landscapes. Discussion This study evaluated the ecological patterns of dung beetle communities in variegated tropical landscapes highlighting the importance of these landscapes for conservation of tropical biodiversity. However, we encourage variegation for the management of landscapes that have already been fragmented

  14. Proceedings of a workshop on bark beetle genetics: current status of research. Workshop on Bark Beetle Genetics; 1998 July 17-18; Madison, WI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jane L. Hayes; Kenneth F. Raffa

    1999-01-01

    This proceedings contains contributions from each author or group of authors who presented their current research at the bark beetle genetics workshop held 17-18 July 1998 on the campus of the University of Wisconsin in Madison, Wisconsin, USA. This was the second meeting on this subject; the first was held in 1992. The subject of bark beetle genetics is of growing,...

  15. A Multiplex PCR Assay for Differentiating Coconut Rhinoceros Beetle (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae) From Oriental Flower Beetle (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae) in Early Life Stages and Excrement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, S; Melzer, M J

    2017-04-01

    The coconut rhinoceros beetle, Oryctes rhinoceros (L.), is a major pest of coconut and other palm trees. An incipient coconut rhinoceros beetle population was recently discovered on the island of Oahu, Hawaii and is currently the target of a large, mutiagency eradication program. Confounding this program is the widespread presence of another scarab beetle on Oahu, the oriental flower beetle, Protaetia orientalis (Gory and Percheron 1833). Eggs, early life stages, and fecal excrement of coconut rhinoceros beetle and oriental flower beetle are morphologically indistinguishable, thereby creating uncertainty when such specimens are discovered in the field. Here, we report the development of a multiplex PCR assay targeting cytochrome oxidase I of coconut rhinoceros beetle and oriental flower beetle that can rapidly detect and distinguish between these insects. This assay also features an internal positive control to ensure DNA of sufficient quantity and quality is used in the assay, increasing its reliability and reducing the chances of false negative results. © The Authors 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  16. Photochemical oxidant injury and bark beetle coleoptera scolytidae infestation of ponderosa pine. IV. Theory on the relationships between oxidant injury and bark beetle infestation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cobb, F.W. Jr.; Wood, D.L.; Stark, R.W.; Parmeter, J.R. Jr.

    1968-05-01

    The authors suggest that a reduction of oleoresin exudation pressure, quantity, rate of flow, and an increase in the propensity of oleoresin to crystallize, and a reduction in phloem and sapwood moisture content enhance successful establishment of the western pine beetle and mountain pine beetle in ponderosa pine injured by photochemical atmospheric pollution. Hypotheses are presented which relate these results to host susceptibility.

  17. Medical ethics the Japanese way.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feldman, E

    1985-10-01

    Feldman describes the discipline of medical ethics as relatively undeveloped in Japan, where cultural values of consensus and deference to authority result in few challenges to physician decision making. He discusses Japanese attitudes toward a variety of specific bioethical issues, including artificial insemination by donor, in vitro fertilization followed by embryo transfer, care of handicapped newborns, brain death, organ transplantation, and truthtelling to terminally ill patients.

  18. Stakeholder involvement - a japanese perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kobayashi, S.

    2004-01-01

    Traditional societal and cultural background of Japanese in general indicates the intrinsic difficulty in involving the public as stakeholders in the process of any type of decision making in policy matters. It is characterized by the long-taught virtue of harmonization and obedience to others. In addition, characteristic system of Japanese traditional industrial society, such as lifetime employment, seniority-based wage system, and enterprise-based labour union, encourages the loyalty to the employer/company, but not to the public. The public or ordinary citizens would seldom come out as stakeholders and express their true feelings or real opinions, even though younger generation is notably getting out from such a trend. On the other hand, it is a common practice in Japanese society for any business or administrative transactions to try to obtain 'consensus' among relevant parties concerned (stakeholders) by negotiations behind the curtain prior to the formal discussion. In this sense, 'stakeholders involvement' is accepted and practised as a matter of course, but mostly for actions between parties of equivalently influential status levels or between 'directly relevant' parties such as those between the different government agencies, between regulators and industries. The concept of 'Involving the public in decision making as stakeholders' is not yet fully understood nor accepted in Japan both by regulators and by the public so far as the issue of radiation protection is concerned. These situations are explained with some examples. (author)

  19. The Evolution of a Japanese Theory of Conflict Management and Implications for Japanese Foreign Policy

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ercolano, Michael

    2001-01-01

    This thesis explores whether there is a uniquely Japanese method of conflict management Given the delicate balance of stability in Northeast Asia, Japanese leadership needs to use conflict management...

  20. Use of acoustics to deter bark beetles from entering tree material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aflitto, Nicholas C; Hofstetter, Richard W

    2014-12-01

    Acoustic technology is a potential tool to protect wood materials and eventually live trees from colonization by bark beetles. Bark beetles such as the southern pine beetle Dendroctonus frontalis, western pine beetle D. brevicomis and pine engraver Ips pini (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) use chemical and acoustic cues to communicate and to locate potential mates and host trees. In this study, the efficacy of sound treatments on D. frontalis, D. brevicomis and I. pini entry into tree materials was tested. Acoustic treatments significantly influenced whether beetles entered pine logs in the laboratory. Playback of artificial sounds reduced D. brevicomis entry into logs, and playback of stress call sounds reduced D. frontalis entry into logs. Sound treatments had no effect on I. pini entry into logs. The reduction in bark beetle entry into logs using particular acoustic treatments indicates that sound could be used as a viable management tool. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.

  1. Outbreaks of three leaf beetles species in Salix plantations; Insektsskadegoerelse i Salixodlingar - bladbaggar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoeglund, Solveig; Eklund, Karin; Bjoerkman, Christer [Swedish Univ. of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala (Sweden). Dept. of Entomology

    1999-07-01

    Several species of leaf beetles (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) have caused economic damage in coppiced willow plantations in Britain. In Sweden we have observed outbreaks of three species; Phratora vulgatissima, Galerucella lineola and Lochmaea caprea. One feature of leaf beetles is that both adults and larvae feed on plants. The adults make holes in willow leaves when feeding whereas larvae skeletonize the leaves by eating on the leaf underside. Willows attacked by high densities of P. vulgatissima may show a yield loss of up to 40%. Leaf beetles have a large reproduction capacity. Each female can lay 10-20 eggs per day for several weeks. Without natural control the beetles would be very common in plantations. The egg and the first larval stages seem to be the most vulnerable to predation. With more knowledge about the biology of leaf beetle enemies it will perhaps be possible to use natural biological control programs as a method for managing these beetles.

  2. Heavy metal concentrations in ground beetles, leaf litter, and soil of a forest ecosystem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jelaska, Lucija Serić; Blanusa, Maja; Durbesić, Paula; Jelaska, Sven D

    2007-01-01

    The objective of this study was to quantify the relationships between heavy metal concentrations in soil, leaf litter, and ground beetles at four sampling sites of a forest ecosystem in Medvednica Nature Park, Croatia. Ground beetles were sampled by pitfall trapping. Specimens were dry-ashed and soil and beetle samples digested with nitric acid. Lead, cadmium, copper, zinc, manganese, and iron were analyzed using atomic absorption spectrometry. Statistically significant differences between plots were found for lead, cadmium, and iron in ground beetles. Correlations between ground beetles and soil or leaf litter were positive for lead and cadmium concentrations and negative for iron concentration. Differences in species metal concentrations were recorded. Higher concentrations of all studied metals were found in female beetles. However, a significant difference between sexes was found only for manganese. Significant differences in species metal concentrations were found for species that differ in feeding strategies and age based on breeding season and emergence of young adults.

  3. Japanese women in the contemporary society

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dinca Violeta Mihaela

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to examine Japanese society and present contemporary issues with emphasis on the changes in the role, status and preferences of Japanese women within the Japanese society, through the years. The first part of the paper makes an overview on the evolution of the role of women in Japanese society during Shogunate until now, focusing mainly on increasing Japanese women's status within the enterprise. In the second part of the paper, the author exposes the results of several studies on the effects on the marketing of luxury for Japanese women, highlighting the correlation between increased interest to be as competitive in the workplace and enhancing concern for luxury brands.

  4. Temporal Architecture: Poetic Dwelling in Japanese buildings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Lazarin

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Heidegger’s thinking about poetic dwelling and Derrida’s impressions of Freudian estrangement are employed to provide a constitutional analysis of the experience of Japanese architecture, in particular, the Japanese vestibule (genkan. This analysis is supplemented by writings by Japanese architects and poets. The principal elements of Japanese architecture are: (1 ma, and (2 en. Ma is usually translated as ‘interval’ because, like the English word, it applies to both space and time.  However, in Japanese thinking, it is not so much an either/or, but rather a both/and. In other words, Japanese architecture emphasises the temporal aspect of dwelling in a way that Western architectural thinking usually does not. En means ‘joint, edge, the in-between’ as an ambiguous, often asymmetrical spanning of interior and exterior, rather than a demarcation of these regions. Both elements are aimed at producing an experience of temporality and transiency.

  5. Invasive plant species: Inventory, mapping, and monitoring - A national strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ludke, J. Larry; D'Erchia, Frank; Coffelt, Jan; Hanson, Leanne

    2002-01-01

    America is under siege by invasive species of plants and animals, and by diseases. The current environmental, economic, and health-related costs of invasive species could exceed $138 billion per year-more than all other natural disasters combined. Notorious examples include West Nile virus, Dutch elm disease, chestnut blight, and purple loose- strife in the Northeast; kudzu, Brazilian peppertree, water hyacinth, nutria, and fire ants in the Southeast; zebra mussels, leafy spurge, and Asian long-horn beetles in the Midwest; salt cedar, Russian olive, and Africanized bees in the Southwest; yellow star thistle, European wild oats, oak wilt disease, Asian clams, and white pine blister rust in California; cheatgrass, various knapweeds, and thistles in the Great Basin; whirling disease of salmonids in the Northwest; hundreds of invasive species from microbes to mammals in Hawaii; and the brown tree snake in Guam. Thousands of species from other countries are introduced intentionally or accidentally into the United States each year. Based on past experience, 10-15 percent can be expected to establish free-living populations and about 1 percent can be expected to cause significant impacts to ecosystems, native species, economic productivity, and (or) human health.

  6. A Faltering Japanese Economy Frustrates Global Recovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-01-09

    personal bankruptcies bode ill for Japanese consumer spending , which represents nearly 60 percent of Japanese GNP. 24 Tokyo department store sales fell...2.4 percent in December 1991 from a year earlier, the largest fall since 1965. Overall, consumer spending continues to drop, with some of Japan’s...hit hard. The drop in consumer spending is predictably taking its toll on the corporate bottom line. Japanese corporations are seeing profits plummet

  7. Detection of ambrosia beetles using a pan-sharpened image generated from ALOS/AVNIR-2 and ALOS/PRISM imagery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rei Sonobe

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Aim of study: The ambrosia beetle, Platypus quercivorus, is a vector of Japanese oak wilt, which causes massive mortality of oak trees in Japan. ALOS/AVNIR-2 true color images can be used to help detect areas of oak wilt, although such detection by inventory surveys is not realistic. Applying pan-sharpening techniques, a higher spatial resolution multispectral image can be generated from lower-resolution multispectral images and higher-resolution panchromatic images. In this study, some pan-sharpening algorithms were considered and evaluated for the detection of damage points.Area of study: The oak forests in Kanazawa prefecture, Japan.Materials and methods: The ALOS/AVNIR-2 and ALOS/PRISM sensors were used. The pan-sharpening algorithms adopted were: Brovey transformation, Modified IHS transformation, Wavelet transformation, Ehlers fusion and High Pass Filter Resolution Merge. Four types of quantitative spectral analyses and visual detection were conducted to evaluate these algorithms.Main results: The Brovey transformation was the most useful algorithm to detect damage points, although it had an issue with the preservation of spectral characteristics.Research highlights: The detection rate of damage points was improved in 50% by applying the Brovey algorithm to a 10 m panchromatic image and 62.5 m multispectral image.Key words: ambrosia beetle; oak wilt; pan-sharpening; satellite imagery; visual detection.

  8. Bark Beetle Outbreaks Increase Fire Probability in Western United States Forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bisrat, S. A.; White, M. A.

    2006-12-01

    Many of the direct influences of disturbances such as fire or insects on ecosystem function are well known. In contrast, the interactions among disturbances are less well understood. In the forests of the western United States, the interaction between bark beetle outbreaks and subsequent fires is a pressing management concern for a diverse political, economic, and ecological community but the disturbance interaction is generally unknown. For example, although conventional wisdom holds that bark beetle outbreaks will increase fire risk, limited field studies suggest the opposite may be true. To our knowledge, no study has attempted to study bark beetle - fire interactions over the entire western United States. Here, using five years (2000-2004) of manually collected aerial detection survey (ADS) polygons depicting the extent of bark beetle outbreaks and five years (2001-2005) of Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) 1km fire images (MOD14), we calculated the influence of bark beetle outbreaks on one-year-lagged subsequent fire occurrence across the entire western United States. We converted the ADS polygons to raster format and co-registered all imagery to the Albers Equal Area projection. We then calculated the conditional probability of fire given bark beetle presence P(fire|bark beetles presence) and the conditional probability of fire given bark beetle absence P(fire|bark beetle absence). The presence of bark beetles increased the probability of one-year-lagged subsequent fire occurrence by 17% to 115% with an average value of 65%, strongly suggesting that bark beetle outbreaks in one year will increase the risk of fire in the next year. Key words: bark beetles, fire, disturbance interaction, conditional probability

  9. Induced Terpene Accumulation in Norway Spruce Inhibits Bark Beetle Colonization in a Dose-Dependent Manner

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Tao; Krokene, Paal; Hu, Jiang; Christiansen, Erik; Björklund, Niklas; Långström, Bo; Solheim, Halvor; Borg-Karlson, Anna-Karin

    2011-01-01

    Background Tree-killing bark beetles (Coleoptera, Scolytinae) are among the most economically and ecologically important forest pests in the northern hemisphere. Induction of terpenoid-based oleoresin has long been considered important in conifer defense against bark beetles, but it has been difficult to demonstrate a direct correlation between terpene levels and resistance to bark beetle colonization. Methods To test for inhibitory effects of induced terpenes on colonization by the spruce bark beetle Ips typographus (L.) we inoculated 20 mature Norway spruce Picea abies (L.) Karsten trees with a virulent fungus associated with the beetle, Ceratocystis polonica (Siem.) C. Moreau, and investigated induced terpene levels and beetle colonization in the bark. Results Fungal inoculation induced very strong and highly variable terpene accumulation 35 days after inoculation. Trees with high induced terpene levels (n = 7) had only 4.9% as many beetle attacks (5.1 vs. 103.5 attacks m−2) and 2.6% as much gallery length (0.029 m m−2 vs. 1.11 m m−2) as trees with low terpene levels (n = 6). There was a highly significant rank correlation between terpene levels at day 35 and beetle colonization in individual trees. The relationship between induced terpene levels and beetle colonization was not linear but thresholded: above a low threshold concentration of ∼100 mg terpene g−1 dry phloem trees suffered only moderate beetle colonization, and above a high threshold of ∼200 mg terpene g−1 dry phloem trees were virtually unattacked. Conclusion/Significance This is the first study demonstrating a dose-dependent relationship between induced terpenes and tree resistance to bark beetle colonization under field conditions, indicating that terpene induction may be instrumental in tree resistance. This knowledge could be useful for developing management strategies that decrease the impact of tree-killing bark beetles. PMID:22028932

  10. Mountain Pine Beetle Fecundity and Offspring Size Differ Among Lodgepole Pine and Whitebark Pine Hosts

    OpenAIRE

    Gross, Donovan

    2008-01-01

    Whitebark pine (Pinus albicaulis Engelmann) is a treeline species in the central Rocky Mountains. Its occupation of high elevations previously protected whitebark pine from long-term mountain pine beetle outbreaks. The mountain pine beetle, however, is currently reaching outbreaks of record magnitude in high-elevation whitebark pine. We used a factorial laboratory experiment to compare mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins) life history characteristics between a typical host, ...

  11. Greenhouse gas emissions from dung pats vary with dung beetle species and with assemblage composition.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irene Piccini

    Full Text Available Cattle farming is a major source of greenhouse gases (GHGs. Recent research suggests that GHG fluxes from dung pats could be affected by biotic interactions involving dung beetles. Whether and how these effects vary among beetle species and with assemblage composition is yet to be established. To examine the link between GHGs and different dung beetle species assemblages, we used a closed chamber system to measure fluxes of carbon dioxide (CO2, methane (CH4 and nitrous oxide (N2O from cattle dung pats. Targeting a total of four dung beetle species (a pat-dwelling species, a roller of dung balls, a large and a small tunnelling species, we ran six experimental treatments (four monospecific and two mixed and two controls (one with dung but without beetles, and one with neither dung nor beetles. In this setting, the overall presence of beetles significantly affected the gas fluxes, but different species contributed unequally to GHG emissions. When compared to the control with dung, we detected an overall reduction in the total cumulative CO2 flux from all treatments with beetles and a reduction in N2O flux from the treatments with the three most abundant dung beetle species. These reductions can be seen as beneficial ecosystem services. Nonetheless, we also observed a disservice provided by the large tunneler, Copris lunaris, which significantly increased the CH4 flux-an effect potentially traceable to the species' nesting strategy involving the construction of large brood balls. When fluxes were summed into CO2-equivalents across individual GHG compounds, dung with beetles proved to emit less GHGs than did beetle-free dung, with the mix of the three most abundant species providing the highest reduction (-32%. As the mix of multiple species proved the most effective in reducing CO2-equivalents, the conservation of diverse assemblages of dung beetles emerges as a priority in agro-pastoral ecosystems.

  12. Fog-basking behaviour and water collection efficiency in Namib Desert Darkling beetles

    OpenAIRE

    N?rgaard, Thomas; Dacke, Marie

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background In the Namib Desert fog represents an alternative water source. This is utilised by Darkling beetles (Tenebrionidae) that employ different strategies for obtaining the fog water. Some dig trenches in the sand, while others use their own bodies as fog collectors assuming a characteristic fog-basking stance. Two beetle species from the genus Onymacris have been observed to fog-bask on the ridges of the sand dunes. These beetles all have smooth elytra surfaces, while another ...

  13. Induced terpene accumulation in Norway spruce inhibits bark beetle colonization in a dose-dependent manner.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tao Zhao

    Full Text Available Tree-killing bark beetles (Coleoptera, Scolytinae are among the most economically and ecologically important forest pests in the northern hemisphere. Induction of terpenoid-based oleoresin has long been considered important in conifer defense against bark beetles, but it has been difficult to demonstrate a direct correlation between terpene levels and resistance to bark beetle colonization.To test for inhibitory effects of induced terpenes on colonization by the spruce bark beetle Ips typographus (L. we inoculated 20 mature Norway spruce Picea abies (L. Karsten trees with a virulent fungus associated with the beetle, Ceratocystis polonica (Siem. C. Moreau, and investigated induced terpene levels and beetle colonization in the bark.Fungal inoculation induced very strong and highly variable terpene accumulation 35 days after inoculation. Trees with high induced terpene levels (n = 7 had only 4.9% as many beetle attacks (5.1 vs. 103.5 attacks m(-2 and 2.6% as much gallery length (0.029 m m(-2 vs. 1.11 m m(-2 as trees with low terpene levels (n = 6. There was a highly significant rank correlation between terpene levels at day 35 and beetle colonization in individual trees. The relationship between induced terpene levels and beetle colonization was not linear but thresholded: above a low threshold concentration of ∼100 mg terpene g(-1 dry phloem trees suffered only moderate beetle colonization, and above a high threshold of ∼200 mg terpene g(-1 dry phloem trees were virtually unattacked.This is the first study demonstrating a dose-dependent relationship between induced terpenes and tree resistance to bark beetle colonization under field conditions, indicating that terpene induction may be instrumental in tree resistance. This knowledge could be useful for developing management strategies that decrease the impact of tree-killing bark beetles.

  14. What Is Business Japanese? Designing a Japanese Course for Business Communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koike, Shohei

    Experiences in developing "Business Japanese" courses for the undergraduate major in Language and International Trade at Eastern Michigan University are described. In 1987, six new courses in Japanese were proposed so that Japanese could be offered as a language specialty in the program. Issues considered in defining business Japanese…

  15. Altitudinal Barrier to the Spread of an Invasive Species: Could the Pyrenean Chain Slow the Natural Spread of the Pinewood Nematode?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julien Haran

    Full Text Available Mountain ranges may delimit the distribution of native species as well as constitute potential barriers to the spread of invasive species. The invasive pinewood nematode, Bursaphelenchus xylophilus, is a severe forest pest inducing pine wilt disease. It is vectored in Europe by a native long-horned beetle, Monochamus galloprovincialis. This study explored the potential of the Pyrenean chain to slow or prevent the natural spread of nematode-infested beetles from the Iberian Peninsula, where the nematode is established and is expanding its range, towards France and the rest of Europe. An analysis of the genetic structure and migration patterns of the beetle populations throughout the Pyrenean mountain range was combined with a spread model simulating the potential movements of nematode-infested beetles across it. The central part of the Pyrenees, which corresponds to the highest elevation zone, was shown to prevent gene flow between the French and Spanish populations of M. galloprovincialis on each side of the mountains. Conversely, strong admixture was detected between populations located on both sides of low elevation hills, and especially at the east and west extremities of the mountain range. Simulations of the spread of nematode-infested beetles under various thresholds of beetle survival and pine wilt disease expression gave results consistent with the variation in genetic make-up, suggesting that western and eastern hillsides may represent corridors favoring natural spread of the nematode from the Iberian Peninsula to France. Simulations also showed that temperature rise due to climate change may significantly reduce the extent of the barrier formed by highest elevations. Our results support the hypothesis that the Pyrenean chain represents a partial barrier to the natural spread of nematode-infested beetles. These results, which have to be considered together with potential human-assisted long-distance spread of the nematode, highlight

  16. Invasive Cerambycid pests and biosecurity measures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dominic Eyre; Robert A. Haack

    2017-01-01

    Longhorn beetles (Cerambycidae) in general, and some species in particular, have increased in importance for national and regional plant protection agencies over recent decades. Expensive eradication campaigns have been carried out in order to eliminate some longhorn beetles. For example, the cost of eradication campaigns undertaken between 1996 and 2013 against the...

  17. A COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF SPECIES COMPOSITION OF GROUND BEETLES OF COASTAL AND ISLAND ECOSYSTEMS OF THE WESTERN CASPIAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. M. Abdurakhmanov

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available For the first time studied the species composition of ground beetles of coastal and island ecosystems of the Western Caspian. The article provides a comparative analysis of species composition of ground beetles and adjacent areas.

  18. Invasion biology of thrips.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morse, Joseph G; Hoddle, Mark S

    2006-01-01

    Thrips are among the stealthiest of insect invaders due to their small size and cryptic habits. Many invasive thrips are notorious for causing extensive crop damage, vectoring viral diseases, and permanently destabilizing IPM systems owing to irruptive outbreaks that require remediation with insecticides, leading to the development of insecticide resistance. Several challenges surface when attempting to manage incursive thrips species. Foremost among these is early recognition, followed by rapid and accurate identification of emergent pest species, elucidation of the region of origin, development of a management program, and the closing of conduits for global movement of thrips. In this review, we examine factors facilitating invasion by thrips, damage caused by these insects, pre- and post-invasion management tactics, and challenges looming on the horizon posed by invasive Thysanoptera, which continually challenge the development of sustainable management practices.

  19. Synesthetic Colors for Japanese Scripts in Japanese Synesthetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazuhiko Yokosawa

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The determinants of synesthetic colors for Japanese scripts were studied in six Japanese grapheme-color synesthetes. We investigated the influence of linguistic properties such as phonology, orthography, and meaning on synesthetic colors for logographic characters (Kanji, phonetic characters (hiragana and katakana, and digits. From a palette of 138 colors, the synesthetes selected colors for 79 Kanji, 71 hiragana, and 71 katakana characters, and 9 digits. The results revealed that the color choices for hiragana and katakana characters representing the same sound were remarkably consistent, indicating that color selection depended on phonology and not visual form. On the other hand, synesthetic colors for Kanji characters, which are usually learned later, depended on meaning and phonology. Kanji characters representing concepts that are highly related to colors (eg, names of objects with typical colors were associated with those colors. Digits and corresponding Kanji numerals elicited strikingly similar colors. Colors for Kanji and hiragana characters sharing the same sound were likely to be similar. These results suggest that synesthetic colors are generalized from digits and phonetic scripts to Kanji characters via meaning and phonology. This study provides insights into the generalization of synesthetic colors to later acquired sets of graphemes within a language.

  20. Rokkasho: Japanese site for ITER

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohtake, S.; Yamaguchi, V.; Matsuda, S.; Kishimoto, H.

    2003-01-01

    The Atomic Energy Commission of Japan authorized ITER as the core machine of the Third Phase Basic Program of Fusion Energy Development. After a series of discussions in the Atomic Energy Commission and the Council of Science and Technology Policy, Japanese Government concluded formally with the Cabinet Agreement on 31 May 2002 that Japan should participate in the ITER Project and offer the Rokkasho-Mura site for construction of ITER to the Negotiations among Canada (CA), the European Union (EU), Japan (JA), and the Russian Federation (RF). The JA site proposal is now under the international assessment in the framework of the ITER Negotiations. (author)

  1. Japanese English in Travel Brochures

    OpenAIRE

    Premvadee Na Nakornpanom

    2014-01-01

    This study investigates the role and impact of English loan words on Japanese language in travel brochures. The issues arising from a potential switch to English as a tool to absorb the West’s advanced knowledge and technology in the modernization of Japan to a means of linking Japan with the rest of the world and enhancing the country’s international presence. Sociolinguistic contexts was used to analyze data collected from the Nippon Travel agency "HIS"’s brochures in Thailand, revealing th...

  2. Japanese History, Post-Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George Lazopoulos

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Jason Ānanda Josephson, The Invention of Religion in Japan. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press, 2012. 408 pp. $90 (cloth, $30 (paper. Hwansoo Ilmee Kim, Empire of the Dharma: Korean and Japanese Buddhism, 1877–1912. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Asia Center, 2012. 444 pp. $50 (cloth. Jung-Sun N. Han, An Imperial Path to Modernity: Yoshino Sakuzō and a New Liberal Order in East Asia, 1905–1937. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Asia Center, 2012. 244 pp. $40 (cloth.

  3. Japanese materials program and FFTF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishino, Shiori

    1988-01-01

    Japanese materials program has been briefly reviewed and the associated university program, which is still in a provisional stage has been described in some detail. Important elements of the university proposal will be 1) construction of a high energy high fluence neutron irradiation facility, 2) establishing or expanding local research centers including hot laboratories, and 3) promotion of fundamental studies. The FFTF/MOTA Project is a very important constituent of the whole program, the results coming out of which should be well coordinated with other fundamental research programs to extract full essence needed for the advancement of realization of fusion energy. (author)

  4. Ecology and behavior of ground beetles (Coleoptera: Carabidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lövei, G L; Sunderland, K D

    1996-01-01

    The ground beetles from the speciose beetle family Carabidae and, since their emergence in the Tertiary, have populated all habitats except deserts. Our knowledge about carabids is biased toward species living in north-temperate regions. Most carabids are predatory, consume a wide range of food types, and experience food shortages in the field. Feeding on both plant and animal material and scavenging are probably more significant than currently acknowledged. The most important mortality sources are abiotic factors and predators; pathogens and parasites can be important for some developmental stages. Although competition among larvae and adults does occur, the importance of competition as a community organization is not proven. Carabids are abundant in agricultural fields all over the world and may be important natural enemies of agricultural pests.

  5. A Confirmatory Model for Substance Use Among Japanese American and Part-Japanese American Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, John Kino Yamaguchi; Else, 'Iwalani R. N.; Goebert, Deborah A.; Nishimura, Stephanie T.; Hishinuma, Earl S.; Andrade, Naleen N.

    2013-01-01

    Few studies have examined the effect of ethnicity and cultural identity on substance use among Asian and Pacific Islander adolescents. A cross-sequential study conducted in Hawai'i with 144 Japanese American and part-Japanese American adolescents assessed a model integrating Japanese ethnicity, cultural identity, substance use, major life events, and social support. Japanese American adolescents scored higher on the Japanese Culture Scale and on the Peers’ Social Support than the part-Japanese American adolescents. Significant associations for substance use and impairment included culturally intensified events and Japanese cultural identity- behavior subset. Models had good overall fits and suggested that conflict surrounding cultural identity may contribute to substance use. PMID:23480213

  6. Gene discovery in the horned beetle Onthophagus taurus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Youngik

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Horned beetles, in particular in the genus Onthophagus, are important models for studies on sexual selection, biological radiations, the origin of novel traits, developmental plasticity, biocontrol, conservation, and forensic biology. Despite their growing prominence as models for studying both basic and applied questions in biology, little genomic or transcriptomic data are available for this genus. We used massively parallel pyrosequencing (Roche 454-FLX platform to produce a comprehensive EST dataset for the horned beetle Onthophagus taurus. To maximize sequence diversity, we pooled RNA extracted from a normalized library encompassing diverse developmental stages and both sexes. Results We used 454 pyrosequencing to sequence ESTs from all post-embryonic stages of O. taurus. Approximately 1.36 million reads assembled into 50,080 non-redundant sequences encompassing a total of 26.5 Mbp. The non-redundant sequences match over half of the genes in Tribolium castaneum, the most closely related species with a sequenced genome. Analyses of Gene Ontology annotations and biochemical pathways indicate that the O. taurus sequences reflect a wide and representative sampling of biological functions and biochemical processes. An analysis of sequence polymorphisms revealed that SNP frequency was negatively related to overall expression level and the number of tissue types in which a given gene is expressed. The most variable genes were enriched for a limited number of GO annotations whereas the least variable genes were enriched for a wide range of GO terms directly related to fitness. Conclusions This study provides the first large-scale EST database for horned beetles, a much-needed resource for advancing the study of these organisms. Furthermore, we identified instances of gene duplications and alternative splicing, useful for future study of gene regulation, and a large number of SNP markers that could be used in population

  7. The genome of the model beetle and pest Tribolium castaneum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Richards, Stephen; Gibbs, Richard A; Weinstock, George M

    2008-01-01

    Tribolium castaneum is a member of the most species-rich eukaryotic order, a powerful model organism for the study of generalized insect development, and an important pest of stored agricultural products. We describe its genome sequence here. This omnivorous beetle has evolved the ability......, but nevertheless offers similar power for the elucidation of gene function and identification of targets for selective insect control. Udgivelsesdato: e-pub.2008-Apr-24...

  8. Using malaise traps to sample ground beetles (Coleoptera: Carabidae).

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ulyshen, Michael D., James L. Hanula, and Scott Horn

    2005-01-01

    Pitfall traps provide an easy and inexpensive way to sample ground-dwelling arthropods (Spence and Niemela 1994; Spence et al. 1997; Abildsnes and Tommeras 2000) and have been used exclusively in many studies of the abundance and diversity of ground beetles (Coleoptera: Carabidae). Despite the popularity of this trapping technique, pitfall traps have many disadvantages. For example, they often fail to collect both small (Spence and Niemela 1994) and trap-shy species (Benest 1989), eventually deplete the local carabid population (Digweed et al. 1995), require a species to be ground-dwelling in order to be captured (Liebherr and Mahar 1979), and produce different results depending on trap diameter and material, type of preservative used, and trap placement (Greenslade 1964; Luff 1975; Work et al. 2002). Further complications arise from seasonal patterns of movement among the beetles themselves (Maelfait and Desender 1990), as well as numerous climatic factors, differences in plant cover, and variable surface conditions (Adis 1979). Because of these limitations, pitfall trap data give an incomplete picture of the carabid community and should be interpreted carefully. Additional methods, such as use of Berlese funnels and litter washing (Spence and Niemela 1994), collection from lights (Usis and MacLean 1998), and deployment of flight intercept devices (Liebherr and Mahar 1979; Paarmann and Stork 1987), should be incorporated in surveys to better ascertain the species composition and relative numbers of ground beetles. Flight intercept devices, like pitfall traps, have the advantage of being easy to use and replicate, but their value to carabid surveys is largely unknown. Here we demonstrate the effectiveness of Malaise traps for sampling ground beetles in a bottomland hardwood forest.

  9. Using malaise traps to sample ground beetles (Coleoptera. Carabidae)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ulyshen, Michael D. [USDA Forest Service, Savannah River, New Ellenton, SC (United States); Hanula, James L. [USDA Forest Service, Savannah River, New Ellenton, SC (United States); Horn, Scott [USDA Forest Service, Savannah River, New Ellenton, SC (United States)

    2012-04-02

    Pitfall traps provide an easy and inexpensive way to sample ground-dwelling arthropods (Spence and Niemela 1994; Spence et al. 1997; Abildsnes and Tommeras 2000) and have been used exclusively in many studies of the abundance and diversity of ground beetles (Coleoptera: Carabidae). Despite the popularity of this trapping technique, pitfall traps have many disadvantages. For example, they often fail to collect both small (Spence and Niemela 1994) and trap-shy species (Benest 1989), eventually deplete the local carabid population (Digweed et al. 1995), require a species to be ground-dwelling in order to be captured (Liebherr and Mahar 1979), and produce different results depending on trap diameter and material, type of preservative used, and trap placement (Greenslade 1964; Luff 1975; Work et al. 2002). Further complications arise from seasonal patterns of movement among the beetles themselves (Maelfait and Desender 1990), as well as numerous climatic factors, differences in plant cover, and variable surface conditions (Adis 1979). Because of these limitations, pitfall trap data give an incomplete picture of the carabid community and should be interpreted carefully. Additional methods, such as use of Berlese funnels and litter washing (Spence and Niemela 1994), collection from lights (Usis and MacLean 1998), and deployment of flight intercept devices (Liebherr and Mahar 1979; Paarmann and Stork 1987), should be incorporated in surveys to better ascertain the species composition and relative numbers of ground beetles. Flight intercept devices, like pitfall traps, have the advantage of being easy to use and replicate, but their value to carabid surveys is largely unknown. Here we demonstrate the effectiveness of Malaise traps for sampling ground beetles in a bottomland hardwood forest.

  10. Beetles from Sălaj County, Romania (Coleoptera, excluding Carabidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Merkl O.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available During a faunistical exploration of Sǎlaj county carried out in 2014 and 2015, 840 beetle species were recorded, including two species of Community interest (Natura 2000 species: Cucujus cinnaberinus (Scopoli, 1763 and Lucanus cervus Linnaeus, 1758. Notes on the distribution of Augyles marmota (Kiesenwetter, 1850 (Heteroceridae, Trichodes punctatus Fischer von Waldheim, 1829 (Cleridae, Laena reitteri Weise, 1877 (Tenebrionidae, Brachysomus ornatus Stierlin, 1892, Lixus cylindrus (Fabricius, 1781 (Curculionidae, Mylacomorphus globus (Seidlitz, 1868 (Curculionidae are given.

  11. Intercrop movement of convergent lady beetle, Hippodamia convergens (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae), between adjacent cotton and alfalfa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bastola, Anup; Parajulee, Megha N; Porter, R Patrick; Shrestha, Ram B; Chen, Fa-Jun; Carroll, Stanley C

    2016-02-01

    A 2-year study was conducted to characterize the intercrop movement of convergent lady beetle, Hippodamia convergens Guerin-Meneville (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) between adjacent cotton and alfalfa. A dual protein-marking method was used to assess the intercrop movement of the lady beetles in each crop. In turns field collected lady beetles in each crop were assayed by protein specific ELISA to quantify the movement of beetles between the crops. Results indicated that a high percentage of convergent lady beetles caught in cotton (46% in 2008; 56% in 2009) and alfalfa (46% in 2008; 71% in 2009) contained a protein mark, thus indicating that convergent lady beetle movement was largely bidirectional between the adjacent crops. Although at a much lower proportion, lady beetles also showed unidirectional movement from cotton to alfalfa (5% in 2008 and 6% in 2009) and from alfalfa to cotton (9% in 2008 and 14% in 2009). The season-long bidirectional movement exhibited by the beetles was significantly higher in alfalfa than cotton during both years of the study. The total influx of lady beetles (bidirectional and unidirectional combined) was significantly higher in alfalfa compared with that in cotton for both years. While convergent lady beetles moved between adjacent cotton and alfalfa, they were more attracted to alfalfa when cotton was not flowering and/or when alfalfa offered more opportunities for prey. This study offers much needed information on intercrop movement of the convergent lady beetle that should facilitate integrated pest management decisions in cotton utilizing conservation biological control. © 2014 Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences.

  12. Urban forests sustain diverse carrion beetle assemblages in the New York City metropolitan area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicole A. Fusco

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Urbanization is an increasingly pervasive form of land transformation that reduces biodiversity of many taxonomic groups. Beetles exhibit a broad range of responses to urbanization, likely due to the high functional diversity in this order. Carrion beetles (Order: Coleoptera, Family: Silphidae provide an important ecosystem service by promoting decomposition of small-bodied carcasses, and have previously been found to decline due to forest fragmentation caused by urbanization. However, New York City (NYC and many other cities have fairly large continuous forest patches that support dense populations of small mammals, and thus may harbor relatively robust carrion beetle communities in city parks. In this study, we investigated carrion beetle community composition, abundance and diversity in forest patches along an urban-to-rural gradient spanning the urban core (Central Park, NYC to outlying rural areas. We conducted an additional study comparing the current carrion beetle community at a single suburban site in Westchester County, NY that was intensively surveyed in the early 1970’s. We collected a total of 2,170 carrion beetles from eight species at 13 sites along this gradient. We report little to no effect of urbanization on carrion beetle diversity, although two species were not detected in any urban parks. Nicrophorus tomentosus was the most abundant species at all sites and seemed to dominate the urban communities, potentially due to its generalist habits and shallower burying depth compared to the other beetles surveyed. Variation between species body size, habitat specialization, and % forest area surrounding the surveyed sites also did not influence carrion beetle communities. Lastly, we found few significant differences in relative abundance of 10 different carrion beetle species between 1974 and 2015 at a single site in Westchester County, NY, although two of the rare species in the early 1970’s were not detected in 2015. These

  13. Decreases in beetle body size linked to climate change and warming temperatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tseng, Michelle; Kaur, Katrina M; Soleimani Pari, Sina; Sarai, Karnjit; Chan, Denessa; Yao, Christine H; Porto, Paula; Toor, Anmol; Toor, Harpawantaj S; Fograscher, Katrina

    2018-01-30

    Body size is a fundamental ecological trait and is correlated with population dynamics, community structure and function, and ecosystem fluxes. Laboratory data from broad taxonomic groups suggest that a widespread response to a warming world may be an overall decrease in organism body size. However, given the myriad of biotic and abiotic factors that can also influence organism body size in the wild, it is unclear whether results from these laboratory assays hold in nature. Here we use datasets spanning 30 to 100 years to examine whether the body size of wild-caught beetles has changed over time, whether body size changes are correlated with increased temperatures, and we frame these results using predictions derived from a quantitative review of laboratory responses of 22 beetle species to temperature. We found that 95% of laboratory-reared beetles decreased in size with increased rearing temperature, with larger-bodied species shrinking disproportionately more than smaller-bodied beetles. In addition, the museum datasets revealed that larger-bodied beetle species have decreased in size over time, that mean beetle body size explains much of the interspecific variation in beetle responses to temperature, and that long-term beetle size changes are explained by increases in autumn temperature and decreases in spring temperature in this region. Our data demonstrate that the relationship between body size and temperature of wild-caught beetles matches relatively well with results from laboratory studies, and that variation in this relationship is largely explained by interspecific variation in mean beetle body size. This long-term beetle dataset is one of the most comprehensive arthropod body size datasets compiled to date, it improves predictions regarding the shrinking of organisms with global climate change, and together with the meta-analysis data, call for new hypotheses to explain why larger-bodied organisms may be more sensitive to temperature. © 2018 The

  14. Impact of planting date on sunflower beetle (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) infestation, damage, and parasitism in cultivated sunflower.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charlet, Laurence D; Knodel, Janet J

    2003-06-01

    The sunflower beetle, Zygogramma exclamationis (F.), is the major defoliating pest of sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.). Planting date was evaluated as a potential management tool in a variety of production regions throughout North Dakota from 1997 to 1999, for its impact on sunflower beetle population density of both adults and larvae, defoliation caused by both feeding stages, seed yield, oil content, and larval parasitism in cultivated sunflower. Results from this 3-yr study revealed that sunflower beetle adult and larval populations decreased as planting date was delayed. Delayed planting also reduced defoliation from adult and larval feeding, which is consistent with the lower numbers of the beetles present in the later seeded plots. Even a planting delay of only 1 wk was sufficient to significantly reduce feeding damage to the sunflower plant. Yield reduction caused by leaf destruction of the sunflower beetle adults and larvae was clearly evident in the first year of the study. The other component of sunflower yield, oil content, did not appear to be influenced by beetle feeding. The tachinid parasitoid, Myiopharus macellus (Rheinhard), appeared to be a significant mortality factor of sunflower beetle larvae at most locations regardless of the dates of planting, and was able to attack and parasitize the beetle at various larval densities. The results of this investigation showed the potential of delayed planting date as an effective integrated pest management tactic to reduce sunflower beetle adults, larvae, and their resulting defoliation. In addition, altering planting dates was compatible with biological control of the beetle, because delaying the planting date did not reduce the effectiveness of the parasitic fly, M. macellus, which attacks the sunflower beetle larvae.

  15. Literature Review of Japanese Contrastive Rhetoric

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cumming, Brett

    2012-01-01

    This literature review serves to inform the reader on current literature on Contrastive Rhetoric (CR), with specific reference to teaching writing to Japanese students of English. It will examine the historical developments of CR and its present significance before then looking at possible reasons for unique characteristics of Japanese L2 writers…

  16. Japanese Children's Understanding of Notational Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Noboru

    2012-01-01

    This study examined Japanese children's understanding of two Japanese notational systems: "hiragana" and "kanji". In three experiments, 126 3- to 6-year-olds were asked to name words written in hiragana or kanji as they appeared with different pictures. Consistent with Bialystok ("Journal of Experimental Child…

  17. The Strategies Used in Japanese Advertisement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurose, Yuki

    This paper investigates the possibility of using Japanese advertising language as a teaching tool in the second language classroom. First, it reviews the aims of advertising and the advantages of learning advertising language in the classroom based on previous research. Next, it discusses language strategies used in Japanese advertising,…

  18. Argumentative Strategies in American and Japanese English.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamimura, Taeko; Oi, Kyoko

    1998-01-01

    A study examined differences in argumentative strategies in Japanese and American English by analyzing English essays on capital punishment written by 22 American high school seniors and 30 Japanese college sophomores. Differences were found in the organizational patterns, content and use of rational appeals, preference for type of diction, and…

  19. Study on Japanese Cornmint in Mississippi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Japanese cornmint (Mentha canadensis L.) is a subtropical essential oil crop grown in Asia and South America. The essential oil of Japanese cornmint is the source for production of crystal (-)-menthol, which is a major aromatic agent used as a flavor, fragrance, and cooling sensation vector in the ...

  20. A New Social Portrait of the Japanese

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thayer, Nathaniel B.

    1977-01-01

    A series of surveys taken from 1953-73 assessed postwar attitudes of the Japanese toward religion, tradition, culture, politics, and aesthetics. Findings indicate that Japanese attitudes have become more oriented to the individual than to society. Available from: Woodrow Wilson International Center for Scholars, Smithsonian Inst., Washington, DC…

  1. Contemporary Japanese Attitudes toward Honorifics (keigo).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wetzel, Patricia J.

    1994-01-01

    Describes the results of a subjective reaction test of over 700 Japanese college students' and office workers' attitudes toward honorifics (keigo) in Japanese. It found that subjects from higher socioeconomic classes were more outspoken and ready to judge incompetent or insufficient keigo more negatively than individuals from lower socioeconomic…

  2. Postmodernism and Organizational Culture: The Japanese ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The paper is a critique of the postmodernism organizational culture, from the perspective of the Japanese work experience. Beginning with the broad principles of postmodernism, the author goes ahead to situate them within the specific context of the Japanese working environment. Citing some of the known authorities ...

  3. Telling Successes of Japanese Foreign Aid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Annette Skovsted

    Stakeholders of two success story events negotiated an idea of development as individual entrepreneurship. The sixty-five-year-old Japanese Foreign Aid history includes stories of successes told by professionals from developing countries throughout the world. Their stories reflect the cultural an...... sector training programs partly financed by Japanese Official development Assistance (ODA)....

  4. Telling Successes of Japanese Foreign Aid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Annette Skovsted

    Stakeholders of two success story events negotiated an idea of development as individual entrepreneurship. The sixty-five-year-old Japanese Foreign Aid history includes stories of successes told by professionals from developing countries throughout the world. Their stories reflect the cultural...... sector training programs partly financed by Japanese Official development Assistance (ODA)....

  5. Numeral Incorporation in Japanese Sign Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ktejik, Mish

    2013-01-01

    This article explores the morphological process of numeral incorporation in Japanese Sign Language. Numeral incorporation is defined and the available research on numeral incorporation in signed language is discussed. The numeral signs in Japanese Sign Language are then introduced and followed by an explanation of the numeral morphemes which are…

  6. Interactions of the Asian Lady Beetle, Harmonia axyridis (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae), and the North American Native Lady Beetle, Coccinella novemnotata (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae): Prospects for Recovery Post-Decline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ducatti, Rafael Dal Bosco; Ugine, Todd A; Losey, John

    2017-02-01

    The decline of the North American native lady beetle, Coccinella novemnotata Herbst, is strongly correlated with the introduction of Coccinella septempunctata L., and C. novemnotata are locally extirpated across much of the United States. Since C. novemnotata's decline, the invasive Harmonia axyridis Pallas has become dominant in North America. This study investigated whether H. axyridis has the potential to impede the recovery of C. novemnotata populations. To determine how H. axyridis interacts with C. novemnotata via intraguild predation and competition for prey, we paired first-instar C. novemnotata with first-instar H. axyridis at low and high densities of pea aphid. Coccinella novemnotata survival when paired interspecifically was significantly lower than H. axyridis survival at both aphid densities. Both species had similar weights at eclosion across aphid densities; however, H. axyridis developed faster than C. novemnotata. To examine the effect of larval size on intraguild interactions, we conducted a second experiment where we varied the C. novemnotata and H. axyridis instar in our pairings. Coccinella novemnotata survival and final weight increased when paired with younger H. axyridis larvae. The percentage survival of C. novemnotata in interspecific treatments, at the low aphid density, was lower than for same-aged C. novemnotata reared conspecifically, except for pairs initiated with C. novemnotata larvae that were two instars more advanced than H. axyridis larvae. These results suggest that intraguild predation and competition for prey by H. axyridis have the potential to affect the recovery of C. novemnotata populations negatively. © The Authors 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  7. Coffee berry borer joins bark beetles in coffee klatch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaramillo, Juliana; Torto, Baldwyn; Mwenda, Dickson; Troeger, Armin; Borgemeister, Christian; Poehling, Hans-Michael; Francke, Wittko

    2013-01-01

    Unanswered key questions in bark beetle-plant interactions concern host finding in species attacking angiosperms in tropical zones and whether management strategies based on chemical signaling used for their conifer-attacking temperate relatives may also be applied in the tropics. We hypothesized that there should be a common link in chemical signaling mediating host location by these Scolytids. Using laboratory behavioral assays and chemical analysis we demonstrate that the yellow-orange exocarp stage of coffee berries, which attracts the coffee berry borer, releases relatively high amounts of volatiles including conophthorin, chalcogran, frontalin and sulcatone that are typically associated with Scolytinae chemical ecology. The green stage of the berry produces a much less complex bouquet containing small amounts of conophthorin but no other compounds known as bark beetle semiochemicals. In behavioral assays, the coffee berry borer was attracted to the spiroacetals conophthorin and chalcogran, but avoided the monoterpenes verbenone and α-pinene, demonstrating that, as in their conifer-attacking relatives in temperate zones, the use of host and non-host volatiles is also critical in host finding by tropical species. We speculate that microorganisms formed a common basis for the establishment of crucial chemical signals comprising inter- and intraspecific communication systems in both temperate- and tropical-occurring bark beetles attacking gymnosperms and angiosperms.

  8. Bacterial and fungal symbionts of parasitic Dendroctonus bark beetles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dohet, Loïc; Grégoire, Jean-Claude; Berasategui, Aileen; Kaltenpoth, Martin; Biedermann, Peter H W

    2016-09-01

    Bark beetles (Curculionidae: Scolytinae) are one of the most species-rich herbivorous insect groups with many shifts in ecology and host-plant use, which may be mediated by their bacterial and fungal symbionts. While symbionts are well studied in economically important, tree-killing species, little is known about parasitic species whose broods develop in living trees. Here, using culture-dependent and independent methods, we provide a comprehensive overview of the associated bacteria, yeasts and filamentous fungi of the parasitic Dendroctonus micans, D. punctatus and D. valens, and compare them to those of other tree-inhabiting insects. Despite inhabiting different geographical regions and/or host trees, the three species showed similar microbial communities. Enterobacteria were the most prevalent bacteria, in particular Rahnella, Pantoea and Ewingella, in addition to Streptomyces Likewise, the yeasts Candida/Cyberlindnera were the most prominent fungi. All these microorganisms are widespread among tree-inhabiting insects with various ecologies, but their high prevalence overall might indicate a beneficial role such as detoxification of tree defenses, diet supplementation or protection against pathogens. As such, our results enable comparisons of symbiont communities of parasitic bark beetles with those of other beetles, and will contribute to our understanding of how microbial symbioses facilitate dietary shifts in insects. © FEMS 2016. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  9. Coffee berry borer joins bark beetles in coffee klatch.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Jaramillo

    Full Text Available Unanswered key questions in bark beetle-plant interactions concern host finding in species attacking angiosperms in tropical zones and whether management strategies based on chemical signaling used for their conifer-attacking temperate relatives may also be applied in the tropics. We hypothesized that there should be a common link in chemical signaling mediating host location by these Scolytids. Using laboratory behavioral assays and chemical analysis we demonstrate that the yellow-orange exocarp stage of coffee berries, which attracts the coffee berry borer, releases relatively high amounts of volatiles including conophthorin, chalcogran, frontalin and sulcatone that are typically associated with Scolytinae chemical ecology. The green stage of the berry produces a much less complex bouquet containing small amounts of conophthorin but no other compounds known as bark beetle semiochemicals. In behavioral assays, the coffee berry borer was attracted to the spiroacetals conophthorin and chalcogran, but avoided the monoterpenes verbenone and α-pinene, demonstrating that, as in their conifer-attacking relatives in temperate zones, the use of host and non-host volatiles is also critical in host finding by tropical species. We speculate that microorganisms formed a common basis for the establishment of crucial chemical signals comprising inter- and intraspecific communication systems in both temperate- and tropical-occurring bark beetles attacking gymnosperms and angiosperms.

  10. DETECTION OF DRUGSTORE BEETLES IN 9975 PACKAGES USING ACOUSTIC EMISSIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shull, D.

    2013-03-04

    This report documents the initial feasibility tests performed using a commercial acoustic emission instrument for the purpose of detecting beetles in Department of Energy 9975 shipping packages. The device selected for this testing was a commercial handheld instrument and probe developed for the detection of termites, weevils, beetles and other insect infestations in wooden structures, trees, plants and soil. The results of two rounds of testing are presented. The first tests were performed by the vendor using only the hand-held instrument’s indications and real-time operator analysis of the audio signal content. The second tests included hands-free positioning of the instrument probe and post-collection analysis of the recorded audio signal content including audio background comparisons. The test results indicate that the system is promising for detecting the presence of drugstore beetles, however, additional work would be needed to improve the ease of detection and to automate the signal processing to eliminate the need for human interpretation. Mechanisms for hands-free positioning of the probe and audio background discrimination are also necessary for reliable detection and to reduce potential operator dose in radiation environments.

  11. Rove beetles of medical importance in Brazil (Coleoptera, Staphylinidae, Paederinae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana S. Vieira

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Rove beetles of medical importance in Brazil (Coleoptera, Staphylinidae, Paederinae. The rove beetles of the genus Paederus Fabricius, 1775 are the most important group within Coleoptera causing dermatitis around the world. The medical importance of Paederus depends on its toxic hemolymph released when these beetles are crushed on human skin. The effects are mainly dermatitis linearis and some sporadic cases of conjunctivitis. In Brazil seven species of Paederus are known to cause dermatitis: P. amazonicus Sharp, 1876, P. brasiliensis Erichson, 1840, P. columbinus Laporte, 1835, P. ferus Erichson, 1840, P. mutans Sharp, 1876, P. protensus Sharp, 1876 stat. rev., and Paederus rutilicornis Erichson, 1840. Paederus mutans and P. protensus are for the first time recorded as of medical importance, whereas the record of P. rutilicornis in Brazil is doubtful. All seven species are redescribed and a dichotomous key is provided. The geographic distributions of all species are documented. The results provided here include the most recent and relevant taxonomic revision of Paederus of the Neotropical region, the first identification key for Brazilian species and the increase of recorded species of medical importance in the world.

  12. Modeling bark beetles and fuels on landscapes: A demonstration of ArcFuels and a discussion of possible model enhancements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrew J. McMahan; Alan A. Ager; Helen Maffei; Jane L. Hayes; Eric L. Smith

    2008-01-01

    The Westwide Pine Beetle Model and the Fire and Fuels Extension were used to simulate a mountain pine beetle outbreak under different fuel treatment scenarios on a 173,000 acre landscape on the Deschutes National Forest. The goal was to use these models within ArcFuels to analyze the interacting impacts of bark beetles and management activities on landscape fuel...

  13. Predicting live and dead basal area in bark beetle-affected forests from discrete-return LiDAR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrew T. Hudak; Ben Bright; Jose Negron; Robert McGaughey; Hans-Erik Andersen; Jeffrey A. Hicke

    2012-01-01

    Recent bark beetle outbreaks in western North America have been widespread and severe. High tree mortality due to bark beetles affects the fundamental ecosystem processes of primary production and decomposition that largely determine carbon balance (Kurz et al. 2008, Pfeifer et al. 2011, Hicke et al. 2012). Forest managers need accurate data on beetle-induced tree...

  14. Changes in transpiration and foliage growth in lodgepole pine trees following mountain pine beetle attack and mechanical girdling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert M. Hubbard; Charles C. Rhoades; Kelly Elder; Jose Negron

    2013-01-01

    The recent mountain pine beetle outbreak in North American lodgepole pine forests demonstrates the importance of insect related disturbances in changing forest structure and ecosystem processes. Phloem feeding by beetles disrupts transport of photosynthate from tree canopies and fungi introduced to the tree's vascular system by the bark beetles inhibit water...

  15. AMS radiocarbon dating of ancient Japanese sutras

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oda, Hirotaka; Yoshizawa, Yasukazu; Nakamura, Toshio; Fujita, Keiko

    2000-01-01

    Radiocarbon ages of ancient Japanese sutras whose historical ages were known paleographically were measured by means of accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS). Calibrated radiocarbon ages of five samples were consistent with the corresponding historical ages; the 'old wood effect' is negligible for ancient Japanese sutras. Japanese paper has been made from fresh branches grown within a few years and the interval from trimming off the branches to writing sutra on the paper is within one year. The good agreement between the calibrated radiocarbon ages and the historical ages is supported by such characteristics of Japanese paper. It is indicated in this study that Japanese sutra is a suitable sample for radiocarbon dating in the historic period because of little gap by 'old wood effect'

  16. AMS radiocarbon dating of ancient Japanese sutras

    CERN Document Server

    Oda, H; Nakamura, T; Fujita, K

    2000-01-01

    Radiocarbon ages of ancient Japanese sutras whose historical ages were known paleographically were measured by means of accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS). Calibrated radiocarbon ages of five samples were consistent with the corresponding historical ages; the 'old wood effect' is negligible for ancient Japanese sutras. Japanese paper has been made from fresh branches grown within a few years and the interval from trimming off the branches to writing sutra on the paper is within one year. The good agreement between the calibrated radiocarbon ages and the historical ages is supported by such characteristics of Japanese paper. It is indicated in this study that Japanese sutra is a suitable sample for radiocarbon dating in the historic period because of little gap by 'old wood effect'.

  17. Japanese “Merchants of Culture”

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moeran, Brian

    2014-01-01

    Purpose. To provide an overview of the Japanese publishing industry and to compare it with the publishing industry in the United Kingdom to see whether similarities and differences are industry- or culture-specific. Design/methodology/approach. The paper provides detailed descriptions...... of Japanese publishing. Research limitations/implications The Japanese publishing industry appears to operate under certain cultural constraints that inhibit crosscultural comparison, while enabling cross-industry comparison within Japan. Why this is so needs further research. Can the parallels between...... of the activities of the three main players in the Japanese publishing industry (publishers/editors; distributors; and booksellers). This tripartite structure of the industry encourages divide-and-rule mechanisms also found in the Japanese advertising industry. At the same time, a comparison with the UK publishing...

  18. Public acceptance: A Japanese view

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1972-01-01

    A number of factors enter into a consideration of the public acceptance of nuclear power ? the public, nuclear power as an entity, and the interaction between the two. Interaction here implies the manner in which nuclear power is presented to the public ? what is the public need for nuclear power, and what public risk is entailed in having it? The problem of public acceptance, in this sense, is time-dependent. For the public is changeable, just as nuclear power is subject to technical progress and ' social' improvement. Japan is geographically a very small country with a very high density of population. Any industrial activity and any large-scale employment of modern technology is apt to have a much greater impact on the physical, social and biological environment of individual Japanese people than similar activities would have on those of other countries. Industrial pollutants such as sulphur dioxide from power plants, oxides of nitrogen from automobile engine exhausts, organic mercury from chemical industries and so on affect society to a high degree, considered in terms of their concentration either per capita or per square kilometre. In the case of nuclear power, therefore, people are more concerned with radiological effects than with thermal pollution.no matter how one looks at it, the experience of Hiroshima and Nagasaki has made the average member of the Japanese public, very sensitive to the problem of radiation safety. This is no longer a subject in which science or logic can persuade

  19. Economy. The Japanese shock wave

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lecompte-Boinet, G.; Dupin, L.; Chandes, C.; Gateaud, P.; Guez, L.; Maillard, C.

    2011-01-01

    Several articles analyse and comment the consequences of the earthquake which occurred in Japan, not only for the Japanese industry and economy, but also for the French ones. In Japan, the most impacted sectors are the energy, the semiconductor and the automotive industries. Renewable energies and gas will at least temporarily replace nuclear energy. Other countries will be impacted, notably China and its automotive industry due to a lack of components. There will also be a lack of electronic components because Japan represents, directly or indirectly, about 40 per cent of world production in this field. In some regions of Japan, the whole production system is in danger because of the supply chain organisation. Other sectors are concerned for differing reasons: raw materials, aeronautic construction, luxury and cosmetics. An article evokes initiatives of French company chairmen, personnel and trade unions to help Japan and the Japanese. An article describes the development of robots and unmanned vehicles by French companies, which are able to intervene in radioactive environments. Another consequence is the inspection of the French and European nuclear plants in order to see whether they can withstand extreme risks. An article stresses that several French industrial sites are exposed to natural risks (earthquake, floods). Finally, Daniel Cohn-Bendit stresses that, after Fukushima, the unlikely is not impossible any longer

  20. Seed longevity and dormancy state suggest management strategies for garlic mustard (Alliaria petiolata) and Japanese stiltgrass (Microstegium vimineum) in deciduous forest sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mame E. Redwood; Glenn R. Matlack; Cynthia D. Huebner

    2018-01-01

    An effective management plan for invasive herb populations must consider the potential for regeneration from the soil seedbank. To test chis potential, we examined two species, Japanese scilcgrass and garlic mustard, at deciduous forest sites in southeastern Ohio. Seeds were buried in nylon mesh bags and recovered at regular intervals over 24 mo. Recovered seeds were...

  1. Climate change both facilitates and inhibits invasive plant ranges in New England.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merow, Cory; Bois, Sarah Treanor; Allen, Jenica M; Xie, Yingying; Silander, John A

    2017-04-18

    Forecasting ecological responses to climate change, invasion, and their interaction must rely on understanding underlying mechanisms. However, such forecasts require extrapolation into new locations and environments. We linked demography and environment using experimental biogeography to forecast invasive and native species' potential ranges under present and future climate in New England, United States to overcome issues of extrapolation in novel environments. We studied two potentially nonequilibrium invasive plants' distributions, Alliaria petiolata (garlic mustard) and Berberis thunbergii (Japanese barberry), each paired with their native ecological analogs to better understand demographic drivers of invasions. Our models predict that climate change will considerably reduce establishment of a currently prolific invader ( A. petiolata ) throughout New England driven by poor demographic performance in warmer climates. In contrast, invasion of B. thunbergii will be facilitated because of higher growth and germination in warmer climates, with higher likelihood to establish farther north and in closed canopy habitats in the south. Invasion success is in high fecundity for both invasive species and demographic compensation for A petiolata relative to native analogs. For A. petiolata , simulations suggest that eradication efforts would require unrealistic efficiency; hence, management should focus on inhibiting spread into colder, currently unoccupied areas, understanding source-sink dynamics, and understanding community dynamics should A. petiolata (which is allelopathic) decline. Our results-based on considerable differences with correlative occurrence models typically used for such biogeographic forecasts-suggest the urgency of incorporating mechanism into range forecasting and invasion management to understand how climate change may alter current invasion patterns.

  2. Potential impacts of year-round sampling on monitoring presence- absence of invasive flora in the southern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christopher M. Oswalt; Sonja N. Oswalt; W. Keith Moser

    2012-01-01

    Studies suggest that the southern United States is an area of primary concern with regards to the spread of nonnative invasive plant species. Recent data show that species such as Japanese honeysuckle (Lonicera japonica) and Nepalese browntop (Microstegium vimineum) are invading forests and displacing native species throughout the...

  3. Brown rot in inner heartwood: why large logs support characteristics saproxylic beetle assemblages of conservation concern

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marie Yee; Simon J. Grove; Alastair M.M. Richardson; Caroline L. Mohammed

    2006-01-01

    It is not clear why large diameter logs generally host saproxylic beetle assemblages that are different from those of small diameter logs. In a study in Tasmanian wet eucalypt forest, two size-classes of Eucalyptus obliqua logs (>100cm and 30-60cm diameter) were destructively sampled to assess their beetle fauna and the associations of this fauna...

  4. Pheromones in White Pine Cone Beetle, Conophthorus coniperdu (Schwarz) (Coleoptera: Scolytidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goran Birgersson; Gary L. DeBarr; Peter de Groot; Mark J. Dalusky; Harold D. Pierce; John H. Borden; Holger Meyer; Wittko Francke; Karl E. Espelie; C. Wayne Berisford

    1995-01-01

    Female white pine cone beetles, Conophrhorus coniperda, attacking second-year cones of eastern white pine, Pinus strobus L., produced a sex-specific pheromone that attracted conspecific males in laboratory bioassays and to field traps. Beetle response was enhanced by host monoterpenes. The female-produced compound was identified in...

  5. Fungus cultivation by ambrosia beetles: Behavior and laboratory breeding success in three Xyleborine species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peter Biedermann; Kier Klepzig; Taborsky Michael

    2009-01-01

    Fungus cultivation by ambrosia beetles is one of the four independently evolved cases of agriculture known in animals. Such cultivation is most advanced in the highly social subtribe Xyleborina (Scolytinae), which is characterized by haplodiploidy and extreme levels of inbreeding. Despite their ubiquity in forests worldwide, the behavior of these beetles remains poorly...

  6. The effect of wind on foraging activity of the tenebrionid beetle ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1997-10-06

    Oct 6, 1997 ... The foraging activity of the tenebrionid beetle, Lepidochora discoidalis, was studied in the sand dunes of the. Namib Desert. The surface activity of this beetle species was found to be correlated both with time of day and wind speed. Higher numbers were observed on the dune surface between 17:00-19:00 ...

  7. Evaluation of traps used to monitor southern pine beetle aerial populations and sex ratios

    Science.gov (United States)

    James T. Cronin; Jane L. Hayes; Peter. Turchin

    2000-01-01

    Various kinds of traps have been employed to monitor and forecast population trends of the southern pine beetle (Dendroctonus frontalis Zimmermann; Coleoptera: Scolytidae), but their accuracy in assessing pine-beetle abundance and sex ratio in the field has not been evaluated directly.In trus study, we...

  8. A system for harvesting eggs from the pink-spotted lady beetle

    Science.gov (United States)

    We describe a system for harvesting eggs from a predatory insect, the pink spotted lady beetle. Coleomegilla maculata De Geer (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae). Adult beetles placed in square transparent containers that included oviposition substrates hanging from the top of the cage deposited eggs on t...

  9. Estimating the probability of mountain pine beetle red-attack damage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael A Wulder; J. C. White; Barbara J Bentz; M. F. Alvarez; N. C. Coops

    2006-01-01

    Accurate spatial information on the location and extent of mountain pine beetle infestation is critical for the planning of mitigation and treatment activities. Areas of mixed forest and variable terrain present unique challenges for the detection and mapping of mountain pine beetle red-attack damage, as red-attack has a more heterogeneous distribution under these...

  10. Potential for biological control of native North American Dendroctonus beetles (Coleoptera: Scolytidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    M.C. Miller; John C. Moser; M. McGregor; J.C. Gregoire; M. Baisier; D.L. Dahlsten; R.A. Werner

    1987-01-01

    Bark beetles of the genus Dendroctonus inflict serious damage in North American coniferous forests. Biological control, which has never been seriously attempted with bark beetles in the United States, should be reconsidered in light of results disclosed here. Impact of indigenous associates is discussed, as well as previous, unsuccessful attempts to...

  11. US Forest Service bark beetle research in the western United States: Looking toward the future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jose F. Negron; Barbara J. Bentz; Christopher J. Fettig; Nancy Gillette; E. Matthew Hansen; Jane L. Hayes; Rick G. Kelsey; John E. Lundquist; Ann M. Lynch; Robert A. Progar; Steven J. Seybold

    2008-01-01

    Bark beetles cause extensive tree mortality in coniferous forests of western North America and play an important role in the disturbance ecology of these ecosystems. Recently, elevated populations of bark beetles have been observed in all conifer forest types across the western United States. This has heightened public awareness of the issue and triggered legislation...

  12. Fire-injured ponderosa pine provide a pulsed resource for bark beetles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan S. Davis; Sharon Hood; Barbara J. Bentz

    2012-01-01

    Bark beetles can cause substantial mortality of trees that would otherwise survive fire injuries. Resin response of fire-injured northern Rocky Mountain ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa Douglas ex P. Lawson & C. Lawson) and specific injuries that contribute to increased bark beetle attack susceptibility and brood production are unknown. We monitored ponderosa pine...

  13. Linking Increasing Drought Stress to Scots Pine Mortality and Bark Beetle Infestations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthias Dobbertin

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available In the dry Swiss Rhone Valley, Scots pine forests have experienced increased mortality in recent years. It has commonly been assumed that drought events and bark beetles fostered the decline, however, whether bark beetle outbreaks increased in recent years and whether they can be linked to drought stress or increasing temperature has never been studied.

  14. Trophic habits of mesostigmatid mites associated with bark beetles in Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    M. Patricia Chaires-Grijalva; Edith G. Estrada-Venegas; Armando Equihua-Martinez; John C. Moser; Stacy R. Blomquist

    2016-01-01

    Samples of bark and logs damaged by bark beetles were collected from 16 states of Mexico from 2007 to 2012. Fifteen bark beetle species were found within the bark and log samples and were examined for phoretic mites and arthropod associates. Thirty-three species of mesostigmatid mites were discovered within the samples. They were identified in several trophic guilds...

  15. Bark beetle-caused mortality in a drought-affected ponderosa pine landscape in Arizona, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jose F. Negron; Joel D. McMillin; John A. Anhold; Dave Coulson

    2009-01-01

    Extensive ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa Dougl. ex Laws.) mortality associated with a widespread severe drought and increased bark beetle (Coleoptera: Curculionidae, Scolytinae) populations occurred in Arizona from 2001 to 2004. A complex of Ips beetles including: the Arizona fivespined ips, Ips lecontei Swaine...

  16. Observations on the mite Schizosthetus lyriformis (Acari: Parasitidae) preying on bark beetle eggs and larve

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard W. Hofstetter; J. C. Moser; R. McGuire

    2009-01-01

    Many species of mite that live exclusively in decaying wood and subcortical environments have intricate relationships with bark beetles (Coleoptera: Curculionidae, Scolytinae) (e.g., in the genus Dendroctonus, Ips, Scolytus) (Lindquist, 1969; Moser, 1975; Hirschmann and Wisniewski, 1983; Karg, 1993). These mites depend on bark beetles or other subcorticolous insects...

  17. Elevational shifts in thermal suitability for mountain pine beetle population growth in a changing climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbara J. Bentz; Jacob P. Duncan; James A. Powell

    2016-01-01

    Future forests are being shaped by changing climate and disturbances. Climate change is causing large-scale forest declines globally, in addition to distributional shifts of many tree species. Because environmental cues dictate insect seasonality and population success, climate change is also influencing tree-killing bark beetles. The mountain pine beetle,...

  18. 77 FR 58469 - Asian Longhorned Beetle; Quarantined Areas in Massachusetts, Ohio, and New York

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-21

    .... APHIS-2012-0003] Asian Longhorned Beetle; Quarantined Areas in Massachusetts, Ohio, and New York AGENCY.... SUMMARY: We are adopting as a final rule, without change, an interim rule that amended the Asian... areas. The interim rule was necessary to prevent the artificial spread of Asian longhorned beetle to...

  19. Bark beetles and fungal associates colonizing white spruce in the Great Lakes region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirsten E. Haberkern; Barbara L. Illman; Kenneth F. Raffa

    2002-01-01

    We examined the major bark beetles and associated fungi colonizing subcortical tissues of white spruce (Picea glauca (Moench) Voss) in the Great Lakes region. Trees were felled at one northwestern Wisconsin site in a preliminary study in 1997 and at 10 sites throughout northern Wisconsin, Minnesota, and Michigan in 1998. Fungal isolations were made from beetles...

  20. Antagonisms, mutualisms and commensalisms affect outbreak dynamics of the southern pine beetle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard W. Hofstetter; James T. Cronin; Kier D. Klepzig; John C. Moser; Matthew P. Ayres

    2005-01-01

    Feedback from community interactions involving mutualisms are a rarely explored mechanism for generating complex population dynamics. We examined the effects of two linked mutualisms on the population dynamics of a beetle that exhibits outbreak dynamics. One mutualism involves an obligate association between the bark beetle, Dendroctonus frontalis...

  1. Bio-Inspired Design and Kinematic Analysis of Dung Beetle-Like Legs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aditya, Sai Krishna Venkata; Ignasov, Jevgeni; Filonenko, Konstantin

    2017-01-01

    The African dung beetle Scarabaeus galenus can use its front legs to walk and manipulate or form a dung ball. The interesting multifunctional legs have not been fully investigated or even used as inspiration for robot leg design. Thus, in this paper, we present the development of real dung beetle...

  2. Species Richness and Phenology of Cerambycid Beetles in Urban Forest Fragments of Northern Delaware

    Science.gov (United States)

    K. Handley; J. Hough-Goldstein; L.M. Hanks; J.G. Millar; V. D' amico

    2015-01-01

    Cerambycid beetles are abundant and diverse in forests, but much about their host relationships and adult behavior remains unknown. Generic blends of synthetic pheromones were used as lures in traps, to assess the species richness, and phenology of cerambycids in forest fragments in northern Delaware. More than 15,000 cerambycid beetles of 69 species were trapped over...

  3. A trial of direct control of pine engraver beetles on a small logging unit

    Science.gov (United States)

    W. L. Jackson

    1960-01-01

    Laboratory tests and small-scale field trials have shown the insecticide lindane to be highly toxic to pine engraver beetles. On the basis of that information, the insecticide was applied to fresh logging slash heavily infested with pine engraver beetles at Challenge Experimental Forest in 1959. Costs were reasonable and no insurmountable problems were encountered....

  4. A foam formulation of an entomopathogenic fungus for control of boring beetles in avocado orchards

    Science.gov (United States)

    A foam formulation of Beauveria bassiana was adapted to control boring beetles in avocado orchards. The two geographically independent avocado growing areas in the United States are threatened by emerging diseases vectored by boring beetles. In the California growing region, Fusarium dieback is vect...

  5. Analysis of cellulase and polyphenol oxidase production by southern pine beetle associated fungi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abduvali Valiev; Zumrut B. Ogel; Dier D. Klepzig

    2009-01-01

    In this study, the production of extracellular enzymes by fungi associated with southern pine beetle was investigated for the first time. Cellulase and polyphenol oxidase production were analyzed for three beetle associated fungi. Only the mutualistic symbiont Entomocorticium sp. A was found to produce cellulases and polyphenol oxidase....

  6. Climate influences on whitebark pine mortality from mountain pine beetle in the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polly C. Buotte; Jeffrey A. Hicke; Haiganoush K. Preisler; John T. Abatzoglou; Kenneth F. Raffa; Jesse A. Logan

    2016-01-01

    Extensive mortality of whitebark pine, beginning in the early to mid-2000s, occurred in the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem (GYE) of the western USA, primarily from mountain pine beetle but also from other threats such as white pine blister rust. The climatic drivers of this recent mortality and the potential for future whitebark pine mortality from mountain pine beetle...

  7. Diversity and Seasonal Activity of Carrion Beetles (Coleoptera: Silphidae) in Northeastern Georgia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael D. Ulyshen; James L. Hanula

    2004-01-01

    The Family Silphidae is a small but widespread group of primarily necrophagous beetles. Approximately 175 species are found throughout the world with 30 of these in North America (Arnett and Thomas 2001, American Beetles Vol. 1: 269). Silphids have been the subject of many studies on behavior and ecology and have some forensic importance as well (Carvalho et al. 2000,...

  8. Landscape-scale analysis of aboveground tree carbon stocks affected by mountain pine beetles in Idaho

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benjamin Bright; J. A. Hicke; A. T. Hudak

    2012-01-01

    Bark beetle outbreaks kill billions of trees in western North America, and the resulting tree mortality can significantly impact local and regional carbon cycling. However, substantial variability in mortality occurs within outbreak areas. Our objective was to quantify landscape-scale effects of beetle infestations on aboveground carbon (AGC) stocks using field...

  9. Carbon dynamics in central US Rockies lodgepole pine type after mountain pine beetle outbreaks

    Science.gov (United States)

    E. Matthew Hansen; Michael C. Amacher; Helga Van Miegroet; James N. Long; Michael G. Ryan

    2015-01-01

    Mountain pine beetle-caused tree mortality has substantially changed live tree biomass in lodgepole pine ecosystems in western North America since 2000. We studied how beetle-caused mortality altered ecosystem carbon (C) stocks and productivity using a central US Rockies age sequence of ecosystem recovery after infestation, augmented with growth-and-yield...

  10. Attractant semiochemicals of the engraver beetle, Ips perturbatus, in south-central and interior Alaska.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edward H. Holsten; Roger E. Burnside; Steven J. Seybold

    2000-01-01

    From 1996 through 1999, field tests of various engraver beetle (Ips perturbatus (Eichhoff)) semiochemicals in funnel traps were conducted in south-central and interior Alaska in stands of Lutz (Picea xlutzii Little) and white spruce (P.glauca (Moench) Voss). The European spruce beetle (I....

  11. Influence of temperature on spring flight initiation for southwestern ponderosa pine bark beetles (Coleoptera: Curculionidae, Scolytinae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    M. L. Gaylord; K. K. Williams; R. W. Hofstetter; J. D. McMillin; T. E. Degomez; M. R. Wagner

    2008-01-01

    Determination of temperature requirements for many economically important insects is a cornerstone of pest management. For bark beetles (Coleoptera: Curculionidae, Scolytinae), this information can facilitate timing of management strategies. Our goals were to determine temperature predictors for flight initiation of three species of Ips bark beetles...

  12. Diesel fuel oil for increasing mountain pine beetle mortality in felled logs

    Science.gov (United States)

    S. A. Mata; J. M. Schmid; D. A. Leatherman

    2002-01-01

    Diesel fuel oil was applied to mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins) infested bolts of ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa Lawson) in early June. Just prior to the fuel oil application and 6 weeks later, 0.5 ft2 bark samples were removed from each bolt and the numbers of live beetles counted....

  13. Soil/litter beetle abundance and diversity along a land use gradient ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Beetles represent acomponent of arthropods that contributes to enrichment and circulation of mineral elements retained in litter and the topsoil. We have studied beetle abundance, diversity, and distribution in response to anthropogenic activities (farming, urbanization, etc.). Two collecting methods were used: soil monoliths ...

  14. Nitrogen cycling following mountain pine beetle disturbance in lodgepole pine forests of Greater Yellowstone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacob M. Griffin; Monica G. Turner; Martin Simard

    2011-01-01

    Widespread bark beetle outbreaks are currently affecting multiple conifer forest types throughout western North America, yet many ecosystem-level consequences of this disturbance are poorly understood. We quantified the effect of mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae) outbreak on nitrogen (N) cycling through litter, soil, and vegetation in...

  15. Alternative timing of carbaryl treatments for protecting lodgepole pine from mortality attributed to mountain pine beetle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christopher J. Fettig; A.Steve Munson; Kenneth E. Gibson

    2015-01-01

    Carbaryl is regarded among the most effective, economically viable, and ecologically-compatible insecticides available for protecting conifers from bark beetle attack in the western United States. Treatments are typically applied in spring prior to initiation of bark beetle flight for that year. We evaluated the efficacy of spring and fall applications for protecting...

  16. Managing bark beetle impacts on ecosystems and society: Priority questions to motivate future research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jesse L. Morris; Stuart Cottrell; Chris Fettig; Winslow D. Hansen; Rosemary L. Sherriff; Vachel A. Carter; Jennifer L. Clear; Jessica Clement; R. Justin DeRose; Jeffrey A. Hicke; Philip E. Higuera; Katherine M. Mattor; Alistair W. R. Seddon; Heikki T. Sepp; John D. Stednick; Steven J. Seybold

    2016-01-01

    1. Recent bark beetle outbreaks in North America and Europe have impacted forested landscapes and the provisioning of critical ecosystem services. The scale and intensity of many recent outbreaks are widely believed to be unprecedented. 2. The effects of bark beetle outbreaks on ecosystems are often measured in terms of area affected, host tree mortality rates, and...

  17. BIOECOLOGICAL FEATURES OF GROUND BEETLES OF GUMBETOVSKY DISTRICT OF DAGHESTAN REPUBLIC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. M. NAKHIBASHEVA

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Ground beetles of the Gumbetovskiy area are studied. For the first time for the territory there are defined 95 species of the beetles related to 28 genus. Bioecological features of the species are presented and the analysis of the received materials is lead.

  18. Agricultural Land Use Determines the Trait Composition of Ground Beetle Communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanson, Helena I; Palmu, Erkki; Birkhofer, Klaus; Smith, Henrik G; Hedlund, Katarina

    2016-01-01

    In order to improve biological control of agricultural pests, it is fundamental to understand which factors influence the composition of natural enemies in agricultural landscapes. In this study, we aimed to understand how agricultural land use affects a number of different traits in ground beetle communities to better predict potential consequences of land-use change for ecosystem functioning. We studied ground beetles in fields with different agricultural land use ranging from frequently managed sugar beet fields, winter wheat fields to less intensively managed grasslands. The ground beetles were collected in emergence tents that catch individuals overwintering locally in different life stages and with pitfall traps that catch individuals that could have a local origin or may have dispersed into the field. Community weighted mean values for ground beetle traits such as body size, flight ability and feeding preference were estimated for each land-use type and sampling method. In fields with high land-use intensity the average body length of emerging ground beetle communities was lower than in the grasslands while the average body length of actively moving communities did not differ between the land-use types. The proportion of ground beetles with good flight ability or a carnivorous diet was higher in the crop fields as compared to the grasslands. Our study highlights that increasing management intensity reduces the average body size of emerging ground beetles and the proportion of mixed feeders. Our results also suggest that the dispersal ability of ground beetles enables them to compensate for local management intensities.

  19. Effects of insecticides intended for Ceutorhynchus napi Gyll. control in oilseed rape on ground beetles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sivčev Lazar

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The effects of insecticides that are commonly used for conventional and integrated oilseed rape (OSR management on ground beetles were studied. Monitoring of harmful species showed that only insecticides intended against Ceutorhynchus napi should be applied. There were no differences in beetle numbers and phenology of settling of C. napi in the OSR fields that received different management practices. The type of OSR management has a primary and significant impact on ground beetles abundance. Early in the spring, ground beetles settled more massively on the non-tilled OSR field with abundant weed cover and mulch on soil surface. However, there were no significant differences in species richness between the OSR fields managed differently. A total of 22 species were recorded. Early in the spring, the granivorous ground beetles Amara aenea (47.3% and Harpalus distinguendus (32.5% were dominant. When insecticides were applied, immigration of ground beetles began, so that their adverse effect was minimal. In both management systems the number of ground beetles and their diversity increased after spraying. In conclusion, no significant harmful effects of the insecticides on ground beetles were detected in OSR fields managed in two different ways.

  20. Lack of genetic differentiation in aggressive and secondary bark beetles (Coleoptera: Curculionidae, Scolytinae) from Arizona

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christopher J. Allender; Karen M. Clancy; Tom E. DeGomez; Joel D. McMillin; Scott A. Woolbright; Paul Keim; David M. Wagner

    2008-01-01

    Bark beetles (Coleoptera: Curculionidae, Scolytinae) play an important role as disturbance agents in ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa Douglas ex Lawson) forests of Arizona. However, from 2001 to 2003, elevated bark beetle activity caused unprecedented levels of ponderosa pine mortality. A better understanding of the population structure of these...